The evidence in favour of supported self-management for asthma is overwhelming. Self-management including provision of a written asthma action plan and supported by regular medical review, almost halves the risk of hospitalisation, significantly reduces emergency department attendances and unscheduled consultations, and improves markers of asthma control and quality of life. Demographic and cultural tailoring enables effective programmes to be implemented in deprived and/or ethnic communities or within schools. A crucial component of effective asthma self-management interventions is the provision of an agreed, written personalised action plan which advises on using regular medication, recognising deterioration and appropriate action to take. Monitoring can be based on symptoms or on peak flows and should specify thresholds for action including increasing inhaled steroids, commencing oral steroids, and when (and how to seek professional help. Plans should be personalised to reflect asthma severity and treatment regimes, avoidance of triggers, co-morbid rhinitis and the individual’s preferences. Implementation is a challenge. Systematic review evidence suggests that it is possible to implement asthma self-management in routine care, but that to be effective this requires a whole systems approach which considers implementation from the perspective of patient education and resources, professional skills and motivation and organisation priorities and routines.
Kosse, R.C.; Bouvy, M.L.; Vries, T.W. de; Kaptein, A.A.; Geers, H.C.J.; Dijk, L. van; Koster, E.S.
Purpose: Poor medication adherence in adolescents with asthma results in poorly controlled disease and increased morbidity. The aim of the ADolescent Adherence Patient Tool (ADAPT) study is to develop an mHealth intervention to support self-management and to evaluate the effectiveness in improving
Full Text Available Richelle C Kosse,1 Marcel L Bouvy,1 Tjalling W de Vries,2 Ad A Kaptein,3 Harm CJ Geers,1 Liset van Dijk,4 Ellen S Koster1 1Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Clinical Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Utrecht, 2Department of Paediatrics, Medical Center Leeuwarden, Leeuwarden, 3Medical Psychology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, 4NIVEL, the Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research, Utrecht, the Netherlands Purpose: Poor medication adherence in adolescents with asthma results in poorly controlled disease and increased morbidity. The aim of the ADolescent Adherence Patient Tool (ADAPT study is to develop an mHealth intervention to support self-management and to evaluate the effectiveness in improving medication adherence and asthma control. Intervention: The ADAPT intervention consists of an interactive smartphone application (app connected to a desktop application for health care providers, in this study, the community pharmacist. The app contains several functions to improve adherence as follows: 1 a questionnaire function to rate asthma symptoms and monitor these over time; 2 short movie clips with medication and disease information; 3 a medication reminder; 4 a chat function with peers; and 5 a chat function with the pharmacist. The pharmacist receives data from the patient’s app through the desktop application, which enables the pharmacist to send information and feedback to the patient. Study design: The ADAPT intervention is tested in a community pharmacy-based cluster randomized controlled trial in the Netherlands, aiming to include 352 adolescents with asthma. The main outcome is adherence, measured by patient’s self-report and refill adherence calculated from pharmacy dispensing records. In addition, asthma control, illness perceptions, medication beliefs, and asthma-related quality of life are measured. Conclusion: This study will provide in
Morrison, Deborah; Mair, Frances S; Yardley, Lucy; Kirby, Sarah; Thomas, Mike
Long-term respiratory conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are common, and cause high levels of morbidity and mortality. Supporting self-management is advocated for both asthma and increasingly so for COPD, and there is growing interest in the potential role of a range of new technologies, such as smartphone apps, the web or telehealth to facilitate and promote self-management in these conditions. Treatment goals for both asthma and COPD include aiming to control symptoms, maintain activities, achieve the best possible quality of life and minimize risks of exacerbation. To do this, health professionals should be (a) helping patients to recognize deteriorating symptoms and act appropriately; (b) promoting adherence to maintenance therapy; (c) promoting a regular review where triggers can be established, and strategies for managing such triggers discussed; and (d) promoting healthy lifestyles and positive self-management of symptoms. In particular, low uptake of asthma action plans is a modifiable contributor to morbidity and possibly also to mortality in those with asthma and should be addressed as a priority. Using technology to support self-management is an evolving strategy that shows promise. This review provides an overview of self-management support and discusses how newer technologies may help patients and health professionals to meet key treatment goals.
van Gaalen, J.L.; Bakker, M.J.; Bodegom-Vos, L. van; Snoeck-Stroband, J.B.; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Kaptein, A.A.; van der Meer, V.; Taube, C.; Thoonen, B.P.A.; Sont, J.K.; for the, I.s.g.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Internet-based self-management (IBSM) support cost-effectively improves asthma control, asthma related quality of life, number of symptom-free days, and lung function in patients with mild to moderate persistent asthma. The current challenge is to implement IBSM in clinical
Morrow, Susan; Daines, Luke; Wiener-Ogilvie, Sharon; Steed, Liz; McKee, Lorna; Caress, Ann-Louise; Taylor, Stephanie J C; Pinnock, Hilary
Despite an overwhelming evidence base, supported self-management of asthma is poorly implemented into routine practice. Strategies for implementation must address organisational routines, as well as provide resources for patients and training to improve professionals' skills. We aimed to explore the priority that primary care practices attach to asthma self-management, to describe their existing asthma management routines, and to generate innovative implementation strategies. We recruited 33 participants (23 general practitioners; seven nurses; three administrative staff) from 14 general practices. The 12 interviews and three focus groups were transcribed, coded and analysed thematically. Supported self-management was largely a nurse-led task within clinic-based annual reviews. Barriers included poor attendance at asthma clinics, lack of time, demarcation of roles, limited access to a range of tailored resources, and competing agendas in consultation, often due to multimorbidity. Suggestions for initiatives to improve the provision of supported self-management included emphasising the evidence for benefit (to influence prioritisation), improving teamwork (including team-based education), organisational strategies (including remote consulting) which need to fit within existing practice routines. Technology offers some potential solutions (e.g., improved templates, 'app'-based plans), but must be integrated with the practice information technology systems. Building on these insights, we will now develop a theoretically-based implementation strategy that will address patient, professional, and organisational buy-in, provide team-based education and offer a range of practical options and tools, which can be adapted and integrated within existing routines of individual practices.OVERCOMING THE ORGANISATIONAL BARRIERS TO IMPLEMENTING ASTHMA SELF-MANAGEMENT: Understanding the routines of primary care practices can suggest strategies to implement supported self-management
Meer, Victor van der
This thesis describes the role of internet-based support in the delivery of an asthma self management program. First, the compliance and reliability of home lung function monitoring, one of the key features of asthma self-management, was studied and appeared to be high over a 4-week period. Second,
Newhouse, Nikki; Martin, Angela; Jawad, Sena; Yu, Ly-Mee; Davoudianfar, Mina; Locock, Louise; Ziebland, Sue; Powell, John
To determine the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) assessing the effects of an experience-based website as a resource for the self-management of chronic asthma. Feasibility, single-blind RCT in 2 regions of England. Randomisation used computer-generated random number sequence in a 1:1 ratio, after baseline data collection, to website access for 2 weeks. Adults (age ≥18 years), with clinically diagnosed asthma as coded in their primary care electronic record, prescribed inhaled corticosteroids for at least 3 months in the previous year, were recruited from 9 general practices. The EXPERT asthma intervention is an interactive PC/laptop/tablet/smartphone compatible website designed with extensive input from adults with asthma. It provides experience-based information and aims to support subjective perception of self-efficacy, self-management and improve health status. Primary outcomes were consent/recruitment, website usage and completion of outcome measures. Secondary outcomes included Partners in Health (PIH) questionnaire, the Chronic Disease Self-Efficacy Scale, the SF36 and the E-Health Impact Questionnaire. Participant blinding postrandomisation was not possible. The analysis was blind to allocation. Recruitment target exceeded. 148 participants randomised (73 intervention group). Age range 19-84 years; 59% female. 121 of 148 (84%; 62 intervention group) followed up. The median number of logins was 2 (IQR 2-3, range 1-48). Minimal differences of change from baseline between groups; both showed improvement in health state or management of their condition with no significant differences between arms. No adverse events. Recruitment and retention confirmed feasibility. The trends towards improved outcomes suggest that further research on digital interventions based on exposure to others' personal experiences may be of value in the self-management of chronic asthma. ISRCTN29549695; Results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For
Hanlon, Peter; Daines, Luke; Campbell, Christine; McKinstry, Brian; Weller, David; Pinnock, Hilary
Self-management support is one mechanism by which telehealth interventions have been proposed to facilitate management of long-term conditions. The objectives of this metareview were to (1) assess the impact of telehealth interventions to support self-management on disease control and health care utilization, and (2) identify components of telehealth support and their impact on disease control and the process of self-management. Our goal was to synthesise evidence for telehealth-supported self-management of diabetes (types 1 and 2), heart failure, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cancer to identify components of effective self-management support. We performed a metareview (a systematic review of systematic reviews) of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of telehealth interventions to support self-management in 6 exemplar long-term conditions. We searched 7 databases for reviews published from January 2000 to May 2016 and screened identified studies against eligibility criteria. We weighted reviews by quality (revised A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews), size, and relevance. We then combined our results in a narrative synthesis and using harvest plots. We included 53 systematic reviews, comprising 232 unique RCTs. Reviews concerned diabetes (type 1: n=6; type 2, n=11; mixed, n=19), heart failure (n=9), asthma (n=8), COPD (n=8), and cancer (n=3). Findings varied between and within disease areas. The highest-weighted reviews showed that blood glucose telemonitoring with feedback and some educational and lifestyle interventions improved glycemic control in type 2, but not type 1, diabetes, and that telemonitoring and telephone interventions reduced mortality and hospital admissions in heart failure, but these findings were not consistent in all reviews. Results for the other conditions were mixed, although no reviews showed evidence of harm. Analysis of the mediating role of self-management, and of components of successful
McCleary, Nicola; Andrews, Amanda; Morrow, Susan; Wiener-Ogilvie, Sharon; Fletcher, Monica; Steed, Liz; Taylor, Stephanie J C; Pinnock, Hilary
Supported self-management for asthma helps people adjust their treatment in response to symptom changes. This improves day-to-day control and reduces the risk of asthma attacks and the need for emergency healthcare. However, implementation remains poor in routine clinical practice. This systematic review is part of a programme of work developing an intervention to help primary care practice teams embed self-management support into routine asthma care. The aim of the review is to synthesise the evidence regarding the effectiveness of educational interventions for professionals supporting self-management in people with asthma or diabetes (type 1 and type 2). These two conditions have the most robust evidence base for the effectiveness of implementing supported self-management. Electronic searches will be conducted in CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, CINAHL, PsycINFO, AMED, Global Health, WHO Global Health Library, ERIC, BNI, RDRB/CME and Google Scholar. Eligible studies are randomised controlled trials or controlled clinical trials published between 1990 and 2016 which evaluated professional education interventions facilitating asthma or diabetes supported self-management. Further relevant work will be identified from trial registries, citation searching and through contact with authors of included studies. This will be supplemented by scoping potentially relevant educational packages described in English language policy literature or health service websites. Screening, data extraction and risk of bias assessment (using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool) will be completed by two independent reviewers, with a third reviewer arbitrating where necessary. We plan a theoretically informed narrative synthesis of the aggregated data as heterogeneity is likely to preclude meta-analysis. Ethical approval is not required for this systematic review. The results will be described in a paper submitted for peer-reviewed publication and will inform the development of an
van Gaalen, Johanna L; Bakker, Moira J; van Bodegom-Vos, Leti; Snoeck-Stroband, Jiska B; Assendelft, Willem J J; Kaptein, Ad A; van der Meer, Victor; Taube, Christian; Thoonen, Bart P; Sont, Jacob K
Internet-based self-management (IBSM) support cost-effectively improves asthma control, asthma related quality of life, number of symptom-free days, and lung function in patients with mild to moderate persistent asthma. The current challenge is to implement IBSM in clinical practice. This study is a three-arm cluster randomized trial with a cluster pre-randomisation design and 12 months follow-up per practice comparing the following three IBSM implementation strategies: minimum strategy (MS): dissemination of the IBSM program; intermediate strategy (IS): MS + start-up support for professionals (i.e., support in selection of the appropriate population and training of professionals); and extended strategy (ES): IS + additional training and ongoing support for professionals. Because the implementation strategies (interventions) are primarily targeted at general practices, randomisation will occur at practice level.In this study, we aim to evaluate 14 primary care practices per strategy in the Leiden-The Hague region, involving 140 patients per arm. Patients aged 18 to 50 years, with a physician diagnosis of asthma, prescription of inhaled corticosteroids, and/or montelukast for ≥3 months in the previous year are eligible to participate. Primary outcome measures are the proportion of referred patients that participate in IBSM, and the proportion of patients that have clinically relevant improvement in the asthma-related quality of life. The secondary effect measures are clinical outcomes (asthma control, lung function, usage of airway treatment, and presence of exacerbations); self-management related outcomes (health education impact, medication adherence, and illness perceptions); and patient utilities. Process measures are the proportion of practices that participate in IBSM and adherence of professionals to implementation strategies. Cost-effective measurements are medical costs and healthcare consumption. Follow-up is six months per patient. This study
van Gaalen Johanna L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Internet-based self-management (IBSM support cost-effectively improves asthma control, asthma related quality of life, number of symptom-free days, and lung function in patients with mild to moderate persistent asthma. The current challenge is to implement IBSM in clinical practice. Methods/design This study is a three-arm cluster randomized trial with a cluster pre-randomisation design and 12 months follow-up per practice comparing the following three IBSM implementation strategies: minimum strategy (MS: dissemination of the IBSM program; intermediate strategy (IS: MS + start-up support for professionals (i.e., support in selection of the appropriate population and training of professionals; and extended strategy (ES: IS + additional training and ongoing support for professionals. Because the implementation strategies (interventions are primarily targeted at general practices, randomisation will occur at practice level. In this study, we aim to evaluate 14 primary care practices per strategy in the Leiden-The Hague region, involving 140 patients per arm. Patients aged 18 to 50 years, with a physician diagnosis of asthma, prescription of inhaled corticosteroids, and/or montelukast for ≥3 months in the previous year are eligible to participate. Primary outcome measures are the proportion of referred patients that participate in IBSM, and the proportion of patients that have clinically relevant improvement in the asthma-related quality of life. The secondary effect measures are clinical outcomes (asthma control, lung function, usage of airway treatment, and presence of exacerbations; self-management related outcomes (health education impact, medication adherence, and illness perceptions; and patient utilities. Process measures are the proportion of practices that participate in IBSM and adherence of professionals to implementation strategies. Cost-effective measurements are medical costs and healthcare consumption
Mirabelli, Maria C; Beavers, Suzanne F; Shepler, Samantha H; Chatterjee, Arjun B
Asthma self-management education improves asthma-related outcomes. We conducted this analysis to evaluate variation in the percentages of adults with active asthma reporting components of asthma self-management education by age at asthma onset. Data from 2011 to 2012 Asthma Call-back Surveys were used to estimate percentages of adults with active asthma reporting six components of asthma self-management education. Components of asthma self-management education include having been taught to what to do during an asthma attack and receiving an asthma action plan. Differences in the percentages of adults reporting each component and the average number of components reported across categories of age at asthma onset were estimated using linear regression, adjusted for age, education, race/ethnicity, sex, smoking status, and years since asthma onset. Overall, an estimated 76.4% of adults with active asthma were taught what to do during an asthma attack and 28.7% reported receiving an asthma action plan. Percentages reporting each asthma self-management education component declined with increasing age at asthma onset. Compared with the referent group of adults whose asthma onset occurred at 5-14 years of age, the percentage of adults reporting being taught what to do during an asthma attack was 10% lower among those whose asthma onset occurred at 65-93 years of age (95% CI: -18.0, -2.5) and the average number of components reported decreased monotonically across categories of age at asthma onset of 35 years and older. Among adults with active asthma, reports of asthma self-management education decline with increasing age at asthma onset.
Marcano Belisario, José S; Huckvale, Kit; Greenfield, Geva; Car, Josip; Gunn, Laura H
Asthma is one of the most common long-term conditions worldwide, which places considerable pressure on patients, communities and health systems. The major international clinical guidelines now recommend the inclusion of self management programmes in the routine management of patients with asthma. These programmes have been associated with improved outcomes in patients with asthma. However, the implementation of self management programmes in clinical practice, and their uptake by patients, is still poor. Recent developments in mobile technology, such as smartphone and tablet computer apps, could help develop a platform for the delivery of self management interventions that are highly customisable, low-cost and easily accessible. To assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and feasibility of using smartphone and tablet apps to facilitate the self management of individuals with asthma. We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Register (CAGR), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Global Health Library, Compendex/Inspec/Referex, IEEEXplore, ACM Digital Library, CiteSeer(x) and CAB abstracts via Web of Knowledge. We also searched registers of current and ongoing trials and the grey literature. We checked the reference lists of all primary studies and review articles for additional references. We searched for studies published from 2000 onwards. The latest search was run in June 2013. We included parallel randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared self management interventions for patients with clinician-diagnosed asthma delivered via smartphone apps to self management interventions delivered via traditional methods (e.g. paper-based asthma diaries). We used standard methods expected by the Cochrane Collaboration. Our primary outcomes were symptom scores; frequency of healthcare visits due to asthma exacerbations or complications and health-related quality of life. We included two RCTs with a total of
Olivera, Carolina M. X.; Vianna, Elcio Oliveira; Bonizio, Roni C.; de Menezes, Marcelo B.; Ferraz, Erica; Cetlin, Andrea A.; Valdevite, Laura M.; Almeida, Gustavo A.; Araujo, Ana S.; Simoneti, Christian S.; de Freitas, Amanda; Lizzi, Elisangela A.; Borges, Marcos C.; de Freitas, Osvaldo
Information for patients provided by the pharmacist is reflected in adhesion to treatment, clinical results and patient quality of life. The objective of this study was to assess an asthma self-management model for rational medicine use. This was a randomized controlled trial with 60 asthmatic patients assigned to attend five modules presented by…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Apps have been enthusiastically adopted by the general public. They are increasingly recognized by policy-makers as a potential medium for supporting self-management of long-term conditions. We assessed the degree to which current smartphone and tablet apps for people with asthma offer content and tools of appropriate quality to support asthma self-management. Methods We adapted systematic review methodology to the assessment of apps. We identified English-language asthma apps for all ages through a systematic search of official app stores. We systematically assessed app content using criteria derived from international guidelines and systematic review of strategies for asthma self-management. We covered three domains: comprehensiveness of asthma information, consistency of advice with evidence and compliance with health information best practice principles. Results We identified 103 apps for asthma in English, of which 56 were sources of information about the condition and 47 provided tools for the management of asthma. No apps offered both types of functionality. Only three information apps approached our definition of comprehensiveness of information about asthma. No apps provided advice on lay management of acute asthma that included details of appropriate reliever medication use. In 32 of 72 instances, apps made unequivocal recommendations about strategies for asthma control or prophylaxis that were unsupported by current evidence. Although 90% of apps stated a clear purpose, compliance with other best practice principles for health information was variable. Contact details were located for 55%, funding source for 18% and confidentiality policy for 17%. Conclusions No apps for people with asthma combined reliable, comprehensive information about the condition with supportive tools for self-management. Healthcare professionals considering recommending apps to patients as part of asthma self-management should exercise
Federman, Alex D; Wolf, Michael S; Sofianou, Anastasia; Martynenko, Melissa; O'Connor, Rachel; Halm, Ethan A; Leventhal, Howard; Wisnivesky, Juan P
To examine self-management behaviors, including medication adherence and inhaler technique, in older adults with asthma and their association with health literacy. Observational cohort study. Primary care and pulmonary specialty practices in two tertiary academic medical centers and three federally qualified health centers in New York, New York, and Chicago, Illinois. Adults with moderate or severe persistent asthma aged 60 and older (N = 433). Outcomes were adherence to asthma controller medications, metered dose inhaler (MDI) and dry powder inhaler (DPI) techniques, having a usual asthma physician, and avoidance of four common triggers. Health literacy was assessed using the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. The mean age was 67, and 36% of participants had marginal or low health literacy. Adherence was low (38%) overall and worse in individuals with low health literacy (22%) than in those with adequate literacy (47%, P literacy (MDI technique: OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.38-0.85; DPI technique: OR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.25-0.71). Asthma self-monitoring and avoidance of triggers occurred infrequently but were less consistently associated with low health literacy. Adherence to medications and inhaler technique are poor in older adults with asthma and worse in those with low health literacy. Clinicians should routinely assess controller medication adherence and inhaler technique and use low-literacy communication strategies to support self-management in older adults with asthma. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.
Lin, J T; Wang, W Q; Zhou, X; Wang, C Z; Huang, M; Cai, S X; Chen, P; Lin, Q C; Zhou, J Y; Gu, Y H; Yuan, Y D; Sun, D J; Yang, X H; Yang, L; Huo, J M; Chen, Z C; Jiang, P; Zhang, J; Ye, X W; Liu, H G; Tang, H P; Liu, R Y; Liu, C T; Zhang, W; Hu, C P; Chen, Y Q; Liu, X J; Dai, L M; Zhou, W; Huang, Y J; Xu, J Y
Objective: To investigate warning symptoms of asthma attack and evaluate asthma self-management status of asthma patients in urban China. Methods: A multi-center, cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was carried out from 30 general hospitals dispersed in 30 provinces of mainland China (except for Tibet) during Oct 2015 to May 2016. Information of frequency and warning symptoms of asthma attack, the time from warning symptoms to asthma attack, the impact of asthma attack and asthma self-management were collected from asthma patients of outpatient department. Results: Altogether 3 875 asthmatic outpatients were recruited. 78.1% (3 026/3 875) of the patients reported restriction of exercise and daily activities during asthma exacerbation. 82.5% (3 160/3 829) of the patients had warning symptoms before asthma attack, the most common warning symptoms were cough, chest tightness and shortness of breath. The median time from warning symptoms to asthma attack was 2 h, the mean time was 90 h. Only 4.4% (167/3 829) of the patients had definite confidence to control asthma when symptoms deteriorated. 76.7% (2 937/3 828) of the patients used medications to control asthma when asthma symptoms deteriorated. Medication choice: inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) + formoterol 45.8% (1 776/3 875), short-acting beta-agonist (SABA) 23.9% (927/3 875). Conclusions: Most asthma patients have warning symptoms before asthma attack, the most common symptoms are cough, chest tightness and shortness of breath. The proportion of patients conducting effective asthma self-management remains low.
Gibson-Scipio, Wanda; Gourdin, Dustin; Krouse, Helene J
Adolescence is a unique time of development incorporating a transition from child centered to adult centered health care. This transition period can be particularly challenging for individuals with a chronic disease such as asthma. Inadequate transition planning during adolescence may place an already vulnerable population such as African American adolescents with known health disparities in asthma prevalence, morbidity and mortality at risk for a continuation of poor health outcomes across the lifespan. Central to transition planning for these youth is the core element of developing and prioritizing goals. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the asthma self-management goals, beliefs and behaviors of urban African American adolescents prior to transitioning from pediatric to adult health care. A focus group composed of 13 African American adolescents with asthma ages 14-18 years from an urban population was conducted. Responses from transcripts and field notes were reviewed using an iterative process to best characterize asthma self-management goals and beliefs that emerged. Four core themes were identified: 1) medication self-management, 2) social support, 3) independence vs. interdependence, and 4) self-advocacy. Medication self-management included subthemes of rescue medications, controller medications and medication avoidance. The social support theme included three subthemes: peer support, caregiver support and healthcare provider support. Findings suggest that adolescents with asthma form both short term and long term goals. Their goals indicated a need for guided support to facilitate a successful health care transition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mammen, Jennifer R; Rhee, Hyekyun; Atis, Shannska; Grape, Annette
To evaluate efficacy of a developmentally sensitive curriculum for improving asthma self-management knowledge, attitude, and self-efficacy in adolescents. Fourty-two inner-city adolescents (ages 16-20) participated in a 12hour asthma self-management training program. Self-management knowledge, attitude toward asthma, and asthma-related self-efficacy were measured using short-answer tests before and after training. T-Tests were used to evaluate impact and effect sizes were calculated. Mean pretest knowledge was 21.37/46 points; mean posttest was 36.33/46 points. Change from pre- to posttest was highly significant (t=10.34; pmanage asthma, however improvements in attitude did not achieve statistical significance. Developmentally appropriate training is effective in increasing critical self-management knowledge and self-efficacy in inner city adolescents, particularly females. Providers should screen carefully for symptoms and educate using developmentally appropriate training materials on ways to correctly monitor and manage symptom. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Horner, Sharon D; Brown, Adama; Brown, Sharon A; Rew, D Lynn
To test the effects of 2 modes of delivering an asthma educational intervention on health outcomes and asthma self-management in school-aged children who live in rural areas. Longitudinal design with data collected 4 times over 12 months. The target sample was composed of children in grades 2-5 who had a provider diagnosis of asthma. Elementary schools were stratified into high or low socioeconomic status based on student enrollment in the free or reduced-cost lunch program. Schools were then randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment arms: in-school asthma class, asthma day camp, or the attention-control group. Sample retention was good (87.7%) and equally distributed by study arm. Improvements in emergency department visits and office visits were related to attending either the asthma class or asthma day camp. Asthma severity significantly decreased in both asthma treatment groups. Other factors such as hospitalizations, parent asthma management, and child asthma management improved for all groups. Both asthma class and asthma day camp yielded significant reductions in asthma severity. There were reductions in the emergency department and office visits for the 2 asthma arms, and hospitalizations declined significantly for all groups. Asthma self-management also improved in all groups, while it was somewhat higher in the asthma arms. This may be due to the attention being drawn to asthma management by study participation and the action of completing questionnaires about asthma management, asthma symptoms, and health outcomes. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.
Christopher J Licskai
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Collaborative self-management is a core recommendation of national asthma guidelines; the written action plan is the knowledge tool that supports this objective. Mobile health technologies have the potential to enhance the effectiveness of the action plan as a knowledge translation tool.
Aaron, Micah; Nelson, Belinda W.; Kaltsas, Elena; Brown, Randall W.; Thomas, Lara J.; Patel, Minal R.
Optimal use of goal-setting strategies in self-management efforts with high-risk individuals with asthma is not well understood. This study aimed to describe factors associated with goal attainment in an asthma self-management intervention for African American women with asthma and determine whether goal attainment methods proved beneficial to…
D'Souza, W; Burgess, C; Ayson, M; Crane, J; Pearce, N; Beasley, R
The "credit card" asthma self-management plan provides the adult asthmatic patient with simple guidelines for the self-management of asthma, which are based on the self-assessment of peak expiratory flow rate recordings and symptoms. The study was a trial of the clinical efficacy of the credit card plan in a high-risk group of asthmatic patients. In this "before-and-after" trial, patients discharged from the emergency department of Wellington Hospital, after treatment for severe asthma were invited to attend a series of hospital outpatient clinics at which the credit card plan was introduced. Questionnaires were used to compare markers of asthma morbidity, requirement for emergency medical care, and medication use during the 6-month period before and after intervention with the credit card plan. Of the 30 patients with asthma who attended the first outpatient clinic, 26 (17 women and 9 men) completed the program. In these 26 participants, there was a reduction in both morbidity and requirement for acute medical services: specifically, the proportion waking with asthma more than once a week decreased from 65% to 23% (p = 0.005) and the proportion visiting the emergency department for treatment of severe asthma decreased from 58% to 15% (p = 0.004). The patients attending the clinics commented favorably on the plan, in particular on its usefulness as an educational tool for monitoring and treating their asthma. Although the interpretation of this study is limited by the lack of a randomized control group, the findings are consistent with other evidence that the credit card asthma self-management plan can be an effective and acceptable system for improving asthma care in a high-risk group of adult patients with asthma.
Morrison, Deborah; Mair, Frances S; Chaudhuri, Rekha; McGee-Lennon, Marilyn; Thomas, Mike; Thomson, Neil C; Yardley, Lucy; Wyke, Sally
Around 300 million people worldwide have asthma and prevalence is increasing. Self-management can be effective in improving a range of outcomes and is cost effective, but is underutilised as a treatment strategy. Supporting optimum self-management using digital technology shows promise, but how best to do this is not clear. We aimed to develop an evidence based, theory informed, online resource to support self-management in adults with asthma, called 'Living well with Asthma', as part of the RAISIN (Randomized Trial of an Asthma Internet Self-Management Intervention) study. We developed Living well with Asthma in two phases. Phase 1: A low fidelity prototype (paper-based) version of the website was developed iteratively through input from a multidisciplinary expert panel, empirical evidence from the literature, and potential end users via focus groups (adults with asthma and practice nurses). Implementation and behaviour change theories informed this process. Phase 2: The paper-based designs were converted to a website through an iterative user centred process. Adults with asthma (n = 10) took part in think aloud studies, discussing the paper based version, then the web-based version. Participants considered contents, layout, and navigation. Development was agile using feedback from the think aloud sessions immediately to inform design and subsequent think aloud sessions. Think aloud transcripts were also thematically analysed, further informing resource development. The website asked users to aim to be symptom free. Key behaviours targeted to achieve this include: optimising medication use (including inhaler technique); attending primary care asthma reviews; using asthma action plans; increasing physical activity levels; and stopping smoking. The website had 11 sections, plus email reminders, which promoted these behaviours. Feedback on the contents of the resource was mainly positive with most changes focussing on clarification of language, order of pages and
Full Text Available Vinh Nhu Nguyen,1–3 Thuong Thi Hoai Huynh,4 Niels H Chavannes1 1Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands; 2Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 3Department of Respiratory Functional Exploration, University Medical Center, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 4Faculty of Public Health, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam Background: Most asthma patients in Vietnam have poorly controlled asthma. Besides reasons related to the health care system and health care providers, knowledge on the self-management of patients has also contributed to this situation.Purpose: To assess knowledge on asthma self-management among adult asthma patients in Ho Chi Minh City.Patients and methods: A cross-sectional study with convenience sampling was conducted among 322 ambulatory patients using questionnaires filled in via a face-to-face interview. The questionnaires enquired about: 1 sociodemographic details, 2 the Global Initiative for Asthma 2017 criteria of asthma control, 3 the Asthma Control Test, and 4 the Asthma Self-Management Questionnaire (ASMQ. Knowledge on asthma self-management was determined by the ASMQ score. The relationship between this knowledge and demographic factors and asthma control levels was determined.Results: The knowledge on asthma self-management was low, with a mean raw ASMQ score of 4.3 (maximum 14; this is equivalent to 30 in a transformed score (maximum 100. Only 0.3% of these patients had good knowledge, 16.2% had adequate knowledge, and 83.5% had poor knowledge. Of all participants, 52% stated erroneously that asthma can be cured, 30% were confused about control and rescue medications, 68% failed to correctly describe the inhalation technique, and only 15.5% could answer correctly about the management of an exacerbation. Although most participants had poor asthma control
Licskai, Christopher; Sands, Todd W; Ferrone, Madonna
Collaborative self-management is a core recommendation of national asthma guidelines; the written action plan is the knowledge tool that supports this objective. Mobile health technologies have the potential to enhance the effectiveness of the action plan as a knowledge translation tool. To design, develop and pilot a mobile health system to support asthma self-management. The present study was a prospective, single-centre, nonrandomized, pilot preintervention-postintervention analysis. System design and development were guided by an expert steering committee. The network included an agnostic web browser-based asthma action plan smartphone application (SPA). Subjects securely transmitted symptoms and peak flow data daily, and received automated control assessment, treatment advice and environmental alerts. Twenty-two adult subjects (mean age 47 years, 82% women) completed the study. Biophysical data were received on 84% of subject days (subject day = 1 subject × 1 day). Subjects viewed their action plan current zone of control on 54% and current air quality on 61% of subject days, 86% followed self-management advice and 50% acted to reduce exposure risks. A large majority affirmed ease of use, clarity and timeliness, and 95% desired SPA use after the study. At baseline, 91% had at least one symptom criterion for uncontrolled asthma and 64% had ≥2, compared with 45% (P=0.006) and 27% (P=0.022) at study close. Mean Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire score improved from 4.3 to 4.8 (P=0.047). A dynamic, real-time, interactive, mobile health system with an integrated asthma action plan SPA can support knowledge translation at the patient and provider levels.
Smeesters, Hannah; Skinner, Chas; Martin, Jo
A lack of knowledge in diabetes self management skills, such as insulin administration, glucose testing and diet, have been identified in a high percentage of adults with the condition ever since insulin treatment was first introduced (Watkins et al, 1967; Murata et al, 2003). Adult support...... weekends that offer diabetes information and emotional support in an informal workshop setting may help enable better self management for people with diabetes by addressing these issues....
Mills, Susan L; Brady, Teresa J; Jayanthan, Janaki; Ziabakhsh, Shabnam; Sargious, Peter M
Self-management support (SMS) initiatives have been hampered by insufficient attention to underserved and disadvantaged populations, a lack of integration between health, personal and social domains, over emphasis on individual responsibility and insufficient attention to ethical issues. This paper describes a SMS framework that provides guidance in developing comprehensive and coordinated approaches to SMS that may address these gaps and provides direction for decision makers in developing and implementing SMS initiatives in key areas at local levels. The framework was developed by researchers, policy-makers, practitioners and consumers from 5 English-speaking countries and reviewed by 203 individuals in 16 countries using an e-survey process. While developments in SMS will inevitably reflect local and regional contexts and needs, the strategic framework provides an emerging consensus on how we need to move SMS conceptualization, planning and development forward. The framework provides definitions of self-management (SM) and SMS, a collective vision, eight guiding principles and seven strategic directions. The framework combines important and relevant SM issues into a strategic document that provides potential value to the SMS field by helping decision-makers plan SMS initiatives that reflect local and regional needs and by catalyzing and expanding our thinking about the SMS field in relation to system thinking; shared responsibility; health equity and ethical issues. The framework was developed with the understanding that our knowledge and experience of SMS is continually evolving and that it should be modified and adapted as more evidence is available, and approaches in SMS advance. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Meer, V. van der; Stel, H.F. van; Detmar, S.B.; Otten, W.; Sterk, P.J.; Sont, J.K.
Background: Internet and short message service are emerging tools for chronic disease management in adolescents, but few data exist on the barriers to and benefits of internet-based asthma self-management. Our objective was to reveal the barriers and benefits perceived by adolescents with
van der Meer, Victor; van Stel, Henk F.; Detmar, Symone B.; Otten, Wilma; Sterk, Peter J.; Sont, Jacob K.
BACKGROUND: Internet and short message service are emerging tools for chronic disease management in adolescents, but few data exist on the barriers to and benefits of internet-based asthma self-management. Our objective was to reveal the barriers and benefits perceived by adolescents with
Full Text Available Hyekyun Rhee,1 James Allen,2 Jennifer Mammen,1 Mary Swift21School of Nursing, 2Department of Computer Science, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USAPurpose: Adolescents report high asthma-related morbidity that can be prevented by adequate self-management of the disease. Therefore, there is a need for a developmentally appropriate strategy to promote effective asthma self-management. Mobile phone-based technology is portable, commonly accessible, and well received by adolescents. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of a comprehensive mobile phone-based asthma self-management aid for adolescents (mASMAA that was designed to facilitate symptom monitoring, treatment adherence, and adolescent–parent partnership. The system used state-of-the-art natural language-understanding technology that allowed teens to use unconstrained English in their texts, and to self-initiate interactions with the system.Materials and methods: mASMAA was developed based on an existing natural dialogue system that supports broad coverage of everyday natural conversation in English. Fifteen adolescent–parent dyads participated in a 2-week trial that involved adolescents' daily scheduled and unscheduled interactions with mASMAA and parents responding to daily reports on adolescents' asthma condition automatically generated by mASMAA. Subsequently, four focus groups were conducted to systematically obtain user feedback on the system. Frequency data on the daily usage of mASMAA over the 2-week period were tabulated, and content analysis was conducted for focus group interview data.Results: Response rates for daily text messages were 81%–97% in adolescents. The average number of self-initiated messages to mASMAA was 19 per adolescent. Symptoms were the most common topic of teen-initiated messages. Participants concurred that use of mASMAA improved awareness of symptoms and triggers, promoted treatment adherence and
Full Text Available Pavani Rangachari College of Allied Health Sciences, Augusta University, Augusta, GA, USA Abstract: Asthma is associated with substantial health care expenditures, including an estimated US$56 billion per year in direct costs. A recurring theme in the asthma management literature is that costly asthma symptoms, including hospitalizations and multiple emergency department (ED/outpatient visits, can often be prevented through patient/family adherence to the national (National Institutes of Health Expert Panel Report-3 guidelines for effective self-management of asthma, specifically 1 medication adherence and 2 environmental trigger avoidance, as outlined in the patient’s personalized Asthma-Action Plan. It is important to note however that while effective self-management of asthma is known to reduce ED visits and hospitalizations, the relationship between asthma self-management effectiveness and outpatient visit frequency remains ambiguous, reflecting a gap in the literature. For instance, do patients/families who self-manage effectively visit outpatient clinics more frequently for asthma care (compared to those who do not self-manage effectively, after accounting for differences in asthma severity, demographic characteristics, and risk factors? Do patients/families who visit outpatient clinics more frequently for asthma care, in turn have fewer ED and inpatient encounters for asthma? On the other hand, do patients/families who do not revisit outpatient clinics regularly have higher ED visits and hospitalizations? It is important to address these gaps, in order to reduce the costs and public health burden of asthma. This paper provides a foundation for addressing these gaps, by conducting an integrative review of the asthma management literature, to develop a conceptual framework for measuring self-management effectiveness and health care use among pediatric asthma patients/families. In doing so, the paper lays the groundwork for future
van Kruijssen, Valerie; van Staa, AnneLoes; Dwarswaard, Jolanda; In 't Veen, Johannes Ccm; Mennema, Bianka; Adams, Samantha A
Online self-management diaries are used to support patients' self-management skills and facilitate associated behavioral changes. Although web-based diaries are well-known as a potential self-management tool, reasons that patients use (or do not use) self-management diaries, as well as perceptions and behaviors related to diary use, remain largely unknown. Semistructured interviews (n = 30) were conducted with health-care professionals and subjects to understand perceptions and behaviors related to self-management diary use for asthma and COPD in 2 hospitals in Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Subjects in this study used self-management diaries to improve their knowledge of the disease, cope more consciously with their disease, feel in control, and discuss outcomes from the self-management diaries with their health-care professionals. Two subjects reported that they used the self-management diary to cope more effectively with their disease and recognized an exacerbation and acted by adjusting their medications. Both health-care professionals and subjects experienced practical barriers in integrating self-management diaries into their regular practices. Subjects' reasons for nonuse were related to the intervention, the disease, and subject-provider contact. Health-care professionals should help patients use self-management diaries by collaboratively developing an individual treatment plan and by showing patients how to use the diaries to recognize and act on an exacerbation. Together with the suggestions made for improving the self-management diaries, this will aid in the integration of self-management diaries into regular health-care practice and enhance patients' self-management of their disease. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.
Hosseini, Anahita; Buonocore, Chris M; Hashemzadeh, Sepideh; Hojaiji, Hannaneh; Kalantarian, Haik; Sideris, Costas; Bui, Alex A T; King, Christine E; Sarrafzadeh, Majid
Asthma is the most prevalent chronic disease among pediatrics, as it is the leading cause of student absenteeism and hospitalization for those under the age of 15. To address the significant need to manage this disease in children, the authors present a mobile health (mHealth) system that determines the risk of an asthma attack through physiological and environmental wireless sensors and representational state transfer application program interfaces (RESTful APIs). The data is sent from wireless sensors to a smartwatch application (app) via a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliant cryptography framework, which then sends data to a cloud for real-time analytics. The asthma risk is then sent to the smartwatch and provided to the user via simple graphics for easy interpretation by children. After testing the safety and feasibility of the system in an adult with moderate asthma prior to testing in children, it was found that the analytics model is able to determine the overall asthma risk (high, medium, or low risk) with an accuracy of 80.10 ± 14.13%. Furthermore, the features most important for assessing the risk of an asthma attack were multifaceted, highlighting the importance of continuously monitoring different wireless sensors and RESTful APIs. Future testing this asthma attack risk prediction system in pediatric asthma individuals may lead to an effective self-management asthma program.
Hosseini, Anahita; Buonocore, Chris M; Hashemzadeh, Sepideh; Hojaiji, Hannaneh; Kalantarian, Haik; Sideris, Costas; Bui, Alex A T; King, Christine E; Sarrafzadeh, Majid
To address the need for asthma self-management in pediatrics, the authors present the feasibility of a mobile health (mHealth) platform built on their prior work in an asthmatic adult and child. Real-time asthma attack risk was assessed through physiological and environmental sensors. Data were sent to a cloud via a smartwatch application (app) using Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-compliant cryptography and combined with online source data. A risk level (high, medium or low) was determined using a random forest classifier and then sent to the app to be visualized as animated dragon graphics for easy interpretation by children. The feasibility of the system was first tested on an adult with moderate asthma, then usability was examined on a child with mild asthma over several weeks. It was found during feasibility testing that the system is able to assess asthma risk with 80.10 ± 14.13% accuracy. During usability testing, it was able to continuously collect sensor data, and the child was able to wear, easily understand and enjoy the use of the system. If tested in more individuals, this system may lead to an effective self-management program that can reduce hospitalization in those who suffer from asthma.
This paper uses the emergent theories of chaos and complexity to explore the self-management supportive care of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients within the evolving primary care setting. It discusses the concept of self-management support, the complexity of the primary care context and consultations, smoking cessation, and the impact of acute exacerbations and action planning. The author hopes that this paper will enable the acquisition of new insight and better understanding in this clinical area, as well as support meaningful learning and facilitate more thoughtful, effective and high quality patient-centred care within the context of primary care.
Davis, S R; Peters, D; Calvo, R A; Sawyer, S M; Foster, J M; Smith, L
Young people with asthma often lack engagement in self-management. Smartphone apps offer an attractive, immediate method for obtaining asthma information and self-management support. In this research we developed an evidence-based asthma app tailored to young peoples needs, created using a participatory design approach to optimize user engagement. This paper describes the participatory design process. This multi-phased research included concept generation and ideation of app design by young people with asthma, and development of asthma information by the research team. Clinical review was sought regarding safety and accuracy of app content. Participants suggestions for improvement and any problems with the app were logged throughout. Our young co-designers were invited back to test a high fidelity prototype app using a "think aloud" process and completed a usability questionnaire. Twenty asthma patients aged 15-24 years contributed to the initial app design. Three respiratory specialists and two pharmacists suggested minor corrections to clinical terminology in the app which were all incorporated. Nine co-designers acted as expert reviewers of the prototype app, of whom eight completed a usability questionnaire. Median usability scores (maximum score 6) indicated high satisfaction with app content, usefulness and ease of use [median item score 5.3 (range 4.7-6.0)]. All feedback was incorporated to create an updated prototype app. A clinically sound asthma app has been developed which is considered highly acceptable to the young co-designers. A six-week test of the engagement, acceptability, and usefulness of the app in young people not involved in the participatory design will follow.
Tinschert, Peter; Jakob, Robert; Barata, Filipe; Kramer, Jan-Niklas; Kowatsch, Tobias
components; highest correlation: r 36 =.80, P<.001 between number of behavior change techniques and gamification components), which suggests that an app's potential tends to be consistent across review frameworks. Several apps were identified that performed consistently well across all applied review frameworks, thus indicating the potential mHealth apps offer for improving asthma self-management. However, many apps suffer from low quality. Therefore, app reviews should be considered as a decision support tool before deciding which app to integrate into a patient's asthma self-management. Furthermore, several research-practice gaps were identified that app developers should consider addressing in future asthma apps. ©Peter Tinschert, Robert Jakob, Filipe Barata, Jan-Niklas Kramer, Tobias Kowatsch. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 02.08.2017.
Asthma is associated with substantial health care expenditures, including an estimated US$56 billion per year in direct costs. A recurring theme in the asthma management literature is that costly asthma symptoms, including hospitalizations and multiple emergency department (ED)/outpatient visits, can often be prevented through patient/family adherence to the national (National Institutes of Health Expert Panel Report-3) guidelines for effective self-management of asthma, specifically 1) medication adherence and 2) environmental trigger avoidance, as outlined in the patient's personalized Asthma-Action Plan. It is important to note however that while effective self-management of asthma is known to reduce ED visits and hospitalizations, the relationship between asthma self-management effectiveness and outpatient visit frequency remains ambiguous, reflecting a gap in the literature. For instance, do patients/families who self-manage effectively visit outpatient clinics more frequently for asthma care (compared to those who do not self-manage effectively), after accounting for differences in asthma severity, demographic characteristics, and risk factors? Do patients/families who visit outpatient clinics more frequently for asthma care, in turn have fewer ED and inpatient encounters for asthma? On the other hand, do patients/families who do not revisit outpatient clinics regularly have higher ED visits and hospitalizations? It is important to address these gaps, in order to reduce the costs and public health burden of asthma. This paper provides a foundation for addressing these gaps, by conducting an integrative review of the asthma management literature, to develop a conceptual framework for measuring self-management effectiveness and health care use among pediatric asthma patients/families. In doing so, the paper lays the groundwork for future research seeking to explicate the relationship between asthma self-management effectiveness and health care use, which in
Seydel, E.R.; van der Palen, Job; Klein, Jakob J.; Klein, J.J.; van der Palen, J.
In asthma self-management training, often self-treatment guidelines are included, because increased knowledge of asthma alone is not sufficient to change behaviour. One way to achieve behavioural changes is by increasing the patient's general and asthma-specific self-efficacy expectancies. This
Smeesters, Hannah; Skinner, Chas; Martin, Jo
A lack of knowledge in diabetes self management skills, such as insulin administration, glucose testing and diet, have been identified in a high percentage of adults with the condition ever since insulin treatment was first introduced (Watkins et al, 1967; Murata et al, 2003). Adult support weeke...
Bossy, Dagmara; Knutsen, Ingrid Ruud; Rogers, Anne; Foss, Christina
The prevalence of chronic conditions in Europe has been the subject of health-political reforms that have increasingly targeted collaboration between public, private and voluntary organisations for the purpose of supporting self-management of long-term diseases. The international literature describes collaboration across sectors as challenging, which implies that their respective logics are conflicting or incompatible. In line with the European context, recent Norwegian health policy advocates inter-sectorial partnerships. The aim of this policy is to create networks supporting better self-management for people with chronic conditions. The purpose of our qualitative study was to map different understandings of self-management support in private for-profit, volunteer and public organisations. These organisations are seen as potential self-management support networks for individuals with chronic conditions in Norway. From December 2012 to April 2013, we conducted 50 semi-structured interviews with representatives from relevant health and well-being organisations in different parts of Norway. According to the theoretical framework of institutional logic, representatives' statements are embedded with organisational understandings. In the analysis, we systematically assessed the representatives' different understandings of self-management support. The institutional logic we identified revealed traits of organisational historical backgrounds, and transitions in understanding. We found that the merging of individualism and fellowship in contemporary health policy generates different types of logic in different organisational contexts. The private for-profit organisations were concerned with the logic of a healthy appearance and mindset, whereas the private non-profit organisations emphasised fellowship and moral responsibility. Finally, the public, illness-oriented organisations tended to highlight individual conditions for illness management. Different types of logic may
Smith, Lorraine; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia Z; Mitchell, Bernadette; Saini, Bandana; Krass, Ines; Armour, Carol
Asthma affects a considerable proportion of the population worldwide and presents a significant health problem in Australia. Given its chronic nature, effective asthma self-management approaches are important. However, despite research and interventions targeting its treatment, the management of asthma remains problematic. This study aimed to develop, from a theoretical basis, an asthma self-management model and implement it in an Australian community pharmacy setting in metropolitan Sydney, using a controlled, parallel-groups repeated-measures design. Trained pharmacists delivered a structured, step-wise, patient-focused asthma self-management program to adult participants over a 9-month period focusing on identification of asthma problems, goal setting and strategy development. Data on process- clinical- and psychosocial-outcome measures were gathered. Results showed that participants set an average of four new goals and six repeated goals over the course of the intervention. Most common goal-related themes included asthma triggers, asthma control and medications. An average of nine strategies per participant was developed to achieve the set goals. Common strategies involved visiting a medical practitioner for review of medications, improving adherence to medications and using medications before exercise. Clinical and psychosocial outcomes indicated significant improvements over time in asthma symptom control, asthma-related self-efficacy and quality of life, and negative affect. These results suggest that an asthma self-management model of illness behaviour has the potential to provide patients with a range of process skills for self-management, and deliver improvements in clinical and psychosocial indicators of asthma control. The results also indicate the capacity for the effective delivery of such an intervention by pharmacists in Australian community pharmacy settings.
McLean, Gary; Murray, Elizabeth; Band, Rebecca; Moffat, Keith R; Hanlon, Peter; Bruton, Anne; Thomas, Mike; Yardley, Lucy; Mair, Frances S
To identify, summarise and synthesise the evidence for using interactive digital interventions to support patient self-management of asthma, and determine their impact. Systematic review with meta-analysis. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, Cochrane Library, DoPHER, TROPHI, Social Science Citation Index and Science Citation Index. The selection criteria requirement was studies of adults (16 years and over) with asthma, interventions that were interactive digital interventions and the comparator was usual care. Outcomes were change in clinical outcomes, cost effectiveness and patient-reported measures of wellbeing or quality of life. Only Randomised Controlled Trials published in peer-reviewed journals in English were eligible. Potential studies were screened and study characteristics and outcomes were extracted from eligible papers independently by two researchers. Where data allowed, meta-analysis was performed using a random effects model. Eight papers describing 5 trials with 593 participants were included, but only three studies were eligible for inclusion for meta-analysis. Of these, two aimed to improve asthma control and the third aimed to reduce the total dose of oral prednisolone without worsening control. Analyses with data from all three studies showed no significant differences and extremely high heterogeneity for both Asthma Quality of Life (AQLQ) (Standardised Mean Difference (SMD) 0.05; 95 % Confidence Interval (CI) 0.32 to -0.22: I2 96.8) and asthma control (SMD 0.21; 95 % CI -0.05 to .42; I2 = 87.4). The removal of the third study reduced heterogeneity and indicated significant improvement for both AQLQ (SMD 0.45; 95 % CI 0.13 to 0.77: I2 = 0.34) and asthma control (SMD 0.54; 95 % CI 0.22 to 0.86: I2 = 0.11). No evidence of harm was identified. Digital self-management interventions for adults with asthma show promise, with some evidence of small beneficial effects on asthma control. Overall, the evidence base
Full Text Available Self-management has received growing attention as an effective approach for long-term condition management. Little is known about which outcomes of supported self-management are valued by patients, their families, health professionals and those who commission self-management services. This study systematically reviewed published empirical evidence in accordance with PRISMA guidelines to determine the outcomes of self-management valued by these key stakeholder groups, using three prominent exemplar conditions: colorectal cancer, diabetes and stroke.To systematically review the literature to identify which generic outcomes of self-management have been targeted and are considered important using three exemplar conditions (colorectal cancer, diabetes and stroke, which collectively have a range of features that are likely to be representative of generic self-management issues.Systematic searching of nine electronic databases was conducted in addition to hand searches of review articles. Abstracts were identified against inclusion criteria and appraised independently by two reviewers, using a critical appraisal tool. Synthesis of findings was conducted using mixed research synthesis.Over 20,536 abstracts were screened. 41 studies which met the review criteria were fully retrieved and appraised. The majority of evidence related to diabetes. Few studies directly focussed on stakeholders' views concerning desired self-management outcomes; the majority of evidence was derived from studies focusing upon the experience of self-management. The views of health care commissioners were absent from the literature. We identified that self-management outcomes embrace a range of indicators, from knowledge, skills, and bio-psychosocial markers of health through to positive social networks.Patients', families', health professionals' and commissioners' views regarding which outcomes of self-management are important have not been clearly elicited. The extent to which
Peters, Dorian; Davis, Sharon; Calvo, Rafael Alejandro; Sawyer, Susan M; Smith, Lorraine; Foster, Juliet M
Although the prevalence of mental illness among young people with asthma is known to be twice the rate of the wider population, none of the asthma apps reported have acknowledged or attempted to include psychological support features. This is perhaps because user involvement in the development of asthma apps has been scarce. User involvement, facilitated by participatory design methods, can begin to address these issues while contributing insights to our understanding of the psychological experience associated with asthma and how technology might improve quality of life. The goal of this participatory user research study was to explore the experience, needs, and ideas of young people with asthma while allowing them to define requirements for an asthma app that would be engaging and effective at improving their well-being. Young people aged 15-24 years with doctor-diagnosed asthma were invited to participate in a participatory workshop and to complete a workbook designed to elicit their thoughts and ideas about living with asthma, technology use, and the design of an app. Participants generated a number of artifacts (including collages, concept maps, and paper prototypes) designed to reify their ideas, tacit knowledge, and experience. A total of 20 participants (mean age 17.8 years; 60%, 12/20 female) representing a range from inadequately to well-controlled asthma completed a workbook and 13 of these also took part in a workshop (four workshops were held in total), resulting in 102 participant-generated artifacts. Theoretical thematic analysis resulted in a set of personal needs, feature ideas, and app characteristics considered relevant by young people for an asthma support app. The data revealed that psychological factors such as anxiety, and impediments to autonomy, competence, and relatedness (as consistent with self-determination theory [SDT]), were considered major influences on quality of life by young people with asthma. Furthermore, the incorporation of
Conn, Kelly M; Fisher, Susan G; Rhee, Hyekyun
Little is known about the emotional intelligence (EI) of parents and their children with asthma. Objectives of this study were to assess: 1) parent's and children's report of emotions in response to an asthma vignette (proxy for EI) and 2) the relationship between emotions, self-management behaviors, and symptoms. We conducted a descriptive, mixed methods study of children 7-12 years old with asthma. Parent-Child dyads (n=104) responded to an asthma vignette to gain insight into emotions, symptoms, and self-management behaviors. Additional questions assessed confidence and worry using a 5-point Likert scale. Thematic analyses and descriptive statistics were used to assess qualitative and quantitative outcomes. Children were predominantly male (58%), 7-9 (58%), and White (46%). The most common negative emotions reported by children were scared and sad. Children who sought help from an adult were less likely to report using medications compared to children who did not seek help (39.5% vs. 62.3%, p=.029). Children with low worry and high confidence had fewer symptoms compared to children reporting high worry and low confidence (symptoms: days 3.24 vs. 6.77, p=.012, nights 2.71 vs. 5.36, p=.004). Children provided appropriate emotional responses to the asthma vignette; emotions were related to self-management behaviors and symptoms. More studies are needed to specifically assess EI in this population. Parents and children with greater EI may be better able to understand their needs, engage in self-management behaviors, and communicate with their nurses, to improve their support network and ability to access services. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Klein, J.J.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; Seydel, E.R.; Uil, S.M.; Zielhuis, G.A.; Klein, J.J.; van der Palen, J.; van Herwaarden, C.L.A.
In this prospective randomized controlled trial, 245 patients with stable, moderate to severe asthma were included. They were randomized into a self-treatment group (group S) and a control group (group C). Both groups received self-management education. Additionally, group S received self-treatment
Schulze, Margaret A.
Self-management is a set of procedures that students can be taught to apply to their own behaviors to change them. In self-management, students are taught to observe, assess, and modify their own behavior. These procedures include such things as self-identifying and observing a target behavior and setting a goal to change it. Self-management…
Schüz, Benjamin; Walters, Julia; Walters, E Haydn
Background Mobile technology interventions (MTI) are becoming increasingly popular in the management of chronic health behaviors. Most MTI allow individuals to monitor medication use, record symptoms, or store and activate disease-management action plans. Therefore, MTI may have the potential to improve low adherence to medication and action plans for individuals with asthma, which is associated with poor clinical outcomes. Objective A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of MTI on clinical outcomes as well as adherence in individuals with asthma. As the use of evidence-based behavior change techniques (BCT) has been shown to improve intervention effects, we also conducted exploratory analyses to determine the role of BCT and engagement with MTI as moderators of MTI efficacy. Methods We searched electronic databases for randomized controlled trials up until June 2016. Random effect models were used to assess the effect of MTI on clinical outcomes as well as adherence to preventer medication or symptom monitoring. Mixed effects models assessed whether the features of the MTI (ie, use of BCT) and how often a person engaged with MTI moderated the effects of MTI. Results The literature search located 11 studies meeting the inclusion criteria, with 9 providing satisfactory data for meta-analysis. Compared with standard treatment, MTI had moderate to large effect sizes (Hedges g) on medication adherence and clinical outcomes. MTI had no additional effects on adherence or clinical outcomes when compared with paper-based monitoring. No moderator effects were found, and the number of studies was small. A narrative review of the two studies, which are not included in the meta-analysis, found similar results. Conclusions This review indicated the efficacy of MTI for self-management in individuals with asthma and also indicated that MTI appears to be as efficacious as paper-based monitoring. This review also suggested a need for robust
Verkaik, Renate; van Antwerpen-Hoogenraad, Paulien; de Veer, Anke; Francke, Anneke; Huis In Het Veld, Judith
Background Self-management in patients and family caregivers confronted with dementia is not self-evident. Self-management skills may be limited because of the progressive cognitive decline of the patient and because family caregivers are often also very aged. Self-management support by nursing staff is therefore of paramount importance. Objectives To gain insight into how nursing staff perceive their self-management support tasks, and how they put them into practice. Research questions are: 'What are the opinions and experiences of Dutch nursing staff working in home care or residential elderly care regarding self-management support for people with dementia and their family caregivers?' and 'Do nursing staff feel sufficiently trained and skilled for self-management support?'. Methods A mixed methods approach was used, combining cross-sectional quantitative survey data from 206 Dutch nursing professionals with qualitative interviews among 12 nursing staff working in home care or residential elderly care in The Netherlands. Results Nursing staff working in home care experienced self-management support of people with dementia as a part of their job and as an attractive task. They consider 'helping people with dementia to maintain control over their lives by involving them in decisions in daily care' the essence of self-management support. Nursing staff saw family caregivers as their main partners in providing self-management support to the patient. They were less aware that family caregivers themselves might also need self-management support. Nursing staff often felt insufficiently trained to give adequate self-management support. RN's and CNA's did not differ in their opinions, experiences and training needs. Conclusions Nursing staff in home care do consider self-management support an important and attractive task in dementia care. Their skills for providing self-management support to patients with dementia and family caregivers need improvement. Recommendations
Schneider, Tali; Panzera, Anthony D; Couluris, Marisa; Lindenberger, James; McDermott, Robert; Bryant, Carol A
Despite the growing market of e-health disease self-management tools, few studies have reported the presence of teen patients in all phases of product design. While rates of American teens using mobile Internet grow, an opportunity to deliver disease self-management targeted for teen patients exists. Building on findings from previous investigations with teens with asthma, we explored teens' insights on the development of a patient-centered asthma management application (app). Two existing asthma apps were used by 16 teen asthmatics for 7-10 days. At the end of the trial period, in-depth interviews were conducted with each participant to gather insights about the user experience. Participants requested more asthma-related content that educates them about their condition. Suggested improvements to currently available apps included a longer list of selectable symptoms to track, medication tracking, and more compelling interface features. Participants showed interest in using apps for managing their asthma, yet recommended improvements on current design. Whereas national figures point to a more ubiquitous mobile device environment, implementation efforts must respond to participants' recommendations while minding lingering digital divides. Currently available apps lack appealing components that teens seek or desire. Subsequent development should include teens' participation in component design insights.
Koetsenruijter, Jan; van Eikelenboom, Nathalie; van Lieshout, Jan; Vassilev, Ivo; Lionis, Christos; Todorova, Elka; Portillo, Mari Carmen; Foss, Christina; Serrano Gil, Manuel; Roukova, Poli; Angelaki, Agapi; Mujika, Agurtzane; Knutsen, Ingrid Ruud; Rogers, Anne; Wensing, Michel
The objective of this study was to explore which aspects of social networks are related to self-management capabilities and if these networks have the potential to reduce the adverse health effects of deprivation. In a cross-sectional study we recruited type 2 diabetes patients in six European countries. Data on self-management capabilities was gathered through written questionnaires and data on social networks characteristics and social support through subsequent personal/telephone interviews. We used regression modelling to assess the effect of social support and education on self-management capabilities. In total 1692 respondents completed the questionnaire and the interview. Extensive informational networks, emotional networks, and attendance of community organisations were linked to better self-management capabilities. The association of self-management capabilities with informational support was especially strong in the low education group, whereas the association with emotional support was stronger in the high education group. Some of the social network characteristics showed a positive relation to self-management capabilities. The effect of informational support was strongest in low education populations and may therefore provide a possibility to reduce the adverse impact of low education on self-management capabilities. Self-management support interventions that take informational support in patients' networks into account may be most effective, especially in deprived populations. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Kauppinen, Ritva Sirkka; Vilkka, Vesa; Hedman, Jouni; Sintonen, Harri
We assessed the 10-year effectiveness of self-management guidance in a prospective follow-up study of patients with asthma when inhaled corticosteroids were used from the beginning in the treatment. Consecutive newly diagnosed asthmatics (n = 162) were randomized: 80 to an intervention group (IG) and 82 to a control group (CG). Lung function (LF), airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) were examined at 10 years. The advantages of intensive education with regards to LF measured by forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity were seen only after the first year. Later, there were no statistically significant differences in any parameters between the groups. However, during 10-year follow-up, peak expiratory flow, AHR, and HRQoL improved significantly in both groups (no differences as regards gender, smoking, or atopy). At 10 years, 68% of the IG and 75% of the CG patients still showed AHR after histamine challenge. Generic HRQoL scores in both groups equaled that of the age-standardized group a general population but only 50% in the IG and 55% in the CG had normal disease-specific HRQoL scores. According to Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) criteria 23% of patients in the IG and 25% in the CG had asthma under control. The effectiveness of intensive self-management education could be shown only in the short term. The groups did not differ significantly in any of the parameters investigated, and showed nearly normal LF and HRQoL. AHR improved only partly and only a minority of the patients had asthma under good control according to GINA criteria. This study showed that evaluation of asthma using LF alone does not show the whole truth about asthma treatment results. HRQoL should be used in conjunction with GINA criteria, to assess asthma treatment outcomes. The value and importance of AHR for the evaluation of treatment remains obscure.
van Houtum, L.
Over the past decade, self-management by patients has been recognized an important aspect of chronic illness care, as it can help avoid preventable mortality and morbidity and improve the quality of life of patients and their families. However, not all people with a chronic illness are able to
Sarian, Mari; Brault, Diane; Perreault, Nathalie
The increasing prevalence of chronic illnesses and kidney disease, in particular, makes it necessary to adopt new approaches towards their management (Wagner, 1998). Evidence suggests that promoting self-management improves the health status of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients, as they manage upwards of 90% of their own care. Patients who are unable to self-manage suffer from various complications. This project proposes an intervention aimed at improving self-management skills among PD patients. To promote self-management in peritoneal dialysis patients. This is achieved through the following objectives: (a) develop an algorithm that can improve patients' ability to solve the specific problem of fluid balance maintenance, (b) develop an educational session for patients on how to use the algorithm, and (c) develop an implementation strategy in collaboration with the PD nurse. Three measures evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention. First, a telephone call log shows that participating patients call the clinic less to inquire about fluid balance maintenance. Next, a pre- and post-intervention knowledge test measures definite knowledge increase. Finally, a Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire reveals overall satisfaction with the intervention. This project, which proved beneficial to our patient population, could be duplicated in other clinics. The algorithm "How do I choose a dialysis bag" and the slides of the educational sessions can be shared with PD nurses across the country for the benefit of PD patients.
Liddy, C; Mill, K
The evidence supporting chronic disease self-management warrants further attention. Our aim was to identify existing policies, strategies and frameworks that support self-management initiatives. This descriptive study was conducted as an environmental scan, consisting of an Internet search of government and other publicly available websites, and interviews with jurisdictional representatives identified through the Health Council of Canada and academic networking. We interviewed 16 representatives from all provinces and territories in Canada and found 30 publicly available and relevant provincial and national documents. Most provinces and territories have policies that incorporate aspects of chronic disease self-management. Alberta and British Columbia have the most detailed policies. Both feature primary care prominently and are not disease specific. Both also have provincial level implementation of chronic disease self-management programming. Canada's northern territories all lacked specific policies supporting chronic disease self-management despite a significant burden of disease. Engaging patients in self-management of their chronic diseases is important and effective. Although most provinces and territories have policies that incorporate aspects of chronic disease self-management, they were often embedded within other initiatives and/or policy documents framed around specific diseases or populations. This approach could limit the potential reach and effect of self-management.
Self-management and self-management support are concepts very familiar to those of us in diabetes care. These concepts require openness to understanding the behaviours of persons with diabetes broadly, not only behaviours restricted to the biomedical perspective. Understanding the importance of health behaviour change and working within the Expanded Chronic Care Model define the context within which self-management support should occur. The purpose of this perspective is to identify a potential limitation in existing self-management support initiatives. This potential limitation reflects provider issues, not patient issues; that is, true self-management support might require changes by healthcare providers. Specifically, although behavioural interventions within the context of academic research studies are evidence based, behaviour change interventions implemented in general practice settings might prove less effective unless healthcare providers are able to shift from a practice based on the biomedical model to a practice based on the self-management support model. The purpose of this article is to facilitate effective self-management support by encouraging providers to switch from a model of care based on the expert clinician encountering the uninformed help seeker (the biomedical model) to one guided by collaboration grounded in the principles of description, prediction and choice. Key to understanding the value of making this shift are patient-centered communication principles and the tenets of complexity theory. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mansfield, Elise; Mackenzie, Lisa; Carey, Mariko; Peek, Kerry; Shepherd, Jan; Evans, Tiffany-Jane
There is an increased focus on supporting patients with cancer to actively participate in their healthcare, an approach commonly termed 'self-management'. Comparing unmet self-management needs across cancer types may reveal opportunities to adapt effective self-management support strategies from one cancer type to another. Given that breast and colorectal cancers are prevalent, and have high survival rates, we compared these patients' recent need for help with self-management. Data on multiple aspects of self-management were collected from 717 patients with breast cancer and 336 patients with colorectal cancer attending one of 13 Australian medical oncology treatment centres. There was no significant difference between the proportion of patients with breast or colorectal cancer who reported a need for help with at least one aspect of self-management. Patients with breast cancer were significantly more likely to report needing help with exercising more, while patients with colorectal cancer were more likely to report needing help with reducing alcohol consumption. When controlling for treatment centre, patients who were younger, experiencing distress or had not received chemotherapy were more likely to report needing help with at least one aspect of self-management. A substantial minority of patients reported an unmet need for self-management support. This indicates that high-quality intervention research is needed to identify effective self-management support strategies, as well as implementation trials to identify approaches to translating these strategies into practice. Future research should continue to explore whether self-management support strategies could be adapted across cancer types.
Enggaard, Helle; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth
Review question/objective: The objective of this review is to identify, appraise and synthesize the best available evidence regarding people with ischemic heart disease and their experiences with peer support in self-management interventions. More specifically, the review question is: How do people...... with ischemic heart disease experience peer support in structured self-management interventions led or co-led by peers?...
Mäkelä, Petra; Gawned, Sara; Jones, Fiona
Self-management support following stroke is rare, despite emerging evidence for impact on patient outcomes. The promotion of a common approach to self-management support across a stroke pathway requires collaboration between professionals. To date, the feasibility of self-management support in acute stroke settings has not been evaluated. The Bridges stroke self-management package (SMP) is based on self-efficacy principles. It is delivered by professionals and supported by a patient-held workbook. The aim of this project was to introduce the Bridges stroke SMP to the multidisciplinary staff of a London hyperacute and acute stroke unit. The 'Plan Do Study Act' (PDSA) cycle guided iterative stages of project development, with normalisation process theory helping to embed the intervention into existing ways of working. Questionnaires explored attitudes, beliefs and experiences of the staff who were integrating self-management support into ways of working in the acute stroke setting. Self-management support training was delivered to a total of 46 multidisciplinary stroke staff. Of the staff who attended the follow-up training, 66% had implemented Bridges self-management support with patients since initial training, and 100% felt their practice had changed. Questionnaire findings demonstrated that staff attitudes and beliefs had changed following training, particularly regarding ownership and type of rehabilitation goals set, and prioritisation of self-management support within acute stroke care. Staff initiated an audit of washing and dressing practices pre- and post-training. This was designed to evaluate the number of occasions when techniques were used by staff to facilitate patients' independence and self-management. They found that the number of occasions featuring optimum practice went from 54% at baseline to 63% at three months post-training. This project demonstrated the feasibility of integrating self-management support into an acute stroke setting. Further
Chen, Yu-Chi; Chang, Li-Chun; Liu, Chieh-Yu; Ho, Ya-Fang; Weng, Shuo-Chun; Tsai, Tzu-I
To investigate the relationships among social support, health literacy, and self-management, and the factors influencing self-management of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Cross-sectional study. A random sample of 410 patients was recruited from nephrology clinics. Data were collected using structured questionnaires and chart reviews from January 2013 to February 2014. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to determine the predictive factors of self-management behaviors and ∆R 2 to determine each variable's explanatory power. Health literacy and social support were positively correlated with self-management behaviors. Furthermore, social support, health literacy, and marital status were significant predictors of self-management behaviors. Social support had a relatively greater explanatory power for self-management behaviors than did health literacy. Particularly, healthcare provider support had the greatest influence on patients' self-management behaviors. Health literacy and social support play independent positive roles in self-management behaviors of patients with CKD, with social support having a particularly dominant role. Further research using a systems approach to improving self-management behaviors is necessary to clarify the role of social support. Health literacy and social support are independently and positively related to self-management. Social support, which is a system-level factor, is a relatively stronger and crucial predictor than is health literacy. Nurses have to refine self-management programs to focus on families and adopt a systems approach to help CKD patients improve their self-management behaviors. © 2018 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Battersby, Malcolm; Von Korff, Michael; Schaefer, Judith; Davis, Connie; Ludman, Evette; Greene, Sarah M; Parkerton, Melissa; Wagner, Edward H
Recommendations to improve self-management support and health outcomes for people with chronic conditions in primary care settings are provided on the basis of expert opinion supported by evidence for practices and processes. Practices and processes that could improve self-management support in primary care were identified through a nominal group process. In a targeted search strategy, reviews and meta-analyses were then identifed using terms from a wide range of chronic conditions and behavioral risk factors in combination with Self-Care, Self-Management, and Primary Care. On the basis of these reviews, evidence-based principles for self-management support were developed. The evidence is organized within the framework of the Chronic Care Model. Evidence-based principles in 12 areas were associated with improved patient self-management and/or health outcomes: (1) brief targeted assessment, (2) evidence-based information to guide shared decision-making, (3) use of a nonjudgmental approach, (4) collaborative priority and goal setting, (5) collaborative problem solving, (6) self-management support by diverse providers, (7) self-management interventions delivered by diverse formats, (8) patient self-efficacy, (9) active followup, (10) guideline-based case management for selected patients, (11) linkages to evidence-based community programs, and (12) multifaceted interventions. A framework is provided for implementing these principles in three phases of the primary care visit: enhanced previsit assessment, a focused clinical encounter, and expanded postvisit options. There is a growing evidence base for how self-management support for chronic conditions can be integrated into routine health care.
Hannah L Parke
Full Text Available There is considerable policy interest in promoting self-management in patients with long-term conditions, but it remains uncertain whether these interventions are effective in stroke patients.Systematic meta-review of the evidence for self-management support interventions with stroke survivors to inform provision of healthcare services.We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, AMED, BNI, Database of Abstracts of Reviews for Effectiveness, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for systematic reviews of self-management support interventions for stroke survivors. Quality was assessed using the R-AMSTAR tool, and data extracted using a customised data extraction form. We undertook a narrative synthesis of the reviews' findings.From 12,400 titles we selected 13 systematic reviews (published 2003-2012 representing 101 individual trials. Although the term 'self-management' was rarely used, key elements of self-management support such as goal setting, action planning, and problem solving were core components of therapy rehabilitation interventions. We found high quality evidence that supported self-management in the context of therapy rehabilitation delivered soon after the stroke event resulted in short-term (< 1 year improvements in basic and extended activities of daily living, and a reduction in poor outcomes (dependence/death. There is some evidence that rehabilitation and problem solving interventions facilitated reintegration into the community.Self-management terminology is rarely used in the context of stroke. However, therapy rehabilitation currently successfully delivers elements of self-management support to stroke survivors and their caregivers with improved outcomes. Future research should focus on managing the emotional, medical and social tasks of long-term survivorship.
Nicholl, Barbara I; Sandal, Louise Fleng; Stochkendahl, Mette Jensen
-effective strategies for LBP management and there is increasing interest in the potential role of digital health. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to synthesize and critically appraise published evidence concerning the use of interactive digital interventions to support self-management of LBP. The following specific...... Citation Index, and Science Citation Index. Reference and citation searching was also undertaken. Search strategy combined the following concepts: (1) back pain, (2) digital intervention, and (3) self-management. Only randomized controlled trial (RCT) protocols or completed RCTs involving adults with LBP...... questions were examined: (1) What are the key components of digital self-management interventions for LBP, including theoretical underpinnings? (2) What outcome measures have been used in randomized trials of digital self-management interventions in LBP and what effect, if any, did the intervention have...
Houtum, L. van; Rijken, M.; Heijmans, M.; Groenewegen, P.
Background: Self-management is widely accepted as an essential component of chronic care. Nevertheless, little is known about patients’ perceptions of self-management. Purpose: This study aims to explore which self-management tasks and support needs people with chronic illness perceive for
Farzandipour, Mehrdad; Nabovati, Ehsan; Sharif, Reihane; Arani, Marzieh Heidarzadeh; Anvari, Shima
Objective The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the evidence regarding the effects of mobile health applications (mHealth apps) for self-management outcomes in patients with asthma and to assess the functionalities of effective interventions. Methods We systematically searched Medline, Scopus, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. We included English-language studies that evaluated the effects of smartphone or tablet computer apps on self-management outcomes in asthmatic patients. The characteristics of these studies, effects of interventions, and features of mHealth apps were extracted. Results A total of 10 studies met all the inclusion criteria. Outcomes that were assessed in the included studies were categorized into three groups (clinical, patient-reported, and economic). mHealth apps improved asthma control (five studies) and lung function (two studies) from the clinical outcomes. From the patient-reported outcomes, quality of life (three studies) was statistically significantly improved, while there was no significant impact on self-efficacy scores (two studies). Effects on economic outcomes were equivocal, so that the number of visits (in two studies) and admission and hospitalization-relevant outcomes (in one study) statistically significantly improved; and in four other studies, these outcomes did not improve significantly. mHealth apps features were categorized into seven categories (inform, instruct, record, display, guide, remind/alert, and communicate). Eight of the 10 mHealth apps included more than one functionality. Nearly all interventions had the functionality of recording user-entered data and half of them had the functionality of providing educational information and reminders to patients. Conclusion Multifunctional mHealth apps have good potential in the control of asthma and in improving the quality of life in such patients compared with traditional interventions. Further studies are needed to identify
Eikelenboom, Nathalie; van Lieshout, Jan; Wensing, Michel; Smeele, Ivo; Jacobs, Annelies E
The number of patients with one or more chronic diseases is rising. In several standards of care there is a focus on enhancing self-management. We applied the concept of personalization on self-management support and developed a self-management screening questionnaire (SeMaS). The main research objective is to assess the effectiveness of the SeMaS questionnaire and subsequent personalized self-management on patients' self-management behaviors. A cluster randomized controlled trial will be set up in 15 general practices in the Netherlands. The practices are all group practices, and member of one care group. The practices will be assigned to the control or intervention arms by stratified randomization. The strata are determined by the participation of the practice nurses in a course for behavioral change, and the nurse's workload. Patients can be included if they are over 18 years of age, have at least one chronic condition and have a checkup appointment with the practice nurse in the inclusion period. The intervention consists of screening patients with the SeMaS questionnaire, producing a graphic profile with the abilities or barriers for self-management. Patients will receive tailored feedback. Practice nurses are trained in using the profile to enhance self-management of the patient and provide personalized self-management support. The use of individual care plans and self-management interventions is stimulated. In the control arm patients will receive care as usual. Patients of both trial arms will be asked to fill in the SeMaS questionnaire and additional questionnaires at inclusion and after 6 months. The primary outcome is the difference in the level of patient activation (PAM-13) between baseline and 6 months. Secondary outcomes include patient measures for lifestyle factors (exercise, diet, smoking), and process measures from medical record data analysis. This manuscript presents the protocol for a cluster randomized clinical trial of personalized self-management
Lo, Suzanne H S; Chang, Anne M; Chau, Janita P C
Evidence shows self-management programs are associated with improved recovery outcomes. This article reports on the effectiveness of a new nurse-led self-efficacy-based stroke self-management program. A randomized controlled trial of participants recruited from 3 acute stroke units was conducted. The intervention group received the 4-week stroke self-management program. The control group received usual care. All participants were assessed at baseline and 8 weeks after randomization. Data were analyzed using generalized estimating equations. Outcomes included self-efficacy, outcome expectation, and satisfaction with performance of self-management behaviors. One hundred twenty-eight participants were randomized with mean age, 67.46 years (SD, 11.95); 59% men; and mean duration poststroke, 45 days (SD, 26.16). At 8 weeks of follow-up in the intention-to-treat population, the intervention group improved significantly in self-efficacy (95% confidence interval, 2.55-12.45; P stroke self-management program improved survivors' self-efficacy, outcome expectation, and satisfaction with performance of self-management behaviors. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02112955. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.
Best practice diabetes mellitus clinical treatment and education takes place in the medical clinic, however, patient outcomes are largely mediated through their own behaviour and lifestyle that occurs after they leave the clinical setting. Once they return home, people usually continue to engage in the social, cultural and lifestyle behaviours that had contributed to having diabetes in the first place. Although a host of factors (e.g. economic, health care team and system, condition and client-related) can impact a client's capacity to self-manage, there are client, organizational and community level strategies that may partially mitigate these difficulties. To address client behaviour, clinicians are increasingly becoming skilled to incorporate self-management support including behavioural counselling interventions into routine practice. At the organizational level, the operation and structure of the clinical setting may create difficulty for staff to provide self-management support. Sustaining benefits on a day-to-day basis presents an additional challenge. This article will review several common implementation barriers to self-management support and describe strategies and techniques used elsewhere to successfully integrate self-management support as a core care component for persons with diabetes. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hosseini, Anahita; Buonocore, Chris M.; Hashemzadeh, Sepideh; Hojaiji, Hannaneh; Kalantarian, Haik; Sideris, Costas; Bui, Alex A.T.; King, Christine E.; Sarrafzadeh, Majid
Asthma is the most prevalent chronic disease among pediatrics, as it is the leading cause of student absenteeism and hospitalization for those under the age of 15. To address the significant need to manage this disease in children, the authors present a mobile health (mHealth) system that determines the risk of an asthma attack through physiological and environmental wireless sensors and representational state transfer application program interfaces (RESTful APIs). The data is sent from wirel...
Duncan, Christina L; Walker, Heather A; Brabson, Laurel; Williford, Desireé N; Hynes, Lisa; Hogan, Mary Beth
Asthma action plans (AAPs) provide asthma management instructions to families; however, AAPs typically are written at a 7th-9th grade reading level, making them less useful in lower literacy families. There is a need to develop simpler AAP formats and content to optimize their utility across all families, including those who are rural and may be at a risk for literacy concerns. Because using pictures can simplify and enhance health education, our study's aim was to develop a pictorial AAP through a series of focus groups with key stakeholders - youth with asthma, caregivers, and physicians. Fourteen caregiver/youth dyads and four physicians participated in separate focus groups where their preferences for pictorial AAP structure and content were obtained. Focus groups were audio recorded, transcribed, coded with ATLAS.ti, and analyzed for themes. Youth and their caregivers prefer that the AAPs include simple, cartoon-like pictures customized to the patient. Physicians emphasized AAP's capability to display pictures of controller medication given its importance in preventing asthma exacerbations. A stoplight format, currently used in most written AAPs, received positive reviews. Specific suggestions for pictures showing symptoms, medications, and how to take medication were suggested. Words and short phrases accompanying the pictures were thought to add clarity. Key stakeholders viewed pictorial AAPs as positive and potentially effective alternatives to standard written AAPs. It is expected that low literacy youth and caregivers would more easily understand a pictorial AAP presentation, which should facilitate better medication adherence and asthma outcomes in these children.
Johnson, Constance; Feenan, Kevin; Setliff, Glenn; Pereira, Katherine; Hassell, Nancy; Beresford, Henry F; Epps, Shelly; Nicollerat, Janet; Tatum, William; Feinglos, Mark; Vorderstrasse, Allison
The authors developed an immersive diabetes community to provide diabetes self-management education and support for adults with type 2 diabetes. In this article the authors describe the procedures used to develop this virtual environment (VE). Second Life Impacts Diabetes Education & Self-Management (SLIDES), the VE for our diabetes community was built in Second Life. Social Cognitive Theory, behavioral principles and key aspects of virtual environments related to usability were applied in the development in this VE. Collaboration between researchers, clinicians and information technology (IT) specialists occurred throughout the development process. An interactive community was successfully built and utilized to provide diabetes self-management education and support. VEs for health applications may be innovative and enticing, yet it must be kept in mind that there are substantial effort, expertise, and usability factors that must be considered in the development of these environments for health care consumers.
Greenwood, Deborah A; Gee, Perry M; Fatkin, Kathy J; Peeples, Malinda
Since the introduction of mobile phones, technology has been increasingly used to enable diabetes self-management education and support. This timely systematic review summarizes how currently available technology impacts outcomes for people living with diabetes. A systematic review of high quality review articles and meta analyses focused on utilizing technology in diabetes self-management education and support services was conducted. Articles were included if published between January 2013 and January 2017. Twenty-five studies were included for analysis. The majority evaluated the use of mobile phones and secure messaging. Most studies described healthy eating, being active and metabolic monitoring as the predominant self-care behaviors evaluated. Eighteen of 25 reviews reported significant reduction in A1c as an outcome measure. Four key elements emerged as essential for improved A1c: (1) communication, (2) patient-generated health data, (3) education, and (4) feedback. Technology-enabled diabetes self-management solutions significantly improve A1c. The most effective interventions incorporated all the components of a technology-enabled self-management feedback loop that connected people with diabetes and their health care team using 2-way communication, analyzed patient-generated health data, tailored education, and individualized feedback. The evidence from this systematic review indicates that organizations, policy makers and payers should consider integrating these solutions in the design of diabetes self-management education and support services for population health and value-based care models. With the widespread adoption of mobile phones, digital health solutions that incorporate evidence-based, behaviorally designed interventions can improve the reach and access to diabetes self-management education and ongoing support.
Vorderstrasse, Allison; Lewinski, Allison; Melkus, Gail D'Eramo; Johnson, Constance
eHealth interventions have been increasingly used to provide social support for self-management of type 2 diabetes. In this review, we discuss social support interventions, types of support provided, sources or providers of support, outcomes of the support interventions (clinical, behavioral, psychosocial), and logistical and clinical considerations for support interventions using eHealth technologies. Many types of eHealth interventions demonstrated improvements in self-management behaviors, psychosocial outcomes, and clinical measures, particularly HbA1c. Important factors to consider in clinical application of eHealth support interventions include participant preferences, usability of eHealth technology, and availability of personnel to orient or assist participants. Overall, eHealth is a promising adjunct to clinical care as it addresses the need for ongoing support in chronic disease management.
Milton, Alyssa; Lloyd-Evans, Brynmor; Fullarton, Kate; Morant, Nicola; Paterson, Bethan; Hindle, David; Kelly, Kathleen; Mason, Oliver; Lambert, Marissa; Johnson, Sonia
A documented gap in support exists for service users following discharge from acute mental health services, and structured interventions to reduce relapse are rarely provided. Peer-facilitated self-management interventions have potential to meet this need, but evidence for their effectiveness is limited. This paper describes the development of a peer-provided self-management intervention for mental health service users following discharge from crisis resolution teams (CRTs). A five-stage iterative mixed-methods approach of sequential data collection and intervention development was adopted, following the development and piloting stages of the MRC framework for developing and evaluating complex interventions. Evidence review (stage 1) included systematic reviews of both peer support and self-management literature. Interviews with CRT service users (n = 41) regarding needs and priorities for support following CRT discharge were conducted (stage 2). Focus group consultations (n = 12) were held with CRT service-users, staff and carers to assess the acceptability and feasibility of a proposed intervention, and to refine intervention organisation and content (stage 3). Qualitative evaluation of a refined, peer-provided, self-management intervention involved qualitative interviews with CRT service user participants (n = 9; n = 18) in feasibility testing (stage 4) and a pilot trial (stage 5), and a focus group at each stage with the peer worker providers (n = 4). Existing evidence suggests self-management interventions can reduce relapse and improve recovery. Initial interviews and focus groups indicated support for the overall purpose and planned content of a recovery-focused self-management intervention for people leaving CRT care adapted from an existing resource: The personal recovery plan (developed by Repper and Perkins), and for peer support workers (PSWs) as providers. Participant feedback after feasibility testing was positive regarding facilitation of
Wang, W.; van Lint, C; Brinkman, W.P.; Rövekamp, T.J.M.; van Dijk, Sandra; van der Boog, Paul J.M.; Neerincx, M.A.
Self-management support systems (SMSS) have been proposed for renal transplant patients to increase their autonomy and reduce the number of hospital visits. For the design and implementation of such systems, it is important to understand factors influencing patients’ acceptance of a
Wang, W.; Lint, C.L. van; Brinkman, W.P.; Rövekamp, T.J.M.; Dijk, S. van; Boog, P.J.M. van der; Neerincx, M.A.
Background: Self-management support systems (SMSS) have been proposed for renal transplant patients to increase their autonomy and reduce the number of hospital visits. For the design and implementation of such systems, it is important to understand factors influencing patients’ acceptance of a
Bossy, Dagmara; Knutsen, Ingrid Ruud; Rogers, Anne; Foss, Christina
Self-management is considered important in chronic illness, and contemporary health policy recommends participation in support groups for individuals with chronic conditions. Although withdrawal from or non-participation in support groups is an important problem, there is limited knowledge about individuals' own motivation for participation in or withdrawal from self-management support groups. To investigate how individuals with type 2 diabetes perceive participation in group-based self-management support. This is a qualitative focus group study using a semi-structured interview guide. Sixteen participants diagnosed with type 2 diabetes were included in the study. Individuals with and without group affiliations were mixed in three focus groups to trigger discussions. In the analysis, reoccurring themes of engagement and discussions between participants were focused within a theoretical frame of institutional logic. The focus groups are seen as social spaces where participants construct identity. Both participation and non-participation in group-based self-management support are associated with dealing with the stigma of having type 2 diabetes. Negotiations contribute to constructing an illness dignity as a response to the logic of moral responsibility for the disease. Contemporary policy contributes to societal understandings of individuals with type 2 diabetes as morally inadequate. Our study shows that group-based self-management support may counteract blame and contribute in negotiations of identity for individuals with type 2 diabetes. This mechanism makes participation in groups beneficial for some but stigma inducing for others. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
age-related chronic illness along with a decline in the availability of informal caregivers calls for innovative programs to support self-management at a primary care level. Keywords: chronic disease, dementia, self-management, cognitive domains
Johnston, Sharon; Liddy, Clare; Mill, Karina; Irving, Hannah
The objective of this project was to determine how to improve evaluation of self-management support (SMS) in Canada to generate high-quality evidence to guide policy-makers, implementers, providers and participants. This project used a multi-method approach, including a scoping and a focused literature review, an internet scan, interviews with key stakeholders, a review of existing theoretical evaluation frameworks and a consensus meeting with experts. Four themes were identified through the collection and analysis of data: 1) diverse SMS interventions are identifiable; 2) emerging evaluation activity in Canada is limited to mostly disease-specific, clinic-based programs; 3) there is little evaluation capacity among program implementers in Canada; and 4) there is a gap between the evidence and expectations. Policy-makers, community organizations and health care teams, regional health authorities and, most importantly, people living with chronic conditions, need better evidence about how to support self-management in their communities. Measuring outcomes must be an explicit part of program implementation and development and requires coordinated support. A common evaluation framework may provide researchers, practitioners and decision- or policy-makers with a systems approach to understanding the possible structural and process factors that can affect self-management outcomes, and could support capacity building in evaluation.
Huana Carolina Cândido Morais
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze strategies for self-management support by patients with stroke in the light of the methodology of the five A's (ask, advice, assess, assist and arrange. METHODS Integrative review conducted at the following databases CINAHL, SCOPUS, PubMed, Cochrane and LILACS. RESULTS A total of 43 studies published between 2000 and 2013 comprised the study sample. All proposed actions in the five A's methodology and others were included. We highlight the Assist and Arrange, in which we added actions, especially with regard to the use of technological resources and joint monitoring between patients, families and professionals. No study included all five A's, which suggests that the actions of supported self-management are developed in a fragmented way. CONCLUSION The use of five A's strategy provides guidelines for better management of patients with stroke with lower cost and higher effectiveness.
Piette, John D; Valverde, Helen; Marinec, Nicolle; Jantz, Rachel; Kamis, Kevin; de la Vega, Carlos Lazo; Woolley, Timothy; Pinto, Bismarck
Mobile health (m-health) work in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) mainly consists of small pilot programs with an unclear path to scaling and dissemination. We describe the deployment and testing of an m-health platform for non-communicable disease (NCD) self-management support in Bolivia. Three hundred sixty-four primary care patients in La Paz with diabetes or hypertension completed surveys about their use of mobile phones, health and access to care. One hundred sixty-five of those patients then participated in a 12-week demonstration of automated telephone monitoring and self-management support. Weekly interactive voice response (IVR) calls were made from a platform established at a university in La Paz, under the direction of the regional health ministry. Thirty-seven percent of survey respondents spoke indigenous languages at home and 38% had six or fewer years of education. Eighty-two percent had a mobile phone, 45% used text messaging with a standard phone, and 9% had a smartphone. Smartphones were least common among patients who were older, spoke indigenous languages, or had less education. IVR program participants completed 1007 self-management support calls with an overall response rate of 51%. IVR call completion was lower among older adults, but was not related to patients' ethnicity, health status, or healthcare access. IVR health and self-care reports were consistent with information reported during in-person baseline interviews. Patients' likelihood of reporting excellent, very good, or good health (versus fair or poor health) via IVR increased during program participation and was associated with better medication adherence. Patients completing follow-up interviews were satisfied with the program, with 19/20 (95%) reporting that they would recommend it to a friend. By collaborating with LMICs, m-health programs can be transferred from higher-resource centers to LMICs and implemented in ways that improve access to self-management support among
Kokciyan, Nadin; Sassoon, Isabel Karen; Young, Anthony Peter; Chapman, Martin David; Porat, Talya Rica; Ashworth, Mark; Curcin, Vasa; Modgil, Sanjay; Parsons, Simon Dominic; Sklar, Elizabeth Ida
CONSULT is a decision-support framework designed to help patients self-manage chronic conditions and adhere to agreed-upon treatment plans, in collaboration with healthcare professionals. The approach taken employs computational argumentation, a logic-based methodology that provides a formal means for reasoning with evidence by substantiating claims for and against particular conclusions. This paper outlines the architecture of CONSULT, illustrating how facts are gathered about the patient an...
John D Piette
Full Text Available Background: Mobile health (m-health work in low and middle-income countries (LMICs mainly consists of pilot programmes with an unclear path to scaling and dissemination. We describe the deployment and testing of an m-health platform for non-communicable disease (NCD self-management support in Bolivia. Methods: 364 primary care patients in La Paz with diabetes or hypertension completed surveys about their use of mobile phones, health and access to care. 165 of those patients then participated in a 12-week demonstration of automated telephone monitoring and self-management support. Weekly Interactive Voice Response (IVR calls were made from a platform established at a university in La Paz, under the direction of the regional health ministry. Results: 37% of survey respondents spoke indigenous languages at home, and 38% had six or fewer years of education. 82% had a mobile phone; half (45% used text messaging with a standard phone, and 9% had a smartphone. Smartphones were least common among patients who were older, spoke indigenous languages, or had less education. IVR programme participants completed 1007 self-management support calls, with an overall response rate of 51%. IVR call completion was lower among older adults, but was not related to patients’ ethnicity, health status or healthcare access. IVR health and self-care reports were consistent with information reported during baseline interviews. Patients’ likelihood of reporting excellent, very good, or good health (versus fair or poor health via IVR increased during programme participation, and was associated with better medication adherence. Patients completing follow-up interviews were satisfied with the programme, with 19/20 (95% reporting that they would recommend it to a friend. Conclusions: By collaborating with LMICs, m-health programmes can be transferred from higher-resource centres to LMICs and implemented in ways that improve access to self-management support among people
Barkham, Abigail M; Ersser, Steven J
The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility and impact of a group intervention by Community Matrons to support those living with multiple long-terms conditions. Little evidence exists as to how the role of the Community Matron (CM) should be delivered to effectively enhance disease self-management and levels of self-efficacy for the service users. This qualitative participatory action research study explored the use of group work as a method of intervention by CMs. A purposive sample of 29 participants was recruited. Each patient group had 8-10 participants, led by a CM working in both the researcher and practitioner role, operating over 12-month period. Data were collected by participant observation, researcher reflexive account and interviews. Grounded theory method was used to systematically analyse the data. Three main data categories emerged: (i) comparison by patients that leads to re-motivation of the self; (ii) learning, leading to enhanced self-management techniques, through storytelling and understanding of each other's experiences; and (iii) ownership that resulted in the self-awareness, cognisance and insight into the role of the support group they were based in and how it benefited them. The core category of 'Taking back the self - understanding the whole,' conveyed the impact that this care delivery method had upon readjusting the balance of power between health professional and service users and its consequence in refreshing and improving their self-management and the patients' self-efficacy. It was concluded that CM intervention using a model of group learning can lead to more effective and efficient support, through improving self-efficacy and patients' related self-management ability. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lalloo, Chitra; Shah, Ushma; Birnie, Kathryn A; Davies-Chalmers, Cleo; Rivera, Jordan; Stinson, Jennifer; Campbell, Fiona
Recently, the use of smartphones to deliver health-related content has experienced rapid growth, with more than 165,000 mobile health (mHealth) apps currently available in the digital marketplace. With 3 out of 4 Canadians currently owning a smartphone, mHealth apps offer opportunities to deliver accessible health-related knowledge and support. Many individuals experience pain after surgery, which can negatively impact their health-related quality of life, including sleep, emotional, and social functioning. Smartphone apps that provide remote real-time monitoring and symptom management have the potential to improve self-management skills in patients experiencing postoperative pain. Increased confidence and practice of self-management skills could contribute to decreased postoperative pain and reduce risk of developing persistent pain. Published reviews of general pain self-management apps demonstrate a lack of evidence-based content, theoretical grounding, and health care professional involvement. However, no review to date has focused on the app marketplace specific for individuals with postoperative pain. The aim of this study was to characterize and critically appraise the content and functionality of commercially available postoperative pain self-management apps. An electronic search and extraction was conducted between December 2016 and March 2017 of the official Canadian app stores for the three major smartphone operating systems (iPhone operating system [iOS], Android, and Windows). Stores were searched separately using predetermined search terms. Two authors screened apps based on information provided in the public app description. Metadata from all included apps were abstracted into a standard spreadsheet. Two authors verified the data with reference to the apps and downloaded apps themselves. The content and functionality of each app as it pertained to postoperative pain self-management was rated. A total of 10 apps met the inclusion criteria. All
Koster, Ellen S; Philbert, Daphne; de Vries, Tjalling W; van Dijk, Liset; Bouvy, Marcel L
BACKGROUND: Medication adherence rates often decline as children become teenagers. Effective adherence-enhancing interventions for adolescents are lacking. The objective of this study was to assess adolescent asthmatics needs and preferences regarding medication counseling and support, with focus on
Roehrer, Erin; Cummings, Elizabeth; Ellis, Leonie; Turner, Paul
This paper presents findings from the implementation of an online symptom monitoring diary that was part of a broader project aimed to support self-management of cystic fibrosis and the development of an online community of practice (CoP). The findings challenge conventional perspectives on how value is acquired by patients and their families from electronic tools designed to provide them with support. Additionally, the findings highlight complex relationships between user needs and subsequent tool use that challenge approaches to the measurement of value from ehealth projects.
Elias, Pierre; Rajan, Nithin O; McArthur, Kara; Dacso, Clifford C
Asthma is the most common chronic disease in childhood, disproportionately affecting urban, minority, and disadvantaged children. Individualized care plans supported by daily lung-function monitoring can reduce morbidity and mortality. However, despite 20 years of interventions to increase adherence, only 50% of US youth accurately follow their care plans, which leads to millions of preventable hospitalizations, emergency room visits, and sick days every year. We present a feasibility study of a novel, user-centered approach to increasing young people's lung-function monitoring and asthma self-care. Promoting Lung Assessment in Youth (PLAY) helps young people become active managers of their asthma through the Web 2.0 principles of participation, cocreation, and information sharing. Specifically, PLAY combines an inexpensive, portable spirometer with the motivational power and convenience of mobile phones and virtual-community gaming. The objective of this study was to develop and pilot test InSpire, a fully functional interface between a handheld spirometer and an interactive game and individualized asthma-care instant-messaging system housed on a mobile phone. InSpire is an application for mobile smartphones that creates a compelling world in which youth collaborate with their physicians on managing their asthma. Drawing from design-theory on global timer mechanics and role playing, we incentivized completing spirometry maneuvers by making them an engaging part of a game young people would want to play. The data can be sent wirelessly to health specialists and return care recommendations to patients in real-time. By making it portable and similar to applications normally desired by the target demographic, InSpire is able to seamlessly incorporate asthma management into their lifestyle. We describe the development process of building and testing the InSpire prototype. To our knowledge, the prototype is a first-of-its kind mobile one-stop shop for asthma management
Kwan, Bethany M; Jortberg, Bonnie; Warman, Meredith K; Kane, Ilima; Wearner, Robyn; Koren, Romona; Carrigan, Thomas; Martinez, Vincent; Nease, Donald E
Self-management support (SMS) for patients with diabetes can improve adherence to treatment, mitigate disease-related distress, and improve health outcomes. Translating this evidence into real-world practice is needed, as it is not clear which SMS models are acceptable to patients, and feasible and sustainable for primary care practices. To use the Boot Camp Translation (BCT) method to engage patient, practice, community resource and research stakeholders in translation of evidence about SMS and diabetes distress into mutually acceptable care models and to inform patient-centred outcomes research (PCOR). Twenty-seven diabetes care stakeholders, including patients and providers from a local network of federally qualified health centres participated. Stakeholders met in-person and by conference call over the course of 8 months. Subject matter experts provided education on the diabetes SMS evidence. Facilitators engaged the group in discussions about barriers to self-management and opportunities for improving delivery of SMS. BCT participants identified lack of social support, personal resources, trust, knowledge and confidence as barriers to diabetes self-management. Intervention opportunities emphasized peer support, use of multidisciplinary care teams and centralized systems for sharing information about community and practice resources. BCT informed new services and a PCOR study proposal. Patients and family engaged in diabetes care research value peer support, group visits, and multidisciplinary care teams as key features of SMS models. SMS should be tailored to an individual patient's health literacy. BCT can be used to engage multiple stakeholders in translation of evidence into practice and to inform PCOR. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Kessler, Dorothy; Liddy, Clare
To identify the types of self-management support that have been provided to persons with transient ischaemic attack and the evidence for the effectiveness of these programmes. Self-management is a key element for the effective management of chronic conditions. For persons with transient ischaemic attack, secondary stroke prevention is a recognised standard of care. Best practice guidelines indicate that persons who have experienced transient ischaemic attack should be supported to develop self-management skills. However, it is not clear how best to support the development of these skills. An integrative literature review was conducted. A search was conducted using Medline, Embase, HealthSTAR, CINAHL and PsycINFO. Published quantitative and qualitative studies, abstracts or dissertations describing the provision, experience or outcomes of self-management interventions for people with transient ischaemic attack, and published in English before March 2016, were included. Articles were selected and rated separately by two reviewers. The American Academy for Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine Level of Evidence and Conduct Rating tools were used for rating. Interventions were described and compared, and evidence was presented using the traffic lighting system. Sixteen interventions representing a variety of group- and individual-based interventions were identified. Interventions differed in target population, content, structure, duration and outcomes. Only four interventions were specifically designed for persons with transient ischaemic attack. While evidence to support self-management interventions is promising, there is limited evidence to support any one intervention. However, one good-quality randomised controlled trial supports the provision of a group self-management programme for improving blood pressure control. There are numerous interventions to support self-management by persons with transient ischaemic attack. More research is needed to determine
Dobson, Rosie; Carter, Karen; Cutfield, Richard; Hulme, Ashley; Hulme, Richard; McNamara, Catherine; Maddison, Ralph; Murphy, Rinki; Shepherd, Matthew; Strydom, Johan; Whittaker, Robyn
The increasing prevalence of diabetes and costly long-term complications associated with poor glycemic control are issues facing health services worldwide. Diabetes self-management, with the support of health care providers, is critical for successful outcomes, however, frequent clinical contact is costly. Text messages via short message service (SMS) have the advantage of instant transmission at low cost and, given the ubiquity of mobile phones, may be the ideal platform for the delivery of diabetes self-management support. A tailored text message-based diabetes support intervention called Self-Management Support for Blood Glucose (SMS4BG) was developed. The intervention incorporates prompts around diabetes education, management, and lifestyle factors (healthy eating, exercise, and stress management), as well as blood glucose monitoring reminders, and is tailored to patient preferences and clinical characteristics. To determine the usability and acceptability of SMS4BG among adults with poorly controlled diabetes. Adults (aged 17 to 69 years) with type 1 (n=12) or type 2 diabetes (n=30), a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) over 70 mmol/mol (8.6%), and who owned a mobile phone (n=42) were recruited to take part in a 3-month pilot study of SMS4BG. At registration, participants selected the modules they would like to receive and, where appropriate, the frequency and timing of blood glucose monitoring reminders. Patient satisfaction and perceptions of the usability of the program were obtained via semistructured phone interviews conducted at completion of the pilot study. HbA1c was obtained from patient records at baseline and completion of the pilot study. Participants received on average 109 messages during the 3-month program with 2 participants withdrawing early from the study. Follow-up interviews were completed with 93% of participants with all reporting SMS4BG to be useful and appropriate to their age and culture. Participants reported a range of perceived positive
Nicholl, Barbara I; Sandal, Louise F; Stochkendahl, Mette J; McCallum, Marianne; Suresh, Nithya; Vasseljen, Ottar; Hartvigsen, Jan; Mork, Paul J; Kjaer, Per; Søgaard, Karen; Mair, Frances S
Low back pain (LBP) is a common cause of disability and is ranked as the most burdensome health condition globally. Self-management, including components on increased knowledge, monitoring of symptoms, and physical activity, are consistently recommended in clinical guidelines as cost-effective strategies for LBP management and there is increasing interest in the potential role of digital health. The study aimed to synthesize and critically appraise published evidence concerning the use of interactive digital interventions to support self-management of LBP. The following specific questions were examined: (1) What are the key components of digital self-management interventions for LBP, including theoretical underpinnings? (2) What outcome measures have been used in randomized trials of digital self-management interventions in LBP and what effect, if any, did the intervention have on these? and (3) What specific characteristics or components, if any, of interventions appear to be associated with beneficial outcomes? Bibliographic databases searched from 2000 to March 2016 included Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, DoPHER and TRoPHI, Social Science Citation Index, and Science Citation Index. Reference and citation searching was also undertaken. Search strategy combined the following concepts: (1) back pain, (2) digital intervention, and (3) self-management. Only randomized controlled trial (RCT) protocols or completed RCTs involving adults with LBP published in peer-reviewed journals were included. Two reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts, full-text articles, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias using Cochrane risk of bias tool. An independent third reviewer adjudicated on disagreements. Data were synthesized narratively. Of the total 7014 references identified, 11 were included, describing 9 studies: 6 completed RCTs and 3 protocols for future RCTs. The completed RCTs included a total of 2706 participants (range of 114
Raaijmakers, Lieke G M; Martens, Marloes K; Hesselink, Arlette E; de Weerdt, Inge; de Vries, Nanne K; Kremers, Stef P J
The aim of this study was to assess the associations between type 2 diabetes patients' mastery and perceived autonomy support and their self-management skills and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among 3352 patients with type 2 diabetes. Key variables were assessed with validated questionnaires. Patients' mastery and perceived autonomy support correlated positively with their self-management skills (r=0.34, pperceived autonomy support were positive correlates of self-management (β=0.23; pperceived autonomy support, self-management and HRQOL. Our results indicate the importance of mastery in relation to diabetes patients' perceived autonomy support, self-management skills and HRQOL. Since a greater sense of mastery is likely to increase patients' autonomous motivation to cope with their disease, interventions can aim to influence patients' motivational regulation. In addition, we confirmed the need for autonomy support to improve patients' self-management skills. Professionals can be trained to be autonomy-supportive, which relates to person-centered approaches such as motivational interviewing (MI). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ludman, Evette J; Simon, Gregory E; Grothaus, Louis C; Richards, Julie Elissa; Whiteside, Ursula; Stewart, Christine
This study aimed to determine whether a self-management support service was more effective than treatment as usual in reducing depressive symptoms and major depressive episodes and increasing personal recovery among individuals with chronic or recurrent depressive symptoms. The study was a randomized controlled trial of a self-management support service consisting of depression self-management training, recovery coaching, and care coordination. The 18-month intervention included regular telephone or in-person contacts with a care manager and a structured group program co-led by a professional therapist and a trained peer specialist. Intervention (N=150) and control (N=152) participants ages ≥ 18 with chronic or recurrent depressive symptoms were recruited from five clinics in Seattle, Washington. Outcome measures included the Hopkins Symptom Checklist depression scale, the Recovery Assessment Scale, the Patient-Rated Global Improvement scale, and the percentage of participants with a major depressive episode. Interviewers were masked to treatment condition. Repeated-measures estimates of the long-term effect of the intervention versus usual care (average of the six-, 12-, and 18-month outcomes adjusted for age, gender, and site) indicated that intervention participants had less severe symptoms (p=.002) and higher recovery scores (p=.03), were less likely to be depressed (odds ratio [OR]=.52, p=.001), and were more likely to be much improved (OR=1.96, p=.001). These findings support providing regular outreach care management and a self-care group offering a combined behavioral and recovery-oriented approach for people with chronic or recurrent depressive symptoms.
Full Text Available Megan E Rollo,1 Elroy J Aguiar,2 Rebecca L Williams,1 Katie Wynne,3 Michelle Kriss,3 Robin Callister,4 Clare E Collins1 1School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medicine, Priority Research Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia; 2Department of Kinesiology, School of Public Health and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA, USA; 3Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, John Hunter Hospital, Hunter New England Health, New Lambton, NSW, Australia;\t4School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medicine, Priority Research Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia Abstract: Diabetes is a chronic, complex condition requiring sound knowledge and self-management skills to optimize glycemic control and health outcomes. Dietary intake and physical activity are key diabetes self-management (DSM behaviors that require tailored education and support. Electronic health (eHealth technologies have a demonstrated potential for assisting individuals with DSM behaviors. This review provides examples of technologies used to support nutrition and physical activity behaviors in the context of DSM. Technologies covered include those widely used for DSM, such as web-based programs and mobile phone and smartphone applications. In addition, examples of novel tools such as virtual and augmented reality, video games, computer vision for dietary carbohydrate monitoring, and wearable devices are provided. The challenges to, and facilitators for, the use of eHealth technologies in DSM are discussed. Strategies to support the implementation of eHealth technologies within practice and suggestions for future research to enhance nutrition and physical activity behaviors as a part of broader DSM are provided. Keywords: diabetes self-management, eHealth, nutrition, physical activity, smartphones, wearables
Carpenter, Delesha M; Fisher, Edwin B; Greene, Sandra B
The objective of this study is to present preliminary data to characterize public and private insurance coverage for diabetes self-management education (DSM Education) and diabetes self-management support (DSM Support). Representatives from Medicaid and 2 private insurance providers in 10 states provided coverage information for their insurance plans. Two states (the most populous state from the East and West coasts) were sampled purposively and 8 additional states from 4 geographic regions (northeast, southeast, northwest, southwest) were sampled at random. Representatives from each private insurer described both a premium and basic coverage plan. Thus, 10 Medicaid programs and 40 private insurance plans were represented. Information about Medicare coverage was accessed from publicly available documents. Restricted by physician certification of patient eligibility, Medicare coverage included 10 hours of DSM Education plus 3 hours of medical nutrition therapy (MNT) within a continuous 12-month period, and 4 hours of follow-up (2 hours DSM Education and 2 hours MNT) for each subsequent year. Only 22 of 40 sampled private insurance and 5 of 10 Medicaid plans covered DSM Education, which ranged from 7 to 20 hours of education per year. Medicaid and private plans often limited the amount of DSM Education or required patients to obtain a physician certification of eligibility. Other than on-demand access features, coverage of DSM Support was minimal. Public and private insurance coverage of DSM Education was neither widespread nor uniform, while coverage of DSM Support was scarce.
Schiøtz, M. L.; Bøgelund, M.; Almdal, T.
emotional distress, negative assessment of care, less health-promoting eating habits and less frequent foot examinations. Conclusions Good social support is significantly associated with health-promoting behaviours and well-being among patients with Type2 diabetes. However, HbA 1c levels are higher...... collected from 2572 patients with Type2 diabetes. After adjusting for gender, age and education, Tobit and logistic regression models were used to examine associations between social network and patient activation, psychosocial problems, self-management behaviours and HbA 1c levels. Results Frequent contact...
Piette, John D.; Valverde, Helen; Marinec, Nicolle; Jantz, Rachel; Kamis, Kevin; de la Vega, Carlos Lazo; Woolley, Timothy; Pinto, Bismarck
Background: Mobile health (m-health) work in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) mainly consists of small pilot programs with an unclear path to scaling and dissemination. We describe the deployment and testing of an m-health platform for non-communicable disease (NCD) self-management support in Bolivia. Methods: Three hundred sixty-four primary care patients in La Paz with diabetes or hypertension completed surveys about their use of mobile phones, health and access to care. One hundred sixty-five of those patients then participated in a 12-week demonstration of automated telephone monitoring and self-management support. Weekly interactive voice response (IVR) calls were made from a platform established at a university in La Paz, under the direction of the regional health ministry. Results: Thirty-seven percent of survey respondents spoke indigenous languages at home and 38% had six or fewer years of education. Eighty-two percent had a mobile phone, 45% used text messaging with a standard phone, and 9% had a smartphone. Smartphones were least common among patients who were older, spoke indigenous languages, or had less education. IVR program participants completed 1007 self-management support calls with an overall response rate of 51%. IVR call completion was lower among older adults, but was not related to patients’ ethnicity, health status, or healthcare access. IVR health and self-care reports were consistent with information reported during in-person baseline interviews. Patients’ likelihood of reporting excellent, very good, or good health (versus fair or poor health) via IVR increased during program participation and was associated with better medication adherence. Patients completing follow-up interviews were satisfied with the program, with 19/20 (95%) reporting that they would recommend it to a friend. Conclusion: By collaborating with LMICs, m-health programs can be transferred from higher-resource centers to LMICs and implemented in ways that
Young, Lufei; Kupzyk, Kevin; Barnason, Susan
Self-management (SM) is an essential component of heart failure (HF) management. The mechanisms to improve SM behaviors are unclear. The objective of this study is to examine whether patient activation mediates the effect of self-efficacy on SM behaviors in rural HF patients. A secondary analysis was conducted using data collected from a randomized controlled trial aimed to improve SM behaviors. The main variables included were SM knowledge, self-efficacy, patient activation, and SM behaviors. Mediation analysis showed patient activation mediated the effect of self-efficacy on SM. Both self-efficacy and patient activation were significantly related to SM behaviors, respectively (r = 0.46, P self-efficacy was no longer directly related to SM behaviors when patient activation was entered into the final model (β = .17, P = .248). Self-management knowledge and support were significant moderators. In patients with high levels of SM knowledge, patient activation did not mediate the effect of self-efficacy on SM behaviors (β = .15, P = .47). When SM support was entered in the path model, patient activation was not a significant mediator between self-efficacy and SM behavior at high (β = .27, P = .27) or low (β = .27, P = .25) levels of SM support. Study findings suggest that targeted SM support for high-risk HF patients with low SM knowledge and support may be useful. In addition, strategies to increase patient activation may improve HF patients' SM confidence.
van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; Klein, Jakob J.; Seydel, E.R.; Zielhuis, Gerhard A.; van Herwaarden, Cees L.A.; Klein, J.J.; van der Palen, J.
To assess the efficacy of self-management programs it is important to know what behavioural changes take place. This paper assesses whether including self-treatment guidelines (action plans) in a self-management program for adult asthmatics, leads to greater behavioural changes than a program
Verkaik, R.; Antwerpen-Hogenraad, P. van; Veer, A. de; Francke, A.; Huis in het Veld, J.
Background: Self-management in patients and family caregivers confronted with dementia is not self-evident. Self-management skills may be limited because of the progressive cognitive decline of the patient and because family caregivers are often also very aged. Self-management
Tang, Tricia S.; Funnell, Martha M.; Oh, Mary
Introduction Diabetes-related health improvements achieved from self-management education interventions are not sustained long-term. We examined the health effects at 1 year follow-up of a 2-year, empowerment-based, diabetes self-management support intervention designed for African Americans. Methods We collected data from 52 African American adults with type 2 diabetes who completed the 3-year study. The intervention consisted of weekly groups led by 2 health care professionals and emphasize...
Full Text Available Claire Blackmore,1 Vicki L Johnson-Warrington,2 Johanna EA Williams,2 Lindsay D Apps,2 Hannah ML Young,2 Claire LA Bourne,2 Sally J Singh2 1Kettering General Hospital National Health Service (NHS Trust, Kettering, Northamptonshire, 2Centre for Exercise and Rehabilitation Science, Leicester Respiratory Biomedical Research Unit, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester, UK Background: With the growing burden of COPD and associated morbidity and mortality, a need for self-management has been identified. The Self-management Programme of Activity, Coping and Education for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (SPACE for COPD manual was developed to support self-management in COPD patients. Currently, there is no literature available regarding health care professionals’ training needs when supporting patients with COPD on self-management.Aim: This study sought to identify these needs to inform, design and develop a training program for health care professionals being trained to deliver a self-management program in COPD.Methods: Fourteen health care professionals from both primary and secondary care COPD services participated in face-to-face semistructured interviews. Thematic analysis was used to produce a framework and identify training needs and views on delivery of the SPACE for COPD self-management program. Components of training were web-based knowledge training, with pre- and posttraining knowledge questionnaires, and a 1-day program to introduce the self-management manual. Feedback was given after training to guide the development of the training program.Results: Health care professionals were able to identify areas where they required increased knowledge to support patients. This was overwhelming in aspects of COPD seen to be outside of their current clinical role. Skills in goal setting and behavioral change were not elicited as a training need, suggesting a lack of understanding of components of supporting self-management
Turyk, Mary; Banda, Elizabeth; Chisum, Gay; Weems, Dolores; Liu, Yangyang; Damitz, Maureen; Williams, Rhonda; Persky, Victoria
Home-based, multifaceted interventions have been effective in reducing asthma morbidity in children. However, identification of independent components that contribute to outcomes and delineating effectiveness by level of asthma symptoms would help to refine the intervention and target appropriate populations. A community health educator led asthma intervention implemented in a low-income African-American neighborhood included asthma management education, individually tailored low-cost asthma home trigger remediation, and referrals to social and medical agencies, when appropriate. Changes in asthma morbidity measures were assessed in relation to implementation of individual intervention components using multivariable logistic regression. Among the 218 children who completed the year-long program, there were significant reductions in measures of asthma morbidity, including symptoms, urgent care visits, emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, missed school days, and missed work days for caretakers. We also found significant decreases in the prevalence of many home asthma triggers and improvements in asthma management practices. Improvement in caretaker's ability to manage the child's asthma was associated with reduction in ED visits for asthma and uncontrolled asthma. Specific home interventions, such as repair of water leaks and reduced exposure to plants, dust, clutter and stuffed toys, may be related to reduction in asthma morbidity. This program was effective in reducing asthma morbidity in low-income African-American children and identified specific interventions as possible areas to target in future projects. Furthermore, the intervention was useful in children with persistent asthma symptoms as well as those with less frequent asthma exacerbations.
Duprez, Veerle; Beeckman, Dimitri; Verhaeghe, Sofie; Van Hecke, Ann
Chronic conditions put a heavy burden on healthcare in every country. Supporting persons with a chronic illness to take an active role in the management of their condition is a core component in the Chronic Care Model. It implies confidence and good skills from professionals. To date, there is no evidence on final year nursing students' performance in supporting patients' self-management, nor on factors associated with this performance. To explore self-reported performance of supporting patients' self-management by final year nursing students, and person-related factors associated with this performance. A correlational multi-centre study of final year nursing students (N=256) from eight nursing schools. Students were recruited from a convenience sample of eight nursing schools. All final year students were invited to participate. Data were collected between January 2015 and May 2016 using self-administered validated questionnaires. Theoretical behavioural frameworks were used to select hypothesized associated factors for self-management support: self-efficacy to perform self-management support and socio-structural factors (Social Cognitive Theory); needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness, and patient-invested contingent self-esteem (Self-Determination Theory); and attitudes towards supporting patients' self-management (Theory of Planned Behaviour). Final year nursing students (N=256) reported an overall low level of performance in delivering self-management support during internship. Students lacked mainly competencies in collaborative goal setting and shared decision making. Students reported a significant gap between their confidence and their actual performance in self-management support (pLearning opportunities can be introduced in classroom activities and on internship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The purpose of this literature review is to characterize unconventional health beliefs and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for asthma, smoking and lung cancer as those that are likely safe and those that likely increase risk in diverse Black communities. These findings should provide the impetus for enhanced patient-provider communication that elicits patients' beliefs and self-management preferences so that they may be accommodated, or when necessary, reconciled through discussion and partnership. Original research articles relevant to this topic were obtained by conducting a literature search of the PubMed Plus, PsychINFO and SCOPUS databases using combinations of the following search terms: asthma, lung cancer, emphysema, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), smoking, beliefs, complementary medicine, alternative medicine, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), explanatory models, African American, and Black. Using predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria, 51 original research papers were retained. Taken together, they provide evidence that patients hold unconventional beliefs about the origins of asthma and lung cancer and the health risks of smoking, have negative opinions of standard medical and surgical treatments, and have favorable attitudes about using CAM. All but a small number of CAM and health behaviors were considered safe. When patients' unconventional beliefs and preferences are not identified and discussed, there is an increased risk that standard approaches to self-management of lung disease will be sub-optimal, that potentially dangerous CAM practices might be used and that timely medical interventions may be delayed. Providers need effective communication skills as the medical dialog forms the basis of patients' understanding of disease and self-management options. The preferred endpoint of such discussions should be agreement around an integrated treatment plan that is effective, safe and acceptable to both
Allen, Chris; Vassilev, Ivaylo; Kennedy, Anne; Rogers, Anne
Recent years have seen an exponential increase in people with long-term conditions using the Internet for information and support. Prior research has examined support for long-term condition self-management through the provision of illness, everyday, and emotional work in the context of traditional offline communities. However, less is known about how communities hosted in digital spaces contribute through the creation of social ties and the mobilization of an online illness "workforce." The aim was to understand the negotiation of long-term condition illness work in patient online communities and how such work may assist the self-management of long-term conditions in daily life. A systematic search of qualitative papers was undertaken using various online databases for articles published since 2004. A total of 21 papers met the inclusion criteria of using qualitative methods and examined the use of peer-led online communities for those with a long-term condition. A qualitative meta-synthesis was undertaken and the review followed a line of argument synthesis. The main themes identified in relation to the negotiation of self-management support were (1) redressing offline experiential information and knowledge deficits, (2) the influence of modeling and learning behaviors from others on self-management, (3) engagement that validates illness and negates offline frustrations, (4) tie formation and community building, (5) narrative expression and cathartic release, and (6) dissociative anonymity and invisibility. These translated into a line of argument synthesis in which four network mechanisms for self-management support in patient online communities were identified. These were (1) collective knowledge and identification through lived experience; (2) support, information, and engagement through readily accessible gifting relationships; (3) sociability that extends beyond illness; and (4) online disinhibition as a facilitator in the negotiation of self-management
Pamungkas, Rian Adi; Chamroonsawasdi, Kanittha; Vatanasomboon, Paranee
The rate of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is dramatically increasing worldwide. Continuing diabetes mellitus (DM) care needs effective self-management education and support for both patients and family members. This study aimed to review and describe the impacts of diabetes mellitus self-management education (DSME) that involve family members on patient outcomes related to patient health behaviors and perceived self-efficacy on self-management such as medication adherence, blood glucose monitoring, diet and exercise changes, health outcomes including psychological well-being and self-efficacy, and physiological markers including body mass index, level of blood pressure, cholesterol level and glycemic control. Three databases, PubMed, CINAHL, and Scopus were reviewed for relevant articles. The search terms were "type 2 diabetes," "self-management," "diabetes self-management education (DSME)," "family support," "social support," and "uncontrolled glycaemia." Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) guidelines were used to determine which studies to include in the review. Details of the family support components of DSME intervention and the impacts of these interventions had on improving the health outcomes patients with uncontrolled glycaemia patients. A total of 22 intervention studies were identified. These studies involved different DSME strategies, different components of family support provided, and different health outcomes to be measured among T2D patients. Overall, family support had a positive impact on healthy diet, increased perceived support, higher self-efficacy, improved psychological well-being and better glycemic control. This systematic review found evidence that DSME with family support improved self-management behaviors and health outcomes among uncontrolled glycaemia T2D patients. The findings suggest DSME models that include family engagement can be a useful direction for improving diabetes care.
Tucker, Rod; Stewart, Derek
The majority of patients with psoriasis have mild to moderate disease which can be managed in primary care with topical therapies. The supportive role of pharmacists for patients with long-term dermatological conditions is largely unknown. To assess the impact of an educational intervention delivered by community pharmacists to improve self-management for people with psoriasis. The study involved a pre- and post-intervention design. Seven community pharmacies were selected based on their location (urban, rural etc.) and the pharmacists recruited via local comprehensive research networks. Patients with mild to moderate psoriasis were recruited either opportunistically or via a letter of invite by pharmacists who undertook a face-to-face consultation with one follow-up visit after 6 weeks. The primary outcome was the change in person-centred dermatology self-care index (PEDESI) score and secondary outcomes were the self-assessed psoriasis and severity index (SAPASI), measuring disease severity and the dermatology quality of life index (DLQI). A total of 47 patients were recruited. At 6 weeks, 42/47 (89.3%) patients completed the follow-up consultation. There was a significant increase in mean PEDESI scores (25.15 versus 17.78, P < 0.001) at 6 weeks compared to baseline. Similarly, SAPASI (11.60 versus 7.74, P < 0.001) and DLQI (7.21 versus 4.14, P < 0.001) scores improved significantly. Pharmacist-assisted support for patients with psoriasis improved knowledge, reduced disease severity and the impact on quality of life. These results suggest that community pharmacists might have an important role to play in facilitating self-management for patients with psoriasis. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Support for patient self-management is an accepted role for health professionals. Little evidence exists on the appropriate basis for the role of health professionals in achieving optimum self-management outcomes. This study explores the perceptions of people with type 2 diabetes about their self-management strategies and how relationships with health professionals may support this. Methods Four focus groups were conducted with people with type 2 diabetes: two with English-speaking and one each with Turkish and Arabic-speaking. Transcripts from the groups were analysed drawing on grounded hermeneutics and interpretive description. Results We describe three conceptually linked categories of text from the focus groups based on emotional context of self management, dominant approaches to self management and support from health professionals for self management. All groups described important emotional contexts to living with and self-managing diabetes and these linked closely with how they approached their diabetes management and what they looked for from health professionals. Culture seemed an important influence in shaping these linkages. Conclusion Our findings suggest people construct their own individual self-management and self-care program, springing from an important emotional base. This is shaped in part by culture and in turn determines the aims each person has in pursuing self-management strategies and the role they make available to health professionals to support them. While health professionals' support for self-care strategies will be more congruent with patients' expectations if they explore each person's social, emotional and cultural circumstances, pursuit of improved health outcomes may involve a careful balance between supporting as well as helping shift the emotional constructs surrounding a patient life with diabetes.
Duprez, Veerle; Vandecasteele, Tina; Verhaeghe, Sofie; Beeckman, Dimitri; Van Hecke, Ann
The aim of this study was to explore the effectiveness and effective components of training interventions to enhance nurses' competencies in self-management support in chronic care. The growing burden of chronic diseases puts an increasing focus on nurses' self-management support of people living with a chronic illness. The most effective method to train nurses' competencies in self-management support remains unclear. Systematic literature review. PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane CENTRAL, EMBASE, Web of Science, ERIC and PsycARTICLES databases were searched up to August 2015. Eligible studies reported on training interventions to enhance chronic care self-management support competencies in nurses. Outcomes were defined as trainees' reactions to the training (level 1), changes in trainees' competencies (level 2) or changes in trainees' performance in practice (level 3) concerning self-management support. Risk of bias was assessed. Level 1 outcomes were synthesized narratively. Standardized mean differences were calculated per study for level 2 and 3 outcomes. In total, 25 studies were included. Twelve of these studies included level 1 outcomes, eight studies included level 2 outcomes and 10 studies included level 3 outcomes. Effect sizes in favour of training ranged from -0·36 - 1·56 (level 2) and from 0·06 - 5·56 (level 3). Theory-driven training interventions with time to practice, (video) feedback and follow-up generated the most training effects. Caution is needed due to the inconsistent study quality. To date, there is a knowledge gap concerning the most effective method to train nurses' competencies in self-management support. More well-designed, longitudinal studies are needed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
H. van de Bovenkamp; Dr. J. Dwarswaard
Objective: Policymakers increasingly focus their attention on stimulating patients’ self-management. Critical reflection on this trend is often limited. A focus on self-management does not only change nurses’ activities, but also the values underlying the nurse–patient relationship. The latter can
Tang, Tricia S; Funnell, Matthew M; Oh, Mary
Diabetes-related health improvements achieved from self-management education interventions are not sustained long-term. We examined the health effects at 1 year follow-up of a 2-year, empowerment-based, diabetes self-management support intervention designed for African Americans. We collected data from 52 African American adults with type 2 diabetes who completed the 3-year study. The intervention consisted of weekly groups led by 2 health care professionals and emphasized experiential learning, emotional coping, problem solving, goal setting, and action planning; group discussion was guided by participant-identified self-management priorities and concerns. Measurements were taken at baseline, 24 months (postintervention), and 36 months (1 year follow-up) to assess glycemic control; weight; body mass index; serum cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels; systolic and diastolic blood pressure; self-care behaviors; diabetes-specific quality of life; and diabetes empowerment. Following the 2-year diabetes self-management support intervention, we found significant improvements for following a healthy diet (P = .03), spacing carbohydrates evenly across the day (P = .005), using insulin as recommended (P = .047), and achieving diabetes-specific quality of life (P = .02). At 1-year follow-up, not only did participants sustain the behavioral improvements made in the 2-year diabetes self-management support intervention, but they also demonstrated additional improvements in glycemic control (P empowerment-based diabetes self-management support intervention may have a positive and enduring effect on self-care behaviors and on metabolic and cardiovascular health.
Scollan-Koliopoulos, Melissa; Schechter, Clyde B; Caban, Arlene; Walker, Elizabeth A
The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between Spanish language-based acculturation, psychosocial coping with diabetes, and perceptions of social support obtainment for the daily management of diabetes. Adults (N = 209) were surveyed by telephone about Hispanic ethnicity, depressed mood (PHQ-8), anxiety and worry over diabetes, social burden due to diabetes, diabetes control, and physical function (Diabetes-39), and Spanish language-based acculturation (n = 101, Hispanic only). Significant associations revealed a relationship between less language-based acculturation with other contextual factors (gender, family demands, disease severity), and depressed mood and social burden of disease. Acculturation alone explained little about psychosocial coping. Individuals with poor psychosocial coping were more likely to have routine daily help with diabetes self- management, with acculturation explaining little about who obtains help. Hispanic values such as placing a priority on providing help to friends and family likely have more to do with psychosocial coping with diabetes than does language preference or proficiency. Individuals with poor psychosocial functioning may benefit from external social support when family support is not present to help with the routine management of diabetes.
Bordel, Borja; Miguel, Carlos; Alcarria, Ramón; Robles, Tomás
Nowadays, sensor networks are composed of a great number of tiny resource-constraint nodes, whose management is increasingly more complex. In fact, although collaborative or choreographic task execution schemes are which fit in the most perfect way with the nature of sensor networks, they are rarely implemented because of the high resource consumption of these algorithms (especially if networks include many resource-constrained devices). On the contrary, hierarchical networks are usually designed, in whose cusp it is included a heavy orchestrator with a remarkable processing power, being able to implement any necessary management solution. However, although this orchestration approach solves most practical management problems of sensor networks, a great amount of the operation time is wasted while nodes request the orchestrator to address a conflict and they obtain the required instructions to operate. Therefore, in this paper it is proposed a new mechanism for self-managed and choreographed task execution in sensor networks. The proposed solution considers only a lightweight gateway instead of traditional heavy orchestrators and a hardware-supported algorithm, which consume a negligible amount of resources in sensor nodes. The gateway avoids the congestion of the entire sensor network and the hardware-supported algorithm enables a choreographed task execution scheme, so no particular node is overloaded. The performance of the proposed solution is evaluated through numerical and electronic ModelSim-based simulations.
Vassilev, Ivaylo; Rogers, Anne; Kennedy, Anne; Koetsenruijter, Jan
There is increasing recognition that chronic illness management (CIM) is not just an individual but a collective process where social networks can potentially make a considerable contribution to improving health outcomes for people with chronic illness. However, the mechanisms (processes, activities) taking place within social networks are insufficiently understood. The aim of this review was to focus on identifying the mechanisms linking social networks with CIM. Here we consider network mechanisms as located within a broader social context that shapes practices, behaviours, and the multiplicity of functions and roles that network members fulfil. A systematic search of qualitative studies was undertaken on Medline, Embase, and Web for papers published between 1st January 2002 and 1st December 2013. Eligible for inclusion were studies dealing with diabetes, and with conditions or health behaviours relevant for diabetes management; and studies exploring the relationship between social networks, self-management, and deprivation. 25 papers met the inclusion criteria. A qualitative metasynthesis was undertaken and the review followed a line of argument synthesis. The main themes identified were: 1) sharing knowledge and experiences in a personal community; 2) accessing and mediation of resources; 3) self-management support requires awareness of and ability to deal with network relationships. These translated into line of argument synthesis in which three network mechanisms were identified. These were network navigation (identifying and connecting with relevant existing resources in a network), negotiation within networks (re-shaping relationships, roles, expectations, means of engagement and communication between network members), and collective efficacy (developing a shared perception and capacity to successfully perform behaviour through shared effort, beliefs, influence, perseverance, and objectives). These network mechanisms bring to the fore the close
Joekes, Katherine; Maes, Stan; Warrens, Matthijs
Using a self-regulatory framework, this study aims to identify how couples perceive a partner's support style after myocardial infarction (MI), and whether this predicts the patient's health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) and self-management (S-M) 9 months later. This longitudinal dyadic study includes 73 couples (86% of patients were men), recruited from two cardiac rehabilitation programmes in the Netherlands. Mean age of patients was 54.8 (SD=9.6) and of partners 52.5 (SD=9.8). Participants were interviewed and completed questionnaires at baseline (T1). Repeat questionnaires were returned by 69 and 67 couples after 3 (T2) and 9 months (T3), respectively. Support by partners is conceptualized in this study as 'active engagement' (AE), which involves the extent to which a partner engages the patient in conversations which focus on emotional support and problem solving. Levels of AE do not change over time, nor do they differ between members of the dyad. Levels of overprotection (OP) diminish with time, whilst patients consistently perceive more OP than partners report providing. Patients' experience of goal hindrance (at T3) due to the MI is associated with a decreased HR-QoL at T3 (controlling for baseline measures). The perception of having a supportive (AE) partner at T1 contributes to enhanced patient HR-QoL at each subsequent time point, although not to physical functioning. Perceiving a partner as overprotective (at T1) predicts worsened physical functioning in patients (at T3). Improvements in S-M at T3 (controlling for baseline measures) are reported by patients whose partner displays active engagement at T1. Cardiac rehabilitation should aim to redress the experience of goal disturbance and advise partners on how to provide support.
Meuleman, Yvette; Hoekstra, Tiny; Dekker, Friedo W.; Navis, Gerjan; Vogt, Liffert; van der Boog, Paul J. M.; Bos, Willem Jan W.; van Montfrans, Gert A.; van Dijk, Sandra
Background: To evaluate the effectiveness and sustainability of self-managed sodium restriction in patients with chronic kidney disease. Study Design: Open randomized controlled trial. Setting & Participants: Patients with moderately decreased kidney function from 4 hospitals in the Netherlands.
V. Duprez (Veerle); S.M. van Hooft (Susanne); J. Dwarswaard (Jolanda); A.L. van Staa (AnneLoes); A. Van Hecke (Ann); M.M.H. Strating (Mathilde)
markdownabstract__Aim:__ To develop and psychometrically test the self-efficacy and performance in self-management support (SEPSS) instrument. __Background:__ Facilitating persons with a chronic condition to take an active role in the management of their condition, implicates that nurses acquire
Duprez, Veerle; Van Hooft, Susanne M; Dwarswaard, Jolanda; van Staa, AnneLoes; Van Hecke, Ann; Strating, Mathilde M H
To develop and psychometrically test the self-efficacy and performance in self-management support (SEPSS) instrument. Facilitating persons with a chronic condition to take an active role in the management of their condition, implicates that nurses acquire new competencies. An instrument that can validly and reliably measure nurses' performance and their perceived capacity to perform self-management support is needed to evaluate current practice and training in self-management support. Instrument development and psychometric testing of the content and construct validity, factor structure and reliability. A literature review and expert consultation (N = 17) identified the content. The items were structured according to the Five-A's model and an overarching category of 'overall' competencies. The initial instrument was tested in a sample of 472 nurses and 51 nursing students from Belgium and the Netherlands, between June 2014-January 2015. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed satisfactory fit indices for the six-factor structure. Discriminating power was demonstrated for subgroups. The overall internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) was high both for the self-efficacy and the performance items. The test-retest intra-class correlation coefficients were good. The SEPSS instrument is a 36-item, Likert-scaled self-reporting instrument with good content and construct validity, and good internal consistency reliability and good test-retest reliability. Therefore, it is a promising instrument to measure self-efficacy and performance with regard to self-management support. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Müller-Mundt, G; Schaeffer, D
In later stages of chronic disease and especially in older age, chronically ill people are often dependent on multiple medicines. Coming to terms with complex medication regimes in everyday life is a challenging task. To provide the support actually needed, patient-centered interventions are essential, not only taking into account the patients' needs and preferences, but also promoting their ability to self manage their disease(s) and their medication regime. This paper outlines the results of a research project aimed at developing and evaluating an intervention to integrate self-management support into primary care, based on a qualitative exploration of the patients' and professionals' views. The findings stress that home care nurses should take an active part in self-management support but need to be prepared adequately. Therefore, a two-tier intervention was developed and evaluated in a prospective control study, consisting of a qualified training and guidelines for practice. The intervention serves to expand the nurses' professional competence to provide the needed individually tailored self-management support in home care.
Sleath, B.; Carpenter, D. M.; Blalock, S. J.; Sayner, R.; Muir, K. W.; Slota, C.; Giangiacomo, A. L.; Hartnett, M. E.; Tudor, G.; Robin, A. L.
Little is known about how ophthalmologist-patient communication over time is associated with glaucoma patient long-term adherence. The purpose of our study was to examine the association between provider use of components of the resources and supports in self-management model when communicating with patients and adherence to glaucoma medications…
Strating, Mathilde M.H.; van Schuur, Wijbrandt H.; Suurmeijer, Theo P.B.M.
The aim of this exploratory study was to test the applicability of a model derived from the Theory of Planned Behavior on self-management. In this model social support from the partner, attitude and self-efficacy are determinants of intention, and intention and self-efficacy are determinants of
Nittrouer, Christine L.; Shogren, Karrie A.; Pickens, Julie L.
Purpose: This study examined the impact of using a collaborative process with person-centered teams and a functional assessment of problems in the workplace to design individualized goals and self-management interventions to support young adults with disabilities. These young adults had achieved employment through a customized employment process…
Veld, J.G.H.I.; Verkaik, R.; Mistiaen, P.; van Meijel, B.; Francke, A.L.
Background: Informal caregivers of people with dementia are challenged in managing the consequences of dementia in daily life. The objective of this meta-review was to synthesize evidence from previous systematic reviews about professional self-management support interventions for this group.
Huis in het Veld, J.G.; Verkaik, R.; Mistiaen, P.; Meijel, B. van; Francke A.L.
Background: Informal caregivers of people with dementia are challenged in managing the consequences of dementia in daily life. The objective of this meta-review was to synthesize evidence from previous systematic reviews about professional self-management support interventions for this group.
Bucknall, C E; Miller, G; Lloyd, S M; Cleland, J; McCluskey, S; Cotton, M; Stevenson, R D; Cotton, P; McConnachie, A
To determine whether supported self management in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can reduce hospital readmissions in the United Kingdom. Randomised controlled trial. Community based intervention in the west of Scotland. Patients admitted to hospital with acute exacerbation of COPD. Participants in the intervention group were trained to detect and treat exacerbations promptly, with ongoing support for 12 months. The primary outcome was hospital readmissions and deaths due to COPD assessed by record linkage of Scottish Morbidity Records; health related quality of life measures were secondary outcomes. 464 patients were randomised, stratified by age, sex, per cent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second, recent pulmonary rehabilitation attendance, smoking status, deprivation category of area of residence, and previous COPD admissions. No difference was found in COPD admissions or death (111/232 (48%) v 108/232 (47%); hazard ratio 1.05, 95% confidence interval 0.80 to 1.38). Return of health related quality of life questionnaires was poor (n=265; 57%), so that no useful conclusions could be made from these data. Pre-planned subgroup analysis showed no differential benefit in the primary outcome relating to disease severity or demographic variables. In an exploratory analysis, 42% (75/150) of patients in the intervention group were classified as successful self managers at study exit, from review of appropriateness of use of self management therapy. Predictors of successful self management on stepwise regression were younger age (P=0.012) and living with others (P=0.010). COPD readmissions/deaths were reduced in successful self managers compared with unsuccessful self managers (20/75 (27%) v 51/105 (49%); hazard ratio 0.44, 0.25 to 0.76; P=0.003). Supported self management had no effect on time to first readmission or death with COPD. Exploratory subgroup analysis identified a minority of participants who learnt to self manage; this group had a
Bernhard, Gerda; Ose, Dominik; Baudendistel, Ines; Seidling, Hanna M; Stützle, Marion; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Wensing, Michel; Mahler, Cornelia
Purpose The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate the challenges and strategies of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) regarding daily management of their medication regimen focusing on the role of their support networks. Methods A purposeful sample of 25 patients with T2DM was recruited from local self-help groups, general practitioner practices, and a university hospital in southwestern Germany. Four semi-structured focus groups were conducted to identify the challenges patients experienced, the strategies they used, and their collaboration with support networks to assist them in self-managing their medication regimen. Sessions were audio- and video-recorded, fully transcribed, and subjected to computer-aided qualitative content analysis, guided by the Self- and Family Management Framework (SFMF). Results Patients with T2DM experienced numerous challenges affecting medication self-management arising from their personal situation, health status and resources, characteristics of their regimen, and how health care is currently organized. Patients' self-initiated strategies included activating health care, community, social, and online resources; taking ownership of medication-related needs; and integrating medication-taking into daily life. Patients drew on self-help groups, family, and friends to discuss concerns regarding medication safety and receive experience-based information and advice for navigating within the health care system as well as practical hands-on support with daily medication self-management. Conclusions Understanding the challenges and building on strategies patients with T2DM devised help diabetes educators to better address patients' needs and priorities and guide patient-centered interventions to support patients' self-management activities. Community and social support networks operating in patients' lives need to be engaged in the self-management support.
Full Text Available Teerapon Dhippayom,1 Ines Krass21Pharmaceutical Care Research Unit, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, Thailand; 2Faculty of Pharmacy, The University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW, AustraliaBackground: Evidence supports the efficacy of pharmacy services in type 2 diabetes (T2D. However, little is known about consumer perspectives on the role of community pharmacists in diabetes care. The objectives of this study were to identify potential unmet needs and explore preferences for pharmacist-delivered support for T2D.Methods: A qualitative study using focus groups was conducted in Sydney, Australia. Patients with T2D who were members of the Australian Diabetes Council in Sydney, Australia, were recruited through a survey on medication use in T2D. Five focus groups with a total of 32 consumers with T2D were recorded, transcribed, and thematically analyzed.Results: The key themes were 1 the experiences of diabetes services received, 2 the potential to deliver self-management services, and 3 the suggested role of pharmacist in supporting diabetes management. Gaps in understanding and some degree of nonadherence to self-management signaled a potential for self-management support delivered by pharmacists. However, consumers still perceive that the main role of pharmacists in diabetes care centers on drug management services, with some enhancements to support adherence and continuity of supply. Barriers to diabetes care services included time constraints and a perceived lack of interest by pharmacists.Conclusion: Given the unmet needs in diabetes self-management, opportunities exist for pharmacists to be involved in diabetes care. The challenge is for pharmacists to upgrade their diabetes knowledge and skills, organize their workflow, and become proactive in delivering diabetes care support.Keywords: diabetes care, community pharmacy, community pharmacist, self-management, preference
Öberg, Ulrika; Orre, Carl Johan; Isaksson, Ulf; Schimmer, Robyn; Larsson, Håkan; Hörnsten, Åsa
Nurses have expressed doubts about the ongoing digitalisation of Swedish primary health care. Given the potential role of eHealth in primary health care, including supporting interactive self-management for people with chronic conditions, it is important to highlight nurses' experiences. This study is part of a larger project aimed at implementing person-centred interactive self-management support (iSMS) in primary health care. The aim of this study was to describe Swedish primary healthcare nurses' perceptions of using digital eHealth systems and services to support patient self-management. Focus group interviews were conducted with primary healthcare nurses (n = 20). The interview transcriptions were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Three themes emerged from the content analysis: caregiving in the midst of digital chaos; a lack of overview and control in daily work; and mixed feelings towards digitalisation. Each theme was subdivided into three subthemes. The results of this study provide insight into a number of concerns that stand in the way of success when it comes to the implementation and use of digital technology. If nurses are to adapt to the new policies and practices that accompany the current digitalised development in Swedish primary health care, the concept of a nurse's traditional work role needs to be amended in terms of the scope of work tasks and established views of traditional nursing. The study also highlights the need for more research to enable eHealth systems/services to be designed to fulfil multiple requirements. The digitised systems should be a tool for achieving good quality self-management support as well as giving the primary healthcare nurses adequate resources to support patients' self-management while still maintaining the values associated with person-centred care. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Hashem, Ferhana; Merritt, Rowena
Self-management strategies are designed to improve lung and respiratory health through structured self-management plans with regular practitioner reviews. Strategies have not, however, focused upon how patient support groups and advocacy networks can help with the management of these conditions; therefore, it is unknown what impact they may have on patient self-management. A qualitative study was designed to help understand what impact the British Lung Foundation's Breathe Easy (BE) groups have on patients managing their lung and respiratory conditions. A semistructured telephone interview schedule was developed to study the network. Topics covered included: perceptions about the BE groups; current referrals systems and integration pathways; benefits of attending the BE groups; and integration of the BE groups into the respiratory pathway. Key themes explored included: shared patient experience and peer support; patient self-management and self-education; attendance of healthcare professionals; and the impact of integrating BE groups into the respiratory pathway. BE networks were shown to support self-care initiatives for people attending the groups, and members expressed a social and educational benefit. BE networks were working with the local National Health Service to become an integral part of the respiratory pathway, yet there was evidence of resistance from the health service in incorporating the networks.
Full Text Available Self-management strategies are designed to improve lung and respiratory health through structured self-management plans with regular practitioner reviews. Strategies have not, however, focused upon how patient support groups and advocacy networks can help with the management of these conditions; therefore, it is unknown what impact they may have on patient self-management. A qualitative study was designed to help understand what impact the British Lung Foundation's Breathe Easy (BE groups have on patients managing their lung and respiratory conditions. A semistructured telephone interview schedule was developed to study the network. Topics covered included: perceptions about the BE groups; current referrals systems and integration pathways; benefits of attending the BE groups; and integration of the BE groups into the respiratory pathway. Key themes explored included: shared patient experience and peer support; patient self-management and self-education; attendance of healthcare professionals; and the impact of integrating BE groups into the respiratory pathway. BE networks were shown to support self-care initiatives for people attending the groups, and members expressed a social and educational benefit. BE networks were working with the local National Health Service to become an integral part of the respiratory pathway, yet there was evidence of resistance from the health service in incorporating the networks.
Crotty, Mikaila M; Henderson, Julie; Ward, Paul R; Fuller, Jeffrey; Rogers, Anne; Kralik, Debbie; Gregory, Sue
People with mental illness have been identified as being more likely to experience type 2 diabetes and the complications arising from this, necessitating more complex chronic illness self-management. Social support has been identified as a significant factor in the successful adoption of lifestyle change for people with type 2 diabetes, however people with mental illness often have impoverished social networks leading to greater reliance upon professional care givers. This study maps the support provided by formal (paid and professional carers) and informal networks to people with mental illness and type 2 diabetes, comparing the experiences of people with a spouse with those without one. Interviews were conducted with 29 clients of a community nursing service with mental health problems who receive professional support to self-manage type 2 diabetes. Participants were asked to complete an egocentric social network map which involved mapping the people and services who support them to manage their health. Demographic data was collected as was data about co-morbidities and service use within the last 6 months. Network maps were supplemented by a series of open-ended questions about self-management practices, who supports these practices and what support they provide. Participants identified small social networks with few friendship ties. These networks had diminished due to illness. For people with a spouse, this person provided significant support for chronic illness self-management performing a range of daily care and illness management tasks. People without a spouse were more reliant on professional and paid care givers for daily care and illness management. People without a spouse also demonstrated greater reliance upon weak social ties for emotional support and social connection and often developed friendships with formal caregivers. Spousal support reduces the need for professional services. In the absence of a spouse, participants were more reliant upon paid
Elissen, A.M.J.; Nolte, E.; Knai, C.; Brunn, M.; Chevreul, K.; Conklin, A.; Durand-Zaleski, I.; Erler, A.; Flamm, M.; Frølich, A.; Fullerton, B.; Jacobsen, R.; Saz-Parkinson, Z.; Sarria-Santamera, A.; Sönnichsen, A.; Vrijhoef, H.J.M.
Background Self-management support is a key component of effective chronic care management, yet in practice appears to be the least implemented and most challenging. This study explores whether and how self-management support is integrated into chronic care approaches in 13 European countries. In
Foss, C.; Knutsen, I.; Kennedy, A.; Todorova, E.; Wensing, M.; Lionis, C.; Portillo, M.C.; Serrano-Gil, M.; Koetsenruijter, J.; Mujika, A.; Rogers, A.
This paper presents a meta-synthesis of the literature on community-based self-management to support experiences of people diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. The aim was to synthesise findings on both formal and informal self-management support with particular reference to the relevance and influence
van Olmen, J.; Ku, G.M.; van Pelt, M.; Kalobu, J.C.; Hen, H.; Darras, C.; Van Acker, K.; Villaraza, B.; Schellevis, F.; Kegels, G.
Background: People with diabetes find it difficult to sustain adequate self-management behaviour. Self-Management Support strategies, including the use of mobile technology, have shown potential benefit. This study evaluates the effectiveness of a mobile phone support intervention on top of an
Olmen, J. van; Ku, G.M.; Pelt, M. van; Kalobu, J.C.; Hen, H.; Darras, C.; Acker, K. van; Villaraza, B.; Schellevis, F.; Kegels, G.
Background: People with diabetes find it difficult to sustain adequate self-management behaviour. Self-Management Support strategies, including the use of mobile technology, have shown potential benefit. This study evaluates the effectiveness of a mobile phone support intervention on top of an
Duprez, Veerle; Beeckman, Dimitri; Verhaeghe, Sofie; Van Hecke, Ann
Background Chronic conditions put a heavy burden on healthcare in every country. Supporting persons with a chronic illness to take an active role in the management of their condition is a core component in the Chronic Care Model. It implies confidence and good skills from professionals. To date, there is no evidence on final year nursing students’ performance in supporting patients’ self-management, nor on factors associated with this performance. Objectives To explore self-reporte...
Woods, Leanna; Cummings, Elizabeth; Duff, Jed; Walker, Kim
Heart failure is a prevalent, progressive chronic disease costing in excess of $1billion per year in Australia alone. Disease self-management has positive implications for the patient and decreases healthcare usage. However, adherence to recommended guidelines is challenging and existing literature reports sub-optimal adherence. mHealth applications in chronic disease education have the potential to facilitate patient enablement for disease self-management. To the best of our knowledge no heart failure self-management application is available for safe use by our patients. In this paper, we present the process established to co-design a mHealth application in support of heart-failure self-management. For this development, an interdisciplinary team systematically proceeds through the phases of Stanford University's Design Thinking process; empathise, define, ideate, prototype and test with a user-centred philosophy. Using this clinician-led heart failure app research as a case study, we describe a sequence of procedures to engage with local patients, carers, software developers, eHealth experts and clinical colleagues to foster rigorously developed and locally relevant patient-facing mHealth solutions. Importantly, patients are engaged in each stage with ethnographic interviews, a series of workshops and multiple re-design iterations.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the potential value of self-management support programs for people with chronic diseases, it is vital to understand how they influence participants’ health attitudes and behaviours. The Stanford Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP, the most well-known and widely studied such program, is funded in many provinces and jurisdictions throughout Canada. However, there is little published evidence on its impact in the Canadian health-care system. We studied participants’ reactions and perceived impacts of attending the Stanford program in one Ontario health region so we could assess its value to the health region. The study asked: What are participants’ reactions and perceived impacts of attending the Stanford CDSMP? Methods This mixed methods exploratory study held four focus groups approximately one year after participants attended a Stanford program workshop. At the beginning of each session, participants filled out a survey on the type and frequency of community and health resources used for their self-management. During the sessions, a moderator guided the discussion, asking about such things as long-term impact of the program on their lives and barriers to self-management of their chronic conditions. Results Participants perceived diverse effects of the workshop: from having a profound impact on one area to affecting all aspects of their lives. A change in physical activity patterns was the most prominent behaviour change, noted by over half the participants. Other recurrent effects included an improved sense of social connection and better coping skills. Barriers to self-management were experienced by almost all participants with several dominant themes emerging including problems with the health system and patient-physician interaction. Participants reported a wide variety of resources used in their self-management, and in some cases, an increase in use was noted for some resources. Conclusions Self-management
Kaufman, Neal D; Woodley, Paula D Patnoe
Patients with diabetes need a complex set of services and supports. The challenge of integrating these services into the diabetes regimen can be successfully overcome through self-management support interventions that are clinically linked and technology enabled: self-management support because patients need help mastering the knowledge, attitudes, skills, and behaviors so necessary for good outcomes; interventions because comprehensive theory-based, evidence-proven, long-term, longitudinal interventions work better than direct-to-consumer or nonplanned health promotion approaches; clinically linked because patients are more likely to adopt new behaviors when the approach is in the context of a trusted therapeutic relationship and within an effective medical care system; and technology enabled because capitalizing on the amazing power of information technology leads to the delivery of cost-effective, scalable, engaging solutions that prevent and manage diabetes. © 2011 Diabetes Technology Society.
Koetsenruijter, J.; Eikelenboom, N.; Lieshout, J. van; Vassilev, I.; Lionis, C.; Todorova, E.; Portillo, M.C.; Foss, C.; Gil, M.; Roukova, P.; Angelaki, A.; Mujika, A.; Knutsen, I.R.; Rogers, A.; Wensing, M.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to explore which aspects of social networks are related to self-management capabilities and if these networks have the potential to reduce the adverse health effects of deprivation. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study we recruited type 2 diabetes patients
Al-Durra, Mustafa; Torio, Monika-Bianca; Cafazzo, Joseph A
The high prevalence rate of asthma represents a major societal burden. Advancements in information technology continue to affect the delivery of patient care in all areas of medicine. Internet-based solutions, social media, and mobile technology could address some of the problems associated with increasing asthma prevalence. This review evaluates Internet-based asthma interventions that were published between 2004 and October 2014 with respect to the use of behavioral change theoretical frameworks, applied clinical guidelines, and assessment tools. The search term (Asthma AND [Online or Internet or Mobile or Application or eHealth or App]) was applied to six bibliographic databases (Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, BioMed Central, ProQuest Computing, Web of Knowledge, and ACM Digital Library) including only English-language articles published between 2004 and October 2014. In total, 3932 articles matched the priori search terms and were reviewed by the primary reviewer based on their titles, index terms, and abstracts. The matching articles were then screened by the primary reviewer for inclusion or exclusion based on their abstract, study type, and intervention objectives with respect to the full set of priori inclusion and exclusion criteria; 331 duplicates were identified and removed. A total of 85 articles were included for in-depth review and the remaining 3516 articles were excluded. The primary and secondary reviewer independently reviewed the complete content of the 85 included articles to identify the applied behavioral change theories, clinical guidelines, and assessment tools. Findings and any disagreement between reviewers were resolved by in-depth discussion and through a consolidation process for each of the included articles. The reviewers identified 17 out of 85 interventions (20%) where at least one model, framework, and/or construct of a behavioral change theory were applied. The review identified six clinical guidelines that were applied across 30 of the 85
Blanson Henkemans, O.A.; Hoondert, V.; Schrama-Groot, F.; Looije, R.; Alpay, L.L.; Neerincx, M.A.
Children with type 1 diabetes need to self-manage their illness to minimize its impact on their long-term health. However, because children are still developing cognitively and emotionally, self-management is challenging. The European FP7 project, ALIZ-E, looks at how social robots can support
Al Aloola, Noha Abdullah; Nissen, Lisa; Alewairdhi, Huda Abdullaziz; Al Faryan, Nawaf; Saini, Bandana
This study sought to investigate parents' needs and preferences for school-based asthma support in Saudi Arabian primary schools. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted in the period between November 2015 and February 2016, with a convenience sample that comprised Saudi parents and carers of children with asthma. Recruitment of participants was primarily driven through Saudi primary schools; passive snowballing and social networks were used to boost participation rates further. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, translated and data were thematically organised using a latent content analysis approach. Twenty interviews were conducted. Six themes emerged from the interviews and were grouped into three major categories: (1) general asthma management issues; (2) school-based asthma management issues; and (3) communication dissatisfaction. Participants expressed concern at schools' social and physical environments and a lack of confidence in the ability of schools to manage their child's asthma, especially when their child was ill. Most of the participants advocated for staff training and school community engagement to improve the management of asthma in Saudi primary schools. This research clearly describes a need for school-based asthma support, including asthma-related policies, procedures and education on asthma and first aid in Saudi primary schools.
Ercolano, Elizabeth; Grant, Marcia; McCorkle, Ruth; Tallman, Nancy J; Cobb, Martha D; Wendel, Christopher; Krouse, Robert
Living with an ostomy requires daily site and equipment care, lifestyle changes, emotional management, and social role adjustments. The Chronic Care Ostomy Self-Management Training Program (CCOSMTP) offers an ostomy self-management curriculum, emphasizing problem solving, self-efficacy, cognitive reframing, and goal setting. The qualitative method of content analysis was employed to categorize self-reported goals of ostomates identified during a nurse-led feasibility trial testing the CCOSMTP. Thirty-eight ostomates identified goals at three CCOSMTP sessions. The goals were classified according to the City of Hope Health-Related Qualify of Life Model, a validated multidimensional framework, describing physical, psychological, social, and spiritual ostomy-related effects. Nurse experts coded the goals independently and then collaborated to reach 100% consensus on the goals' classification. A total of 118 goals were identified by 38 participants. Eighty-seven goals were physical, related to the care of the skin, placement of the pouch or bag, and management of leaks; 26 were social goals, which addressed engagement in social or recreational roles and daily activities; and 5 were psychological goals, which were related to confidence and controlling negative thinking. Although the goals of survivors of cancer with an ostomy are variable, physical goals are most common in self-management training.
Ammerlaan, Judy W; van Os-Medendorp, Harmieke; de Boer-Nijhof, Nienke; Maat, Bertha; Scholtus, Lieske; Kruize, Aike A; Bijlsma, Johannes W J; Geenen, Rinie
Aim of this study was to investigate preferences and needs regarding the structure and content of a person-centered online self-management support intervention for patients with a rheumatic disease. A four step procedure, consisting of online focus group interviews, consensus meetings with patient representatives, card sorting task and hierarchical cluster analysis was used to identify the preferences and needs. Preferences concerning the structure involved 1) suitability to individual needs and questions, 2) fit to the life stage 3) creating the opportunity to share experiences, be in contact with others, 4) have an expert patient as trainer, 5) allow for doing the training at one's own pace and 6) offer a brief intervention. Hierarchical cluster analysis of 55 content needs comprised eleven clusters: 1) treatment knowledge, 2) societal procedures, 3) physical activity, 4) psychological distress, 5) self-efficacy, 6) provider, 7) fluctuations, 8) dealing with rheumatic disease, 9) communication, 10) intimate relationship, and 11) having children. A comprehensive assessment of preferences and needs in patients with a rheumatic disease is expected to contribute to motivation, adherence to and outcome of self-management-support programs. The overview of preferences and needs can be used to build an online-line self-management intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nugent, Linda Elizabeth; Carson, Maggie; Zammitt, Nicola Naomi; Smith, Graeme Drummond; Wallston, Kenneth A
To explore health value and perceived control over health in relation to self-management behaviours in adults with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Helping people to modify health related behaviour in diabetes is complex due to a multitude of factors. Exploring the meaning of the constructs of Modified Social Learning Theory could be beneficial to identifying people at risk of poor diabetes self-management. An exploratory qualitative study. Thirteen adults with insulin-treated Type 2 diabetes mellitus were purposively sampled. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews. An in-depth thematic analysis was carried out. Health became a value priority on diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Participants described holding both terminal (relating to desired end states) and instrumental (a means to an end) health values pre-diagnosis but these became instrumental post-diagnosis to meet new lifestyle needs and maintain their quality of life. Descriptions of 'conflicts' in locus of control beliefs when managing Type 2 diabetes mellitus demonstrated influences on levels of self-efficacy and health value. Common themes that impacted on diabetes self-management included co-morbidities, medication management, blood glucose monitoring and reasoning for Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Locus of control beliefs, levels of self-efficacy and health value were influenced by complications associated with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. The findings on Modified Social Learning Theory and instrumental health value as a moderator to health behaviour resulted in the development of a proposed framework with potential practical utility. This research demonstrates the relevance of exploring the constructs of Modified Social Learning Theory (MSLT) in relation to diabetes self-management behaviours in Type 2 diabetes mellitus. The proposed Type 2 diabetes mellitus Self-management Behaviour Support framework incorporates Modified Social Learning Theory and instrumental health value as the theoretical
Eghdam, Aboozar; Scholl, Jeremiah; Bartfai, Aniko; Koch, Sabine
Mild acquired cognitive impairment (MACI) is a new term used to describe a subgroup of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who are expected to reach a stable cognitive level over time. This patient group is generally young and have acquired MCI from a head injury or mild stroke. Although the past decade has seen a large amount of research on how to use information and communication technology (ICT) to support self-management of patients with chronic diseases, MACI has not received much attention. Therefore, there is a lack of information about what tools have been created and evaluated that are suitable for self-management of MACI patients, and a lack of clear direction on how best to proceed with ICT tools to support self-management of MACI patients. This paper aims to provide direction for further research and development of tools that can support health care professionals in assisting MACI patients with self-management. An overview of studies reporting on the design and/or evaluation of ICT tools for assisting MACI patients in self-management is presented. We also analyze the evidence of benefit provided by these tools, and how their functionality matches MACI patients' needs to determine areas of interest for further research and development. A review of the existing literature about available assistive ICT tools for MACI patients was conducted using 8 different medical, scientific, engineering, and physiotherapy library databases. The functionality of tools was analyzed using an analytical framework based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and a subset of common and important problems for patients with MACI created by MACI experts in Sweden. A total of 55 search phrases applied in the 8 databases returned 5969 articles. After review, 7 articles met the inclusion criteria. Most articles reported case reports and exploratory research. Out of the 7 articles, 4 (57%) studies had less than 10 participants, 5
Schiøtz, Michaela; Strandberg-Larsen, Martin; Frølich, Anne
Self-management support is considered to be an essential part of diabetes care. However, the implementation of self-management support within healthcare settings has appeared to be challenging and there is increased interest in "real world" best practice examples to guide policy efforts. In order...... to explore how different approaches to diabetes care and differences in management structure influence the provision of SMS we selected two healthcare systems that have shown to be comparable in terms of budget, benefits and entitlements. We compared the extent of SMS provided and the self......-management behaviors of people living with diabetes in Kaiser Permanente (KP) and the Danish Healthcare System (DHS)....
Lukewich, Julia; Mann, Elizabeth; VanDenKerkhof, Elizabeth; Tranmer, Joan
The aim of this study was to describe chronic pain self-management from the perspective of individuals living with chronic pain in the context of primary care nursing. Self-management is a key chronic pain treatment modality and support for self-managing chronic pain is mainly provided in the context of primary care. Although nurses are optimally suited to facilitate self-management in primary care, there is a need to explore opportunities for optimizing their roles. Two cross-sectional studies. The Chronic Pain Self-Management Survey was conducted in 2011-2012 to explore the epidemiology and self-management of chronic pain in Canadian adults. The questionnaire was distributed to 1504 individuals in Ontario. In 2011, the Primary Care Nursing Roles Survey was distributed to 1911 primary care nurses in Ontario to explore their roles and to determine the extent to which chronic disease management strategies, including support for self-management, were implemented in primary care. Few respondents to the pain survey identified nurses as being the 'most helpful' facilitator of self-management while physicians were most commonly cited. Seventy-six per cent of respondents used medication to manage their chronic pain. Few respondents to the nursing survey worked in practices with specific programmes for individuals with chronic pain. Individuals with chronic pain identified barriers and facilitators to self-managing their pain and nurses identified barriers and facilitators to optimizing their role in primary care. There are several opportunities for primary care practices to facilitate self-management of chronic pain, including the optimization of the primary care nursing role. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
O'Leary, Katie; Liu, Leslie; McClure, Jennifer B; Ralston, James; Pratt, Wanda
Health reminders are integral to self-managing chronic illness. However, to act on these health reminders, patients face many challenges, such as lack of motivation and ability to perform health tasks. As a result, patients experience negative consequences for their health. To investigate the design of health reminders that persuade patients to take action, we conducted six participatory design sessions with two cohorts: mothers of children with asthma, and older adults with type 2 diabetes. Participants used collages, storyboards, and photos to express design ideas for future health reminder systems. From their design artifacts, we identified four types of persuasive reminders for health self-management: introspective, socially supportive, adaptive, and symbolic. We contribute insights into desired features for persuasive reminder systems from the perspectives of patients and informal caregivers, including features that support users to understand why and how to complete health tasks ahead of time, and affordances for intra-familial and patient-provider collaboration.
O’Leary, Katie; Liu, Leslie; McClure, Jennifer B.; Ralston, James; Pratt, Wanda
Abstract Health reminders are integral to self-managing chronic illness. However, to act on these health reminders, patients face many challenges, such as lack of motivation and ability to perform health tasks. As a result, patients experience negative consequences for their health. To investigate the design of health reminders that persuade patients to take action, we conducted six participatory design sessions with two cohorts: mothers of children with asthma, and older adults with type 2 diabetes. Participants used collages, storyboards, and photos to express design ideas for future health reminder systems. From their design artifacts, we identified four types of persuasive reminders for health self-management: introspective, socially supportive, adaptive, and symbolic. We contribute insights into desired features for persuasive reminder systems from the perspectives of patients and informal caregivers, including features that support users to understand why and how to complete health tasks ahead of time, and affordances for intra-familial and patient-provider collaboration. PMID:28269896
Boels, Anne Meike; Vos, Rimke C.; Metzendorf, Maria-Inti; Rutten, Guy E.H.M.
This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (Intervention). The objectives are as follows: To assess the effects of diabetes self-management education and support delivered by mobile health interventions in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Lawn, Sharon; Zhi, Xiaojuan; Morello, Andrea
E-learning involves delivery of education through Information and Communication Technology (ITC) using a wide variety of instructional designs, including synchronous and asynchronous formats. It can be as effective as face-to-face training for many aspects of health professional training. There are, however, particular practices and skills needed in providing patient self-management support, such as partnering with patients in goal-setting, which may challenge conventional practice norms. E-learning for the delivery of self-management support (SMS) continuing education to existing health professionals is a relatively new and growing area with limited studies identifying features associated with best acquisition of skills in self-management support. An integrative literature review examined what is known about e-learning for self-management support. This review included both qualitative and quantitative studies that focused on e-learning provided to existing health professionals for their continuing professional development. Papers were limited to those published in English between 2006 and 2016. Content analysis was used to organize and focus and describe the findings. The search returned 1505 articles, with most subsequently excluded based on their title or abstract. Fifty-two full text articles were obtained and checked, with 42 excluded because they did not meet the full criteria. Ten peer-reviewed articles were included in this review. Seven main themes emerged from the content analysis: participants and professions; time; package content; guiding theoretical framework; outcome measures; learning features or formats; and learning barriers. These themes revealed substantial heterogeneity in instructional design and other elements of e-learning applied to SMS, indicating that there is still much to understand about how best to deliver e-learning for SMS skills development. Few e-learning approaches meet the need for high levels of interactivity, reflection
Hochstenbach, Laura M J; Courtens, Annemie M; Zwakhalen, Sandra M G; van Kleef, Maarten; de Witte, Luc P
Pain is a prevalent and distressing symptom in patients with cancer, having an enormous impact on functioning and quality of life. Fragmentation of care, inadequate pain communication, and reluctance towards pain medication contribute to difficulties in optimizing outcomes. Integration of patient self-management and professional care by means of healthcare technology provides new opportunities in the outpatient setting. This study protocol outlines a two-armed multicenter randomized controlled trial that compares a technology based multicomponent self-management support intervention with care as usual and includes an effect, economic and process evaluation. Patients will be recruited consecutively via the outpatient oncology clinics and inpatient oncology wards of one academic hospital and one regional hospital in the south of the Netherlands. Irrespective of the stage of disease, patients are eligible when they are diagnosed with cancer and have uncontrolled moderate to severe cancer (treatment) related pain defined as NRS≥4 for more than two weeks. Randomization (1:1) will assign patients to either the intervention or control group; patients in the intervention group receive self-management support and patients in the control group receive care as usual. The intervention will be delivered by registered nurses specialized in pain and palliative care. Important components include monitoring of pain, adverse effects and medication as well as graphical feedback, education, and nurse support. Effect measurements for both groups will be carried out with questionnaires at baseline (T0), after 4 weeks (T1) and after 12 weeks (T2). Pain intensity and quality of life are the primary outcomes. Secondary outcomes include self-efficacy, knowledge, anxiety, depression and pain medication use. The final questionnaire contains also questions for the economic evaluation that includes both cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis. Data for the process evaluation will be
Looije, L.; Neerincx, M.A.; Peters, J.K.; Blanson Henkemans, O.
Persistent progress in the self-management of their disease is important and challenging for children with diabetes. The European ALIZ-e project developed and tested a set of core functions for a social robot that may help to establish such progress. These functions were studied in different set-ups
Solberg, Hilde Strøm; Steinsbekk, Aslak; Solbjør, Marit; Granbo, Randi; Garåsen, Helge
Development of more self-management support programmes in primary health care has been one option used to enhance positive outcomes in chronic disease management. At present, research results provide no consensus on what would be the best way to develop support programmes into new settings. The aim of the present study was therefore to explore users' and health professionals' perceptions of what would be the vital elements in a self - management support programme applicable in primary health care, how to account for them, and why. Four qualitative, semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted in Central Norway. The informants possessed experience in development, provision, or participation in a self-management support programme. Data was analysed by the Systematic Text Condensation method. The results showed an overall positive expectation to the potential benefits of development of a self-management support programme in primary health care. Despite somewhat different arguments and perspectives, the users and the health professionals had a joint agreement on core characteristics; a self-management support programme in primary health care should therefore be generic, not disease specific, and delivered in a group- based format. A special focus should be on the everyday- life of the participants. The most challenging aspect was a present lack of competence and experience among health professionals to moderate self-management support programmes. The development and design of a relevant and applicable self-management support programme in primary health care should balance the interests of the users with the possibilities and constraints within each municipality. It would be vital to benefit from the closeness of the patients' every-day life situations. The user informants' perception of a self-management support programme as a supplement to regular medical treatment represented an expanded understanding of the self-management support concept. An exploring
Galdas, Paul; Darwin, Zoe; Kidd, Lisa; Blickem, Christian; McPherson, Kerri; Hunt, Kate; Bower, Peter; Gilbody, Simon; Richardson, Gerry
Self-management support interventions can improve health outcomes, but their impact is limited by the numbers of people able or willing to access them. Men's attendance at existing self-management support services appears suboptimal despite their increased risk of developing many of the most serious long term conditions. The aim of this review was to determine whether current self-management support interventions are acceptable and accessible to men with long term conditions, and explore what may act as facilitators and barriers to access of interventions and support activities. A systematic search for qualitative research was undertaken on CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Social Science Citation Index, in July 2013. Reference lists of relevant articles were also examined. Studies that used a qualitative design to explore men's experiences of, or perceptions towards, self-management support for one or more long term condition were included. Studies which focused on experiences of living with a long term condition without consideration of self-management support were excluded. Thirty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria. A meta-ethnography approach was employed to synthesise the findings. Four constructs associated with men's experience of, and perceptions towards, self-management support were identified: 1) need for purpose; 2) trusted environments; 3) value of peers; and 4) becoming an expert. The synthesis showed that men may feel less comfortable participating in self-management support if it is viewed as incongruous with valued aspects of their identity, particularly when activities are perceived to challenge masculine ideals associated with independence, stoicism, and control. Men may find self-management support more attractive when it is perceived as action-oriented, having a clear purpose, and offering personally meaningful information and practical strategies that can be integrated into daily life. Self-management support is most likely to be
Elissen, Arianne; Nolte, Ellen; Knai, Cécile; Brunn, Matthias; Chevreul, Karine; Conklin, Annalijn; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle; Erler, Antje; Flamm, Maria; Frølich, Anne; Fullerton, Birgit; Jacobsen, Ramune; Saz-Parkinson, Zuleika; Sarria-Santamera, Antonio; Sönnichsen, Andreas; Vrijhoef, Hubertus
Self-management support is a key component of effective chronic care management, yet in practice appears to be the least implemented and most challenging. This study explores whether and how self-management support is integrated into chronic care approaches in 13 European countries. In addition, it investigates the level of and barriers to implementation of support strategies in health care practice. We conducted a review among the 13 participating countries, based on a common data template informed by the Chronic Care Model. Key informants presented a sample of representative chronic care approaches and related self-management support strategies. The cross-country review was complemented by a Dutch case study of health professionals' views on the implementation of self-management support in practice. Self-management support for chronically ill patients remains relatively underdeveloped in Europe. Similarities between countries exist mostly in involved providers (nurses) and settings (primary care). Differences prevail in mode and format of support, and materials used. Support activities focus primarily on patients' medical and behavioral management, and less on emotional management. According to Dutch providers, self-management support is not (yet) an integral part of daily practice; implementation is hampered by barriers related to, among others, funding, IT and medical culture. Although collaborative care for chronic conditions is becoming more important in European health systems, adequate self-management support for patients with chronic disease is far from accomplished in most countries. There is a need for better understanding of how we can encourage both patients and health care providers to engage in productive interactions in daily chronic care practice, which can improve health and social outcomes.
Koster, E.S.; Philbert, D.; Dijk, L. van; Vries, T.W. de; Bouvy, M.L.
Background: Medication adherence rates often decline as children become teenagers. Effective adherence-enhancing interventions for adolescents are lacking. The objective of this study was to assess adolescent asthmatics needs and preferences regarding medication counseling and support, with focus on
Full Text Available Inger Hallberg,1,11 Charles Taft,1,11 Agneta Ranerup,2,11 Ulrika Bengtsson,1,11 Mikael Hoffmann,3,10 Stefan Höfer,4 Dick Kasperowski,5 Åsa Mäkitalo,6 Mona Lundin,6 Lena Ring,7,8 Ulf Rosenqvist,9 Karin Kjellgren1,10,11 1Institute of Health and Care Sciences, 2Department of Applied Information Technology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, 3The NEPI Foundation, Linköping, Sweden; 4Department of Medical Psychology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria; 5Department of Philosophy, Linguistics and Theory of Science, 6Department of Education, Communication and Learning, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, 7Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics, Uppsala University, 8Department of Use of Medical Products, Medical Products Agency, Uppsala, 9Department of Medical Specialist and Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Motala, 10Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, 11Centre for Person-Centred Care, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden Abstract: Hypertension is a significant risk factor for heart disease and stroke worldwide. Effective treatment regimens exist; however, treatment adherence rates are poor (30%–50%. Improving self-management may be a way to increase adherence to treatment. The purpose of this paper is to describe the phases in the development and preliminary evaluation of an interactive mobile phone-based system aimed at supporting patients in self-managing their hypertension. A person-centered and participatory framework emphasizing patient involvement was used. An interdisciplinary group of researchers, patients with hypertension, and health care professionals who were specialized in hypertension care designed and developed a set of questions and motivational messages for use in an interactive mobile phone-based system. Guided by the US Food and Drug Administration framework for the development of patient-reported outcome
Harvey, Peter W; Petkov, John N; Misan, Gary; Fuller, Jeffrey; Battersby, Malcolm W; Cayetano, Teofilo N; Warren, Kate; Holmes, Paul
The Sharing Health Care SA chronic disease self-management (CDSM) project in rural South Australia was designed to assist patients with chronic and complex conditions (diabetes, cardiovascular disease and arthritis) to learn how to participate more effectively in the management of their condition and to improve their self-management skills. Participants with chronic and complex conditions were recruited into the Sharing Health Care SA program and offered a range of education and support options (including a 6-week peer-led chronic disease self-management program) as part of the Enhanced Primary Care care planning process. Patient self-reported data were collected at baseline and subsequent 6-month intervals using the Partners in Health (PIH) scale to assess self-management skill and ability for 175 patients across four data collection points. Health providers also scored patient knowledge and self-management skills using the same scale over the same intervals. Patients also completed a modified Stanford 2000 Health Survey for the same time intervals to assess service utilisation and health-related lifestyle factors. Results show that both mean patient self-reported PIH scores and mean health provider PIH scores for patients improved significantly over time, indicating that patients demonstrated improved understanding of their condition and improved their ability to manage and deal with their symptoms. These results suggest that involvement in peer-led self-management education programs has a positive effect on patient self-management skill, confidence and health-related behaviour.
... have asthma if: One or both parents have asthma The child has signs of allergies, including the allergic skin ... asthma, partner with your doctor to manage your asthma or your child's asthma. Children aged 10 or older—and younger ...
Hochstenbach, Laura M J; Zwakhalen, Sandra M G; Courtens, Annemie M; van Kleef, Maarten; de Witte, Luc P
Cancer pain is a prevalent and distressing symptom. To enhance self-management in outpatients, a multi-component intervention was developed, integrating patient self-management and professional care through healthcare technology. This article describes feasibility of the intervention in everyday practice. Patients with moderate to severe cancer pain (n = 11) and registered nurses specialized in pain and palliative care (n = 3) participated in a four-week study. The intervention involved daily monitoring, graphical feedback, education, and advice by means of a mobile application for patients and a web application for nurses. Learnability, usability and desirability were measured in patients with a 20-item questionnaire (1-5 scale), higher scores indicating better feasibility. Patients' adherence was based on completion rates from server logs. Single semi-structured interviews with patients and a focus group interview with nurses provided insight into experiences. Questionnaire findings confirmed learnability (4.8), usability (4.8) and desirability (4.6) of the application for patients. Average completion rates were 76.8% for pain monitoring, 50.4% for medication monitoring and 100% for education sessions. Interviews revealed that patients were pleased with the simplicity of the mobile application and appreciated different components. Nurses agreed upon the added value and were mostly positive about the possibilities of the web application. Patients and nurses provided ideas for improvements relating to the content and technical performance of the intervention. Study results demonstrate feasibility of the intervention in everyday practice. Provided that content-related and technical adjustments are made, the intervention enables patients with cancer pain to practice self-management and nurses to remotely support these patients. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Khan, Ainee; Dickens, Andrew P; Adab, Peymane; Jordan, Rachel E
Self-management support for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients is recommended by UK national guidelines, but extent of implementation is unknown. We aimed to describe self-management behaviour and support among COPD patients and explore behaviour associated with having a self-management plan. We undertook cross-sectional analysis of self-reported data from diagnosed COPD patients in the Birmingham COPD Cohort study. Questionnaire items relevant to self-management behaviour, knowledge of COPD, receipt of self-management plans and advice from healthcare professionals were examined. Multiple regression models were used to identify behaviour associated with having a self-management plan. One-thousand seventy-eight participants (676 males, 62.7%, mean age 69.8 (standard deviation 9.0) years) were included. The majority reported taking medications as instructed (940, 94.0%) and receiving annual influenza vaccinations (962, 89.2%). Only 400 (40.4%) participants had self-management plans, 538 (49.9%) reported never having received advice on diet/exercise and 110 (42.7%) current smokers had been offered practical help to stop smoking in the previous year. General knowledge about COPD was moderate (mean total Bristol COPD Knowledge Questionnaire score: 31.5 (standard deviation 10.7); max score 65), corresponding to 48.5% of questions answered correctly. Having a self-management plan was positively associated with self-reported adherence to medication (odds ratio 3.10, 95% confidence interval 1.43 to 6.72), attendance at a training course (odds ratio 2.72, 95% confidence interval 1.81 to 4.12), attendance at a support group (odds ratio 6.28, 95% confidence interval 2.96 to 13.35) and better disease knowledge (mean difference 4.87, 95% confidence interval 3.16 to 6.58). Primary care healthcare professionals should ensure more widespread implementation of individualised self-management plans for all patients and improve the lifestyle advice provided. CALL FOR
Giabbanelli, Philippe J; Crutzen, Rik
Obesity has commonly been addressed using a 'one size fits all' approach centred on a combination of diet and exercise. This has not succeeded in halting the obesity epidemic, as two-thirds of American adults are now obese or overweight. Practitioners are increasingly highlighting that one's weight is shaped by myriad factors, suggesting that interventions should be tailored to the specific needs of individuals. Health games have potential to provide such tailored approach. However, they currently tend to focus on communicating and/or reinforcing knowledge, in order to suscitate learning in the participants. We argue that it would be equally, if not more valuable, that games learn from participants using recommender systems. This would allow treatments to be comprehensive, as games can deduce from the participants' behaviour which factors seem to be most relevant to his or her weight and focus on them. We introduce a novel game architecture and discuss its implications on facilitating the self-management of obesity. © The Author(s) 2014.
Hehir, M; Carr, M; Davis, B; Radford, S; Robertson, L; Tipler, S; Hewlett, S
Following a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), patients have to adapt to lifelong, unpredictable but repeated episodes of pain and disability, potentially leading to permanent loss of function and its consequences on their lives. We established nurse clinics with the aim of supporting newly diagnosed RA patients in adapting to and managing their long-term condition. The aim of this study was to explore the content of clinic discussions in this new clinical service, in order to ascertain patients' needs upon diagnosis. All clinic letters from the nurse to the family doctor were analysed. Every topic mentioned was systematically coded independently by a researcher and a patient research partner, who compared and agreed codes. Codes were organized into categories, and, finally, into overarching themes. Twenty-four patients had 74 appointment letters. A total of 79 codes were identified, from which ten categories emerged, and, finally, three overarching themes. The first theme related to 'Emotional support', which underpinned the other two themes and was discussed in almost all appointments. Issues included discussions about the emotional consequences of RA, needing time to adjust, frustration and fears for the future. The second theme 'Practicalities of the treatment of RA', included subordinate themes relating to the nature of RA, such as identity, cause, timeline, consequences and treatment. Medication issues were discussed and referrals to the multidisciplinary team were made. The final theme related to the 'Self-management of RA', and included discussions on physical symptoms and their management. The offer to attend a nurse clinic soon after diagnosis allowed RA patients to discuss a wide range of practical and self-management issues. However, most patients also took the opportunity and time to discuss emotional reactions and adaptations to diagnosis. The data suggest an unmet need for emotional support that a nurse clinic might be able to provide.
Ter Maten-Speksnijder, Ada J; Dwarswaard, Jolanda; Meurs, Pauline L; van Staa, AnneLoes
To describe how nurse practitioners enact their role in outpatient consultations, and how this compares to their perception of their responsibility for patients with chronic conditions. Nurse practitioners working with patients with chronic conditions seek to support them in self-managing their diseases. An ethnographic study. Episodic participant observations (in total 48 hours) were carried out combined with formal interviews. The study population consisted of a purposive sample of nurse practitioners working in five outpatient clinics related to chronic care in one university medical centre in the Netherlands. Two different types of clinics were selected, namely (1) for patients with episodic flare-ups and (2) for patients with diseases requiring life-saving procedures. The nurse practitioners perceived the monitoring of patients' treatment as their main professional responsibility. Four monitoring strategies could be distinguished: 'assessing health conditions', 'connecting with patients', 'prioritising treatment in daily living' and 'educating patients'. While nurse practitioners considered building a relationship with their patients of utmost importance, their consultations were mostly based on a conventional medical model of medical history taking. Little attention was paid to the social, psychological and behavioural dimensions of illness. Nurse practitioners in this study seemed quite successful in their extension into medical territory, but moving patients' illness perceptions to the background was not conducive to self-management support. By their medical subspecialty expertise, nurse practitioners have a major role in the longitudinal process of the management of chronic diseases' treatment. Supporting patients to reduce the impact of the disease and its complications requires nurse practitioners to develop new coaching strategies designed to meet patients' individual needs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Koetsenruijter, Jan; van Lieshout, Jan; Vassilev, Ivaylo; Portillo, Mari Carmen; Serrano, Manuel; Knutsen, Ingrid; Roukova, Poli; Lionis, Christos; Todorova, Elka; Foss, Christina; Rogers, Anne; Wensing, Michel
Long-term conditions pose major challenges for healthcare systems. Optimizing self-management of people with long-term conditions is an important strategy to improve quality of life, health outcomes, patient experiences in healthcare, and the sustainability of healthcare systems. Much research on self-management focuses on individual competencies, while the social systems of support that facilitate self-management are underexplored. The presented study aims to explore the role of social systems of support for self-management and quality of life, focusing on the social networks of people with diabetes and community organisations that serve them. The protocol concerns a cross-sectional study in 18 geographic areas in six European countries, involving a total of 1800 individuals with diabetes and 900 representatives of community organisations. In each country, we include a deprived rural area, a deprived urban area, and an affluent urban area. Individuals are recruited through healthcare practices in the targeted areas. A patient questionnaire comprises measures for quality of life, self-management behaviours, social network and social support, as well as individual characteristics. A community organisations' survey maps out interconnections between community and voluntary organisations that support patients with chronic illness and documents the scope of work of the different types of organisations. We first explore the structure of social networks of individuals and of community organisations. Then linkages between these social networks, self-management and quality of life will be examined, taking deprivation and other factors into account. This study will provide insight into determinants of self-management and quality of life in individuals with diabetes, focusing on the role of social networks and community organisations.
Mitchell, Bernadette; Armour, Carol; Lee, Mary; Song, Yun Ju; Stewart, Kay; Peterson, Greg; Hughes, Jeff; Smith, Lorraine; Krass, Ines
To evaluate the capacity and effectiveness of trained community pharmacists in delivering the Diabetes Medication Assistance Service (DMAS) via (1) number and types of self-management support interventions (SMSIs); (2) number of goals set and attained by patients and (3) patient outcomes (glycaemic control, medication adherence and satisfaction). Pharmacists (n=109) from 90 community pharmacies in Australia were trained and credentialed to deliver the DMAS. The training focused on developing pharmacists' knowledge and skills in supporting patients' diabetes self-management. A total of 387 patients completed the trial. The mean number of SMSIs per patient was 35 (SD ±31) and the majority (87%) had at least one documented goal that was fully or partially attained. There were significant health benefits for patients including improved glycaemic control and a reduced risk of non-adherence to medications. Over 90% of DMAS patients reported improvements in their knowledge about diabetes self-management. The DMAS provides self management support in the community pharmacy for people with T2DM which may result in improved clinical outcomes. Given appropriate training in diabetes care and behavior change strategies, community pharmacists can offer programs which provide self-management support to their patients with T2DM and improve their health outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: WHO statistics show that Indonesia has the fourth highest number of diabetes sufferers. The International Diabetes Federation‟s 5th estimated that in 2011 there were 71.4 million people in South East Asia region were suffering with DM Purpose: To develop a family-based dietary self-management support program to improve dietary behaviors in patients with T2DM. Method: A literature review was conducted by reviewing articles related evidence-based practices. Only articles in the English and Indonesian languages were reviewed. The search found eleven published experimental studies related to the topic. Result: Even though dietary self-management has benefits for patients with diabetes, many studies have found that these patients often have difficulty in establishing or maintaining an effective program to self-manage their dietary behaviors. Lack of family support is one factor that often seems to be related to such failures. Family participation in a diabetes education program also had positive psychosocial impacts. Otherwise, another study found that family might not always have a positive impact on self-management. Therefore, this review recommends that development of a family-based support program could be a positive factor in helping to improve dietary self-management behaviors in patients with T2DM. Self-management theory by Funnell and Anderson‟s work (2004 can guide the development of a program with the goal of empowering individuals and families in improving the patient‟s dietary behaviors. The program consists of: (1 reflecting on current and/or past self-management experiences by listening to the patient about their dietary behaviors, (2 discussing the emotions and feelings of the patients, (3 engaging the patient in improving their situation by active listening and helping the patient reflect on their problems and identifying effective strategies, (4 providing information about dietary management and problem
Kuhn, Lindsay; Reeves, Kelly; Taylor, Yhenneko; Tapp, Hazel; McWilliams, Andrew; Gunter, Andrew; Cleveland, Jeffrey; Dulin, Michael
Asthma is a chronic airway disease that can be difficult to manage, resulting in poor outcomes and high costs. Asthma action plans assist patients with self-management, but provider compliance with this recommendation is limited in part because of guideline complexity. This project aimed to embed an electronic asthma action plan decision support tool (eAAP) into the medical record to streamline evidence-based guidelines for providers at the point of care, create individualized patient handouts, and evaluate effects on disease outcomes. eAAP development occurred in 4 phases: web-based prototype creation, multidisciplinary team engagement, pilot, and system-wide dissemination. Medical record and hospital billing data compared frequencies of asthma exacerbations before and after eAAP receipt with matched controls. Between December 2012 and September 2014, 5174 patients with asthma (∼10%) received eAAPs. Results showed an association between eAAP receipt and significant reductions in pediatric asthma exacerbations, including 33% lower odds of requiring oral steroids (P management plays an important role in reducing asthma exacerbations. We show the feasibility of leveraging technology to provide guideline-based decision support through an eAAP, addressing known challenges of implementation into routine practice. © Copyright 2015 by the American Board of Family Medicine.
Mills, Susan L; Bergeron, Kim; Pérez, Guillermina
Self-management support (SMS) is an essential component of public health approaches to chronic conditions. Given increasing concerns about health equity, the needs of diverse populations must be considered. This study examined potential solutions for addressing the gaps in self-management support initiatives for underserved populations. Stakeholders representing government, nongovernment organizations, Aboriginal communities, health authorities, medical practices, and research institutions generated, sorted, and rated ideas on what could be done to improve self-management support for underserved populations. Concept mapping was used to facilitate the collection and organization of the data and to generate conceptual maps. Participants generated 92 ideas that were sorted into 11 clusters (foster partnerships, promote integrated community care, enhance health care provider training, shift government policy, support community development, increase community education, enable client engagement, incorporate client support systems, recognize client capacity, tailor self-management support programs, and develop client skills, training, and tools) and grouped into system, community, and individual levels within a partnership framework. The strategy can stimulate public health dialogue and be a roadmap for developing SMS initiatives. It has the potential to address SMS and chronic condition inequities in underserved populations in several ways: 1) by targeting populations that have greater inequities, 2) by advocating for shifts in government policies that create and perpetuate inequities, 3) by promoting partnerships that may increase the number of SMS initiatives for underserved groups, and 4) by promoting training and engagement that increase the relevance, uptake, and overall effectiveness of SMS.
Stewart, Miriam; Letourneau, Nicole; Masuda, Jeffrey R; Anderson, Sharon; McGhan, Shawna
Children with asthma and allergies experience social isolation and gaps in social support particularly from peers. The objective of this pilot study was to design and test an accessible online support intervention for these children. Children (n = 27) aged 7 to 11 from across Canada participated. GoToMeeting was employed for the support group sessions and Club Penguin for social connections during and between support group meetings. Content included: strategies for coping with asthma and allergies, role playing and games to help children deal with difficult situations, fun and enjoyment, and presentations by positive role models. Participation in the online peer support intervention was high, 86.3% on average over the 8-week intervention. By sharing their experiences, listening to peers' experiences, and role playing, children were introduced to practical skills: problem solving, communicating, seeking support, and self-advocacy.
Harris, Melanie; Jones, Phil; Heartfield, Marie; Allstrom, Mary; Hancock, Janette; Lawn, Sharon; Battersby, Malcolm
Health services introducing practice changes need effective implementation methods. Within the setting of a community mental health service offering recovery-oriented psychosocial support for people with mental illness, we aimed to: (i) identify a well-founded implementation model; and (ii) assess its practical usefulness in introducing a new programme for recovery-oriented self-management support. We reviewed the literature to identify implementation models applicable to community mental health organisations, and that also had corresponding measurement tools. We used one of these models to inform organisational change strategies. The literature review showed few models with corresponding tools. The Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS) model and the related Organisational Readiness to Change Assessment (ORCA) tool were used. The PARIHS proposes prerequisites for health service change and the ORCA measures the extent to which these prerequisites are present. Application of the ORCA at two time points during implementation of the new programme showed strategy-related gains for some prerequisites but not for others, reflecting observed implementation progress. Additional strategies to address target prerequisites could be drawn from the PARIHS model. The PARIHS model and ORCA tool have potential in designing and monitoring practice change strategies in community mental health organisations. Further practical use and testing of implementation models appears justified in overcoming barriers to change.
Côté, José; Godin, Gaston; Ramirez-Garcia, Pilar; Rouleau, Geneviève; Bourbonnais, Anne; Guéhéneuc, Yann-Gaël; Tremblay, Cécile; Otis, Joanne
Living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) necessitates long-term health care follow-up, particularly with respect to antiretroviral therapy (ART) management. Taking advantage of the enormous possibilities afforded by information and communication technologies (ICT), we developed a virtual nursing intervention (VIH-TAVIE) intended to empower HIV patients to manage their ART and their symptoms optimally. ICT interventions hold great promise across the entire continuum of HIV patient care but further research is needed to properly evaluate their effectiveness. The objective of the study was to compare the effectiveness of two types of follow-up--traditional and virtual--in terms of promoting ART adherence among HIV patients. A quasi-experimental study was conducted. Participants were 179 HIV patients on ART for at least 6 months, of which 99 were recruited at a site offering virtual follow-up and 80 at another site offering only traditional follow-up. The primary outcome was medication adherence and the secondary outcomes were the following cognitive and affective variables: self-efficacy, attitude toward medication intake, symptom-related discomfort, stress, and social support. These were evaluated by self-administered questionnaire at baseline (T0), and 3 (T3) and 6 months (T6) later. On average, participants had been living with HIV for 14 years and had been on ART for 11 years. The groups were highly heterogeneous, differing on a number of sociodemographic dimensions: education, income, marital status, employment status, and living arrangements. Adherence at baseline was high, reaching 80% (59/74) in the traditional follow-up group and 84% (81/97) in the virtual follow-up group. A generalized estimating equations (GEE) analysis was run, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics at baseline. A time effect was detected indicating that both groups improved in adherence over time but did not differ in this regard. Improvement at 6 months was significantly
Van Hecke, Ann; Heinen, Maud; Fernández-Ortega, Paz
. Fourteen studies cited an underlying theoretical basis. Most frequently used self-management support components were lifestyle advice, information provision and symptom management. Problem-solving and goal-setting strategies were frequently integrated. Eleven studies adapted interventions to the needs...
Jones, Allan; Vallis, Michael; Cooke, Debbie; Pouwer, F.
The quality of the "patient-carer" relationship is the foundation of self-management support and has been shown to influence treatment outcome in relation to psychological and somatic illness, including diabetes. It has long been accepted within applied psychology that the quality of the
Wildevuur, S.E.; Thomese, Fleur; Ferguson, J.E.; Klink, A.
Objective: In order to alleviate the pressure on health care systems exerted by the growing prevalence of chronic diseases, information and communication technologies (ICT) are being introduced to enable self-management of chronic diseases by supporting partnerships between patients and health care
Effects of the First Line Diabetes Care (FiLDCare) self-management education and support project on knowledge, attitudes, perceptions, self-management practices and glycaemic control: a quasi-experimental study conducted in the Northern Philippines.
Ku, Grace Marie V; Kegels, Guy
To investigate the effects of implementing a context-adapted diabetes self-management education and support (DSME/S) project based on chronic care models in the Philippines, on knowledge, attitudes, self-management practices, adiposity/obesity and glycaemia of people with diabetes. Prospective quasi-experimental before-after study. 203 people with type 2 diabetes mellitus from two local government units in the Northern Philippines fulfilling set criteria. Context-adapted DSME/S was given to a cohort of people with diabetes by trained pre-existing local government healthcare personnel. Changes in knowledge, attitudes and self-management practices, body mass index, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio (WHR) and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) were measured 1 year after full project implementation. Non-parametric and parametric descriptive and inferential statistics including logistic regression analysis were done. Complete data were collected from 164 participants. Improvements in glycaemia, waist circumference, WHR, knowledge, some attitudes, adherence to medications and exercise, and an increase in fear of diabetes were significant. Reductions in HbA1c, regardless of level of control, were noted in 60.4%. Significant increase in knowledge (pability to control blood glucose (p=0.004) and adherence to medications (p=0.001) were noted among those whose glycaemia improved. Significant differences between the subgroups whose HbA1c improved and those whose HbA1c deteriorated include male gender (p=0.042), shorter duration of diabetes (p=0.001) and increased perceived ability to control blood glucose (p=0.042). Significant correlates to improved glycaemia were male gender (OR=2.655; p=0.034), duration of diabetes >10 years (OR=0.214; p=0.003) and fear of diabetes (OR=0.490; p=0.048). Context-adapted DSME/S introduced in resource-constrained settings and making use of established human resources for health may improve knowledge, attitudes, self-management practices
Full Text Available IntroductionEpilepsy is a neurological disorder involving recurrent seizures. It affects approximately 5 million people in the U.S. To optimize their quality of life people with epilepsy are encouraged to engage in self-management (S-M behaviors. These include managing their treatment (e.g., adhering to anti-seizure medication and clinical visit schedules, managing their seizures (e.g., responding to seizure episodes, managing their safety (e.g., monitoring and avoiding environmental seizure triggers, and managing their co-morbid conditions (e.g., anxiety, depression. The clinic-based Management Information Decision Support Epilepsy Tool (MINDSET is a decision-support system founded on theory and empirical evidence. It is designed to increase awareness by adult patients (≥18 years and their health-care provider regarding the patient’s epilepsy S-M behaviors, facilitate communication during the clinic visit to prioritize S-M goals and strategies commensurate with the patient’s needs, and increase the patient’s self-efficacy to achieve those goals.MethodsThe purpose of this paper is to describe the application of intervention mapping (IM to develop, implement, and formatively evaluate the clinic-based MINDSET prototype and in developing implementation and evaluation plans. Deliverables comprised a logic model of the problem (IM Step 1; matrices of program objectives (IM Step 2; a program planning document comprising scope, sequence, theory-based methods, and practical strategies (IM Step 3; a functional MINDSET program prototype (IM Step 4; plans for implementation (IM Step 5; and evaluation (IM Step 6. IM provided a logical and systematic approach to developing and evaluating clinic-based decision support toward epilepsy S-M.
Sharon A Brown
Full Text Available Objectives: Studies of social support in diabetes have focused on the effects of support on the person with type 2 diabetes. We explored diabetes prevention effects of a culturally tailored diabetes self-management intervention in individuals without diabetes who were supporters of intervention participants. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of data from a randomized clinical trial that involved 256 Mexican Americans with diabetes. Each study participant designated a supporter—spouse, relative, friend—who attended intervention sessions and assisted participants in attaining effective diabetes self-management. Supporter’s glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C data were tracked for 1 year to determine diabetes conversion rates in supporters without diabetes at baseline. Results: Fewer individuals in the intervention group (n = 9 converted to an A1C above the 7% threshold, compared to the 1-year wait-listed control group (n = 16. We found a statistically significant difference (p = .021 at 12 months in the number of individuals whose A1C was ⩽8%, with fewer supporters above threshold in the intervention group (reduction of 48%. Supporters in the intervention group with prediabetes, based on baseline A1C, experienced a slight reduction in A1C, while control group supporters with prediabetes experienced an increase. Discussion: The results suggest that there are potential benefits for family members and other supporters of persons with diabetes who participated in diabetes self-management programs.
Kew, Kayleigh M; Carr, Robin; Crossingham, Iain
Adolescents with asthma are at high risk of poor adherence with treatment. This may be compounded by activities that worsen asthma, in particular smoking. Additional support above and beyond routine care has the potential to encourage good self-management. We wanted to find out whether sessions led by their peers or by lay leaders help to reduce these risks and improve asthma outcomes among adolescents. To assess the safety and efficacy of lay-led and peer support interventions for adolescents with asthma. We identified trials from the Cochrane Airways Trials Register, which contains reports of randomised trials obtained from multiple electronic and handsearched sources, and we searched trial registries and reference lists of primary studies. We conducted the most recent searches on 25 November 2016. Eligible studies randomised adolescents with asthma to an intervention led by lay people or peers or to a control. We included parallel randomised controlled trials with individual or cluster designs. We included studies reported as full text, those published as abstract only and unpublished data. Two review authors screened the searches, extracted numerical data and study characteristics and assessed each included study for risk of bias. Primary outcomes were asthma-related quality of life and exacerbations requiring at least a course of oral steroids. We graded the analyses and presented evidence in a 'Summary of findings' table.We analysed dichotomous data as odds ratios, and continuous data as mean differences (MD) or standardised mean differences, all with a random-effects model. We assessed clinical, methodological and statistical heterogeneity when performing meta-analyses, and we described skewed data narratively. Five studies including a total of 1146 participants met the inclusion criteria for this review. As ever with systematic reviews of complex interventions, studies varied by design (cluster and individually randomised), duration (2.5 to 9 months
Kuijer, Roeline G.; de Ridder, Denise T. D.; Colland, Vivian T.; Schreurs, Karlein M. G.; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.
Despite intensive outpatient care and optimized medical treatment, some patients with chronic illnesses experience prolonged difficulties in the self-management of their illness and fail to attain optimal disease control. The present study describes the effects of an intervention programme aimed at
Conway, Jessica; Tsourtos, George; Lawn, Sharon
The inequality in health outcomes between Indigenous (Throughout the paper, the term Indigenous will be used to represent both Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islander Australians.) and non-Indigenous Australians continues to be a major public health issue. Chronic conditions are responsible for the majority of the gap in life expectancy for this population. Evidence suggests that chronic condition management models focusing on self-management have led to improved health outcomes in Indigenous populations. The Flinders Closing the Gap Program (FCTGP) is a chronic condition care planning tool which aims to engage Indigenous people in self-managing their chronic conditions. Indigenous health workers (IHWs) can provide culturally appropriate self-management support; however there is paucity in current literature describing specific barriers and facilitators that they may experience when attempting to deliver this support. This study aimed to explore IHWs' perceptions of the effectiveness and appropriateness of the FCTGP, as an evidence-based example of self-management support, and to explore the barriers and facilitators that IHWs experience in their workplace and communities in providing self-management support. In-depth interviews were undertaken with five IHWs, drawn from five different states in Australia. Their selection was aided by key informants from the FCTGP training unit. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim, and were analysed using thematic analysis. The following themes were identified. IHWs reported that the FCTGP was appropriate, flexible and acceptable in their communities. Facilitators included factors improving client and worker empowerment, and activities around sharing knowledge. Barriers included competing priorities that clients experience relating to social determinants of health, and negative experiences within mainstream health services. IHW burnout from time pressures, lack of support, and high staff turnover were also
Vosbergen, Sandra; Janzen, Jolien; Stappers, Pieter Jan; van Zwieten, Myra C B; Lacroix, Joyca; Idema, Karin; van den Broek, Inge; Kemps, Hareld M C; Kraaijenhagen, Roderik A; Peek, Niels
Web-based self-management services remain underutilized in current practice. Our aim was to gain insight into disease and self-management experiences of patients in early and progressive stages of coronary heart disease (CHD), to understand moderating effects of daily life experiences on the utilization of web-based self-management services and preconditions for use. We applied generative research techniques, which stem from the field of product design and are characterized by the use of creative processes. Three groups of patients with CHD received a sensitizing package to document and reflect on their health, and were subsequently either interviewed or participated in a focus group session. In total, 23 patients participated in this study. Emerging themes were (1) fear for recurrent events, (2) experiences with professional care, (3) the perceived inability to prevent disease progression, (4) the desire to go on living without thinking about the disease every day, (5) the social environment as a barrier to or facilitator for self-management, and (6) the need for information tailored to personal preferences. How patients experience their disease varies between stable and post-acute stages, as well as between early and progressive stages of CHD. Patients in post-acute stages of the disease seem to be most amenable to support, while patients in stable stages want to live their life without being reminded of their disease. In the context of self-management, web-based services should be adapted to the variation in needs that occur in the different stages of CHD and new strategies to fit such services to these needs should be developed. Furthermore, they should be tailored to patients' individual health situation and preferences, support patient empowerment, and manage expectations regarding the progression of their disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Frances Early,1 Jane S Young,2 Elizabeth Robinshaw,3 Emma Z Mi,4 Ella Z Mi,4 Jonathan P Fuld1 1Centre for Self Management Support, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge, UK; 2Faculty of Health, Social Care and Education, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK; 3Gloucestershire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Gloucester, UK; 4School of Clinical Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK Background: COPD has significant psychosocial impact. Self-management support improves quality of life, but programs are not universally available. IT-based self-management interventions can provide home-based support, but have mixed results. We conducted a case series of an off-the-shelf Internet-based health-promotion program, The Preventive Plan (TPP, coupled with nurse-coach support, which aimed to increase patient activation and provide self-management benefits. Materials and methods: A total of 19 COPD patients were recruited, and 14 completed 3-month follow-up in two groups: groups 1 and 2 with more and less advanced COPD, respectively. Change in patient activation was determined with paired t-tests and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Benefits and user experience were explored in semistructured interviews, analyzed thematically. Results: Only group 1 improved significantly in activation, from a lower baseline than group 2; group 1 also improved significantly in mastery and anxiety. Both groups felt significantly more informed about COPD and reported physical functioning improvements. Group 1 reported improvements in mood and confidence. Overall, group 2 reported fewer benefits than group 1. Both groups valued nurse-coach support; for group 1, it was more important than TPP in building confidence to self-manage. The design of TPP and lack of motivation to use IT were barriers to use, but disease severity and poor IT skills were not. Discussion: Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of combining
Lowrie, Richard; Johansson, Lina; Forsyth, Paul; Bryce, Stuart Lochhead; McKellar, Susan; Fitzgerald, Niamh
Heart failure (HF) is common, disabling and deadly. Patients with HF often have poor self-care and medicines non-adherence, which contributes to poor outcomes. Community pharmacy based cognitive services have the potential to help, but we do not know how patients view community-pharmacist-led services for patients with HF. We aimed to explore and portray in detail, the perspectives of patients receiving, and pharmacists delivering an enhanced, pay for performance community pharmacy HF service. Community pharmacies and community-based patients in Greater Glasgow and Clyde, Scotland. Focus groups with pharmacists and semi-structured interviews with individual patients by telephone. Cross sectional thematic analysis of qualitative data used Normalization Process Theory to understand and describe patient's reports. Experiences of receiving and delivering an enhanced HF service. Pharmacists voiced their confidence in delivering the service and highlighted valued aspects including the structured consultation and repeated contacts with patients enabling the opportunity to improve self care and medicines adherence. Discussing co-morbidities other than HF was difficult and persuading patients to modify behaviour was challenging. Patients were comfortable discussing symptoms and medicines with pharmacists; they identified pharmacists as fulfilling roles that were needed but not currently addressed. Patients reported the service helped them to enact HF medicines and HF self care management strategies. Both patients receiving and pharmacists delivering a cognitive HF service felt that it addressed a shortfall in current care. There may be a clearly defined role for pharmacists in supporting patients to address the burden of understanding and managing their condition and treatment, leading to better self management and medicines adherence. This study may inform the development of strategies or policies to improve the process of care for patients with HF and has implications for
Lakshminarayana, R.; Wang, D.; Burn, D.; Chaudhuri, K.R.; Galtrey, C.; Guzman, N.V.; Hellman, B.; Ben, J.; Pal, S.; Stamford, J.; Steiger, M.; Stott, R.W.; Teo, J.; Barker, R.A.; Wang, E.; Bloem, B.R.; Eijk, M. van; Rochester, L.; Williams, A.
The progressive nature of Parkinson's disease, its complex treatment regimens and the high rates of comorbid conditions make self-management and treatment adherence a challenge. Clinicians have limited face-to-face consultation time with Parkinson's disease patients, making it difficult to
Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-management support is considered to be an essential part of diabetes care. However, the implementation of self-management support within healthcare settings has appeared to be challenging and there is increased interest in “real world” best practice examples to guide policy efforts. In order to explore how different approaches to diabetes care and differences in management structure influence the provision of SMS we selected two healthcare systems that have shown to be comparable in terms of budget, benefits and entitlements. We compared the extent of SMS provided and the self-management behaviors of people living with diabetes in Kaiser Permanente (KP and the Danish Healthcare System (DHS. Methods Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data from a random sample of 2,536 individuals with DM from KP and the DHS in 2006–2007 to compare the level of SMS provided in the two systems and identify disparities associated with educational attainment. The response rates were 75 % in the DHS and 56 % in KP. After adjusting for gender, age, educational level, and HbA1c level, multiple linear regression analyses determined the level of SMS provided and identified disparities associated with educational attainment. Results Receipt of SMS varied substantially between the two systems. More people with diabetes in KP reported receiving all types of SMS and use of SMS tools compared to the DHS (p Conclusions Despite better SMS support in KP compared to the DHS, self-management remains an under-supported area of care for people receiving care for diabetes in the two health systems. Our study thereby suggests opportunity for improvements especially within the Danish healthcare system and systems adopting similar SMS support strategies.
Blanson Henkemans OA
Full Text Available Olivier A Blanson Henkemans, Vera Hoondert, Femke Schrama-Groot, Rosemarijn Looije, Laurence L Alpay, Mark A NeerincxTNO, Lifestyle, Leiden, The NetherlandsPurpose: Children with type 1 diabetes need to self-manage their illness to minimize its impact on their long-term health. However, because children are still developing cognitively and emotionally, self-management is challenging. The European FP7 project, ALIZ-E, looks at how social robots can support children aged 8–12 years with their diabetes self-management. To acquire user requirements for such a robot, we studied how diabetes self-management is organized for children and how they experience their illness and its management regarding their quality of life.Methods: We conducted semistructured interviews with diabetes caregivers (n = 6 and children 8–12 with type 1 diabetes (n = 9, and surveyed their parents (n = 9.Results: Results of the interviews with caregivers show that parents play a prominent role in diabetes self-management and, accordingly, children do not experience significant problems. However, because children develop a need for autonomy during puberty, it is important that they become more proficient in their self-management at an earlier age. Results of the interviews with children show that they accept diabetes as a part of their life and want to be seen as regular children. Also, children experience difficulties in unusual situations (eg, doing sports and vacationing and at school. The illness comes at the cost of the child’s mental well-being (eg, insecurity, fear, and worry and physical well-being (eg, listlessness and tiredness. Regarding social well-being, children enjoy attending diabetes camps and having friends with diabetes, due to a common understanding of their condition. Finally, parents are not always fully aware of how children experience their illness.Conclusion: Children could benefit from social robots offering motivation, training, and (parental
Richert, Melissa L; Webb, Alison Jones; Morse, Natalie A; O'Toole, Mary L; Brownson, Carol A
The purpose of this article is to describe Move More Diabetes (MMD), which is used by Lay Health Educators (LHEs) to promote physical activity and improve diabetes self-management among individuals with type 2 diabetes. Move More Diabetes used social marketing strategies to choose and segment the target audience, develop messages, and determine message delivery. Based on market research results, MMD chose natural peer support from LHEs as the main intervention strategy. Move More Diabetes built a sustainable volunteer network of 35 LHEs who recorded 1500 contacts with enrollees from 2004 to 2006. Participation improved when the program was not specific for diabetes. The MMD program demonstrated benefits of partnership and natural peer support and the utility of social marketing in planning and implementing a community-based chronic disease self-management and physical activity promotion program. This low-cost program can serve as a model for other rural communities interested in increasing physical activity to address chronic disease.
Reidy, Claire; Kennedy, Anne; Pope, Catherine; Ballinger, Claire; Vassilev, Ivo; Rogers, Anne
To explore how self-management support (SMS) is considered and conceptualised by Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs) and whether this is reflected in strategic planning and commissioning. SMS is an essential element of long-term condition (LTC) management and CCGs are responsible for commissioning services that are coordinated, integrated and link into patient's everyday lives. This focus provides a good test and exemplar for how commissioners communicate with their local population to find out what they need. A multisite, quasi-ethnographic exploration of 9 CCGs. National Health Service (NHS) CCGs in southern England, representing varied socioeconomic status, practice sizes and rural and urban areas. Content analysis of CCG forward plans for mention of SMS. Semistructured interviews with commissioners (n=10) explored understanding of SMS and analysed thematically. The practice of commissioning explored through the observations of Service User Researchers (n=5) attending Governing Body meetings (n=10, 30 hours). Observations illuminate the relative absence of SMS and gateways to active engagement with patient and public voices. Content analysis of plans point to tensions between local aspirations and those identified by NHS England for empowering patients by enhancing SMS services ('person-centred', whole systems). Interview data highlight disparities in the process of translating the forward plans into practice. Commissioners reference SMS as a priority yet details of local initiatives are notably absent with austerity (cost-containment) and nationally measured biomedical outcomes taking precedence. Commissioners conceptualise locally sensitive SMS as a means to improve health and reduce service use, but structural and financial constraints result in prioritisation of nationally driven outcome measures and payments relating to biomedical targets. Ultimately, there is little evidence of local needs driving SMS in CCGs. CCGs need to focus more on early strategic
Swendeman, Dallas; Ramanathan, Nithya; Baetscher, Laura; Medich, Melissa; Scheffler, Aaron; Comulada, W Scott; Estrin, Deborah
Self-monitoring by mobile phone applications offers new opportunities to engage patients in self-management. Self-monitoring has not been examined thoroughly as a self-directed intervention strategy for self-management of multiple behaviors and states by people living with HIV (PLH). PLH (n = 50), primarily African American and Latino, were recruited from 2 AIDS services organizations and randomly assigned to daily smartphone (n = 34) or biweekly Web-survey only (n = 16) self-monitoring for 6 weeks. Smartphone self-monitoring included responding to brief surveys on medication adherence, mental health, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors, and brief text diaries on stressful events. Qualitative analyses examine biweekly open-ended user-experience interviews regarding perceived benefits and barriers of self-monitoring, and to elaborate a theoretical model for potential efficacy of self-monitoring to support self-management for multiple domains. Self-monitoring functions include reflection for self-awareness, cues to action (reminders), reinforcements from self-tracking, and their potential effects on risk perceptions, motivations, skills, and behavioral activation states. Participants also reported therapeutic benefits related to self-expression for catharsis, nonjudgmental disclosure, and in-the-moment support. About one-third of participants reported that surveys were too long, frequent, or tedious. Some smartphone group participants suggested that daily self-monitoring was more beneficial than biweekly due to frequency and in-the-moment availability. About twice as many daily self-monitoring group participants reported increased awareness and behavior change support from self-monitoring compared with biweekly Web-survey only participants. Self-monitoring is a potentially efficacious disruptive innovation for supporting self-management by PLH and for complementing other interventions, but more research is needed to confirm efficacy, adoption, and sustainability.
Gleason, Melanie; Cicutto, Lisa; Haas-Howard, Christy; Raleigh, Bridget M; Szefler, Stanley J
Asthma is one of the most common illnesses of school-aged children and can lead to both health and educational disparities. Children from low socioeconomic backgrounds and racial/ethnic minorities suffer the greatest impact. They often lack the asthma self-management skills to successfully monitor, navigate, and negotiate appropriate asthma care. School settings are a strategic point of contact for this additional support. School nurses can monitor for signs of asthma worsening, manage symptoms, provide care coordination, and reinforce self-management skills. Likewise, school-based asthma programs have the potential to reduce health and educational disparities, but it is the strong linkage to the asthma care provider that is critical to successful school-based asthma management. Healthcare providers are encouraged to establish partnerships with families through patient-centered care and schools through clear communication and care coordination to ensure asthma is well controlled so the child is in school and ready to learn.
... by swelling (inflammation) in the airways. When an asthma attack occurs, the lining of the air passages swells ... or a cough may be the main symptom. Asthma attacks can last for minutes to days. Attacks can ...
Pal, Kingshuk; Dack, Charlotte; Ross, Jamie; Michie, Susan; May, Carl; Stevenson, Fiona; Farmer, Andrew; Yardley, Lucy; Barnard, Maria; Murray, Elizabeth
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing globally, and health services in many countries are struggling with the morbidity, mortality, and costs associated with the complications of this long-term condition. Diabetes self-management education (DSME) and behavioral support can reduce the risks of developing diabetes-related complications and improve glycemic control. However, their uptake is low. Digital health interventions (DHI) can provide sustained support and may overcome challenges associated with attending diabetes self-management sessions. They have the potential for delivery at multiple locations at convenient times, anonymity, and presentation of content in attractive and tailored formats. This study investigates the needs and wants of patients with type 2 diabetes to inform the development of digital self-management education and support. The objective of this study was to explore patient perspectives on unmet needs for self-management and support and the role of DHI in adults living with type 2 diabetes. This study used a qualitative approach based on data generated from 4 focus groups with 20 patients. The data generated by the focus groups illustrated the significant burden that the diagnosis of diabetes places on many patients and the negative impacts on their emotional well-being, work, social life, and physical health. Although patients' experiences of the health care services varied, there was agreement that even the best services were unable to meet all users' needs to support the emotional regulation, psychological adjustment, and behavioral changes needed for successful self-management. By focusing on medical management and information provision, existing health care services and education programs may not be adequately meeting all the needs of patients with type 2 diabetes. DHIs have the potential to improve access to DSME and behavioral support and extend the range of content offered by health services to fit with a wider range of
... irritate your airways, like cigarette smoke , perfume, and chalk dust infections, like a cold or the flu exercising breathing in cold air How Is Asthma Diagnosed? If your doctor thinks you have asthma, you'll have to get checked out. One test that helps doctors diagnose asthma is spirometry . ...
Dexheimer, Judith W; Brown, Laura E; Leegon, Jeffrey; Aronsky, Dominik
To apply and compare common machine learning techniques with an expert-built Bayesian Network to determine eligibility for asthma guidelines in pediatric emergency department patients. All patients 2-18 years of age presenting to a pediatric emergency department during a 2-month study period. We created an artificial neural network, a support vector machine, a Gaussian process, and a learned Bayesian network to compare each method's ability to detect patients eligible for asthma guidelines. Our outcome measures included the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves, sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and likelihood ratios. The data were randomly split into a training set (n=3017) and test set (n=1006) for analysis. The systems performed equally well. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.959 for the expert-built Bayesian network, 0.962 for the automatically constructed Bayesian network, 0.956 for the Gaussian Process, and 0.937 for the artificial neural network. All four evaluated machine learning methods achieved high accuracy. The automatically created Bayesian network performed similarly to the expert-built network. These methods could be applied to create a realtime detection system for identifying asthma patients.
Full Text Available Background: This article is a report of psychometric testing of the Farsi version of Resources and Support for Chronic Illness Self-management (RSSM scale. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a convenience sample of 160 patients with type 2 diabetes, registered with the Charity Foundation for Special Diseases′ team-focused diabetes clinic, were recruited (response rate=83.7%; n=134. Participants older than 18 years who had active medical files in the system completed the questionnaire. Content validity was established using translation and back-translation procedures, pilot testing of the instrument, and getting views of the expert panel. Construct validity was determined using explanatory factor analysis. Internal consistency was ascertained using Cronbach′s alpha. The stability was confirmed using intra-class correlation coefficients. Results: Using exploratory factor analysis, a five-factor model emerged, which explained 75.24% of the total variance. Internal consistency reliability was sufficient (α=0.70; range=0.66 - 0.87. The intra-class correlation coefficient was 0.74 - 0.81 for individual items. Conclusion: The RSSM-Farsi seems to be a valid and reliable instrument to measure outcomes of diabetes self-management education programs in Farsi. The RSSM-Farsi version scale could be a useful, comprehensive, and culturally sensitive scale for assessing resources and support for self-management between type 2 diabetic patients.
Sinoo, Claudia; van der Pal, Sylvia; Blanson Henkemans, Olivier A; Keizer, Anouk; Bierman, Bert P B; Looije, Rosemarijn; Neerincx, Mark A
The PAL project develops a conversational agent with a physical (robot) and virtual (avatar) embodiment to support diabetes self-management of children ubiquitously. This paper assesses 1) the effect of perceived similarity between robot and avatar on children's' friendship towards the avatar, and 2) the effect of this friendship on usability of a self-management application containing the avatar (a) and children's motivation to play with it (b). During a four-day diabetes camp in the Netherlands, 21 children participated in interactions with both agent embodiments. Questionnaires measured perceived similarity, friendship, motivation to play with the app and its usability. Children felt stronger friendship towards the physical robot than towards the avatar. The more children perceived the robot and its avatar as the same agency, the stronger their friendship with the avatar was. The stronger their friendship with the avatar, the more they were motivated to play with the app and the higher the app scored on usability. The combination of physical and virtual embodiments seems to provide a unique opportunity for building ubiquitous long-term child-agent friendships. an avatar complementing a physical robot in health care could increase children's motivation and adherence to use self-management support systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bourbeau, J; Lavoie, K L; Sedeno, M
In this article, we provide a review of the literature on self-management interventions and we are giving some thought to how, when, and by whom they should be offered to patients. The present literature based on randomized clinical trials has demonstrated benefits (reduced hospital admissions and improved health status) for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients undergoing self-management interventions, although there are still problems with the heterogeneity among interventions, study populations, follow-up time, and outcome measures that make generalization difficult in real life. Key to the success, self-management intervention has to target behavior change. Proper self-management support is a basic prerequisite, for example, techniques and skills used by health care providers "case manager" to instrument patients with the knowledge, confidence, and skills required to effectively self-manage their disease. To improve health behaviors and engagement in self-management, self-management interventions need to target enhancing intrinsic motivation to change. This will best be done using client-centered communication (motivational communication) that encourages patients to express what intrinsically motivates them (e.g., consistent with their values or life goals) to adopt certain health behavior, with the goal of helping them overcome their ambivalence about change. Finally, if we want to be able to design and implement self-management interventions that are integrated, coherent, and have a strong likelihood of success, we need to take a more careful look and give more attention at the case manager, the patient (patient evaluation), and the quality assurance. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
van Olmen, Josefien; Ku, Grace Marie; van Pelt, Maurits; Kalobu, Jean Clovis; Hen, Heang; Darras, Christian; Van Acker, Kristien; Villaraza, Balthazar; Schellevis, Francois; Kegels, Guy
People with diabetes find it difficult to sustain adequate self-management behaviour. Self-Management Support strategies, including the use of mobile technology, have shown potential benefit. This study evaluates the effectiveness of a mobile phone support intervention on top of an existing strategy in three countries, DR Congo, Cambodia and the Philippines to improve health outcomes, access to care and enablement of people with diabetes, with 480 people with diabetes in each country who are randomised to either standard support or to the intervention. The study consists of three sub-studies with a similar design in three countries to be independently implemented and analysed. The design is a two-arm Randomised Controlled Trial, in which a total of 480 adults with diabetes participating in an existing DSME programme will be randomly allocated to either usual care in the existing programme or to usual care plus a mobile phone self-management support intervention. Participants in both arms complete assessments at baseline, one year and two years after inclusion.Glycosylated haemoglobin blood pressure, height, weight, waist circumference will be measured. Individual interviews will be conducted to determine the patients' assessment of chronic illness care, degree of self-enablement, and access to care before implementation of the intervention, at intermediate moments and at the end of the study.Analyses of quantitative data including assessment of differences in changes in outcomes between the intervention and usual care group will be done. A probability of country and realistic evaluation to assess processes and context factors that influence implementation in order to understand why it works, for whom, under which circumstances. A costing study will be performed. The intervention addresses the problem that the greater part of diabetes management takes place without external support and that many challenges, unforeseen problems and questions occur at moments in
Tang, Tricia S; Funnell, Martha M; Noorulla, Salma; Oh, Mary; Brown, Morton B
This study examined the long-term impact of a 24-month, empowerment-based diabetes self-management support (DSMS) intervention on sustaining health-gains achieved from previous diabetes self-management education (DSME). Prior to the intervention, all participants received 6 months of mailed DSME consisting of weekly educational newsletters coupled with clinical feedback. The intervention consisted of 88 weekly group-based sessions that participants were encouraged to attend as frequently as they needed. Sessions were guided by participants' self-management questions and also emphasized experiential learning, coping, goal-setting, and problem-solving. Baseline, 6-month, and 30-month assessments measured A1C, weight, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, lipids, self-care behaviors, and QOL. This report is based on 60 African-American adults with type 2 diabetes (n=89 recruited at baseline) who completed the study. Post 6-month DSME, participants demonstrated significant improvements for diastolic BP (plife (pempowerment-based DSMS model can sustain or improve diabetes-related health gains achieved from previous short-term DSME. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Asthma is the most common respiratory disorder in Canada. Despite significant improvement in the diagnosis and management of this disorder, the majority of Canadians with asthma remain poorly controlled. In most patients, however, control can be achieved through the use of avoidance measures and appropriate pharmacological interventions. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs represent the standard of care for the majority of patients. Combination ICS/long-acting beta2-agonists (LABA inhalers are preferred for most adults who fail to achieve control with ICS therapy. Allergen-specific immunotherapy represents a potentially disease-modifying therapy for many patients with asthma, but should only be prescribed by physicians with appropriate training in allergy. Regular monitoring of asthma control, adherence to therapy and inhaler technique are also essential components of asthma management. This article provides a review of current literature and guidelines for the appropriate diagnosis and management of asthma.
Kasteleyn, Marise J; Gorter, Kees J; van Puffelen, Anne L; Heijmans, Monique; Vos, Rimke C; Jansen, Hanneke; Rutten, Guy E H M
Despite diabetes patients' efforts to control their disease, many of them are confronted with an acute coronary event. This may evoke depressive feelings and self-management may be complicated. According to the American Diabetes Association, the transition from hospital to home after an acute coronary event (ACE) is a high-risk time for diabetes patients; it should be improved. Before developing an intervention for diabetes patients with an ACE in the period after discharge from hospital, we want to gain a detailed understanding of patients' views, perceptions and feelings in this respect. Qualitative design. Two semi-structured focus groups were conducted with 14 T2DM patients (71% male, aged 61-77 years) with a recent ACE. One focus group with partners (67% male, aged 64-75 years) was held. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed by two independent researchers. Patients believed that coping with an ACE differs between patients with and without T2DM. They had problems with physical exercise, sexuality and pharmacotherapy. Patients and partners were neither satisfied with the amount of information, especially on the combination of T2DM and ACE, nor with the support offered by healthcare professionals after discharge. Participants would appreciate tailored self-management support after discharge from hospital. Patients with T2DM and their partners lack tailored support after a first ACE. Our findings underpin the ADA recommendations to improve the transition from hospital to home. The results of our study will help to determine the exact content of a self-management support program delivered at home to help this specific group of patients to cope with both conditions. Copyright © 2013 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gater, Adam; Nelsen, Linda; Fleming, Sarah; Lundy, J Jason; Bonner, Nicola; Hall, Rebecca; Marshall, Chris; Staunton, Hannah; Krishnan, Jerry A; Stoloff, Stuart; Schatz, Michael; Haughney, John
Despite the widespread availability of patient-reported asthma questionnaires, instruments developed in accordance with present regulatory expectations are lacking. To address this gap, the Patient-Reported Outcome (PRO) Consortium's Asthma Working Group has developed a patient-reported asthma daily symptom diary (ADSD) for use in clinical research to assess outcomes and support medical product labeling claims in adults and adolescents with asthma. To summarize the qualitative research conducted to inform the initial development of the ADSD and to provide evidence for content validity of the instrument in accordance with the Food and Drug Administration's PRO Guidance. Research informing the initial development and confirming the content validity of the ADSD is summarized. This comprised a review of published qualitative research, semi-structured concept elicitation interviews (n = 55), and cognitive interviews (n = 65) with a diverse and representative sample of adults and adolescents with a clinician-confirmed diagnosis of asthma in the United States to understand the asthma symptom experience and to assess the relevance and understanding of the newly developed ADSD. From the qualitative literature review and concept elicitation interviews, eight core asthma symptoms emerged. These were broadly categorized as breathing symptoms (difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, and wheezing), chest symptoms (chest tightness, chest pain, and pressure/weight on chest), and cough symptoms (cough and the presence of mucus/phlegm). Conceptual saturation was achieved and differences in the experience of participants according to socio-demographic or clinical characteristics were not observed. Subsequent testing of the ADSD confirmed participant relevance and understanding. The ADSD is a new patient-reported asthma symptom diary developed in accordance with the Food and Drug Administration's PRO Guidance. Evidence to date supports the content validity of the instrument. Item
Blickem, Christian; Kennedy, Anne; Jariwala, Praksha; Morris, Rebecca; Bowen, Robert; Vassilev, Ivaylo; Brooks, Helen; Blakeman, Tom; Rogers, Anne
Recent initiatives to target the personal, social and clinical needs of people with long-term health conditions have had limited impact within primary care. Evidence of the importance of social networks to support people with long-term conditions points to the need for self-management approaches which align personal circumstances with valued activities. The Patient-Led Assessment for Network Support (PLANS) intervention is a needs-led assessment for patients to prioritise their health and social needs and provide access to local community services and activities. Exploring the work and practices of patients and telephone workers are important for understanding and evaluating the workability and implementation of new interventions. Qualitative methods (interviews, focus group, observations) were used to explore the experience of PLANS from the perspectives of participants and the telephone support workers who delivered it (as part of an RCT) and the reasons why the intervention worked or not. Normalisation Process Theory (NPT) was used as a sensitising tool to evaluate: the relevance of PLANS to patients (coherence); the processes of engagement (cognitive participation); the work done for PLANS to happen (collective action); the perceived benefits and costs of PLANS (reflexive monitoring). 20 patients in the intervention arm of a clinical trial were interviewed and their telephone support calls were recorded and a focus group with 3 telephone support workers was conducted. Analysis of the interviews, support calls and focus group identified three themes in relation to the delivery and experience of PLANS. These are: formulation of 'health' in the context of everyday life; trajectories and tipping points: disrupting everyday routines; precarious trust in networks. The relevance of these themes are considered using NPT constructs in terms of the work that is entailed in engaging with PLANS, taking action, and who is implicated this process. PLANS gives scope to align
Hurley, Deirdre A; Murphy, Laura Currie; Hayes, David; Hall, Amanda M; Toomey, Elaine; McDonough, Suzanne M; Lonsdale, Chris; Walsh, Nicola E; Guerin, Suzanne; Matthews, James
The Medical Research Council framework provides a useful general approach to designing and evaluating complex interventions, but does not provide detailed guidance on how to do this and there is little evidence of how this framework is applied in practice. This study describes the use of intervention mapping (IM) in the design of a theory-driven, group-based complex intervention to support self-management (SM) of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) and chronic low back pain (CLBP) in Ireland's primary care health system. The six steps of the IM protocol were systematically applied to develop the self-management of osteoarthritis and low back pain through activity and skills (SOLAS) intervention through adaptation of the Facilitating Activity and Self-management in Arthritis (FASA) intervention. A needs assessment including literature reviews, interviews with patients and physiotherapists and resource evaluation was completed to identify the programme goals, determinants of SM behaviour, consolidated definition of SM and required adaptations to FASA to meet health service and patient needs and the evidence. The resultant SOLAS intervention behavioural outcomes, performance and change objectives were specified and practical application methods selected, followed by organised programme, adoption, implementation and evaluation plans underpinned by behaviour change theory. The SOLAS intervention consists of six weekly sessions of 90-min education and exercise designed to increase participants' physical activity level and use of evidence-based SM strategies (i.e. pain self-management, pain coping, healthy eating for weight management and specific exercise) through targeting of individual determinants of SM behaviour (knowledge, skills, self-efficacy, fear, catastrophizing, motivation, behavioural regulation), delivered by a trained physiotherapist to groups of up to eight individuals using a needs supportive interpersonal style based on self-determination theory
Chouinard, Maud-Christine; Hudon, Catherine; Dubois, Marie-France; Roberge, Pasquale; Loignon, Christine; Tchouaket, Eric; Fortin, Martin; Couture, Eva-Marjorie; Sasseville, Maxime
Chronic diseases represent a major challenge for health care and social services. A number of people with chronic diseases require more services due to characteristics that increase their vulnerability. Given the burden of increasingly vulnerable patients on primary care, a pragmatic intervention in four Family Medicine Groups (primary care practices in Quebec, Canada) has been proposed for individuals with chronic diseases (diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, musculoskeletal diseases and/or chronic pain) who are frequent users of hospital services. The intervention combines case management by a nurse with group support meetings encouraging self-management based on the Stanford Chronic Disease Self-Management Program. The goals of this study are to: (1) analyze the implementation of the intervention in the participating practices in order to determine how the various contexts have influenced the implementation and the observed effects; (2) evaluate the proximal (self-efficacy, self-management, health habits, activation and psychological distress) and intermediate (empowerment, quality of life and health care use) effects of the intervention on patients; (3) conduct an economic analysis of the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the intervention. The analysis of the implementation will be conducted using realistic evaluation and participatory approaches within four categories of stakeholders (Family Medicine Group and health centre management, Family Medicine Group practitioners, patients and their families, health centre or community partners). The data will be obtained through individual and group interviews, project documentation reviews and by documenting the intervention. Evaluation of the effects on patients will be based on a pragmatic randomized before-after experimental design with a delayed intervention control group (six months). Economic analysis will include cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analysis. The integration of a case
Full Text Available Abstract Background Health information technology can enhance self-management and quality of life for patients with chronic disease and overcome healthcare barriers for patients with limited English proficiency. After a randomized controlled trial of a multilingual automated telephone self-management support program (ATSM improved patient-centered dimensions of diabetes care in safety net clinics, we collaborated with a nonprofit Medicaid managed care plan to translate research into practice, offering ATSM as a covered benefit and augmenting ATSM to promote medication activation. This paper describes the protocol of the Self-Management Automated and Real-Time Telephonic Support Project (SMARTSteps. Methods/Design This controlled quasi-experimental trial used a wait-list variant of a stepped wedge design to enroll 362 adult health plan members with diabetes who speak English, Cantonese, or Spanish and receive care at 4 publicly-funded clinics. Through language-stratified randomization, participants were assigned to four intervention statuses: SMARTSteps-ONLY, SMARTSteps-PLUS, or wait-list for either intervention. In addition to usual primary care, intervention participants received 27 weekly calls in their preferred language with rotating queries and response-triggered education about self-care, medication adherence, safety concerns, psychological issues, and preventive services. Health coaches from the health plan called patients with out-of-range responses for collaborative goal setting and action planning. SMARTSteps-PLUS also included health coach calls to promote medication activation, adherence and intensification, if triggered by ATSM-reported non-adherence, refill non-adherence from pharmacy claims, or suboptimal cardiometabolic indicators. Wait-list patients crossed-over to SMARTSteps-ONLY or -PLUS at 6 months. For participants who agreed to structured telephone interviews at baseline and 6 months (n = 252, primary outcomes will be
Ratanawongsa, Neda; Handley, Margaret A; Quan, Judy; Sarkar, Urmimala; Pfeifer, Kelly; Soria, Catalina; Schillinger, Dean
Health information technology can enhance self-management and quality of life for patients with chronic disease and overcome healthcare barriers for patients with limited English proficiency. After a randomized controlled trial of a multilingual automated telephone self-management support program (ATSM) improved patient-centered dimensions of diabetes care in safety net clinics, we collaborated with a nonprofit Medicaid managed care plan to translate research into practice, offering ATSM as a covered benefit and augmenting ATSM to promote medication activation. This paper describes the protocol of the Self-Management Automated and Real-Time Telephonic Support Project (SMARTSteps). This controlled quasi-experimental trial used a wait-list variant of a stepped wedge design to enroll 362 adult health plan members with diabetes who speak English, Cantonese, or Spanish and receive care at 4 publicly-funded clinics. Through language-stratified randomization, participants were assigned to four intervention statuses: SMARTSteps-ONLY, SMARTSteps-PLUS, or wait-list for either intervention. In addition to usual primary care, intervention participants received 27 weekly calls in their preferred language with rotating queries and response-triggered education about self-care, medication adherence, safety concerns, psychological issues, and preventive services. Health coaches from the health plan called patients with out-of-range responses for collaborative goal setting and action planning. SMARTSteps-PLUS also included health coach calls to promote medication activation, adherence and intensification, if triggered by ATSM-reported non-adherence, refill non-adherence from pharmacy claims, or suboptimal cardiometabolic indicators. Wait-list patients crossed-over to SMARTSteps-ONLY or -PLUS at 6 months. For participants who agreed to structured telephone interviews at baseline and 6 months (n = 252), primary outcomes will be changes in quality of life and functional status with
Full Text Available Abstract Background This pretrial study aimed to develop and test the usability of a four-week Internet intervention delivered by a Web-enabled mobile phone to support self-management of chronic widespread pain. Methods The intervention included daily online entries and individualized written feedback, grounded in a mindfulness-based cognitive behavioral approach. The participants registered activities, emotions and pain cognitions three times daily using the mobile device. The therapist had immediate access to this information through a secure Web site. The situational information was used to formulate and send a personalized text message to the participant with the aim of stimulating effective self-management of the current situation. Six women participated and evaluated the experience. Results The intervention was rated as supportive, meaningful and user-friendly by the majority of the women. The response rate to the daily registration entries was high and technical problems were few. Conclusion The results indicate a feasible intervention. Web-applications are fast becoming standard features of mobile phones and interventions of this kind can therefore be more available than before. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01236209
Piette, John D; Marinec, Nicolle; Gallegos-Cabriales, Esther C; Gutierrez-Valverde, Juana Mercedes; Rodriguez-Saldaña, Joel; Mendoz-Alevares, Milton; Silveira, Maria J
We measured Spanish-speaking patients' engagement in Interactive Voice Response (IVR) calls using data from self-management support studies in Honduras, Mexico and the US. A total of 268 patients with diabetes or hypertension participated in 6-12 weeks of weekly IVR follow-up. Participants had an average of 6.1 years of education, and 73% of them were women. After 2443 person-weeks of follow-up, patients had completed 1494 IVR assessments. The call completion rates were higher in the US (75%) than in Honduras (59%) or Mexico (61%; P health at enrolment were less likely (adjusted odds ratio 0.59; P = 0.02). Satisfaction rates were high, with 98% of patients reporting that the system was easy to use, and 86% reporting that the calls helped them a great deal in managing their health problems. IVR self-management support is feasible among Spanish-speaking patients with chronic disease, including those living in less-developed countries. Involving informal caregivers may increase patient engagement.
Kulnawan, Nittayawan; Jiamjarasrangsi, Wiroj; Suwanwalaikorn, Sompong; Kittisopee, Tanattha; Meksawan, Kulwara; Thadpitakkul, Natthanan; Mongkung, Kattiya
Develop the diabetes telephone-linked care system for self-management support and test acceptability in terms of system uses, satisfaction and perception of easiness, helpfulness, and emotion with the system. The automated telephone system with diabetes knowledge interactive voice response (IVR) subsystem was developed to provide diversified curriculum arrangement including general knowledge module (Knowledge IVR, suggestive segment module (Suggestive IVR) and 10 QA sets for assessment with tailored information feedback (QA IVR). The system could deliver 1,120 messages over five weeks among 112 intervened participants of the on-going randomized controlled trial on its impact on glycemic control. The system analyzed the level of completed responses. Overall, 25.9% of the responses were intermittent, 46.4% had consistent adherences, 14.3% were poor responses, and 13.4% were non-responses. The total time use of the system, among 97/112 participants, was 6,189 minutes (mean 63.80, SD 26 63). The degree of call completeness did not vary according to the participant's socio-economic status, glycemic level, or years of diabetes diagnosis. The satisfaction of participants to the program was done by interviewed by telephone among 95 of 112 participants. Most study participants reported that they were very/moderately satisfied with the program (89.5%) regarding its usefulness and helpfulness on awareness, understanding and reminding behavior change attempts. In all, 95.8% of the responders planned to participate in the next program. Duration of time uses of the TLC was significantly correlated to the total scores of helpfulness and of emotion (p telephone-linked care for Thai diabetes is a step forward in response to diabetes self-management education need. Further studies are needed about its efficacies on diabetes self-management improvement and glycemic control, as well as its cost-effectiveness.
Bengtsson, Ulrika; Kjellgren, Karin; Hallberg, Inger; Lundin, Mona; Mäkitalo, Åsa
This paper reports on how the clinical consultation in primary care is performed under the new premises of patients' daily self-reporting and self-generation of data. The aim was to explore and describe the structure, topic initiation and patients' contributions in follow-up consultations after eight weeks of self-reporting through a mobile phone-based hypertension self-management support system. A qualitative, explorative study design was used, examining 20 audio- (n = 10) and video-recorded (n = 10) follow-up consultations in primary care hypertension management, through interaction analysis. Clinical trials registry: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01510301. Four primary health care centers in Sweden. Patients with hypertension (n = 20) and their health care professional (n = 7). The consultations comprised three phases: opening, examination and closing. The most common topic was blood pressure (BP) put in relation to self-reported variables, for example, physical activity and stress. Topic initiation was distributed symmetrically between parties and BP talk was lifestyle-centered. The patients' contributed to the interpretation of BP values by connecting them to specific occasions, providing insights to the link between BP measurements and everyday life activities. Patients' contribution through interpretations of BP values to specific situations in their own lives brought on consultations where the patient as a person in context became salient. Further, the patients' and health care professionals' equal contribution during the consultations showed actively involved patients. The mobile phone-based self-management support system can thus be used to support patient involvement in consultations with a person-centered approach in primary care hypertension management Key points The clinical consultation is important to provide opportunities for patients to gain understanding of factors affecting high blood pressure, and for health care professionals to
Georgsson, Mattias; Staggers, Nancy; Weir, Charlene
Mobile health platforms offer significant opportunities for improving diabetic self-care, but only if adequate usability exists. Expert evaluations such as heuristic evaluation can provide distinct usability information about systems. The purpose of this study was to complete a usability evaluation of a mobile health system for diabetes patients using a modified heuristic evaluation technique of (1) dual-domain experts (healthcare professionals, usability experts), (2) validated scenarios and user tasks related to patients' self-care, and (3) in-depth severity factor ratings. Experts identified 129 usability problems with 274 heuristic violations for the system. The categories Consistency and Standards dominated at 24.1% (n = 66), followed by Match Between System and Real World at 22.3% (n = 61). Average severity ratings across system views were 2.8 (of 4), with 9.3% (n = 12) rated as catastrophic and 53.5% (n = 69) as major. The large volume of violations with severe ratings indicated clear priorities for redesign. The modified heuristic approach allowed evaluators to identify unique and important issues, including ones related to self-management and patient safety. This article provides a template for one type of expert evaluation adding to the informaticists' toolbox when needing to conduct a fast, resource-efficient and user-oriented heuristic evaluation.
Successful management of diabetes depends on the individual's ability to manage and control symptoms. Self-management of diabetes is believed to play a significant role in achieving positive outcomes for patients. Adherence to self-management behaviors supports high-quality care, which reduces and delays disease complications, resulting in improved quality of life. Because self-management is so important to diabetes management and involves a lifelong commitment for all patients, health care providers should actively promote ways to maintain and sustain behavior change that support adherence to self-management. A social ecological model of behavior change (McLeroy, Bibeau, Steckler, & Glanz, 1988) helps practitioners provide evidence-based care and optimizes patients' clinical outcomes. This model supports self-management behaviors through multiple interacting interventions that can help sustain behavior change. Diabetes is a complex chronic disease; successful management must use multiple-level interventions.
Graham, Liz; Wright, Judy; Walwyn, Rebecca; Russell, Amy M; Bryant, Louise; Farrin, Amanda; House, Allan
Reporting adherence to intervention delivery and uptake is a detailed way of describing what was actually delivered and received, in comparison to what was intended. Measuring and reporting adherence is not routinely done well in complex interventions. The OK Diabetes trial (ISRCTN41897033) aimed to develop and subsequently test the feasibility of implementing a supported self-management intervention in adults with a learning disability and type 2 diabetes. A key study objective was to develop a measure of adherence to the intervention. We conducted a systematic review of published literature, extracting data from included papers using a standardised proforma. We undertook a narrative synthesis of papers to determine the form and content of methods for adherence measurement for self-management interventions in this population that had already been developed. We used the framework and data extraction form developed for the review as the basis for an adherence measurement tool that we applied in the OK Diabetes trial. The literature review found variability in the quality and content of adherence measurement and reporting, with no standardised approach. We were able to develop an adherence measure based upon the review, and populate it with data collected during the OK Diabetes trial. The adherence tool proved satisfactory for recording and measuring adherence in the trial. There remains a need for a standardised approach to adherence measurement in the field of complex interventions. We have shown that it is possible to produce a simple, feasible measure for assessing adherence in the OK Diabetes trial.
Rademakers, Jany; Jansen, Daphne; van der Hoek, Lucas; Heijmans, Monique
The aim of this study was to test the Dutch version of the Clinician Support for Patient Activation Measure (CS-PAM), to explore the beliefs of Dutch clinicians about patients' self-management, and to establish whether there are differences in this respect between general practitioners and other primary care providers. The CS-PAM was translated in Dutch and data were collected in a sample of 489 general practitioners and other primary care providers. Statistical analyses (RASCH, Cronbach's α) were performed to establish the psychometric properties of the instrument. The psychometric scores of the Dutch CS-PAM were acceptable to good, and the difficulty level and structure was comparable to that of the original instrument. The average score of Dutch clinicians on the CS-PAM was 65.1 (SD 10.7), somewhat lower compared to their colleagues in the US (69; SD 12.1) and the UK (69, SD 12.8). Dutch general practitioners scored significantly lower on the CS-PAM compared to other primary care providers. The Dutch CS-PAM is a reliable instrument to measure beliefs of clinicians regarding patient self-management. Further validation studies are necessary to establish the distribution of scores in specific provider populations and to assess the clinical relevance of the instrument for different outcomes.
Petersen, Mira; Hempler, Nana F
, healthcare professionals, designers, and app developers. The research approach comprised three major phases: inspiration, ideation, and implementation. The first phase included observations of diabetes education and 12 in-depth interviews with users regarding challenges and needs related to living...... application (app) supporting diabetes self-management among people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes using design thinking. METHODS: The app was developed and tested in 2015 using a design-based research approach involving target users (individuals newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes), research scientists...... with diabetes. The ideation phrase consisted of four interactive workshops with users focusing on app needs, in which ideas were developed and prioritized. Finally, 14 users tested the app over 4 weeks; they were interviewed about usability and perceptions about the app as a support tool. RESULTS...
Hansen, Ulla Møller; Jones, Allan; Zander, Mette
AIMS: The aim of this study was to benchmark the Danish sample of the second Diabetes, Attitudes, Wishes and Needs (DAWN2) study with the global average in order to determine Denmark's comparative position for health status, healthcare provision, self-management and social support from...... to be an untapped potential when it comes to converting education participation of FM into social support for PWD. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that PWD in Denmark rank above the global average on measures of psychological wellbeing, despite psychological wellbeing being under-prioritised by HCP. However...... the perspective of people with diabetes, family members of people with diabetes and healthcare professionals. METHODS: A total of 502 Danish people with diabetes (PWD), 122 adult family members of people with diabetes (FM) and 283 healthcare professionals (HCPs) participated in the study. Data on healthcare...
Kennedy, Anne; Rogers, Anne; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Blakeman, Thomas; Bowen, Robert; Gardner, Caroline; Lee, Victoria; Morris, Rebecca; Protheroe, Joanne
Implementation of long-term condition management interventions rests on the notion of whole systems re-design, where incorporating wider elements of health care systems are integral to embedding effective and integrated solutions. However, most self-management support (SMS) evaluations still focus on particular elements or outcomes of a sub-system. A randomised controlled trial of a SMS intervention (WISE-Whole System Informing Self-management Engagement) implemented in primary care showed no effect on patient-level outcomes. This paper reports on a parallel process evaluation to ascertain influences affecting WISE implementation at patient, clinical and organisational levels. Normalisation Process Theory (NPT) provided a sensitising background and analytical framework. A multi-method approach using surveys and interviews with organisational stakeholders, practice staff and trial participants about impact of training and use of tools developed for WISE. Analysis was sensitised by NPT (coherence, cognitive participation, collective action and reflective monitoring). The aim was to identify what worked and what did not work for who and in what context. Interviews with organisation stakeholders emphasised top-down initiation of WISE by managers who supported innovation in self-management. Staff from 31 practices indicated engagement with training but patchy adoption of WISE tools; SMS was neither prioritised by practices nor fitted with a biomedically focussed ethos, so little effort was invested in WISE techniques. Interviews with 24 patients indicated no awareness of any changes following the training of practice staff; furthermore, they did not view primary care as an appropriate place for SMS. The results contribute to understanding why SMS is not routinely adopted and implemented in primary care. WISE was not embedded because of the perceived lack of relevance and fit to the ethos and existing work. Enacting SMS within primary care practice was not viewed as a
Full Text Available Maryam T Fazel,1,2 Mohammad Fazel,3 Nora L Bedrossian,3 Fernando Picazo,3 Merri L Pendergrass1,4 1Department of Pharmacy Practice and Science, University of Arizona College of Pharmacy, 2Department of Medicine, University of Arizona College of Medicine -Tucson, 3University of Arizona College of Medicine-Tucson, 4Department of Medicine-Division of Endocrinology, University of Arizona College of Medicine-Tucson, Arizona, USA Background: The purpose of this study was to develop a preclerkship elective and assess its effectiveness in supplementing medical students’ education. Methods: A group of medical students under the guidance of two faculty advisors developed an elective consisting of six sessions covering a variety of practical aspects of diabetes care/education taught by an interprofessional team. Following the course completion, a survey was emailed to the enrollees who attended at least one session. The results were analyzed using Wilcoxon signed-rank and descriptive analyses. Results: A total of 14 medical students were enrolled (nine first year and five second year. An average of 4.4 sessions/student was attended. Thirteen students attended at least one session and were surveyed. The survey response rate was ~62% (8/13. All eight students indicated that the course was valuable and would recommend it to their colleagues. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test revealed a statistically significant increase in students’ confidence in all five areas assessed following participation in the course, P<0.05 with a large effect (r>0.5. Conclusion: This study suggests the feasibility of developing disease state-specific preclerkship elective courses and that such courses can be beneficial in supplementing medical student education with practical knowledge. Keywords: medical student, supplemental education, interprofessional education, diabetes self-management
Petersen, Mira; Hempler, Nana F
Numerous mobile applications have been developed to support diabetes-self-management. However, the majority of these applications lack a theoretical foundation and the involvement of people with diabetes during development. The aim of this study was to develop and test a mobile application (app) supporting diabetes self-management among people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes using design thinking. The app was developed and tested in 2015 using a design-based research approach involving target users (individuals newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes), research scientists, healthcare professionals, designers, and app developers. The research approach comprised three major phases: inspiration, ideation, and implementation. The first phase included observations of diabetes education and 12 in-depth interviews with users regarding challenges and needs related to living with diabetes. The ideation phrase consisted of four interactive workshops with users focusing on app needs, in which ideas were developed and prioritized. Finally, 14 users tested the app over 4 weeks; they were interviewed about usability and perceptions about the app as a support tool. A multifunctional app was useful for people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. The final app comprised five major functions: overview of diabetes activities after diagnosis, recording of health data, reflection games and goal setting, knowledge games and recording of psychological data such as sleep, fatigue, and well-being. Users found the app to be a valuable tool for support, particularly for raising their awareness about their psychological health and for informing and guiding them through the healthcare system after diagnosis. The design thinking processes used in the development and implementation of the mobile health app were crucial to creating value for users. More attention should be paid to the training of professionals who introduce health apps. Danish Data Protection Agency: 2012-58-0004. Registered 6
Scheckner, Bari; Arcoleo, Kimberly; Feldman, Jonathan M
There exists large ethnic disparities in asthma among Latino children; Puerto Ricans (PRs) are disproportionately affected, while Mexicans have the lowest prevalence and morbidity. Disparities are poorly understood, however, acculturation and social support are suggested to influence asthma control among children. This study investigated the relationship between acculturation, social support and asthma control among PR and Mexican children and their caregivers. Primary caregiver-child dyads (n = 267) of PR (n = 79) and Mexican (n = 188) descent were recruited from clinics at two inner-city hospitals in Bronx, NY and three clinics in Phoenix, AZ. Children were 5-12 years of age and had a confirmed asthma diagnosis. Dyads completed measures of social support, acculturation and asthma control; logistic regression was used for analysis. Mexican children had better asthma control than PR children (p acculturated than Mexican caregivers (p acculturation did not predict control. Across Latino subgroups caregivers' total level of social support predicted better asthma control among children (p management enabling caretakers to better control their children's asthma.
van Dijk-de Vries, Anneke; van Bokhoven, Marloes A; Winkens, Bjorn; Terluin, Berend; Knottnerus, J André; van der Weijden, Trudy; van Eijk, Jacques Th M
Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of biopsychosocial Self-Management Support (SMS) delivered by practice nurses in routine diabetes care. Design A pragmatic cluster-randomised controlled trial within a hybrid effectiveness-implementation study design. Practice nurses were cluster-randomised. Setting A regional care group in the Netherlands consisting of 77 family practices. The study involved practice nurses (n=40) providing care to approximately 4000 patients with diabetes. Participants Patients with type 2 diabetes (n=264) selected by a self-administered questionnaire aimed at measuring emotional distress and diabetes-related reduced daily functioning. Intervention Practice nurses in the intervention arm (n=19) were trained to integrate SMS into their routine consultations. SMS included detection of patients with emotional distress and reduced daily functioning, and supporting them when needed through problem solving and reattribution techniques. Practice nurses in the control arm (n=21) provided usual care. Main outcome measures The primary outcome measure was a dichotomised score on a Visual Analogue Scale that measured the perceived effect of diabetes on daily functioning. Secondary measures included patients’ diabetes-related distress, quality of life, autonomy and participation, self-efficacy, self-management and glycaemic control. Outcomes were measured at baseline and at 4-month and 12-month follow-ups. Results Only 16 of the 117 patients in the intervention arm (14%) who were found eligible by the posted research-driven screening questionnaire were detected by their practice nurses. Extra consultations for the self-management support were delivered to only 11 study participants. In the control arm, 147 patients received usual care. Multilevel analyses showed no significant differences in outcomes between the intervention and control arms. Conclusions SMS in its present form was not effective. The research-driven screening to select trial
Stewart, Miriam; Masuda, Jeffrey R; Letourneau, Nicole; Anderson, Sharon; McGhan, Shawna
Asthma is the most common chronic illness of childhood and the leading cause of hospitalization in young children. Asthma negatively impacts physical health, psychosocial wellbeing, and quality of life for affected children but the psychosocial support needs of children with asthma and severe have not been studied from their point of view. The objective of this study was to assess the support and education needs and preferred interventions of allergic children with asthma and/or severe allergies. Qualitative constant comparative content analysis was used to identify major themes from semi-structured individual interviews with 20 children with asthma and allergies and 35 parents. Children expressed frustration with the limitations imposed by asthma and allergies on their regular activities and normal lives. Parents believed that peer support--someone to whom their child could relate as a role model--could improve both their children's and their own coping. Parents and children preferred a combination of in-person meetings and Internet support to enhance the capacity of children, reduce children's anxiety, increase their self-care skills, and self-confidence. In addition they believed a support intervention was a stepping stone to developing a community of support for children with asthma, allergies, and anaphylaxis.
Full Text Available The expansion of primary care and community-based service delivery systems is intended to meet emerging needs, reduce the costs of hospital-based ambulatory care and prevent avoidable hospital use by the provision of more appropriate care. Great emphasis has been placed on the role of self-management in the complex process of care of patient with long-term conditions. Several studies have determined that nurses, among the health professionals, are more recommended to promote health and deliver preventive programs within the primary care context. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to assess the efficacy of the nurse-led self-management support versus usual care evaluating patient outcomes in chronic care community programs. Systematic review was carried out in MEDLINE, CINAHL, Scopus and Web of Science including RCTs of nurse-led self-management support interventions performed to improve observer reported outcomes (OROs and patients reported outcomes (PROs, with any method of communication exchange or education in a community setting on patients >18 years of age with a diagnosis of chronic diseases or multi-morbidity. Of the 7,279 papers initially retrieved, 29 met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analyses on systolic (SBP and diastolic (DBP blood pressure reduction (10 studies-3,881 patients and HbA1c reduction (7 studies-2,669 patients were carried-out. The pooled MD were: SBP -3.04 (95% CI -5.01--1.06, DBP -1.42 (95% CI -1.42--0.49 and HbA1c -0.15 (95% CI -0.32-0.01 in favor of the experimental groups. Meta-analyses of subgroups showed, among others, a statistically significant effect if the interventions were delivered to patients with diabetes (SBP or CVD (DBP, if the nurses were specifically trained, if the studies had a sample size higher than 200 patients and if the allocation concealment was not clearly defined. Effects on other OROs and PROs as well as quality of life remain inconclusive.
Parsell, Cameron; Ten Have, Charlotte; Denton, Michelle; Walter, Zoe
Objectives The aims of the present study were to examine tenants' experiences of a model of integrated health care and supportive housing and to identify whether integrated health care and supportive housing improved self-reported health and healthcare access. Methods The present study used a mixed-method survey design (n=75) and qualitative interviews (n=20) performed between September 2015 and August 2016. Participants were tenants of permanent supportive housing in Brisbane (Qld, Australia). Qualitative data were analysed thematically. Results Integrated health care and supportive housing were resources for tenants to overcome systematic barriers to accessing mainstream health care experienced when homeless. When homeless, people did not have access to resources required to maintain their health. Homelessness meant not having a voice to influence the health care people received; healthcare practitioners treated symptoms of poverty rather than considering how homelessness makes people sick. Integrated healthcare and supportive housing enabled tenants to receive treatment for health problems that were compounded by the barriers to accessing mainstream healthcare that homelessness represented. Conclusions Extending the evidence about housing as a social determinant of health, the present study shows that integrated health care and supportive housing enabled tenants to take control to self-manage their health care. In addition to homelessness directly contributing to ill health, the present study provides evidence of how the experience of homelessness contributes to exclusions from mainstream healthcare. What is known about the topic? People who are homeless experience poor physical and mental health, have unmet health care needs and use disproportionate rates of emergency health services. What does the paper add? The experience of homelessness creates barriers to accessing adequate health care. The provision of onsite multidisciplinary integrated health care in
Full Text Available Abstract Background Structured education programmes for patients with diabetes and other chronic conditions are being widely adopted. However, follow-up studies suggest that course graduates may struggle to sustain the self-care practices taught on their courses over time. This study explored the support needs of patients with type 1 diabetes after attending a structured education programme promoting an empowerment approach and training in use of flexible intensive insulin therapy, a regimen now widely advocated and used to manage this condition. The objective was to inform future support offered to course graduates. Methods Repeat, in-depth interviews with 30 type 1 diabetes patients after attending Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating (DAFNE courses in the UK, and six and 12 months later. Data were analysed using an inductive, thematic approach. Results While the flexible intensive insulin treatment approach taught on DAFNE courses was seen as a logical and effective way of managing one’s diabetes, it was also considered more technically complex than other insulin regimens. To sustain effective disease self-management using flexible intensive insulin treatment over time, patients often expected, and needed, on-going input and support from health care professionals trained in the approach. This included: help determining insulin dose adjustments; reassurance; and, opportunities to trouble-shoot issues of concern. While some benefits were identified to receiving follow-up support in a group setting, most patients stated a preference or need for tailored and individualised support from appropriately-trained clinicians, accessible on an ‘as and when needed’ basis. Conclusions Our findings highlight potential limitations to group-based forms of follow-up support for sustaining diabetes self-management. To maintain the clinical benefits of structured education for patients with type 1 diabetes over time, course graduates may benefit from and
Hale, Kelli; Capra, Sandra; Bauer, Judith
This paper presents an approach to assist health professionals in recommending high quality apps for supporting chronic disease self-management. Most app reviews focus on popularity, aesthetics, functionality, usability, and information quality. There is no doubt these factors are important in selecting trustworthy apps which are appealing to users, but behavioral theory may be also be useful in matching the apps to user needs. The framework developed aims to be methodologically sound, capable of selecting popular apps which include content covered by evidence-based programs, consistent with behavioral theory, as well as a patient-centered approach for matching apps to patients' individual needs. A single disease-type 2 diabetes-was selected to illustrate how the framework can be applied as this was deemed to represent the types of strategies used in many chronic diseases. A systematic approach based on behavioral theory and recommendations from best practice guidelines was developed for matching apps to patients' needs. In March 2014, a series of search strategies was used to identify top-rated iPhone and Android health apps, representing 29 topics from five categories of type 2 diabetes self-management strategies. The topics were chosen from published international guidelines for the management of diabetes. The senior author (KH) assessed the most popular apps found that addressed these topics using the Behavioral Theory Content Survey (BTS), which is based on traditional behavioral theory. A tool to assist decision making when using apps was developed and trialed with health professionals for ease of use and understanding. A total of 14 apps were assessed representing all five topic categories of self-management. Total theoretical scores (BTS scores) were less than 50 on a 100-point scale for all apps. Each app scored less than 50% of the total possible BTS score for all four behavioral theories and for most of the 20 behavioral strategies; however, apps scored
Zimmermann, Thomas; Puschmann, Egina; van den Bussche, Hendrik; Wiese, Birgitt; Ernst, Annette; Porzelt, Sarah; Daubmann, Anne; Scherer, Martin
=0.51. A complex, nurse-led intervention, implemented as a collaborative care model, increased perceived self-efficacy in patients with symptoms of anxiety, depression or somatisation compare to control patients. For the first time in the German healthcare system, the SMADS trial validated the belief that a nurse can successfully complement the work of a general practitioner - particularly in supporting self-management of patients with psychosomatic symptoms and their psychosocial needs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Puijk-Hekman, Saskia; van Gaal, Betsie Gi; Bredie, Sebastian Jh; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria Wg; van Dulmen, Sandra
In addition to medical intervention and counseling, patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) need to manage their disease and its consequences by themselves in daily life. The aim of this paper is to describe the development of "Vascular View," a comprehensive, multi-component, tailored, Web-based, self-management support program for patients with CVD, and how this program will be tested in an early randomized controlled trial (RCT). The Vascular View program was systematically developed in collaboration with an expert group of 6 patients, and separately with a group of 6 health professionals (medical, nursing, and allied health care professionals), according to the following steps of the intervention mapping (IM) framework: (1) conducting a needs assessment; (2) creating matrices of change objectives; (3) selecting theory-based intervention methods and practical applications; (4) organizing methods and applications into an intervention program; (5) planning the adaption, implementation, and sustainability of the program, and (6) generating an evaluation plan. The needs assessment (Step 1) identified 9 general health problems and 8 determinants (knowledge, awareness, attitude, self-efficacy, subjective norm, intention, risk perception, and habits) of self-managing CVD. By defining performance and change objectives (Step 2), 6 topics were distinguished and incorporated into the courses included in Vascular View (Steps 3 and 4): (1) Coping With CVD and its Consequences; (2) Setting Boundaries in Daily Life; (3) Lifestyle (general and tobacco and harmful alcohol use); (4) Healthy Nutrition; (5) Being Physically Active in a Healthy Way; and (6) Interaction With Health Professionals. These courses were based on behavioral change techniques (BCTs) (eg, self-monitoring of behavior, modeling, re-evaluation of outcomes), which were incorporated in the courses through general written information: quotes from and videos of patients with CVD as role models and personalized
Vosbergen, Sandra; Janzen, Jolien; Stappers, Pieter Jan; van Zwieten, Myra C. B.; Lacroix, Joyca; Idema, Karin; van den Broek, Inge; Kemps, Hareld M. C.; Kraaijenhagen, Roderik A.; Peek, Niels
Web-based self-management services remain underutilized in current practice. Our aim was to gain insight into disease and self-management experiences of patients in early and progressive stages of coronary heart disease (CHD), to understand moderating effects of daily life experiences on the
Roblin, Douglas W
Productive interactions among patients, friends/family, and health care providers, as outlined by the Chronic Care Model, are important for promoting adherence to recommended care and good health outcomes among adults with a chronic illness. Characteristics of these interactions--active participation, collaboration, and data sharing among constituents--are the same as those of social networks organized around Web 2.0 principles and technology. Thus, the Web 2.0 framework can be used to configure social networks without the inherent spatiotemporal constraints of face-to-face interactions that remain prevalent in health care delivery. In this article, the author outlines various design principles and decisions for a pilot study in which cellular technology was used to mediate interactions between adults with Type 2 diabetes and supporters (i.e., family members or friends selected by the patients who agree provide support) to motivate regular self-monitoring of blood glucose (among the diabetes participants). Participants generally found the network to be relatively easy to use. Some diabetes patients reported improved attention to self-monitoring; and, patient-selected supporters indicated improvements in emotional and instrumental support that should benefit diabetes patients' lifestyle and health.
Bernhard, G.; Ose, D.; Baudendistel, I.; Seidling, H.M.; Stutzle, M.; Szecsenyi, J.; Wensing, M.; Mahler, C.
Purpose The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate the challenges and strategies of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) regarding daily management of their medication regimen focusing on the role of their support networks. Methods A purposeful sample of 25 patients with T2DM
Wilkinson, Lee A.
Conjoint behavioural consultation (CBC) is an indirect form of service delivery that combines the resources of home and school to meet the academic, social and behavioural needs of children. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the utility of CBC as a service delivery model for supporting the inclusion of a student with Asperger syndrome in…
Whitehead, L C; Trip, H T; Hale, L A; Conder, J
The basic human right of autonomy is underpinned by the ability to practice decision-making. The rights of people with disabilities to engage in autonomous decision-making are promoted as best practice and includes decisions around health and self-care. Little is known about autonomy in the field of long-term condition management. This paper explores how people with intellectual disabilities (ID) and their support workers experience and practice autonomy in relation to the management of diabetes. Semi-structured interviews were completed in residential and independent living settings with people living with an ID and type 1 (N = 8) or type 2 (N = 6) diabetes and their support workers (N = 17). The participant with ID's support worker was present as requested; however, the interviews were run separately with each participant rather than jointly. Thematic analysis was undertaken, and a constructivist lens informed both data collection and analysis. The analysis revealed a strong process of negotiated autonomy between people with ID and their support workers in relation to the daily management of diabetes. During times of transition, roles in relation to diabetes management were renegotiated, and the promotion of autonomy was prefaced within the context of risk and client safety. Goals to increase independence were drivers for negotiating greater autonomy. The successful negotiation of autonomy in relation to diabetes illustrates the potential for people with ID to play a key role in the management of long-term health conditions. The study highlights the primacy of developing decision-making skills among people with ID. Promoting opportunities for decision-making and an ethos of supported decision-making through person-centred planning are all vital in working towards enhancing autonomy. © 2016 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Dodson, Sarity; Klassen, Karen M; McDonald, Karalyn; Millard, Tanya; Osborne, Richard H; Battersby, Malcolm W; Fairley, Christopher K; Simpson, Julie A; Lorgelly, Paula; Tonkin, Andrew; Roney, Janine; Slavin, Sean; Sterjovski, Jasminka; Brereton, Margot; Lewin, Sharon R; Crooks, Levinia; Watson, Jo; Kidd, Michael R; Williams, Irith; Elliott, Julian H
The leading causes of morbidity and mortality for people in high-income countries living with HIV are now non-AIDS malignancies, cardiovascular disease and other non-communicable diseases associated with ageing. This protocol describes the trial of HealthMap, a model of care for people with HIV (PWHIV) that includes use of an interactive shared health record and self-management support. The aims of the HealthMap trial are to evaluate engagement of PWHIV and healthcare providers with the model, and its effectiveness for reducing coronary heart disease risk, enhancing self-management, and improving mental health and quality of life of PWHIV. The study is a two-arm cluster randomised trial involving HIV clinical sites in several states in Australia. Doctors will be randomised to the HealthMap model (immediate arm) or to proceed with usual care (deferred arm). People with HIV whose doctors are randomised to the immediate arm receive 1) new opportunities to discuss their health status and goals with their HIV doctor using a HealthMap shared health record; 2) access to their own health record from home; 3) access to health coaching delivered by telephone and online; and 4) access to a peer moderated online group chat programme. Data will be collected from participating PWHIV (n = 710) at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months and from participating doctors (n = 60) at baseline and 12 months. The control arm will be offered the HealthMap intervention at the end of the trial. The primary study outcomes, measured at 12 months, are 1) 10-year risk of non-fatal acute myocardial infarction or coronary heart disease death as estimated by a Framingham Heart Study risk equation; and 2) Positive and Active Engagement in Life Scale from the Health Education Impact Questionnaire (heiQ). The study will determine the viability and utility of a novel technology-supported model of care for maintaining the health and wellbeing of people with HIV. If shown to be effective, the HealthMap model
Full Text Available The quality of the “patient-carer” relationship is the foundation of self-management support and has been shown to influence treatment outcome in relation to psychological and somatic illness, including diabetes. It has long been accepted within applied psychology that the quality of the client-therapist relationship—termed the working alliance—is of central importance to treatment outcome and may account for a significant degree of the overall treatment effect. Diabetes healthcare providers have recently expressed a need for further training in communication techniques and in the psychological aspects of diabetes. Could we take a page from the psychological treatment manual on working alliance in therapy to guide the diabetes healthcare provider in their role of supporting the person with diabetes achieve and maintain better metabolic control? This paper examines the role of the working alliance in diabetes care and offers a practical guide to the diabetes healthcare provider in establishing a working alliance with the person with diabetes in managing diabetes.
Swendeman, Dallas; Farmer, Shu; Mindry, Deborah; Lee, Sung-Jae; Medich, Melissa
In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with healthcare providers (HCPs) from five HIV medical care coordination teams in a large Los Angeles County HIV clinic, including physicians, nurses, and psychosocial services providers. HCPs reported on the potential utility, acceptability, and barriers for patient self-monitoring and notifications via mobile phones, and web-based dashboards for HCPs. Potential benefits included: 1) enhancing patient engagement, motivation, adherence, and self-management; and 2) improving provider-patient relationships and HCP care coordination. Newly diagnosed and patients with co-morbidities were highest priorities for mobile application support. Facilitators included universal mobile phone ownership and use of smartphones or text messaging. Patient-level barriers included concerns about low motivation and financial instability for consistent use by some patients. Organizational barriers, cited primarily by physicians, included concerns about privacy protections, easy dashboard access, non-integrated electronic records, and competing burdens in limited appointment times. Psychosocial services providers were most supportive of the proposed mobile tools. PMID:28066820
Warner, G.; Packer, T.L.; Villeneuve, M.; Audulv, A.; Versnel, J.
PURPOSE: A systematic review of stroke self-management programs was conducted to: (i) identify how many and what self-management support strategies were included in stroke self-management interventions and (ii) describe whether self-management programs effectively improved outcomes, focusing
Full Text Available Abstract Background In many countries, community pharmacists can be consulted without appointment in a large number of convenient locations. They are in an ideal position to give advice to patients at the onset of low back pain and also reinforce advice given by other healthcare professionals. There is little specific information about the quality of care provided in the pharmacy for people with back pain. The main objectives of this survey were to determine the attitudes, knowledge and reported practice of English pharmacists advising people who present with acute or chronic low back pain. Methods A questionnaire was designed for anonymous self-completion by pharmacists attending continuing education sessions. Demographic questions were designed to allow comparison with a national pharmacy workforce survey. Attitudes were measured with the Back Beliefs Questionnaire (BBQ and questions based on the Working Backs Scotland campaign. Questions about the treatment of back pain in the community pharmacy were written (or adapted to reflect and characterise the nature of practice. In response to two clinical vignettes, respondents were asked to select proposals that they would recommend in practice. Results 335 responses from community pharmacists were analysed. Middle aged pharmacists, women, pharmacy managers and locums were over-represented compared to registration and workforce data. The mean (SD BBQ score for the pharmacists was 31.37 (5.75, which was slightly more positive than in similar surveys of other groups. Those who had suffered from back pain seem to demonstrate more confidence (fewer negative feelings, more advice opportunities and better advice provision in their perception of advice given in the pharmacy. Awareness of written information that could help to support practice was low. Reponses to the clinical vignettes were generally in line with the evidence base. Pharmacists expressed some caution about recommending activity. Most
Johnson, Patria; Thorman Hartig, Margaret; Frazier, Renee; Clayton, Mae; Oliver, Georgia; Nelson, Belinda W; Williams-Cleaves, Beverly J
Diabetes for Life (DFL), a project of Memphis Healthy Churches (MHC) and Common Table Health Alliance (CTHA; formerly Healthy Memphis Common Table [HMCT]), is a self-management program aimed at reducing health disparities among African Americans with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Memphis and Shelby County, Tennessee. This program is one of five national projects that constitute The Alliance to Reduce Disparities in Diabetes, a 5-year grant-funded initiative of The Merck Foundation. Our purpose is to describe the faith-based strategies supporting DFL made possible by linking with an established informal health system, MHC, created by Baptist Memorial Health Care. The MHC network engaged volunteer Church Health Representatives as educators and recruiters for DFL. The components of the DFL project and the effect on chronic disease management for the participants will be described. The stages of DFL recruitment and implementation from an open-access to a closed model involving six primary care practices created a formal health system. The involvement of CTHA, a regional health collaborative, created the opportunity for DFL to expand the pool of health care providers and then recognize the core of providers most engaged with DFL patients. This collaboration between MHC and HMCT led to the organization of the formal health network. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.
Håkansson, Kåre; Bachert, Claus; Konge, Lars
Background It has been established that patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) often have co-existing asthma. Objective We aimed to test two hypotheses: (i) upper and lower airway inflammation in CRSwNP is uniform in agreement with the united airways concept; and (ii......) bronchial inflammation exists in all CRSwNP patients irrespective of clinical asthma status. Methods We collected biopsies from nasal polyps, inferior turbinates and bronchi of 27 CRSwNP patients and 6 controls. All participants were evaluated for lower airway disease according to international guidelines...... cytokines measured, IL-13 was significantly increased in bronchial biopsies from CRSwNP patients with, but not without asthma. Conclusion Our findings support the united airways concept; however, we did not find evidence for subclinical bronchial inflammation in CRSwNP patients without asthma. Finally...
... Page Who's At Risk? Asthma by age and sex US, 2001-2009 Percentages are age-adjusted SOURCE: National Center for Health Statistics; 2010. Asthma self-management education by age, US, 2008 SOURCE: National Health Interview ...
Ahmed, Sara; Tamblyn, Robyn; Winslade, Nancy
Decision support systems linked to administrative databases provide a unique opportunity to monitor adherence to guidelines and target disease management strategies towards patients not receiving guideline-based therapy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the discrepancy between actual asthma treatments prescribed by primary care physicians compared to those recommended by evidence-based guidelines using a decision support tool linked to a provincial health administrative database. The drug and medical services information of individuals with asthma was identified from the provincial health database and was pushed through an asthma decision support system (ADSS). Recommendations aimed at optimising asthma treatment were generated on two index dates, 15 September 2007 (index date 1) and 15 March 2008 (index date 2). Primary care settings in a large Canadian metropolitan area. Individuals with asthma and provincial health insurance primary and secondary outcome measures: well controlled asthma. 16 803 eligible individuals were identified on index date 1, and 18 103 on index date 2. The distribution of recommendation categories was similar on both index dates. 94% were classified as well controlled and 7% as not well controlled. Among well-controlled individuals, the largest proportion was in the maintain treatment category (63.8%), followed by the maintain/decrease treatment category (28.2%) and the decrease treatment category (2.7%). Almost all individuals who were not well controlled had the recommendation to increase treatment (88%) with a small proportion in the refer category (1%). The ADSS was able to identify subgroups of patients from an administrative database that could benefit from a medication review and possible change. Decision support systems linked to an administrative database can be used to identify individuals with uncontrolled asthma or prescriptions that deviate from recommended treatment. When connected to the point of care, this can
Stewart, Miriam; Letourneau, Nicole; Masuda, Jeffrey R; Anderson, Sharon; McGhan, Shawna
Many families of children with asthma and allergies experience support deficits and isolation. However, support interventions have not been designed to meet their needs. Consequently, parents' intervention preferences were elicited, and an online peer support group intervention was designed based on these preferences and piloted in the study described. In-depth interviews with 44 parents elicited preferences for support interventions for both children and parents. Many said they felt alone and wanted support from others in similar situations. Based on the parents' preferences for accessible online peer support groups, a pilot online intervention was designed and implemented. Parents received information and reassurance from other parents in peer support sessions. Parents appreciated the accessibility and anonymity of the online support group. This innovative online peer support intervention, informed by parents' preferences, could be adapted and tested in intervention trials and guide programs and practice for families affected by asthma, allergies, and other chronic conditions. © The Author(s) 2011
... pku UW PKU Clinic News & Events PKU Self-Management Timeline This timeline is also available as an ... file. Click here to download. The PKU Self- Management timeline is included to provide long-term view ...
This paper discusses some of the anthropological and philosophical features of the use of self-management plans by patients with a chronic disease, focusing on patients with asthma. Characteristics of this technologically mediated form of self-care are contrasted with the work of Mauss and Foucault
People with intellectual disability are a vulnerable group of people with asthma that has, to date, largely been ignored in the medical literature. Although guidelines for medication management for people with intellectual disability suggest asthma is treated as for other populations, there are special considerations that should be taken into account when managing asthma in this group. Due to their cognitive impairment as well as comorbidities, they are likely to require support with asthma self-management, including inhaler use. Their varying degrees of autonomy mean that there is often a need to provide education and information to both the person and their caregivers. Educational aims To understand general principles of health of people with intellectual disability and how this affects the healthcare professional’s approach to asthma management. To understand how intellectual disability affects cognition, autonomy and communication, and therefore the ability of a person to self-manage asthma. To recognise ways of mitigating respiratory disease risk in people with intellectual disability. To describe ways for healthcare professionals to support people with intellectual disability and their caregivers in asthma management. PMID:28210318
Tiggelman, Dana; van de Ven, Monique O M; van Schayck, Onno C P; Engels, Rutger C M E; van Sluijs, Esther M F
Few studies have examined determinants of physical activity in patients with chronic illnesses, like asthma. The aim of this study was to examine whether baseline maternal and paternal beliefs, support and parenting were associated with changes in sport participation of adolescents with asthma, and investigate the moderating effect of sex. In a population-based cohort study, during home visits in 2012 and 2013, 253 adolescents completed a questionnaire assessing their sport participation. Both parents reported their sport-specific parenting (support, general and asthma-specific beliefs, self-efficacy to encourage sport participation). The collected data was described using descriptive statistics. Path and multi-group analyses were used to examine whether baseline parental factors predicted change in adolescent sport participation, multi-group analyses examined the moderating effect of sex. For all analyses probability p value less than the accepted level of significance α = 0.05 (p sport participation of the adolescents, sex did not moderate the associations. In the fully adjusted models, only maternal asthma-specific beliefs about sport participation were significantly positively associated with change in adolescent sport participation. Sport-specific parenting does not appear to be a determinant of sport participation in adolescents with asthma. Future research should consider other individual, social and environmental determinants to inform intervention development.
Koetsenruijter, J.; Lieshout, J. van; Vassilev, I.; Portillo, M.C.; Serrano, M.; Knutsen, I.; Roukova, P.; Lionis, C.; Todorova, E.; Foss, C.; Rogers, A.; Wensing, M.
BACKGROUND: Long-term conditions pose major challenges for healthcare systems. Optimizing self-management of people with long-term conditions is an important strategy to improve quality of life, health outcomes, patient experiences in healthcare, and the sustainability of healthcare systems. Much
Nyberg, André; Wadell, Karin; Lindgren, Helena; Tistad, Malin
The use of adequate self-management strategies for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) reduces healthcare use, improves health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and recovery after acute exacerbations. However, not many people with COPD receive support that promotes the use of such strategies and therefore new methods to facilitate and promote the use of self-management strategies are highly warranted. This pilot trial aims to evaluate the feasibility of the study design and study procedures considering effectiveness of the novel intervention, the COPD-web. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The overall design is a pragmatic controlled pilot trial with preassessments and postassessments and a parallel process evaluation. Patients with the diagnosis of COPD will be eligible for the study. The intervention group will be recruited when visiting one of the six participating primary care units in Sweden. The control group will be identified from the unit's computerised registers. The intervention, the COPD-web, is an interactive web page with two sections; one directed at people with COPD and one at healthcare professionals. The sections aim to support patients' self-management skills-and to facilitate the provision of support for self-management strategies, respectively. Effectiveness with regard to patients' symptoms, HRQoL, knowledge of and readiness for COPD-related self-management, health literacy, self-efficacy for physical activity and time spent in physical activity and time being sedentary, and further, healthcare professionals' knowledge of and readiness to support COPD-related self-management strategies will be assessed using questionnaires at 3 and 12 months. The process evaluation will include observations and interviews. Ethical approval has been obtained. Findings will be presented at conferences, submitted for publication in peer-reviewed publications and presented to the involved healthcare professionals, patients and to patient organisations
Murphy, Jill; Goldsmith, Charles H; Jones, Wayne; Oanh, Pham Thi; Nguyen, Vu Cong
Depressive disorders are one of the leading causes of disease and disability worldwide. In Vietnam, although epidemiological evidence suggests that depression rates are on par with global averages, services for depression are very limited. In a feasibility study that was implemented from 2013 to 2015, we found that a Supported Self-management (SSM) intervention showed promising results for adults with depression in the community in Vietnam. This paper describes the Mental Health in Adults and Children: Frugal Innovations (MAC-FI) trial protocol that will assess the effectiveness of the SSM intervention, delivered by primary care and social workers, to community-based populations of adults with depression in eight Vietnamese provinces. The MAC-FI program will be assessed using a stepped-wedge, randomized controlled trial. Study participants are adults aged 18 years and over in eight provinces of Vietnam. Study participants will be screened at primary care centres and in the community by health and social workers using the Self-reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20). Patients scoring >7, indicating depression caseness, will be invited to participate in the study in either the SSM intervention group or the enhanced treatment as usual control group. Recruited participants will be further assessed using the World Health Organization's Disability Assessment Scale (WHODAS 2.0) and the Cut-down, Annoyed, Guilty, Eye-opener (CAGE) Questionnaire for alcohol misuse. Intervention-group participants will receive the SSM intervention, delivered with the support of a social worker or social collaborator, for a period of 2 months. Control- group participants will receive treatment as usual and a leaflet with information about depression. SRQ-20, WHODAS 2.0 and CAGE scores will be taken by blinded outcome assessors at baseline, after 1 month and after 2 months. The primary analysis method will be intention-to-treat. This study has the potential to add to the knowledge base about
Madden, Melissa Hanahan; Tomsik, Philip; Terchek, Joshua; Navracruz, Lisa; Reichsman, Ann; Clark, Terri Clemons; Cella, Peggi; Weirich, Stephen A; Munson, Michelle R; Werner, James J
To examine how medically uninsured patients who receive health care at federally qualified health centers and free clinics are able to successfully self-manage diabetes compared to patients who are less successful. Two distinct groups of patients with diabetes for 6 months or longer were enrolled: (1) successful, defined as those with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) of 7% or less or a recent improvement of at least 2% (n=17); and (2) unsuccessful, defined as patients with HbAlc of at least 9% (n=9) and without recent improvement. Patients were interviewed about enabling factors, motivators, resources, and barriers to diabetes self-management. Data from interviews, chart reviews, and clinician surveys were analyzed using qualitative methods and statistical techniques. African Americans comprised 57.7% of the sample and whites 38.5% (N=26). No significant differences were detected between successful and unsuccessful groups in age, race, education, or employment status. Clinicians rated unsuccessful patients as having more severe diabetes and significantly lower levels of control than successful patients. Compared to unsuccessful patients, successful patients more often reported having friends or family with diabetes, more frequently sought information about the disease, used evidence-based self-management strategies, held more accurate perceptions of their own diabetes control, and experienced "turning point" events that motivated increased efforts in disease management. Patients who successfully managed diabetes learned from diabetic family members and interpreted disease-related events as motivational turning points. It may be beneficial to incorporate social learning and motivational enhancement into diabetes interventions to increase patients' motivation for improved levels of self-management.
Yu, Catherine H; Parsons, Janet A; Mamdani, Muhammad; Lebovic, Gerald; Hall, Susan; Newton, David; Shah, Baiju R; Bhattacharyya, Onil; Laupacis, Andreas; Straus, Sharon E
Management of diabetes mellitus is complex and involves controlling multiple risk factors that may lead to complications. Given that patients provide most of their own diabetes care, patient self-management training is an important strategy for improving quality of care. Web-based interventions have the potential to bridge gaps in diabetes self-care and self-management. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a web-based patient self-management intervention on psychological (self-efficacy, quality of life, self-care) and clinical (blood pressure, cholesterol, glycemic control, weight) outcomes. For this cohort study we used repeated-measures modelling and qualitative individual interviews. We invited patients with type 2 diabetes to use a self-management website and asked them to complete questionnaires assessing self-efficacy (primary outcome) every three weeks for nine months before and nine months after they received access to the website. We collected clinical outcomes at three-month intervals over the same period. We conducted in-depth interviews at study conclusion to explore acceptability, strengths and weaknesses, and mediators of use of the website. We analyzed the data using a qualitative descriptive approach and inductive thematic analysis. Eighty-one participants (mean age 57.2 years, standard deviation 12) were included in the analysis. The self-efficacy score did not improve significantly more than expected after nine months (absolute change 0.12; 95% confidence interval -0.028, 0.263; p = 0.11), nor did clinical outcomes. Website usage was limited (average 0.7 logins/month). Analysis of the interviews (n = 21) revealed four themes: 1) mediators of website use; 2) patterns of website use, including role of the blog in driving site traffic; 3) feedback on website; and 4) potential mechanisms for website effect. A self-management website for patients with type 2 diabetes did not improve self-efficacy. Website use was limited
Promoting and supporting self-management for adults living in the community with physical chronic illness: A systematic review of the effectiveness and meaningfulness of the patient-practitioner encounter.
Rees, Sally; Williams, Anne
example, people with diabetes, asthma, arthritis, coronary disease, lung disease, heart failure, epilepsy, kidney disease and inflammatory bowel disease. Since patients meet various professionals in a variety of community settings regarding their care, a practitioner in this review included doctors (physicians and General Practitioners), nurses, nurse specialists, dieticians, podiatrists and community health workers.A variety of outcomes measures was used to evaluate effective self-care management. These included physiological measurements such as: HbA1c, blood pressure, body weight, lipids; lifestyle measurements, for example physical activity; and self-care determinants such as knowledge, attitude; and self-care behaviours regarding, for example, diet and physical exercise, and medication. The outcome measures used to explore the meaningfulness of the patient-practitioner encounter, concerned patients', physicians' and nurses' views and perceptions of self-care management and support.The review considered all types of quantitative and qualitative evidence regarding the patient-practitioner encounter where self-care in chronic illness was the focus. The quantitative studies reviewed included systematic reviews, randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-experimental studies, and survey studies.Qualitative studies reviewed included interview designs, vignette technique, qualitative evaluation, grounded theory, and exploratory descriptive design. The search sought to find both published and unpublished studies between 1990 and 2005. The year 1990 was deemed appropriate since it precedes the development of the Chronic Care Model in which self-management support for people living with chronic illness is heralded as an important part of care-management. An initial search of CINAHL and MEDLINE databases was undertaken to identify appropriate search terms regarding self-care and chronic illness. A search strategy was then developed using all identified MeSH headings and key
Pfaeffli Dale, Leila; Whittaker, Robyn; Jiang, Yannan; Stewart, Ralph; Rolleston, Anna; Maddison, Ralph
Mobile technology has the potential to deliver behavior change interventions (mHealth) to reduce coronary heart disease (CHD) at modest cost. Previous studies have focused on single behaviors; however, cardiac rehabilitation (CR), a component of CHD self-management, needs to address multiple risk factors. The aim was to investigate the effectiveness of a mHealth-delivered comprehensive CR program (Text4Heart) to improve adherence to recommended lifestyle behaviors (smoking cessation, physical activity, healthy diet, and nonharmful alcohol use) in addition to usual care (traditional CR). A 2-arm, parallel, randomized controlled trial was conducted in New Zealand adults diagnosed with CHD. Participants were recruited in-hospital and were encouraged to attend center-based CR (usual care control). In addition, the intervention group received a personalized 24-week mHealth program, framed in social cognitive theory, sent by fully automated daily short message service (SMS) text messages and a supporting website. The primary outcome was adherence to healthy lifestyle behaviors measured using a self-reported composite health behavior score (≥3) at 3 and 6 months. Secondary outcomes included clinical outcomes, medication adherence score, self-efficacy, illness perceptions, and anxiety and/or depression at 6 months. Baseline and 6-month follow-up assessments (unblinded) were conducted in person. Eligible patients (N=123) recruited from 2 large metropolitan hospitals were randomized to the intervention (n=61) or the control (n=62) group. Participants were predominantly male (100/123, 81.3%), New Zealand European (73/123, 59.3%), with a mean age of 59.5 (SD 11.1) years. A significant treatment effect in favor of the intervention was observed for the primary outcome at 3 months (AOR 2.55, 95% CI 1.12-5.84; P=.03), but not at 6 months (AOR 1.93, 95% CI 0.83-4.53; P=.13). The intervention group reported significantly greater medication adherence score (mean difference: 0
Sampayo, Esther M; McLoughlin, Robert J; Tsevdos, Despina; Alam, Sartaj; Zorc, Joseph J
Although National Asthma Guidelines recommend that emergency department (ED) physicians consider initiating controller medications, research suggests that this practice occurs infrequently. The goal of this study was to assess primary care pediatricians' (PCP) beliefs and attitudes regarding ED initiation of controller medications for children with persistent asthma symptoms. This was a cross-sectional mail survey of a randomly selected national sample of pediatricians from the American Academy of Pediatrics. The survey posed questions regarding beliefs, barriers, and support for national guideline recommendations. Eight hundred eighty-six (44.3%) of 2000 subjects responded. Five hundred seventy-two (64.5%) respondents met eligibility for analysis. When presented with a vignette of a child with persistent asthma, 476 (83%) of PCPs felt it was appropriate for the ED physician to initiate controller medications. Most (80%) PCPs supported the national guideline recommendation, although a similar proportion reported they have never or rarely experienced this practice before. Only 11% opposed the practice in all circumstances. Beliefs supporting this practice included the following: opportunity to capture patients lost to follow-up (85%), reinforcement of daily use of controller medications (83%), and controller medication may shorten an acute exacerbation (53%). Barriers included lack of time for education in ED (65%), reinforcement of ED use for primary care (64%), lack of PCP communication (62%), and inability to assess severity appropriately (41%). Most (90%) PCPs expect communication from the ED provider. A majority of pediatricians support the practice of ED physicians initiating controller medication during an acute visit for asthma. Communication with the PCP, appropriate screening of severity, and education about controller medications were important considerations expressed by these providers.
Hanahan, Melissa A.; Werner, James J.; Tomsik, Phillip; Weirich, Stephen A.; Reichsman, Ann; Navracruz, Lisa; Clemons-Clark, Terri; Cella, Peggi; Terchek, Joshua; Munson, Michelle R.
Objective To determine how medically uninsured patients with limited material resources successfully manage diabetes. Methods Clinicians at 5 safety net practices enrolled uninsured adult patients (N=26) with prior diagnosis of diabetes for 6 months or longer. Patients were interviewed about enabling factors, motivations, resources, and barriers. Chart reviews and clinician surveys supplemented interview data. Interview, survey, and chart review data were analyzed and findings were summarized. Results Two distinct groups of patients were investigated: 1) “successful,” defined as those with an HbA1c of ≤7% or a recent improvement of at least 2% (n=17); and 2) “unsuccessful,” defined as patients with HbA1c of ≥9% (n=9) without recent improvement. In comparison to unsuccessful patients, successful patients more often reported having friends or family with diabetes, sought information about the disease, used evidence-based self-management strategies, held an accurate perception of their own disease control, and experienced “turning point” events that motivated increased efforts in disease management. Conclusions Uninsured safety net patients who successfully managed diabetes learned from friends and family with diabetes and leveraged disease-related events into motivational turning points. It may be beneficial for clinicians to incorporate social learning and motivational enhancement into diabetes interventions to increase patients’ motivation for improved levels of self-management. PMID:21671529
Staunæs, Dorthe; Bjerg, Helle
of management of self-management in two ways. Firstly, by thinking management of self-management trough concepts from what has become known as the affective turn. Secondly, by illustrating the precise mechanisms of management of self-management in every day life and thereby pointing to how management of self...... to recognition, but is also linked to the production of shame or at least potential shame. This argument is developed theoretically from Brian Massumi's theory on affectivity and intensity combined with Silvan Tomkins's theory of shame as the most self-reflexive affect of all affects. In order to exemplify...... Critical studies on management of self-management and governmentality have primarily been occupied with the production of identities, subject positions and the reflexive elements of self-management. The aim of this article is to challenge and contribute to the field of critical studies...
Bingham, Peter M; Crane, Ian; Manning, Sarah Waterman
Although asthma self-management depends on ongoing and accurate self-assessment by the patient, pediatric asthma patients have weak skills in the area of symptom perception. Before developing an asthma game targeted to improving asthma self-management and improved symptom awareness, we sought to identify gaps in existing games. To clarify the role of relatedness and autonomy in asthma health game design, we investigated symptom awareness, vocabulary, and self-determination through a series of semi-structured interviews with children suffering from asthma. Using self-determination theory as a framework, interviews were oriented to patients' illness experience and vocabulary related to symptomatology, as well as to recreational activities. Formative analysis of the interviews reveals attitudes, perceptions, and motivational factors arising in the context of childhood asthma, and it elucidates the images and vocabulary associated with both illness experience and recreational activities. Qualitative assessment of patient perspectives leads to specific recommendations for game design ideas that will support market entry of a spirometer-controlled game for children with asthma.
Integrating nurse-led Self-Management Support (SMS) in routine primary care: design of a hybrid effectiveness-implementation study among type 2 diabetes patients with problems of daily functioning and emotional distress: a study protocol.
van Dijk-de Vries, Anneke; van Bokhoven, Marloes A; Terluin, Berend; van der Weijden, Trudy; van Eijk, Jacques Th M
Psychosocial problems are more prevalent among patients with chronic diseases than among the general population. They may lead to a downward spiral of poor adherence, deterioration of the condition and decline in daily functioning. In addition to medical management, systematic attention to emotional and role management tasks during routine chronic care seems mandatory. We intend to integrate an existing nurse-led minimal psychological intervention to support patients' self-management, which appeared to be effective and cost-effective, in routine care by primary care nurses, so we adjusted it to fit the host setting. The resulting Self-Management Support (SMS) programme involves early detection of patients with emotional distress and problems of daily functioning, as well as self-management support through problem solving and reattribution techniques. Strategies to embed SMS in daily practice include training and booster sessions for practice nurses as well as organisational and financial arrangements. This study aims to simultaneously evaluate the implementation process and effects of SMS in routine care, using a hybrid effectiveness-implementation design. Registration data, questionnaires and interviews will be used to explore the facilitators, barriers and costs regarding successful implementation of SMS. The effects of SMS will be evaluated in a pragmatic cluster-randomised controlled trial with a baseline measurement and follow-up measurements after 4 and 12 months. The population will consist of 46 practice nurses and their type 2 diabetes patients (N = 460; 10 per practice nurse). The practice nurses will be randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Practice nurses of the intervention group will receive SMS training. Patients for the intervention and control groups will be recruited by a researcher-led self-administered screening procedure to decide which patients of those scheduled for routine consultation are likely to be detected by the
Self-management support using an Internet-linked tablet computer (the EDGE platform)-based intervention in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: protocol for the EDGE-COPD randomised controlled trial.
Farmer, Andrew; Toms, Christy; Hardinge, Maxine; Williams, Veronika; Rutter, Heather; Tarassenko, Lionel
The potential for telehealth-based interventions to provide remote support, education and improve self-management for long-term conditions is increasingly recognised. This trial aims to determine whether an intervention delivered through an easy-to-use tablet computer can improve the quality of life of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by providing personalised self-management information and education. The EDGE (sElf management anD support proGrammE) for COPD is a multicentre, randomised controlled trial designed to assess the efficacy of an Internet-linked tablet computer-based intervention (the EDGE platform) in improving quality of life in patients with moderate to very severe COPD compared with usual care. Eligible patients are randomly allocated to receive the tablet computer-based intervention or usual care in a 2:1 ratio using a web-based randomisation system. Participants are recruited from respiratory outpatient clinics and pulmonary rehabilitation courses as well as from those recently discharged from hospital with a COPD-related admission and from primary care clinics. Participants allocated to the tablet computer-based intervention complete a daily symptom diary and record clinical symptoms using a Bluetooth-linked pulse oximeter. Participants allocated to receive usual care are provided with all the information given to those allocated to the intervention but without the use of the tablet computer or the facility to monitor their symptoms or physiological variables. The primary outcome of quality of life is measured using the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire for COPD patients (SGRQ-C) baseline, 6 and 12 months. Secondary outcome measures are recorded at these intervals in addition to 3 months. The Research Ethics Committee for Berkshire-South Central has provided ethical approval for the conduct of the study in the recruiting regions. The results of the study will be disseminated through peer review publications and
Watson, Rob; Castleden, Heather; Masuda, Jeffrey; King, Malcolm; Stewart, Miriam
Asthma is the most common chronic condition affecting Aboriginal youth aged 8 to 12 years in Canada. Research investigating psychosocial challenges associated with asthma is limited. This study examines support resources, support-seeking strategies, support and education needs, and intervention preferences of Aboriginal youth with asthma and their caregivers in an effort to encourage community-wide, health-promoting behaviors. We employed a community-based participatory research design to conduct interviews with 21 youths aged 8 to 12 years and 17 caregivers from 5 Mi'kmaq communities in Unama'ki (Cape Breton) Nova Scotia, Canada. After conducting interviews that explored existing and desired social, educational, and health support in participating communities, we held a 2-day asthma camp to engage participants in asthma education, social support networking, and cultural activities. At the camp, we collected data through participant observation, sharing circles, focus groups, and youth drawings of their experiences living with asthma. Our study yielded 4 key findings: 1) asthma triggers included household mold, indoor smoking, pets, season change, strenuous exercise, extreme cold, and humidity; 2) social and educational support is lacking in Mi'kmaq communities despite a strong desire for these services; 3) cultural, linguistic, and geographic barriers to accessing support exist; and 4) family members are primary support resources. Improved support and educational resources are needed to foster effective Mi'kmaq asthma support networks. Future asthma interventions for marginalized populations must be culturally meaningful and linguistically accessible to those using and providing asthma support.
Full Text Available Swetha Narahari Pathak,1 Pauline L Scott,1 Cameron West,1 Steven R Feldman,1–3 1Center for Dermatology Research, Departments of Dermatology, 2Center for Dermatology Research, Departments of Pathology, 3Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA Abstract: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disorder effecting the skin and joints. Additionally, multiple comorbidities exist, including cardiovascular, metabolic, and psychiatric. The chronic nature of psoriasis is often frustrating for both patients and physicians alike. Many options for treatment exist, though successful disease management rests largely on patients through the application of topical corticosteroids, Vitamin D analogs, and calcineurin inhibitors, amongst others and the administration of systemic medications such as biologics and methotrexate. Phototherapy is another option that also requires active participation from the patient. Many barriers to effective self-management of psoriasis exist. Successful treatment requires the establishment of a strong doctor-patient relationship and patient empowerment in order to maximize adherence to a treatment regimen and improve outcomes. Improving patient adherence to treatment is necessary in effective self-management. Many tools exist to educate and empower patients, including online sources such as the National Psoriasis Foundation and online support group, Talk Psoriasis, amongst others. Effective self management is critical in decreasing the physical burden of psoriasis and mitigating its multiple physical, psychological, and social comorbidities, which include obesity, cardiovascular disease, alcohol dependence, depression, anxiety, and social anxiety. Keywords: psoriasis, adherence, self management, compliance
Kroon, Féline P B; van der Burg, Lennart R A; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Osborne, Richard H; Johnston, Renea V; Pitt, Veronica
%); social integration and support were addressed in only 12%. Most studies did not provide enough information to assess all PROGRESS-Plus items. Eight studies included predominantly Caucasian, educated female participants, and only four provided any information on participants' health literacy. All studies were at high risk of performance and detection bias for self-reported outcomes; 20 studies were at high risk of selection bias, 16 were at high risk of attrition bias, two were at high risk of reporting bias and 12 were at risk of other biases. We deemed attention control as the most appropriate and thus the main comparator.Compared with attention control, self-management programmes may not result in significant benefits at 12 months. Low-quality evidence from one study (344 people) indicates that self-management skills were similar in active and control groups: 5.8 points on a 10-point self-efficacy scale in the control group, and the mean difference (MD) between groups was 0.4 points (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.39 to 1.19). Low-quality evidence from four studies (575 people) indicates that self-management programmes may lead to a small but clinically unimportant reduction in pain: the standardised mean difference (SMD) between groups was -0.26 (95% CI -0.44 to -0.09); pain was 6 points on a 0 to 10 visual analogue scale (VAS) in the control group, treatment resulted in a mean reduction of 0.8 points (95% CI -0.14 to -0.3) on a 10-point scale, with number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) of 8 (95% CI 5 to 23). Low-quality evidence from one study (251 people) indicates that the mean global osteoarthritis score was 4.2 on a 0 to 10-point symptom scale (lower better) in the control group, and treatment reduced symptoms by a mean of 0.14 points (95% CI -0.54 to 0.26). This result does not exclude the possibility of a clinically important benefit in some people (0.5 point reduction included in 95% CI). Low-quality evidence from three studies
Full Text Available Similar to other parts of the world, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in the Asia-Pacific Region has rapidly increased during the last few decades. The purposes of this pilot study were to determine the feasibility and the effects of a capacity building program for Village Health Volunteers (VHVs to support self-management in a T2DM high risk population from a rural subdistrict in Northeast Thailand. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected using surveys, focus group discussions, and in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed and used to develop a 12-week capacity building program for VHVs. This program was then implemented on 60 subjects at high risk of T2DM in the selected community. According to the paired t-test and Wilcoxon-signed rank test, VHVs had higher scores on knowledge and self-efficacy of T2DM prevention after a 12 week intervention (p = .03 and p = .02, respectively. Study participants at risk for T2DM also had a significant increase in T2DM knowledge and self-management (p < .001. Implementation of the capacity building program for VHVs in Northeast Thailand was feasible. The key successes were strong community bonding, community empowerment, and support from family and public health nurses. Effects of the program should be examined with those in other Asia-Pacific countries.
Full Text Available Rebecca J Bartlett Ellis,1 Ulla Connor,2 James Marshall21Indiana University School of Nursing, 2Indiana University School of Liberal Arts, International Center for Intercultural Communication, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN, USA Purpose: This study evaluated the feasibility of developing linguistically tailored educational messages designed to match the linguistic styles of patients segmented into types with the Descriptor™, and to determine patient preferences for tailored or standard messages based on their segments. Patients and methods: Twenty patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM were recruited from a diabetes health clinic. Participants were segmented using the Descriptor™, a language-based questionnaire, to identify patient types based on their control orientation (internal/external, agency (high/low, and affect (positive/negative, which are well studied constructs related to T2DM self-management. Two of the seven self-care behaviors described by the American Association of Diabetes Educators (healthy eating and taking medication were used to develop standard messages and then linguistically tailored using features of the six different construct segment types of the Descriptor™. A subset of seven participants each provided feedback on their preference for standard or linguistically tailored messages; 12 comparisons between standard and tailored messages were made. Results: Overall, the tailored messages were preferred to the standard messages. When the messages were matched to specific construct segment types, the tailored messages were preferred over the standard messages, although this was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Linguistically tailoring messages based on construct segments is feasible. Furthermore, tailored messages were more often preferred over standard messages. This study provides some preliminary evidence for tailoring messages based on the linguistic features of control orientation, agency, and affect
Yeo, Hye Ju; Kim, Dohyung; Jeon, Doosoo; Kim, Yun Seong; Rycus, Peter; Cho, Woo Hyun
Background The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in cases of near-fatal asthma (NFA) has increased, but the benefits and potential complications of this therapy have yet to be fully investigated. Methods Cases were extracted from the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Registry between March 1992 and March 2016. All patients with a diagnosis of asthma (according to the International Classification of Diseases 9th edition), who also received ECMO, were extracted. Exclusion...
Bartlam, Bernadette; Rathod, Trishna; Rowlands, Gillian; Protheroe, Joanne
This article reports a mixed methods process evaluation of a pilot feasibility randomised controlled trial comparing a Lay Health Trainer (LHT) intervention and usual care for those with poorly controlled Type 2 Diabetes Melitus (T2DM). Set in a deprived area in the UK, this research explores patient and health care practitioner (HCP) views on whether a structured interview between a patient and a Lay Health Trainer (LHT), for the purpose of developing a tailored self-management plan for patients, is acceptable and likely to change health behaviours. In doing so, it considers the implications for a future, randomised controlled trial (RCT). Participants were patients, LHTs delivering the intervention, service managers, and practice nurses recruiting patients to the study. Patients were purposively sampled on their responses to a baseline survey, and semistructured interviews were conducted within an exploratory thematic analysis framework. Findings indicate that the intervention is acceptable to patients and HCPs. However, LHTs found it challenging to work with older patients with long-term and/or complex conditions. In order to address this, given an ageing population and concomitant increases in those with such health needs, LHT training should develop skills working with these populations. The design of any future RCT intervention should take account of this.
Annelies Lucas EM
Full Text Available Abstract Background General practitioners (GPs can refer patients to an asthma/COPD service (AC-service for diagnostic assessment of spirometry and medical history and for asthma or COPD monitoring. The AC-service reports diagnostic results and additional information about disease burden (BORG-score for complaints, MRC-dyspnoea score, exacerbation rate, life style, medication and compliance, to the patient’s GP. This study explores how GPs use this additional information when discussing the patient’s disease burden and how this influences GPs’ information and education provision during consultations with asthma/COPD patients. Method Patients with (a suspicion of asthma or COPD were referred to an AC-service and consulted their GPs after they had received a report from the AC-service. Retrospectively patients answered questions about their GPs’ performance during these consultations. Performances were compared with performances of the same GPs during consultations without support of the AC-service (usual care, earlier that year. Results Of consultations not initiated by an AC-service check-up, 91% focussed on complaints, the initial reason for the consultation. In AC-service supported follow-up consultations, GPs explored disease burden when the (BORG-score for complaints was high - as reported by the AC-service - even when patients themselves thought it was irrelevant. GPs put significantly less effort in exploring disease burden when the Borg-score was low (BORG 3–4: 69%; BORG1-2: 51%, p = 0,01. GPs mostly ignored MRC-dyspnoea scores: attention to dyspnoea was 18% for MRC-score p = 0,63. GPs encouraged physical fitness in 13% of patients. Smoking behaviour was discussed with 66% of the actual smokers but only 14% remembered a stop smoking advice. Furthermore, pharmacotherapeutic management education in AC-service supported consultations did not differ from performance in usual care according to patient evaluations. Conclusion
Lawn, Sharon; McMillan, John; Pulvirenti, Mariastella
While self-management may be beneficial for many patients it assumes and encourages a particular conception of responsibility and self-management that may not fit with all patients' experience of their chronic conditions and their management. It therefore warrants further examination. We examine the concept of self-management and responsibility from a range of standpoints, focusing on the Australian context. Attempts to meet people's needs run the risk of imposing specific conceptions of how people should live their lives. While self-management appears to be consistent with placing patients' needs, values and priorities at the heart of healthcare, ill-defined assumptions about responsibility may confound these goals. Reflection on social determinants of health, the context in which patients seek self-management support from health services, and how their needs and preferences are listened to by health professionals, is critical for the collaborative self-management partnership between them to be effectively realized. Providing services without reflecting on the meaning of self-management for the person with chronic conditions creates unintended assumptions about responsibility, engagement and care provision which may serve to alienate and further stigmatise some patients. Often, these are the very patients with complex needs who need such service support the most. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Theory-driven group-based complex intervention to support self-management of osteoarthritis and low back pain in primary care physiotherapy: protocol for a cluster randomised controlled feasibility trial (SOLAS).
Hurley, Deirdre A; Hall, Amanda M; Currie-Murphy, Laura; Pincus, Tamar; Kamper, Steve; Maher, Chris; McDonough, Suzanne M; Lonsdale, Chris; Walsh, Nicola E; Guerin, Suzanne; Segurado, Ricardo; Matthews, James
International clinical guidelines consistently endorse the promotion of self-management (SM), including physical activity for patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) and osteoarthritis (OA). Patients frequently receive individual treatment and advice to self-manage from physiotherapists in primary care, but the successful implementation of a clinical and cost-effective group SM programme is a key priority for health service managers in Ireland to maximise long-term outcomes and efficient use of limited and costly resources. This protocol describes an assessor-blinded cluster randomised controlled feasibility trial of a group-based education and exercise intervention underpinned by self-determination theory designed to support an increase in SM behaviour in patients with CLBP and OA in primary care physiotherapy. The primary care clinic will be the unit of randomisation (cluster), with each clinic randomised to 1 of 2 groups providing the Self-management of Osteoarthritis and Low back pain through Activity and Skills (SOLAS) intervention or usual individual physiotherapy. Patients are followed up at 6 weeks, 2 and 6 months. The primary outcomes are the (1) acceptability and demand of the intervention to patients and physiotherapists, (2) feasibility and optimal study design/procedures and sample size for a definitive trial. Secondary outcomes include exploratory analyses of: point estimates, 95% CIs, change scores and effect sizes in physical function, pain and disability outcomes; process of change in target SM behaviours and selected mediators; and the cost of the intervention to inform a definitive trial. This feasibility trial protocol was approved by the UCD Human Research Ethics-Sciences Committee (LS-13-54 Currie-Hurley) and research access has been granted by the Health Services Executive Primary Care Research Committee in January 2014. The study findings will be disseminated to the research, clinical and health service communities through publication in
Full Text Available Objectives: Self-management is widely promoted but evidence of effectiveness is limited. Policy encourages health care professionals to support people with long-term conditions to learn self-management skills, yet little is known about the extent to which both parties share a common understanding of self-management. Thus, we compared health care professional and lay understandings of self-management of long-term conditions. Methods: Systematic review and narrative synthesis of qualitative studies identified from relevant electronic databases, hand-searching of references lists, citation tracking and recommendations by experts. Results: In total, 55 studies were included and quality was assessed using a brief quality assessment tool. Three conceptual themes, each with two subthemes were generated: traditional and shifting models of the professional–patient relationship (self-management as a tool to promote compliance; different expectations of responsibility; quality of relationship between health care professional and lay person (self-management as a collaborative partnership; self-management as tailored support and putting self-management into everyday practice (the lived experience of self-management; self-management as a social practice. Conclusion: Self-management was conceptualised by health care professionals as incorporating both a biomedical model of compliance and individual responsibility. Lay people understood self-management in wider terms, reflecting biomedical, psychological and social domains and different expectations of responsibility. In different ways, both deviated from the dominant model of self-management underpinned by the concept of self-efficacy. Different understandings help to explain how self-management is practised and may help to account for limited evidence of effectiveness of self-management interventions.
Mohn, J; Graue, M; Assmus, J
AIM: To investigate the associations of self-perceived competence in diabetes management and autonomy support from healthcare providers with diabetes distress in adults with Type 1 diabetes mellitus that is not optimally controlled [HbA(1c) ≥ 64 mmol/mol (8.0%)]. METHODS: This cross-sectional study...... comprised blood sampling and three self-report questionnaires, the Problem Areas in Diabetes scale, the Perceived Competence in Diabetes Scale and a measure of autonomy support by healthcare providers, the Health Care Climate Questionnaire. We fitted blockwise linear regression models to assess...... with greater perceived distress. CONCLUSIONS: There was an indirect (fully mediated) relationship between autonomy support and diabetes distress; autonomy support was associated with increased perceived competence, which, in turn, was associated with reduced distress. Healthcare providers' communication styles...
Eikenhorst, L. van; Dijk, L. van; Taxis, K; Gier, H. de
Background Treatment of diabetes requires a strict treatment scheme which demands patient self-management. Pharmacists are in a good position to provide self-management support. This review examines whether pharmacist-led interventions to support self-management in diabetes patients improve clinical
Full Text Available The study examined the motives that people living with type 2 diabetes (T2D had for self-managing their condition and ways they used to assess the success of their self-management efforts. Using semistructured interviews (N=25, focus groups (3 × N=12 participants, and open-ended questionnaires (N=6, people living with and self-managing T2D were recruited from a community-based T2D participation group. Most participants were older (aged 60+ and lived in a socioeconomically deprived area in the United Kingdom. Data were analysed thematically using framework analysis. Patients’ motives for self-management included (i concern about the anticipative effects of T2D; (ii wishing to “stay well”; (iii maintaining independence; (iv reducing the need for healthcare professionals; and (v improving quality of life. Six self-management styles were found and pertained to self-managing: (i through routinisation; (ii as a burden; (iii as maintenance; (iv through delegation; (v through comanagement; and (vi through autonomy. Motivators for self-management shaped the criteria people used to judge the success of their self-management practices and influenced their self-management style. The findings show that styles of T2D self-management are mediated and moderated by sociocontextual issues. Healthcare professionals should take these into account when supporting people living with T2D.
Newton, Paul; Asimakopoulou, Koula; Scambler, Sasha
The study examined the motives that people living with type 2 diabetes (T2D) had for self-managing their condition and ways they used to assess the success of their self-management efforts. Using semistructured interviews (N = 25), focus groups (3 × N = 12 participants), and open-ended questionnaires (N = 6), people living with and self-managing T2D were recruited from a community-based T2D participation group. Most participants were older (aged 60+) and lived in a socioeconomically deprived area in the United Kingdom. Data were analysed thematically using framework analysis. Patients' motives for self-management included (i) concern about the anticipative effects of T2D; (ii) wishing to "stay well"; (iii) maintaining independence; (iv) reducing the need for healthcare professionals; and (v) improving quality of life. Six self-management styles were found and pertained to self-managing: (i) through routinisation; (ii) as a burden; (iii) as maintenance; (iv) through delegation; (v) through comanagement; and (vi) through autonomy. Motivators for self-management shaped the criteria people used to judge the success of their self-management practices and influenced their self-management style. The findings show that styles of T2D self-management are mediated and moderated by sociocontextual issues. Healthcare professionals should take these into account when supporting people living with T2D.
Hofer, Rebecca; Choi, Hwajung; Mase, Rebecca; Fagerlin, Angela; Spencer, Michael; Heisler, Michele
Objective. In a randomized controlled trial we compared two models of community health worker-led diabetes medication decision support for low-income Latino and African American adults with diabetes. Most outcomes were improved when community health workers used either an interactive e-Health tool or print materials. This article investigates…
Rademakers, J.; Jansen, D.; Hoek, L. van der; Heijmans, M.
Background: The aim of this study was to test the Dutch version of the Clinician Support for Patient Activation Measure (CS-PAM), to explore the beliefs of Dutch clinicians about patients’ selfmanagement, and to establish whether there are differences in this respect between general practitioners
Webel, Allison R; Asher, Alice; Cuca, Yvette; Okonsky, Jennifer G; Kaihura, Alphoncina; Dawson Rose, Carol; Hanson, Jan E; Salata, Robert A; Burant, Christopher J
To develop and validate the HIV Self-management Scale for women, a new measure of HIV self-management, defined as the day-to-day decisions that individuals make to manage their illness. The development and validation of the scale was undertaken in 3 phases: focus groups, expert review, and psychometric evaluation. Focus groups identified items describing the process and context of self-management in women living with HIV/AIDS (WLHA). Items were refined using expert review and were then administered to WLHA in 2 sites in the United States (n = 260). Validity of the scale was assessed through factor analyses, model fit statistics, reliability testing, and convergent and discriminate validity. The final scale consists of 3 domains with 20 items describing the construct of HIV self-management. Daily self-management health practices, social support and HIV self-management, and chronicity of HIV self-management comprise the 3 domains. These domains explained 48.6% of the total variance in the scale. The item mean scores ranged from 1.7 to 2.8, and each domain demonstrated acceptable reliability (0.72-0.86) and stability (0.61-0.85). Self-management is critical for WLHA, who constitute over 50% of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and have poorer health outcomes than their male counterparts. Methods to assess the self-management behavior of WLHA are needed to enhance their health and wellbeing. Presently, no scales exist to measure HIV self-management. Our new 20-item HIV Self-management Scale is a valid and reliable measure of HIV self-management in this population. Differences in aspects of self-management may be related to social roles and community resources, and interventions targeting these factors may decrease morbidity in WLHA.
Medvedev, B. A.; Skaptsov, A. A.; Polikarpov, M. A.
How to improve physicist's creativity? How one can make himself an instrument for creativity? What is the role of the humanities in initiation of intuitive moments in thinking? The problems are discussed in terms of such modern conception as Self-management, in context of the dialogue between nature and human being by Prigogine, "Farther reaches of human nature" by Maslow, and mathematical approach for modeling of mental structure elements.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dizziness is a very common symptom that often leads to reduced quality of life, anxiety and emotional distress, loss of fitness, lack of confidence in balance, unsteadiness and an increased risk of falling. Most dizzy patients are managed in primary care by reassurance and medication to suppress symptoms. Trials have shown that chronic dizziness can be treated effectively in primary care using a self-help booklet to teach patients vestibular rehabilitation exercises that promote neurological adaptation and skill and confidence in balance. However, brief support from a trained nurse was provided in these trials, and this model of managing dizzy patients has not been taken up due to a lack of skills and resources in primary care. The aim of this trial is to evaluate two new alternative models of delivery that may be more feasible and cost-effective. Methods/Design In a single blind two-centre pragmatic controlled trial, we will randomise 330 patients from 30 practices to a self-help booklet with telephone support from a vestibular therapist, b self-help booklet alone, c routine medical care. Symptoms, disability, handicap and quality of life will be assessed by validated questionnaires administered by post at baseline, immediately post-treatment (3 months, and at one year follow-up. The study is powered to test our primary hypothesis, that the self-help booklet with telephone support will be more effective than routine care. We will also explore the effectiveness of the booklet without any support, and calculate the costs of treatment in each arm. Discussion If our trial indicates that patients can cost-effectively manage their dizziness in primary care, then it can be easily rolled out to relieve the symptoms of the many patients in primary care who currently have chronic, untreated, disabling dizziness. Treatment in primary care may reduce the development of psychological and physical sequelae that cause handicap and require
Wong-Rieger, Durhane; Rieger, Francis P
To effectively manage diabetes mellitus, patients must adhere to treatment recommendations and healthy lifestyle behaviors, but research shows many patients do not do this. Education is effective when combined with self-management support but peer-support programs do not lead to lasting changes. Health coaching, or professional support, can be highly effective if it focuses on developing self-efficacy and skills such as goal-setting, problem-solving and managing cognitive and emotional barriers. This overview discusses the benefits of patient self-management for chronic conditions such as diabetes, core competencies for health coaching, theoretical bases and principles of health coaching interventions, delivery methods and the evidence that health coaching works for diabetes self-management. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kaylor-Hughes, Catherine J; Rawsthorne, Mat; Coulson, Neil S; Simpson, Sandra; Simons, Lucy; Guo, Boliang; James, Marilyn; Moran, Paul; Simpson, Jayne; Hollis, Chris; Avery, Anthony J; Tata, Laila J; Williams, Laura; Morriss, Richard K
Regardless of geography or income, effective help for depression and anxiety only reaches a small proportion of those who might benefit from it. The scale of the problem suggests a role for effective, safe, anonymized public health-driven Web-based services such as Big White Wall (BWW), which offer immediate peer support at low cost. Using Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance (RE-AIM) methodology, the aim of this study was to determine the population reach, effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and barriers and drivers to implementation of BWW compared with Web-based information compiled by UK's National Health Service (NHS, NHS Choices Moodzone) in people with probable mild to moderate depression and anxiety disorder. A pragmatic, parallel-group, single-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) is being conducted using a fully automated trial website in which eligible participants are randomized to receive either 6 months access to BWW or signposted to the NHS Moodzone site. The recruitment of 2200 people to the study will be facilitated by a public health engagement campaign involving general marketing and social media, primary care clinical champions, health care staff, large employers, and third sector groups. People will refer themselves to the study and will be eligible if they are older than 16 years, have probable mild to moderate depression or anxiety disorders, and have access to the Internet. The primary outcome will be the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale at 6 weeks. We will also explore the reach, maintenance, cost-effectiveness, and barriers and drivers to implementation and possible mechanisms of actions using a range of qualitative and quantitative methods. This will be the first fully digital trial of a direct to public online peer support program for common mental disorders. The potential advantages of adding this to current NHS mental health services and the challenges of designing a public health campaign and RCT of
Matiz, L Adriana; Robbins-Milne, Laura; Krause, M Christine; Peretz, Patricia J; Rausch, John C
This study aimed to evaluate the impact of information technology tools on the outcomes of children with asthma in the medical home. A registry was established for children aged 4 to 18 years with an ICD-9 code for asthma. Changes to the electronic health record included modifications to notes, care plans, and orders. A retrospective analysis of emergency department and in-patient utilization for a cohort of patients was conducted from July 2009 through June 2013. Of the study population (n = 1217), 65% had a classification of asthma severity and 63% were risk-stratified. Seventy percent had a control assessment at least once. Care plan use increased from 5% to 22% and enrollment in care coordination increased from 0.1% to 4%. After 3 years, there was a reduction of emergency department and inpatient admissions for asthma (P technology tools was associated with improved asthma outcomes. © The Author(s) 2015.
Huygens, M.W.J.; Vermeulen, J.; Swinkels, I.C.S.; Friele, R.D.; Schayck, O.C.P. van; Witte, L.P. de
Background: Self-management is considered as an essential component of chronic care by primary care professionals. eHealth is expected to play an important role in supporting patients in their self-management. For effective implementation of eHealth it is important to investigate patients’
Huygens, Martine W. J.; Vermeulen, Joan; Swinkels, Ilse C. S.; Friele, R.D.; Van Schayck, Onno C. P.; De Witte, Luc P.
Background Self-management is considered as an essential component of chronic care by primary care professionals. eHealth is expected to play an important role in supporting patients in their self-management. For effective implementation of eHealth it is important to investigate patients’
Implementation of a nurse-led education programme for chronic heart failure patients during hospitalisation, and strategies supporting their self-management at home: a practice development project in the context of the Swiss healthcare system
Full Text Available Aim: This study focuses on nursing practice for patients with chronic heart failure (CHF. The aim is to reflect on a practice development project to improve patient care in a person-centred way and to implement evidence into practice. The project consists of two phases with individual aims and evaluation processes. Part one describes the development, implementation and evaluation of an education programme for CHF patients. The goal is to change nursing culture by involving the healthcare team and to build up skills and expertise. Part two describes the further development of the programme through integration of the patients’ perspective. Methods: A person-centred approach formed the basis for changing nursing practice. The development and implementation of the CHF programme was carried out via action research, to expand the healthcare team’s knowledge and improve patient outcomes. A mixed methods design was chosen for the evaluation of the pilot programme. Grounded theory was used to examine the perspective of the patients. Findings: In the first project phase, an educational programme for CHF patients was developed using action research. Key elements were multiple training sessions for nurses and skills training for hospitalised CHF patients. The educational topics were based on the patients’ needs. The programme evaluation showed that the patients were well prepared for hospital discharge but that their needs concerning their living situation were not sufficiently considered. Patients were not adequately prepared for the problems that occurred once they were at home. The second phase of the project focused on patients’ perspectives. Using the grounded theory method, a model explaining factors that benefit or hinder self-management was developed. The key phenomenon in this method was intrinsic motivation for self-management, meaning the ability to achieve the feeling of being ‘at ease with oneself’. Conclusion: Initiating change in
Fathima, Mariam; Peiris, David; Naik-Panvelkar, Pradnya; Saini, Bandana; Armour, Carol Lyn
The use of computerized clinical decision support systems may improve the diagnosis and ongoing management of chronic diseases, which requires recurrent visits to multiple health professionals, disease and medication monitoring and modification of patient behavior. The aim of this review was to systematically review randomized controlled trials evaluating the effectiveness of computerized clinical decision systems (CCDSS) in the care of people with asthma and COPD. Randomized controlled trials published between 2003 and 2013 were searched using multiple electronic databases Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, IPA, Informit, PsychINFO, Compendex, and Cochrane Clinical Controlled Trials Register databases. To be included, RCTs had to evaluate the role of the CCDSSs for asthma and/or COPD in primary care. Nineteen studies representing 16 RCTs met our inclusion criteria. The majority of the trials were conducted in patients with asthma. Study quality was generally high. Meta-analysis was not conducted because of methodological and clinical heterogeneity. The use of CCDSS improved asthma and COPD care in 14 of the 19 studies reviewed (74%). Nine of the nineteen studies showed statistically significant (p < 0.05) improvement in the primary outcomes measured. The majority of the studies evaluated health care process measures as their primary outcomes (10/19). Evidence supports the effectiveness of CCDSS in the care of people with asthma. However there is very little information of its use in COPD care. Although there is considerable improvement in the health care process measures and clinical outcomes through the use of CCDSSs, its effects on user workload and efficiency, safety, costs of care, provider and patient satisfaction remain understudied.
... asthma diary is another way to help manage asthma. Tracking your child's symptoms and medicines will help you know when ... When to Go to the ER if Your Child Has Asthma Do Allergies Cause Asthma? Allergy Shots Asthma Center ...
Chronic low back pain and osteoarthritis are two musculoskeletal problems that are highly prevalent in the general population, are frequently episodic and persistent, and are associated with high costs to society, both direct and indirect. This epidemiological picture provides the background that justifies the use of self-management strategies in managing these problems. For this Review, relevant systematic reviews were included that related to effectiveness; other study designs were included that addressed other aspects of the topic. The accepted definition of self-management includes liaison between health professionals and individuals with these problems, as well as independent health-promotion activities. Independent self-management strategies, such as exercise and self-medication, are practiced by individuals in the general population. Consistent evidence shows that self-management programs for osteoarthritis are effective in addressing pain and function, but effect sizes are small and might be clinically negligible. Educational programs for patients with back pain are effective in an occupational setting and if combined with an exercise program. Exercise is an effective strategy in the management of both chronic low back pain and osteoarthritis, although it is unclear what the optimum exercise is. Exercise, supported by advice and education, should be at the core of self-management strategies for chronic low back pain and osteoarthritis.
Novak, Marta; Costantini, Lucia; Schneider, Sabrina; Beanlands, Heather
Management of a chronic medical condition is a complex process and requires coordinated action between healthcare providers and patients. This process is further complicated by the fact that an increasing number of patients suffer from multiple chronic conditions. Self-management involves active participation of the patients in the everyday care of the symptoms of their illness(es) and medical treatments, as well as maintaining general health and prevention of progression of medical conditions. Managing the psychosocial consequences of illness is also an important component of self-management. Data have demonstrated that enhancing self-management improves quality of life, coping, symptom management, disability, and reduces healthcare expenditures and service utilization. To foster self-management, potential barriers to implementation as well as facilitators and supports for this approach must be acknowledged. In this article, we review various aspects of self-management in chronic illness, focusing on chronic kidney disease. Better understanding of these concepts will facilitate patient-provider collaboration, improve patient care with increased patient and staff satisfaction, and may ultimately result in better clinical outcomes and enhanced quality of life for both the patients and their families. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Chong, Phui Nah; Tan, Ngiap Chuan; Lim, Tow Keang
The Singapore National Asthma Program (SNAP) was launched in 2001 to address the high burden of asthma in Singapore. One component of the SNAP was directed at improving asthma control in the community by promoting preventive treatment with inhaled corticosteroids. This paper describes the program on prescription patterns of preventor and reliever medication for asthma in the polyclinics. We monitored the prescription pattern for asthma as the preventor-reliever (PR) drug ratio. The PR ratio was employed both as a positive feedback tool and as a key performance indicator (KPI) for the program. Individual clinics were encouraged to implement locally relevant and effective initiatives to increase the KPI and facilitate this process. The different methods included chronic care models, multidisciplinary teams, enhanced primary care clinics, pre-counselling screening, decision support tools, self-management support, a patient information system and community education. In the course of the program, the case load for asthma in the polyclinics increased by 31%. During the same period, the average PR ratio increased significantly from 0.68 to 1.80 (P <0.001). A simple audit and positive feedback program based on PR ratios, accompanied by sustained local quality improvement cycles has been associated with a significant shift in the drug treatment of asthma away from episodic quick relief medication towards long-term daily preventive treatment with inhaled steroids in polyclinics.
Elliott, Jennifer Padden; Marcotullio, Nicole; Skoner, David P; Lunney, Phil; Gentile, Deborah A
To evaluate the effectiveness of asthma education delivered by student pharmacists and to assess the impact of child and caregiver baseline asthma knowledge on asthma control in children. Student pharmacists developed and implemented asthma self-management education interventions for children and their caregivers and performed asthma screenings for children at a series of asthma camps. Eighty-seven children, ages 5-17 years, and their caregivers were enrolled in this study. A previously validated asthma questionnaire was modified to assess asthma knowledge among children and adults. Asthma knowledge increased significantly in children following participation in the education intervention (pasthma. A significant association was observed between caregiver baseline asthma knowledge and better asthma control in their children (p=0.019). The results of this study demonstrate that student pharmacist-delivered asthma education can positively impact asthma knowledge in children, and that caregivers' knowledge of asthma is strongly correlated with better asthma control in their children.
Ahmed, Sara; Bartlett, Susan J; Ernst, Pierre; Paré, Guy; Kanter, Maria; Perreault, Robert; Grad, Roland; Taylor, Laurel; Tamblyn, Robyn
Asthma is a prevalent and costly disease resulting in reduced quality of life for a large proportion of individuals. Effective patient self-management is critical for improving health outcomes. However, key aspects of self-management such as self-monitoring of behaviours and symptoms, coupled with regular feedback from the health care team, are rarely addressed or integrated into ongoing care. Health information technology (HIT) provides unique opportunities to facilitate this by providing a means for two way communication and exchange of information between the patient and care team, and access to their health information, presented in personalized ways that can alert them when there is a need for action. The objective of this study is to evaluate the acceptability and efficacy of using a web-based self-management system, My Asthma Portal (MAP), linked to a case-management system on asthma control, and asthma health-related quality of life. The trial is a parallel multi-centered 2-arm pilot randomized controlled trial. Participants are randomly assigned to one of two conditions: a) MAP and usual care; or b) usual care alone. Individuals will be included if they are between 18 and 70, have a confirmed asthma diagnosis, and their asthma is classified as not well controlled by their physician. Asthma control will be evaluated by calculating the amount of fast acting beta agonists recorded as dispensed in the provincial drug database, and asthma quality of life using the Mini Asthma Related Quality of Life Questionnaire. Power calculations indicated a needed total sample size of 80 subjects. Data are collected at baseline, 3, 6, and 9 months post randomization. Recruitment started in March 2010 and the inclusion of patients in the trial in June 2010. Self-management support from the care team is critical for improving chronic disease outcomes. Given the high volume of patients and time constraints during clinical visits, primary care physicians have limited time to
Rasmussen, Gitte Susanne; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen; Lomborg, Kirsten
The aim of this integrative review is to identify and discuss patient needs for education to support self-management in daily life with psoriasis. As psoriasis increasingly gains recognition as a serious chronic autoimmune skin disease with long-term impairment on the life course, and not mainly...
Hansen, Klaus Marius; Zhang, Weishan; Ingstrup, Mads
An issue in self-managed systems is that different abstractions and programming models are used on different architectural layers, leading to systems that are harder to build and understand. To alleviate this, we introduce a self-management approach which combines high-level Petri nets...... with the capability of distributed communication among nets. Organized in a three-layer goal management, change management, and component control architecture this allows for self-management in distributed systems. We validate the approach through the Flamenco/CPN middleware that allows for self-management of service...
A self-management approach using self-initiated action plans for symptoms with ongoing nurse support in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and comorbidities: the COPE-III study protocol.
Lenferink, Anke; Frith, Peter; van der Valk, Paul; Buckman, Julie; Sladek, Ruth; Cafarella, Paul; van der Palen, Job; Effing, Tanja
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) frequently coexists with other diseases. Whereas COPD action plans are currently part of usual care, they are less suitable and potentially unsafe for use in the presence of comorbidities. This study evaluates whether an innovative treatment approach directed towards COPD and frequently existing comorbidities can reduce COPD exacerbation days. We hypothesise that this approach, which combines self-initiated action plans and nurse support, will accelerate proper treatment actions and lead to better control of deteriorating symptoms. In this multicenter randomised controlled trial we aim to include 300 patients with COPD (GOLD II-IV), and with at least one comorbidity (cardiovascular disease, diabetes, anxiety and/or depression). Patients will be recruited from hospitals in the Netherlands (n = 150) and Australia (n = 150) and will be assigned to an intervention or control group. All patients will learn to complete daily symptom diaries for 12-months. Intervention group patients will participate in self-management training sessions to learn the use of individualised action plans for COPD and comorbidities, linked to the diary. The primary outcome is the number of COPD exacerbation days. Secondary outcomes include hospitalisations, quality of life, self-efficacy, adherence, patient's satisfaction and confidence, health care use and cost data. Intention-to-treat analyses (random effect negative binomial regression and random effect mixed models) and cost-effectiveness analyses will be performed. Prudence should be employed before extrapolating the use of COPD specific action plans in patients with comorbidities. This study evaluates the efficacy of tailored action plans for both COPD and common comorbidities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stewart, Miriam; Letourneau, Nicole; Masuda, Jeffrey R; Anderson, Sharon; McGhan, Shawna
Children with asthma and allergies experience social isolation and gaps in social support particularly from peers. The objective of this pilot study was to design and test an accessible online support intervention for these children. Support was delivered by peer mentors with asthma and allergies and a professional. Weekly support groups were conducted over 8 weeks using Go to Meeting and Club Penguin. Quantitative measures and a qualitative interview were administered. Significant increases in perceived support and support-seeking coping and trends in decreased loneliness emerged at post-test. Participants also reported increased self-confidence and satisfaction with the intervention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maathuis, Ivo; Verdezoto, N; Nunes, F; Jones, Valerie M.; Fitzpatrick, G; Oudshoorn, Nelly E.J.; Erik Grönvall, E
An important aim of telecare technologies for chronic patients is supporting self-management. Although patient involvement is crucial for successful implementation, any adaptation of telecare systems to needs of users requires explicit reflection regarding which form of self-management it should
provides educational material for the self management of asthma. Contact details are provided in Section G of. Additional Notes. Figure 1 is a summary of the treatment plan. D. ACHIEVE AND MONITOR CONTROL. Patients should be reviewed frequently until control is achieved and thereafter less often. A self management.
Laakkonen, Marja-Liisa; Hölttä, Eeva H; Savikko, Niina; Strandberg, Timo E; Suominen, Merja; Pitkälä, Kaisu H
After diagnosis of a dementing illness, patients and their spouses have many concerns related to the disease and their future. This often leads to poor psychological well-being and reduced health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of the family. Support for self-management skills has been proven to be an effective method to improve prognosis of asthma, heart failure and osteoarthritis. However, self-management interventions have not been studied in dementia. Therefore, our aim was to examine, in an objective-oriented group intervention, the efficacy of self-management support program (SMP) on the HRQoL of dementia patients and their spousal caregivers as well as on the sense of competence and psychological well-being of caregivers. During the years 2011 to 12, 160 dementia patients and their spouses will be recruited from memory clinics and randomized into two arms: 80 patients for group-based SMP sessions including topics selected by the participants, 80 patients will serve as controls in usual community care. Sessions may include topics on dementia, community services, active lifestyle and prevention for cognitive decline, spousal relationship, future planning and emotional well-being. The patients and spouses will have their separate group sessions (ten participants per group) once a week for eight weeks. Main outcome measures will be patients' HRQoL (15D) and spousal caregivers' HRQoL (RAND-36), and sense of competence (SCQ). Secondary measures will be caregivers' psychological well-being (GHQ-12) and coping resources, patients' depression, cognition and signs of frailty. Data concerning admissions to institutional care and the use and costs of health and social services will be collected during a two-year follow-up. This is a 'proof-of-concept' study to explore the efficacy of group support for self-management skills among dementia families. It will also provide data on cost-effectiveness of the intervention. ACTRN12611001173987.
Sol-de Rijk, B.G.M.
Summary The aim of this thesis was to provide insight into the potential of a self-management approach in treatment of vascular risk factors and to develop a self-management intervention. Furthermore to examine if this intervention, based on self-efficacy promoting theory, is effective in reducing
Self-management education may help patients with cystic fibrosis and their families to choose, monitor and adjust treatment requirements for their illness, and also to manage the effects of illness on their lives. Although self-management education interventions have been developed for cystic fibrosis, no previous systematic review of the evidence of effectiveness of these interventions has been conducted.
Masten, William G.; Caldwell-Colbert, A. Toy
While numerous approaches to inhibit smoking have appeared in the literature, self-management is one technique that allows the client to take a more active part in the treatment. To study the effectiveness of self-management in a single-subject design, an 18 year old female college student who smoked mostly on weekends was told to self-monitor her…
Weerheim, W. (Wilke); Van Rossum, L. (Lisa); Ten Have, W.D. (Wouter Dirk)
textabstractPurpose: Following health-care organisations, many mental health-care organisations nowadays consider starting to work with self-managing teams as their organisation structure. Although the concept could be effective, the way of implementing self-managing teams in an organisation is
Weerheim, Wilke; Van Rossum, Lisa; Ten Have, Wouter Dirk
Purpose: Following health-care organisations, many mental health-care organisations nowadays consider starting to work with self-managing teams as their organisation structure. Although the concept could be effective, the way of implementing self-managing teams in an organisation is crucial to
Huygens, Martine W J; Vermeulen, Joan; Swinkels, Ilse C S; Friele, Roland D; van Schayck, Onno C P; de Witte, Luc P
Self-management is considered as an essential component of chronic care by primary care professionals. eHealth is expected to play an important role in supporting patients in their self-management. For effective implementation of eHealth it is important to investigate patients' expectations and needs regarding self-management and eHealth. The objectives of this study are to investigate expectations and needs of people with a chronic condition regarding self-management and eHealth for self-management purposes, their willingness to use eHealth, and possible differences between patient groups regarding these topics. Five focus groups with people with diabetes (n = 14), COPD (n = 9), and a cardiovascular condition (n = 7) were conducted in this qualitative research. Separate focus groups were organized based on patients' chronic condition. The following themes were discussed: 1) the impact of the chronic disease on patients' daily life; 2) their opinions and needs regarding self-management; and 3) their expectations and needs regarding, and willingness to use, eHealth for self-management purposes. A conventional content analysis approach was used for coding. Patient groups seem to differ in expectations and needs regarding self-management and eHealth for self-management purposes. People with diabetes reported most needs and benefits regarding self-management and were most willing to use eHealth, followed by the COPD group. People with a cardiovascular condition mentioned having fewer needs for self-management support, because their disease had little impact on their life. In all patient groups it was reported that the patient, not the care professional, should choose whether or not to use eHealth. Moreover, participants reported that eHealth should not replace, but complement personal care. Many participants reported expecting feelings of anxiety by doing measurement themselves and uncertainty about follow-up of deviant data of measurements. In addition
Hanson, Tabitha K.; Aleman, Martha; Hart, Lacey; Yawn, Barbara
Background: Approximately 9% of school-aged children in the United States have asthma. Since 1997, the Asthma Action Plan (AAP) has been recommended as an asthma self-management tool for individuals with asthma. In the school setting, the use of the AAP has been primarily dependent on communication between the family and the school through a paper…
Lack of Adoption of a Mobile App to Support Patient Self-Management of Diabetes and Hypertension in a Federally Qualified Health Center: Interview Analysis of Staff and Patients in a Failed Randomized Trial.
Thies, Kathleen; Anderson, Daren; Cramer, Benjamin
Thousands of mobile health (mHealth) apps have been developed to support patients' management of their health, but the effectiveness of many of the apps remains unclear. While mHealth apps appear to hold promise for improving the self-management of chronic conditions across populations, failure to balance the system demands of the app with the needs, interests, or resources of the end users can undermine consumers' adoption of these technologies. The original aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a commercial mHealth app in improving clinical outcomes for adult patients in a Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) with uncontrolled diabetes and/or hypertension. Patients entered clinical data into the app, which also supported messaging between patients and providers. After a 4-month period of vigorous recruitment, the trial was suspended due to low enrollment and inconsistent use of the app by enrolled patients. The project aim was changed to understanding why the trial was unsuccessful. We used the user-task-context (eUTC) usability framework to develop a set of interview questions for patients and staff who were involved in the trial. All interviews were done by phone and lasted 20 to 30 minutes. Interviews were not recorded. There was a poor fit between the app, end users, and recruitment and treatment approaches in our setting. Usability testing might have revealed this prior to launch but was not an option. There was not sufficient time during routine care for clinical staff to familiarize patients with the app or to check clinical data and messages, which are unreimbursed activities. Some patients did not use the app appropriately. The lack of integration with the electronic health record (EHR) was cited as a problem for both patients and staff who also said the app was just one more thing to attend to. This brief trial underscores the pitfalls in the utilization of mHealth apps. Effective use of mHealth tools requires a good fit between the
A pragmatic randomized control trial and realist evaluation on the implementation and effectiveness of an internet application to support self-management among individuals seeking specialized mental health care: a study protocol
Jennifer M. Hensel
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental illness is a substantial and rising contributor to the global burden of disease. Access to and utilization of mental health care, however, is limited by structural barriers such as specialist availability, time, out-of-pocket costs, and attitudinal barriers including stigma. Innovative solutions like virtual care are rapidly entering the health care domain. The advancement and adoption of virtual care for mental health, however, often occurs in the absence of rigorous evaluation and adequate planning for sustainability and spread. Methods A pragmatic randomized controlled trial with a nested comparative effectiveness arm, and concurrent realist process evaluation to examine acceptability, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of the Big White Wall (BWW online platform for mental health self-management and peer support among individuals aged 16 and older who are accessing mental health services in Ontario, Canada. Participants will be randomized to 3 months of BWW or treatment as usual. At the end of the 3 months, participants in the intervention group will have the opportunity to opt-in to an intervention extension arm. Those who opt-in will be randomized to receive an additional 3 months of BWW or no additional intervention. The primary outcome is recovery at 3 months as measured by the Recovery Assessment Scale-revised (RAS-r. Secondary outcomes include symptoms of depression and anxiety measured with the Personal Health Questionnaire-9 item (PHQ-9 and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire-7 item (GAD-7 respectively, quality of life measured with the EQ-5D-5L, and community integration assessed with the Community Integration Questionnaire. Cost-effectiveness evaluations will account for the cost of the intervention and direct health care costs. Qualitative interviews with participants and stakeholders will be conducted throughout. Discussion Understanding the impact of virtual strategies, such as BWW, on
Ellis, J; Boger, E; Latter, S; Kennedy, A; Jones, F; Foster, C; Demain, S
Healthcare policy in developed countries has, in recent years, promoted self-management among people with long-term conditions. Such policies are underpinned by neoliberal philosophy, as seen in the promotion of greater individual responsibility for health through increased support for self-management. Yet still little is known about how self-management is understood by commissioners of healthcare services, healthcare professionals, people with long-term conditions and family care-givers. The evidence presented here is drawn from a two-year study, which investigated how self-management is conceptualised by these stakeholder groups. Conducted in the UK between 2013 and 2015, this study focused on three exemplar long-term conditions, stroke, diabetes and colorectal cancer, to explore the issue. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups were carried out with 174 participants (97 patients, 35 family care-givers, 20 healthcare professionals and 22 commissioners). The data is used to demonstrate how self-management is framed in terms of what it means to be a 'good' self-manager. The 'good' self-manager is an individual who is remoralised; thus taking responsibility for their health; is knowledgeable and uses this to manage risks; and, is 'active' in using information to make informed decisions regarding health and social wellbeing. This paper examines the conceptualisation of the 'good' self-manager. It demonstrates how the remoralised, knowledgeable and active elements are inextricably linked, that is, how action is knowledge applied and how morality underlies all action of the 'good' self-manager. Through unpicking the 'good' self-manager the problems of neoliberalism are also revealed and addressed here. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Graham R. Williamson
Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma and pregnancy are both sources of anxiety for women. Although there has been a focus on physiological management of asthma and pregnancy, there has been little research on the impact that personalised support can have on asthma care during pregnancy. This systematic review and narrative synthesis of the literature set out to answer the question ‘What are women’s experiences of asthma care, its management and education, during pregnancy?’ Methods This systematic review was carried out using accepted methodology from the York Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. Electronic database searches were conducted using PsycInfo, CINAHL, MedLine, Google Scholar and the Cochrane Library, using the combination search terms: ‘Asthma’ AND ‘Pregnancy’ AND ‘Care’ AND (‘Education OR Information OR Experience’. Hand searching of journals and searches for grey literature were also undertaken. Independent quality appraisal by the three authors took place using the criteria detailed by Kmet et al. (Standard Quality Assessment Criteria for Evaluating Primary Research Papers from a Variety of Fields, 2004. Results All papers scoring in excess of 60% were deemed to be of adequate quality for inclusion, of which there were five: two qualitative designs and three quantitative designs. The designs were too methodologically heterogeneous to permit statistical meta-analysis so narrative review and synthesis was undertaken. Despite an embryonic evidence bases, it is reasonable to conclude that personalised care has beneficial outcomes for pregnant asthmatic women. Conclusions Larger randomised controlled trials investigating personalised care are required to build an evidence base which can establish the efficacy of such interventions.
Korpershoek, Yjg; Vervoort, Scjm; Nijssen, Lit; Trappenburg, Jca; Schuurmans, M J
In patients with COPD, self-management skills are important to reduce the impact of exacerbations. However, both detection and adequate response to exacerbations appear to be difficult for some patients. Little is known about the underlying process of exacerbation-related self-management. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify and explain the underlying process of exacerbation-related self-management behavior. A qualitative study using semi-structured in-depth interviews was performed according to the grounded theory approach, following a cyclic process in which data collection and data analysis alternated. Fifteen patients (male n=8; age range 59-88 years) with mild to very severe COPD were recruited from primary and secondary care settings in the Netherlands, in 2015. Several patterns in exacerbation-related self-management behavior were identified, and a conceptual model describing factors influencing exacerbation-related self-management was developed. Acceptance, knowledge, experiences with exacerbations, perceived severity of symptoms and social support were important factors influencing exacerbation-related self-management. Specific factors influencing recognition of exacerbations were heterogeneity of exacerbations and habituation to symptoms. Feelings of fear, perceived influence on exacerbation course, patient beliefs, ambivalence toward treatment, trust in health care providers and self-empowerment were identified as specific factors influencing self-management actions. This study provided insight into factors influencing exacerbation-related self-management behavior in COPD patients. The conceptual model can be used as a framework for health care professionals providing self-management support. In the development of future self-management interventions, factors influencing the process of exacerbation-related self-management should be taken into account.
J.M. Cramm (Jane); A.P. Nieboer (Anna)
textabstractBackground: Although widespread problems in patient-professional interaction and insufficient support of patients' self-management abilities have been recognized, research investigating the relationships among care quality, productive interaction, and self-management abilities to
J.M. Cramm (Jane); A.P. Nieboer (Anna)
markdownabstractAbstract Background: Although widespread problems in patient–professional interaction and insufficient support of patients’self-management abilities have been recognized, research investigating the relationships among care quality, productiveinteraction, and self-management
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to find out efficacy of cognitive behavior therapy, as an adjunct to standard pharmacotherapy, in bronchial asthma. In a random-ized two-group design with pre-and post assessments, forty asthma patients were randomly allotted to two groups: self management group and cognitive behavior therapy group. Both groups were exposed to 6-8 weeks of intervention, asthma self management program and cognitive behavior therapy. Assessment measures used were-Semi structured interview schedule, Asthma Symptom Checklist, Asthma di-ary, Asthma Bother Profile, Hospital Anxiety & Depression Scale, AQLQ and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate. Within group comparison showed significant improvement in both groups at the post assessment. Between group comparisons showed that CBT group reported significantly greater change than that of SM group. Cognitive behavior therapy helps in improving the managment of asthma.
... for long periods of time before having an asthma attack. The symptoms of asthma can be confused with ... pollen and other environmental allergens can trigger an asthma attack. In some children, asthma can be caused by ...
... Science Education & Training Home Conditions Asthma (Pediatric) Asthma (Pediatric) Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask a ... meet the rising demand for asthma care. Our pediatric asthma team brings together physicians, nurses, dietitians, physical ...
Sanders, Julie; Fitzpatrick, Joanne M
Community rapid response and rehabilitation teams are used to prevent avoidable hospital admissions for adults living with multiple long-term conditions and to support early hospital discharge by providing short-term intensive multidisciplinary support. Supporting self-management is an important service intervention if desired outcomes are to be achieved. A Care Quality Commission inspection of the Richmond Response and Rehabilitation Team in 2014 identified that self-management plans were not routinely developed with service users and reported this as requiring improvement. This quality improvement project aimed to develop and implement a self-management strategy for service users and for 90% of service users to have a personalised self-management plan within 3 months. The quality improvement intervention used the Plan-Do-Study-Act model comprising: (1) the development of a self-management plan, (2) staff education to support service users to self-manage using motivational interviewing techniques, (3) piloting the self-management plan with service users, (4) implementation of the self-management plan and (5) monthly audit and feedback. Evaluation involved an audit of the number and quality of self-management plans developed with service users and a survey of staff knowledge and confidence to support service users to self-manage. Following implementation of the intervention, the number of self-management plans developed in collaboration with service users increased from 0 to 187 over a 4-week period. Monthly audit data confirmed that this improvement has been sustained. Results indicated that staff knowledge and confidence improved after an education intervention. Quality improvement methods facilitated development and operationalisation of a self-management strategy by a community rapid response and rehabilitation team. The next phase of the project is to evaluate the impact of the self-management strategy on key service outcomes including self-efficacy, unplanned
Fernandes, Jessie C; Biskupiak, William W; Brokaw, Sarah M; Carpenedo, Dorota; Loveland, Katie M; Tysk, Sonja; Vogl, Shea
Asthma is a common disease in children. Home-based, multi-trigger, multi-component interventions with an environmental focus have been shown to be effective to address asthma in children. The objective of this study was to assess the outcomes and feasibility of implementing a specific asthma home visiting (HV) program in a rural area. Children aged 0-17 years with uncontrolled asthma were enrolled in an asthma HV program that included six contacts over a 12-month period delivered by a registered nurse specifically trained in asthma education and trigger removal in eleven counties in the rural state of Montana. Between June 2010 and December 2016, data on asthma symptoms and asthma self-management skills were collected at baseline and throughout the program. In June 2017, they were analyzed to assess changes in asthma control and quality of life over time among participants completing all six contacts. Since June 2010, 152 of 338 enrolled children completed all six contacts outlined in the program (45%). Participants who completed the program reported significant improvements in asthma control test scores, self-management skills, and self-efficacy related to asthma management. These results improved the longer participants remained in the program. These findings suggest that it is feasible to implement a 12-month HV program using local public health resources in a rural area as outcomes improved over this time period.
de Jongh, Thyra; Gurol-Urganci, Ipek; Vodopivec-Jamsek, Vlasta; Car, Josip; Atun, Rifat
Long-term illnesses affect a significant proportion of the population in developed and developing countries. Mobile phone messaging applications, such as Short Message Service (SMS) and Multimedia Message Service (MMS), may present convenient, cost-effective ways of supporting self-management and improving patients' self-efficacy skills through, for instance, medication reminders, therapy adjustments or supportive messages. To assess the effects of mobile phone messaging applications designed to facilitate self-management of long-term illnesses, in terms of impact on health outcomes and patients' capacity to self-manage their condition. Secondary objectives include assessment of: user evaluation of the intervention; health service utilisation and costs; and possible risks and harms associated with the intervention. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL,The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 2), MEDLINE (OvidSP) (January 1993 to June 2009), EMBASE (OvidSP) (January 1993 to June 2009), PsycINFO (OvidSP) (January 1993 to June 2009), CINAHL (EbscoHOST) (January 1993 to June 2009), LILACS (January 1993 to June 2009) and African Health Anthology (January 1993 to June 2009).We also reviewed grey literature (including trial registers) and reference lists of articles. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-randomised controlled trials (QRCTs), controlled before-after (CBA) studies, or interrupted time series (ITS) studies with at least three time points before and after the intervention. We selected only studies where it was possible to assess the effects of mobile phone messaging independent of other technologies or interventions. Two review authors independently assessed all studies against the inclusion criteria, with any disagreements resolved by a third review author. Study design features, characteristics of target populations, interventions and controls, and results data were extracted by two review authors and confirmed by
Howell, Doris; Harth, Tamara; Brown, Judy; Bennett, Cathy; Boyko, Susan
This systematic review was intended to identify the effectiveness and inclusion of essential components of self-management education interventions to support patients with cancer in developing the skills needed for effective self-management of their disease and the acute or immediate, long-term, and late harmful effects of treatments. Self-management education interventions were included if they were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) containing at least one of the eight core elements outlined by the research team. A systematic search was conducted in Ovid MEDLINE (2005 through April 2015), Embase (2005 to 2015, week 15), the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Issue 4, April 2015), CINAHL (2005 to 2015) and PsychINFO (2005 to 2015). Keywords searched include 'self-management patient education' or 'patient education'. Forty-two RCTs examining self-management education interventions for patients with cancer were identified. Heterogeneity of interventions precluded meta-analysis, but narrative qualitative synthesis suggested that self-management education interventions improve symptoms of fatigue, pain, depression, anxiety, emotional distress and quality of life. Results for specific combinations of core elements were inconclusive. Very few studies used the same combinations of core elements, and among those that did, results were conflicting. Thus, conclusions as to the components or elements of self-management education interventions associated with the strength of the effects could not be assessed by this review. Defining the core components of cancer self-management education and the fundamental elements for inclusion in supporting effective self-management will be critical to ensure consistent and effective provision of self-management support in the cancer system.
Harnawan, A. A.; Mariati; Fahrudin, A.; Assegaf, A.
Recently, EBT has been proven as the marker of airways inflammation like asthma and proposed as the non-invasive tool. Although EBT device has already been made but this device is rarely used for patients in Indonesia. The aim of this study is to develop a prototype which accurately measures EBT and is comfortably used by patients including children. This prototype was made using SHT11 as a sensor of EBT which is integrated on a thermal flask 0.5L. This flask filled up patient breath and the temperature of air breath was measured. The EBT of twelve healthy samples and seven samples with asthma was examined using this prototype, the measurement was done within three minutes for all of them. The test results of EBT on healthy samples obtained the median is 33.9°C within of 33.0°C - 34.7°C and EBT on asthma samples obtained median is 35.0°C within the range 34.9°C - 36.0°C.
"Asthma can take over your life but having the right support makes that easier to deal with." Informing research priorities by exploring the barriers and facilitators to asthma control: a qualitative analysis of survey data.
Normansell, Rebecca; Welsh, Emma
Involving patients and the public in research prioritisation is important. Cochrane Airways works with authors to produce systematic reviews of evidence related to chronic airways disease. Cochrane Airways has undertaken activities to identify research priorities, including workshops with stakeholders and consultation with experts. We present the findings of an online survey, designed to align our work with the priorities of people affected by asthma. We promoted a survey comprising open-ended questions via social media to people affected by asthma. We compiled the free-text responses and conducted an exploratory thematic analysis to identify important barriers and facilitators to asthma control. We triangulated findings with other research prioritisation activities to produce new review questions. We received 57 survey responses. Eight main themes emerged, most encompassing both facilitators and barriers: attitudes and knowledge; financial costs; environmental factors and triggers; healthcare systems; lifestyle factors; medication; self-care; and support. Barriers were more frequently mentioned than facilitators and many related to healthcare systems. These findings offer valuable insights into the challenges faced by individuals affected by asthma in the UK, and possibly further afield. We developed a list of priority reviews based on what was said by people in this survey and at a workshop. This demonstrates the real impact that people affected by asthma have on the research agenda of Cochrane Airways. Over the next 2-3 years we will produce reviews that address some of these questions hopefully leading to health benefits.
Young, Lufei; Barnason, Susan; DO, VAN
Self-management plays a vital role in improving health outcomes and reducing costs in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and associated risk factors. Based on existing studies, rural residents with CVD and/or risk factors show low engagement in self-management behaviors. Due to low participation in behavioral intervention trials, the most promising mechanism to promote self-management among rural populations is unknown. In turn, the purpose of this article is to review the evidence that supports strategies to recruit and retain rural patients to participate in behavioral intervention trials aimed to promote self-management of CVD and its risk factors. This review is expected to assist researchers in identifying effective solutions to overcome barriers in the recruitment and retention processes when conducting intervention research studies on the self-management of CVD in rural communities.
Jung, Mi Jung; Jeong, Younhee
Self-management behavior is an important component for successful pain management in individuals with chronic low back pain. Motivation has been considered as an effective way to change behavior. Because there are other physical, social, and psychological factors affecting individuals with pain, it is necessary to identify the main effect of motivation on self-management behavior without the influence of those factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of motivation on self-management in controlling pain, depression, and social support. We used a nonexperimental, cross-sectional, descriptive design with mediation analysis and included 120 participants' data in the final analysis. We also used hierarchical multiple regression to test the effect of motivation, and multiple regression analysis and Sobel test were used to examine the mediating effect. Motivation itself accounted for 23.4% of the variance in self-management, F(1, 118) = 35.003, p motivation was also a significant factor for self-management. In the mediation analysis, motivation completely mediated the relationship between education and self-management, z = 2.292, p = .021. Motivation is an important part of self-management, and self-management education is not effective without motivation. The results of our study suggest that nurses incorporate motivation in nursing intervention, rather than only giving information.
Russell, Steve; Martin, Faith; Zalwango, Flavia; Namukwaya, Stella; Nalugya, Ruth; Muhumuza, Richard; Katongole, Joseph; Seeley, Janet
The health of people living with HIV (PLWH) and the sustained success of antiretroviral therapy (ART) programmes depends on PLWH's motivation and ability to self-manage the condition over the long term, including adherence to drugs on a daily basis. PLWH's self-management of HIV and their wellbeing are likely to be interrelated. Successful self-management sustains wellbeing, and wellbeing is likely to motivate continued self-management. Detailed research is lacking on PLWH's self-management processes on ART in resource-limited settings. This paper presents findings from a study of PLWH's self-management and wellbeing in Wakiso District, Uganda. Thirty-eight PLWH (20 women, 18 men) were purposefully selected at ART facilities run by the government and by The AIDS Support Organisation in and around Entebbe. Two in-depth interviews were completed with each participant over three or four visits. Many were struggling economically, however the recovery of health and hope on ART had enhanced wellbeing and motivated self-management. The majority were managing their condition well across three broad domains of self-management. First, they had mobilised resources, notably through good relationships with health workers. Advice and counselling had helped them to reconceptualise their condition and situation more positively and see hope for the future, motivating their work to self-manage. Many had also developed a new network of support through contacts they had developed at the ART clinic. Second, they had acquired knowledge and skills to manage their health, a useful framework to manage their condition and to live their life. Third, participants were psychologically adjusting to their condition and their new 'self': they saw HIV as a normal disease, were coping with stigma and had regained self-esteem, and were finding meaning in life. Our study demonstrates the centrality of social relationships and other non-medical aspects of wellbeing for self-management which ART
Full Text Available The health of people living with HIV (PLWH and the sustained success of antiretroviral therapy (ART programmes depends on PLWH's motivation and ability to self-manage the condition over the long term, including adherence to drugs on a daily basis. PLWH's self-management of HIV and their wellbeing are likely to be interrelated. Successful self-management sustains wellbeing, and wellbeing is likely to motivate continued self-management. Detailed research is lacking on PLWH's self-management processes on ART in resource-limited settings. This paper presents findings from a study of PLWH's self-management and wellbeing in Wakiso District, Uganda. Thirty-eight PLWH (20 women, 18 men were purposefully selected at ART facilities run by the government and by The AIDS Support Organisation in and around Entebbe. Two in-depth interviews were completed with each participant over three or four visits. Many were struggling economically, however the recovery of health and hope on ART had enhanced wellbeing and motivated self-management. The majority were managing their condition well across three broad domains of self-management. First, they had mobilised resources, notably through good relationships with health workers. Advice and counselling had helped them to reconceptualise their condition and situation more positively and see hope for the future, motivating their work to self-manage. Many had also developed a new network of support through contacts they had developed at the ART clinic. Second, they had acquired knowledge and skills to manage their health, a useful framework to manage their condition and to live their life. Third, participants were psychologically adjusting to their condition and their new 'self': they saw HIV as a normal disease, were coping with stigma and had regained self-esteem, and were finding meaning in life. Our study demonstrates the centrality of social relationships and other non-medical aspects of wellbeing for self-management
Preminger, Jill E; Rothpletz, Ann M
Hearing impairment (HI) is a chronic condition; thus, even with treatment, residual participation restrictions and activity limitations typically remain. Individuals must learn to self-manage their HI. The purpose of this research note is to review components of successful Internet-based self-management programs and to evaluate group auditory rehabilitation (AR) programs with varying content, in order to make recommendations for the design of future Internet-based self-management programs. Effect sizes for changes in HI-specific quality of life following group AR activities from 4 published studies were calculated to determine if effect size varied systematically as a function of group activities. These findings are described using a self-management framework. Successful group AR activities include (a) psychosocial activities to promote role management, emotional management, and social support; (b) informational lectures and group discussion to promote education; (c) communication strategy exercises to promote self-efficacy and self-management skills; and (d) the inclusion of a frequent communication partner to promote social support and self-tailoring. It is recommended that future Internet-based self-management programs focus on the mechanisms of social support and education to promote learning and self-management skills. Future research will determine if these AR activities may be implemented effectively via the Internet.
... Asthma - children Wheezing Patient Instructions Asthma and school Asthma - child - discharge Asthma - quick-relief drugs Asthma - what to ask the doctor - adult Asthma - what to ask your doctor - child Bronchiolitis - discharge Exercise-induced asthma Exercising and asthma ...
The effectiveness of school-based family asthma educational programs on the quality of life and number of asthma exacerbations of children aged five to 18 years diagnosed with asthma: a systematic review protocol.
Walter, Helen; Sadeque-Iqbal, Fatema; Ulysse, Rose; Castillo, Doreen; Fitzpatrick, Aileen; Singleton, Joanne
children and their parents examined the effects of comprehensive school-based asthma education programs on symptoms, grades and school absences, and parents' asthma management practices. The interventions consisted of six components for children, their parents, classmates and school personnel. One of the six components included "Open Airways for Schools" disease management training for children, which also included handouts and homework for the parents. One of the five interventions for the parents included school fairs with asthma care questions and answers sessions to discuss the frequency and type of asthma symptoms of their children. Results of this study demonstrated that 24 months post intervention, children from the intervention groups had better disease management, which included improved control of daytime and nighttime symptoms, and reduced absences from school and work related to asthma exacerbations, compared to the children from the control group.In another study, Bruzzese et al. conducted a pilot RCT that included 24 families. Each family consisted of an asthmatic child and a caregiver. The study examined the effects of a two-month, school-based asthma education program. The interventions consisted of six interactive 75-minute group sessions for students, held once a week for six weeks, and five 90-minute group sessions for caregivers, held once a week. The student sessions were led by a developmental psychologist, and one of the lesson topics included prevention and management of asthma. The group sessions for caregivers were led by a clinical psychologist, and one of the lesson topics included asthma self-management of their children. The interventions resulted in positive short term changes in family relations and an overall improved health status for the children. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)
Full Text Available The Saudi Initiative for Asthma (SINA provides up-to-date guidelines for healthcare workers managing patients with asthma. SINA was developed by a panel of Saudi experts with respectable academic backgrounds and long-standing experience in the field. SINA is founded on the latest available evidence, local literature, and knowledge of the current setting in Saudi Arabia. Emphasis is placed on understanding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, medications, and clinical presentation. SINA elaborates on the development of patient-doctor partnership, self-management, and control of precipitating factors. Approaches to asthma treatment in SINA are based on disease control by the utilization of Asthma Control Test for the initiation and adjustment of asthma treatment. This guideline is established for the treatment of asthma in both children and adults, with special attention to children 5 years and younger. It is expected that the implementation of these guidelines for treating asthma will lead to better asthma control and decrease patient utilization of the health care system.
Nuño-Solinis, Roberto; Rodríguez-Pereira, Carolina; Piñera-Elorriaga, Koldo; Zaballa-González, Irune; Bikandi-Irazabal, Javier
To describe the current situation of self-management initiatives in Spain. We performed a descriptive study of self-management support initiatives in Spain from the perspective of the patient as expert. Three databases were searched in October 2010 (Pubmed, Scientific Electronic Library Online [SCIELO] and Indice Médico Español [IME]), using the following Keywords «paciente experto» (expert patient), «paciente activo» (active patient) and «apoyo al autocuidado» (self-management support). Web sites were also consulted, using the same key words. Of the initiatives found, we selected those with the most advanced development and continuity, using the perspective of the expert patient (in which patients have an active role) and with a systematic format and methodology. A questionnaire was designed and was sent to the heads of the selected initiatives in the last quarter of 2010. To update the information, the questionnaire was sent again between August and September, 2012. Subsequently, the web sites were visited to review their contents and presence in social networks. Seven initiatives were identified in the autonomous regions of Murcia, Andalusia, Galicia, Castile-La Mancha, Basque Country, and Catalonia. These initiatives used distinct methodologies, formats and assessment systems. In Spain, there is increasing interest in the development of self-management support programs, although their scope is limited and their impact is mostly unknown, except for patient satisfaction. There is a need for studies on results assessment to identify the impact of these initiatives in our setting, as well as for studies on their implementation to encourage the introduction of patient activation initiatives in routine clinical practice. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Majeed-Ariss, Rabiya; Jackson, Cath; Knapp, Peter; Cheater, Francine M
To explore the effects of type 2 diabetes on British-Pakistani women's identity and its relationship with self-management. Type 2 diabetes is more prevalent and has worse outcomes among some ethnic minority groups. This may be due to poorer self-management and an inadequate match of health services to patient needs. The influence that type 2 diabetes has on British-Pakistani women's identity and subsequent self-management has received limited attention. An explorative qualitative study. Face-to-face semi-structured English and Urdu language interviews were conducted with a purposively selected heterogeneous sample of 15 British-Pakistani women with type 2 diabetes. Transcripts were analysed thematically. Four themes emerged: Perceived change in self emphasised how British-Pakistani women underwent a conscious adaptation of identity following diagnosis; Familiarity with ill health reflected women's adjustment to their changed identity over time; Diagnosis improves social support enabled women to accept changes within themselves and Supporting family is a barrier to self-management demonstrated how family roles were an aspect of women's identities that was resilient to change. The over-arching theme Role re-alignment enables successful self-management encapsulated how self-management was a continuous process where achievements needed to be sustained. Inter-generational differences were also noted: first generation women talked about challenges associated with ageing and co-morbidities; second generation women talked about familial and work roles competing with self-management. The complex nature of British-Pakistani women's self-identification requires consideration when planning and delivering healthcare. Culturally competent practice should recognise how generational status influences self-identity and diabetes self-management in ethnically diverse women. Health professionals should remain mindful of effective self-management occurring alongside, and being
The purpose of this study was to construct and test a hypothetical model of self-management in patients with hemodialysis based on the Self-Regulation Model and resource-coping perspective. Data were collected from 215 adults receiving hemodialysis in 17 local clinics and one tertiary hospital in 2016. The Hemodialysis Self-management Instrument, the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire, Herth Hope Index and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support were used. The exogenous variable was social context; the endogenous variables were cognitive illness representation, hope, self-management behavior, and illness outcome. For data analysis, descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation analysis, factor analysis, and structural equation modeling were performed. The hypothetical model with six paths showed a good fitness to the empirical data: GFI=.96, AGFI=.90, CFI=.95, RMSEA=.08, SRMR=.04. The factors that had an influence on self-management behavior were social context (β=.84), hope and cognitive illness representation (β=.37 and β=.27) explaining 92.4% of the variance. Self-management behavior mediated the relationship between psychosocial coping resources and illness outcome. This research specifies a more complete spectrum of the self-management process. It is important to recognize the array of clinical resources available to support patients' self-management. Healthcare providers can facilitate self-management through collaborative care and understanding the ideas and emotions that each patient has about the illness, and ultimately improve the health outcomes. This framework can be used to guide self-management intervention development and assure effective clinical assessment. © 2017 Korean Society of Nursing Science
... control drugs are taken every day to prevent asthma symptoms. Your child should take these medicines even if no symptoms ... you think your child has new symptoms of asthma. If your child has been diagnosed with asthma, call the provider: ...
... plan, and environmental control measures to avoid your child's asthma triggers. By working together with your daughter's health ... which can diminish your allergies' effect on your asthma. Question 5 Once my child reaches puberty, he will outgrow his asthma. True ...
Rosenbek Minet, Lisbeth K; Lønvig, Else-Marie; Henriksen, Jan Erik
conducted seven focus group interviews, each comprising 3 to 5 participants diagnosed with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Data analysis based on a phenomenological method revealed three main themes concerning diabetes self-management: becoming a self-regulating practitioner, managing the rules of self......-management, and creating a supportive social network. Narrative analysis revealed a divergence in patients' self-perceived competence in handling diabetes. The study findings indicate that people with diabetes have specific needs for support in the daily responsibility of managing diet, exercise, medication, and blood......Self-management is an important part of diabetes treatment, but the promotion of self-care activities is still a challenge. In this study, we explored how living with diabetes in everyday life was experienced following a self-management intervention program based on motivational interviewing. We...
Leitan, Nuwan D; Michalak, Erin E; Berk, Lesley; Berk, Michael; Murray, Greg
Self-management is emerging as a viable alternative to difficult-to-access psychosocial treatments for bipolar disorder (BD), and has particular relevance to recovery-related goals around empowerment and personal meaning. This review examines data and theory on BD self-management from a recovery-oriented perspective, with a particular focus on optimizing low-intensity delivery of self-management tools via the web. A critical evaluation of various literatures was undertaken. Literatures on recovery, online platforms, and self-management in mental health and BD are reviewed. The literature suggests that the self-management approach aligns with the recovery framework. However, studies have identified a number of potential barriers to the utilization of self-management programs for BD and it has been suggested that utilizing an online environment may be an effective way to surmount many of these barriers. Online self-management programs for BD are rapidly developing, and in parallel the recovery perspective is becoming the dominant paradigm for mental health services worldwide, so research is urgently required to assess the efficacy and safety of optimization methods such as professional and/or peer support, tailoring and the development of 'online communities'. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kong, Ming Ley; Armour, Carol; LeMay, Kate; Smith, Lorraine
To describe the information needs of a group of Australians with asthma and the extent to which their needs had been met. A self-administered survey was completed by people with asthma either presenting at community pharmacies or registered with a medical research institute database. The survey questions were developed based on a review of the literature, and included questions regarding participants' information needs about their asthma, their sources of asthma information and the extent to which these information needs had been met. The responses concerning information needs were analysed thematically. Responses concerning sources of asthma information and the extent to which needs were met were analysed using descriptive and correlational statistics. Seventy-one people completed the survey. Key information needs that were identified included medications, management of asthma, asthma triggers, cure, aetiology of asthma and latest research. A third of participants reported having only 'very little', 'a little' or 'some' of their information needs met. The most common source of information was from a doctor (94% respondents), followed by a pharmacist or pharmacy assistant (56%). Insights into the information needs of people with asthma have been provided. In light of the level of unmet information needs of people with asthma, and the types of information sought, pharmacists are in an ideal position to close the information gap and promote optimal asthma self-management practices. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
Ayala, Guadalupe X; Yeatts, Karin; Carpenter, Delesha Miller
Examine correlates of asthma self-management among 12,154 adolescents with physician-diagnosed asthma. All 7th and 8th grade students in North Carolina completed a survey to assess asthma prevalence and self-management behaviors among those with asthma. Adolescents who were allowed to carry their inhaled medication at school, shown how to use a peak flow meter, and had access to more asthma care resources were more confident that they could prevent an asthma exacerbation. Adolescents who were allowed to carry their inhaled medication at school and who had a private doctor were more confident that they could control their symptoms. Adolescents taking anti-inflammatory medicine were less confident that they could prevent an exacerbation and control their symptoms. Various indicators of autonomy and control were associated with greater self-efficacy for managing asthma. Adolescents who require anti-inflammatory medicines would benefit from additional intervention efforts to improve their asthma management self-efficacy.
Ring, Nicola; Pinnock, Hilary; Wilson, Caroline; Hoskins, Gaylor; Jepson, Ruth; Wyke, Sally; Sheikh, Aziz
To identify from the literature what terms are used for 'asthma plans', with what meaning, and in what context(s). Linguistic analysis of a selected body of asthma literature from 1989-2009. A wide range of asthma plan terminology was evident, with terms such as 'action plans', 'self-management plans' and 'treatment plans' being applied inconsistently and synonymously. For individual patients the term 'asthma plan' can describe a clinically-determined list of prescribed medication, an agreed plan to guide self-management of changing symptoms, or a more holistic 'living with asthma' plan. In some contexts the term 'asthma plan' was also used to describe an organisational system of care, which causes further ambiguity. Within the literature, a plethora of terms is used inconsistently and with varied meaning. This is a potential, but previously unrecognised, barrier to asthma plan implementation. A taxonomy of asthma plans and a standardised definitions of terms is required.
Kapp, Suzanne; Miller, Charne
The aim of the study was to explore the experiences of older people as they self-managed following venous leg ulcer healing. The objectives were to describe the beliefs, attitudes, actions, enablers and barriers to self-management and to consider the impact of an e-learning client education package on how people approach recurrence prevention. Venous leg ulcers affect 1% of people worldwide and more than 3% of older people. Up to 70% of ulcers reoccur. Appreciation of the experience of self-management following healing can equip health services to more effectively prepare people for self-management in the longer term. A descriptive exploratory design was used. Older people who had received an e-learning education programme while their venous ulcer was active were interviewed after healing from July-September 2010. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. Participants believed in the efficacy of compression therapy, skin care, activity and exercise and healthy eating to prevent recurrence, and engage in activities that reflect recommendations of the education. As beliefs and conduct of self-management activities can change over time, regular professional monitoring and support would assist people to refine health goals, plan self-management activities and prevent recurrence. Participation in a standardised education programme completed prior to healing informed successful self-management strategies among people who seek to prevent venous leg ulcer recurrence. Further research should consider the benefits of regular, ongoing professional monitoring and support among this group. Clinicians have a role in supporting their clients to know about, perform and believe in the importance of self-management strategies for healing and recurrence prevention. Clinicians require the capacity to support clients which standardised client education tools can facilitate. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Seol, Haesun; Thompson, Mark; Kreider, Kathryn Evans; Vorderstrasse, Allison
The burden of diabetes is greater for minorities and medically underserved populations in the United States. An evidence-based provider-delivered diabetes self-management education intervention was implemented in a federally qualified health center for medically underserved adult patients with type 2 diabetes. The findings provide support for the efficacy of the intervention on improvement in self-management behaviors and glycemic control among underserved patients with diabetes, while not substantially changing provider visit time or workload.
Full Text Available Asthma is a chronic, reversible obstructive disease that when in exacerbation can present to the emergency department in a spectrum of severity. Prompt recognition of the potentially severely ill asthmatic requires a careful history and physical exam while considering alternative diagnoses for the presenting symptoms. Early administration of salbutamol and corticosteroids is indicated in almost all patients with other medications such as ipratropium and magnesium and supportive modalities like BiPAP reserved for sicker patients. The global impact of asthma is increasing, especially amongst children. While the benign clinical presentation is most common and mortality has decreased in recent decades due to improved recognition and care, the ubiquity of the condition and frequent lack of regular outpatient management contribute to the disease claiming 250,000 lives worldwide annually. The emergency physician must be prepared to assess and appropriately manage both the young child with a mild wheeze and the adult in respiratory failure.
Khair, Kate; Meerabeau, Liz; Gibson, Faith
There is an increasing prevalence of children/young people with long-term conditions (LTC) in the UK due to improvements in health-care management and delivery. These children are often involved, from an early age, in their own care and management; yet, there are little data to support how or when they develop the necessary skills and knowledge to become competent at this care. This study aimed to understand self-management of haemophilia, from a child's perspective, in the 21st century in the UK where intensive prophylactic therapy is given from early childhood. A qualitative study using grounded theory to evaluate life-experiences of children and young people with haemophilia. Thirty boys aged 4-16 with severe haemophilia treated at a single paediatric haemophilia care centre were interviewed at home or in a focus group. Multimethod qualitative research including age-appropriate research tools (draw and write, photo-elicitation and interviews) to facilitate data collection from children. Boys develop self-management skills over time. They learn from health-care professionals, their parents and other family members with haemophilia. Self-management skills (bleed recognition, self-infusion, self and medicines management, pain and risk management and conceptualizing preventative therapy) are developed through experiential learning and individualized education, and not through formalized expert patient programmes. The boys in this study have benefited from early prophylactic factor replacement therapy. They develop skills in haemophilia and self-management at a relatively young age and are experts in their own haemophilia care. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Three factors in recent medical research and treatment (advances in the field of psychoneuroimmunology, epidemiological evidence regarding important interaction between psychosocial factors and development of disease, and the recognition of the importance of patient education for self-management of asthma have led clinicians and researchers to reconsider the role of psychosocial stress in asthma. There are many reports suggesting that stressful life events, family problems and a behavior pattern that increases psychological conflict may influence the development or relapse of asthma and influence its clinical course. Depression is known as one of the risk factors of fatal asthmatic attack. In laboratory studies, about 20% of asthmatics were considered reactors who showed an airway change after exposure to emotional stress. Studies regarding the pathway of stress effect on allergy and asthma are reviewed and discussed from the standpoint of psychoneuroimmunology; for example, the enhancement of IgE production and increased susceptibility to respiratory infection by stress, conditioned anaphylaxis and nerve/mast cell interaction, the effect of stress on various bronchial responses and the inhibition of the immediate and late asthmatic response by anterior hypothalamic lesioning.
van der Krieke, Lian; Wunderink, Lex; Emerencia, Ando; de Jonge, Peter; Sytema, Sjoerd
The aim of this review was to investigate to what extent information technology may support self-management among service users with psychotic disorders. The investigation aimed to answer the following questions: What types of e mental health self-management interventions have been developed and
Young, Hannah M L; Apps, Lindsay D; Harrison, Samantha L; Johnson-Warrington, Vicki L; Hudson, Nicky; Singh, Sally J
In light of the growing burden of COPD, there is increasing focus on the role of self-management for this population. Currently, self-management varies widely. Little is known either about nurses' and allied health professionals' (AHPs') understanding and provision of self-management in clinical practice. This study explores nurses' and AHPs' understanding and implementation of supported COPD self-management within routine clinical practice. Nurses and AHPs participated in face-to-face semistructured interviews to explore their understanding and provision of COPD self-management, as well as their perceptions of the challenges to providing such care. Purposive sampling was used to select participants from a range of professions working within primary, community, and secondary care settings. Three researchers independently analyzed each transcript using a thematic approach. A total of 14 participants were interviewed. Nurses and AHPs viewed self-management as an important aspect of COPD care, but often misunderstood what it involved, leading to variation in practice. A number of challenges to supporting self-management were identified, which related to lack of time, lack of insight regarding training needs, and assumptions regarding patients' perceived self-management abilities. Nurses and AHPs delivering self-management require clear guidance, training in the use of effective self-management skills, and education that challenges their preconceptions regarding patients. The design of health care services also needs to consider the practical barriers to COPD self-management support for the implementation of such interventions to be successful.
Jesús Miranda Izquierdo
Full Text Available Thi is article analyzes the potentialities and weaknesses that non directive Pedagogy presents, an example of the so called self managed pedagogy, whose postulates are good to analyze for the contributions that this position can make to the search of new ways of learning.
Kao, Chi-Wen; Chuang, Hui-Wan; Chen, Ting-Yu
The dramatic increase in smartphone usage has spurred the development of many health-related mobile applications (apps). On the other hand, population aging and the associated rise in the incidence of chronic disease is increasing the demand for long-term care. Effective chronic disease self-management has been shown to help patients improve their health condition. Numerous smartphone applications currently support patient self-management of chronic disease, facilitating health management and health promotion. The purpose of the present article was to introduce the definition, contents, and types of health-related apps; to discuss the effectiveness of self-management health-related apps in promoting chronic disease management; and to assess and evaluate these apps. We hope that the present article helps give to healthcare professionals and patients who are willing to manage their diseases a general understanding of health-related apps and their potential to facilitate the self-management of chronic diseases.
Cahill, Susan M; Polo, Katie M; Egan, Brad E; Marasti, Nadia
As children and youth with diabetes grow up, they become increasingly responsible for controlling and monitoring their condition. We conducted a scoping review to explore the research literature on self-management interventions for children and youth with diabetes. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. Some of the studies reviewed combined the participant population so that children with Type 1 as well as children with Type 2 diabetes were included. The majority of the studies focused on children age 14 yr or older and provided self-management education, self-management support, or both. Parent involvement was a key component of the majority of the interventions, and the use of technology was evident in 3 studies. The findings highlight factors that occupational therapy practitioners should consider when working with pediatric diabetes teams to select self-management interventions. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Huckvale, Kit; Morrison, Cecily; Ouyang, Jing; Ghaghda, Aseem; Car, Josip
Interest in mobile apps that support long-term conditions such as asthma is matched by recognition of the importance of the quality and safety of apps intended for patient use. We assessed how changes over a 2-year period affected the clinical suitability of apps providing self-management information and tools for people with asthma by updating a review first performed in 2011. Systematic content assessment of all apps for iOS and Android examining the comprehensiveness of asthma information, consistency with the evidence base for asthma self-management and adherence to best practice principles for trustworthy content, comparing the quality of apps available in 2011 to those released since. Between 2011 and 2013, numbers of asthma apps more than doubled from 93 to 191, despite withdrawal of 25% (n = 23/93) of existing apps. Newer apps were no more likely than those available in 2011 to include comprehensive information, such as the use of action plans, or offer guidance consistent with evidence; 13% (n = 19/147) of all apps, and 39% (n = 9/23) of those intended to manage acute asthma, recommended self-care procedures unsupported by evidence. Despite increases in the numbers of apps targeting specific skills, such as acute asthma management (n = 12 to 23) and inhaler technique (from n = 2 to 12), the proportion consistent with guidelines (17%, n = 4/23) and inhaler instructions (25%, n = 3/12), respectively, was low, and most apps provided only either basic information about asthma (50%, n = 75/147) or simple diary functions (24%, n = 36/147). In addition to persisting questions about clinical quality and safety, dynamic aspects of app turnover and feature evolution affect the suitability of asthma apps for use in routine care. The findings underline the need for coordinated quality assurance processes that can adapt to changing clinical and information governance-related risks, ensure compliance with the evidence base and reflect
Househ, Mowafa; Hossain, Nassif; Jamal, Amr; Zakaria, Nasriah; Elmetwally, Ashraf; Alsalamah, Majid; Khalifa, Mohamed
Providing patients opportunities for self-management and education about their disease, asthma applications designed for use on an Android operating system can have positive health outcomes across the range of demographics who use mHealth applications. This study provides a content analysis of freely available Google Android Platform Mobile Applications for Asthma. A list of applications was collected on 26 October 2014, using the search feature of the Google Play Android platform and using the words and phrases "Asthma," "Lung Function" and "Peak Flow." Each application was coded for its approach to asthma self-management, based on categories adapted by Huckvale et al., which are based on the Global Initiative for Asthma and the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program. The characteristics of the 15 asthma applications are described. Most of the asthma applications' primary function focused on patient self-monitoring and self-assessment. Using the HON Code, we found low health information quality across all asthma applications. Android asthma applications can have positive outcomes in helping patients as they provide opportunities for self-management and education about their disease. Future research should continue to monitor and evaluate the development and use of mHealth Asthma Applications. Based on these findings, and their indication of a gap in existing research, subsequent studies can continue to evaluate the development and use of mHealth Asthma Applications with increasing methodological consistency to improve the quality of in-app health information.
Full Text Available An important aim of telecare technologies for chronic patients is supporting self-management. Although patient involvement is crucial for successful implementation, any adaptation of telecare systems to needs of users requires explicit reflection regarding which form of self-management it should support. Scenario-based methods (SBDs are proposed to involve users in the earlier phases of development. This paper aims to extend SBDs by incorporating explicit exploration of self-management forms. We first analyzed what self-management forms were inscribed in the design of a telecare system for COPD patients. These were mainly based on compliance to medical treatment. However, our study shows that many patients thrive better on self- management based on cooperation and concordance with healthcare professionals. To overcome this discrepancy between design and use practices we developed a guideline enabling designers to anticipate and reflect on which form of self-management is desirable to incorporate in the design of telecare technologies for chronic patients.
Waverijn, Geeke; Heijmans, Monique; Groenewegen, Peter P
Neighbourhood social capital might provide resources that can benefit chronic illness self-management. Improved self-management is a possible mechanism behind the relationship between neighbourhood social capital and health of people with chronic illness. To test this mechanism, we collected data on self-management and self-rated health among a sample of 2091 people with chronic illness in 2013. Data on neighbourhood social capital were collected among 69 336 people in 3425 neighbourhoods between May 2011 and September 2012. A social capital measure was estimated with ecometric measurements. We conducted mediation analyses to examine whether the relationship between neighbourhood social capital and self-rated health was mediated through chronic illness self-management. We found that neighbourhood social capital is related to chronic illness self-management only for people with chronic illness and mild physical disabilities and that, for this group, self-management mediates the relationship between neighbourhood social capital and health. Improved self-management is a mechanism behind the relationship between neighbourhood social capital and health for people with chronic illness and mild physical disabilities. It is possible that the self-management support needs of people with chronic illness with moderate or severe physical disabilities cannot be met by the resources provided in neighbourhoods, but more tailored support is necessary. More research is needed to discover mechanisms behind the relationship between neighbourhood social capital and health and elucidate which resources in neighbourhoods can benefit specific groups of people with chronic illness. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Su, Chun-Yan; Lu, Xin-Hong; Chen, Wei; Wang, Tao
This paper is a report of a study conducted to explore the effects of promoting self-management on the well-being of patients having peritoneal dialysis. Peritoneal dialysis is a home-based treatment for end-stage renal disease. Promoting self-management has been shown to improve the health status of people with diabetes mellitus and other chronic diseases. However, little is known about the effects of self-management support for patients having peritoneal dialysis. Thirty patients who had received peritoneal dialysis for at least 6 months and were clinically stable were enrolled in the study in 2006. A multidisciplinary team was built to support the patients' self-management. Various forms of education such as group discussion and individual consultation were used to improve patients' self-efficacy and all were followed up for 6 months. We compared the volume status, adequacy of dialysis, nutritional status, quality of life, rehabilitation status, self-management capacity and self-efficacy levels at baseline, 3 and 6 months after enrolment. During follow-up, patients' urine volume and residual renal function decreased, while the adequacy of dialysis (Kt/v and Ccr) did not change. Volume status, quality of life and rehabilitation status all improved, whereas nutritional status did not deteriorate. Both self-management capacity and self-efficacy level increased statistically significantly. A team approach needs to be taken to achieve successful self-management in patients having peritoneal dialysis, as with other chronic disease treatments. Nurses should use multiple strategies based on self-efficacy theory to improve patients' self-efficacy levels and self-management capacities.
Lund, T; Pedersen, L; Larsson, B
organization of elite athletes comprised the study group; 329 (79%) completed the questionnaire concerning their sport, asthma-like symptoms, asthma and use of asthma medication. Asthma-like symptoms at rest were reported by 41% of respondents; 55% reported asthma-like symptoms at rest or at exercise......The objective was to determine the prevalence of asthma-like symptoms and asthma and the use of asthma medication in Danish elite athletes. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of Danish elite athletes was conducted in 2006. All elite athletes (N=418) financially supported by the national....... Physician-diagnosed asthma was present in 16% and 14% had current asthma. Asthma medication was taken by 7% of the athletes, of whom 79% used inhaled corticosteroids and 21% used inhaled beta(2)-agonists only. Athletes participating in endurance sports had higher prevalences of current asthma (24%) and use...
Hanim mufarokhah mufarokhah
Full Text Available Introduction: Management coronary artery disease required lifelong treatment. The successful management of CHD requires efective coping, intention and medication adherence of CHD’s patients. This study aimed to explain the changes of coping, intention, and medication adherence in patients with CHD after giving self management programme in RSUD Jombang based on Theory Planned Behavior.Method: This study used a quasy experimental pretest-posttest control group design and 28 respondens selected by consecutive sampling. Independent variable was self management programme while dependent variables were coping, intention, medication adherence. Data were collected by using questonnaires measuring coping level, intention and medication adherence. The statistical test used was Mann Whitney, Wilcoxone Signed Rank and t-Test. Result: The result showed that 1 self management programme improve the level of coping in patients with CHD (p < 0,001, 2 self management programme improve the level of intention in patients with CHD (p < 0,001, 3 self management programme improve the level of medication adherence in patients with CHD (p < 0,001. Discussion: To change a behavior requires improvement of coping and intentions. This is in according to the Theory of Planned Behavior that behavior change is influenced by the attitude toward the behavior, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control and intention. Keywords: self management program, coping, intention, medication adherence, coronary heart disease
Graarup, Jytte; Ferrari, Pisana; Howard, Luke S
of the patient may improve their ability to cope with pulmonary arterial hypertension, as well as help them to become effective in the self-management of their disease. Successful patient engagement can be achieved through effective education and the delivery and communication of timely, high-quality information....... A multidisciplinary approach involving healthcare professionals, carers, patient associations and expert patient programmes can also encourage patients to engage. Strategies that promote patient engagement can help to achieve the best possible care and support for the patient and also benefit healthcare providers....
Maa, Suh-Hwa; Chang, Yue-Cune; Chou, Chun-Liang; Ho, Shu-Chuan; Sheng, Te-Fang; Macdonald, Karen; Wang, Yanping; Shen, Yu-Ming; Abraham, Ivo
To investigate the feasibility of a school-based asthma management programme for middle school children. Asthma rates are increasing among school-aged children. Successful asthma treatment in children depends in part on clear communication and effective education. This feasibility study employed a one-group only longitudinal design with four time points over 18 months. Nineteen female and twelve male (n = 31) seventh-grade children with asthma (13 SD 0·71 years) were identified using a six-stage asthma case-finding approach. Teachers and school staff were trained in the principles and methods of the proposed school-based asthma management programme. An individualised guided asthma self-management programme was developed for each child by a clinical team at a major academic medical centre. We assisted teachers in implementing the school programme; building a support network and monitoring children's activities. Outcome measures included lung function tests (at 0, six, 12 and 18 months), disease-related symptoms, psychosocial status and impact of asthma on learning (at 0 and 18 months). School provided data on academic achievement and school absences at 0, six, 12 and 18 months. Significant improvements were noted at six, 12 and 18 months on forced vital capacity (FVC)% of predicted (p = 0·001, 0·015, 0·015, respectively), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1) )% of predicted (p = 0·001, 0·006, 0·088, respectively) and FEV(1) /FVC% of predicted (p = 0·001, 0·015, 0·099, respectively). There was a trend towards improved asthma symptoms (p = 0·050) and a significant decrease in positive perception of curriculum (p = 0·017) at 18 months after adjustment for covariates. This programme was associated with respiratory benefits on physiological asthma markers commonly, with a trend for symptom control. Academic and psychosocial outcomes are subject of further inquiry. School-based asthma management holds promise as a feasible clinical option for middle
Barrecheguren, Miriam; Bourbeau, Jean
Self-management has gained increased relevance in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. The heterogeneity in self-management interventions has complicated the development of recommendations for clinical practice. In this review, we present the latest findings regarding conceptual definition, effectiveness of self-management interventions and self-management strategies in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as a first step toward personalized medicine: what, how and to whom? Self-management interventions have shown benefits in improving health-related quality of life and reducing hospital admissions. Favorable outcomes can only be achieved if patients have an ultimate goal, that is their desired achievements in their life. In the continuum of care, the components of the self-management program will vary to adapt to the condition of the patient (disease severity, comorbidities) and to factors such as patient motivation, confidence (self-efficacy), access to health care, family and social support. A combination of education, case management and patient-centric action plan has shown the best chance of success. The individual patient's needs, own preferences and personal goals should inform the design of any intervention with a behavioral component. A continuous loop process has to be implemented to constantly assess what work and does not work, aiming at achieving the desired outcomes for a given patient.
Jessica D. Shaw
Full Text Available Objectives. We tested both an educational and a care coordination element of health care to examine if better disease-specific knowledge leads to successful self-management of heart failure (HF. Background. The high utilization of health care resources and poor patient outcomes associated with HF justify tests of change to improve self-management of HF. Methods. This prospective study tested two components of the Chronic Care Model (clinical information systems and self-management support to improve outcomes in the self-management of HF among patients who received intensive education and care coordination during their acute care stay. A postdischarge follow-up phone call assessed their knowledge of HF self-management compared to usual care patients. Results. There were 20 patients each in the intervention and usual care groups. Intervention patients were more likely to have a scale at home, write down their weight, and practice new or different health behaviors. Conclusion. Patients receiving more intensive education knew more about their disease and were better able to self-manage their weight compared to patients receiving standard care.
Nici, Linda; Bontly, Thomas D; Zuwallack, Richard; Gross, Nicholas
Self-management in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, centering on an action plan for the exacerbation and enhanced communication between the patient and health care providers, makes good clinical sense. However, five relatively large trials of self-management in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have had inconsistent results: only two demonstrated reductions in health care utilization and one had to be discontinued prematurely because of increased mortality. Do these discordant findings require a paradigm shift in our concept of self-management? Probably not-but an analysis of the negative studies can give us valuable insights. There are data to support the idea that patients in the trial that showed increased mortality did not self-manage appropriately. Only 4.5% of these patients called in before starting treatment for their exacerbation, the time to initiation of antibiotics or steroids was unsatisfactorily long, and the intervention arm used minimally more prednisone and antibiotics than the control arm. The reasons for a higher mortality will likely never be known, but it is possible that these high-risk patients may have needed earlier assessment by a trained professional, or that self-management led to overconfidence and treatment delays. We clearly need more effective ways to implement self-management and better define which groups of patients stand to benefit (or be harmed) by this intervention. This will require an investment in well-thought-out clinical trials.
Korpershoek, Yvonne Jg; Bruins Slot, Joyce C; Effing, Tanja W; Schuurmans, Marieke J; Trappenburg, Jaap Ca
Little is known about which self-management behaviors have the highest potential to influence exacerbation impact in COPD patients. We aimed to reach expert consensus on the most relevant set of self-management behaviors that can be targeted and influenced to maximize reduction of exacerbation impact. A 2-round Delphi study was performed using online surveys to rate the relevance and feasibility of predetermined self-management behaviors identified by literature and expert opinion. Descriptive statistics and qualitative analyses were used. An international expert panel reached consensus on 17 self-management behaviors focusing on: stable phase (n=5): pharmacotherapy, vaccination, physical activity, avoiding stimuli and smoking cessation; periods of symptom deterioration (n=1): early detection; during an exacerbation (n=5): early detection, health care contact, self-treatment, managing stress/anxiety and physical activity; during recovery (n=4): completing treatment, managing stress/anxiety, physical activity and exercise training; and after recovery (n=2): awareness for recurrent exacerbations and restart of pulmonary rehabilitation. This study has provided insight into expert opinion on the most relevant and feasible self-management behaviors that can be targeted and influenced before, during and after an exacerbation to exert the highest magnitude of influence on the impact of exacerbations. Future research should focus at developing more comprehensive patient-tailored interventions supporting patients in these exacerbation-related self-management behaviors.
Lundberg, Pranee C; Thrakul, Supunnee
To report of a qualitative study of how religion affects the self-management of Thai Buddhist and Muslim women with type 2 diabetes. The importance of diabetes self-management is well recognised. However, research on such self-management in Thailand is scarce, in particular on the influence of religion on the self-management of Thai Buddhist and Muslim women with type 2 diabetes. A descriptive qualitative study was conducted. Purposive convenience sampling was used, and 48 women, 19 Buddhist and 29 Muslim, aged from 28-80 years, participated. Data were collected in 2008-09 and analysed by use of manifest and latent content analysis. Four themes of the influence of religion on the self-management among Thai women with type 2 diabetes emerged: religion - a way of coping with diabetes, spiritual practice - a help for disease control, spiritual practice - an effort to struggle with everyday life, and support from family - a cultural practice. The Buddhist and Muslim women had self-management capabilities that were often related to their religions. However, many of them had poor control of their blood sugar levels and needed assistance. Reference to religion and spiritual practice can be an effective means of helping diabetes patients better manage their disease and change their lifestyles. Furthermore, family and economic and social environments should be taken into account both in care and in interventions aimed at helping patients cope and empowering them to control their disease. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kakumanu, Sujani; Antos, Nicholas; Szefler, Stanley J; Lemanske, Robert F
Children with asthma require care that is seamlessly coordinated so that asthma symptoms are recognized and managed at home and at school. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent consensus recommendations in school-based asthma care. The School-based Asthma Management Program (SAMPRO) provides a widely endorsed framework to coordinate care with schools and consists of four components: establishing a circle of support around the child with asthma; facilitating bidirectional communication between clinicians and schools; comprehensive asthma education for schools; and assessment and remediation of environmental asthma triggers at school. SAMPRO standardizes recommendations for school-based asthma care coordination and provides a toolkit with websites and resources useful for the care of children with asthma in the school setting. The review will discuss the need for coordinated school asthma partnerships, the inception and development of SAMPRO, and its vision to improve pediatric asthma care coordination within the circle of support, comprising clinicians, school nurses, families, and communities.
Jensen, Jesper Ole; Stensgaard, Anne Gro
The paper presents a case on self-management in the Danish social housing sector as a way of providing affordable housing. It is based on an evaluation of a Danish concept for affordable housing, Social Housing Plus (“AlmenBolig+”). The concept was introduced in 2007, and so far app 1.400 housing......-management” amongst the residents, which is a new and controversial approach in the Danish social housing sector, where the traditional approach is a high service level regarding maintenance, operation and administration, but these services also have a high impact on the rent. This paper will outline the ideas behind...... the Social Housing Plus-concept, the preconditions for the self-management approach, and the experiences so far from the various housing estates built on the concept. This will include a discussion of the social impacts of the selfmanagement among the residents, e.g. in relation to a participation and sense...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-management is rarely studied 'in the wild'. We sought to produce a richer understanding of how people live with diabetes and why self-management is challenging for some. Method Ethnographic study supplemented with background documents on social context. We studied a socio-economically and ethnically diverse UK population. We sampled 30 people with diabetes (15 type 1, 15 type 2 by snowballing from patient groups, community contacts and NHS clinics. Participants (aged 5-88, from a range of ethnic and socio-economic groups were shadowed at home and in the community for 2-4 periods of several hours (total 88 visits, 230 hours; interviewed (sometimes with a family member or carer about their self-management efforts and support needs; and taken out for a meal. Detailed field notes were made and annotated. Data analysis was informed by structuration theory, which assumes that individuals' actions and choices depend on their dispositions and capabilities, which in turn are shaped and constrained (though not entirely determined by wider social structures. Results Self-management comprised both practical and cognitive tasks (e.g. self-monitoring, menu planning, medication adjustment and socio-emotional ones (e.g. coping with illness, managing relatives' input, negotiating access to services or resources. Self-management was hard work, and was enabled or constrained by economic, material and socio-cultural conditions within the family, workplace and community. Some people managed their diabetes skilfully and flexibly, drawing on personal capabilities, family and social networks and the healthcare system. For others, capacity to self-manage (including overcoming economic and socio-cultural constraints was limited by co-morbidity, cognitive ability, psychological factors (e.g. under-confidence, denial and social capital. The consequences of self-management efforts strongly influenced people's capacity and motivation to continue them
O'Dell, Kristi; O'Dell, Michael
This study describes the utility of the brief Chronic Illness Resources Survey (CIRS) in a family medicine clinic. The brief CIRS is a 22-item scale that assesses support for self-management tasks common to chronic illnesses. The scale is based on socio-ecological theory and measures seven levels of socio-environmental support. The sample included 31 males and females aged 38 - 86 years with a diagnosis of diabetes who presented for care at a family medicine residency clinic. After scheduled office visits, patients completed the brief CIRS, demographic indicators, and brief medical information. The health care team, personal support, and media/policy subscales were rated the highest followed by family and friends, neighborhood, workplace, and community organizations. There were no significant differences in the t-tests between select demographic variables (gender, race, age, marital status, and work status) and CIRS total score. Females' higher total CIRS score was nearly statistically significant as compared to males' total CIRS score. The health care team is of primary importance in diabetic patient self-management, and so, the brief CIRS may be a useful rapid assessment instrument in a medical clinic setting where additional resources may be identified and recommended as indicated by the physician.
Weinert, Clarann; Cudney, Shirley; Hill, Wade G
The objective of this study was to determine the differences in the psychosocial status of 3 groups of chronically ill rural women participating in a computer intervention. The 3 groups were: intense intervention, less-intense intervention, and control. At baseline and following the intervention, measures were taken for social support, self-esteem, empowerment, self-efficacy, depression, stress, and loneliness. ANCOVA results showed group differences for social support and self-efficacy among the overall group. The findings differed for a vulnerable subgroup, with significant between-group differences for social support and loneliness. It was concluded that a computer-delivered intervention can improve social support and self-efficacy and reduce loneliness in rural women, enhancing their ability to self-manage and adapt to chronic illness.
Does improvement in self-management skills predict improvement in quality of life and depressive symptoms? A prospective study in patients with heart failure up to one year after self-management education.
Musekamp, Gunda; Schuler, Michael; Seekatz, Bettina; Bengel, Jürgen; Faller, Hermann; Meng, Karin
Heart failure (HF) patient education aims to foster patients' self-management skills. These are assumed to bring about, in turn, improvements in distal outcomes such as quality of life. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that change in self-reported self-management skills observed after participation in self-management education predicts changes in physical and mental quality of life and depressive symptoms up to one year thereafter. The sample comprised 342 patients with chronic heart failure, treated in inpatient rehabilitation clinics, who received a heart failure self-management education program. Latent change modelling was used to analyze relationships between both short-term (during inpatient rehabilitation) and intermediate-term (after six months) changes in self-reported self-management skills and both intermediate-term and long-term (after twelve months) changes in physical and mental quality of life and depressive symptoms. Short-term changes in self-reported self-management skills predicted intermediate-term changes in mental quality of life and long-term changes in physical quality of life. Intermediate-term changes in self-reported self-management skills predicted long-term changes in all outcomes. These findings support the assumption that improvements in self-management skills may foster improvements in distal outcomes.
... Asthma > Finding Support Lungtropolis: Where Kids with Asthma Learn to Play The American Lung Association and ORCAS, Inc. bring you Lungtropolis®: Where Kids with Asthma Learn to Play. This is an interactive website designed ...
Van den Broucke, S; Van der Zanden, G; Chang, P; Doyle, G; Levin, D; Pelikan, J; Schillinger, D; Schwarz, P; Sørensen, K; Yardley, L; Riemenschneider, H
Patient empowerment through self-management education is central to improving the quality of diabetes care and preventing Type 2 Diabetes. Although national programs exist, there is no EU-wide strategy for diabetes self-management education, and patients with limited literacy face barriers to effective self-management. The Diabetes Literacy project, initiated with the support of the European Commission, aims to fill this gap. The project investigates the effectiveness of diabetes self-management education, targeting people with or at risk of Type 2 Diabetes in the 28 EU Member States, as part of a comprehensive EU-wide diabetes strategy. National diabetes strategies in the EU, US, Taiwan, and Israel are compared, and diabetes self-management programs inventorized. The costs of the diabetes care pathway are assessed on a per person basis at national level. A comparison is made of the (cost)-effectiveness of different methods for diabetes self-management support, and the moderating role of health literacy, organization of the health services, and implementation fidelity of education programs are considered. Web-based materials are developed and evaluated by randomized trials to evaluate if interactive internet delivery can enhance self-management support for people with lower levels of health literacy. The 3-year project started in December 2012. Several literature reviews have been produced and protocol development and research design are in the final stages. Primary and secondary data collection and analysis take place in 2014. The results will inform policy decisions on improving the prevention, treatment, and care for persons with diabetes across literacy levels. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Full Text Available Abstract Background After diagnosis of a dementing illness, patients and their spouses have many concerns related to the disease and their future. This often leads to poor psychological well-being and reduced health-related quality of life (HRQoL of the family. Support for self-management skills has been proven to be an effective method to improve prognosis of asthma, heart failure and osteoarthritis. However, self-management interventions have not been studied in dementia. Therefore, our aim was to examine, in an objective-oriented group intervention, the efficacy of self-management support program (SMP on the HRQoL of dementia patients and their spousal caregivers as well as on the sense of competence and psychological well-being of caregivers. Methods During the years 2011 to 12, 160 dementia patients and their spouses will be recruited from memory clinics and randomized into two arms: 80 patients for group-based SMP sessions including topics selected by the participants, 80 patients will serve as controls in usual community care. Sessions may include topics on dementia, community services, active lifestyle and prevention for cognitive decline, spousal relationship, future planning and emotional well-being. The patients and spouses will have their separate group sessions (ten participants per group once a week for eight weeks. Main outcome measures will be patients’ HRQoL (15D and spousal caregivers’ HRQoL (RAND-36, and sense of competence (SCQ. Secondary measures will be caregivers’ psychological well-being (GHQ-12 and coping resources, patients’ depression, cognition and signs of frailty. Data concerning admissions to institutional care and the use and costs of health and social services will be collected during a two-year follow-up. Discussion This is a ‘proof-of-concept’ study to explore the efficacy of group support for self-management skills among dementia families. It will also provide data on cost-effectiveness of the
Castensøe-Seidenfaden, Pernille; Reventlov Husted, Gitte; Teilmann, Grete Katrine
BACKGROUND: Young people with type 1 diabetes often struggle to self-manage their disease. Mobile health (mHealth) apps show promise in supporting self-management of chronic conditions such as type 1 diabetes. Many health care providers become involved in app development. Unfortunately, limited...... information is available to guide their selection of appropriate methods, techniques, and tools for a participatory design (PD) project in health care. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to develop an mHealth app to support young people in self-managing type 1 diabetes. This paper presents our methodological...... within an overall iterative PD approach. Several techniques and tools were used, including workshops, a mail panel, think-aloud tests, and a feasibility study. RESULTS: The final mHealth solution was "Young with Diabetes" (YWD). The iterative PD approach supported researchers and designers...
... give your pediatrician will help determine if your child has asthma. Your pediatrician will need information about Your child’s ... function testing may be normal even if your child has asthma. Also keep in mind that not all children ...
... in the airways of the lungs. When an asthma attack occurs, the lining of the air passages swells ... small amount of the substance can trigger an asthma attack. Using a respiratory device to protect or reduce ...
EPA is working to explore the role of common air pollutants in the development and exacerbation of asthma at different life stages as well as other environmental and genetic factors that might make a person more sensitive to developing asthma.
Bisgaard, Hans; Szefler, Stanley J
Limitations in asthma prevalence studies and difficulties in diagnosing pediatric asthma lead to uncertainty over the full extent of mild persistent asthma in children and adolescents. Although recent surveys have reported that the majority of pediatric patients with asthma in the United States...... and Europe have symptoms consistent with mild disease, these surveys have limitations in design. Thus, the true prevalence of mild asthma remains unknown. It is unclear whether children with mild persistent asthma progress to more severe asthma, but the risk of severe asthma exacerbations seems...... to be unrelated to the symptom severity. Clinical studies restricted to pediatric patients with mild asthma are limited, but available data do suggest substantial morbidity of mild persistent asthma in this population and support inhaled corticosteroid intervention. There is a need for further investigation...
Peláez, Sandra; Bacon, Simon L; Lacoste, Guillaume; Lavoie, Kim L
Adherence to daily asthma controller medication has been shown to be the most effective component of asthma self-management; however, patient's adherence to asthma medication remains poor. This study aimed to understand how patients' long-term asthma controller medication adherence may be improved and facilitated by comparing key asthma stakeholders' perspectives. Six focus group interviews including 38 asthma stakeholders (n = 13 patients, n = 13 pulmonologist physicians, and n = 12 allied healthcare professionals) were conducted. Interviews were qualitatively analysed. Although similar themes were brought up across different asthma stakeholders, the way in which they were framed differed across stakeholders. The most salient discussion revolved around the content and the moment in which asthma education should be approached to facilitate patients' adherence to asthma medication. Asthma medication adherence is a complex process and successful interventions aimed at its improvement would benefit from: (a) making an effort to understand patients' experiences and negotiate the treatment regimen, rather than imposing recommendations; (b) considering treatment as a shared responsibility involving the patient, the healthcare professional(s), and the patients' social networks; and, (c) taking into account different stakeholders' concerns, needs, perspectives, and knowledge.
Shirazian, Shayan; Crnosija, Natalie; Weinger, Katie; Jacobson, Alan M; Park, Joonho; Tanenbaum, Molly L; Gonzalez, Jeffrey S; Mattana, Joseph; Hammock, Amy C
The purpose of this study was to explore views related to the self-management of type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease. We conducted three semi-structured focus groups in participants with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Credibility was supported through triangulation of data sources and the use of multiple investigators from different disciplines. Twenty-three adults participated. Three major themes were identified: emotional reactions to health state, the impact of family dynamics on self-management, and the burden of self-management regimens. Family dynamics were found to be a barrier and support to self-management, while complicated self-management regimens were found to be a barrier. Additionally, participants expressed several emotional reactions related to their CKD status, including regret related to having developed CKD and distress related both to their treatment regimens and the future possibility of dialysis. This exploratory study of patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease describes barriers and supports to self-management and emotional reactions to chronic kidney disease status. Future research should confirm these findings in a larger population and should include family members and/or health care providers to help further define problems with self-management in patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease. © The Author(s) 2015.
Webel, Allison R; Cuca, Yvette; Okonsky, Jennifer G; Asher, Alice K; Kaihura, Alphoncina; Salata, Robert A
HIV self-management is central to the health of people living with HIV and is comprised of the daily tasks individuals employ to manage their illness. Women living with HIV are confronted with social context vulnerabilities that impede their ability to conduct HIV self-management behaviors, including demanding social roles, poverty, homelessness, decreased social capital, and limited access to health care. We examined the relationship between these vulnerabilities and HIV self-management in a cross-sectional secondary analysis of 260 women living with HIV from two U.S. sites. All social context variables were assessed using validated self-report scales. HIV Self-Management was assessed using the HIV Self-Management Scale that measures daily health practices, HIV social support, and the chronic nature of HIV. Data were analyzed using appropriate descriptive statistics and multivariable regression. Mean age was 46 years and 65% of participants were African-American. Results indicated that social context variables, particularly social capital, significantly predicted all domains of HIV self-management including daily health practices (F = 5.40, adjusted R(2) = 0.27, p < 0.01), HIV social support (F = 4.50, adjusted R(2) = 0.22, p < 0.01), and accepting the chronic nature of HIV (F = 5.57, adjusted R(2) = 0.27, p < 0.01). We found evidence to support the influence of the traditional social roles of mother and employee on the daily health practices and the chronic nature of HIV domains of HIV self-management. Our data support the idea that women's social context influences their HIV self-management behavior. While social context has been previously identified as important, our data provide new evidence on which aspects of social context might be important targets of self-management interventions for women living with HIV. Working to improve social capital and to incorporate social roles into the daily health practices of women living with HIV may improve the health of
Full Text Available Patients suffering from chronic respiratory disease need to follow a rehabilitative exercise programme, in order to self-manage their illness and improve quality of life. Adherence to the programme is highly dependent on professional support from a physiotherapist and hence declines when patients seek to self-manage in the home. A number of requirements were identified for a Smartphone-based application in which patients are supported remotely and given automatic feedback during exercise. An application is described which will improve adherence during pulmonary rehabilitation.
J.N.T. Sattoe (Jane)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ Becoming an adult often proves extra challenging for those who grow up with chronic conditions, because adaptive tasks related to living with a chronic condition can clash with normal developmental milestones. Finding a good balance and integrating these tasks in
Blok, Amanda C
To report an analysis of the concept of self-management behaviors. Self-management behaviors are typically associated with disease management, with frequent use by nurse researchers related to chronic illness management and by international health organizations for development of disease management interventions. A concept analysis was conducted within the context of Orem's self-care framework. Walker and Avant's eight-step concept analysis approach guided the analysis. Academic databases were searched for relevant literature including CIHAHL, Cochrane Databases of Systematic Reviews and Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, PsycARTICLES and PsycINFO, and SocINDEX. Literature using the term "self-management behavior" and published between April 2001 and March 2015 was analyzed for attributes, antecedents, and consequences. A total of 189 journal articles were reviewed. Self-management behaviors are defined as proactive actions related to lifestyle, a problem, planning, collaborating, and mental support, as well as reactive actions related to a circumstantial change, to achieve a goal influenced by the antecedents of physical, psychological, socioeconomic, and cultural characteristics, as well as collaborative and received support. The theoretical definition and middle-range explanatory theory of self-management behaviors will guide future collaborative research and clinical practice for disease management. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Conclusion: The diabetes self-management activities were more strongly associated with HbA1c under conditions of high social support, self-efficacy and health beliefs with Buddhist values. Future interventions for T2DM self-management programs should incorporate mechanisms to measure and support these factors.
Dye, Cheryl J; Williams, Joel E; Evatt, Janet Hoffman
Approximately two thirds of those older than 60 years have a hypertension diagnosis. The aim of our program, Health Coaches for Hypertension Control, is to improve hypertension self-management among rural residents older than 60 years through education and support offered by trained community volunteers called Health Coaches. Participants received baseline and follow-up health risk appraisals with blood work, educational materials, and items such as blood pressure monitors and pedometers. Data were collected at baseline, 8 weeks, and 16 weeks on 146 participants who demonstrated statistically significant increases in hypertension-related knowledge from baseline to 8 weeks that persisted at 16 weeks, as well as significant improvements in stage of readiness to change behaviors and in actual behaviors. Furthermore, clinically significant decreases in all outcome measures were observed, with statistically significant changes in systolic blood pressure (-5.781 mmHg; p = .001), weight (-2.475 lb; p definition of controlled hypertension at baseline, the proportion of participants meeting this definition at 16 weeks postintervention increased to 51.0%. This article describes a university-community-hospital system model that effectively promotes hypertension self-management in a rural Appalachian community. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.
Richardson, Julie; Loyola-Sanchez, Adalberto; Sinclair, Susanne; Harris, Jocelyn; Letts, Lori; MacIntyre, Norma J; Wilkins, Seanne; Burgos-Martinez, Gabriela; Wishart, Laurie; McBay, Cathy; Martin Ginis, Kathleen
To investigate the contributions of physiotherapy and occupational therapy to self-management interventions and the theoretical models used to support these interventions in chronic disease. We conducted two literature searches to identify studies that evaluated self-management interventions involving physiotherapists and occupational therapists in MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, CINAHL, EMBASE, AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine), SPORTdiscus, and REHABDATA databases. Four investigator pairs screened article title and abstract, then full text with inclusion criteria. Selected articles (n = 57) included adults who received a chronic disease self-management intervention, developed or delivered by a physiotherapist and/or an occupational therapist compared with a control group. Four pairs of investigators performed independent reviews of each article and data extraction included: (a) participant characteristics, (b) the self-management intervention, (c) the comparison intervention, (d) outcome measures, construct measured and results. A total of 47 articles reported the involvement of physiotherapy in self-management compared with 10 occupational therapy articles. The type of chronic condition produced different yields: arthritis n = 21 articles; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic pain n = 9 articles each. The theoretical frameworks most frequently cited were social cognitive theory and self-efficacy theory. Physical activity was the predominant focus of the self-management interventions. Physiotherapy programmes included disease-specific education, fatigue, posture, and pain management, while occupational therapists concentrated on joint protection, fatigue, and stress management. Physiotherapists and occupational therapists make moderate contributions to self-management interventions. Most of these interventions are disease-specific and are most frequently based on the principles of behaviour change theories. © The Author(s) 2014.
Archer, Norm; Keshavjee, Karim; Demers, Catherine; Lee, Ryan
As the fraction of the population with chronic diseases continues to grow, methods and/or technologies must be found to help the chronically ill to take more responsibility to self-manage their illnesses. Internet based and/or mobile support for disease self-management interventions have often proved effective, but patients with chronic illnesses may have co-occurring cognitive impairment, making it more difficult for them to cope with technologies. Many older patients are also not familiar with technologies or they may have cognitive disabilities or dementia that reduce their ability to self-manage their healthcare. On-line solutions to the needs of chronically ill patients must be investigated and acted upon with care in an integrated manner, since resources invested in these solutions will be lost if patients do not adopt and continue to use them successfully. To review the capabilities of online and mobile support for self-management of chronic illnesses, and the impacts that age and disease-related issues have on these interventions, including cognitive impairment and lack of access or familiarity with Internet or mobile technologies. This study includes a review of the co-occurrence of cognitive impairment with chronic diseases, and discusses how cognitive impairment, dyadic caregiver patient support, patient efficacy with technology, and smart home technologies can impact the effectiveness and sustainability of online support for disease self-management. Disease self-management interventions (SMIs) using online patient centered support can often enable patients to manage their own chronic illnesses. However, our findings show that cognitive impairment often co-occurs in patients with chronic disease. This, along with age-related increases in multiple chronic illnesses and lack of technology efficacy, can be obstacles to Internet and mobile support for chronic disease self-management. Patients with chronic diseases may have greater than expected difficulties
... Asthma - children Wheezing Patient Instructions Asthma and school Asthma - child - discharge Asthma - control drugs Asthma - what to ask the doctor - adult Asthma - what to ask your doctor - child Bronchiolitis - discharge Exercise-induced asthma Exercising and asthma ...
Sanon, Marie-Anne; Spigner, Clarence; McCullagh, Marjorie C
Transnationalism--maintenance of transborder activities--has important implications for the health status of contemporary immigrants. Yet little is known about how such interconnectivity interacts with health. In this critical ethnography study, 31 Haitian immigrants discussed the influences of transnationalism on their hypertension management. Transcripts of the semistructured individual interviews were analyzed and coded with the assistance of the Atlas.ti 6 software. Two major themes emerged: social support and financial obligation, both framed within the obligation to send monetary remittances. A duality emerged where social support facilitated hypertension self-management but consequently represented a financial burden. The study evidenced that transnationalism, although positively influencing immigrants' psychosocial well-being can negatively affect their experience with disease management. Health providers are urged to account for this transnationalism-disease management interaction when caring for this immigrant group. Future studies are needed to explore this phenomenon among other immigrant populations. © The Author(s) 2014.
Essue, Beverley M; Jowsey, Tanisha; Jeon, Yun-Hee; Mirzaei, Masoud; Pearce-Brown, Carmen L; Aspin, Clive; Usherwood, Tim P
The Serious and Continuing Illness Policy and Practice Study (SCIPPS) aims to improve the care and support for patients with chronic illness and their family carers. Here we describe the carers' contribution to the self-management partnership and discuss the policy and practice implications that are relevant to improving the support available for informal care in Australia. A secondary analysis of SCIPPS data. Fourteen carers of patients between 45 and 85 years with chronic heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and diabetes were conveniently sampled from western Sydney and the Australian Capital Territory. Semi-structured interviews were conducted. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Key roles that carers perform in the self-management partnership included: home helper; lifestyle coach; advocate; technical care manager; and health information interpreter. Two negative consequences of juggling these roles included: self-neglect and conflict. Rigid eligibility criteria limit carers' access to essential support programs which underestimates and undervalues their contributions to the self-management partnership. Support services should focus on the development of practical skills to perform the caregiving roles. In addition, health professionals require support to work more effectively with carers to minimise the conflict that can overshadow the care and self-management partnership.
Slater, Joanne Tracy
Childhood asthma is a chronic condition affecting up to one in every seven children. Self-management programs have been developed to help improve children's abilities to both manage and cope with their asthma. If these programs are to be fully effective, an understanding of the psychological factors that influence children's sense of competence to manage their condition is required. This study aimed to identify psychological variables that may influence children's asthma sel...
... Asthma - children Wheezing Patient Instructions Asthma and school Asthma - child - discharge Asthma - control drugs Asthma - quick-relief drugs Asthma - what to ask the doctor - adult Asthma - what to ask your doctor - child Exercising and asthma at school How to use ...
Escoffery, Cam; McGee, Robin; Bidwell, Jonathan; Sims, Christopher; Thropp, Eliana Kovitch; Frazier, Cherise; Mynatt, Elizabeth D
Mobile health app developers increasingly are interested in supporting the daily self-care of people with chronic conditions. The purpose of this study was to review mobile applications (apps) to promote epilepsy self-management. It investigates the following: 1) the available mobile apps for epilepsy, 2) how these apps support patient education and self-management (SM), and 3) their usefulness in supporting management of epilepsy. We conducted the review in Fall 2017 and assessed apps on the Apple App Store that related to the terms "epilepsy" and "seizure". Inclusion criteria included apps (adult and pediatric) that, as follows, were: 1) developed for patients or the community; 2) made available in English, and 3) less than $5.00. Exclusion criteria included apps that were designed for dissemination of publications, focused on healthcare providers, or were available in other languages. The search resulted in 149 apps, of which 20 met the selection criteria. A team reviewed each app in terms of three sets of criteria: 1) epilepsy-specific descriptions and SM categories employed by the apps and 2) Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS) subdomain scores for reviewing engagement, functionality, esthetics, and information; and 3) behavioral change techniques. Most apps were for adults and free. Common SM domains for the apps were treatment, seizure tracking, response, and safety. A number of epilepsy apps existed, but many offered similar functionalities and incorporated few SM domains. The findings underline the need for mobile apps to cover broader domains of SM and behavioral change techniques and to be evaluated for outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Contreras, Iván; Kiefer, Stephan; Vehi, Josep
Diabetes self-management is a crucial element for all people with diabetes and those at risk for developing the disease. Diabetic patients should be empowered to increase their self-management skills in order to prevent or delay the complications of diabetes. This work presents the proposal and first development stages of a smartphone application focused on the empowerment of the patients with diabetes. The concept of this interventional tool is based on the personalization of the user experience from an adaptive and dynamic perspective. The segmentation of the population and the dynamical treatment of user profiles among the different experience levels is the main challenge of the implementation. The self-management assistant and remote treatment for diabetes aims to develop a platform to integrate a series of innovative models and tools rigorously tested and supported by the research literature in diabetes together the use of a proved engine to manage workflows for healthcare.
Pinto, Joana Carneiro; Loureiro, Nazaré; Taveira, Maria do Céu
This article describes the evaluation of a psychological intervention--the Career Self-Management Seminar, Version A, for undergraduate students, and Version B for postgraduate students--developed to support Portuguese college students in career exploration, goal setting, design and implementation of action plans, and decision-making. A total of…
Kuipers, B.J.; Stoker, J.I.
Several theories have been developed that prescribe the team development of self-managing work teams (SMWTs). Some of these have led to models with successive linear developmental phases. However, both the theory and the empirical data show little support for these models. Based on an extensive
Hampshire, Patricia Korzekwa; Butera, Gretchen; Bellini, Scott
As research has suggested, success with homework tasks directly relates to overall academic achievement (Coutts, 2004). In addition, homework provides a venue for developing organizational skills that become necessary as students learn to self-manage. Thus, the importance of developing homework strategies that support both student achievement and…
Brown, Sharon A.; Garcia, Alexandra A.; Kouzekanani, Kamiar; Hanis, Craig L.
In a culturally competent diabetes self-management intervention in Starr County, Texas, bilingual Mexican American nurses, dieticians, and community workers provided weekly instruction on nutrition, self-monitoring, exercise and other self-care topics. A biweekly support group promoted behavior change. Interviews and examinations with 256 Mexican…
Palvalin, M.O.; van der Voordt, Theo; Jylhä, T.E.
Purpose: This paper aims to explore the impact of workplaces, which support concentration and communication, and self-management practices on individual and team productivity. The underlying hypothesis is that the impact of these variables on the two levels of productivity (individual and team)
Tabak, Monique; Brusse-Keizer, Marjolein; Ommeren, Clara; Kotte, Hayke; Weltevreden, Paul; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé
Objective: The Condition Coach (CoCo) is a technology-supported care programme for self-management of COPD exacerbations and for promotion of an active lifestyle. The objective is to investigate the added value of the telecare programme in terms of clinical changes compared to usual care, and in
Houtum, L. van; Rijken, M.; Groenewegen, P.
Background: Being chronically ill is a continuous process of balancing the demands of the illness and the demands of everyday life. Understanding how everyday life affects self-management might help to provide better professional support. However, little attention has been paid to the influence of
Zuidema, R.M.; Gaal, B.G.I.; Dulmen, S. van; Repping-Wuts, H.; Schoonhoven, L.
Background: Every day rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients make many decisions about managing their disease. An online, computer-tailored, self-management program can support this decision making, but development of such a program requires the active participation of patients. Objective: To develop an
Zuidema, R.M.; Gaal, B.G. van; Dulmen, S. van; Repping-Wuts, H.J.; Schoonhoven, L.
BACKGROUND: Every day rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients make many decisions about managing their disease. An online, computer-tailored, self-management program can support this decision making, but development of such a program requires the active participation of patients. OBJECTIVE: To develop an
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Wah, Yat Yin Eric; McGill, Margaret; Wong, Jencia; Ross, Glynis P; Harding, Anna-Jane; Krass, Ines
Gestational diabetes mellitus is one of the most common complications of pregnancy. Women with Gestational diabetes are at increased risk of serious health outcomes, such as pre-eclampsia, obstructed labor, and the development of Type 2 diabetes later in life. Chinese migrants, the third largest cultural group in Australia, are more likely to develop Gestational diabetes than Australian-born women. However, to date, Gestational diabetes self-management has not been investigated in this population. To explore the understanding and self-management experiences of Gestational diabetes among Chinese migrants. Data were collected through individual semi-structured face-to-face interviews. Participants were recruited from the antenatal clinic at the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematically analyzed. Although the majority of participants demonstrated a good understanding of Gestational diabetes, some did not understand the principles behind healthcare advice and faced challenges in self-management. Confusion about self-monitoring of blood glucose and fear of insulin were also evident. Participants relied on both formal and informal sources of information. Some had difficulty obtaining adequate support. Cultural influences on self-management included meeting family needs, Chinese diet and use of Chinese medicines. To assist Chinese women with Gestational diabetes to better self-manage their condition, there is a need for clinicians to: (1) provide more effective diabetes education to ensure clear understanding of self-management principles; (2) actively elicit and respond to women's confusion and concerns; (3) provide women with adequate practical support; and (4) develop greater cultural awareness. Copyright © 2018 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhao, Denise H; Cheung, Janet M Y; Smith, Lorraine; Saini, Bandana
People with asthma spend a significant amount of time in the workplace but little is known about the current state of disease management in such contexts. The aim of the current study is to explore the experiences, attitudes and perceptions of asthma across different stakeholders in the workplace to help inform potential recommendations for workplace asthma policies. Using purposive and convenience sampling methods, in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted in Australia with 5 human resource personnel, 10 employees with asthma and 10 employees without asthma. Interviews were guided by a schedule of questions focusing on attitudes and experiences of people with asthma in the workplace, which were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed. Analysis of the qualitative dataset revealed three key themes: Beliefs and Attitudes about Asthma, Asthma Solutions in the Workplace and Workplace Obstacles. Findings suggest that employees with asthma experience problems managing their asthma at work and there is a lack of workplace support in relation to asthma emergency management. Key recommendations for workplace asthma policies have been made to provide better support for employees with asthma. However, further investigation into the experience of managing asthma is required in a wider variety of occupations and work experiences to inform the development of a workplace asthma policy.
Full Text Available Samantha R Paige,1 Michael Stellefson,1 Briana Singh2 1Department of Health Education and Behavior, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; 2College of Public Health and Health Professions, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA Background: Challenges exist when enrolling and retaining chronic disease patients in self-management programs. Exploring patient perspectives on participating in self-management programs may enhance study enrollment and retention and thereby improve health outcomes. Limited review research has synthesized patient perspectives on intrapersonal and sociocontextual factors influencing participation in chronic disease self-management programs. Objective: To synthesize empirical qualitative research exploring intrapersonal (ie, predisposing and sociocontextual (ie, predisposing, enabling, need factors influencing patient enrollment and retention in chronic disease self-management programs. Method: A systematic literature review was conducted using Garrard’s Matrix Method to retrieve articles published between 1997 and 2015 from electronic databases (PsycINFO, CINAHL, MEDLINE. Andersen’s Behavioral Model of Health Services Use was used to synthesize data according to intrapersonal and sociocontextual factors impacting participation in self-management programs. Results: Thirteen (N=13 qualitative studies met inclusion criteria. Most studies focused on cardiovascular (n=4; 30.76% and chronic lower respiratory (n=3; 23.07% diseases. Predisposing factors such as limited disease-specific knowledge, negative outcome expectations of self-management, and confusion about comorbidity self-care negatively influenced the decision to participate. Enabling factors, including opportunities for social support, positively influenced the decision to participate in self-management programs. Scheduling conflicts negatively influenced patient participation. Beliefs that current health care was sufficient deterred patients from
Protocol for an online randomised controlled trial to evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of a peer-supported self-management intervention for relatives of people with psychosis or bipolar disorder: Relatives Education And Coping Toolkit (REACT).
Lobban, Fiona; Robinson, Heather; Appelbe, Duncan; Barraclough, Johanna; Bedson, Emma; Collinge, Lizzi; Dodd, Susanna; Flowers, Sue; Honary, Mahsa; Johnson, Sonia; Mateus, Ceu; Mezes, Barbara; Minns, Valerie; Murray, Elizabeth; Walker, Andrew; Williamson, Paula; Wintermeyer, Catherine; Jones, Steven
Despite clinical guidelines recommendations, many relatives of people with psychosis or bipolar disorder do not currently receive the support they need. Online information and support may offer a solution. This single-blind, parallel, online randomised controlled trial will determine clinical and cost-effectiveness of the Relatives Education And Coping Toolkit (REACT) (including an online resource directory (RD)), compared with RD only, for relatives of people with psychosis or bipolar disorder. Both groups continue to receive treatment as usual. Independent, web-based variable, block, individual randomisation will be used across 666 relatives. Primary outcome is distress at 24 weeks (measured by General Health Questionnaire; GHQ-28) compared between groups using analysis of covariance, adjusting for baseline score. Secondary clinical outcomes are carer well-being and support. Cost-effectiveness analysis will determine cost of a significant unit change (three-point reduction) in the GHQ-28. Costs include offering and supporting the intervention in the REACT arm, relevant healthcare care costs including health professional contacts, medications prescribed and time off (or ability to) work for the relative. Cost utility analysis will be calculated as the marginal cost of changes in quality-adjusted life years, based on EuroQol. We will explore relatives' beliefs, perceived coping and amount of REACT toolkit use as possible outcome mediators. We have embedded two methodological substudies in the protocol to determine the relative effectiveness of a low-value (£10) versus higher value (£20) incentive, and an unconditional versus conditional incentive, on improving follow-up rates. The trial has ethical approval from Lancaster National Research Ethics Service (NRES)Committee (15/NW/0732) and is overseen by an independent Data Monitoring and Ethics Committee and Trial Steering Committee. Protocol version 1.5 was approved on 9 January 2017. All updates to protocols are
J. Ammerlaan (Judy); H. van Os-Medendorp (Harmieke); de Boer-Nijhof, N. (Nienke); Scholtus, L. (Lieske); A.A. Kruize (A.); P.A. van Pelt (Philomine); B.J. Prakken (Berent); J.W.J. Bijlsma (Hans)
textabstractBackground: A web-based self-management intervention guided by peer-trainers was developed to support young adults' self-management in coping with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA). To investigate its effectiveness, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted. In addition, the
Nes, A.A.; Eide, H.; Kristjansdottir, O.B.; Dulmen, S. van
OBJECTIVE: Chronic illness places high demands on patients. Interventions supporting self-management and providing personalized feedback might help patients to gain new perspectives and enhance use of constructive self-management strategies. We developed three comparable web-based CBT-grounded
Nes, A.A.G.; Eide, H.; Kristjánsdóttir, O.B.; Dulmen, S. van
Objective: Chronic illness places high demands on patients. Interventions supporting self-management and providing personalized feedback might help patients to gain new perspectives and enhance use of constructive self-management strategies. We developed three comparable web-based CBT-grounded
Full Text Available In this study, researchers compare and contrast issues regarding diabetes self-management between persons in good versus poor glycemic control. The sample comprises low-income racially diverse adults with diabetes from four mid-western community health centers; 44 patients participated in eight focus groups divided by control status (HbA1c of > 9 [uncontrolled] or < 7 [controlled]. Themes common to both groups included the impact of dietary restrictions on social interactions, food cravings, the impact of mental health on self-management, and the importance of formal and informal (friends and family support. Those in the uncontrolled groups described fear about being able to control their diabetes, confusion about self-management, and difficulty managing their diabetes while caring for family members. Although those in the controlled groups acknowledged difficulties, they discussed resisting cravings, making improvements with small changes, positive feelings about their ability to control their diabetes, and enjoying new foods and exercise. Interventions should include mental health support, incorporate formal and informal patient support structures, and address literacy issues. Health care providers and intervention personnel should be very concrete about how to do self-management tasks and guide patients on how to alter their diabetes regimens for social and other important life events.
Nicholas, J; Boydell, K; Christensen, H
To investigate the potential use of smartphone apps to support self-management in young adults with bipolar disorder. We recruited 89 young adults (18-30 years) with bipolar disorder to complete a cross-sectional online survey. The survey contained quantitative and qualitative questions regarding technology use, current use of disorder-management apps, types of apps desired for disorder management, and app features that users would consider important when selecting apps. Results were analysed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. Almost all participants used a smartphone daily and 40% currently used apps for disorder management. Of those not currently using apps, 79% indicated they would like to try them. On average, participants rated 61% of the self-management strategies listed as desirable for app support, with sleep-management, understanding early warning signs and triggers, and stay-well plans the most frequently endorsed. App features considered important during app selection were ease-of-use, scientific quality, flexibility/customisation, and data privacy. The results indicate that young adults with bipolar disorder are interested in a wide range of apps for self-management. Participants were interested in apps to support self-management strategies considered clinically important for disorder management. Many of these app needs are currently unmet. Results suggest diversifying and prioritising app capabilities to ensure evidence-based resources for a broader range of app functions are available to consumers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Carol Blixen,1,2 Jennifer B Levin,2 Kristin A Cassidy,2 Adam T Perzynski,1 Martha Sajatovic2–4 1Center for Health Care Research and Policy, MetroHealth Medical Center, 2Department of Psychiatry, 3Department of Neurology, Neurological Institute, 4Department of Biostatistics & Epidemiology, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA Background: Bipolar disorder (BD is a chronic mental illness associated with reduced quality of life, high rates of suicide, and high financial costs. Evidence indicates that psychosocial stress might play an important role in the onset and course of BD. Objective: The objective of this study was to address the gap between coping theory and the clinical use of coping strategies used to self-manage BD.Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with a sample of 21 poorly adherent patients with BD. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using content analysis with an emphasis on dominant themes.Results: Transcript-based analysis generated two major domains of coping strategies used to self-manage BD: 1 problem focused (altering eating habits, managing mood-stabilizing medications, keeping psychiatric appointments, seeking knowledge, self-monitoring, and socializing and 2 emotion focused (distracting activities, denial, isolation, modifying/avoiding, helping others, and seeking social support. Participants used both types of coping strategies to deal with stressful situations brought about by the internal and external demands associated with self-management of BD.Conclusion: This qualitative study provided a first step in evaluating coping strategies as a possible mediator in the self-management of BD and has implications for health care providers. Being able to characterize an individual’s coping behaviors can help patients modify or replace more maladaptive coping with better coping strategies in the self-management of
Coffey, Laura; Mooney, Orla; Dunne, Simon; Sharp, Linda; Timmons, Aileen; Desmond, Deirdre; O'Sullivan, Eleanor; Timon, Conrad; Gooberman-Hill, Rachael; Gallagher, Pamela
Self-management interventions improve patient outcomes across a range of long-term conditions but are often limited by low uptake and completion rates. The aim of this paper was to conduct a meta-synthesis of qualitative studies exploring cancer survivors' views and experiences of engaging with adjustment-focused self-management interventions in order to inform the development of future interventions targeting this population. Four electronic databases were systematically searched. Studies that used qualitative methods to explore cancer survivors' views and experiences of engaging with adjustment-focused self-management interventions were included. A meta-ethnographic approach was used to synthesize the findings. Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Engaging with adjustment-focused self-management interventions enabled cancer survivors to gain emotional and informational support from peers and/or facilitators in an open, non-judgemental environment, become empowered through enhancing knowledge and skills and regaining confidence and control, and move beyond cancer by accepting illness experiences, reprioritising goals and adopting a positive outlook. However, the extent to which they engaged with, and benefited from, such interventions was mitigated by diverse preferences regarding intervention design, content and delivery. Personal obstacles to engagement included low perceived need, reticence to discuss cancer-related experiences and various practical issues. Cancer survivors derive a range of benefits from participating in adjustment-focused self-management interventions; potential barriers to engagement should be addressed more comprehensively in intervention marketing, design and delivery. The findings suggest some key considerations for the development and implementation of future adjustment-focused self-management interventions that may help to optimize their appeal and effectiveness among cancer survivors.
Bos-Touwen, Irene; Dijkkamp, Evelien; Kars, Marijke; Trappenburg, Jaap; De Wit, Niek; Schuurmans, Marieke
Although self-management interventions are, to some extent, individualized in clinical practice, the decision-making process is not fully understood. Exploring nurses' clinical reasoning about how and to what extent they currently tailor self-management support can provide new insights, enhancing process and outcome of chronic care. The aim of this study was to explore how nurses assess chronic patients concerning the potential of self-management and clinical reasoning with regard to tailoring care to the individual patient. A qualitative study was conducted using grounded theory. Semistructured interviews were held with 15 nurses working within chronic care. All interviews were carried out from February to July 2013. All nurses provided individualized care; however, a nurse's view of self-management influenced how tailoring was performed. Substantial differences were seen in patient assessments and how care was individualized. Patients' motivation, capacities, mindset, needs, and preferences were obtained through communication, experience, intuition, and trusting relationships. A typology with four patient types emerged: the unmotivated patient, the patient with limited capacities, the oblivious patient, and the ideal patient. Nurses elaborated on using different approaches for patients in each of these groups. A nurse's perception of self-management substantially impacted how care was individualized. Patient assessment was the key driver of tailoring, which was performed in various ways, and influenced how and the extent to which care was individualized. To enable responding to the unique wishes and needs of individual patients, both scientific and educational efforts need to be directed toward systematic assessments of patient capacity to self-manage their disease.
... resources Asthma - children Patient Instructions Asthma and school Asthma - child - discharge Asthma - control drugs Asthma - quick-relief drugs Asthma - what to ask your doctor - child Exercise-induced asthma How to use a nebulizer ...
Suwannakeeree, Pussayaban; Deerojanawong, Jitladda; Prapphal, Nuanchan
Lack of asthma knowledge among the pediatric patients and their caregivers contribute to poor asthma control in children. There is no data from Thailand on the health outcomes of school-based educational interventions for asthmatic children. To assess the effectiveness of school-based asthma educational interventions on health outcomes, asthma control, and management in asthmatic children. Forty-seven asthmatic students (6-15 years old), 14 caregivers, and five teachers from the Homkred School participated in the study. Asthma knowledge, workshops on pMDI (pressurized metered dose inhaler) techniques, use of asthma diaries, and self-management plans were provided Pre- and post-tests were administered to assess the asthma knowledge of the asthmatic students, their caregivers, and teachers. Pulmonary function tests (PFT) were used to assess the health outcomes. The controls of asthma and self-management behaviors were assessed at three and six months post-intervention. There were significant improvements of asthma knowledge in all groups (p management behaviors in the asthmatic children improved. The teachers' management of asthmatic attacks during the classes also improved. As a result of this, there were fewer emergency room (ER) visits. School-based educational interventions can significantly improve asthma outcomes in children with asthma. Therefore, the authors highly recommend the use of this intervention.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study is to better understand differences in diabetes self-management, specifically needs, barriers and challenges among men and women living with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods 35 participants were recruited from a diabetes education center (DEC in Toronto, Canada. Five focus groups and nine individual interviews were conducted to explore men and women's diabetes self-management experiences. Results The average age of participants was 57 years and just over half (51.4% were female. Analyses revealed five themes: disclosure and identity as a person living with diabetes; self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG; diet struggles across varying contexts; utilization of diabetes resources; and social support. Women disclosed their diabetes more readily and integrated management into their daily lives, whereas men were more reluctant to tell friends and family about their diabetes and were less observant of self-management practices in social settings. Men focused on practical aspects of SMBG and experimented with various aspects of management to reduce reliance on medications whereas women focused on affective components of SMBG. Women restricted foods from their diets perceived as prohibited whereas many men moderated their intake of perceived unhealthy foods, except in social situations. Women used socially interactive resources, like education classes and support groups whereas men relied more on self-directed learning but also described wanting more guidance to help navigate the healthcare system. Finally, men and women reported wanting physician support for both affective and practical aspects of self-management. Conclusions Our findings highlight the differences in needs and challenges of diabetes self-management among men and women, which may inform gender-sensitive diabetes, care, counseling and support.
Stombaugh, Angela M.
Self-management of a disease is defined as "having or being able to obtain, the skills and resources necessary to best accommodate to the chronic disease and its consequences" (Holman & Lorig, 1992, p. 309). Self-management has been used in the management of several chronic conditions and this model may be useful in the management of weight loss.…
King-Sears, Margaret E.; Carpenter, Stephanie L.
This booklet was developed to help in the design and implementation of self-management systems for elementary-classroom students with developmental disabilities. Self-management components addressed in the booklet are self-monitoring, self-evaluation, and self-reinforcement. Chapters provide: (1) the definitions and rationale for teaching…
Scott, Terance M.
Shows how moving away from the token economy and contingency-contracting concepts of behavior management in the classroom is an effective way to teach self management skills to students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Supplies detailed instructions for implementing a successful self-management program. (MKA)
Musekamp, Gunda; Bengel, Jürgen; Schuler, Michael; Faller, Hermann
Self-management programs aim to improve patients' skills to manage their chronic condition in everyday life. Improvement in self-management is assumed to bring about improvements in more distal outcomes, such as quality of life. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that changes in self-reported self-management skills observed after participation in self-management programs predict changes in both quality of life and depressive symptoms three months later. Using latent change modeling, the relationship between changes in latent variables over three time points (start and end of rehabilitation, after three months) was analysed. The sample comprised 580 patients with different chronic conditions treated in inpatient rehabilitation clinics. The influence of additional predictor variables (age, sex, perceived social support) and type of disorder as a moderator variable was also tested. Changes in self-reported self-management skills after rehabilitation predicted changes in both quality of life and depressive symptoms at the end of rehabilitation and the 3 months follow-up. These relationships remained significant after the inclusion of other predictor variables and were similar across disorders. The findings provide support for the hypothesis that improvements in proximal outcomes of self-management programs may foster improvements in distal outcomes. Further studies should investigate treatment mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Faecal incontinence intervention study (FINS): self-management booklet information with or without nurse support to improve continence in people with inflammatory bowel disease: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Norton, Christine; Dibley, Lesley B; Hart, Ailsa; Duncan, Julie; Emmanuel, Anton; Knowles, Charles H; Stevens, Natasha; Terry, Helen; Verjee, Azmina; Kerry, Sally; Hounsome, Natalia
collaborated with patients to design this study. Blinding to this behavioural intervention is not possible, but our self-report outcome measures with a degree of objectivity. There is genuine equipoise between the booklet only and booklet plus nurse arms, and the study will determine if additional support from a nurse is a crucial element in implementing advice. clinitrials.gov.uk: NCT02355834 (Date of registration: 12 December 2014). Protocol version: 4.0. 08.04.15.
Barrett, Meredith A; Humblet, Olivier; Marcus, Justine E; Henderson, Kelly; Smith, Ted; Eid, Nemr; Sublett, J Wesley; Renda, Andrew; Nesbitt, LaQuandra; Van Sickle, David; Stempel, David; Sublett, James L
Asthma inflicts a significant health and economic burden in the United States. Self-management approaches to monitoring and treatment can be burdensome for patients. To assess the effect of a digital health management program on asthma outcomes. Residents of Louisville, Kentucky, with asthma were enrolled in a single-arm pilot study. Participants received electronic inhaler sensors that tracked the time, frequency, and location of short-acting β-agonist (SABA) use. After a 30-day baseline period during which reference medication use was recorded by the sensors, participants received access to a digital health intervention designed to enhance self-management. Changes in outcomes, including mean daily SABA use, symptom-free days, and asthma control status, were compared among the initial 30-day baseline period and all subsequent months of the intervention using mixed-model logistic regressions and χ 2 tests. The mean number of SABA events per participant per day was 0.44 during the control period and 0.27 after the first month of the intervention, a 39% reduction. The percentage of symptom-free days was 77% during the baseline period and 86% after the first month, a 12% improvement. Improvement was observed throughout the study; each intervention month demonstrated significantly lower SABA use and higher symptom-free days than the baseline month (P asthma during the baseline period, 67% during the first month of the intervention. Each intervention month demonstrated significantly higher percentages than the baseline month (P asthma management intervention demonstrated significant reductions in SABA use, increased number of symptom-free days, and improvements in asthma control. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02162576. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mamykina, Lena; Heitkemper, Elizabeth M; Smaldone, Arlene M; Kukafka, Rita; Cole-Lewis, Heather J; Davidson, Patricia G; Mynatt, Elizabeth D; Cassells, Andrea; Tobin, Jonathan N; Hripcsak, George
To outline new design directions for informatics solutions that facilitate personal discovery with self-monitoring data. We investigate this question in the context of chronic disease self-management with the focus on type 2 diabetes. We conducted an observational qualitative study of discovery with personal data among adults attending a diabetes self-management education (DSME) program that utilized a discovery-based curriculum. The study included observations of class sessions, and interviews and focus groups with the educator and attendees of the program (n = 14). The main discovery in diabetes self-management evolved around discovering patterns of association between characteristics of individuals' activities and changes in their blood glucose levels that the participants referred to as "cause and effect". This discovery empowered individuals to actively engage in self-management and provided a desired flexibility in selection of personalized self-management strategies. We show that discovery of cause and effect involves four essential phases: (1) feature selection, (2) hypothesis generation, (3) feature evaluation, and (4) goal specification. Further, we identify opportunities to support discovery at each stage with informatics and data visualization solutions by providing assistance with: (1) active manipulation of collected data (e.g., grouping, filtering and side-by-side inspection), (2) hypotheses formulation (e.g., using natural language statements or constructing visual queries), (3) inference evaluation (e.g., through aggregation and visual comparison, and statistical analysis of associations), and (4) translation of discoveries into actionable goals (e.g., tailored selection from computable knowledge sources of effective diabetes self-management behaviors). The study suggests that discovery of cause and effect in diabetes can be a powerful approach to helping individuals to improve their self-management strategies, and that self-monitoring data can
Cole, Kimberly A; Gaspar, Phyllis M
It is essential that patients with epilepsy receive educational information about their disease and its management, but there is dissatisfaction with the education received. The purposes of this evidence-based project were to examine the current knowledge level and disease management behaviors of patients with epilepsy in an outpatient clinic and to measure the effectiveness of implementing a self-management protocol using the Epilepsy Self-Management Scale (ESMS). Pender's health promotion model and Rogers' diffusion of innovation theory were used to guide the development and completion of this project. An evidence-based epilepsy self-management protocol was developed and implemented at an outpatient neurology clinic by an interprofessional clinic team that consisted of (a) evaluation of self-management behaviors (ESMS), (b) individual education using the ESMS and developed resources, (c) follow-up telephone call, and (d) measurement of outcomes of the self-management protocol (patient self-management [ESMS] and process). Twenty patients participated in all or portions of the protocol. Scores on the ESMS increased from preimplementation to postimplementation of the protocol (t = -2.67). Seizure management and information management were identified as the most difficult self-management areas. Recommended changes in protocol implementation include adding information about safety measures such as medical alert bracelets and driving to the educational packets. Follow-up telephone calls were discontinued because of difficulties reaching patients. The results of this study suggest that the ESMS is an acceptable tool for evaluating patients' self-management behaviors. Epilepsy self-management protocols need to include both verbal and written educational materials. Educating patients with epilepsy about positive self-management behaviors may lead to better health outcomes.
Heikkinen, Sirpa A M; Mäkikyrö, Elina M S; Hugg, Timo T; Jaakkola, Maritta S; Jaakkola, Jouni J K
According to our systematic literature review, no previous study has assessed potential effects of regular exercise on asthma control among young adults. We hypothesized that regular exercise improves asthma control among young adults. We studied 162 subjects with current asthma recruited from a population-based cohort study of 1,623 young adults 20-27 years of age. Asthma control was assessed by the occurrence of asthma-related symptoms, including wheezing, shortness of breath, cough, and phlegm production, during the past 12 months. Asthma symptom score was calculated based on reported frequencies of these symptoms (range: 0-12). Exercise was assessed as hours/week. In Poisson regression, adjusting for gender, age, smoking, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, and education, the asthma symptom score reduced by 0.09 points per 1 hour of exercise/week (95% CI: 0.00 to 0.17). Applying the "Low exercise" quartile as the reference, "Medium exercise" reduced the asthma symptom score by 0.66 (-0.39 to 1.72), and "High exercise" reduced it significantly by 1.13 (0.03 to 2.22). The effect was strongest among overweight subjects. Our results provide new evidence that regular exercising among young adults improves their asthma control. Thus, advising about exercise should be included as an important part of asthma self-management in clinical practice.
Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs regulate post-transcriptional gene expression and may be exported from cells via exosomes or in partnership with RNA-binding proteins. MiRNAs in body fluids can act in a hormone-like manner and play important roles in disease initiation and progression. Hence, miRNAs are promising candidates as biomarkers. To identify serum miRNA biomarkers in the equine model of asthma we investigated small RNA derived from the serum of 34 control and 37 asthmatic horses. These samples were used for next generation sequencing, novel miRNA identification and differential miRNA expression analysis. We identified 11 significantly differentially expressed miRNAs between case and control horses: eca-miR-128, eca-miR-744, eca-miR-197, eca-miR-103, eca-miR-107a, eca-miR-30d, eca-miR-140-3p, eca-miR-7, eca-miR-361-3p, eca-miR-148b-3p and eca-miR-215. Pathway enrichment using experimentally validated target genes of the human homologous miRNAs showed a significant enrichment in the regulation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (key player in airway remodeling in asthma and the phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP3 signaling pathway (modulator of CD4+ T cell maturation and function. Downregulated miR-128 and miR-744 supports a Th2/Th17 type immune response in severe equine asthma.
Holgate, S.; Bisgaard, H.; Bjermer, L.
Asthma is a highly prevalent condition across Europe and numerous guidelines have been developed to optimise management. However, asthma can be neither cured nor prevented, treatment choices are limited and many patients have poorly controlled or uncontrolled asthma. The Brussels Declaration on A...... reviews the evidence supporting the need for change in asthma management and summarises the ten key points contained in the Brussels Declaration Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12......Asthma is a highly prevalent condition across Europe and numerous guidelines have been developed to optimise management. However, asthma can be neither cured nor prevented, treatment choices are limited and many patients have poorly controlled or uncontrolled asthma. The Brussels Declaration...... on Asthma, sponsored by The Asthma, Allergy and Inflammation Research Charity, was developed to call attention to the shortfalls in asthma management and to urge European policy makers to recognise that asthma is a public health problem that should be a political priority. The Declaration urges recognition...
Dinakar, Chitra; Portnoy, Jay M
Current guidelines, both national and international, elegantly describe evidence-based measures to attain and maintain long-term control of asthma. These strategies, typically discussed between the provider and patient, are provided in the form of written (or electronic) instructions as part of the green zone of the color-coded Asthma Action Plan. The red zone of the Asthma Action Plan has directives on when to use systemic corticosteroids and seek medical attention. The transition zone between the green zone of good control and the red zone of asthma exacerbation is the yellow zone. This zone guides the patient on self-management of exacerbations outside a medical setting. Unfortunately, the only recommendation currently available to patients per the current asthma guidelines is the repetitive use of reliever bronchodilators. This approach, while providing modest symptom relief, does not reliably prevent progression to the red zone. In this document, we present new, evidence-based, yellow zone intervention options.
Klok, Ted; Kaptein, Adrian A; Duiverman, Eric J; Brand, Paul L
Although guideline-based asthma care and adherence to inhaled corticosteroids are predictors of asthma control, the role of adherence in maintaining long-term asthma control is largely unknown. This study was designed to explore the relationship between adherence to inhaled corticosteroids and long-term asthma control in young children with asthma. In this observational study, 81 2-6-year-old asthmatic children, using inhaled corticosteroids, closely followed-up in a programme with extensive self-management training, were enrolled. Adherence was measured daily for 12 months using Smartinhaler (Nexus6 Ltd, Auckland, New Zealand) devices. Long-term asthma control was assessed by parents and physicians and included clinical assessment, an asthma control questionnaire and lung function measurement. We examined the association of adherence to asthma control, adjusting for seasonal influences and clinical characteristics. Median (interquartile range) adherence was 87% (70-94%), and 64 (79%) children had well-controlled asthma throughout follow-up. Adherence >80% was associated with better asthma control, and we found no important confounders of this association. Children with persistent mild symptoms had lower adherence rates (p=0.028). Guideline-based asthma care was associated with good asthma control in most children. Adherence to inhaled corticosteroids was an independent strong predictor of long-term asthma control, with highest levels of asthma control found in children with adherence >80% of doses prescribed.
Fix, Gemmae M; Cohn, Ellen S; Solomon, Jeffrey L; Cortés, Dharma E; Mueller, Nora; Kressin, Nancy R; Borzecki, Ann; Katz, Lois A; Bokhour, Barbara G
We sought to understand barriers to hypertension self-management in patients with hypertension and comorbidities. We conducted semi-structured, qualitative interviews with 48 patients with uncontrolled hypertension and at least one comorbidity to learn about beliefs and behaviors that might affect hypertension self-management. Using a grounded theory strategy, we analyzed interview transcripts detailing patients' hypertension self-management behaviors vis-à-vis a framework including Explanatory Models-a patient's understanding of the pathophysiology, cause, course, treatment, and severity of an illness, such as hypertension. We identified four factors that interfered with hypertension self-management. (1) Interdependence: Participants saw hypertension as interconnected to their comorbidities and subsequently had difficulty separating information about their illnesses. (2) Low priority: Compared to other conditions, participants assigned hypertension a lower priority. (3) Conflicts: Participants struggled with conflicts between hypertension self-management practices and those for comorbidities. (4) Managing multiple medications: Polypharmacy led to patients' confusion and concern about taking medications as prescribed. Participants did not experience hypertension as a discreet clinical condition; rather, they self-managed hypertension concurrently with other conditions, leading to a breakdown in hypertension self-management. We provide strategies to address each of the four barriers to better equip providers in addressing their clinically salient concerns.
Lansing, Amy Hughes
Objective To illustrate adolescent self-regulation as a foundation for both individual and interpersonal processes in adolescent chronic illness self-management. Method Literature review. Results Research has identified multiple individual (e.g., self-efficacy, coping, and adherence) and interpersonal factors (parental monitoring and friend support) that are sources of risk and resilience to adolescent chronic illness self-management. In this article, we highlight literature consistent with the idea that self-regulation (including cognitive, emotional, and behavioral regulation) underlies both individual and interpersonal sources of risk and resilience across development. Conclusions This self-regulation approach has multiple benefits: A parsimonious construct for explaining both individual and interpersonal processes that contribute to risk and resilience for chronic illness self-management, the incorporation of methods used in developmental and health psychology research, including performance-based, physiological, daily, and ecological momentary assessment, and a new look to interventions that target self-regulation as a way to improve individual and interpersonal processes in chronic illness self-management. PMID:25214646
Vincent, Deborah; Clark, Lauren; Zimmer, Lorena Marquez; Sanchez, Jessica
The purpose of this study was to describe factors that facilitate or hinder diabetes self-management and elicit participants' preferences and recommendations about the essential components of a culturally competent diabetes self-management program. Latino patients with type 2 diabetes and their family caregivers were interviewed in focus groups. Four focus groups consisted of patients, and 2 groups consisted of family caregivers for a total of 40 participants. Participants were assigned to groups based on break characteristics of gender and preferred language. "Being in the dark" emerged as an important concern, and patient respondents wanted timely access to information that they deemed understandable about how to manage their diabetes. Family members' support and understanding were crucial in maintaining lifestyle changes. Patient and family caregiver participants wanted a self-management program to incorporate information on how to modify traditional foods, home remedies, and stress management. Preferences for information delivery included group didactic and interactive sessions, written information, and videotapes. Higher technology strategies using computers were not seen as useful. Culturally competent diabetes self-management for Latinos should incorporate the family and include techniques for stress management as well as diet modification. Information delivery should include a variety of techniques.
Hou, Xiao-Ting; Pang, Dong; Lu, Qian; Yang, Ping; Jin, San-Li
After sphincter-preserving surgery (SPS), patients with rectal cancer present multiple bowel symptoms, which significantly affect their daily lives. However, to date, few studies have been conducted in China to identify bowel symptoms and self-management behaviors and to explore the relationship between these behaviors and bowel symptoms. To describe bowel symptoms among Chinese patients with rectal cancer after SPS, the self-management behaviors used, and the relationship between the symptoms and behaviors. A convenience sample of 175 rectal cancer patients who underwent SPS was recruited from 2 tertiary hospitals in Beijing, China, between July and December 2014. The participants completed a general information structural questionnaire, the Chinese version of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center Bowel Function Instrument, and the Bowel Symptoms Self-Management Behaviors Questionnaire. The frequencies of 18 bowel symptoms ranged between 16.0% and 96.0%. Diet self-management was the most common behavior and therapy self-management was the least frequent behavior. Although therapy self-management had best effects relatively, other effective behaviors included self-management of the perianal skin and self-management of social activities. The frequency of use of self-management behaviors was significantly positively associated with bowel symptoms (r=-0.232 to -0.580, P bowel symptoms after SPS are highly prevalent. Patients with severe bowel symptoms are more likely to use self-management behaviors regularly; however, there is no scientific evidence that these behaviors produce satisfactory results. Healthcare providers should identify bowel symptoms after SPS and develop supportive interventions for the self-management of symptoms.
Vorderstrasse, Allison; Shaw, Ryan J; Blascovich, Jim; Johnson, Constance M
Due to its high prevalence, chronic nature, potential complications, and self-management challenges for patients, diabetes presents significant health education and support issues. We developed and pilot-tested a virtual community for adults with type 2 diabetes to promote self-management education and provide social support. Although digital-based programs such as virtual environments can address significant barriers to reaching patients (i.e., child care, transportation, location), they must be strongly grounded in a theoretical basis to be well-developed and effective. In this article, we discuss how we synthesized behavioral and virtual environment theoretical frameworks to guide the development of SLIDES (Second Life Impacts Diabetes Education and Support). © The Author(s) 2014.
Wang, Monica L; Lemon, Stephenie C; Whited, Matthew C; Rosal, Milagros C
Depressive symptoms are common among adults with diabetes. Depression and social support may influence diabetes self-management. This study aimed to examine change in depressive symptoms and the role of depression and support on clinical and dietary outcomes among Latinos with type 2 diabetes participating in a diabetes self-management intervention. Participants (N = 252) were randomized to the intervention or usual care. Mixed effects models were used to examine interaction effects between intervention status and depressive symptoms (Centers for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) score) and support for diabetes self-management behaviors at baseline. Outcomes were measured at baseline and 4 and 12 months and included dietary quality, physical activity, depressive symptoms, and hemoglobin A1c levels. Intervention participants had lower CES-D scores at follow-up than control participants. An interaction effect between intervention status and CES-D scores predicted diet quality. Latinos with depressive symptoms may derive the greatest benefits from diabetes self-management interventions. Additional research on support during diabetes self-management interventions is warranted.
Willis, Erin; Royne, Marla B
This research uses content analysis (N = 1,960) to examine the computer-mediated communication within online health communities for evidence of chronic disease self-management behaviors, including the perceived benefits and perceived barriers to participating in such behaviors. Online health communities act as informal self-management programs led by peers with the same chronic disease through the exchange of health information. Online health communities provide opportunities for health behavior change messages to educate and persuade regarding chronic disease self-management behaviors.
IMPlementation of A Relatives' Toolkit (IMPART study): an iterative case study to identify key factors impacting on the implementation of a web-based supported self-management intervention for relatives of people with psychosis or bipolar experiences in a National Health Service: a study protocol.
Lobban, Fiona; Appleton, Victoria; Appelbe, Duncan; Barraclough, Johanna; Bowland, Julie; Fisher, Naomi R; Foster, Sheena; Johnson, Sonia; Lewis, Elizabeth; Mateus, Céu; Mezes, Barbara; Murray, Elizabeth; O'Hanlon, Puffin; Pinfold, Vanessa; Rycroft-Malone, Jo; Siddle, Ron; Smith, Jo; Sutton, Chris J; Walker, Andrew; Jones, Steven H
Web-based interventions to support people to manage long-term health conditions are available and effective but rarely used in clinical services. The aim of this study is to identify critical factors impacting on the implementation of an online supported self-management intervention for relatives of people with recent onset psychosis or bipolar disorder into routine clinical care and to use this information to inform an implementation plan to facilitate widespread use and inform wider implementation of digital health interventions. A multiple case study design within six early intervention in psychosis (EIP) services in England, will be used to test and refine theory-driven hypotheses about factors impacting on implementation of the Relatives' Education And Coping Toolkit (REACT). Qualitative data including behavioural observation, document analysis, and in-depth interviews collected in the first two EIP services (wave 1) and analysed using framework analysis, combined with quantitative data describing levels of use by staff and relatives and impact on relatives' distress and wellbeing, will be used to identify factors impacting on implementation. Consultation via stakeholder workshops with staff and relatives and co-facilitated by relatives in the research team will inform development of an implementation plan to address these factors, which will be evaluated and refined in the four subsequent EIP services in waves 2 and 3. Transferability of the implementation plan to non-participating services will be explored. Observation of implementation in a real world clinical setting, across carefully sampled services, in real time provides a unique opportunity to understand factors impacting on implementation likely to be generalizable to other web-based interventions, as well as informing further development of implementation theories. However, there are inherent challenges in investigating implementation without influencing the process under observation. We outline our
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