Kosse, R.C.; Bouvy, M.L.; de Vries, T.W.; Kaptein, A.A.; Geers, H.C.J.; van Dijk, Liset; Koster, E.S.
Purpose: Poor medication adherence in adolescents with asthma results in poorly controlled disease and increased morbidity. The aim of the ADolescent Adherence Patient Tool (ADAPT) study is to develop an mHealth intervention to support self-management and to evaluate the effectiveness in improving
Kosse, R.C.; Bouvy, M.L.; Vries, T.W. de; Kaptein, A.A.; Geers, H.C.J.; Dijk, L. van; Koster, E.S.
Purpose: Poor medication adherence in adolescents with asthma results in poorly controlled disease and increased morbidity. The aim of the ADolescent Adherence Patient Tool (ADAPT) study is to develop an mHealth intervention to support self-management and to evaluate the effectiveness in improving
Kosse, Richelle C; Bouvy, Marcel L; de Vries, Tjalling W; Kaptein, Ad A; Geers, Harm Cj; van Dijk, Liset; Koster, Ellen S
Poor medication adherence in adolescents with asthma results in poorly controlled disease and increased morbidity. The aim of the ADolescent Adherence Patient Tool (ADAPT) study is to develop an mHealth intervention to support self-management and to evaluate the effectiveness in improving medication adherence and asthma control. The ADAPT intervention consists of an interactive smartphone application (app) connected to a desktop application for health care providers, in this study, the community pharmacist. The app contains several functions to improve adherence as follows: 1) a questionnaire function to rate asthma symptoms and monitor these over time; 2) short movie clips with medication and disease information; 3) a medication reminder; 4) a chat function with peers; and 5) a chat function with the pharmacist. The pharmacist receives data from the patient's app through the desktop application, which enables the pharmacist to send information and feedback to the patient. The ADAPT intervention is tested in a community pharmacy-based cluster randomized controlled trial in the Netherlands, aiming to include 352 adolescents with asthma. The main outcome is adherence, measured by patient's self-report and refill adherence calculated from pharmacy dispensing records. In addition, asthma control, illness perceptions, medication beliefs, and asthma-related quality of life are measured. This study will provide in-depth knowledge on the effectiveness of an mHealth intervention to support asthma self-management in adolescents. These insights will also be useful for adolescents with other chronic diseases.
Full Text Available Richelle C Kosse,1 Marcel L Bouvy,1 Tjalling W de Vries,2 Ad A Kaptein,3 Harm CJ Geers,1 Liset van Dijk,4 Ellen S Koster1 1Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Clinical Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Utrecht, 2Department of Paediatrics, Medical Center Leeuwarden, Leeuwarden, 3Medical Psychology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, 4NIVEL, the Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research, Utrecht, the Netherlands Purpose: Poor medication adherence in adolescents with asthma results in poorly controlled disease and increased morbidity. The aim of the ADolescent Adherence Patient Tool (ADAPT study is to develop an mHealth intervention to support self-management and to evaluate the effectiveness in improving medication adherence and asthma control. Intervention: The ADAPT intervention consists of an interactive smartphone application (app connected to a desktop application for health care providers, in this study, the community pharmacist. The app contains several functions to improve adherence as follows: 1 a questionnaire function to rate asthma symptoms and monitor these over time; 2 short movie clips with medication and disease information; 3 a medication reminder; 4 a chat function with peers; and 5 a chat function with the pharmacist. The pharmacist receives data from the patient’s app through the desktop application, which enables the pharmacist to send information and feedback to the patient. Study design: The ADAPT intervention is tested in a community pharmacy-based cluster randomized controlled trial in the Netherlands, aiming to include 352 adolescents with asthma. The main outcome is adherence, measured by patient’s self-report and refill adherence calculated from pharmacy dispensing records. In addition, asthma control, illness perceptions, medication beliefs, and asthma-related quality of life are measured. Conclusion: This study will provide in
van Gaalen, J.L.; Bakker, M.J.; Bodegom-Vos, L. van; Snoeck-Stroband, J.B.; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Kaptein, A.A.; van der Meer, V.; Taube, C.; Thoonen, B.P.A.; Sont, J.K.; for the, I.s.g.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Internet-based self-management (IBSM) support cost-effectively improves asthma control, asthma related quality of life, number of symptom-free days, and lung function in patients with mild to moderate persistent asthma. The current challenge is to implement IBSM in clinical
Morrow, Susan; Daines, Luke; Wiener-Ogilvie, Sharon; Steed, Liz; McKee, Lorna; Caress, Ann-Louise; Taylor, Stephanie J C; Pinnock, Hilary
Despite an overwhelming evidence base, supported self-management of asthma is poorly implemented into routine practice. Strategies for implementation must address organisational routines, as well as provide resources for patients and training to improve professionals' skills. We aimed to explore the priority that primary care practices attach to asthma self-management, to describe their existing asthma management routines, and to generate innovative implementation strategies. We recruited 33 participants (23 general practitioners; seven nurses; three administrative staff) from 14 general practices. The 12 interviews and three focus groups were transcribed, coded and analysed thematically. Supported self-management was largely a nurse-led task within clinic-based annual reviews. Barriers included poor attendance at asthma clinics, lack of time, demarcation of roles, limited access to a range of tailored resources, and competing agendas in consultation, often due to multimorbidity. Suggestions for initiatives to improve the provision of supported self-management included emphasising the evidence for benefit (to influence prioritisation), improving teamwork (including team-based education), organisational strategies (including remote consulting) which need to fit within existing practice routines. Technology offers some potential solutions (e.g., improved templates, 'app'-based plans), but must be integrated with the practice information technology systems. Building on these insights, we will now develop a theoretically-based implementation strategy that will address patient, professional, and organisational buy-in, provide team-based education and offer a range of practical options and tools, which can be adapted and integrated within existing routines of individual practices.OVERCOMING THE ORGANISATIONAL BARRIERS TO IMPLEMENTING ASTHMA SELF-MANAGEMENT: Understanding the routines of primary care practices can suggest strategies to implement supported self-management
Meer, Victor van der
This thesis describes the role of internet-based support in the delivery of an asthma self management program. First, the compliance and reliability of home lung function monitoring, one of the key features of asthma self-management, was studied and appeared to be high over a 4-week period. Second,
Newhouse, Nikki; Martin, Angela; Jawad, Sena; Yu, Ly-Mee; Davoudianfar, Mina; Locock, Louise; Ziebland, Sue; Powell, John
To determine the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) assessing the effects of an experience-based website as a resource for the self-management of chronic asthma. Feasibility, single-blind RCT in 2 regions of England. Randomisation used computer-generated random number sequence in a 1:1 ratio, after baseline data collection, to website access for 2 weeks. Adults (age ≥18 years), with clinically diagnosed asthma as coded in their primary care electronic record, prescribed inhaled corticosteroids for at least 3 months in the previous year, were recruited from 9 general practices. The EXPERT asthma intervention is an interactive PC/laptop/tablet/smartphone compatible website designed with extensive input from adults with asthma. It provides experience-based information and aims to support subjective perception of self-efficacy, self-management and improve health status. Primary outcomes were consent/recruitment, website usage and completion of outcome measures. Secondary outcomes included Partners in Health (PIH) questionnaire, the Chronic Disease Self-Efficacy Scale, the SF36 and the E-Health Impact Questionnaire. Participant blinding postrandomisation was not possible. The analysis was blind to allocation. Recruitment target exceeded. 148 participants randomised (73 intervention group). Age range 19-84 years; 59% female. 121 of 148 (84%; 62 intervention group) followed up. The median number of logins was 2 (IQR 2-3, range 1-48). Minimal differences of change from baseline between groups; both showed improvement in health state or management of their condition with no significant differences between arms. No adverse events. Recruitment and retention confirmed feasibility. The trends towards improved outcomes suggest that further research on digital interventions based on exposure to others' personal experiences may be of value in the self-management of chronic asthma. ISRCTN29549695; Results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For
Hanlon, Peter; Daines, Luke; Campbell, Christine; McKinstry, Brian; Weller, David; Pinnock, Hilary
Self-management support is one mechanism by which telehealth interventions have been proposed to facilitate management of long-term conditions. The objectives of this metareview were to (1) assess the impact of telehealth interventions to support self-management on disease control and health care utilization, and (2) identify components of telehealth support and their impact on disease control and the process of self-management. Our goal was to synthesise evidence for telehealth-supported self-management of diabetes (types 1 and 2), heart failure, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cancer to identify components of effective self-management support. We performed a metareview (a systematic review of systematic reviews) of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of telehealth interventions to support self-management in 6 exemplar long-term conditions. We searched 7 databases for reviews published from January 2000 to May 2016 and screened identified studies against eligibility criteria. We weighted reviews by quality (revised A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews), size, and relevance. We then combined our results in a narrative synthesis and using harvest plots. We included 53 systematic reviews, comprising 232 unique RCTs. Reviews concerned diabetes (type 1: n=6; type 2, n=11; mixed, n=19), heart failure (n=9), asthma (n=8), COPD (n=8), and cancer (n=3). Findings varied between and within disease areas. The highest-weighted reviews showed that blood glucose telemonitoring with feedback and some educational and lifestyle interventions improved glycemic control in type 2, but not type 1, diabetes, and that telemonitoring and telephone interventions reduced mortality and hospital admissions in heart failure, but these findings were not consistent in all reviews. Results for the other conditions were mixed, although no reviews showed evidence of harm. Analysis of the mediating role of self-management, and of components of successful
McCleary, Nicola; Andrews, Amanda; Morrow, Susan; Wiener-Ogilvie, Sharon; Fletcher, Monica; Steed, Liz; Taylor, Stephanie J C; Pinnock, Hilary
Supported self-management for asthma helps people adjust their treatment in response to symptom changes. This improves day-to-day control and reduces the risk of asthma attacks and the need for emergency healthcare. However, implementation remains poor in routine clinical practice. This systematic review is part of a programme of work developing an intervention to help primary care practice teams embed self-management support into routine asthma care. The aim of the review is to synthesise the evidence regarding the effectiveness of educational interventions for professionals supporting self-management in people with asthma or diabetes (type 1 and type 2). These two conditions have the most robust evidence base for the effectiveness of implementing supported self-management. Electronic searches will be conducted in CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, CINAHL, PsycINFO, AMED, Global Health, WHO Global Health Library, ERIC, BNI, RDRB/CME and Google Scholar. Eligible studies are randomised controlled trials or controlled clinical trials published between 1990 and 2016 which evaluated professional education interventions facilitating asthma or diabetes supported self-management. Further relevant work will be identified from trial registries, citation searching and through contact with authors of included studies. This will be supplemented by scoping potentially relevant educational packages described in English language policy literature or health service websites. Screening, data extraction and risk of bias assessment (using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool) will be completed by two independent reviewers, with a third reviewer arbitrating where necessary. We plan a theoretically informed narrative synthesis of the aggregated data as heterogeneity is likely to preclude meta-analysis. Ethical approval is not required for this systematic review. The results will be described in a paper submitted for peer-reviewed publication and will inform the development of an
van Gaalen, Johanna L; Bakker, Moira J; van Bodegom-Vos, Leti; Snoeck-Stroband, Jiska B; Assendelft, Willem J J; Kaptein, Ad A; van der Meer, Victor; Taube, Christian; Thoonen, Bart P; Sont, Jacob K
Internet-based self-management (IBSM) support cost-effectively improves asthma control, asthma related quality of life, number of symptom-free days, and lung function in patients with mild to moderate persistent asthma. The current challenge is to implement IBSM in clinical practice. This study is a three-arm cluster randomized trial with a cluster pre-randomisation design and 12 months follow-up per practice comparing the following three IBSM implementation strategies: minimum strategy (MS): dissemination of the IBSM program; intermediate strategy (IS): MS + start-up support for professionals (i.e., support in selection of the appropriate population and training of professionals); and extended strategy (ES): IS + additional training and ongoing support for professionals. Because the implementation strategies (interventions) are primarily targeted at general practices, randomisation will occur at practice level.In this study, we aim to evaluate 14 primary care practices per strategy in the Leiden-The Hague region, involving 140 patients per arm. Patients aged 18 to 50 years, with a physician diagnosis of asthma, prescription of inhaled corticosteroids, and/or montelukast for ≥3 months in the previous year are eligible to participate. Primary outcome measures are the proportion of referred patients that participate in IBSM, and the proportion of patients that have clinically relevant improvement in the asthma-related quality of life. The secondary effect measures are clinical outcomes (asthma control, lung function, usage of airway treatment, and presence of exacerbations); self-management related outcomes (health education impact, medication adherence, and illness perceptions); and patient utilities. Process measures are the proportion of practices that participate in IBSM and adherence of professionals to implementation strategies. Cost-effective measurements are medical costs and healthcare consumption. Follow-up is six months per patient. This study
van Gaalen Johanna L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Internet-based self-management (IBSM support cost-effectively improves asthma control, asthma related quality of life, number of symptom-free days, and lung function in patients with mild to moderate persistent asthma. The current challenge is to implement IBSM in clinical practice. Methods/design This study is a three-arm cluster randomized trial with a cluster pre-randomisation design and 12 months follow-up per practice comparing the following three IBSM implementation strategies: minimum strategy (MS: dissemination of the IBSM program; intermediate strategy (IS: MS + start-up support for professionals (i.e., support in selection of the appropriate population and training of professionals; and extended strategy (ES: IS + additional training and ongoing support for professionals. Because the implementation strategies (interventions are primarily targeted at general practices, randomisation will occur at practice level. In this study, we aim to evaluate 14 primary care practices per strategy in the Leiden-The Hague region, involving 140 patients per arm. Patients aged 18 to 50 years, with a physician diagnosis of asthma, prescription of inhaled corticosteroids, and/or montelukast for ≥3 months in the previous year are eligible to participate. Primary outcome measures are the proportion of referred patients that participate in IBSM, and the proportion of patients that have clinically relevant improvement in the asthma-related quality of life. The secondary effect measures are clinical outcomes (asthma control, lung function, usage of airway treatment, and presence of exacerbations; self-management related outcomes (health education impact, medication adherence, and illness perceptions; and patient utilities. Process measures are the proportion of practices that participate in IBSM and adherence of professionals to implementation strategies. Cost-effective measurements are medical costs and healthcare consumption
Mirabelli, Maria C; Beavers, Suzanne F; Shepler, Samantha H; Chatterjee, Arjun B
Asthma self-management education improves asthma-related outcomes. We conducted this analysis to evaluate variation in the percentages of adults with active asthma reporting components of asthma self-management education by age at asthma onset. Data from 2011 to 2012 Asthma Call-back Surveys were used to estimate percentages of adults with active asthma reporting six components of asthma self-management education. Components of asthma self-management education include having been taught to what to do during an asthma attack and receiving an asthma action plan. Differences in the percentages of adults reporting each component and the average number of components reported across categories of age at asthma onset were estimated using linear regression, adjusted for age, education, race/ethnicity, sex, smoking status, and years since asthma onset. Overall, an estimated 76.4% of adults with active asthma were taught what to do during an asthma attack and 28.7% reported receiving an asthma action plan. Percentages reporting each asthma self-management education component declined with increasing age at asthma onset. Compared with the referent group of adults whose asthma onset occurred at 5-14 years of age, the percentage of adults reporting being taught what to do during an asthma attack was 10% lower among those whose asthma onset occurred at 65-93 years of age (95% CI: -18.0, -2.5) and the average number of components reported decreased monotonically across categories of age at asthma onset of 35 years and older. Among adults with active asthma, reports of asthma self-management education decline with increasing age at asthma onset.
van der Meer, Victor; Bakker, Moira J.; van den Hout, Wilbert B.; Rabe, Klaus F.; Sterk, Peter J.; Kievit, Job; Assendelft, Willem J. J.; Sont, Jacob K.; Assendelft, W. J. J.; Thiadens, H. A.; Bakker, M. J.; van den Hout, W. B.; Kievit, J.; van der Meer, V.; Sont, J. K.; Kaptein, A. A.; Rikkers-Mutsaerts, E. R. V. M.; Rabe, K. F.; Bel, E. H. D.; Detmar, S. B.; Otten, W.; van Stel, H. F.; Roldaan, A. C.; de Jongste, J. C.; Toussaint, P. J.
BACKGROUND: The Internet may support patient self-management of chronic conditions, such as asthma. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of Internet-based asthma self-management. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled trial. SETTING: 37 general practices and 1 academic outpatient department in the
Full Text Available Introduction. Recently published national and international guidelines stress the importance of self-management in asthma. They have recommended that self-management plans should be an essential part of the long-term management of asthmatic patients. These plans essentially focus on the early recognition of unstable or deteoriorating asthma, by monitoring peak flow or symptoms. Objective. The aim of our one-year study was to compare the efficacy of peak-flow based self-management of asthma with traditional treatment. Method. Sixty clinically stable adult patients with mild and moderate persistent asthma were randomly allocated to peakflow based self-management (Group A, n=30 or to conventional treatment (Group B, n=30, with no significant difference between groups in terms of age, sex distribution and initial lung function. The recorded measurements were: lung function, asthma exacerbations, unscheduled ambulatory care facilities (hospital-based emergency department, consultations with general practitioner or pulmonologist, courses of oral prednisolone, courses of antibiotics, days off work. Results. There was a significant difference between groups in number of asthma exacerbations (p<0.05, unscheduled visits to ambulatory care facilities (p<0.005, days off work (p<0.0001, courses of oral prednisolone (p<0.001 and antibiotics (p<0.05. At the final visit, there was a significant improvement in some measurements of asthma severity in group A (reduced unscheduled visits for ambulatory care, reduced treatment requirements for oral corticosteroids and antibiotics, reduced days off work, but a lack of statistical difference in lung function and the maintenance-inhaled corticosteroid dose. There was no significant change in group B. Conclusion. These results suggest that peak-flow based self management is more effective than traditonal treatment in mild and moderate persistent asthma. .
Marcano Belisario, José S; Huckvale, Kit; Greenfield, Geva; Car, Josip; Gunn, Laura H
Asthma is one of the most common long-term conditions worldwide, which places considerable pressure on patients, communities and health systems. The major international clinical guidelines now recommend the inclusion of self management programmes in the routine management of patients with asthma. These programmes have been associated with improved outcomes in patients with asthma. However, the implementation of self management programmes in clinical practice, and their uptake by patients, is still poor. Recent developments in mobile technology, such as smartphone and tablet computer apps, could help develop a platform for the delivery of self management interventions that are highly customisable, low-cost and easily accessible. To assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and feasibility of using smartphone and tablet apps to facilitate the self management of individuals with asthma. We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Register (CAGR), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Global Health Library, Compendex/Inspec/Referex, IEEEXplore, ACM Digital Library, CiteSeer(x) and CAB abstracts via Web of Knowledge. We also searched registers of current and ongoing trials and the grey literature. We checked the reference lists of all primary studies and review articles for additional references. We searched for studies published from 2000 onwards. The latest search was run in June 2013. We included parallel randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared self management interventions for patients with clinician-diagnosed asthma delivered via smartphone apps to self management interventions delivered via traditional methods (e.g. paper-based asthma diaries). We used standard methods expected by the Cochrane Collaboration. Our primary outcomes were symptom scores; frequency of healthcare visits due to asthma exacerbations or complications and health-related quality of life. We included two RCTs with a total of
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD. Div. of Lung Diseases.
The Living with Asthma Program is designed to teach asthma self-management skills to children (ages 8-12) with asthma and to give their parents the knowledge and behavior modification skills to help their children take over responsibility for managing the condition. Both groups receive training in problem solving and in ways to improve family…
Olivera, Carolina M. X.; Vianna, Elcio Oliveira; Bonizio, Roni C.; de Menezes, Marcelo B.; Ferraz, Erica; Cetlin, Andrea A.; Valdevite, Laura M.; Almeida, Gustavo A.; Araujo, Ana S.; Simoneti, Christian S.; de Freitas, Amanda; Lizzi, Elisangela A.; Borges, Marcos C.; de Freitas, Osvaldo
Information for patients provided by the pharmacist is reflected in adhesion to treatment, clinical results and patient quality of life. The objective of this study was to assess an asthma self-management model for rational medicine use. This was a randomized controlled trial with 60 asthmatic patients assigned to attend five modules presented by…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Apps have been enthusiastically adopted by the general public. They are increasingly recognized by policy-makers as a potential medium for supporting self-management of long-term conditions. We assessed the degree to which current smartphone and tablet apps for people with asthma offer content and tools of appropriate quality to support asthma self-management. Methods We adapted systematic review methodology to the assessment of apps. We identified English-language asthma apps for all ages through a systematic search of official app stores. We systematically assessed app content using criteria derived from international guidelines and systematic review of strategies for asthma self-management. We covered three domains: comprehensiveness of asthma information, consistency of advice with evidence and compliance with health information best practice principles. Results We identified 103 apps for asthma in English, of which 56 were sources of information about the condition and 47 provided tools for the management of asthma. No apps offered both types of functionality. Only three information apps approached our definition of comprehensiveness of information about asthma. No apps provided advice on lay management of acute asthma that included details of appropriate reliever medication use. In 32 of 72 instances, apps made unequivocal recommendations about strategies for asthma control or prophylaxis that were unsupported by current evidence. Although 90% of apps stated a clear purpose, compliance with other best practice principles for health information was variable. Contact details were located for 55%, funding source for 18% and confidentiality policy for 17%. Conclusions No apps for people with asthma combined reliable, comprehensive information about the condition with supportive tools for self-management. Healthcare professionals considering recommending apps to patients as part of asthma self-management should exercise
Speck, Aimee L; Hess, Michael; Baptist, Alan P
Health disparities are seen in many chronic conditions including asthma. Young African American adults represent a population at high risk for poor asthma outcomes due to both their minority status and the difficult transition from adolescence to adulthood. Recruitment and retention has been challenging in this demographic stratum, and traditional asthma education is often not feasible. The objective of this study was to develop and assess the feasibility of an electronic asthma self-management program for young African American adults. A total of 44 African American adults (age 18-30 years) with uncontrolled persistent asthma were enrolled in an asthma self-management program. The 6-week Breathe Michigan program (predicated on the social cognitive theory) was tailored specifically to the concerns and preferences of young African American adults. The entire program was completed electronically, without any specialized human support. At 2 weeks and 3 months after program completion, participants were contacted for follow-up. A total of 89% of enrolled subjects completed the 6-week intervention, and 77% were available for evaluation at 3 months. All subjects completing the 2-week postprogram survey reported that the program was helpful, and 97% would recommend it to others. Asthma control as measured by the Asthma Control Test improved from 16.1 to 19.3 (P young African American adults. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Espinoza-Palma, Tatiana; Zamorano, Alejandra; Arancibia, Francisca; Bustos, María-Francisca; Silva, Maria José; Cardenas, Consuelo; De La Barra, Pedro; Puente, Victoria; Cerda, Jaime; Castro-Rodriguez, José A; Prado, Francisco
Background. Formal education in primary care can reduce asthma exacerbations. However, there are few studies in hospitalized children, with none originating in Latin America. Methods. A prospective randomized study was designed to evaluate whether a full education with self-management plan (ESM) was more effective than an education without self-management plan (E) in reducing asthma hospitalization. Children (5 to 15 years of age) who were hospitalized for an asthma attack were divided in two groups. Children in the E group received general instructions based on a booklet. Those in the ESM group received the same booklet plus a self-management guide and a puzzle game that reinforces the lessons learned in the booklet. Patients were interviewed every 3 months, by telephone, for one year. Interviewers recording the number of hospitalizations, exacerbations, and emergency visits for asthma and oral steroid burst uses. Results. From 88 children who met the inclusion criteria, 77 (86%) completed one year of follow-up (41 from E and 36 from ESM group). Overall, after one year, the hospitalization decreased by 66% and the inhaled corticosteroids therapy increased from 36% to 79%. At the end of the study, there was no difference in exacerbations, emergency visits, oral steroid burst uses, or hospitalizations between the two groups. Conclusions. Asthma education with or without a self-management plan during asthma hospitalization were effective in reducing exacerbations, emergency visits, oral steroid burst uses, and future rehospitalizations. This evidence supports the importance of providing a complete asthma education plan in any patient who is admitted for asthma exacerbation.
Lin, J T; Wang, W Q; Zhou, X; Wang, C Z; Huang, M; Cai, S X; Chen, P; Lin, Q C; Zhou, J Y; Gu, Y H; Yuan, Y D; Sun, D J; Yang, X H; Yang, L; Huo, J M; Chen, Z C; Jiang, P; Zhang, J; Ye, X W; Liu, H G; Tang, H P; Liu, R Y; Liu, C T; Zhang, W; Hu, C P; Chen, Y Q; Liu, X J; Dai, L M; Zhou, W; Huang, Y J; Xu, J Y
Objective: To investigate warning symptoms of asthma attack and evaluate asthma self-management status of asthma patients in urban China. Methods: A multi-center, cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was carried out from 30 general hospitals dispersed in 30 provinces of mainland China (except for Tibet) during Oct 2015 to May 2016. Information of frequency and warning symptoms of asthma attack, the time from warning symptoms to asthma attack, the impact of asthma attack and asthma self-management were collected from asthma patients of outpatient department. Results: Altogether 3 875 asthmatic outpatients were recruited. 78.1% (3 026/3 875) of the patients reported restriction of exercise and daily activities during asthma exacerbation. 82.5% (3 160/3 829) of the patients had warning symptoms before asthma attack, the most common warning symptoms were cough, chest tightness and shortness of breath. The median time from warning symptoms to asthma attack was 2 h, the mean time was 90 h. Only 4.4% (167/3 829) of the patients had definite confidence to control asthma when symptoms deteriorated. 76.7% (2 937/3 828) of the patients used medications to control asthma when asthma symptoms deteriorated. Medication choice: inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) + formoterol 45.8% (1 776/3 875), short-acting beta-agonist (SABA) 23.9% (927/3 875). Conclusions: Most asthma patients have warning symptoms before asthma attack, the most common symptoms are cough, chest tightness and shortness of breath. The proportion of patients conducting effective asthma self-management remains low.
Kovačević, Milena; Ćulafić, Milica; Jovanović, Marija; Vučićević, Katarina; Kovačević, Sandra Vezmar; Miljković, Branislava
Asthma self-management is aimed to improve the quality and effectiveness of asthma care by supporting the patients to manage their illness by themselves. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of pharmacist-delivered counselling on patients knowledge and beliefs about the medicines, adherence level, and asthma control. A prospective intervention study was conducted in community pharmacies. A total of 90 patients completed the study. Four questionnaires were used: (1) Beliefs about medicines questionnaire (BMQ), (2) Knowledge of asthma and asthma medicine (KAM), (3) Asthma control test (ACT), and (4) 8-item Morisky medication adherence scale questionnaire (MMAS-8). Questionnaires were completed at baseline and 3 months later. Low level of adherence and poor asthma control were determined initially. Better asthma control was significantly associated with higher adherence level, lower concerns regarding the medication use, and knowledge of triggers. Statistically significant improvement was found after 3 months in patients knowledge of asthma and its medications, their attitude towards medications (decrease in harm, overuse and concern; increase in necessity score), asthma control score (increased from 19 to 20, p < 0.05) and level of adherence (MMAS-8 score decreased from 3 to 2 p < 0.05). Better asthma control was achieved in 60% of patients. Sixteen patients (18%) were transferred from poor to well-controlled asthma, implying no need for patients' referral to the doctor and no additional cost for the health system. Improved disease control could be a result of enhanced knowledge and understanding of the disease-medication relationship, improved inhalation technique, and support on patients' adherence. Acquired knowledge and skills, as well as improved attitude, empowered patients to take a more active part in asthma management. Education in further patients' follow-up should consider topics tailored to the patients' characteristics, needs, and prior
D'Souza, W; Crane, J; Burgess, C; Te Karu, H; Fox, C; Harper, M; Robson, B; Howden-Chapman, P; Crossland, L; Woodman, K
Although asthma self-management plans are widely recommended as essential in the long-term treatment of adult asthma, there have been few studies examining their use. Our objective was to assess the effect of a "credit card" adult asthma self-management plan in a community experiencing major health problems from asthma, by means of a before and after intervention trial of the efficacy of the "credit card" plan, when introduced through community-based asthma clinics. The participants were 69 Maori people with asthma. The "credit card" plan consisted of written guidelines for the self-management of asthma, based on self-assessment of asthma severity, printed on a plastic card. On one side, management guidelines were based on the interpretation of peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) recordings, whilst the reverse side was based on symptoms. The outcome measures used were before and after comparison of markers of asthma morbidity and requirement for acute medical treatment; and a structured questionnaire assessing the acceptability and use of the credit card plan. Following the introduction of the plan, the mean PEFR increased from 347 to 389 l.min-1, the percentage of nights woken fell from 30.4 to 16.9%, and the number of days "out of action" fell from 3.8 to 1.7%. The requirements for acute medical treatment also fell during the intervention period. Most participants commented favourably on the content and usefulness of the plan. In the situation of worsening asthma, 28% of subjects found the peak flow side of the card most helpful, 7% the symptoms side, and 48% found both sides equally helpful.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Ahmed, Sara; Ernst, Pierre; Bartlett, Susan J; Valois, Marie-France; Zaihra, Tasneem; Paré, Guy; Grad, Roland; Eilayyan, Owis; Perreault, Robert; Tamblyn, Robyn
Whether Web-based technologies can improve disease self-management is uncertain. My Asthma Portal (MAP) is a Web-based self-management support system that couples evidence-based behavioral change components (self-monitoring of symptoms, physical activity, and medication adherence) with real-time monitoring, feedback, and support from a nurse case manager. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of access to a Web-based asthma self-management patient portal linked to a case-management system (MAP) over 6 months compared with usual care on asthma control and quality of life. A multicenter, parallel, 2-arm, pilot, randomized controlled trial was conducted with 100 adults with confirmed diagnosis of asthma from 2 specialty clinics. Asthma control was measured using an algorithm based on overuse of fast-acting bronchodilators and emergency department visits, and asthma-related quality of life was assessed using the Mini-Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (MAQLQ). Secondary mediating outcomes included asthma symptoms, depressive symptoms, self-efficacy, and beliefs about medication. Process evaluations were also included. A total of 49 individuals were randomized to MAP and 51 to usual care. Compared with usual care, participants in the intervention group reported significantly higher asthma quality of life (mean change 0.61, 95% CI 0.03 to 1.19), and the change in asthma quality of life for the intervention group between baseline and 3 months (mean change 0.66, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.98) was not seen in the control group. No significant differences in asthma quality of life were found between the intervention and control groups at 6 (mean change 0.46, 95% CI -0.12 to 1.05) and 9 months (mean change 0.39, 95% CI -0.2 to 0.98). For poor control status, there was no significant effect of group, time, or group by time. For all self-reported measures, the intervention group had a significantly higher proportion of individuals, demonstrating a minimal clinically
Horner, Sharon D; Brown, Adama; Brown, Sharon A; Rew, D Lynn
To test the effects of 2 modes of delivering an asthma educational intervention on health outcomes and asthma self-management in school-aged children who live in rural areas. Longitudinal design with data collected 4 times over 12 months. The target sample was composed of children in grades 2-5 who had a provider diagnosis of asthma. Elementary schools were stratified into high or low socioeconomic status based on student enrollment in the free or reduced-cost lunch program. Schools were then randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment arms: in-school asthma class, asthma day camp, or the attention-control group. Sample retention was good (87.7%) and equally distributed by study arm. Improvements in emergency department visits and office visits were related to attending either the asthma class or asthma day camp. Asthma severity significantly decreased in both asthma treatment groups. Other factors such as hospitalizations, parent asthma management, and child asthma management improved for all groups. Both asthma class and asthma day camp yielded significant reductions in asthma severity. There were reductions in the emergency department and office visits for the 2 asthma arms, and hospitalizations declined significantly for all groups. Asthma self-management also improved in all groups, while it was somewhat higher in the asthma arms. This may be due to the attention being drawn to asthma management by study participation and the action of completing questionnaires about asthma management, asthma symptoms, and health outcomes. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.
Mammen, Jennifer; Rhee, Hyekyun; Norton, Sally A; Butz, Arlene M; Halterman, Jill S; Arcoleo, Kimberly
A previous definition of adolescent asthma self-management was derived from interviews with clinicians/researchers and published literature; however, it did not incorporate perspectives of teens or parents. Therefore, we conducted in-depth interviews with teens and parents and synthesized present findings with the prior analysis to develop a more encompassing definition and model. Focal concepts were qualitatively extracted from 14-day self-management voice-diaries (n = 14) and 1-hour interviews (n = 42) with teens and parents (28 individuals) along with concepts found in the previous clinical/research oriented analysis. Conceptual structure and relationships were identified and key findings synthesized to develop a revised definition and model of adolescent asthma self-management. There were two primary self-management constructs: processes of self-management and tasks of self-management. Self-management was defined as the iterative process of assessing, deciding, and responding to specific situations in order to achieve personally important outcomes. Clinically relevant asthma self-management tasks included monitoring asthma, managing active issues through pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic strategies, preventing future issues, and communicating with others as needed. Self-management processes were reciprocally influenced by intrapersonal factors (both cognitive and physical), interpersonal factors (family, social and physical environments), and personally relevant asthma and non-asthma outcomes. This is the first definition of asthma self-management incorporating teen, parent, clinician, and researcher perspectives, which suggests that self-management processes and behaviors are influenced by individually variable personal and interpersonal factors, and are driven by personally important outcomes. Clinicians and researchers should investigate teens' symptom perceptions, medication beliefs, current approaches to symptom management, relevant outcomes, and
Panzera, Anthony D.; Schneider, Tali K.; Martinasek, Mary P.; Lindenberger, James H.; Couluris, Marisa; Bryant, Carol A.; McDermott, Robert J.
Background: Self-management of asthma can now leverage new media technologies. To optimize implementation they must employ a consumer-oriented developmental approach. This study explored benefits of and barriers to improved asthma self-management and identified key elements for the development of a digital media tool to enhance asthma control.…
Tinschert, Peter; Jakob, Robert; Barata, Filipe; Kramer, Jan-Niklas
number of functions and gamification components; highest correlation: r36=.80, Pgamification components), which suggests that an app’s potential tends to be consistent across review frameworks. Conclusions Several apps were identified that performed consistently well across all applied review frameworks, thus indicating the potential mHealth apps offer for improving asthma self-management. However, many apps suffer from low quality. Therefore, app reviews should be considered as a decision support tool before deciding which app to integrate into a patient’s asthma self-management. Furthermore, several research-practice gaps were identified that app developers should consider addressing in future asthma apps. PMID:28768606
Koster, Ellen S; Philbert, Daphne; de Vries, Tjalling W; van Dijk, Liset; Bouvy, Marcel L
Medication adherence rates often decline as children become teenagers. Effective adherence-enhancing interventions for adolescents are lacking. The objective of this study was to assess adolescent asthmatics needs and preferences regarding medication counseling and support, with focus on new media. Three focus groups including 21 asthmatic adolescents recruited from both primary and secondary care were held to explore needs and preferences regarding asthma-self management. Questions concerned adherence behavior and needs and preferences in adherence support with focus on new media (mobile technology, social media, health games). Forgetting was mentioned as major reason for not using medication as prescribed. Adolescents also mentioned lack of perceived need or beneficial effects. Parents mainly play a role in reminding to take medication and collecting refills. The suggested strategies to support self-management included smartphone applications with a reminder function and easy access to online information. Participants were positive about sharing of experiences with other teenagers. Forgetfulness is a major reason for non-adherence in adolescents. Furthermore, our results suggest use of peer support may be helpful in promoting good medication use. Future interventions should be aimed at providing practical reminders and should be modifiable to individual preferences.
Tinschert, Peter; Jakob, Robert; Barata, Filipe; Kramer, Jan-Niklas; Kowatsch, Tobias
components; highest correlation: r 36 =.80, Pmanagement. However, many apps suffer from low quality. Therefore, app reviews should be considered as a decision support tool before deciding which app to integrate into a patient's asthma self-management. Furthermore, several research-practice gaps were identified that app developers should consider addressing in future asthma apps. ©Peter Tinschert, Robert Jakob, Filipe Barata, Jan-Niklas Kramer, Tobias Kowatsch. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 02.08.2017.
D'Souza, W; Burgess, C; Ayson, M; Crane, J; Pearce, N; Beasley, R
The "credit card" asthma self-management plan provides the adult asthmatic patient with simple guidelines for the self-management of asthma, which are based on the self-assessment of peak expiratory flow rate recordings and symptoms. The study was a trial of the clinical efficacy of the credit card plan in a high-risk group of asthmatic patients. In this "before-and-after" trial, patients discharged from the emergency department of Wellington Hospital, after treatment for severe asthma were invited to attend a series of hospital outpatient clinics at which the credit card plan was introduced. Questionnaires were used to compare markers of asthma morbidity, requirement for emergency medical care, and medication use during the 6-month period before and after intervention with the credit card plan. Of the 30 patients with asthma who attended the first outpatient clinic, 26 (17 women and 9 men) completed the program. In these 26 participants, there was a reduction in both morbidity and requirement for acute medical services: specifically, the proportion waking with asthma more than once a week decreased from 65% to 23% (p = 0.005) and the proportion visiting the emergency department for treatment of severe asthma decreased from 58% to 15% (p = 0.004). The patients attending the clinics commented favorably on the plan, in particular on its usefulness as an educational tool for monitoring and treating their asthma. Although the interpretation of this study is limited by the lack of a randomized control group, the findings are consistent with other evidence that the credit card asthma self-management plan can be an effective and acceptable system for improving asthma care in a high-risk group of adult patients with asthma.
Morrison, Deborah; Mair, Frances S; Chaudhuri, Rekha; McGee-Lennon, Marilyn; Thomas, Mike; Thomson, Neil C; Yardley, Lucy; Wyke, Sally
Around 300 million people worldwide have asthma and prevalence is increasing. Self-management can be effective in improving a range of outcomes and is cost effective, but is underutilised as a treatment strategy. Supporting optimum self-management using digital technology shows promise, but how best to do this is not clear. We aimed to develop an evidence based, theory informed, online resource to support self-management in adults with asthma, called 'Living well with Asthma', as part of the RAISIN (Randomized Trial of an Asthma Internet Self-Management Intervention) study. We developed Living well with Asthma in two phases. Phase 1: A low fidelity prototype (paper-based) version of the website was developed iteratively through input from a multidisciplinary expert panel, empirical evidence from the literature, and potential end users via focus groups (adults with asthma and practice nurses). Implementation and behaviour change theories informed this process. Phase 2: The paper-based designs were converted to a website through an iterative user centred process. Adults with asthma (n = 10) took part in think aloud studies, discussing the paper based version, then the web-based version. Participants considered contents, layout, and navigation. Development was agile using feedback from the think aloud sessions immediately to inform design and subsequent think aloud sessions. Think aloud transcripts were also thematically analysed, further informing resource development. The website asked users to aim to be symptom free. Key behaviours targeted to achieve this include: optimising medication use (including inhaler technique); attending primary care asthma reviews; using asthma action plans; increasing physical activity levels; and stopping smoking. The website had 11 sections, plus email reminders, which promoted these behaviours. Feedback on the contents of the resource was mainly positive with most changes focussing on clarification of language, order of pages and
Koster, E.S.; Philbert, D.; Dijk, L. van; Vries, T.W. de; Bouvy, M.L.
Background: Medication adherence rates often decline as children become teenagers. Effective adherence-enhancing interventions for adolescents are lacking. The objective of this study was to assess adolescent asthmatics needs and preferences regarding medication counseling and support, with focus on new media. Methods: Three focus groups including 21 asthmatic adolescents recruited from both primary and secondary care were held to explore needs and preferences regarding asthma-self management...
Londoño, Ana Maria Moreno; Schulz, Peter J
The majority of current health literacy tools assess functional skills including reading, writing, and numeracy. Although these tools have been able to underline the impact of such skills on individuals' health behaviour, there is a need for comprehensive measures to examine more advanced skills. The individual's ability to use health-related information considering his/her own health context, and judging positive and negative consequences of their decisions has been conceptualized as judgment skills. The present study used a newly developed judgment skills tool to explore asthma self-management practices. Eighty asthma patients were recruited from medical offices during the year 2013. The questionnaire was self-administered and contained health literacy questions, the judgment skill tool, the Asthma Control Test, and several self-management questions. Sixty-nine percent of participants had adequate health literacy, while 24% and 5% had marginal and inadequate levels, respectively. The high-judgment group referred more to their doctor when experiencing asthma problems t(76)=-2.18, Pskills tool can help identify asthma patients' health information use and reveal how this use may affect some self-management practices. Significance for public healthPatients' health literacy has a great impact on their health behaviours and their health outcomes. Therefore, it has become more and more common to measure health literacy within the healthcare setting to determine the most effective approach to target patients. The measurement of asthma judgment skills contribute to a deeper understanding of patients' asthma self-management in crucial topics for asthma control, and have the advantage of assessing the specific abilities needed for this particular condition, which in turn benefits the translation of the findings from the use of this tool into strategies that directly tackle the needs of asthma patients.
Grammatopoulou, Eirini; Skordilis, Emmanouil K; Haniotou, Aikaterini; John, Zarotis; Athanasopoulos, Spyros
The holistic self-management plan includes lifelong actions that enable patients to cope with their disease. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of a holistic self-management plan on asthma control. A 12-month controlled study was conducted. Adult patients with mild-to-moderate asthma (n = 24) who attended the emergency asthma department were randomized to two groups: One group followed four educational sessions and three personal home sessions (n = 12), while a second group received a short manual with asthma information (n = 12). The main measure was the asthma control test (ACT), while secondary outcomes were self-efficacy (general self-efficacy scale, GSE), end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO 2 ), respiratory rate (RR), breathing hold time (BHT), the Nijmegen Questionnaire (NQ), and spirometry (FEV 1 % predicted (forced expiratory volume in 1 second % predicted)) scores. The 2 × 4 ANOVA showed a significant interaction effect between intervention and time in ACT (p = 0.001), GSE (p holistic self-management in asthma control. Behavioral changes, as indicated by the development of self-efficacy and the reduction of hyperventilation, contributed to the effectiveness of the intervention.
van der Meer, Victor; van Stel, Henk F.; Detmar, Symone B.; Otten, Wilma; Sterk, Peter J.; Sont, Jacob K.
BACKGROUND: Internet and short message service are emerging tools for chronic disease management in adolescents, but few data exist on the barriers to and benefits of internet-based asthma self-management. Our objective was to reveal the barriers and benefits perceived by adolescents with
Perez, Maria Gabriela; Feldman, Lya; Caballero, Fernan
Evaluates the effects of a self-management educational program on 29 children and their parents. Program consists of six sessions of information giving and cognitive-behavioral strategies for the children, and two talks and a brochure for the parents. Results indicate a significant effect on children's asthma knowledge and practice of…
Meer, V. van der; Stel, H.F. van; Detmar, S.B.; Otten, W.; Sterk, P.J.; Sont, J.K.
Background: Internet and short message service are emerging tools for chronic disease management in adolescents, but few data exist on the barriers to and benefits of internet-based asthma self-management. Our objective was to reveal the barriers and benefits perceived by adolescents with
Full Text Available Hyekyun Rhee,1 James Allen,2 Jennifer Mammen,1 Mary Swift21School of Nursing, 2Department of Computer Science, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USAPurpose: Adolescents report high asthma-related morbidity that can be prevented by adequate self-management of the disease. Therefore, there is a need for a developmentally appropriate strategy to promote effective asthma self-management. Mobile phone-based technology is portable, commonly accessible, and well received by adolescents. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of a comprehensive mobile phone-based asthma self-management aid for adolescents (mASMAA that was designed to facilitate symptom monitoring, treatment adherence, and adolescent–parent partnership. The system used state-of-the-art natural language-understanding technology that allowed teens to use unconstrained English in their texts, and to self-initiate interactions with the system.Materials and methods: mASMAA was developed based on an existing natural dialogue system that supports broad coverage of everyday natural conversation in English. Fifteen adolescent–parent dyads participated in a 2-week trial that involved adolescents' daily scheduled and unscheduled interactions with mASMAA and parents responding to daily reports on adolescents' asthma condition automatically generated by mASMAA. Subsequently, four focus groups were conducted to systematically obtain user feedback on the system. Frequency data on the daily usage of mASMAA over the 2-week period were tabulated, and content analysis was conducted for focus group interview data.Results: Response rates for daily text messages were 81%–97% in adolescents. The average number of self-initiated messages to mASMAA was 19 per adolescent. Symptoms were the most common topic of teen-initiated messages. Participants concurred that use of mASMAA improved awareness of symptoms and triggers, promoted treatment adherence and
Mills, Susan L; Brady, Teresa J; Jayanthan, Janaki; Ziabakhsh, Shabnam; Sargious, Peter M
Self-management support (SMS) initiatives have been hampered by insufficient attention to underserved and disadvantaged populations, a lack of integration between health, personal and social domains, over emphasis on individual responsibility and insufficient attention to ethical issues. This paper describes a SMS framework that provides guidance in developing comprehensive and coordinated approaches to SMS that may address these gaps and provides direction for decision makers in developing and implementing SMS initiatives in key areas at local levels. The framework was developed by researchers, policy-makers, practitioners and consumers from 5 English-speaking countries and reviewed by 203 individuals in 16 countries using an e-survey process. While developments in SMS will inevitably reflect local and regional contexts and needs, the strategic framework provides an emerging consensus on how we need to move SMS conceptualization, planning and development forward. The framework provides definitions of self-management (SM) and SMS, a collective vision, eight guiding principles and seven strategic directions. The framework combines important and relevant SM issues into a strategic document that provides potential value to the SMS field by helping decision-makers plan SMS initiatives that reflect local and regional needs and by catalyzing and expanding our thinking about the SMS field in relation to system thinking; shared responsibility; health equity and ethical issues. The framework was developed with the understanding that our knowledge and experience of SMS is continually evolving and that it should be modified and adapted as more evidence is available, and approaches in SMS advance. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
McGowan, Patrick T
With the changing health care environment, prevalence of chronic health conditions, and burgeoning challenges of health literacy, obesity, and homelessness, self-management support provides an opportunity for clinicians to enhance effectiveness and, at the same time, to engage patients to participate in managing their own personal care. This article reviews the differences between patient education and self-management and describes easy-to-use strategies that foster patient self-management and can be used by health care providers in the medical setting. It also highlights the importance of linking patients to nonmedical programs and services in the community. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hosseini, Anahita; Buonocore, Chris M; Hashemzadeh, Sepideh; Hojaiji, Hannaneh; Kalantarian, Haik; Sideris, Costas; Bui, Alex A T; King, Christine E; Sarrafzadeh, Majid
Asthma is the most prevalent chronic disease among pediatrics, as it is the leading cause of student absenteeism and hospitalization for those under the age of 15. To address the significant need to manage this disease in children, the authors present a mobile health (mHealth) system that determines the risk of an asthma attack through physiological and environmental wireless sensors and representational state transfer application program interfaces (RESTful APIs). The data is sent from wireless sensors to a smartwatch application (app) via a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliant cryptography framework, which then sends data to a cloud for real-time analytics. The asthma risk is then sent to the smartwatch and provided to the user via simple graphics for easy interpretation by children. After testing the safety and feasibility of the system in an adult with moderate asthma prior to testing in children, it was found that the analytics model is able to determine the overall asthma risk (high, medium, or low risk) with an accuracy of 80.10 ± 14.13%. Furthermore, the features most important for assessing the risk of an asthma attack were multifaceted, highlighting the importance of continuously monitoring different wireless sensors and RESTful APIs. Future testing this asthma attack risk prediction system in pediatric asthma individuals may lead to an effective self-management asthma program.
Hosseini, Anahita; Buonocore, Chris M; Hashemzadeh, Sepideh; Hojaiji, Hannaneh; Kalantarian, Haik; Sideris, Costas; Bui, Alex A T; King, Christine E; Sarrafzadeh, Majid
To address the need for asthma self-management in pediatrics, the authors present the feasibility of a mobile health (mHealth) platform built on their prior work in an asthmatic adult and child. Real-time asthma attack risk was assessed through physiological and environmental sensors. Data were sent to a cloud via a smartwatch application (app) using Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-compliant cryptography and combined with online source data. A risk level (high, medium or low) was determined using a random forest classifier and then sent to the app to be visualized as animated dragon graphics for easy interpretation by children. The feasibility of the system was first tested on an adult with moderate asthma, then usability was examined on a child with mild asthma over several weeks. It was found during feasibility testing that the system is able to assess asthma risk with 80.10 ± 14.13% accuracy. During usability testing, it was able to continuously collect sensor data, and the child was able to wear, easily understand and enjoy the use of the system. If tested in more individuals, this system may lead to an effective self-management program that can reduce hospitalization in those who suffer from asthma.
Brady, Teresa J; Sacks, Jeffrey J; Terrillion, Albert J; Colligan, Erin M
Sixty percent of US adults have at least one chronic condition, and more than 40% have multiple conditions. Self-management (SM) by the individual, along with self-management support (SMS) by others, are nonpharmacological interventions with few side effects that are critical to optimal chronic disease control. Ruiz and colleagues laid the conceptual groundwork for surveillance of SM/SMS at 5 socio-ecological levels (individual, health system, community, policy, and media). We extend that work by proposing operationalized indicators at each socio-ecologic level and suggest that the indicators be embedded in existing surveillance systems at national, state, and local levels. Without a robust measurement system at the population level, we will not know how far we have to go or how far we have come in making SM and SMS a reality. The data can also be used to facilitate planning and service delivery strategies, monitor temporal changes, and stimulate SM/SMS-related research.
This paper uses the emergent theories of chaos and complexity to explore the self-management supportive care of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients within the evolving primary care setting. It discusses the concept of self-management support, the complexity of the primary care context and consultations, smoking cessation, and the impact of acute exacerbations and action planning. The author hopes that this paper will enable the acquisition of new insight and better understanding in this clinical area, as well as support meaningful learning and facilitate more thoughtful, effective and high quality patient-centred care within the context of primary care.
Panzera, Anthony D; Schneider, Tali K; Martinasek, Mary P; Lindenberger, James H; Couluris, Marisa; Bryant, Carol A; McDermott, Robert J
Self-management of asthma can now leverage new media technologies. To optimize implementation they must employ a consumer-oriented developmental approach. This study explored benefits of and barriers to improved asthma self-management and identified key elements for the development of a digital media tool to enhance asthma control. Between August 2010 and January 2011, 18 teens with asthma and 18 parent-caregivers participated in semistructured in-depth interviews to identify mechanisms for improving asthma self-management and propose characteristics for developing a digital media tool to aid such efforts. Teens and caregivers enumerated physician-recommended strategies for asthma management as well as currently employed strategies. Both groups thought of a potential digital media solution as positive, but indicated specific design requirements for such a solution to have utility. Whereas most participants perceived mobile platforms to be viable modes to improve asthma self-management, interest in having social networking capabilities was mixed. A digital media product capable of tracking conditions, triggers, and related asthma activities can be a core element of improved asthma control for youth. Improved asthma control will help decrease school absenteeism. © 2013, American School Health Association.
Smith, Lorraine; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia Z; Mitchell, Bernadette; Saini, Bandana; Krass, Ines; Armour, Carol
Asthma affects a considerable proportion of the population worldwide and presents a significant health problem in Australia. Given its chronic nature, effective asthma self-management approaches are important. However, despite research and interventions targeting its treatment, the management of asthma remains problematic. This study aimed to develop, from a theoretical basis, an asthma self-management model and implement it in an Australian community pharmacy setting in metropolitan Sydney, using a controlled, parallel-groups repeated-measures design. Trained pharmacists delivered a structured, step-wise, patient-focused asthma self-management program to adult participants over a 9-month period focusing on identification of asthma problems, goal setting and strategy development. Data on process- clinical- and psychosocial-outcome measures were gathered. Results showed that participants set an average of four new goals and six repeated goals over the course of the intervention. Most common goal-related themes included asthma triggers, asthma control and medications. An average of nine strategies per participant was developed to achieve the set goals. Common strategies involved visiting a medical practitioner for review of medications, improving adherence to medications and using medications before exercise. Clinical and psychosocial outcomes indicated significant improvements over time in asthma symptom control, asthma-related self-efficacy and quality of life, and negative affect. These results suggest that an asthma self-management model of illness behaviour has the potential to provide patients with a range of process skills for self-management, and deliver improvements in clinical and psychosocial indicators of asthma control. The results also indicate the capacity for the effective delivery of such an intervention by pharmacists in Australian community pharmacy settings.
Smeesters, Hannah; Skinner, Chas; Martin, Jo
A lack of knowledge in diabetes self management skills, such as insulin administration, glucose testing and diet, have been identified in a high percentage of adults with the condition ever since insulin treatment was first introduced (Watkins et al, 1967; Murata et al, 2003). Adult support weeke...
Lawn, Sharon; Schoo, Adrian
The aims of this paper are to provide a description of the principles of chronic condition self-management, common approaches to support currently used in Australian health services, and benefits and challenges associated with using these approaches. We examined literature in this field in Australia and drew also from our own practice experience of implementing these approaches and providing education and training to primary health care professionals and organizations in the field. Using common examples of programs, advantages and disadvantages of peer-led groups (Stanford Courses), care planning (The Flinders Program), a brief primary care approach (the 5As), motivational interviewing and health coaching are explored. There are a number of common approaches used to enhance self-management. No one approach is superior to other approaches; in fact, they are often complimentary. The nature and context for patients' contact with services, and patients' specific needs and preferences are what must be considered when deciding on the most appropriate support mode to effectively engage patients and promote self-management. Choice of approach will also be determined by organizational factors and service structures. Whatever self-management support approaches used, of importance is how health services work together to provide support. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shields, Michael D.; Heaney, Liam G.; Kendall, Marilyn; Pearce, Christina J.; Hui, Chi Yan; Pinnock, Hilary
Introduction Financial incentives are utilised in healthcare systems in a number of countries to improve quality of care delivered to patients by rewarding practices or practitioners for achieving set targets. Objectives To systematically review the evidence investigating the impact of financial incentives for implementation of supported self-management on quality of care including: organisational process outcomes, individual behavioural outcomes, and health outcomes for individuals with asthma or diabetes; both conditions with an extensive evidence base for self-management. Methods We followed Cochrane methodology, using a PICOS search strategy to search eight databases in November 2015 (updated May 2017) including a broad range of implementation methodologies. Studies were weighted by robustness of methodology, number of participants and the quality score. We used narrative synthesis due to heterogeneity of studies. Results We identified 2,541 articles; 12 met our inclusion criteria. The articles were from the US (n = 7), UK (n = 4) and Canada (n = 1). Measured outcomes were HbA1c tests undertaken and/or the level achieved (n = 10), written action plans for asthma (n = 1) and hospital/emergency department visits (n = 1). Three of the studies were part of a larger incentive scheme including many conditions; one focused on asthma; eight focussed on diabetes. In asthma, the proportion receiving ‘perfect care’ (including providing a written action plan) increased from 4% to 88% in one study, and there were fewer hospitalisations/emergency department visits in another study. Across the diabetes studies, quality-of-care/GP performance scores improved in three, were unchanged in six and deteriorated in one. Conclusions Results for the impact of financial incentives for the implementation of self-management were mixed. The evidence in diabetes suggests no consistent impact on diabetic control. There was evidence from a single study of improved process and health
Full Text Available Self-management has received growing attention as an effective approach for long-term condition management. Little is known about which outcomes of supported self-management are valued by patients, their families, health professionals and those who commission self-management services. This study systematically reviewed published empirical evidence in accordance with PRISMA guidelines to determine the outcomes of self-management valued by these key stakeholder groups, using three prominent exemplar conditions: colorectal cancer, diabetes and stroke.To systematically review the literature to identify which generic outcomes of self-management have been targeted and are considered important using three exemplar conditions (colorectal cancer, diabetes and stroke, which collectively have a range of features that are likely to be representative of generic self-management issues.Systematic searching of nine electronic databases was conducted in addition to hand searches of review articles. Abstracts were identified against inclusion criteria and appraised independently by two reviewers, using a critical appraisal tool. Synthesis of findings was conducted using mixed research synthesis.Over 20,536 abstracts were screened. 41 studies which met the review criteria were fully retrieved and appraised. The majority of evidence related to diabetes. Few studies directly focussed on stakeholders' views concerning desired self-management outcomes; the majority of evidence was derived from studies focusing upon the experience of self-management. The views of health care commissioners were absent from the literature. We identified that self-management outcomes embrace a range of indicators, from knowledge, skills, and bio-psychosocial markers of health through to positive social networks.Patients', families', health professionals' and commissioners' views regarding which outcomes of self-management are important have not been clearly elicited. The extent to which
Conn, Kelly M; Fisher, Susan G; Rhee, Hyekyun
Little is known about the emotional intelligence (EI) of parents and their children with asthma. Objectives of this study were to assess: 1) parent's and children's report of emotions in response to an asthma vignette (proxy for EI) and 2) the relationship between emotions, self-management behaviors, and symptoms. We conducted a descriptive, mixed methods study of children 7-12 years old with asthma. Parent-Child dyads (n=104) responded to an asthma vignette to gain insight into emotions, symptoms, and self-management behaviors. Additional questions assessed confidence and worry using a 5-point Likert scale. Thematic analyses and descriptive statistics were used to assess qualitative and quantitative outcomes. Children were predominantly male (58%), 7-9 (58%), and White (46%). The most common negative emotions reported by children were scared and sad. Children who sought help from an adult were less likely to report using medications compared to children who did not seek help (39.5% vs. 62.3%, p=.029). Children with low worry and high confidence had fewer symptoms compared to children reporting high worry and low confidence (symptoms: days 3.24 vs. 6.77, p=.012, nights 2.71 vs. 5.36, p=.004). Children provided appropriate emotional responses to the asthma vignette; emotions were related to self-management behaviors and symptoms. More studies are needed to specifically assess EI in this population. Parents and children with greater EI may be better able to understand their needs, engage in self-management behaviors, and communicate with their nurses, to improve their support network and ability to access services. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Robijn, Annelies L; Jensen, Megan E; Gibson, Peter G; Powell, Heather; Giles, Warwick B; Clifton, Vicki L; Mattes, Joerg; Peek, Michael J; Barrett, Helen L; Seeho, Sean K; Callaway, Leonie K; Abbott, Alistair; Attia, John; Wark, Peter A; Murphy, Vanessa E
Asthma exacerbations and medication non-adherence are significant clinical problems during pregnancy. While asthma self-management education is effective, the number of education sessions required to maximise asthma management knowledge and inhaler technique and whether improvements persist postpartum, are unknown. This paper describes how asthma knowledge, skills, and inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) use have changed over time. Data were obtained from 3 cohorts of pregnant women with asthma recruited in Newcastle, Australia between 2004 and 2017 (N = 895). Medication use, adherence, knowledge, and inhaler technique were compared between cohorts. Changes in self-management knowledge/skills and women's perception of medication risk to the fetus were assessed in 685 women with 5 assessments during pregnancy, and 95 women who had a postpartum assessment. At study entry, 41%, 29%, and 38% of participants used ICS in the 2004, 2007, and 2013 cohorts, respectively (p = 0.017), with 40% non-adherence in each cohort. Self-management skills of pregnant women with asthma did not improve between 2004 and 2017 and possession of a written action plan remained low. Maximum improvements were reached by 3 sessions for medications knowledge and one session for inhaler technique, and were maintained postpartum. ICS adherence was maximally improved after one session, but not maintained postpartum. Perceived risk of asthma medications on the fetus was highest for corticosteroid-containing medication; and was significantly reduced following education. There was a high prevalence of non-adherence and poor self-management skills in all cohorts. More awareness of the importance of optimal asthma management during pregnancy is warranted, since no improvements were observed over the past decade.
Ducharme, Francine M; Noya, Francisco; McGillivray, David; Resendes, Sandy; Ducharme-Bénard, Stéphanie; Zemek, Roger; Bhogal, Sanjit Kaur; Rouleau, Rachel
Despite strong recommendations in the asthma guidelines, the use of written self-management plans remains low among asthmatic patients. To develop a written self-management plan, based on scientific evidence and expert opinions, in a format intended to facilitate its dispensing by health care professionals, and to test the perception of its relevance and clarity by asthmatic children, adolescents and adults. Inspired by previously tested self-management plans, surveys of asthma educators, expert opinions and the 2004 Canadian Asthma Guidelines, the authors simultaneously developed French and English versions of a written self-management plan that coupled with a prescription. The self-management plan was tested in parents and their asthmatic children (aged one to 17 years), and it was revised until 85% clarity and perceived relevance was achieved. Ninety-seven children and their parents were interviewed. Twenty per cent had a self-management plan. On the final revision, nearly all items were clear and perceived relevant by 85% or more of the interviewees. Two self-management plans were designed for clinics and acute care settings, respectively. The plans are divided into three control zones identified by symptoms with optional peak flow values and symbolized by traffic light colours. They are designed in triplicate format with a prescription slip, a medical chart copy and a patient copy. The written self-management plans, based on available scientific evidence and expert opinions, are clear and perceived to be relevant by children, adolescents and their parents. By incorporating the prescription and chart copies, they were designed to facilitate dispensing by physicians in both clinics and acute care settings.
Bos-Touwen, Irene D.; Trappenburg, Jaap C A; Van Der Wulp, Ineke; Schuurmans, Marieke J.; De Wit, Niek J.
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Self-management support is an integral part of current chronic care guidelines. The success of self-management interventions varies between individual patients, suggesting a need for tailored self-management support. Understanding the role of patient factors in the current
Morrison, Deborah; Wyke, Sally; Thomson, Neil C; McConnachie, Alex; Agur, Karolina; Saunderson, Kathryn; Chaudhuri, Rekha; Mair, Frances S
The financial costs associated with asthma care continue to increase while care remains suboptimal. Promoting optimal self-management, including the use of asthma action plans, along with regular health professional review has been shown to be an effective strategy and is recommended in asthma guidelines internationally. Despite evidence of benefit, guided self-management remains underused, however the potential for online resources to promote self-management behaviors is gaining increasing recognition. The aim of this paper is to describe the protocol for a pilot evaluation of a website 'Living well with asthma' which has been developed with the aim of promoting self-management behaviors shown to improve outcomes. The study is a parallel randomized controlled trial, where adults with asthma are randomly assigned to either access to the website for 12 weeks, or usual asthma care for 12 weeks (followed by access to the website if desired). Individuals are included if they are over 16-years-old, have a diagnosis of asthma with an Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) score of greater than, or equal to 1, and have access to the internet. Primary outcomes for this evaluation include recruitment and retention rates, changes at 12 weeks from baseline for both ACQ and Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ) scores, and quantitative data describing website usage (number of times logged on, length of time logged on, number of times individual pages looked at, and for how long). Secondary outcomes include clinical outcomes (medication use, health services use, lung function) and patient reported outcomes (including adherence, patient activation measures, and health status). Piloting of complex interventions is considered best practice and will maximise the potential of any future large-scale randomized controlled trial to successfully recruit and be able to report on necessary outcomes. Here we will provide results across a range of outcomes which will provide estimates of
Schüz, Benjamin; Walters, Julia; Walters, E Haydn
Background Mobile technology interventions (MTI) are becoming increasingly popular in the management of chronic health behaviors. Most MTI allow individuals to monitor medication use, record symptoms, or store and activate disease-management action plans. Therefore, MTI may have the potential to improve low adherence to medication and action plans for individuals with asthma, which is associated with poor clinical outcomes. Objective A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of MTI on clinical outcomes as well as adherence in individuals with asthma. As the use of evidence-based behavior change techniques (BCT) has been shown to improve intervention effects, we also conducted exploratory analyses to determine the role of BCT and engagement with MTI as moderators of MTI efficacy. Methods We searched electronic databases for randomized controlled trials up until June 2016. Random effect models were used to assess the effect of MTI on clinical outcomes as well as adherence to preventer medication or symptom monitoring. Mixed effects models assessed whether the features of the MTI (ie, use of BCT) and how often a person engaged with MTI moderated the effects of MTI. Results The literature search located 11 studies meeting the inclusion criteria, with 9 providing satisfactory data for meta-analysis. Compared with standard treatment, MTI had moderate to large effect sizes (Hedges g) on medication adherence and clinical outcomes. MTI had no additional effects on adherence or clinical outcomes when compared with paper-based monitoring. No moderator effects were found, and the number of studies was small. A narrative review of the two studies, which are not included in the meta-analysis, found similar results. Conclusions This review indicated the efficacy of MTI for self-management in individuals with asthma and also indicated that MTI appears to be as efficacious as paper-based monitoring. This review also suggested a need for robust
Schulze, Margaret A.
Self-management is a set of procedures that students can be taught to apply to their own behaviors to change them. In self-management, students are taught to observe, assess, and modify their own behavior. These procedures include such things as self-identifying and observing a target behavior and setting a goal to change it. Self-management…
Schneider, Tali; Panzera, Anthony D; Couluris, Marisa; Lindenberger, James; McDermott, Robert; Bryant, Carol A
Despite the growing market of e-health disease self-management tools, few studies have reported the presence of teen patients in all phases of product design. While rates of American teens using mobile Internet grow, an opportunity to deliver disease self-management targeted for teen patients exists. Building on findings from previous investigations with teens with asthma, we explored teens' insights on the development of a patient-centered asthma management application (app). Two existing asthma apps were used by 16 teen asthmatics for 7-10 days. At the end of the trial period, in-depth interviews were conducted with each participant to gather insights about the user experience. Participants requested more asthma-related content that educates them about their condition. Suggested improvements to currently available apps included a longer list of selectable symptoms to track, medication tracking, and more compelling interface features. Participants showed interest in using apps for managing their asthma, yet recommended improvements on current design. Whereas national figures point to a more ubiquitous mobile device environment, implementation efforts must respond to participants' recommendations while minding lingering digital divides. Currently available apps lack appealing components that teens seek or desire. Subsequent development should include teens' participation in component design insights.
Crespo, Richard; Shrewsberry, Molly
The purpose of this article is to expand the understanding of self-management support by describing factors that contribute to implementing a comprehensive self-management program in primary care. Four rural health centers in medically underserved areas participated in a study to document the implementation of a self-management program. This program consisted of a social marketing plan and decision-making tools to guide patients in making self-management behavior changes. The stages of change constructs of the transtheoretical model were used to design the social marketing plan. Key informant interviews were conducted at 6-month and 9-month intervals to document the implementation process. A standardized set of questions was used in the interviews. The data from the interviews were analyzed using content analysis techniques. One of the principle findings is that self-management support requires putting a system in place, not just adding a new component to primary care. The health centers that fully implemented the self-management program made an organizational commitment to keep self-management on the agenda in management meetings, clinical staff set the example by adopting self-management behaviors, and patient self-management support was implemented in multiple patient care venues. Primary care centers with limited financial resources are able to integrate self-management support into their system of chronic illness care.
Zhong, Connie S.; Melendez-Torres, G. J.
Background: Adolescents with asthma face unique challenges due to hormonal changes, psychosocial development and healthcare transition. Peer-led self-management programmes may increase treatment adherence and social adjustment by addressing these challenges. The purpose of this study was to assess whether peer-led self-management programmes…
Dr. A.L. van Staa; J.C.C.M. in 't Veen; Dr. J. Dwarswaard; B. Mennema; S.A. Adams; V. van Kruijssen
BACKGROUND: Online self-management diaries are used to support patients' self-management skills and facilitate associated behavioral changes. Although web-based diaries are well-known as a potential self-management tool, reasons that patients use (or do not use) self-management diaries, as well as
Verkaik, Renate; van Antwerpen-Hoogenraad, Paulien; de Veer, Anke; Francke, Anneke; Huis In Het Veld, Judith
Background Self-management in patients and family caregivers confronted with dementia is not self-evident. Self-management skills may be limited because of the progressive cognitive decline of the patient and because family caregivers are often also very aged. Self-management support by nursing staff is therefore of paramount importance. Objectives To gain insight into how nursing staff perceive their self-management support tasks, and how they put them into practice. Research questions are: 'What are the opinions and experiences of Dutch nursing staff working in home care or residential elderly care regarding self-management support for people with dementia and their family caregivers?' and 'Do nursing staff feel sufficiently trained and skilled for self-management support?'. Methods A mixed methods approach was used, combining cross-sectional quantitative survey data from 206 Dutch nursing professionals with qualitative interviews among 12 nursing staff working in home care or residential elderly care in The Netherlands. Results Nursing staff working in home care experienced self-management support of people with dementia as a part of their job and as an attractive task. They consider 'helping people with dementia to maintain control over their lives by involving them in decisions in daily care' the essence of self-management support. Nursing staff saw family caregivers as their main partners in providing self-management support to the patient. They were less aware that family caregivers themselves might also need self-management support. Nursing staff often felt insufficiently trained to give adequate self-management support. RN's and CNA's did not differ in their opinions, experiences and training needs. Conclusions Nursing staff in home care do consider self-management support an important and attractive task in dementia care. Their skills for providing self-management support to patients with dementia and family caregivers need improvement. Recommendations
Fransen, Mirjam P.; Beune, Erik J. A. J.; Baim-Lance, Abigail M.; Bruessing, Raynold C.; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise
The aim of the present study was to explore perceptions and strategies of health care providers regarding diabetes self-management support for patients with low health literacy (LHL), and to compare their self-management support with the needs of patients with LHL and type 2 diabetes. This study
Sarian, Mari; Brault, Diane; Perreault, Nathalie
The increasing prevalence of chronic illnesses and kidney disease, in particular, makes it necessary to adopt new approaches towards their management (Wagner, 1998). Evidence suggests that promoting self-management improves the health status of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients, as they manage upwards of 90% of their own care. Patients who are unable to self-manage suffer from various complications. This project proposes an intervention aimed at improving self-management skills among PD patients. To promote self-management in peritoneal dialysis patients. This is achieved through the following objectives: (a) develop an algorithm that can improve patients' ability to solve the specific problem of fluid balance maintenance, (b) develop an educational session for patients on how to use the algorithm, and (c) develop an implementation strategy in collaboration with the PD nurse. Three measures evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention. First, a telephone call log shows that participating patients call the clinic less to inquire about fluid balance maintenance. Next, a pre- and post-intervention knowledge test measures definite knowledge increase. Finally, a Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire reveals overall satisfaction with the intervention. This project, which proved beneficial to our patient population, could be duplicated in other clinics. The algorithm "How do I choose a dialysis bag" and the slides of the educational sessions can be shared with PD nurses across the country for the benefit of PD patients.
Fransen, Mirjam P; Beune, Erik J A J; Baim-Lance, Abigail M; Bruessing, Raynold C; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise
The aim of the present study was to explore perceptions and strategies of health care providers regarding diabetes self-management support for patients with low health literacy (LHL), and to compare their self-management support with the needs of patients with LHL and type 2 diabetes. This study serves as a problem analysis for systematic intervention development to improve diabetes self-management among patients with LHL. This qualitative study used in-depth interviews with general practitioners (n = 4), nurse practitioners (n = 5), and patients with LHL (n = 31). The results of the interviews with health care providers guided the patient interviews. In addition, we observed 10 general practice consultations. Providers described patients with LHL as uninvolved and less motivated patients who do not understand self-management. Their main strategy to improve self-management was to provide standard information on a repeated basis. Patients with LHL seemed to have a different view of diabetes self-management than their providers. Most demonstrated a low awareness of what self-management involves, but did not express needing more information. They reported several practical barriers to self-management, although they seemed reluctant to use the information provided to overcome them. Providing and repeating information does not fit the needs of patients with LHL regarding diabetes self-management support. Health care providers do not seem to have the insight or the tools to systematically support diabetes self-management in this group. Systematic intervention development with a focus on skills-based approaches rather than cognition development may improve diabetes self-management support of patients with LHL. © 2014 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Liddy, C; Mill, K
The evidence supporting chronic disease self-management warrants further attention. Our aim was to identify existing policies, strategies and frameworks that support self-management initiatives. This descriptive study was conducted as an environmental scan, consisting of an Internet search of government and other publicly available websites, and interviews with jurisdictional representatives identified through the Health Council of Canada and academic networking. We interviewed 16 representatives from all provinces and territories in Canada and found 30 publicly available and relevant provincial and national documents. Most provinces and territories have policies that incorporate aspects of chronic disease self-management. Alberta and British Columbia have the most detailed policies. Both feature primary care prominently and are not disease specific. Both also have provincial level implementation of chronic disease self-management programming. Canada's northern territories all lacked specific policies supporting chronic disease self-management despite a significant burden of disease. Engaging patients in self-management of their chronic diseases is important and effective. Although most provinces and territories have policies that incorporate aspects of chronic disease self-management, they were often embedded within other initiatives and/or policy documents framed around specific diseases or populations. This approach could limit the potential reach and effect of self-management.
Gray, Kristen E; Hoerster, Katherine D; Reiber, Gayle E; Bastian, Lori A; Nelson, Karin M
Objectives To examine, among Veterans, relationships of general social support and diabetes-specific social support for physical activity and healthy eating with diabetes self-management behaviors. Methods Patients from VA Puget Sound, Seattle completed a cross-sectional survey in 2012-2013 ( N = 717). We measured (a) general social support and (b) diabetes-specific social support for healthy eating and physical activity with domains reflecting support person participation, encouragement, and sharing ideas. Among 189 self-reporting diabetes patients, we fit linear and modified Poisson regression models estimating associations of social support with diabetes self-management behaviors: adherence to general and diabetes-specific diets and blood glucose monitoring (days/week); physical activity (social support was not associated with diabetes self-management. For diabetes-specific social support, higher healthy eating support scores across all domains were associated with better adherence to general and diabetes-specific diets. Higher physical activity support scores were positively associated with ≥150 min/week of physical activity only for the participation domain. Discussion Diabetes-specific social support was a stronger and more consistent correlate of improved self-management than general social support, particularly for lifestyle behaviors. Incorporating family/friends into Veterans' diabetes self-management routines may lead to better self-management and improvements in disease control and outcomes.
Young, Anita F; Naji, Simon; Kroll, Thilo
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the second most common cause of death among people with learning disabilities (LD), and lifestyle has been linked to risk factors. With a shift towards illness prevention and self-management support, it is important to know how people with LD can be involved in this process. To elicit the perceptions of people with LD, carers and health professionals regarding supported self-management of CVD. A qualitative approach used in-depth semi-structured interviews based on vignettes with accompanying pictures. Fourteen people with LD, 11 carers/care staff and 11 health professionals were recruited and interviewed. Thematic framework analysis was used to analyse interview data. In total, 11 men and 25 women were interviewed. All respondents contributed views of self-management with a wide range of opinions expressed within each participant group. Four key themes encompassed: strategies for self-management; understanding the prerequisites for self-management support; preferred supporters and challenges for self-management implementation. Facilitated service user involvement in self-management decision making was highly valued in all groups. Service users wished for co-ordinated incremental support from across agencies and individuals. People with LD can be effectively consulted regarding health management and their views can inform service development. Promoting joined-up support across health and social care and families will require investment in resources, education and dismantling of professional barriers.
Mansfield, Elise; Mackenzie, Lisa; Carey, Mariko; Peek, Kerry; Shepherd, Jan; Evans, Tiffany-Jane
There is an increased focus on supporting patients with cancer to actively participate in their healthcare, an approach commonly termed 'self-management'. Comparing unmet self-management needs across cancer types may reveal opportunities to adapt effective self-management support strategies from one cancer type to another. Given that breast and colorectal cancers are prevalent, and have high survival rates, we compared these patients' recent need for help with self-management. Data on multiple aspects of self-management were collected from 717 patients with breast cancer and 336 patients with colorectal cancer attending one of 13 Australian medical oncology treatment centres. There was no significant difference between the proportion of patients with breast or colorectal cancer who reported a need for help with at least one aspect of self-management. Patients with breast cancer were significantly more likely to report needing help with exercising more, while patients with colorectal cancer were more likely to report needing help with reducing alcohol consumption. When controlling for treatment centre, patients who were younger, experiencing distress or had not received chemotherapy were more likely to report needing help with at least one aspect of self-management. A substantial minority of patients reported an unmet need for self-management support. This indicates that high-quality intervention research is needed to identify effective self-management support strategies, as well as implementation trials to identify approaches to translating these strategies into practice. Future research should continue to explore whether self-management support strategies could be adapted across cancer types.
Enggaard, Helle; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth
Review question/objective: The objective of this review is to identify, appraise and synthesize the best available evidence regarding people with ischemic heart disease and their experiences with peer support in self-management interventions. More specifically, the review question is: How do people...... with ischemic heart disease experience peer support in structured self-management interventions led or co-led by peers?...
Mäkelä, Petra; Gawned, Sara; Jones, Fiona
Self-management support following stroke is rare, despite emerging evidence for impact on patient outcomes. The promotion of a common approach to self-management support across a stroke pathway requires collaboration between professionals. To date, the feasibility of self-management support in acute stroke settings has not been evaluated. The Bridges stroke self-management package (SMP) is based on self-efficacy principles. It is delivered by professionals and supported by a patient-held workbook. The aim of this project was to introduce the Bridges stroke SMP to the multidisciplinary staff of a London hyperacute and acute stroke unit. The 'Plan Do Study Act' (PDSA) cycle guided iterative stages of project development, with normalisation process theory helping to embed the intervention into existing ways of working. Questionnaires explored attitudes, beliefs and experiences of the staff who were integrating self-management support into ways of working in the acute stroke setting. Self-management support training was delivered to a total of 46 multidisciplinary stroke staff. Of the staff who attended the follow-up training, 66% had implemented Bridges self-management support with patients since initial training, and 100% felt their practice had changed. Questionnaire findings demonstrated that staff attitudes and beliefs had changed following training, particularly regarding ownership and type of rehabilitation goals set, and prioritisation of self-management support within acute stroke care. Staff initiated an audit of washing and dressing practices pre- and post-training. This was designed to evaluate the number of occasions when techniques were used by staff to facilitate patients' independence and self-management. They found that the number of occasions featuring optimum practice went from 54% at baseline to 63% at three months post-training. This project demonstrated the feasibility of integrating self-management support into an acute stroke setting. Further
Chen, Yu-Chi; Chang, Li-Chun; Liu, Chieh-Yu; Ho, Ya-Fang; Weng, Shuo-Chun; Tsai, Tzu-I
To investigate the relationships among social support, health literacy, and self-management, and the factors influencing self-management of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Cross-sectional study. A random sample of 410 patients was recruited from nephrology clinics. Data were collected using structured questionnaires and chart reviews from January 2013 to February 2014. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to determine the predictive factors of self-management behaviors and ∆R 2 to determine each variable's explanatory power. Health literacy and social support were positively correlated with self-management behaviors. Furthermore, social support, health literacy, and marital status were significant predictors of self-management behaviors. Social support had a relatively greater explanatory power for self-management behaviors than did health literacy. Particularly, healthcare provider support had the greatest influence on patients' self-management behaviors. Health literacy and social support play independent positive roles in self-management behaviors of patients with CKD, with social support having a particularly dominant role. Further research using a systems approach to improving self-management behaviors is necessary to clarify the role of social support. Health literacy and social support are independently and positively related to self-management. Social support, which is a system-level factor, is a relatively stronger and crucial predictor than is health literacy. Nurses have to refine self-management programs to focus on families and adopt a systems approach to help CKD patients improve their self-management behaviors. © 2018 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Battersby, Malcolm; Von Korff, Michael; Schaefer, Judith; Davis, Connie; Ludman, Evette; Greene, Sarah M; Parkerton, Melissa; Wagner, Edward H
Recommendations to improve self-management support and health outcomes for people with chronic conditions in primary care settings are provided on the basis of expert opinion supported by evidence for practices and processes. Practices and processes that could improve self-management support in primary care were identified through a nominal group process. In a targeted search strategy, reviews and meta-analyses were then identifed using terms from a wide range of chronic conditions and behavioral risk factors in combination with Self-Care, Self-Management, and Primary Care. On the basis of these reviews, evidence-based principles for self-management support were developed. The evidence is organized within the framework of the Chronic Care Model. Evidence-based principles in 12 areas were associated with improved patient self-management and/or health outcomes: (1) brief targeted assessment, (2) evidence-based information to guide shared decision-making, (3) use of a nonjudgmental approach, (4) collaborative priority and goal setting, (5) collaborative problem solving, (6) self-management support by diverse providers, (7) self-management interventions delivered by diverse formats, (8) patient self-efficacy, (9) active followup, (10) guideline-based case management for selected patients, (11) linkages to evidence-based community programs, and (12) multifaceted interventions. A framework is provided for implementing these principles in three phases of the primary care visit: enhanced previsit assessment, a focused clinical encounter, and expanded postvisit options. There is a growing evidence base for how self-management support for chronic conditions can be integrated into routine health care.
Farzandipour, Mehrdad; Nabovati, Ehsan; Sharif, Reihane; Arani, Marzieh Heidarzadeh; Anvari, Shima
Objective The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the evidence regarding the effects of mobile health applications (mHealth apps) for self-management outcomes in patients with asthma and to assess the functionalities of effective interventions. Methods We systematically searched Medline, Scopus, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. We included English-language studies that evaluated the effects of smartphone or tablet computer apps on self-management outcomes in asthmatic patients. The characteristics of these studies, effects of interventions, and features of mHealth apps were extracted. Results A total of 10 studies met all the inclusion criteria. Outcomes that were assessed in the included studies were categorized into three groups (clinical, patient-reported, and economic). mHealth apps improved asthma control (five studies) and lung function (two studies) from the clinical outcomes. From the patient-reported outcomes, quality of life (three studies) was statistically significantly improved, while there was no significant impact on self-efficacy scores (two studies). Effects on economic outcomes were equivocal, so that the number of visits (in two studies) and admission and hospitalization-relevant outcomes (in one study) statistically significantly improved; and in four other studies, these outcomes did not improve significantly. mHealth apps features were categorized into seven categories (inform, instruct, record, display, guide, remind/alert, and communicate). Eight of the 10 mHealth apps included more than one functionality. Nearly all interventions had the functionality of recording user-entered data and half of them had the functionality of providing educational information and reminders to patients. Conclusion Multifunctional mHealth apps have good potential in the control of asthma and in improving the quality of life in such patients compared with traditional interventions. Further studies are needed to identify
Hannah L Parke
Full Text Available There is considerable policy interest in promoting self-management in patients with long-term conditions, but it remains uncertain whether these interventions are effective in stroke patients.Systematic meta-review of the evidence for self-management support interventions with stroke survivors to inform provision of healthcare services.We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, AMED, BNI, Database of Abstracts of Reviews for Effectiveness, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for systematic reviews of self-management support interventions for stroke survivors. Quality was assessed using the R-AMSTAR tool, and data extracted using a customised data extraction form. We undertook a narrative synthesis of the reviews' findings.From 12,400 titles we selected 13 systematic reviews (published 2003-2012 representing 101 individual trials. Although the term 'self-management' was rarely used, key elements of self-management support such as goal setting, action planning, and problem solving were core components of therapy rehabilitation interventions. We found high quality evidence that supported self-management in the context of therapy rehabilitation delivered soon after the stroke event resulted in short-term (< 1 year improvements in basic and extended activities of daily living, and a reduction in poor outcomes (dependence/death. There is some evidence that rehabilitation and problem solving interventions facilitated reintegration into the community.Self-management terminology is rarely used in the context of stroke. However, therapy rehabilitation currently successfully delivers elements of self-management support to stroke survivors and their caregivers with improved outcomes. Future research should focus on managing the emotional, medical and social tasks of long-term survivorship.
Hosseini, Anahita; Buonocore, Chris M.; Hashemzadeh, Sepideh; Hojaiji, Hannaneh; Kalantarian, Haik; Sideris, Costas; Bui, Alex A.T.; King, Christine E.; Sarrafzadeh, Majid
Asthma is the most prevalent chronic disease among pediatrics, as it is the leading cause of student absenteeism and hospitalization for those under the age of 15. To address the significant need to manage this disease in children, the authors present a mobile health (mHealth) system that determines the risk of an asthma attack through physiological and environmental wireless sensors and representational state transfer application program interfaces (RESTful APIs). The data is sent from wirel...
Nicholl, Barbara I; Sandal, Louise Fleng; Stochkendahl, Mette Jensen
BACKGROUND: Low back pain (LBP) is a common cause of disability and is ranked as the most burdensome health condition globally. Self-management, including components on increased knowledge, monitoring of symptoms, and physical activity, are consistently recommended in clinical guidelines as cost......-effective strategies for LBP management and there is increasing interest in the potential role of digital health. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to synthesize and critically appraise published evidence concerning the use of interactive digital interventions to support self-management of LBP. The following specific...... questions were examined: (1) What are the key components of digital self-management interventions for LBP, including theoretical underpinnings? (2) What outcome measures have been used in randomized trials of digital self-management interventions in LBP and what effect, if any, did the intervention have...
Duncan, Christina L; Walker, Heather A; Brabson, Laurel; Williford, Desireé N; Hynes, Lisa; Hogan, Mary Beth
Asthma action plans (AAPs) provide asthma management instructions to families; however, AAPs typically are written at a 7th-9th grade reading level, making them less useful in lower literacy families. There is a need to develop simpler AAP formats and content to optimize their utility across all families, including those who are rural and may be at a risk for literacy concerns. Because using pictures can simplify and enhance health education, our study's aim was to develop a pictorial AAP through a series of focus groups with key stakeholders - youth with asthma, caregivers, and physicians. Fourteen caregiver/youth dyads and four physicians participated in separate focus groups where their preferences for pictorial AAP structure and content were obtained. Focus groups were audio recorded, transcribed, coded with ATLAS.ti, and analyzed for themes. Youth and their caregivers prefer that the AAPs include simple, cartoon-like pictures customized to the patient. Physicians emphasized AAP's capability to display pictures of controller medication given its importance in preventing asthma exacerbations. A stoplight format, currently used in most written AAPs, received positive reviews. Specific suggestions for pictures showing symptoms, medications, and how to take medication were suggested. Words and short phrases accompanying the pictures were thought to add clarity. Key stakeholders viewed pictorial AAPs as positive and potentially effective alternatives to standard written AAPs. It is expected that low literacy youth and caregivers would more easily understand a pictorial AAP presentation, which should facilitate better medication adherence and asthma outcomes in these children.
Houtum, L. van; Rijken, M.; Heijmans, M.; Groenewegen, P.
Background: Self-management is widely accepted as an essential component of chronic care. Nevertheless, little is known about patients’ perceptions of self-management. Purpose: This study aims to explore which self-management tasks and support needs people with chronic illness perceive for
Greenwood, Deborah A; Gee, Perry M; Fatkin, Kathy J; Peeples, Malinda
Since the introduction of mobile phones, technology has been increasingly used to enable diabetes self-management education and support. This timely systematic review summarizes how currently available technology impacts outcomes for people living with diabetes. A systematic review of high quality review articles and meta analyses focused on utilizing technology in diabetes self-management education and support services was conducted. Articles were included if published between January 2013 and January 2017. Twenty-five studies were included for analysis. The majority evaluated the use of mobile phones and secure messaging. Most studies described healthy eating, being active and metabolic monitoring as the predominant self-care behaviors evaluated. Eighteen of 25 reviews reported significant reduction in A1c as an outcome measure. Four key elements emerged as essential for improved A1c: (1) communication, (2) patient-generated health data, (3) education, and (4) feedback. Technology-enabled diabetes self-management solutions significantly improve A1c. The most effective interventions incorporated all the components of a technology-enabled self-management feedback loop that connected people with diabetes and their health care team using 2-way communication, analyzed patient-generated health data, tailored education, and individualized feedback. The evidence from this systematic review indicates that organizations, policy makers and payers should consider integrating these solutions in the design of diabetes self-management education and support services for population health and value-based care models. With the widespread adoption of mobile phones, digital health solutions that incorporate evidence-based, behaviorally designed interventions can improve the reach and access to diabetes self-management education and ongoing support.
Vorderstrasse, Allison; Lewinski, Allison; Melkus, Gail D'Eramo; Johnson, Constance
eHealth interventions have been increasingly used to provide social support for self-management of type 2 diabetes. In this review, we discuss social support interventions, types of support provided, sources or providers of support, outcomes of the support interventions (clinical, behavioral, psychosocial), and logistical and clinical considerations for support interventions using eHealth technologies. Many types of eHealth interventions demonstrated improvements in self-management behaviors, psychosocial outcomes, and clinical measures, particularly HbA1c. Important factors to consider in clinical application of eHealth support interventions include participant preferences, usability of eHealth technology, and availability of personnel to orient or assist participants. Overall, eHealth is a promising adjunct to clinical care as it addresses the need for ongoing support in chronic disease management.
Milton, Alyssa; Lloyd-Evans, Brynmor; Fullarton, Kate; Morant, Nicola; Paterson, Bethan; Hindle, David; Kelly, Kathleen; Mason, Oliver; Lambert, Marissa; Johnson, Sonia
A documented gap in support exists for service users following discharge from acute mental health services, and structured interventions to reduce relapse are rarely provided. Peer-facilitated self-management interventions have potential to meet this need, but evidence for their effectiveness is limited. This paper describes the development of a peer-provided self-management intervention for mental health service users following discharge from crisis resolution teams (CRTs). A five-stage iterative mixed-methods approach of sequential data collection and intervention development was adopted, following the development and piloting stages of the MRC framework for developing and evaluating complex interventions. Evidence review (stage 1) included systematic reviews of both peer support and self-management literature. Interviews with CRT service users (n = 41) regarding needs and priorities for support following CRT discharge were conducted (stage 2). Focus group consultations (n = 12) were held with CRT service-users, staff and carers to assess the acceptability and feasibility of a proposed intervention, and to refine intervention organisation and content (stage 3). Qualitative evaluation of a refined, peer-provided, self-management intervention involved qualitative interviews with CRT service user participants (n = 9; n = 18) in feasibility testing (stage 4) and a pilot trial (stage 5), and a focus group at each stage with the peer worker providers (n = 4). Existing evidence suggests self-management interventions can reduce relapse and improve recovery. Initial interviews and focus groups indicated support for the overall purpose and planned content of a recovery-focused self-management intervention for people leaving CRT care adapted from an existing resource: The personal recovery plan (developed by Repper and Perkins), and for peer support workers (PSWs) as providers. Participant feedback after feasibility testing was positive regarding facilitation of
Sperber, Nina R.; Bosworth, Hayden B.; Coffman, Cynthia J.; Lindquist, Jennifer H.; Oddone, Eugene Z.; Weinberger, Morris; Allen, Kelli D.
We explored whether the effects of a telephone-based osteoarthritis (OA) self-management support intervention differed by race and health literacy. Participants included 515 veterans with hip and/or knee OA. Linear mixed models assessed differential effects of the intervention compared with health education (HE) and usual care (UC) on pain…
Bossy, Dagmara; Knutsen, Ingrid Ruud; Rogers, Anne; Foss, Christina
Self-management is considered important in chronic illness, and contemporary health policy recommends participation in support groups for individuals with chronic conditions. Although withdrawal from or non-participation in support groups is an important problem, there is limited knowledge about individuals' own motivation for participation in or withdrawal from self-management support groups. To investigate how individuals with type 2 diabetes perceive participation in group-based self-management support. This is a qualitative focus group study using a semi-structured interview guide. Sixteen participants diagnosed with type 2 diabetes were included in the study. Individuals with and without group affiliations were mixed in three focus groups to trigger discussions. In the analysis, reoccurring themes of engagement and discussions between participants were focused within a theoretical frame of institutional logic. The focus groups are seen as social spaces where participants construct identity. Both participation and non-participation in group-based self-management support are associated with dealing with the stigma of having type 2 diabetes. Negotiations contribute to constructing an illness dignity as a response to the logic of moral responsibility for the disease. Contemporary policy contributes to societal understandings of individuals with type 2 diabetes as morally inadequate. Our study shows that group-based self-management support may counteract blame and contribute in negotiations of identity for individuals with type 2 diabetes. This mechanism makes participation in groups beneficial for some but stigma inducing for others. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Battersby, Malcolm; Lawn, Sharon; Kowanko, Inge; Bertossa, Sue; Trowbridge, Coral; Liddicoat, Raylene
Chronic conditions are major health problems for Australian Aboriginal people. Self-management programs can improve health outcomes. However, few health workers are skilled in self-management support and existing programs are not always appropriate in Australian Aboriginal contexts. The goal was to increase the capacity of the Australian health workforce to support Australian Aboriginal people to self-manage their chronic conditions by adapting the Flinders Program of chronic condition self-management support for Australian Aboriginal clients and develop and deliver training for health professionals to implement the program. Feedback from health professionals highlighted that the Flinders Program assessment and care planning tools needed to be adapted to suit Australian Aboriginal contexts. Through consultation with Australian Aboriginal Elders and other experts, the tools were condensed into an illustrated booklet called 'My Health Story'. Associated training courses and resources focusing on cultural safety and effective engagement were developed. A total of 825 health professionals across Australia was trained and 61 people qualified as accredited trainers in the program, ensuring sustainability. The capacity and skills of the Australian health workforce to engage with and support Australian Aboriginal people to self-manage their chronic health problems significantly increased as a result of this project. The adapted tools and training were popular and appreciated by the health care organisations, health professionals and clients involved. The adapted tools have widespread appeal for cultures that do not have Western models of health care and where there are health literacy challenges. My Health Story has already been used internationally. © 2018 National Rural Health Alliance Ltd.
age-related chronic illness along with a decline in the availability of informal caregivers calls for innovative programs to support self-management at a primary care level. Keywords: chronic disease, dementia, self-management, cognitive domains
Pamungkas, Rian Adi; Chamroonsawasdi, Kanittha; Vatanasomboon, Paranee
The rate of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is dramatically increasing worldwide. Continuing diabetes mellitus (DM) care needs effective self-management education and support for both patients and family members. This study aimed to review and describe the impacts of diabetes mellitus self-management education (DSME) that involve family members on patient outcomes related to patient health behaviors and perceived self-efficacy on self-management such as medication adherence, blood glucose moni...
Elias, Pierre; Rajan, Nithin O; McArthur, Kara; Dacso, Clifford C
Background Asthma is the most common chronic disease in childhood, disproportionately affecting urban, minority, and disadvantaged children. Individualized care plans supported by daily lung-function monitoring can reduce morbidity and mortality. However, despite 20 years of interventions to increase adherence, only 50% of US youth accurately follow their care plans, which leads to millions of preventable hospitalizations, emergency room visits, and sick days every year. We present a feasibil...
Huana Carolina Cândido Morais
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze strategies for self-management support by patients with stroke in the light of the methodology of the five A's (ask, advice, assess, assist and arrange. METHODS Integrative review conducted at the following databases CINAHL, SCOPUS, PubMed, Cochrane and LILACS. RESULTS A total of 43 studies published between 2000 and 2013 comprised the study sample. All proposed actions in the five A's methodology and others were included. We highlight the Assist and Arrange, in which we added actions, especially with regard to the use of technological resources and joint monitoring between patients, families and professionals. No study included all five A's, which suggests that the actions of supported self-management are developed in a fragmented way. CONCLUSION The use of five A's strategy provides guidelines for better management of patients with stroke with lower cost and higher effectiveness.
John D Piette
Full Text Available Background: Mobile health (m-health work in low and middle-income countries (LMICs mainly consists of pilot programmes with an unclear path to scaling and dissemination. We describe the deployment and testing of an m-health platform for non-communicable disease (NCD self-management support in Bolivia. Methods: 364 primary care patients in La Paz with diabetes or hypertension completed surveys about their use of mobile phones, health and access to care. 165 of those patients then participated in a 12-week demonstration of automated telephone monitoring and self-management support. Weekly Interactive Voice Response (IVR calls were made from a platform established at a university in La Paz, under the direction of the regional health ministry. Results: 37% of survey respondents spoke indigenous languages at home, and 38% had six or fewer years of education. 82% had a mobile phone; half (45% used text messaging with a standard phone, and 9% had a smartphone. Smartphones were least common among patients who were older, spoke indigenous languages, or had less education. IVR programme participants completed 1007 self-management support calls, with an overall response rate of 51%. IVR call completion was lower among older adults, but was not related to patients’ ethnicity, health status or healthcare access. IVR health and self-care reports were consistent with information reported during baseline interviews. Patients’ likelihood of reporting excellent, very good, or good health (versus fair or poor health via IVR increased during programme participation, and was associated with better medication adherence. Patients completing follow-up interviews were satisfied with the programme, with 19/20 (95% reporting that they would recommend it to a friend. Conclusions: By collaborating with LMICs, m-health programmes can be transferred from higher-resource centres to LMICs and implemented in ways that improve access to self-management support among people
Piette, John D; Valverde, Helen; Marinec, Nicolle; Jantz, Rachel; Kamis, Kevin; de la Vega, Carlos Lazo; Woolley, Timothy; Pinto, Bismarck
Mobile health (m-health) work in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) mainly consists of small pilot programs with an unclear path to scaling and dissemination. We describe the deployment and testing of an m-health platform for non-communicable disease (NCD) self-management support in Bolivia. Three hundred sixty-four primary care patients in La Paz with diabetes or hypertension completed surveys about their use of mobile phones, health and access to care. One hundred sixty-five of those patients then participated in a 12-week demonstration of automated telephone monitoring and self-management support. Weekly interactive voice response (IVR) calls were made from a platform established at a university in La Paz, under the direction of the regional health ministry. Thirty-seven percent of survey respondents spoke indigenous languages at home and 38% had six or fewer years of education. Eighty-two percent had a mobile phone, 45% used text messaging with a standard phone, and 9% had a smartphone. Smartphones were least common among patients who were older, spoke indigenous languages, or had less education. IVR program participants completed 1007 self-management support calls with an overall response rate of 51%. IVR call completion was lower among older adults, but was not related to patients' ethnicity, health status, or healthcare access. IVR health and self-care reports were consistent with information reported during in-person baseline interviews. Patients' likelihood of reporting excellent, very good, or good health (versus fair or poor health) via IVR increased during program participation and was associated with better medication adherence. Patients completing follow-up interviews were satisfied with the program, with 19/20 (95%) reporting that they would recommend it to a friend. By collaborating with LMICs, m-health programs can be transferred from higher-resource centers to LMICs and implemented in ways that improve access to self-management support among
Koster, Ellen S; Philbert, Daphne; de Vries, Tjalling W; van Dijk, Liset; Bouvy, Marcel L
BACKGROUND: Medication adherence rates often decline as children become teenagers. Effective adherence-enhancing interventions for adolescents are lacking. The objective of this study was to assess adolescent asthmatics needs and preferences regarding medication counseling and support, with focus on
Barkham, Abigail M; Ersser, Steven J
The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility and impact of a group intervention by Community Matrons to support those living with multiple long-terms conditions. Little evidence exists as to how the role of the Community Matron (CM) should be delivered to effectively enhance disease self-management and levels of self-efficacy for the service users. This qualitative participatory action research study explored the use of group work as a method of intervention by CMs. A purposive sample of 29 participants was recruited. Each patient group had 8-10 participants, led by a CM working in both the researcher and practitioner role, operating over 12-month period. Data were collected by participant observation, researcher reflexive account and interviews. Grounded theory method was used to systematically analyse the data. Three main data categories emerged: (i) comparison by patients that leads to re-motivation of the self; (ii) learning, leading to enhanced self-management techniques, through storytelling and understanding of each other's experiences; and (iii) ownership that resulted in the self-awareness, cognisance and insight into the role of the support group they were based in and how it benefited them. The core category of 'Taking back the self - understanding the whole,' conveyed the impact that this care delivery method had upon readjusting the balance of power between health professional and service users and its consequence in refreshing and improving their self-management and the patients' self-efficacy. It was concluded that CM intervention using a model of group learning can lead to more effective and efficient support, through improving self-efficacy and patients' related self-management ability. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Elias, Pierre; Rajan, Nithin O; McArthur, Kara; Dacso, Clifford C
Asthma is the most common chronic disease in childhood, disproportionately affecting urban, minority, and disadvantaged children. Individualized care plans supported by daily lung-function monitoring can reduce morbidity and mortality. However, despite 20 years of interventions to increase adherence, only 50% of US youth accurately follow their care plans, which leads to millions of preventable hospitalizations, emergency room visits, and sick days every year. We present a feasibility study of a novel, user-centered approach to increasing young people's lung-function monitoring and asthma self-care. Promoting Lung Assessment in Youth (PLAY) helps young people become active managers of their asthma through the Web 2.0 principles of participation, cocreation, and information sharing. Specifically, PLAY combines an inexpensive, portable spirometer with the motivational power and convenience of mobile phones and virtual-community gaming. The objective of this study was to develop and pilot test InSpire, a fully functional interface between a handheld spirometer and an interactive game and individualized asthma-care instant-messaging system housed on a mobile phone. InSpire is an application for mobile smartphones that creates a compelling world in which youth collaborate with their physicians on managing their asthma. Drawing from design-theory on global timer mechanics and role playing, we incentivized completing spirometry maneuvers by making them an engaging part of a game young people would want to play. The data can be sent wirelessly to health specialists and return care recommendations to patients in real-time. By making it portable and similar to applications normally desired by the target demographic, InSpire is able to seamlessly incorporate asthma management into their lifestyle. We describe the development process of building and testing the InSpire prototype. To our knowledge, the prototype is a first-of-its kind mobile one-stop shop for asthma management
Lalloo, Chitra; Shah, Ushma; Birnie, Kathryn A; Davies-Chalmers, Cleo; Rivera, Jordan; Stinson, Jennifer; Campbell, Fiona
Recently, the use of smartphones to deliver health-related content has experienced rapid growth, with more than 165,000 mobile health (mHealth) apps currently available in the digital marketplace. With 3 out of 4 Canadians currently owning a smartphone, mHealth apps offer opportunities to deliver accessible health-related knowledge and support. Many individuals experience pain after surgery, which can negatively impact their health-related quality of life, including sleep, emotional, and social functioning. Smartphone apps that provide remote real-time monitoring and symptom management have the potential to improve self-management skills in patients experiencing postoperative pain. Increased confidence and practice of self-management skills could contribute to decreased postoperative pain and reduce risk of developing persistent pain. Published reviews of general pain self-management apps demonstrate a lack of evidence-based content, theoretical grounding, and health care professional involvement. However, no review to date has focused on the app marketplace specific for individuals with postoperative pain. The aim of this study was to characterize and critically appraise the content and functionality of commercially available postoperative pain self-management apps. An electronic search and extraction was conducted between December 2016 and March 2017 of the official Canadian app stores for the three major smartphone operating systems (iPhone operating system [iOS], Android, and Windows). Stores were searched separately using predetermined search terms. Two authors screened apps based on information provided in the public app description. Metadata from all included apps were abstracted into a standard spreadsheet. Two authors verified the data with reference to the apps and downloaded apps themselves. The content and functionality of each app as it pertained to postoperative pain self-management was rated. A total of 10 apps met the inclusion criteria. All
Hansen, Ulla Møller; Jones, Allan; Zander, Mette
AIMS: The aim of this study was to benchmark the Danish sample of the second Diabetes, Attitudes, Wishes and Needs (DAWN2) study with the global average in order to determine Denmark's comparative position for health status, healthcare provision, self-management and social support from...... to be an untapped potential when it comes to converting education participation of FM into social support for PWD. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that PWD in Denmark rank above the global average on measures of psychological wellbeing, despite psychological wellbeing being under-prioritised by HCP. However...
Kwan, Bethany M; Jortberg, Bonnie; Warman, Meredith K; Kane, Ilima; Wearner, Robyn; Koren, Romona; Carrigan, Thomas; Martinez, Vincent; Nease, Donald E
Self-management support (SMS) for patients with diabetes can improve adherence to treatment, mitigate disease-related distress, and improve health outcomes. Translating this evidence into real-world practice is needed, as it is not clear which SMS models are acceptable to patients, and feasible and sustainable for primary care practices. To use the Boot Camp Translation (BCT) method to engage patient, practice, community resource and research stakeholders in translation of evidence about SMS and diabetes distress into mutually acceptable care models and to inform patient-centred outcomes research (PCOR). Twenty-seven diabetes care stakeholders, including patients and providers from a local network of federally qualified health centres participated. Stakeholders met in-person and by conference call over the course of 8 months. Subject matter experts provided education on the diabetes SMS evidence. Facilitators engaged the group in discussions about barriers to self-management and opportunities for improving delivery of SMS. BCT participants identified lack of social support, personal resources, trust, knowledge and confidence as barriers to diabetes self-management. Intervention opportunities emphasized peer support, use of multidisciplinary care teams and centralized systems for sharing information about community and practice resources. BCT informed new services and a PCOR study proposal. Patients and family engaged in diabetes care research value peer support, group visits, and multidisciplinary care teams as key features of SMS models. SMS should be tailored to an individual patient's health literacy. BCT can be used to engage multiple stakeholders in translation of evidence into practice and to inform PCOR. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Turyk, Mary; Banda, Elizabeth; Chisum, Gay; Weems, Dolores; Liu, Yangyang; Damitz, Maureen; Williams, Rhonda; Persky, Victoria
Home-based, multifaceted interventions have been effective in reducing asthma morbidity in children. However, identification of independent components that contribute to outcomes and delineating effectiveness by level of asthma symptoms would help to refine the intervention and target appropriate populations. A community health educator led asthma intervention implemented in a low-income African-American neighborhood included asthma management education, individually tailored low-cost asthma home trigger remediation, and referrals to social and medical agencies, when appropriate. Changes in asthma morbidity measures were assessed in relation to implementation of individual intervention components using multivariable logistic regression. Among the 218 children who completed the year-long program, there were significant reductions in measures of asthma morbidity, including symptoms, urgent care visits, emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, missed school days, and missed work days for caretakers. We also found significant decreases in the prevalence of many home asthma triggers and improvements in asthma management practices. Improvement in caretaker's ability to manage the child's asthma was associated with reduction in ED visits for asthma and uncontrolled asthma. Specific home interventions, such as repair of water leaks and reduced exposure to plants, dust, clutter and stuffed toys, may be related to reduction in asthma morbidity. This program was effective in reducing asthma morbidity in low-income African-American children and identified specific interventions as possible areas to target in future projects. Furthermore, the intervention was useful in children with persistent asthma symptoms as well as those with less frequent asthma exacerbations.
Kessler, Dorothy; Liddy, Clare
To identify the types of self-management support that have been provided to persons with transient ischaemic attack and the evidence for the effectiveness of these programmes. Self-management is a key element for the effective management of chronic conditions. For persons with transient ischaemic attack, secondary stroke prevention is a recognised standard of care. Best practice guidelines indicate that persons who have experienced transient ischaemic attack should be supported to develop self-management skills. However, it is not clear how best to support the development of these skills. An integrative literature review was conducted. A search was conducted using Medline, Embase, HealthSTAR, CINAHL and PsycINFO. Published quantitative and qualitative studies, abstracts or dissertations describing the provision, experience or outcomes of self-management interventions for people with transient ischaemic attack, and published in English before March 2016, were included. Articles were selected and rated separately by two reviewers. The American Academy for Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine Level of Evidence and Conduct Rating tools were used for rating. Interventions were described and compared, and evidence was presented using the traffic lighting system. Sixteen interventions representing a variety of group- and individual-based interventions were identified. Interventions differed in target population, content, structure, duration and outcomes. Only four interventions were specifically designed for persons with transient ischaemic attack. While evidence to support self-management interventions is promising, there is limited evidence to support any one intervention. However, one good-quality randomised controlled trial supports the provision of a group self-management programme for improving blood pressure control. There are numerous interventions to support self-management by persons with transient ischaemic attack. More research is needed to determine
Nicholl, Barbara I; Sandal, Louise F; Stochkendahl, Mette J; McCallum, Marianne; Suresh, Nithya; Vasseljen, Ottar; Hartvigsen, Jan; Mork, Paul J; Kjaer, Per; Søgaard, Karen; Mair, Frances S
Low back pain (LBP) is a common cause of disability and is ranked as the most burdensome health condition globally. Self-management, including components on increased knowledge, monitoring of symptoms, and physical activity, are consistently recommended in clinical guidelines as cost-effective strategies for LBP management and there is increasing interest in the potential role of digital health. The study aimed to synthesize and critically appraise published evidence concerning the use of interactive digital interventions to support self-management of LBP. The following specific questions were examined: (1) What are the key components of digital self-management interventions for LBP, including theoretical underpinnings? (2) What outcome measures have been used in randomized trials of digital self-management interventions in LBP and what effect, if any, did the intervention have on these? and (3) What specific characteristics or components, if any, of interventions appear to be associated with beneficial outcomes? Bibliographic databases searched from 2000 to March 2016 included Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, DoPHER and TRoPHI, Social Science Citation Index, and Science Citation Index. Reference and citation searching was also undertaken. Search strategy combined the following concepts: (1) back pain, (2) digital intervention, and (3) self-management. Only randomized controlled trial (RCT) protocols or completed RCTs involving adults with LBP published in peer-reviewed journals were included. Two reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts, full-text articles, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias using Cochrane risk of bias tool. An independent third reviewer adjudicated on disagreements. Data were synthesized narratively. Of the total 7014 references identified, 11 were included, describing 9 studies: 6 completed RCTs and 3 protocols for future RCTs. The completed RCTs included a total of 2706 participants (range of 114
Full Text Available Megan E Rollo,1 Elroy J Aguiar,2 Rebecca L Williams,1 Katie Wynne,3 Michelle Kriss,3 Robin Callister,4 Clare E Collins1 1School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medicine, Priority Research Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia; 2Department of Kinesiology, School of Public Health and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA, USA; 3Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, John Hunter Hospital, Hunter New England Health, New Lambton, NSW, Australia;\t4School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medicine, Priority Research Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia Abstract: Diabetes is a chronic, complex condition requiring sound knowledge and self-management skills to optimize glycemic control and health outcomes. Dietary intake and physical activity are key diabetes self-management (DSM behaviors that require tailored education and support. Electronic health (eHealth technologies have a demonstrated potential for assisting individuals with DSM behaviors. This review provides examples of technologies used to support nutrition and physical activity behaviors in the context of DSM. Technologies covered include those widely used for DSM, such as web-based programs and mobile phone and smartphone applications. In addition, examples of novel tools such as virtual and augmented reality, video games, computer vision for dietary carbohydrate monitoring, and wearable devices are provided. The challenges to, and facilitators for, the use of eHealth technologies in DSM are discussed. Strategies to support the implementation of eHealth technologies within practice and suggestions for future research to enhance nutrition and physical activity behaviors as a part of broader DSM are provided. Keywords: diabetes self-management, eHealth, nutrition, physical activity, smartphones, wearables
Davies, Freya; Wood, Fiona; Bullock, Alison; Wallace, Carolyn; Edwards, Adrian
Accompanying the growing expectation of patient self-management is the need to ensure health care professionals (HCPs) have the required attitudes and skills to provide effective self-management support (SMS). Results from existing training interventions for HCPs in SMS have been mixed and the evidence base is weaker for certain settings, including supporting people with progressive neurological conditions (PNCs). We set out to understand how training operates, and to identify barriers and facilitators to training designed to support shifts in attitudes amongst HCPs. We undertook a realist literature synthesis focused on: (i) the influence of how HCPs, teams and organisations view and adopt self-management; and (ii) how SMS needs to be tailored for people with PNCs. A traditional database search strategy was used alongside citation tracking, grey literature searching and stakeholder recommendations. We supplemented PNC-specific literature with data from other long-term conditions. Key informant interviews and stakeholder advisory group meetings informed the synthesis process. Realist context-mechanism-outcome configurations were generated and mapped onto the stages described in Mezirow's Transformative Learning Theory. Forty-four original articles were included (19 relating to PNCs), from which seven refined theories were developed. The theories identified important training elements (evidence provision, building skills and confidence, facilitating reflection and generating empathy). The significant influence of workplace factors as possible barriers or facilitators was highlighted. Embracing SMS often required challenging traditional professional role boundaries. The integration of SMS into routine care is not an automatic outcome from training. A transformative learning process is often required to trigger the necessary mindset shift. Training should focus on how individual HCPs define and value SMS and how their work context (patient group and organisational
Piette, John D.; Valverde, Helen; Marinec, Nicolle; Jantz, Rachel; Kamis, Kevin; de la Vega, Carlos Lazo; Woolley, Timothy; Pinto, Bismarck
Background: Mobile health (m-health) work in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) mainly consists of small pilot programs with an unclear path to scaling and dissemination. We describe the deployment and testing of an m-health platform for non-communicable disease (NCD) self-management support in Bolivia. Methods: Three hundred sixty-four primary care patients in La Paz with diabetes or hypertension completed surveys about their use of mobile phones, health and access to care. One hundred sixty-five of those patients then participated in a 12-week demonstration of automated telephone monitoring and self-management support. Weekly interactive voice response (IVR) calls were made from a platform established at a university in La Paz, under the direction of the regional health ministry. Results: Thirty-seven percent of survey respondents spoke indigenous languages at home and 38% had six or fewer years of education. Eighty-two percent had a mobile phone, 45% used text messaging with a standard phone, and 9% had a smartphone. Smartphones were least common among patients who were older, spoke indigenous languages, or had less education. IVR program participants completed 1007 self-management support calls with an overall response rate of 51%. IVR call completion was lower among older adults, but was not related to patients’ ethnicity, health status, or healthcare access. IVR health and self-care reports were consistent with information reported during in-person baseline interviews. Patients’ likelihood of reporting excellent, very good, or good health (versus fair or poor health) via IVR increased during program participation and was associated with better medication adherence. Patients completing follow-up interviews were satisfied with the program, with 19/20 (95%) reporting that they would recommend it to a friend. Conclusion: By collaborating with LMICs, m-health programs can be transferred from higher-resource centers to LMICs and implemented in ways that
Rollo, Megan E; Aguiar, Elroy J; Williams, Rebecca L; Wynne, Katie; Kriss, Michelle; Callister, Robin; Collins, Clare E
Diabetes is a chronic, complex condition requiring sound knowledge and self-management skills to optimize glycemic control and health outcomes. Dietary intake and physical activity are key diabetes self-management (DSM) behaviors that require tailored education and support. Electronic health (eHealth) technologies have a demonstrated potential for assisting individuals with DSM behaviors. This review provides examples of technologies used to support nutrition and physical activity behaviors in the context of DSM. Technologies covered include those widely used for DSM, such as web-based programs and mobile phone and smartphone applications. In addition, examples of novel tools such as virtual and augmented reality, video games, computer vision for dietary carbohydrate monitoring, and wearable devices are provided. The challenges to, and facilitators for, the use of eHealth technologies in DSM are discussed. Strategies to support the implementation of eHealth technologies within practice and suggestions for future research to enhance nutrition and physical activity behaviors as a part of broader DSM are provided.
Young, Lufei; Kupzyk, Kevin; Barnason, Susan
Self-management (SM) is an essential component of heart failure (HF) management. The mechanisms to improve SM behaviors are unclear. The objective of this study is to examine whether patient activation mediates the effect of self-efficacy on SM behaviors in rural HF patients. A secondary analysis was conducted using data collected from a randomized controlled trial aimed to improve SM behaviors. The main variables included were SM knowledge, self-efficacy, patient activation, and SM behaviors. Mediation analysis showed patient activation mediated the effect of self-efficacy on SM. Both self-efficacy and patient activation were significantly related to SM behaviors, respectively (r = 0.46, P self-efficacy was no longer directly related to SM behaviors when patient activation was entered into the final model (β = .17, P = .248). Self-management knowledge and support were significant moderators. In patients with high levels of SM knowledge, patient activation did not mediate the effect of self-efficacy on SM behaviors (β = .15, P = .47). When SM support was entered in the path model, patient activation was not a significant mediator between self-efficacy and SM behavior at high (β = .27, P = .27) or low (β = .27, P = .25) levels of SM support. Study findings suggest that targeted SM support for high-risk HF patients with low SM knowledge and support may be useful. In addition, strategies to increase patient activation may improve HF patients' SM confidence.
Alzubaidi, H; Mc Namara, K; Browning, C
The objective of this study was to explore a new model for diabetes self-management support in Arabic-speaking migrants. Two qualitative methods were used: face-to-face semi-structured individual interviews and focus groups. Interviews were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim and coded thematically. Arabic-speaking migrants with Type 2 diabetes were recruited from several primary, secondary and tertiary healthcare settings in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. These settings were purposefully selected to obtain a diverse group of participants. Data collection continued until saturation was reached. This is the first study that involved members of Arabic-speaking communities in Australia in a formal process of consumer and public involvement to inform research design and recruitment in order to provide evidence for a new model of diabetes self-management for Arabic-speaking migrants. No self-management support was offered to Arabic-speaking migrants beyond the initial diagnosis period. Significant knowledge gaps and skills deficits in all self-management domains were evident. The provision of tailored self-management support was considered crucial. When asked about preferred structure and delivery modalities, a strong preference was reported for face-to-face storytelling interactions over telephone- or internet-based interventions. Gender-specific group education and self-management support sessions delivered by Arabic-speaking diabetes health professionals, lay peers or social workers trained in diabetes self-management were highly regarded. A patient and public involvement approach allows genuine engagement with Arabic-speaking migrants with diabetes. There is urgent need for a new model for self-management support among Arabic-speaking migrants. Findings yielded new recommendations for diabetes health professionals working with these migrant communities to support behaviour change. © 2016 Diabetes UK.
Schiøtz, M. L.; Bøgelund, M.; Almdal, T.
Aims To investigate the relationship between structural and functional social support and patient activation, diabetes-related emotional distress, perceived diabetes care, self-management behaviour and HbA 1c levels among patients with Type2 diabetes. Methods Self-administered questionnaires were...... emotional distress, negative assessment of care, less health-promoting eating habits and less frequent foot examinations. Conclusions Good social support is significantly associated with health-promoting behaviours and well-being among patients with Type2 diabetes. However, HbA 1c levels are higher...... for cohabitant persons, indicating barriers for social support. Intervention research is needed to investigate the causal relationship between social networks and health-promoting behaviours. This knowledge should be used in clinical practice when targeting and designing education, support and care for patients...
Verkaik, R.; Antwerpen-Hogenraad, P. van; Veer, A. de; Francke, A.; Huis in het Veld, J.
Background: Self-management in patients and family caregivers confronted with dementia is not self-evident. Self-management skills may be limited because of the progressive cognitive decline of the patient and because family caregivers are often also very aged. Self-management
Slev, Vina N.; Pasman, H. Roeline W.; Eeltink, Corien M.; Van Uden-Kraan, Cornelia F.; Verdonck-De Leeuw, Irma M.; Francke, Anneke L.
Background: Self-management by patients and informal caregivers confronted with advanced cancer is not self-evident. Therefore they might need self-management support from nurses. This article reports on nurses' perspectives on self-management support for people confronted with advanced cancer, and
Schiøtz, Michaela; Frølich, Anne; Krasnik, Allan; Taylor, Warren; Hsu, John
Identify important organizational elements for providing self-management support (SMS). Semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted in two healthcare systems. Kaiser Permanente Northern California and the Danish Health Care System. 36 managers and healthcare professionals in the two healthcare systems. Elements important to providing self-management support to persons with diabetes. Healthcare professionals' provision of SMS was influenced by healthcare system organization and their perceptions of SMS, the capability and responsibility of healthcare systems, and their roles in the healthcare organization. Enabling factors for providing SMS included: strong leadership; aligned incentives; use of an integrated health information technology (HIT) system; multidisciplinary healthcare provider teams; ongoing training for healthcare professionals; outreach; and quality goals. Barriers to providing SMS included lack of collaboration between providers and skeptical attitudes towards prevention and outreach. Implementation of SMS can be improved by an understanding of the elements that enhance its provision: (1) initiatives seeking to improve collaboration and integration between providers; (2) implementation of an integrated HIT system; and (3) ongoing training of healthcare professionals.
Full Text Available Claire Blackmore,1 Vicki L Johnson-Warrington,2 Johanna EA Williams,2 Lindsay D Apps,2 Hannah ML Young,2 Claire LA Bourne,2 Sally J Singh2 1Kettering General Hospital National Health Service (NHS Trust, Kettering, Northamptonshire, 2Centre for Exercise and Rehabilitation Science, Leicester Respiratory Biomedical Research Unit, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester, UK Background: With the growing burden of COPD and associated morbidity and mortality, a need for self-management has been identified. The Self-management Programme of Activity, Coping and Education for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (SPACE for COPD manual was developed to support self-management in COPD patients. Currently, there is no literature available regarding health care professionals’ training needs when supporting patients with COPD on self-management.Aim: This study sought to identify these needs to inform, design and develop a training program for health care professionals being trained to deliver a self-management program in COPD.Methods: Fourteen health care professionals from both primary and secondary care COPD services participated in face-to-face semistructured interviews. Thematic analysis was used to produce a framework and identify training needs and views on delivery of the SPACE for COPD self-management program. Components of training were web-based knowledge training, with pre- and posttraining knowledge questionnaires, and a 1-day program to introduce the self-management manual. Feedback was given after training to guide the development of the training program.Results: Health care professionals were able to identify areas where they required increased knowledge to support patients. This was overwhelming in aspects of COPD seen to be outside of their current clinical role. Skills in goal setting and behavioral change were not elicited as a training need, suggesting a lack of understanding of components of supporting self-management
Higgins, Rosemary; Murphy, Barbara; Worcester, Marian; Daffey, Angela
To support self-management, health professionals need to adopt a client-centred approach and learn to deliver evidence-based behaviour change interventions. This paper reports on the evaluation of 1- and 2-day training programs developed to improve health professionals' capacity to support chronic disease self-management (CDSM). The 321 participants attended one of eighteen supporting CDSM courses held in urban and rural settings. Participants included nurses, allied health professionals, Aboriginal health workers and general practitioners. Data were collected at three time points: before participation; immediately after the training; and, for a sub-sample of 37 participants, 2 months after the training. Results revealed a significant and sustained increase in CDSM self-efficacy following training regardless of participants' gender, age or qualifications. A thematic analysis of the responses concerning intended practice revealed four main areas of intended practice change, namely: use behavioural strategies; improve communication with clients; adopt a client-centred approach; and improve goal setting. The number of practice changes at 2 months reported by a sub-sample of participants ranged from 1 to 20 with a mean of 14 (s.d.=4). The three most common areas of practice change point to the adoption by health professionals of a collaborative approach with chronic disease patients. Lack of staff trained in CDSM was seen as a major barrier to practice change, with lack of support and finance also named as barriers to practice change. Participants identified that increased training, support and awareness of the principles of supporting CDSM would help to overcome barriers to practice change. These results indicate a readiness among health professionals to adopt a more collaborative approach given the skills and the tools to put this approach into practice.
Duprez, Veerle; Beeckman, Dimitri; Verhaeghe, Sofie; Van Hecke, Ann
Chronic conditions put a heavy burden on healthcare in every country. Supporting persons with a chronic illness to take an active role in the management of their condition is a core component in the Chronic Care Model. It implies confidence and good skills from professionals. To date, there is no evidence on final year nursing students' performance in supporting patients' self-management, nor on factors associated with this performance. To explore self-reported performance of supporting patients' self-management by final year nursing students, and person-related factors associated with this performance. A correlational multi-centre study of final year nursing students (N=256) from eight nursing schools. Students were recruited from a convenience sample of eight nursing schools. All final year students were invited to participate. Data were collected between January 2015 and May 2016 using self-administered validated questionnaires. Theoretical behavioural frameworks were used to select hypothesized associated factors for self-management support: self-efficacy to perform self-management support and socio-structural factors (Social Cognitive Theory); needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness, and patient-invested contingent self-esteem (Self-Determination Theory); and attitudes towards supporting patients' self-management (Theory of Planned Behaviour). Final year nursing students (N=256) reported an overall low level of performance in delivering self-management support during internship. Students lacked mainly competencies in collaborative goal setting and shared decision making. Students reported a significant gap between their confidence and their actual performance in self-management support (pLearning opportunities can be introduced in classroom activities and on internship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Graves, Helen; Garrett, Christopher; Amiel, Stephanie A; Ismail, Khalida; Winkley, Kirsty
Evidence for the efficacy of psychological skills training as a method of supporting patients' self-management is growing, but there is a shortage of mental health providers with specialist diabetes knowledge to deliver them. Primary care nurses are now increasingly expected to learn and use these techniques. This study explores nurse experience of training in six psychological skills to support patients' self-management of type 2 diabetes. Semi-structured interviews elicited themes relating to nurses' experiences of participating in a trial of a psychological intervention, the Diabetes-6 study (D-6). Nurses were employed in GP surgeries in 5 South London boroughs. Thematic framework analysis was used to compare and contrast themes across participants. Nine nurses delivering the intervention (n=11), and 7 from the control intervention (n=12, no psychological element) were interviewed. Three key themes were identified: (i) positive and negative impact of D6 on nurses' practice: positives included patient empowerment; negatives included patients' capacity to engage; (ii) professional boundaries including concerns about over-stepping role as a nurse and (iii) concerns about degree of support from physicians at participating practices in integrating psychological and diabetes care. Primary care nurses report that psychological skills training can have a positive impact on patient care. Significant role adjustment is required, which may be aided by additional support from the practice team. Qualitative evaluation of effectiveness of psychological interventions may reveal processes that hinder or contribute to efficacy and translation. Appropriate support is necessary for primary care nurses to deliver psychological therapies with confidence. Copyright © 2016 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vassilev, Ivaylo; Kennedy, Anne; Rogers, Anne
Background Recent years have seen an exponential increase in people with long-term conditions using the Internet for information and support. Prior research has examined support for long-term condition self-management through the provision of illness, everyday, and emotional work in the context of traditional offline communities. However, less is known about how communities hosted in digital spaces contribute through the creation of social ties and the mobilization of an online illness “workforce.” Objective The aim was to understand the negotiation of long-term condition illness work in patient online communities and how such work may assist the self-management of long-term conditions in daily life. Methods A systematic search of qualitative papers was undertaken using various online databases for articles published since 2004. A total of 21 papers met the inclusion criteria of using qualitative methods and examined the use of peer-led online communities for those with a long-term condition. A qualitative meta-synthesis was undertaken and the review followed a line of argument synthesis. Results The main themes identified in relation to the negotiation of self-management support were (1) redressing offline experiential information and knowledge deficits, (2) the influence of modeling and learning behaviors from others on self-management, (3) engagement that validates illness and negates offline frustrations, (4) tie formation and community building, (5) narrative expression and cathartic release, and (6) dissociative anonymity and invisibility. These translated into a line of argument synthesis in which four network mechanisms for self-management support in patient online communities were identified. These were (1) collective knowledge and identification through lived experience; (2) support, information, and engagement through readily accessible gifting relationships; (3) sociability that extends beyond illness; and (4) online disinhibition as a facilitator
Rian Adi Pamungkas
Full Text Available The rate of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2D is dramatically increasing worldwide. Continuing diabetes mellitus (DM care needs effective self-management education and support for both patients and family members. This study aimed to review and describe the impacts of diabetes mellitus self-management education (DSME that involve family members on patient outcomes related to patient health behaviors and perceived self-efficacy on self-management such as medication adherence, blood glucose monitoring, diet and exercise changes, health outcomes including psychological well-being and self-efficacy, and physiological markers including body mass index, level of blood pressure, cholesterol level and glycemic control. Three databases, PubMed, CINAHL, and Scopus were reviewed for relevant articles. The search terms were “type 2 diabetes,” “self-management,” “diabetes self-management education (DSME,” “family support,” “social support,” and “uncontrolled glycaemia.” Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI guidelines were used to determine which studies to include in the review. Details of the family support components of DSME intervention and the impacts of these interventions had on improving the health outcomes patients with uncontrolled glycaemia patients. A total of 22 intervention studies were identified. These studies involved different DSME strategies, different components of family support provided, and different health outcomes to be measured among T2D patients. Overall, family support had a positive impact on healthy diet, increased perceived support, higher self-efficacy, improved psychological well-being and better glycemic control. This systematic review found evidence that DSME with family support improved self-management behaviors and health outcomes among uncontrolled glycaemia T2D patients. The findings suggest DSME models that include family engagement can be a useful direction for improving diabetes care.
Dobson, Rosie; Whittaker, Robyn; Jiang, Yannan; Shepherd, Matthew; Maddison, Ralph; Carter, Karen; Cutfield, Richard; McNamara, Catherine; Khanolkar, Manish; Murphy, Rinki
Addressing the increasing prevalence, and associated disease burden, of diabetes is a priority of health services internationally. Interventions to support patients to effectively self-manage their condition have the potential to reduce the risk of costly and debilitating complications. The utilisation of mobile phones to deliver self-management support allows for patient-centred care at the frequency and intensity that patients desire from outside the clinic environment. Self-Management Support for Blood Glucose (SMS4BG) is a novel text message-based intervention for supporting people with diabetes to improve self-management behaviours and achieve better glycaemic control and is tailored to individual patient preferences, demographics, clinical characteristics, and culture. This study aims to assess whether SMS4BG can improve glycaemic control in adults with poorly controlled diabetes. This paper outlines the rationale and methods of the trial. A two-arm, parallel, randomised controlled trial will be conducted across New Zealand health districts. One thousand participants will be randomised at a 1:1 ratio to receive SMS4BG, a theoretically based and individually tailored automated text message-based diabetes self-management support programme (intervention) in addition to usual care, or usual care alone (control). The primary outcome is change in glycaemic control (HbA1c) at 9 months. Secondary outcomes include glycaemic control at 3 and 6 months, self-efficacy, self-care behaviours, diabetes distress, health-related quality of life, perceived social support, and illness perceptions. Cost information and healthcare utilisation will also be collected as well as intervention satisfaction and interaction. This study will provide information on the effectiveness of a text message-based self-management support tool for people with diabetes. If found to be effective it has the potential to provide individualised support to people with diabetes across New Zealand (and
Pamungkas, Rian Adi; Chamroonsawasdi, Kanittha; Vatanasomboon, Paranee
The rate of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is dramatically increasing worldwide. Continuing diabetes mellitus (DM) care needs effective self-management education and support for both patients and family members. This study aimed to review and describe the impacts of diabetes mellitus self-management education (DSME) that involve family members on patient outcomes related to patient health behaviors and perceived self-efficacy on self-management such as medication adherence, blood glucose monitoring, diet and exercise changes, health outcomes including psychological well-being and self-efficacy, and physiological markers including body mass index, level of blood pressure, cholesterol level and glycemic control. Three databases, PubMed, CINAHL, and Scopus were reviewed for relevant articles. The search terms were "type 2 diabetes," "self-management," "diabetes self-management education (DSME)," "family support," "social support," and "uncontrolled glycaemia." Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) guidelines were used to determine which studies to include in the review. Details of the family support components of DSME intervention and the impacts of these interventions had on improving the health outcomes patients with uncontrolled glycaemia patients. A total of 22 intervention studies were identified. These studies involved different DSME strategies, different components of family support provided, and different health outcomes to be measured among T2D patients. Overall, family support had a positive impact on healthy diet, increased perceived support, higher self-efficacy, improved psychological well-being and better glycemic control. This systematic review found evidence that DSME with family support improved self-management behaviors and health outcomes among uncontrolled glycaemia T2D patients. The findings suggest DSME models that include family engagement can be a useful direction for improving diabetes care.
Jordan, Joanne E; Briggs, Andrew M; Brand, Caroline A; Osborne, Richard H
Although emphasis on the prevention of chronic disease is important, governments in Australia need to balance this with continued assistance to the 77% of Australians reported to have at least one long-term medical condition. Self-management support is provided by health care and community services to enhance patients' ability to care for their chronic conditions in a cooperative framework. In Australia, there is a range of self-management support initiatives that have targeted patients (most notably, chronic disease self-management education programs) and health professionals (financial incentives, education and training). To date, there has been little coordination or integration of these self-management initiatives to enhance the patient-health professional clinical encounter. If self-management support is to work, there is a need to better understand the infrastructure, systems and training that are required to engage the key stakeholders - patients, carers, health professionals, and health care organisations. A coordinated approach is required in implementing these elements within existing and new health service models to enhance uptake and sustainability.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Support for patient self-management is an accepted role for health professionals. Little evidence exists on the appropriate basis for the role of health professionals in achieving optimum self-management outcomes. This study explores the perceptions of people with type 2 diabetes about their self-management strategies and how relationships with health professionals may support this. Methods Four focus groups were conducted with people with type 2 diabetes: two with English-speaking and one each with Turkish and Arabic-speaking. Transcripts from the groups were analysed drawing on grounded hermeneutics and interpretive description. Results We describe three conceptually linked categories of text from the focus groups based on emotional context of self management, dominant approaches to self management and support from health professionals for self management. All groups described important emotional contexts to living with and self-managing diabetes and these linked closely with how they approached their diabetes management and what they looked for from health professionals. Culture seemed an important influence in shaping these linkages. Conclusion Our findings suggest people construct their own individual self-management and self-care program, springing from an important emotional base. This is shaped in part by culture and in turn determines the aims each person has in pursuing self-management strategies and the role they make available to health professionals to support them. While health professionals' support for self-care strategies will be more congruent with patients' expectations if they explore each person's social, emotional and cultural circumstances, pursuit of improved health outcomes may involve a careful balance between supporting as well as helping shift the emotional constructs surrounding a patient life with diabetes.
Duprez, Veerle; Vandecasteele, Tina; Verhaeghe, Sofie; Beeckman, Dimitri; Van Hecke, Ann
The aim of this study was to explore the effectiveness and effective components of training interventions to enhance nurses' competencies in self-management support in chronic care. The growing burden of chronic diseases puts an increasing focus on nurses' self-management support of people living with a chronic illness. The most effective method to train nurses' competencies in self-management support remains unclear. Systematic literature review. PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane CENTRAL, EMBASE, Web of Science, ERIC and PsycARTICLES databases were searched up to August 2015. Eligible studies reported on training interventions to enhance chronic care self-management support competencies in nurses. Outcomes were defined as trainees' reactions to the training (level 1), changes in trainees' competencies (level 2) or changes in trainees' performance in practice (level 3) concerning self-management support. Risk of bias was assessed. Level 1 outcomes were synthesized narratively. Standardized mean differences were calculated per study for level 2 and 3 outcomes. In total, 25 studies were included. Twelve of these studies included level 1 outcomes, eight studies included level 2 outcomes and 10 studies included level 3 outcomes. Effect sizes in favour of training ranged from -0·36 - 1·56 (level 2) and from 0·06 - 5·56 (level 3). Theory-driven training interventions with time to practice, (video) feedback and follow-up generated the most training effects. Caution is needed due to the inconsistent study quality. To date, there is a knowledge gap concerning the most effective method to train nurses' competencies in self-management support. More well-designed, longitudinal studies are needed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
H. van de Bovenkamp; Dr. J. Dwarswaard
Objective: Policymakers increasingly focus their attention on stimulating patients’ self-management. Critical reflection on this trend is often limited. A focus on self-management does not only change nurses’ activities, but also the values underlying the nurse–patient relationship. The latter can
Adu, Mary D; Malabu, Usman H; Callander, Emily J; Malau-Aduli, Aduli Eo; Malau-Aduli, Bunmi S
There is increased research interest in the use of mobile phone apps to support diabetes management. However, there are divergent views on what constitute the minimum standards for inclusion in the development of mobile phone apps. Mobile phone apps require an evidence-based approach to development which will consequently impact on their effectiveness. Therefore, comprehensive information on developmental considerations could help designers and researchers to develop innovative and effective patient-centered self-management mobile phone apps for diabetes patients. This systematic review examined the developmental considerations adopted in trials that engaged mobile phone applications for diabetes self-management. A comprehensive search strategy was implemented across 5 electronic databases; Medline, Scopus, Social Science Citation Index, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINALHL) and supplemented by reference list from identified studies. Study quality was evaluated using the Joanna Briggs Critical appraisal checklist for trials. Information on developmental factors (health behavioral theory, functionality, pilot testing, user and clinical expert involvements, data privacy and app security) were assessed across experimental studies using a template developed for the review. A total of 11 studies (10 randomized controlled trials and 1 quasi-experimental trial) that fitted the inclusion criteria were identified. All the included studies had the functionality of self-monitoring of blood glucose. However, only some of them included functions for data analytics (7/11, 63.6%), education (6/11, 54.5%) and reminder (6/11, 54.5%). There were 5/11(45.5%) studies with significantly improved glycosylated hemoglobin in the intervention groups where educational functionality was present in the apps used in the 5 trials. Only 1 (1/11, 9.1%) study considered health behavioral theory and user involvement
Campling, N; Richardson, A; Mulvey, M; Bennett, M; Johnston, B; Latter, S
Pain is a frequently reported symptom by patients approaching the end of life and well-established that patients and carers hold fears relating to opioids, and experience side effects related to their use. The management of medicines is intrinsic to achieving effective pain relief. The concept of self-management support whilst well characterised in the context of chronic illness has not been elaborated with respect to end of life care. To identify patient, carer and professional views on the concept of self-management support at end of life, specifically in relation to analgesia and related medicines (for side-effect management) in order to describe, characterise and explain self-management support in this context. Qualitative design, data collection methods involved focus groups and interviews. Topics included the meaning of self-management support in this context, roles and behaviours adopted to manage pain-related medicines, and factors that influence these. A largely deductive approach was used, involving verification and validation of key frameworks from the literature, but with capacity for new findings to emerge. Participants were drawn from two different localities in England, one North, the other South. Interviews with patients and carers took place in their own homes and focus groups with healthcare professionals were held at local hospices. 38 individuals participated. 15 patients, in the last year of life, and 4 carers under the care of community-based specialist palliative care services and 19 specialist palliative care health professionals (predominantly community palliative care nurses). The concept of self-management support had salience for patients, carers and specialist nurses alongside some unique features, specific to the end of life context. Specifically self-management was identified as an ever-changing process enacted along a continuum of behaviours fluctuating from full to no engagement. Disease progression, frequent changes in symptoms and
Dufour, Sinéad Patricia; Graham, Shane; Friesen, Josh; Rosenblat, Michael; Rous, Colin; Richardson, Julie
To evaluate a program in support of chronic disease self-management (CDSM) that is founded on a health coaching (HC) approach, includes supervised exercise and mindfulness-based stress reduction components and is delivered within a private practice physiotherapy setting. An explanatory mixed method design, framed by theory-based program evaluation, was employed to evaluate an eight-week group-based program. Standardized self-rated and performance measures were evaluated pre- and post intervention. Additionally, participant focus groups were conducted following the intervention period. An inductive thematic approach was undertaken to analyze the qualitative data. Seventeen participants (N = 17) completed the study. Improvements were seen in both self-report and performance outcomes. Participants explained how and why they felt the program was beneficial. Six themes were generated: (1) group dynamic; (2) learning versus doing; (3) holism and comprehensive care; (4) self-efficacy and empowerment; (5) previous solutions versus new management strategies; and (6) healthcare provider support. This study established that a group program in support of CDSM founded on a HC approach demonstrated potential value from participants as well as favorable outcomes. A pragmatic randomized control trial is required to determine efficacy of this intervention.
Kujala, Sari; Rajalahti, Elina; Heponiemi, Tarja; Hilama, Pirjo
An increasing number of new eHealth services that support patients' self-management has changed health professionals' work and has created a need for a new eHealth competence. In this study, we evaluated the health professionals' eHealth competences and training needs in a public health organization in Finland. The target organization's goal was to increase the number of eHealth services provided to patients, and health professionals and their competences were seen as critical for the adoption of services. Data was collected through an online survey of 701 health professionals working in the target organization. Professionals perceived their basic computer skills as good and they were mostly willing to use eHealth services in patient work. However, health professionals need guidance, especially in their patient work in the new eHealth-enabled environment. They were less confident about their competence to motivate and advise patients to use eHealth services and how to communicate with patients using eHealth solutions. The results also imply that eHealth competence is not merely about an individual's skills but that organizations need to develop new working processes, work practices and distribution of work. We suggest that the training and support needs identified be considered in curricula and lifelong learning.
Full Text Available Nowadays, sensor networks are composed of a great number of tiny resource-constraint nodes, whose management is increasingly more complex. In fact, although collaborative or choreographic task execution schemes are which fit in the most perfect way with the nature of sensor networks, they are rarely implemented because of the high resource consumption of these algorithms (especially if networks include many resource-constrained devices. On the contrary, hierarchical networks are usually designed, in whose cusp it is included a heavy orchestrator with a remarkable processing power, being able to implement any necessary management solution. However, although this orchestration approach solves most practical management problems of sensor networks, a great amount of the operation time is wasted while nodes request the orchestrator to address a conflict and they obtain the required instructions to operate. Therefore, in this paper it is proposed a new mechanism for self-managed and choreographed task execution in sensor networks. The proposed solution considers only a lightweight gateway instead of traditional heavy orchestrators and a hardware-supported algorithm, which consume a negligible amount of resources in sensor nodes. The gateway avoids the congestion of the entire sensor network and the hardware-supported algorithm enables a choreographed task execution scheme, so no particular node is overloaded. The performance of the proposed solution is evaluated through numerical and electronic ModelSim-based simulations.
Vassilev, Ivaylo; Rogers, Anne; Kennedy, Anne; Koetsenruijter, Jan
There is increasing recognition that chronic illness management (CIM) is not just an individual but a collective process where social networks can potentially make a considerable contribution to improving health outcomes for people with chronic illness. However, the mechanisms (processes, activities) taking place within social networks are insufficiently understood. The aim of this review was to focus on identifying the mechanisms linking social networks with CIM. Here we consider network mechanisms as located within a broader social context that shapes practices, behaviours, and the multiplicity of functions and roles that network members fulfil. A systematic search of qualitative studies was undertaken on Medline, Embase, and Web for papers published between 1st January 2002 and 1st December 2013. Eligible for inclusion were studies dealing with diabetes, and with conditions or health behaviours relevant for diabetes management; and studies exploring the relationship between social networks, self-management, and deprivation. 25 papers met the inclusion criteria. A qualitative metasynthesis was undertaken and the review followed a line of argument synthesis. The main themes identified were: 1) sharing knowledge and experiences in a personal community; 2) accessing and mediation of resources; 3) self-management support requires awareness of and ability to deal with network relationships. These translated into line of argument synthesis in which three network mechanisms were identified. These were network navigation (identifying and connecting with relevant existing resources in a network), negotiation within networks (re-shaping relationships, roles, expectations, means of engagement and communication between network members), and collective efficacy (developing a shared perception and capacity to successfully perform behaviour through shared effort, beliefs, influence, perseverance, and objectives). These network mechanisms bring to the fore the close
Joekes, Katherine; Maes, Stan; Warrens, Matthijs
Using a self-regulatory framework, this study aims to identify how couples perceive a partner's support style after myocardial infarction (MI), and whether this predicts the patient's health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) and self-management (S-M) 9 months later. This longitudinal dyadic study includes 73 couples (86% of patients were men), recruited from two cardiac rehabilitation programmes in the Netherlands. Mean age of patients was 54.8 (SD=9.6) and of partners 52.5 (SD=9.8). Participants were interviewed and completed questionnaires at baseline (T1). Repeat questionnaires were returned by 69 and 67 couples after 3 (T2) and 9 months (T3), respectively. Support by partners is conceptualized in this study as 'active engagement' (AE), which involves the extent to which a partner engages the patient in conversations which focus on emotional support and problem solving. Levels of AE do not change over time, nor do they differ between members of the dyad. Levels of overprotection (OP) diminish with time, whilst patients consistently perceive more OP than partners report providing. Patients' experience of goal hindrance (at T3) due to the MI is associated with a decreased HR-QoL at T3 (controlling for baseline measures). The perception of having a supportive (AE) partner at T1 contributes to enhanced patient HR-QoL at each subsequent time point, although not to physical functioning. Perceiving a partner as overprotective (at T1) predicts worsened physical functioning in patients (at T3). Improvements in S-M at T3 (controlling for baseline measures) are reported by patients whose partner displays active engagement at T1. Cardiac rehabilitation should aim to redress the experience of goal disturbance and advise partners on how to provide support.
Meuleman, Yvette; Hoekstra, Tiny; Dekker, Friedo W.; Navis, Gerjan; Vogt, Liffert; van der Boog, Paul J. M.; Bos, Willem Jan W.; van Montfrans, Gert A.; van Dijk, Sandra
Background: To evaluate the effectiveness and sustainability of self-managed sodium restriction in patients with chronic kidney disease. Study Design: Open randomized controlled trial. Setting & Participants: Patients with moderately decreased kidney function from 4 hospitals in the Netherlands.
Nittrouer, Christine L.; Shogren, Karrie A.; Pickens, Julie L.
Purpose: This study examined the impact of using a collaborative process with person-centered teams and a functional assessment of problems in the workplace to design individualized goals and self-management interventions to support young adults with disabilities. These young adults had achieved employment through a customized employment process…
Müller-Mundt, G; Schaeffer, D
In later stages of chronic disease and especially in older age, chronically ill people are often dependent on multiple medicines. Coming to terms with complex medication regimes in everyday life is a challenging task. To provide the support actually needed, patient-centered interventions are essential, not only taking into account the patients' needs and preferences, but also promoting their ability to self manage their disease(s) and their medication regime. This paper outlines the results of a research project aimed at developing and evaluating an intervention to integrate self-management support into primary care, based on a qualitative exploration of the patients' and professionals' views. The findings stress that home care nurses should take an active part in self-management support but need to be prepared adequately. Therefore, a two-tier intervention was developed and evaluated in a prospective control study, consisting of a qualified training and guidelines for practice. The intervention serves to expand the nurses' professional competence to provide the needed individually tailored self-management support in home care.
V. Duprez (Veerle); S.M. van Hooft (Susanne); J. Dwarswaard (Jolanda); A.L. van Staa (AnneLoes); A. Van Hecke (Ann); M.M.H. Strating (Mathilde)
markdownabstract__Aim:__ To develop and psychometrically test the self-efficacy and performance in self-management support (SEPSS) instrument. __Background:__ Facilitating persons with a chronic condition to take an active role in the management of their condition, implicates that nurses acquire
Strating, Mathilde M.H.; van Schuur, Wijbrandt H.; Suurmeijer, Theo P.B.M.
The aim of this exploratory study was to test the applicability of a model derived from the Theory of Planned Behavior on self-management. In this model social support from the partner, attitude and self-efficacy are determinants of intention, and intention and self-efficacy are determinants of
Dr. J. Dwarswaard; A. van Hecke; Dr. S.M. van Hooft; M.M.H. Strating; Dr. A.L. van Staa; V. Duprez
Facilitating persons with a chronic condition to take an active role in the management of their condition, implicates that nurses acquire new competencies. An instrument that can validly and reliably measure nurses’ performance and their perceived capacity to perform self-management support
Bernhard, Gerda; Ose, Dominik; Baudendistel, Ines; Seidling, Hanna M; Stützle, Marion; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Wensing, Michel; Mahler, Cornelia
Purpose The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate the challenges and strategies of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) regarding daily management of their medication regimen focusing on the role of their support networks. Methods A purposeful sample of 25 patients with T2DM was recruited from local self-help groups, general practitioner practices, and a university hospital in southwestern Germany. Four semi-structured focus groups were conducted to identify the challenges patients experienced, the strategies they used, and their collaboration with support networks to assist them in self-managing their medication regimen. Sessions were audio- and video-recorded, fully transcribed, and subjected to computer-aided qualitative content analysis, guided by the Self- and Family Management Framework (SFMF). Results Patients with T2DM experienced numerous challenges affecting medication self-management arising from their personal situation, health status and resources, characteristics of their regimen, and how health care is currently organized. Patients' self-initiated strategies included activating health care, community, social, and online resources; taking ownership of medication-related needs; and integrating medication-taking into daily life. Patients drew on self-help groups, family, and friends to discuss concerns regarding medication safety and receive experience-based information and advice for navigating within the health care system as well as practical hands-on support with daily medication self-management. Conclusions Understanding the challenges and building on strategies patients with T2DM devised help diabetes educators to better address patients' needs and priorities and guide patient-centered interventions to support patients' self-management activities. Community and social support networks operating in patients' lives need to be engaged in the self-management support.
Full Text Available Teerapon Dhippayom,1 Ines Krass21Pharmaceutical Care Research Unit, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, Thailand; 2Faculty of Pharmacy, The University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW, AustraliaBackground: Evidence supports the efficacy of pharmacy services in type 2 diabetes (T2D. However, little is known about consumer perspectives on the role of community pharmacists in diabetes care. The objectives of this study were to identify potential unmet needs and explore preferences for pharmacist-delivered support for T2D.Methods: A qualitative study using focus groups was conducted in Sydney, Australia. Patients with T2D who were members of the Australian Diabetes Council in Sydney, Australia, were recruited through a survey on medication use in T2D. Five focus groups with a total of 32 consumers with T2D were recorded, transcribed, and thematically analyzed.Results: The key themes were 1 the experiences of diabetes services received, 2 the potential to deliver self-management services, and 3 the suggested role of pharmacist in supporting diabetes management. Gaps in understanding and some degree of nonadherence to self-management signaled a potential for self-management support delivered by pharmacists. However, consumers still perceive that the main role of pharmacists in diabetes care centers on drug management services, with some enhancements to support adherence and continuity of supply. Barriers to diabetes care services included time constraints and a perceived lack of interest by pharmacists.Conclusion: Given the unmet needs in diabetes self-management, opportunities exist for pharmacists to be involved in diabetes care. The challenge is for pharmacists to upgrade their diabetes knowledge and skills, organize their workflow, and become proactive in delivering diabetes care support.Keywords: diabetes care, community pharmacy, community pharmacist, self-management, preference
Bucknall, C E; Miller, G; Lloyd, S M; Cleland, J; McCluskey, S; Cotton, M; Stevenson, R D; Cotton, P; McConnachie, A
To determine whether supported self management in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can reduce hospital readmissions in the United Kingdom. Randomised controlled trial. Community based intervention in the west of Scotland. Patients admitted to hospital with acute exacerbation of COPD. Participants in the intervention group were trained to detect and treat exacerbations promptly, with ongoing support for 12 months. The primary outcome was hospital readmissions and deaths due to COPD assessed by record linkage of Scottish Morbidity Records; health related quality of life measures were secondary outcomes. 464 patients were randomised, stratified by age, sex, per cent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second, recent pulmonary rehabilitation attendance, smoking status, deprivation category of area of residence, and previous COPD admissions. No difference was found in COPD admissions or death (111/232 (48%) v 108/232 (47%); hazard ratio 1.05, 95% confidence interval 0.80 to 1.38). Return of health related quality of life questionnaires was poor (n=265; 57%), so that no useful conclusions could be made from these data. Pre-planned subgroup analysis showed no differential benefit in the primary outcome relating to disease severity or demographic variables. In an exploratory analysis, 42% (75/150) of patients in the intervention group were classified as successful self managers at study exit, from review of appropriateness of use of self management therapy. Predictors of successful self management on stepwise regression were younger age (P=0.012) and living with others (P=0.010). COPD readmissions/deaths were reduced in successful self managers compared with unsuccessful self managers (20/75 (27%) v 51/105 (49%); hazard ratio 0.44, 0.25 to 0.76; P=0.003). Supported self management had no effect on time to first readmission or death with COPD. Exploratory subgroup analysis identified a minority of participants who learnt to self manage; this group had a
Kent, Dan; D'Eramo Melkus, Gail; Stuart, Patricia Mickey W; McKoy, June M; Urbanski, Patti; Boren, Suzanne Austin; Coke, Lola; Winters, Janis E; Horsley, Neil L; Sherr, Dawn; Lipman, Ruth
People with diabetes are at risk of developing complications that contribute to substantial morbidity and mortality. In 2011, the American Association of Diabetes Educators convened an invitational Reducing Risks Symposium, during which an interdisciplinary panel of 11 thought leaders examined current knowledge about the reduction and prevention of diabetes-related risks and translated evidence into diabetes care and self-management education. Symposium participants reviewed findings from the literature and engaged in a moderated roundtable discussion. This report summarizes the discussion and presents recommendations to incorporate into practice to improve outcomes. The objective of the symposium was to develop practical advice for diabetes educators and other members of the diabetes care team regarding the reduction of diabetes-related risks. Optimal diabetes management requires patients to actively participate in their care, which occurs most effectively with a multidisciplinary team. Diabetes education is an integral part of this team approach because it not only helps the patient understand diabetes, its progression, and possible complications, but also provides guidance and encouragement to the patient to engage in proactive risk-reduction decisions for optimal health. A variety of tools are available to help the diabetes educator develop an individualized, patient-centered plan for risk reduction. More research is needed regarding intervention efficacy, best practices to improve adherence, and quantification of benefits from ongoing diabetes support in risk reduction. Diabetes educators are urged to stay abreast of evolving models of care and to build relationships with health care providers both within and beyond the diabetes care team.
Öberg, Ulrika; Orre, Carl Johan; Isaksson, Ulf; Schimmer, Robyn; Larsson, Håkan; Hörnsten, Åsa
Nurses have expressed doubts about the ongoing digitalisation of Swedish primary health care. Given the potential role of eHealth in primary health care, including supporting interactive self-management for people with chronic conditions, it is important to highlight nurses' experiences. This study is part of a larger project aimed at implementing person-centred interactive self-management support (iSMS) in primary health care. The aim of this study was to describe Swedish primary healthcare nurses' perceptions of using digital eHealth systems and services to support patient self-management. Focus group interviews were conducted with primary healthcare nurses (n = 20). The interview transcriptions were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Three themes emerged from the content analysis: caregiving in the midst of digital chaos; a lack of overview and control in daily work; and mixed feelings towards digitalisation. Each theme was subdivided into three subthemes. The results of this study provide insight into a number of concerns that stand in the way of success when it comes to the implementation and use of digital technology. If nurses are to adapt to the new policies and practices that accompany the current digitalised development in Swedish primary health care, the concept of a nurse's traditional work role needs to be amended in terms of the scope of work tasks and established views of traditional nursing. The study also highlights the need for more research to enable eHealth systems/services to be designed to fulfil multiple requirements. The digitised systems should be a tool for achieving good quality self-management support as well as giving the primary healthcare nurses adequate resources to support patients' self-management while still maintaining the values associated with person-centred care. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Al Aloola, Noha Abdullah; Nissen, Lisa; Alewairdhi, Huda Abdullaziz; Al Faryan, Nawaf; Saini, Bandana
This study sought to investigate parents' needs and preferences for school-based asthma support in Saudi Arabian primary schools. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted in the period between November 2015 and February 2016, with a convenience sample that comprised Saudi parents and carers of children with asthma. Recruitment of participants was primarily driven through Saudi primary schools; passive snowballing and social networks were used to boost participation rates further. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, translated and data were thematically organised using a latent content analysis approach. Twenty interviews were conducted. Six themes emerged from the interviews and were grouped into three major categories: (1) general asthma management issues; (2) school-based asthma management issues; and (3) communication dissatisfaction. Participants expressed concern at schools' social and physical environments and a lack of confidence in the ability of schools to manage their child's asthma, especially when their child was ill. Most of the participants advocated for staff training and school community engagement to improve the management of asthma in Saudi primary schools. This research clearly describes a need for school-based asthma support, including asthma-related policies, procedures and education on asthma and first aid in Saudi primary schools.
House, Allan; Latchford, Gary; Russell, Amy M; Bryant, Louise; Wright, Judy; Graham, Elizabeth; Stansfield, Alison; Ajjan, Ramzi
Although supported self-management is a well-recognised part of chronic disease management, it has not been routinely used as part of healthcare for adults with a learning disability. We developed an intervention for adults with a mild or moderate learning disability and type 2 diabetes, building on the principles of supported self-management with reasonable adjustments made for the target population. In five steps, we:Clarified the principles of supported self-management as reported in the published literatureIdentified the barriers to effective self-management of type 2 diabetes in adults with a learning disabilityReviewed existing materials that aim to support self-management of diabetes for people with a learning disabilitySynthesised the outputs from the first three phases and identified elements of supported self-management that were (a) most relevant to the needs of our target population and (b) most likely to be acceptable and useful to themImplemented and field tested the intervention. The final intervention had four standardised components: (1) establishing the participant's daily routines and lifestyle, (2) identifying supporters and their roles, (3) using this information to inform setting realistic goals and providing materials to the patient and supporter to help them be achieved and (4) monitoring progress against goals.Of 41 people randomised in a feasibility RCT, thirty five (85%) completed the intervention sessions, with over three quarters of all participants (78%) attending at least three sessions.Twenty-three out of 40 (58%) participants were deemed to be very engaged with the sessions and 12/40 (30%) with the materials; 30 (73%) participants had another person present with them during at least one of their sessions; 15/41 (37%) were reported to have a very engaged main supporter, and 18/41 (44%) had a different person who was not their main supporter but who was engaged in the intervention implementation. The intervention was feasible to
Kuhn, Lindsay; Reeves, Kelly; Taylor, Yhenneko; Tapp, Hazel; McWilliams, Andrew; Gunter, Andrew; Cleveland, Jeffrey; Dulin, Michael
Asthma is a chronic airway disease that can be difficult to manage, resulting in poor outcomes and high costs. Asthma action plans assist patients with self-management, but provider compliance with this recommendation is limited in part because of guideline complexity. This project aimed to embed an electronic asthma action plan decision support tool (eAAP) into the medical record to streamline evidence-based guidelines for providers at the point of care, create individualized patient handouts, and evaluate effects on disease outcomes. eAAP development occurred in 4 phases: web-based prototype creation, multidisciplinary team engagement, pilot, and system-wide dissemination. Medical record and hospital billing data compared frequencies of asthma exacerbations before and after eAAP receipt with matched controls. Between December 2012 and September 2014, 5174 patients with asthma (∼10%) received eAAPs. Results showed an association between eAAP receipt and significant reductions in pediatric asthma exacerbations, including 33% lower odds of requiring oral steroids (P < .001), compared with controls. Equivalent adult measures were not statistically significant. This study supports existing evidence that patient self-management plays an important role in reducing asthma exacerbations. We show the feasibility of leveraging technology to provide guideline-based decision support through an eAAP, addressing known challenges of implementation into routine practice. © Copyright 2015 by the American Board of Family Medicine.
Al-Durra, Mustafa; Torio, Monika-Bianca; Cafazzo, Joseph A
The high prevalence rate of asthma represents a major societal burden. Advancements in information technology continue to affect the delivery of patient care in all areas of medicine. Internet-based solutions, social media, and mobile technology could address some of the problems associated with increasing asthma prevalence. This review evaluates Internet-based asthma interventions that were published between 2004 and October 2014 with respect to the use of behavioral change theoretical frameworks, applied clinical guidelines, and assessment tools. The search term (Asthma AND [Online or Internet or Mobile or Application or eHealth or App]) was applied to six bibliographic databases (Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, BioMed Central, ProQuest Computing, Web of Knowledge, and ACM Digital Library) including only English-language articles published between 2004 and October 2014. In total, 3932 articles matched the priori search terms and were reviewed by the primary reviewer based on their titles, index terms, and abstracts. The matching articles were then screened by the primary reviewer for inclusion or exclusion based on their abstract, study type, and intervention objectives with respect to the full set of priori inclusion and exclusion criteria; 331 duplicates were identified and removed. A total of 85 articles were included for in-depth review and the remaining 3516 articles were excluded. The primary and secondary reviewer independently reviewed the complete content of the 85 included articles to identify the applied behavioral change theories, clinical guidelines, and assessment tools. Findings and any disagreement between reviewers were resolved by in-depth discussion and through a consolidation process for each of the included articles. The reviewers identified 17 out of 85 interventions (20%) where at least one model, framework, and/or construct of a behavioral change theory were applied. The review identified six clinical guidelines that were applied across 30 of the 85
Elissen, A.M.J.; Nolte, E.; Knai, C.; Brunn, M.; Chevreul, K.; Conklin, A.; Durand-Zaleski, I.; Erler, A.; Flamm, M.; Frølich, A.; Fullerton, B.; Jacobsen, R.; Saz-Parkinson, Z.; Sarria-Santamera, A.; Sönnichsen, A.; Vrijhoef, H.J.M.
Background Self-management support is a key component of effective chronic care management, yet in practice appears to be the least implemented and most challenging. This study explores whether and how self-management support is integrated into chronic care approaches in 13 European countries. In
Woods, Leanna; Cummings, Elizabeth; Duff, Jed; Walker, Kim
Heart failure is a prevalent, progressive chronic disease costing in excess of $1billion per year in Australia alone. Disease self-management has positive implications for the patient and decreases healthcare usage. However, adherence to recommended guidelines is challenging and existing literature reports sub-optimal adherence. mHealth applications in chronic disease education have the potential to facilitate patient enablement for disease self-management. To the best of our knowledge no heart failure self-management application is available for safe use by our patients. In this paper, we present the process established to co-design a mHealth application in support of heart-failure self-management. For this development, an interdisciplinary team systematically proceeds through the phases of Stanford University's Design Thinking process; empathise, define, ideate, prototype and test with a user-centred philosophy. Using this clinician-led heart failure app research as a case study, we describe a sequence of procedures to engage with local patients, carers, software developers, eHealth experts and clinical colleagues to foster rigorously developed and locally relevant patient-facing mHealth solutions. Importantly, patients are engaged in each stage with ethnographic interviews, a series of workshops and multiple re-design iterations.
Kaufman, Neal D; Woodley, Paula D Patnoe
Patients with diabetes need a complex set of services and supports. The challenge of integrating these services into the diabetes regimen can be successfully overcome through self-management support interventions that are clinically linked and technology enabled: self-management support because patients need help mastering the knowledge, attitudes, skills, and behaviors so necessary for good outcomes; interventions because comprehensive theory-based, evidence-proven, long-term, longitudinal interventions work better than direct-to-consumer or nonplanned health promotion approaches; clinically linked because patients are more likely to adopt new behaviors when the approach is in the context of a trusted therapeutic relationship and within an effective medical care system; and technology enabled because capitalizing on the amazing power of information technology leads to the delivery of cost-effective, scalable, engaging solutions that prevent and manage diabetes. © 2011 Diabetes Technology Society.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the potential value of self-management support programs for people with chronic diseases, it is vital to understand how they influence participants’ health attitudes and behaviours. The Stanford Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP, the most well-known and widely studied such program, is funded in many provinces and jurisdictions throughout Canada. However, there is little published evidence on its impact in the Canadian health-care system. We studied participants’ reactions and perceived impacts of attending the Stanford program in one Ontario health region so we could assess its value to the health region. The study asked: What are participants’ reactions and perceived impacts of attending the Stanford CDSMP? Methods This mixed methods exploratory study held four focus groups approximately one year after participants attended a Stanford program workshop. At the beginning of each session, participants filled out a survey on the type and frequency of community and health resources used for their self-management. During the sessions, a moderator guided the discussion, asking about such things as long-term impact of the program on their lives and barriers to self-management of their chronic conditions. Results Participants perceived diverse effects of the workshop: from having a profound impact on one area to affecting all aspects of their lives. A change in physical activity patterns was the most prominent behaviour change, noted by over half the participants. Other recurrent effects included an improved sense of social connection and better coping skills. Barriers to self-management were experienced by almost all participants with several dominant themes emerging including problems with the health system and patient-physician interaction. Participants reported a wide variety of resources used in their self-management, and in some cases, an increase in use was noted for some resources. Conclusions Self-management
Ong, Stephanie W; Jassal, Sarbjit V; Porter, Eveline; Logan, Alexander G; Miller, Judith A
New healthcare delivery models are needed to enhance the patient experience and improve quality of care for individuals with chronic conditions such as kidney disease. One potential avenue is to implement self-management strategies. There is growing evidence that self-management interventions help optimize various aspects of chronic disease management. With the increasing use of information technology (IT) in health care, chronic disease management programs are incorporating IT solutions to support patient self-management practices. IT solutions have the ability to promote key principles of self-management, namely education, empowerment, and collaboration. Positive clinical outcomes have been demonstrated for a number of chronic conditions when IT solutions were incorporated into self-management programs. There is a paucity of evidence for self-management in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Furthermore, IT strategies have not been tested in this patient population to the same extent as other chronic conditions (e.g., diabetes, hypertension). Therefore, it is currently unknown if IT strategies will promote self-management behaviors and lead to improvements in overall patient care. We designed and developed an IT solution called My KidneyCare Centre to support self-management strategies for patients with CKD. In this review, we discuss the rationale and vision of incorporating an electronic self-management tool to support the care of patients with CKD. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Whitehead, Lisa; Jacob, Elisabeth; Towell, Amanda; Abu-Qamar, Ma'en; Cole-Heath, Amanda
To explore the contribution of family members in promoting and supporting the self-management of chronic conditions amongst adult family members. The prevalence of chronic disease continues to grow globally. The role of the family in chronic condition management and support for self-management has received little attention. A systematic review of qualitative literature using the Joanna Briggs Institute approach for qualitative systematic reviews. Ovid (MEDLINE, CINAHL and PsycINFO) were searched for the period of database inception-2016. The QARI (Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument) critical appraisal instrument was used to assess the quality of each study. Using the Joanna Briggs Institute-QARI data extraction tool, findings related to the family role in the self-management of chronic conditions were extracted and each finding rated according to Joanna Briggs Institute-QARI levels of credibility. Findings were categorised and synthesised to produce a final set of aggregated findings. Families were key in constructing an environment that was conducive to family engagement and support. Adaptation within the family included maintaining cohesion between family members, normalisation and contextualisation of the chronic condition. Whilst evidence on the value of the family in promoting positive health outcomes is clear, research on how families can specifically support the self-management of chronic conditions is emerging. Family adaptability has been found to be the most powerful predictor of carer depression. Families may need support to change their home and family organisation to adapt to the challenges they face overtime. Change in roles and subsequent adaptation can be stressful, even for those family members at a distance. Nurses working in hospital and community settings can play an important role in assessing how families are adapting to living with chronic illness and to explore strategies to cope with challenges in the home setting. © 2017 John
Mejdahl, Caroline; Nielsen, Berit Kjærside; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik Ingvar
Rationale, aims and objectives: Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are being implemented in clinical practice across different healthcare settings with varying purposes. Involving patients in reporting outcomes may increase their attention to symptoms and thereby support their self-management. The ...... to strengthen patient involvement and securing benefit from PROs.......Rationale, aims and objectives: Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are being implemented in clinical practice across different healthcare settings with varying purposes. Involving patients in reporting outcomes may increase their attention to symptoms and thereby support their self......-management. The aim of the present study was to describe patients’ experiences with a web-based PRO system where patients complete a PRO questionnaire at home or in the outpatient clinic prior to a consultation. Moreover, the study aimed to explore how PROs influenced the interaction between patients and clinicians...
Blanson Henkemans, O.A.; Hoondert, V.; Schrama-Groot, F.; Looije, R.; Alpay, L.L.; Neerincx, M.A.
Children with type 1 diabetes need to self-manage their illness to minimize its impact on their long-term health. However, because children are still developing cognitively and emotionally, self-management is challenging. The European FP7 project, ALIZ-E, looks at how social robots can support
Dürr, Selina; Hersberger, Kurt E; Zeller, Andreas; Scheuzger, Jonas; Miedinger, David; Gregoriano, Claudia; Joos Zellweger, Ladina; Steurer-Stey, Claudia; Leuppi, Jörg Daniel
Despite great efforts in establishing optimal asthma management, asthma may remain uncontrolled. To effectively manage chronic diseases, such as asthma, it is important to train patients in self-management skills. The aim of this study was to assess the potential benefit of standardised asthma education in Switzerland for asthma control and patients' perception of received asthma care and of self-management support. For this multicentre longitudinal controlled study, asthma patients were recruited in Switzerland. The Asthma Control Test (ACT) was used to assess asthma control. The Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care questionnaire (PACIC 5A) was applied to evaluate received health-care services and self-management support. Patients were offered the possibility to attend asthma education sessions conducted by the Swiss Lung League and Swiss Allergy Centre. After 1 year, attenders and non-attenders completed the questionnaires again. Changes in ACT and PACIC 5A scores were analysed using dependent t tests. Overall, 223 patients with asthma were investigated (mean age 43 ± 12 years, 38% male, 13% current smokers, 29% ex-smokers). Sixty-one (27%) patients attended education sessions. Both groups had improved asthma control at follow-up (attenders: t(56) = -3.2, r = 0.4 [medium effect size], p = 0.002; non-attenders: t(141) = -2.6, r = 0.2 [small effect size], p = 0.010). Attenders improved in PACIC and 5A sum scores (t(50) = -3.6, r = 0.5 [medium effect size], p = 0.001). A comprehensive self-management asthma education programme in Switzerland improved asthma control and patients' perception of received asthma care and of self-management support. Professionals should motivate patients to attend asthma education in order to become active partners in managing their disease. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Ercolano, Elizabeth; Grant, Marcia; McCorkle, Ruth; Tallman, Nancy J; Cobb, Martha D; Wendel, Christopher; Krouse, Robert
Living with an ostomy requires daily site and equipment care, lifestyle changes, emotional management, and social role adjustments. The Chronic Care Ostomy Self-Management Training Program (CCOSMTP) offers an ostomy self-management curriculum, emphasizing problem solving, self-efficacy, cognitive reframing, and goal setting. The qualitative method of content analysis was employed to categorize self-reported goals of ostomates identified during a nurse-led feasibility trial testing the CCOSMTP. Thirty-eight ostomates identified goals at three CCOSMTP sessions. The goals were classified according to the City of Hope Health-Related Qualify of Life Model, a validated multidimensional framework, describing physical, psychological, social, and spiritual ostomy-related effects. Nurse experts coded the goals independently and then collaborated to reach 100% consensus on the goals' classification. A total of 118 goals were identified by 38 participants. Eighty-seven goals were physical, related to the care of the skin, placement of the pouch or bag, and management of leaks; 26 were social goals, which addressed engagement in social or recreational roles and daily activities; and 5 were psychological goals, which were related to confidence and controlling negative thinking. Although the goals of survivors of cancer with an ostomy are variable, physical goals are most common in self-management training.
Hallberg, I; Ranerup, A; Kjellgren, K
Globally, hypertension is poorly controlled and its treatment consists mainly of preventive behavior, adherence to treatment and risk-factor management. The aim of this study was to explore patients' experiences of an interactive mobile phone-based system designed to support the self-management of hypertension. Forty-nine patients were interviewed about their experiences of using the self-management system for 8 weeks regarding: (i) daily answers on self-report questions concerning lifestyle, well-being, symptoms, medication intake and side effects; (ii) results of home blood-pressure measurements; (iii) reminders and motivational messages; and (iv) access to a web-based platform for visualization of the self-reports. The audio-recorded interviews were analyzed using qualitative thematic analysis. The patients considered the self-management system relevant for the follow-up of hypertension and found it easy to use, but some provided insight into issues for improvement. They felt that using the system offered benefits, for example, increasing their participation during follow-up consultations; they further perceived that it helped them gain understanding of the interplay between blood pressure and daily life, which resulted in increased motivation to follow treatment. Increased awareness of the importance of adhering to prescribed treatment may be a way to minimize the cardiovascular risks of hypertension.
Lukewich, Julia; Mann, Elizabeth; VanDenKerkhof, Elizabeth; Tranmer, Joan
The aim of this study was to describe chronic pain self-management from the perspective of individuals living with chronic pain in the context of primary care nursing. Self-management is a key chronic pain treatment modality and support for self-managing chronic pain is mainly provided in the context of primary care. Although nurses are optimally suited to facilitate self-management in primary care, there is a need to explore opportunities for optimizing their roles. Two cross-sectional studies. The Chronic Pain Self-Management Survey was conducted in 2011-2012 to explore the epidemiology and self-management of chronic pain in Canadian adults. The questionnaire was distributed to 1504 individuals in Ontario. In 2011, the Primary Care Nursing Roles Survey was distributed to 1911 primary care nurses in Ontario to explore their roles and to determine the extent to which chronic disease management strategies, including support for self-management, were implemented in primary care. Few respondents to the pain survey identified nurses as being the 'most helpful' facilitator of self-management while physicians were most commonly cited. Seventy-six per cent of respondents used medication to manage their chronic pain. Few respondents to the nursing survey worked in practices with specific programmes for individuals with chronic pain. Individuals with chronic pain identified barriers and facilitators to self-managing their pain and nurses identified barriers and facilitators to optimizing their role in primary care. There are several opportunities for primary care practices to facilitate self-management of chronic pain, including the optimization of the primary care nursing role. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kanchense, Jane Handina Murigwa
The primary health care model of public health has been implemented in many countries around the globe since the Declaration of Alma Ata in 1978, without pilot testing the primary health care model. Therefore, many public health researchers have sought methods of improving primary health care by creating evidence-based models. Many of these researchers recognize the role of behavioral models in public health. These offshoots of primary health care include the ecological, care, central human capabilities, and the SPECIES models. Holistic self-management education and support is a capacity-building philosophy that ensures active involvement of consumers of health care in the planning and implementation and evaluation of health care services. It helps consumers of health care to achieve the desired improved quality of health and life in managing and sustaining their health at the grassroots level. The care model addresses disease management ideals of the in the original primary health care model. The SPECIES model addresses those aspects of the primary health care model that include the cultural and social factors, as well as individual health education and support in the original primary health care model. The ecological model offers an improvement of the socioeconomic ideal in the original primary health care model. Improving the health of individuals will prevent illness, thereby reducing health care costs and lessening the current strain on an overburdened health care system in Zimbabwe. Holistic self-management education and support links health care delivery systems with social processes. It is a best practices model that could better serve Zimbabwean girls and women by contributing positively to the national challenges in health care, thereby meeting the Zimbabwean primary health care and safe motherhood goals. It is here recommended that holistic self-management education and support must be pilot tested before being adopted as the most appropriate model for
Boels, Anne Meike; Vos, Rimke C.; Metzendorf, Maria-Inti; Rutten, Guy E.H.M.
This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (Intervention). The objectives are as follows: To assess the effects of diabetes self-management education and support delivered by mobile health interventions in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Van Hecke, Ann; Heinen, Maud; Fernández-Ortega, Paz
of patients with a low socio-economic status. No differences were found for interventions developed based on health behaviour theoretical models. CONCLUSION: Limited evidence was found for self-management support interventions in chronically ill patients with low socio-economic status. Essential......AIM: To assess the quality of evidence and determine the effect of patient-related and economic outcomes of self-management support interventions in chronically ill patients with a low socio-economic status. BACKGROUND: Integrated evidence on self-management support interventions in chronically ill...... people with low socio-economic status is lacking. DESIGN: Systematic literature review. DATA SOURCES: Cochrane database of trials, PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, PsycINFO and Joanna Briggs Institute Library were searched (2000-2013). Randomized controlled trials addressing self-management support...
Jones, Fiona; Pöstges, Heide; Brimicombe, Lucinda
Programmes providing self-management support for patients and families are gaining attention and have shown promising outcomes with regards to reducing long-term unmet needs post stroke. However, notions of what good self-management support looks like can differ depending on professional opinion, individual preferences, skills and experiences of patients and their families as well as on how care and rehabilitation is organised in a particular healthcare setting. This resonates with the perspective of patient-centred care, according to which the meaning of good care is not universal, but rather jointly shaped between healthcare professionals and patients in everyday interactions. While self-management support is continuously co-produced in care and rehabilitation practices, most self-management programmes are typically provided as an 'add-on' to existing statutory care. This paper aims to deepen the understanding of how self-management support can be made an integral part of everyday care and rehabilitation using Bridges methodology. The authors provide a self-reflective account on 'Bridges' an integrated approach to self-management support, which is used by healthcare professionals within acute and community stroke rehabilitation across the UK, and in some parts of New Zealand and Australia. Bridges is based on self-efficacy principles, but has a central aim of professionals sharing decision-making and expertise with patients and families in every healthcare interaction. Methodologically, the co-production of a Bridges support package with local healthcare professionals and patients is critical. The authors present the values articulated by the support package and how it engages professionals, patients and Bridges training facilitators in a continuous process of adjusting and re-adjusting situated self-management support practices. Our reflections reveal the need to consider development and implementation of self-management support as one and the same on
Koster, E.S.; Philbert, D.; Dijk, L. van; Vries, T.W. de; Bouvy, M.L.
Background: Medication adherence rates often decline as children become teenagers. Effective adherence-enhancing interventions for adolescents are lacking. The objective of this study was to assess adolescent asthmatics needs and preferences regarding medication counseling and support, with focus on
Lawn, Sharon; Zhi, Xiaojuan; Morello, Andrea
E-learning involves delivery of education through Information and Communication Technology (ITC) using a wide variety of instructional designs, including synchronous and asynchronous formats. It can be as effective as face-to-face training for many aspects of health professional training. There are, however, particular practices and skills needed in providing patient self-management support, such as partnering with patients in goal-setting, which may challenge conventional practice norms. E-learning for the delivery of self-management support (SMS) continuing education to existing health professionals is a relatively new and growing area with limited studies identifying features associated with best acquisition of skills in self-management support. An integrative literature review examined what is known about e-learning for self-management support. This review included both qualitative and quantitative studies that focused on e-learning provided to existing health professionals for their continuing professional development. Papers were limited to those published in English between 2006 and 2016. Content analysis was used to organize and focus and describe the findings. The search returned 1505 articles, with most subsequently excluded based on their title or abstract. Fifty-two full text articles were obtained and checked, with 42 excluded because they did not meet the full criteria. Ten peer-reviewed articles were included in this review. Seven main themes emerged from the content analysis: participants and professions; time; package content; guiding theoretical framework; outcome measures; learning features or formats; and learning barriers. These themes revealed substantial heterogeneity in instructional design and other elements of e-learning applied to SMS, indicating that there is still much to understand about how best to deliver e-learning for SMS skills development. Few e-learning approaches meet the need for high levels of interactivity, reflection
Looije, L.; Neerincx, M.A.; Peters, J.K.; Blanson Henkemans, O.
Persistent progress in the self-management of their disease is important and challenging for children with diabetes. The European ALIZ-e project developed and tested a set of core functions for a social robot that may help to establish such progress. These functions were studied in different set-ups
Background Regular review and support for asthma self-management is promoted in guidelines. A randomised controlled trial suggested that unscheduled health care usage was similar when patients were offered self management support by a lay-trainer or practice nurses. Methods Following the RCT, a costing study was undertaken using the trial data to account for the cost of delivery of the service under both strategies and the resulting impact on unscheduled healthcare (measure of effectiveness) in this trial. Results One year data (n = 418) showed that 29% (61/205) of the nurse group required unscheduled healthcare (177 events) compared with 30.5% (65/213) for lay-trainers (178 events). The training costs for the lay-trainers were greater than nurses (£36 versus £18 respectively per patient, play-trainers were lower than nurses (£6 per patient versus £24, play-trainers (mean difference £25, [95% CI = −£97, £149, p = 0.681]). The total costs (delivery and unscheduled healthcare) were £202 per patient for nurses versus £178 for lay-trainers, (mean difference £24, [95%CI = −£100, £147, p = 0.707]). Conclusions There were no significant differences in the cost of training and healthcare delivery between nurse and lay trainers, and no significant difference in the cost of unscheduled health care use. PMID:22958541
Solberg, Hilde Strøm; Steinsbekk, Aslak; Solbjør, Marit; Granbo, Randi; Garåsen, Helge
Development of more self-management support programmes in primary health care has been one option used to enhance positive outcomes in chronic disease management. At present, research results provide no consensus on what would be the best way to develop support programmes into new settings. The aim of the present study was therefore to explore users' and health professionals' perceptions of what would be the vital elements in a self - management support programme applicable in primary health care, how to account for them, and why. Four qualitative, semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted in Central Norway. The informants possessed experience in development, provision, or participation in a self-management support programme. Data was analysed by the Systematic Text Condensation method. The results showed an overall positive expectation to the potential benefits of development of a self-management support programme in primary health care. Despite somewhat different arguments and perspectives, the users and the health professionals had a joint agreement on core characteristics; a self-management support programme in primary health care should therefore be generic, not disease specific, and delivered in a group- based format. A special focus should be on the everyday- life of the participants. The most challenging aspect was a present lack of competence and experience among health professionals to moderate self-management support programmes. The development and design of a relevant and applicable self-management support programme in primary health care should balance the interests of the users with the possibilities and constraints within each municipality. It would be vital to benefit from the closeness of the patients' every-day life situations. The user informants' perception of a self-management support programme as a supplement to regular medical treatment represented an expanded understanding of the self-management support concept. An exploring
Elissen, Arianne; Nolte, Ellen; Knai, Cécile; Brunn, Matthias; Chevreul, Karine; Conklin, Annalijn; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle; Erler, Antje; Flamm, Maria; Frølich, Anne; Fullerton, Birgit; Jacobsen, Ramune; Saz-Parkinson, Zuleika; Sarria-Santamera, Antonio; Sönnichsen, Andreas; Vrijhoef, Hubertus
Self-management support is a key component of effective chronic care management, yet in practice appears to be the least implemented and most challenging. This study explores whether and how self-management support is integrated into chronic care approaches in 13 European countries. In addition, it investigates the level of and barriers to implementation of support strategies in health care practice. We conducted a review among the 13 participating countries, based on a common data template informed by the Chronic Care Model. Key informants presented a sample of representative chronic care approaches and related self-management support strategies. The cross-country review was complemented by a Dutch case study of health professionals' views on the implementation of self-management support in practice. Self-management support for chronically ill patients remains relatively underdeveloped in Europe. Similarities between countries exist mostly in involved providers (nurses) and settings (primary care). Differences prevail in mode and format of support, and materials used. Support activities focus primarily on patients' medical and behavioral management, and less on emotional management. According to Dutch providers, self-management support is not (yet) an integral part of daily practice; implementation is hampered by barriers related to, among others, funding, IT and medical culture. Although collaborative care for chronic conditions is becoming more important in European health systems, adequate self-management support for patients with chronic disease is far from accomplished in most countries. There is a need for better understanding of how we can encourage both patients and health care providers to engage in productive interactions in daily chronic care practice, which can improve health and social outcomes.
Harvey, Peter W; Petkov, John N; Misan, Gary; Fuller, Jeffrey; Battersby, Malcolm W; Cayetano, Teofilo N; Warren, Kate; Holmes, Paul
The Sharing Health Care SA chronic disease self-management (CDSM) project in rural South Australia was designed to assist patients with chronic and complex conditions (diabetes, cardiovascular disease and arthritis) to learn how to participate more effectively in the management of their condition and to improve their self-management skills. Participants with chronic and complex conditions were recruited into the Sharing Health Care SA program and offered a range of education and support options (including a 6-week peer-led chronic disease self-management program) as part of the Enhanced Primary Care care planning process. Patient self-reported data were collected at baseline and subsequent 6-month intervals using the Partners in Health (PIH) scale to assess self-management skill and ability for 175 patients across four data collection points. Health providers also scored patient knowledge and self-management skills using the same scale over the same intervals. Patients also completed a modified Stanford 2000 Health Survey for the same time intervals to assess service utilisation and health-related lifestyle factors. Results show that both mean patient self-reported PIH scores and mean health provider PIH scores for patients improved significantly over time, indicating that patients demonstrated improved understanding of their condition and improved their ability to manage and deal with their symptoms. These results suggest that involvement in peer-led self-management education programs has a positive effect on patient self-management skill, confidence and health-related behaviour.
Hochstenbach, Laura M J; Zwakhalen, Sandra M G; Courtens, Annemie M; van Kleef, Maarten; de Witte, Luc P
Cancer pain is a prevalent and distressing symptom. To enhance self-management in outpatients, a multi-component intervention was developed, integrating patient self-management and professional care through healthcare technology. This article describes feasibility of the intervention in everyday practice. Patients with moderate to severe cancer pain (n = 11) and registered nurses specialized in pain and palliative care (n = 3) participated in a four-week study. The intervention involved daily monitoring, graphical feedback, education, and advice by means of a mobile application for patients and a web application for nurses. Learnability, usability and desirability were measured in patients with a 20-item questionnaire (1-5 scale), higher scores indicating better feasibility. Patients' adherence was based on completion rates from server logs. Single semi-structured interviews with patients and a focus group interview with nurses provided insight into experiences. Questionnaire findings confirmed learnability (4.8), usability (4.8) and desirability (4.6) of the application for patients. Average completion rates were 76.8% for pain monitoring, 50.4% for medication monitoring and 100% for education sessions. Interviews revealed that patients were pleased with the simplicity of the mobile application and appreciated different components. Nurses agreed upon the added value and were mostly positive about the possibilities of the web application. Patients and nurses provided ideas for improvements relating to the content and technical performance of the intervention. Study results demonstrate feasibility of the intervention in everyday practice. Provided that content-related and technical adjustments are made, the intervention enables patients with cancer pain to practice self-management and nurses to remotely support these patients. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Khan, Ainee; Dickens, Andrew P; Adab, Peymane; Jordan, Rachel E
Self-management support for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients is recommended by UK national guidelines, but extent of implementation is unknown. We aimed to describe self-management behaviour and support among COPD patients and explore behaviour associated with having a self-management plan. We undertook cross-sectional analysis of self-reported data from diagnosed COPD patients in the Birmingham COPD Cohort study. Questionnaire items relevant to self-management behaviour, knowledge of COPD, receipt of self-management plans and advice from healthcare professionals were examined. Multiple regression models were used to identify behaviour associated with having a self-management plan. One-thousand seventy-eight participants (676 males, 62.7%, mean age 69.8 (standard deviation 9.0) years) were included. The majority reported taking medications as instructed (940, 94.0%) and receiving annual influenza vaccinations (962, 89.2%). Only 400 (40.4%) participants had self-management plans, 538 (49.9%) reported never having received advice on diet/exercise and 110 (42.7%) current smokers had been offered practical help to stop smoking in the previous year. General knowledge about COPD was moderate (mean total Bristol COPD Knowledge Questionnaire score: 31.5 (standard deviation 10.7); max score 65), corresponding to 48.5% of questions answered correctly. Having a self-management plan was positively associated with self-reported adherence to medication (odds ratio 3.10, 95% confidence interval 1.43 to 6.72), attendance at a training course (odds ratio 2.72, 95% confidence interval 1.81 to 4.12), attendance at a support group (odds ratio 6.28, 95% confidence interval 2.96 to 13.35) and better disease knowledge (mean difference 4.87, 95% confidence interval 3.16 to 6.58). Primary care healthcare professionals should ensure more widespread implementation of individualised self-management plans for all patients and improve the lifestyle advice provided. CALL FOR
Giabbanelli, Philippe J; Crutzen, Rik
Obesity has commonly been addressed using a 'one size fits all' approach centred on a combination of diet and exercise. This has not succeeded in halting the obesity epidemic, as two-thirds of American adults are now obese or overweight. Practitioners are increasingly highlighting that one's weight is shaped by myriad factors, suggesting that interventions should be tailored to the specific needs of individuals. Health games have potential to provide such tailored approach. However, they currently tend to focus on communicating and/or reinforcing knowledge, in order to suscitate learning in the participants. We argue that it would be equally, if not more valuable, that games learn from participants using recommender systems. This would allow treatments to be comprehensive, as games can deduce from the participants' behaviour which factors seem to be most relevant to his or her weight and focus on them. We introduce a novel game architecture and discuss its implications on facilitating the self-management of obesity. © The Author(s) 2014.
Meuleman, Yvette; Hoekstra, Tiny; Dekker, Friedo W; Navis, Gerjan; Vogt, Liffert; van der Boog, Paul J M; Bos, Willem Jan W; van Montfrans, Gert A; van Dijk, Sandra
To evaluate the effectiveness and sustainability of self-managed sodium restriction in patients with chronic kidney disease. Open randomized controlled trial. Patients with moderately decreased kidney function from 4 hospitals in the Netherlands. Regular care was compared with regular care plus an intervention comprising education, motivational interviewing, coaching, and self-monitoring of blood pressure (BP) and sodium. Primary outcomes were sodium excretion and BP after the 3-month intervention and at 6-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes were protein excretion, kidney function, antihypertensive medication, self-efficacy, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). At baseline, mean sodium excretion rate was 163.6±64.9 (SD) mmol/24 h; mean estimated glomerular filtration rate was 49.7±25.6mL/min/1.73m 2 ; median protein excretion rate was 0.8 (IQR, 0.4-1.7) g/24 h; and mean 24-hour ambulatory systolic and diastolic BPs were 129±15 and 76±9mmHg, respectively. Compared to regular care only (n=71), at 3 months, the intervention group (n=67) showed reduced sodium excretion rate (mean change, -30.3 [95% CI, -54.7 to -5.9] mmol/24 h), daytime ambulatory diastolic BP (mean change, -3.4 [95% CI, -6.3 to -0.6] mmHg), diastolic office BP (mean change, -5.2 [95% CI, -8.4 to -2.1] mmHg), protein excretion (mean change, -0.4 [95% CI, -0.7 to -0.1] g/24h), and improved self-efficacy (mean change, 0.5 [95% CI, 0.1 to 0.9]). At 6 months, differences in sodium excretion rates and ambulatory BPs between the groups were not significant, but differences were detected in systolic and diastolic office BPs (mean changes of -7.3 [95% CI, -12.7 to -1.9] and -3.8 [95% CI, -6.9 to -0.6] mmHg, respectively), protein excretion (mean changes, -0.3 [95% CI, -0.6 to -0.1] g/24h), and self-efficacy (mean change, 0.5 [95% CI, 0.0 to 0.9]). No differences in kidney function, medication, and HRQoL were observed. Nonblinding, relatively low response rate, and missing data
Koetsenruijter, Jan; van Lieshout, Jan; Vassilev, Ivaylo; Portillo, Mari Carmen; Serrano, Manuel; Knutsen, Ingrid; Roukova, Poli; Lionis, Christos; Todorova, Elka; Foss, Christina; Rogers, Anne; Wensing, Michel
Long-term conditions pose major challenges for healthcare systems. Optimizing self-management of people with long-term conditions is an important strategy to improve quality of life, health outcomes, patient experiences in healthcare, and the sustainability of healthcare systems. Much research on self-management focuses on individual competencies, while the social systems of support that facilitate self-management are underexplored. The presented study aims to explore the role of social systems of support for self-management and quality of life, focusing on the social networks of people with diabetes and community organisations that serve them. The protocol concerns a cross-sectional study in 18 geographic areas in six European countries, involving a total of 1800 individuals with diabetes and 900 representatives of community organisations. In each country, we include a deprived rural area, a deprived urban area, and an affluent urban area. Individuals are recruited through healthcare practices in the targeted areas. A patient questionnaire comprises measures for quality of life, self-management behaviours, social network and social support, as well as individual characteristics. A community organisations' survey maps out interconnections between community and voluntary organisations that support patients with chronic illness and documents the scope of work of the different types of organisations. We first explore the structure of social networks of individuals and of community organisations. Then linkages between these social networks, self-management and quality of life will be examined, taking deprivation and other factors into account. This study will provide insight into determinants of self-management and quality of life in individuals with diabetes, focusing on the role of social networks and community organisations.
Galdas, Paul; Fell, Jennifer; Bower, Peter; Kidd, Lisa; Blickem, Christian; McPherson, Kerri; Hunt, Kate; Gilbody, Simon; Richardson, Gerry
To assess the effectiveness of self-management support interventions in men with long-term conditions. A quantitative systematic review with meta-analysis. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was searched to identify published reviews of self-management support interventions. Relevant reviews were screened to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of self-management support interventions conducted in men alone, or which analysed the effects of interventions by sex. Data on relevant outcomes, patient populations, intervention type and study quality were extracted. Quality appraisal was conducted using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. Meta-analysis was conducted to compare the effects of interventions in men, women, and mixed-sex sub-groups. 40 RCTs of self-management support interventions in men, and 20 eligible RCTs where an analysis by sex was reported, were included in the review. Meta-analysis suggested that physical activity, education, and peer support-based interventions have a positive impact on quality of life in men. However, there is currently insufficient evidence to make strong statements about whether self-management support interventions show larger, similar or smaller effects in men compared with women and mixed-sex groups. Clinicians may wish to consider whether certain types of self-management support (eg, physical activity, education, peer support) are particularly effective in men, although more research is needed to fully determine and explore this. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Sanders, C; Rogers, A; Gardner, C; Kennedy, A
Previous research has demonstrated how the Internet can foster emotional support and provide a 'private' space for discussing sensitive issues. Whilst the family has been located as a primary source of support, empirical research on the dynamics of close personal relationships in chronic illness experience remains a challenge. To explore the role of family relationships in supporting self-care and the nature of social support exchanged within an online self-management training course. Qualitative thematic and narrative analysis of online discussion boards. Postings for 218 participants, divided between 11 groups were included for a course section that focused on 'difficult emotions'. Participants exchanged a high degree of emotional support and revealed much about their 'real life' relationships. The latter highlighted the complexities of managing illness within family contexts alongside additional pressures of daily life such as caring commitments and work roles. The private interactive space created within the course allowed insights into the dynamics of family life associated with illness management that are challenging to research. Simultaneously, collective support was developed amongst this group of predominantly working women. The article points to the implications for such interventions and associated evaluative research beyond this selective group.
Mitchell, Bernadette; Armour, Carol; Lee, Mary; Song, Yun Ju; Stewart, Kay; Peterson, Greg; Hughes, Jeff; Smith, Lorraine; Krass, Ines
To evaluate the capacity and effectiveness of trained community pharmacists in delivering the Diabetes Medication Assistance Service (DMAS) via (1) number and types of self-management support interventions (SMSIs); (2) number of goals set and attained by patients and (3) patient outcomes (glycaemic control, medication adherence and satisfaction). Pharmacists (n=109) from 90 community pharmacies in Australia were trained and credentialed to deliver the DMAS. The training focused on developing pharmacists' knowledge and skills in supporting patients' diabetes self-management. A total of 387 patients completed the trial. The mean number of SMSIs per patient was 35 (SD ±31) and the majority (87%) had at least one documented goal that was fully or partially attained. There were significant health benefits for patients including improved glycaemic control and a reduced risk of non-adherence to medications. Over 90% of DMAS patients reported improvements in their knowledge about diabetes self-management. The DMAS provides self management support in the community pharmacy for people with T2DM which may result in improved clinical outcomes. Given appropriate training in diabetes care and behavior change strategies, community pharmacists can offer programs which provide self-management support to their patients with T2DM and improve their health outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lakshminarayana, Rashmi; Wang, Duolao; Burn, David; Chaudhuri, K Ray; Galtrey, Clare; Guzman, Natalie Valle; Hellman, Bruce; Ben James; Pal, Suvankar; Stamford, Jon; Steiger, Malcolm; Stott, R W; Teo, James; Barker, Roger A; Wang, Emma; Bloem, Bastiaan R; van der Eijk, Martijn; Rochester, Lynn; Williams, Adrian
consultation (0.15, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.27; p = 0.0110). The change in non-motor symptoms was -0.82 (95% CI -1.75 to 0.10; p = 0.0822). 72% of participants in the Parkinson's tracker app group continued to use and engage with the application throughout the 16-week trial period. The Parkinson's tracker app can be an effective and novel way of enhancing self-reported medication adherence and quality of clinical consultation by supporting self-management in Parkinson's disease in patients owning smartphones. Further work is recommended to determine whether the benefits of the intervention are maintained beyond the 16 week study period.
Full Text Available Background: WHO statistics show that Indonesia has the fourth highest number of diabetes sufferers. The International Diabetes Federation‟s 5th estimated that in 2011 there were 71.4 million people in South East Asia region were suffering with DM Purpose: To develop a family-based dietary self-management support program to improve dietary behaviors in patients with T2DM. Method: A literature review was conducted by reviewing articles related evidence-based practices. Only articles in the English and Indonesian languages were reviewed. The search found eleven published experimental studies related to the topic. Result: Even though dietary self-management has benefits for patients with diabetes, many studies have found that these patients often have difficulty in establishing or maintaining an effective program to self-manage their dietary behaviors. Lack of family support is one factor that often seems to be related to such failures. Family participation in a diabetes education program also had positive psychosocial impacts. Otherwise, another study found that family might not always have a positive impact on self-management. Therefore, this review recommends that development of a family-based support program could be a positive factor in helping to improve dietary self-management behaviors in patients with T2DM. Self-management theory by Funnell and Anderson‟s work (2004 can guide the development of a program with the goal of empowering individuals and families in improving the patient‟s dietary behaviors. The program consists of: (1 reflecting on current and/or past self-management experiences by listening to the patient about their dietary behaviors, (2 discussing the emotions and feelings of the patients, (3 engaging the patient in improving their situation by active listening and helping the patient reflect on their problems and identifying effective strategies, (4 providing information about dietary management and problem
Hochstenbach, Laura M J; Courtens, Annemie M; Zwakhalen, Sandra M G; Vermeulen, Joan; van Kleef, Maarten; de Witte, Luc P
Co-creative methods, having an iterative character and including different perspectives, allow for the development of complex nursing interventions. Information about the development process is essential in providing justification for the ultimate intervention and crucial in interpreting the outcomes of subsequent evaluations. This paper describes a co-creative method directed towards the development of an eHealth intervention delivered by registered nurses to support self-management in outpatients with cancer pain. Intervention development was divided into three consecutive phases (exploration of context, specification of content, organisation of care). In each phase, researchers and technicians addressed five iterative steps: research, ideas, prototyping, evaluation, and documentation. Health professionals and patients were consulted during research and evaluation steps. Collaboration of researchers, health professionals, patients and technicians was positive and valuable in optimising outcomes. The intervention includes a mobile application for patients and a web application for nurses. Patients are requested to monitor pain, adverse effects and medication intake, while being provided with graphical feedback, education and contact possibilities. Nurses monitor data, advise patients, and collaborate with the treating physician. Integration of patient self-management and professional care by means of eHealth key into well-known barriers and seem promising in improving cancer pain follow-up. Nurses are able to make substantial contributions because of their expertise, focus on daily living, and their bridging function between patients and health professionals in different care settings. Insights from the intervention development as well as the intervention content give thought for applications in different patients and care settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kew, Kayleigh M; Carr, Robin; Crossingham, Iain
Adolescents with asthma are at high risk of poor adherence with treatment. This may be compounded by activities that worsen asthma, in particular smoking. Additional support above and beyond routine care has the potential to encourage good self-management. We wanted to find out whether sessions led by their peers or by lay leaders help to reduce these risks and improve asthma outcomes among adolescents. To assess the safety and efficacy of lay-led and peer support interventions for adolescents with asthma. We identified trials from the Cochrane Airways Trials Register, which contains reports of randomised trials obtained from multiple electronic and handsearched sources, and we searched trial registries and reference lists of primary studies. We conducted the most recent searches on 25 November 2016. Eligible studies randomised adolescents with asthma to an intervention led by lay people or peers or to a control. We included parallel randomised controlled trials with individual or cluster designs. We included studies reported as full text, those published as abstract only and unpublished data. Two review authors screened the searches, extracted numerical data and study characteristics and assessed each included study for risk of bias. Primary outcomes were asthma-related quality of life and exacerbations requiring at least a course of oral steroids. We graded the analyses and presented evidence in a 'Summary of findings' table.We analysed dichotomous data as odds ratios, and continuous data as mean differences (MD) or standardised mean differences, all with a random-effects model. We assessed clinical, methodological and statistical heterogeneity when performing meta-analyses, and we described skewed data narratively. Five studies including a total of 1146 participants met the inclusion criteria for this review. As ever with systematic reviews of complex interventions, studies varied by design (cluster and individually randomised), duration (2.5 to 9 months
Harris, Melanie; Jones, Phil; Heartfield, Marie; Allstrom, Mary; Hancock, Janette; Lawn, Sharon; Battersby, Malcolm
Health services introducing practice changes need effective implementation methods. Within the setting of a community mental health service offering recovery-oriented psychosocial support for people with mental illness, we aimed to: (i) identify a well-founded implementation model; and (ii) assess its practical usefulness in introducing a new programme for recovery-oriented self-management support. We reviewed the literature to identify implementation models applicable to community mental health organisations, and that also had corresponding measurement tools. We used one of these models to inform organisational change strategies. The literature review showed few models with corresponding tools. The Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS) model and the related Organisational Readiness to Change Assessment (ORCA) tool were used. The PARIHS proposes prerequisites for health service change and the ORCA measures the extent to which these prerequisites are present. Application of the ORCA at two time points during implementation of the new programme showed strategy-related gains for some prerequisites but not for others, reflecting observed implementation progress. Additional strategies to address target prerequisites could be drawn from the PARIHS model. The PARIHS model and ORCA tool have potential in designing and monitoring practice change strategies in community mental health organisations. Further practical use and testing of implementation models appears justified in overcoming barriers to change.
Côté, José; Godin, Gaston; Ramirez-Garcia, Pilar; Rouleau, Geneviève; Bourbonnais, Anne; Guéhéneuc, Yann-Gaël; Tremblay, Cécile; Otis, Joanne
Living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) necessitates long-term health care follow-up, particularly with respect to antiretroviral therapy (ART) management. Taking advantage of the enormous possibilities afforded by information and communication technologies (ICT), we developed a virtual nursing intervention (VIH-TAVIE) intended to empower HIV patients to manage their ART and their symptoms optimally. ICT interventions hold great promise across the entire continuum of HIV patient care but further research is needed to properly evaluate their effectiveness. The objective of the study was to compare the effectiveness of two types of follow-up--traditional and virtual--in terms of promoting ART adherence among HIV patients. A quasi-experimental study was conducted. Participants were 179 HIV patients on ART for at least 6 months, of which 99 were recruited at a site offering virtual follow-up and 80 at another site offering only traditional follow-up. The primary outcome was medication adherence and the secondary outcomes were the following cognitive and affective variables: self-efficacy, attitude toward medication intake, symptom-related discomfort, stress, and social support. These were evaluated by self-administered questionnaire at baseline (T0), and 3 (T3) and 6 months (T6) later. On average, participants had been living with HIV for 14 years and had been on ART for 11 years. The groups were highly heterogeneous, differing on a number of sociodemographic dimensions: education, income, marital status, employment status, and living arrangements. Adherence at baseline was high, reaching 80% (59/74) in the traditional follow-up group and 84% (81/97) in the virtual follow-up group. A generalized estimating equations (GEE) analysis was run, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics at baseline. A time effect was detected indicating that both groups improved in adherence over time but did not differ in this regard. Improvement at 6 months was significantly
Jones, Allan; Vallis, Michael; Cooke, Debbie; Pouwer, F.
The quality of the "patient-carer" relationship is the foundation of self-management support and has been shown to influence treatment outcome in relation to psychological and somatic illness, including diabetes. It has long been accepted within applied psychology that the quality of the
Todd, Nicholas J; Jones, Steven H; Lobban, Fiona A
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic and recurrent affective disorder. Recovery is defined as the process by which people can live fulfilling lives despite experiencing symptoms. To explore how an opportunistically recruited group of service users with BD experience recovery and self-management to understand more about how a service users' recovery may be supported. Twelve service users with BD took part in a series of focus groups. Service users' responses to questions about their personal experiences of self-management and recovery were analysed. Focus groups were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis ([ Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77-101]) was employed to identify common themes in the data. Four key themes were identified: (1) Recovery is not about being symptom free; (2) Recovery requires taking responsibility for your own wellness; (3) Self-management: building on existing techniques; (4) Overcoming barriers to recovery: negativity, stigma and taboo. Service users with BD have provided further support for the concept of recovery and have suggested a number of ways recovery can be supported. A self-management approach informed by the recovery literature has been proposed as a way to support service users' recovery.
van Vugt, M.; de Wit, M.; Sieverink, Floor; Roelofsen, Y.; Hendriks, S.H.; Bilo, H.J.G.; Snoek, F.J.
We studied the use, uptake, and effects of e-Vita, a personal health record, with self-management support and personalized asynchronized coaching, for type 2 diabetes patients treated in primary care. Patients were invited by their practice nurse to join the study aimed at testing use and effects of
Effects of the First Line Diabetes Care (FiLDCare) self-management education and support project on knowledge, attitudes, perceptions, self-management practices and glycaemic control: a quasi-experimental study conducted in the Northern Philippines.
Ku, Grace Marie V; Kegels, Guy
To investigate the effects of implementing a context-adapted diabetes self-management education and support (DSME/S) project based on chronic care models in the Philippines, on knowledge, attitudes, self-management practices, adiposity/obesity and glycaemia of people with diabetes. Prospective quasi-experimental before-after study. 203 people with type 2 diabetes mellitus from two local government units in the Northern Philippines fulfilling set criteria. Context-adapted DSME/S was given to a cohort of people with diabetes by trained pre-existing local government healthcare personnel. Changes in knowledge, attitudes and self-management practices, body mass index, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio (WHR) and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) were measured 1 year after full project implementation. Non-parametric and parametric descriptive and inferential statistics including logistic regression analysis were done. Complete data were collected from 164 participants. Improvements in glycaemia, waist circumference, WHR, knowledge, some attitudes, adherence to medications and exercise, and an increase in fear of diabetes were significant. Reductions in HbA1c, regardless of level of control, were noted in 60.4%. Significant increase in knowledge (pability to control blood glucose (p=0.004) and adherence to medications (p=0.001) were noted among those whose glycaemia improved. Significant differences between the subgroups whose HbA1c improved and those whose HbA1c deteriorated include male gender (p=0.042), shorter duration of diabetes (p=0.001) and increased perceived ability to control blood glucose (p=0.042). Significant correlates to improved glycaemia were male gender (OR=2.655; p=0.034), duration of diabetes >10 years (OR=0.214; p=0.003) and fear of diabetes (OR=0.490; p=0.048). Context-adapted DSME/S introduced in resource-constrained settings and making use of established human resources for health may improve knowledge, attitudes, self-management practices
Shegog, Ross; Begley, Charles E
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder involving recurrent seizures. It affects approximately 5 million people in the U.S. To optimize their quality of life people with epilepsy are encouraged to engage in self-management (S-M) behaviors. These include managing their treatment (e.g., adhering to anti-seizure medication and clinical visit schedules), managing their seizures (e.g., responding to seizure episodes), managing their safety (e.g., monitoring and avoiding environmental seizure triggers), and managing their co-morbid conditions (e.g., anxiety, depression). The clinic-based Management Information Decision Support Epilepsy Tool (MINDSET) is a decision-support system founded on theory and empirical evidence. It is designed to increase awareness by adult patients (≥18 years) and their health-care provider regarding the patient's epilepsy S-M behaviors, facilitate communication during the clinic visit to prioritize S-M goals and strategies commensurate with the patient's needs, and increase the patient's self-efficacy to achieve those goals. The purpose of this paper is to describe the application of intervention mapping (IM) to develop, implement, and formatively evaluate the clinic-based MINDSET prototype and in developing implementation and evaluation plans. Deliverables comprised a logic model of the problem (IM Step 1); matrices of program objectives (IM Step 2); a program planning document comprising scope, sequence, theory-based methods, and practical strategies (IM Step 3); a functional MINDSET program prototype (IM Step 4); plans for implementation (IM Step 5); and evaluation (IM Step 6). IM provided a logical and systematic approach to developing and evaluating clinic-based decision support toward epilepsy S-M.
Full Text Available IntroductionEpilepsy is a neurological disorder involving recurrent seizures. It affects approximately 5 million people in the U.S. To optimize their quality of life people with epilepsy are encouraged to engage in self-management (S-M behaviors. These include managing their treatment (e.g., adhering to anti-seizure medication and clinical visit schedules, managing their seizures (e.g., responding to seizure episodes, managing their safety (e.g., monitoring and avoiding environmental seizure triggers, and managing their co-morbid conditions (e.g., anxiety, depression. The clinic-based Management Information Decision Support Epilepsy Tool (MINDSET is a decision-support system founded on theory and empirical evidence. It is designed to increase awareness by adult patients (≥18 years and their health-care provider regarding the patient’s epilepsy S-M behaviors, facilitate communication during the clinic visit to prioritize S-M goals and strategies commensurate with the patient’s needs, and increase the patient’s self-efficacy to achieve those goals.MethodsThe purpose of this paper is to describe the application of intervention mapping (IM to develop, implement, and formatively evaluate the clinic-based MINDSET prototype and in developing implementation and evaluation plans. Deliverables comprised a logic model of the problem (IM Step 1; matrices of program objectives (IM Step 2; a program planning document comprising scope, sequence, theory-based methods, and practical strategies (IM Step 3; a functional MINDSET program prototype (IM Step 4; plans for implementation (IM Step 5; and evaluation (IM Step 6. IM provided a logical and systematic approach to developing and evaluating clinic-based decision support toward epilepsy S-M.
Sharon A Brown
Full Text Available Objectives: Studies of social support in diabetes have focused on the effects of support on the person with type 2 diabetes. We explored diabetes prevention effects of a culturally tailored diabetes self-management intervention in individuals without diabetes who were supporters of intervention participants. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of data from a randomized clinical trial that involved 256 Mexican Americans with diabetes. Each study participant designated a supporter—spouse, relative, friend—who attended intervention sessions and assisted participants in attaining effective diabetes self-management. Supporter’s glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C data were tracked for 1 year to determine diabetes conversion rates in supporters without diabetes at baseline. Results: Fewer individuals in the intervention group (n = 9 converted to an A1C above the 7% threshold, compared to the 1-year wait-listed control group (n = 16. We found a statistically significant difference (p = .021 at 12 months in the number of individuals whose A1C was ⩽8%, with fewer supporters above threshold in the intervention group (reduction of 48%. Supporters in the intervention group with prediabetes, based on baseline A1C, experienced a slight reduction in A1C, while control group supporters with prediabetes experienced an increase. Discussion: The results suggest that there are potential benefits for family members and other supporters of persons with diabetes who participated in diabetes self-management programs.
Foster, C; Calman, L; Grimmett, C; Breckons, M; Cotterell, P; Yardley, L; Joseph, J; Hughes, S; Jones, R; Leonidou, C; Armes, J; Batehup, L; Corner, J; Fenlon, D; Lennan, E; Morris, C; Neylon, A; Ream, E; Turner, L; Richardson, A
The aim of this study is to co-create an evidence-based and theoretically informed web-based intervention (RESTORE) designed to enhance self-efficacy to live with cancer-related fatigue (CRF) following primary cancer treatment. A nine-step process informed the development of the intervention: (1) review of empirical literature; (2) review of existing patient resources; (3) establish theoretical framework; (4) establish design team with expertise in web-based interventions, CRF and people affected by cancer; (5) develop prototype intervention; (6) user testing phase 1; (7) refinement of prototype; (8) user testing phase 2; and (9) develop final intervention. Key stakeholders made a critical contribution at every step of intervention development, and user testing, which involved an iterative process and resulted in the final intervention. The RESTORE intervention has five sessions; sessions 1 and 2 include an introduction to CRF and goal setting. Sessions 3-5 can be tailored to user preference and are designed to cover areas of life where CRF may have an impact: home and work life, personal relationships and emotional adjustment. It is feasible to systematically 'co-create' an evidence-based and theory-driven web-based self-management intervention to support cancer survivors living with the consequences of cancer and its treatment. This is the first account of the development of a web-based intervention to support self-efficacy to manage CRF. An exploratory trial to test the feasibility and acceptability of RESTORE is now warranted. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Abstract Asthma is the most common respiratory disorder in Canada. Despite significant improvement in the diagnosis and management of this disorder, the majority of Canadians with asthma remain poorly controlled. In most patients, however, control can be achieved through the use of avoidance measures and appropriate pharmacological interventions. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs represent the standard of care for the majority of patients. Combination ICS/long-acting beta2-agonists (LABA inhalers are preferred for most adults who fail to achieve control with ICS therapy. Allergen-specific immunotherapy represents a potentially disease-modifying therapy for many patients with asthma, but should only be prescribed by physicians with appropriate training in allergy. Regular monitoring of asthma control, adherence to therapy and inhaler technique are also essential components of asthma management. This article provides a review of current literature and guidelines for the appropriate diagnosis and management of asthma.
Full Text Available Frances Early,1 Jane S Young,2 Elizabeth Robinshaw,3 Emma Z Mi,4 Ella Z Mi,4 Jonathan P Fuld1 1Centre for Self Management Support, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge, UK; 2Faculty of Health, Social Care and Education, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK; 3Gloucestershire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Gloucester, UK; 4School of Clinical Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK Background: COPD has significant psychosocial impact. Self-management support improves quality of life, but programs are not universally available. IT-based self-management interventions can provide home-based support, but have mixed results. We conducted a case series of an off-the-shelf Internet-based health-promotion program, The Preventive Plan (TPP, coupled with nurse-coach support, which aimed to increase patient activation and provide self-management benefits. Materials and methods: A total of 19 COPD patients were recruited, and 14 completed 3-month follow-up in two groups: groups 1 and 2 with more and less advanced COPD, respectively. Change in patient activation was determined with paired t-tests and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Benefits and user experience were explored in semistructured interviews, analyzed thematically. Results: Only group 1 improved significantly in activation, from a lower baseline than group 2; group 1 also improved significantly in mastery and anxiety. Both groups felt significantly more informed about COPD and reported physical functioning improvements. Group 1 reported improvements in mood and confidence. Overall, group 2 reported fewer benefits than group 1. Both groups valued nurse-coach support; for group 1, it was more important than TPP in building confidence to self-manage. The design of TPP and lack of motivation to use IT were barriers to use, but disease severity and poor IT skills were not. Discussion: Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of combining
Threatt, Tiffaney B; Ward, Eileen D
Primary study objectives were to (1) describe mean change in A1c from baseline of a free clinic population enrolled in telehealth diabetes self-management education and support (DSME/S) services and (2) to compare change in A1C and other clinical outcomes measures with free clinic patients enrolled in a traditional face-to-face DSME/S program. An exploratory study design and comparative evaluation of telehealth DSME/S services in a free clinic population was used. Baseline clinical measures were collected upon referral. Diabetes educators met with patients individually over 2-3 months. Clinical outcomes measures were collected within 6 months of program completion. Data from the telehealth group was assessed individually and compared to a free clinic traditional DSME/S program population. Twelve patients completed a telehealth free clinic DSME/S pilot program with a mean ± SD change in A1C from baseline of -1.03 ± 1.53% (P = 0.050). Mean ± SD change in A1C from baseline in the free clinic population participating in traditional face-to-face DSME/S services was -1.42 ± 1.80% (P = 0.001). No significant differences in secondary outcomes measures, including body mass index and blood pressure, were revealed among the study populations. Expanding access to care in populations faced with challenges of socioeconomics, limited education, and lower health literacy is a step toward reducing health disparities and positively affecting care. Mean A1C can be improved with telehealth DSME/S services in an underserved, free clinic population. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sullivan, Mark; Langford, Dale J; Davies, Pamela Stitzlein; Tran, Christine; Vilardaga, Roger; Cheung, Gifford; Yoo, Daisy; McReynolds, Justin; Lober, William B; Tauben, David; Vowles, Kevin E
The objective of this study was to develop and pilot test a chronic pain empowerment and self-management platform, derived from acceptance and commitment therapy, in a pain specialty setting. A controlled, sequential, nonrandomized study design was used to accommodate intervention development and to test the efficacy of the PainTracker Self-Manager (PTSM) intervention (Web-based educational modules and outcome tracking combined with tailored patient coaching sessions and provider guidance). Generalized estimating equations evaluated changes over time (baseline, 3 months, 6 months) in pain self-efficacy (primary outcome), chronic pain acceptance (activity engagement and pain willingness), perceived efficacy in patient-provider interactions, pain intensity and interference, and overall satisfaction with pain treatment (secondary outcomes) between intervention (n = 48) and usual care control groups (n = 51). The full study sample (N = 99) showed greater improvements over time (significant Group × Time interactions) in pain self-efficacy and satisfaction with pain treatment. Among study completers (n = 82), greater improvement in activity engagement as well as pain intensity and interference were also observed. These preliminary findings support the efficacy of the PTSM intervention in a pain specialty setting. Further research is needed to refine and expand the PTSM intervention and to test it in a randomized trial in primary care settings. We developed a Web-based patient empowerment platform that combined acceptance and commitment therapy-based educational modules and tailored coaching sessions with longitudinal tracking of treatments and patient-reported outcomes, named PTSM. Pilot controlled trial results provide preliminary support for its efficacy in improving pain self-efficacy, activity engagement, pain intensity and interference, and satisfaction with pain treatment. Copyright © 2018 The American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All
Lakshminarayana, R.; Wang, D.; Burn, D.; Chaudhuri, K.R.; Galtrey, C.; Guzman, N.V.; Hellman, B.; Ben, J.; Pal, S.; Stamford, J.; Steiger, M.; Stott, R.W.; Teo, J.; Barker, R.A.; Wang, E.; Bloem, B.R.; Eijk, M. van; Rochester, L.; Williams, A.
The progressive nature of Parkinson's disease, its complex treatment regimens and the high rates of comorbid conditions make self-management and treatment adherence a challenge. Clinicians have limited face-to-face consultation time with Parkinson's disease patients, making it difficult to
Dürr, Selina; Hersberger, Kurt E; Zeller, Andreas; Scheuzger, Jonas; Miedinger, David; Gregoriano, Claudia; Leuppi, Jörg D; Steurer-Stey, Claudia
For successful long-term asthma care, self-management education is a cornerstone. Little is known about associations between patients' interest in education, asthma control and care delivery. We compared patients' characteristics, asthma control and patients' perspective about asthma care in subjects with and without interest in asthma education. Moreover, we assessed reasons, why patients denied participating in asthma education. Baseline data of 223 patients with asthma (age 43 ± 12 years, 38% male, 58% non-smokers, 13% current smokers), who participated in a multicentre longitudinal controlled study, are reported. At baseline, patients completed the Asthma Control Test (ACT), the Patient Assessment Chronic Illness Care questionnaire (PACIC 5A) and stated their interest in an asthma education programme. Overall, 34% of all participants showed uncontrolled asthma. One hundred and twenty-five (56%) patients were interested in education. Compared to patients without interest, they were characterised by male gender (p = 0.013), worse asthma control (p < 0.001), and perception of lower quality of chronic asthma care delivery, in particular lower self-management support (p < 0.001). Main reasons for rejecting asthma education were having sufficient asthma knowledge, having only mild asthma, receiving adequate medical support and lack of time. More than half of the patients were interested in asthma education. Interest was associated with worse asthma control and lower receipt of care according to the Chronic Care Model. Considering these aspects, this approach may help to improve care quality and allow targeting interventions to those patients who are interested in becoming active participants in their care and who might benefit most.
Blanson Henkemans OA
Full Text Available Olivier A Blanson Henkemans, Vera Hoondert, Femke Schrama-Groot, Rosemarijn Looije, Laurence L Alpay, Mark A NeerincxTNO, Lifestyle, Leiden, The NetherlandsPurpose: Children with type 1 diabetes need to self-manage their illness to minimize its impact on their long-term health. However, because children are still developing cognitively and emotionally, self-management is challenging. The European FP7 project, ALIZ-E, looks at how social robots can support children aged 8–12 years with their diabetes self-management. To acquire user requirements for such a robot, we studied how diabetes self-management is organized for children and how they experience their illness and its management regarding their quality of life.Methods: We conducted semistructured interviews with diabetes caregivers (n = 6 and children 8–12 with type 1 diabetes (n = 9, and surveyed their parents (n = 9.Results: Results of the interviews with caregivers show that parents play a prominent role in diabetes self-management and, accordingly, children do not experience significant problems. However, because children develop a need for autonomy during puberty, it is important that they become more proficient in their self-management at an earlier age. Results of the interviews with children show that they accept diabetes as a part of their life and want to be seen as regular children. Also, children experience difficulties in unusual situations (eg, doing sports and vacationing and at school. The illness comes at the cost of the child’s mental well-being (eg, insecurity, fear, and worry and physical well-being (eg, listlessness and tiredness. Regarding social well-being, children enjoy attending diabetes camps and having friends with diabetes, due to a common understanding of their condition. Finally, parents are not always fully aware of how children experience their illness.Conclusion: Children could benefit from social robots offering motivation, training, and (parental
Gibson-Scipio, Wanda; Krouse, Helene J
Caregiver goals, an integral part of a partnership for asthma management, have been found to influence asthma outcomes in children. These goals are likely to change during the transitional period of adolescence to address the needs of teenagers as they mature and assume greater responsibilities for their own care. Little is known about the goals, beliefs, and concerns of caregivers as they begin to shift responsibilities for asthma management to teens. This study sought to identify the asthma management goals, beliefs, and concerns of primarily African American caregivers of urban middle and older adolescents. Fourteen caregivers of urban African American adolescents aged 14-18 years with asthma participated in a focus group session. An iterative process was used to identify themes from the session related to asthma management goals, concerns, and beliefs of caregivers. Caregivers identified goals that related to supporting their teens' progress toward independent asthma self-management. They described significant concerns related to the teens' ability to implement asthma self-management, especially in school settings. Caregivers also revealed beliefs that represented knowledge deficits related to asthma medications and factors that improved or worsened asthma. Most caregivers identified grave concerns about school policies regarding asthma medication administration and the lack of knowledge and support provided by teachers and staff for their teen. Caregivers are an invaluable resource in the care of adolescents with asthma. An opportunity exists to improve caregiver understanding of asthma medications and to provide support through improvements in asthma care for adolescents in school-based settings.
Reidy, Claire; Kennedy, Anne; Pope, Catherine; Ballinger, Claire; Vassilev, Ivo; Rogers, Anne
To explore how self-management support (SMS) is considered and conceptualised by Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs) and whether this is reflected in strategic planning and commissioning. SMS is an essential element of long-term condition (LTC) management and CCGs are responsible for commissioning services that are coordinated, integrated and link into patient's everyday lives. This focus provides a good test and exemplar for how commissioners communicate with their local population to find out what they need. A multisite, quasi-ethnographic exploration of 9 CCGs. National Health Service (NHS) CCGs in southern England, representing varied socioeconomic status, practice sizes and rural and urban areas. Content analysis of CCG forward plans for mention of SMS. Semistructured interviews with commissioners (n=10) explored understanding of SMS and analysed thematically. The practice of commissioning explored through the observations of Service User Researchers (n=5) attending Governing Body meetings (n=10, 30 hours). Observations illuminate the relative absence of SMS and gateways to active engagement with patient and public voices. Content analysis of plans point to tensions between local aspirations and those identified by NHS England for empowering patients by enhancing SMS services ('person-centred', whole systems). Interview data highlight disparities in the process of translating the forward plans into practice. Commissioners reference SMS as a priority yet details of local initiatives are notably absent with austerity (cost-containment) and nationally measured biomedical outcomes taking precedence. Commissioners conceptualise locally sensitive SMS as a means to improve health and reduce service use, but structural and financial constraints result in prioritisation of nationally driven outcome measures and payments relating to biomedical targets. Ultimately, there is little evidence of local needs driving SMS in CCGs. CCGs need to focus more on early strategic
Swendeman, Dallas; Ramanathan, Nithya; Baetscher, Laura; Medich, Melissa; Scheffler, Aaron; Comulada, W Scott; Estrin, Deborah
Self-monitoring by mobile phone applications offers new opportunities to engage patients in self-management. Self-monitoring has not been examined thoroughly as a self-directed intervention strategy for self-management of multiple behaviors and states by people living with HIV (PLH). PLH (n = 50), primarily African American and Latino, were recruited from 2 AIDS services organizations and randomly assigned to daily smartphone (n = 34) or biweekly Web-survey only (n = 16) self-monitoring for 6 weeks. Smartphone self-monitoring included responding to brief surveys on medication adherence, mental health, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors, and brief text diaries on stressful events. Qualitative analyses examine biweekly open-ended user-experience interviews regarding perceived benefits and barriers of self-monitoring, and to elaborate a theoretical model for potential efficacy of self-monitoring to support self-management for multiple domains. Self-monitoring functions include reflection for self-awareness, cues to action (reminders), reinforcements from self-tracking, and their potential effects on risk perceptions, motivations, skills, and behavioral activation states. Participants also reported therapeutic benefits related to self-expression for catharsis, nonjudgmental disclosure, and in-the-moment support. About one-third of participants reported that surveys were too long, frequent, or tedious. Some smartphone group participants suggested that daily self-monitoring was more beneficial than biweekly due to frequency and in-the-moment availability. About twice as many daily self-monitoring group participants reported increased awareness and behavior change support from self-monitoring compared with biweekly Web-survey only participants. Self-monitoring is a potentially efficacious disruptive innovation for supporting self-management by PLH and for complementing other interventions, but more research is needed to confirm efficacy, adoption, and sustainability.
Gater, Adam; Nelsen, Linda; Fleming, Sarah; Lundy, J Jason; Bonner, Nicola; Hall, Rebecca; Marshall, Chris; Staunton, Hannah; Krishnan, Jerry A; Stoloff, Stuart; Schatz, Michael; Haughney, John
Despite the widespread availability of patient-reported asthma questionnaires, instruments developed in accordance with present regulatory expectations are lacking. To address this gap, the Patient-Reported Outcome (PRO) Consortium's Asthma Working Group has developed a patient-reported asthma daily symptom diary (ADSD) for use in clinical research to assess outcomes and support medical product labeling claims in adults and adolescents with asthma. To summarize the qualitative research conducted to inform the initial development of the ADSD and to provide evidence for content validity of the instrument in accordance with the Food and Drug Administration's PRO Guidance. Research informing the initial development and confirming the content validity of the ADSD is summarized. This comprised a review of published qualitative research, semi-structured concept elicitation interviews (n = 55), and cognitive interviews (n = 65) with a diverse and representative sample of adults and adolescents with a clinician-confirmed diagnosis of asthma in the United States to understand the asthma symptom experience and to assess the relevance and understanding of the newly developed ADSD. From the qualitative literature review and concept elicitation interviews, eight core asthma symptoms emerged. These were broadly categorized as breathing symptoms (difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, and wheezing), chest symptoms (chest tightness, chest pain, and pressure/weight on chest), and cough symptoms (cough and the presence of mucus/phlegm). Conceptual saturation was achieved and differences in the experience of participants according to socio-demographic or clinical characteristics were not observed. Subsequent testing of the ADSD confirmed participant relevance and understanding. The ADSD is a new patient-reported asthma symptom diary developed in accordance with the Food and Drug Administration's PRO Guidance. Evidence to date supports the content validity of the instrument. Item
Pal, Kingshuk; Dack, Charlotte; Ross, Jamie; Michie, Susan; May, Carl; Stevenson, Fiona; Farmer, Andrew; Yardley, Lucy; Barnard, Maria; Murray, Elizabeth
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing globally, and health services in many countries are struggling with the morbidity, mortality, and costs associated with the complications of this long-term condition. Diabetes self-management education (DSME) and behavioral support can reduce the risks of developing diabetes-related complications and improve glycemic control. However, their uptake is low. Digital health interventions (DHI) can provide sustained support and may overcome challenges associated with attending diabetes self-management sessions. They have the potential for delivery at multiple locations at convenient times, anonymity, and presentation of content in attractive and tailored formats. This study investigates the needs and wants of patients with type 2 diabetes to inform the development of digital self-management education and support. The objective of this study was to explore patient perspectives on unmet needs for self-management and support and the role of DHI in adults living with type 2 diabetes. This study used a qualitative approach based on data generated from 4 focus groups with 20 patients. The data generated by the focus groups illustrated the significant burden that the diagnosis of diabetes places on many patients and the negative impacts on their emotional well-being, work, social life, and physical health. Although patients' experiences of the health care services varied, there was agreement that even the best services were unable to meet all users' needs to support the emotional regulation, psychological adjustment, and behavioral changes needed for successful self-management. By focusing on medical management and information provision, existing health care services and education programs may not be adequately meeting all the needs of patients with type 2 diabetes. DHIs have the potential to improve access to DSME and behavioral support and extend the range of content offered by health services to fit with a wider range of
Full Text Available Background: This article is a report of psychometric testing of the Farsi version of Resources and Support for Chronic Illness Self-management (RSSM scale. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a convenience sample of 160 patients with type 2 diabetes, registered with the Charity Foundation for Special Diseases′ team-focused diabetes clinic, were recruited (response rate=83.7%; n=134. Participants older than 18 years who had active medical files in the system completed the questionnaire. Content validity was established using translation and back-translation procedures, pilot testing of the instrument, and getting views of the expert panel. Construct validity was determined using explanatory factor analysis. Internal consistency was ascertained using Cronbach′s alpha. The stability was confirmed using intra-class correlation coefficients. Results: Using exploratory factor analysis, a five-factor model emerged, which explained 75.24% of the total variance. Internal consistency reliability was sufficient (α=0.70; range=0.66 - 0.87. The intra-class correlation coefficient was 0.74 - 0.81 for individual items. Conclusion: The RSSM-Farsi seems to be a valid and reliable instrument to measure outcomes of diabetes self-management education programs in Farsi. The RSSM-Farsi version scale could be a useful, comprehensive, and culturally sensitive scale for assessing resources and support for self-management between type 2 diabetic patients.
Sinoo, Claudia; van der Pal, Sylvia; Blanson Henkemans, Olivier A; Keizer, Anouk; Bierman, Bert P B; Looije, Rosemarijn; Neerincx, Mark A
The PAL project develops a conversational agent with a physical (robot) and virtual (avatar) embodiment to support diabetes self-management of children ubiquitously. This paper assesses 1) the effect of perceived similarity between robot and avatar on children's' friendship towards the avatar, and 2) the effect of this friendship on usability of a self-management application containing the avatar (a) and children's motivation to play with it (b). During a four-day diabetes camp in the Netherlands, 21 children participated in interactions with both agent embodiments. Questionnaires measured perceived similarity, friendship, motivation to play with the app and its usability. Children felt stronger friendship towards the physical robot than towards the avatar. The more children perceived the robot and its avatar as the same agency, the stronger their friendship with the avatar was. The stronger their friendship with the avatar, the more they were motivated to play with the app and the higher the app scored on usability. The combination of physical and virtual embodiments seems to provide a unique opportunity for building ubiquitous long-term child-agent friendships. an avatar complementing a physical robot in health care could increase children's motivation and adherence to use self-management support systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bourbeau, J; Lavoie, K L; Sedeno, M
In this article, we provide a review of the literature on self-management interventions and we are giving some thought to how, when, and by whom they should be offered to patients. The present literature based on randomized clinical trials has demonstrated benefits (reduced hospital admissions and improved health status) for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients undergoing self-management interventions, although there are still problems with the heterogeneity among interventions, study populations, follow-up time, and outcome measures that make generalization difficult in real life. Key to the success, self-management intervention has to target behavior change. Proper self-management support is a basic prerequisite, for example, techniques and skills used by health care providers "case manager" to instrument patients with the knowledge, confidence, and skills required to effectively self-manage their disease. To improve health behaviors and engagement in self-management, self-management interventions need to target enhancing intrinsic motivation to change. This will best be done using client-centered communication (motivational communication) that encourages patients to express what intrinsically motivates them (e.g., consistent with their values or life goals) to adopt certain health behavior, with the goal of helping them overcome their ambivalence about change. Finally, if we want to be able to design and implement self-management interventions that are integrated, coherent, and have a strong likelihood of success, we need to take a more careful look and give more attention at the case manager, the patient (patient evaluation), and the quality assurance. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Kasteleyn, Marise J; Gorter, Kees J; van Puffelen, Anne L; Heijmans, Monique; Vos, Rimke C; Jansen, Hanneke; Rutten, Guy E H M
Despite diabetes patients' efforts to control their disease, many of them are confronted with an acute coronary event. This may evoke depressive feelings and self-management may be complicated. According to the American Diabetes Association, the transition from hospital to home after an acute coronary event (ACE) is a high-risk time for diabetes patients; it should be improved. Before developing an intervention for diabetes patients with an ACE in the period after discharge from hospital, we want to gain a detailed understanding of patients' views, perceptions and feelings in this respect. Qualitative design. Two semi-structured focus groups were conducted with 14 T2DM patients (71% male, aged 61-77 years) with a recent ACE. One focus group with partners (67% male, aged 64-75 years) was held. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed by two independent researchers. Patients believed that coping with an ACE differs between patients with and without T2DM. They had problems with physical exercise, sexuality and pharmacotherapy. Patients and partners were neither satisfied with the amount of information, especially on the combination of T2DM and ACE, nor with the support offered by healthcare professionals after discharge. Participants would appreciate tailored self-management support after discharge from hospital. Patients with T2DM and their partners lack tailored support after a first ACE. Our findings underpin the ADA recommendations to improve the transition from hospital to home. The results of our study will help to determine the exact content of a self-management support program delivered at home to help this specific group of patients to cope with both conditions. Copyright © 2013 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wennerstrom, Ashley; Bui, Tap; Harden-Barrios, Jewel; Price-Haywood, Eboni G
There is evidence that patient-centered medical homes (PCMHs) and community health workers (CHWs) improve chronic disease management. There are few models for integrating CHWs into PCMHs in order to enhance disease self-management support among diverse populations. In this article, we describe how a community-based nonprofit agency, a PCMH, and academic partners collaborated to develop and implement the Patient Resource and Education Program (PREP). We employed CHWs as PCMH care team members to provide health education and support to Vietnamese American patients with uncontrolled diabetes and/or hypertension. We began by conducting focus groups to assess patient knowledge, desire for support, and availability of community resources. Based on findings, we developed PREP with CHW guidance on cultural tailoring of educational materials and methods. CHWs received training in core competencies related to self-management support principles and conducted the 4-month intervention for PCMH patients. Throughout the program, we conducted process evaluation through structured team meetings and patient satisfaction surveys. We describe successes and challenges associated with PREP delivery including patient recruitment, structuring/documenting visits, and establishing effective care team integration, work flow, and communication. Strategies for mitigating these issues are presented, and we make recommendations for other PCMHs seeking to integrate CHWs into care teams. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.
Petersen, Mira; Hempler, Nana F
BACKGROUND: Numerous mobile applications have been developed to support diabetes-self-management. However, the majority of these applications lack a theoretical foundation and the involvement of people with diabetes during development. The aim of this study was to develop and test a mobile applic...... and implementation of the mobile health app were crucial to creating value for users. More attention should be paid to the training of professionals who introduce health apps. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Danish Data Protection Agency: 2012-58-0004. Registered 6 February 2016....
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Blickem, Christian; Kennedy, Anne; Jariwala, Praksha; Morris, Rebecca; Bowen, Robert; Vassilev, Ivaylo; Brooks, Helen; Blakeman, Tom; Rogers, Anne
Recent initiatives to target the personal, social and clinical needs of people with long-term health conditions have had limited impact within primary care. Evidence of the importance of social networks to support people with long-term conditions points to the need for self-management approaches which align personal circumstances with valued activities. The Patient-Led Assessment for Network Support (PLANS) intervention is a needs-led assessment for patients to prioritise their health and social needs and provide access to local community services and activities. Exploring the work and practices of patients and telephone workers are important for understanding and evaluating the workability and implementation of new interventions. Qualitative methods (interviews, focus group, observations) were used to explore the experience of PLANS from the perspectives of participants and the telephone support workers who delivered it (as part of an RCT) and the reasons why the intervention worked or not. Normalisation Process Theory (NPT) was used as a sensitising tool to evaluate: the relevance of PLANS to patients (coherence); the processes of engagement (cognitive participation); the work done for PLANS to happen (collective action); the perceived benefits and costs of PLANS (reflexive monitoring). 20 patients in the intervention arm of a clinical trial were interviewed and their telephone support calls were recorded and a focus group with 3 telephone support workers was conducted. Analysis of the interviews, support calls and focus group identified three themes in relation to the delivery and experience of PLANS. These are: formulation of 'health' in the context of everyday life; trajectories and tipping points: disrupting everyday routines; precarious trust in networks. The relevance of these themes are considered using NPT constructs in terms of the work that is entailed in engaging with PLANS, taking action, and who is implicated this process. PLANS gives scope to align
Walters, Julia A E; Courtney-Pratt, Helen; Cameron-Tucker, Helen; Nelson, Mark; Robinson, Andrew; Scott, Jenn; Turner, Paul; Walters, E Haydn; Wood-Baker, Richard
The growing burden of chronic disease will increase the role of primary care in supporting self-management and health behaviour change. This role could be undertaken to some extent by the increased practice nurse workforce that has occurred over recent years. Mixed methods were used to investigate the potential for general practice nurses to adopt this role during a 12-month randomised controlled study of telephone-delivered health mentoring in Tasmanian practices. Nurses (general practice and community health) were trained as health mentors to assist chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients to identify and achieve personal health related goals through action plans. Of 21% of invited practices that responded, 19 were allocated to health mentoring; however, general practice nurses were unable to train as health mentors in 14 (74%), principally due to lack of financial compensation and/or workload pressure. For five general practice nurses trained as health mentors, their roles had previously included some chronic disease management, but training enhanced their understanding and skills of self-management approaches and increased the focus on patient partnership, prioritising patients' choices and achievability. Difficulties that led to early withdrawal of health mentors were competing demands, insufficient time availability, phone calls having lower priority than face-to-face interactions and changing employment. Skills gained were rated as valuable, applicable to all clinical practice and transferable to other health care settings. Although these results suggest that training can enhance general practice nurses' skills to deliver self-management support in chronic disease, there are significant system barriers that need to be addressed through funding models and organisational change.
Hurley, Deirdre A; Murphy, Laura Currie; Hayes, David; Hall, Amanda M; Toomey, Elaine; McDonough, Suzanne M; Lonsdale, Chris; Walsh, Nicola E; Guerin, Suzanne; Matthews, James
The Medical Research Council framework provides a useful general approach to designing and evaluating complex interventions, but does not provide detailed guidance on how to do this and there is little evidence of how this framework is applied in practice. This study describes the use of intervention mapping (IM) in the design of a theory-driven, group-based complex intervention to support self-management (SM) of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) and chronic low back pain (CLBP) in Ireland's primary care health system. The six steps of the IM protocol were systematically applied to develop the self-management of osteoarthritis and low back pain through activity and skills (SOLAS) intervention through adaptation of the Facilitating Activity and Self-management in Arthritis (FASA) intervention. A needs assessment including literature reviews, interviews with patients and physiotherapists and resource evaluation was completed to identify the programme goals, determinants of SM behaviour, consolidated definition of SM and required adaptations to FASA to meet health service and patient needs and the evidence. The resultant SOLAS intervention behavioural outcomes, performance and change objectives were specified and practical application methods selected, followed by organised programme, adoption, implementation and evaluation plans underpinned by behaviour change theory. The SOLAS intervention consists of six weekly sessions of 90-min education and exercise designed to increase participants' physical activity level and use of evidence-based SM strategies (i.e. pain self-management, pain coping, healthy eating for weight management and specific exercise) through targeting of individual determinants of SM behaviour (knowledge, skills, self-efficacy, fear, catastrophizing, motivation, behavioural regulation), delivered by a trained physiotherapist to groups of up to eight individuals using a needs supportive interpersonal style based on self-determination theory
Lin, Hsueh-Chun; Chiang, Li-Chi; Wen, Tzu-Ning; Yeh, Kuo-Wei; Huang, Jing-Long
Many regional programs of the countries educate asthmatic children and their families to manage healthcare data. This study aims to establish a Web-based self-management system, eAsthmaCare, to promote the electronic healthcare (e-Healthcare) services for the asthmatic children in Taiwan. The platform can perform real time online functionality based upon a five-tier infrastructure with mutually supportive components to acquire asthma diaries, quality of life assessments and health educations. We have designed five multi-disciplinary portions on the interactive interface functioned with the analytical diagrams: (1) online asthma diary, (2) remote asthma assessment, (3) instantaneous asthma alert, (4) diagrammatical clinic support, and (5) asthma health education. The Internet-based asthma diary and assessment program was developed for patients to process self-management healthcare at home. In addition, the online analytical charts can help healthcare professionals to evaluate multi-domain health information of patients immediately. eAsthmaCare was developed by Java™ Servlet/JSP technology upon Apache Tomcat™ web server and Oracle™ database. Forty-one voluntary asthmatic children (and their parents) were intervened to examine the proposed system. Seven domains of satisfiability assessment by using the system were applied for approving the development. The average scores were scaled in the acceptable range for each domain to ensure feasibility of the proposed system. The study revealed the details of system infrastructure and developed functions that can help asthmatic children in self-management for healthcare to enhance communications between patients and hospital professionals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lopez, Janice M S; Katic, Bozena J; Fitz-Randolph, Marcy; Jackson, Richard A; Chow, Wing; Mullins, C Daniel
Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who participate in diabetes management programs have been shown to have better glycemic control and slower disease progression, although program participation remains low. In the USA, increasing participation in diabetes management support programs may also directly impact provider reimbursement, as payments are increasingly based on patient-centered measures. However, little is known about factors that may enhance patient participation. This study aimed at further understanding what is important in diabetes management support from the patients' perspective and at assessing the utilization of various types of diabetes-management programs. A two-phase mixed-methods study was conducted of adult US members of PatientsLikeMe®, an online research network of patients. Phase 1 comprised qualitative interviews with 10 individuals to inform the online survey's contents, aided by literature review. During phase 2, this online survey was completed by 294 participants who reported on their diabetes goals and preferences for T2DM self-management support programs. The majority of the respondents were not participating in any program (65 %), but most had goals of improving diet (77 %), weight loss (71 %), and achieving stable blood glucose levels (71 %). Among those currently participating in programs, clinic, hospital-based, or other health-care professional programs were the most commonly used (51 %). The most preferred type of support was diet/weight-loss support (62 %), while doctors or nurses (61 %) and dietitians (55 %) were the most preferred sources of diabetes support. The low participation in diabetes self-management programs revealed in this study underscores the need for strategies to improve patient engagement. The results revealed support types and formats that patients with T2DM prefer and need. These findings may help improve patient engagement by guiding the future design of more effective diabetes management
Full Text Available Abstract Background Health information technology can enhance self-management and quality of life for patients with chronic disease and overcome healthcare barriers for patients with limited English proficiency. After a randomized controlled trial of a multilingual automated telephone self-management support program (ATSM improved patient-centered dimensions of diabetes care in safety net clinics, we collaborated with a nonprofit Medicaid managed care plan to translate research into practice, offering ATSM as a covered benefit and augmenting ATSM to promote medication activation. This paper describes the protocol of the Self-Management Automated and Real-Time Telephonic Support Project (SMARTSteps. Methods/Design This controlled quasi-experimental trial used a wait-list variant of a stepped wedge design to enroll 362 adult health plan members with diabetes who speak English, Cantonese, or Spanish and receive care at 4 publicly-funded clinics. Through language-stratified randomization, participants were assigned to four intervention statuses: SMARTSteps-ONLY, SMARTSteps-PLUS, or wait-list for either intervention. In addition to usual primary care, intervention participants received 27 weekly calls in their preferred language with rotating queries and response-triggered education about self-care, medication adherence, safety concerns, psychological issues, and preventive services. Health coaches from the health plan called patients with out-of-range responses for collaborative goal setting and action planning. SMARTSteps-PLUS also included health coach calls to promote medication activation, adherence and intensification, if triggered by ATSM-reported non-adherence, refill non-adherence from pharmacy claims, or suboptimal cardiometabolic indicators. Wait-list patients crossed-over to SMARTSteps-ONLY or -PLUS at 6 months. For participants who agreed to structured telephone interviews at baseline and 6 months (n = 252, primary outcomes will be
Background Health information technology can enhance self-management and quality of life for patients with chronic disease and overcome healthcare barriers for patients with limited English proficiency. After a randomized controlled trial of a multilingual automated telephone self-management support program (ATSM) improved patient-centered dimensions of diabetes care in safety net clinics, we collaborated with a nonprofit Medicaid managed care plan to translate research into practice, offering ATSM as a covered benefit and augmenting ATSM to promote medication activation. This paper describes the protocol of the Self-Management Automated and Real-Time Telephonic Support Project (SMARTSteps). Methods/Design This controlled quasi-experimental trial used a wait-list variant of a stepped wedge design to enroll 362 adult health plan members with diabetes who speak English, Cantonese, or Spanish and receive care at 4 publicly-funded clinics. Through language-stratified randomization, participants were assigned to four intervention statuses: SMARTSteps-ONLY, SMARTSteps-PLUS, or wait-list for either intervention. In addition to usual primary care, intervention participants received 27 weekly calls in their preferred language with rotating queries and response-triggered education about self-care, medication adherence, safety concerns, psychological issues, and preventive services. Health coaches from the health plan called patients with out-of-range responses for collaborative goal setting and action planning. SMARTSteps-PLUS also included health coach calls to promote medication activation, adherence and intensification, if triggered by ATSM-reported non-adherence, refill non-adherence from pharmacy claims, or suboptimal cardiometabolic indicators. Wait-list patients crossed-over to SMARTSteps-ONLY or -PLUS at 6 months. For participants who agreed to structured telephone interviews at baseline and 6 months (n = 252), primary outcomes will be changes in quality of life and
Ratanawongsa, Neda; Handley, Margaret A; Quan, Judy; Sarkar, Urmimala; Pfeifer, Kelly; Soria, Catalina; Schillinger, Dean
Health information technology can enhance self-management and quality of life for patients with chronic disease and overcome healthcare barriers for patients with limited English proficiency. After a randomized controlled trial of a multilingual automated telephone self-management support program (ATSM) improved patient-centered dimensions of diabetes care in safety net clinics, we collaborated with a nonprofit Medicaid managed care plan to translate research into practice, offering ATSM as a covered benefit and augmenting ATSM to promote medication activation. This paper describes the protocol of the Self-Management Automated and Real-Time Telephonic Support Project (SMARTSteps). This controlled quasi-experimental trial used a wait-list variant of a stepped wedge design to enroll 362 adult health plan members with diabetes who speak English, Cantonese, or Spanish and receive care at 4 publicly-funded clinics. Through language-stratified randomization, participants were assigned to four intervention statuses: SMARTSteps-ONLY, SMARTSteps-PLUS, or wait-list for either intervention. In addition to usual primary care, intervention participants received 27 weekly calls in their preferred language with rotating queries and response-triggered education about self-care, medication adherence, safety concerns, psychological issues, and preventive services. Health coaches from the health plan called patients with out-of-range responses for collaborative goal setting and action planning. SMARTSteps-PLUS also included health coach calls to promote medication activation, adherence and intensification, if triggered by ATSM-reported non-adherence, refill non-adherence from pharmacy claims, or suboptimal cardiometabolic indicators. Wait-list patients crossed-over to SMARTSteps-ONLY or -PLUS at 6 months. For participants who agreed to structured telephone interviews at baseline and 6 months (n = 252), primary outcomes will be changes in quality of life and functional status with
Full Text Available Abstract Background This pretrial study aimed to develop and test the usability of a four-week Internet intervention delivered by a Web-enabled mobile phone to support self-management of chronic widespread pain. Methods The intervention included daily online entries and individualized written feedback, grounded in a mindfulness-based cognitive behavioral approach. The participants registered activities, emotions and pain cognitions three times daily using the mobile device. The therapist had immediate access to this information through a secure Web site. The situational information was used to formulate and send a personalized text message to the participant with the aim of stimulating effective self-management of the current situation. Six women participated and evaluated the experience. Results The intervention was rated as supportive, meaningful and user-friendly by the majority of the women. The response rate to the daily registration entries was high and technical problems were few. Conclusion The results indicate a feasible intervention. Web-applications are fast becoming standard features of mobile phones and interventions of this kind can therefore be more available than before. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01236209
Bengtsson, Ulrika; Kjellgren, Karin; Hallberg, Inger; Lundin, Mona; Mäkitalo, Åsa
This paper reports on how the clinical consultation in primary care is performed under the new premises of patients' daily self-reporting and self-generation of data. The aim was to explore and describe the structure, topic initiation and patients' contributions in follow-up consultations after eight weeks of self-reporting through a mobile phone-based hypertension self-management support system. A qualitative, explorative study design was used, examining 20 audio- (n = 10) and video-recorded (n = 10) follow-up consultations in primary care hypertension management, through interaction analysis. Clinical trials registry: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01510301. Four primary health care centers in Sweden. Patients with hypertension (n = 20) and their health care professional (n = 7). The consultations comprised three phases: opening, examination and closing. The most common topic was blood pressure (BP) put in relation to self-reported variables, for example, physical activity and stress. Topic initiation was distributed symmetrically between parties and BP talk was lifestyle-centered. The patients' contributed to the interpretation of BP values by connecting them to specific occasions, providing insights to the link between BP measurements and everyday life activities. Patients' contribution through interpretations of BP values to specific situations in their own lives brought on consultations where the patient as a person in context became salient. Further, the patients' and health care professionals' equal contribution during the consultations showed actively involved patients. The mobile phone-based self-management support system can thus be used to support patient involvement in consultations with a person-centered approach in primary care hypertension management Key points The clinical consultation is important to provide opportunities for patients to gain understanding of factors affecting high blood pressure, and for health care professionals to
Lee, E Lyn; Wong, Pei Se; Tan, Ming Yeong; Sheridan, Janie
This study explored the experiences and views of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) on their diabetes self-management and potential roles for community pharmacists in diabetes self-management education and support (DSME/S) in Malaysia. A qualitative study, using semi-structured, face-to-face interviews, was conducted with patients with T2D attending a primary care health clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed inductively. Fourteen participants with T2D were interviewed. Data were coded into five main themes: experience and perception of diabetes self-management, constraints of the current healthcare system, perception of the community pharmacist and community pharmacies, perceived roles for community pharmacists in diabetes care, and challenges in utilising community pharmacies to provide DSME/S. There were misconceptions about diabetes management that may be attributed to a lack of knowledge. Although participants described potential roles for community pharmacists in education, medication review and continuity of care, these roles were mostly non-clinically oriented. Participants were not confident about community pharmacists making recommendations and changes to the prescribed treatment regimens. While participants recognised the advantages of convenience of a community pharmacy-based diabetes care service, they raised concerns over the retail nature and the community pharmacy environment for providing such services. This study highlighted the need to improve the care provision for people with T2D. Participants with T2D identified potential, but limited roles for community pharmacists in diabetes care. Participants expressed concerns that need to be addressed if effective diabetes care is to be provided from community pharmacies in Malaysia. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
Successful management of diabetes depends on the individual's ability to manage and control symptoms. Self-management of diabetes is believed to play a significant role in achieving positive outcomes for patients. Adherence to self-management behaviors supports high-quality care, which reduces and delays disease complications, resulting in improved quality of life. Because self-management is so important to diabetes management and involves a lifelong commitment for all patients, health care providers should actively promote ways to maintain and sustain behavior change that support adherence to self-management. A social ecological model of behavior change (McLeroy, Bibeau, Steckler, & Glanz, 1988) helps practitioners provide evidence-based care and optimizes patients' clinical outcomes. This model supports self-management behaviors through multiple interacting interventions that can help sustain behavior change. Diabetes is a complex chronic disease; successful management must use multiple-level interventions.
Rademakers, Jany; Jansen, Daphne; van der Hoek, Lucas; Heijmans, Monique
The aim of this study was to test the Dutch version of the Clinician Support for Patient Activation Measure (CS-PAM), to explore the beliefs of Dutch clinicians about patients' self-management, and to establish whether there are differences in this respect between general practitioners and other primary care providers. The CS-PAM was translated in Dutch and data were collected in a sample of 489 general practitioners and other primary care providers. Statistical analyses (RASCH, Cronbach's α) were performed to establish the psychometric properties of the instrument. The psychometric scores of the Dutch CS-PAM were acceptable to good, and the difficulty level and structure was comparable to that of the original instrument. The average score of Dutch clinicians on the CS-PAM was 65.1 (SD 10.7), somewhat lower compared to their colleagues in the US (69; SD 12.1) and the UK (69, SD 12.8). Dutch general practitioners scored significantly lower on the CS-PAM compared to other primary care providers. The Dutch CS-PAM is a reliable instrument to measure beliefs of clinicians regarding patient self-management. Further validation studies are necessary to establish the distribution of scores in specific provider populations and to assess the clinical relevance of the instrument for different outcomes.
Kennedy, Anne; Rogers, Anne; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Blakeman, Thomas; Bowen, Robert; Gardner, Caroline; Lee, Victoria; Morris, Rebecca; Protheroe, Joanne
Implementation of long-term condition management interventions rests on the notion of whole systems re-design, where incorporating wider elements of health care systems are integral to embedding effective and integrated solutions. However, most self-management support (SMS) evaluations still focus on particular elements or outcomes of a sub-system. A randomised controlled trial of a SMS intervention (WISE-Whole System Informing Self-management Engagement) implemented in primary care showed no effect on patient-level outcomes. This paper reports on a parallel process evaluation to ascertain influences affecting WISE implementation at patient, clinical and organisational levels. Normalisation Process Theory (NPT) provided a sensitising background and analytical framework. A multi-method approach using surveys and interviews with organisational stakeholders, practice staff and trial participants about impact of training and use of tools developed for WISE. Analysis was sensitised by NPT (coherence, cognitive participation, collective action and reflective monitoring). The aim was to identify what worked and what did not work for who and in what context. Interviews with organisation stakeholders emphasised top-down initiation of WISE by managers who supported innovation in self-management. Staff from 31 practices indicated engagement with training but patchy adoption of WISE tools; SMS was neither prioritised by practices nor fitted with a biomedically focussed ethos, so little effort was invested in WISE techniques. Interviews with 24 patients indicated no awareness of any changes following the training of practice staff; furthermore, they did not view primary care as an appropriate place for SMS. The results contribute to understanding why SMS is not routinely adopted and implemented in primary care. WISE was not embedded because of the perceived lack of relevance and fit to the ethos and existing work. Enacting SMS within primary care practice was not viewed as a
Petersen, Mira; Hempler, Nana F
Numerous mobile applications have been developed to support diabetes-self-management. However, the majority of these applications lack a theoretical foundation and the involvement of people with diabetes during development. The aim of this study was to develop and test a mobile application (app) supporting diabetes self-management among people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes using design thinking. The app was developed and tested in 2015 using a design-based research approach involving target users (individuals newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes), research scientists, healthcare professionals, designers, and app developers. The research approach comprised three major phases: inspiration, ideation, and implementation. The first phase included observations of diabetes education and 12 in-depth interviews with users regarding challenges and needs related to living with diabetes. The ideation phrase consisted of four interactive workshops with users focusing on app needs, in which ideas were developed and prioritized. Finally, 14 users tested the app over 4 weeks; they were interviewed about usability and perceptions about the app as a support tool. A multifunctional app was useful for people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. The final app comprised five major functions: overview of diabetes activities after diagnosis, recording of health data, reflection games and goal setting, knowledge games and recording of psychological data such as sleep, fatigue, and well-being. Users found the app to be a valuable tool for support, particularly for raising their awareness about their psychological health and for informing and guiding them through the healthcare system after diagnosis. The design thinking processes used in the development and implementation of the mobile health app were crucial to creating value for users. More attention should be paid to the training of professionals who introduce health apps. Danish Data Protection Agency: 2012-58-0004. Registered 6
Full Text Available The expansion of primary care and community-based service delivery systems is intended to meet emerging needs, reduce the costs of hospital-based ambulatory care and prevent avoidable hospital use by the provision of more appropriate care. Great emphasis has been placed on the role of self-management in the complex process of care of patient with long-term conditions. Several studies have determined that nurses, among the health professionals, are more recommended to promote health and deliver preventive programs within the primary care context. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to assess the efficacy of the nurse-led self-management support versus usual care evaluating patient outcomes in chronic care community programs. Systematic review was carried out in MEDLINE, CINAHL, Scopus and Web of Science including RCTs of nurse-led self-management support interventions performed to improve observer reported outcomes (OROs and patients reported outcomes (PROs, with any method of communication exchange or education in a community setting on patients >18 years of age with a diagnosis of chronic diseases or multi-morbidity. Of the 7,279 papers initially retrieved, 29 met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analyses on systolic (SBP and diastolic (DBP blood pressure reduction (10 studies-3,881 patients and HbA1c reduction (7 studies-2,669 patients were carried-out. The pooled MD were: SBP -3.04 (95% CI -5.01--1.06, DBP -1.42 (95% CI -1.42--0.49 and HbA1c -0.15 (95% CI -0.32-0.01 in favor of the experimental groups. Meta-analyses of subgroups showed, among others, a statistically significant effect if the interventions were delivered to patients with diabetes (SBP or CVD (DBP, if the nurses were specifically trained, if the studies had a sample size higher than 200 patients and if the allocation concealment was not clearly defined. Effects on other OROs and PROs as well as quality of life remain inconclusive.
Pike, Katharine C; Levy, Mark L; Moreiras, John; Fleming, Louise
This review discusses issues related to managing problematic severe asthma in children and young people. A small minority of children have genuinely severe asthma symptoms which are difficult to control. Children with genuinely severe asthma need investigations and treatments beyond those described within conventional guidelines. However, the majority of children with poor symptom control despite high-intensity treatment achieve improvement in their asthma control once attention has been paid to the basics of asthma management. Basic asthma management requires optimisation of inhaler technique and treatment adherence, avoidance of environmental triggers and self-management education. It is also important that clinicians recognise risk factors that predispose patients to asthma exacerbations and potentially life-threatening attacks. These correctable issues need to be tackled in partnership with children and young people and their families. This requires a coordinated approach between professionals across healthcare settings. Establishing appropriate infrastructure for coordinated asthma care benefits not only those with problematic severe asthma, but also the wider asthma population as similar correctable issues exist for children with asthma of all severities. Investigation and management of genuine severe asthma requires specialist multidisciplinary expertise and a systematic approach to characterising patients' asthma phenotypes and delivering individualised care. While inhaled corticosteroids continue to play a leading role in asthma therapy, new treatments on the horizon might further support phenotype-specific therapy. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Sharpe, Helen; Patalay, Praveetha; Vostanis, Panos; Belsky, Jay; Humphrey, Neil; Wolpert, Miranda
Mental health booklets may provide a low-cost means of promoting mental health self-management and help seeking in schools. The aim of the study was to assess the (a) use, (b) acceptability and (c) impact of booklets for students in primary (10-11 years) and secondary school (12-13 years) alone and in conjunction with funding for targeted mental health support. This was a 2 × 2 factorial cluster randomized controlled trial, in which 846 schools in England were randomly allocated to receive/not receive: (1) booklets for students containing information on mental health self-management and help seeking, and (2) funding for mental health support as part of a national mental health initiative. 14,690 students (8139 primary, 6551 secondary) provided self-report on mental health, quality of life (baseline and 1 year follow-up) and help seeking (follow-up). (a) Approximately, 40 % primary school students and 20 % secondary school students reported seeing the booklets. (b) Of these, 87 % of primary school students reported that the booklet was 'very helpful' or 'quite helpful', compared with 73 % in secondary school. (c) There was no detectable impact of booklets on mental health, quality of life or help seeking, either alone or in conjunction with additional funding through the national mental health initiative. Lack of discernable impact of booklets underscores the need for caution in adopting such an approach. However, it is feasible that the impact was obscured by low uptake or that booklets may be more effective when used in a targeted way.
Parsell, Cameron; Ten Have, Charlotte; Denton, Michelle; Walter, Zoe
Objectives The aims of the present study were to examine tenants' experiences of a model of integrated health care and supportive housing and to identify whether integrated health care and supportive housing improved self-reported health and healthcare access. Methods The present study used a mixed-method survey design (n=75) and qualitative interviews (n=20) performed between September 2015 and August 2016. Participants were tenants of permanent supportive housing in Brisbane (Qld, Australia). Qualitative data were analysed thematically. Results Integrated health care and supportive housing were resources for tenants to overcome systematic barriers to accessing mainstream health care experienced when homeless. When homeless, people did not have access to resources required to maintain their health. Homelessness meant not having a voice to influence the health care people received; healthcare practitioners treated symptoms of poverty rather than considering how homelessness makes people sick. Integrated healthcare and supportive housing enabled tenants to receive treatment for health problems that were compounded by the barriers to accessing mainstream healthcare that homelessness represented. Conclusions Extending the evidence about housing as a social determinant of health, the present study shows that integrated health care and supportive housing enabled tenants to take control to self-manage their health care. In addition to homelessness directly contributing to ill health, the present study provides evidence of how the experience of homelessness contributes to exclusions from mainstream healthcare. What is known about the topic? People who are homeless experience poor physical and mental health, have unmet health care needs and use disproportionate rates of emergency health services. What does the paper add? The experience of homelessness creates barriers to accessing adequate health care. The provision of onsite multidisciplinary integrated health care in
Full Text Available Abstract Background Structured education programmes for patients with diabetes and other chronic conditions are being widely adopted. However, follow-up studies suggest that course graduates may struggle to sustain the self-care practices taught on their courses over time. This study explored the support needs of patients with type 1 diabetes after attending a structured education programme promoting an empowerment approach and training in use of flexible intensive insulin therapy, a regimen now widely advocated and used to manage this condition. The objective was to inform future support offered to course graduates. Methods Repeat, in-depth interviews with 30 type 1 diabetes patients after attending Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating (DAFNE courses in the UK, and six and 12 months later. Data were analysed using an inductive, thematic approach. Results While the flexible intensive insulin treatment approach taught on DAFNE courses was seen as a logical and effective way of managing one’s diabetes, it was also considered more technically complex than other insulin regimens. To sustain effective disease self-management using flexible intensive insulin treatment over time, patients often expected, and needed, on-going input and support from health care professionals trained in the approach. This included: help determining insulin dose adjustments; reassurance; and, opportunities to trouble-shoot issues of concern. While some benefits were identified to receiving follow-up support in a group setting, most patients stated a preference or need for tailored and individualised support from appropriately-trained clinicians, accessible on an ‘as and when needed’ basis. Conclusions Our findings highlight potential limitations to group-based forms of follow-up support for sustaining diabetes self-management. To maintain the clinical benefits of structured education for patients with type 1 diabetes over time, course graduates may benefit from and
Hale, Kelli; Capra, Sandra; Bauer, Judith
This paper presents an approach to assist health professionals in recommending high quality apps for supporting chronic disease self-management. Most app reviews focus on popularity, aesthetics, functionality, usability, and information quality. There is no doubt these factors are important in selecting trustworthy apps which are appealing to users, but behavioral theory may be also be useful in matching the apps to user needs. The framework developed aims to be methodologically sound, capable of selecting popular apps which include content covered by evidence-based programs, consistent with behavioral theory, as well as a patient-centered approach for matching apps to patients' individual needs. A single disease-type 2 diabetes-was selected to illustrate how the framework can be applied as this was deemed to represent the types of strategies used in many chronic diseases. A systematic approach based on behavioral theory and recommendations from best practice guidelines was developed for matching apps to patients' needs. In March 2014, a series of search strategies was used to identify top-rated iPhone and Android health apps, representing 29 topics from five categories of type 2 diabetes self-management strategies. The topics were chosen from published international guidelines for the management of diabetes. The senior author (KH) assessed the most popular apps found that addressed these topics using the Behavioral Theory Content Survey (BTS), which is based on traditional behavioral theory. A tool to assist decision making when using apps was developed and trialed with health professionals for ease of use and understanding. A total of 14 apps were assessed representing all five topic categories of self-management. Total theoretical scores (BTS scores) were less than 50 on a 100-point scale for all apps. Each app scored less than 50% of the total possible BTS score for all four behavioral theories and for most of the 20 behavioral strategies; however, apps scored
Sharp, Lisa K; Fisher, Edwin B; Gerber, Ben S
The Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM) recognizes that diabetes self-management (DSM) education and support are fundamental to teaching people how to manage their diabetes and decrease disease-related complications. Implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act provides an opportunity to expand DSM education and support to many people who are currently excluded from such services due to lack of insurance coverage, current policy barriers, or simple failure of healthcare systems to provide them. Extending the range and provision of such services could translate into reduced diabetic complications, a reduction in unnecessary healthcare utilization, and significant health-related cost savings on a national level. SBM recommends that public and private insurers be required to reimburse for 12 h of DSM education and support annually for anyone with diabetes. Further, SBM recognizes that a range of modes and providers of DSM education and support have been shown effective, and that patient preferences and resources may influence choice. To address this, SBM urges health organizations to increase and diversify approaches toward DSM education and support they offer.
Full Text Available We report the case of an asthmatic patient with blunt trachea and left main bronchus injuries who developed acute severe asthma after surgical repair. Despite medical treatment and ventilatory support, asthma persisted with high airway pressures and severe respiratory acidosis. We proposed venovenous extracorporeal life support for CO2 removal which allowed arterial blood gas normalization and airway pressures decrease. Extracorporeal life support was removed on day five after medical treatment of acute severe asthma. So we report the successful use of extracorporeal life support for operated double blunt tracheobronchial injury with acute severe asthma.
van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; Klein, J.J.; Zielhuis, G.A.; van Herwaarden, C.L.A.
Guidelines on asthma management have changed considerably in the last two decades. Patient education has gained in popularity and especially asthma self-management training is thought to be essential in the treatment of adult asthma. Since 1989 many researchers have added self-treatment guidelines
Whitehead, L C; Trip, H T; Hale, L A; Conder, J
The basic human right of autonomy is underpinned by the ability to practice decision-making. The rights of people with disabilities to engage in autonomous decision-making are promoted as best practice and includes decisions around health and self-care. Little is known about autonomy in the field of long-term condition management. This paper explores how people with intellectual disabilities (ID) and their support workers experience and practice autonomy in relation to the management of diabetes. Semi-structured interviews were completed in residential and independent living settings with people living with an ID and type 1 (N = 8) or type 2 (N = 6) diabetes and their support workers (N = 17). The participant with ID's support worker was present as requested; however, the interviews were run separately with each participant rather than jointly. Thematic analysis was undertaken, and a constructivist lens informed both data collection and analysis. The analysis revealed a strong process of negotiated autonomy between people with ID and their support workers in relation to the daily management of diabetes. During times of transition, roles in relation to diabetes management were renegotiated, and the promotion of autonomy was prefaced within the context of risk and client safety. Goals to increase independence were drivers for negotiating greater autonomy. The successful negotiation of autonomy in relation to diabetes illustrates the potential for people with ID to play a key role in the management of long-term health conditions. The study highlights the primacy of developing decision-making skills among people with ID. Promoting opportunities for decision-making and an ethos of supported decision-making through person-centred planning are all vital in working towards enhancing autonomy. © 2016 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Marques dos Santos, Letícia; Neves dos Santos, Darci; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha; Barreto, Maurício Lima
Atopic and non-atopic asthma have distinct risk factors and immunological mechanisms, and few studies differentiate between the impacts of psychosocial factors on the prevalence of these disease phenotypes. The authors aimed to identify whether the effect of maternal mental health on prevalence of asthma symptoms differs between atopic and non-atopic children, taking into account family social support. This is a cross-sectional study of 1013 children participating in the Social Change Allergy and Asthma in Latin America project. Psychosocial data were collected through a household survey utilising Self-Reporting Questionnaire and Medical Outcome Study Social Support Scale. Socioeconomic and wheezing information was obtained through the questionnaire of the International Study of Allergy and Asthma in Childhood, and level of allergen-specific IgE was measured to identify atopy. Polytomous logistic regression was used to estimate the association between maternal mental health, social support and atopic and non-atopic wheezing. Effect modification was evaluated through stratified polytomous regression according to social support level. Maternal mental disorder had the same impact on atopic and non-atopic wheezing, even after adjusting for confounding variables. Affective, material and informational supports had protective effects on non-atopic asthma, and there is some evidence that social supports may act as a buffer for the impact of maternal mental disorder on non-atopic wheezing. Poor maternal mental health is positively associated with wheezing, independent of whether asthma is atopic or non-atopic, but perception of high levels of social support appears to buffer this relationship in non-atopic wheezers only.
Kulnik, Stefan Tino; Hollinshead, Lucinda; Jones, Fiona
There is increasing interest in tailoring self-management support, but little detail is available on the relevance and impact of such approaches for people with progressive neurological conditions. The aim of this study was to draw on individuals' experiences to inform the practice of self-management support for these groups. Community rehabilitation service users were purposively recruited and took part in in-depth qualitative interviews. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. Data analysis was iterative and interpretative, taking a phenomenological approach. Strategies to enhance rigor were auditability, peer review, and researcher reflexivity. The sample consisted of 10 adults (age 20-79 years) who were living with a range of progressive neurological conditions. Individuals demonstrated resourcefulness in developing practice-based self-management strategies. Beyond practical strategies, interviewees' experiences were signified by reflecting on and upholding a sense of identity and a desire for purpose against the background of losses and gains over time. Linking with this overarching theme of "Sense of self" were aspects of "My body and mind", "Time", "Space", "Relationships", and "What I do". Self-management approaches for individuals with progressive neurological conditions will benefit from incorporating ways of recognizing, articulating, and supporting the person's sense of identity and purpose. Implications for rehabilitation Self-management approaches for people with progressive neurological conditions need to take account of individuals' wishes to contribute, connect with others, and be valued as a person. Person-centred self-management support can be realized through a broader approach than solely managing disease progression. The experiences and words of people with progressive neurological conditions can be used to inform meaningful evaluation of self-management support to drive service delivery by measuring what really matters
Swendeman, Dallas; Farmer, Shu; Mindry, Deborah; Lee, Sung-Jae; Medich, Melissa
In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with healthcare providers (HCPs) from five HIV medical care coordination teams in a large Los Angeles County HIV clinic, including physicians, nurses, and psychosocial services providers. HCPs reported on the potential utility, acceptability, and barriers for patient self-monitoring and notifications via mobile phones, and web-based dashboards for HCPs. Potential benefits included: 1) enhancing patient engagement, motivation, adherence, and self-management; and 2) improving provider-patient relationships and HCP care coordination. Newly diagnosed and patients with co-morbidities were highest priorities for mobile application support. Facilitators included universal mobile phone ownership and use of smartphones or text messaging. Patient-level barriers included concerns about low motivation and financial instability for consistent use by some patients. Organizational barriers, cited primarily by physicians, included concerns about privacy protections, easy dashboard access, non-integrated electronic records, and competing burdens in limited appointment times. Psychosocial services providers were most supportive of the proposed mobile tools.
Jones, Allan; Vallis, Michael; Cooke, Debbie; Pouwer, François
The quality of the "patient-carer" relationship is the foundation of self-management support and has been shown to influence treatment outcome in relation to psychological and somatic illness, including diabetes. It has long been accepted within applied psychology that the quality of the client-therapist relationship--termed the working alliance--is of central importance to treatment outcome and may account for a significant degree of the overall treatment effect. Diabetes healthcare providers have recently expressed a need for further training in communication techniques and in the psychological aspects of diabetes. Could we take a page from the psychological treatment manual on working alliance in therapy to guide the diabetes healthcare provider in their role of supporting the person with diabetes achieve and maintain better metabolic control? This paper examines the role of the working alliance in diabetes care and offers a practical guide to the diabetes healthcare provider in establishing a working alliance with the person with diabetes in managing diabetes.
Swendeman, Dallas; Farmer, Shu; Mindry, Deborah; Lee, Sung-Jae; Medich, Melissa
In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with healthcare providers (HCPs) from five HIV medical care coordination teams in a large Los Angeles County HIV clinic, including physicians, nurses, and psychosocial services providers. HCPs reported on the potential utility, acceptability, and barriers for patient self-monitoring and notifications via mobile phones, and web-based dashboards for HCPs. Potential benefits included: 1) enhancing patient engagement, motivation, adherence, and self-management; and 2) improving provider-patient relationships and HCP care coordination. Newly diagnosed and patients with co-morbidities were highest priorities for mobile application support. Facilitators included universal mobile phone ownership and use of smartphones or text messaging. Patient-level barriers included concerns about low motivation and financial instability for consistent use by some patients. Organizational barriers, cited primarily by physicians, included concerns about privacy protections, easy dashboard access, non-integrated electronic records, and competing burdens in limited appointment times. Psychosocial services providers were most supportive of the proposed mobile tools. PMID:28066820
Sassen, Barbara; Kok, Gerjo; Schepers, Jan; Vanhees, Luc
Research to assess the effect of interventions to improve the processes of shared decision making and self-management directed at health care professionals is limited. Using the protocol of Intervention Mapping, a Web-based intervention directed at health care professionals was developed to complement and optimize health services in patient-centered care. The objective of the Web-based intervention was to increase health care professionals' intention and encouraging behavior toward patient self-management, following cardiovascular risk management guidelines. A randomized controlled trial was used to assess the effect of a theory-based intervention, using a pre-test and post-test design. The intervention website consisted of a module to help improve professionals' behavior, a module to increase patients' intention and risk-reduction behavior toward cardiovascular risk, and a parallel module with a support system for the health care professionals. Health care professionals (n=69) were recruited online and randomly allocated to the intervention group (n=26) or (waiting list) control group (n=43), and invited their patients to participate. The outcome was improved professional behavior toward health education, and was self-assessed through questionnaires based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. Social-cognitive determinants, intention and behavior were measured pre-intervention and at 1-year follow-up. The module to improve professionals' behavior was used by 45% (19/42) of the health care professionals in the intervention group. The module to support the health professional in encouraging behavior toward patients was used by 48% (20/42). The module to improve patients' risk-reduction behavior was provided to 44% (24/54) of patients. In 1 of every 5 patients, the guideline for cardiovascular risk management was used. The Web-based intervention was poorly used. In the intervention group, no differences in social-cognitive determinants, intention and behavior were found
Warner, G.; Packer, T.L.; Villeneuve, M.; Audulv, A.; Versnel, J.
PURPOSE: A systematic review of stroke self-management programs was conducted to: (i) identify how many and what self-management support strategies were included in stroke self-management interventions and (ii) describe whether self-management programs effectively improved outcomes, focusing
People with intellectual disability are a vulnerable group of people with asthma that has, to date, largely been ignored in the medical literature. Although guidelines for medication management for people with intellectual disability suggest asthma is treated as for other populations, there are special considerations that should be taken into account when managing asthma in this group. Due to their cognitive impairment as well as comorbidities, they are likely to require support with asthma self-management, including inhaler use. Their varying degrees of autonomy mean that there is often a need to provide education and information to both the person and their caregivers. Educational aims To understand general principles of health of people with intellectual disability and how this affects the healthcare professional’s approach to asthma management. To understand how intellectual disability affects cognition, autonomy and communication, and therefore the ability of a person to self-manage asthma. To recognise ways of mitigating respiratory disease risk in people with intellectual disability. To describe ways for healthcare professionals to support people with intellectual disability and their caregivers in asthma management. PMID:28210318
Johnson, Patria; Thorman Hartig, Margaret; Frazier, Renee; Clayton, Mae; Oliver, Georgia; Nelson, Belinda W; Williams-Cleaves, Beverly J
Diabetes for Life (DFL), a project of Memphis Healthy Churches (MHC) and Common Table Health Alliance (CTHA; formerly Healthy Memphis Common Table [HMCT]), is a self-management program aimed at reducing health disparities among African Americans with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Memphis and Shelby County, Tennessee. This program is one of five national projects that constitute The Alliance to Reduce Disparities in Diabetes, a 5-year grant-funded initiative of The Merck Foundation. Our purpose is to describe the faith-based strategies supporting DFL made possible by linking with an established informal health system, MHC, created by Baptist Memorial Health Care. The MHC network engaged volunteer Church Health Representatives as educators and recruiters for DFL. The components of the DFL project and the effect on chronic disease management for the participants will be described. The stages of DFL recruitment and implementation from an open-access to a closed model involving six primary care practices created a formal health system. The involvement of CTHA, a regional health collaborative, created the opportunity for DFL to expand the pool of health care providers and then recognize the core of providers most engaged with DFL patients. This collaboration between MHC and HMCT led to the organization of the formal health network. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.
Tiggelman, D.; Ven, M.O.M. van de; Schayck, C.P. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Sluijs, E.M.F. van
RATIONALE: Few studies have examined determinants of physical activity in patients with chronic illnesses, like asthma. The aim of this study was to examine whether baseline maternal and paternal beliefs, support and parenting were associated with changes in sport participation of adolescents with
... about pku UW PKU Clinic News & Events PKU Self-Management Timeline This timeline is also available as an ... Acrobat file. Click here to download. The PKU Self- Management timeline is included to provide long-term view ...
Davis, Sharon R; Durvasula, Seeta; Merhi, Diana; Young, Paul M; Traini, Daniela; Bosnic Anticevich, Sinthia Z
Fifteen percent of Australians with intellectual disability (ID) are reported to have asthma. People with ID are at risk of poor health knowledge due to deficits in intellectual and adaptive functioning, but their medication knowledge has largely been ignored in research to date. To explore the level of understanding of asthma medication use of people with ID who self-administer their inhaled medications, in order to inform future educational support. Setting The research was conducted in NSW, Australia, at the participants' homes, the point of health care access, or the offices of relevant support organisations. In this qualitative study face-to-face interviews were conducted with people with ID using a semi-structured interview guide. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. Main outcome Identification of barriers to asthma medication self-management by people with ID. Seventeen people with ID who self-administer their asthma medications were interviewed. Factors influencing their asthma medication knowledge and use included understanding of their illness and the need for medication; aspects of self-management and autonomy versus dependence. This sample of people with ID had a good understanding of the importance of using their inhaled asthma medications, as well as asthma triggers, and the difference between use of preventer and reliever medications. Both enablers and barriers to asthma medication self-management were identified in the domains of managing attacks, adherence, knowledge of side effects and sources of information on correct use of inhalers. The level of autonomy for medication use varied, with motivation to self-manage asthma influenced by the level of support that was practically available to individual participants. This research investigated aspects of asthma medication self-management of people with ID. Based on the barriers identified, pharmacists should promote use of spacers and written asthma action plans as well
Koetsenruijter, J.; Lieshout, J. van; Vassilev, I.; Portillo, M.C.; Serrano, M.; Knutsen, I.; Roukova, P.; Lionis, C.; Todorova, E.; Foss, C.; Rogers, A.; Wensing, M.
BACKGROUND: Long-term conditions pose major challenges for healthcare systems. Optimizing self-management of people with long-term conditions is an important strategy to improve quality of life, health outcomes, patient experiences in healthcare, and the sustainability of healthcare systems. Much
Nyberg, André; Wadell, Karin; Lindgren, Helena; Tistad, Malin
The use of adequate self-management strategies for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) reduces healthcare use, improves health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and recovery after acute exacerbations. However, not many people with COPD receive support that promotes the use of such strategies and therefore new methods to facilitate and promote the use of self-management strategies are highly warranted. This pilot trial aims to evaluate the feasibility of the study design and study procedures considering effectiveness of the novel intervention, the COPD-web. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The overall design is a pragmatic controlled pilot trial with preassessments and postassessments and a parallel process evaluation. Patients with the diagnosis of COPD will be eligible for the study. The intervention group will be recruited when visiting one of the six participating primary care units in Sweden. The control group will be identified from the unit's computerised registers. The intervention, the COPD-web, is an interactive web page with two sections; one directed at people with COPD and one at healthcare professionals. The sections aim to support patients' self-management skills-and to facilitate the provision of support for self-management strategies, respectively. Effectiveness with regard to patients' symptoms, HRQoL, knowledge of and readiness for COPD-related self-management, health literacy, self-efficacy for physical activity and time spent in physical activity and time being sedentary, and further, healthcare professionals' knowledge of and readiness to support COPD-related self-management strategies will be assessed using questionnaires at 3 and 12 months. The process evaluation will include observations and interviews. Ethical approval has been obtained. Findings will be presented at conferences, submitted for publication in peer-reviewed publications and presented to the involved healthcare professionals, patients and to patient organisations
Selroos, Olof; Kupczyk, Maciej; Kuna, Piotr; Łacwik, Piotr; Bousquet, Jean; Brennan, David; Palkonen, Susanna; Contreras, Javier; FitzGerald, Mark; Hedlin, Gunilla; Johnston, Sebastian L; Louis, Renaud; Metcalf, Leanne; Walker, Samantha; Moreno-Galdó, Antonio; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Rosado-Pinto, José; Powell, Pippa; Haahtela, Tari
This review presents seven national asthma programmes to support the European Asthma Research and Innovation Partnership in developing strategies to reduce asthma mortality and morbidity across Europe. From published data it appears that in order to influence asthma care, national/regional asthma programmes are more effective than conventional treatment guidelines. An asthma programme should start with the universal commitments of stakeholders at all levels and the programme has to be endorsed by political and governmental bodies. When the national problems have been identified, the goals of the programme have to be clearly defined with measures to evaluate progress. An action plan has to be developed, including defined re-allocation of patients and existing resources, if necessary, between primary care and specialised healthcare units or hospital centres. Patients should be involved in guided self-management education and structured follow-up in relation to disease severity. The three evaluated programmes show that, thanks to rigorous efforts, it is possible to improve patients' quality of life and reduce hospitalisation, asthma mortality, sick leave and disability pensions. The direct and indirect costs, both for the individual patient and for society, can be significantly reduced. The results can form the basis for development of further programme activities in Europe. Copyright ©ERS 2015.
Full Text Available This review presents seven national asthma programmes to support the European Asthma Research and Innovation Partnership in developing strategies to reduce asthma mortality and morbidity across Europe. From published data it appears that in order to influence asthma care, national/regional asthma programmes are more effective than conventional treatment guidelines. An asthma programme should start with the universal commitments of stakeholders at all levels and the programme has to be endorsed by political and governmental bodies. When the national problems have been identified, the goals of the programme have to be clearly defined with measures to evaluate progress. An action plan has to be developed, including defined re-allocation of patients and existing resources, if necessary, between primary care and specialised healthcare units or hospital centres. Patients should be involved in guided self-management education and structured follow-up in relation to disease severity. The three evaluated programmes show that, thanks to rigorous efforts, it is possible to improve patients' quality of life and reduce hospitalisation, asthma mortality, sick leave and disability pensions. The direct and indirect costs, both for the individual patient and for society, can be significantly reduced. The results can form the basis for development of further programme activities in Europe.
Murphy, Jill; Goldsmith, Charles H; Jones, Wayne; Oanh, Pham Thi; Nguyen, Vu Cong
Depressive disorders are one of the leading causes of disease and disability worldwide. In Vietnam, although epidemiological evidence suggests that depression rates are on par with global averages, services for depression are very limited. In a feasibility study that was implemented from 2013 to 2015, we found that a Supported Self-management (SSM) intervention showed promising results for adults with depression in the community in Vietnam. This paper describes the Mental Health in Adults and Children: Frugal Innovations (MAC-FI) trial protocol that will assess the effectiveness of the SSM intervention, delivered by primary care and social workers, to community-based populations of adults with depression in eight Vietnamese provinces. The MAC-FI program will be assessed using a stepped-wedge, randomized controlled trial. Study participants are adults aged 18 years and over in eight provinces of Vietnam. Study participants will be screened at primary care centres and in the community by health and social workers using the Self-reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20). Patients scoring >7, indicating depression caseness, will be invited to participate in the study in either the SSM intervention group or the enhanced treatment as usual control group. Recruited participants will be further assessed using the World Health Organization's Disability Assessment Scale (WHODAS 2.0) and the Cut-down, Annoyed, Guilty, Eye-opener (CAGE) Questionnaire for alcohol misuse. Intervention-group participants will receive the SSM intervention, delivered with the support of a social worker or social collaborator, for a period of 2 months. Control- group participants will receive treatment as usual and a leaflet with information about depression. SRQ-20, WHODAS 2.0 and CAGE scores will be taken by blinded outcome assessors at baseline, after 1 month and after 2 months. The primary analysis method will be intention-to-treat. This study has the potential to add to the knowledge base about
Cheung, Melissa Mei Yin; Saini, Bandana; Smith, Lorraine
As an art form, drawings can facilitate the tangible expression of patients' inner images and feelings in a range of health conditions. However, there are currently no published studies investigating adults' perspectives of asthma using drawings. This study aimed to explore how adults' drawings illustrate their perceptions and experiences of asthma. Adults with asthma participated in a one-on-one drawing activity. Analysis was grounded in the participants' accounts of their drawing, which were examined alongside the relevant image. A coding approach was used to cluster thematic material and map the data according to the Common-Sense Model of Self-Regulation (CSM). Eighteen participants took part. Three themes emerged: (1) asthma is constrictive and restrictive, (2) feeling alone, feeling different, and (3) the life journey of asthma. The drawings aligned with several domains of the CSM, in particular consequences. The images drawn by the participants and their subsequent discussions highlighted the prominence of the emotional burden of asthma. The drawings provided powerful and evocative communication of the experience of asthma. Future research using drawings can further both healthcare professionals' and patients' understanding of the physical, social and emotional demands of living with asthma, and support the development of asthma self-management practices.
Madden, Melissa Hanahan; Tomsik, Philip; Terchek, Joshua; Navracruz, Lisa; Reichsman, Ann; Clark, Terri Clemons; Cella, Peggi; Weirich, Stephen A; Munson, Michelle R; Werner, James J
To examine how medically uninsured patients who receive health care at federally qualified health centers and free clinics are able to successfully self-manage diabetes compared to patients who are less successful. Two distinct groups of patients with diabetes for 6 months or longer were enrolled: (1) successful, defined as those with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) of 7% or less or a recent improvement of at least 2% (n=17); and (2) unsuccessful, defined as patients with HbAlc of at least 9% (n=9) and without recent improvement. Patients were interviewed about enabling factors, motivators, resources, and barriers to diabetes self-management. Data from interviews, chart reviews, and clinician surveys were analyzed using qualitative methods and statistical techniques. African Americans comprised 57.7% of the sample and whites 38.5% (N=26). No significant differences were detected between successful and unsuccessful groups in age, race, education, or employment status. Clinicians rated unsuccessful patients as having more severe diabetes and significantly lower levels of control than successful patients. Compared to unsuccessful patients, successful patients more often reported having friends or family with diabetes, more frequently sought information about the disease, used evidence-based self-management strategies, held more accurate perceptions of their own diabetes control, and experienced "turning point" events that motivated increased efforts in disease management. Patients who successfully managed diabetes learned from diabetic family members and interpreted disease-related events as motivational turning points. It may be beneficial to incorporate social learning and motivational enhancement into diabetes interventions to increase patients' motivation for improved levels of self-management.
Promoting and supporting self-management for adults living in the community with physical chronic illness: A systematic review of the effectiveness and meaningfulness of the patient-practitioner encounter.
Rees, Sally; Williams, Anne
example, people with diabetes, asthma, arthritis, coronary disease, lung disease, heart failure, epilepsy, kidney disease and inflammatory bowel disease. Since patients meet various professionals in a variety of community settings regarding their care, a practitioner in this review included doctors (physicians and General Practitioners), nurses, nurse specialists, dieticians, podiatrists and community health workers.A variety of outcomes measures was used to evaluate effective self-care management. These included physiological measurements such as: HbA1c, blood pressure, body weight, lipids; lifestyle measurements, for example physical activity; and self-care determinants such as knowledge, attitude; and self-care behaviours regarding, for example, diet and physical exercise, and medication. The outcome measures used to explore the meaningfulness of the patient-practitioner encounter, concerned patients', physicians' and nurses' views and perceptions of self-care management and support.The review considered all types of quantitative and qualitative evidence regarding the patient-practitioner encounter where self-care in chronic illness was the focus. The quantitative studies reviewed included systematic reviews, randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-experimental studies, and survey studies.Qualitative studies reviewed included interview designs, vignette technique, qualitative evaluation, grounded theory, and exploratory descriptive design. The search sought to find both published and unpublished studies between 1990 and 2005. The year 1990 was deemed appropriate since it precedes the development of the Chronic Care Model in which self-management support for people living with chronic illness is heralded as an important part of care-management. An initial search of CINAHL and MEDLINE databases was undertaken to identify appropriate search terms regarding self-care and chronic illness. A search strategy was then developed using all identified MeSH headings and key
Yu, Catherine H; Parsons, Janet A; Mamdani, Muhammad; Lebovic, Gerald; Hall, Susan; Newton, David; Shah, Baiju R; Bhattacharyya, Onil; Laupacis, Andreas; Straus, Sharon E
Management of diabetes mellitus is complex and involves controlling multiple risk factors that may lead to complications. Given that patients provide most of their own diabetes care, patient self-management training is an important strategy for improving quality of care. Web-based interventions have the potential to bridge gaps in diabetes self-care and self-management. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a web-based patient self-management intervention on psychological (self-efficacy, quality of life, self-care) and clinical (blood pressure, cholesterol, glycemic control, weight) outcomes. For this cohort study we used repeated-measures modelling and qualitative individual interviews. We invited patients with type 2 diabetes to use a self-management website and asked them to complete questionnaires assessing self-efficacy (primary outcome) every three weeks for nine months before and nine months after they received access to the website. We collected clinical outcomes at three-month intervals over the same period. We conducted in-depth interviews at study conclusion to explore acceptability, strengths and weaknesses, and mediators of use of the website. We analyzed the data using a qualitative descriptive approach and inductive thematic analysis. Eighty-one participants (mean age 57.2 years, standard deviation 12) were included in the analysis. The self-efficacy score did not improve significantly more than expected after nine months (absolute change 0.12; 95% confidence interval -0.028, 0.263; p = 0.11), nor did clinical outcomes. Website usage was limited (average 0.7 logins/month). Analysis of the interviews (n = 21) revealed four themes: 1) mediators of website use; 2) patterns of website use, including role of the blog in driving site traffic; 3) feedback on website; and 4) potential mechanisms for website effect. A self-management website for patients with type 2 diabetes did not improve self-efficacy. Website use was limited
Børøsund, Elin; Cvancarova, Milada; Moore, Shirley M; Ekstedt, Mirjam; Ruland, Cornelia M
While Web-based interventions have been shown to assist a wide range of patients successfully in managing their illness, few studies have examined the relative contribution of different Web-based components to improve outcomes. Further efficacy trials are needed to test the effects of Web support when offered as a part of routine care. Our aim was to compare in regular care the effects of (1) an Internet-based patient provider communication service (IPPC), (2) WebChoice, a Web-based illness management system for breast cancer patients (IPPC included), and (3) usual care on symptom distress, anxiety, depression, (primary outcomes), and self-efficacy (secondary outcome). This study reports preliminary findings from 6 months' follow-up data in a 12-month trial. We recruited 167 patients recently diagnosed with breast cancer and undergoing treatment from three Norwegian hospitals. The nurse-administered IPPC allowed patients to send secure e-messages to and receive e-messages from health care personnel at the hospital where they were treated. In addition to the IPPC, WebChoice contains components for symptom monitoring, tailored information and self-management support, a diary, and communication with other patients. A total of 20 care providers (11 nurses, 6 physicians, and 3 social workers) were trained to answer questions from patients. Outcomes were measured with questionnaires at study entry and at study months 2, 4, and 6. Linear mixed models for repeated measures were fitted to compare effects on outcomes over time. Patients were randomly assigned to the WebChoice group (n=64), the IPPC group (n=45), or the usual care group (n=58). Response rates to questionnaires were 73.7% (123/167) at 2 months, 65.9 (110/167) at 4 months, and 62.3% (104/167) at 6 months. Attrition was similar in all study groups. Among those with access to WebChoice, 64% (41/64) logged on more than once and 39% (25/64) sent e-messages to care providers. In the IPPC group, 40% (18/45) sent e
Bingham, Peter M; Crane, Ian; Manning, Sarah Waterman
Although asthma self-management depends on ongoing and accurate self-assessment by the patient, pediatric asthma patients have weak skills in the area of symptom perception. Before developing an asthma game targeted to improving asthma self-management and improved symptom awareness, we sought to identify gaps in existing games. To clarify the role of relatedness and autonomy in asthma health game design, we investigated symptom awareness, vocabulary, and self-determination through a series of semi-structured interviews with children suffering from asthma. Using self-determination theory as a framework, interviews were oriented to patients' illness experience and vocabulary related to symptomatology, as well as to recreational activities. Formative analysis of the interviews reveals attitudes, perceptions, and motivational factors arising in the context of childhood asthma, and it elucidates the images and vocabulary associated with both illness experience and recreational activities. Qualitative assessment of patient perspectives leads to specific recommendations for game design ideas that will support market entry of a spirometer-controlled game for children with asthma.
Halaby, Claudia; Feuerman, Martin; Barlev, Dan; Pirzada, Melodi
To establish whether chest radiographic findings suggestive of lower airway obstruction (LAO) disease support the diagnosis of asthma in pediatric patients with persistent cough in an outpatient setting. 180 patient charts were reviewed. The patients were children aged 1 to 18 years referred over a 3-year period to a pediatric pulmonary subspecialty clinic for evaluation of cough lasting ≥ 4 weeks. Chest radiographic images obtained after the initial evaluation of 90 patients diagnosed with cough-variant asthma and 90 patients diagnosed with persistent cough from nonasthma origins were compared with radiologic findings of a control group consisting of patients with a positive tuberculin skin test and no respiratory symptoms. Increased peribronchial markings/peribronchial cuffing and hyperinflation were considered radiographically suggestive findings of LAO disease. Children diagnosed with cough-variant asthma at the initial evaluation had higher rates of chest radiographic findings suggestive of LAO disease (30.00%) than children with persistent cough from other causes (17.80%) or those with a positive tuberculin skin test and no respiratory symptoms (8.16%) (overall P value = 0.0063). They also had higher rates of spirometry abnormalities suggestive of an LAO defect. Children with chest radiographic findings suggestive of LAO disease were found to be younger than those with normal chest radiographic findings (5.0 ± 2.7 years vs 8.6 ± 4.7 years; P < 0.0001). This study suggests that chest radiographic findings indicative of an LAO in correlation with the clinical presentation can support the diagnostic suspicion of asthma, especially in younger children unable to perform spirometry.
Hanahan, Melissa A.; Werner, James J.; Tomsik, Phillip; Weirich, Stephen A.; Reichsman, Ann; Navracruz, Lisa; Clemons-Clark, Terri; Cella, Peggi; Terchek, Joshua; Munson, Michelle R.
Objective To determine how medically uninsured patients with limited material resources successfully manage diabetes. Methods Clinicians at 5 safety net practices enrolled uninsured adult patients (N=26) with prior diagnosis of diabetes for 6 months or longer. Patients were interviewed about enabling factors, motivations, resources, and barriers. Chart reviews and clinician surveys supplemented interview data. Interview, survey, and chart review data were analyzed and findings were summarized. Results Two distinct groups of patients were investigated: 1) “successful,” defined as those with an HbA1c of ≤7% or a recent improvement of at least 2% (n=17); and 2) “unsuccessful,” defined as patients with HbA1c of ≥9% (n=9) without recent improvement. In comparison to unsuccessful patients, successful patients more often reported having friends or family with diabetes, sought information about the disease, used evidence-based self-management strategies, held an accurate perception of their own disease control, and experienced “turning point” events that motivated increased efforts in disease management. Conclusions Uninsured safety net patients who successfully managed diabetes learned from friends and family with diabetes and leveraged disease-related events into motivational turning points. It may be beneficial for clinicians to incorporate social learning and motivational enhancement into diabetes interventions to increase patients’ motivation for improved levels of self-management. PMID:21671529
Staunæs, Dorthe; Bjerg, Helle
of management of self-management in two ways. Firstly, by thinking management of self-management trough concepts from what has become known as the affective turn. Secondly, by illustrating the precise mechanisms of management of self-management in every day life and thereby pointing to how management of self...... to recognition, but is also linked to the production of shame or at least potential shame. This argument is developed theoretically from Brian Massumi's theory on affectivity and intensity combined with Silvan Tomkins's theory of shame as the most self-reflexive affect of all affects. In order to exemplify...... Critical studies on management of self-management and governmentality have primarily been occupied with the production of identities, subject positions and the reflexive elements of self-management. The aim of this article is to challenge and contribute to the field of critical studies...
Annelies Lucas EM
Full Text Available Abstract Background General practitioners (GPs can refer patients to an asthma/COPD service (AC-service for diagnostic assessment of spirometry and medical history and for asthma or COPD monitoring. The AC-service reports diagnostic results and additional information about disease burden (BORG-score for complaints, MRC-dyspnoea score, exacerbation rate, life style, medication and compliance, to the patient’s GP. This study explores how GPs use this additional information when discussing the patient’s disease burden and how this influences GPs’ information and education provision during consultations with asthma/COPD patients. Method Patients with (a suspicion of asthma or COPD were referred to an AC-service and consulted their GPs after they had received a report from the AC-service. Retrospectively patients answered questions about their GPs’ performance during these consultations. Performances were compared with performances of the same GPs during consultations without support of the AC-service (usual care, earlier that year. Results Of consultations not initiated by an AC-service check-up, 91% focussed on complaints, the initial reason for the consultation. In AC-service supported follow-up consultations, GPs explored disease burden when the (BORG-score for complaints was high - as reported by the AC-service - even when patients themselves thought it was irrelevant. GPs put significantly less effort in exploring disease burden when the Borg-score was low (BORG 3–4: 69%; BORG1-2: 51%, p = 0,01. GPs mostly ignored MRC-dyspnoea scores: attention to dyspnoea was 18% for MRC-score p = 0,63. GPs encouraged physical fitness in 13% of patients. Smoking behaviour was discussed with 66% of the actual smokers but only 14% remembered a stop smoking advice. Furthermore, pharmacotherapeutic management education in AC-service supported consultations did not differ from performance in usual care according to patient evaluations. Conclusion
Full Text Available Swetha Narahari Pathak,1 Pauline L Scott,1 Cameron West,1 Steven R Feldman,1–3 1Center for Dermatology Research, Departments of Dermatology, 2Center for Dermatology Research, Departments of Pathology, 3Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA Abstract: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disorder effecting the skin and joints. Additionally, multiple comorbidities exist, including cardiovascular, metabolic, and psychiatric. The chronic nature of psoriasis is often frustrating for both patients and physicians alike. Many options for treatment exist, though successful disease management rests largely on patients through the application of topical corticosteroids, Vitamin D analogs, and calcineurin inhibitors, amongst others and the administration of systemic medications such as biologics and methotrexate. Phototherapy is another option that also requires active participation from the patient. Many barriers to effective self-management of psoriasis exist. Successful treatment requires the establishment of a strong doctor-patient relationship and patient empowerment in order to maximize adherence to a treatment regimen and improve outcomes. Improving patient adherence to treatment is necessary in effective self-management. Many tools exist to educate and empower patients, including online sources such as the National Psoriasis Foundation and online support group, Talk Psoriasis, amongst others. Effective self management is critical in decreasing the physical burden of psoriasis and mitigating its multiple physical, psychological, and social comorbidities, which include obesity, cardiovascular disease, alcohol dependence, depression, anxiety, and social anxiety. Keywords: psoriasis, adherence, self management, compliance
Eley, Robert; Gorman, Don
Context: Asthma affects over 15% of Australian Aboriginal people. Compliance in asthma management is poor. Interventions that will increase compliance are required. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine whether Aboriginal children, adolescents and adults would engage in music lessons to increase their knowledge of asthma and support…
Full Text Available Similar to other parts of the world, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in the Asia-Pacific Region has rapidly increased during the last few decades. The purposes of this pilot study were to determine the feasibility and the effects of a capacity building program for Village Health Volunteers (VHVs to support self-management in a T2DM high risk population from a rural subdistrict in Northeast Thailand. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected using surveys, focus group discussions, and in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed and used to develop a 12-week capacity building program for VHVs. This program was then implemented on 60 subjects at high risk of T2DM in the selected community. According to the paired t-test and Wilcoxon-signed rank test, VHVs had higher scores on knowledge and self-efficacy of T2DM prevention after a 12 week intervention (p = .03 and p = .02, respectively. Study participants at risk for T2DM also had a significant increase in T2DM knowledge and self-management (p < .001. Implementation of the capacity building program for VHVs in Northeast Thailand was feasible. The key successes were strong community bonding, community empowerment, and support from family and public health nurses. Effects of the program should be examined with those in other Asia-Pacific countries.
Full Text Available Rebecca J Bartlett Ellis,1 Ulla Connor,2 James Marshall21Indiana University School of Nursing, 2Indiana University School of Liberal Arts, International Center for Intercultural Communication, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN, USA Purpose: This study evaluated the feasibility of developing linguistically tailored educational messages designed to match the linguistic styles of patients segmented into types with the Descriptor™, and to determine patient preferences for tailored or standard messages based on their segments. Patients and methods: Twenty patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM were recruited from a diabetes health clinic. Participants were segmented using the Descriptor™, a language-based questionnaire, to identify patient types based on their control orientation (internal/external, agency (high/low, and affect (positive/negative, which are well studied constructs related to T2DM self-management. Two of the seven self-care behaviors described by the American Association of Diabetes Educators (healthy eating and taking medication were used to develop standard messages and then linguistically tailored using features of the six different construct segment types of the Descriptor™. A subset of seven participants each provided feedback on their preference for standard or linguistically tailored messages; 12 comparisons between standard and tailored messages were made. Results: Overall, the tailored messages were preferred to the standard messages. When the messages were matched to specific construct segment types, the tailored messages were preferred over the standard messages, although this was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Linguistically tailoring messages based on construct segments is feasible. Furthermore, tailored messages were more often preferred over standard messages. This study provides some preliminary evidence for tailoring messages based on the linguistic features of control orientation, agency, and affect
Bartlam, Bernadette; Rathod, Trishna; Rowlands, Gillian; Protheroe, Joanne
This article reports a mixed methods process evaluation of a pilot feasibility randomised controlled trial comparing a Lay Health Trainer (LHT) intervention and usual care for those with poorly controlled Type 2 Diabetes Melitus (T2DM). Set in a deprived area in the UK, this research explores patient and health care practitioner (HCP) views on whether a structured interview between a patient and a Lay Health Trainer (LHT), for the purpose of developing a tailored self-management plan for patients, is acceptable and likely to change health behaviours. In doing so, it considers the implications for a future, randomised controlled trial (RCT). Participants were patients, LHTs delivering the intervention, service managers, and practice nurses recruiting patients to the study. Patients were purposively sampled on their responses to a baseline survey, and semistructured interviews were conducted within an exploratory thematic analysis framework. Findings indicate that the intervention is acceptable to patients and HCPs. However, LHTs found it challenging to work with older patients with long-term and/or complex conditions. In order to address this, given an ageing population and concomitant increases in those with such health needs, LHT training should develop skills working with these populations. The design of any future RCT intervention should take account of this.
Zanoni, S; Gabriel, E; Salis Gross, C; Deppeler, M; Haslbeck, J
Limited health literacy and language skills are barriers for people with a migrant background (PMB) to access health information and healthcare services, in particular for those living with chronic conditions. During the introduction of a peer-led Stanford chronic disease self-management course in Switzerland, special interest in the program as well as motivation of PMB was observed. In response, we examined if the program can be implemented in German for people with limited language skills. This explorative study is part of the evaluation study on introducing the adapted Stanford program in Switzerland and German-speaking Europe. Following the principles of Grounded Theory, semi-structured focus group and individual interviews were conducted with course participants, leaders and coordinators (n=30) and analyzed thematically. The focus was on the feasibility, satisfaction and course content. In principle, the program seems to have positive value for PMB, may work for them in German, have high relevance for everyday life and give an impetus for social integration. The need for and extent of modification of the program for PMB has to be further explored in order to make it more accessible for vulnerable groups. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Lawn, Sharon; McMillan, John; Pulvirenti, Mariastella
While self-management may be beneficial for many patients it assumes and encourages a particular conception of responsibility and self-management that may not fit with all patients' experience of their chronic conditions and their management. It therefore warrants further examination. We examine the concept of self-management and responsibility from a range of standpoints, focusing on the Australian context. Attempts to meet people's needs run the risk of imposing specific conceptions of how people should live their lives. While self-management appears to be consistent with placing patients' needs, values and priorities at the heart of healthcare, ill-defined assumptions about responsibility may confound these goals. Reflection on social determinants of health, the context in which patients seek self-management support from health services, and how their needs and preferences are listened to by health professionals, is critical for the collaborative self-management partnership between them to be effectively realized. Providing services without reflecting on the meaning of self-management for the person with chronic conditions creates unintended assumptions about responsibility, engagement and care provision which may serve to alienate and further stigmatise some patients. Often, these are the very patients with complex needs who need such service support the most. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Theory-driven group-based complex intervention to support self-management of osteoarthritis and low back pain in primary care physiotherapy: protocol for a cluster randomised controlled feasibility trial (SOLAS).
Hurley, Deirdre A; Hall, Amanda M; Currie-Murphy, Laura; Pincus, Tamar; Kamper, Steve; Maher, Chris; McDonough, Suzanne M; Lonsdale, Chris; Walsh, Nicola E; Guerin, Suzanne; Segurado, Ricardo; Matthews, James
International clinical guidelines consistently endorse the promotion of self-management (SM), including physical activity for patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) and osteoarthritis (OA). Patients frequently receive individual treatment and advice to self-manage from physiotherapists in primary care, but the successful implementation of a clinical and cost-effective group SM programme is a key priority for health service managers in Ireland to maximise long-term outcomes and efficient use of limited and costly resources. This protocol describes an assessor-blinded cluster randomised controlled feasibility trial of a group-based education and exercise intervention underpinned by self-determination theory designed to support an increase in SM behaviour in patients with CLBP and OA in primary care physiotherapy. The primary care clinic will be the unit of randomisation (cluster), with each clinic randomised to 1 of 2 groups providing the Self-management of Osteoarthritis and Low back pain through Activity and Skills (SOLAS) intervention or usual individual physiotherapy. Patients are followed up at 6 weeks, 2 and 6 months. The primary outcomes are the (1) acceptability and demand of the intervention to patients and physiotherapists, (2) feasibility and optimal study design/procedures and sample size for a definitive trial. Secondary outcomes include exploratory analyses of: point estimates, 95% CIs, change scores and effect sizes in physical function, pain and disability outcomes; process of change in target SM behaviours and selected mediators; and the cost of the intervention to inform a definitive trial. This feasibility trial protocol was approved by the UCD Human Research Ethics-Sciences Committee (LS-13-54 Currie-Hurley) and research access has been granted by the Health Services Executive Primary Care Research Committee in January 2014. The study findings will be disseminated to the research, clinical and health service communities through publication in
Matiz, L Adriana; Robbins-Milne, Laura; Krause, M Christine; Peretz, Patricia J; Rausch, John C
This study aimed to evaluate the impact of information technology tools on the outcomes of children with asthma in the medical home. A registry was established for children aged 4 to 18 years with an ICD-9 code for asthma. Changes to the electronic health record included modifications to notes, care plans, and orders. A retrospective analysis of emergency department and in-patient utilization for a cohort of patients was conducted from July 2009 through June 2013. Of the study population (n = 1217), 65% had a classification of asthma severity and 63% were risk-stratified. Seventy percent had a control assessment at least once. Care plan use increased from 5% to 22% and enrollment in care coordination increased from 0.1% to 4%. After 3 years, there was a reduction of emergency department and inpatient admissions for asthma (P information technology tools was associated with improved asthma outcomes. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available Objectives: Self-management is widely promoted but evidence of effectiveness is limited. Policy encourages health care professionals to support people with long-term conditions to learn self-management skills, yet little is known about the extent to which both parties share a common understanding of self-management. Thus, we compared health care professional and lay understandings of self-management of long-term conditions. Methods: Systematic review and narrative synthesis of qualitative studies identified from relevant electronic databases, hand-searching of references lists, citation tracking and recommendations by experts. Results: In total, 55 studies were included and quality was assessed using a brief quality assessment tool. Three conceptual themes, each with two subthemes were generated: traditional and shifting models of the professional–patient relationship (self-management as a tool to promote compliance; different expectations of responsibility; quality of relationship between health care professional and lay person (self-management as a collaborative partnership; self-management as tailored support and putting self-management into everyday practice (the lived experience of self-management; self-management as a social practice. Conclusion: Self-management was conceptualised by health care professionals as incorporating both a biomedical model of compliance and individual responsibility. Lay people understood self-management in wider terms, reflecting biomedical, psychological and social domains and different expectations of responsibility. In different ways, both deviated from the dominant model of self-management underpinned by the concept of self-efficacy. Different understandings help to explain how self-management is practised and may help to account for limited evidence of effectiveness of self-management interventions.
Mohn, J; Graue, M; Assmus, J; Zoffmann, V; B Thordarson, H; Peyrot, M; Rokne, B
To investigate the associations of self-perceived competence in diabetes management and autonomy support from healthcare providers with diabetes distress in adults with Type 1 diabetes mellitus that is not optimally controlled [HbA(1c) ≥ 64 mmol/mol (8.0%)]. This cross-sectional study comprised blood sampling and three self-report questionnaires, the Problem Areas in Diabetes scale, the Perceived Competence in Diabetes Scale and a measure of autonomy support by healthcare providers, the Health Care Climate Questionnaire. We fitted blockwise linear regression models to assess the associations between Problem Areas in Diabetes score and the variables of interest (autonomy support and perceived diabetes competence), controlling for clinical and sociodemographic variables. Of the study sample [n = 178; mean age 36.7 (±10.7) years], 31.5% had long-term complications and 43.2% reported elevated (≥40) Problem Areas in Diabetes scores. A significant negative association was found between autonomy support and Problem Areas in Diabetes score (B = -3.61, P = 0.001), indicating that lower autonomy support was associated with greater diabetes distress. When perceived competence was controlled, it mediated the association of autonomy support with diabetes distress, reducing it to non-significance. There was a significant negative association between perceived competence and Problem Areas in Diabetes score (B = -8.89, P perceived competence was associated with greater perceived distress. There was an indirect (fully mediated) relationship between autonomy support and diabetes distress; autonomy support was associated with increased perceived competence, which, in turn, was associated with reduced distress. Healthcare providers' communication styles enhancing perceived competence through autonomy support may contribute to effective treatment for people with Type 1 diabetes and suboptimum glycaemic control. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons
van Eikenhorst, Linda; Taxis, Katja; van Dijk, Liset; de Gier, Han
Background: Treatment of diabetes requires a strict treatment scheme which demands patient self-management. Pharmacists are in a good position to provide self-management support. This review examines whether pharmacist-led interventions to support self-management in diabetes patients improve
Eikenhorst, L. van; Dijk, L. van; Taxis, K; Gier, H. de
Background Treatment of diabetes requires a strict treatment scheme which demands patient self-management. Pharmacists are in a good position to provide self-management support. This review examines whether pharmacist-led interventions to support self-management in diabetes patients improve clinical
Mohn, J; Graue, M; Assmus, J
comprised blood sampling and three self-report questionnaires, the Problem Areas in Diabetes scale, the Perceived Competence in Diabetes Scale and a measure of autonomy support by healthcare providers, the Health Care Climate Questionnaire. We fitted blockwise linear regression models to assess......AIM: To investigate the associations of self-perceived competence in diabetes management and autonomy support from healthcare providers with diabetes distress in adults with Type 1 diabetes mellitus that is not optimally controlled [HbA(1c) ≥ 64 mmol/mol (8.0%)]. METHODS: This cross-sectional study...... the associations between Problem Areas in Diabetes score and the variables of interest (autonomy support and perceived diabetes competence), controlling for clinical and sociodemographic variables. RESULTS: Of the study sample [n = 178; mean age 36.7 (±10.7) years], 31.5% had long-term complications and 43...
Newton, Paul; Asimakopoulou, Koula; Scambler, Sasha
The study examined the motives that people living with type 2 diabetes (T2D) had for self-managing their condition and ways they used to assess the success of their self-management efforts. Using semistructured interviews (N = 25), focus groups (3 × N = 12 participants), and open-ended questionnaires (N = 6), people living with and self-managing T2D were recruited from a community-based T2D participation group. Most participants were older (aged 60+) and lived in a socioeconomically deprived area in the United Kingdom. Data were analysed thematically using framework analysis. Patients' motives for self-management included (i) concern about the anticipative effects of T2D; (ii) wishing to "stay well"; (iii) maintaining independence; (iv) reducing the need for healthcare professionals; and (v) improving quality of life. Six self-management styles were found and pertained to self-managing: (i) through routinisation; (ii) as a burden; (iii) as maintenance; (iv) through delegation; (v) through comanagement; and (vi) through autonomy. Motivators for self-management shaped the criteria people used to judge the success of their self-management practices and influenced their self-management style. The findings show that styles of T2D self-management are mediated and moderated by sociocontextual issues. Healthcare professionals should take these into account when supporting people living with T2D.
Full Text Available The study examined the motives that people living with type 2 diabetes (T2D had for self-managing their condition and ways they used to assess the success of their self-management efforts. Using semistructured interviews (N=25, focus groups (3 × N=12 participants, and open-ended questionnaires (N=6, people living with and self-managing T2D were recruited from a community-based T2D participation group. Most participants were older (aged 60+ and lived in a socioeconomically deprived area in the United Kingdom. Data were analysed thematically using framework analysis. Patients’ motives for self-management included (i concern about the anticipative effects of T2D; (ii wishing to “stay well”; (iii maintaining independence; (iv reducing the need for healthcare professionals; and (v improving quality of life. Six self-management styles were found and pertained to self-managing: (i through routinisation; (ii as a burden; (iii as maintenance; (iv through delegation; (v through comanagement; and (vi through autonomy. Motivators for self-management shaped the criteria people used to judge the success of their self-management practices and influenced their self-management style. The findings show that styles of T2D self-management are mediated and moderated by sociocontextual issues. Healthcare professionals should take these into account when supporting people living with T2D.
Fathima, Mariam; Peiris, David; Naik-Panvelkar, Pradnya; Saini, Bandana; Armour, Carol Lyn
The use of computerized clinical decision support systems may improve the diagnosis and ongoing management of chronic diseases, which requires recurrent visits to multiple health professionals, disease and medication monitoring and modification of patient behavior. The aim of this review was to systematically review randomized controlled trials evaluating the effectiveness of computerized clinical decision systems (CCDSS) in the care of people with asthma and COPD. Randomized controlled trials published between 2003 and 2013 were searched using multiple electronic databases Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, IPA, Informit, PsychINFO, Compendex, and Cochrane Clinical Controlled Trials Register databases. To be included, RCTs had to evaluate the role of the CCDSSs for asthma and/or COPD in primary care. Nineteen studies representing 16 RCTs met our inclusion criteria. The majority of the trials were conducted in patients with asthma. Study quality was generally high. Meta-analysis was not conducted because of methodological and clinical heterogeneity. The use of CCDSS improved asthma and COPD care in 14 of the 19 studies reviewed (74%). Nine of the nineteen studies showed statistically significant (p < 0.05) improvement in the primary outcomes measured. The majority of the studies evaluated health care process measures as their primary outcomes (10/19). Evidence supports the effectiveness of CCDSS in the care of people with asthma. However there is very little information of its use in COPD care. Although there is considerable improvement in the health care process measures and clinical outcomes through the use of CCDSSs, its effects on user workload and efficiency, safety, costs of care, provider and patient satisfaction remain understudied.
Rademakers, J.; Jansen, D.; Hoek, L. van der; Heijmans, M.
Background: The aim of this study was to test the Dutch version of the Clinician Support for Patient Activation Measure (CS-PAM), to explore the beliefs of Dutch clinicians about patients’ selfmanagement, and to establish whether there are differences in this respect between general practitioners
de Jongh, Thyra; Gurol-Urganci, Ipek; Vodopivec-Jamsek, Vlasta; Car, Josip; Atun, Rifat
capacity to self-manage the condition, there is moderate quality evidence from one study that diabetes patients receiving the text messaging intervention demonstrated improved scores on measures of self-management capacity (Self-Efficacy for Diabetes score (MD 6.10, 95% CI 0.45 to 11.75), Diabetes Social Support Interview pooled score (MD 4.39, 95% CI 2.85 to 5.92)), but did not show improved knowledge of diabetes. There is moderate quality evidence from three studies of the effects on treatment compliance. One study showed an increase in hypertensive patients' rates of medication compliance in the intervention group (MD 8.90, 95% CI 0.18 to 17.62) compared with the control group, but in another study there was no statistically significant effect on rates of compliance with peak expiratory flow measurement in asthma patients. Text message prompts for diabetic patients initially also resulted in a higher number of blood glucose results sent back (46.0) than email prompts did (23.5).For the secondary outcome of participants' evaluation of the intervention, there is very low quality evidence from two studies that patients receiving mobile phone messaging support reported perceived improvement in diabetes self-management, wanted to continue receiving messages, and preferred mobile phone messaging to email as a method to access a computerised reminder system.For the secondary outcome of health service utilisation, there is very low quality evidence from two studies. Diabetes patients receiving text messaging support made a comparable number of clinic visits and calls to an emergency hotline as patients without the support. For asthma patients the total number of office visits was higher in the text messaging group, whereas the number of hospital admissions was higher for the control group.Because of the small number of trials included, and the low overall number of participants, for any of the reviewed outcomes the quality of the evidence can at best be considered moderate. We
Medvedev, B. A.; Skaptsov, A. A.; Polikarpov, M. A.
How to improve physicist's creativity? How one can make himself an instrument for creativity? What is the role of the humanities in initiation of intuitive moments in thinking? The problems are discussed in terms of such modern conception as Self-management, in context of the dialogue between nature and human being by Prigogine, "Farther reaches of human nature" by Maslow, and mathematical approach for modeling of mental structure elements.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dizziness is a very common symptom that often leads to reduced quality of life, anxiety and emotional distress, loss of fitness, lack of confidence in balance, unsteadiness and an increased risk of falling. Most dizzy patients are managed in primary care by reassurance and medication to suppress symptoms. Trials have shown that chronic dizziness can be treated effectively in primary care using a self-help booklet to teach patients vestibular rehabilitation exercises that promote neurological adaptation and skill and confidence in balance. However, brief support from a trained nurse was provided in these trials, and this model of managing dizzy patients has not been taken up due to a lack of skills and resources in primary care. The aim of this trial is to evaluate two new alternative models of delivery that may be more feasible and cost-effective. Methods/Design In a single blind two-centre pragmatic controlled trial, we will randomise 330 patients from 30 practices to a self-help booklet with telephone support from a vestibular therapist, b self-help booklet alone, c routine medical care. Symptoms, disability, handicap and quality of life will be assessed by validated questionnaires administered by post at baseline, immediately post-treatment (3 months, and at one year follow-up. The study is powered to test our primary hypothesis, that the self-help booklet with telephone support will be more effective than routine care. We will also explore the effectiveness of the booklet without any support, and calculate the costs of treatment in each arm. Discussion If our trial indicates that patients can cost-effectively manage their dizziness in primary care, then it can be easily rolled out to relieve the symptoms of the many patients in primary care who currently have chronic, untreated, disabling dizziness. Treatment in primary care may reduce the development of psychological and physical sequelae that cause handicap and require
Elliott, Jennifer Padden; Marcotullio, Nicole; Skoner, David P; Lunney, Phil; Gentile, Deborah A
To evaluate the effectiveness of asthma education delivered by student pharmacists and to assess the impact of child and caregiver baseline asthma knowledge on asthma control in children. Student pharmacists developed and implemented asthma self-management education interventions for children and their caregivers and performed asthma screenings for children at a series of asthma camps. Eighty-seven children, ages 5-17 years, and their caregivers were enrolled in this study. A previously validated asthma questionnaire was modified to assess asthma knowledge among children and adults. Asthma knowledge increased significantly in children following participation in the education intervention (pasthma. A significant association was observed between caregiver baseline asthma knowledge and better asthma control in their children (p=0.019). The results of this study demonstrate that student pharmacist-delivered asthma education can positively impact asthma knowledge in children, and that caregivers' knowledge of asthma is strongly correlated with better asthma control in their children.
Self-management is nowadays seen as an important element in chronic care and therefore, self-management is increasingly embedded in chronic care guidelines; however, implementation in clinical practice is a slow and difficult process. Evidence, from research on self-management interventions, shows
Wong-Rieger, Durhane; Rieger, Francis P
To effectively manage diabetes mellitus, patients must adhere to treatment recommendations and healthy lifestyle behaviors, but research shows many patients do not do this. Education is effective when combined with self-management support but peer-support programs do not lead to lasting changes. Health coaching, or professional support, can be highly effective if it focuses on developing self-efficacy and skills such as goal-setting, problem-solving and managing cognitive and emotional barriers. This overview discusses the benefits of patient self-management for chronic conditions such as diabetes, core competencies for health coaching, theoretical bases and principles of health coaching interventions, delivery methods and the evidence that health coaching works for diabetes self-management. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kaylor-Hughes, Catherine J; Rawsthorne, Mat; Coulson, Neil S; Simpson, Sandra; Simons, Lucy; Guo, Boliang; James, Marilyn; Moran, Paul; Simpson, Jayne; Hollis, Chris; Avery, Anthony J; Tata, Laila J; Williams, Laura; Morriss, Richard K
Regardless of geography or income, effective help for depression and anxiety only reaches a small proportion of those who might benefit from it. The scale of the problem suggests a role for effective, safe, anonymized public health-driven Web-based services such as Big White Wall (BWW), which offer immediate peer support at low cost. Using Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance (RE-AIM) methodology, the aim of this study was to determine the population reach, effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and barriers and drivers to implementation of BWW compared with Web-based information compiled by UK's National Health Service (NHS, NHS Choices Moodzone) in people with probable mild to moderate depression and anxiety disorder. A pragmatic, parallel-group, single-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) is being conducted using a fully automated trial website in which eligible participants are randomized to receive either 6 months access to BWW or signposted to the NHS Moodzone site. The recruitment of 2200 people to the study will be facilitated by a public health engagement campaign involving general marketing and social media, primary care clinical champions, health care staff, large employers, and third sector groups. People will refer themselves to the study and will be eligible if they are older than 16 years, have probable mild to moderate depression or anxiety disorders, and have access to the Internet. The primary outcome will be the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale at 6 weeks. We will also explore the reach, maintenance, cost-effectiveness, and barriers and drivers to implementation and possible mechanisms of actions using a range of qualitative and quantitative methods. This will be the first fully digital trial of a direct to public online peer support program for common mental disorders. The potential advantages of adding this to current NHS mental health services and the challenges of designing a public health campaign and RCT of
Huygens, M.W.J.; Vermeulen, J.; Swinkels, I.C.S.; Friele, R.D.; Schayck, O.C.P. van; Witte, L.P. de
Background: Self-management is considered as an essential component of chronic care by primary care professionals. eHealth is expected to play an important role in supporting patients in their self-management. For effective implementation of eHealth it is important to investigate patients’
Ahmed, Sara; Bartlett, Susan J; Ernst, Pierre; Paré, Guy; Kanter, Maria; Perreault, Robert; Grad, Roland; Taylor, Laurel; Tamblyn, Robyn
Asthma is a prevalent and costly disease resulting in reduced quality of life for a large proportion of individuals. Effective patient self-management is critical for improving health outcomes. However, key aspects of self-management such as self-monitoring of behaviours and symptoms, coupled with regular feedback from the health care team, are rarely addressed or integrated into ongoing care. Health information technology (HIT) provides unique opportunities to facilitate this by providing a means for two way communication and exchange of information between the patient and care team, and access to their health information, presented in personalized ways that can alert them when there is a need for action. The objective of this study is to evaluate the acceptability and efficacy of using a web-based self-management system, My Asthma Portal (MAP), linked to a case-management system on asthma control, and asthma health-related quality of life. The trial is a parallel multi-centered 2-arm pilot randomized controlled trial. Participants are randomly assigned to one of two conditions: a) MAP and usual care; or b) usual care alone. Individuals will be included if they are between 18 and 70, have a confirmed asthma diagnosis, and their asthma is classified as not well controlled by their physician. Asthma control will be evaluated by calculating the amount of fast acting beta agonists recorded as dispensed in the provincial drug database, and asthma quality of life using the Mini Asthma Related Quality of Life Questionnaire. Power calculations indicated a needed total sample size of 80 subjects. Data are collected at baseline, 3, 6, and 9 months post randomization. Recruitment started in March 2010 and the inclusion of patients in the trial in June 2010. Self-management support from the care team is critical for improving chronic disease outcomes. Given the high volume of patients and time constraints during clinical visits, primary care physicians have limited time to
Stewart, Miriam; Letourneau, Nicole; Masuda, Jeffrey R; Anderson, Sharon; McGhan, Shawna
Children with asthma and allergies experience social isolation and gaps in social support particularly from peers. The objective of this pilot study was to design and test an accessible online support intervention for these children. Support was delivered by peer mentors with asthma and allergies and a professional. Weekly support groups were conducted over 8 weeks using Go to Meeting and Club Penguin. Quantitative measures and a qualitative interview were administered. Significant increases in perceived support and support-seeking coping and trends in decreased loneliness emerged at post-test. Participants also reported increased self-confidence and satisfaction with the intervention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
van Kessel, Kirsten; Wouldes, Trecia; Moss-Morris, Rona
To pilot and compare the efficacy of an internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy self-management programme with (MSInvigor8-Plus) and without (MSInvigor8-Only) the use of email support in reducing fatigue severity and impact (primary outcomes), and depressed and anxious mood (secondary outcomes). Randomized controlled trial using an independent randomization system built into the website and intention-to-treat analysis. Participants were recruited through the local Multiple Sclerosis Society and hospital neurological services in New Zealand. A total of 39 people (aged 31-63 years), experiencing multiple sclerosis fatigue, able to walk with and without walking aids, were randomized to MSInvigor8-Only (n = 20) or to MSInvigor8-Plus (n = 19). MSInvigor8 is an eight-session programme based on cognitive behaviour therapy principles including psycho-education, self-monitoring, and changing unhelpful activity and thought patterns. Outcome measures included fatigue severity (Chalder Fatigue Scale) and impact (Modified Fatigue Impact Scale), and anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Assessments were performed at baseline and at 10 weeks. The MSInvigor8-Plus condition resulted in significantly greater reductions in fatigue severity (F [1,36] = 9.09, p multiple sclerosis in New Zealand. © The Author(s) 2015.
... Science Education & Training Home Conditions Asthma (Pediatric) Asthma (Pediatric) Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask a ... meet the rising demand for asthma care. Our pediatric asthma team brings together physicians, nurses, dietitians, physical ...
Chronic Pain Syndrome; Chronic Pain; Chronic Pain Due to Injury; Chronic Pain Due to Trauma; Chronic Pain Due to Malignancy (Finding); Chronic Pain Post-Procedural; Chronic Pain Hip; Chronic Pain, Widespread
Hanson, Tabitha K.; Aleman, Martha; Hart, Lacey; Yawn, Barbara
Background: Approximately 9% of school-aged children in the United States have asthma. Since 1997, the Asthma Action Plan (AAP) has been recommended as an asthma self-management tool for individuals with asthma. In the school setting, the use of the AAP has been primarily dependent on communication between the family and the school through a paper…
Graham R. Williamson
Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma and pregnancy are both sources of anxiety for women. Although there has been a focus on physiological management of asthma and pregnancy, there has been little research on the impact that personalised support can have on asthma care during pregnancy. This systematic review and narrative synthesis of the literature set out to answer the question ‘What are women’s experiences of asthma care, its management and education, during pregnancy?’ Methods This systematic review was carried out using accepted methodology from the York Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. Electronic database searches were conducted using PsycInfo, CINAHL, MedLine, Google Scholar and the Cochrane Library, using the combination search terms: ‘Asthma’ AND ‘Pregnancy’ AND ‘Care’ AND (‘Education OR Information OR Experience’. Hand searching of journals and searches for grey literature were also undertaken. Independent quality appraisal by the three authors took place using the criteria detailed by Kmet et al. (Standard Quality Assessment Criteria for Evaluating Primary Research Papers from a Variety of Fields, 2004. Results All papers scoring in excess of 60% were deemed to be of adequate quality for inclusion, of which there were five: two qualitative designs and three quantitative designs. The designs were too methodologically heterogeneous to permit statistical meta-analysis so narrative review and synthesis was undertaken. Despite an embryonic evidence bases, it is reasonable to conclude that personalised care has beneficial outcomes for pregnant asthmatic women. Conclusions Larger randomised controlled trials investigating personalised care are required to build an evidence base which can establish the efficacy of such interventions.
Håkansson, Kåre; Bachert, Claus; Konge, Lars
Background It has been established that patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) often have co-existing asthma. Objective We aimed to test two hypotheses: (i) upper and lower airway inflammation in CRSwNP is uniform in agreement with the united airways concept; and (ii) bro...
Novak, Marta; Costantini, Lucia; Schneider, Sabrina; Beanlands, Heather
Management of a chronic medical condition is a complex process and requires coordinated action between healthcare providers and patients. This process is further complicated by the fact that an increasing number of patients suffer from multiple chronic conditions. Self-management involves active participation of the patients in the everyday care of the symptoms of their illness(es) and medical treatments, as well as maintaining general health and prevention of progression of medical conditions. Managing the psychosocial consequences of illness is also an important component of self-management. Data have demonstrated that enhancing self-management improves quality of life, coping, symptom management, disability, and reduces healthcare expenditures and service utilization. To foster self-management, potential barriers to implementation as well as facilitators and supports for this approach must be acknowledged. In this article, we review various aspects of self-management in chronic illness, focusing on chronic kidney disease. Better understanding of these concepts will facilitate patient-provider collaboration, improve patient care with increased patient and staff satisfaction, and may ultimately result in better clinical outcomes and enhanced quality of life for both the patients and their families. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to find out efficacy of cognitive behavior therapy, as an adjunct to standard pharmacotherapy, in bronchial asthma. In a random-ized two-group design with pre-and post assessments, forty asthma patients were randomly allotted to two groups: self management group and cognitive behavior therapy group. Both groups were exposed to 6-8 weeks of intervention, asthma self management program and cognitive behavior therapy. Assessment measures used were-Semi structured interview schedule, Asthma Symptom Checklist, Asthma di-ary, Asthma Bother Profile, Hospital Anxiety & Depression Scale, AQLQ and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate. Within group comparison showed significant improvement in both groups at the post assessment. Between group comparisons showed that CBT group reported significantly greater change than that of SM group. Cognitive behavior therapy helps in improving the managment of asthma.
McClure, Natasha; Lutenbacher, Melanie; O'Kelley, Ellen; Dietrich, Mary S
Home environmental assessments and interventions delivered via academic practice partnerships (APP) between clinics and schools of nursing may be a low or no cost delivery model of pediatric asthma care and professional education. Patients receive enhanced clinical resources that can improve self-management and healthcare utilization. Additionally, students can practice chronic disease management skills in actual patient encounters. To describe outcomes of the implementation of an APP between a school of nursing and a pediatric asthma specialty clinic (PASC) to deliver a home visit program (HVP). The HVP was designed to reduce emergency department visits and asthma related hospitalizations in PASC patients and provide clinical experiences for nursing students. PASC referred patients to the HVP based on their level of asthma control. Students provided an individualized number of home visits to 17 participants over a nine month period. A 12-month pre- and post-HVP comparison of emergency department visits and asthma related hospitalizations was conducted. Additional information was gathered from stakeholders via an online survey, and interviews with APP partners and HVP families. Children had fewer asthma related hospitalizations post HVP. Findings suggest a reduction in exposure to environmental triggers, improved patient and family management of asthma, and increased PASC knowledge of asthma triggers in the home and increased student knowledge and skills related to asthma management. Multiple clinical and educational benefits may be realized through the development of APPs as an infrastructure supporting targeted interventions in home visits to pediatric asthma patients and their families. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A self-management approach using self-initiated action plans for symptoms with ongoing nurse support in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and comorbidities: the COPE-III study protocol.
Lenferink, Anke; Frith, Peter; van der Valk, Paul; Buckman, Julie; Sladek, Ruth; Cafarella, Paul; van der Palen, Job; Effing, Tanja
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) frequently coexists with other diseases. Whereas COPD action plans are currently part of usual care, they are less suitable and potentially unsafe for use in the presence of comorbidities. This study evaluates whether an innovative treatment approach directed towards COPD and frequently existing comorbidities can reduce COPD exacerbation days. We hypothesise that this approach, which combines self-initiated action plans and nurse support, will accelerate proper treatment actions and lead to better control of deteriorating symptoms. In this multicenter randomised controlled trial we aim to include 300 patients with COPD (GOLD II-IV), and with at least one comorbidity (cardiovascular disease, diabetes, anxiety and/or depression). Patients will be recruited from hospitals in the Netherlands (n = 150) and Australia (n = 150) and will be assigned to an intervention or control group. All patients will learn to complete daily symptom diaries for 12-months. Intervention group patients will participate in self-management training sessions to learn the use of individualised action plans for COPD and comorbidities, linked to the diary. The primary outcome is the number of COPD exacerbation days. Secondary outcomes include hospitalisations, quality of life, self-efficacy, adherence, patient's satisfaction and confidence, health care use and cost data. Intention-to-treat analyses (random effect negative binomial regression and random effect mixed models) and cost-effectiveness analyses will be performed. Prudence should be employed before extrapolating the use of COPD specific action plans in patients with comorbidities. This study evaluates the efficacy of tailored action plans for both COPD and common comorbidities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
"Asthma can take over your life but having the right support makes that easier to deal with." Informing research priorities by exploring the barriers and facilitators to asthma control: a qualitative analysis of survey data.
Normansell, Rebecca; Welsh, Emma
Involving patients and the public in research prioritisation is important. Cochrane Airways works with authors to produce systematic reviews of evidence related to chronic airways disease. Cochrane Airways has undertaken activities to identify research priorities, including workshops with stakeholders and consultation with experts. We present the findings of an online survey, designed to align our work with the priorities of people affected by asthma. We promoted a survey comprising open-ended questions via social media to people affected by asthma. We compiled the free-text responses and conducted an exploratory thematic analysis to identify important barriers and facilitators to asthma control. We triangulated findings with other research prioritisation activities to produce new review questions. We received 57 survey responses. Eight main themes emerged, most encompassing both facilitators and barriers: attitudes and knowledge; financial costs; environmental factors and triggers; healthcare systems; lifestyle factors; medication; self-care; and support. Barriers were more frequently mentioned than facilitators and many related to healthcare systems. These findings offer valuable insights into the challenges faced by individuals affected by asthma in the UK, and possibly further afield. We developed a list of priority reviews based on what was said by people in this survey and at a workshop. This demonstrates the real impact that people affected by asthma have on the research agenda of Cochrane Airways. Over the next 2-3 years we will produce reviews that address some of these questions hopefully leading to health benefits.
Dima, Alexandra Lelia; de Bruin, Marijn; Van Ganse, Eric
Whether people with asthma gain and maintain control over their condition depends not only on the availability of effective drugs, but also on multiple patient and health care professional (HCP) behaviors. Research in asthma rarely considers how these behaviors interact with each other and drug effectiveness to determine health outcomes, which may limit real-life applicability of findings. The objective of this study was to develop a logic process model (Asthma Care Model; ACM) that explains how patient and HCP behaviors impact on the asthma care process. Within a European research project on asthma (ASTRO-LAB), we reviewed asthma care guidelines and empirical literature, and conducted qualitative interviews with patients and HCPs. Findings were discussed with the project team and respiratory care experts and integrated in a causal model. The model outlines a causal sequence of treatment events, from diagnosis and assessment to treatment prescription, drug exposure, and health outcomes. The relationships between these components are moderated by patient behaviors (medication adherence, symptom monitoring, managing triggers, and exacerbations) and HCP behaviors (medical care and self-management support). Modifiable and nonmodifiable behavioral determinants influence the behaviors of patients and HCPs. The model is dynamic as it includes feedback loops of behavioral and clinical outcomes, which influence future patient and HCP decision making. Key evidence for each relationship is summarized to derive research priorities and clinical recommendations. The ACM model is of interest to both researchers and practitioners, and intended as a first version (ACM-v1) of a common framework for generating and translating research evidence in asthma care. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Schulman-Green, Dena; Bradley, Elizabeth H; Knobf, M Tish; Prigerson, Holly; DiGiovanna, Michael P; McCorkle, Ruth
Self-management involves behaviors that individuals perform to handle health conditions. Self-management may be particularly challenging during transitions-shifts from one life phase or status to another, for example, from cure- to noncure-oriented care-because they can be disruptive and stressful. Little is known about individuals' experiences with self-management, especially during transitions. Our purpose was to describe experiences of self-management in the context of transitions among women with advanced breast cancer. We interviewed a purposive sample of 15 women with metastatic breast cancer about their self-management preferences, practices, and experiences, including how they managed transitions. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. The qualitative method of interpretive description was used to code and analyze the data. Participants' mean age was 52 years (range 37-91 years); most were White (80%), married (80%), and college educated (60%). Self-management practices related to womens' health and to communication with loved ones and providers. Participants expressed a range of preferences for participation in self-management. Self-management included developing skills, becoming empowered, and creating supportive networks. Barriers to self-management included symptom distress, difficulty obtaining information, and lack of knowledge about the cancer trajectory. Women identified transitions as shifts in physical, emotional, and social well-being, as when their cancer progressed and there was a need to change therapy. Transitions often prompted changes in how actively women self-managed and were experienced as positive, negative, and neutral. Self-management preferences can vary. Providers should explore and revisit patients' preferences and ability to self-manage over time, particularly during transitions. Copyright © 2011 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Learning the skills of self-management is an essential task for students in the 21st century. A total of 223 undergraduate students participated in 4 self-management tutorials that presented the components of understanding and mastering self-management skills including (a) self-assessment, (b) goal setting, (c) time management, and (d)…
Breevaart, K.; Bakker, A.B.; Demerouti, E.
The present study adopts a bottom-up approach to work engagement by examining how self-management is related to employees' work engagement on a daily basis. Specifically, we hypothesized that on days that employees use more self-management strategies, they report higher resources at work and in
Weerheim, Wilke; Van Rossum, Lisa; Ten Have, Wouter Dirk
Purpose: Following health-care organisations, many mental health-care organisations nowadays consider starting to work with self-managing teams as their organisation structure. Although the concept could be effective, the way of implementing self-managing teams in an organisation is crucial to
Weerheim, W. (Wilke); Van Rossum, L. (Lisa); Ten Have, W.D. (Wouter Dirk)
textabstractPurpose: Following health-care organisations, many mental health-care organisations nowadays consider starting to work with self-managing teams as their organisation structure. Although the concept could be effective, the way of implementing self-managing teams in an organisation is
Sol-de Rijk, B.G.M.
Summary The aim of this thesis was to provide insight into the potential of a self-management approach in treatment of vascular risk factors and to develop a self-management intervention. Furthermore to examine if this intervention, based on self-efficacy promoting theory, is effective in reducing
Self-management education may help patients with cystic fibrosis and their families to choose, monitor and adjust treatment requirements for their illness, and also to manage the effects of illness on their lives. Although self-management education interventions have been developed for cystic fibrosis, no previous systematic review of the evidence of effectiveness of these interventions has been conducted.
Huygens, Martine W J; Vermeulen, Joan; Swinkels, Ilse C S; Friele, Roland D; van Schayck, Onno C P; de Witte, Luc P
Self-management is considered as an essential component of chronic care by primary care professionals. eHealth is expected to play an important role in supporting patients in their self-management. For effective implementation of eHealth it is important to investigate patients' expectations and needs regarding self-management and eHealth. The objectives of this study are to investigate expectations and needs of people with a chronic condition regarding self-management and eHealth for self-management purposes, their willingness to use eHealth, and possible differences between patient groups regarding these topics. Five focus groups with people with diabetes (n = 14), COPD (n = 9), and a cardiovascular condition (n = 7) were conducted in this qualitative research. Separate focus groups were organized based on patients' chronic condition. The following themes were discussed: 1) the impact of the chronic disease on patients' daily life; 2) their opinions and needs regarding self-management; and 3) their expectations and needs regarding, and willingness to use, eHealth for self-management purposes. A conventional content analysis approach was used for coding. Patient groups seem to differ in expectations and needs regarding self-management and eHealth for self-management purposes. People with diabetes reported most needs and benefits regarding self-management and were most willing to use eHealth, followed by the COPD group. People with a cardiovascular condition mentioned having fewer needs for self-management support, because their disease had little impact on their life. In all patient groups it was reported that the patient, not the care professional, should choose whether or not to use eHealth. Moreover, participants reported that eHealth should not replace, but complement personal care. Many participants reported expecting feelings of anxiety by doing measurement themselves and uncertainty about follow-up of deviant data of measurements. In addition
A pragmatic randomized control trial and realist evaluation on the implementation and effectiveness of an internet application to support self-management among individuals seeking specialized mental health care: a study protocol
Jennifer M. Hensel
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental illness is a substantial and rising contributor to the global burden of disease. Access to and utilization of mental health care, however, is limited by structural barriers such as specialist availability, time, out-of-pocket costs, and attitudinal barriers including stigma. Innovative solutions like virtual care are rapidly entering the health care domain. The advancement and adoption of virtual care for mental health, however, often occurs in the absence of rigorous evaluation and adequate planning for sustainability and spread. Methods A pragmatic randomized controlled trial with a nested comparative effectiveness arm, and concurrent realist process evaluation to examine acceptability, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of the Big White Wall (BWW online platform for mental health self-management and peer support among individuals aged 16 and older who are accessing mental health services in Ontario, Canada. Participants will be randomized to 3 months of BWW or treatment as usual. At the end of the 3 months, participants in the intervention group will have the opportunity to opt-in to an intervention extension arm. Those who opt-in will be randomized to receive an additional 3 months of BWW or no additional intervention. The primary outcome is recovery at 3 months as measured by the Recovery Assessment Scale-revised (RAS-r. Secondary outcomes include symptoms of depression and anxiety measured with the Personal Health Questionnaire-9 item (PHQ-9 and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire-7 item (GAD-7 respectively, quality of life measured with the EQ-5D-5L, and community integration assessed with the Community Integration Questionnaire. Cost-effectiveness evaluations will account for the cost of the intervention and direct health care costs. Qualitative interviews with participants and stakeholders will be conducted throughout. Discussion Understanding the impact of virtual strategies, such as BWW, on
Brazil, Kevin; McLean, Leslie; Abbey, David; Musselman, Carol
Differences in asthma management among families with a child who has moderate to severe asthma were examined when they participated in an in-patient versus a day-camp program. Two broad categories of outcome were examined: illness and self-management skills. Findings and observations regarding children's feelings about asthma are discussed.…
The effectiveness of school-based family asthma educational programs on the quality of life and number of asthma exacerbations of children aged five to 18 years diagnosed with asthma: a systematic review protocol.
Walter, Helen; Sadeque-Iqbal, Fatema; Ulysse, Rose; Castillo, Doreen; Fitzpatrick, Aileen; Singleton, Joanne
children and their parents examined the effects of comprehensive school-based asthma education programs on symptoms, grades and school absences, and parents' asthma management practices. The interventions consisted of six components for children, their parents, classmates and school personnel. One of the six components included "Open Airways for Schools" disease management training for children, which also included handouts and homework for the parents. One of the five interventions for the parents included school fairs with asthma care questions and answers sessions to discuss the frequency and type of asthma symptoms of their children. Results of this study demonstrated that 24 months post intervention, children from the intervention groups had better disease management, which included improved control of daytime and nighttime symptoms, and reduced absences from school and work related to asthma exacerbations, compared to the children from the control group.In another study, Bruzzese et al. conducted a pilot RCT that included 24 families. Each family consisted of an asthmatic child and a caregiver. The study examined the effects of a two-month, school-based asthma education program. The interventions consisted of six interactive 75-minute group sessions for students, held once a week for six weeks, and five 90-minute group sessions for caregivers, held once a week. The student sessions were led by a developmental psychologist, and one of the lesson topics included prevention and management of asthma. The group sessions for caregivers were led by a clinical psychologist, and one of the lesson topics included asthma self-management of their children. The interventions resulted in positive short term changes in family relations and an overall improved health status for the children. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)
Korpershoek, Yjg; Vervoort, Scjm; Nijssen, Lit; Trappenburg, Jca; Schuurmans, M J
In patients with COPD, self-management skills are important to reduce the impact of exacerbations. However, both detection and adequate response to exacerbations appear to be difficult for some patients. Little is known about the underlying process of exacerbation-related self-management. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify and explain the underlying process of exacerbation-related self-management behavior. A qualitative study using semi-structured in-depth interviews was performed according to the grounded theory approach, following a cyclic process in which data collection and data analysis alternated. Fifteen patients (male n=8; age range 59-88 years) with mild to very severe COPD were recruited from primary and secondary care settings in the Netherlands, in 2015. Several patterns in exacerbation-related self-management behavior were identified, and a conceptual model describing factors influencing exacerbation-related self-management was developed. Acceptance, knowledge, experiences with exacerbations, perceived severity of symptoms and social support were important factors influencing exacerbation-related self-management. Specific factors influencing recognition of exacerbations were heterogeneity of exacerbations and habituation to symptoms. Feelings of fear, perceived influence on exacerbation course, patient beliefs, ambivalence toward treatment, trust in health care providers and self-empowerment were identified as specific factors influencing self-management actions. This study provided insight into factors influencing exacerbation-related self-management behavior in COPD patients. The conceptual model can be used as a framework for health care professionals providing self-management support. In the development of future self-management interventions, factors influencing the process of exacerbation-related self-management should be taken into account.
Full Text Available The Saudi Initiative for Asthma (SINA provides up-to-date guidelines for healthcare workers managing patients with asthma. SINA was developed by a panel of Saudi experts with respectable academic backgrounds and long-standing experience in the field. SINA is founded on the latest available evidence, local literature, and knowledge of the current setting in Saudi Arabia. Emphasis is placed on understanding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, medications, and clinical presentation. SINA elaborates on the development of patient-doctor partnership, self-management, and control of precipitating factors. Approaches to asthma treatment in SINA are based on disease control by the utilization of Asthma Control Test for the initiation and adjustment of asthma treatment. This guideline is established for the treatment of asthma in both children and adults, with special attention to children 5 years and younger. It is expected that the implementation of these guidelines for treating asthma will lead to better asthma control and decrease patient utilization of the health care system.
J.M. Cramm (Jane); A.P. Nieboer (Anna)
textabstractBackground: Although widespread problems in patient-professional interaction and insufficient support of patients' self-management abilities have been recognized, research investigating the relationships among care quality, productive interaction, and self-management abilities to
J.M. Cramm (Jane); A.P. Nieboer (Anna)
markdownabstractAbstract Background: Although widespread problems in patient–professional interaction and insufficient support of patients’self-management abilities have been recognized, research investigating the relationships among care quality, productiveinteraction, and self-management
Teljeur, C; Moran, P S; Walshe, S; Smith, S M; Cianci, F; Murphy, L; Harrington, P; Ryan, M
To systematically review the evidence on the costs and cost-effectiveness of self-management support interventions for people with diabetes. Self-management support is the provision of education and supportive interventions to increase patients' skills and confidence in managing their health problems, potentially leading to improvements in HbA 1c levels in people with diabetes. Randomized controlled trials, observational studies or economic modelling studies were eligible for inclusion in the review. The target population was adults with diabetes. Interventions had to have a substantial component of self-management support and be compared with routine care. Study quality was evaluated using the Consensus on Health Economic Criteria and International Society of Pharmacoeconomic Outcomes Research questionnaires. A narrative review approach was used. A total of 16 costing and 21 cost-effectiveness studies of a range of self-management support interventions were identified. There was reasonably consistent evidence across 22 studies evaluating education self-management support programmes suggesting these interventions are cost-effective or superior to usual care. Telemedicine-type interventions were more expensive than usual care and potentially not cost-effective. There was insufficient evidence regarding the other types of self-management interventions, including pharmacist-led and behavioural interventions. The identified studies were predominantly of poor quality, with outcomes based on short-term follow-up data and study designs at high risk of bias. Self-management support education programmes may be cost-effective. There was limited evidence regarding other formats of self-management support interventions. The poor quality of many of the studies undermines the evidence base regarding the economic efficiency of self-management support interventions for people with diabetes. © 2016 Diabetes UK.
Olof Selroos; Maciej Kupczyk; Piotr Kuna; Piotr Łacwik; Jean Bousquet; David Brennan; Susanna Palkonen; Javier Contreras; Mark FitzGerald; Gunilla Hedlin; Sebastian L. Johnston; Renaud Louis; Leanne Metcalf; Samantha Walker; Antonio Moreno-Galdó
This review presents seven national asthma programmes to support the European Asthma Research and Innovation Partnership in developing strategies to reduce asthma mortality and morbidity across Europe. From published data it appears that in order to influence asthma care, national/regional asthma programmes are more effective than conventional treatment guidelines. An asthma programme should start with the universal commitments of stakeholders at all levels and the programme has to be endorse...
Hunt, Caralise W
Technology can be used to supplement healthcare provider diabetes care by providing both educational and motivational support. Education can be provided using technology allowing patients to learn new practices and routines related to diabetes management. Technology can support daily diabetes self-management activities including blood glucose monitoring, exercising, healthy eating, taking medication, monitoring for complications, and problem-solving. This article describes an integrative revi...
). Allergy and Asthma Clinic, Red Cross War Memorial Hospital. Mike Levin runs a secondary level asthma/ allergy clinic and does a tertiary allergy session once a week, focusing on difficult asthma and food allergies. He has ...
Mosnaim, Giselle; Li, Hong; Martin, Molly; Richardson, DeJuran; Belice, Paula Jo; Avery, Elizabeth; Ryan, Norman; Bender, Bruce; Powell, Lynda
Poor adherence to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) is a critical risk factor contributing to asthma morbidity among low-income minority adolescents. This trial tested whether peer support group meetings and peer asthma messages delivered via mp3 players improved adherence to ICS. Low-income African American and/or Hispanic adolescents, ages 11-16 years old, with persistent asthma, and poor (≤ 48%) adherence to prescription ICS during the 3-week run-in were randomized to intervention or attention control groups (ATG) for the 10-week treatment. During treatment, the intervention arm subjects participated in weekly coping peer group support sessions and received mp3 peer-recorded asthma messages that promoted adherence. The ATG participated in weekly meetings with a research assistant and received an equivalent number of mp3 physician-recorded asthma messages. Adherence was measured by using self-report and the Doser CT, an electronic dose counter. The primary outcome was the difference in adherence at 10 weeks between the 2 arms. Thirty-four subjects were randomized to each arm. At 10 weeks, no statistical difference in objectively measured adherence could be detected between the 2 arms when adjusting for baseline adherence (P = .929). Adherence declined in both groups over the course of the active treatment period. In both study arms, self-reported adherence by participants was significantly higher than their objectively measured adherence at week 10 (P mp3-delivered peer asthma messages may not be of sufficient dose to improve outcomes. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Prior, Kirsty N; Bond, Malcolm J
Our aims were to determine whether a taxonomy of self-management strategies for osteoarthritis could be identified, and whether the resultant dimensions of such a taxonomy demonstrate predictable relationships with health status indices. Participants (n = 117) from community-based self-help groups and a general rheumatology outpatient clinic completed a self-management inventory consisting of 11 items, answered for both the past 7 days and a day on which symptoms were worse than usual. Duration of symptoms, level of pain, perceived functional ability and self-rated health were recorded as indicators of health status. Three essentially identical factors were obtained for both past 7 days and worse day items. Resultant scales were labeled passive, complementary and active, respectively. Correlations with health status measures provided modest evidence for the construct validity of these self-management scales. Compared with a simple aggregate score based on the total number of strategies used, the scales provided a clearer understanding of the relationship between self-management and health. The study provided a useful extension to existing research, addressing a number of shortcomings identified by previous researchers. The identified self-management dimensions offered a greater insight into the self-management choices of patients. Suggestions for further improvements to the measurement of self-management are outlined.
American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology Menu Search Main navigation Skip to content Conditions & Treatments Allergies Asthma Primary Immunodeficiency Disease Related Conditions Drug Guide Conditions Dictionary Just ...
American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology Menu Search Main navigation Skip to content Conditions & Treatments Allergies Asthma Primary Immunodeficiency Disease Related Conditions Drug Guide Conditions Dictionary Just ...
Full Text Available Asthma is a chronic, reversible obstructive disease that when in exacerbation can present to the emergency department in a spectrum of severity. Prompt recognition of the potentially severely ill asthmatic requires a careful history and physical exam while considering alternative diagnoses for the presenting symptoms. Early administration of salbutamol and corticosteroids is indicated in almost all patients with other medications such as ipratropium and magnesium and supportive modalities like BiPAP reserved for sicker patients. The global impact of asthma is increasing, especially amongst children. While the benign clinical presentation is most common and mortality has decreased in recent decades due to improved recognition and care, the ubiquity of the condition and frequent lack of regular outpatient management contribute to the disease claiming 250,000 lives worldwide annually. The emergency physician must be prepared to assess and appropriately manage both the young child with a mild wheeze and the adult in respiratory failure.
Kong, Ming Ley; Armour, Carol; LeMay, Kate; Smith, Lorraine
To describe the information needs of a group of Australians with asthma and the extent to which their needs had been met. A self-administered survey was completed by people with asthma either presenting at community pharmacies or registered with a medical research institute database. The survey questions were developed based on a review of the literature, and included questions regarding participants' information needs about their asthma, their sources of asthma information and the extent to which these information needs had been met. The responses concerning information needs were analysed thematically. Responses concerning sources of asthma information and the extent to which needs were met were analysed using descriptive and correlational statistics. Seventy-one people completed the survey. Key information needs that were identified included medications, management of asthma, asthma triggers, cure, aetiology of asthma and latest research. A third of participants reported having only 'very little', 'a little' or 'some' of their information needs met. The most common source of information was from a doctor (94% respondents), followed by a pharmacist or pharmacy assistant (56%). Insights into the information needs of people with asthma have been provided. In light of the level of unmet information needs of people with asthma, and the types of information sought, pharmacists are in an ideal position to close the information gap and promote optimal asthma self-management practices. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
Jung, Mi Jung; Jeong, Younhee
Self-management behavior is an important component for successful pain management in individuals with chronic low back pain. Motivation has been considered as an effective way to change behavior. Because there are other physical, social, and psychological factors affecting individuals with pain, it is necessary to identify the main effect of motivation on self-management behavior without the influence of those factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of motivation on self-management in controlling pain, depression, and social support. We used a nonexperimental, cross-sectional, descriptive design with mediation analysis and included 120 participants' data in the final analysis. We also used hierarchical multiple regression to test the effect of motivation, and multiple regression analysis and Sobel test were used to examine the mediating effect. Motivation itself accounted for 23.4% of the variance in self-management, F(1, 118) = 35.003, p motivation was also a significant factor for self-management. In the mediation analysis, motivation completely mediated the relationship between education and self-management, z = 2.292, p = .021. Motivation is an important part of self-management, and self-management education is not effective without motivation. The results of our study suggest that nurses incorporate motivation in nursing intervention, rather than only giving information.
Wong Eliza LY
Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient self-management is a key approach to manage non-communicable diseases. A pharmacist-led approach in patient self-management means collaborative care between pharmacists and patients. However, the development of both patient self-management and role of pharmacists is limited in Hong Kong. The objectives of this study are to understand the perspectives of physicians, pharmacists, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM practitioners, and dispensers on self-management of patients with chronic conditions, in addition to exploring the possibilities of developing pharmacist-led patient self-management in Hong Kong. Methods Participants were invited through the University as well as professional networks. Fifty-one participants comprised of physicians, pharmacists, TCM practitioners and dispensers participated in homogenous focus group discussions. Perspectives in patient self-management and pharmacist-led patient self-management were discussed. The discussions were audio recorded, transcribed and analysed accordingly. Results The majority of the participants were in support of patients with stable chronic diseases engaging in self-management. Medication compliance, monitoring of disease parameters and complications, lifestyle modification and identifying situations to seek help from health professionals were generally agreed to be covered in patient self-management. All pharmacists believed that they had extended roles in addition to drug management but the other three professionals believed that pharmacists were drug experts only and could only play an assisting role. Physicians, TCM practitioners, and dispensers were concerned that pharmacist-led patient self-management could be hindered, due to unfamiliarity with the pharmacy profession, the perception of insufficient training in disease management, and lack of trust of patients. Conclusions An effective chronic disease management model should involve patients in stable
Hansen, Klaus Marius; Zhang, Weishan; Ingstrup, Mads
An issue in self-managed systems is that different abstractions and programming models are used on different architectural layers, leading to systems that are harder to build and understand. To alleviate this, we introduce a self-management approach which combines high-level Petri nets...... with the capability of distributed communication among nets. Organized in a three-layer goal management, change management, and component control architecture this allows for self-management in distributed systems. We validate the approach through the Flamenco/CPN middleware that allows for self-management of service......-oriented pervasive computing systems through the runtime interpretation of colored Petri nets. The current work focuses on the change management and component control layers....
Russell, Steve; Martin, Faith; Zalwango, Flavia; Namukwaya, Stella; Nalugya, Ruth; Muhumuza, Richard; Katongole, Joseph; Seeley, Janet
The health of people living with HIV (PLWH) and the sustained success of antiretroviral therapy (ART) programmes depends on PLWH's motivation and ability to self-manage the condition over the long term, including adherence to drugs on a daily basis. PLWH's self-management of HIV and their wellbeing are likely to be interrelated. Successful self-management sustains wellbeing, and wellbeing is likely to motivate continued self-management. Detailed research is lacking on PLWH's self-management processes on ART in resource-limited settings. This paper presents findings from a study of PLWH's self-management and wellbeing in Wakiso District, Uganda. Thirty-eight PLWH (20 women, 18 men) were purposefully selected at ART facilities run by the government and by The AIDS Support Organisation in and around Entebbe. Two in-depth interviews were completed with each participant over three or four visits. Many were struggling economically, however the recovery of health and hope on ART had enhanced wellbeing and motivated self-management. The majority were managing their condition well across three broad domains of self-management. First, they had mobilised resources, notably through good relationships with health workers. Advice and counselling had helped them to reconceptualise their condition and situation more positively and see hope for the future, motivating their work to self-manage. Many had also developed a new network of support through contacts they had developed at the ART clinic. Second, they had acquired knowledge and skills to manage their health, a useful framework to manage their condition and to live their life. Third, participants were psychologically adjusting to their condition and their new 'self': they saw HIV as a normal disease, were coping with stigma and had regained self-esteem, and were finding meaning in life. Our study demonstrates the centrality of social relationships and other non-medical aspects of wellbeing for self-management which ART
Full Text Available The health of people living with HIV (PLWH and the sustained success of antiretroviral therapy (ART programmes depends on PLWH's motivation and ability to self-manage the condition over the long term, including adherence to drugs on a daily basis. PLWH's self-management of HIV and their wellbeing are likely to be interrelated. Successful self-management sustains wellbeing, and wellbeing is likely to motivate continued self-management. Detailed research is lacking on PLWH's self-management processes on ART in resource-limited settings. This paper presents findings from a study of PLWH's self-management and wellbeing in Wakiso District, Uganda. Thirty-eight PLWH (20 women, 18 men were purposefully selected at ART facilities run by the government and by The AIDS Support Organisation in and around Entebbe. Two in-depth interviews were completed with each participant over three or four visits. Many were struggling economically, however the recovery of health and hope on ART had enhanced wellbeing and motivated self-management. The majority were managing their condition well across three broad domains of self-management. First, they had mobilised resources, notably through good relationships with health workers. Advice and counselling had helped them to reconceptualise their condition and situation more positively and see hope for the future, motivating their work to self-manage. Many had also developed a new network of support through contacts they had developed at the ART clinic. Second, they had acquired knowledge and skills to manage their health, a useful framework to manage their condition and to live their life. Third, participants were psychologically adjusting to their condition and their new 'self': they saw HIV as a normal disease, were coping with stigma and had regained self-esteem, and were finding meaning in life. Our study demonstrates the centrality of social relationships and other non-medical aspects of wellbeing for self-management
Rasmussen, Gitte Susanne; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen; Lomborg, Kirsten
The aim of this integrative review is to identify and discuss patient needs for education to support self-management in daily life with psoriasis. As psoriasis increasingly gains recognition as a serious chronic autoimmune skin disease with long-term impairment on the life course, and not mainly...... a cosmetic problem, nurses are highly challenged to develop efficient education to support patient self-management. The paper includes five stages: (1) problem identification, (2) literature search, (3) data evaluation, (4) data analysis and synthesis, and (5) presentation, based on theoretic scaffolding...... around the concept "need." Nineteen of 164 original papers within nursing, medicine and psychology, and reflecting patient perspective were included. To capture the patients' cultural understanding of the implications of the disease and care, we developed an interlevel model indicating that self...
Ring, Nicola; Pinnock, Hilary; Wilson, Caroline; Hoskins, Gaylor; Jepson, Ruth; Wyke, Sally; Sheikh, Aziz
To identify from the literature what terms are used for 'asthma plans', with what meaning, and in what context(s). Linguistic analysis of a selected body of asthma literature from 1989-2009. A wide range of asthma plan terminology was evident, with terms such as 'action plans', 'self-management plans' and 'treatment plans' being applied inconsistently and synonymously. For individual patients the term 'asthma plan' can describe a clinically-determined list of prescribed medication, an agreed plan to guide self-management of changing symptoms, or a more holistic 'living with asthma' plan. In some contexts the term 'asthma plan' was also used to describe an organisational system of care, which causes further ambiguity. Within the literature, a plethora of terms is used inconsistently and with varied meaning. This is a potential, but previously unrecognised, barrier to asthma plan implementation. A taxonomy of asthma plans and a standardised definitions of terms is required.
Full Text Available Three factors in recent medical research and treatment (advances in the field of psychoneuroimmunology, epidemiological evidence regarding important interaction between psychosocial factors and development of disease, and the recognition of the importance of patient education for self-management of asthma have led clinicians and researchers to reconsider the role of psychosocial stress in asthma. There are many reports suggesting that stressful life events, family problems and a behavior pattern that increases psychological conflict may influence the development or relapse of asthma and influence its clinical course. Depression is known as one of the risk factors of fatal asthmatic attack. In laboratory studies, about 20% of asthmatics were considered reactors who showed an airway change after exposure to emotional stress. Studies regarding the pathway of stress effect on allergy and asthma are reviewed and discussed from the standpoint of psychoneuroimmunology; for example, the enhancement of IgE production and increased susceptibility to respiratory infection by stress, conditioned anaphylaxis and nerve/mast cell interaction, the effect of stress on various bronchial responses and the inhibition of the immediate and late asthmatic response by anterior hypothalamic lesioning.
Preminger, Jill E; Rothpletz, Ann M
Hearing impairment (HI) is a chronic condition; thus, even with treatment, residual participation restrictions and activity limitations typically remain. Individuals must learn to self-manage their HI. The purpose of this research note is to review components of successful Internet-based self-management programs and to evaluate group auditory rehabilitation (AR) programs with varying content, in order to make recommendations for the design of future Internet-based self-management programs. Effect sizes for changes in HI-specific quality of life following group AR activities from 4 published studies were calculated to determine if effect size varied systematically as a function of group activities. These findings are described using a self-management framework. Successful group AR activities include (a) psychosocial activities to promote role management, emotional management, and social support; (b) informational lectures and group discussion to promote education; (c) communication strategy exercises to promote self-efficacy and self-management skills; and (d) the inclusion of a frequent communication partner to promote social support and self-tailoring. It is recommended that future Internet-based self-management programs focus on the mechanisms of social support and education to promote learning and self-management skills. Future research will determine if these AR activities may be implemented effectively via the Internet.
Rangachari, Pavani; Mehta, Renuka; Rethemeyer, R Karl; Ferrang, Carole; Dennis, Clifton; Redd, Vickie
At the Children's Hospital of Georgia (CHOG), we found that outpatient revisits for pediatric asthma were significantly above national norms. According to the NIH, costly hospital revisits for asthma can be prevented through guidelines-based self-management of asthma, central to which, is the use of a written Asthma-Action Plan (AAP). The asthma services literature has emphasized the role of the healthcare provider in promoting asthma self-management using the AAP, to prevent hospital revisits. On the other hand, the asthma policy literature has emphasized the need for community-based interventions to promote asthma self-management. A gap remains in understanding the extent of leverage that healthcare providers may have in preventing hospital revisits for asthma, through effective communication of AAP in the outpatient setting. Our study sought to address this gap. We conducted a 6-month intervention to implement "patient-and-family-centered communication of the AAP" in CHOG outpatient clinics, based on the "change-management" theoretical framework. Provider communication of AAP was assessed through a survey of "Parent Understanding of the Child's AAP." A quasi-experimental approach was used to measure outpatient revisits for pediatric asthma, pre- and post-intervention. Survey results showed that provider communication of the AAP was unanimously perceived highly positively by parents of pediatric asthma patients, across various metrics of patient-centered care. However, there were no statistically significant differences in outpatient "revisit behavior" for pediatric asthma between pre- and post-intervention periods after controlling for several demographic variables. Additionally, revisits remained significantly above national norms. Results suggest limited potential of "effective provider communication of AAP," in reducing outpatient revisits for pediatric asthma; and indicate need for broader community-based interventions to address patient life variables
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Asthma KidsHealth / For Parents / Asthma What's in this article? ... I Know? Print en español Asma What Is Asthma? Asthma is a condition that causes breathing problems. ...
Huckvale, Kit; Morrison, Cecily; Ouyang, Jing; Ghaghda, Aseem; Car, Josip
Interest in mobile apps that support long-term conditions such as asthma is matched by recognition of the importance of the quality and safety of apps intended for patient use. We assessed how changes over a 2-year period affected the clinical suitability of apps providing self-management information and tools for people with asthma by updating a review first performed in 2011. Systematic content assessment of all apps for iOS and Android examining the comprehensiveness of asthma information, consistency with the evidence base for asthma self-management and adherence to best practice principles for trustworthy content, comparing the quality of apps available in 2011 to those released since. Between 2011 and 2013, numbers of asthma apps more than doubled from 93 to 191, despite withdrawal of 25% (n = 23/93) of existing apps. Newer apps were no more likely than those available in 2011 to include comprehensive information, such as the use of action plans, or offer guidance consistent with evidence; 13% (n = 19/147) of all apps, and 39% (n = 9/23) of those intended to manage acute asthma, recommended self-care procedures unsupported by evidence. Despite increases in the numbers of apps targeting specific skills, such as acute asthma management (n = 12 to 23) and inhaler technique (from n = 2 to 12), the proportion consistent with guidelines (17%, n = 4/23) and inhaler instructions (25%, n = 3/12), respectively, was low, and most apps provided only either basic information about asthma (50%, n = 75/147) or simple diary functions (24%, n = 36/147). In addition to persisting questions about clinical quality and safety, dynamic aspects of app turnover and feature evolution affect the suitability of asthma apps for use in routine care. The findings underline the need for coordinated quality assurance processes that can adapt to changing clinical and information governance-related risks, ensure compliance with the evidence base and reflect
Househ, Mowafa; Hossain, Nassif; Jamal, Amr; Zakaria, Nasriah; Elmetwally, Ashraf; Alsalamah, Majid; Khalifa, Mohamed
Providing patients opportunities for self-management and education about their disease, asthma applications designed for use on an Android operating system can have positive health outcomes across the range of demographics who use mHealth applications. This study provides a content analysis of freely available Google Android Platform Mobile Applications for Asthma. A list of applications was collected on 26 October 2014, using the search feature of the Google Play Android platform and using the words and phrases "Asthma," "Lung Function" and "Peak Flow." Each application was coded for its approach to asthma self-management, based on categories adapted by Huckvale et al., which are based on the Global Initiative for Asthma and the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program. The characteristics of the 15 asthma applications are described. Most of the asthma applications' primary function focused on patient self-monitoring and self-assessment. Using the HON Code, we found low health information quality across all asthma applications. Android asthma applications can have positive outcomes in helping patients as they provide opportunities for self-management and education about their disease. Future research should continue to monitor and evaluate the development and use of mHealth Asthma Applications. Based on these findings, and their indication of a gap in existing research, subsequent studies can continue to evaluate the development and use of mHealth Asthma Applications with increasing methodological consistency to improve the quality of in-app health information.
Grant, Marcia; McCorkle, Ruth; Hornbrook, Mark C; Wendel, Christopher S; Krouse, Robert
Each year a percentage of the 1.2 million men and women in the United States with a new diagnosis of colorectal cancer join the 700,000 people who have an ostomy. Education targeting the long-term, chronic care of this population is lacking. This report describes the development of a Chronic Care Ostomy Self-Management Program, which was informed by (1) evidence on published quality-of-life changes for cancer patients with ostomies, (2) educational suggestions from patients with ostomies, and (3) examination of the usual care of new ostomates to illustrate areas for continued educational emphases and areas for needed education and support. Using these materials, the Chronic Care Ostomy Self-Management Program was developed by a team of multi-disciplinary researchers accompanied by experienced ostomy nurses. Testing of the program is in process. Pilot study participants reported high satisfaction with the program syllabus, ostomy nurse leaders, and ostomate peer buddies.
Grant, Marcia; McCorkle, Ruth; Hornbrook, Mark C.; Wendel, Christopher S.; Krouse, Robert
Each year a percentage of the 1.2 million men and women in the United States with a new diagnosis of colorectal cancer join the 700,000 people who have an ostomy. Education targeting the long term, chronic care of this population is lacking. This report describes the development of a Chronic Care Ostomy Self Management Program, which was informed by (1) evidence on published quality of life changes for cancer patients with ostomies, (2) educational suggestions from patients with ostomies, and (3) examination of the usual care of new ostomates to illustrate areas for continued educational emphases and areas for needed education and support. Using these materials, the Chronic Care Ostomy Self Management Program was developed by a team of multi-disciplinary researchers accompanied by experienced ostomy nurses. Testing of the program is in process. Pilot study participants reported high satisfaction with the program syllabus, ostomy nurse leaders, and ostomate peer buddies. PMID:23104143
Webel, Allison R; Cuca, Yvette; Okonsky, Jennifer G; Asher, Alice K; Kaihura, Alphoncina; Salata, Robert A
HIV self-management is central to the health of people living with HIV and is comprised of the daily tasks individuals employ to manage their illness. Women living with HIV are confronted with social context vulnerabilities that impede their ability to conduct HIV self-management behaviors, including demanding social roles, poverty, homelessness, decreased social capital, and limited access to health care. We examined the relationship between these vulnerabilities and HIV self-management in a cross-sectional secondary analysis of 260 women living with HIV from two U.S. sites. All social context variables were assessed using validated self-report scales. HIV Self-Management was assessed using the HIV Self-Management Scale that measures daily health practices, HIV social support, and the chronic nature of HIV. Data were analyzed using appropriate descriptive statistics and multivariable regression. Mean age was 46 years and 65% of participants were African-American. Results indicated that social context variables, particularly social capital, significantly predicted all domains of HIV self-management including daily health practices (F = 5.40, adjusted R(2) = 0.27, p traditional social roles of mother and employee on the daily health practices and the chronic nature of HIV domains of HIV self-management. Our data support the idea that women's social context influences their HIV self-management behavior. While social context has been previously identified as important, our data provide new evidence on which aspects of social context might be important targets of self-management interventions for women living with HIV. Working to improve social capital and to incorporate social roles into the daily health practices of women living with HIV may improve the health of this population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Majeed-Ariss, Rabiya; Jackson, Cath; Knapp, Peter; Cheater, Francine M
To explore the effects of type 2 diabetes on British-Pakistani women's identity and its relationship with self-management. Type 2 diabetes is more prevalent and has worse outcomes among some ethnic minority groups. This may be due to poorer self-management and an inadequate match of health services to patient needs. The influence that type 2 diabetes has on British-Pakistani women's identity and subsequent self-management has received limited attention. An explorative qualitative study. Face-to-face semi-structured English and Urdu language interviews were conducted with a purposively selected heterogeneous sample of 15 British-Pakistani women with type 2 diabetes. Transcripts were analysed thematically. Four themes emerged: Perceived change in self emphasised how British-Pakistani women underwent a conscious adaptation of identity following diagnosis; Familiarity with ill health reflected women's adjustment to their changed identity over time; Diagnosis improves social support enabled women to accept changes within themselves and Supporting family is a barrier to self-management demonstrated how family roles were an aspect of women's identities that was resilient to change. The over-arching theme Role re-alignment enables successful self-management encapsulated how self-management was a continuous process where achievements needed to be sustained. Inter-generational differences were also noted: first generation women talked about challenges associated with ageing and co-morbidities; second generation women talked about familial and work roles competing with self-management. The complex nature of British-Pakistani women's self-identification requires consideration when planning and delivering healthcare. Culturally competent practice should recognise how generational status influences self-identity and diabetes self-management in ethnically diverse women. Health professionals should remain mindful of effective self-management occurring alongside, and being
Gliddon, Emma; Barnes, Steven J; Murray, Greg; Michalak, Erin E
Internet (eHealth) and smartphone-based (mHealth) approaches to self-management for bipolar disorder are increasingly common. Evidence-based self-management strategies are available for bipolar disorder and provide a useful framework for reviewing existing eHealth/mHealth programs to determine whether these strategies are supported by current technologies. This review assesses which self-management strategies are most supported by technology. Based on 3 previous studies, 7 categories of self-management strategies related to bipolar disorder were identified, followed by a systematic literature review to identify existing eHealth and mHealth programs for this disorder. Searches were conducted by using PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for relevant peer-reviewed articles published January 2005 to May 2015. eHealth and mHealth programs were summarized and reviewed to identify which of the 7 self-management strategy categories were supported by eHealth or mHealth programs. From 1,654 publications, 15 papers were identified for inclusion. From these, 9 eHealth programs and 2 mHealth programs were identified. The most commonly supported self-management strategy categories were "ongoing monitoring," "maintaining hope," "education," and "planning for and taking action"; the least commonly supported categories were "relaxation" and "maintaining a healthy lifestyle." eHealth programs appear to provide more comprehensive coverage of self-management strategies compared with mHealth programs. Both eHealth and mHealth programs present a wide range of self-management strategies for bipolar disorder, although individuals seeking comprehensive interventions might be best served by eHealth programs, while those seeking more condensed and direct interventions might prefer mHealth programs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Leitan, Nuwan D; Michalak, Erin E; Berk, Lesley; Berk, Michael; Murray, Greg
Self-management is emerging as a viable alternative to difficult-to-access psychosocial treatments for bipolar disorder (BD), and has particular relevance to recovery-related goals around empowerment and personal meaning. This review examines data and theory on BD self-management from a recovery-oriented perspective, with a particular focus on optimizing low-intensity delivery of self-management tools via the web. A critical evaluation of various literatures was undertaken. Literatures on recovery, online platforms, and self-management in mental health and BD are reviewed. The literature suggests that the self-management approach aligns with the recovery framework. However, studies have identified a number of potential barriers to the utilization of self-management programs for BD and it has been suggested that utilizing an online environment may be an effective way to surmount many of these barriers. Online self-management programs for BD are rapidly developing, and in parallel the recovery perspective is becoming the dominant paradigm for mental health services worldwide, so research is urgently required to assess the efficacy and safety of optimization methods such as professional and/or peer support, tailoring and the development of 'online communities'. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Khair, Kate; Meerabeau, Liz; Gibson, Faith
There is an increasing prevalence of children/young people with long-term conditions (LTC) in the UK due to improvements in health-care management and delivery. These children are often involved, from an early age, in their own care and management; yet, there are little data to support how or when they develop the necessary skills and knowledge to become competent at this care. This study aimed to understand self-management of haemophilia, from a child's perspective, in the 21st century in the UK where intensive prophylactic therapy is given from early childhood. A qualitative study using grounded theory to evaluate life-experiences of children and young people with haemophilia. Thirty boys aged 4-16 with severe haemophilia treated at a single paediatric haemophilia care centre were interviewed at home or in a focus group. Multimethod qualitative research including age-appropriate research tools (draw and write, photo-elicitation and interviews) to facilitate data collection from children. Boys develop self-management skills over time. They learn from health-care professionals, their parents and other family members with haemophilia. Self-management skills (bleed recognition, self-infusion, self and medicines management, pain and risk management and conceptualizing preventative therapy) are developed through experiential learning and individualized education, and not through formalized expert patient programmes. The boys in this study have benefited from early prophylactic factor replacement therapy. They develop skills in haemophilia and self-management at a relatively young age and are experts in their own haemophilia care. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
... in the airways of the lungs. When an asthma attack occurs, the lining of the air passages swells ... small amount of the substance can trigger an asthma attack. Using a respiratory device to protect or reduce ...
EPA is working to explore the role of common air pollutants in the development and exacerbation of asthma at different life stages as well as other environmental and genetic factors that might make a person more sensitive to developing asthma.
Bisgaard, Hans; Szefler, Stanley J
Limitations in asthma prevalence studies and difficulties in diagnosing pediatric asthma lead to uncertainty over the full extent of mild persistent asthma in children and adolescents. Although recent surveys have reported that the majority of pediatric patients with asthma in the United States...... and Europe have symptoms consistent with mild disease, these surveys have limitations in design. Thus, the true prevalence of mild asthma remains unknown. It is unclear whether children with mild persistent asthma progress to more severe asthma, but the risk of severe asthma exacerbations seems...... to be unrelated to the symptom severity. Clinical studies restricted to pediatric patients with mild asthma are limited, but available data do suggest substantial morbidity of mild persistent asthma in this population and support inhaled corticosteroid intervention. There is a need for further investigation...
Young, Hannah M L; Apps, Lindsay D; Harrison, Samantha L; Johnson-Warrington, Vicki L; Hudson, Nicky; Singh, Sally J
In light of the growing burden of COPD, there is increasing focus on the role of self-management for this population. Currently, self-management varies widely. Little is known either about nurses' and allied health professionals' (AHPs') understanding and provision of self-management in clinical practice. This study explores nurses' and AHPs' understanding and implementation of supported COPD self-management within routine clinical practice. Nurses and AHPs participated in face-to-face semistructured interviews to explore their understanding and provision of COPD self-management, as well as their perceptions of the challenges to providing such care. Purposive sampling was used to select participants from a range of professions working within primary, community, and secondary care settings. Three researchers independently analyzed each transcript using a thematic approach. A total of 14 participants were interviewed. Nurses and AHPs viewed self-management as an important aspect of COPD care, but often misunderstood what it involved, leading to variation in practice. A number of challenges to supporting self-management were identified, which related to lack of time, lack of insight regarding training needs, and assumptions regarding patients' perceived self-management abilities. Nurses and AHPs delivering self-management require clear guidance, training in the use of effective self-management skills, and education that challenges their preconceptions regarding patients. The design of health care services also needs to consider the practical barriers to COPD self-management support for the implementation of such interventions to be successful.
Jensen, Jesper Ole; Stensgaard, Anne Gro
The paper presents a case on self-management in the Danish social housing sector as a way of providing affordable housing. It is based on an evaluation of a Danish concept for affordable housing, Social Housing Plus (“AlmenBolig+”). The concept was introduced in 2007, and so far app 1.400 housing...
Jesús Miranda Izquierdo
Full Text Available Thi is article analyzes the potentialities and weaknesses that non directive Pedagogy presents, an example of the so called self managed pedagogy, whose postulates are good to analyze for the contributions that this position can make to the search of new ways of learning.
Sims, Henry P., Jr.; Dean, James W., Jr.
This article reviews the quality circle concept, shows why its characteristics appeal to American executives, and examines some of its limitations. It looks at self-managing teams and discusses the reasons that adoptions have been relatively few. It then shows what organizational conditions are necessary for quality circles to evolve into teams.…
Black, Heather L; Priolo, Chantel; Gonzalez, Rodalyn; Geer, Sabrina; Adam, Bariituu; Apter, Andrea J
To describe and categorize contextual information relevant to patients' medical care unexpectedly volunteered to research personnel as part of a patient advocate (PA) intervention to facilitate access health care, communication with medical personnel, and self-management of a chronic disease such as asthma. We adapted a patient navigator intervention, to overcome barriers to access and communication for adults with moderate or severe asthma. Informed by focus groups of patients and providers, our PAs facilitated preparation for a visit with an asthma provider, attended the visit, confirmed understanding, and assisted with post-visit activities. During meetings with researchers, either for PA activities or for data collection, participants frequently volunteered personal and medical information relevant for achieving successful self-management that was not routinely shared with medical personnel. For this project, researchers journaled information not captured by the structured questionnaires and protocol. Using a qualitative analysis, we describe (1) researchers' journals of these unique communications; (2) their relevance for accomplishing self-management; (3) PAs' formal activities including teach-back, advocacy, and facilitating appointment making; and (4) observations of patients' interactions with the clinical practices. In 83 journals, patients' social support (83%), health (68%), and deportment (69%) were described. PA assistance with navigating the medical system (59%), teach-back (46%), and observed interactions with patient and medical staff (76%) were also journaled. Implicit were ways patients and practices could overcome barriers to access and communication. These journals describe the importance of seeking contextual and medically relevant information from all patients and, especially, those with significant morbidities, prompting patients for barriers to access to health care, and confirming understanding of medical information.
Shields, Christopher A; Brawley, Lawrence R
We examined the influence of proxy-assistance on exercisers' social cognitions and behavior. Fifty-six fitness class participants reported preference for proxy-assistance and reacted to exercising in different contexts. A 2 (proxy-led vs self-managed exercise context) by 2 (preferred assistance) MANOVA revealed significant assistance by context interactions for self-regulatory efficacy (SRE) and difficulty. Regarding self-managed exercise, high-assistance individuals expressed lower SRE and higher difficulty. Chi-square analysis revealed that significantly fewer high-assistance participants chose self-managed exercise. A one-way MANOVA on preferred assistance indicated that high-assistance participants were less confident, satisfied and perceived their self-managed exercise as more difficult. Results support Bandura's theorizing that use of a proxy can limit SRE of those preferring the proxy's control of their behavior.
Kao, Chi-Wen; Chuang, Hui-Wan; Chen, Ting-Yu
The dramatic increase in smartphone usage has spurred the development of many health-related mobile applications (apps). On the other hand, population aging and the associated rise in the incidence of chronic disease is increasing the demand for long-term care. Effective chronic disease self-management has been shown to help patients improve their health condition. Numerous smartphone applications currently support patient self-management of chronic disease, facilitating health management and health promotion. The purpose of the present article was to introduce the definition, contents, and types of health-related apps; to discuss the effectiveness of self-management health-related apps in promoting chronic disease management; and to assess and evaluate these apps. We hope that the present article helps give to healthcare professionals and patients who are willing to manage their diseases a general understanding of health-related apps and their potential to facilitate the self-management of chronic diseases.
Nicholas, Jennifer; Boydell, Katherine; Christensen, Helen
Early adoption of effective self-management strategies for bipolar disorder (BD) results in better clinical outcomes and increased quality of life. Therefore, facilitation of these strategies in young adults who are early in their illness course is vital. However, an understanding of self-management practices and needs of young adults with BD is lacking. This study explores young adult's perspectives of disorder self-management practices and challenges. Young adults with BD completed an online survey about disorder management strategies and challenges. Self-management was investigated through self-report and ratings of literature-derived strategies. Results were analysed using descriptive statistics and qualitative thematic analysis. Eighty-nine participants aged 18-30 (M=24.4; SD=3.9) completed the survey. Adherence to treatment, disorder psychoeducation, and sleep-management were the strategies rated most helpful. Six participant-reported self-management strategies were identified (1) Maintaining a healthy lifestyle; (2) Treatment attendance and adherence; (3) Participation in meaningful activities; (4) Engagement with social support; (5) Meditation and relaxation practices; and (6) Symptom monitoring. The most common self-management challenges experienced by young adults concerned the nature of the disorder, interpersonal relationships, and stigma. Participants likely represent a sub-set of young adults engaged with healthcare and therefore may not be representative of the population. Strategies reported vital by those successfully managing their disorder are not adequately utilised by young adults with BD. Both differences in strategy use and perceived self-management challenges represent important areas of clinical support and intervention. This increased understanding will help facilitate self-management skill development in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available To appraise the Diabetes Self-Management Questionnaire (DSMQ's measurement of diabetes self-management as a statistical predictor of glycaemic control relative to the widely used SDSCA.248 patients with type 1 diabetes and 182 patients with type 2 diabetes were cross-sectionally assessed using the two self-report measures of diabetes self-management DSMQ and SDSCA; the scales were used as competing predictors of HbA1c. We developed a structural equation model of self-management as measured by the DSMQ and analysed the amount of variation explained in HbA1c; an analogue model was developed for the SDSCA.The structural equation models of self-management and glycaemic control showed very good fit to the data. The DSMQ's measurement of self-management showed associations with HbA1c of -0.53 for type 1 and -0.46 for type 2 diabetes (both P < 0.001, explaining 21% and 28% of variation in glycaemic control, respectively. The SDSCA's measurement showed associations with HbA1c of -0.14 (P = 0.030 for type 1 and -0.31 (P = 0.003 for type 2 diabetes, explaining 2% and 10% of glycaemic variation. Predictive power for glycaemic control was significantly higher for the DSMQ (P < 0.001.This study supports the DSMQ as the preferred tool when analysing self-reported behavioural problems related to reduced glycaemic control. The scale may be useful for clinical assessments of patients with suboptimal diabetes outcomes or research on factors affecting associations between self-management behaviours and glycaemic control.
... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Asthma Research: The NIH–NJRC Connection Past Issues / Fall ... the many ways that NIH supports and promotes asthma research is through its strong relationship with National ...
Full Text Available Background: Heart failure (HF is associated with frequent exacerbations and shortened lifespan. Informal caregivers such as significant others often support self-management in patients with HF. However, existing programs that aim to enhance self-management seldom engage informal caregivers or provide tools that can help alleviate caregiver burden or improve collaboration between patients and their informal caregivers. Objective: To develop and pilot test a program targeting the needs of self-management support among HF patients as well as their significant others. Methods: We developed the Dyadic Health Behavior Change model and conducted semi-structured interviews to determine barriers to self-management from various perspectives. Participants’ feedback was used to develop a family-centered self-management program called SUCCEED: Self-management Using Couples’ Coping EnhancEment in Diseases. The goals of this program are to improve HF self-management, quality of life, communication within couples, relationship quality, and stress and caregiver burden. We conducted a pilot study with 17 Veterans with HF and their significant others to determine acceptability of the program. We piloted psychosocial surveys at baseline and after participants’ program completion to evaluate change in depressive symptoms, caregiver burden, self-management of HF, communication, quality of relationship, relationship mutuality, and quality of life. Results: Of the 17 couples, 14 completed at least 1 SUCCEED session. Results showed high acceptability for each of SUCCEED’s sessions. At baseline, patients reported poor quality of life, clinically significant depressive symptoms, and inadequate self-management of HF. After participating in SUCCEED, patients showed improvements in self-management of HF, communication, and relationship quality, while caregivers reported improvements in depressive symptoms and caregiver burden. Quality of life of both patients and
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Full Text Available Introduction: Management coronary artery disease required lifelong treatment. The successful management of CHD requires efective coping, intention and medication adherence of CHD’s patients. This study aimed to explain the changes of coping, intention, and medication adherence in patients with CHD after giving self management programme in RSUD Jombang based on Theory Planned Behavior.Method: This study used a quasy experimental pretest-posttest control group design and 28 respondens selected by consecutive sampling. Independent variable was self management programme while dependent variables were coping, intention, medication adherence. Data were collected by using questonnaires measuring coping level, intention and medication adherence. The statistical test used was Mann Whitney, Wilcoxone Signed Rank and t-Test. Result: The result showed that 1 self management programme improve the level of coping in patients with CHD (p < 0,001, 2 self management programme improve the level of intention in patients with CHD (p < 0,001, 3 self management programme improve the level of medication adherence in patients with CHD (p < 0,001. Discussion: To change a behavior requires improvement of coping and intentions. This is in according to the Theory of Planned Behavior that behavior change is influenced by the attitude toward the behavior, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control and intention. Keywords: self management program, coping, intention, medication adherence, coronary heart disease
Pink, J.; Pink, K.; Elwyn, G.
BACKGROUND: Asthma self-management education is a key component of international guidelines. No gold standard patient centred outcome measure exists for asthma knowledge. Our aim was to identify high-quality, validated, and reliable outcome measures suitable for use in either the research or
MacKenzie, Ellen J
.... The intervention will build on widely accepted self-management programs developed for persons with arthritis as well as components of a face-to-face self-management program for civilians with long-standing limb loss...
Barrecheguren, Miriam; Bourbeau, Jean
Self-management has gained increased relevance in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. The heterogeneity in self-management interventions has complicated the development of recommendations for clinical practice. In this review, we present the latest findings regarding conceptual definition, effectiveness of self-management interventions and self-management strategies in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as a first step toward personalized medicine: what, how and to whom? Self-management interventions have shown benefits in improving health-related quality of life and reducing hospital admissions. Favorable outcomes can only be achieved if patients have an ultimate goal, that is their desired achievements in their life. In the continuum of care, the components of the self-management program will vary to adapt to the condition of the patient (disease severity, comorbidities) and to factors such as patient motivation, confidence (self-efficacy), access to health care, family and social support. A combination of education, case management and patient-centric action plan has shown the best chance of success. The individual patient's needs, own preferences and personal goals should inform the design of any intervention with a behavioral component. A continuous loop process has to be implemented to constantly assess what work and does not work, aiming at achieving the desired outcomes for a given patient.
Nici, Linda; Bontly, Thomas D; Zuwallack, Richard; Gross, Nicholas
Self-management in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, centering on an action plan for the exacerbation and enhanced communication between the patient and health care providers, makes good clinical sense. However, five relatively large trials of self-management in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have had inconsistent results: only two demonstrated reductions in health care utilization and one had to be discontinued prematurely because of increased mortality. Do these discordant findings require a paradigm shift in our concept of self-management? Probably not-but an analysis of the negative studies can give us valuable insights. There are data to support the idea that patients in the trial that showed increased mortality did not self-manage appropriately. Only 4.5% of these patients called in before starting treatment for their exacerbation, the time to initiation of antibiotics or steroids was unsatisfactorily long, and the intervention arm used minimally more prednisone and antibiotics than the control arm. The reasons for a higher mortality will likely never be known, but it is possible that these high-risk patients may have needed earlier assessment by a trained professional, or that self-management led to overconfidence and treatment delays. We clearly need more effective ways to implement self-management and better define which groups of patients stand to benefit (or be harmed) by this intervention. This will require an investment in well-thought-out clinical trials.
Castro, Sarah; O'Toole, Mary; Brownson, Carol; Plessel, Kimberly; Schauben, Laura
Although the American Indian population has a disproportionately high rate of type 2 diabetes, little has been written about culturally sensitive self-management programs in this population. Community and clinic partners worked together to identify barriers to diabetes self-management and to provide activities and services as part of a holistic approach to diabetes self-management, called the Full Circle Diabetes Program. The program activities and services addressed 4 components of holistic health: body, spirit, mind, and emotion. Seven types of activities or services were available to help participants improve diabetes self-management; these included exercise classes, educational classes, and talking circles. Ninety-eight percent of program enrollees participated in at least 1 activity, and two-thirds participated in 2 or more activities. Program participation resulted in a significant improvement in knowledge of resources for managing diabetes. The Full Circle Diabetes Program developed and implemented culturally relevant resources and supports for diabetes self-management in an American Indian population. Lessons learned included that a holistic approach to diabetes self-management, community participation, and stakeholder partnerships are needed for a successful program.
O'Dell, Kristi; O'Dell, Michael
This study describes the utility of the brief Chronic Illness Resources Survey (CIRS) in a family medicine clinic. The brief CIRS is a 22-item scale that assesses support for self-management tasks common to chronic illnesses. The scale is based on socio-ecological theory and measures seven levels of socio-environmental support. The sample included 31 males and females aged 38 - 86 years with a diagnosis of diabetes who presented for care at a family medicine residency clinic. After scheduled office visits, patients completed the brief CIRS, demographic indicators, and brief medical information. The health care team, personal support, and media/policy subscales were rated the highest followed by family and friends, neighborhood, workplace, and community organizations. There were no significant differences in the t-tests between select demographic variables (gender, race, age, marital status, and work status) and CIRS total score. Females' higher total CIRS score was nearly statistically significant as compared to males' total CIRS score. The health care team is of primary importance in diabetic patient self-management, and so, the brief CIRS may be a useful rapid assessment instrument in a medical clinic setting where additional resources may be identified and recommended as indicated by the physician.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-management is rarely studied 'in the wild'. We sought to produce a richer understanding of how people live with diabetes and why self-management is challenging for some. Method Ethnographic study supplemented with background documents on social context. We studied a socio-economically and ethnically diverse UK population. We sampled 30 people with diabetes (15 type 1, 15 type 2 by snowballing from patient groups, community contacts and NHS clinics. Participants (aged 5-88, from a range of ethnic and socio-economic groups were shadowed at home and in the community for 2-4 periods of several hours (total 88 visits, 230 hours; interviewed (sometimes with a family member or carer about their self-management efforts and support needs; and taken out for a meal. Detailed field notes were made and annotated. Data analysis was informed by structuration theory, which assumes that individuals' actions and choices depend on their dispositions and capabilities, which in turn are shaped and constrained (though not entirely determined by wider social structures. Results Self-management comprised both practical and cognitive tasks (e.g. self-monitoring, menu planning, medication adjustment and socio-emotional ones (e.g. coping with illness, managing relatives' input, negotiating access to services or resources. Self-management was hard work, and was enabled or constrained by economic, material and socio-cultural conditions within the family, workplace and community. Some people managed their diabetes skilfully and flexibly, drawing on personal capabilities, family and social networks and the healthcare system. For others, capacity to self-manage (including overcoming economic and socio-cultural constraints was limited by co-morbidity, cognitive ability, psychological factors (e.g. under-confidence, denial and social capital. The consequences of self-management efforts strongly influenced people's capacity and motivation to continue them
Full Text Available Abstract Background After diagnosis of a dementing illness, patients and their spouses have many concerns related to the disease and their future. This often leads to poor psychological well-being and reduced health-related quality of life (HRQoL of the family. Support for self-management skills has been proven to be an effective method to improve prognosis of asthma, heart failure and osteoarthritis. However, self-management interventions have not been studied in dementia. Therefore, our aim was to examine, in an objective-oriented group intervention, the efficacy of self-management support program (SMP on the HRQoL of dementia patients and their spousal caregivers as well as on the sense of competence and psychological well-being of caregivers. Methods During the years 2011 to 12, 160 dementia patients and their spouses will be recruited from memory clinics and randomized into two arms: 80 patients for group-based SMP sessions including topics selected by the participants, 80 patients will serve as controls in usual community care. Sessions may include topics on dementia, community services, active lifestyle and prevention for cognitive decline, spousal relationship, future planning and emotional well-being. The patients and spouses will have their separate group sessions (ten participants per group once a week for eight weeks. Main outcome measures will be patients’ HRQoL (15D and spousal caregivers’ HRQoL (RAND-36, and sense of competence (SCQ. Secondary measures will be caregivers’ psychological well-being (GHQ-12 and coping resources, patients’ depression, cognition and signs of frailty. Data concerning admissions to institutional care and the use and costs of health and social services will be collected during a two-year follow-up. Discussion This is a ‘proof-of-concept’ study to explore the efficacy of group support for self-management skills among dementia families. It will also provide data on cost-effectiveness of the
Fu, Yu; McNichol, Elaine; Marczewski, Kathryn; Closs, S José
Chronic back pain is common, and its self-management may be a lifelong task for many patients. While health professionals can provide a service or support for pain, only patients can actually experience it. It is likely that optimum self-management of chronic back pain may only be achieved when patients and professionals develop effective partnerships which integrate their complementary knowledge and skills. However, at present, there is no evidence to explain how such partnerships can influence patients' self-management ability. This review aimed to explore the influence of patient-professional partnerships on patients' ability to self-manage chronic back pain, and to identify key factors within these partnerships that may influence self-management. A systematic review was undertaken, aiming to retrieve relevant studies using any research method. Five databases were searched for papers published between 1980 and 2014, including Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Medline, EMBASE and PsycINFO. Eligible studies were those reporting on patients being supported by professionals to self-manage chronic back pain; patients being actively involved for self-managing chronic back pain; and the influence of patient-professional partnerships on self-management of chronic back pain. Included studies were critically appraised for quality, and findings were extracted and analysed thematically. A total of 738 studies were screened, producing 10 studies for inclusion, all of which happened to use qualitative methods. Seven themes were identified: communication, mutual understanding, roles of health professionals, information delivery, patients' involvement, individualised care and healthcare service. These themes were developed into a model suggesting how factors within patient-professional partnerships influence self-management. Review findings suggest that a partnership between patients and professionals supports patients' self-management ability, and effective communication is a
Zierau, Louise; Gade, Elisabeth Juul; Lindenberg, Svend
Asthma may be associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and possibly patients with PCOS have a more severe type of asthma. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to summarize evidence of a coexistense of PCOS and asthma using the available literature. The search was completed...... on 01.01.2016. English language articles were retrieved using the search terms 'Asthma' AND 'PCOS', 'Asthma' AND 'systemic inflammation', 'Asthma' AND 'metabolic syndrome', 'asthma' AND 'gynaecology', 'PCOS' AND 'systemic inflammation', 'PCOS' AND 'metabolic syndrome', 'PCOS' AND 'allergy'. Five papers...... meeting prespecified search criteria were found of which two were registry studies of relevance. The current literature supports a coexistense of PCOS and asthma and gives us an indication of the causes for the possible link between PCOS and asthma. Further research in the area must be conducted...
... method of taking control is called “self-management.” What is self-management of chronic illness? Self-management of chronic illness means that you take responsibility for doing what it takes to manage your illness effectively. It’s ...
Van den Broucke, S; Van der Zanden, G; Chang, P; Doyle, G; Levin, D; Pelikan, J; Schillinger, D; Schwarz, P; Sørensen, K; Yardley, L; Riemenschneider, H
Patient empowerment through self-management education is central to improving the quality of diabetes care and preventing Type 2 Diabetes. Although national programs exist, there is no EU-wide strategy for diabetes self-management education, and patients with limited literacy face barriers to effective self-management. The Diabetes Literacy project, initiated with the support of the European Commission, aims to fill this gap. The project investigates the effectiveness of diabetes self-management education, targeting people with or at risk of Type 2 Diabetes in the 28 EU Member States, as part of a comprehensive EU-wide diabetes strategy. National diabetes strategies in the EU, US, Taiwan, and Israel are compared, and diabetes self-management programs inventorized. The costs of the diabetes care pathway are assessed on a per person basis at national level. A comparison is made of the (cost)-effectiveness of different methods for diabetes self-management support, and the moderating role of health literacy, organization of the health services, and implementation fidelity of education programs are considered. Web-based materials are developed and evaluated by randomized trials to evaluate if interactive internet delivery can enhance self-management support for people with lower levels of health literacy. The 3-year project started in December 2012. Several literature reviews have been produced and protocol development and research design are in the final stages. Primary and secondary data collection and analysis take place in 2014. The results will inform policy decisions on improving the prevention, treatment, and care for persons with diabetes across literacy levels. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
... Asthma Associated Conditions Asthma & Pregnancy Asthma & Pregnancy: Medications Asthma & Pregnancy: Medications Make an Appointment Refer a Patient ... make sure you are using it correctly. Other Asthma Related Medication Treatment Annual influenza vaccine (flu shot) ...
Peyrot, Mark; Egede, Leonard E; Funnell, Martha M; Hsu, William C; Ruggiero, Laurie; Siminerio, Linda M; Stuckey, Heather L
Understanding the relationship between ethnicity and self-management is important due to disparities in healthcare access, utilization, and outcomes among adults with type 2 diabetes from different ethnic groups in the US. Self-reports of self-management and interest in improving self-management from US people with diabetes (PWD) in the 2nd Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes and Needs (DAWN2) study, a multinational, multi-stakeholder survey, were analyzed, including 447 non-Hispanic White, 241 African American, 194 Hispanic American, and 173 Chinese American PWD (>18 years). Overall, self-management behavior was highest for medication taking and lowest for physical activity. Non-Hispanic Whites had lowest physical activity and highest adherence to insulin therapy. Chinese Americans had lowest foot care and highest healthy eating. Overall, interest was highest for improving healthy eating and physical activity. Chinese Americans and Hispanic Americans were more interested than non-Hispanic Whites in improving most self-management behaviors. Chinese Americans were more interested than African Americans in improving most self-management behaviors. Healthcare providers telling PWD that their A1c needs improvement was associated with lower self-rated glucose control, which was associated with higher PWD interest in improving self-management behaviors. Diabetes care providers should use patient-centered approaches and consider ethnicity in tailoring self-management support. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhao, Denise H; Cheung, Janet M Y; Smith, Lorraine; Saini, Bandana
People with asthma spend a significant amount of time in the workplace but little is known about the current state of disease management in such contexts. The aim of the current study is to explore the experiences, attitudes and perceptions of asthma across different stakeholders in the workplace to help inform potential recommendations for workplace asthma policies. Using purposive and convenience sampling methods, in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted in Australia with 5 human resource personnel, 10 employees with asthma and 10 employees without asthma. Interviews were guided by a schedule of questions focusing on attitudes and experiences of people with asthma in the workplace, which were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed. Analysis of the qualitative dataset revealed three key themes: Beliefs and Attitudes about Asthma, Asthma Solutions in the Workplace and Workplace Obstacles. Findings suggest that employees with asthma experience problems managing their asthma at work and there is a lack of workplace support in relation to asthma emergency management. Key recommendations for workplace asthma policies have been made to provide better support for employees with asthma. However, further investigation into the experience of managing asthma is required in a wider variety of occupations and work experiences to inform the development of a workplace asthma policy.
Shirazian, Shayan; Crnosija, Natalie; Weinger, Katie; Jacobson, Alan M; Park, Joonho; Tanenbaum, Molly L; Gonzalez, Jeffrey S; Mattana, Joseph; Hammock, Amy C
The purpose of this study was to explore views related to the self-management of type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease. We conducted three semi-structured focus groups in participants with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Credibility was supported through triangulation of data sources and the use of multiple investigators from different disciplines. Twenty-three adults participated. Three major themes were identified: emotional reactions to health state, the impact of family dynamics on self-management, and the burden of self-management regimens. Family dynamics were found to be a barrier and support to self-management, while complicated self-management regimens were found to be a barrier. Additionally, participants expressed several emotional reactions related to their CKD status, including regret related to having developed CKD and distress related both to their treatment regimens and the future possibility of dialysis. This exploratory study of patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease describes barriers and supports to self-management and emotional reactions to chronic kidney disease status. Future research should confirm these findings in a larger population and should include family members and/or health care providers to help further define problems with self-management in patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available Patients suffering from chronic respiratory disease need to follow a rehabilitative exercise programme, in order to self-manage their illness and improve quality of life. Adherence to the programme is highly dependent on professional support from a physiotherapist and hence declines when patients seek to self-manage in the home. A number of requirements were identified for a Smartphone-based application in which patients are supported remotely and given automatic feedback during exercise. An application is described which will improve adherence during pulmonary rehabilitation.
Zhang, Weishan; Hansen, Klaus Marius
Context-awareness is an important feature in Ambient Intelligence environments including in pervasive middleware. In addition, there is a growing trend and demand on self-management capabilities for a pervasive middleware in order to provide high-level dependability for services. In this chapter......, we propose to make use of context-awareness features to facilitate self-management. To achieve self-management, dynamic contexts for example device and service statuses, are critical to take self-management actions. Therefore, we consider dynamic contexts in context modeling, specifically as a set...... of OWL/SWRL ontologies, called the Self-Management for Pervasive Services (SeMaPS) ontologies. Self-management rules can be developed based on the SeMaPS ontologies to achieve self-management goals. Our approach is demonstrated within the LinkSmart pervasive middleware. Finally, our experiments...
J.N.T. Sattoe (Jane)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ Becoming an adult often proves extra challenging for those who grow up with chronic conditions, because adaptive tasks related to living with a chronic condition can clash with normal developmental milestones. Finding a good balance and integrating these tasks in
Blok, Amanda C
To report an analysis of the concept of self-management behaviors. Self-management behaviors are typically associated with disease management, with frequent use by nurse researchers related to chronic illness management and by international health organizations for development of disease management interventions. A concept analysis was conducted within the context of Orem's self-care framework. Walker and Avant's eight-step concept analysis approach guided the analysis. Academic databases were searched for relevant literature including CIHAHL, Cochrane Databases of Systematic Reviews and Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, PsycARTICLES and PsycINFO, and SocINDEX. Literature using the term "self-management behavior" and published between April 2001 and March 2015 was analyzed for attributes, antecedents, and consequences. A total of 189 journal articles were reviewed. Self-management behaviors are defined as proactive actions related to lifestyle, a problem, planning, collaborating, and mental support, as well as reactive actions related to a circumstantial change, to achieve a goal influenced by the antecedents of physical, psychological, socioeconomic, and cultural characteristics, as well as collaborative and received support. The theoretical definition and middle-range explanatory theory of self-management behaviors will guide future collaborative research and clinical practice for disease management. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Tung, James Y; Stead, Brent; Mann, William; Ba'Pham; Popovic, Milos R
Pressure ulcers (PUs) in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) present a persistent and costly problem. Continuing effort in developing new technologies that support self-managed care is an important prevention strategy. Specifically, the aims of this scoping review are to review the key concepts and factors related to self-managed prevention of PUs in individuals with SCI and appraise the technologies available to assist patients in self-management of PU prevention practices. There is broad consensus that sustaining long-term adherence to prevention regimens is a major concern. Recent literature highlights the interactions between behavioral and physiological risk factors. We identify four technology categories that support self-management: computer-based educational technologies demonstrated improved short-term gains in knowledge (2 studies), interface pressure mapping technologies demonstrated improved adherence to pressure-relief schedules up to 3 mo (5 studies), electrical stimulation confirmed improvements in tissue tolerance after 8 wk of training (3 studies), and telemedicine programs demonstrated improvements in independence and reduced hospital visits over 6 mo (2 studies). Overall, self-management technologies demonstrated low-to-moderate effectiveness in addressing a subset of risk factors. However, the effectiveness of technologies in preventing PUs is limited due to a lack of incidence reporting. In light of the key findings, we recommend developing integrated technologies that address multiple risk factors.
Castensøe-Seidenfaden, Pernille; Reventlov Husted, Gitte; Teilmann, Grete Katrine
recommendations based on experiences and reflections from a 2-year research study. METHODS: A mixed methods design was used to identify user needs before designing the app and testing it in a randomized controlled trial. App design was based on qualitative, explorative, interventional, and experimental activities...... information is available to guide their selection of appropriate methods, techniques, and tools for a participatory design (PD) project in health care. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to develop an mHealth app to support young people in self-managing type 1 diabetes. This paper presents our methodological......BACKGROUND: Young people with type 1 diabetes often struggle to self-manage their disease. Mobile health (mHealth) apps show promise in supporting self-management of chronic conditions such as type 1 diabetes. Many health care providers become involved in app development. Unfortunately, limited...
Conclusion: The diabetes self-management activities were more strongly associated with HbA1c under conditions of high social support, self-efficacy and health beliefs with Buddhist values. Future interventions for T2DM self-management programs should incorporate mechanisms to measure and support these factors.
Dye, Cheryl J; Williams, Joel E; Evatt, Janet Hoffman
Approximately two thirds of those older than 60 years have a hypertension diagnosis. The aim of our program, Health Coaches for Hypertension Control, is to improve hypertension self-management among rural residents older than 60 years through education and support offered by trained community volunteers called Health Coaches. Participants received baseline and follow-up health risk appraisals with blood work, educational materials, and items such as blood pressure monitors and pedometers. Data were collected at baseline, 8 weeks, and 16 weeks on 146 participants who demonstrated statistically significant increases in hypertension-related knowledge from baseline to 8 weeks that persisted at 16 weeks, as well as significant improvements in stage of readiness to change behaviors and in actual behaviors. Furthermore, clinically significant decreases in all outcome measures were observed, with statistically significant changes in systolic blood pressure (-5.781 mmHg; p = .001), weight (-2.475 lb; p definition of controlled hypertension at baseline, the proportion of participants meeting this definition at 16 weeks postintervention increased to 51.0%. This article describes a university-community-hospital system model that effectively promotes hypertension self-management in a rural Appalachian community. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.
Bowling, C Barrett; Vandenberg, Ann E; Phillips, Lawrence S; McClellan, William M; Johnson, Theodore M; Echt, Katharina V
Patients with CKD are asked to perform self-management tasks including dietary changes, adhering to medications, avoiding nephrotoxic drugs, and self-monitoring hypertension and diabetes. Given the effect of aging on functional capacity, self-management may be especially challenging for older patients. However, little is known about the specific challenges older adults face maintaining CKD self-management regimens. We conducted an exploratory qualitative study designed to understand the relationship among factors facilitating or impeding CKD self-management in older adults. Six focus groups ( n =30) were held in August and September of 2014 with veterans≥70 years old with moderate-to-severe CKD receiving nephrology care at the Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Grounded theory with a constant comparative method was used to collect, code, and analyze data. Participants had a mean age (range) of 75.1 (70.1-90.7) years, 60% were black, and 96.7% were men. The central organizing concept that emerged from these data were managing complexity. Participants typically did not have just one chronic condition, CKD, but a number of commonly co-occurring conditions. Recommendations for CKD self-management therefore occurred within a complex regimen of recommendations for managing other diseases. Participants identified overtly discordant treatment recommendations across chronic conditions ( e.g., arthritis and CKD). Prioritization emerged as one effective strategy for managing complexity ( e.g. , focusing on BP control). Some patients arrived at the conclusion that they could group concordant recommendations to simplify their regimens ( e.g. , protein restriction for both gout and CKD). Among older veterans with moderate-to-severe CKD, multimorbidity presents a major challenge for CKD self-management. Because virtually all older adults with CKD have multimorbidity, an integrated treatment approach that supports self-management across commonly occurring conditions may be
Richardson, Julie; Loyola-Sanchez, Adalberto; Sinclair, Susanne; Harris, Jocelyn; Letts, Lori; MacIntyre, Norma J; Wilkins, Seanne; Burgos-Martinez, Gabriela; Wishart, Laurie; McBay, Cathy; Martin Ginis, Kathleen
To investigate the contributions of physiotherapy and occupational therapy to self-management interventions and the theoretical models used to support these interventions in chronic disease. We conducted two literature searches to identify studies that evaluated self-management interventions involving physiotherapists and occupational therapists in MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, CINAHL, EMBASE, AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine), SPORTdiscus, and REHABDATA databases. Four investigator pairs screened article title and abstract, then full text with inclusion criteria. Selected articles (n = 57) included adults who received a chronic disease self-management intervention, developed or delivered by a physiotherapist and/or an occupational therapist compared with a control group. Four pairs of investigators performed independent reviews of each article and data extraction included: (a) participant characteristics, (b) the self-management intervention, (c) the comparison intervention, (d) outcome measures, construct measured and results. A total of 47 articles reported the involvement of physiotherapy in self-management compared with 10 occupational therapy articles. The type of chronic condition produced different yields: arthritis n = 21 articles; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic pain n = 9 articles each. The theoretical frameworks most frequently cited were social cognitive theory and self-efficacy theory. Physical activity was the predominant focus of the self-management interventions. Physiotherapy programmes included disease-specific education, fatigue, posture, and pain management, while occupational therapists concentrated on joint protection, fatigue, and stress management. Physiotherapists and occupational therapists make moderate contributions to self-management interventions. Most of these interventions are disease-specific and are most frequently based on the principles of behaviour change theories. © The Author(s) 2014.
Archer, Norm; Keshavjee, Karim; Demers, Catherine; Lee, Ryan
As the fraction of the population with chronic diseases continues to grow, methods and/or technologies must be found to help the chronically ill to take more responsibility to self-manage their illnesses. Internet based and/or mobile support for disease self-management interventions have often proved effective, but patients with chronic illnesses may have co-occurring cognitive impairment, making it more difficult for them to cope with technologies. Many older patients are also not familiar with technologies or they may have cognitive disabilities or dementia that reduce their ability to self-manage their healthcare. On-line solutions to the needs of chronically ill patients must be investigated and acted upon with care in an integrated manner, since resources invested in these solutions will be lost if patients do not adopt and continue to use them successfully. To review the capabilities of online and mobile support for self-management of chronic illnesses, and the impacts that age and disease-related issues have on these interventions, including cognitive impairment and lack of access or familiarity with Internet or mobile technologies. This study includes a review of the co-occurrence of cognitive impairment with chronic diseases, and discusses how cognitive impairment, dyadic caregiver patient support, patient efficacy with technology, and smart home technologies can impact the effectiveness and sustainability of online support for disease self-management. Disease self-management interventions (SMIs) using online patient centered support can often enable patients to manage their own chronic illnesses. However, our findings show that cognitive impairment often co-occurs in patients with chronic disease. This, along with age-related increases in multiple chronic illnesses and lack of technology efficacy, can be obstacles to Internet and mobile support for chronic disease self-management. Patients with chronic diseases may have greater than expected difficulties
Brigham, Emily P; West, Natalie E
Asthma is a heterogeneous disease, encompassing both atopic and non-atopic phenotypes. Diagnosis of asthma is based on the combined presence of typical symptoms and objective tests of lung function. Objective diagnostic testing consists of 2 components: (1) demonstration of airway obstruction, and (2) documentation of variability in degree of obstruction. A review of current guidelines and literature was performed regarding diagnostic testing for asthma. Spirometry with bronchodilator reversibility testing remains the mainstay of asthma diagnostic testing for children and adults. Repetition of the test over several time points may be necessary to confirm airway obstruction and variability thereof. Repeated peak flow measurement is relatively simple to implement in a clinical and home setting. Bronchial challenge testing is reserved for patients in whom the aforementioned testing has been unrevealing but clinical suspicion remains, though is associated with low specificity. Demonstration of eosinophilic inflammation, via fractional exhaled nitric oxide measurement, or atopy, may be supportive of atopic asthma, though diagnostic utility is limited particularly in nonatopic asthma. All efforts should be made to confirm the diagnosis of asthma in those who are being presumptively treated but have not had objective measurements of variability in the degree of obstruction. Multiple testing modalities are available for objective confirmation of airway obstruction and variability thereof, consistent with a diagnosis of asthma in the appropriate clinical context. Providers should be aware that both these characteristics may be present in other disease states, and may not be specific to a diagnosis of asthma. © 2015 ARS-AAOA, LLC.
Barrett, Meredith A; Humblet, Olivier; Marcus, Justine E; Henderson, Kelly; Smith, Ted; Eid, Nemr; Sublett, J Wesley; Renda, Andrew; Nesbitt, LaQuandra; Van Sickle, David; Stempel, David; Sublett, James L
Asthma inflicts a significant health and economic burden in the United States. Self-management approaches to monitoring and treatment can be burdensome for patients. To assess the effect of a digital health management program on asthma outcomes. Residents of Louisville, Kentucky, with asthma were enrolled in a single-arm pilot study. Participants received electronic inhaler sensors that tracked the time, frequency, and location of short-acting β-agonist (SABA) use. After a 30-day baseline period during which reference medication use was recorded by the sensors, participants received access to a digital health intervention designed to enhance self-management. Changes in outcomes, including mean daily SABA use, symptom-free days, and asthma control status, were compared among the initial 30-day baseline period and all subsequent months of the intervention using mixed-model logistic regressions and χ 2 tests. The mean number of SABA events per participant per day was 0.44 during the control period and 0.27 after the first month of the intervention, a 39% reduction. The percentage of symptom-free days was 77% during the baseline period and 86% after the first month, a 12% improvement. Improvement was observed throughout the study; each intervention month demonstrated significantly lower SABA use and higher symptom-free days than the baseline month (P asthma during the baseline period, 67% during the first month of the intervention. Each intervention month demonstrated significantly higher percentages than the baseline month (P asthma management intervention demonstrated significant reductions in SABA use, increased number of symptom-free days, and improvements in asthma control. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02162576. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Essue, Beverley M; Jowsey, Tanisha; Jeon, Yun-Hee; Mirzaei, Masoud; Pearce-Brown, Carmen L; Aspin, Clive; Usherwood, Tim P
The Serious and Continuing Illness Policy and Practice Study (SCIPPS) aims to improve the care and support for patients with chronic illness and their family carers. Here we describe the carers' contribution to the self-management partnership and discuss the policy and practice implications that are relevant to improving the support available for informal care in Australia. A secondary analysis of SCIPPS data. Fourteen carers of patients between 45 and 85 years with chronic heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and diabetes were conveniently sampled from western Sydney and the Australian Capital Territory. Semi-structured interviews were conducted. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Key roles that carers perform in the self-management partnership included: home helper; lifestyle coach; advocate; technical care manager; and health information interpreter. Two negative consequences of juggling these roles included: self-neglect and conflict. Rigid eligibility criteria limit carers' access to essential support programs which underestimates and undervalues their contributions to the self-management partnership. Support services should focus on the development of practical skills to perform the caregiving roles. In addition, health professionals require support to work more effectively with carers to minimise the conflict that can overshadow the care and self-management partnership.
Holgate, S.; Bisgaard, H.; Bjermer, L.
Asthma is a highly prevalent condition across Europe and numerous guidelines have been developed to optimise management. However, asthma can be neither cured nor prevented, treatment choices are limited and many patients have poorly controlled or uncontrolled asthma. The Brussels Declaration on A...... reviews the evidence supporting the need for change in asthma management and summarises the ten key points contained in the Brussels Declaration Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12......Asthma is a highly prevalent condition across Europe and numerous guidelines have been developed to optimise management. However, asthma can be neither cured nor prevented, treatment choices are limited and many patients have poorly controlled or uncontrolled asthma. The Brussels Declaration...... on Asthma, sponsored by The Asthma, Allergy and Inflammation Research Charity, was developed to call attention to the shortfalls in asthma management and to urge European policy makers to recognise that asthma is a public health problem that should be a political priority. The Declaration urges recognition...
Shegog, Ross; Bamps, Yvan A; Patel, Archna; Kakacek, Jody; Escoffery, Cam; Johnson, Erica K; Ilozumba, Ukwuoma O
The Managing Epilepsy Well (MEW) Network was established in 2007 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Epilepsy Program to expand epilepsy self-management research. The network has employed collaborative research strategies to develop, test, and disseminate evidence-based, community-based, and e-Health interventions (e-Tools) for epilepsy self-management for people with epilepsy, caregivers, and health-care providers. Since its inception, MEW Network collaborators have conducted formative studies (n=7) investigating the potential of e-Health to support epilepsy self-management and intervention studies evaluating e-Tools (n=5). The MEW e-Tools (the MEW website, WebEase, UPLIFT, MINDSET, and PEARLS online training) and affiliated e-Tools (Texting 4 Control) are designed to complement self-management practices in each phase of the epilepsy care continuum. These tools exemplify a concerted research agenda, shared methodological principles and models for epilepsy self-management, and a communal knowledge base for implementing e-Health to improve quality of life for people with epilepsy. © 2013.
Blixen, Carol; Levin, Jennifer B; Cassidy, Kristin A; Perzynski, Adam T; Sajatovic, Martha
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic mental illness associated with reduced quality of life, high rates of suicide, and high financial costs. Evidence indicates that psychosocial stress might play an important role in the onset and course of BD. The objective of this study was to address the gap between coping theory and the clinical use of coping strategies used to self-manage BD. In-depth interviews were conducted with a sample of 21 poorly adherent patients with BD. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using content analysis with an emphasis on dominant themes. Transcript-based analysis generated two major domains of coping strategies used to self-manage BD: 1) problem focused (altering eating habits, managing mood-stabilizing medications, keeping psychiatric appointments, seeking knowledge, self-monitoring, and socializing) and 2) emotion focused (distracting activities, denial, isolation, modifying/avoiding, helping others, and seeking social support). Participants used both types of coping strategies to deal with stressful situations brought about by the internal and external demands associated with self-management of BD. This qualitative study provided a first step in evaluating coping strategies as a possible mediator in the self-management of BD and has implications for health care providers. Being able to characterize an individual's coping behaviors can help patients modify or replace more maladaptive coping with better coping strategies in the self-management of this chronic mental illness.
Heikkinen, Sirpa A M; Mäkikyrö, Elina M S; Hugg, Timo T; Jaakkola, Maritta S; Jaakkola, Jouni J K
According to our systematic literature review, no previous study has assessed potential effects of regular exercise on asthma control among young adults. We hypothesized that regular exercise improves asthma control among young adults. We studied 162 subjects with current asthma recruited from a population-based cohort study of 1,623 young adults 20-27 years of age. Asthma control was assessed by the occurrence of asthma-related symptoms, including wheezing, shortness of breath, cough, and phlegm production, during the past 12 months. Asthma symptom score was calculated based on reported frequencies of these symptoms (range: 0-12). Exercise was assessed as hours/week. In Poisson regression, adjusting for gender, age, smoking, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, and education, the asthma symptom score reduced by 0.09 points per 1 hour of exercise/week (95% CI: 0.00 to 0.17). Applying the "Low exercise" quartile as the reference, "Medium exercise" reduced the asthma symptom score by 0.66 (-0.39 to 1.72), and "High exercise" reduced it significantly by 1.13 (0.03 to 2.22). The effect was strongest among overweight subjects. Our results provide new evidence that regular exercising among young adults improves their asthma control. Thus, advising about exercise should be included as an important part of asthma self-management in clinical practice.
Escoffery, Cam; McGee, Robin; Bidwell, Jonathan; Sims, Christopher; Thropp, Eliana Kovitch; Frazier, Cherise; Mynatt, Elizabeth D
Mobile health app developers increasingly are interested in supporting the daily self-care of people with chronic conditions. The purpose of this study was to review mobile applications (apps) to promote epilepsy self-management. It investigates the following: 1) the available mobile apps for epilepsy, 2) how these apps support patient education and self-management (SM), and 3) their usefulness in supporting management of epilepsy. We conducted the review in Fall 2017 and assessed apps on the Apple App Store that related to the terms "epilepsy" and "seizure". Inclusion criteria included apps (adult and pediatric) that, as follows, were: 1) developed for patients or the community; 2) made available in English, and 3) less than $5.00. Exclusion criteria included apps that were designed for dissemination of publications, focused on healthcare providers, or were available in other languages. The search resulted in 149 apps, of which 20 met the selection criteria. A team reviewed each app in terms of three sets of criteria: 1) epilepsy-specific descriptions and SM categories employed by the apps and 2) Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS) subdomain scores for reviewing engagement, functionality, esthetics, and information; and 3) behavioral change techniques. Most apps were for adults and free. Common SM domains for the apps were treatment, seizure tracking, response, and safety. A number of epilepsy apps existed, but many offered similar functionalities and incorporated few SM domains. The findings underline the need for mobile apps to cover broader domains of SM and behavioral change techniques and to be evaluated for outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Magzamen, Sheryl; Patel, Bina; Davis, Adam; Edelstein, Joan; Tager, Ira B
In urban communities with high prevalence of childhood asthma, school-based educational programs may be the most appropriate approach to deliver interventions to improve asthma morbidity and asthma-related outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implementation of Kickin' Asthma, a school-based asthma curriculum designed by health educators and local students, which teaches asthma physiology and asthma self-management techniques to middle and high school students in Oakland, CA. Eligible students were identified through an in-class asthma case identification survey. Approximately 10-15 students identified as asthmatic were recruited for each series of the Kickin' Asthma intervention. The curriculum was delivered by an asthma nurse in a series of four 50-minute sessions. Students completed a baseline and a 3-month follow-up survey that compared symptom frequency, health care utilization, activity limitations, and medication use. Of the 8488 students surveyed during the first 3 years of the intervention (2003-2006), 15.4% (n = 1309) were identified as asthmatic; approximately 76% of eligible students (n = 990) from 15 middle schools and 3 high schools participated in the program. Comparison of baseline to follow-up data indicated that students experienced significantly fewer days with activity limitations and significantly fewer nights of sleep disturbance after participation in the intervention. For health care utilization, students reported significantly less frequent emergency department visits or hospitalizations between the baseline and follow-up surveys. A school-based asthma curriculum designed specifically for urban students has been shown to reduce symptoms, activity limitations, and health care utilization for intervention participants.
van der Hout, Anja; van Uden-Kraan, Cornelia F; Witte, Birgit I; Coupé, Veerle M H; Jansen, Femke; Leemans, C René; Cuijpers, Pim; van de Poll-Franse, Lonneke V; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M
BACKGROUND: Cancer survivors have to deal with a wide range of physical symptoms, psychological, social and existential concerns, and lifestyle issues related to cancer and its treatment. Therefore, it is essential that they have access to optimal supportive care services. The eHealth
Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs regulate post-transcriptional gene expression and may be exported from cells via exosomes or in partnership with RNA-binding proteins. MiRNAs in body fluids can act in a hormone-like manner and play important roles in disease initiation and progression. Hence, miRNAs are promising candidates as biomarkers. To identify serum miRNA biomarkers in the equine model of asthma we investigated small RNA derived from the serum of 34 control and 37 asthmatic horses. These samples were used for next generation sequencing, novel miRNA identification and differential miRNA expression analysis. We identified 11 significantly differentially expressed miRNAs between case and control horses: eca-miR-128, eca-miR-744, eca-miR-197, eca-miR-103, eca-miR-107a, eca-miR-30d, eca-miR-140-3p, eca-miR-7, eca-miR-361-3p, eca-miR-148b-3p and eca-miR-215. Pathway enrichment using experimentally validated target genes of the human homologous miRNAs showed a significant enrichment in the regulation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (key player in airway remodeling in asthma and the phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP3 signaling pathway (modulator of CD4+ T cell maturation and function. Downregulated miR-128 and miR-744 supports a Th2/Th17 type immune response in severe equine asthma.
Palvalin, M.O.; van der Voordt, Theo; Jylhä, T.E.
Purpose: This paper aims to explore the impact of workplaces, which support concentration and communication, and self-management practices on individual and team productivity. The underlying hypothesis is that the impact of these variables on the two levels of productivity (individual and team)
Kuipers, B.J.; Stoker, J.I.
Several theories have been developed that prescribe the team development of self-managing work teams (SMWTs). Some of these have led to models with successive linear developmental phases. However, both the theory and the empirical data show little support for these models. Based on an extensive
Brown, Sharon A.; Garcia, Alexandra A.; Kouzekanani, Kamiar; Hanis, Craig L.
In a culturally competent diabetes self-management intervention in Starr County, Texas, bilingual Mexican American nurses, dieticians, and community workers provided weekly instruction on nutrition, self-monitoring, exercise and other self-care topics. A biweekly support group promoted behavior change. Interviews and examinations with 256 Mexican…
Pinto, Joana Carneiro; Loureiro, Nazaré; Taveira, Maria do Céu
This article describes the evaluation of a psychological intervention--the Career Self-Management Seminar, Version A, for undergraduate students, and Version B for postgraduate students--developed to support Portuguese college students in career exploration, goal setting, design and implementation of action plans, and decision-making. A total of…
Briesch, Amy M.; Hemphill, Elizabeth; Daniels, Brian
Class-wide interventions have been effectively used as a primary level of support to increase student engagement, but the management of these interventions can quickly become burdensome for busy classroom teachers. To address this problem, this study combined a class-wide self-management intervention, in which the students were responsible for…
Wilkinson, Lee A.
Supporting children with autism spectrum disorders in the general education classroom presents a unique challenge to the teachers and schools that serve them. This article addresses the utility of self-management as a proactive strategy for increasing the task engagement and compliant behavior of high-functioning students with autism. The author…
Wah, Yat Yin Eric; McGill, Margaret; Wong, Jencia; Ross, Glynis P; Harding, Anna-Jane; Krass, Ines
Gestational diabetes mellitus is one of the most common complications of pregnancy. Women with Gestational diabetes are at increased risk of serious health outcomes, such as pre-eclampsia, obstructed labor, and the development of Type 2 diabetes later in life. Chinese migrants, the third largest cultural group in Australia, are more likely to develop Gestational diabetes than Australian-born women. However, to date, Gestational diabetes self-management has not been investigated in this population. To explore the understanding and self-management experiences of Gestational diabetes among Chinese migrants. Data were collected through individual semi-structured face-to-face interviews. Participants were recruited from the antenatal clinic at the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematically analyzed. Although the majority of participants demonstrated a good understanding of Gestational diabetes, some did not understand the principles behind healthcare advice and faced challenges in self-management. Confusion about self-monitoring of blood glucose and fear of insulin were also evident. Participants relied on both formal and informal sources of information. Some had difficulty obtaining adequate support. Cultural influences on self-management included meeting family needs, Chinese diet and use of Chinese medicines. To assist Chinese women with Gestational diabetes to better self-manage their condition, there is a need for clinicians to: (1) provide more effective diabetes education to ensure clear understanding of self-management principles; (2) actively elicit and respond to women's confusion and concerns; (3) provide women with adequate practical support; and (4) develop greater cultural awareness. Copyright © 2018 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dinakar, Chitra; Portnoy, Jay M
Current guidelines, both national and international, elegantly describe evidence-based measures to attain and maintain long-term control of asthma. These strategies, typically discussed between the provider and patient, are provided in the form of written (or electronic) instructions as part of the green zone of the color-coded Asthma Action Plan. The red zone of the Asthma Action Plan has directives on when to use systemic corticosteroids and seek medical attention. The transition zone between the green zone of good control and the red zone of asthma exacerbation is the yellow zone. This zone guides the patient on self-management of exacerbations outside a medical setting. Unfortunately, the only recommendation currently available to patients per the current asthma guidelines is the repetitive use of reliever bronchodilators. This approach, while providing modest symptom relief, does not reliably prevent progression to the red zone. In this document, we present new, evidence-based, yellow zone intervention options.
Klok, Ted; Kaptein, Adrian A; Duiverman, Eric J; Brand, Paul L
Although guideline-based asthma care and adherence to inhaled corticosteroids are predictors of asthma control, the role of adherence in maintaining long-term asthma control is largely unknown. This study was designed to explore the relationship between adherence to inhaled corticosteroids and long-term asthma control in young children with asthma. In this observational study, 81 2-6-year-old asthmatic children, using inhaled corticosteroids, closely followed-up in a programme with extensive self-management training, were enrolled. Adherence was measured daily for 12 months using Smartinhaler (Nexus6 Ltd, Auckland, New Zealand) devices. Long-term asthma control was assessed by parents and physicians and included clinical assessment, an asthma control questionnaire and lung function measurement. We examined the association of adherence to asthma control, adjusting for seasonal influences and clinical characteristics. Median (interquartile range) adherence was 87% (70-94%), and 64 (79%) children had well-controlled asthma throughout follow-up. Adherence >80% was associated with better asthma control, and we found no important confounders of this association. Children with persistent mild symptoms had lower adherence rates (p=0.028). Guideline-based asthma care was associated with good asthma control in most children. Adherence to inhaled corticosteroids was an independent strong predictor of long-term asthma control, with highest levels of asthma control found in children with adherence >80% of doses prescribed.
... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... Can I Deal With My Asthma? Allergy Testing Definition: Allergy-Triggered Asthma Asthma Center Asthma View more ...
... for Educators Search English Español Do Allergies Cause Asthma? KidsHealth / For Parents / Do Allergies Cause Asthma? Print ... son la causa del asma? Do Allergies Cause Asthma? Allergies don't cause asthma. But kids who ...
... Videos for Educators Search English Español School and Asthma KidsHealth / For Kids / School and Asthma Print en ... Let's find out. Why Do I Need an Asthma Action Plan? When you're dealing with asthma, ...
... Español Text Size Email Print Share Exercise and Asthma Page Content Article Body Almost every child (and ... of Pediatrics about asthma and exercise. What is asthma Asthma is the most common chronic medical problem ...
... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Asthma Asthma and Hispanic Americans In 2015, 2.2 million Hispanics reported that they currently have asthma. Puerto Rican Americans have almost twice the asthma ...
Kerr, C.; Murray, E.; Noble, L.; Morris, R.; Bottomley, C.; Stevenson, F.; Patterson, D.; Peacock, R.; Turner, I.; Jackson, K.; Nazareth, I.
Background: Existing initiatives to support patient self-management of heart disease do not appear to be reaching patients most in need. Providing self-management programs over the Internet (web-based interventions) might help reduce health disparities by reaching a greater number of patients. However, it is unclear whether they can achieve this goal and whether their effectiveness might be limited by the digital divide.Objective: To explore the effectiveness of a web-based intervention in de...
Kerr, Cicely; Murray, Elizabeth; Noble, Lorraine; Morris, Richard; Bottomley, Christian; Stevenson, Fiona; Patterson, David; Peacock, Richard; Turner, Indra; Jackson, Keith; Nazareth, Irwin
Background: Existing initiatives to support patient self-management of heart disease do not appear to be reaching patients most in need. Providing self-management programs over the Internet (web-based interventions) might help reduce health disparities by reaching a greater number of patients. However, it is unclear whether they can achieve this goal and whether their effectiveness might be limited by the digital divide. Objective: To explore the effectiveness of a web-based intervention in d...
Lima, John J.; Blake, Kathryn V.; Tantisira, Kelan G.; Weiss, Scott T.
Purpose of review Patient response to the asthma drug classes, bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids and leukotriene modifiers, are characterized by a large degree of heterogeneity, which is attributable in part to genetic variation. Herein, we review and update the pharmacogenetics and pharmaogenomics of common asthma drugs. Recent findings Early studies suggest that bronchodilator reversibility and asthma worsening in patients on continuous short-acting and long-acting β-agonists are related to the Gly16Arg genotype for the ADRB2. More recent studies including genome-wide association studies implicate variants in other genes contribute to bronchodilator response heterogeneity and fail to replicate asthma worsening associated with continuous β-agonist use. Genetic determinants of the safety of long-acting β-agonist require further study. Variants in CRHR1, TBX21, and FCER2 contribute to variability in response for lung function, airways responsiveness, and exacerbations in patients taking inhaled corticosteroids. Variants in ALOX5, LTA4H, LTC4S, ABCC1, CYSLTR2, and SLCO2B1 contribute to variability in response to leukotriene modifiers. Summary Identification of novel variants that contribute to response heterogeneity supports future studies of single nucleotide polymorphism discovery and include gene expression and genome-wide association studies. Statistical models that predict the genomics of response to asthma drugs will complement single nucleotide polymorphism discovery in moving toward personalized medicine. PMID:19077707
Protocol for an online randomised controlled trial to evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of a peer-supported self-management intervention for relatives of people with psychosis or bipolar disorder: Relatives Education And Coping Toolkit (REACT).
Lobban, Fiona; Robinson, Heather; Appelbe, Duncan; Barraclough, Johanna; Bedson, Emma; Collinge, Lizzi; Dodd, Susanna; Flowers, Sue; Honary, Mahsa; Johnson, Sonia; Mateus, Ceu; Mezes, Barbara; Minns, Valerie; Murray, Elizabeth; Walker, Andrew; Williamson, Paula; Wintermeyer, Catherine; Jones, Steven
Despite clinical guidelines recommendations, many relatives of people with psychosis or bipolar disorder do not currently receive the support they need. Online information and support may offer a solution. This single-blind, parallel, online randomised controlled trial will determine clinical and cost-effectiveness of the Relatives Education And Coping Toolkit (REACT) (including an online resource directory (RD)), compared with RD only, for relatives of people with psychosis or bipolar disorder. Both groups continue to receive treatment as usual. Independent, web-based variable, block, individual randomisation will be used across 666 relatives. Primary outcome is distress at 24 weeks (measured by General Health Questionnaire; GHQ-28) compared between groups using analysis of covariance, adjusting for baseline score. Secondary clinical outcomes are carer well-being and support. Cost-effectiveness analysis will determine cost of a significant unit change (three-point reduction) in the GHQ-28. Costs include offering and supporting the intervention in the REACT arm, relevant healthcare care costs including health professional contacts, medications prescribed and time off (or ability to) work for the relative. Cost utility analysis will be calculated as the marginal cost of changes in quality-adjusted life years, based on EuroQol. We will explore relatives' beliefs, perceived coping and amount of REACT toolkit use as possible outcome mediators. We have embedded two methodological substudies in the protocol to determine the relative effectiveness of a low-value (£10) versus higher value (£20) incentive, and an unconditional versus conditional incentive, on improving follow-up rates. The trial has ethical approval from Lancaster National Research Ethics Service (NRES)Committee (15/NW/0732) and is overseen by an independent Data Monitoring and Ethics Committee and Trial Steering Committee. Protocol version 1.5 was approved on 9 January 2017. All updates to protocols are
Rangachari, Pavani; Mehta, Renuka; Rethemeyer, R. Karl; Ferrang, Carole; Dennis, Clifton; Redd, Vickie
Background At the Children’s Hospital of Georgia (CHOG), we found that outpatient revisits for pediatric asthma were significantly above national norms. According to the NIH, costly hospital revisits for asthma can be prevented through guidelines-based self-management of asthma, central to which, is the use of a written Asthma-Action Plan (AAP). Purpose The asthma services literature has emphasized the role of the healthcare provider in promoting asthma self-management using the AAP, to prevent hospital revisits. On the other hand, the asthma policy literature has emphasized the need for community-based interventions to promote asthma self-management. A gap remains in understanding the extent of leverage that healthcare providers may have in preventing hospital revisits for asthma, through effective communication of AAP in the outpatient setting. Our study sought to address this gap. Methods We conducted a 6-month intervention to implement “patient-and-family-centered communication of the AAP” in CHOG outpatient clinics, based on the “change-management” theoretical framework. Provider communication of AAP was assessed through a survey of “Parent Understanding of the Child’s AAP.” A quasi-experimental approach was used to measure outpatient revisits for pediatric asthma, pre- and post-intervention. Results Survey results showed that provider communication of the AAP was unanimously perceived highly positively by parents of pediatric asthma patients, across various metrics of patient-centered care. However, there were no statistically significant differences in outpatient “revisit behavior” for pediatric asthma between pre- and post-intervention periods after controlling for several demographic variables. Additionally, revisits remained significantly above national norms. Conclusions Results suggest limited potential of “effective provider communication of AAP,” in reducing outpatient revisits for pediatric asthma; and indicate need for
Nicholas, J; Boydell, K; Christensen, H
To investigate the potential use of smartphone apps to support self-management in young adults with bipolar disorder. We recruited 89 young adults (18-30 years) with bipolar disorder to complete a cross-sectional online survey. The survey contained quantitative and qualitative questions regarding technology use, current use of disorder-management apps, types of apps desired for disorder management, and app features that users would consider important when selecting apps. Results were analysed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. Almost all participants used a smartphone daily and 40% currently used apps for disorder management. Of those not currently using apps, 79% indicated they would like to try them. On average, participants rated 61% of the self-management strategies listed as desirable for app support, with sleep-management, understanding early warning signs and triggers, and stay-well plans the most frequently endorsed. App features considered important during app selection were ease-of-use, scientific quality, flexibility/customisation, and data privacy. The results indicate that young adults with bipolar disorder are interested in a wide range of apps for self-management. Participants were interested in apps to support self-management strategies considered clinically important for disorder management. Many of these app needs are currently unmet. Results suggest diversifying and prioritising app capabilities to ensure evidence-based resources for a broader range of app functions are available to consumers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Nes, A.A.G.; Eide, H.; Kristjánsdóttir, O.B.; Dulmen, S. van
Objective: Chronic illness places high demands on patients. Interventions supporting self-management and providing personalized feedback might help patients to gain new perspectives and enhance use of constructive self-management strategies. We developed three comparable web-based CBT-grounded
van Vugt, Michael; de Wit, Maartje; Hendriks, Steven H.; Roelofsen, Yvonne; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Snoek, Frank J.
Background: Self-management is recognized as the cornerstone of overall diabetes management. Web-based self-management programs have the potential of supporting type 2 diabetes patients with managing their diabetes and reducing the workload for the care provider, where the addition of online
van Vugt, M.; de Wit, M.; Hendriks, S.H.; Roelofsen, Y.; Bilo, H.J.; Snoek, F.J.
Background: Self-management is recognized as the cornerstone of overall diabetes management. Web-based self-management programs have the potential of supporting type 2 diabetes patients with managing their diabetes and reducing the workload for the care provider, where the addition of online
J. Ammerlaan (Judy); H. van Os-Medendorp (Harmieke); de Boer-Nijhof, N. (Nienke); Scholtus, L. (Lieske); A.A. Kruize (Aike); P.A. van Pelt (Philomine); B.J. Prakken (Berent); J.W.J. Bijlsma (Hans)
textabstractBackground: A web-based self-management intervention guided by peer-trainers was developed to support young adults' self-management in coping with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA). To investigate its effectiveness, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted. In addition, the
Elaro, Amanda; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Kraus, Kathleen; Farris, Karen B; Shah, Smita; Armour, Carol; Patel, Minal R
Objective To explore community pharmacists' continuing education, counseling and communication practices, attitudes and barriers in relation to pediatric asthma management. Setting Community pharmacies in Michigan, United States. Methods Between July and September 2015 a convenience sample of community pharmacists was recruited from southeastern Michigan and asked to complete a structured, self-reported questionnaire. The questionnaire elucidated information on 4 general domains relating to pharmacists' pediatric asthma management including: (1) guidelines and continuing education (CE); (2) counseling and medicines; (3) communication and self-management practices; (4) attitudes and barriers to practice. Regression analyses were conducted to determine predictors towards pharmacists' confidence/frequency of use of communication/counseling strategies. Main outcome measure Confidence in counseling skills around asthma. Results 105 pharmacists completed the study questionnaire. Fifty-four percent of pharmacists reported participating in asthma related CE in the past year. Over 70% of pharmacists reported confidence in general communication skills, while a lower portion reported confidence in engaging in higher order self-management activities that involved tailoring the regimen (58%), decision-making (50%) and setting short-term (47%) and long-term goals (47%) with the patient and caregiver for managing asthma at home. Pharmacists who reported greater use of recommended communication/self-management strategies were more likely to report confidence in implementing these communication/self-management strategies when counseling caregivers and children with asthma [Beta (B) Estimate 0.58 SE (0.08), p management strategies. Conclusion A pharmacists' confidence may influence their ability to implement recommended self-management counseling strategies. This study showed that community pharmacists are confident in general communication. However pharmacists are reporting lower
Full Text Available Carol Blixen,1,2 Jennifer B Levin,2 Kristin A Cassidy,2 Adam T Perzynski,1 Martha Sajatovic2–4 1Center for Health Care Research and Policy, MetroHealth Medical Center, 2Department of Psychiatry, 3Department of Neurology, Neurological Institute, 4Department of Biostatistics & Epidemiology, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA Background: Bipolar disorder (BD is a chronic mental illness associated with reduced quality of life, high rates of suicide, and high financial costs. Evidence indicates that psychosocial stress might play an important role in the onset and course of BD. Objective: The objective of this study was to address the gap between coping theory and the clinical use of coping strategies used to self-manage BD.Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with a sample of 21 poorly adherent patients with BD. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using content analysis with an emphasis on dominant themes.Results: Transcript-based analysis generated two major domains of coping strategies used to self-manage BD: 1 problem focused (altering eating habits, managing mood-stabilizing medications, keeping psychiatric appointments, seeking knowledge, self-monitoring, and socializing and 2 emotion focused (distracting activities, denial, isolation, modifying/avoiding, helping others, and seeking social support. Participants used both types of coping strategies to deal with stressful situations brought about by the internal and external demands associated with self-management of BD.Conclusion: This qualitative study provided a first step in evaluating coping strategies as a possible mediator in the self-management of BD and has implications for health care providers. Being able to characterize an individual’s coping behaviors can help patients modify or replace more maladaptive coping with better coping strategies in the self-management of
Bos-Touwen, Irene; Dijkkamp, Evelien; Kars, Marijke; Trappenburg, Jaap; De Wit, Niek; Schuurmans, Marieke
Although self-management interventions are, to some extent, individualized in clinical practice, the decision-making process is not fully understood. Exploring nurses' clinical reasoning about how and to what extent they currently tailor self-management support can provide new insights, enhancing process and outcome of chronic care. The aim of this study was to explore how nurses assess chronic patients concerning the potential of self-management and clinical reasoning with regard to tailoring care to the individual patient. A qualitative study was conducted using grounded theory. Semistructured interviews were held with 15 nurses working within chronic care. All interviews were carried out from February to July 2013. All nurses provided individualized care; however, a nurse's view of self-management influenced how tailoring was performed. Substantial differences were seen in patient assessments and how care was individualized. Patients' motivation, capacities, mindset, needs, and preferences were obtained through communication, experience, intuition, and trusting relationships. A typology with four patient types emerged: the unmotivated patient, the patient with limited capacities, the oblivious patient, and the ideal patient. Nurses elaborated on using different approaches for patients in each of these groups. A nurse's perception of self-management substantially impacted how care was individualized. Patient assessment was the key driver of tailoring, which was performed in various ways, and influenced how and the extent to which care was individualized. To enable responding to the unique wishes and needs of individual patients, both scientific and educational efforts need to be directed toward systematic assessments of patient capacity to self-manage their disease.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study is to better understand differences in diabetes self-management, specifically needs, barriers and challenges among men and women living with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods 35 participants were recruited from a diabetes education center (DEC in Toronto, Canada. Five focus groups and nine individual interviews were conducted to explore men and women's diabetes self-management experiences. Results The average age of participants was 57 years and just over half (51.4% were female. Analyses revealed five themes: disclosure and identity as a person living with diabetes; self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG; diet struggles across varying contexts; utilization of diabetes resources; and social support. Women disclosed their diabetes more readily and integrated management into their daily lives, whereas men were more reluctant to tell friends and family about their diabetes and were less observant of self-management practices in social settings. Men focused on practical aspects of SMBG and experimented with various aspects of management to reduce reliance on medications whereas women focused on affective components of SMBG. Women restricted foods from their diets perceived as prohibited whereas many men moderated their intake of perceived unhealthy foods, except in social situations. Women used socially interactive resources, like education classes and support groups whereas men relied more on self-directed learning but also described wanting more guidance to help navigate the healthcare system. Finally, men and women reported wanting physician support for both affective and practical aspects of self-management. Conclusions Our findings highlight the differences in needs and challenges of diabetes self-management among men and women, which may inform gender-sensitive diabetes, care, counseling and support.
H.M. van de Bovenkamp (Hester); J. Dwarswaard (Jolanda)
markdownabstract_Background and context:_ Many countries are giving patients a more active role in health care, on both the individual and collective level. This paper focuses on one aspect of the participation agenda on the individual level: self-management. The paper explores self-management in
Stombaugh, Angela M.
Self-management of a disease is defined as "having or being able to obtain, the skills and resources necessary to best accommodate to the chronic disease and its consequences" (Holman & Lorig, 1992, p. 309). Self-management has been used in the management of several chronic conditions and this model may be useful in the management of weight loss.…
Kelly, Patricia J; Ramaswamy, Megha; Chen, Hsiang-Feng; Denny, Donald
Community corrections provide a readjustment venue for re-entry between incarceration and home for inmates in the US corrections system. Our goal was to determine how self-management skills, an important predictor of re-entry success, varied by demographic and risk factors. In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed responses of 675 clients from 57 community corrections programs run by the regional division of the Federal Bureau of Prisons. A self-administered survey collected data on self-management skills, demographics, and risk factors; significant associations were applied in four regression models: the overall self-management score and three self-management subscales: coping skills, goals, and drug use. Over one-quarter (27.2%/146) of participants had a mental health history. White race, no mental health history and high school education were associated with better overall self-management scores; mental health history and drug use in the past year were associated with lower coping scores; female gender and high school education were associated with better self-management goals; female gender was associated with better self-management drug use scores. Self-management programs may need to be individualized for different groups of clients. Lower scores for those with less education suggest an area for targeted, nurse-led interventions.
Cvetkovski, Biljana; Armour, Carol; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia
To investigate the perceptions and attitudes towards asthma management of general practitioners, pharmacists and people with asthma in a rural area. Qualitative semistructured interviews. Small rural centre in New South Wales. General practitioners, pharmacists and people with asthma in a rural area. General practitioners perceived that the patient provided a barrier to the implementation of optimal asthma services. They were aware that other health care professionals had a role in asthma management but were not aware of the details, particularly in relation to that of the pharmacist and would like to improve communication methods. Pharmacists also perceived the patient to be a barrier to the delivery of optimal asthma management services and would like to improve communication with the general practitioner. The impact of the rural environment for the health care professionals included workforce shortages, availability of support services and access to continuing education. People with asthma were satisfied with their asthma management and the service provided by the health care professionals and described the involvement of family members and ambulance officers in their overall asthma management. The rural environment was an issue with regards to distance to the hospital during an emergency. General practitioners and pharmacists confirmed their existing roles in asthma management while expressing a desire to improve communication between the two professions to help overcome barriers and optimise the asthma service delivered to the patient. The patient described minimal barriers to optimising asthma management, which might suggest that they might not have great expectations of asthma care.
Williams, R L; Verble, J S; Price, D E; Layne, B H
This study addressed the relationship between self-management (as measured by the Lifestyle Approaches Inventory, Williams, Moore, Pettibone, & Thomas, 1992) and personality types and indexes (as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, Myers & McCaulley, 1985) in a sample of 347 university students. Correlational analyses indicated that the self-management factor most consistently linked to the Myers-Briggs indices was Organization of Physical Space. The Myers-Briggs index most consistently correlated with the self-management factors was Judgment-Perception. Overall, male and female subjects showed similar patterns of relationships between the self-management and personality indices. When the self-management scores were compared for the various Myers-Briggs types, the analysis indicated that types having a J (planful and organized) or S (precise and practical) in the typology tended to score higher than those having a P (spontaneous and flexible) or N (imaginative and insightful).
... resources Asthma - children Patient Instructions Asthma and school Asthma - child - discharge Asthma - control drugs Asthma - quick-relief drugs Asthma - what to ask the doctor - adult Asthma - what to ask your doctor - child Exercise-induced asthma Exercising and asthma at school ...
Mazurek, Jacek M; Syamlal, Girija
In 2010, an estimated 8.2% of U.S. adults had current asthma, and among these persons, 49.1% had had an asthma attack during the past year (1). Workplace exposures can cause asthma in a previously healthy worker or can trigger asthma exacerbations in workers with current asthma* (2). To assess the industry- and occupation-specific prevalence of current asthma, asthma attacks, and asthma-related emergency department (ED) visits among working adults, CDC analyzed 2011-2016 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data for participants aged ≥18 years who, at the time of the survey, were employed at some time during the 12 months preceding the interview. During 2011-2016, 6.8% of adults (11 million) employed at any time in the past 12 months had current asthma; among those, 44.7% experienced an asthma attack, and 9.9% had an asthma-related ED visit in the previous year. Current asthma prevalence was highest among workers in the health care and social assistance industry (8.8%) and in health care support occupations (8.8%). The increased prevalence of current asthma, asthma attacks, and asthma-related ED visits in certain industries and occupations might indicate increased risks for these health outcomes associated with workplace exposures. These findings might assist health care and public health professionals in identifying workers in industries and occupations with a high prevalence of current asthma, asthma attacks, and asthma-related ED visits who should be evaluated for possible work-related asthma. Guidelines intended to promote effective management of work-related asthma are available (2,3).
Silva, Martha; Clinton, Janet; Appleton, Sarah; Flanagan, Pat
Self-management education programs seek to help patients realize that they are their own principal caregivers and that health care professionals are consultants who support them in this role. The aim of this study was to evaluate a diabetes self-management education program implemented as part of a district-wide approach in South Auckland, New Zealand, which has some of the highest prevalence rates for diabetes and is one of the most ethnically diverse and deprived regions of New Zealand. Self-management attitudes and behaviors were monitored with the use of questionnaires before and after program implementation. Clinical outcomes such as hemoglobin A1c, body mass index, and blood pressure were also tracked before the program began and 3 months after the program ended. Participant focus groups and facilitator interviews were conducted to explore perceptions of the program. Participants showed improvement in attitudes toward their own ability to manage their diabetes; in diet, physical activity, and foot care; and in hemoglobin A1c levels 3 months after the end of participation. Participants also reduced their sense of isolation when dealing with their diabetes. However, catering to the needs of a multiethnic community is extremely resource-intensive because of the need to provide adequate language and cultural interpretation. Self-management education can work in multiethnic, high-needs communities in New Zealand. Programs must ensure they enable the appropriate mechanisms and have appropriate resources to support the community's needs.
McKeever, Tricia; Mortimer, Kevin; Wilson, Andrew; Walker, Samantha; Brightling, Christopher; Skeggs, Andrew; Pavord, Ian; Price, David; Duley, Lelia; Thomas, Mike; Bradshaw, Lucy; Higgins, Bernard; Haydock, Rebecca; Mitchell, Eleanor; Devereux, Graham; Harrison, Timothy
Asthma exacerbations are frightening for patients and are occasionally fatal. We tested the concept that a plan for patients to manage their asthma (self-management plan), which included a temporary quadrupling of the dose of inhaled glucocorticoids when asthma control started to deteriorate, would reduce the incidence of severe asthma exacerbations among adults and adolescents with asthma. We conducted a pragmatic, unblinded, randomized trial involving adults and adolescents with asthma who were receiving inhaled glucocorticoids, with or without add-on therapy, and who had had at least one exacerbation in the previous 12 months. We compared a self-management plan that included an increase in the dose of inhaled glucocorticoids by a factor of 4 (quadrupling group) with the same plan without such an increase (non-quadrupling group), over a period of 12 months. The primary outcome was the time to a first severe asthma exacerbation, defined as treatment with systemic glucocorticoids or an unscheduled health care consultation for asthma. A total of 1922 participants underwent randomization, of whom 1871 were included in the primary analysis. The number of participants who had a severe asthma exacerbation in the year after randomization was 420 (45%) in the quadrupling group as compared with 484 (52%) in the non-quadrupling group, with an adjusted hazard ratio for the time to a first severe exacerbation of 0.81 (95% confidence interval, 0.71 to 0.92; P=0.002). The rate of adverse effects, which were related primarily to local effects of inhaled glucocorticoids, was higher in the quadrupling group than in the non-quadrupling group. In this trial involving adults and adolescents with asthma, a personalized self-management plan that included a temporary quadrupling of the dose of inhaled glucocorticoids when asthma control started to deteriorate resulted in fewer severe asthma exacerbations than a plan in which the dose was not increased. (Funded by the Health Technology
Okochi, Ayako; Tadaka, Etsuko
"confidently modifying the established self-management methods". They employed self-monitoring, preventative measures for secondary difficulties, and stress management techniques. However, they also avoided medication through self-determination and they prioritized their established lifestyle over medically ideal behavior. Subjects learned sustainable self-management methods through trial and error, although in each period of adaptation, they sometimes failed to acknowledge the necessity of health maintenance and medical care, and they coped with their health care needs in their own way. Future research is essential to develop self-management programs that include the patient's own perspectives, to teach health maintenance methods that enable patients to balance social participation and self-management, and to establish cooperative networks among professionals who support the patient's home care.
Mamykina, Lena; Heitkemper, Elizabeth M; Smaldone, Arlene M; Kukafka, Rita; Cole-Lewis, Heather J; Davidson, Patricia G; Mynatt, Elizabeth D; Cassells, Andrea; Tobin, Jonathan N; Hripcsak, George
To outline new design directions for informatics solutions that facilitate personal discovery with self-monitoring data. We investigate this question in the context of chronic disease self-management with the focus on type 2 diabetes. We conducted an observational qualitative study of discovery with personal data among adults attending a diabetes self-management education (DSME) program that utilized a discovery-based curriculum. The study included observations of class sessions, and interviews and focus groups with the educator and attendees of the program (n = 14). The main discovery in diabetes self-management evolved around discovering patterns of association between characteristics of individuals' activities and changes in their blood glucose levels that the participants referred to as "cause and effect". This discovery empowered individuals to actively engage in self-management and provided a desired flexibility in selection of personalized self-management strategies. We show that discovery of cause and effect involves four essential phases: (1) feature selection, (2) hypothesis generation, (3) feature evaluation, and (4) goal specification. Further, we identify opportunities to support discovery at each stage with informatics and data visualization solutions by providing assistance with: (1) active manipulation of collected data (e.g., grouping, filtering and side-by-side inspection), (2) hypotheses formulation (e.g., using natural language statements or constructing visual queries), (3) inference evaluation (e.g., through aggregation and visual comparison, and statistical analysis of associations), and (4) translation of discoveries into actionable goals (e.g., tailored selection from computable knowledge sources of effective diabetes self-management behaviors). The study suggests that discovery of cause and effect in diabetes can be a powerful approach to helping individuals to improve their self-management strategies, and that self-monitoring data can
Holzheimer, L; Mohay, H; Masters, I B
Asthma self-management programmes have been shown to increase children's knowledge about asthma and improve their management practices and health status. However, existing programmes have rarely addressed the unique learning needs of very young children. This study aimed to develop and assess the effectiveness of a video tape and picture book designed to teach children about the prevention and management of acute episodes of asthma. The information content of the educational resources was determined by analysis of relevant medical information and asthma management skills. Social Learning Theory and consideration of the developmental stage of the target population informed the format and style of presentation of the resources. Eighty children aged between 2 and 5 years who had been diagnosed with asthma by their medical practitioner and who required daily asthma medication participated in a controlled experimental study. The study evaluated the impact of the asthma education resources on children's knowledge about asthma, compliance with medication regimens and health status. Children were randomly allocated to one of three experimental groups. Children in these groups were exposed to either the video tape alone, the book alone or both the video tape and book, or to a control group who viewed materials unrelated to asthma. The results for the three experimental groups were compared with the control group who did not receive exposure to any of the asthma education resources. The results showed that children in each experimental group had significantly greater gains in asthma-related knowledge than children in the control group and children exposed to both resources showed the greatest increases in knowledge. Children in each of the three experimental groups also had better compliance and health than children in the control group. These findings indicate that carefully designed asthma education resources are useful for providing even the youngest children with
Hughes, Stephen; Lewis, Sophie; Willis, Karen; Rogers, Anne; Wyke, Sally; Smith, Lorraine
Our aim was to systematically review the qualitative literature about the experiences of both facilitators and participants in a range of group-based programmes to support the self-management of long-term conditions. We searched 7 databases using the terms 'self-management', 'group' and 'qualitative'. Full text articles meeting the inclusion criteria were retrieved for review. A thematic synthesis approach was used to analyse the studies. 2126 articles were identified and 24 were included for review. Group participants valued being with similar others and perceived peer support benefits. Facilitators (HCP and lay) had limited group specific training, were uncertain of purpose and prioritised education and medical conformity over supportive group processes and the promotion of self-management agency and engagement. Overall, studies prioritised positive descriptions. Group programmes' medical self-management focus may reduce their ability to contribute to patient-valued outcomes. Further research is needed to explore this disconnect. This review supports broadening the scope of group-based programmes to foreground shared learning, social support and development of agency. It is of relevance to developers and facilitators of group self-management programmes and their ability to address the burden of long-term conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Despite an increasing focus on health literacy in the clinical setting and in the literature, there is still ongoing debate about its influence on diabetes self-management. The aim of the study was to examine the relationships of sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological factors on health literacy and diabetes self-management. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken on 224 patients with type 2 diabetes at two diabetes centres in Sydney, Australia. Findings showed that people with low health literacy were more likely to (a have lower educational attainment; (b be migrants; and (c have depressed mood. Unexpectedly, those who met HbA1c threshold of good glucose control were more likely to have low health literacy. Predictors of low diabetes self-management included (a younger age group (AOR: 2.58, 95% CI: 1.24–4.64; (b having postsecondary education (AOR: 2.30, 95% CI: 1.05–5.01; (c low knowledge of diabetes management (AOR: 2.29, 95% CI: 1.25–4.20; and (d having depressed mood (AOR: 2.30, 95% CI: 1.30–4.06. The finding that depressed mood predicted both low health literacy and low diabetes self-management stresses the importance of screening for depression. Increasing people’s understanding of diabetes self-management and supporting those with depression are crucial to enhance participation in diabetes self-management.
Jeffs, Eunice; Ream, Emma; Shewbridge, Amanda; Cowan-Dickie, Siobhan; Crawshaw, Diana; Huit, Martine; Wiseman, Theresa
The aim of this study was to identify factors influencing patient perception of success and benefit with self-management of breast cancer-related lymphoedema (BCRL) and explore how patients decide whether their swollen limb has improved or deteriorated. This qualitative study used a Grounded Theory approach. Twenty-one women in the BCRL self-management phase participated in one in-depth interview exploring their experience and perspective on self-managing their BCRL. Seven enablers and blocks to self-management were identified: routine, recognising benefit of self-management and consequences of non-treatment, owning treatment, knowledge and understanding, problem-solving, time required for treatment and aesthetics of hosiery. Women determined treatment outcome by monitoring size, appearance, texture and internal sensations within the affected arm. Women who participated in this study showed varying degrees of acceptance and adjustment to life with lymphoedema. This appears to directly impact their ability to self-manage lymphoedema. Lymphoedema practitioners and oncology nurses have a valuable role providing knowledge and support to patients transitioning to independent self-care. A better understanding of factors facilitating patients to become experts in their condition may improve longer term outcomes and reduce cost pressures on lymphoedema services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wild, Marcus G; Wallston, Kenneth A; Green, Jamie A; Beach, Lauren B; Umeukeje, Ebele; Wright Nunes, Julie A; Ikizler, T Alp; Steed, Julia; Cavanaugh, Kerri L
Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a major burden on patients and the health care system. Treatment of CKD requires dedicated involvement from both caretakers and patients. Self-efficacy, also known as perceived competence, contributes to successful maintenance of patient's CKD self-management behaviors such as medication adherence and dietary regulations. Despite a clear association between self-efficacy and improved CKD outcomes, there remains a lack of validated self-report measures of CKD self-efficacy. To address this gap, the Perceived Kidney/Dialysis Self-Management Scale (PKDSMS) was adapted from the previously validated Perceived Medical Condition Self-Management Scale. We then sought to validate this using data from two separate cohorts: a cross-sectional investigation of 146 patients with end-stage renal disease receiving maintenance hemodialysis and a longitudinal study of 237 patients with CKD not receiving dialysis. The PKDSMS was found to be positively and significantly correlated with self-management behaviors and medication adherence in both patient cohorts. The PKDSMS had acceptable reliability, was internally consistent, and exhibited predictive validity between baseline PKDSMS scores and self-management behaviors across multiple time points. Thus, the PKDSMS is a valid and reliable measure of CKD patient self-efficacy and supports the development of interventions enhancing perceived competence to improve CKD self-management. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.