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Sample records for asthma linkage peaks

  1. Association and interaction analyses of eight genes under asthma linkage peaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, M A R; Zhao, Z Z; Thomsen, S F

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Linkage studies have implicated the 2q33, 9p21, 11q13 and 20q13 regions in the regulation of allergic disease. The aim of this study was to test genetic variants in candidate genes from these regions for association with specific asthma traits. METHODS: Ninety-five single nucleotide...... polymorphisms (SNP) located in eight genes (CD28, CTLA4, ICOS, ADAM23, ADAMTSL1, MS4A2, CDH26 and HRH3) were genotyped in >5000 individuals from Australian (n = 1162), Dutch (n = 99) and Danish (n = 303) families. Traits tested included doctor-diagnosed asthma, atopy, airway obstruction, total serum...... immunoglobulin (Ig) E levels and eosinophilia. Association was tested using both multivariate and univariate methods, with gene-wide thresholds for significance determined through simulation. Gene-by-gene and gene-by-environment analyses were also performed. RESULTS: There was no overall evidence for association...

  2. Evidence for an asthma risk locus on chromosome Xp: a replication linkage study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasch-Andersen, C; Møller, M U; Haagerup, A

    2008-01-01

    studies have been carried out the results are still conflicting and call for replication experiments. A Danish genome-wide scan has prior reported evidence for candidate regions for asthma susceptibility genes on chromosomes 1p, 5q, 6p, 12q and Xp. Linkage to chromosome 12q was later confirmed in the same...... replication sample as used in the present study. The aim of the study was to replicate linkage to candidate regions for asthma in an independent Danish sample. METHODS: We performed a replication study investigating linkage to candidate regions for asthma on chromosomes 1p36.31-p36.21, 5q15-q23.2, 6p24.3-p22.......3, and Xp22.31-p11.4 using additional markers in an independent set of 136 Danish asthmatic sib pair families. RESULTS: Nonparametric multipoint linkage analyses yielded suggestive evidence for linkage to asthma to chromosome Xp21.2 (MLS 2.92) but failed to replicate linkage to chromosomes 1p36.31-p36.21, 5...

  3. Atopic asthma and TNF-308 alleles: linkage disequilibrium and association analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Somma, Carmela; Charron, Dominique; Deichmann, Klaus; Buono, Catello; Ruffilli, Anna

    2003-03-01

    The association of a tumor necrosis factor -308 allele (TNF2) to asthma has been reported in some studies but not in others. The aim of this study was to test this association in a population recruited on the basis of allergy to Parietaria. In the study population, asthma was positively associated to HLA-DRB1*03 (p = 0.01) and to the haplotype TNF2/DRB1*03 (p = 0.02). In the parent subgroup, the proportion of asthmatics was increased in patients with TNF2 (p = 0.01), but the primary association of asthma was to the haplotype TNF2/DRB1*1104 (p = 0.005). The study population was subdivided according to prick skin test (ST) positivity to Lolium, Parietaria, and D. pteronyssinus. Asthma was associated to HLA-DRB1*03 and to the haplotype TNF2/DRB1*03 (p = 0.0015 and 0.0001, respectively) in patients ST positive to Lolium, and to the haplotype TNF2/DRB1*1104 (p = 0.025) in patients ST positive to Parietaria. The transmission disequilibrium test detected excess transmission of HLA-DRB1*03 and of the haplotype TNF2/DRB1*03 (p = 0.03 and 0.04, respectively) to siblings with asthma and ST positivity to Lolium and of HLA-DRB1*1104 and of the haplotype TNF2/DRB1*1104 (p = 0.04 and 0.015, respectively) to siblings with asthma and ST positivity to Parietaria. Taken together, these observations indicate that the haplotypes TNF2/DRB1*03 and TNF2/*B1*1104 contain alleles controlling atopic asthma in patients with sensitization to Lolium and Parietaria, respectively. This suggests that the association of asthma to TNF2 reflects linkage disequilibrium with genes influencing specific immune response.

  4. Do eosinophil counts correlate differently with asthma severity by symptoms versus peak flow rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshak, E A; Alamoudi, O S

    1999-12-01

    Discrepancy in asthmatic assessment by symptoms and peak flow rate (PFR) is a frequent dilemma. Currently, total peripheral eosinophil count (TPEC) is under study for asthma evaluation. To explore the correlation between TPEC and asthma severity assessed by symptoms alone versus symptoms and PFR. Adults asthmatics were selected from the Asthma Clinic. Severity assessment was based on two methods: symptoms alone or symptoms and PFR. Expiratory PFR was recorded by a Wright peak flow meter. Severity levels included mild intermittent, mild persistent, moderate persistent, and severe persistent. Total peripheral eosinophil count was performed on a Celldyn-3500 counter. Data was analyzed for statistical significance. Sixty asthmatics aged 15 to 70 years (mean = 34 years), of which 68.3% were female, were studied. Severity levels differed between the two assessment methods in 45% of the cases and showed a predominance of the moderate persistent type. Total peripheral eosinophil count ranged between 22 and 2470 cells/mm3 (mean = 520 +/- SD = 393) and eosinophilia was found in 50% of the cases. Total peripheral eosinophil count showed a high positive correlation with increased asthma severity level assessed by history alone (r = 0.460, P < .001); more than by history and PFR (r = 0.328, P < .05). The discrepancy between symptoms and PFR is confirmed by these results. A reliable objective parameter in asthma assessment is a continuous challenge. This study advocates the possible supplementation of TPEC as another objective parameter that might help in selecting the appropriate severity level in asthmatics.

  5. Associations between air pollution and peak expiratory flow among patients with persistent asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhengmin; Lin, Hung-Mo; Chinchilli, Vernon M; Lehman, Erik B; Stewart, Walter F; Shah, Nirav; Duan, Yinkang; Craig, Timothy J; Wilson, William E; Liao, Duanping; Lazarus, Stephen C; Bascom, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Responses of patients with persistent asthma to ambient air pollution may be different from those of general populations. For example, asthma medications may modify the effects of ambient air pollutants on peak expiratory flow (PEF). Few studies examined the association between air pollution and PEF in patients with persistent asthma on well-defined medication regimens using asthma clinical trial data. Airway obstruction effects of ambient air pollutants, using 14,919 person-days of daily self-measured peak expiratory flow (PEF), were assessed from 154 patients with persistent asthma during the 16 wk of active treatment in the Salmeterol Off Corticosteroids Study trial. The three therapies were an inhaled corticosteroid, an inhaled long-acting beta-agonist, and placebo. The participants were nonsmokers aged 12 through 63 yr, recruited from 6 university-based ambulatory care centers from February 1997 to January 1999. Air pollution data were derived from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Aerometric Information Retrieval System. An increase of 10 ppb of ambient daily mean concentrations of NO2 was associated with a decrease in PEF of 1.53 L/min (95% confidence interval [CI] -2.93 to -0.14) in models adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, asthma clinical center, season, week, daily average temperature, and daily average relative humidity. The strongest association between NO2 and PEF was observed among the patients treated with salmeterol. Negative associations were also found between PEF and SO2 and between PEF and PM(10), respectively. The results show that the two medication regimens protected against the effects of PM(10). However, salmeterol increased the sensitivity to NO2 and triamcinalone enhanced the sensitivity to SO2.

  6. A genome-wide search for linkage to asthma phenotypes in the genetics of asthma international network families: evidence for a major susceptibility locus on chromosome 2p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Sreekumar G; Chiano, Mathias N; White, Nicola J; Speer, Marcy; Barnes, Kathleen C; Carlsen, Karin; Gerritsen, Jorrit; Helms, Peter; Lenney, Warren; Silverman, Michael; Sly, Peter; Sundy, John; Tsanakas, John; von Berg, Andrea; Whyte, Moira; Varsani, Shela; Skelding, Paul; Hauser, Michael; Vance, Jeffery; Pericak-Vance, Margaret; Burns, Daniel K; Middleton, Lefkos T; Brewster, Shyama R; Anderson, Wayne H; Riley, John H

    2006-03-01

    Asthma is a complex disease and the intricate interplay between genetic and environmental factors underlies the overall phenotype of the disease. Families with at least two siblings with asthma were collected from Europe, Australia and the US. A genome scan using a set of 364 families with a panel of 396 microsatellite markers was conducted. Nonparametric linkage analyses were conducted for asthma and three asthma-related phenotypes: bronchial hyper-reactivity (BHR), strict definition of asthma and atopic asthma. Nine chromosomal regions with LOD scores greater than 1.5 were identified (chromosomes 1q, 2p, 3q, 4p, 4q, 6q, 12q, 20p and 21). Linkage refinement analysis was performed for three BHR loci by genotyping single nucleotide polymorphisms at an average marker density of 1 cM. The LOD scores increased to 3.07 at chromosome 4p and 4.58 at chromosome 2p, while the chromosome 6p locus did not refine. The LOD score at the chromosome 2p locus is highly significant on a genome-wide basis. The refined locus covers a region with a physical size of 12.2 Mb. Taken together, these results provide evidence for a major asthma susceptibility locus on chromosome 2p.

  7. Significant linkage to chromosome 12q24.32-q24.33 and identification of SFRS8 as a possible asthma susceptibility gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    brasch-andersen, c; Tan, Q; Børglum, A D

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asthma is a complex genetic disorder. Many studies have suggested that chromosome 12q harbours a susceptibility gene for asthma and atopy. Linkage on chromosome 12q24.21-q24.33 was investigated in 167 Danish families with asthma. METHODS: A two step procedure was used: (1) a genome-wi...

  8. Peak flow as predictor of overall mortality in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ejvind Frausing; Vestbo, Jørgen; Phanareth, K

    2001-01-01

    Lung function is a strong predictor of overall mortality in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). FEV1 is considered to be the "gold standard," whereas peak expiratory flow (PEF) is mostly used in absence of FEV1 measurements. We compared the predictive power of PEF and FEV1...... and 723 subjects with COPD had died. Predictors of survival were examined by Cox proportional hazards analyses. After controlling for age, smoking, sex, and body mass index, we found best PEF to be at least equal to best FEV1 as predictor of overall mortality in subjects with COPD. The predictive power...... of best PEF was in part maintained after controlling for best FEV1. In asthma, best FEV1 seemed to be a better predictor of mortality than best PEF. Despite close correlation to FEV1, PEF apparently provides independent prognostic information in patients with COPD. This may be due to PEF and FEV1...

  9. Peak flow meters in childhood asthma: parent report of use and perceived usefulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Ann H; Yoos, H Lorrie; Kitzman, Harriet

    2002-01-01

    Peak flow meters (PFMs) in children with moderate to severe asthma have been used to monitor changes in asthma status and inform treatment decisions. However, their usefulness and the likelihood of their long-term use by families remains controversial. One hundred sixty-eight children ages 6 to 19 years were enrolled in a longitudinal randomized clinical trial to evaluate the impact of 3 different intensities of symptom monitoring on diverse clinical outcomes: subjective symptom monitoring, symptom-time PFM monitoring, and daily PFM monitoring. At 3 months after the intervention, 90% of parents and 82% of children surveyed perceived a benefit to the monitoring method taught, regardless of group assignment. Ninety-three percent of parents but only 71% of children planned to continue that method. At 1 year after exiting from the study, 69% continued to use a PFM; 30% had discontinued use. No group differences existed in frequency of PFM use between symptom-time and daily users (x = 4.36 vs x = 4.31 times per month). Predictors of continued PFM use included greater frequency of symptoms and younger age. Those discontinuing use believed that it added no additional information to assist in management, using it was a chore/burden, it was not available when needed, and the child's asthma had improved. Families will probably use a PFM to inform management during symptomatic times. Daily use is not perceived as useful by most families and is likely to be an unrealistic expectation for most children. J Pediatr Health Care.

  10. Response to inhaled corticosteroids on serum CD28, quality of life, and peak expiratory flow rate in bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anubhuti; Gupta, Lalit K; Rehan, Harmeet S; Prakash, Anupam

    2017-03-01

    CD28 is a 44 kDa glycoprotein that is important in initiating T-cell responses and that results in increased T-cell proliferation and interleukin-2 production. This study estimated the serum CD28 levels in patients with asthma and evaluated the effect of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) on the levels of CD28, the peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), and quality of life (QOL). This prospective, open-label, observational study enrolled 40 adult patients with asthma of mild-to-moderate severity who were started on ICS and 40 healthy controls. Patients with bronchial asthma were evaluated for their serum CD28 level and QOL by using Mini Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire scores, severity of symptoms, and PEFR at baseline and after 4 weeks. The mean (standard deviation [SD]) serum CD28 concentration in patients with asthma was 107 ± 4.98 ng/mL, which was significantly elevated (p Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire scores significantly increased, from 36.90 ± 10.31 on day 0 to 70.63 ± 11.56 on day 28 after ICS therapy (p bronchial asthma and reduced by ICS therapy. ICS also improved QOL scores and objective clinical outcomes in patients with asthma.

  11. Peak flow as predictor of overall mortality in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ejvind Frausing; Vestbo, Jørgen; Phanareth, K

    2001-01-01

    Lung function is a strong predictor of overall mortality in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). FEV1 is considered to be the "gold standard," whereas peak expiratory flow (PEF) is mostly used in absence of FEV1 measurements. We compared the predictive power of PEF and FEV1...... reflecting different components of COPD, i.e., chronic bronchitis, small airways disease, and emphysema. Furthermore, extrapulmonary components such as muscle mass and general "vigour" probably affect PEF to a greater extent than they affect FEV1......., measured after maximal bronchodilation, which included a short course of oral corticosteroids. The study population comprised 491 asthmatics and 1,095 subjects with COPD. Pulmonary function tests were performed between 1983 and 1988, and survival data were obtained by September 1997, when 127 asthmatics...

  12. Influence of maternal and perinatal factors on subsequent hospitalisation for asthma in children: evidence from the Oxford record linkage study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wotton Clare J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is much interest in the possibility that perinatal factors may influence the risk of disease in later life. We investigated the influence of maternal and perinatal factors on subsequent hospital admission for asthma in children. Methods Analysis of data from the Oxford record linkage study (ORLS to generate a retrospective cohort of 248 612 records of births between 1970 and 1989, with follow-up to records of subsequent hospital admission for 4 017 children with asthma up to 1999. Results Univariate analysis showed significant associations between an increased risk of admission for asthma and later years of birth (reflecting the increase in asthma in the 1970s and 1980s, low social class, asthma in the mother, unmarried mothers, maternal smoking in pregnancy, subsequent births compared with first-born, male sex, low birth weight, short gestational age, caesarean delivery, forceps delivery and not being breastfed. Multivariate analysis, identifying each risk factor that had a significant effect independently of other risk factors, confirmed associations with maternal asthma (odds ratio (OR 3.1, 95% confidence interval 2.7-3.6, male sex (versus female, 1.8, 1.7-2.0, low birth weight (1000-2999 g versus 3000-3999 g, 1.2, 1.1-1.3, maternal smoking (1.1, 1.0-1.3 and delivery by caesarean section (1.2; 1.0-1.3. In those first admitted with asthma under two years old, there were associations with having siblings (e.g. second child compared with first-born, OR 1.3, 1.0-1.7 and short gestational age (24-37 weeks versus 38-41 weeks, 1.6, 1.2-2.2. Multivariate analysis confined to those admitted with asthma aged six years or more, showed associations with maternal asthma (OR 3.8, 3.1-4.7, age of mother (under 25 versus 25-34 at birth, OR 1.16, 1.03-1.31; over 35 versus 25-34, OR 1.4, 1.1-1.7; high social class was protective (1 and 2, compared with 3, 0.72; 0.63-0.82. Hospital admission for asthma in people aged over six was more

  13. Association and interaction analyses of eight genes under asthma linkage peaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, M.A.R.; Zhao, Z.Z.; Thomsen, S.F.

    2009-01-01

    immunoglobulin (Ig) E levels and eosinophilia. Association was tested using both multivariate and univariate methods, with gene-wide thresholds for significance determined through simulation. Gene-by-gene and gene-by-environment analyses were also performed. Results: There was no overall evidence for association...

  14. Peak flow variation in childhood asthma : correlation with symptoms, airways obstruction, and hyperresponsiveness during long term treatment with inhaled corticosteroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, PLP; Duiverman, EJ; Waalkens, HJ; van Essen-Zandvliet, EEM; Kerrebijn, KF

    Background-Guidelines for asthma management focus on treatment with inhaled corticosteroids and on home recording of peak expiratory flow (PEF). The effect of maintenance treatment with inhaled corticosteroids on PEF variation and its relation to other parameters of disease activity were examined in

  15. Significant linkage to chromosome 12q24.32-q24.33 and identification of SFRS8 as a possible asthma susceptibility gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    brasch-andersen, c; Tan, Q; Børglum, A D

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asthma is a complex genetic disorder. Many studies have suggested that chromosome 12q harbours a susceptibility gene for asthma and atopy. Linkage on chromosome 12q24.21-q24.33 was investigated in 167 Danish families with asthma. METHODS: A two step procedure was used: (1) a genome...... in a family based transmission disequilibrium test. RESULTS: An MLS of 3.27 was obtained at 12q24.33. The significance of this result was tested by simulation, resulting in a significant empirical genome-wide p value of 0.018. To our Knowledge, this is the first significant evidence for linkage on chromosome...... part of chromosome 12q contains a gene that increases the susceptibility to asthma. SFRS8 could act as a weak predisposing gene for asthma in our sample....

  16. Exercise challenge in patients with asthma whose peak expiratory flow values are controlled within the green zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideko Kobayashi

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent guidelines for the management of asthma recommend that peak expiratory flow (PEF should be measured to monitor the level of airflow limitation and to maintain PEF values within the green zone (80–100% of the patient's highest PEF value. Because no studies have evaluated the efficacy of PEF zone management on the basis of patients' physical activity, we studied the appearance of exercise-induced asthma (EIA using treadmill exercise challenging in asthma patients whose PEF values had been maintained in the green zone for at least 3 months. Exercise-induced asthma was induced in nine of 44 (20.5% asthma patients. The acetylcholine concentration required to cause a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (log PC20 was significantly lower in patients with EIA (2.39±0.21 μg/mL compared with patients without EIA (3.22±0.12 μg/mL; P <0.03. These results suggest that PEF green zone management alone does not ensure the ability to perform vigorous physical activity, especially in patients whose airway reactivity remains enhanced. Therefore, airway reactivity should be considered for asthma management.

  17. Low Variability in Peak Expiratory Flow Predicts Successful Inhaled Corticosteroid Step-Down in Adults with Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurikisawa, Naomi; Oshikata, Chiyako; Sato, Toshio; Kimura, Goro; Mizuki, Masami; Tsuburai, Takahiro; Shoji, Shunsuke; Saito, Hiroshi; Shimoda, Terufumi

    2017-12-06

    The prognosis for patients beyond 1 year after reduction of their inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) dose remains unknown. Predictive factors that can be evaluated before the initiation of asthma treatment or at ICS dose reduction are unknown. We prospectively studied 223 patients in 6 hospitals in the National Hospital Organization of Japan during the 36 months after 50% reduction of their daily ICS dose. All patients recorded their morning and evening peak expiratory flows (PEFs) in their diaries. Lung function, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, fractional nitric oxide levels, number of eosinophils in sputum, and serum IgE levels were measured in most patients. Serum levels of IL-10, IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin before ICS dose reduction were measured in all patients. During the 36-month study period, asthma control was retained in 127 (59.6%) of the 213 enrolled patients who underwent ICS dose reduction. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that, at the initiation of dose reduction, the factors most predictive of maintenance of asthma control after ICS dose reduction were a low serum IL-33 level (P < .01), low PEF variability over 1 week (P = .014), childhood onset of asthma (at age <10 years) (P = .03), and high serum IL-10 level (P = .035). We demonstrated that low PEF variability over 1 week, high serum IL-10 level, and low serum IL-33 concentration were useful factors for predicting that an adult's asthma will remain in control for months to years after a 50% reduction in the daily ICS dose. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Forecasting peak asthma admissions in London: an application of quantile regression models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyiri, Ireneous N.; Reidpath, Daniel D.; Sarran, Christophe

    2013-07-01

    Asthma is a chronic condition of great public health concern globally. The associated morbidity, mortality and healthcare utilisation place an enormous burden on healthcare infrastructure and services. This study demonstrates a multistage quantile regression approach to predicting excess demand for health care services in the form of asthma daily admissions in London, using retrospective data from the Hospital Episode Statistics, weather and air quality. Trivariate quantile regression models (QRM) of asthma daily admissions were fitted to a 14-day range of lags of environmental factors, accounting for seasonality in a hold-in sample of the data. Representative lags were pooled to form multivariate predictive models, selected through a systematic backward stepwise reduction approach. Models were cross-validated using a hold-out sample of the data, and their respective root mean square error measures, sensitivity, specificity and predictive values compared. Two of the predictive models were able to detect extreme number of daily asthma admissions at sensitivity levels of 76 % and 62 %, as well as specificities of 66 % and 76 %. Their positive predictive values were slightly higher for the hold-out sample (29 % and 28 %) than for the hold-in model development sample (16 % and 18 %). QRMs can be used in multistage to select suitable variables to forecast extreme asthma events. The associations between asthma and environmental factors, including temperature, ozone and carbon monoxide can be exploited in predicting future events using QRMs.

  19. Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... babies. Poor asthma control increases the risk of preeclampsia, a condition in which a pregnant woman develops ... other conditions that can interfere with your asthma management. Watch for Signs That Your Asthma Is Getting ...

  20. The Effect of Salt Space on Clinical Findings and Peak Expiratory Flow in Children with Mild to Moderate Asthma: A Randomized Crossover Trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saeideh Mazloomzadeh; Niousha Bakhshi; Akefeh Ahmadiafshar; Mehdi Gholami

    2017-01-01

    ...‚ thus exploring other therapeutic plans could be desirable. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of salt space on clinical findings and peak expiratory flow rate among children with asthma...

  1. Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their experiences with clinical research. More Information Related Health Topics Cough How the Lungs Work Oxygen Therapy Pulmonary Function Tests Other Resources NHLBI Resources "Asthma Action Plan" "Asthma and Physical Activity in the School" "At-A-Glance: Asthma" "How Asthma-Friendly Is ...

  2. [Asthma control test (ACT) faultiness and the remediation by peak flow (PEF) measurement at outpatient department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Shiro; Obase, Yasushi; Ohfuji, Takashi; Shimizu, Hiroki; Sugiu, Tadaaki; Ohue, Yoshihiro; Yagi, Shin-ichi; Mouri, Keiji; Miyashita, Naoyuki; Kobashi, Yoshihiro; Oka, Mikio

    2008-07-01

    To grasp the asthma patients' control level, an asthma control test (ACT), an easy questionnaire, is getting to be used as the alternative method of asthma diary recording. ACT is based on the patient's 4-week memory and the accuracy is not confirmed thoroughly Two hundred and eighty three visits of 88 asthmatics (male 29, female 59) were subjected. The accuracy of ACT to detect "truly good control" was analyzed by comparing with the asthma diary (symptoms and PEF were recorded). Sensitivities, specificities (chi square values) for extraction of truly good control were 0.88, 0.42 (23.7) by the threshold of ACT > or =23, 0.77, 0.51 (18.1) by ACT > or =24, and 0.54, 0.69 (12.9) by ACT=25, significantly (pPEF% predicted > or =80% was added as the second factor, the chi square values improved to 29.9 by ACT > or =23 and to 30.3 by ACT > or =24 significantly (pPEF measurement on visit on ACT may help understanding the asthmatic patient condition.

  3. Haplotype sharing tests of linkage disequilibrium in a Hutterite asthma data set

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levinson, DF; Nolte, [No Value; Meerman, GJT

    2001-01-01

    The Genetic Analysis Workshop 12 genome scan data set for "strict" asthma in a Hutterite population was analyzed using haplotype sharing analysis (HSA), which tests for differences in mean length of haplotype sharing around each marker for pairs of chromosomes in cases versus controls. The regions

  4. Effect of bedding control on amount of house dust mite allergens, asthma symptoms, and peak expiratory flow rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Inn-Sook

    2003-04-30

    This quasi-experimental study was designed to investigate the effect of bedding control on the amount of house dust mite (HDM) allergens, asthma symptoms, and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) in asthmatics sensitive to HDMs. The subjects in the study were drawn from patients receiving treatment at the allergy clinics of three university-affiliated hospitals in Seoul. Forty-two patients without prior practice of the bedding control used in this study were selected. They commonly showed bronchial asthma caused by HDMs, and exhibited strong positive points (more than 3 points) in skin prick test (D. farinae, D. pteronyssinus), and positive response in both fluoro-allergosorbent test (FAST), and PC20 methacholine test. Of the subjects, alternatively, 22 were assigned to the experimental group and 20 to control group. Bedding control consisted of the use of outer cotton covers, boiling them for 10 minutes fortnightly, and disinfecting bedding by sunlight fortnightly. The experimental group was under bedding control for 4 weeks. The data were collected from October 2000 to January 2001. The results were as follows: 1. After bedding control, the total amount of HDM allergens decreased significantly in the experimental group. However there was no significant difference in the decrease of the amount of HDM allergens between the two groups. 2. Of the asthma symptoms, there was significant difference only in the decrease of the frequency of dyspnea, and in the increase of sleeping disturbance between the two groups after bedding control. 3. After bedding control, PEFR increased in the experimental group whereas it decreased in the control group. However, neither change was significant. The above findings indicate that bedding control improved several asthma symptoms in asthmatics sensitive to HDMs. Accordingly, we suggest that bedding control is adopted as a useful nursing intervention in the field.

  5. High-density fine-mapping of a chromosome 10q26 linkage peak suggests association between endometriosis and variants close to CYP2C19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Jodie N.; Nyholt, Dale R.; Morris, Andrew; Zhao, Zhen Z.; Henders, Anjali K.; Lambert, Ann; Wallace, Leanne; Martin, Nicholas G.; Kennedy, Stephen H.; Treloar, Susan A.; Zondervan, Krina T.; Montgomery, Grant W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To refine a previously reported linkage peak for endometriosis on chromosome 10q26, and conduct follow-up analyses and a fine-mapping association study across the region to identify new candidate genes for endometriosis. Design Case-control study. Setting Academic research. Subject(s) Cases = 3,223 women with surgically confirmed endometriosis; Controls = 1,190 women without endometriosis and 7,060 population samples. Intervention(s) Analysis of 11,984 SNPs on chromosome 10. Main outcome measure(s) Allele frequency differences between cases and controls. Results Linkage analyses on families grouped by endometriosis symptoms (primarily subfertility) provided increased evidence for linkage (logarithm of odds (LOD) score = 3.62) near a previously reported linkage peak. Three independent association signals were found at 96.59 Mb (rs11592737, P=4.9 × 10−4), 105.63 Mb (rs1253130, P=2.5 × 10−4) and 124.25 Mb (rs2250804, P=9.7 × 10−4). Analyses including only samples from linkage families supported the association at all three regions. However, only rs11592737 in the cytochrome P450 subfamily C (CYP2C19) gene was replicated in an independent sample of 2,079 cases and 7060 population controls. Conclusion(s) The role of the CYP2C19 gene in conferring risk for endometriosis warrants further investigation. PMID:21497341

  6. Relationship between airway responsiveness to mannitol and to methacholine and markers of airway inflammation, peak flow variability and quality of life in asthma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsbjerg, C.; Brannan, J.D.; Anderson, S.D.

    2008-01-01

    -three adult non-smoking asthmatics (28 females, 18-56 years) who were not taking inhaled steroids were challenged with mannitol (up to 635 mg) and methacholine (up to 8 mu mol). Induced sputum eosinophils, exhaled nitric oxide (eNO), peak flow variation and clinical severity of asthma according to the Global...... Initiative for Asthma guidelines were measured in addition to the health-related quality-of-life score using the Juniper asthma quality-of-life questionnaire. Findings Both ABR to mannitol as well as to methacholine was associated with elevated markers of airway inflammation: in 83% of asthma patients...... with AHR to mannitol, and in 88% of asthma patients with AHR to methacholine, the eNO level was > 20 p.p.b. Sputum% eosinophils >1% was measured in 70% of asthma patients with AHR to mannitol and in 77% of asthma patients with AHR to methacholine. In asthma patients without AHR, 15% had an eNO level >20p...

  7. Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Harold

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Asthma is the most common respiratory disorder in Canada. Despite significant improvement in the diagnosis and management of this disorder, the majority of Canadians with asthma remain poorly controlled. In most patients, however, control can be achieved through the use of avoidance measures and appropriate pharmacological interventions. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs represent the standard of care for the majority of patients. Combination ICS/long-acting beta2-agonists (LABA inhalers are preferred for most adults who fail to achieve control with ICS therapy. Allergen-specific immunotherapy represents a potentially disease-modifying therapy for many patients with asthma, but should only be prescribed by physicians with appropriate training in allergy. Regular monitoring of asthma control, adherence to therapy and inhaler technique are also essential components of asthma management. This article provides a review of current literature and guidelines for the appropriate diagnosis and management of asthma.

  8. Acute effects of Asian dust events on respiratory symptoms and peak expiratory flow in children with mild asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Young; Choung, Ji Tae; Yu, Jinho; Kim, Do Kyun; Koh, Young Yull

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible adverse effects of Asian dust events on respiratory health in asthmatic children. Fifty-two children with mild asthma were studied for eight consecutive weeks in the spring of 2004 (March 8 to May 2). During the study period, five Asian dust days were identified; we included a lag period of two days following each of the events. Subjects recorded their respiratory symptom diaries and peak expiratory flow (PEF) twice daily during the study period; and they underwent methacholine bronchial challenge tests. The subjects reported a significantly higher frequency of respiratory symptoms during the Asian dust days than during the control days. They showed significantly more reduced morning and evening PEF values, and more increased PEF variability (10.1%+/-3.5% vs. 5.5%+/-2.2%) during the Asian dust days than during the control days. Methacholine PC(20) was not significantly different between before and after the study period (geometric mean: 2.82 mg/mL vs. 3.16 mg/mL). These results suggest that the short-term Asian dust events might be associated with increased acute respiratory symptoms and changes in PEF outcomes. However, there might be little long-term influence on airway hyperresponsiveness in children with mild asthma.

  9. House dust mite avoidance measures improve peak flow and symptoms in patients with allergy but without asthma : A possible delay in the manifestation of clinical asthma?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cloosterman, SGM; Hofland, ID; Lukassen, HGM; Wieringa, MH; Folgering, HTM; vanderHeide, S; Brunekreef, B; vanSchayck, CP

    Background: Asthma caused by allergy to house dust mite is a growing problem. Patients,vith allergy who do not have asthma (yet) might develop asthma depending on exposure to precipitating factors. Objective: We sought to determine whether house dust mite avoidance measures have an effect on the

  10. Peak flow meter (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A peak flow meter is commonly used by a person with asthma to measure the amount of air that can be ... become narrow or blocked due to asthma, peak flow values will drop because the person cannot blow ...

  11. A genome-wide search for linkage to asthma phenotypes in the genetics of asthma international network families : evidence for a major susceptibility locus on chromosome 2p

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pillai, SG; Chiano, MN; White, NJ; Speer, M; Barnes, KC; Carlsen, K; Gerritsen, Jorrit; Helms, P; Lenney, W; Silverman, M; Sly, P; Sundy, J; Tsanakas, J; von Berg, A; Whyte, M; Varsani, S; Skelding, P; Hauser, M; Vance, J; Pericak-Vance, M; Burns, DK; Middleton, LT; Brewster, [No Value; Anderson, WH; Riley, JH

    Asthma is a complex disease and the intricate interplay between genetic and environmental factors underlies the overall phenotype of the disease. Families with at least two siblings with asthma were collected from Europe, Australia and the US. A genome scan using a set of 364 families with a panel

  12. Death due to asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert L. Sheffer

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and fatality rate of asthma have increased worldwide. Underdiagnosis and undertreatment of asthma are central to the occurrence of fatal asthma. Atopy is the principal risk factor associated with asthma. However, consideration of the epidemiologic, physiologic, pharmacologic, pathologic and clinical parameters of asthma assessment may provide valuable insight into death due to asthma. Psychologic and socioeconomic factors may further aggravate the asthma status. Ethnic minorities are at increased risk of asthma. The perception of dyspnea may be blunted in asthma sufferers. Slow-onset fatal asthma may be associated with submucosal eosinophilic, whereas sudden-onset may be associated with submucosal neutrophilia. Fatal asthma occurs in patients abusing regular |32-agonist therapy. Peak flow assessment often provides insight into asthma deterioration prior to signs of respiratory distress. Markers of risk of death due to asthma further identify the fatality-prone asthma patient.

  13. Rare familial 16q21 microdeletions under a linkage peak implicate cadherin 8 (CDH8) in susceptibility to autism and learning disability

    OpenAIRE

    Pagnamenta, Alistair T; Khan, Hameed; Walker, Susan; Gerrelli, Dianne; Wing, Kirsty; Bonaglia, Maria Clara; Giorda, Roberto; Berney, Tom; Mani, Elisa; Molteni, Massimo; Pinto, Dalila; Le Couteur, Ann; Hallmayer, Joachim; Sutcliffe, James S; Szatmari, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterised by impairments in social communication and by a pattern of repetitive behaviours, with learning disability (LD) typically seen in up to 70% of cases. A recent study using the PPL statistical frame-work identified a novel region of genetic linkage on chromosome 16q21 that is limited to ASD families with LD. Methods In this study, two families with autism and/or LD are described which harbour rare >1.6 Mb microd...

  14. How to use your peak flow meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... discharge COPD - control drugs COPD - quick-relief drugs COPD - what to ask your doctor Exercise-induced asthma Exercising and asthma at school Make peak flow a habit! Signs of an asthma attack Stay away from asthma triggers Review Date 2/15/2016 Updated by: Neil K. ...

  15. Asthma among mink workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Berit; Carstensen, Ole; Petersen, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    We report two cases of asthma among mink workers. The first case is about a mink farmer who had asthma that was difficult to treat. In the medical history there was no clear relation to work, and no conclusive work relation with peak flow monitoring. He had a positive histamine release test to mink...... urine. The second case is about a mink farm worker, who had an asthma attack when handling mink furs. Peak flow monitoring showed a clear relation to this work, but there were no signs of allergy. We conclude that these two cases suggest an increased risk of asthma among mink workers....

  16. Peak flow meter use - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100202.htm Peak flow meter use - Series—Peak flow meter use - part one To use the sharing ... slide 7 out of 7 Overview A peak flow meter helps you check how well your asthma ...

  17. Asthma Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Giving Teens a Voice in Health Care Decisions Asthma KidsHealth > For Parents > Asthma Print A A A ... Should I Know? en español Asma What Is Asthma? Asthma is a condition that causes breathing problems. ...

  18. Asthma education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-01-01

    ). Allergy and Asthma Clinic, Red Cross War Memorial Hospital. Mike Levin runs a secondary level asthma/ allergy clinic and does a tertiary allergy session once a week, focusing on difficult asthma and food allergies. He has ...

  19. Obesity in asthma: approaches to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeepan, Shyamala; Garrison, Garth; Dixon, Anne E

    2013-10-01

    There is mounting evidence that obesity is associated with asthma, both of which are seeing a dramatic increase in prevalence. Not only is obesity a risk factor for the development of asthma but it is also associated with poor asthma control. Asthma phenotypes associated with obesity include early-onset allergic asthma and late-onset non-allergic asthma. The pathogenesis of the linkage is complex; obesity causes a variety of mechanical, metabolic, and immunological changes that can affect the airways. The treatment of asthma in obesity can be challenging, as obesity is associated with poor response to standard controller medications. A tailored approach that involves combining pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic therapies including weight loss, dietary interventions, and exercise, along with identification and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea, should therefore be considered in this population.

  20. Role of inflammation in nocturnal asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    MacKay, T. W.; Wallace, W A; Howie, S. E.; Brown, P. H.; Greening, A P; Church, M. K.; Douglas, N. J.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Nocturnal airway narrowing is a common problem for patients with asthma but the role of inflammation in its pathogenesis is unclear. Overnight changes in airway inflammatory cell populations were studied in patients with nocturnal asthma and in control normal subjects. METHODS--Bronchoscopies were performed at 0400 hours and 1600 hours in eight healthy subjects and in 10 patients with nocturnal asthma (> 15% overnight fall in peak flow plus at least one awakening/week with asthma)...

  1. Reflexology and bronchial asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brygge, T; Heinig, J H; Collins, P

    2001-01-01

    Many asthma patients seek alternative or adjunctive therapies. One such modality is reflexology, whereby finger pressure is applied to certain parts of the body. The aim of the study was to examine the popular claim that reflexology treatment benefits bronchial asthma. Ten weeks of active...... or simulated (placebo) reflexology given by an experienced reflexologist, were compared in an otherwise blind, controlled trial of 20+20 outpatients with asthma. Objective lung function tests (peak flow morning and evening, and weekly spirometry at the clinic) did not change. Subjective scores (describing...... diaries was carried out. It was accompanied by a significant pattern compatible with subconscious unblinding, in that patients tended to guess which treatment they had been receiving. No evidence was found that reflexology has a specific effect on asthma beyond placebo influence....

  2. Asthma Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is working to explore the role of common air pollutants in the development and exacerbation of asthma at different life stages as well as other environmental and genetic factors that might make a person more sensitive to developing asthma.

  3. School-based asthma disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkelman, David; Schwartz, Abby

    2004-06-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic childhood illness and the leading cause of missed school days. School is a potential location for establishing an asthma education program for children and their parents/caregivers designed to improve disease management. To determine whether a comprehensive, school-based asthma management program, in addition to a conventional disease management program, can reduce measures of asthma control, student absenteeism, and caregiver lost workdays. School nurses recruited parents/caregivers of students with asthma from three urban elementary and middle schools. Children were identified as having asthma by a previous diagnosis from their personal physician. Parents were invited to attend educational sessions about the program. Students received peak flow meters and training in their use and had access to an interactive asthma diary to record symptoms, peak flow, and medicine usage. They received monthly asthma education at school and had access to an online asthma education program and additional handouts. Parents received several educational calls regarding asthma and had a 24-hour, 7-days-a-week emergency number to call if problems arose. At 6 months, missed school days and unscheduled doctor visits were reduced by two thirds (n = 41; pschool-based asthma management program can successfully improve asthma control and reduce absenteeism in elementary and middle school students and caregiver lost workdays.

  4. Quantitative linkage genome scan for atopy in a large collection of Caucasian families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, BT; van den Oord, E; Akkari, A

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative phenotypes correlated with a complex disorder offer increased power to detect linkage in comparison to affected-unaffected classifications. Asthma is a complex disorder characterized by periods of bronchial obstruction and increased bronchial hyper reactivity. In childhood and early...... adulthood, asthma is frequently associated also with quantitative measures of atopy. Genome wide quantitative multipoint linkage analysis was conducted for serum IgE levels and percentage of positive skin prick test (SPT(per)) using three large groups of families originally ascertained for asthma....... In this report, 438 and 429 asthma families were informative for linkage using IgE and SPT(per) which represents 690 independent families. Suggestive linkage (LOD >/= 2) was found on chromosomes 1, 3, and 8q with maximum LODs of 2.34 (IgE), 2.03 (SPT(per)), and 2.25 (IgE) near markers D1S1653, D3S2322-D3S1764...

  5. Quantitative linkage genome scan for atopy in a large collection of Caucasian families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webb, Bradley T.; van den Oord, Edwin; Akkari, Anthony; Wilton, Steve; Ly, Tina; Duv, Rachael; Barnes, Kathleen C.; Carlsen, Karin; Gerritsen, Jorrit; Lenney, Warren; Silverman, Michael; Sly, Peter; Sundy, John; Tsanakas, John; von Berg, Andrea; Whyte, Moira; Blumenthal, Malcolm; Vestbo, Jorgen; Middleton, Lefkos; Helms, Peter J.; Anderson, Wayne H.; Pillai, Sreekumar G.

    Quantitative phenotypes correlated with a complex disorder offer increased power to detect linkage in comparison to affected-unaffected classifications. Asthma is a complex disorder characterized by periods of bronchial obstruction and increased bronchial hyper reactivity. In childhood and early

  6. Severe Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzurum, Serpil C.; Bleecker, Eugene R.; Calhoun, William J.; Castro, Mario; Comhair, Suzy A. A.; Chung, Kian Fan; Curran-Everett, Douglas; Dweik, Raed A.; Fain, Sean B.; Fitzpatrick, Anne M.; Gaston, Benjamin M.; Israel, Elliot; Hastie, Annette; Hoffman, Eric A.; Holguin, Fernando; Levy, Bruce D.; Meyers, Deborah A.; Moore, Wendy C.; Peters, Stephen P.; Sorkness, Ronald L.; Teague, W. Gerald; Wenzel, Sally E.; Busse, William W.

    2012-01-01

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Severe Asthma Research Program (SARP) has characterized over the past 10 years 1,644 patients with asthma, including 583 individuals with severe asthma. SARP collaboration has led to a rapid recruitment of subjects and efficient sharing of samples among participating sites to conduct independent mechanistic investigations of severe asthma. Enrolled SARP subjects underwent detailed clinical, physiologic, genomic, and radiological evaluations. In addition, SARP investigators developed safe procedures for bronchoscopy in participants with asthma, including those with severe disease. SARP studies revealed that severe asthma is a heterogeneous disease with varying molecular, biochemical, and cellular inflammatory features and unique structure–function abnormalities. Priorities for future studies include recruitment of a larger number of subjects with severe asthma, including children, to allow further characterization of anatomic, physiologic, biochemical, and genetic factors related to severe disease in a longitudinal assessment to identify factors that modulate the natural history of severe asthma and provide mechanistic rationale for management strategies. PMID:22095547

  7. Quantitative linkage genome scan for atopy in a large collection of Caucasian families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, BT; van den Oord, E; Akkari, A

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative phenotypes correlated with a complex disorder offer increased power to detect linkage in comparison to affected-unaffected classifications. Asthma is a complex disorder characterized by periods of bronchial obstruction and increased bronchial hyper reactivity. In childhood and early...... represents one of the biggest genome scans so far reported for asthma related phenotypes. This study also demonstrates the utility of increased sample sizes and quantitative phenotypes in linkage analysis of complex disorders....

  8. Allergens in household dust and serological indicators of atopy and sensitization in Detroit children with history--based eivdence of asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Home exposure to allergens is an important factor in the development of sensitization and subsequent exacerbations of allergic asthma. We investigated linkages among allergen exposure, immunological measurements, and asthma by examining (1) reservoir dust allergen lev...

  9. Inaccuracy of portable peak flow meters : correction is not needed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, PLP; Waalkens, HJ; Duiverman, EJ; vanEssenZandvliet, EEM

    This study examined whether correction of peak expiratory flow (PEF) values for the inaccuracy of the meter would affect asthma management in 102 children (7-14 y old). PEF was recorded with a mini Wright meter twice daily for 2 weeks. As expected, measured PEF overestimated PEF level and asthma

  10. Family practitioners perception of, knowledge about and use of peak ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peak flow meters were underutilised by family practitioners. The cost of the peak flow meter was an important reported cause of underutilisation. It is recommended that the importance of the peak flow meter in the management of asthma be emphasised at the undergraduate and continuing medical education level.

  11. VT Wildlife Linkage Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Wildlife Linkage Habitat Analysis uses landscape scale data to identify or predict the location of potentially significant wildlife linkage...

  12. Diagnosing Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ribbon Commands Skip to main content Turn off Animations Turn on Animations Our Sponsors Log in | Register Menu Log in | ... were tried and if they helped Any family history of allergies or asthma It is very important ...

  13. Occupational Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the enzymes of the bacteria Bacillus subtilis, while bakers may develop an allergy and occupational asthma symptoms ... counts Continuing education center Find an allergist / immunologist Journals Login / My membership Search your symptoms Shop the ...

  14. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Voice in Health Care Decisions Do Allergies Cause Asthma? KidsHealth > For Parents > Do Allergies Cause Asthma? Print ... son la causa del asma? Do Allergies Cause Asthma? Allergies don't cause asthma. But kids who ...

  15. Asthma Medications and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Associated Conditions Asthma & Pregnancy Asthma & Pregnancy: Medications Asthma & Pregnancy: Medications Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask ... mother and child. Making Decisions about Medication During Pregnancy It is important that your asthma be controlled ...

  16. Changes in peak expiratory flow indices as a proxy for changes in bronchial hyperresponsiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, WR; Kerstjens, HAM; Roos, CM; Koeter, GH; Postma, DS

    Guidelines for asthma management advocate home peak expiratory flow (PEF) monitoring. It is commonly stated that PEF variability is a good prosy of branchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), a hallmark of asthma, However, this has hardly been tested longitudinally, as required to monitor asthma, This

  17. Genetic linkage studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawn Teare, M; Barrett, Jennifer H

    Linkage analysis is used to map genetic loci by use of observations of related individuals. We provide an introduction to methods commonly used to map loci that predispose to disease. Linkage analysis methods can be applied to both major gene disorders (parametric linkage) and complex diseases (model-free or non-parametric linkage). Evidence for linkage is most commonly expressed as a logarithm of the odds score. We provide a framework for interpretation of these scores and discuss the role of simulation in assessment of statistical significance and estimation of power. Genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity can also affect the success of a study, and several methods exist to address such problems.

  18. Subsidiary Linkage Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ulf; Perri, Alessandra; Nell, Phillip C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the pattern of subsidiaries' local vertical linkages under varying levels of competition and subsidiary capabilities. Contrary to most previous literature, we explicitly account for the double role of such linkages as conduits of learning prospects as well as potential cha...... in strongly competitive environments tend to shy away from high quality linkages. We discuss our findings in light of the literature on spillovers and inter-organizational linkages.......This paper investigates the pattern of subsidiaries' local vertical linkages under varying levels of competition and subsidiary capabilities. Contrary to most previous literature, we explicitly account for the double role of such linkages as conduits of learning prospects as well as potential...... channels for spillovers to competitors. We find a curvilinear relationship between the extent of competitive pressure and the quality of a subsidiary's set of local linkages. Furthermore, the extent to which a subsidiary possesses capabilities moderates this relationship: Very capable subsidiaries...

  19. Evidence for a pleiotropic QTL on chromosome 5q13 influencing both time to asthma onset and asthma score in French EGEA families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzigon, Emmanuelle; Ulgen, Ayse; Dizier, Marie-Hélène; Siroux, Valérie; Lathrop, Mark; Kauffmann, Francine; Pin, Isabelle; Demenais, Florence

    2007-07-01

    Although many genome screens have been conducted for asthma as a binary trait, there is limited information regarding the genetic factors underlying variation of asthma expression. Phenotypes related to variable disease expression include time to asthma onset and variation in clinical expression as measured by an asthma score built from EGEA data. A recent genome scan conducted for this score led to detection of a new region (18p11) not revealed by analysis of dichotomous asthma. Our goal was to characterize chromosomal regions harboring genes underlying time to asthma onset and to search for pleiotropic QTL influencing both time to asthma onset and the asthma score. We conducted a genome-wide linkage screen for time to asthma onset, modeled by martingale residuals from Cox survival model, in EGEA families with at least two asthmatic sibs. This was followed by a bivariate linkage scan of these residuals and asthma score. Univariate linkage analysis was performed using the Maximum Likelihood Binomial method that we extended to bivariate analysis. This screen revealed two regions potentially linked to time to asthma onset, 1p31 (LOD = 1.70, P = 0.003) and 5q13 (LOD = 1.87, P = 0.002). Bivariate linkage analysis led to a substantial improvement of the linkage signal on 5q13 (P = 0.00007), providing evidence for a pleiotropic QTL influencing both variation of time to asthma onset and of clinical expression. Use of quantitative phenotypes of variable disease expression and suitable statistical methodology can improve the power to detect new regions harboring genes which may play an important role in onset and course of disease.

  20. Rural school nurses' asthma education needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, K; Winkelstein, M; Calabrese, B; Nanda, J; Quartey, R; Butz, A; Resto, M; Huss, R; Rand, C S

    2001-05-01

    School nurses play an important role in identifying children with asthma and providing care during school hours. Educational programs designed to improve nurses' asthma knowledge and practices have concentrated on urban settings. The purpose of this investigation was to determine asthma-related practices and educational needs of rural school nurses. A survey about asthma was mailed to school nurses in all counties of the state of Maryland and in Washington, D.C. Responses were compared between rural Maryland counties and counties from the remainder of Maryland and Washington, D.C. The survey addressed attitudes and beliefs, function and roles, medication administration, and educational needs about asthma. We found that rural nurses used peak flow meters less often to assess and monitor asthma, requested fewer referrals for asthma, had fewer interactions with health room assistants, and had reduced access to asthma educational resources. Also, they provided less asthma education in the schools than other school nurses. These results suggest a need for comprehensive asthma educational programs in rural areas that are based on national guidelines, and that address the unique needs of rural school nurses. These programs should also emphasize the need for open communication between rural school nurses, health room assistants, primary care providers, and parents/caregivers.

  1. Asthma Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and coughing or wheezing Low peak expiratory flow (PEF) readings, if you use a peak flow meter ... plan. If your symptoms and peak expiratory flow (PEF) readings improve, home treatment may be all that's ...

  2. Death due to asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Sheffer, Albert L.

    1996-01-01

    The prevalence and fatality rate of asthma have increased worldwide. Underdiagnosis and undertreatment of asthma are central to the occurrence of fatal asthma. Atopy is the principal risk factor associated with asthma. However, consideration of the epidemiologic, physiologic, pharmacologic, pathologic and clinical parameters of asthma assessment may provide valuable insight into death due to asthma. Psychologic and socioeconomic factors may further aggravate the asthma status. Ethnic minoriti...

  3. Physical training for asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin V. Carson

    .98 to 5.87; P < 0.00001; 8 studies on 267 participants; however, no statistically significant effects were observed for forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, forced vital capacity (FVC, minute ventilation at maximal exercise (VEmax or peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR. Meta-analysis of four studies detected a statistically significant increase in maximum heart rate, and following a sensitivity analysis and removal of two studies significance was maintained (MD 3.67 bpm; 95% CI 0.90 to 3.44; P = 0.01. Although there were insufficient data to pool results due to diverse reporting tools, there was some evidence to suggest that physical training may have positive effects on health-related quality of life, with four of five studies producing a statistically and clinically significant benefit.AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This review demonstrated that physical training showed significant improvement in maximum oxygen uptake, though no effects were observed in other measures of pulmonary function. Physical training was well tolerated among people with asthma in the included studies and, as such, people with stable asthma should be encouraged to participate in regular exercise training, without fear of symptom exacerbation. More research is needed to understand the mechanisms by which physical activity impacts asthma management.

  4. Acute bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Ramuscello

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is one of the main causes of morbidity worldwide. It affects some 300 million individuals and has risen over the past 20 years, especially in the paediatric population. Asthma is a chronic inflammation of the airways, subject to periodic exacerbations, characterised by coughing and progressive dyspnoea. Clinical conditions may vary greatly, ranging from moderate exacerbation with an increase in nocturnal awakening and a less than 20% reduction in the flow peak, through to severe respiratory insufficiency that requires immediate intubation of the airways. Pharmacological treatment envisages a step approach that aims to obtain and maintain control over the symptoms, taking into consideration the effectiveness of the treatment available, potential side effects and cost. β2-agonists and corticosteroids are the drugs of election for both maintenance therapy and for treating exacerbations. Other therapeutic devices may prove useful in particular cases. One fundamental key point in treatment over time is the cooperation between patient and attending doctor. The latest review of the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA guidelines was published in 2006.

  5. Asthma - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BS, Burks AW, et al, eds. Middleton's Allergy Principles and Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 53. Lugogo N, Que LG, Gilstrap DL, Kraft M. Asthma: clinical diagnosis and management. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et ...

  6. Childhood asthma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    atopy, night cough, exercise-induced cough and/or wheeze and seasonal variation in symptoms. Epidemiology. Asthma is on the increase in both the developed and developing countries of the world. In South Africa, its prevalence in children in Cape Town (measured by exercise challenge) was only three per cent in 1979.

  7. Childhood asthma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prevalence in children in Cape Town (measured by exercise challenge) was only three per ... mortality among the five to 34-year-old age group, and fifth for asthma ... clouded by differences in terminology used by respondents, depending on ...

  8. Aspects of record linkage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, Marijn Paul

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is an exploration of the subject of historical record linkage. The general goal of historical record linkage is to discover relations between historical entities in a database, for any specific definition of relation, entity and database. Although this task originates from historical

  9. Exercise-Induced Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... January 2014 More on this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Can Kids and Teens With Asthma Play Sports? Asthma Center When to Go to the ER if Your Child Has Asthma Kids and Exercise Asthma Triggers Word! Exercise-Induced Asthma ...

  10. [Study of personal best value of peak expiratory flow in patients with asthma--comparison of the highest value of daily PEF under good control and the highest value of daily PEF obtained after using repeated inhaled beta2-agonist during high-dose inhaled steroid treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Naoto; Makino, Sohei; Kihara, Norio; Fukuda, Takeshi

    2008-12-01

    In the guideline for asthma management, it is important to find the personal best value of peak expiratory flow (best PEF). Recently, we have substituted the highest value of PEF in daily life under good control (daily highest PEF) for the best PEF. In the present study, we considered whether the daily highest PEF could be used as the best PEF or not. Subjects were 30 asthmatics who were well controlled but whose baseline PEF values were less than 80 percent of predicted values. We compared the daily highest PEF and the highest of PEF obtained after repeated inhaled beta2-agonist (salbutamol MDI every 20 minutes three times). All subjects then received 1600 microg/day of beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) for 4 to 8 weeks. We studied the effect of high-dose inhaled steroid treatment on each PEF value and compared the daily highest PEF and the highest PEF obtained after using repeated salbutamol MDI during high dose inhaled steroid therapy on the examination day again. The baseline PEF, daily highest PEF and the highest PEF obtained after salbutamol MDI were significantly less than the each values obtained after high-dose BDP. The best PEF value of them was the value obtained after repeated salbutamol MDI during high dose BDP. We suggest that the daily highest PEF under good control is not a substitute for best PEF because it changes according to the degree of improvement of airway inflammation. We recommend that a course of high dose inhaled steroid is effective in finding the best value of PEF for each individual with moderate asthma.

  11. Allergies, asthma, and molds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive airway - mold; Bronchial asthma - mold; Triggers - mold; Allergic rhinitis - pollen ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Mold is a common trigger. When your asthma or allergies become worse due to mold, you are ...

  12. Asthma Triggers: Gain Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... asthma. Dogs, cats, rodents (including hamsters and guinea pigs) and other warm-blooded mammals can trigger asthma ... Page Contact Us to ask a question, provide feedback, or report a problem. Asthma Indoor Air Quality ...

  13. Leveraging Partnerships: Families, Schools, and Providers Working Together to Improve Asthma Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Melanie; Cicutto, Lisa; Haas-Howard, Christy; Raleigh, Bridget M; Szefler, Stanley J

    2016-10-01

    Asthma is one of the most common illnesses of school-aged children and can lead to both health and educational disparities. Children from low socioeconomic backgrounds and racial/ethnic minorities suffer the greatest impact. They often lack the asthma self-management skills to successfully monitor, navigate, and negotiate appropriate asthma care. School settings are a strategic point of contact for this additional support. School nurses can monitor for signs of asthma worsening, manage symptoms, provide care coordination, and reinforce self-management skills. Likewise, school-based asthma programs have the potential to reduce health and educational disparities, but it is the strong linkage to the asthma care provider that is critical to successful school-based asthma management. Healthcare providers are encouraged to establish partnerships with families through patient-centered care and schools through clear communication and care coordination to ensure asthma is well controlled so the child is in school and ready to learn.

  14. Polymorphisms in SPINK5 are not associated with asthma in a Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongepier, H; Koppelman, GH; Nolte, IM; Bruinenberg, M; Bleecker, ER; Meyers, DA; Meerman, GJT; Postma, DS

    Background: Asthma and allergic phenotypes are complex genetic diseases with known linkage to chromosome 5q. This region has many candidate genes, including serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 5 (SPINK5), which has been associated with asthma and atopic dermatitis in family-based studies of

  15. What Is Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Asthma Awareness National Asthma Awards Federal and Partner Organizations Public Service Announcements & Multimedia Main menu Environmental Topics Air Bed Bugs Chemicals and Toxics Environmental ...

  16. Allergic asthma biomarkers using systems approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurab eSircar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is characterized by lung inflammation caused by complex interaction between the immune system and environmental factors such as allergens and inorganic pollutants. Recent research in this field is focused on discovering new biomarkers associated with asthma pathogenesis. This review illustrates updated research associating biomarkers of allergic asthma and their potential use in systems biology of the disease. We focus on biomolecules with altered expression, which may serve as inflammatory, diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers of asthma discovered in human or experimental asthma model using genomic, proteomic and epigenomic approaches for gene and protein expression profiling. These include high-throughput technologies such as state of the art microarray and proteomics Mass Spectrometry (MS platforms. Emerging concepts of molecular interactions and pathways may provide new insights in searching potential clinical biomarkers. We summarized certain pathways with significant linkage to asthma pathophysiology by analyzing the compiled biomarkers. Systems approaches with this data can identify the regulating networks, which will eventually identify the key biomarkers to be used for diagnostics and drug discovery.

  17. Subsidiary Linkage Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perri, Alessandra; Andersson, Ulf; Nell, Phillip C.

    of competition and subsidiary capabilities. Our theoretical development and the results from the analysis document a far more complex and dynamic relationship between levels of competition and MNCs’ local participation in knowledge intensive activities, i.e. learning and spillovers, than previous studies do. We......This paper investigates local vertical linkages of foreign subsidiaries and the dual role of such linkages as conduits for learning as well as potential channels for spillovers to competitors. On the basis of data from 97 subsidiaries, we analyze the quality of such linkages under varying levels...... find a curvilinear relationship between the extent of competitive pressure and the quality of local linkages confirming our argument of a trade-off between learning prospects and spillover risks. Furthermore, the level of subsidiary capabilities moderates this relationship....

  18. Randomized controlled study of CBT in bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grover Naveen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to find out efficacy of cognitive behavior therapy, as an adjunct to standard pharmacotherapy, in bronchial asthma. In a random-ized two-group design with pre-and post assessments, forty asthma patients were randomly allotted to two groups: self management group and cognitive behavior therapy group. Both groups were exposed to 6-8 weeks of intervention, asthma self management program and cognitive behavior therapy. Assessment measures used were-Semi structured interview schedule, Asthma Symptom Checklist, Asthma di-ary, Asthma Bother Profile, Hospital Anxiety & Depression Scale, AQLQ and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate. Within group comparison showed significant improvement in both groups at the post assessment. Between group comparisons showed that CBT group reported significantly greater change than that of SM group. Cognitive behavior therapy helps in improving the managment of asthma.

  19. Networks, linkages, and migration systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, J T

    1989-01-01

    Recent theoretical interest in migration systems calls attention to the functions of diverse linkages between countries in stimulating, directing,and maintaining international flows of people. This article proposes a conceptual framework for the non-people linkages in international migration systems and discusses the implications for population movement of the 4 categories and 3 types of linkages that define the network. The 4 categories include 1) state to state relations, 2) mass culture connections, 3) family and personal networks, and 4) migrant agency activities. The 3 types of linkages are 1) tangible linkages, 2) regulatory linkages, and 3) relational linkages.

  20. Asthma and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Caroline Trunk-Black; Ali, Zarqa; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a major health problem, and obesity is associated with a high incidence of asthma and poor asthma control. The aim of the present paper is to systematically review the current knowledge of the effect on overall asthma control of weight reduction in overweight and obese adults with asthma....

  1. Community-based asthma care: trial of a "credit card" asthma self-management plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, W; Crane, J; Burgess, C; Te Karu, H; Fox, C; Harper, M; Robson, B; Howden-Chapman, P; Crossland, L; Woodman, K

    1994-07-01

    Although asthma self-management plans are widely recommended as essential in the long-term treatment of adult asthma, there have been few studies examining their use. Our objective was to assess the effect of a "credit card" adult asthma self-management plan in a community experiencing major health problems from asthma, by means of a before and after intervention trial of the efficacy of the "credit card" plan, when introduced through community-based asthma clinics. The participants were 69 Maori people with asthma. The "credit card" plan consisted of written guidelines for the self-management of asthma, based on self-assessment of asthma severity, printed on a plastic card. On one side, management guidelines were based on the interpretation of peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) recordings, whilst the reverse side was based on symptoms. The outcome measures used were before and after comparison of markers of asthma morbidity and requirement for acute medical treatment; and a structured questionnaire assessing the acceptability and use of the credit card plan. Following the introduction of the plan, the mean PEFR increased from 347 to 389 l.min-1, the percentage of nights woken fell from 30.4 to 16.9%, and the number of days "out of action" fell from 3.8 to 1.7%. The requirements for acute medical treatment also fell during the intervention period. Most participants commented favourably on the content and usefulness of the plan. In the situation of worsening asthma, 28% of subjects found the peak flow side of the card most helpful, 7% the symptoms side, and 48% found both sides equally helpful.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Serum Vitamin D Levels and Vitamin D Supplement in Adult Patients with Asthma Exacerbation

    OpenAIRE

    Tadech Boonpiyathad; Teerapol Chantveerawong; Panitan Pradubpongsa; Atik Sangasapaviliya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to an increased risk of asthma exacerbations. Objective. This study aimed to compare vitamin D status during the period of severe asthma exacerbations and investigate if vitamin D supplementation improves asthma control. Methods. A total of 47 asthmatic patients and 40 healthy subjects participated in this study. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), asthma control test (ACT) score, and % predicted peak expiratory flow rate were evaluated in t...

  3. [Genetic factors involved in asthma and atopy. Studies in British families].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, N S; Wilkinson, J; Lio, P; Doull, I; Morton, N E; Holgate, S T

    2000-02-01

    Both asthma and atopy run families indicating a strong genetic component. To investigate possible candidate gene regions, we have recruited 131 families without reference to atopy and asthma (random sample) and 60 extended families with two or more members affected by asthma (multiplex sample). Using both candidate and genome screen approaches, we have been able to provide evidence supporting the presence of candidate genes on chromosome 11q (E237G) and 12q but we have been unable to confirm reports of linkage and association for asthma on 5q. Our experience to date suggests that larger numbers of families are needed to increase the confidence of gene localisation and there is a need to improve the phenotypic description of asthma. Finally, it is essential that claims for linkage or association are confirmed in different populations using the same markers.

  4. Obesity and Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Caroline Trunk-Black; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is more prevalent in obese compared with normal weight subjects. Our aim has been to review current knowledge of the impact of obesity on asthma severity, asthma control, and response to therapy.Several studies have shown that overweight and obesity is associated with more severe asthma...... and impaired quality of life compared with normal weight individuals. Furthermore, obesity is associated with poorer asthma control, as assessed by asthma control questionnaires, limitations in daily activities, breathlessness and wheezing, use of rescue medication, unscheduled doctor visits, emergency...... department visits, and hospitalizations for acute asthma. Studies of the impact of a high body mass index (BMI) on response to asthma therapy have, however, revealed conflicting results. Most studies show that overweight and obesity is associated with less favorable response to asthma therapy with regard...

  5. Smoking and Asthma (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Personal Plan Hot Topics Flu Facts Arrhythmias Abuse Smoking and Asthma KidsHealth > For Teens > Smoking and Asthma ... A en español Fumar y el asma Does Smoking Make Asthma Worse? Yes. If you have asthma, ...

  6. Challenges in identifying asthma subgroups using unsupervised statistical learning techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosperi, Mattia C F; Sahiner, Umit M; Belgrave, Danielle; Sackesen, Cansin; Buchan, Iain E; Simpson, Angela; Yavuz, Tolga S; Kalayci, Omer; Custovic, Adnan

    2013-12-01

    Unsupervised statistical learning techniques, such as exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and hierarchical clustering (HC), have been used to identify asthma phenotypes, with partly consistent results. Some of the inconsistency is caused by the variable selection and demographic and clinical differences among study populations. To investigate the effects of the choice of statistical method and different preparations of data on the clustering results; and to relate these to disease severity. Several variants of EFA and HC were applied and compared using various sets of variables and different encodings and transformations within a dataset of 383 children with asthma. Variables included lung function, inflammatory and allergy markers, family history, environmental exposures, and medications. Clusters and original variables were related to asthma severity (logistic regression and Bayesian network analysis). EFA identified five components (eigenvalues ≥ 1) explaining 35% of the overall variance. Variations of the HC (as linkage-distance functions) did not affect the cluster inference; however, using different variable encodings and transformations did. The derived clusters predicted asthma severity less than the original variables. Prognostic factors of severity were medication usage, current symptoms, lung function, paternal asthma, body mass index, and age of asthma onset. Bayesian networks indicated conditional dependence among variables. The use of different unsupervised statistical learning methods and different variable sets and encodings can lead to multiple and inconsistent subgroupings of asthma, not necessarily correlated with severity. The search for asthma phenotypes needs more careful selection of markers, consistent across different study populations, and more cautious interpretation of results from unsupervised learning.

  7. Data linkage algebra, data linkage dynamics, and priority rewriting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    We introduce an algebra of data linkages. Data linkages are intended for modelling the states of computations in which dynamic data structures are involved. We present a simple model of computation in which states of computations are modelled as data linkages and state changes take place by means of

  8. Data Linkage Algebra, Data Linkage Dynamics, and Priority Rewriting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce an algebra of data linkages. Data linkages are intended for modelling the states of computations in which dynamic data structures are involved. We present a simple model of computation in which states of computations are modelled as data linkages and state changes take place by means of

  9. Identification and association of polymorphisms in the interleukin-13 gene with asthma and atopy in a Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howard, TD; Whittaker, PA; Zaiman, AL; Koppelman, GH; Hanley, MT; Meyers, DA; Postma, DS; Bleecker, ER

    Asthma and atopy are related conditions that may share similar genetic susceptibility. Linkage studies have identified a region on chromosome 5q that contains biologic candidates for both asthma and atopy phenotypes, including several proinflammatory cytokines. Interleukin (1L)-13, one of the

  10. Why is the diffraction peak a peak?

    CERN Document Server

    Cornille, H

    1975-01-01

    It is proved that the high-energy differential cross section for an elastic process has a maximum exactly in the forward direction and that the slope of the diffraction peak is at most (log s)/sup 2/. The widths of the diffraction peaks defined by the absorptive part and the differential cross section are compared. The assumptions are that the amplitude is dominated by the even signature amplitude and that the total cross section, if it decreases, decreases less fast than s/sup -1/2/. Strictly speaking, the results hold only for a sequence of energies approaching infinity. The proofs are given for the spin-O- spin-O case, but it is not unreasonable to hope that they can be generalized to arbitrary spins. (13 refs).

  11. Asthma and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet, L-P

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence and incidence of asthma have increased among obese children and adults, particularly among women. Obesity seems to be a predisposing factor for the development of asthma, but the underlying mechanisms of its influence are still uncertain. Various hypotheses have been proposed to explain the link between obesity and asthma such as a common genetic predisposition, developmental changes, altered lung mechanics, the presence of a systemic inflammatory process, and an increased prevalence of associated comorbid conditions. Over-diagnosis of asthma does not seem to be more frequent in obese compared to non-obese subjects, but the added effects of obesity on respiratory symptoms can affect asthma control assessment. Obesity can make asthma more difficult to control and is associated with a reduced beneficial effect of asthma medications. This could be due to a change in asthma phenotype, particularly evidenced as a less eosinophilic type of airway inflammation combined to the added effects of changes in lung mechanics. Weight loss is associated with a universal improvement of asthma and should be part of asthma management in the obese patient. Additional research should be conducted to better determine how obesity influences the development and clinical expression of asthma, establish the optimal management of asthma in this population and determine how obesity affects long-term asthma outcomes in these patients. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Allergy in severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giacco, S R; Bakirtas, A; Bel, E; Custovic, A; Diamant, Z; Hamelmann, E; Heffler, E; Kalayci, Ö; Saglani, S; Sergejeva, S; Seys, S; Simpson, A; Bjermer, L

    2017-02-01

    It is well recognized that atopic sensitization is an important risk factor for asthma, both in adults and in children. However, the role of allergy in severe asthma is still under debate. The term 'Severe Asthma' encompasses a highly heterogeneous group of patients who require treatment on steps 4-5 of GINA guidelines to prevent their asthma from becoming 'uncontrolled', or whose disease remains 'uncontrolled' despite this therapy. Epidemiological studies on emergency room visits and hospital admissions for asthma suggest the important role of allergy in asthma exacerbations. In addition, allergic asthma in childhood is often associated with severe asthma in adulthood. A strong association exists between asthma exacerbations and respiratory viral infections, and interaction between viruses and allergy further increases the risk of asthma exacerbations. Furthermore, fungal allergy has been shown to play an important role in severe asthma. Other contributing factors include smoking, pollution and work-related exposures. The 'Allergy and Asthma Severity' EAACI Task Force examined the current evidence and produced this position document on the role of allergy in severe asthma. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. For Parents of Children with Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Asthma > Managing Asthma For Parents of Children with Asthma Your Child's Asthma: A Parent's Guide to Better Breathing This step- ... health considerations you should keep in mind. Diagnosing Asthma in Young Children Most children who have asthma ...

  14. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Asthma among Persons with Current Asthma Asthma and Obesity Percentage of People with Asthma who Smoke Insurance ... Asthma Resources for Professionals National Asthma Control Program America Breathing Easier Guide for State Programs Interventions Community ...

  15. Premenstrual asthma and atopy markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Vega, Antonio; Sánchez, José L; Maldonado, José A; Borrero, Fátima; Rico, Ignacio Vázquez; Vázquez, Rosa; Alvarez, Francisco; Ignacio, José M; Romero, Pedro; Gil, Francisco L

    2010-09-01

    The frequency of atopy in women with premenstrual asthma (PMA) and its possible effect on the premenstrual exacerbation of asthma are unknown. To analyze the relation between atopy markers (total IgE, Phadiatop, and specific IgE) and PMA. Asthmatic women of reproductive age completed a questionnaire about respiratory symptoms and recorded peak flow during an entire menstrual cycle to be classified as asthmatic patients with or without PMA. Their asthma severity was graded according to the 2005 Global Initiative for Asthma scale. PMA was defined as a clinical or functional exacerbation (>or=20%) in the premenstrual phase compared with the preovulatory phase. Blood tests for several atopy markers were conducted for: total IgE and screening for aeroallergens (Phadiatop) and specific IgE. Blood determinations were performed in 59 asthmatic women, of whom 31 (53%) had PMA. Twenty-six patients with PMA (84%) and 12 without PMA (43%) had total IgE values greater than 100 kU/L (P=.001). Twenty-one patients with PMA (68%) and 14 without PMA (50%) tested positive for Phadiatop (P=.17). Those who were positive for Phadiatop were also tested for specific IgE. No relation was found between specific IgE and PMA; values for ryegrass (63%), olive (60%), and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (54%) exceeded 0.35 kU/L. PMA seems to be closely linked to total IgE levels but not to specific allergens. The atopy affects the clinical manifestations of PMA in women of reproductive age. Copyright © 2010 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Factors influencing peak expiratory flow in teenage boys | van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Peak expiratory flow (PEF) is a useful measure of pulmonary health status and is frequently utilised in asthm, management. Reduction in PEF is usually indicative of onset (of asthma symptoms. However, use can be made of PEF values only if normal values are known. The definition of normal range is always ...

  17. Knowledge, attitude and practice of physicians toward peak ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Peak expiratory flow meter (PEFM) may reduce diagnostic delay and improve decision-making in asthma by providing an objective assessment of their flow and hence identify air flow variability that is essential for management of air way diseases. Objectives: This study was designed to reveal extent of ...

  18. What is Asthma?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lung Association 104 COPD Awareness Month: Connecting with Social Support American Lung Association ... Asthma - Duration: 3:36. Nucleus Medical Media 658,979 views 3:36 What is asthma. ...

  19. Obesity, adipokines and asthma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jartti, T; Saarikoski, L; Jartti, L; Lisinen, I; Jula, A; Huupponen, R; Viikari, J; Raitakari, O. T

    2009-01-01

    .... Our objective was to examine whether obesity is associated with asthma in three time points of life, and whether immunomodulatory adipokines, leptin and adiponectin are linked to overweight-associated asthma. Methods...

  20. What is Asthma?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lung Association 139 Barbara Tie talks about Alpha 1-caused COPD American Lung Association 140 Judy Pruitt ... American Lung Association 182 Asthma - Theresa Moore PSA 1 American Lung Association 183 Asthma Walk PSA American ...

  1. Exercise-induced asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000036.htm Exercise-induced asthma To use the sharing features on this page, ... such as running, basketball, or soccer. Use Your Asthma Medicine Before you Exercise Take your short-acting, ...

  2. Allergies, asthma, and pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive airway - pollen; Bronchial asthma - pollen; Triggers - pollen; Allergic rhinitis - pollen ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. It is important to know your triggers because avoiding them is your first step toward feeling better. ...

  3. What is Asthma?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clubs American Lung Association 146 Angela Abel on exercise and COPD American Lung Association 147 American Lung ... 40 Types of Asthma - Duration: 11:38. Affinity Health Plan 6,222 views 11:38 Asthma Tech - ...

  4. Smoking and asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000504.htm Smoking and asthma To use the sharing features on ... your allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Smoking is a trigger for many people who have ...

  5. Asthma - child - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000001.htm Asthma - child - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... care for your child. Take Charge of Your Child's Asthma at Home Make sure you know the ...

  6. Psychopathology in difficult asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, L.C.; van Son, M.J.M.; Keimpema, A.R.; van Ranst, D; Pommer, A; Meijer, J.W.; Pop, V.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Within the asthma population, difficult asthma (DA) is a severe condition in which patients present with frequent exacerbations, hospitalizations and emergency room visits. The identification and treatment of psychopathology is included in the management of DA. Psychopathology is supposed

  7. JamesWattandhisLinkages

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    say by half, as shown in Figu e 5b but it would reduce the motion of F thus restricting the stroke length of the piston. (a) igure 5. (a) Watt's linkage with one body acting as the great beam. (b) An attempt to reduce the size, which reduces the stroke length of the piston. ... It has two gears that mesh with each other. One gear is ...

  8. Wargaming Strategic Linkage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Wargaming Strategic Linkage Peter P. Perla • Michael C. Markowitz CRM D0019256.A2/Final January 2009 20090219290 CNA ANALYSIS & SOLUTIONS...players’ hands with predict - able player discontent and argument. The broader pathology stems from player "paranoia" that Control is simply...Demonstration, FOUO, Dec 2000 (CNA Research Memorandum D0003043.A1/Final Peter P. Perla, Andrew Ilachinski, Carol M. Hawk , Michael C. Markow- itz

  9. Obesity and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Zarqa; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological data has established increasing adiposity as a risk factor for incident asthma. However, the mechanisms underlying the association between obesity and asthma are incompletely understood. In the present paper, we review current knowledge of possible mechanisms mediating the observed...... association between obesity and asthma....

  10. Allergy in severe asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Del Giacco, Stefano R.; Bakirtas, A.; Bel, E.; Custovic, A.; Diamant, Z.; Hamelmann, E.; Heffler, E.; Kalayci, O.; Saglani, S.; Sergejeva, S.; Seys, S.; Simpson, A.; Bjermer, Leif

    It is well recognized that atopic sensitization is an important risk factor for asthma, both in adults and in children. However, the role of allergy in severe asthma is still under debate. The term 'Severe Asthma' encompasses a highly heterogeneous group of patients who require treatment on steps

  11. Clinical phenotypes of asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bel, Elisabeth H.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Asthma is a phenotypically heterogeneous disorder and, over the years, many different clinical subtypes of asthma have been described. A precise definition of asthma phenotypes is now becoming more and more important, not only for a better understanding of pathophysiologic

  12. Peak Experience Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Daniel G.; Evans, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    This paper emerges from the continued analysis of data collected in a series of international studies concerning Childhood Peak Experiences (CPEs) based on developments in understanding peak experiences in Maslow's hierarchy of needs initiated by Dr Edward Hoffman. Bridging from the series of studies, Canadian researchers explore collected…

  13. Occupational asthma in a cable manufacturing company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Dehghan, Faezeh; Yazdanparast, Taraneh; Mohammadi, Saber; Golchin, Mahdie; Sadeghi, Zargham; Moafi, Masoud; Seyed Mehdi, Seyed Mohammad

    2014-10-01

    During the past decade, incidence of asthma has increased, which might have been due to environmental exposures. Considering the expansion of cable manufacturing industry in Iran, the present study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of occupational asthma in a cable manufacturing company in Iran as well as its related factors. This study was conducted on employees of a cable manufacturing company in Yazd, Iran, in 2012. The workers were divided into two groups of exposure (to toluene diisocyanate, polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene or polypropylene) and without exposure. Diagnosis of occupational asthma was made based on the subjects' medical history, spirometry and peak flowmetry, and its frequency was compared between the two groups. The overall prevalence of occupational asthma was 9.7%. This rate was 13.8% in the exposed group. Logistic regression analysis showed that even after adjustment for confounding factors, a significant correlation existed between the frequency of occupational asthma and exposure to the produced dust particles (P company workers in Iran, this issue needs to be addressed immediately in addition to reduction of exposure among subjects. Reduction in work shift duration, implementation of tobacco control and cessation programs for the personnel, and performing spirometry tests and respiratory examinations in shorter periods may be among effective measures for reducing the incidence of occupational asthma in this industry.

  14. Supported self-management for asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Pinnock

    2015-06-01

    The evidence in favour of supported self-management for asthma is overwhelming. Self-management including provision of a written asthma action plan and supported by regular medical review, almost halves the risk of hospitalisation, significantly reduces emergency department attendances and unscheduled consultations, and improves markers of asthma control and quality of life. Demographic and cultural tailoring enables effective programmes to be implemented in deprived and/or ethnic communities or within schools. A crucial component of effective asthma self-management interventions is the provision of an agreed, written personalised action plan which advises on using regular medication, recognising deterioration and appropriate action to take. Monitoring can be based on symptoms or on peak flows and should specify thresholds for action including increasing inhaled steroids, commencing oral steroids, and when (and how to seek professional help. Plans should be personalised to reflect asthma severity and treatment regimes, avoidance of triggers, co-morbid rhinitis and the individual’s preferences. Implementation is a challenge. Systematic review evidence suggests that it is possible to implement asthma self-management in routine care, but that to be effective this requires a whole systems approach which considers implementation from the perspective of patient education and resources, professional skills and motivation and organisation priorities and routines.

  15. Effect of asthma severity on symptom perception in childhood asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L.B. Cabral

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Individual ability to perceive airway obstruction varies substantially. The factors influencing the perception of asthma are probably numerous and not well established in children. The present study was designed to examine the influence of asthma severity, use of preventive medication, age and gender on the association between respiratory symptoms (RS and peak expiratory flow (PEF rates in asthmatic children. We followed 92 asthmatic children, aged 6 to 16 years, for five months. Symptom scores were recorded daily and PEF was measured twice a day. The correlations among variables at the within-person level over time were analyzed for each child and for the pooled data by multivariate analysis. After pooling the data, there was a significant (P<0.05 correlation between each symptom and PEF; 60% of the children were accurate perceivers (defined by a statistically significant correlation between symptoms and PEF across time for diurnal symptoms and 37% for nocturnal symptoms. The accuracy of perception was independent of asthma severity, age, gender or the use of preventive medication. Symptom perception is inaccurate in a substantial number of asthmatic children, independently of clinical severity, age, gender or use of preventive medication. It is not clear why some asthmatic patients are capable of accurately perceiving the severity of airway obstruction while others are not.

  16. Occupational Asthma in a Cable Manufacturing Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Dehghan, Faezeh; Yazdanparast, Taraneh; Mohammadi, Saber; Golchin, Mahdie; Sadeghi, Zargham; Moafi, Masoud; Seyed Mehdi, Seyed Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: During the past decade, incidence of asthma has increased, which might have been due to environmental exposures. Objectives: Considering the expansion of cable manufacturing industry in Iran, the present study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of occupational asthma in a cable manufacturing company in Iran as well as its related factors. Patients and Methods: This study was conducted on employees of a cable manufacturing company in Yazd, Iran, in 2012. The workers were divided into two groups of exposure (to toluene diisocyanate, polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene or polypropylene) and without exposure. Diagnosis of occupational asthma was made based on the subjects’ medical history, spirometry and peak flowmetry, and its frequency was compared between the two groups. Results: The overall prevalence of occupational asthma was 9.7%. This rate was 13.8% in the exposed group. Logistic regression analysis showed that even after adjustment for confounding factors, a significant correlation existed between the frequency of occupational asthma and exposure to the produced dust particles (P < 0.05). In addition, age, work experience, body mass index, cigarette smoking and shift work had significant correlations with the prevalence of occupational asthma (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Considering the high prevalence of occupational asthma among cable manufacturing company workers in Iran, this issue needs to be addressed immediately in addition to reduction of exposure among subjects. Reduction in work shift duration, implementation of tobacco control and cessation programs for the personnel, and performing spirometry tests and respiratory examinations in shorter periods may be among effective measures for reducing the incidence of occupational asthma in this industry. PMID:25558389

  17. Epigenetic Mechanisms in Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Avery; Vercelli, Donata

    2016-03-01

    Asthma and allergic diseases are among the most prevalent chronic noncommunicable diseases of childhood, but the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms are poorly understood. Because epigenetic mechanisms link gene regulation to environmental cues and developmental trajectories, their contribution to asthma and allergy pathogenesis is under active investigation. DNA methylation signatures associated with concurrent disease and with the development of asthma during childhood asthma have been identified, but their significance is not easily interpretable. On the other hand, the characterization of early epigenetic predictors of asthma points to a potential role of epigenetic mechanisms in regulating the inception of, and the susceptibility to, this disease.

  18. Asthma and suicide mortality in young people: a 12-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chian-Jue; Chen, Vincent Chin-Hung; Lee, Wen-Chung; Chen, Wei J; Ferri, Cleusa P; Stewart, Robert; Lai, Te-Jen; Chen, Chiao-Chicy; Wang, Tsu-Nai; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2010-09-01

    Mortality risk is relatively high in young people with asthma, and the risk may include causes of death other than those directly linked to respiratory disease. The authors investigated the association between asthma and suicide mortality in a large population-based cohort of young people. A total of 162,766 high school students 11 to 16 years of age living in a catchment area in Taiwan from October 1995 to June 1996 were enrolled in a study of asthma and allergy. Each student and his or her parents completed structured questionnaires. Participants were classified into three groups at baseline: current asthma (symptoms present in the past year), previous asthma (history of asthma but no symptoms in the past year), and no asthma. Participants were followed to December 2007 by record linkage to the national Death Certification System. Cox proportional hazards models were used to study the association between asthma and cause of death. The incidence rate of suicide mortality in participants with current asthma at baseline was more than twice that of those without asthma (11.0 compared with 4.3 per 100,000 person-years), but there was no significant difference in the incidence of natural deaths. The adjusted hazard ratio for suicide was 2.26 (95% CI=1.43-3.58) in the current asthma group and 1.76 (95% CI=0.90-3.43) in the previous asthma group. Having a greater number of asthma symptoms at baseline was associated with a higher risk of subsequent suicide. The population attributable fraction was 7.0%. These results highlight evidence of excess suicide mortality in young people with asthma. There is a need to improve mental health care for young people, particularly those with more severe and persistent asthma symptoms.

  19. Obesity and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Peter G

    2013-12-01

    There is a global epidemic of asthma and obesity that is concentrated in Westernized and developed countries. A causal association in some people with asthma is suggested by observations that obesity precedes the onset of asthma and that bariatric surgery for morbid obesity can resolve asthma. The obese asthma phenotype features poor asthma control, limited response to corticosteroids, and an exaggeration of the physiological effects of obesity on lung function, which includes a reduction in expiratory reserve volume and airway closure occurring during tidal breathing. Obesity has important implications for asthma treatment. Increasing corticosteroid doses based on poor asthma control, as currently recommended in guidelines, may lead to overtreatment with corticosteroids in obese asthma. Enhanced bronchodilation, particularly of the small airways, may reduce the component of airway closure due to increased bronchomotor tone and suggests that greater emphasis should be placed on long-acting bronchodilators in obese asthma. The societal implications of this are important: with increasing obesity there will be increasing asthma from obesity, and the need to identify successful individual and societal weight-control strategies becomes a key goal.

  20. Obesity and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivapalan, Pradeesh; Diamant, Zuzana; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity has significant impact on asthma incidence and manifestations. The purpose of the review is to discuss recent observations regarding the association between obesity and asthma focusing on underlying mechanisms, clinical presentation, response to therapy and effect...... of weight reduction. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical and epidemiological studies indicate that obese patients with asthma may represent a unique phenotype, which is more difficult to control, less responsive to asthma medications and by that may have higher healthcare utilization. A number of common comorbidities...... have been linked to both obesity and asthma, and may, therefore, contribute to the obese-asthma phenotype. Furthermore, recently published studies indicate that even a modest weight reduction can improve clinical manifestations and outcome of asthma. SUMMARY: Compared with normal-weight patients, obese...

  1. Patient's adherence in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillisen, Adrian

    2007-11-01

    Nonadherence in asthma treatment results in increasing mortality, morbidity, and it is associated with increasing treatment costs. In asthma, adherence rates are often below 50%. Understanding of the needs and behaviors of asthma patients as well as treatment barriers to comply with asthma guidelines is important in developing programs to promote adherence. This article presents information on common types of nonadherence in asthma patients, the causes, and it reviews the literature on interventions to overcome these factors to maximize adherence rates. Although several interventions are effective in improving medication adherence in asthma, only few significantly enhance adherence rates and clinical outcomes of these patients. An improvement in treatment adherence is a complex task, requiring asthma self-management, education programs coupled with educational reinforcements, simplifying treatment planes and applications forms. Good communications skills among clinicians and patient education are also central for improving adherence. Methods to overcoming physician barriers ensure consistency in implementing guideline recommendations in practice.

  2. Asthma and atopy - a total genome scan for susceptibility genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagerup, A; Bjerke, T; Schiøtz, P O

    2002-01-01

    . Investigation of different populations will further clarify the topic. We therefore evaluated allergic asthma and increased total and specific IgE in 39, 45 and 57 sib-pairs from 100 Danish allergy families. METHODS: Affected sib-pairs meeting a narrow phenotype definition were selected for the three phenotypes...... atopy, allergic asthma and increased total IgE. We performed a total genome scan using 446 microsatellite markers and obtained nonparametric linkage results from the MAPMAKER/SIBS computer program. RESULTS: Our study revealed four candidate regions (MLS > 2) on chromosome 1p36, 3q21-q22, 5q31 and 6p24-p...

  3. Design of special planar linkages

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Jing-Shan; Ma, Ning; Chu, Fulei

    2013-01-01

    Planar linkages play a very important role in mechanical engineering. As the simplest closed chain mechanisms, planar four-bar linkages are widely used in mechanical engineering, civil engineering and aerospace engineering.Design of Special Planar Linkages proposes a uniform design theory for planar four-bar linkages. The merit of the method proposed in this book is that it allows engineers to directly obtain accurate results when there are such solutions for the specified n precise positions; otherwise, the best approximate solutions will be found. This book discusses the kinematics and reach

  4. Monitoring asthma in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin C. Lødrup Carlsen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of asthma treatment is to obtain clinical control and reduce future risks to the patient. However, to date there is limited evidence on how to monitor patients with asthma. Childhood asthma introduces specific challenges in terms of deciding what, when, how often, by whom and in whom different assessments of asthma should be performed. The age of the child, the fluctuating course of asthma severity, variability in clinical presentation, exacerbations, comorbidities, socioeconomic and psychosocial factors, and environmental exposures may all influence disease activity and, hence, monitoring strategies. These factors will be addressed in herein. We identified large knowledge gaps in the effects of different monitoring strategies in children with asthma. Studies into monitoring strategies are urgently needed, preferably in collaborative paediatric studies across countries and healthcare systems.

  5. Tobaksrygning og asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Lange, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a well-known health hazard, probably not least for patients suffering from asthma. This review gives a short overview of the effects of passive and active smoking on the inception and outcome with of longitudinal changes in the lung function and mortality of patients...... with asthma. Substantial evidence suggests that smoking affects asthma adversely. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, especially maternal smoking in children, may be a significant risk factor for asthma. Such exposure in patients with established asthma is not only associated with more severe symptoms......, but also with a poorer quality of life, reduced lung function, and increased utilisation of health care including hospital admissions. Active smoking does not appear to be a significant risk factor for asthma, but is associated with a worse outcome with regard to both longitudinal changes in lung function...

  6. Asthma in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Lorenzo Urso

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchial asthma is a common problem with enormous medical and economics impacts. It is an inflammatory disease of the airways associated with intermittent episodes of bronchospasm. Asthma is not uncommon in the elderly patients. Prevalence of asthma is similar in older and younger adults. Asthma in the elderly patient is underdiagnosed because of false perceptions by both patient and physician. The high incidence of comorbid conditions in the elderly patient makes the diagnosis and management more difficult. Correct diagnosis is demonstrated with spirometry. The goals of asthma treatment are to achieve and maintain control of symptoms and to prevent development of irreversible airflow limitation. Asthma drugs are preferably inhaled because this route minimizes systemic absorption and, thus, improves the ratio of the therapeutic benefit to the potential side-effects in elderly patients.

  7. Asthma and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte S

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity has significant negative impact on asthma control and risk of exacerbations. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent studies evaluating the effects of weight reduction on asthma control in obese adults. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical studies have shown that weight...... reduction in obese patients is associated with improvements in symptoms, use of controller medication, and asthma-related quality of life together with a reduction in the risk for severe exacerbations. Furthermore, several studies have also revealed improvements in lung function and airway responsiveness...... reduction in obese adults with asthma leads to an overall improvement in asthma control, including airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation. Weight reduction should be a cornerstone in the management of obese patients with asthma....

  8. Late-Onset Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2017-01-01

    , to objectively confirm asthma. If necessary, a trial of oral or inhaled corticosteroid might be necessary. Asthma can be diagnosed when increased airflow variability is identified in a symptomatic patient, and if the patient does not have a history of exposure, primarily smoking, known to cause chronic...... obstructive pulmonary disease, the diagnosis is asthma even if the patient does not have fully reversible airflow obstruction. Pharmacological therapy in patients with late-onset asthma follows international guidelines, including treatment with the lowest effective dose of inhaled corticosteroid to minimize...... the risk of systemic effects. However, most recommendations are based on extrapolation from findings in younger patients. Comorbidities are very common in patients with late-onset asthma and need to be taken into account in the management of the disease. In conclusion, late-onset asthma is poorly...

  9. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Asthma Learn How to Control Asthma Asthma and Severe Weather ... Working on Asthma Follow @CDCasthma on Twitter to learn more about helping people with asthma live healthier ...

  10. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler ... MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health File Formats Help: How do I view ...

  11. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler ... ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health File Formats Help: How do I view ...

  12. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to Use Your Asthma ... 1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health File Formats Help: How do I ...

  13. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... among Children Asthma-related Missed School Days among Children aged 5–17 Years Asthma Severity among Adults with Current Asthma Asthma Severity among Children with Current Asthma Overuse of quick-relief medication ...

  14. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to Use Your Asthma ... MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health File Formats Help: How do I ...

  15. Severe Asthma in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipps, Bradley E; Parikh, Neil G; Maharaj, Sheena K

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize, diagnose, evaluate, and treat severe childhood asthma. Understanding the occurrence of the physiologic and clinical presentations of childhood severe asthma, the treatment and response may be predicted by biomarkers, but the patient's response is highly variable. The onset of severe asthma occurs early and is primarily predicted by severity of viral infection and coexistence of the atopic state.

  16. Biological process linkage networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dikla Dotan-Cohen

    Full Text Available The traditional approach to studying complex biological networks is based on the identification of interactions between internal components of signaling or metabolic pathways. By comparison, little is known about interactions between higher order biological systems, such as biological pathways and processes. We propose a methodology for gleaning patterns of interactions between biological processes by analyzing protein-protein interactions, transcriptional co-expression and genetic interactions. At the heart of the methodology are the concept of Linked Processes and the resultant network of biological processes, the Process Linkage Network (PLN.We construct, catalogue, and analyze different types of PLNs derived from different data sources and different species. When applied to the Gene Ontology, many of the resulting links connect processes that are distant from each other in the hierarchy, even though the connection makes eminent sense biologically. Some others, however, carry an element of surprise and may reflect mechanisms that are unique to the organism under investigation. In this aspect our method complements the link structure between processes inherent in the Gene Ontology, which by its very nature is species-independent. As a practical application of the linkage of processes we demonstrate that it can be effectively used in protein function prediction, having the power to increase both the coverage and the accuracy of predictions, when carefully integrated into prediction methods.Our approach constitutes a promising new direction towards understanding the higher levels of organization of the cell as a system which should help current efforts to re-engineer ontologies and improve our ability to predict which proteins are involved in specific biological processes.

  17. Can meteorological factors forecast asthma exacerbation in a paediatric population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervás, D; Utrera, J F; Hervás-Masip, J; Hervás, J A; García-Marcos, L

    2015-01-01

    Asthma exacerbations attended in emergency departments show a marked seasonality in the paediatric age. This seasonal pattern can change from one population to another and the factors involved are poorly understood. To evaluate the association between meteorological factors and schooling with asthma exacerbations in children attended in the paediatric emergency department of a district hospital. We conducted a retrospective review of the medical records of children 5-14 years of age attended for asthma exacerbations during a 4-year period (2007-2011). Climatic data were obtained from a weather station located very close to the population studied. The number of asthma exacerbations was correlated to temperature, barometric pressure, relative humidity, rainfall, wind speed, wind distance, solar radiation, water vapour pressure and schooling, using regression analyses. During the study period, 371 children were attended for asthma exacerbations; median age was eight years (IQR: 6-11), and 59% were males. Asthma exacerbations showed a bimodal pattern with peaks in spring and summer. Maximum annual peak occurred in week 39, within 15 days from school beginning after the summer holidays. A regression model with mean temperature, water vapour pressure, relative humidity, maximum wind speed and schooling could explain 98.4% (pschooling could predict asthma exacerbations in children attended in a paediatric emergency department. Copyright © 2013 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Inhaled furosemide is not effective in severe asthma in children

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Tomoaki; Muraoka, Norimasa; Ogawa, Masakatsu; Matsui, Mika; Tajima, Seiki; Miike, Teruhisa

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether or not inhaled furosemide has any therapeutic benefit in acute asthma in children. Aerosolized furosemide (20 mg) was administered four times per day together with conventional asthma therapy for 2 days in five children with severe asthma exacerbation. The oxygen saturation with a pulse oximeter (SpO2), and the peak expiratory flow (PEF) were measured before and 10 min after furosemide inhalation. Although a little improvement in SpO2 ...

  19. Peak-interviewet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raalskov, Jesper; Warming-Rasmussen, Bent

    Peak-interviewet er en særlig effektiv metode til at gøre ubevidste menneskelige ressourcer bevidste. Fokuspersonen (den interviewede) interviewes om en selvvalgt, personlig succesoplevelse. Terapeuten/coachen (intervieweren) spørger ind til processen, som ledte hen til denne succes. Herved afdæk...

  20. Automated asteroseismic peak detections

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Montellano, A. García Saravia Ortiz; Hekker, S.; Themeßl, N.

    2018-01-01

    Space observatories such as Kepler have provided data that can potentially revolutionise our understanding of stars. Through detailed asteroseismic analyses we are capable of determining fundamental stellar parameters and reveal the stellar internal structure with unprecedented accuracy. However, such detailed analyses, known as peak bagging, have so far been obtained for only a small percentage of the observed stars while most of the scientific potential of the available data remains unexplored. One of the major challenges in peak bagging is identifying how many solar-like oscillation modes are visible in a power density spectrum. Identification of oscillation modes is usually done by visual inspection which is time-consuming and has a degree of subjectivity. Here, we present a peak detection algorithm specially suited for the detection of solar-like oscillations. It reliably characterises the solar-like oscillations in a power density spectrum and estimates their parameters without human intervention. Furthermore, we provide a metric to characterise the false positive and false negative rates to provide further information about the reliability of a detected oscillation mode or the significance of a lack of detected oscillation modes. The algorithm presented here opens the possibility for detailed and automated peak bagging of the thousands of solar-like oscillators observed by Kepler.

  1. Linking obesity and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, E Rand

    2014-04-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that obesity has a significant impact on asthma risk, phenotype, and prognosis. Epidemiological studies have clearly demonstrated that asthma is more likely to occur in obese patients, and health status is impaired in obese individuals with asthma, with obese asthmatics experiencing more symptoms, worse quality of life, increased healthcare use, and increased asthma severity. However, obesity has well-described effects on lung function and mechanics that can lead to symptoms of dyspnea without causing the pathophysiologic changes of asthma. Adding to the challenges of evaluating this association, some studies have failed to demonstrate a robust relationship between obesity and traditional biomarkers of airway inflammation in adult asthmatics, leading to the conclusion that obesity does not necessarily worsen airway inflammation in asthma. In this regard, emerging data suggest that nonatopic mechanisms may be relevant in obese asthmatics, and that these mechanisms may have a direct impact on the response of obese asthmatics to asthma therapies, most notably inhaled glucocorticoids. This article will review selected aspects of the contributions of obesity-related airway and systemic inflammation to asthma, with a focus on the impact of obesity as a modifier of risk, prognosis, and therapeutic response in asthma. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. Asthma in the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braman, Sidney S

    2017-11-01

    The older population has seen the greatest increase in the prevalence of current asthma in recent years. Asthma may begin at any age and when it occurs at an advanced as opposed to a young age, it is often nonatopic, severe, and unremitting. Unfortunately, geriatric-specific guidelines are not available for the diagnosis and treatment of asthma. However, with objective monitoring, avoidance of asthma triggers, appropriate pharmacotherapy, and patient education, the disease can be managed successfully. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Point Charges and Polygonal Linkages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khimshiashvili, Giorgi; Panina, Gaiane; Siersma, Dirk; Zolotov, Vladimir

    We investigate the critical points of Coulomb potential of point charges placed at the vertices of a planar polygonal linkage. It is shown that, for a collection of positive charges on a pentagonal linkage, there is a unique critical point in the set of convex configurations which is the point of

  4. A Formalization of Linkage Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingolfsdottir, Anna; Christensen, A.I.; Hansen, Jens A.

    In this report a formalization of genetic linkage analysis is introduced. Linkage analysis is a computationally hard biomathematical method, which purpose is to locate genes on the human genome. It is rooted in the new area of bioinformatics and no formalization of the method has previously been ...

  5. A cross-sectional content analysis of Android applications for asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Househ, Mowafa; Hossain, Nassif; Jamal, Amr; Zakaria, Nasriah; Elmetwally, Ashraf; Alsalamah, Majid; Khalifa, Mohamed

    2017-06-01

    Providing patients opportunities for self-management and education about their disease, asthma applications designed for use on an Android operating system can have positive health outcomes across the range of demographics who use mHealth applications. This study provides a content analysis of freely available Google Android Platform Mobile Applications for Asthma. A list of applications was collected on 26 October 2014, using the search feature of the Google Play Android platform and using the words and phrases "Asthma," "Lung Function" and "Peak Flow." Each application was coded for its approach to asthma self-management, based on categories adapted by Huckvale et al., which are based on the Global Initiative for Asthma and the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program. The characteristics of the 15 asthma applications are described. Most of the asthma applications' primary function focused on patient self-monitoring and self-assessment. Using the HON Code, we found low health information quality across all asthma applications. Android asthma applications can have positive outcomes in helping patients as they provide opportunities for self-management and education about their disease. Future research should continue to monitor and evaluate the development and use of mHealth Asthma Applications. Based on these findings, and their indication of a gap in existing research, subsequent studies can continue to evaluate the development and use of mHealth Asthma Applications with increasing methodological consistency to improve the quality of in-app health information.

  6. Multifaceted quality improvement initiative to decrease pediatric asthma readmissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupp, Nadia L; Fiscus, Cindy; Webb, Russell; Webber, Emily C; Stanley, Teresa; Pettit, Rebecca; Davis, Ashley; Hollingsworth, Judy; Bagley, Deborah; McCaskey, Marjorie; Stevens, John C; Weist, Andrea; Cristea, A Ioana; Warhurst, Heather; Bauer, Benjamin; Saysana, Michele; Montgomery, Gregory S; Howenstine, Michelle S; Davis, Stephanie D

    2017-11-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood and a leading cause of hospitalization in children. A primary goal of asthma control is prevention of hospitalizations. A hospital admission is the single strongest predictor of future hospital admissions for asthma. The 30-day asthma readmission rate at our institution was significantly higher than that of other hospitals in the Children's Hospital Association. As a result, a multifaceted quality improvement project was undertaken with the goal of reducing the 30-day inpatient asthma readmission rate by 50% within two years. Analysis of our institution's readmission patterns, value stream mapping of asthma admission, discharge, and follow-up processes, literature review, and examination of comparable successful programs around the United States were all utilized to identify potential targets for intervention. Interventions were implemented in a stepwise manner, and included increasing inhaler availability after discharge, modifying asthma education strategies, and providing in-home post-discharge follow-up. The primary outcome was a running 12-month average 30-day inpatient readmission rate. Secondary outcomes included process measures for individual interventions. From a peak of 7.98% in January 2013, a steady decline to 1.65% was observed by July 2014, which represented a 79.3% reduction in 30-day readmissions. A significant decrease in hospital readmissions for pediatric asthma is possible, through comprehensive, multidisciplinary quality improvement that spans the continuum of care.

  7. Neurocognitive functioning in children with mild and moderate asthma in the childhood asthma management program. The Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, R D; Aylward, E H; Lapidus, J; Bender, B G; DuHamel, T

    2000-04-01

    The Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) is a multicenter double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of two anti-inflammatory agents and placebo in children with mild and moderate asthma. The interrelationship between asthma severity and neurocognitive functioning among 1041 children (age range, 5-12 years) enrolled in the CAMP trial was examined. Asthma severity was established at baseline with a clinical history of asthma symptomatology and measures of lung function (spirometry and methacholine challenge). Diary cards were used in a screening to record nighttime awakenings and doctor contacts caused by asthma symptoms, symptom severity, and number of puffs from a rescue inhaler. All children received a comprehensive neurocognitive assessment at the end of the 28-day screening period (before randomization), including measures of intelligence, attention, memory, and academic achievement. Significant differences were found between children with mild and moderate asthma on lung function and symptom outcome variables (log(e)FEV(1)PC(20), DeltaFEV(1) percent predicted, change in peak flow percent predicted, nighttime awakenings caused by asthma, average symptom severity score, and average daily number of puffs from a rescue inhaler) but not on neurocognitive variables. Multiple regression analyses revealed that asthma outcomes could not be predicted by neurocognitive variables despite controlling for socioeconomic status. The prevalence of neurocognitive dysfunction, as indicated by the use of psychostimulant medication, was found to be consistent with that found in the existing literature. Mild and moderate asthma symptoms are not related to neurocognitive functioning in the children enrolled in CAMP. Mean performance on neurocognitive variables was found to be similar to that of national normative data.

  8. Nutrition and Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Increase in the asthma prevalence in many countries over the recent decades, highlights the need for a greater understanding of the risk factors for asthma. Be-cause asthma is the result of interaction between genetic and environmental fac-tors, increasing prevalence is certainly the result of changes in environmental fac-tors because of process of wesernization. That is the reason for higher prevalence in countries where a traditional to a westernized lifestyle occurred earlier. This increasing prevalence has affected both rural and urban communities, suggesting that local environmental factors such as exposure to allergens or industrial air pol-lutions are not the sole cause. In the last few years, nutrition has represented an important conditioning factor of many cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and chronic pulmonary diseases. So it has been hypothesized that dietary constituents influence the immune system and thus, may also be actively involved in the onset of asthma and other allergic diseases. Dietary constituents can play beneficial as well as det-rimental role in asthma. The possible role of diet in the development of asthma can be described as follows: first, a food allergen can cause asthma. Second, there is role of breast-feeding for prevention of asthma later in life. Third, a low intake of antioxidative dietary constituents might be a risk factor for asthma. Moreover, role of cations such as sodium, potassium and magnesium has been described in development of asthma. Finally, intake of fatty acids specially the role of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids play important role in cause of asthma.

  9. Trial of a "credit card" asthma self-management plan in a high-risk group of patients with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, W; Burgess, C; Ayson, M; Crane, J; Pearce, N; Beasley, R

    1996-05-01

    The "credit card" asthma self-management plan provides the adult asthmatic patient with simple guidelines for the self-management of asthma, which are based on the self-assessment of peak expiratory flow rate recordings and symptoms. The study was a trial of the clinical efficacy of the credit card plan in a high-risk group of asthmatic patients. In this "before-and-after" trial, patients discharged from the emergency department of Wellington Hospital, after treatment for severe asthma were invited to attend a series of hospital outpatient clinics at which the credit card plan was introduced. Questionnaires were used to compare markers of asthma morbidity, requirement for emergency medical care, and medication use during the 6-month period before and after intervention with the credit card plan. Of the 30 patients with asthma who attended the first outpatient clinic, 26 (17 women and 9 men) completed the program. In these 26 participants, there was a reduction in both morbidity and requirement for acute medical services: specifically, the proportion waking with asthma more than once a week decreased from 65% to 23% (p = 0.005) and the proportion visiting the emergency department for treatment of severe asthma decreased from 58% to 15% (p = 0.004). The patients attending the clinics commented favorably on the plan, in particular on its usefulness as an educational tool for monitoring and treating their asthma. Although the interpretation of this study is limited by the lack of a randomized control group, the findings are consistent with other evidence that the credit card asthma self-management plan can be an effective and acceptable system for improving asthma care in a high-risk group of adult patients with asthma.

  10. What is Asthma?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lung Association 104 COPD Awareness Month: Connecting with Social Support American Lung Association 105 Ohio Cares about ... 7:59 Asthma - Duration: 3:36. Nucleus Medical Media 658,979 views 3:36 What is asthma. ...

  11. Traveling and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stress How Cliques Make Kids Feel Left Out Traveling and Asthma KidsHealth > For Kids > Traveling and Asthma Print A A A en español ... handy at all times. So if you're traveling by car, keep them where you can get ...

  12. Assessment of asthma control using asthma control test in chest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... CI 1.06-3.47) and obesity (OR 1.81; 1.01-3.27). Conclusion: Asthma remains poorly controlled in a large proportion of asthma patients under specialist care in Cameroon. Educational programs for asthma patients targeting women and based on weight loss for obese patients may help in improving the control of asthma.

  13. Advances in pediatric asthma in 2013: coordinating asthma care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szefler, Stanley J

    2014-03-01

    Last year's "Advances in pediatric asthma: moving toward asthma prevention" concluded that "We are well on our way to creating a pathway around wellness in asthma care and also to utilize new tools to predict the risk for asthma and take steps to not only prevent asthma exacerbations but also to prevent the early manifestations of the disease and thus prevent its evolution to severe asthma." This year's summary will focus on recent advances in pediatric asthma on prenatal and postnatal factors altering the natural history of asthma, assessment of asthma control, and new insights regarding potential therapeutic targets for altering the course of asthma in children, as indicated in Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology publications in 2013 and early 2014. Recent reports continue to shed light on methods to understand factors that influence the course of asthma, methods to assess and communicate levels of control, and new targets for intervention, as well as new immunomodulators. It will now be important to carefully assess risk factors for the development of asthma, as well as the risk for asthma exacerbations, and to improve the way we communicate this information in the health care system. This will allow parents, primary care physicians, specialists, and provider systems to more effectively intervene in altering the course of asthma and to further reduce asthma morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Genetics of asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Simon F

    2015-01-01

    Asthma runs in families, and children of asthmatic parents are at increased risk of asthma. Prediction of disease risk is pivotal for the clinician when counselling atopic families. However, this is not always an easy task bearing in mind the vast and ever-increasing knowledge about asthma genetics....... The advent of new genotyping technologies has made it possible to sequence in great detail the human genome for asthma-associated variants, and accordingly, recent decades have witnessed an explosion in the number of rare and common variants associated with disease risk. This review presents an overview...... of methods and advances in asthma genetics in an attempt to help the clinician keep track of the most important knowledge in the field....

  15. Fertility outcomes in asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Elisabeth Juul; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Lindenberg, Svend

    2016-01-01

    of fertility treatments, and the number of successful pregnancies differ significantly between women with unexplained infertility with and without asthma.245 women with unexplained infertility (aged 23-45 years) underwent questionnaires and asthma and allergy testing while undergoing fertility treatment. 96...... women entering the study had either a former doctor's diagnosis of asthma or were diagnosed with asthma when included. After inclusion they were followed for a minimum of 12 months in fertility treatment, until they had a successful pregnancy, stopped treatment, or the observation ended.The likelihood...... pregnancies during fertility treatment, 39.6 versus 60.4% (p=0.002). Increasing age was of negative importance for expected time to pregnancy, especially among asthmatic women (interaction between age and asthma on time to pregnancy, p=0.001). Female asthmatics had a longer time to pregnancy and less often...

  16. North-South Business Linkages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull; Kuada, John

    2006-01-01

    Based on empirical studies of linkages between TNCs and local firms in India, Malaysia, Vietnam, Ghana and South Africa, five themes are discussed and related to present theoretical perspectives. The themes are (1) Linakge Governance; (2) Globalisation and the dynamics in developing countries (the...... TNC-driven markets in developing countries); (3) The upgrading impact of FDI; (4) Non-equity linkages as a platform for business development, and (5) The learning perspective on international business linakges. The chapter offers at the end a three-dimanional model for impacts of business linkages....

  17. EFFECTS OF BUDESONIDE AND BAMBUTEROL ON CIRCADIAN VARIATION OF AIRWAY RESPONSIVENESS AND NOCTURNAL SYMPTOMS OF ASTHMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WEMPE, JB; TAMMELING, EP; POSTMA, DS; AUFFARTH, B; TEENGS, JP; KOETER, GH

    Effects of the inhaled corticosteroid budesonide and the oral beta-agonist bambuterol on the nocturnal worsening of asthma were studied in patients with allergic asthma with a circadian peak expiratory flow variation greater-than-or-equal-to 15% (group 1, n = 8) and

  18. Diagnostic work-up in patients with possible asthma referred to a university hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backer, Vibeke; Sverrild, Asger; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2015-01-01

    of asthma referred over 12 months underwent spirometry, bronchodilator reversibility test, Peak expiratory flow rate (PEF) registration, and bronchial challenge test with methacholine and mannitol on three separate days. The results of these tests were compared against an asthma diagnosis based on symptoms...

  19. Kitt Peak speckle camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckinridge, J B; McAlister, H A; Robinson, W G

    1979-04-01

    The speckle camera in regular use at Kitt Peak National Observatory since 1974 is described in detail. The design of the atmospheric dispersion compensation prisms, the use of film as a recording medium, the accuracy of double star measurements, and the next generation speckle camera are discussed. Photographs of double star speckle patterns with separations from 1.4 sec of arc to 4.7 sec of arc are shown to illustrate the quality of image formation with this camera, the effects of seeing on the patterns, and to illustrate the isoplanatic patch of the atmosphere.

  20. Peak-Finding Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Jui-Hung; Weng, Zhiping

    2017-03-01

    Microarray and next-generation sequencing technologies have greatly expedited the discovery of genomic DNA that can be enriched using various biochemical methods. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a general method for enriching chromatin fragments that are specifically recognized by an antibody. The resulting DNA fragments can be assayed by microarray (ChIP-chip) or sequencing (ChIP-seq). This introduction focuses on ChIP-seq data analysis. The first step of analyzing ChIP-seq data is identifying regions in the genome that are enriched in a ChIP sample; these regions are called peaks. © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  1. Advances in Pediatric Asthma in 2013: Coordinating Asthma Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szefler, Stanley J.

    2014-01-01

    Last year’s Advances in Pediatric Asthma: Moving Toward Asthma Prevention concluded that: “We are well on our way to creating a pathway around wellness in asthma care and also to utilize new tools to predict the risk for asthma and take steps to not only prevent asthma exacerbations but also to prevent the early manifestations of the disease and thus prevent its evolution to severe asthma.” This year’s summary will focus on recent advances in pediatric asthma on pre- and postnatal factors altering the natural history of asthma, assessment of asthma control, and new insights regarding potential therapeutic targets for altering the course of asthma in children as indicated in Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology publications in 2013 and early 2014. Recent reports continue to shed light on methods to understand factors that influence the course of asthma, methods to assess and communicate levels of control, and new targets for intervention as well as new immunomodulators. It will now be important to carefully assess risk factors for the development of asthma as well as the risk for asthma exacerbations and to improve the way we communicate this information in the health care system. This will allow parents, primary care physicians, specialists and provider systems to more effectively intervene in altering the course of asthma and to further reduce asthma morbidity and mortality. PMID:24581430

  2. From Enclave to Linkage Economies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael W.

    as the enclave economy par excellence, moving in with fully integrated value chains, extracting resources and exporting them as commodities having virtually no linkages to the local economy. However, new opportunities for promoting linkages are offered by changing business strategies of local African enterprises...... as well as foreign multinational corporations (MNCs). MNCs in extractives are increasingly seeking local linkages as part of their efficiency, risk, and asset-seeking strategies, and linkage programmes are becoming integral elements in many MNCs’ corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities....... At the same time, local African enterprises are eager to, and increasingly capable of, linking up to the foreign investors in order to expand their activities and acquire technology, skills and market access. The changing strategies of MNCs and the improving capabilities of African enterprises offer new...

  3. The Significance of Asthma Follow-Up Consultations for Adherence to Asthma Medication, Asthma Medication Beliefs, and Asthma Control

    OpenAIRE

    Malin Axelsson; Linda Ekerljung; Bo Lundbäck

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aim was to investigate adherence to asthma medication treatment, medication beliefs, and asthma control in relation to asthma follow-up consultations in asthmatics in the general population. A further aim was to describe associations between adherence, medication beliefs, and asthma control. Method. In the population-based West Sweden Asthma Study, data allowing calculation of adherence for 4.5 years based on pharmacy records were obtained from 165 adult asthmatics. Additional ...

  4. Children with Asthma and Sports

    OpenAIRE

    Selda Yuzer; Sevinc Polat

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is one of the chronic diseases which have are widely seen among the children. The disease has recently been in the increase all over the world and affects many children. In a study conducted with International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) method, it was found out that prevalence of childhood asthma was 17.1%. Participation in sportive activities by the children with asthma, which is today considered as a part of asthma treatment program, makes contributions to the...

  5. Serum Vitamin D Levels and Vitamin D Supplement in Adult Patients with Asthma Exacerbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadech Boonpiyathad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to an increased risk of asthma exacerbations. Objective. This study aimed to compare vitamin D status during the period of severe asthma exacerbations and investigate if vitamin D supplementation improves asthma control. Methods. A total of 47 asthmatic patients and 40 healthy subjects participated in this study. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD, asthma control test (ACT score, and % predicted peak expiratory flow rate were evaluated in the period with and without severe asthma exacerbations. After that, we provided vitamin D2 supplements to the patients with low vitamin D levels for 3 months. Results. At the period of asthma exacerbation, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency was 38.29% and 34.04%. There was no significant difference in the levels of serum 25(OHD with and without asthma exacerbations but the levels were significantly higher in the healthy group. Serum 25(OHD levels significantly correlated with ACT score. Moreover, vitamin D2 supplementation improved asthma control in uncontrolled asthma group. Conclusions. Hypovitaminosis D was common in asthmatic patients but was not the leading cause of asthma exacerbations. Serum 25(OHD levels correlated with the ability to control asthma. Improving vitamin D status might be a benefit in uncontrolled asthmatic patients.

  6. Tobaksrygning og asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Lange, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a well-known health hazard, probably not least for patients suffering from asthma. This review gives a short overview of the effects of passive and active smoking on the inception and outcome with of longitudinal changes in the lung function and mortality of patients with ast......Cigarette smoking is a well-known health hazard, probably not least for patients suffering from asthma. This review gives a short overview of the effects of passive and active smoking on the inception and outcome with of longitudinal changes in the lung function and mortality of patients...... with asthma. Substantial evidence suggests that smoking affects asthma adversely. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, especially maternal smoking in children, may be a significant risk factor for asthma. Such exposure in patients with established asthma is not only associated with more severe symptoms......, but also with a poorer quality of life, reduced lung function, and increased utilisation of health care including hospital admissions. Active smoking does not appear to be a significant risk factor for asthma, but is associated with a worse outcome with regard to both longitudinal changes in lung function...

  7. Asthma control in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren

    2016-01-01

    studies have added new information about the effects of poorly controlled asthma on a range of important, but less studied outcomes, including risk of obesity, daily physical activity, cardiovascular fitness, stress, concentration and focused attention, learning disabilities and risk of depression. From...... in whom the tests suggest good asthma control may still have poorly controlled asthma when various objective outcomes are included in the assessment. A main reason for that seems to be that none of the tests accurately detects the child's adaptation in lifestyle. If you do not exercise you have fewer...

  8. Genetics, atopy asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William O.C.M. Cookson

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a complex disease which is due to the interaction of an unknown number of genes with strong environmental factors. Segregation analysis suggests the presence of major genes underlying asthma and atopy. Different genetic effects have been recognized which predispose to generalized atopy, or modify the atopic response to particular allergens, or enhance bronchial inflammation, or modify bronchial tone. These known genes or genetic loci do not account for all of the familial clustering of asthma and atopy. Many studies are now under way to identify the remaining genes.

  9. Prevalence of asthma and bronchial hyperreactivity in Danish schoolchildren: no change over 10 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zilmer, M; Steen, Np; Zachariassen, G

    2011-01-01

    questionnaire on asthma and respiratory symptoms combined with a 6-min free running test with peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) measurement (n = 1051, response rate 89.3%). Results were compared with those of a similar study in the same area from 1990 to 1991. Main outcome measures were current physician......-diagnosed asthma or BHR in children without physician-diagnosed asthma measured by either a decrease in lung function after standardized running test and/or variability in PEFR on home monitoring. Results:  The prevalence of current physician-diagnosed asthma was 4.0% [95% confidence interval (CI) 2...

  10. Asthma medication prescribing before, during and after pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlton, Rachel A; Pierini, Anna; Klungsøyr, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To explore utilisation patterns of asthma medication before, during and after pregnancy as recorded in seven European population-based databases.  Design: A descriptive drug utilisation study.  Setting: 7 electronic healthcare databases in Denmark, Norway, the Netherlands, Italy (Emilia...... for 3-month time periods and the choice of asthma medicine and changes in prescribing over the study period were evaluated in each database.  Results: In total, 1 165 435 deliveries were identified. The prevalence of asthma medication prescribing during pregnancy was highest in the UK and Wales...... databases (9.4% (CI959.3% to 9.6%) and 9.4% (CI959.1% to 9.6%), respectively) and lowest in the Norwegian database (3.7% (CI953.7% to 3.8%)). In the year before pregnancy, the prevalence of asthma medication prescribing remained constant in all regions. Prescribing levels peaked during the second trimester...

  11. Pulmonary physiotherapy in patients with bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osiadlo, Grazyna; Plewa, Michal; Zebrowska, Aleksandra; Nowak, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the effectiveness of a 3-month breathing exercise program in patients with mild-to-moderate asthma, as assessed from spirometric indices. The study group consisted of 28 asthma patients (mean age of 43 years). The physiotherapy program consisted of 45-min exercise sessions, performed twice a week for 3 months. We measured the flow-volume indices (FEV(1), FVC, PEF, MEF(50)) before and after the exercise sessions at the beginning and end of the physiotherapy program. In addition, the patients measured their personal best peak expiratory flow (PEF). We found no significant changes in spirometric indices before and after an exercise session either at the beginning or end of the physiotherapy program, although there was a tendency for lower values after the exercise sessions at both beginning and end of the physiotherapy program. There was a significant decrease in PEF after an exercise session at the beginning of the physiotherapy program; this decrease lost significance after completion of the physiotherapy program. However, PEF values were greater both before and after the exercise sessions at the end of the physiotherapy program compared with the corresponding sessions before the program. We conclude that the breathing exercise program employed in the study failed to appreciably improve lung function in asthmatic patients. However, there was no asthma exacerbations observed during the conduction of breathing exercise program, which underscores the need for pulmonary rehabilitation in asthma treatment.

  12. Exercise-Induced Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Institute. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-pro/resources/lung/naci/discover/action-plans.htm. Accessed Sept. 12, 2014. Mickleborough TD, et al. Exercise-induced asthma: Nutritional management. Current ...

  13. Asthma in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes...... their physical capacity. Elite athletes should undergo comprehensive assessment to confirm an asthma diagnosis and determine its degree of severity. Treatment should be as for any other asthmatic individual, including the use of ß2-agonist, inhaled steroid as well as leukotriene-antagonist. It should, however......, be noted that daily use of ß-agonists could expose elite athletes to the risk of developing tolerance towards these drugs. Use of ß2-agonist should be replaced with daily inhaled corticosteroid treatment, the most important treatment of exercise-induced asthma. All physicians treating asthma should...

  14. Zoneterapi og asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brygge, Thor; Heinig, John Hilligsøe; Collins, Philippa

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Many patients with asthma seek alternative or adjunctive therapies. One such modality is reflexology. Our aim was to examine the popular claim that reflexology treatment benefits bronchial asthma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten weeks of either active or simulated (placebo) reflexology were...... compared in an otherwise blind, controlled trial of 40 patients with asthma. RESULTS: Objective lung function tests did not change. Subjective scores and bronchial sensitivity to histamine improved on both regimens, but no differences were found in the groups receiving active or placebo reflexology....... However, a trend in favour of reflexology became significant when a supplementary analysis of symptom diaries was carried out. At the same time a significant pattern compatible with subconscious un-blinding was found. DISCUSSION: We found no evidence that reflexology has a specific effect on asthma beyond...

  15. Asthma in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes...... their physical capacity. Elite athletes should undergo comprehensive assessment to confirm an asthma diagnosis and determine its degree of severity. Treatment should be as for any other asthmatic individual, including the use of β2-agonist, inhaled steroid as well as leukotriene-antagonist. It should, however......, be noted that daily use of β-agonists could expose elite athletes to the risk of developing tolerance towards these drugs. Use of β2-agonist should be replaced with daily inhaled corticosteroid treatment, the most important treatment of exercise-induced asthma. All physicians treating asthma should...

  16. Vitamin D and asthma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Sheena D; Calvert, H. Hardie; Fitzpatrick, Anne M

    2012-01-01

    .... Vitamin D is of particular interest in asthma since vitamin D concentrations decrease with increased time spent indoors, decreased exposure to sunlight, less exercise, obesity, and inadequate calcium intake...

  17. So You Have Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... get all the medicine into your lungs . The best way to learn to use these devices correctly is ... bed. • Take your asthma medicine right after you brush your teeth and keep it with your toothbrush as a ...

  18. Inflammation in Asthma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ashraf

    Systemic hypersensitivity diseases include, among others, asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, otitis, rhinosinusitis ... hypersensitivity.13 As a medical specialty based on immunology, the allergy specialty (in some countries, called .... In certain countries (the United States, for instance), training in allergy encompasses both pediatrics.

  19. Pediatric asthma in a nutshell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Holger Werner

    2014-07-01

    On the basis of strong research evidence, asthma is a leading cause of emergency department visits and hospital admissions for children. On the basis of research evidence, implementation of asthma guidelines by medical professionals in not optimal. On the basis of research evidence, the Asthma Predictive Index supports a diagnosis of chronic asthma in children younger than 3 years. On the basis of strong research evidence, premedication with a short-acting β2-agonist is the preferred initial therapy for exercise-induced asthma. On the basis of strong research evidence, anti-inflammatory therapy with inhaled corticosteroids is an effective treatment for asthma. On the basis of research and consensus, assessment of impairment and risk followed by scheduled assessment for asthma control is recommended. On the basis of research and consensus, the establishment of a close cooperative relationship among medical professionals, patients with asthma, and their families is an important component of asthma management.

  20. Stress and asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Shoji Nagata; Masahiro Irie; Norio Mishima

    1999-01-01

    Three factors in recent medical research and treatment (advances in the field of psychoneuroimmunology, epidemiological evidence regarding important interaction between psychosocial factors and development of disease, and the recognition of the importance of patient education for self-management of asthma) have led clinicians and researchers to reconsider the role of psychosocial stress in asthma. There are many reports suggesting that stressful life events, family problems and a behavior pat...

  1. Update in asthma 2008

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moore, Wendy C

    2009-01-01

    ... between obesity and asthma (8-10). Articles published in 2008 have advanced our understanding of the influence of genetics (11-18), factors in early life (19-21), and the environment (19, 22-24) on the development of asthma or the modification of disease severity. Basic pathobiologic studies in humans (25-35) and mice (36-46) have added to our underst...

  2. Genetics, atopy asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Cookson, William O. C. M.

    1996-01-01

    Asthma is a complex disease which is due to the interaction of an unknown number of genes with strong environmental factors. Segregation analysis suggests the presence of major genes underlying asthma and atopy. Different genetic effects have been recognized which predispose to generalized atopy, or modify the atopic response to particular allergens, or enhance bronchial inflammation, or modify bronchial tone. These known genes or genetic loci do not account for all of the familial clustering...

  3. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to learn more about helping people with asthma live healthier lives by gaining control over their asthma. Quick Links ... to learn more about helping people with asthma live healthier lives by gaining control over their asthma. ...

  4. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Recent Asthma Data Most Recent Asthma State or Territory Data Previous Most Recent Asthma Data 2014 National Data Archive 2014 State or Territory Data Archive AsthmaStats Flu Vaccination among Adults with ...

  5. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... page: About CDC.gov . Asthma Learn How to Control Asthma Asthma and Severe Weather Brochures Facts Triggers Indoors In the Workplace Outdoors Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, ...

  6. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir You can control your asthma and avoid an attack by taking ... people with asthma live healthier lives by gaining control over their asthma. Quick Links Asthma Action Plan ...

  7. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Archive 2014 State or Territory Data Archive AsthmaStats Flu Vaccination among Adults with Current Asthma Flu Vaccination among Children with Current Asthma Asthma and Fair ...

  8. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Learn How to Control Asthma Asthma and Severe Weather Brochures Facts Triggers Indoors In the Workplace Outdoors ... CDC Publications on Asthma National Asthma Control Program America Breathing Easier Guide for State Programs Interventions Community ...

  9. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to Use Your ... 1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health File Formats Help: How do ...

  10. Asthma Control Essential in Pregnancy, Study Suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... were born to mothers with active asthma during pregnancy. Those born to mothers who had mild controlled asthma were less likely to be diagnosed with asthma at an early age than those whose moms had mild uncontrolled asthma, ...

  11. Evolving Concepts of Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Anuradha; Wenzel, Sally E.

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of asthma has evolved over time from a singular disease to a complex of various phenotypes, with varied natural histories, physiologies, and responses to treatment. Early therapies treated most patients with asthma similarly, with bronchodilators and corticosteroids, but these therapies had varying degrees of success. Similarly, despite initial studies that identified an underlying type 2 inflammation in the airways of patients with asthma, biologic therapies targeted toward these type 2 pathways were unsuccessful in all patients. These observations led to increased interest in phenotyping asthma. Clinical approaches, both biased and later unbiased/statistical approaches to large asthma patient cohorts, identified a variety of patient characteristics, but they also consistently identified the importance of age of onset of disease and the presence of eosinophils in determining clinically relevant phenotypes. These paralleled molecular approaches to phenotyping that developed an understanding that not all patients share a type 2 inflammatory pattern. Using biomarkers to select patients with type 2 inflammation, repeated trials of biologics directed toward type 2 cytokine pathways saw newfound success, confirming the importance of phenotyping in asthma. Further research is needed to clarify additional clinical and molecular phenotypes, validate predictive biomarkers, and identify new areas for possible interventions. PMID:26161792

  12. Recognition of asthma in adolescents and young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Postma, Dirkje S; Backer, Vibeke

    2005-01-01

    Objective assessment of airway function is important in epidemiologic studies of asthma to facilitate comparison between studies. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), peak expiratory flow (PEF) variability, and bronchodilator reversibility (BR) are widely used as markers of airway lability in such s......Objective assessment of airway function is important in epidemiologic studies of asthma to facilitate comparison between studies. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), peak expiratory flow (PEF) variability, and bronchodilator reversibility (BR) are widely used as markers of airway lability...... in such studies. Data from a survey of a population sample of adolescents and young adults (n = 609; 288 males), aged 13-23 years, were analyzed to investigate whether AHR, PEF variability, and BR can be used interchangeably as markers of asthma in an epidemiological setting....

  13. Montelukast for prevention and treatment of asthma exacerbations in adults: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong Ping; Jia, Chun E; Lv, Yan; Gibson, Peter Gerard; Wang, Gang

    2014-01-01

    It has proven efficacy in reducing asthma exacerbations, but the effect size of montelukast (a leukotriene receptor antagonist) for varied severity of asthma exacerbations is not systematically assessed. This study was designed to systematically explore the evidence for montelukast, as first-line or add-on therapy, in preventing and treating asthma exacerbations in adult patients with asthma. Randomized controlled trials were searched in PubMed, CENTRAL, Web of Science, Embase, and OVID up to March 2013, where montelukast prevented or treated asthma exacerbations in adults. Primary outcomes were the number of patients experiencing exacerbations in chronic asthma and hospitalizations in acute asthma. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), risk difference, and number needed to treat (NNT) were calculated and pooled. Adverse events were also assessed in chronic asthma. Twenty trials for chronic asthma and six for acute asthma were identified. In comparison with placebo, adults with chronic asthma receiving montelukast had significantly reduced number of exacerbations (OR = 0.60 and 95% CI, 0.49, 0.74; NNT = 17 and 95% CI, 12, 29). However, montelukast was inferior to inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) (OR = 1.63; 95% CI, 1.29, 2.0) and ICS plus long-acting beta2-agonist (LABA; OR = 3.94; 95% CI, 1.64, 9.48) as the first-line therapies and LABA (OR = 1.22; 95% CI, 1.05, 1.42) as the add-on therapies in reducing asthma exacerbations. In acute asthma, montelukast could statistically improve peak expiratory flow percent predicted (p = 0.008) and reduce systemic corticosteroid intake (p = 0.005). Montelukast had low risk in hoarseness and insomnia. Our meta-analysis suggests that montelukast significantly reduces mild, moderate, and part of severe exacerbations in chronic mild to moderate asthma, but it has inferior efficacy to ICS or ICS plus LABA.

  14. Asthma is Different in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzurum, Serpil C.

    2015-01-01

    Gender differences in asthma incidence, prevalence and severity have been reported worldwide. After puberty, asthma becomes more prevalent and severe in women, and is highest in women with early menarche or with multiple gestations, suggesting a role for sex hormones in asthma genesis. However, the impact of sex hormones on the pathophysiology of asthma is confounded by and difficult to differentiate from age, obesity, atopy, and other gender associated environmental exposures. There are also gender discrepancies in the perception of asthma symptoms. Understanding gender differences in asthma is important to provide effective education and personalized management plans for asthmatics across the lifecourse. PMID:26141573

  15. Childhood asthma and physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lochte, Lene; Nielsen, Kim G; Petersen, Poul Erik

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma is a global problem affecting the respiratory health of children. Physical activity (PA) plays a role in the relationship between asthma and respiratory health. We hypothesized that a low level of PA would be associated with asthma in children and adolescents. The obj......BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma is a global problem affecting the respiratory health of children. Physical activity (PA) plays a role in the relationship between asthma and respiratory health. We hypothesized that a low level of PA would be associated with asthma in children and adolescents...

  16. Physical training for asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Mônica Corso

    2014-01-01

    People with asthma may show less tolerance to exercise due to worsening asthma symptoms during exercise or other reasons such as deconditioning as a consequence of inactivity. Some may restrict activities as per medical advice or family influence and this might result in reduced physical fitness. Physical training programs aim to improve physical fitness, neuromuscular coordination and self confidence. Subjectively, many people with asthma report that they are symptomatically better when fit, but results from trials have varied and have been difficult to compare because of different designs and training protocols. Also, as exercise can induce asthma, the safety of exercise programmes needs to be considered. To gain a better understanding of the effect of physical training on the respiratory and general health of people with asthma, from randomised trials. We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register of trials up to January 2013. We included randomised trials of people over eight years of age with asthma who were randomised to undertake physical training or not. Physical training had to be undertaken for at least 20 minutes, two times a week, over a minimum period of four weeks. Two review authors independently assessed eligibility for inclusion and undertook risk of bias assessment for the included studies. Twenty-one studies (772 participants) were included in this review with two additional 2012 studies identified as 'awaiting classification'. Physical training was well tolerated with no adverse effects reported. None of the studies mentioned worsening of asthma symptoms following physical training. Physical training showed marked improvement in cardiopulmonary fitness as measured by a statistically and clinically significant increase in maximum oxygen uptake (mean difference (MD) 4.92 mL/kg/min; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.98 to 5.87; P physical training may have positive effects on health-related quality of life, with four of five studies

  17. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Breathing Easier [PDF – 1.1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Asthma & Community Health Know How ... Breathing Easier [PDF – 1.1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Asthma & Community Health File Formats ...

  18. Relation between serum vitamin D level and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragoza Buxo, José; Pérez, Lisandra; Bredy, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic multifactorial condition racterized by inflammation, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, narrowing of airway associated with wheezing and shortness of breath, where trials have evidenced that approximately 50% despite being on adequate treatment don't achieve optimal control. Asthma has been related to vitamin D deficiency, where lower levels have been correlated to an increased hyperreactiveness and lower measures in pulmonary function test. Up to our knowledge, no studies have been conducted in Hispanic patients for this association. Cross-Sectional pilot study in the setting of a pneumology office practice. Population consisted of asthmatic patients with no past medical history or risk factors for lower vitamin D levels. Variables studied included Peak-Flow s a measurement of the maximal velocity of air expelled in a forced exhalation adjusted for height and age; Serum vitamin D levels where optimal was > 30, and deficient asthma control test (ACT) questionnaire was noted. An inversely direct proportion between vitamin D and peak flow was evidenced, while no relation noted between peak flow and asthma. An 80% prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was noted in our population. Higher levels of vitamin D were associated with higher punctuation on ACT questionnaire, evidencing that most patients felt better during the last month. Peak flow measurements resulted to be lower when vitamin D was higher, though this measure could be influenced by a variety of external conditions.

  19. What is meant by control of childhood asthma?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, once again the gold standard by which these are measured is the stumbling block. In one study the authors use patient symptoms and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) over time to assess control.13. The authors of the GOAL Study14 devised the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ). Using the ACQ to identify ...

  20. Occupational asthma induced by inhaled egg lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, J A; Kraut, A; Bernstein, D I; Warrington, R; Bolin, T; Warren, C P; Bernstein, I L

    1993-02-01

    A 26-year-old man employed in a company which manufactured hen egg white derived lysozyme for use in the pharmaceutical industry was evaluated for occupational asthma. The worker began to experience immediate-onset asthmatic symptoms two months after starting to work with egg lysozyme powder. The work process involved the production of approximately 1,000 kg of purified dried lysozyme powder per week. Prick skin testing was positive to egg lysozyme (50 mg/ml) and other egg protein components, but negative to whole egg white and egg yolk reagents. Serum specific IgE to egg lysozyme was documented. Decrements in serial peak expiratory flow rates were associated with lysozyme exposure at work. A specific bronchoprovocation challenge to lysozyme powder was positive demonstrating an isolated immediate asthmatic response (48 percent decrease from baseline FEV1). This is the first reported case of lysozyme-induced asthma specifically caused by inhalational exposure to egg lysozyme.

  1. The effectiveness of school-based family asthma educational programs on the quality of life and number of asthma exacerbations of children aged five to 18 years diagnosed with asthma: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Helen; Sadeque-Iqbal, Fatema; Ulysse, Rose; Castillo, Doreen; Fitzpatrick, Aileen; Singleton, Joanne

    2015-10-01

    $655 million was spent on asthma for 2008-09.Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease that affects millions of people of all ethnicities, ages and genders worldwide. The pathophysiology of asthma is multifaceted, and is characterized by restriction of airflow into and out of the lungs, airway inflammation with increased mucus production, and bronchial hyper-reactivity caused by exposure to environmental irritants and chemicals, often referred to as triggers, which in some cases are modifiable. Asthma triggers include respiratory infections, weather changes, stress, excitement, exercise and other physical activities, allergic hypersensitivity reactions, food additives, animal dander, dust mites, cockroaches, outdoor and indoor pollutants, certain medications and cigarette smoke. Asthma is characterized by recurrent, episodic, reversible symptoms often referred to as asthma exacerbations, or asthma attacks. Asthma symptoms include coughing, shortness of breath, chest tightness and wheezing that most frequently occur at night or in the early morning. Asthma symptoms vary in severity and frequency in affected individuals, and can occur several times a day or week. Asthma symptoms may be mild, moderate, or severe, and are classified according to presenting symptoms and quantitative measurements of lung function using a peak expiratory flow meter (PEF), or of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). Asthma symptoms can be so severe that, if left untreated, death can occur.Exacerbations of asthma symptoms often result in school and work absenteeism, activity intolerance and emergency hospital visits for asthma. Nocturnal asthma exacerbations frequently cause sleeplessness, which may result in daytime fatigue. Asthma symptoms can interfere and disrupt activities of daily life, and can have an unfavorable impact on the quality of life for people with the disease, including children and their caregivers. For this review, quality of life represents how well the asthmatic

  2. The Effect of Atorvastatin on lung function and sputum cell count in Chronic Asthma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Avinash Badar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease with incomplete recovery. Atorvastatin has documented in vitro and vivo anti-inflammatory effect.So effect of atrovastatin in chronic asthma patient was studied in TB and chest department of Tertiary care hospital of central India.  Objective: The effect of Atorvastatin on lung function and sputum cell count in chronic Asthma.Material and Methods: In randomized ,parallel ,double blind placebo controlled clinical trial 60 chronic asthma patients who were taking inhaled corticosteroids were to receive either Atrovastatin or placebo for 12 weeks. Pulmonary function test, sputum cell count & lipid profile were done. Result: With Atorvastatin significant improvement in ACQ(asthma control questionnaire, significant decrease in SCC(sputum cell count & significant reduction in risk of asthma exacerbations after 12 weeks. No significant improvement in all parameters were seen with placebo.It was observed that mean changes in ACQ, SCC were statistically significant p <0.05 in Atorvastatin group as compared to placebo group, but mean changes in FEV1(pre and FEV1(post,PEFR were not statistically significant at 12 weeks between the 2 groups.Conclusion: Atorvastatin significantly improved asthma control according to asthma control questionnaires & reduced risk of asthma exacerbations correlated with reduction in sputum cell count.Key words:Chronic Asthma,Forced Expiratory Volume(FEV 1,Peak Expiratory flow rate (PEFR,Sputum cell count (SCC,Asthama control Questionnaire (ACQ.

  3. Environmental pollution and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giampaolo, L; Quecchia, C; Schiavone, C; Cavallucci, E; Renzetti, A; Braga, M; Di Gioacchino, M

    2011-01-01

    Clinical evidences and epidemiological studies show that allergic pathologies of the respiratory tract are increasing in the world areas with high pollution impact, demonstrating how many polluting substances favor both allergic sensitization and the bronchial inflammatory changes characteristic of asthma. It has been shown that asthma, as many other diseases, is a complex interaction between genetic predisposition and environmental stimuli that results in clinical expression of various phenotypes of asthma: allergic, intrinsic etc. Many pollutants have such a potential. Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) can favor allergic sensitization, induce acute asthma attacks and increase bronchial reactivity, acting both on allergen, on bronchial mucosa and on immune cells. In fact, DEP can favor B lymphocytes to shift to a production of IgE and T cells to produce Th2 cytokines. Asthma can be also induced by high exposure to many other substances as NO2 and first of all ozone (O3): strong oxidizing substance that is synthesized, in absence of ventilation, by photochemical reaction due to the combination of ultraviolet sun radiation on exhaust gases as NO2 and hydrocarbons. Ozone is abundant in cities with minimal concentration in the morning gradually increasing during the day until maximal levels in the afternoon and then decreasing during the night. Epidemiological studies show that the number of access to hospital for acute asthma and even the use of bronchodilator by asthmatics increase during the high level periods when Ozone constitute almost 90 percent of the total oxidants in the environment. Particulate matter of very small diameter have a crucial role in favoring asthma attacks, and smaller the substance deeper the penetration in the bronchial tree, with an inflammatory reaction in the peripheral bronchial mucosa characterized by increased vessel permeability, mucosal edema, inflammatory mediator production by damaged epithelium and inflammatory cells that determines

  4. Innate lymphoid cells and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sanhong; Kim, Hye Young; Chang, Ya-Jen; DeKruyff, Rosemarie H; Umetsu, Dale T

    2014-04-01

    Asthma is a complex and heterogeneous disease with several phenotypes, including an allergic asthma phenotype characterized by TH2 cytokine production and associated with allergen sensitization and adaptive immunity. Asthma also includes nonallergic asthma phenotypes, such as asthma associated with exposure to air pollution, infection, or obesity, that require innate rather than adaptive immunity. These innate pathways that lead to asthma involve macrophages, neutrophils, natural killer T cells, and innate lymphoid cells, newly described cell types that produce a variety of cytokines, including IL-5 and IL-13. We review the recent data regarding innate lymphoid cells and their role in asthma. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Asthma-COPD overlap syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Şen, Elif; Oğuzülgen, Kıvılcım; Bavbek, Sevim; Günen, Hakan; Kıyan, Esen; Türktaş, Haluk; Yorgancıoğlu, Arzu; Polatlı, Mehmet; Yıldız, Füsun; Çelik, Gülfem; Demir, Tunçalp; Gemicioğlu, Bilun; Mungan, Dilşad; Saryal, Sevgi; Sayıner, Abdullah; Yıldırım, Nurhayat

    2015-01-01

    .... Among patient with COPD and asthma; there is a group of patients with an overlap between clinical, functional characteristics and airway inflammation patterns, named "Asthma-COPD Overlap Syndrome" (ACOS...

  6. Psychopathology in difficult asthma : Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, L.C.J.; van Son, M.A.C.; van Keimpema, A.R.J.; van Ranst, D.; Antonissen-Pommer, A.M.; Meijer, J.W.G.; Pop, V.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Within the asthma population, difficult asthma (DA) is a severe condition in which patients present with frequent exacerbations, hospitalizations and emergency room visits. The identification and treatment of psychopathology is included in the management of DA. Psychopathology is supposed

  7. Allergy and Asthma Health Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Of Age Older Adults Allergy and Asthma Health Magazine Women Infant, Children and Teenagers Living With Lung ... written by Respiratory Experts Like no other health magazine, Allergy & Asthma Health Magazine is published by people ...

  8. Integration of Dust Prediction Systems and Vegetation Phenology to Track Pollen for Asthma Alerts in Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Sprigg, W. A.; Huete, A.; Nickovic, S.; Pejanovic, G.; Levetin, E.; Van de water, P.; Myers, O.; Budge, A. M.; Krapfl, H.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Pollen can be transported great distances. Van de Water et. al., 2003 reported Juniperus pollen, a significant aeroallergen was transported 200-600 km. Hence local observations of plant phenology may not be consistent with the timing and source of pollen collected by pollen sampling instruments. The DREAM (Dust REgional Atmospheric Model, Yin 2007) is a verified model for atmospheric dust transport modeling using MODIS data products to identify source regions and quantities of dust (Yin 2007). The use of satellite data products for studying phenology is well documented (White and Nemani 2006). We are modifying the DREAM model to incorporate pollen transport. The linkages already exist with DREAM through PHAiRS (Public Health Applications in remote Sensing) to the public health community. This linkage has the potential to fill this data gap so that health effects of pollen can better be tracked for linkage with health outcome data including asthma, respiratory effects, myocardial infarction, and lost work days. DREAM is based on the SKIRON/Eta modeling system and the Eta/NCEP regional atmospheric model. The dust modules of the entire system incorporate the state of the art parameterizations of all the major phases of the atmospheric dust life such as production, diffusion, advection, and removal. These modules also include effects of the particle size distribution on aerosol dispersion. The dust production mechanism is based on the viscous/turbulent mixing, shear-free convection diffusion, and soil moisture. In addition to these sophisticated mechanisms, very high resolution databases, including elevation, soil properties, and vegetation cover are utilized. The DREAM model was modified to use pollen sources instead of dust (PREAM). Pollen release will be estimated based on satellite-derived phenology of Juniperus spp. communities. The MODIS surface reflectance product (MOD09) will provide information on the start of the plant growing season, growth stage, peak

  9. Aspirin-Exacerbated Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varghese Mathew

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on aspirin-exacerbated asthma (AEA. The review includes historical perspective of aspirin, prevalence, pathogenesis, clinical features and treatment of AEA. The pathogenesis of AEA involves the cyclooxygenase and lipooxygenase pathway. Aspirin affects both of these pathways by inhibiting the enzyme cycooxygenase-1 (COX-1. Inhibition of COX-1 leads to a decrease in prostaglandin E2 (PGE2. The decrease in PGE2 results in an increase in cysteinyl leukotrienes by the lipooxygenase pathway involving the enzyme 5-lipooxygenase (5-LO. Leukotriene C4 (LTC4 synthase is the enzyme responsible for the production of leukotriene C4, the chief cysteinyl leukotriene responsible for AEA. There have been familial occurences of AEA. An allele of the LTC4 synthase gene in AEA is known as allele C. Allele C has a higher frequency in AEA. Clinical presentation includes a history of asthma after ingestion of aspirin, nasal congestion, watery rhinorrhea and nasal polyposis. Treatment includes leukotriene receptor antagonists, leukotriene inhibitors, aspirin desinsitaztion and surgery. AEA is the most well-defined phenotype of asthma. Although AEA affects adults and children with physician-diagnosed asthma, in some cases there is no history of asthma and AEA often goes unrecognized and underdiagnosed.

  10. Allergens, germs and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scadding, Glenis Kathleen

    2015-04-01

    To explore asthma pathogenesis using data from upper and lower airways. English-language papers on human asthma and nasal polyp subjects from 1990 onwards. High-quality studies in established journals. The recognition of its inflammatory nature led to a quantum leap in the understanding and treatment of asthma, with lives saved by inhaled corticosteroids. Further work at genetic, molecular, histological and clinical levels has shown that asthma is polymorphic and rarely involves isolated Th2 bronchial inflammation. Viral infections may act as an initiating event in children and adults, showing synergy with atopy. Chronic staphylococcal colonization of the mucosa may act as a promoter, as in atopic dermatitis. These two observations may be linked, with viruses providing an entry for bacteria into the mucosal epithelium. Most asthma begins in the nose and involves allergy and infection: both viral and bacterial. The combination of atopy and infection suggests new possibilities for therapy. © 2014 The Author. The Clinical Respiratory Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Asthma and dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Joseph

    2012-06-01

    Medline, government reports and conference proceedings were searched. Case-control, cohort or cross sectional studies were included if they provided relevant and applicable quantitative information on the relation between asthma and caries, had an independent study population and adequate definitions of asthma and caries and appropriate measurement of caries. Data were extracted independently by two reviewers and quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. Fixed- and random-effects models were used for the analyses. Heterogeneity and publication bias were evaluated. Eighteen articles were included; 11 provided information on primary dentition and 15 on permanent dentition. Random-effects models showed a significant association between asthma and caries for both primary and permanent dentition, the odds ratios being 2.73 (95% CI: 1.61, 4.64) and 2.04 (95% CI: 1.44, 2.89), respectively. Evidence from this analysis suggests that asthma doubles the risk of caries in both primary and permanent dentition. Publication bias diagnostics and simulation suggested possible overestimation of the summary odds ratio for permanent dentition but not for primary dentition. Physicians and dentists should recommend preventive measures against caries for people with asthma.

  12. [Epigenetics, environment and asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico-Rosillo, Guadalupe; Vega-Robledo, Gloria Bertha; Silva-García, Raúl; Oliva-Rico, Diego

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the respiratory tract with a complex genetic background influenced by the exposition to a series of environmental factors. Genetic studies can only elucidate part of the heritability and susceptibility of asthma and even though several diseases have an evident genetic etiology, only a fraction of the genes involved in their pathogenicity have been identified. The epigenetic regulation of the latter is a fact one should bear in mind in order to explain the major triggers of diseases whose understanding is complicated, such as allergies and asthma. External stimulus such as nourishment, stress, physical activity, atmospheric pollution, tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking can induce either gene silencing or gene expression. In this regard, epigenetics can explain how these environmental factors influence our genetic inheritance. There is growing evidence that backs-up the fact that DNA methylation, histone post-translational modification and microRNA expression are influenced by the environment. This helps explaining how several of the risk factors mentioned contribute to the development and inheritance of asthma. In this review, different environmental factors and their relation with the main epigenetic regulatory mechanisms will be analyzed, as well as their possible role in the development of asthma.

  13. The pharmacotherapy of the asthma

    OpenAIRE

    BROŽOVÁ, Lenka

    2008-01-01

    Asthma bronchiale is a very common chronic disorder of airways with not fully elucidated pathology, which is not fully curable at the moment. It is estimated that 300 millions of persons suffer from asthma. About 8% of adult population and 10% of children are affected in the Czech republic. The aim of this thesis is to give an overview of contemporary modern pharmacotherapy of asthma. Firstly, this work describes asthma from pathophysiological and epidemiological point of view, among others: ...

  14. Obesity, Asthma, and the Microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Youngji; Shore, Stephanie A

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for asthma, but standard asthma drugs have reduced efficacy in the obese. Obesity alters the gastrointestinal microbial community structure. This change in structure contributes to some obesity-related conditions and also could be contributing to obesity-related asthma. Although currently unexplored, obesity may also be altering lung microbiota. Understanding the role of microbiota in obesity-related asthma could lead to novel treatments for these patients. ©2016 Int. Union Physiol. Sci./Am. Physiol. Soc.

  15. Obesity, Asthma, and the Microbiome

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Youngji; Shore, Stephanie A.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for asthma, but standard asthma drugs have reduced efficacy in the obese. Obesity alters the gastrointestinal microbial community structure. This change in structure contributes to some obesity-related conditions and also could be contributing to obesity-related asthma. Although currently unexplored, obesity may also be altering lung microbiota. Understanding the role of microbiota in obesity-related asthma could lead to novel treatments for these patients.

  16. Obesity, Asthma, and the Microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Youngji

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for asthma, but standard asthma drugs have reduced efficacy in the obese. Obesity alters the gastrointestinal microbial community structure. This change in structure contributes to some obesity-related conditions and also could be contributing to obesity-related asthma. Although currently unexplored, obesity may also be altering lung microbiota. Understanding the role of microbiota in obesity-related asthma could lead to novel treatments for these patients. PMID:26889016

  17. Risk of asthma in adult twins with type 2 diabetes and increased body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, S F; Duffy, D L; Kyvik, K O

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To examine the relationship between asthma, type 2 diabetes and increased body mass index (BMI) in adult twins. METHODS: We performed record linkage between questionnaire-defined asthma and BMI, and hospital discharge diagnoses of type 2 diabetes in 34,782 Danish twins, 20-71 years of age....... RESULTS: The risk of asthma was increased in subjects with type 2 diabetes relative to nondiabetic subjects both in men (13.5%vs 7.5%), P = 0.001 and in women (16.6%vs 9.6%), P = 0.001. The result remained significant after adjustment for age, BMI, smoking, symptoms of chronic bronchitis, marital status...... and zygosity, men: OR = 1.70 (1.07-2.70), P = 0.026; women: OR = 1.88 (1.24-2.85), P = 0.003. In this analysis, BMI remained a highly significant predictor for asthma independently of diabetes status in women, P

  18. STAKEHOLDER LINKAGES FOR SUSTAINABLE LAND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    These stakeholders were found having different interests regarding SLM issues. The linkages of farmers with DAs and RKA offices were observed to be strong but farmers' participation in new technology selection was found to be low. Farmer interactions with Woreda,. Zone and Region level experts were observed to be ...

  19. Data linkage dynamics with shedding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    We study shedding in the setting of data linkage dynamics, a simple model of computation that bears on the use of dynamic data structures in programming. Shedding is complementary to garbage collection. With shedding, each time a link to a data object is updated by a program, it is determined

  20. Data linkage dynamics with shedding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    We study shedding in the setting of data linkage dynamics, a simple model of computation that bears on the use of dynamic data structures in programming. Shedding is complementary to garbage collection. With shedding, each time a link to a data object is updated by a program, it is determined

  1. Japanese Guideline for Adult Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Ohta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult bronchial asthma (hereinafter, asthma is characterized by chronic airway inflammation, reversible airway narrowing, and airway hyperresponsiveness. Long-standing asthma induces airway remodeling to cause an intractable asthma. The number of patients with asthma has increased, while the number of patients who die from asthma has decreased (1.7 per 100,000 patients in 2009. The aim of asthma treatment is to enable patients with asthma to lead a healthy life without any symptoms. A partnership between physicians and patients is indispensable for appropriate treatment. Long-term management with agents and elimination of causes and risk factors are fundamental to asthma treatment. Four steps in pharmacotherapy differentiate mild to intensive treatments; each step includes an appropriate daily dose of an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS, varying from low to high doses. Long-acting β2 agonists (LABA, leukotriene receptor antagonists, and theophylline sustained-release preparation are recommended as concomitant drugs, while anti-IgE antibody therapy is a new choice for the most severe and persistent asthma. Inhaled β2 agonists, aminophylline, corticosteroids, adrenaline, oxygen therapy, etc., are used as needed against acute exacerbations. Allergic rhinitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, aspirin induced asthma, pregnancy, and cough variant asthma are also important factors that need to be considered.

  2. Defining asthma in genetic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, GH; Postma, DS; Meijer, G.

    1999-01-01

    Genetic studies have been hampered by the lack of a gold standard to diagnose asthma. The complex nature of asthma makes it more difficult to identify asthma genes. Therefore, approaches to define phenotypes, which have been successful in other genetically complex diseases, may be applied to define

  3. Rhinitis: a complication to asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J W; Thomsen, S F; Nolte, H

    2010-01-01

    Asthma and rhinitis often co-occur, and this potentially increases the disease severity and impacts negatively on the quality of life. We studied disease severity, airway responsiveness, atopy, quality of life and treatment in subjects with both asthma and rhinitis compared to patients with asthma...

  4. Asthma management by medical practitioners: the situation in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaretin, Osarogiagbon Wilson; Uchechukwu, Nwaneri Damian; Osawaru, Oviawe

    2013-02-01

    Asthma is a common chronic disease worldwide and is responsible for considerable morbidity, socioeconomic burden, and depletion of health resources. Clinically, diagnosis of asthma is based on information obtained from symptom questionnaires, physical examination and demonstration of variable airflow obstruction. Proper diagnosis of asthma is mandatory in clinical practice in order to avoid undue use of potentially toxic asthma medications and prevent unwarranted social stigmatization. This study aimed to determine how medical practitioners in Nigeria diagnose asthma and use asthma medications during asthma exacerbation and the follow-up period. A semi-structured self-administered questionnaire on asthma management was distributed to medical practitioners attending the annual scientific meeting/update course in August, 2009. Forty-nine practice centers in the 6 geopolitical zones in Nigeria were included in this survey. Totally 131 medical practitioners (80 males, 51 females) completed the questionnaire. Post National Youth Service Corp practice (mean ± SD) was 9.95±7.78 years, ranging from 2 to 39 years. The practice centers of respondents included university teaching hospitals (65.6%), state specialist hospitals (17.6%), private hospitals (10.7%), and missionary hospitals (6.l%). Respondents' assessment of burden of asthma was high (30.5%), moderate (63.4%) and low (6.1%). Asthma diagnosis was made by various methods including: symptoms only (35.9%), health personnels (32.3%), mother/self evaluation (20.3%), and use of spirometry/peak expiratory flow rate (11.5%). Thus inappropriate asthma diagnosis could have been practiced by 116 (88.5%) medical practitioners. The study revealed inadequate knowledge of asthma diagnosis and drug management of asthma by medical practitioners in Nigeria.

  5. Flavonoids and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Toshio; Takahashi, Ryo

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic disease, characterized by airway inflammation, airflow limitation, hyper-reactivity and airway remodeling. It is believed that asthma is caused by the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. The prevalence of allergic diseases, including asthma, has increased worldwide during the past two decades. Although the precise reasons that have caused this increase remain unknown, dietary change is thought to be one of the environmental factors. Flavonoids, which are polyphenolic plant secondary metabolites ubiquitously present in vegetables, fruits and beverages, possess antioxidant and anti-allergic traits, as well as immune-modulating activities. Flavonoids are powerful antioxidants and anti-allergic nutrients that inhibit the release of chemical mediators, synthesis of Th2 type cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13, and CD40 ligand expression by high-affinity immunoglobulin E (IgE) receptor-expressing cells, such as mast cells and basophils. They also inhibit IL-4-induced signal transduction and affect the differentiation of naïve CD4+ T cells into effector T-cells through their inhibitory effect on the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Various studies of flavonoids in asthmatic animal models have demonstrated their beneficial effects. The results of several epidemiological studies suggest that an increase in flavonoid intake is beneficial for asthma. Moreover, clinical trials of flavonoids have shown their ameliorative effects on symptoms related to asthma. However, these human studies are currently limited; further validation is required to clarify whether an appropriate intake of flavonoids may constitute dietary treatment and for part of a preventive strategy for asthma. PMID:23752494

  6. Obesity and asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Pranab Baruwa; Kripesh Ranjan Sarmah

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic disorder affecting millions of people worldwide. The prevalence of asthma is around 300 million and is expected to increase another 100 million by 2025. Obesity, on the other hand, also affects a large number of individuals. Overweight in adults is defined when body mass index (BMI) is between 25 to 30 kg/m 2 and obesity when the BMI >30 kg/m 2 . It has been a matter of interest for researchers to find a relation between these two conditions. This knowledge will provide a ...

  7. Management of infantile asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasher, G W

    1977-09-01

    Infantile asthama is an important pediatric problem and may cause substantial morbidity and mortality in this age group. The pathophysiology of allergic asthma involves a type I hypersensitivity reaction that is mediated by reaginic antibodies of the IgE class. Various factors predisposing to infantile asthma have been suggested but not confirmed. The differential diagnosis of infantile wheezing is of particular importance in this very young age group. An appreciation of the natural history and clinical characteristics of the disease, and of the important causative factors (foods, environmental inhalants, and respiratory infections), will aid the physician in the management of this problem.

  8. Relvar Ellipta for asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    ▼Relvar Ellipta (GSK) is a dry powder inhaler that contains a corticosteroid (fluticasone furoate) and a long-acting beta2 agonist (vilanterol trifenatate). It is licensed for once-daily use as maintenance therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. In a previous article we considered its use in the management of COPD.1 Here we review the evidence for Relvar Ellipta in the treatment of patients with asthma. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Evaluation of arterial blood flow changes by orbital Doppler in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakut, Zeynep Ilerisoy; Karadağ, Remzi; Ozol, Duygu; Senturk, Aysegul

    2015-01-01

    Both chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma are important causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. They primarily affect the lungs, but they have various extrapulmonary manifestations. The aim of our study was to evaluate the hemodynamic changes in orbital vessels of the patients with COPD and asthma using color Doppler ultrasonography and compare the results with healthy control subjects. Thirty-seven patients with COPD, 37 patients with asthma, and 41 healthy control subjects were included in this study. All patients with COPD were in moderate to severe group according to GOLD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease), and similarly, all patients with asthma were in moderate to severe persistent group according to GINA (Global Initiative for Asthma) 2006 guidelines. End-tidal carbon dioxide, peripheral oxygen saturation, pulse rate, and respiratory rate were measured by using pulse oximeter in all patients. Measurements were performed in only 1 randomly selected eye of each participant. The peak systolic velocity, end diastolic velocity, and resistance index were measured in the central retinal artery, temporal posterior ciliary artery, and nasal posterior ciliary artery using the color Doppler ultrasonography technique. The peak systolic velocity, end diastolic velocity, and resistance index values of temporal posterior ciliary artery and nasal posterior ciliary artery were significantly higher in COPD and asthma than in the control subjects. There was no difference between asthma and COPD. We concluded that retrobulbar hemodynamics change in COPD and asthma is showing 1 of the systemic effects in these diseases.

  10. Effects of short-term treatment with atorvastatin in smokers with asthma - a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd Suzanne M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The immune modulating properties of statins may benefit smokers with asthma. We tested the hypothesis that short-term treatment with atorvastatin improves lung function or indices of asthma control in smokers with asthma. Methods Seventy one smokers with mild to moderate asthma were recruited to a randomized double-blind parallel group trial comparing treatment with atorvastatin (40 mg per day versus placebo for 4 weeks. After 4 weeks treatment inhaled beclometasone (400 μg per day was added to both treatment arms for a further 4 weeks. The primary outcome was morning peak expiratory flow after 4 weeks treatment. Secondary outcome measures included indices of asthma control and airway inflammation. Results At 4 weeks, there was no improvement in the atorvastatin group compared to the placebo group in morning peak expiratory flow [-10.67 L/min, 95% CI -38.70 to 17.37, p = 0.449], but there was an improvement with atorvastatin in asthma quality of life score [0.52, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.87 p = 0.005]. There was no significant improvement with atorvastatin and inhaled beclometasone compared to inhaled beclometasone alone in outcome measures at 8 weeks. Conclusions Short-term treatment with atorvastatin does not alter lung function but may improve asthma quality of life in smokers with mild to moderate asthma. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00463827

  11. Can serial PEF measurements separate occupational asthma from allergic alveolitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burge, P S; Moore, V C; Burge, C B S G; Vellore, A D; Robertson, A S; Robertson, W

    2015-04-01

    Occupational asthma commonly results in work-related changes in serial peak expiratory flow (PEF) measurements. Whether alveolitis can result in similar changes is unknown. To identify differences and similarities of serial PEF between workers with occupational alveolitis and asthma seen during an outbreak investigation in a factory with metal-working fluid exposure. Workers with respiratory symptoms and rest-day improvement were identified by questionnaire. Each was asked to measure PEF 8 times daily for 4 weeks at home and work. Alveolitis was subsequently diagnosed from a validated scoring system including radiological changes, carbon monoxide diffusing capacity, bronchoalveolar lavage and biopsy results. Occupational asthma was confirmed with a positive Oasys score >2.5 and a mean rest-work PEF >16 l/min from serial 2-hourly PEF measurements. The Oasys PEF plotter calculated differences between rest and workdays for mean PEF, diurnal variation and the scores were used to confirm an occupational effect (Oasys, area between curve and time point). Records were compared between the alveolitis group and the group with occupational asthma without alveolitis. Forty workers with occupational asthma and 16 with alveolitis had indistinguishable PEF changes on workdays in terms of magnitude (median reduction 18.5 and 16.1 l/min, respectively) and diurnal variation. Immediate reactions were more common with occupational asthma and late reactions more common with alveolitis. PEF responses to metal-working fluid aerosols do not distinguish occupational asthma from alveolitis except in timing. They can be used to identify the workplace as the cause of asthma and also alveolitis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Effects of Symptom Perception Interventions on Trigger Identification and Quality of Life in Children with Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Janssens

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Management of individual triggers is suboptimal in practice. In this project, we investigated the impact of symptom perception interventions on asthma trigger identification and self-reported asthma quality of life. Methods. Children with asthma (n=227 participated in three asthma education sessions and then were randomized first to one of three home monitoring conditions (symptom monitoring and peak flow training with feedback, peak flow training without feedback, or no peak flow training and then subsequently to one of three resistive load discrimination training conditions (signal detection training with feedback, signal detection training without feedback, or no training. Triggers were reported at enrollment, following home monitoring, and following discrimination training; quality of life was measured after home monitoring and after resistive load testing. Results. Symptom perception interventions resulted in increases in reported triggers, which increased reliably as a function of home monitoring, and increased further in participants who completed discrimination training with feedback. Increases in the number of reported asthma triggers were associated with decreases in quality of life. Discussion. Patients may benefit from strategies that make trigger-symptom contingencies clear. Complementary strategies are needed to address changes in the perceived burden of asthma which comes from awareness of new asthma triggers.

  13. Recognition of asthma in adolescents and young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Postma, Dirkje S; Backer, Vibeke

    2005-01-01

    Objective assessment of airway function is important in epidemiologic studies of asthma to facilitate comparison between studies. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), peak expiratory flow (PEF) variability, and bronchodilator reversibility (BR) are widely used as markers of airway lability in such s...... in such studies. Data from a survey of a population sample of adolescents and young adults (n = 609; 288 males), aged 13-23 years, were analyzed to investigate whether AHR, PEF variability, and BR can be used interchangeably as markers of asthma in an epidemiological setting....

  14. An estimating function approach to linkage heterogeneity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Testing linkage heterogeneity between two loci is an important issue in genetics. Currently, there are four methods (K-test, A-test, B-test and D-test) for testing linkage heterogeneity in linkage analysis, which are based on the likelihood-ratio test. Among them, the commonly used methods are the K-test and A-test.

  15. INFLUENCE OF TREATMENT ON PEAK EXPIRATORY FLOW ACID ITS RELATION TO AIRWAY HYPERRESPONSIVENESS AND SYMPTOMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KERSTJENS, HAM; BRAND, PLP; DEJONG, PM; KOETER, GH; POSTMA, DS; QUANJER, PH; SLUITER, HJ; POUW, EM; SCHOONBROOD, DFME; ROOS, CM; JANSEN, HM; DEGOOYER, A; VANDERMARK, TW; STERK, PJ; WEVER, AMJ; DIJKMAN, JH; DEKHUIJZEN, PNR; FOLGERING, HTM; VANHERWAARDEN, CLA; OVERBEEK, SE; BOGAARD, JM; HILVERING, C; GANS, SJ; MENGELERS, HJJ; VANDERBRUGGENBOGAARTS, BAHA; KREUKNIET, J; VANESSENZANDVLIET, EEM; KERREBIJN, KF; DUIVERMAN, EJ; KOUWENBERG, JM; PRINSEN, JE; WAALKENS, HJ; GERRITSEN, J; KNOL, K; DEMONCHY, JGR; DEKKER, FW; KAPTEIN, AA; MERKUS, PJFM; POCOCK, SJ; HUGHES, MD; BLEECKER, ER; MEYERS, DA

    1994-01-01

    Background - Despite effective treatments, the morbidity and mortality of obstructive airways disease (asthma and COPD) remains high. Home monitoring of peak expiratory dow (PEF) is increasingly being advocated as an aid to better management of obstructive airways disease. The few available studies

  16. Exogenous stimuli and circadian peak expiratory flow variation in allergic asthmatic children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, DS; VanderHeide, S; DeReus, DM; Koeter, GH; VanAalderen, WMC; Meijer, G.

    The influence of exogenous factors in the home on the circadian variation of airway obstruction has not been fully assessed in children with asthma. The aim of the present study was to investigate the contribution of exogenous stimuli to the degree of peak expiratory flow (PEF) variability during 24

  17. Asthma symptoms improvement in moderate persistent asthma patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD: the role of proton-pump inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus D. Susanto

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate effect of proton pump inhibitor (esomeprazole on asthma symptoms, use of inhaled bronchodilator and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR in moderate persistent asthma with gastroesofageal refluks disease (GERD. This randomized single blind, controlled clinical trial study was conducted at Persahabatan Hospital, Jakarta from July 2004 until October 2005. Samples were moderate persistent asthma patients with GERD. GERD is diagnosed GERD symptoms and proof of oesophagitis from endoscopy and or histapatologic examination from oesophagus biopsy. Phase 1:2 week run-in period patient received inhaled budesonide 2x200 ug/day. Phase 2: patient randomised to receive inhaled budesonide 2 x 400 ug/day with esomeprazole 40 mg/day or without esomeprazole (control group for 8 weeks. Phase 3: 4 week wash out period, patient receive inhaled budesonide 2 x 200 ug/day. Diary cards were assessed at run-in periode, after treatment 4 weeks, 8 weeks and wash out. There were 32 patients (23 female and 9 male completed the study. Mean total asthma symptoms score daily were significantly decreased on esomeprazole vs without esomeprazole after 8 weeks (-2.29 vs -0.90; p < 0.05. Mean use of inhaled bronchodilator was significantly decreased on esomeprazole vs without esomeprazole after 8 weeks (-1.09 vs -0.42; p < 0.05. Morning and evening PEFR improved higher on esomeprazole than without esomeprazol but were not significantly difference. In conclusion, administration esomeprazole 40 mg daily improved asthma symptoms and lower the use of inhaled bronchodilator in moderate persistent asthma patients with GERD. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 169-74Keywords: Asthma symptoms, inhaled bronchodilator, moderate persistent asthma, GERD, esomeprazole

  18. Mapping multiple QTL using linkage disequilibrium and linkage analysis information and multitrait data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goddard Mike E

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A multi-locus QTL mapping method is presented, which combines linkage and linkage disequilibrium (LD information and uses multitrait data. The method assumed a putative QTL at the midpoint of each marker bracket. Whether the putative QTL had an effect or not was sampled using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC methods. The method was tested in dairy cattle data on chromosome 14 where the DGAT1 gene was known to be segregating. The DGAT1 gene was mapped to a region of 0.04 cM, and the effects of the gene were accurately estimated. The fitting of multiple QTL gave a much sharper indication of the QTL position than a single QTL model using multitrait data, probably because the multi-locus QTL mapping reduced the carry over effect of the large DGAT1 gene to adjacent putative QTL positions. This suggests that the method could detect secondary QTL that would, in single point analyses, remain hidden under the broad peak of the dominant QTL. However, no indications for a second QTL affecting dairy traits were found on chromosome 14.

  19. Nasal response in patients with diisocyanate asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre, Joaquín; Poltronieri, Anna; Mahillo-Fernandez, Ignacio; Aguado, Erika; García Del Potro, Manuela; Fernandez-Nieto, Mar

    2014-12-01

    To date, no studies have assessed nasal and bronchial response to diisocyanates during specific inhalation challenges (SIC). This study was performed to assess nasal response during SIC with diisocyanates (nasal and oral breathing) in patients with suspected occupational asthma due to these agents. Fourteen patients with suspected clinical history of diisocyanate-induced asthma were challenged with diisocynates in a 7m3 chamber. Nasal response testing during challenges was assessed by acoustic rhinometry, peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF), and visual analog scale (VAS), alongside bronchial responses. Eleven patients had a significant asthmatic response to diisocyanates. None reported clear work-related nasal symptoms. In patients with positive bronchial response to diisocyanates, nasal mean minimal cross-sectional area (MCA) decreased by 26.9%, nasal volume at 5 cm decreased by 33.5%, and PNIF decreased by 28.3%, all from baseline. A positive nasal response was elicited in 45%, 54%, and 45% of patients, respectively. A significant increase in VAS was observed in 4 patients. Three patients with negative bronchial response had a negative nasal response. SIC revealed an objective nasal response in around 50% of patients with occupational asthma due to diisocyanates, in spite of the fact that none of them reported work-related nasal symptoms. The clinical significance of this finding is a poor association between nasal symptoms at work and an objective nasal response during positive SIC with diisocyanates.

  20. Occupational asthma in apprentice adolescent car painters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eifan, Aarif Omar; Derman, Orhan; Kanbur, Nuray; Sekerel, Bulent Enis; Kutluk, Tezer

    2005-12-01

    Occupational asthma (OA) is one of the leading causes of pulmonary diseases and has been extensively studied in adults. Childhood employment, a significant problem in many developing countries, should be studied to determine and evaluate its effects on psychosocial and lung health. In order to investigate the presence of work-related asthma-like symptoms and OA in apprentice adolescent car painters, 72 adolescents between the ages of 15-20 yr studying in Vocational Training Centres of Ankara were investigated using questionnaire, pulmonary function test (PFT), serial peak expiratory flow (PEF) measurements and methacholine inhalation tests. As a control group, 72 adolescents studying in Industrial and Commercial Training Centres located in the same environment were investigated with questionnaire and PFT. Almost 50% of the study group had work-related asthma-like symptoms for which occupational dermatitis history was predictive [odds ratio: 2.9 (1.026-8.13) (95% confidence interval)]. Seventeen of 22 with serial PEF measurements showed a variability of > or =20% and three (4.2%) of 12 tested with methacholine inhalation test had a PC20 car painters clearly indicates the need for routine follow-up of adolescent workers for lung health.

  1. The Hunt for the explanation of the Double Peak hydrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Carreras, Núria; Hissler, Christophe; François Iffly, Jean; Klaus, Julian; Gourdol, Laurent; Juilleret, Jérôme; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.; Pfister, Laurent

    2015-04-01

    Double peak hydrographs (also known as bimodal events) are a catchment's delayed response to precipitation. "Double peaks" have been reported in a dozen or so experimental catchments around the world, including the well-studied Slapton Wood catchment in UK and the Ina watersheds in Japan. Catchments showing double peak behaviour have varied in size, morphology, geology and soils. While first peaks are often coincident with the rainfall event, the second peak generally takes the form of a broader peak that reaches its maximum lagged in time from the initial response. Generally the double peaks response occurs only when catchments are wetted-up. In most cases, saturation-excess overland flow in the near-stream areas controls the initial peak in the double-peaked event while the second peak (i.e. the delayed peak) is controlled by subsurface stormflow. However, clear evidence for the mechanisms explaining these complex hydrological dynamics across diverse catchments is still wanting. Here we investigate the cause(s) of the size and magnitude of the second peak and the hydrological settings leading to its activation in the schistous Weierbach headwater catchment (0.45 km2, Luxembourg). We make use of the extensive high-resolution hydrometric time series of rainfall, runoff, soil moisture and depth to groundwater levels to estimate water catchment storage and causal linkages. The catchment was partitioned in three discrete hydrological response units (HRUs) to determine if delayed runoff is controlled by connectivity between discrete landscape units. We found evidence of catchment storage being a dominant control on the second peak activation. A threshold behaviour between catchment storage and the appearance of the second peak was observed. The amount of this storage threshold was temporally consistent over the 3-years period and was observed not only during the wet season, but also in summer when the catchment was exceptionally wet. We did not observe a rainfall

  2. Work-related asthma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    grain dust, welding fumes and wood dust. (Table III).1 Exposure to animal epithelia, hairs and secretions is commonly reported among laboratory animal workers and agricultural workers. Latex allergy-related asthma appears to be less common due to the introduction of latex-free gloves in most health care settings.

  3. Treating childhood asthma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    played by additional factors, such as patient adherence and administration of medication technique. It is always necessary to treat the child as an individual, but some measures apply in all cases. It is important to allay anxiety about the diagnosis. This is best done by carefully explaining the nature and causes of asthma, ...

  4. Asthma Home Environment Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    This checklist guides home care visitors in identifying environmental asthma triggers most commonly found in homes. It includes sections on the building, home interior and room interior and provides low-cost action steps for remediation. EPA 402-F-03-030.

  5. School and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or dad to speak to the teacher, school nurse, or principal. Most teachers are glad to help. After all, if you can't breathe, you can't learn! What About Sports? You might think that because you have asthma ...

  6. Asthma and Hispanic Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to non-Hispanic whites. While all of the causes of asthma remain unclear, children exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke exposure are at increased risk for acute lower respiratory tract infections, such as bronchitis. Children living below or near the poverty level are more likely to have high levels ...

  7. Stress and asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoji Nagata

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Three factors in recent medical research and treatment (advances in the field of psychoneuroimmunology, epidemiological evidence regarding important interaction between psychosocial factors and development of disease, and the recognition of the importance of patient education for self-management of asthma have led clinicians and researchers to reconsider the role of psychosocial stress in asthma. There are many reports suggesting that stressful life events, family problems and a behavior pattern that increases psychological conflict may influence the development or relapse of asthma and influence its clinical course. Depression is known as one of the risk factors of fatal asthmatic attack. In laboratory studies, about 20% of asthmatics were considered reactors who showed an airway change after exposure to emotional stress. Studies regarding the pathway of stress effect on allergy and asthma are reviewed and discussed from the standpoint of psychoneuroimmunology; for example, the enhancement of IgE production and increased susceptibility to respiratory infection by stress, conditioned anaphylaxis and nerve/mast cell interaction, the effect of stress on various bronchial responses and the inhibition of the immediate and late asthmatic response by anterior hypothalamic lesioning.

  8. Vascular remodelling in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Eugene Haydn; Soltani, Amir; Reid, David William; Ward, Chris

    2008-02-01

    We review the recent literature, focusing on 2006 and 2007, to produce an update on the patho-biology of angiogenesis and vascular endothelial growth factor in the asthmatic airway. In terms of conceptual development in asthma research, airway inflammation and remodelling have been regarded as separate processes or perhaps as sequential, with early inflammation leading later to remodelling. Recent insights identify a central role for vascular endothelial growth factor in stimulating both inflammation and vascular remodelling coincidentally, with the full panoply of vascular endothelial growth factor mediated events being complex and wide. Both nitric oxide and matrix metalloproteinase-9 induction may be important downstream pathogenic mechanisms. Virus-mediated exacerbations are a prime manifestation of the oscillating trajectory of clinical asthma. The early stimulation of vascular endothelial growth factor production is probably a central aetiological mechanism, with secondary inflammation and angiogenesis. The time scale of the latter, especially, fits with the time scale of clinico-physiological changes after exacerbation. These vascular endothelial growth factor induced changes are potentially modifiable with therapy. Insights into the importance of vascular endothelial growth factor and angiogenesis in asthma pathogenesis now lead to potential new therapeutic possibilities and elucidate why recent advances in asthma therapeutics have been so successful.

  9. Decreasing asthma morbidity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1994-12-12

    Dec 12, 1994 ... Apart from the optimal use of drugs, various supplementary methods have been tested to decrease asthma morbidity, usually in patients from reiatively affluent socio-economic backgrounds. A study of additional measures taken in a group of moderate to severe adult asthmatics from very poor socio- ...

  10. Comparison of five portable peak flow meters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucia Nency Takara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the measurements of spirometric peak expiratory flow (PEF from five different PEF meters and to determine if their values are in agreement. Inaccurate equipment may result in incorrect diagnoses of asthma and inappropriate treatments. METHODS: Sixty-eight healthy, sedentary and insufficiently active subjects, aged from 19 to 40 years, performed PEF measurements using Air Zone®, Assess®, Galemed®, Personal Best® and Vitalograph® peak flow meters. The highest value recorded for each subject for each device was compared to the corresponding spirometric values using Friedman's test with Dunn's post-hoc (p<0.05, Spearman's correlation test and Bland-Altman's agreement test. RESULTS: The median and interquartile ranges for the spirometric values and the Air Zone®, Assess®, Galemed®, Personal Best® and Vitalograph® meters were 428 (263-688 L/min, 450 (350-800 L/min, 420 (310-720 L/min, 380 (300-735 L/min, 400 (310-685 L/min and 415 (335-610 L/min, respectively. Significant differences were found when the spirometric values were compared to those recorded by the Air Zone® (p<0.001 and Galemed ® (p<0.01 meters. There was no agreement between the spirometric values and the five PEF meters. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the values recorded from Galemed® meters may underestimate the actual value, which could lead to unnecessary interventions, and that Air Zone® meters overestimate spirometric values, which could obfuscate the need for intervention. These findings must be taken into account when interpreting both devices' results in younger people. These differences should also be considered when directly comparing values from different types of PEF meters.

  11. Comparison of five portable peak flow meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takara, Glaucia Nency; Ruas, Gualberto; Pessoa, Bruna Varanda; Jamami, Luciana Kawakami; Di Lorenzo, Valéria Amorim Pires; Jamami, Mauricio

    2010-05-01

    To compare the measurements of spirometric peak expiratory flow (PEF) from five different PEF meters and to determine if their values are in agreement. Inaccurate equipment may result in incorrect diagnoses of asthma and inappropriate treatments. Sixty-eight healthy, sedentary and insufficiently active subjects, aged from 19 to 40 years, performed PEF measurements using Air Zone, Assess, Galemed, Personal Best and Vitalograph peak flow meters. The highest value recorded for each subject for each device was compared to the corresponding spirometric values using Friedman's test with Dunn's post-hoc (p<0.05), Spearman's correlation test and Bland-Altman's agreement test. The median and interquartile ranges for the spirometric values and the Air Zone, Assess, Galemed, Personal Best and Vitalograph meters were 428 (263-688 L/min), 450 (350-800 L/min), 420 (310-720 L/min), 380 (300-735 L/min), 400 (310-685 L/min) and 415 (335-610 L/min), respectively. Significant differences were found when the spirometric values were compared to those recorded by the Air Zone(R) (p<0.001) and Galemed (p<0.01) meters. There was no agreement between the spirometric values and the five PEF meters. The results suggest that the values recorded from Galemed meters may underestimate the actual value, which could lead to unnecessary interventions, and that Air Zone meters overestimate spirometric values, which could obfuscate the need for intervention. These findings must be taken into account when interpreting both devices' results in younger people. These differences should also be considered when directly comparing values from different types of PEF meters.

  12. Differences in the effects of Asian dust on pulmonary function between adult patients with asthma and those with asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masanari; Noma, Hisashi; Kurai, Jun; Sano, Hiroyuki; Ueda, Yasuto; Mikami, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Tokuyasu, Hirokazu; Kato, Kazuhiro; Konishi, Tatsuya; Tatsukawa, Toshiyuki; Shimizu, Eiji; Kitano, Hiroya

    2016-01-01

    Asian dust (AD) exposure exacerbates pulmonary dysfunction in patients with asthma. Asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome (ACOS), characterized by coexisting symptoms of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, is considered a separate disease entity. Previously, we investigated the effects of AD on pulmonary function in adult patients with asthma. Here, we present the findings of our further research on the differences in the effects of AD exposure on pulmonary function between patients with asthma alone and those with ACOS. Between March and May 2012, we conducted a panel study wherein we monitored daily peak expiratory flow (PEF) values in 231 adult patients with asthma. These patients were divided into 190 patients with asthma alone and 41 patients with ACOS in this study. Daily AD particle levels were measured using light detection and ranging systems. Two heavy AD days (April 23 and 24) were determined according to the Japan Meteorological Agency definition. A linear mixed model was used to estimate the association between PEF and AD exposure. Increments in the interquartile range of AD particles (0.018 km(-1)) led to PEF changes of -0.50 L/min (95% confidence interval, -0.98 to -0.02) in patients with asthma alone and -0.11 L/min (-0.11 to 0.85) in patients with ACOS. The PEF changes after exposure to heavy AD were -2.21 L/min (-4.28 to -0.15) in patients with asthma alone and -2.76 L/min (-6.86 to 1.35) in patients with ACOS. In patients with asthma alone, the highest decrease in PEF values was observed on the heavy AD day, with a subsequent gradual increase over time. Our results suggest that the effects of AD exposure on pulmonary function differ between patients with asthma alone and ACOS, with the former exhibiting a greater likelihood of decreased pulmonary function after AD exposure.

  13. Allergy, asthma and the environment; Allergie, Asthma und Umwelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ring, J. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Dermatologie und Allergologie am Biederstein, Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Gfesser, M. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Dermatologie und Allergologie am Biederstein, Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    1996-10-11

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways. Asthma and other allergic diseases have increased in prevalence during the last decades in many industrialized countries. Among other hypotheses, the possible role of environmental pollutants has received much public and scientific attention. Some pollutants may modulate the different phases of allergic reactions. Inflammation is a critical feature in the pathogenesis of asthma and therefore, beside allergen avoidance, anti-inflammatory treatment is the first line therapy of asthma. Cysteinyl-leukotrienes are lipid mediators which appear to play a major role in the pathophysiology of asthma. Based on current data, it appears that leukotrience receptor antagonists have bronchodilative and anti-inflammatory effects and may therefore enrich the pharmacotherapeutic spectrum within the therapeutic concept of patient management in asthma. (orig.) [Deutsch] Asthma bronchiale ist eine entzuendliche Erkrankung der Atemwege. Epidemiologische Studien konnten eine deutliche Zunahme der Erkrankung in den letzten zwei Jahrzehnten aufzeigen. In der Entstehung von Allergien und Asthma bronchiale spielen Umwelteinfluesse eine grosse Rolle. Luftschadstoffe scheinen mit verschiedenen Allergie-Parametern bei der Sensibilisierung, Symptombildung und Chronifizierung zu interferieren. Da beim Asthma bronchiale neben der Bronchokonstriktion die Entzuendung der Bronchialschleimhaut eine besondere Rolle spielt, wird heute neben Allergenkarenz und prophylaktischen Massnahmen eine fruehzeitige antientzuendliche Asthmatherapie angestrebt. Cysteinyl-Leukotriene gehoeren zu den wirksamsten Entzuendungsmediatoren beim Asthma bronchiale. Leukotrien-Rezeptorantagonisten scheinen sowohl bronchodilatatorische als auch antientzuendliche Wirkungen zu haben und koennten so innerhalb eines Gesamtkonzeptes von antiallergischer und antiasthmatischer Therapie das pharmakotherapeutische Spektrum bereichern. (orig.)

  14. Understanding mild persistent asthma in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Szefler, Stanley J

    2005-01-01

    Limitations in asthma prevalence studies and difficulties in diagnosing pediatric asthma lead to uncertainty over the full extent of mild persistent asthma in children and adolescents. Although recent surveys have reported that the majority of pediatric patients with asthma in the United States...... and Europe have symptoms consistent with mild disease, these surveys have limitations in design. Thus, the true prevalence of mild asthma remains unknown. It is unclear whether children with mild persistent asthma progress to more severe asthma, but the risk of severe asthma exacerbations seems...... into the true prevalence of mild persistent asthma in children and adolescents, and optimal treatment....

  15. Asthma outcomes: Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szefler, Stanley J.; Wenzel, Sally; Brown, Robert; Erzurum, Serpil C.; Fahy, John V.; Hamilton, Robert G.; Hunt, John F.; Kita, Hirohito; Liu, Andrew H.; Panettieri, Reynold A.; Schleimer, Robert P.; Minnicozzi, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background Measurement of biomarkers has been incorporated within clinical research studies of asthma to characterize the population and associate the disease with environmental and therapeutic effects. Objective National Institutes of Health institutes and federal agencies convened an expert group to propose which biomarkers should be assessed as standardized asthma outcomes in future clinical research studies. Methods We conducted a comprehensive search of the literature to identify studies that developed and/or tested asthma biomarkers. We identified biomarkers relevant to the underlying disease process progression and response to treatment. We classified the biomarkers as either core (required in future studies), supplemental (used according to study aims and standardized), or emerging (requiring validation and standardization). This work was discussed at an National Institutes of Health–organized workshop convened in March 2010 and finalized in September 2011. Results Ten measures were identified; only 1, multiallergen screening to define atopy, is recommended as a core asthma outcome. Complete blood counts to measure total eosinophils, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (Feno), sputum eosinophils, urinary leukotrienes, and total and allergen-specific IgE are recommended as supplemental measures. Measurement of sputum polymorphonuclear leukocytes and other analytes, cortisol measures, airway imaging, breath markers, and system-wide studies (eg, genomics, proteomics) are considered as emerging outcome measures. Conclusion The working group participants propose the use of multiallergen screening in all asthma clinical trials to characterize study populations with respect to atopic status. Blood, sputum, and urine specimens should be stored in biobanks, and standard procedures should be developed to harmonize sample collection for clinical trial biorepositories. PMID:22386512

  16. Mast cell-nerve interactions in asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleij, Hanneke Paulina Maria van der

    2002-01-01

    Asthma is characterized by a chronic inflammatory reaction in the airways. Roughly, asthma can be subdivided into atopic asthma involving elevated levels of serum IgE and a less familiar form, non-atopic asthma. Non-atopic asthma is an increasing problem in the developed world. The mechanisms

  17. Do Written Asthma Action Plans Improve Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, John M

    2016-03-01

    With appropriate management, children with asthma should expect few symptoms, no limits on activity, rare exacerbations, and normal lung function. Appropriate education of parents and other caregivers of children with asthma has clearly been shown to help achieve these goals. Although recommended in asthma guidelines, providing written asthma action plans does not improve outcomes beyond asthma education alone.

  18. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler Recommend ... 1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  19. PEAK SHAVING CONSIDERING STREAMFLOW UNCERTAINTIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The main thrust of this paper is peak shaving with a Stochastic hydro model. In peak sharing, the amount of hydro energy scheduled may be a minimum but it serves to replace less efficient thermal units. The sample system is die Kainji .... ni = average number of times the system load is in state Li in period k. 5. Numerical ...

  20. Coping and social problem solving correlates of asthma control and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Sean P; Nezu, Christine M; Nezu, Arthur M; Sherman, Michael; Davey, Adam; Collins, Bradley N

    2014-02-01

    In a sample of adults with asthma receiving care and medication in an outpatient pulmonary clinic, this study tested for statistical associations between social problem-solving styles, asthma control, and asthma-related quality of life. These variables were measured cross sectionally as a first step toward more systematic application of social problem-solving frameworks in asthma self-management training. Recruitment occurred during pulmonology clinic service hours. Forty-four adults with physician-confirmed diagnosis of asthma provided data including age, gender, height, weight, race, income, and comorbid conditions. The Asthma Control Questionnaire, the Mini Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (Short Form), and peak expiratory force measures offered multiple views of asthma health at the time of the study. Maladaptive coping (impulsive and careless problem-solving styles) based on transactional stress models of health were assessed with the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised: Short Form. Controlling for variance associated with gender, age, and income, individuals reporting higher impulsive-careless scores exhibited significantly lower scores on asthma control (β = 0.70, p = 0.001, confidence interval (CI) [0.37-1.04]) and lower asthma-related quality of life (β = 0.79, p = 0.017, CI [0.15-1.42]). These findings suggest that specific maladaptive problem-solving styles may uniquely contribute to asthma health burdens. Because problem-solving coping strategies are both measureable and teachable, behavioral interventions aimed at facilitating adaptive coping and problem solving could positively affect patient's asthma management and quality of life.

  1. Effect of an individualised education programme on asthma control, inhaler use skill, asthma knowledge and health-related quality of life among poorly compliant Korean adult patients with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ja Yun; Cho Chung, Hyang-In

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of an individualised education programme on asthma control, inhaler use, asthma knowledge and health-related quality of life among poorly compliant adult Korean patients with asthma. Previous studies show that proper educational strategies are necessary to increase asthma knowledge and skills to improve patients' self-management and health-related quality of life. A one-group quasi-experimental design with repeated measurements. Adult patients with asthma (n = 101) were recruited from University hospital located in K City, Korea. Three interventions consisting of 30-minute sessions of individualised education were provided by an education team. Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), daily record card (DRC) scores, skill scores for use of metered dose inhaler, level of asthma knowledge and health-related quality of life scores were obtained before the intervention and 2-4 and 4-8 weeks after the intervention. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance was used to identify the effect of the education programme on the dependent variables. Peak expiratory flow rate, DRC scores, inhaler using skill scores and health-related quality of life scores benefitted from intervention, whereas knowledge score did not. The effect on the PEFR and DRC score was sustained, with that of inhaler use skill increased over time from 4-8 weeks. However, the health-related quality of life effect was not sustained for 4-8 weeks after the intervention. Repetitive education and innovative education methods may be needed to improve and to maintain pulmonary function, symptom control, asthma knowledge and health-related quality of life of poorly compliant adult Korean patients with asthma. This study confirmed the importance of education for patients suffering from asthma in managing their symptoms and promoting their quality of life. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Epidemiology of bronchial asthma in school children (10–16 years in Srinagar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uruj Altaf Qureshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the epidemiological profile of asthma in school going children in Srinagar, Kashmir. Study design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Thirty-one schools with proportionate representation from both government and private schools as well as from primary, middle, and high schools. Participants: School children aged 10–16 years with equal representation of sex and all ages. Main Outcome Measure: Prevalence of current and past asthma. Methods and Results: After administering a modified pretested questionnaire, peak expiratory flow measurement was carried. Children who had asthma-like symptoms or positive family history of asthma or physician-labeled asthma were subjected to spirometry and bronchodilator reversibility. Out of 806 children, bronchial asthma was seen in 60 (prevalence of 7.4% which included 34 boys and 26 girls. Majority of asthmatic children (78.3% [n = 47] had probable asthma; 6.7% (n = 4 had definite asthma; and 15% (n = 9 had physician-diagnosed asthma. Majority of children had intermittent asthma (78.3% [n = 47]. Mild persistent asthma was seen in 12.7% (n = 7 and 10% (n = 6 had moderate persistent asthma. None of the children had severe persistent asthma. The prevalence of current asthma was 3.2% (n = 26. On univariate analysis, the factors found to be statistically significant were family history of asthma (odds ratio [OR] =8.174; confidence interval [CI] =4.403–15.178, seasonal cough (OR = 4.266; CI = 2.336–7.791, allergic rhinitis (OR = 2.877; CI = 1.414–5.852, atopic dermatitis (OR = 6.597; CI = 2.72–16.004, and obesity (OR = 6.074; CI = 2.308–18.034. On multivariate analysis, family history, seasonal cough, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and obesity were found to be significant independent risk factors. Conclusions: Srinagar qualifies as a low prevalence area for bronchial asthma in the age group of 10–16 years. Majority of children had mild intermittent asthma resulting in under

  3. Heritability and genome-wide linkage scan of subjective happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Meike; Saviouk, Viatcheslav; de Moor, Marleen H M; Willemsen, Gonneke; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C E M; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; de Geus, Eco J C; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2010-04-01

    Causes of individual differences in happiness, as assessed with the Subjective Happiness Scale, are investigated in a large of sample twins and siblings from the Netherlands Twin Register. Over 12,000 twins and siblings, average age 24.7 years (range 12 to 88), took part in the study. A genetic model with an age by sex design was fitted to the data with structural equation modeling in Mx. The heritability of happiness was estimated at 22% for males and 41% in females. No effect of age was observed. To identify the genomic regions contributing to this heritability, a genome-wide linkage study for happiness was conducted in sibling pairs. A subsample of 1157 offspring from 441 families was genotyped with an average of 371 micro-satellite markers per individual. Phenotype and genotype data were analyzed in MERLIN with multipoint variance component linkage analysis and age and sex as covariates. A linkage signal (logarithm of odds score 2.73, empirical p value 0.095) was obtained at the end of the long arm of chromosome 19 for marker D19S254 at 110 cM. A second suggestive linkage peak was found at the short arm of chromosome 1 (LOD of 2.37) at 153 cM, marker D1S534 (empirical p value of .209). These two regions of interest are not overlapping with the regions found for contrasting phenotypes (such as depression, which is negatively associated with happiness). Further linkage and future association studies are warranted.

  4. Mechanisms of obesity in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Finn; Hancox, Robert J

    2014-02-01

    Obesity and asthma are chronic conditions affecting millions of people worldwide. The two conditions also appear to be linked with an increased risk of asthma in people who are obese. The purpose of this review is to describe mechanism(s) that may explain the association between asthma and obesity. Current evidence suggests that the association between asthma and obesity is linked by two major phenotypes and three important pathways of obesity-related asthma: one phenotype with primary (often atopic) asthma that is aggravated by obesity and a second phenotype with late-onset nonatopic asthma, which predominantly affects women and primarily seems to be associated with neutrophilic inflammation. Proposed pathways include the mechanical effects of obesity (fewer deep inspirations leading to increased airway hyperresponsiveness), an inflammatory pathway driven by obesity-related cytokines (adipokines), and finally environment and lifestyle changes that have led to an increasing prevalence of obesity over the past 50 years (including exposures in utero, physical activity, and diet) may also result in asthma in predisposed individuals. How these environmental changes influence the occurrence and expression of asthma may depend on the age of exposure and on interactions with genetic susceptibilities. Future research should be directed to shed light on the associations between obesity and asthma phenotypes, modern lifestyles and environmental exposures and genetic susceptibilities. http://links.lww.com/COAI/A6.

  5. Children with Asthma and Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selda Yuzer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is one of the chronic diseases which have are widely seen among the children. The disease has recently been in the increase all over the world and affects many children. In a study conducted with International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC method, it was found out that prevalence of childhood asthma was 17.1%. Participation in sportive activities by the children with asthma, which is today considered as a part of asthma treatment program, makes contributions to their physical, mental and psychological development and increases their quality of life. The most recommended sports for the children with asthma are swimming and water sports. Sports like tennis and volleyball are too advised. Choice of sports depends on severity of asthma, child and #8217;s choice and whether or not asthma is kept under control. Nursing approaches for the children with asthma include correction of symptoms, training of children and their families, assistance with disease adaptation, continuing asthma care at home and interventions to make children lead healthy activities of daily life of children. With protective measures to be taken by families and children; children should be encourage for sportive activities. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(3.000: 241-244

  6. Rhinoviruses, Allergic Inflammation, and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavala, Monica; Bertics, Paul J.; Gern, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Viral infections affect wheezing and asthma in children and adults of all ages. In infancy, wheezing illnesses are usually viral in origin, and children with more severe wheezing episodes are more likely to develop recurrent episodes of asthma and to develop asthma later in childhood. Children who develop allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (allergic sensitization), and those who wheeze with rhinoviruses (HRV) are at especially high risk for asthma. In older children and adults, HRV infections generally cause relatively mild respiratory illnesses and yet contribute to acute and potentially severe exacerbations in patients with asthma. These findings underline the importance of understanding the synergistic nature of allergic sensitization and infections with HRV in infants relative to the onset of asthma and in children and adults with respect to exacerbations of asthma. This review discusses clinical and experimental evidence of virus/allergen interactions and evaluates theories which relate immunologic responses to respiratory viruses and allergens to the pathogenesis and disease activity of asthma. Greater understanding of the relationship between viral respiratory infections, allergic inflammation, and asthma is likely to suggest new strategies for the prevention and treatment of asthma. PMID:21682739

  7. AsthmaVent – Effect of Ventilation on Asthma Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogaard, Nina Viskum; Rubak, Sune Leisgaard Mørck; Halken, Susanne

    sensitive towards. Reducing this exposure may improve the asthma control in these children. Previous studies give conflicting information on the effect of mechanical ventilation on asthma control in children. Objectives We aim at investigating whether mechanical ventilation is capable of improving indoor...... and design of housing. Indoor environment factors that trigger the disease must be controlled as well as possible. The results of this project will be a significant contribution to the potential recommendations regarding the effect of ventilation on indoor air quality and asthma control of HDM allergic...... air quality and thereby asthma symptoms and quality of life, in children with house dust mite allergy and asthma. Materials and Methods Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled intervention study, including 80 children from 3 Danish Pediatric outpatient clinics, with: Verified asthma, requiring...

  8. Privacy preserving interactive record linkage (PPIRL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kum, Hye-Chung; Krishnamurthy, Ashok; Machanavajjhala, Ashwin; Reiter, Michael K; Ahalt, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    Record linkage to integrate uncoordinated databases is critical in biomedical research using Big Data. Balancing privacy protection against the need for high quality record linkage requires a human-machine hybrid system to safely manage uncertainty in the ever changing streams of chaotic Big Data. In the computer science literature, private record linkage is the most published area. It investigates how to apply a known linkage function safely when linking two tables. However, in practice, the linkage function is rarely known. Thus, there are many data linkage centers whose main role is to be the trusted third party to determine the linkage function manually and link data for research via a master population list for a designated region. Recently, a more flexible computerized third-party linkage platform, Secure Decoupled Linkage (SDLink), has been proposed based on: (1) decoupling data via encryption, (2) obfuscation via chaffing (adding fake data) and universe manipulation; and (3) minimum information disclosure via recoding. We synthesize this literature to formalize a new framework for privacy preserving interactive record linkage (PPIRL) with tractable privacy and utility properties and then analyze the literature using this framework. Human-based third-party linkage centers for privacy preserving record linkage are the accepted norm internationally. We find that a computer-based third-party platform that can precisely control the information disclosed at the micro level and allow frequent human interaction during the linkage process, is an effective human-machine hybrid system that significantly improves on the linkage center model both in terms of privacy and utility.

  9. Petasites hybridus (Butterbur root) extract in the treatment of asthma--an open trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danesch, Ulrich C

    2004-03-01

    The efficacy and tolerability of a butterbur root extract (Petadolex) for the treatment of asthma was analyzed in a prospective, non-randomized, open trial. Subjects included 64 adults and 16 children/adolescents treated for two months with the extract, followed by two months during which the intake of the extract was optional. Concomitant asthma medication was permitted. The number, duration, and severity of asthma attacks decreased, while peak flow, forced expiratory volume (FEV1), and all measured symptoms improved during therapy. In addition, more than 40 percent of patients using asthma medications at baseline reduced intake of these medications by the end of the study. This study suggests the Petasites hybridus extract Petadolex is an effective and safe therapy for the treatment of asthma.

  10. An evaluation of a self-management program for adults with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, J; Dunbar-Jacob, J; Sereika, S M

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a self-management program for adults with moderate to severe asthma on compliance with inhaled, prescribed, nonemergency medications; asthma symptoms; and airway obstruction. In this controlled experimental study, 55 subjects from a rural community were randomized to one of two groups. Self-efficacy theory served as the framework for this study. Primary measures included the Metered Dose Inhaler (MDI) Chronolog, a journal of daily asthma concerns, and a peak-flow meter to appraise airway obstruction. Secondary measures included the Asthma Self-Management Assessment Tool (ASMAT) and the Self-Efficacy for Asthma Management Scale (SEAMS). These measures were completed pre- and post-intervention. Data analysis using descriptive and inferential statistics revealed that subjects receiving the self-management program increased compliance with inhaled medications (U = 271, p = .043).

  11. Yoga for asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zu-Yao Yang

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Asthma is a common chronic inflammatory disorder affecting about 300 million people worldwide. As a holistic therapy, yoga has the potential to relieve both the physical and psychological suffering of people with asthma, and its popularity has expanded globally. A number of clinical trials have been carried out to evaluate the effects of yoga practice, with inconsistent results. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of yoga in people with asthma. METHODS: Search methods: We systematically searched the Cochrane Airways Group Register of Trials, which is derived from systematic searches of bibliographic databases including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, and PsycINFO, and handsearching of respiratory journals and meeting abstracts. We also searched PEDro. We searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO ICTRP search portal. We searched all databases from their inception to 22 July 2015, and used no restriction on language of publication. We checked the reference lists of eligible studies and relevant review articles for additional studies. We attempted to contact investigators of eligible studies and experts in the field to learn of other published and unpublished studies. Selection criteria: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs that compared yoga with usual care (or no intervention or sham intervention in people with asthma and reported at least one of the following outcomes: quality of life, asthma symptom score, asthma control, lung function measures, asthma medication usage, and adverse events. Data collection and analysis: We extracted bibliographic information, characteristics of participants, characteristics of interventions and controls, characteristics of methodology, and results for the outcomes of our interest from eligible studies. For continuous outcomes, we used mean difference (MD with 95% confidence interval (CI to denote the treatment effects, if the

  12. Smartphone and tablet self management apps for asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcano Belisario, José S; Huckvale, Kit; Greenfield, Geva; Car, Josip; Gunn, Laura H

    2013-11-27

    408 participants. We found no cluster RCTs, controlled before and after studies or interrupted time series studies that met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review. Both RCTs evaluated the effect of a mobile phone-based asthma self management intervention on asthma control by comparing it to traditional, paper-based asthma self management. One study allowed participants to keep daily entries of their asthma symptoms, asthma medication usage, peak flow readings and peak flow variability on their mobile phone, from which their level of asthma control was calculated remotely and displayed together with the corresponding asthma self management recommendations. In the other study, participants recorded the same readings twice daily, and they received immediate self management feedback in the form of a three-colour traffic light display on their phones. Participants falling into the amber zone of their action plan twice, or into the red zone once, received a phone call from an asthma nurse who enquired about the reasons for their uncontrolled asthma.We did not conduct a meta-analysis of the data extracted due to the considerable degree of heterogeneity between these studies. Instead we adopted a narrative synthesis approach. Overall, the results were inconclusive and we judged the evidence to have a GRADE rating of low quality because further evidence is very likely to have an important impact on our confidence in the estimate of effect and is likely to change the estimate. In addition, there was not enough information in one of the included studies to assess the risk of bias for the majority of the domains. Although the other included study was methodologically rigorous, it was not possible to blind participants or personnel in the study. Moreover, there are concerns in both studies in relation to attrition bias and other sources of bias.One study showed that the use of a smartphone app for the delivery of an asthma self management programme had no statistically

  13. When to conduct probabilistic linkage vs. deterministic linkage? A simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Matsuyama, Yutaka; Ohashi, Yasuo; Setoguchi, Soko

    2015-08-01

    When unique identifiers are unavailable, successful record linkage depends greatly on data quality and types of variables available. While probabilistic linkage theoretically captures more true matches than deterministic linkage by allowing imperfection in identifiers, studies have shown inconclusive results likely due to variations in data quality, implementation of linkage methodology and validation method. The simulation study aimed to understand data characteristics that affect the performance of probabilistic vs. deterministic linkage. We created ninety-six scenarios that represent real-life situations using non-unique identifiers. We systematically introduced a range of discriminative power, rate of missing and error, and file size to increase linkage patterns and difficulties. We assessed the performance difference of linkage methods using standard validity measures and computation time. Across scenarios, deterministic linkage showed advantage in PPV while probabilistic linkage showed advantage in sensitivity. Probabilistic linkage uniformly outperformed deterministic linkage as the former generated linkages with better trade-off between sensitivity and PPV regardless of data quality. However, with low rate of missing and error in data, deterministic linkage performed not significantly worse. The implementation of deterministic linkage in SAS took less than 1min, and probabilistic linkage took 2min to 2h depending on file size. Our simulation study demonstrated that the intrinsic rate of missing and error of linkage variables was key to choosing between linkage methods. In general, probabilistic linkage was a better choice, but for exceptionally good quality data (<5% error), deterministic linkage was a more resource efficient choice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Quick Links Asthma Action Plan America Breathing Easier [PDF – 1.1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical ... Using a metered dose inhaler with a spacer [ PDF - 377 KB] Your browser does not support iframes ...

  15. Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Giving Teens a Voice in Health Care Decisions Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma? KidsHealth > For ... Affect My Child's Asthma? Print A A A Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma? Yes. Weather ...

  16. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In the Workplace Outdoors Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, and Surveillance Most Recent ... Archive 2014 State or Territory Data Archive AsthmaStats Flu Vaccination among Adults with Current Asthma Flu Vaccination ...

  17. Treating Asthma in Children under 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... laughing Gastrointestinal reflux Changes or extremes in weather Asthma emergencies Severe asthma attacks can be life-threatening ... Changes in activity levels or sleep patterns Control asthma triggers Depending on the triggers for your child's ...

  18. Managing Asthma: Learning to Breathe Easier

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Subscribe June 2014 Print this issue Managing Asthma Learn To Breathe Easier En español Send us ... Allergy Therapy Seeking Allergy Relief Wise Choices Controlling Asthma Get regular checkups for your asthma. Make a ...

  19. Allergies and Asthma: They Often Occur Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A family history of allergies is a major risk factor for allergic asthma. Having hay fever or other allergies yourself also increases your risk of getting asthma. Though allergic asthma is very common, there are other types ...

  20. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... among Adults with Current Asthma Flu Vaccination among Children with Current Asthma Asthma and Fair or Poor Health Usual Place for Medical Care among Children Number of Visits to a Health Care Provider(s) ...

  1. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Publications Related Articles, Publications, and Links Asthma’s Impact on the Nation Fact Sheet State Data Profiles ( ... MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to Use Your Asthma ...

  2. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Obesity Percentage of People with Asthma who Smoke Insurance coverage and barriers to care for people with ... Asthma NCHS Asthma FastStats Survey Questions Resources for Health Professionals and Schools Healthcare Professionals Public Health Professionals ...

  3. Asthma & Physical Activity in the School

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Education) How Asthma-Friendly Is Your School? (checklist in English and in Spanish) Is the Asthma ... gov/ asthma/ publications. html U.S. Department of Education Office for Civil Rights Lyndon Baines Johnson Department of ...

  4. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Messages Agencies Working on Asthma Follow @CDCasthma on Twitter to learn more about helping people with asthma ... de boca) [PDF - 276 KB] Follow @CDCasthma on Twitter to learn more about helping people with asthma ...

  5. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brochures Facts Triggers Indoors In the Workplace Outdoors Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, ... Work-related Asthma NCHS Asthma FastStats Survey Questions Resources for Health Professionals and Schools Healthcare Professionals Public ...

  6. Violence and Asthma: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Fujiwara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research shows that exposure to community violence is, directly and indirectly, associated with asthma. This article reviews the findings on the impact of violence on asthma, and the pathways for the association of violence and asthma are suggested: 1 exposure to violence is directly associated with asthma, mainly through dysregulation of sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, 2 exposure to violence is associated with the change of susceptibility of outdoor air pollution on asthma, probably through the change of an immune response, and 3 behavioral change due to exposure to violence (e.g. keeping children indoors leads to more exposure to indoor pollutants. The suggested framework may be useful to develop health policy on asthma in high-violence communities.

  7. Asthma in Children: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF School and Asthma (Nemours Foundation) Also in Spanish Teaching Your Child about Asthma (American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology) What's an Asthma Action Plan? (Nemours Foundation) ... Also in Spanish Related Issues Asthma & Physical Activity in the School ( ...

  8. Exhaled Nitric Oxide Decreases during Academic Examination Stress in Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, Thomas; Trueba, Ana F; Liu, Jiayan; Auchus, Richard J; Rosenfield, David

    2015-11-01

    Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is known to vary with multiple endogenous and exogenous factors. Laboratory stress and depressive mood have been associated with altered FeNO levels, but little is known about the susceptibility of FeNO to longer-lasting states of psychological stress in asthma. We sought to study changes in FeNO, lung function, and endogenous cortisol levels in students in a low-stress period during the academic term and in high-stress periods of up to 5 days during final exams. One hundred nine participants (35 with asthma) enrolled in a final examination stress study were assessed during the academic term (low stress) and during final exams (high stress). FeNO, spirometric lung function (FEV1, peak flow), salivary cortisol, and negative affect were measured at three time points. Control variables were medication use, cold symptoms, sex, and age. FeNO decreased substantially from low-stress baseline to the high-stress examination periods, with more pronounced decreases occurring in subjects with asthma (-11.5 ppb) than control subjects (-1.2 ppb). FEV1 decreased in both groups. Negative affect and cortisol increased during final exams, but these increases were smaller in asthma. Greater initial depression and greater cortisol increases were related to larger FeNO decreases during the final exam period, the latter only in asthma. Inhaled corticosteroid use did not affect these changes. Psychological stress and depressive mood are accompanied by decreases in both FeNO and lung function in asthma. Fluctuations related to life stress and mood levels should be considered in FeNO monitoring for asthma.

  9. Nasal disease and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marseglia, G L; Merli, P; Caimmi, D; Licari, A; Labó, E; Marseglia, A; Ciprandi, G; La Rosa, M

    2011-10-01

    The nose plays a primary role within the airways, working as a filter and air-conditioner, together with other important functions. Thus, it is not surprising that nasal diseases are associated with several other comorbidities, including both upper and lower airways, such as bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and asthma. Several studies have investigated the relationship existing between the upper and the lower airways and new insights are rising. Nevertheless, some uncertainties still remain, mainly because nasal disorders are quite heterogeneous, overlapping (i.e. rhinitis-rhinosinusitis-sinusitis, acute or chronic, allergic or non-allergic) and difficult to diagnose, so that, frequently, many studies don’t differentiate between the various conditions. For this reason, the purpose of this review is to systematically analyze present epidemiological, pathophysiological and clinical data on the relationship between nasal diseases and asthma, splitting up three main conditions: allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis.

  10. Asthma management: important issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Barnes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Although most attention has been focused on the drugs used to control asthma, it is increasingly recognised that effective delivery of these drugs to the lungs is just as important. The most effective drugs, beta2-agonists and corticosteroids, are given by inhalation so there has been a search for more efficient inhaler devices that are easier for patients to use. A symposium at the European Respiratory Society Annual Meeting in 2005 discussed some of the important issues in inhaler therapy in adults and children. This article summarises the major points of discussion that arose out of this symposium. New more effective inhaler devices are now becoming available and are likely to have an important impact on asthma management.

  11. MANIFEST ANXIETY IN BRONCHIAL ASTHMA

    OpenAIRE

    Sreedhar, Krishna Prasad

    1989-01-01

    SUMMARY Using a vernacular adaptation of MAS 50 bronchial asthma patients were compared with 102 normals, 60 hospital general out-patients and 50 neurotics to determine the level of anxiety in asthma. The manifest anxiety scores of the bronchial asthma patients were found to be significantly high showing that their level of anxiety was abnormally higher in comparison with that of the normals and the hospital general out-patients. The bronchial asthmatics and the neurotics did not differ in an...

  12. Aspirin-Exacerbated Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Varghese, Mathew; Lockey, Richard F

    2008-01-01

    This review focuses on aspirin-exacerbated asthma (AEA). The review includes historical perspective of aspirin, prevalence, pathogenesis, clinical features and treatment of AEA. The pathogenesis of AEA involves the cyclooxygenase and lipooxygenase pathway. Aspirin affects both of these pathways by inhibiting the enzyme cycooxygenase-1 (COX-1). Inhibition of COX-1 leads to a decrease in prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). The decrease in PGE2 results in an increase in cysteinyl leukotrienes by the lipoo...

  13. Physical deconditioning as a cause of breathlessness among obese adolescents with a diagnosis of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Yun M; Burnette, Autumn; Lucas, Sean; Herring, Richard C; Weltman, Judith; Patrie, James T; Weltman, Arthur L; Platts-Mills, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    Obese children frequently complain of breathlessness. Asthma and obesity can both contribute to the symptoms during exercise, and this symptom can contribute to a diagnosis of asthma in these children. Despite the high prevalence of obesity few studies have investigated the cardiopulmonary physiology of breathlessness in obese children with a diagnosis of asthma. In this case-control study, thirty adolescents between age 12 and 19 were studied with baseline spirometry and a cardiopulmonary exercise test. Ten adolescents were normal controls, ten had obesity without a diagnosis of asthma, and ten had obesity with a history of physician-diagnosed asthma. Baseline characteristics including complete blood count and spirometry were comparable between obese adolescents with and without a diagnosis of asthma. During exercise, obese asthmatic and obese non-asthmatic adolescents had significantly reduced physical fitness compared to healthy controls as evidenced by decreased peak oxygen uptake after adjusting for actual body weight (21.7 ± 4.5 vs. 21.4 ± 5.4 vs. 35.3 ± 5.8 ml/kg/min, respectively). However, pulmonary capacity at the peak of exercise was comparable among all three groups as evidenced by similar pulmonary reserve. In this study, breathlessness was primarily due to cardiopulmonary deconditioning in the majority of obese adolescents with or without a diagnosis of asthma.

  14. Physical deconditioning as a cause of breathlessness among obese adolescents with a diagnosis of asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun M Shim

    Full Text Available Obese children frequently complain of breathlessness. Asthma and obesity can both contribute to the symptoms during exercise, and this symptom can contribute to a diagnosis of asthma in these children. Despite the high prevalence of obesity few studies have investigated the cardiopulmonary physiology of breathlessness in obese children with a diagnosis of asthma.In this case-control study, thirty adolescents between age 12 and 19 were studied with baseline spirometry and a cardiopulmonary exercise test. Ten adolescents were normal controls, ten had obesity without a diagnosis of asthma, and ten had obesity with a history of physician-diagnosed asthma.Baseline characteristics including complete blood count and spirometry were comparable between obese adolescents with and without a diagnosis of asthma. During exercise, obese asthmatic and obese non-asthmatic adolescents had significantly reduced physical fitness compared to healthy controls as evidenced by decreased peak oxygen uptake after adjusting for actual body weight (21.7 ± 4.5 vs. 21.4 ± 5.4 vs. 35.3 ± 5.8 ml/kg/min, respectively. However, pulmonary capacity at the peak of exercise was comparable among all three groups as evidenced by similar pulmonary reserve.In this study, breathlessness was primarily due to cardiopulmonary deconditioning in the majority of obese adolescents with or without a diagnosis of asthma.

  15. Management of asthma in adults: do the patients get what they need--and want?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backer, V; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Harving, H

    2007-01-01

    Suboptimal asthma control may be caused by a combination of factors, such as nonadherence to guidelines, lack of compliance, and poor asthma education. The aim was to assess patients' knowledge of asthma and different management strategies, including patients' attitudes toward involvement...... function measured and peak flow monitoring was reported by 5%. Written action plans were provided for 12% of patients and 50% had had their inhaler technique checked. Although 59% of patients were instructed to adjust their controller therapy if needed, only 23% reported that they had done so...... by their doctor, indicating that change in educational strategy is needed....

  16. Japanese Guideline for Childhood Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Nishimuta

    2011-01-01

    JAGL differs from the Global Initiative for Asthma Guideline (GINA in that the former emphasizes long-term management of childhood asthma based on asthma severity and early diagnosis and intervention at <2 years and 2–5 years of age. However, a management method, including step-up or step-down of long-term management agents based on the status of asthma symptoms, is easy to understand and thus JAGL is suitable for routine medical treatment. JAGL also introduced treatment and management using a control test for children, recommending treatment and management aimed at complete control through avoiding exacerbation factors and appropriate use of antiinflammatory agents.

  17. [Asthma and cyclic neutropenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar Cabrera, A N; Berrón Pérez, R; Ortega Martell, J A; Onuma Takane, E

    1996-01-01

    We report a male with history of recurrent infections (recurrent oral aphtous disease [ROAD], middle ear infections and pharyngo amigdalitis) every 3 weeks since he was 7 months old. At the age of 3 years cyclic neutropenia was diagnosed with cyclic fall in the total neutrophil count in blood smear every 21 days and prophylactic antimicrobial therapy was indicated. Episodic events every 3 weeks of acute asthma and allergic rhinitis were detected at the age of 6 years old and specific immunotherapy to Bermuda grass was given during 3 years with markedly improvement in his allergic condition but not in the ROAD. He came back until the age of 16 with episodic acute asthma and ROAD. The total neutrophil count failed to 0 every 21 days and surprisingly the total eosinophil count increased up to 2,000 at the same time, with elevation of serum IgE (412 Ul/mL). Specific immunotherapy to D.pt. and Aller.a. and therapy with timomodulin was indicated. After 3 months we observed clinical improvement in the asthmatic condition and the ROAD disappeared, but the total neutrophil count did not improve. We present this case as a rare association between 2 diseases with probably no etiological relationship but may be physiopatological that could help to understand more the pathogenesis of asthma.

  18. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Providers CDC Publications on Asthma National Asthma Control Program America Breathing Easier Guide for State Programs Interventions Community Guide—Evidence-based Potentially Effective Interventions ...

  19. [Impact of obesity on response to therapy and pulmonary function in children with asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Pan, Jia-Hua

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effects of obesity on response to therapy and pulmonary function in children with asthma who receive inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) treatment. A total of 129 children with asthma were divided into two groups according to their body mass index: normal weight group (n=64) and obese group (n=65). The asthma control status and pulmonary function were compared between the two groups after one year of ICS treatment. The pulmonary function was expressed as percent forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1%), percent predicted forced vital capacity (FVC%), peak expiratory flow (PEF), peak expiratory flow at 25% of vital capacity (PEF25), and peak expiratory flow at 50% of vital capacity (PEF50). The asthma control status was expressed as complete control rate, partial control rate, and uncontrolled rate. Sixty-eight healthy children were selected as the healthy control group. There were significant differences in the indices of pulmonary function between the three groups before treatment (Pobese group had the worst values. After 1 year of treatment, the normal weight group showed significantly more improvements in FEV1% and FVC% than the obese group (Pobese group were 28%, 51%, and 22%, respectively; the normal weight group had a significantly better asthma control status than the obese group (Pobesity have a significantly less improvement in large airway function and a poorer asthma control status after ICS treatment than those with the normal weight.

  20. Confirmatory linkage study of hypochondroplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecht, J.T.; Herrera, C.; Greenhaw, G.A. [Univ. of Texas Medical School, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Hypochondroplasia is an autosomal dominant form of disproportionate short stature disorder that has clinical and radiographic findings similar to but milder than achondroplasia. Based on these findings it has been suggested that achondroplasia and hypochondroplasia are allelic conditions. We and others have mapped the achondroplasia locus to telomeric region of chromosome 4. Tested linkage to 4p markers in 6 hypochondroplasia families and a maximum LOD score of 1.7 at {theta} = 0 was found for IUDA. Here we report the results of a linkage study in 4 multigenerational families with hypochondroplasia using 7 short tandem repeat markers (D4S127, D4S412, D4S43, D4S115, IUDA, D4S227, D4S169) from the short arm of chromosome 4. These families have been well characterized and show the typical clinical and radiographic features of hypochondroplasia. One family was Afro-American, one Hispanic and two were Caucasian. We found a maximum multipoint LOD score of 2.9 at D4S115. The results of this study provide confirmatory evidence that achondroplasia and hypochondroplasia map to the same chromosomal location and suggests that they are indeed allelic conditions.

  1. Ultrasonic Transducer Peak-to-Peak Optical Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Skarvada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Possible optical setups for measurement of the peak-to-peak value of an ultrasonic transducer are described in this work. The Michelson interferometer with the calibrated nanopositioner in reference path and laser Doppler vibrometer were used for the basic measurement of vibration displacement. Langevin type of ultrasonic transducer is used for the purposes of Electro-Ultrasonic Nonlinear Spectroscopy (EUNS. Parameters of produced mechanical vibration have to been well known for EUNS. Moreover, a monitoring of mechanical vibration frequency shift with a mass load and sample-transducer coupling is important for EUNS measurement.

  2. An introduction to recombination and linkage analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcpeek, M.S. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    With a garden as his laboratory, Mendel was able to discern basic probabilistic laws of heredity. Although it first appeared as a baffling exception to one of Mendel`s principles, the phenomenon of variable linkage between characters was soon recognized to be a powerful tool in the process of chromosome mapping and location of genes of interest. In this introduction, we first describe Mendel`s work and the subsequent discovery of linkage. Next we describe the apparent cause of variable linkage, namely recombination, and we introduce linkage analysis. 33 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  3. Challenges in administrative data linkage for research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Harron

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Linkage of population-based administrative data is a valuable tool for combining detailed individual-level information from different sources for research. While not a substitute for classical studies based on primary data collection, analyses of linked administrative data can answer questions that require large sample sizes or detailed data on hard-to-reach populations, and generate evidence with a high level of external validity and applicability for policy making. There are unique challenges in the appropriate research use of linked administrative data, for example with respect to bias from linkage errors where records cannot be linked or are linked together incorrectly. For confidentiality and other reasons, the separation of data linkage processes and analysis of linked data is generally regarded as best practice. However, the ‘black box’ of data linkage can make it difficult for researchers to judge the reliability of the resulting linked data for their required purposes. This article aims to provide an overview of challenges in linking administrative data for research. We aim to increase understanding of the implications of (i the data linkage environment and privacy preservation; (ii the linkage process itself (including data preparation, and deterministic and probabilistic linkage methods and (iii linkage quality and potential bias in linked data. We draw on examples from a number of countries to illustrate a range of approaches for data linkage in different contexts.

  4. Hubbert's Peak: A Physicist's View

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Richard

    2011-11-01

    Oil and its by-products, as used in manufacturing, agriculture, and transportation, are the lifeblood of today's 7 billion-person population and our 65T world economy. Despite this importance, estimates of future oil production seem dominated by wishful thinking rather than quantitative analysis. Better studies are needed. In 1956, Dr. M.King Hubbert proposed a theory of resource production and applied it successfully to predict peak U.S. oil production in 1970. Thus, the peak of oil production is referred to as ``Hubbert's Peak.'' Prof. Al Bartlett extended this work in publications and lectures on population and oil. Both Hubbert and Bartlett place peak world oil production at a similar time, essentially now. This paper extends this line of work to include analyses of individual countries, inclusion of multiple Gaussian peaks, and analysis of reserves data. While this is not strictly a predictive theory, we will demonstrate a ``closed'' story connecting production, oil-in-place, and reserves. This gives us the ``most likely'' estimate of future oil availability. Finally, we will comment on synthetic oil and the possibility of carbon-neutral synthetic oil for a sustainable future.

  5. Linkage analysis of quantitative refraction and refractive errors in the Beaver Dam Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Alison P; Duggal, Priya; Lee, Kristine E; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Klein, Ronald; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E; Klein, Barbara E K

    2011-07-13

    Refraction, as measured by spherical equivalent, is the need for an external lens to focus images on the retina. While genetic factors play an important role in the development of refractive errors, few susceptibility genes have been identified. However, several regions of linkage have been reported for myopia (2q, 4q, 7q, 12q, 17q, 18p, 22q, and Xq) and for quantitative refraction (1p, 3q, 4q, 7p, 8p, and 11p). To replicate previously identified linkage peaks and to identify novel loci that influence quantitative refraction and refractive errors, linkage analysis of spherical equivalent, myopia, and hyperopia in the Beaver Dam Eye Study was performed. Nonparametric, sibling-pair, genome-wide linkage analyses of refraction (spherical equivalent adjusted for age, education, and nuclear sclerosis), myopia and hyperopia in 834 sibling pairs within 486 extended pedigrees were performed. Suggestive evidence of linkage was found for hyperopia on chromosome 3, region q26 (empiric P = 5.34 × 10(-4)), a region that had shown significant genome-wide evidence of linkage to refraction and some evidence of linkage to hyperopia. In addition, the analysis replicated previously reported genome-wide significant linkages to 22q11 of adjusted refraction and myopia (empiric P = 4.43 × 10(-3) and 1.48 × 10(-3), respectively) and to 7p15 of refraction (empiric P = 9.43 × 10(-4)). Evidence was also found of linkage to refraction on 7q36 (empiric P = 2.32 × 10(-3)), a region previously linked to high myopia. The findings provide further evidence that genes controlling refractive errors are located on 3q26, 7p15, 7p36, and 22q11.

  6. Rhinoconjunctivitis and occupational asthma caused by Diplotaxis erucoides (wall rocket).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, F F; Mur, P; Bartolomé, B; Galindo, P A; Gómez, E; Borja, J; Martínez, A

    2001-07-01

    Wall rocket (Diplotaxis erucoides) is a common Crucifera plant that grows in European and American vineyards and olive groves. We present the cases of 2 farmers with rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma related to wine-growing tasks during D erucoides pollination (March-April). The aim of this work was to demonstrate that occupational symptoms were caused by D erucoides pollen sensitization. Cutaneous tests, specific IgE measurements, conjunctival and bronchial provocation tests, and peak-flow measurements during working days were performed.

  7. Nebulized magnesium sulphate versus nebulized salbutamol in acute bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Abdelnabi

    2012-07-01

    Conclusion: The use of MgSO4 by nebulization in patients with acute asthma attacks results in improvement of clinical condition, increase in peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR, reduction in heart rate (HR, reduction in respiratory rate (RR and improvement in oxygen saturation (SO2. The increase in PEFR (bronchodilatory effect was significantly less than that achieved in patients receiving the usual treatment with Short acting β2 agonists, e.g. salbutamol, when either agents were used alone.

  8. Occupational asthma due to an emulsified oil mist.

    OpenAIRE

    Hendy, M S; Beattie, B E; Burge, P S

    1985-01-01

    A toolsetter developed occupational asthma due to the oil mist generated by his lathe on which it was used as a coolant. The diagnosis was confirmed by serial measurements of peak expiratory flow at home and work, including a prolonged period away from work. Occupational type bronchial provocation tests were performed using the whole emulsified oil and its components separately. He reacted specifically to the whole emulsified oil and to the reodorant, a pine oil preparation. He also reacted t...

  9. The Future of Asthma Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis-Philippe Boulet

    1995-01-01

    identification and possible correction of genetic abnormalities responsible for the tendency to develop asthma and atopy, and prevention or functional and structural airway changes. This last goal will be achieved by improved environmental control, earlier use of more powerful and safe anti-inflammatory agents, as well as an increased involvement on the part of the asthma patient in treatment.

  10. The Saudi Initiative for asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Moamary Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Saudi Initiative for Asthma (SINA provides up-to-date guidelines for healthcare workers managing patients with asthma. SINA was developed by a panel of Saudi experts with respectable academic backgrounds and long-standing experience in the field. SINA is founded on the latest available evidence, local literature, and knowledge of the current setting in Saudi Arabia. Emphasis is placed on understanding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, medications, and clinical presentation. SINA elaborates on the development of patient-doctor partnership, self-management, and control of precipitating factors. Approaches to asthma treatment in SINA are based on disease control by the utilization of Asthma Control Test for the initiation and adjustment of asthma treatment. This guideline is established for the treatment of asthma in both children and adults, with special attention to children 5 years and younger. It is expected that the implementation of these guidelines for treating asthma will lead to better asthma control and decrease patient utilization of the health care system.

  11. How Do Asthma Medicines Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Kid Who's Bullied? How Do Asthma Medicines Work? KidsHealth > For Kids > How Do Asthma Medicines Work? Print A A A en español ¿Cómo funcionan ... control medicines (also called controller or maintenance medicines) work over a long period of time by keeping ...

  12. Smoking and Asthma (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Giving Teens a Voice in Health Care Decisions Smoking and Asthma KidsHealth > For Parents > Smoking and Asthma Print A A A What's in ... Antismoking Message en español Fumar y el asma Smoking is an unhealthy habit for anyone, but it's ...

  13. Adolescents and Exercise Induced Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Pamela; Bickanse, Shanna; Bogenreif, Mike; VanSickle, Kyle

    2008-01-01

    This article defines asthma and exercise induced asthma, and provides information on the triggers, signs, and symptoms of an attack. It also gives treatments for these conditions, along with prevention guidelines on how to handle an attack in the classroom or on the practice field. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

  14. Adult-onset eosinophilic asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, J.C.

    2017-01-01

    In the last decades, it has been recognized that asthma is not a single disease, but comprises several clinical syndromes, which all share respiratory symptoms and lung function abnormalities, associated with different types of airway inflammation. These syndromes are now known as different asthma

  15. Asthma in patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønnberg, A S; Skov, L; Skytthe, A

    2015-01-01

    We read with interest the report by Fang and colleagues of the relationship between psoriasis and asthma in a large retrospective case-control study from Taiwan [1]. The study found a 1.38-fold increased risk of asthma among patients with psoriasis, and with an increasing risk according to higher...

  16. Linkage scan of alcohol dependence in the UCSF Family Alcoholism Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizer, Ian R; Ehlers, Cindy L; Vieten, Cassandra; Seaton-Smith, Kimberly L; Feiler, Heidi S; Lee, James V; Segall, Samantha K; Gilder, David A; Wilhelmsen, Kirk C

    2011-01-15

    Ample data suggest that alcohol dependence represents a heritable condition, and several research groups have performed linkage analysis to identify genomic regions influencing this disorder. In the present study, a genome-wide linkage scan for alcohol dependence was conducted in a community sample of 565 probands and 1080 first-degree relatives recruited through the UCSF Family Alcoholism Study. The Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism (SSAGA) was used to derive DSM-IV alcohol dependence diagnoses. Although no loci achieved genome-wide significance (i.e., LOD score > 3.0), several linkage peaks of interest (i.e., LOD score > 1.0) were identified. When the strict DSM-IV alcohol dependence diagnosis requiring the temporal clustering of symptoms served as the phenotype, linkage peaks were identified on chromosomes 1p36.31-p36.22, 2q37.3, 8q24.3, and 18p11.21-p11.2. When the temporal clustering of symptoms was not required, linkage peaks were again identified on chromosomes 1p36.31-p36.22 and 8q24.3 as well as novel loci on chromosomes 1p22.3, 2p24.3-p24.1, 9p24.1-p23, and 22q12.3-q13.1. Follow-up analyses were conducted by performing linkage analysis for the 12 alcohol dependence symptoms assessed by the SSAGA across the support intervals for the observed linkage peaks. These analyses demonstrated that different collections of symptoms often assessing distinct aspects of alcohol dependence (e.g., uncontrollable drinking and withdrawal vs. tolerance and drinking despite health problems) contributed to each linkage peak and often yielded LOD scores exceeding that reported for the alcohol dependence diagnosis. Such findings provide insight into how specific genomic regions may influence distinct aspects of alcohol dependence. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Risk of congenital anomalies after exposure to asthma medication in the first trimester of pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garne, E.; Hansen, A. Vinkel; Morris, J.

    2016-01-01

    estimated separately for each register and combined in meta-analyses. Main outcome measures: ORs for all congenital anomalies and specific congenital anomalies. Results: Overall exposure prevalence was 3.76%. For exposure to asthma medication in general, the adjusted OR (adjOR) for a major congenital......Objective: To examine the effect of maternal exposure to asthma medications on the risk of congenital anomalies. Design: Meta-analysis of aggregated data from three cohort studies. Setting: Linkage between healthcare databases and EUROCAT congenital anomaly registries. Population: 519 242...... pregnancies in Norway (2004–2010), Wales (2000–2010) and Funen, Denmark (2000–2010). Methods: Exposure defined as having at least one prescription for asthma medications issued (Wales) or dispensed (Norway, Denmark) from 91 days before to 91 days after the pregnancy start date. Odds ratios (ORs) were...

  18. Risk of congenital anomalies after exposure to asthma medication in the first trimester of pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garne, E.; Hansen, A. Vinkel; Morris, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of maternal exposure to asthma medications on the risk of congenital anomalies. Design: Meta-analysis of aggregated data from three cohort studies. Setting: Linkage between healthcare databases and EUROCAT congenital anomaly registries. Population: 519 242...... pregnancies in Norway (2004–2010), Wales (2000–2010) and Funen, Denmark (2000–2010). Methods: Exposure defined as having at least one prescription for asthma medications issued (Wales) or dispensed (Norway, Denmark) from 91 days before to 91 days after the pregnancy start date. Odds ratios (ORs) were...... estimated separately for each register and combined in meta-analyses. Main outcome measures: ORs for all congenital anomalies and specific congenital anomalies. Results: Overall exposure prevalence was 3.76%. For exposure to asthma medication in general, the adjusted OR (adjOR) for a major congenital...

  19. Clustering patterns of LOD scores for asthma-related phenotypes revealed by a genome-wide screen in 295 French EGEA families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzigon, Emmanuelle; Dizier, Marie-Hélène; Krähenbühl, Christine; Lemainque, Arnaud; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Betard, Christine; Bousquet, Jean; Charpin, Denis; Gormand, Frédéric; Guilloud-Bataille, Michel; Just, Jocelyne; Le Moual, Nicole; Maccario, Jean; Matran, Régis; Neukirch, Françoise; Oryszczyn, Marie-Pierre; Paty, Evelyne; Pin, Isabelle; Rosenberg-Bourgin, Myriam; Vervloet, Daniel; Kauffmann, Francine; Lathrop, Mark; Demenais, Florence

    2004-12-15

    A genome-wide scan for asthma phenotypes was conducted in the whole sample of 295 EGEA families selected through at least one asthmatic subject. In addition to asthma, seven phenotypes involved in the main asthma physiopathological pathways were considered: SPT (positive skin prick test response to at least one of 11 allergens), SPTQ score being the number of positive skin test responses to 11 allergens, Phadiatop (positive specific IgE response to a mixture of allergens), total IgE levels, eosinophils, bronchial responsiveness (BR) to methacholine challenge and %predicted FEV(1). Four regions showed evidence for linkage (PLOD scores. This analysis revealed clustering of LODs for asthma, SPT and Phadiatop on one axis and clustering of LODs for %FEV(1), BR and SPTQ on the other, while LODs for IgE and eosinophils appeared to be independent from all other LODs. These results provide new insights into the potential sharing of genetic determinants by asthma-related phenotypes.

  20. Asthma in pregnancy: association between the Asthma Control Test and the Global Initiative for Asthma classification and comparisons with spirometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Georgia Véras; Leite, Débora F B; Rizzo, José A; Sarinho, Emanuel S C

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify a possible association between the assessment of clinical asthma control using the Asthma Control Test (ACT) and the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) classification and to perform comparisons with values of spirometry. Through this cross-sectional study, 103 pregnant women with asthma were assessed in the period from October 2010 to October 2013 in the asthma pregnancy clinic at the Clinical Hospital of the Federal University of Pernambuco. Questionnaires concerning the level of asthma control were administered using the Global Initiative for Asthma classification, the Asthma Control Test validated for asthmatic expectant mothers and spirometry; all three methods of assessing asthma control were performed during the same visit between the twenty-first and twenty-seventh weeks of pregnancy. There was a significant association between clinical asthma control assessment using the Asthma Control Test and the Global Initiative for Asthma classification (pTest can be used for asthmatic expectant mothers to assess the clinical control of asthma, especially at the end of the second trimester, which is assumed to be the period of worsening asthma exacerbations during pregnancy. We highlight the importance of the Asthma Control Test as a subjective instrument with easy application, easy interpretation and good reproducibility that does not require spirometry to assess the level of asthma control and can be used in the primary care of asthmatic expectant mothers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Asthma symptoms in obese adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2016-01-01

    The association between asthma and obesity is well-described, but not straightforward, and according to current guidelines asthma control is more difficult to achieve in obese patients. The currently available studies evaluating response to pharmacological asthma therapy in obese patients show...... that these patients have an altered, in general less favorable, response to both reliever and controller medication compared to normal weight patients. However, at present, the limited available evidence precludes evidence-based recommendations. The 'obesity-related asthma' phenotype has different characteristics......, including association with atopy and type of airway inflammation, compared to 'classic' asthma. Furthermore, weight loss in patients with this phenotype leads to an improvement in symptoms, lung function, and airway responsiveness, as well as a reduction in medication utilization and hospital admissions...

  2. Record Linkage Paral.lel

    OpenAIRE

    Guisado Gámez, Joan

    2009-01-01

    Els objectius estan classificats de més generals (més exteriors), a més específics (més interiors). 1 Accelerar el procés de Record Linkage mitjançant tècniques de computació paral·lela. 1.1 Aprendre a utilitzar MPI. 1.2 Implementar una paral·lelització distribuïda. 1.3 Utilitzar ordinadors comuns, de sobretaula. 1.4 Implementar una paral·lelització de memoria compartida a nivell de node. 1.5 Dur a terme una implementació conscient de les restriccions de memòria. 1.6 U...

  3. Influence of asthma definition on the asthma-obesity relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies suggest an association between obesity and asthma in adults and children. Asthma diagnosis criteria are different among studies. The aim of this study was to test the influence of asthma definition on the asthma-obesity relationship. Methods In a cross-sectional analysis of 1922 men and women, subjects completed a translated questionnaire from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey and underwent spirometry and a bronchial challenge test. Weight, height and waist circumference were measured. Multiple logistic regression analysis was carried out to assess the association of variables related to obesity and asthma. Asthma was defined either by the presence of symptoms with bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) or by a self-report of a physician-made diagnosis. The following variables were separately tested for associations with asthma: socioeconomic characteristics, schooling, physical activity, smoking status, anthropometry and spirometry. Results No association was detected between asthma confirmed by BHR and obesity indicators, odds ratio (OR) = 1.08 (95% confidence interval: 0.69 - 1.68) for obesity assessed by body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2; OR = 1.02 (0.74 - 1.40) for obesity assessed by abnormal waist-to-height ratio; and, OR = 0.96 (0.69 - 1.33) for abnormal waist circumference. On the contrary, a previous diagnosis of asthma was associated with obesity, OR = 1.48 (1.01 - 2.16) for body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2; OR = 1.48 (1.13 - 1.93) for abnormal waist-to-height ratio; and, OR = 1.32 (1.00 – 1.75) for abnormal waist circumference. Female gender, schooling ≥ 12 years and smoking were associated with BHR-confirmed asthma. Physically inactive subjects were associated with a previous diagnosis of asthma. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the relationship between asthma and obesity in epidemiological studies depends on the definition adopted. Certain components of asthma, for instance, symptoms may be more prone to

  4. Heritability and linkage analysis of personality in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Tiffany A; Badner, Judith A; Byerley, William; Keck, Paul E; McElroy, Susan L; Remick, Ronald A; Dessa Sadovnick, A; Kelsoe, John R

    2013-11-01

    The many attempts that have been made to identify genes for bipolar disorder (BD) have met with limited success, which may reflect an inadequacy of diagnosis as an informative and biologically relevant phenotype for genetic studies. Here we have explored aspects of personality as quantitative phenotypes for bipolar disorder through the use of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), which assesses personality in seven dimensions. Four temperament dimensions are assessed: novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), reward dependence (RD), and persistence (PS). Three character dimensions are also included: self-directedness (SD), cooperativeness (CO), and self-transcendence (ST). We compared personality scores between diagnostic groups and assessed heritability in a sample of 101 families collected for genetic studies of BD. A genome-wide SNP linkage analysis was then performed in the subset of 51 families for which genetic data was available. Significant group differences were observed between BD subjects, their first-degree relatives, and independent controls for all but RD and PS, and all but HA and RD were found to be significantly heritable in this sample. Linkage analysis of the heritable dimensions produced several suggestive linkage peaks for NS (chromosomes 7q21 and 10p15), PS (chromosomes 6q16, 12p13, and 19p13), and SD (chromosomes 4q35, 8q24, and 18q12). The relatively small size of our linkage sample likely limited our ability to reach genome-wide significance in this study. While not genome-wide significant, these results suggest that aspects of personality may prove useful in the identification of genes underlying BD susceptibility. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Asthma drugs and doping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillard, F; Rolland, Y; Rivière, D

    1999-11-01

    Some drugs regularly used in the treatment of asthma (beta-agonists and corticosteroids) are registered on the list of drugs forbidden in sport, because they have a doping action. To avoid penalizing asthmatic sportsmen, some beta-agonists (Salbutamol, Salmeterol, Terbutaline) and corticosteroids are allowed only in inhaled form, with written notification from the prescribing physician, a pneumologist or the team doctor. Considering the increase of doping with increasing involvement of physicians, good and up to date notions about the current rules of prescription in asthmatic sportsmen are needed.

  6. Manual therapy for asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondras, M A; Linde, K; Jones, A P

    2002-01-01

    A variety of manual therapies with similar postulated biologic mechanisms of action are commonly used to treat patients with asthma. Manual therapy practitioners are also varied, including physiotherapists, respiratory therapists, chiropractic and osteopathic physicians. A systematic review across disciplines is warranted. To evaluate the evidence for the effects of manual therapies for treatment of patients with bronchial asthma. Trials were searched in computerized general (EMBASE, CINAHL and MEDLINE) and specialized databases (Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field, Cochrane Rehabilitation Field, ICL, and MANTIS). In addition, bibliographies from included studies were assessed, and authors of known studies were contacted for additional information about published and unpublished trials. Date of most recent search: February 2002. Trials were included if they: (1) were randomised; (2) included asthmatic children or adults; (3) examined one or more types of manual therapy; and (4) included clinical outcomes. All three reviewers independently extracted data and assessed trial quality using a standard form. From 393 unique citations, 59 full text articles were retrieved and evaluated, which resulted in nine citations to five RCTs (290 patients) suitable for inclusion. Trials could not be pooled statistically because studies that addressed similar interventions used disparate patient groups or outcomes. The methodological quality of one of two trials examining chiropractic manipulation was good and neither trial found significant differences between chiropractic spinal manipulation and a sham manoeuvre on any of the outcomes measured. Quality of the remaining three trials was poor. One small trial compared massage therapy with a relaxation control group and found significant differences in many of the lung function measures obtained. However, this trial had poor reporting characteristics and the data have yet to be confirmed. One small trial compared chest

  7. Manual therapy for asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondras, M A; Linde, K; Jones, A P

    2005-04-18

    A variety of manual therapies with similar postulated biologic mechanisms of action are commonly used to treat patients with asthma. Manual therapy practitioners are also varied, including physiotherapists, respiratory therapists, chiropractic and osteopathic physicians. A systematic review across disciplines is warranted. To evaluate the evidence for the effects of manual therapies for treatment of patients with bronchial asthma. We searched for trials in computerized general (EMBASE, CINAHL and MEDLINE) and specialized databases (Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field, Cochrane Rehabilitation Field, Index to Chiropractic Literature (ICL), and Manual, Alternative and Natural Therapy (MANTIS)). In addition, we assessed bibliographies from included studies, and contacted authors of known studies for additional information about published and unpublished trials. Date of most recent search: August 2004. Trials were included if they: (1) were randomised; (2) included asthmatic children or adults; (3) examined one or more types of manual therapy; and (4) included clinical outcomes with observation periods of at least two weeks. All three reviewers independently extracted data and assessed trial quality using a standard form. From 473 unique citations, 68 full text articles were retrieved and evaluated, which resulted in nine citations to three RCTs (156 patients) suitable for inclusion. Trials could not be pooled statistically because studies that addressed similar interventions used disparate patient groups or outcomes. The methodological quality of one of two trials examining chiropractic manipulation was good and neither trial found significant differences between chiropractic spinal manipulation and a sham manoeuvre on any of the outcomes measured. One small trial compared massage therapy with a relaxation control group and found significant differences in many of the lung function measures obtained. However, this trial had poor reporting characteristics and the data

  8. Heritability and whole genome linkage of pulse pressure in Chinese twin pairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Wengjie; Zhang, Dongfeng; Pang, Zengchang

    2012-01-01

    with a heritability estimate of 0.45. Genome-wide non-parametric linkage analysis identified three significant linkage peaks on chromosome 11 (lod score 4.06 at 30.5 cM), chromosome 12 (lod score 3.97 at 100.7 cM), and chromosome 18 (lod score 4.01 at 70.7 cM) with the last two peaks closely overlapping with linkage...... to the phenotype. We report results on our heritability and linkage study conducted on the Chinese population in mainland China where cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases are becoming the leading cause of death. A total of 630 pairs of middle-aged Chinese twins were collected for heritability analysis, from...... which 63 dizygotic twin pairs were randomly selected for genome-wide linkage analysis using Affymetrix 6.0 SNP array. Regression analysis reconfirmed the significant effects of age, sex, and BMI on pulse pressure. Comparison of twin models suggested the parsimonious AE model as the best model...

  9. Early risk factors for pubertal asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovland, V; Riiser, A; Mowinckel, P; Carlsen, K-H; Lødrup Carlsen, K C

    2015-01-01

    Early life risk factors are previously described for childhood asthma, but less is known related to asthma in adolescence. We aimed to investigate early risk factors (before 2 years) for pubertal asthma and secondarily for pubertal asthma phenotypes based upon allergic comorbidities. Based on data from 550 adolescents in the prospective birth cohort 'Environment and Childhood Asthma' study, subjects were categorized by recurrent bronchial obstruction (rBO) 0-2 years, asthma 2-10 years, and pubertal asthma from 10 to 16 years including incident asthma in puberty and asthma in remission from 10 to 16 years or as never rBO/asthma 0-16 years. Asthma in puberty was further classified based on the comorbidities atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis (AR) from 10 to 16 years. Twenty-three common asthma risk factors identified by 2 years of age, including frequency and persistence of bronchial obstruction (severity score), were analysed by weighted logistic regression for each phenotype. In adjusted models, the risk of pubertal asthma increased significantly with higher severity score, parental rhinitis, being the firstborn child, and familial stress around birth. Pubertal asthma in remission was significantly associated with severity score and number of lower respiratory tract infections and inversely associated with breastfeeding beyond 4 months. Pubertal incident asthma was more common among firstborn children. All asthma phenotypes with allergic diseases were significantly associated with severity score, whereas familial perinatal stress increased the risk of asthma only. Asthma combined with AR was associated with parental asthma and being firstborn, whereas the risk of asthma with both atopic dermatitis and AR increased with higher paternal education, atopic dermatitis, being firstborn, and familial perinatal stress. Important early risk factors for pubertal asthma were early airways obstruction, parental rhinitis, being the firstborn child, and perinatal familial

  10. Global Asthma Network survey suggests more national asthma strategies could reduce burden of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, I; Haahtela, T; Selroos, O; Ellwood, P; Ellwood, E

    Several countries or regions within countries have an effective national asthma strategy resulting in a reduction of the large burden of asthma to individuals and society. There has been no systematic appraisal of the extent of national asthma strategies in the world. The Global Asthma Network (GAN) undertook an email survey of 276 Principal Investigators of GAN centres in 120 countries, in 2013-2014. One of the questions was: "Has a national asthma strategy been developed in your country for the next five years? For children? For adults?". Investigators in 112 (93.3%) countries answered this question. Of these, 26 (23.2%) reported having a national asthma strategy for children and 24 (21.4%) for adults; 22 (19.6%) countries had a strategy for both children and adults; 28 (25%) had a strategy for at least one age group. In countries with a high prevalence of current wheeze, strategies were significantly more common than in low prevalence countries (11/13 (85%) and 7/31 (22.6%) respectively, pasthma strategy was reported. A large reduction in the global burden of asthma could be potentially achieved if more countries had an effective asthma strategy. Copyright © 2017 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Examining the Linkage Between FRAMES and GMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whelan, Gene; Castleton, Karl J.

    2006-02-13

    Because GMS provides so many features, of which some are also addressed by FRAMES, it could represent a platform to link to FRAMES, or FRAMES could represent a platform to link to GMS. The focus of this summary is to examine the strengths and weaknesses of the potential linkage direction and provide recommendations for the linkage between FRAMES and GMS.

  12. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... PDF – 1.1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to ... PDF – 1.1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health File Formats Help: ...

  13. Exploring the obesity-asthma link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, R V; Gonzalez-Quintela, A; Vidal, C

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and risk of asthma are linked. Different distributions of adiposity, such as visceral, subcutaneous or ectopic adiposity, may affect asthma risk differently.......Obesity and risk of asthma are linked. Different distributions of adiposity, such as visceral, subcutaneous or ectopic adiposity, may affect asthma risk differently....

  14. What's an Asthma Flare-Up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy Healthy Food Shopping Healthy Drinks for Kids Asthma Flare-Ups KidsHealth > For Parents > Asthma Flare-Ups ... español ¿Qué es una crisis asmática? What Are Asthma Flare-Ups? Keeping asthma under control helps kids ...

  15. American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Life Spectrum of Asthma Meeting School-based Asthma Management Program – (SAMPRO TM ) This central resource focuses on ... AAAAI is proud to endorse HR 2285, the School-Based Respiratory Health Management Act Read Practice Matters! Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Quality ...

  16. Developing and emerging clinical asthma phenotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekking, Pieter-Paul W.; Bel, Elisabeth H.

    2014-01-01

    For more than a century, clinicians have attempted to subdivide asthma into different phenotypes based on triggers that cause asthma attacks, the course of the disease, or the prognosis. The first phenotypes that were described included allergic asthma, intrinsic or nonallergic asthma, infectious

  17. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... PDF – 1.1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir You can control your asthma and avoid an attack by taking your medicine exactly as your doctor or other medical professional ...

  18. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with asthma Tables and Graphs Asthma Call-back Survey Technical Information Prevalence Tables BRFSS Prevalence Data NHIS ... Profiles (2011) Work-related Asthma NCHS Asthma FastStats Survey Questions Resources for Health Professionals and Schools Healthcare ...

  19. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Breathing Easier [PDF – 1.1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know ... Breathing Easier [PDF – 1.1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health File ...

  20. Effect of swimming on peak expiratory flow rate of atopic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemanian, Mohammad Hassan; Shirkhoda, Shima; Nakhjavani, Mina; Mozafari, Habibeh

    2009-06-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the role of swimming on mechanic of lung in healthy individual and patients with asthma. A total 76 girls who took part in the course of regular swimming session three day per week for eight weeks enrolled in this study. All of them completed ISAAC written questionnaire and individual who was suspected of asthma or other atopic diseases was referred to allergist for more evaluation. Peak expiratory flow rate was recorded for participants at beginning, one hour after swimming and two months later. According to ISAAC questionnaire 35.4% had asthma or other atopic diseases. Increase in PEFR more than 20% of personal best was seen in 21.9% after one hour swimming and in 27.6% after two months. Increase in PEFR was significant in healthy individual and asthmatic patients and obese but was not significant in patients with allergic rhinitis or eczema. This study suggests swimming in indoor pool is useful for patients with asthma in spite of potential toxic role of chlorine in exacerbation of asthma symptoms and lung mechanics.

  1. PAEDIATRIC ASTHMA AND MANUAL THERAPY- A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Pandey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asthma is an inflammatory clutter of the airways that causes wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness, and coughing. In India, approximate calculation indicates a prevalence of between 10% and 15% in 5-11 year old children. Modern Western treatment focuses on controlling asthma with two classes of medication corticosteroids and bronchodilatorss. Another plan of action for reducing and potentially even throw out asthma manifestation affects manipulation of the craniosacral fascial system. This system is a unification of the craniosacral and fascial or connective tissue part. This idea can help in making clear the greatly high rate of achievement with manual therapy in pediatric asthma. Methods: In this case report first I have taken a brief history of the patient condition after the full assessment like brain cycle rhythm, chest and systemic. I have given cranio sacral therapy, Intercostal release, PNF for diaphragm release on child for seven sitting of about 45 minutes of each session. Results: After completion of treatment session of seven sitting his lungs to be bright of any wheezing or other impediment. Brain cycle was of 90 seconds. His peak flow meter readings were between 250 and 300 Liters/minute, which were in a satisfactory range for him. The physician suggested that at this point there was no requirement for any additional asthma medicines. Conclusion: It comes into sight that the loss to the respiratory system caused by fascial burden early in life may be fully reversible, if treated immediately. The latent grace of this interdependent approach is that it crop up to address the pathological origin of asthma.

  2. Aerosolized red-tide toxins (brevetoxins) and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Lora E; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Backer, Lorraine C; Bean, Judy A; Wanner, Adam; Reich, Andrew; Zaias, Julia; Cheng, Yung Sung; Pierce, Richard; Naar, Jerome; Abraham, William M; Baden, Daniel G

    2007-01-01

    With the increasing incidence of asthma, there is increasing concern over environmental exposures that may trigger asthma exacerbations. Blooms of the marine microalgae, Karenia brevis, cause red tides (or harmful algal blooms) annually throughout the Gulf of Mexico. K brevis produces highly potent natural polyether toxins, called brevetoxins, which are sodium channel blockers, and possibly histamine activators. In experimental animals, brevetoxins cause significant bronchoconstriction. In humans, a significant increase in self-reported respiratory symptoms has been described after recreational and occupational exposures to Florida red-tide aerosols, particularly among individuals with asthma. Before and after 1 h spent on beaches with and without an active K brevis red-tide exposure, 97 persons >or= 12 years of age with physician-diagnosed asthma were evaluated by questionnaire and spirometry. Concomitant environmental monitoring, water and air sampling, and personal monitoring for brevetoxins were performed. Participants were significantly more likely to report respiratory symptoms after K brevis red-tide aerosol exposure than before exposure. Participants demonstrated small, but statistically significant, decreases in FEV(1), midexpiratory phase of forced expiratory flow, and peak expiratory flow after exposure, particularly among those participants regularly using asthma medications. No significant differences were detected when there was no Florida red tide (ie, during nonexposure periods). This study demonstrated objectively measurable adverse changes in lung function from exposure to aerosolized Florida red-tide toxins in asthmatic subjects, particularly among those requiring regular therapy with asthma medications. Future studies will assess these susceptible subpopulations in more depth, as well as the possible long-term effects of these toxins.

  3. Eicosanoids in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Kong-Sang; Wu, Wei-Fong

    2007-01-01

    Eicosanoids belong to a diverse family of bioactive fatty acids that play important roles in regulating airway inflammation and reactivity. They are the key mediators of the pathobiology of asthma. Among the eicosanoids, lipoxins (LXs) were the first agents to be identified and recognized as potential anti-inflammatory endogenous lipid mediators. Lipoxins are biosynthesized in vivo at inflammation sites. They result mainly from the interaction between 5 and 15-lipoxygenases (LOs), which are distinct from leukotrienes (LTs) and prostaglandins (PGs) in structure and function. Leukotrienes are potent proinflammatory mediators and directly and indirectly stimulate fibroblast chemotaxis, proliferation, and collagen synthesis. Prostaglandins have both bronchoconstrictive and bronchoprotective effects and the bronchoconstriction mediated by PGD2 and PGF2alpha is only occurred in asthmatic patients but not in healthy subjects. Lipoxins counter-regulate the proinflammatory actions of LTs and activate resolution of the inflammatory response. At least two classes of receptors, CysLT1 receptors and Asprin-triggered lipoxin A4 (ALX) receptors, can interact with lipoxin A4 (LXA4) and LXA4 analogs to mediate their biologic actions. Allergen challenge initiates airway biosynthesis of LXA4 and increases expression of its receptor. In addition, LXA4 affects the release of interleukin-8 by blood mononuclear cells, and ALX affects calcium influx into epithelial cells. Therefore, the pivotal role of LXs is mediating airway homeostasis, and LXs may be part of a novel, multipronged approach for treating human asthma.

  4. Effect of mindfulness training on asthma quality of life and lung function: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pbert, Lori; Madison, J Mark; Druker, Susan; Olendzki, Nicholas; Magner, Robert; Reed, George; Allison, Jeroan; Carmody, James

    2012-09-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a mindfulness training programme (mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR)) in improving asthma-related quality of life and lung function in patients with asthma. A randomised controlled trial compared an 8-week MBSR group-based programme (n=42) with an educational control programme (n=41) in adults with mild, moderate or severe persistent asthma recruited at a university hospital outpatient primary care and pulmonary care clinic. Primary outcomes were quality of life (Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire) and lung function (change from baseline in 2-week average morning peak expiratory flow (PEF)). Secondary outcomes were asthma control assessed by 2007 National Institutes of Health/National Heart Lung and Blood Institute guidelines, and stress (Perceived Stress Scale (PSS)). Follow-up assessments were conducted at 10 weeks, 6 and 12 months. At 12 months MBSR resulted in clinically significant improvements from baseline in quality of life (differential change in Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire score for MBSR vs control: 0.66 (95% CI 0.30 to 1.03; pMBSR also resulted in clinically significant improvements in perceived stress (differential change in PSS score for MBSR vs control: -4.5 (95% CI -7.1 to -1.9; p=0.001)). There was no significant difference (p=0.301) in percentage of patients in MBSR with well controlled asthma (7.3% at baseline to 19.4%) compared with the control condition (7.5% at baseline to 7.9%). MBSR produced lasting and clinically significant improvements in asthma-related quality of life and stress in patients with persistent asthma, without improvements in lung function. Asthma and Mindfulness-Based Reduction (MBSR) Identifier: NCT00682669. clinicaltrials.gov.

  5. Allergic rhinitis and sinusitis in asthma: differential effects on symptoms and pulmonary function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Anne E; Kaminsky, David A; Holbrook, Janet T; Wise, Robert A; Shade, David M; Irvin, Charles G

    2006-08-01

    Allergic rhinitis and sinusitis are frequently associated with asthma. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of self-reported allergic rhinitis and sinusitis on lower airway disease in a large cohort of participants with well-characterized asthma. A cohort study of participants in two trials of the American Lung Association-Asthma Clinical Research Centers: 2,031 asthmatics in the Safety of Inactivated Influenza Vaccine in Asthma in Adults and Children (SIIVA) trial and 488 asthmatics in the Effectiveness of Low Dose Theophylline as Add-on Treatment in Asthma (LODO) trial. At baseline, participants reported the presence of allergic rhinitis and sinusitis, and then lung function and asthma control were measured. During the trials, participants were monitored for asthma exacerbations. More than 70% of participants reported either allergic rhinitis or sinusitis. Sinusitis was more common in female patients (odds ratio, 1.46 [SIIVA]), those with gastroesophageal reflux disease (odds ratio, 2.21 [SIIVA]), and those of white race (odds ratio, 1.53 [SIIVA]). Similar associations were seen for allergic rhinitis. LODO participants with allergic rhinitis and sinusitis had increased asthma symptoms and a trend toward more sleep disturbance. Participants with allergic rhinitis had higher baseline lung function than those without allergic rhinitis measured by peak flow (91.2% vs 95.8% in the SIIVA trial). Participants with sinusitis had similar lung function to those without sinusitis. Participants with and without allergic rhinitis had similar exacerbation rates. In the LODO trial only, participants with sinusitis had increased asthma exacerbations (5.68 per patient per year vs 3.72 per patient per year). Allergic rhinitis and sinusitis are associated with more severe asthmatic symptoms and, in patients with poorly controlled asthma, more exacerbations but are not associated with low lung function.

  6. Results of an asthma education program delivered via telemedicine in rural schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Tamara T; Halterman, Jill S; Brown, Rita H; Luo, Chunqiao; Randle, Shemeka M; Hunter, Cassandra R; Rettiganti, Mallikarjuna

    2018-02-19

    Asthma morbidity is high among low-income children living in rural U.S. regions, yet few interventions have been designed to reduce asthma burden among rural populations. Examine the impact of a school-based asthma education program delivered via telemedicine among children living in an impoverished, rural region. We conducted a cluster randomized trial with rural children, ages 7-14 years, comparing a school-based telemedicine asthma education intervention to usual care. The intervention provided comprehensive asthma education via telemedicine to participants and provided evidence-based treatment recommendations to primary care providers. Of the 393 enrolled children, median age was 9.6 years, 81% were African-American and 47% lived in households with <$14,999 annual income. At enrollment, 88% of children reported uncontrolled asthma symptoms. At the end of the intervention, there were no statistically significant differences in reported symptom free days (primary outcome) for either the intervention or usual care group. Participants in the intervention group reported significantly higher utilization of peak flow meters to monitor asthma and reported taking their asthma medications as prescribed more frequently when compared to the usual care group. There were no changes in other outcome measures including quality of life, self-efficacy, asthma knowledge, or lung function between groups. Although there was some evidence of behavior change among intervention participants, these changes were inadequate to overcome the significant morbidity experienced by this highly symptomatic rural, impoverished population. Future interventions should be designed with a multifaceted approach that considers caregiver engagement, distance barriers and inadequate access to asthma providers in rural regions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Evaluation of quality of life according to asthma control and asthma severity in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Natasha Yumi; Ribeiro, Maria Angela Gonçalves de Oliveira; Saad, Ivete Alonso Bredda; Morcillo, André Moreno; Ribeiro, José Dirceu; Toro, Adyléia Aparecida Dalbo Contrera

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate quality of life according to the level of asthma control and degree of asthma severity in children and adolescents. We selected children and adolescents with asthma (7-17 years of age) from the Pediatric Pulmonology Outpatient Clinic of the State University of Campinas Hospital de Clínicas, located in the city of Campinas, Brazil. Asthma control and asthma severity were assessed by the Asthma Control Test and by the questionnaire based on the Global Initiative for Asthma, respectively. The patients also completed the Paediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ), validated for use in Brazil, in order to evaluate their quality of life. The mean age of the patients was 11.22 ± 2.91 years, with a median of 11.20 (7.00-17.60) years. We selected 100 patients, of whom 27, 33, and 40 were classified as having controlled asthma (CA), partially controlled asthma (PCA), and uncontrolled asthma (UA), respectively. As for asthma severity, 34, 19, and 47 were classified as having mild asthma (MiA), moderate asthma (MoA), and severe asthma (SA), respectively. The CA and the PCA groups, when compared with the NCA group, showed higher values for the overall PAQLQ score and all PAQLQ domains (activity limitation, symptoms, and emotional function; p Quality of life appears to be directly related to asthma control and asthma severity in children and adolescents, being better when asthma is well controlled and asthma severity is lower.

  8. Gastroesophageal reflux disease and asthma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshoo, Vikram; Haydel, Robert; Saturno, Emilio

    2006-06-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) occurs in about two thirds of children with asthma. It may simply represent a concomitant unrelated finding or it may be responsible for provoking or worsening asthma. GERD could also be a byproduct of asthma itself. In any case, aggressive treatment of GERD seems to improve asthma outcomes. GERD should be suspected in asthma patients who do not have any known risk factors or those who are becoming difficult to treat.

  9. Guidelines for severe uncontrolled asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros Serrano, Carolina; Melero Moreno, Carlos; Almonacid Sánchez, Carlos; Perpiñá Tordera, Miguel; Picado Valles, César; Martínez Moragón, Eva; Pérez de Llano, Luis; Soto Campos, José Gregorio; Urrutia Landa, Isabel; García Hernández, Gloria

    2015-05-01

    Since the publication, 9 years ago, of the latest SEPAR (Spanish Society of Pulmonology and Thoracic Surgery) Guidelines on Difficult-to-Control Asthma (DCA), much progress has been made in the understanding of asthmatic disease. These new data need to be reviewed, analyzed and incorporated into the guidelines according to their level of evidence and recommendation. Recently, consensus documents and clinical practice guidelines (CPG) addressing this issue have been published. In these guidelines, specific mention will be made of what the previous DCA guidelines defined as "true difficult-to-control asthma". This is asthma that remains uncontrolled after diagnosis and a systematic evaluation to rule out factors unrelated to the disease itself that lead to poor control ("false difficult-to-control asthma"), and despite an appropriate treatment strategy (Spanish Guidelines for the Management of Asthma [GEMA] steps 5 and 6): severe uncontrolled asthma. In this respect, the guidelines propose a revised definition, an attempt to classify the various manifestations of this type of asthma, a proposal for a stepwise diagnostic procedure, and phenotype-targeted treatment. A specific section has also been included on DCA in childhood, aimed at assisting healthcare professionals to improve the care of these patients. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence of asthma-like symptoms, asthma and its treatment in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, T; Pedersen, L; Larsson, B

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to determine the prevalence of asthma-like symptoms and asthma and the use of asthma medication in Danish elite athletes. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of Danish elite athletes was conducted in 2006. All elite athletes (N=418) financially supported by the national...... organization of elite athletes comprised the study group; 329 (79%) completed the questionnaire concerning their sport, asthma-like symptoms, asthma and use of asthma medication. Asthma-like symptoms at rest were reported by 41% of respondents; 55% reported asthma-like symptoms at rest or at exercise....... Physician-diagnosed asthma was present in 16% and 14% had current asthma. Asthma medication was taken by 7% of the athletes, of whom 79% used inhaled corticosteroids and 21% used inhaled beta(2)-agonists only. Athletes participating in endurance sports had higher prevalences of current asthma (24%) and use...

  11. Differential Expression of Serum Proteins in Rats with Allergic Asthma: A Study Based on the Nanoliter Two-Dimensional Liquid Chromatography Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingke Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the pathogenesis of allergic asthma via the nanoliter two-dimensional liquid chromatography (nano-2D-LC technique. Method. 24 Wistar rats were randomized into 3 groups: the blank-control group (A, the restrained group (B, and the asthma model group (C. The nanoliter two-dimensional liquid chromatography (nano-2D-LC technique was used to study the differential protein expressions of the serum in asthmatic rats. Results. Compared with the restrained group, the data from the asthma model group displayed a distinctive peak, that is, peak number 13 (94.731 min. The data also displayed three missing peaks in the asthma group, that is, peak number 1 (77.489 min, peak number 2 (78.418 min, and peak number 5 (80.533 min, suggesting that the corresponding peptides might be related to the pathogenesis of asthma. Compared with the blank-control group, the restrained group showed 4 new peaks, that is, peak number 2 (78.418 min, peak number 4 (79.398 min, peak number 5 (80.533 min, and peak number 7 (81.824 min. The restrained group also displayed a missing peak, that is, peak number 3 (78.804 min, indicating that those 5 polypeptides might be related to the binding-induced stress stimuli. Conclusion. The study suggests that the pathogenesis of allergic asthma is closely related to abnormal levels of proteins; however, future animal experiments should identify the specific protein expressions caused by stress factors.

  12. Acute asthma exacerbations: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Lorenzo Urso

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways. All patient with asthma are at risk of having exacerbations characterized by worsening symptoms, airflow obstruction, and an increased requirement for rescue bronchodilators. Asthma exacerbations can be classified as mild, moderate, severe, or life threatening. The goals of treatment are correction of severe hypoxemia, rapid reversal of airflow obstruction, and reduction of the risk of relapse.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v5i3.932

  13. Occupational asthma in maritime environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, David; Loddé, Brice; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis

    2016-01-01

    In 2006 we published our first review based on the available literature on occupational asthma in maritime environments in the “International Maritime Health” journal. Since then, we have obtained a great deal of new knowledge on asthma in seafood workers and fishermen and on the impact...... of exposures from sulphites preservatives, container fumigants etc. in maritime workers. This review aims to provide an update of the current knowledge base about occupational asthma in a maritime context and to provide recommendations regarding medical surveillance of workers at risk....

  14. Biomarkers in Asthma: A Real Hope to Better Manage Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzurum, Serpil C.; Gaston, Benjamin M.

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Diagnosis and treatment of asthma are currently based on assessment of patient symptoms and physiologic tests of airway reactivity. The morbidities and costs associated with the over and/or under treatment of this common disease, as well as the growing numbers of biologically-specific targeted strategies for therapy, provide a rationale for development of biomarkers to evaluate the presence and type of inflammation in individuals with asthma in order to optimize treatment plans. Research over the past decade has identified an array of biochemical and cellular biomarkers, which reflect the heterogeneous and multiple mechanistic pathways that may lead to asthma. These mechanistic biomarkers offer hope for optimal design of therapies targeting the specific pathways that lead to inflammation. This article provides an overview of blood, urine and airway biomarkers, summarizes the pathologic pathways that they signify, and begins to describe the utility of biomarkers in the future care of patients with asthma. PMID:22929095

  15. Role of Obesity in Asthma Control, the Obesity-Asthma Phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Shannon Novosad; Supriya Khan; Bruce Wolfe; Akram Khan

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is a disease with distinct phenotypes that have implications for both prognosis and therapy. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated an association between asthma and obesity. Further studies have shown that obese asthmatics have poor asthma control and more severe asthma. This obese-asthma group may represent a unique phenotype. The mechanisms behind poor asthma control in obese subjects remain unclear, but recent research has focused on adipokines and their effects on the airways as ...

  16. Drivers of peak sales for pharmaceutical brands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Marc; Leeflang, Peter S. H.; Verhoef, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    Peak sales are an important metric in the pharmaceutical industry. Specifically, managers are focused on the height-of-peak-sales and the time required achieving peak sales. We analyze how order of entry and quality affect the level of peak sales and the time-to-peak-sales of pharmaceutical brands.

  17. Characterization of Rhinitis According to the Asthma Status in Adults Using an Unsupervised Approach in the EGEA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burte, Emilie; Bousquet, Jean; Varraso, Raphaëlle; Gormand, Frédéric; Just, Jocelyne; Matran, Régis; Pin, Isabelle; Siroux, Valérie; Jacquemin, Bénédicte; Nadif, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    The classification of rhinitis in adults is missing in epidemiological studies. To identify phenotypes of adult rhinitis using an unsupervised approach (data-driven) compared with a classical hypothesis-driven approach. 983 adults of the French Epidemiological Study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA) were studied. Self-reported symptoms related to rhinitis such as nasal symptoms, hay fever, sinusitis, conjunctivitis, and sensitivities to different triggers (dust, animals, hay/flowers, cold air…) were used. Allergic sensitization was defined by at least one positive skin prick test to 12 aeroallergens. Mixture model was used to cluster participants, independently in those without (Asthma-, n = 582) and with asthma (Asthma+, n = 401). Three clusters were identified in both groups: 1) Cluster A (55% in Asthma-, and 22% in Asthma+) mainly characterized by the absence of nasal symptoms, 2) Cluster B (23% in Asthma-, 36% in Asthma+) mainly characterized by nasal symptoms all over the year, sinusitis and a low prevalence of positive skin prick tests, and 3) Cluster C (22% in Asthma-, 42% in Asthma+) mainly characterized by a peak of nasal symptoms during spring, a high prevalence of positive skin prick tests and a high report of hay fever, allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis. The highest rate of polysensitization (80%) was found in participants with comorbid asthma and allergic rhinitis. This cluster analysis highlighted three clusters of rhinitis with similar characteristics than those known by clinicians but differing according to allergic sensitization, and this whatever the asthma status. These clusters could be easily rebuilt using a small number of variables.

  18. Tools in Asthma Evaluation and Management: When and How to Use Them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulholland, Anna; Ainsworth, Alana; Pillarisetti, Naveen

    2017-11-15

    The goals of asthma management are accurate diagnosis, prompt initiation of treatment and monitoring of disease progression to limit potential morbidity and mortality. While the diagnosis and management is largely based on history taking and clinical examination, there are an increasing number of tools available that could be used to aid diagnosis, define phenotypes, monitor progress and assess response to treatment. Tools such as the Asthma Predictive Index could help in making predictions about the possibility of asthma in childhood based on certain clinical parameters in pre-schoolers. Lung function measurements such as peak expiratory flow, spirometry, bronchodilator responsiveness, and bronchial provocation tests help establish airway obstruction and variability over time. Tools such as asthma questionnaires, lung function measurements and markers of airway inflammation could be used in combination with clinical assessments to assess ongoing asthma control. Recent advances in digital technology, which open up new frontiers in asthma management, need to be evaluated and embraced if proven to be of value. This review summarises the role of currently available tools in asthma diagnosis and management. While many of the tools are readily available in resource rich settings, it becomes more challenging when working in resource poor settings. A rational approach to the use of these tools is recommended.

  19. Effect of exposure and sensitization to indoor allergens on asthma control level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Toshihiro; Yasueda, Hiroshi; Saito, Akemi; Taniguchi, Masami; Akiyama, Kazuo; Tsuchiya, Tomoyoshi; Suda, Takafumi; Chida, Kingo

    2012-03-01

    Reducing risk factors, such as exposure to allergens, and stepwise pharmacotherapy to achieve and maintain control of asthma are the mainstay of asthma care. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of exposure and sensitization to indoor allergens, including house dust mites, cats, and dogs, on the asthma control level. Dust samples were collected from the mattresses of 101 adult asthma patient homes and the Dermatophagoides mite group 1 (Der 1), Fel d 1, and Can f 1 concentrations were measured using ELISA. Sensitization was determined by positive specific IgE antibodies. The Asthma Control Test (ACT), lowest peak expiratory flow (PEF) during 1 week expressed as a percentage of the highest PEF (Min%Max PEF), and spirometry were measured for the assessment of asthma control. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to assess the relationships. Sixty-nine patients were exposed to high levels (>10μg/g dust for Der 1 and Can f 1 and >8μg/g dust for Fel d 1) of 1 or more allergens and 39 patients were sensitized to at least one allergen. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that the FEV(1) (% of predicted value) was associated with low ACT scores (≤19) and that the number of highly exposed allergens and inhaled corticosteroid dose were associated with a low level of Min%Max PEF (allergens, but not sensitization, is associated with the asthma control level determined by PEF variation.

  20. Opportunities for longitudinal data linkage in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagger-Johnson, Gareth

    2016-08-01

    Scotland has existing data resources which are competitive internationally and available to researchers from elsewhere. The Scottish Informatics and Linkage Collaboration (SILC) was recently launched, allowing data sets to be linked within and between sectors (e.g. health to non-health). The purpose of this review article is to introduce and define key terms in data linkage, to describe the emerging data linkage resources available in Scotland and to describe the opportunities available in Scotland to researchers internationally. The review is aimed at researchers internationally who are interested in data linkage using Scottish data resources. The review makes particular reference to longitudinal health data but emphasises that linkage to non-health data allows research questions to be considered that were previously not answerable. The review is focused on longitudinal data resources (e.g. cohort studies and repeated measures designs), since they are usually the focus of data linkage research. The review concludes that any intended data linkage for research should be driven by a clear research question. The infrastructure already available and the launch of SILC will accelerate research in Scotland and generate new research questions that previously could not be considered. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Psychological aspects in asthma: do psychological factors affect asthma management?

    OpenAIRE

    Baiardini, Ilaria; Sicuro, Francesca; Balbi, Francesco; Canonica, Giorgio Walter; Braido, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    Despite the regular treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) or ICS plus long-acting beta2-agonists, permits to control de majority of asthmatics, a significant proportion of patients does not respond to this treatment. This review was aimed to explore the role of psychological factors associated to the unsuccessful fulfilment of optimal levels of asthma control, especially in patients suffering from severe asthma. The results of a Medline search were 5510 articles addressed to different ...

  2. Non-adherence to inhaled corticosteroids and the risk of asthma exacerbations in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasbinder EC

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Erwin C Vasbinder,1 Svetlana V Belitser,2 Patrick C Souverein,2 Liset van Dijk,3 Arnold G Vulto,1 Patricia MLA van den Bemt1 1Erasmus University Medical Center, Department of Hospital Pharmacy, Rotterdam, 2Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Clinical Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, 3NIVEL, Utrecht, the Netherlands Background: Non-adherence to inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs is a major risk factor for poor asthma control in children. However, little is known about the effect of adherence to ICS on the incidence of asthma exacerbations. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of poor adherence to ICS on the risk of exacerbations in children with asthma. Methods: In this nested case–control study using data from the Dutch PHARMO Record Linkage System, children aged 5–12 years who had an asthma exacerbation needing oral corticosteroids or hospital admission were matched to patients without exacerbations. Refill adherence was calculated as medication possession ratio from ICS-dispensing records. Data were analyzed using a multivariable multiplicative intensity regression model. Results: A total of 646 children were included, of whom 36 had one or more asthma exacerbations. The medication possession ratio was 67.9% (standard deviation [SD] 30.2% in children with an exacerbation versus 54.2% (SD 35.6% in the control group. In children using long-acting beta-agonist, good adherence to ICS was associated with a higher risk of asthma exacerbations: relative risk 4.34 (95% confidence interval: 1.20–15.64. Conclusion: In children with persistent asthma needing long-acting beta-agonist, good adherence to ICS was associated with an increased risk of asthma exacerbations. Possible explanations include better motivation for adherence to ICS in children with more severe asthma, and reduced susceptibility to the consequences of non-adherence to ICS due to overprescription of ICS to children who

  3. Genetic associations with viral respiratory illnesses and asthma control in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loisel, D A; Du, G; Ahluwalia, T S

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Viral respiratory infections can cause acute wheezing illnesses in children and exacerbations of asthma. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify variation in genes with known antiviral and pro-inflammatory functions to identify specific associations with more severe viral respiratory illnesses...... and the risk of virus-induced exacerbations during the peak fall season. METHODS: The associations between genetic variation at 326 SNPs in 63 candidate genes and 10 phenotypes related to viral respiratory infection and asthma control were examined in 226 children enrolled in the RhinoGen study. Replication...... differences in childhood viral respiratory illnesses and virus-induced exacerbations of asthma. Defining mechanisms of these associations may provide insight into the pathogenesis of viral respiratory infections and virus-induced exacerbations of asthma....

  4. Humans as animal sentinels for forecasting asthma events: helping health services become more responsive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireneous N Soyiri

    Full Text Available The concept of forecasting asthma using humans as animal sentinels is uncommon. This study explores the plausibility of predicting future asthma daily admissions using retrospective data in London (2005-2006. Negative binomial regressions were used in modeling; allowing the non-contiguous autoregressive components. Selected lags were based on partial autocorrelation function (PACF plot with a maximum lag of 7 days. The model was contrasted with naïve historical and seasonal models. All models were cross validated. Mean daily asthma admission in 2005 was 27.9 and in 2006 it was 28.9. The lags 1, 2, 3, 6 and 7 were independently associated with daily asthma admissions based on their PACF plots. The lag model prediction of peak admissions were often slightly out of synchronization with the actual data, but the days of greater admissions were better matched than the days of lower admissions. A further investigation across various populations is necessary.

  5. The possible role of cockroaches in baker's asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marraccini, P; Previdi, M; Cantone, Laura; Varin, Elena; Salimbeni, Rossana; Todaro, A; Panciera, Daniela; Costamagna, P

    2007-01-01

    Baker's asthma is related to wheat flour exposure and to other cereal dust exposure. The cockroach is considered a significant allergen and can occasionally trigger asthma in bakery workers. The case of a 33-year-old male, suffering from asthma in the workplace with previous equivocal tests for cereal dust was investigated Clinical assessment of the worker consisted of cutaneous and blood screening for common and occupational allergens, including cockroach. The subject was monitored for aspecific bronchial reactivity and peak flow in a cockroach disinfected workplace, and these data were compared to data obtained after previous workplace exposure. The worker was not allergic to wheat and other cereal dusts or alpha-amylase, but was sensitized to cockroach. His asthmatic symptoms disappeared, and bronchial reactivity varied after a long period outside the bakery workplace. PEF monitoring, that had showed diurnal variability > 20% and differences between working and non-working periods, demonstrated both normal values and daily variations less than 10% when he returned to the cockroach disinfected workplace. The cockroach is a common allergen, however no case of work-related baker's asthma due to the cockroach has been previously described. Clinical history and analysis of the allergens at the workplace must direct the clinical approach of the investigators, in order to correctly evaluate the subject and enable him/her to resume work.

  6. Swimming and Persons with Mild Persistant Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Arandelovic

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to analyze the effect of recreational swimming on lung function and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR in patients with mild persistent asthma. This study included 65 patients with mild persistent asthma, who were divided into two groups: experimental group A (n = 45 and control group B (n = 20. Patients from both groups were treated with low doses of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS and short-acting β2 agonists salbutamol as needed. Our program for patients in group A was combined asthma education with swimming (twice a week on a 1-h basis for the following 6 months. At the end of the study, in Group A, we found a statistically significant increase of lung function parameters FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (3.55 vs. 3.65 (p < 0.01, FVC (forced vital capacity (4.27 vs. 4.37 (p < 0.05, PEF (peak expiratory flow (7.08 vs. 7.46 (p < 0.01, and statistically significant decrease of BHR (PD20 0.58 vs. 2.01 (p < 0.001. In Group B, there was a statistically significant improvement of FEV1 3.29 vs. 3.33 (p < 0.05 and although FVC, FEV1/FVC, and PEF were improved, it was not significant. When Groups A and B were compared at the end of the study, there was a statistically significant difference of FVC (4.01 vs. 4.37, FEV1 (3.33 vs. 3.55, PEF (6.79 vs.7.46, and variability (p <0.001, and statistically significantly decreased BHR in Group A (2.01 vs. 1.75 (p < 0.001. Engagement of patients with mild persistent asthma in recreational swimming in nonchlorinated pools, combined with regular medical treatment and education, leads to better improvement of their parameters of lung function and also to more significant decrease of their airway hyperresponsiveness compared to patients treated with traditional medicine

  7. Analysis of linkage and linkage disequilibrium for eight X-STR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmar, Andreas O; Mostad, Petter; Egeland, Thore; Lindblom, Bertil; Holmlund, Gunilla; Montelius, Kerstin

    2008-12-01

    X-chromosomal short tandem repeats (X-STR) have proven to be informative and useful in complex relationship testing. The main feature of X-STR markers, compared to autosomal forensic markers, is that all loci are located on the same chromosome. Thus, linkage and linkage disequilibrium may occur. The aim of this work was to study population genetic parameters of eight X-STR markers, located in four linkage groups. We present haplotype frequencies, based on 718 Swedish males, for the four linkage groups included in the Argus X-8 kit. Forensic efficiency parameters have been calculated as well as the allelic association between the tested markers for detection of linkage disequilibrium. To study the occurrences of recombination between the loci, both Swedish and Somali families were typed. A mathematical model for the estimation of recombination frequencies is presented and applied on the family samples. Our study showed that the tested markers all have highly informative forensic values and that there is a significant degree of linkage disequilibrium between the STR markers within the four linkage groups. Furthermore, based on the tested families, we also demonstrated that two of the linkage groups are partially linked. A consequence of these findings is that both linkage and linkage disequilibrium should be accounted for when producing likelihood ratios in relationship testing with X-STR markers.

  8. Emerging molecular phenotypes of asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Anuradha; Oriss, Timothy B.

    2014-01-01

    Although asthma has long been considered a heterogeneous disease, attempts to define subgroups of asthma have been limited. In recent years, both clinical and statistical approaches have been utilized to better merge clinical characteristics, biology, and genetics. These combined characteristics have been used to define phenotypes of asthma, the observable characteristics of a patient determined by the interaction of genes and environment. Identification of consistent clinical phenotypes has now been reported across studies. Now the addition of various 'omics and identification of specific molecular pathways have moved the concept of clinical phenotypes toward the concept of molecular phenotypes. The importance of these molecular phenotypes is being confirmed through the integration of molecularly targeted biological therapies. Thus the global term asthma is poised to become obsolete, being replaced by terms that more specifically identify the pathology associated with the disease. PMID:25326577

  9. Stay away from asthma triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BS, Burks AW, et al, eds. Middleton's Allergy Principles and Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 86. Durrani SR, Busse WW. Management of asthma in adolescents and adults. In: Adkinson ...

  10. Mediterranean diet and childhood asthma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Calatayud-Sáez, F M; Calatayud Moscoso Del Prado, B; Gallego Fernández-Pacheco, J G; González-Martín, C; Alguacil Merino, L F

    .... The objective of the present study was to assess the effects of a traditional Mediterranean diet on patients diagnosed with childhood asthma and determine if there is a beneficial effect from this dietary intervention...

  11. Obesity, asthma, and oxidative stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fernando Holguin; Anne Fitzpatrick

    2010-01-01

    .... Contrary to what has previously been thought, the combination of obesity and asthma, both chronic inflammatory diseases, does not necessarily result in a synergistic effect, leading to even greater oxidative stress...

  12. Allergy and asthma prevention 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieto, Antonio; Wahn, Ulrich; Bufe, Albrecht

    2014-01-01

    Asthma and allergic diseases have become one of the epidemics of the 21st century in developed countries. Much of the success of other areas of medicine, such as infectious diseases, lies on preventive measures. Thus, much effort is also being placed lately in the prevention of asthma and allergy....... This manuscript reviews the current evidence, divided into four areas of activity. Interventions modifying environmental exposure to allergens have provided inconsistent results, with multifaceted interventions being more effective in the prevention of asthma. Regarding nutrition, the use of hydrolyzed formulas...... that antiviral vaccines could be useful in the future. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is effective for the treatment of allergic patients with symptoms; the study of its value for primary and secondary prevention of asthma and allergy is in its very preliminary phases. The lack of success in the prevention...

  13. Asthma in Children - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Asthma in Children URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/asthmainchildren.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  14. Genetics Home Reference: allergic asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have another allergic disorder, such as hay fever (allergic rhinitis) or food allergies. Asthma is sometimes part of a series of allergic disorders, referred to as the atopic march. Development ...

  15. Spatial peak-load pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arellano, M. Soledad; Serra, Pablo [Universidad de Chile, Dept. of Industrial Engineering, Santiago (Chile)

    2007-03-15

    This article extends the traditional electricity peak-load pricing model to include transmission costs. In the context of a two-node, two-technology electric power system, where suppliers face inelastic demand, we show that when the marginal plant is located at the energy-importing center, generators located away from that center should pay the marginal capacity transmission cost; otherwise, consumers should bear this cost through capacity payments. Since electric power transmission is a natural monopoly, marginal-cost pricing does not fully cover costs. We propose distributing the revenue deficit among users in proportion to the surplus they derive from the service priced at marginal cost. (Author)

  16. The poorly explored impact of uncontrolled asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Byrne, Paul M; Pedersen, Søren; Schatz, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The goal of asthma management is to achieve disease control; however, despite the availability of effective and safe medications, for many patients asthma remains uncontrolled. One reason for this is the fear of long-term side effects from the regular use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs). Adverse...... effects of poorly controlled asthma (for example, obesity, pneumonia, and risks to the fetus) can be perceived as side effects of ICSs. Poorly controlled asthma adversely affects children's cardiovascular fitness, while children with well-controlled asthma perform at the same level as their peers....... Children with uncontrolled asthma also have a higher frequency of obesity than children with controlled asthma. Stress can affect asthma control, and children with poorly controlled asthma are more likely to have learning disabilities compared with those with good control. In adults, focused attention...

  17. Coexistence of asthma and polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Louise; Gade, Elisabeth Juul; Lindenberg, Svend

    2016-01-01

    Asthma may be associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and possibly patients with PCOS have a more severe type of asthma. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to summarize evidence of a coexistense of PCOS and asthma using the available literature. The search was completed...... on 01.01.2016. English language articles were retrieved using the search terms 'Asthma' AND 'PCOS', 'Asthma' AND 'systemic inflammation', 'Asthma' AND 'metabolic syndrome', 'asthma' AND 'gynaecology', 'PCOS' AND 'systemic inflammation', 'PCOS' AND 'metabolic syndrome', 'PCOS' AND 'allergy'. Five papers...... meeting prespecified search criteria were found of which two were registry studies of relevance. The current literature supports a coexistense of PCOS and asthma and gives us an indication of the causes for the possible link between PCOS and asthma. Further research in the area must be conducted...

  18. Metered-dose inhalers with spacers vs nebulizers for pediatric asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, K J; Cunningham, S J; Crain, E F

    1995-02-01

    To determine whether the administration of beta-agonists by metered-dose inhaler (MDI) with a spacer device is as effective as the administration of beta-agonists by nebulizer for the treatment of acute asthma exacerbations in children. Randomized trial with two arms. Urban pediatric emergency department (ED) in Bronx, NY. Convenience sample of 152 children 2 years and older with a history of at least two episodes of wheezing presenting to the ED with an acute asthma exacerbation. Patients were randomly assigned to receive standard doses of a beta-agonist (albuterol) by an MDI with spacer or by a nebulizer. Dosing intervals and the use of other medications were determined by the treating physician. Baseline characteristics and asthma history were recorded. Asthma severity score, peak expiratory flow rate in children 5 years or older, and oxygen saturation were determined at presentation and before admission or discharge. The groups did not differ in age, sex, ethnicity, age of onset of asthma, or asthma severity score at presentation. There were no significant differences between the groups in outcomes, including mean changes in respiratory rate, asthma severity score, and peak expiratory flow rate, oxygen saturation, number of treatments given, administration of steroids in the ED, and admission rate. Patients given MDIs with spacers required shorter treatment times in the ED (66 minutes vs 103 minutes, P vs 20%, P nebulizer group had a significantly greater mean percent increase in heart rate from baseline to final disposition (15% vs 5%, P nebulizers for the treatment of children with acute asthma exacerbations in the ED.

  19. Asthma care: Structural foundations at primary health care at Al-Qassim region, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AL-Haddad Nasser

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Proper structural foundations for asthma care at primary health care centers [PHCCs], are of essential importance, regarding its management. OBJECTIVE: To assess the adherence of PHCCs to the recommended structural foundation for asthma care. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 35 PHCCs were selected in a cluster random fashion. A questionnaire for structural standards was designed, based on the Saudi national protocol for the management of asthma (SNPMA. A physician and a nurse, each from PHCC, were trained for data collection. Structural facilities deficiency was arbitrarily classified into: least deficient (>75%, moderate to severe deficient (25-75% and most deficient (< 25%. RESULTS: The total population registered, was 131190 [urban: 85701 (65.4%, rural: 45489 (34.6%]. Total registered asthmatics was 4093 [urban: 2585 (63.1%, rural: 1508 (36.9%]. The asthma prevalence rate did not differ significantly between urban (3% and rural (3.3% areas . Structural facilities distribution for asthma care, did not significantly vary among urban and rural PHCCs and none of them fulfilled 100% of the desired standards. The least deficient, were the availability of asthma register and salbutamol, in its various forms. The moderately to severely deficient were the SNPMA, peak flow meter (PFM, nebulizer system, Theophylline and systemic corticosteroid. However, they were most deficient in trained doctors and nurses, record charts for Peak flow meter, spacer, educational material and inhalers of corticosteroid or cromoglycate. CONCLUSION: Proper structural foundations for asthma care at PHCCs, at AL-Qassim region, were below the desired national standards. They were most deficient in trained doctors and nurses, record charts for PFM, spacers, educational material and anti-inflammatory inhalers. Future health directorate strategies have to provide such beneficial interventions for proper asthma care.

  20. Japanese Guideline for Adult Asthma 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Ohta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult bronchial asthma (hereinafter, asthma is characterized by chronic airway inflammation, reversible airway narrowing, and airway hyperresponsiveness. Long-standing asthma induces airway remodeling to cause intractable asthma. The number of patients with asthma has increased, and that of patients who die from asthma has decreased (1.5 per 100,000 patients in 2012. The aim of asthma treatment is to enable patients with asthma to lead a normal life without any symptoms. A good relationship between physicians and patients is indispensable for appropriate treatment. Long-term management with antiasthmatic agents and elimination of the causes and risk factors of asthma are fundamental to its treatment. Four steps in pharmacotherapy differentiate between mild and intensive treatments; each step includes an appropriate daily dose of an inhaled corticosteroid, varying from low to high. Long-acting 02-agonists, leukotriene receptor antagonists, and sustained-release theophylline are recommended as concomitant drugs, while anti-immunoglobulin E antibody therapy has been recently developed for the most severe and persistent asthma involving allergic reactions. Inhaled 02-agonists, aminophylline, corticosteroids, adrenaline, oxygen therapy, and others are used as needed in acute exacerbations by choosing treatment steps for asthma exacerbations depending on the severity of attacks. Allergic rhinitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, aspirin-induced asthma, pregnancy, asthma in athletes, and coughvariant asthma are also important issues that need to be considered.

  1. Tartrazine exclusion for allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardern, K D; Ram, F S

    2001-01-01

    Tartrazine is the best known and one of the most commonly used food additives. Food colorants are also used in many medications as well as foods. There has been conflicting evidence as to whether tartrazine causes exacerbations of asthma with some studies finding a positive association especially in individuals with cross-sensitivity to aspirin. To assess the overall effect of tartrazine (exclusion or challenge) in the management of asthma. A search was carried out using the Cochrane Airways Group specialised register. Bibliographies of each RCT was searched for additional papers. Authors of identified RCTs were contacted for further information for their trials and details of other studies. RCTs of oral administration of tartrazine (as a challenge) versus placebo or dietary avoidance of tartrazine versus normal diet were considered. Studies which focused upon allergic asthma, were also included. Studies of tartrazine exclusion for other allergic conditions such as hay fever, allergic rhinitis and eczema were only considered if the results for subjects with asthma were separately identified. Trials could be in either adults or children with asthma or allergic asthma (e.g. sensitivity to aspirin or food items known to contain tartrazine). Study quality was assessed and data abstracted by two reviewers independently. Outcomes were analysed using RevMan 4.1.1. Ninety abstracts were found, of which 18 were potentially relevant. Six met the inclusion criteria, but only three presented results in a format that permitted analysis and none could be combined in a meta-analysis. In none of the studies did tartrazine challenge or avoidance in diet significantly alter asthma outcomes. Due to the paucity of available evidence, it is not possible to provide firm conclusions as to the effects of tartrazine on asthma control. However, the six RCTs that could be included in this review all arrived at the same conclusion. Routine tartrazine exclusion may not benefit most patients

  2. Exacerbations of asthma during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Z; Hansen, A V; Ulrik, C S

    2016-01-01

    that asthma exacerbations during pregnancy increase the risk of pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, placental abruption and placenta praevia. Furthermore, these women also have higher risk for breech presentation, haemorrhage, pulmonary embolism, caesarean delivery, maternal admission to the intensive care...... to these outcomes. In conclusion, asthma exacerbations during pregnancy are associated with complications of pregnancy, labour and delivery. Prevention of exacerbations is essential to reduce the risk of complications and poor outcome....

  3. Linkage disequilibrium in wild mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy C Laurie

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Crosses between laboratory strains of mice provide a powerful way of detecting quantitative trait loci for complex traits related to human disease. Hundreds of these loci have been detected, but only a small number of the underlying causative genes have been identified. The main difficulty is the extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD in intercross progeny and the slow process of fine-scale mapping by traditional methods. Recently, new approaches have been introduced, such as association studies with inbred lines and multigenerational crosses. These approaches are very useful for interval reduction, but generally do not provide single-gene resolution because of strong LD extending over one to several megabases. Here, we investigate the genetic structure of a natural population of mice in Arizona to determine its suitability for fine-scale LD mapping and association studies. There are three main findings: (1 Arizona mice have a high level of genetic variation, which includes a large fraction of the sequence variation present in classical strains of laboratory mice; (2 they show clear evidence of local inbreeding but appear to lack stable population structure across the study area; and (3 LD decays with distance at a rate similar to human populations, which is considerably more rapid than in laboratory populations of mice. Strong associations in Arizona mice are limited primarily to markers less than 100 kb apart, which provides the possibility of fine-scale association mapping at the level of one or a few genes. Although other considerations, such as sample size requirements and marker discovery, are serious issues in the implementation of association studies, the genetic variation and LD results indicate that wild mice could provide a useful tool for identifying genes that cause variation in complex traits.

  4. Childhood Asthma: Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim M. van Aalderen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many children suffer from recurrent coughing, wheezing and chest tightness. In preschool children one third of all children have these symptoms before the age of six, but only 40% of these wheezing preschoolers will continue to have asthma. In older school-aged children the majority of the children have asthma. Quality of life is affected by asthma control. Sleep disruption and exercised induced airflow limitation have a negative impact on participation in sports and social activities, and may influence family life. The goal of asthma therapy is to achieve asthma control, but only a limited number of patients are able to reach total control. This may be due to an incorrect diagnosis, co-morbidities or poor inhalation technique, but in the majority of cases non-adherence is the main reason for therapy failures. However, partnership with the parents and the child is important in order to set individually chosen goals of therapy and may be of help to improve control. Non-pharmacological measures aim at avoiding tobacco smoke, and when a child is sensitised, to avoid allergens. In pharmacological management international guidelines such as the GINA guideline and the British Guideline on the Management of Asthma are leading.

  5. Indoor Air Quality and Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Golden

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Numerous contaminants in indoor air and their potential to cause or exacerbate asthma continue to be a subject of public health concern. Many agents are causally associated with or can exacerbate asthma, particularly in children. For formaldehyde, an established respiratory irritant based on numerous studies, the evidence for an association with asthma is still considered only limited or suggestive. However, there is no evidence that indicates increased sensitivity to sensory irritation to formaldehyde in people often regarded as susceptible such as asthmatics. Acrolein, but not formaldehyde, was significantly associated with asthma in a large cohort of children. This prompted an evaluation of this highly irritating chemical that had never previously been considered in the context of the indoor air/childhood asthma issue. Because acrolein is more potent than formaldehyde as a respiratory irritant and ubiquitous in indoor air, it is plausible that previous studies on potential risk factors and childhood asthma may be confounded by formaldehyde acting as an unrecognized proxy for acrolein.

  6. Building school health partnerships to improve pediatric asthma care: the School-based Asthma Management Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakumanu, Sujani; Antos, Nicholas; Szefler, Stanley J; Lemanske, Robert F

    2017-04-01

    Children with asthma require care that is seamlessly coordinated so that asthma symptoms are recognized and managed at home and at school. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent consensus recommendations in school-based asthma care. The School-based Asthma Management Program (SAMPRO) provides a widely endorsed framework to coordinate care with schools and consists of four components: establishing a circle of support around the child with asthma; facilitating bidirectional communication between clinicians and schools; comprehensive asthma education for schools; and assessment and remediation of environmental asthma triggers at school. SAMPRO standardizes recommendations for school-based asthma care coordination and provides a toolkit with websites and resources useful for the care of children with asthma in the school setting. The review will discuss the need for coordinated school asthma partnerships, the inception and development of SAMPRO, and its vision to improve pediatric asthma care coordination within the circle of support, comprising clinicians, school nurses, families, and communities.

  7. Biomechanical design of escalading lower limb exoskeleton with novel linkage joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoan; Liu, Gangfeng; Ma, Sun; Wang, Tianshuo; Zhao, Jie; Zhu, Yanhe

    2017-07-20

    In this paper, an obstacle-surmounting-enabled lower limb exoskeleton with novel linkage joints that perfectly mimicked human motions was proposed. Currently, most lower exoskeletons that use linear actuators have a direct connection between the wearer and the controlled part. Compared to the existing joints, the novel linkage joint not only fitted better into compact chasis, but also provided greater torque when the joint was at a large bend angle. As a result, it extended the angle range of joint peak torque output. With any given power, torque was prioritized over rotational speed, because instead of rotational speed, sufficiency of torque is the premise for most joint actions. With insufficient torque, the exoskeleton will be a burden instead of enhancement to its wearer. With optimized distribution of torque among the joints, the novel linkage method may contribute to easier exoskeleton movements.

  8. Resource linkages and sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anouti, Yahya

    Historically, fossil fuel consumers in most developing hydrocarbon-rich countries have enjoyed retail prices at a discount from international benchmarks. Governments of these countries consider the subsidy transfer to be a means for sharing the wealth from their resource endowment. These subsidies create negative economic, environmental, and social distortions, which can only increase over time with a fast growing, young, and rich population. The pressure to phase out these subsidies has been mounting over the last years. At the same time, policy makers in resource-rich developing countries are keen to obtain the greatest benefits for their economies from the extraction of their exhaustible resources. To this end, they are deploying local content policies with the aim of increasing the economic linkages from extracting their resources. Against this background, this dissertation's three essays evaluate (1) the global impact of rationalizing transport fuel prices, (2) how resource-rich countries can achieve the objectives behind fuel subsidies more efficiently through direct cash transfers, and (3) the economic tradeoffs from deploying local content policies and the presence of an optimal path. We begin by reviewing the literature and building the case for rationalizing transport fuel prices to reflect their direct costs (production), indirect costs (road maintenance) and negative externalities (climate change, local pollutants, traffic accidents and congestion). To do so, we increase the scope of the economic literature by presenting an algorithm to evaluate the rationalized prices in different countries. Then, we apply this algorithm to quantify the rationalized prices across 123 countries in a partial equilibrium setting. Finally, we present the first comprehensive measure of the impact of rationalizing fuel prices on the global demand for gasoline and diesel, environmental emissions, government revenues, and consumers' welfare. By rationalizing transport fuel

  9. Linkage studies in primary open angle glaucoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avramopoulos, D.; Grigoriadu, M. [Institute of Child Health, Athens (Greece); Kitsos, G. [Univ. Eye Clinic of Ioannina (Greece)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. The majority of glaucoma is associated with an open, normal appearing anterior chamber angle and is termed primary open angle glaucoma (POAG, MIM 137760). It is characterized by elevated intraocular pressure and onset in middle age or later. A subset of POAG with juvenile onset has recently been linked to chromosome 1q in two families with autosomal dominant inheritance. Eleven pedigrees with autosomal dominant POG (non-juvenile-onset) have been identified in Epirus, Greece. In the present study DNA samples have been collected from 50 individuals from one large pedigree, including 12 affected individuals. Preliminary results of linkage analysis with chromosome 1 microsatellites using the computer program package LINKAGE Version 5.1 showed no linkage with the markers previously linked to juvenile-onset POAG. Further linkage analysis is being pursued, and the results will be presented.

  10. Missing Linkages in California's Landscape [ds420

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The critical need for conserving landscape linkages first came to the forefront of conservation thinking in California in November 2000, when a statewide interagency...

  11. The Association Between Community Stressors and Asthma Prevalence of School Children in Winnipeg, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita L. Kozyrskyj

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available It is generally surmised that community stressors have an incubating effect for a variety of diagnoses on maternal and child health. This is of public health significance, as children of mothers facing long-term distress were found to have a 60% higher risk for asthma diagnosis at age 7 in Manitoba, Canada. Our objective was to determine the association of community stressors with childhood asthma prevalence in Winnipeg, Canada from participants who completed the Study of Asthma, Genes and the Environment (SAGE survey administered in 2002–2003 to a birth cohort from 1995. Measures of community socioeconomic makeup and community disorder with rank ordinalized by quintile at the census tract level were obtained from the 1996 Canada Census. Crime data (annual incidence per 10,000 persons by neighbourhood profile for 2001 was provided by the Winnipeg Police Service. Dichotomous caregiver report of child asthma along with other indicators from the geocoded SAGE survey allowed linkage to 23 neighbourhood profiles. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the effect of community stressors on childhood asthma prevalence for birth and non-birth home children (N = 1472 and children resident of birth homes at age 7 or 8 (N = 698. After adjusting for individual risk factors, children resident of birth homes in a high thefts over $5,000 neighbourhood profile were twice as likely (Adjusted OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.11–3.81 to have report of asthma compared to children in a lower thefts over $5,000 profile, with community thefts over $5,000 explaining over half of the observed neighbourhood variation in asthma.

  12. [Warning symptoms of asthma attack and asthma self-management: a national asthma control survey from China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J T; Wang, W Q; Zhou, X; Wang, C Z; Huang, M; Cai, S X; Chen, P; Lin, Q C; Zhou, J Y; Gu, Y H; Yuan, Y D; Sun, D J; Yang, X H; Yang, L; Huo, J M; Chen, Z C; Jiang, P; Zhang, J; Ye, X W; Liu, H G; Tang, H P; Liu, R Y; Liu, C T; Zhang, W; Hu, C P; Chen, Y Q; Liu, X J; Dai, L M; Zhou, W; Huang, Y J; Xu, J Y

    2017-08-08

    Objective: To investigate warning symptoms of asthma attack and evaluate asthma self-management status of asthma patients in urban China. Methods: A multi-center, cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was carried out from 30 general hospitals dispersed in 30 provinces of mainland China (except for Tibet) during Oct 2015 to May 2016. Information of frequency and warning symptoms of asthma attack, the time from warning symptoms to asthma attack, the impact of asthma attack and asthma self-management were collected from asthma patients of outpatient department. Results: Altogether 3 875 asthmatic outpatients were recruited. 78.1% (3 026/3 875) of the patients reported restriction of exercise and daily activities during asthma exacerbation. 82.5% (3 160/3 829) of the patients had warning symptoms before asthma attack, the most common warning symptoms were cough, chest tightness and shortness of breath. The median time from warning symptoms to asthma attack was 2 h, the mean time was 90 h. Only 4.4% (167/3 829) of the patients had definite confidence to control asthma when symptoms deteriorated. 76.7% (2 937/3 828) of the patients used medications to control asthma when asthma symptoms deteriorated. Medication choice: inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) + formoterol 45.8% (1 776/3 875), short-acting beta-agonist (SABA) 23.9% (927/3 875). Conclusions: Most asthma patients have warning symptoms before asthma attack, the most common symptoms are cough, chest tightness and shortness of breath. The proportion of patients conducting effective asthma self-management remains low.

  13. The relation between paracetamol use and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaheen, S; Potts, J; Gnatiuc, L

    2008-01-01

    with adult asthma across Europe. The network compared 521 cases with a diagnosis of asthma and reporting asthma symptoms in the last 12 months with 507 controls with no diagnosis of asthma and no asthmatic symptoms in the last 12 months across 12 European centres. All cases and controls were selected from.......002. There was no evidence for heterogeneity across centres. No association was seen between use of other analgesics and asthma.These data add to the increasing and consistent epidemiological evidence implicating frequent paracetamol use in asthma in diverse populations...

  14. Relevance of Allergy in Adult Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Sameer K.; Viswanathan, Ravi K.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies on asthma have demonstrated multiple phenotypes of asthma, based on the clinical characteristics of the disease. With the current interest in personalized medicine, the question arises whether the presence of allergic sensitization has any relevance for these phenotypes and the management of asthma. This review will examine the current knowledge of asthma phenotypes and the impact of atopy on asthma diagnosis and severity in adults. In addition, this review will address whether therapies targeted at the atopic axis help improve asthma outcomes, including lung function indices and exacerbations. PMID:24643812

  15. A Genome-wide Quantitative Linkage Scan of Niacin Skin Flush Response in Families With Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Yin-Ju; Huang, Sih-Syuan; Liu, Chih-Min; Hwu, Hai-Gwo; Faraone, Stephen V.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Chen, Wei J.

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients frequently display reduced niacin flush responses, and similar characteristics are also observed in their nonpsychotic relatives. This study aimed to identify loci influencing flush response to niacin in schizophrenia using genome-wide quantitative linkage scan. In a nationwide sample of families with at least 2 siblings affected with schizophrenia in each family, 115 families that had at least 2 affected siblings with information on the niacin skin test were subjected to quantitative trait loci linkage analysis, either involving affected individuals only or the whole family. Nonparametric linkage z (NPL-Z) scores were calculated for each of 386 microsatellite markers spaced at an average of 9-cM intervals. Niacin patches of 3 concentrations (0.001M, 0.01, and 0.1M) were applied to forearm skin, and the flush response was rated at 5, 10, and 15 minutes, respectively, with a 4-point scale. Determination of genome-wide empirical significance was implemented using 1000 simulated genome scans. One linkage peak attaining genome-wide significance was identified at chromosomal region 14q32.12 for 0.01M concentration at 5 minutes (NPL-Z scores = 3.39, genome-wide empirical P = .03) in affected individuals, and the corresponding linkage signal remained strong (NPL-Z scores = 2.87) for the analyses of the whole family. This locus is distinct from the chromosomal region identified in the previous genome-wide scan for the diagnosis of schizophrenia, and the signal was higher than the peak linkage signal in that study. These findings indicate that there might be modifier or susceptibility-modifier genes at 14q32.12 for schizophrenia-related attenuation of flush response to niacin. PMID:21653277

  16. When to conduct probabilistic linkage vs. deterministic linkage? A simulation study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhu, Ying; Matsuyama, Yutaka; Ohashi, Yasuo; Setoguchi, Soko

    2015-01-01

    ... to variations in data quality, implementation of linkage methodology and validation method. The simulation study aimed to understand data characteristics that affect the performance of probabilistic vs...

  17. Efficacy and safety of ciclesonide once daily and fluticasone propionate twice daily in children with asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren; Engelstätter, Renate; Weber, Hans-Jochen

    2009-01-01

    -4-week run-in. Efficacy measurements included forced expiratory flow in 1s (FEV(1)), morning peak expiratory flow (PEF), asthma symptom scores, rescue medication use and quality of life. Systemic effect was assessed by 24-hour urine free cortisol adjusted for creatinine. RESULTS: FEV(1) and morning PEF...

  18. Exercise-induced asthma in a group of South African schoolchildren ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. The study was conducted to ascertain whether physical education teachers, using a peak flow meter, could reliably screen for exercise-induced asthma (EIA) in children during free running. Design, setting and subjects. The study was conducted using a convenience sample of male pupils between the ages of 12 ...

  19. Fault linkage and continental breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, Derren; Lymer, Gaël; Reston, Tim; Stevenson, Carl; Bull, Jonathan; Sawyer, Dale; Morgan, Julia

    2017-04-01

    The magma-poor rifted margin off the west coast of Galicia (NW Spain) has provided some of the key observations in the development of models describing the final stages of rifting and continental breakup. In 2013, we collected a 68 x 20 km 3D seismic survey across the Galicia margin, NE Atlantic. Processing through to 3D Pre-stack Time Migration (12.5 m bin-size) and 3D depth conversion reveals the key structures, including an underlying detachment fault (the S detachment), and the intra-block and inter-block faults. These data reveal multiple phases of faulting, which overlap spatially and temporally, have thinned the crust to between zero and a few km thickness, producing 'basement windows' where crustal basement has been completely pulled apart and sediments lie directly on the mantle. Two approximately N-S trending fault systems are observed: 1) a margin proximal system of two linked faults that are the upward extension (breakaway faults) of the S; in the south they form one surface that splays northward to form two faults with an intervening fault block. These faults were thus demonstrably active at one time rather than sequentially. 2) An oceanward relay structure that shows clear along strike linkage. Faults within the relay trend NE-SW and heavily dissect the basement. The main block bounding faults can be traced from the S detachment through the basement into, and heavily deforming, the syn-rift sediments where they die out, suggesting that the faults propagated up from the S detachment surface. Analysis of the fault heaves and associated maps at different structural levels show complementary fault systems. The pattern of faulting suggests a variation in main tectonic transport direction moving oceanward. This might be interpreted as a temporal change during sequential faulting, however the transfer of extension between faults and the lateral variability of fault blocks suggests that many of the faults across the 3D volume were active at least in part

  20. Comparative effectiveness of asthma interventions within a practice based research network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Asthma is a chronic lung disease that affects more than 23 million people in the United States, including 7 million children. Asthma is a difficult to manage chronic condition associated with disparities in health outcomes, poor medical compliance, and high healthcare costs. The research network coordinating this project includes hospitals, urgent care centers, and outpatient clinics within Carolinas Healthcare System that share a common electronic medical record and billing system allowing for rapid collection of clinical and demographic data. This study investigates the impact of three interventions on clinical outcomes for patients with asthma. Interventions are: an integrated approach to care that incorporates asthma management based on the chronic care model; a shared decision making intervention for asthma patients in underserved or disadvantaged populations; and a school based care approach that examines the efficacy of school-based programs to impact asthma outcomes including effectiveness of linkages between schools and the healthcare providers. Methods/Design This study will include 95 Practices, 171 schools, and over 30,000 asthmatic patients. Five groups (A-E) will be evaluated to determine the effectiveness of three interventions. Group A is the usual care control group without electronic medical record (EMR). Group B practices are a second control group that has an EMR with decision support, asthma action plans, and population reports at baseline. A time delay design during year one converts practices in Group B to group C after receiving the integrated approach to care intervention. Four practices within Group C will receive the shared decision making intervention (and become group D). Group E will receive a school based care intervention through case management within the schools. A centralized database will be created with the goal of facilitating comparative effectiveness research on asthma outcomes specifically for this study. Patient

  1. Comparative effectiveness of asthma interventions within a practice based research network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebert Lisa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is a chronic lung disease that affects more than 23 million people in the United States, including 7 million children. Asthma is a difficult to manage chronic condition associated with disparities in health outcomes, poor medical compliance, and high healthcare costs. The research network coordinating this project includes hospitals, urgent care centers, and outpatient clinics within Carolinas Healthcare System that share a common electronic medical record and billing system allowing for rapid collection of clinical and demographic data. This study investigates the impact of three interventions on clinical outcomes for patients with asthma. Interventions are: an integrated approach to care that incorporates asthma management based on the chronic care model; a shared decision making intervention for asthma patients in underserved or disadvantaged populations; and a school based care approach that examines the efficacy of school-based programs to impact asthma outcomes including effectiveness of linkages between schools and the healthcare providers. Methods/Design This study will include 95 Practices, 171 schools, and over 30,000 asthmatic patients. Five groups (A-E will be evaluated to determine the effectiveness of three interventions. Group A is the usual care control group without electronic medical record (EMR. Group B practices are a second control group that has an EMR with decision support, asthma action plans, and population reports at baseline. A time delay design during year one converts practices in Group B to group C after receiving the integrated approach to care intervention. Four practices within Group C will receive the shared decision making intervention (and become group D. Group E will receive a school based care intervention through case management within the schools. A centralized database will be created with the goal of facilitating comparative effectiveness research on asthma outcomes

  2. Environmental issues in managing asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diette, Gregory B; McCormack, Meredith C; Hansel, Nadia N; Breysse, Patrick N; Matsui, Elizabeth C

    2008-05-01

    Management of asthma requires attention to environmental exposures both indoors and outdoors. Americans spend most of their time indoors, where they have a greater ability to modify their environment. The indoor environment contains both pollutants (eg, particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, secondhand smoke, and ozone) and allergens from furred pets, dust mites, cockroaches, rodents, and molds. Indoor particulate matter consists of particles generated from indoor sources such as cooking and cleaning activities, and particles that penetrate from the outdoors. Nitrogen dioxide sources include gas stoves, furnaces, and fireplaces. Indoor particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide are linked to asthma morbidity. The indoor ozone concentration is mainly influenced by the outdoor ozone concentration. The health effects of indoor ozone exposure have not been well studied. In contrast, there is substantial evidence of detrimental health effects from secondhand smoke. Guideline recommendations are not specific for optimizing indoor air quality. The 2007 National Asthma Education and Prevention Program asthma guidelines recommend eliminating indoor smoking and improving the ventilation. Though the guidelines state that there is insufficient evidence to recommend air cleaners, air cleaners and reducing activities that generate indoor pollutants may be sound practical approaches for improving the health of individuals with asthma. The guidelines are more specific about allergen avoidance; they recommend identifying allergens to which the individual is immunoglobin E sensitized and employing a multifaceted, comprehensive strategy to reduce exposure. Outdoor air pollutants that impact asthma include particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide, and guidelines recommend that individuals with asthma avoid exertion outdoors when these pollutants are elevated. Outdoor allergens include tree, grass, and weed pollens, which vary in concentration by season

  3. Future biologic therapies in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirce, Santiago; Bobolea, Irina; Domínguez-Ortega, Javier; Barranco, Pilar

    2014-08-01

    Despite the administration of appropriate treatment, a high number of patients with asthma remain uncontrolled. This suggests the need for alternative treatments that are effective, safe and selective for the established asthma phenotypes, especially in patients with uncontrolled severe asthma. The most promising options among the new asthma treatments in development are biological therapies, particularly those monoclonal antibodies directed at selective targets. It should be noted that the different drugs, and especially the new biologics, act on very specific pathogenic pathways. Therefore, determination of the individual profile of predominant pathophysiological alterations of each patient will be increasingly important for prescribing the most appropriate treatment in each case. The treatment of severe allergic asthma with anti-IgE monoclonal antibody (omalizumab) has been shown to be effective in a large number of patients, and new anti-IgE antibodies with improved pharmacodynamic properties are being investigated. Among developing therapies, biologics designed to block certain pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-5 (mepolizumab) and IL-13 (lebrikizumab), have a greater chance of being used in the clinic. Perhaps blocking more than one cytokine pathway (such as IL-4 and IL-13 with dulipumab) might confer increased efficacy of treatment, along with acceptable safety. Stratification of asthma based on the predominant pathogenic mechanisms of each patient (phenoendotypes) is slowly, but probably irreversibly, emerging as a tailored medical approach to asthma, and is becoming a key factor in the development of drugs for this complex respiratory syndrome. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Asthma exacerbation prediction: recent insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Louise

    2018-04-01

    Asthma attacks are frequent in children with asthma and can lead to significant adverse outcomes including time off school, hospital admission and death. Identifying children at risk of an asthma attack affords the opportunity to prevent attacks and improve outcomes. Clinical features, patient behaviours and characteristics, physiological factors, environmental data and biomarkers are all associated with asthma attacks and can be used in asthma exacerbation prediction models. Recent studies have better characterized children at risk of an attack: history of a severe exacerbation in the previous 12 months, poor adherence and current poor control are important features which should alert healthcare professionals to the need for remedial action. There is increasing interest in the use of biomarkers. A number of novel biomarkers, including patterns of volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath, show promise. Biomarkers are likely to be of greatest utility if measured frequently and combined with other measures. To date, most prediction models are based on epidemiological data and population-based risk. The use of digital technology affords the opportunity to collect large amounts of real-time data, including clinical and physiological measurements and combine these with environmental data to develop personal risk scores. These developments need to be matched by changes in clinical guidelines away from a focus on current asthma control and stepwise escalation in drug therapy towards inclusion of personal risk scores and tailored management strategies including nonpharmacological approaches. There have been significant steps towards personalized prediction models of asthma attacks. The utility of such models needs to be tested in the ability not only to predict attacks but also to reduce them.

  5. The role of trait mindfulness in quality of life and asthma control among adolescents with asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cillessen, L.J.G.; Ven, M.O.M. van de; Karremans, J.C.T.M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The current study focused on the role of trait mindfulness in asthma-related quality of life (QoL) and asthma control in adolescent asthma patients. Furthermore, potential underlying mechanisms (general and asthma-specific stress) of this relationship were investigated. Methods: In this

  6. "Kickin' Asthma": School-Based Asthma Education in an Urban Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magzamen, Sheryl; Patel, Bina; Davis, Adam; Edelstein, Joan; Tager, Ira B.

    2008-01-01

    Background: In urban communities with high prevalence of childhood asthma, school-based educational programs may be the most appropriate approach to deliver interventions to improve asthma morbidity and asthma-related outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implementation of "Kickin' Asthma", a school-based asthma…

  7. Comparing linkage designs based on land facets to linkage designs based on focal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brost, Brian M; Beier, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Least-cost modeling for focal species is the most widely used method for designing conservation corridors and linkages. However, these designs depend on today's land covers, which will be altered by climate change. We recently proposed an alternative approach based on land facets (recurring landscape units of relatively uniform topography and soils). The rationale is that corridors with high continuity of individual land facets will facilitate movement of species associated with each facet today and in the future. Conservation practitioners might like to know whether a linkage design based on land facets is likely to provide continuity of modeled breeding habitat for species needing connectivity today, and whether a linkage for focal species provides continuity and interspersion of land facets. To address these questions, we compared linkages designed for focal species and land facets in three landscapes in Arizona, USA. We used two variables to measure linkage utility, namely distances between patches of modeled breeding habitat for 5-16 focal species in each linkage, and resistance profiles for focal species and land facets between patches connected by the linkage. Compared to focal species designs, linkage designs based on land facets provided as much or more modeled habitat connectivity for 25 of 28 species-landscape combinations, failing only for the three species with the most narrowly distributed habitat. Compared to land facets designs, focal species linkages provided lower connectivity for about half the land facets in two landscapes. In areas where a focal species approach to linkage design is not possible, our results suggest that conservation practitioners may be able to implement a land facets approach with some confidence that the linkage design would serve most potential focal species. In areas where focal species designs are possible, we recommend using the land facet approach to complement, rather than replace, focal species approaches.

  8. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brochures Facts Triggers Indoors In the Workplace Outdoors Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, ... physicians’ office Health care providers – Other Parents – Home Case Studies Open Airways for Schools Asthma Care Training ...

  9. Asthma mortality in the Danish child population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Inger Merete; Jensen, V B; Bülow, S

    2003-01-01

    Child death due to asthma is a rare and potentially preventable event. We investigated possible risk factors for death due to asthma in children and adolescents, as a step towards preventing or minimizing asthma death in this age group, and improving asthma management and care. We reviewed all 108...... cases of asthma death in 1-19-year-olds in Denmark, 1973-1994. Copies of death certificates, hospital records, information from general practitioners, and autopsy records were obtained. The information was assessed with particular reference to: features and duration of asthma before death; severity...... of asthma; time and place of death; long-term and ongoing medical treatment; quality of medical care; circumstances of final illness; and medical treatment during the final episode of asthma. Age groups of 1-4 years, 5-14 years, and 15-19 years were analyzed separately and in aggregate. Death occurred...

  10. Obesity-related asthma in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Nikunj A; Lazarus, Angeline

    2016-08-01

    Obesity as a risk factor for asthma has been identified in previous studies. Additionally, a disproportionate number of patients with severe or difficult-to-control asthma are obese. Patients with obesity-related asthma tend to have worse asthma control and quality of life disproportionate to their pulmonary function tests, are less responsive to corticosteroid therapy, and are more likely to have obesity-related comorbidities such as obstructive sleep apnea and gastroesophageal disease that complicate asthma treatment. With the increasing prevalence of obesity, the prevalence of asthma is anticipated to grow proportionally. Addressing weight loss and encouraging activity is essential in the management of obesity-related asthma. This article briefly overviews the epidemiology, unique distinguishing features, potential mechanisms, and approach to management of patients with obesity-related asthma in adults.

  11. National Environmental Leadership Award in Asthma Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Asthma Awards recognizes health plans, healthcare providers and communities in action that demonstrate an environmental component to address asthma triggers, collaborate with others and save healthcare dollars with their programming.

  12. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CDCasthma on Twitter to learn more about helping people with asthma live healthier lives by gaining control over their asthma. Quick Links ... Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, ...

  13. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... physicians’ office Health care providers – Other Parents – Home Case Studies Open Airways for Schools Asthma Care Training ... Informs Design Other Evaluation Resources Multimedia Messages Agencies Working on Asthma Follow @CDCasthma on Twitter to learn ...

  14. New Asthma Guidelines What You Should Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section New Asthma Guidelines: What You Should Know Past Issues / Fall ... on. If you or a relative suffers from asthma, it is important to know that quality care ...

  15. Asthma Research: The NIH–NJRC Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Asthma Research: The NIH–NJRC Connection Past Issues / Fall ... the many ways that NIH supports and promotes asthma research is through its strong relationship with National ...

  16. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir You can control your asthma and avoid an attack by taking your medicine ...

  17. Asthma and COPD: Differences and Similarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and COPD: differences and similarities Share | Asthma and COPD: Differences and Similarities This article has been reviewed ... or you could have Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) , such as emphysema or chronic bronchitis. Because asthma ...

  18. Sleep Problems in Asthma and COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mini Series #5 Sleep Problems in Asthma and COPD NORMAL AIRWAY Good quality sleep is important for ... with asthma and/or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) may have sleep issues that can lead to ...

  19. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Territory Data AsthmaStats Asthma and Fair or Poor Health Usual Place for Medical Care among Children Number of Visits to a Health Care Provider(s) among Children Health Care Coverage among ...

  20. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler Recommend on Facebook ... Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, ...

  1. Asthma Medication Ratio Predicts Emergency Depart...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to findings reported in Asthma Medication Ratio Predicts Emergency Department Visits and Hospitalizations in Children with Asthma, published in Volume 3,...

  2. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir You can control your asthma and avoid an attack ...

  3. Co-morbidities in severe asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsbjerg, Celeste; Menzies-Gow, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Patients with severe asthma represent a minority of the total asthma population, but carry a majority of the morbidity and healthcare costs. Achieving better asthma control in this group of patients is therefore of key importance. Systematic assessment of patients with possible severe asthma...... to identify treatment barriers and triggers of asthma symptoms, including co-morbidities, improves asthma control and reduces healthcare costs and is recommended by international guidelines on management of severe asthma. This review provides the clinician with an overview of the prevalence and clinical...... impact of the most common co-morbidities in severe asthma, including chronic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyposis, allergic rhinitis, dysfunctional breathing, vocal cord dysfunction, anxiety and depression, obesity, obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD...

  4. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Case Studies Open Airways for Schools Asthma Care Training Wee Wheezers Adventures of Puff Inner City Asthma YES WE CAN Bibliography Breathing Easier Success Stories State Contacts and Programs Evaluation Evaluation Guide Evaluation Webinars 1. Avoiding Evaluation ...

  5. Near-fatal asthma in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjona, Nydia

    2015-01-01

    Asthma affects the elderly as often as other age groups; however, it more often becomes fatal in the elderly. Unfortunately, asthma is often unmanaged or underdiagnosed in the older population. It is important for health care providers to recognize risk factors in the elderly and properly treat them before asthma becomes fatal. This article describes near-fatal asthma and identifies risk factors specifically for the elderly. Symptoms of asthma are reviewed as well as assessments and diagnostic tests to identify asthma severity and complications. Proper management needs to be urgently initiated to prevent worsening respiratory distress; this includes fast-acting drug treatments appropriate for elderly patients. Decompensated acute respiratory failure, secondary to severe asthma, requires the skills of an experienced anesthesiologist because these patients may rapidly deteriorate during induction and intubation. Ventilator management must include strategies to prevent worsening hyperinflation of the lungs. Elderly asthma patients have a higher mortality risk related to ventilator complications and other comorbidities.

  6. Vitamin D and asthma: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Junfang; Castro, Mario

    2015-08-01

    To review the current evidence on the relationship between vitamin D and asthma. The rising morbidity and tremendous socioeconomic burden of asthma have prompted efforts to seek modifiable environmental and nutritional factors that contribute to the asthma epidemic. The association between low levels of vitamin D and asthma has been supported by many, but not all observational and epidemiologic studies. Recently, several controlled clinical trials have been undertaken to explore the effect of vitamin D supplementation on asthma control and respiratory tract infections. While some trials support the beneficial role of vitamin D supplementation in reducing asthma severity in children, several trials have found no beneficial role in adults. Given the high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in children and adults worldwide and recent randomized controlled trials of vitamin D in asthma, supplementation with vitamin D cannot be recommended as adjunctive therapy for asthma.

  7. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with Current Asthma Asthma and Fair or Poor Health Usual Place for Medical Care among Children Number of Visits to a Health Care Provider(s) among Children Health Care Coverage among ...

  8. Recent developments regarding periostin in bronchial asthma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Izuhara, Kenji; Matsumoto, Hisako; Ohta, Shoichiro; Ono, Junya; Arima, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Although it is currently recognized that bronchial asthma is not a single disease but a syndrome, we have not yet made use of our new understanding of this heterogeneity as we treat asthma patients...

  9. Neurotrophins in bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renz Harald

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Allergic bronchial asthma (BA is characterized by chronic airway inflammation, development of airway hyperreactivity and recurrent reversible airway obstruction. T-helper 2 cells and their products have been shown to play an important role in this process. In contrast, the mechanisms by which immune cells interact with the cells residing in lung and airways, such as neurons, epithelial or smooth muscle cells, still remains uncertain. Sensory and motor neurons innervating the lung exhibit a great degree of functional plasticity in BA defined as 'neuronal plasticity'. These neurons control development of airway hyperresponsiveness and acute inflammatory responses, resulting in the concept of 'neurogenic inflammation'. Such quantitative and/or qualitative changes in neuronal functions are mediated to a great extent by a family of cytokines, the neurotrophins, which in turn are produced by activated immune cells, among others in BA. We have therefore developed the concept that neurotrophins such as nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor link pathogenic events in BA to dysfunctions of the immune and nervous system.

  10. [Laboratory animal; allergy; asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, M; Romano, C; Mutti, A

    2011-01-01

    Laboratory animal allergy (LAA) may develop when susceptible persons are exposed to allergens produced by laboratory animals. LAA is associated with exposure to urine, fur, and salivae of rats, guinea pigs, dogs and rabbits. Approximately 30% of persons who are exposed to laboratory animals may develop LAA and some will also develop asthma. LAA is most likely to occur in persons with previously known allergies, especially to domestic pets. The majority of LAA sufferers experience symptoms within six months their first exposure to laboratory animals; almost all develop symptoms within three years. The most common symptoms are watery eyes and an itchy, runny nose, although skin symptoms and lower respiratory tract symptoms may also occur. Feeding and handling laboratory animals or cleaning their cages generates ten times the amount of allergens compared with undisturbed conditions. Prevention of animal allergy depends on control of allergenic material in the work environment and on organizational and individual protection measures. Pre-placement evaluation and periodic medical surveillance of workers are important pieces of the overall occupational health programme. The emphasis of these medical evaluations should be on counselling and early disease detection.

  11. Svær asthma bronchiale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Bülow, Anna; Backer, Vibeke; Porsbjerg, Celeste

    2015-01-01

    Severe asthma is defined by persistent symptoms and frequent exacerbations despite intensive asthma therapy. The prevalence is estimated to be 5-10% of all asthmatics. Severe asthma is responsible for a major burden of illness including low quality of life and a disproportionate use of health......-care resources. The clinical assessment of severe asthma must include verification of the correct diagnosis, adherence to medication, excluding differential diagnosis and identification and treatment of aggravating co-morbidities and trigger factors....

  12. Obesity and Asthma: Microbiome–Metabolome Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Shore, Stephanie A.; Cho, Youngji

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for asthma, but obese subjects with asthma respond poorly to standard asthma drugs. Obesity also alters gut bacterial community structure. Obesity-related changes in gut bacteria contribute to weight gain and other obesity-related conditions, including insulin resistance and systemic inflammation. Here, we review the rationale for the hypothesis that obesity-related changes in gut bacteria may also play a role in obesity-related asthma. The metabolomes of the liver, s...

  13. Neurofeedback training for peak performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, Marek; Pąchalska, Maria; Ziółkowski, Artur; Mańko, Grzegorz; Łukaszewska, Beata; Kochanowicz, Kazimierz; Mirski, Andrzej; Kropotov, Iurii D

    2014-01-01

    One of the applications of the Neurofeedback methodology is peak performance in sport. The protocols of the neurofeedback are usually based on an assessment of the spectral parameters of spontaneous EEG in resting state conditions. The aim of the paper was to study whether the intensive neurofeedback training of a well-functioning Olympic athlete who has lost his performance confidence after injury in sport, could change the brain functioning reflected in changes in spontaneous EEG and event related potentials (ERPs). The case is presented of an Olympic athlete who has lost his performance confidence after injury in sport. He wanted to resume his activities by means of neurofeedback training. His QEEG/ERP parameters were assessed before and after 4 intensive sessions of neurotherapy. Dramatic and statistically significant changes that could not be explained by error measurement were observed in the patient. Neurofeedback training in the subject under study increased the amplitude of the monitoring component of ERPs generated in the anterior cingulate cortex, accompanied by an increase in beta activity over the medial prefrontal cortex. Taking these changes together, it can be concluded that that even a few sessions of neurofeedback in a high performance brain can significantly activate the prefrontal cortical areas associated with increasing confidence in sport performance.

  14. Neurofeedback training for peak performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Graczyk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]aim[/b]. One of the applications of the Neurofeedback methodology is peak performance in sport. The protocols of the neurofeedback are usually based on an assessment of the spectral parameters of spontaneous EEG in resting state conditions. The aim of the paper was to study whether the intensive neurofeedback training of a well-functioning Olympic athlete who has lost his performance confidence after injury in sport, could change the brain functioning reflected in changes in spontaneous EEG and event related potentials (ERPs. [b]case study[/b]. The case is presented of an Olympic athlete who has lost his performance confidence after injury in sport. He wanted to resume his activities by means of neurofeedback training. His QEEG/ERP parameters were assessed before and after 4 intensive sessions of neurotherapy. Dramatic and statistically significant changes that could not be explained by error measurement were observed in the patient. [b]conclusion[/b]. Neurofeedback training in the subject under study increased the amplitude of the monitoring component of ERPs generated in the anterior cingulate cortex, accompanied by an increase in beta activity over the medial prefrontal cortex. Taking these changes together, it can be concluded that that even a few sessions of neurofeedback in a high performance brain can significantly activate the prefrontal cortical areas associated with increasing confidence in sport performance.

  15. "Association between Asthma Severity and Obesity in Two Asthma Clinics in Tehran "

    OpenAIRE

    Sanaz Tavasoli; Hassan Heidarnazhad; Anooshirvan Kazemnejad; Sara Miri

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of both obesity and asthma has increased in recent years. Thus we decided to investigate the relation between obesity and asthma severity. We undertook a cross-sectional study in outpatient asthma clinics of 2 tertiary hospitals in Tehran. Obesity was defined as a body mass index greater than 30. Asthma severity was defined by using the Guide for Asthma Management and Prevention 2004 guidelines, according to patients’ clinical and/or spirometerical parameters. Active cigare...

  16. Risk of asthma exacerbation associated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in childhood asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Pei-Chia; Tsai, Yueh-Ting; Lin,Shun-Ku; Lai, Jung-Nien

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Patients allergic to aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) who develop respiratory reactions such as bronchospasm or asthma exacerbation have aspirin-induced asthma or NSAIDs-exacerbated respiratory disease. However, large-scale studies have not been conducted to investigate the risk of aspirin/NSAIDs exposure in children with asthma. Therefore, this study evaluated the relationship between aspirin/NSAIDs and the risk of asthma exacerbation in children with asthma....

  17. Asthma control questionnaires in the management of asthma in children: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorend-van Bergen, S; Vaessen-Verberne, A A; de Jongste, J C; Pijnenburg, M W

    2015-02-01

    Several self-administered questionnaires have been developed to assess childhood asthma control in a simple and standardized way. This review discusses the most commonly used questionnaires and explores their usefulness in asthma management in children. We conclude that the use of asthma control questionnaires in daily practice and in research contributes to the standardized evaluation of children with asthma and helps to track asthma symptoms, but validation studies in a wider range of settings are needed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Genetics of Asthma Susceptibility and Severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slager, Rebecca E.; Hawkins, Gregory A.; Li, Xingnan; Postma, Dirkje S.; Meyers, Deborah A.; Bleecker, Eugene R.

    This article summarizes major findings in genome-wide studies of asthma susceptibility and severity. Two large meta-analyses identified four chromosomal regions which were consistently associated with development of asthma. Genes that are associated with asthma subphenotypes such as lung function,

  19. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Children aged 5–17 Years Asthma Severity among Adults with Current Asthma Asthma Severity among Children with ... Effective Interventions Background Methodology Results Community-Based Interventions Adults – Home Adults – Hospital Emergency Departments Adults – Hospital Inpatients ...

  20. New developments in work-related asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirce, Santiago; Campo, Paloma; Domínguez-Ortega, Javier; Fernández-Nieto, Mar; Gómez-Torrijos, Elisa; Martínez-Arcediano, Ana; Mur, Pilar; Delgado, Julio

    2017-03-01

    Work-related asthma includes two subtypes: occupational asthma or asthma caused by specific agents (sensitizers or irritants) in the workplace, and work-exacerbated asthma or pre-existing asthma worsened by workplace exposures. Areas covered: This review provides an update on the definitions and the clinical features of the different work-related asthma subtypes as well as new insights into their etiology and the pathophysiological mechanisms involved. The diagnosis of work-related asthma should be made on objective basis using a constellation of clinical, physiologic and allergologic tests. Specific inhalation challenge with the suspected occupational agent(s) remains as the reference standard for diagnosis. A literature search was performed using the following terms: work-related asthma, occupational asthma, work-exacerbated asthma, irritant-induced asthma and etiological agents. Expert commentary: Studies focusing on the biological effects and mechanisms of environmental exposures in the development of sensitizer-induced or irritant-induced asthma in various workplace settings are of greatest interest. An integrative approach that combines clinical parameters with component-resolved diagnosis as well as inflammatory biomarkers appears to be very promising. Occupational allergy provides a good opportunity to understand the complex relationships between exposure to allergens in the workplace, interaction with genes and the co-exposures to other factors in the working environment.

  1. The importance of genetic influences in asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Los, H; Koppelman, GH; Postma, DS

    1999-01-01

    Asthma is a complex genetic disorder in which the mode of inheritance is not known. Many segregation studies suggest that a major gene could be involved in asthma, but until now different genetic models have been obtained, Twin studies, too, have shown evidence for genetic influences in asthma, but

  2. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... boca) [PDF - 276 KB] Follow @CDCasthma on Twitter to learn more about helping people with asthma live healthier lives by gaining ... Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, ...

  3. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Asthma Learn How to Control Asthma Brochures Facts Triggers Indoors In the Workplace Outdoors Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, ...

  4. Epidemiology of bronchial asthma among preparatory school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The prevalence of asthma and allergies is increasing in both Western and developing countries. Few studies evaluated asthma prevalence in Egypt . Objectives: Determination of the prevalence and risk factors of asthma among preparatory school children in Assiut district, in Upper Egypt. Methods: A cross ...

  5. The dissemination and implementation of national asthma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Asthma is an important chronic inflammatory disorder with significant morbidity and mortality in South Africa. The development of national asthma guidelines by the South African Thoracic Society and National Asthma Education Programme has been one approach to try and improve the quality of care. The impact of ...

  6. Socioeconomic factors associated with asthma prevalence and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    studies corroborate a 'stress hypothesis' for asthma, whereby greater life stress increases the likelihood of asthma onset and frequent exacerbations. No studies have tested this type of socioeconomic risk model for childhood asthma in southern Africa, however, despite high rates of violence, poverty and psychological ...

  7. Milestones in asthma management | Ekweani | Port Harcourt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A review of the literature regarding the history of asthma and the evolution of its management was undertaken with the aid of textbooks, journal publications and the Internet via Google Pubmed. The history of asthma and the evolution of the management of asthma was surveyed with emphasis on major and ...

  8. Adult Asthma Consensus Guidelines Update 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Lemière

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several sets of Canadian guidelines for the diagnosis and management of asthma have been published over the past 15 years. Since the last revision of the 1999 Canadian Asthma Consensus Report, important new studies have highlighted the need to incorporate new information into the asthma guidelines.

  9. Acupuncture in children and adolescents with bronchial asthma: a randomised controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheewe, S; Vogt, L; Minakawa, S; Eichmann, D; Welle, S; Stachow, R; Banzer, W

    2011-10-01

    This randomised controlled trial evaluates the immediate effects of acupuncture as an add-on therapy in in-patient rehabilitation of children and adolescents with bronchial asthma. In a pre-post design, the severity of symptoms, lung function, illness-specific quality of life (Paediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire - PAQLQ) and general and asthma-specific level of anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children - STAIC) were investigated in 46 acupuncture and 47 control patients. In addition to asthma sports, climate therapy and behavioural training, the intervention group received acupuncture treatment with a standardised needle pattern (12 × 30 min.). With acupuncture, the peak expiratory flow variability differs significantly (pacupuncture group differs significantly in their rehabilitation response at the time of discharge concerning perceived anxiety (STAIC-S). The lung function tests do not present differences between groups. After additional acupuncture, amelioration of peak expiratory flow variability and anxiety can be shown, without any difference in objective lung function tests and quality of life between study groups. Further studies might evaluate the effects of acupuncture on childhood asthma in an outpatient setting. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparing Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) criteria with the Childhood Asthma Control Test (C-ACT) and Asthma Control Test (ACT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolen, B.B.; Pijnenburg, M.W.; Brackel, H.J.; Landstra, A.M.; Berg, N.J. van den; Merkus, P.J.F.M.; Hop, W.C.J.; Vaessen-Verberne, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Several tools are useful in detecting uncontrolled asthma in children. The aim of this study was to compare Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guidelines with the Childhood Asthma Control Test (C-ACT) and the Asthma Control Test (ACT) in detecting uncontrolled asthma in children. 145 children with

  11. Association analysis identifies TLR7 and TLR8 as novel risk genes in asthma and related disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Larsen, Steffen; Nyegaard, Mette; Haagerup, Annette

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are structurally and functionally related and play important roles in the innate and adaptive immune system. By genome scanning, evidence of linkage between chromosome Xp22 and asthma and related atopic disorders has previously been obtained. Xp22 harbours...... the TLR7 and TLR8 genes. METHODS: The involvement of TLR7 and TLR8 in the aetiology of asthma and related disorders was investigated by a family based association analysis of two independently ascertained family samples comprising 540 and 424 individuals from 135 and 100 families, respectively. Ten......). CONCLUSION: The results provide strong evidence that TLR7 and 8 may confer susceptibility to asthma and related atopic disorders and highlight these receptors as interesting targets for individualised, causally directed treatment....

  12. Association analysis identifies TLR7 and TLR8 as novel risk genes in asthma and related disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Larsen, Steffen; Nyegaard, Mette; Haagerup, Annette

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are structurally and functionally related and play important roles in the innate and adaptive immune system. By genome scanning, we have previously obtained evidence of linkage between chromosome Xp22 and asthma and related atopic disorders. Xp22 harbours...... the TLR7 and TLR8 genes. METHODS: We investigated the involvement of TLR7 and TLR8 in the aetiology of asthma and related disorders by a family based association analysis of two independently ascertained family samples comprising 540 and 424 individuals from 135 and 100 families, respectively. Ten......). CONCLUSION: The results presented, provide strong evidence that TLR7 and 8 may confer susceptibility to asthma and related atopic disorders and highlight these receptors as interesting targets for individualized, causally directed treatment....

  13. Asthma education for school staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kew, Kayleigh M; Carr, Robin; Donovan, Tim; Gordon, Morris

    2017-04-12

    Teachers and school staff should be competent in managing asthma in schools. Demonstrated low levels of asthma knowledge mean that staff may not know how best to protect a child with asthma in their care, or may fail to take appropriate action in the event of a serious attack. Education about asthma could help to improve this knowledge and lead to better asthma outcomes for children. To assess the effectiveness and safety of asthma education programmes for school staff, and to identify content and attributes underpinning them. We conducted the most recent searches on 29 November 2016. We included randomised controlled trials comparing an intervention to educate school staff about asthma versus a control group. We included studies reported as full text, those published as abstract only and unpublished data. At least two review authors screened the searches, extracted outcome data and intervention characteristics from included studies and assessed risk of bias. Primary outcomes for the quantitative synthesis were emergency department (ED) or hospital visits, mortality and asthma control; we graded the main results and presented evidence in a 'Summary of findings' table. We planned a qualitative synthesis of intervention characteristics, but study authors were unable to provide the necessary information.We analysed dichotomous data as odds ratios, and continuous data as mean differences or standardised mean differences, all with a random-effects model. We assessed clinical, methodological and statistical heterogeneity when performing meta-analyses, and we narratively described skewed data. Five cluster-RCTs of 111 schools met the review eligibility criteria. Investigators measured outcomes in participating staff and often in children or parents, most often at between 1 and 12 months.All interventions were educational programmes but duration, content and delivery varied; some involved elements of training for pupils or primary care providers. We noted risk of selection

  14. Effect of systemic corticosteroids on serum apoptotic markers and quality of life in patients with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Shashikant; Prakash, Anupam; Rehan, Harmeet S; Gupta, Lalit K

    2015-01-01

    Despite corticosteroids being the first line drug treatment for asthma symptom control, the mechanisms of action of corticosteroids in asthma are still poorly understood. The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of systemic corticosteroids on serum level of apoptotic markers Survivin (for inflammatory cells) and M30 apoptosense (for bronchial epithelial cells) in patients of acute exacerbation of bronchial asthma. The study involved 60 patients with acute exacerbation of bronchial asthma who were prescribed systemic corticosteroids. Patients were evaluated for their serum levels of apoptotic markers (Survivin and M30 apoptosense) and their quality of life (QOL), before and after treatment with oral prednisolone. Paired t-test was used to compare the change in the serum values. The mean baseline serum Survivin and M30 apoptosense levels were 224.10 ± 42.76 and 123.00 ± 18.79 U/L, respectively, which decreased significantly (p corticosteroids also significantly improved QOL scores and peak expiratory flow rate % (PEFR%) in the asthma patients. This improvement was seen irrespective of the initial severity score. Results from the study suggest that systemic corticosteroids administration decreases the survival of inflammatory cells and increases that of bronchial epithelial cells in patients with acute exacerbation of bronchial asthma. The study has been registered with Clinical Trials Registry-India. Registry database number CTRI/2014/08/00483.

  15. Influential factors of insufficient physical activity among adolescents with asthma in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Kuei Teng

    Full Text Available Little research has been reported concerning insufficient physical activity in Taiwanese adolescents with asthma. The aims of this paper are to compare the amount of physical activity between asthmatic and non-asthmatic adolescents in Taiwan, as well as to investigate the influential factors associated with insufficient physical activity in asthmatic adolescents.Self-reporting structured questionnaires (socio-economic status, scale of family support for physical activity, amount of physical activity and peak expiratory flow were assessed from 286 adolescents with asthma and 588 non-asthmatic adolescents in a cross-sectional design. Insufficient amount of physical activity was based on less than 300 minutes per week of moderate and vigorous physical activity.Adolescents with asthma have a greater amount of physical activity and a higher level of family support than those who are non-asthmatic. In Taiwan, adolescents with asthma, girls relative to boys, obesity relative to average weight, and low family support relative to high family support were found to be associated with insufficient physical activity.Physical activity in adolescents with asthma is insufficient especially in girls, in asthmatics with obesity, and in those with low family support. We suggest that physical activity programs should be applied to Taiwan adolescents with asthma in order to match the criteria of 300 minutes per week of moderate and vigorous physical activity, especially for girls, the obese and those with a low level of family support.

  16. Exploring asthma in the workplace: A triangulation of perspectives from management, employees and people with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Denise H; Cheung, Janet M Y; Smith, Lorraine; Saini, Bandana

    2017-08-31

    People with asthma spend a significant amount of time in the workplace but little is known about the current state of disease management in such contexts. The aim of the current study is to explore the experiences, attitudes and perceptions of asthma across different stakeholders in the workplace to help inform potential recommendations for workplace asthma policies. Using purposive and convenience sampling methods, in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted in Australia with 5 human resource personnel, 10 employees with asthma and 10 employees without asthma. Interviews were guided by a schedule of questions focusing on attitudes and experiences of people with asthma in the workplace, which were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed. Analysis of the qualitative dataset revealed three key themes: Beliefs and Attitudes about Asthma, Asthma Solutions in the Workplace and Workplace Obstacles. Findings suggest that employees with asthma experience problems managing their asthma at work and there is a lack of workplace support in relation to asthma emergency management. Key recommendations for workplace asthma policies have been made to provide better support for employees with asthma. However, further investigation into the experience of managing asthma is required in a wider variety of occupations and work experiences to inform the development of a workplace asthma policy.

  17. The role of trait mindfulness in quality of life and asthma control among adolescents with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cillessen, Linda; van de Ven, Monique O; Karremans, Johan C

    2017-08-01

    The current study focused on the role of trait mindfulness in asthma-related quality of life (QoL) and asthma control in adolescent asthma patients. Furthermore, potential underlying mechanisms (general and asthma-specific stress) of this relationship were investigated. In this cross-sectional study, questionnaire data of 94 adolescents with asthma that were prescribed daily asthma medication were included. Two Structural Equation Models (SEMs), a direct model and an indirect model, were tested. We found that trait mindfulness was directly related to asthma-related QoL, but not to asthma control. The relationship between trait mindfulness and asthma-related QoL was explained by asthma-specific, but not by general stress. Furthermore, an indirect relation from mindfulness to asthma control via asthma-specific stress was found. Cross-sectional evidence for a relation between mindfulness and asthma-related QoL is found. These findings may point to the possibility that an intervention aimed at increasing mindfulness could be a promising tool to improve asthma-related QoL in adolescents via a decrease in asthma-specific stress. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Perception of asthma as a factor in career choice among young adults with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhinder, Sacha; Cicutto, Lisa; Abdel-Qadir, Husam M; Tarlo, Susan M

    2009-01-01

    Asthma is a common chronic condition that can be aggravated by workplace exposures. Young adults with asthma should know how their future occupation might affect their asthma, and potentially, their quality of life. The aim of the present study was to assess the awareness of young adults to occupational risks for asthma and high-risk occupations, as well as their perception of the role of asthma in career choice. Young adults 16 to 22 years of age with reported physician-diagnosed asthma were recruited to complete a questionnaire eliciting information regarding asthma control, career choice and awareness of occupational exposure risks. A small majority of the study cohort (56.4%) could identify occupations that cause or exacerbate asthma, and 34.7% indicated that asthma was an important factor in their career plans. Family physicians were most responsible for asthma management (80.2%), but young adults were more likely to discuss asthma and career plans with their parents (43.6%) or friends (29.7%) than with their family physician (13.9%; PFamily physicians most commonly provide asthma care to these young adults. However, few young adults are talking to their family physicians about career choices and asthma. This observation represents an area of asthma care that needs to be explored in young adults with asthma.

  19. Individual-level socioeconomic status is associated with worse asthma morbidity in patients with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouchard Anne

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low socioeconomic status (SES has been linked to higher morbidity in patients with chronic diseases, but may be particularly relevant to asthma, as asthmatics of lower SES may have higher exposures to indoor (e.g., cockroaches, tobacco smoke and outdoor (e.g., urban pollution allergens, thus increasing risk for exacerbations. Methods This study assessed associations between adult SES (measured according to educational level and asthma morbidity, including asthma control; asthma-related emergency health service use; asthma self-efficacy, and asthma-related quality of life, in a Canadian cohort of 781 adult asthmatics. All patients underwent a sociodemographic and medical history interview and pulmonary function testing on the day of their asthma clinic visit, and completed a battery of questionnaires (Asthma Control Questionnaire, Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire, and Asthma Self-Efficacy Scale. General Linear Models assessed associations between SES and each morbidity measure. Results Lower SES was associated with worse asthma control (F = 11.63, p Conclusions Results suggest that lower SES (measured according to education level, is associated with several indices of worse asthma morbidity, particularly worse asthma control, in adult asthmatics independent of disease severity. Results are consistent with previous studies linking lower SES to worse asthma in children, and add asthma to the list of chronic diseases affected by individual-level SES.

  20. [Asthma-COPD overlap syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odler, Balázs; Müller, Veronika

    2016-08-01

    Obstructive lung diseases represent a major health problem worldwide due to their high prevalence associated with elevated socioeconomic costs. Bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are chronic obstructive ventilatory disorders with airway inflammation, however they are separate nosological entities based on thedifferent development, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, and prognostic features. However, these diseases may coexist and can be defined as the coexistence of increased variability of airflow in a patient with incompletely reversible airway obstruction. This phenotype is called asthma - chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome. The syndrome is a clinical and scientific challenge as the majority of these patients have been excluded from the clinical and pharmacological trials, thus well-defined clinical characteristics and therapeutic approaches are lacking. The aim of this review is to summarize the currently available literature focusing on pathophysiological and clinical features, and discuss possible therapeutic approaches of patients with asthma - chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(33), 1304-1313.

  1. Facility Location with Double-peaked Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filos-Ratsikas, Aris; Li, Minming; Zhang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    We study the problem of locating a single facility on a real line based on the reports of self-interested agents, when agents have double-peaked preferences, with the peaks being on opposite sides of their locations. We observe that double-peaked preferences capture real-life scenarios and thus...... complement the well-studied notion of single-peaked preferences. We mainly focus on the case where peaks are equidistant from the agents’ locations and discuss how our results extend to more general settings. We show that most of the results for single-peaked preferences do not directly apply to this setting...

  2. Asthma Outcomes: Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sandra R.; Rand, Cynthia S.; Cabana, Michael D.; Foggs, Michael B.; Halterman, Jill S.; Olson, Lynn; Vollmer, William M.; Wright, Rosalind J.; Taggart, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Background “Asthma-related quality of life” refers to the perceived impact that asthma has on the patient’s quality of life. Objective National Institutes of Health (NIH) institutes and other federal agencies convened an expert group to recommend standardized measures of the impact of asthma on quality of life for use in future asthma clinical research. Methods We reviewed published documentation regarding the development and psychometric evaluation; clinical research use since 2000; and extent to which the content of each existing quality of life instrument provides a unique, reliable, and valid assessment of the intended construct. We classified instruments as core (required in future studies), supplemental (used according to the study’s aims and standardized), or emerging (requiring validation and standardization). This work was discussed at an NIH-organized workshop convened in March 2010 and finalized in September 2011. Results Eleven instruments for adults and 6 for children were identified for review. None qualified as core instruments because they predominantly measured indicators of asthma control (symptoms and/or functional status); failed to provide a distinct, reliable score measuring all key dimensions of the intended construct; and/or lacked adequate psychometric data. Conclusions In the absence of existing instruments that meet the stated criteria, currently available instruments are classified as either supplemental or emerging. Research is strongly recommended to develop and evaluate instruments that provide a distinct, reliable measure of the patient’s perception of the impact of asthma on all of the key dimensions of quality of life, an important outcome that is not captured in other outcome measures. PMID:22386511

  3. [From atopic dermatitis to asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Businco, L; Marziali, M; Furcolo, G; Meglio, P

    1997-10-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common chronic skin disorder in infancy and childhood and is the main hallmark of atopic constitution. The disease is multifactorial, and although genetic predisposition is certainly a prerequisite, a number of environmental factors modulate the phenotypic expression of AD. The majority of affected children shows IgE sensitisation towards a large variety of foods and aeroallergens. Since at least 1600, it has been recognized that patients with AD have a high predisposition to develop asthma. Recent epidemiological studies show that AD is commonly seen in individuals from families with a history of asthma. In addition, in population where asthma is uncommon, AD is also uncommon. The sex distribution of AD and asthma is the same, with boys affected significantly more often by these two atopic diseases and in similar proportions. The ETAC project (Early Treatment of the Atopic Child) is a large multicenter, multi-national, double blind, placebo controlled, randomised trial. The main objective of the study is to stop the progression from AD to asthma in young children with AD using early therapeutic intervention with Cetirizine and the second objective is to investigate the main risk factors for the onset of asthma. The results of this study indicate that exposure to potent allergens such as cat or mite significantly increased the risk of sensitisation to these allergens. Prolonged breast feeding was associated with a lowest sensitisation rate to cow milk proteins and to egg. Therefore environmental factors seem to play a crucial role in IgE sensitisation in children with AD.

  4. Intragroup Emotions: Physiological Linkage and Social Presence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvelä, Simo; Kätsyri, Jari; Ravaja, Niklas; Chanel, Guillaume; Henttonen, Pentti

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how technologically mediating two different components of emotion—communicative expression and physiological state—to group members affects physiological linkage and self-reported feelings in a small group during video viewing. In different conditions the availability of second screen text chat (communicative expression) and visualization of group level physiological heart rates and their dyadic linkage (physiology) was varied. Within this four person group two participants formed a physically co-located dyad and the other two were individually situated in two separate rooms. We found that text chat always increased heart rate synchrony but HR visualization only with non-co-located dyads. We also found that physiological linkage was strongly connected to self-reported social presence. The results encourage further exploration of the possibilities of sharing group member's physiological components of emotion by technological means to enhance mediated communication and strengthen social presence. PMID:26903913

  5. Intragroup emotions: physiological linkage and social presence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo eJärvelä

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated how technologically mediating two different components of emotion – communicative expression and physiological state – to group members affects physiological linkage and self-reported feelings in a small group during video viewing. In different conditions the availability of second screen text chat (communicative expression and visualization of group level physiological heart rates and their dyadic linkage (physiology was varied. Within this four person group two participants formed a physically co-located dyad and the other two were individually situated in two separate rooms. We found that text chat always increased heart rate synchrony but HR visualization only with non-co-located dyads. We also found that physiological linkage was strongly connected to self-reported social presence. The results encourage further exploration of the possibilities of sharing group member’s physiological components of emotion by technological means to enhance mediated communication and strengthen social presence.

  6. Evaluation of quality of life according to asthma control and asthma severity in children and adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Natasha Yumi; Ribeiro, Maria Angela Gonçalves de Oliveira; Saad, Ivete Alonso Bredda; Morcillo, André Moreno; Ribeiro, José Dirceu; Toro, Adyléia Aparecida Dalbo Contrera

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate quality of life according to the level of asthma control and degree of asthma severity in children and adolescents. METHODS: We selected children and adolescents with asthma (7-17 years of age) from the Pediatric Pulmonology Outpatient Clinic of the State University of Campinas Hospital de Clínicas, located in the city of Campinas, Brazil. Asthma control and asthma severity were assessed by the Asthma Control Test and by the questionnaire based on the Global Initiative for Asthma, respectively. The patients also completed the Paediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ), validated for use in Brazil, in order to evaluate their quality of life. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 11.22 ± 2.91 years, with a median of 11.20 (7.00-17.60) years. We selected 100 patients, of whom 27, 33, and 40 were classified as having controlled asthma (CA), partially controlled asthma (PCA), and uncontrolled asthma (UA), respectively. As for asthma severity, 34, 19, and 47 were classified as having mild asthma (MiA), moderate asthma (MoA), and severe asthma (SA), respectively. The CA and the PCA groups, when compared with the NCA group, showed higher values for the overall PAQLQ score and all PAQLQ domains (activity limitation, symptoms, and emotional function; p < 0.001 for all). The MiA group showed higher scores for all of the PAQLQ components than did the MoA and SA groups. CONCLUSIONS: Quality of life appears to be directly related to asthma control and asthma severity in children and adolescents, being better when asthma is well controlled and asthma severity is lower. PMID:26785958

  7. Lower Airway Rhinovirus Burden and the Seasonal Risk of Asthma Exacerbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkness, Ron L.; Lee, Wai-Ming; Evans, Michael D.; Wolff, Michele J.; Mathur, Sameer K.; Crisafi, Gina M.; Gaworski, Katie L.; Pappas, Tressa E.; Vrtis, Rose F.; Kelly, Elizabeth A.; Gern, James E.; Jarjour, Nizar N.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale: Most asthma exacerbations are initiated by viral upper respiratory illnesses. It is unclear whether human rhinovirus (HRV)–induced exacerbations are associated with greater viral replication and neutrophilic inflammation compared with HRV colds. Objectives: To evaluate viral strain and load in a prospective asthma cohort during a natural cold. Methods: Adults were enrolled at the first sign of a cold, with daily monitoring of symptoms, medication use, and peak expiratory flow rate until resolution. Serial nasal lavage and induced sputum samples were assessed for viral copy number and inflammatory cell counts. Measurements and Main Results: A total of 52 persons with asthma and 14 control subjects without atopy or asthma were studied for over 10 weeks per subject on average; 25 participants developed an asthma exacerbation. Detection of HRVs in the preceding 5 days was the most common attributable exposure related to exacerbation. Compared with other infections, those by a minor group A HRV were 4.4-fold more likely to cause exacerbation (P = 0.038). Overall, sputum neutrophils and the burden of rhinovirus in the lower airway were similar in control subjects without atopy and the asthma group. However, among HRV-infected participants with asthma, exacerbations were associated with greater sputum neutrophil counts (P = 0.005). Conclusions: HRV infection is a frequent cause of exacerbations in adults with asthma and a cold, and there may be group-specific differences in severity of these events. The absence of large differences in viral burden among groups suggests differential lower airway sensitization to the effects of neutrophilic inflammation in the patients having exacerbations. PMID:21816938

  8. Lower airway rhinovirus burden and the seasonal risk of asthma exacerbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denlinger, Loren C; Sorkness, Ron L; Lee, Wai-Ming; Evans, Michael D; Wolff, Michele J; Mathur, Sameer K; Crisafi, Gina M; Gaworski, Katie L; Pappas, Tressa E; Vrtis, Rose F; Kelly, Elizabeth A; Gern, James E; Jarjour, Nizar N

    2011-11-01

    Most asthma exacerbations are initiated by viral upper respiratory illnesses. It is unclear whether human rhinovirus (HRV)–induced exacerbations are associated with greater viral replication and neutrophilic inflammation compared with HRV colds. To evaluate viral strain and load in a prospective asthma cohort during a natural cold. Adults were enrolled at the first sign of a cold, with daily monitoring of symptoms, medication use, and peak expiratory flow rate until resolution. Serial nasal lavage and induced sputum samples were assessed for viral copy number and inflammatory cell counts. A total of 52 persons with asthma and 14 control subjects without atopy or asthma were studied for over 10 weeks per subject on average; 25 participants developed an asthma exacerbation. Detection of HRVs in the preceding 5 days was the most common attributable exposure related to exacerbation. Compared with other infections, those by a minor group A HRV were 4.4- fold more likely to cause exacerbation (P = 0.038). Overall, sputum neutrophils and the burden of rhinovirus in the lower airway were similar in control subjects without atopy and the asthma group. However, among HRV-infected participants with asthma, exacerbations were associated with greater sputum neutrophil counts (P = 0.005). HRV infection is a frequent cause of exacerbations in adults with asthma and a cold, and there may be group-specific differences in severity of these events. The absence of large differences in viral burden among groups suggests differential lower airway sensitization to the effects of neutrophilic inflammation in the patients having exacerbations.

  9. Control of asthma triggers in indoor air with air cleaners: a modeling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myatt, Theodore A; Minegishi, Taeko; Allen, Joseph G; Macintosh, David L

    2008-08-06

    Reducing exposure to environmental agents indoors shown to increase asthma symptoms or lead to asthma exacerbations is an important component of a strategy to manage asthma for individuals. Numerous investigations have demonstrated that portable air cleaning devices can reduce concentrations of asthma triggers in indoor air; however, their benefits for breathing problems have not always been reproducible. The potential exposure benefits of whole house high efficiency in-duct air cleaners for sensitive subpopulations have yet to be evaluated. We used an indoor air quality modeling system (CONTAM) developed by NIST to examine peak and time-integrated concentrations of common asthma triggers present in indoor air over a year as a function of natural ventilation, portable air cleaners, and forced air ventilation equipped with conventional and high efficiency filtration systems. Emission rates for asthma triggers were based on experimental studies published in the scientific literature. Forced air systems with high efficiency filtration were found to provide the best control of asthma triggers: 30-55% lower cat allergen levels, 90-99% lower risk of respiratory infection through the inhalation route of exposure, 90-98% lower environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) levels, and 50-75% lower fungal spore levels than the other ventilation/filtration systems considered. These results indicate that the use of high efficiency in-duct air cleaners provide an effective means of controlling allergen levels not only in a single room, like a portable air cleaner, but the whole house. These findings are useful for evaluating potential benefits of high efficiency in-duct filtration systems for controlling exposure to asthma triggers indoors and for the design of trials of environmental interventions intended to evaluate their utility in practice.

  10. Polymorphisms in IL12A and cockroach allergy in children with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy Amy

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background IL12A has been implicated in T-cell development and may thus influence the development of atopy and allergic diseases. Methods We tested for association between four linkage disequilibrium (LD-tagging SNPs (rs2243123, rs2243151, rs668998, and rs17826053 in IL12A and asthma and allergy-related (serum total and allergen-specific IgE, and skin test reactivity [STR] to two common allergens phenotypes in two samples: 417 Costa Rican children with asthma and their parents, and 470 families of 503 white children in the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP. The analysis was conducted using the family-based association test (FBAT statistic implemented in the PBAT program. Results Among Costa Rican children with asthma, homozygosity for the minor allele of each of two SNPs in IL12A (rs2243123 and rs2243151 was associated with increased risks of STR to American cockroach (P ≤ 0.03 for both SNPs, STR to German cockroach (P ≤ 0.01 for both SNPs, and having a positive IgE to German cockroach (P IL12A was inversely associated with STR to German cockroach (P = 0.03 and homozygosity for the minor allele of SNP rs17826053 in IL12A was associated with increased risks of STR to American cockroach (P = 0.01 and STR to German cockroach (P = 0.007. There was no significant association between any SNP in IL12A and asthma, STR to dust mite, or total IgE in Costa Rica or CAMP. Conclusion Our findings suggest that variants in IL12A influence cockroach allergy among children with asthma.

  11. Kinematic Synthesis for Linkages with Velocity Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-Juan, Ana; Sancibrian, Ramon; García, Pablo; Viadero, Fernando; Iglesias, Miguel; Fernández, Alfonso

    A gradient-based optimization method for designing linkages with velocity targets is described. Two theoretical application cases are established for four-bar linkage. In the first, a constant-velocity module is proposed for a point on the coupler. In the second, the goal is the velocity components. These cases are studied with and without coordination with the input link. The results obtained are compared with another gradient-based approach, and show that the method works efficiently for these types of target.

  12. Some methods for blindfolded record linkage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christen Peter

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The linkage of records which refer to the same entity in separate data collections is a common requirement in public health and biomedical research. Traditionally, record linkage techniques have required that all the identifying data in which links are sought be revealed to at least one party, often a third party. This necessarily invades personal privacy and requires complete trust in the intentions of that party and their ability to maintain security and confidentiality. Dusserre, Quantin, Bouzelat and colleagues have demonstrated that it is possible to use secure one-way hash transformations to carry out follow-up epidemiological studies without any party having to reveal identifying information about any of the subjects – a technique which we refer to as "blindfolded record linkage". A limitation of their method is that only exact comparisons of values are possible, although phonetic encoding of names and other strings can be used to allow for some types of typographical variation and data errors. Methods A method is described which permits the calculation of a general similarity measure, the n-gram score, without having to reveal the data being compared, albeit at some cost in computation and data communication. This method can be combined with public key cryptography and automatic estimation of linkage model parameters to create an overall system for blindfolded record linkage. Results The system described offers good protection against misdeeds or security failures by any one party, but remains vulnerable to collusion between or simultaneous compromise of two or more parties involved in the linkage operation. In order to reduce the likelihood of this, the use of last-minute allocation of tasks to substitutable servers is proposed. Proof-of-concept computer programmes written in the Python programming language are provided to illustrate the similarity comparison protocol. Conclusion Although the protocols described in

  13. The Barley Chromosome 5 Linkage Map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms

    1975-01-01

    The distances between nine loci on barley chromosome 5 have been studied in five two-point tests, three three-point tests, and one four-point test. Our previous chromosome 5 linkage map, which contained eleven loci mapped from literature data (Jensen and Jørgensen 1975), is extended with four loci......-position is fixed on the map by a locus (necl), which has a good marker gene located centrally in the linkage group. The positions of the other loci are their distances in centimorgans from the 0-position; loci in the direction of the short chromosome arm are assigned positive values and those...

  14. Asthma affects time to pregnancy and fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Elisabeth J; Thomsen, Simon F; Lindenberg, Svend

    2014-01-01

    including questions about the presence of asthma and fertility. Differences in time to pregnancy and pregnancy outcome were analysed in subjects with asthma, allergy and in healthy individuals using multiple regression analysis. Asthma was associated with an increased time to pregnancy, the percentage...... tended to have a shorter time to pregnancy than untreated asthmatics (OR 1.40; p=0.134). Asthma prolongs time to pregnancy. The negative effect of asthma on fertility increases with age and with disease intensity, indicating that a systemic disease characterised by systemic inflammation also can involve...

  15. Smartphone-based vs paper-based asthma action plans for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Tamara T; Marshall, Alexandra; Berlinski, Ariel; Rettiganti, Mallikarjuna; Brown, Rita H; Randle, Shemeka M; Luo, Chunqiao; Bian, Jiang

    2017-03-01

    Adolescents with asthma are at risk of poor outcomes and are traditionally difficult to reach. To examine adolescents' use of and asthma outcomes associated with smartphone- vs paper-based asthma action plans (AAPs). We conducted a 6-month randomized clinical trial with adolescents (12-17 years old) with persistent asthma. Participants used their respective smartphone or paper AAPs for medication instructions and peak flow or asthma symptoms logging. AAP use was measured electronically for smartphone users and via mail-in diaries for the paper group. Changes in Asthma Control Test (ACT) and self-efficacy scores were examined. Thirty-four adolescents participated in this study (median age, 15.4 years). Participants were mostly African American (62%) with state-issued insurance (71%). Adolescents in the smartphone group accessed the AAP a median of 12.17 times per week or 4.36 days per week but only recorded medications or symptoms and peak flow data in the electronic diary a median of 10 days per month during the 6-month period. Participants in the paper group recorded data a median of 23.5 days per month on their paper diaries. Overall, there were no changes in ACT and self-efficacy scores between groups. Adolescents with uncontrolled asthma (baseline ACT score ≤19) had an improvement in ACT for the smartphone group (before, 11; after, 20) ([P = .04) compared with no change in the paper group (before, 17; after, 17) (P = .64). Adolescent satisfaction with the application was high, with 100% stating they would recommend the smartphone AAP to a friend. Adolescents were frequent and highly satisfied users of the smartphone AAP with a subset of participants with uncontrolled asthma demonstrating possible clinical benefit. Findings suggest a need for larger-scale studies to determine the effectiveness of smartphone-based AAPs among high-risk patients with asthma. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02091869. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma

  16. Effect of relaxation-breathing training on anxiety and asthma signs/symptoms of children with moderate-to-severe asthma: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Li-Chi; Ma, Wei-Fen; Huang, Jing-Long; Tseng, Li-Feng; Hsueh, Kai-Chung

    2009-08-01

    Emotional stress triggers and exacerbates asthma in children. Reducing anxiety in adults by relaxation-breathing techniques has been shown in clinical trials to produce good asthma outcomes. However, more evidence is needed on using this intervention with asthmatic children. To evaluate the effectiveness of combined self-management and relaxation-breathing training for children with moderate-to-severe asthma compared to self-management-only training. Two-group experimental design. Pediatric outpatient clinic of a medical center in central Taiwan. Participants were 48 children, ages 6-14 years, with moderate-to-severe asthma and their parents. Participants were randomly assigned to an experimental or comparison group and matched by gender, age, and asthma severity. Both groups participated in an asthma self-management program. Children in the experimental group were also given 30 min of training in a relaxation-breathing technique and a CD for home practice. Data on anxiety levels, self-perceived health status, asthma signs/symptoms, peak expiratory flow rate, and medication use were collected at baseline and at the end of the 12-week intervention. Effects of group, time, and group-time interaction were analyzed using the Mixed Model in SPSS (12.0). Anxiety (especially state anxiety) was significantly lower for children in the experimental group than in the comparison group. Differences in the other four physiological variables were also noted between pre- and post-intervention, but these changes did not differ significantly between groups. A combination of self-management and relaxation-breathing training can reduce anxiety, thus improving asthmatic children's health. These results can serve as an evidence base for psychological nursing practice with asthmatic children.

  17. Osteoporosis: Peak Bone Mass in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Osteoporosis Osteoporosis: Peak Bone Mass in Women Osteoporosis: Peak Bone Mass in Women Bones are the ... No. 15-7891 Last Reviewed 2015-06 NIH Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases ~ National Resource Center 2 ...

  18. Correlation of environmental factors with asthma and rhinitis symptoms in Tulsa, OK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Cashel P; Levetin, Estelle

    2004-03-01

    Airborne allergens, pollutants, and climatic changes are known to influence the symptoms of asthma patients. To correlate airborne fungal spore and pollen concentrations, meteorological data, and airborne pollutants with asthma and rhinitis symptoms to develop predictive models for asthma severity. Patients from the Tulsa community participated in this study from September 1 to October 31, 2000, by filling out daily symptom diaries and measuring morning and evening peak expiratory flow rates. Air samples were collected using a volumetric spore trap. Meteorological variables and maximum and average pollutants were also included in the analysis. Linear regression analyses were performed for all environmental variables and symptom scores. Forward stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed to determine sets of variables that could be used to predict the conditions of increased symptom severity. Twenty-four patients participated in this study. The predominant spore types included Cladosporium, ascospores, and basidiospores. The predominant pollen type was Ambrosia. September was unusually hot and dry in Tulsa, but 161 mm of precipitation fell in October, primarily during the last 11 days. Two periods of peak symptoms occurred during the study, the first during the peak week of Ambrosia and the second after a 22 degrees C drop in temperature over 6 days. Numerous environmental variables showed significant correlations with symptom scores; however, there was no single predictive model for all symptoms. Ambrosia pollen and other environmental variables, including ozone levels, were significantly correlated with asthma and rhinitis symptoms.

  19. Pharmacotherapy options to treat asthma during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazy, Jennifer A; Schatz, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy may be complicated by new onset or pre-existing asthma. This article reviews the recognition and management of asthma during pregnancy, paying close attention to the general principles of asthma medication use during pregnancy. Asthma is one of the most common potentially serious medical problems to complicate pregnancy, and asthma may adversely affect both maternal quality of life and perinatal outcomes. Therefore, optimal management of asthma during pregnancy is important for both mother and baby. This article reviews asthma pharmacotherapy during pregnancy, with an emphasis on gestational safety of commonly used medications. In this review of asthma pharmacotherapy during pregnancy, the most pertinent recent publications are reported. Electronic databases such as PubMed were searched for terms pregnan* or perinat* or obstet* and asthma or wheeze and treatment. Although retrospective data have been reassuring, since pregnant women are generally excluded from clinical trials, there is a lack of adequate safety information for most medications taken during pregnancy. One of the most important needs for the future is the availability of further safety information for asthma medications used during pregnancy that can also account for asthma control.

  20. Is influenza vaccination in asthma helpful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueving, Herman J; Thomas, Siep; Wouden, Johannes C van der

    2005-02-01

    Influenza infections are frequently involved in asthma exacerbations. During influenza epidemics substantial excess morbidity due to respiratory tract complications is reported in all age categories as well as excess mortality among the elderly. Vaccines are available for protection against influenza. Worldwide, vaccination is advised and considered a quality point for asthma care. However, the protective effect of influenza vaccination in patients with asthma is still disputed. In order to establish the current state of affairs we reviewed the recent literature on the protective effect of influenza vaccination and its usefulness in patients with asthma. Several studies were found addressing influenza and the protective aspects of vaccination. They discussed the incidence, the adverse effects of vaccination, the coverage of influenza vaccination among patients with asthma and the effectiveness of the vaccine. Influenza vaccination can safely be used in patients with asthma. Allegations that vaccination could provoke asthma exacerbations are convincingly invalidated by previous and recent research. Although patients with asthma are one of the major target groups for immunization, vaccine coverage in all age categories remains low. So far, no unequivocal beneficial effect of influenza vaccination in patients with asthma was found in observational and experimental studies in the sense of reduction of asthma exacerbations and other complications. Recent studies confirm these negative findings. More long-term randomized, placebo-controlled studies, focusing on influenza- proven illness in patients with asthma, are needed to address the question of how helpful influenza vaccination is in these patients.

  1. Role of Obesity in Asthma Control, the Obesity-Asthma Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Novosad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a disease with distinct phenotypes that have implications for both prognosis and therapy. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated an association between asthma and obesity. Further studies have shown that obese asthmatics have poor asthma control and more severe asthma. This obese-asthma group may represent a unique phenotype. The mechanisms behind poor asthma control in obese subjects remain unclear, but recent research has focused on adipokines and their effects on the airways as well as the role of oxidative stress. Both surgical and nonsurgical weight loss therapy have shown promising results with improvements in asthma control and decreased asthma severity. Comorbid conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease and obstructive sleep apnea may also have a role in poor asthma control in obese asthmatics. Further research is needed to define the mechanisms behind this phenotype which will guide the development of targeted therapies.

  2. Mismatch between asthma symptoms and spirometry: implications for managing asthma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifano, Elizabeth D; Hollenbach, Jessica P; Cloutier, Michelle M

    2014-11-01

    To examine the concordance between spirometry and asthma symptoms in assessing asthma severity and beginning therapy by the general pediatrician. Between 2008 and 2012, spirometry testing was satisfactorily performed in 894 children (ages 5-19 years) whose asthma severity had been determined by their pediatrician using asthma guideline-based clinical criteria. Spirometry-determined asthma severity using national asthma guidelines and clinician-determined asthma severity were compared for concordance using weighted Kappa coefficients. Thirty percent of participants had clinically determined intermittent asthma; 32%, 33%, and 5% had mild, moderate, and severe, persistent asthma, respectively. Increasing disease severity was associated with decreases in the forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio (P spirometry-determined severity. Concordance was 0.16 (95% CI 0.10, 0.23), and when adjusted for bias and prevalence, was 0.20 (95% CI 0.17, 0.23). When accounting for age, sex, exposure to smoke, and insurance type, only spirometry-determined asthma severity was a significant predictor of agreement (P spirometry-determined severity increased. Concordance between spirometry and asthma symptoms in determining asthma severity is low even when guideline-based clinical assessment tools are used. Because appropriate therapy reduces asthma morbidity and is guided by disease severity, results from spirometry testing could better guide pediatricians in determining appropriate therapy for their patients with asthma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Atopy, but not obesity is associated with asthma severity among children with persistent asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kim D; Phipatanakul, Wanda; Perzanowski, Matthew S; Balcer-Whaley, Susan; Matsui, Elizabeth C

    2016-12-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of asthma in children. Atopic sensitization is a major risk factor for asthma including severe asthma in children. It is unclear if obesity is associated with worse asthma control or severity in children and how its effects compare to atopy. We sought to examine relationships of weight status and atopy to asthma control and severity among a population of predominantly low income, minority children and adolescents with persistent asthma. A cross-sectional analysis of 832 children and adolescents, age range 5-17 years, with persistent asthma was performed. Clinical assessments included asthma questionnaires of symptoms, asthma severity score, health care utilization and medication treatment step, lung function testing, and skin prick testing as well as measures of adiposity. Data were collected between December 2010 and August 2014 from Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, MD and Children's Hospital of Boston, MA. Obesity was not associated with worse asthma control or severity in this group of predominantly low income, minority children and adolescents with persistent asthma. However, a greater degree of atopy was associated with lower lung function, higher asthma severity score, and higher medication treatment step. Atopy may be a more important risk factor for asthma severity than obesity among low-income minority children and adolescents with persistent asthma living in Northeastern cities in the United States.

  4. Diet and Asthma: Vitamins and Methyl Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yueh-Ying; Blatter, Josh; Brehm, John M.; Forno, Erick; Litonjua, Augusto A; Celedón, Juan C.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Dietary changes may partly explain the high burden of asthma in industrialized nations. Experimental studies have motivated a significant number of observational studies of the relation between vitamins (A, C, D, and E) or nutrients acting as methyl donors (folate, vitamin B12, and choline) and asthma. Because observational studies are susceptible to several sources of bias, well-conducted randomized controlled trials (RCTs) remain the “gold standard” to determine whether a vitamin or nutrient has an effect on asthma. Evidence from observational studies and/or relatively few RCTs most strongly justify ongoing and future RCTs of: 1) vitamin D to prevent or treat asthma, 2) choline supplementation as adjuvant treatment for asthma, and 3) vitamin E to prevent the detrimental effects of air pollution in subjects with asthma. At this time, there is insufficient evidence to recommend supplementation with any vitamin or nutrient acting as a methyl donor to prevent or treat asthma. PMID:24461761

  5. A model to forecast peak spreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    As traffic congestion increases, the K-factor, defined as the proportion of the 24-hour traffic volume that occurs during the peak hour, may decrease. This behavioral response is known as peak spreading: as congestion grows during the peak travel tim...

  6. A functional CD86 polymorphism associated with asthma and related allergic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corydon, Thomas Juhl; Haagerup, Annette; Jensen, Thomas Gryesten

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have documented a substantial genetic component in the aetiology of allergic diseases and a number of atopy susceptibility loci have been suggested. One of these loci is 3q21, at which linkage to multiple atopy phenotypes has been reported. This region harbours the CD86...... samples (eg, asthma, p = 4 x 10(-3) in the two samples combined). The undertransmitted (protective) Val179 allele was found to induce higher production of both Th1 and Th2 cytokines than the overtransmitted (risk) Ile179 allele, suggesting a functional impact of the polymorphism. CONCLUSION: The CD86 gene......, and specifically the Ile179Val polymorphism, may be a novel aetiological factor in the development of asthma and related allergic disorders....

  7. ACT-asthma control y tratamiento para niños: a progress report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, M A; de la Sota, A; Rachelefsky, G; Lewis, C E; Quinones, H; Richards, W

    1987-01-01

    A randomized clinical trial is in progress to evaluate an asthma educational program for Latino children and their parents. The intervention, "ACT-Asma Control y Tratamiento Para Niños," was adapted from ACT for Kids, an asthma self-management program for English-speaking families. Results of a pilot study indicated that socioeconomic status was a critical variable to be considered in the design of such programs. Latino children and parents encounter significant barriers to access and continuity of medical care. Therefore, the intervention was redesigned to include "linkages" using a nurse to reduce barriers and to coordinate care. The lesson plans emphasize concrete, experimental learning experiences, with repetition of key points in each session.

  8. Linkage of health and aged care service events: comparing linkage and event selection methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosman Diana

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data linkage is a technique that has long been used to connect information across several disparate data sources – most commonly for medical and population health research. Often the purpose is to connect data for individuals over extended time periods or across different service settings, and so person-based linkage using detailed personal information is preferred. Linkage which aims to link connected events, on the other hand, requires information about the time and place of the event as well as the person or persons involved in that event in order to make high quality linkages. This paper describes the detailed process of event linkage and compares directly an event-based linkage method for identifying transition events between two care sectors in Australia with a well-established high quality longitudinal person-based linkage which facilitates identification of event data for individuals. Methods Direct comparisons are made between transition events identified using an event-based linkage and an existing person-based linkage for people moving from hospital into aged care in Western Australia. Several aspects of event-based linkage are examined: refinement of the strategy to reduce false positives, causes of false positives and false negatives, quality of the linked event dataset, and utility of the linked event dataset for transition analysis. Results Over 97% of the event-based links were among those selected using the person-based linkage and over 90% of the latter were identified by the event-based method, with the remainder missed mostly due to differences in reported event date or residential region. Consequently the two linked datasets were sufficiently similar to give very similar results for analyses, but the actual volume of movement from hospital to RAC was underestimated by about 10% by the event-based method. Conclusion This project has allowed a 'preferred event' event-based linkage strategy to be selected

  9. Prevalence of Occupational Asthma and Respiratory Symptoms in Foundry Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servet Kayhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study was conducted in a foundry factory to assess the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and occupational asthma in foundry workers. Physical examination, spirometric evaluation, chest radiograph, and a questionnaire related to respiratory symptoms were performed. Monitoring of peak expiratory flow rates, spirometric reversibility test, and high-resolution computed tomographies were performed for the participants having respiratory symptoms and/or impaired respiratory function test. A total of 347 participants including 286 workers from production department and 61 subjects who worked in nonproduction departments were enrolled in this study. It is found that phlegm (n: 71, 20.46% and cough (n: 52, 14.98% were the most frequent symptoms. The other symptoms were breathlessness (n: 28, 8.06%, chest tightness (n: 14, 4.03%, and wheezing (n: 7, 2.01% . The prevalence of occupational asthma was found to be more frequent among the subjects who worked in the production department (n: 48, 16.78% than the other persons who worked in the nonproduction department (n: 3, 4.91% by chi-square test (P: 0.001. To prevent hazardous respiratory effects of the foundry production, an early diagnosis of occupational asthma is very important. Cessation of cigarette smoking and using of protective masks during the working time should be encouraged.

  10. Occupational asthma due to esparto hypersensitivity in a building worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Hornillos, Francisco Javier; De Barrio Fernández, Manuel; Molina, Pilar Tornero; Marcén, Itziar Sánchez; Fernandez, Galicia Davila; Sotés, María Rubio; de Ocariz, María Luisa Baeza Ochoa

    2007-01-01

    Esparto is a gramineous plant that has multiple applications in today's industry. Several cases of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) caused by esparto inhalation have been reported, but only one case of asthma caused by Aspergillus fumigatus contaminating esparto has been communicated. We report a case of asthma induced by esparto inhalation in a 58-year-old man, who is a building industry worker, with subclinical sensitization to grass pollen. The relation between clinical symptoms and work activities was supported by peak expiratory flow (PEF) monitorization; PEF values decreased by 20% the days he handled esparto. Prick test with esparto was positive. Immunoblot analysis revealed several allergens in the esparto extract, some of them present in Lolium and A. fumigatus extracts. IgE immunoblot inhibition revealed a complete inhibition of lolium and A. fumigatus IgE reactive bands by esparto proteins. The patient then avoided the exposure to esparto at work and has remained asymptomatic for the last 2 years. In conclusion, this is a case of occupational asthma caused by esparto dust mediated by IgE antibodies. Proteins of A. fumigatus as well as proteins from this gramineous plant, which cross-reacted with esparto allergens, were responsible for the disease.

  11. Genome-Wide Family-Based Linkage Analysis of Exome Chip Variants and Cardiometabolic Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwege, Jacklyn N.; Palmer, Nicholette D.; Raffield, Laura M.; Ng, Maggie C.Y.; Hawkins, Gregory A.; Long, Jirong; Lorenzo, Carlos; Norris, Jill M.; da Chen, Y-D. I; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Bowden, Donald W.

    2014-01-01

    Linkage analysis of complex traits has had limited success in identifying trait-influencing loci. Recently, coding variants have been implicated as the basis for some biomedical associations. We tested whether coding variants are the basis for linkage peaks of complex traits in 42 African-American (n = 596) and 90 Hispanic (n = 1,414) families in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study (IRASFS) using Illumina HumanExome Beadchips. A total of 92,157 variants in African Americans (34%) and 81,559 (31%) in Hispanics were polymorphic and tested using two-point linkage and association analyses with 37 cardiometabolic phenotypes. In African Americans 77 LOD scores greater than 3 were observed. The highest LOD score was 4.91 with the APOE SNP rs7412 (MAF = 0.13) with plasma apolipoprotein B (ApoB). This SNP was associated with ApoB (P-value = 4 × 10−19) and accounted for 16.2% of the variance in African Americans. In Hispanic families, 104 LOD scores were greater than 3. The strongest evidence of linkage (LOD = 4.29) was with rs5882 (MAF = 0.46) in CETP with HDL. CETP variants were strongly associated with HDL (0.00049 genome wide survey of primarily coding variants was uncommon. Loci with strong evidence of linkage was characterized by large contributions to the variance, and, in these cases, are common variants. Less compelling evidence of linkage and association was observed with additional loci that may require larger family sets to confirm. PMID:24719370

  12. Carboxyhemoglobin and methemoglobin in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naples, Robert; Laskowski, Dan; McCarthy, Kevin; Mattox, Emmea; Comhair, Suzy A A; Erzurum, Serpil C

    2015-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) are synthesized at high levels in asthmatic airways. NO can oxidize hemoglobin (Hb) to methemoglobin (MetHb). CO binds to heme to produce carboxyhemoglobin (COHb). We hypothesized that MetHb and COHb may be increased in asthma. COHb, MetHb, and Hb were measured in venous blood of healthy controls (n = 32) and asthmatics (n = 31). Arterial COHb and oxyhemoglobin were measured by pulse CO-oximeter. Hb, oxyhemoglobin, and deoxyhemoglobin were similar among groups, but arterial COHb was higher in asthmatics than controls (p = 0.04). Venous COHb was similar among groups, and thus, arteriovenous COHb (a-v COHb) concentration difference was greater in asthma compared with controls. Venous MetHb was lower in asthma compared to controls (p = 0.01) and correlated to venous NO (p = 0.009). The greater a-v COHb in asthma suggests CO offloading to tissues, but lower than normal MetHb suggests countermeasures to avoid adverse effects of high NO on gas transfer.

  13. Approach to asthma in adults

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During an acute asthma attack, patients can experience anxiety, severe dyspnoea, tightness of the chest, or a burning ... Nutritional and exercise-related factors. • Obesity. • Vitamin D insufficiency in children ... breathing, recurrent chest tightness, symptoms occurring or worsening at night or with exercise, a viral infection, ...

  14. Carboxyhemoglobin and Methemoglobin in Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naples, Robert; Laskowski, Dan; McCarthy, Kevin; Mattox, Emmea; Comhair, Suzy A. A.; Erzurum, Serpil C.

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) are synthesized at high levels in asthmatic airways. NO can oxidize hemoglobin (Hb) to methemoglobin (MetHb). CO binds to heme to produce carboxyhemoglobin (COHb). We hypothesized that MetHb and COHb may be increased in asthma. COHb, MetHb, and Hb were measured in venous blood of healthy controls (n=32) and asthmatics (n=31). Arterial COHb and oxyhemoglobin were measured by pulse CO-oximeter. Hb, oxyhemoglobin, and deoxyhemoglobin were similar among groups, but arterial COHb was higher in asthmatics than controls (p=0.04). Venous COHb was similar among groups, and thus arteriovenous COHb (a-v COHb) concentration difference was greater in asthma compared with controls. Venous MetHb was lower in asthma compared to controls (p=0.01) and correlated to venous NO (p=0.009). The greater a-v COHb in asthma suggests CO offloading to tissues, but lower than normal MetHb suggests countermeasures to avoid adverse effects of high NO on gas transfer. PMID:25680415

  15. Helicobacter, Hygiene, Atopy, and Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Nusi, Iswan A; Graham, David Y; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    The hygiene hypothesis links environmental and microbial exposures in early life to the prevalence of atopy, allergy, and asthma. Helicobacter pylori infection is typically acquired in childhood and acquisition of the infection is associated with poor household hygiene. Some population surveys have shown an inverse association between H. pylori infection and atopy, allergy, and asthma leading to the suggestion that H. pylori infection may be protective against disease; others consider it simply a biomarker for poor household hygiene. We review the relevant surveys, cohort studies, meta-analyses, and studies testing the protective hypothesis. Overall, the results of surveys and cohort studies are inconsistent, whereas meta-analyses show a significant but weak inverse correlation. In contrast, studies directly testing the protection hypothesis in relation to asthma in populations with poor hygiene and low H. pylori prevalence failed to confirm a protective effect. H. pylori is a major cause of human disease including chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric malignancies. H. pylori infections most likely serve as a biomarker for poor hygienic conditions in childhood. We conclude that while synergistic interactions between environmental factors in childhood are important determinants of the pathogenesis of atopy, allergy, and asthma; H. pylori is inversely related to good hygiene and thus it's presence serves as a biomarker rather than for a specific prevention role for H. pylori or H. pylori antigens.

  16. Helicobacter, Hygiene, Atopy, and Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Miftahussurur

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The hygiene hypothesis links environmental and microbial exposures in early life to the prevalence of atopy, allergy, and asthma. Helicobacter pylori infection is typically acquired in childhood and acquisition of the infection is associated with poor household hygiene. Some population surveys have shown an inverse association between H. pylori infection and atopy, allergy, and asthma leading to the suggestion that H. pylori infection may be protective against disease; others consider it simply a biomarker for poor household hygiene. We review the relevant surveys, cohort studies, meta-analyses, and studies testing the protective hypothesis. Overall, the results of surveys and cohort studies are inconsistent, whereas meta-analyses show a significant but weak inverse correlation. In contrast, studies directly testing the protection hypothesis in relation to asthma in populations with poor hygiene and low H. pylori prevalence failed to confirm a protective effect. H. pylori is a major cause of human disease including chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric malignancies. H. pylori infections most likely serve as a biomarker for poor hygienic conditions in childhood. We conclude that while synergistic interactions between environmental factors in childhood are important determinants of the pathogenesis of atopy, allergy, and asthma; H. pylori is inversely related to good hygiene and thus it's presence serves as a biomarker rather than for a specific prevention role for H. pylori or H. pylori antigens.

  17. Adult asthma: Diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Catherine O; Fowler, Terri; Smith, Whitney; Sterrett, James

    2017-11-16

    Adult asthma is a prevalent chronic medical condition that is associated with high morbidity, mortality, and cost. Early identification, evidence-based diagnosis, and step-wise management can lead to improvements in patient outcomes, decrease exacerbations, and eliminate respiratory function decline as the patient ages.

  18. Alexander technique for chronic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Jane A; Cates, Christopher J

    2012-09-12

    'The Alexander technique' is a taught form of physical therapy involving a series of movements designed to correct posture and bring the body into natural alignment with the object of helping it to function efficiently, and is reported to aid relaxation. Some practitioners claim benefits for those who desire greater ease and efficiency of breathing, including asthmatics. The objective of this review was to evaluate the efficacy of the Alexander technique in people with chronic, stable asthma. We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field trials register and the bibliographies of relevant articles. The most recent search was run in June 2012. Randomised controlled trials of Alexander technique (AT) for the improvement of the symptoms of chronic, stable asthma, comparing the treatment with either another intervention or no intervention. No trials were found that met the selection criteria. No meta-analysis could be performed. Robust, well-designed randomised controlled trials are required in order to test claims by practitioners that AT can have a positive effect on the symptoms of chronic asthma and thereby help people with asthma to reduce medication.

  19. [Asthma mortality trends in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas Ramírez, M; Segura Méndez, N H; Martínez-Cairo Cueto, S

    1994-04-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate mortality and morbidity from asthma in Mexico by federative entity (state) of residence, age, and sex during the period between 1960 and 1988. Statistics published by the National Institute of Statistics, Geography, and Information Science were reviewed, as were vital statistics and information from other sources. Data were selected on mortality, hospital admissions, and outpatient visits, as well as population by federative entity, age, and sex. Mortality and morbidity rates were adjusted for age using the direct method. From 1960 to 1987, mortality decreased for both sexes. The groups with the highest asthma mortality were those under 4 years of age and those over 50. From 1960 to the present, the state with the highest mortality was Tlaxcala. Hospitalizations increased from 10 to 140 per 100,000 population for the country as a whole. When both outpatient visits and hospitalizations were considered, the morbidity rates rose from 180 to 203.4 per 100,000 between 1960 and 1970. In 1970, hospital morbidity was higher among males than females. From 1960 up to the 1990s, the highest rates of hospitalization and outpatient visits were registered among those under 4 and those over 60. The states with the highest asthma hospitalization rates were Morelos, Baja California Sur, Nuevo León, Durango, and Tamaulipas. It is concluded that asthma mortality in Mexico is showing a downward trend, while morbidity is increasing considerably, especially among adolescents.

  20. Occupational asthma caused by palladium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daenen, M.; Rochette, F.; Demedts, M.; Nemery, B. [K.U. Leuven, Pneumology (Belgium); Rogiers, P. [A.Z. St-Lucas, Brugge (Belgium); Walle, C. Van de [Siemens, Oostkamp (Belgium)

    1999-01-01

    Occupational exposure to complex platinum salts is a well-known cause of occupational asthma. Although there is evidence that platinum refinery workers may also be sensitized to other precious metals, such as palladium or rhodium, no instances of occupational asthma due to an isolated sensitization to palladium have been reported. A case is reported of occupational rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma in a previously healthy worker exposed to the fumes of an electroplating bath containing palladium. There was no exposure to platinum. Sensitization to palladium was documented by skin-prick tests. The skin-prick test was positive with Pd(NH{sub 3}){sub 4}Cl{sub 2}, but not with (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}PdCl{sub 4}. Corresponding salts of platinum were all negative. A bronchial provocation test with Pd(NH{sub 34})Cl{sub 2} (0.0001 % for a total of 315 s, followed by 0.001 % for a total of 210 s) led to an early decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second (-35%). A similar exposure (0.001 % for a total of 16 min) in an unrelated asthmatic gave no reaction. This case shows that an isolated sensitization to palladium can occur and that respiratory exposure to palladium is a novel cause of metal-induced occupational asthma. (au) 24 refs.