... controller medications Share | Inhaler reminders significantly improve asthma patients’ use of controller medications Published Online: July 22, ... the burden and risk of asthma, but many patients do not use them regularly. This poor adherence ...
Saini, Bandana; LeMay, Kate; Emmerton, Lynne; Krass, Ines; Smith, Lorraine; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Stewart, Kay; Burton, Deborah; Armour, Carol
To assess any improvements in knowledge of asthma patients after a tailored education program delivered by pharmacists and measure the sustainability of any improvements. To ascertain patients' perceptions about any changes in their knowledge. Ninety-six specially trained pharmacists recruited patients based on their risk of poor asthma control. A tailored intervention was delivered to patients based on individual needs and goals, and was conducted at three or four time points over six months. Asthma knowledge was assessed at the beginning and end of the service, and six and 12 months after it had ended. Patients' perceptions of the impact of the service on their knowledge were explored qualitatively in interviews. The 96 pharmacists recruited 570 patients, 398 (70%) finished. Asthma knowledge significantly improved as a result of the service (7.65 ± 2.36, n=561, to 8.78 ± 2.14, n=393). This improvement was retained for at least 12 months after the service. Patients reported how the knowledge and skills gained had led to a change in the way they managed their asthma. Improvements in knowledge are achievable and sustainable if pharmacists used targeted educational interventions. Pharmacist educational interventions are an efficient way to improve asthma knowledge in the community. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
agreement between the healthcare professional and patient on a predefined target regarding asthma control and a treatment plan to achieve this. Summary Optimum review of asthma is essential to improve control. A key priority is the development of simple and effective tools for identifying poor control for individual patients coupled with a tailored approach to treatment to enable patients to set and achieve realistic goals for asthma control.
Kauppi, Paula; Bachour, Patrick; Maasilta, Paula; Bachour, Adel
Both asthma and obstructive sleep apnoea cause sleep disturbance, daytime sleepiness and diminished quality of life. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is efficient in reducing symptoms related to sleep apnoea. Here we report the impact of long-term use of CPAP on asthma symptoms. A survey questionnaire was distributed to all of our obstructive sleep apnoea patients with CPAP therapy in 2013. We used the Finnish version of the Asthma Control Test™ (ACT) and a visual analogue scale (0 = no symptoms, 100 = severe asthma symptoms). Asthma was defined as self-reported physician-diagnosed disease and a special reimbursement for asthma medication by the Social Insurance Institution. We sent 2577 questionnaires and received 1586 answers (61 %). One hundred ninety-seven patients were asthmatics with a prevalence of asthma among CPAP users of 13 %. We studied 152 patients (58 females) whose CPAP therapy was initiated after starting asthma medication. Their mean (SD) age was 62 (10) years, duration of CPAP 5.7 (4.7) years and their CPAP daily use was 6.3 (2.4) h. Self-reported asthma severity decreased significantly from 48.3 (29.6) to 33.1 (27.4) (p CPAP (P CPAP in patients with both asthma and obstructive sleep apnoea.
Reddel, H. K.; Busse, W. W.; Pedersen, Søren
symptom frequency groups (Figure). CONCLUSIONS: Long-term, once-daily, low-dose budesonide treatment plus usual asthma medication improves lung function in patients with mild, recent-onset asthma. These beneficial effects were seen even in patients with the lowest baseline asthma symptom frequency (0......RATIONALE: Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are highly effective in low doses for improving asthma outcomes, including lung function. In the past, ICS treatment was recommended for patients with 'persistent' asthma, defined by symptoms >2 days/week.1 However, evidence is lacking for the benefit of ICS...... in patients with less frequent symptoms at presentation. This was investigated in a post-hoc analysis of the multinational inhaled Steroid Treatment As Regular Therapy in early asthma (START) study.2 METHODS: Patients aged 4-66 years (median 21 years) with a history of recent-onset mild asthma (11 years...
Agus D. Susanto
Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate effect of proton pump inhibitor (esomeprazole on asthma symptoms, use of inhaled bronchodilator and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR in moderate persistent asthma with gastroesofageal refluks disease (GERD. This randomized single blind, controlled clinical trial study was conducted at Persahabatan Hospital, Jakarta from July 2004 until October 2005. Samples were moderate persistent asthma patients with GERD. GERD is diagnosed GERD symptoms and proof of oesophagitis from endoscopy and or histapatologic examination from oesophagus biopsy. Phase 1:2 week run-in period patient received inhaled budesonide 2x200 ug/day. Phase 2: patient randomised to receive inhaled budesonide 2 x 400 ug/day with esomeprazole 40 mg/day or without esomeprazole (control group for 8 weeks. Phase 3: 4 week wash out period, patient receive inhaled budesonide 2 x 200 ug/day. Diary cards were assessed at run-in periode, after treatment 4 weeks, 8 weeks and wash out. There were 32 patients (23 female and 9 male completed the study. Mean total asthma symptoms score daily were significantly decreased on esomeprazole vs without esomeprazole after 8 weeks (-2.29 vs -0.90; p < 0.05. Mean use of inhaled bronchodilator was significantly decreased on esomeprazole vs without esomeprazole after 8 weeks (-1.09 vs -0.42; p < 0.05. Morning and evening PEFR improved higher on esomeprazole than without esomeprazol but were not significantly difference. In conclusion, administration esomeprazole 40 mg daily improved asthma symptoms and lower the use of inhaled bronchodilator in moderate persistent asthma patients with GERD. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 169-74Keywords: Asthma symptoms, inhaled bronchodilator, moderate persistent asthma, GERD, esomeprazole
Conclusions: Breathing exercises provided significant improvements in spirometric parameters and significant reduction in breathlessness, wheezing, and nocturnal symptoms as well as requirements of rescue medicines in asthma patients who were receiving optimal asthma treatment.
Armour, Carol; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Brillant, Martha; Burton, Debbie; Emmerton, Lynne; Krass, Ines; Saini, Bandana; Smith, Lorraine; Stewart, Kay
Despite national disease management plans, optimal asthma management remains a challenge in Australia. Community pharmacists are ideally placed to implement new strategies that aim to ensure asthma care meets current standards of best practice. The impact of the Pharmacy Asthma Care Program (PACP) on asthma control was assessed using a multi-site randomised intervention versus control repeated measures study design. Fifty Australian pharmacies were randomised into two groups: intervention pharmacies implemented the PACP (an ongoing cycle of assessment, goal setting, monitoring and review) to 191 patients over 6 months, while control pharmacies gave their usual care to 205 control patients. Both groups administered questionnaires and conducted spirometric testing at baseline and 6 months later. The main outcome measure was asthma severity/control status. 186 of 205 control patients (91%) and 165 of 191 intervention patients (86%) completed the study. The intervention resulted in improved asthma control: patients receiving the intervention were 2.7 times more likely to improve from "severe" to "not severe" than control patients (OR 2.68, 95% CI 1.64 to 4.37; p<0.001). The intervention also resulted in improved adherence to preventer medication (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.08 to 3.30; p = 0.03), decreased mean daily dose of reliever medication (difference -149.11 microg, 95% CI -283.87 to -14.36; p=0.03), a shift in medication profile from reliever only to a combination of preventer, reliever with or without long-acting beta agonist (OR 3.80, 95% CI 1.40 to 10.32; p=0.01) and improved scores on risk of non-adherence (difference -0.44, 95% CI -0.69 to -0.18; p=0.04), quality of life (difference -0.23, 95% CI -0.46 to 0.00; p=0.05), asthma knowledge (difference 1.18, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.63; p<0.01) and perceived control of asthma questionnaires (difference -1.39, 95% CI -2.44 to -0.35; p<0.01). No significant change in spirometric measures occurred in either group. A pharmacist
Armour, Carol; Bosnic‐Anticevich, Sinthia; Brillant, Martha; Burton, Debbie; Emmerton, Lynne; Krass, Ines; Saini, Bandana; Smith, Lorraine; Stewart, Kay
Background Despite national disease management plans, optimal asthma management remains a challenge in Australia. Community pharmacists are ideally placed to implement new strategies that aim to ensure asthma care meets current standards of best practice. The impact of the Pharmacy Asthma Care Program (PACP) on asthma control was assessed using a multi‐site randomised intervention versus control repeated measures study design. Methods Fifty Australian pharmacies were randomised into two groups: intervention pharmacies implemented the PACP (an ongoing cycle of assessment, goal setting, monitoring and review) to 191 patients over 6 months, while control pharmacies gave their usual care to 205 control patients. Both groups administered questionnaires and conducted spirometric testing at baseline and 6 months later. The main outcome measure was asthma severity/control status. Results 186 of 205 control patients (91%) and 165 of 191 intervention patients (86%) completed the study. The intervention resulted in improved asthma control: patients receiving the intervention were 2.7 times more likely to improve from “severe” to “not severe” than control patients (OR 2.68, 95% CI 1.64 to 4.37; p<0.001). The intervention also resulted in improved adherence to preventer medication (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.08 to 3.30; p = 0.03), decreased mean daily dose of reliever medication (difference −149.11 μg, 95% CI −283.87 to −14.36; p = 0.03), a shift in medication profile from reliever only to a combination of preventer, reliever with or without long‐acting β agonist (OR 3.80, 95% CI 1.40 to 10.32; p = 0.01) and improved scores on risk of non‐adherence (difference −0.44, 95% CI −0.69 to −0.18; p = 0.04), quality of life (difference −0.23, 95% CI −0.46 to 0.00; p = 0.05), asthma knowledge (difference 1.18, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.63; p<0.01) and perceived control of asthma questionnaires (difference −1.39, 95% CI −2.44 to −0.35; p<0
Yawn, Barbara P
Many adolescents and adults with asthma continue to have poorly controlled disease, often attributable to poor adherence to asthma therapy. Failure to adhere to recommended treatment may result from a desire to avoid regular reliance on medications, inappropriate high tolerance of asthma symptoms, failure to perceive the chronic nature of asthma, and poor inhaler technique. Primary care physicians need to find opportunities and methods to address these and other issues related to poor asthma control. Few adolescents or adults with asthma currently have asthma "checkup" visits, usually seeking medical care only with an exacerbation. Therefore, nonrespiratory-related office visits represent an important opportunity to assess baseline asthma control and the factors that most commonly lead to poor control. Tools such as the Asthma Control Test, the Asthma Therapy Assessment Questionnaire, the Asthma Control Questionnaire, and the Asthma APGAR provide standardized, patient-friendly ways to capture necessary asthma information. For uncontrolled asthma, physicians can refer to the stepwise approach in the 2007 National Asthma Education and Prevention Program guidelines to adjust medication use, but they must consider step-up decisions in the context of quality of the patient's inhaler technique, adherence, and ability to recognize and avoid or eliminate triggers. For this review, a literature search of PubMed from 2000 through August 31, 2010, was performed using the following terms (or a combination of these terms): asthma, asthma control, primary care, NAEPP guidelines, assessment, uncontrolled asthma, burden, impact, assessment tools, triggers, pharmacotherapy, safety. Studies were limited to human studies published in English. Articles were also identified by a manual search of bibliographies from retrieved articles and from article archives of the author.
Costello, R W
BACKGROUND: Patients with asthma who have persistent symptoms despite treatment with inhaled steroids and long-acting beta agonists are considered to have severe asthma. Omalizumab is a monoclonal antibody directed against IgE, which is used as an add-on treatment for patients who have severe persistent allergic asthma. AIMS: The aim of this study was to assess the clinical benefit and healthcare utilisation of patients who responded to omalizumab therapy and to establish an overall cost implication. METHODS: This was an observational retrospective cohort study designed to investigate the effect of omalizumab on exacerbations of asthma before and after 6 months of treatment in Irish patients. RESULTS: Centres who had treated patients with severe allergic asthma for the 6 months prior and post omalizumab treatment were audited with a standardised assessment tool. Sixty-three (32 male) patients were studied. In the 6 months prior to omalizumab 41 of 63 (66%) had been hospitalised, and this fell to 15 of 63 (24%), p < 0.0001 in the 6 months after treatment was started. Hospital admissions reduced from 2.4 +\\/- 0.41 to 0.8 +\\/- 0.37 and the mean number of bed days occupied was reduced from 16.6 +\\/- 2.94 to 5.3 +\\/- 2.57 days, p < 0.001. The number of oral corticosteroid doses used fell from 3.1 +\\/- 0.27 to 1.2 +\\/- 0.17, p < 0.001. The overall cost saving per omalizumab responder patients for 6 months was
Costello, R W
BACKGROUND: Patients with asthma who have persistent symptoms despite treatment with inhaled steroids and long-acting beta agonists are considered to have severe asthma. Omalizumab is a monoclonal antibody directed against IgE, which is used as an add-on treatment for patients who have severe persistent allergic asthma. AIMS: The aim of this study was to assess the clinical benefit and healthcare utilisation of patients who responded to omalizumab therapy and to establish an overall cost implication. METHODS: This was an observational retrospective cohort study designed to investigate the effect of omalizumab on exacerbations of asthma before and after 6 months of treatment in Irish patients. RESULTS: Centres who had treated patients with severe allergic asthma for the 6 months prior and post omalizumab treatment were audited with a standardised assessment tool. Sixty-three (32 male) patients were studied. In the 6 months prior to omalizumab 41 of 63 (66%) had been hospitalised, and this fell to 15 of 63 (24%), p < 0.0001 in the 6 months after treatment was started. Hospital admissions reduced from 2.4 ± 0.41 to 0.8 ± 0.37 and the mean number of bed days occupied was reduced from 16.6 ± 2.94 to 5.3 ± 2.57 days, p < 0.001. The number of oral corticosteroid doses used fell from 3.1 ± 0.27 to 1.2 ± 0.17, p < 0.001. The overall cost saving per omalizumab responder patients for 6 months was
Li, Jing; Kang, Jian; Wang, Changzheng; Yang, Jing; Wang, Linda; Kottakis, Ioannis; Humphries, Michael
Purpose Omalizumab is the preferred add-on therapy for patients with moderate-to-severe persistent allergic asthma and has demonstrated efficacy and safety in various ethnicities. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of omalizumab in Chinese patients with moderate-to-severe allergic asthma. Methods This randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, phase III study assessed lung function, quality of life, asthma control, and safety of omalizumab after 24-week therapy in Chinese patients (18-75 years of age). Results A total of 616 patients were randomized (1:1) to omalizumab or placebo. The primary endpoint, least squares mean treatment difference (LSM-TD) in morning peak expiratory flow (PEF) (omalizumab vs placebo), at Weeks >20-24 was 8.85 L/min (Full analysis set; P=0.062). Per-protocol analysis set showed significant improvements with LSM-TD of 11.53 L/min in mean mPEF at Weeks >20-24 (P=0.022). The FEV1 % predicted was significantly improved with omalizumab vs placebo from 8 to 24 weeks (after 24-week treatment: LSM-TD=4.12%; P=0.001). At Week 24, a higher proportion of omalizumab-treated patients achieved clinically relevant improvements in standardized AQLQ (58.2% vs 39.3%; LSM=0.51 vs 0.10; Pquality of life, and asthma control in Chinese patients with moderate-to-severe persistent allergic asthma and has a good safety profile. PMID:27126725
Cai, Ying; Cao, Junhua; Kan, Ruixue; Liu, Yuping; Zhao, Li; Hu, Ming; Zhang, Xuemei
To analyze and summarize the effect of continuous care on the life quality and control of asthma of pediatric patients with asthma discharged from multiple hospitals. Retrospective analysis was carried out on 172 pediatric patients with asthma aged between 6 and 11 yr old randomly selected from those admitted to five hospitals between January 2014 and December 2015. Among these 172 patients, only 86 (intervention group) received the continuous care between January 2015 and December 2015, while the rest (control group) did not receive from January 2014 and December 2014. After the patients in the intervention group were discharged from the hospital, the ratio of practical forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) to the expected FEV1 at the 12 th month was (90.28±10.35)%, and the ratio of peak expiratory flow to the expected value was (84.24±3.43)%, respectively higher than those [(82.73±8.86)% and (75.80±4.67)%] in the control group. Regarding pediatric asthma quality of life questionnaire (PAQLQ) between the intervention group and the control group, the difference had statistical significance ( Z =-7.254, PContinuous care can improve the pediatric patient's pulmonary function and life quality, and effectively control the asthmatic symptoms.
Panzera, Anthony D.; Schneider, Tali K.; Martinasek, Mary P.; Lindenberger, James H.; Couluris, Marisa; Bryant, Carol A.; McDermott, Robert J.
Background: Self-management of asthma can now leverage new media technologies. To optimize implementation they must employ a consumer-oriented developmental approach. This study explored benefits of and barriers to improved asthma self-management and identified key elements for the development of a digital media tool to enhance asthma control.…
Kercsmar, Carolyn M; Beck, Andrew F; Sauers-Ford, Hadley; Simmons, Jeffrey; Wiener, Brandy; Crosby, Lisa; Wade-Murphy, Susan; Schoettker, Pamela J; Chundi, Pavan K; Samaan, Zeina; Mansour, Mona
Asthma is the most common chronic condition of childhood. Hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits for asthma are more frequently experienced by minority children and adolescents and those with low socioeconomic status. To reduce asthma-related hospitalizations and ED visits for Medicaid-insured pediatric patients residing in Hamilton County, Ohio. From January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2015, a multidisciplinary team used quality-improvement methods and the chronic care model to conduct interventions in inpatient, outpatient, and community settings in a large, urban academic pediatric hospital in Hamilton County, Ohio. Children and adolescents aged 2 to 17 years who resided in Hamilton County, had a diagnosis of asthma, and were Medicaid insured were studied. Interventions were implemented in 3 phases: hospital-based inpatient care redesign, outpatient-based care enhancements, and community-based supports. Plan-do-study-act cycles allowed for small-scale implementation of change concepts and rapid evaluation of how such tests affected processes and outcomes of interest. The study measured asthma-related hospitalizations and ED visits per 10 000 Medicaid-insured pediatric patients. Data were measured monthly on a rolling 12-month mean basis. Data from multiple previous years were used to establish a baseline. Data were tracked with annotated control charts and with interrupted time-series analysis. Of the estimated 36 000 children and adolescents with asthma in Hamilton County (approximately 13 000 of whom are Medicaid insured and 6000 of whom are cared for in Cincinnati Children's Hospital primary care practices), asthma-related hospitalizations decreased from 8.1 (95% CI, 7.7-8.5) to 4.7 (95% CI, 4.3-5.1) per 10 000 Medicaid patients per month by June 30, 2014, a 41.8% (95% CI, 41.7%-42.0%) relative reduction. Emergency department visits decreased from 21.5 (95% CI, 20.6-22.3) to 12.4 (95% CI, 11.5-13.2) per 10 000 Medicaid patients per
Kaufmann-Kolle, Petra; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Broge, Björn; Haefeli, Walter Emil; Schneider, Antonius
The purpose of this cluster-randomised controlled trial was to evaluate the efficacy of quality circles (QCs) working either with general data-based feedback or with an open benchmark within the field of asthma care and drug-drug interactions. Twelve QCs, involving 96 general practitioners from 85 practices, were randomised. Six QCs worked with traditional anonymous feedback and six with an open benchmark. Two QC meetings supported with feedback reports were held covering the topics "drug-drug interactions" and "asthma"; in both cases discussions were guided by a trained moderator. Outcome measures included health-related quality of life and patient satisfaction with treatment, asthma severity and number of potentially inappropriate drug combinations as well as the general practitioners' satisfaction in relation to the performance of the QC. A significant improvement in the treatment of asthma was observed in both trial arms. However, there was only a slight improvement regarding inappropriate drug combinations. There were no relevant differences between the group with open benchmark (B-QC) and traditional quality circles (T-QC). The physicians' satisfaction with the QC performance was significantly higher in the T-QCs. General practitioners seem to take a critical perspective about open benchmarking in quality circles. Caution should be used when implementing benchmarking in a quality circle as it did not improve healthcare when compared to the traditional procedure with anonymised comparisons. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier GmbH.
Full Text Available Abstract Asthma is the most common respiratory disorder in Canada. Despite significant improvement in the diagnosis and management of this disorder, the majority of Canadians with asthma remain poorly controlled. In most patients, however, control can be achieved through the use of avoidance measures and appropriate pharmacological interventions. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs represent the standard of care for the majority of patients. Combination ICS/long-acting beta2-agonists (LABA inhalers are preferred for most adults who fail to achieve control with ICS therapy. Allergen-specific immunotherapy represents a potentially disease-modifying therapy for many patients with asthma, but should only be prescribed by physicians with appropriate training in allergy. Regular monitoring of asthma control, adherence to therapy and inhaler technique are also essential components of asthma management. This article provides a review of current literature and guidelines for the appropriate diagnosis and management of asthma.
Hunt, Eoin; Flynn, Deirdre; MacHale, Elaine; Costello, Richard W; Murphy, Desmond M
Exhaled nitric oxide is believed be a useful surrogate for airways inflammation while non-adherence with therapy is known to be associated with worsening of asthma control. We present the case of a 49-year-old female with steroid-dependent asthma and an exacerbation rate of >20/year. She was enrolled in a 3-month-long prospective study using a validated diagnostic inhaler device that provided objective evidence of inhaler compliance. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), peak expiratory flow rates, asthma control questionnaires were measured throughout the study period. Peripheral eosinophil count was obtained prior to the study, during the study, and immediately afterwards. Improvement in compliance at the end of the study led to significant improvements in lung function peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), and objective scores of asthma. There was an observed improvement in PEFR after 4 weeks, with an associated decrease in FeNO from 92 to 9 ppb that plateaued over the remainder of the study. Her eosinophil count was 0.79 × 10 9 /litre prior to starting in the study, 0.37 × 10 9 /litre after 2 months, and 0.1 × 10 9 /litre at the end of the study. We believe that this is the first case study to objectively prove that improvements in compliance can lead to dramatic reductions in the overall inflammatory airway response and in particular that improvements in patient compliance are mirrored by marked reduction in FeNO levels. These changes occurred in tandem with an observed clinical improvement in our patient.
Panzera, Anthony D; Schneider, Tali K; Martinasek, Mary P; Lindenberger, James H; Couluris, Marisa; Bryant, Carol A; McDermott, Robert J
Self-management of asthma can now leverage new media technologies. To optimize implementation they must employ a consumer-oriented developmental approach. This study explored benefits of and barriers to improved asthma self-management and identified key elements for the development of a digital media tool to enhance asthma control. Between August 2010 and January 2011, 18 teens with asthma and 18 parent-caregivers participated in semistructured in-depth interviews to identify mechanisms for improving asthma self-management and propose characteristics for developing a digital media tool to aid such efforts. Teens and caregivers enumerated physician-recommended strategies for asthma management as well as currently employed strategies. Both groups thought of a potential digital media solution as positive, but indicated specific design requirements for such a solution to have utility. Whereas most participants perceived mobile platforms to be viable modes to improve asthma self-management, interest in having social networking capabilities was mixed. A digital media product capable of tracking conditions, triggers, and related asthma activities can be a core element of improved asthma control for youth. Improved asthma control will help decrease school absenteeism. © 2013, American School Health Association.
Sciamanna, Christopher N; Blanch, Danielle C; Mui, Sarah; Lawless, Heather; Manocchia, Michael; Rosen, Rochelle K; Pietropaoli, Anthony
Background Asthma is one of the most prevalent chronic conditions in the United Sates, yet despite the existence of national guidelines, nearly three fourths of patients with asthma do not have adequate control and clinical adherence to guidelines is low. While there are many reasons for this, physician inertia with respect to treatment change is partly to blame. Research suggests that patients who ask for specific tests and treatments are more likely to receive them. Objectives This study investigated the impact and experience of using an interactive patient website designed to give patients individual feedback about their condition and to suggest tailored questions for patients to ask their physician. The website was designed to be used prior to a physician visit, to increase the likelihood that patients would receive recommended tests and treatments. Methods A total of 37 adult patients with asthma participated in semi-structured telephone interviews aimed at eliciting information about their experiences with the website. Transcripts were coded using qualitative data analysis techniques and software. Themes were developed from subsets of codes generated through the analysis. In addition, 26 physicians were surveyed regarding their impressions of the website. Results Opportunities exist for improving website feedback, although the majority of both patient and physician respondents held favorable opinions about the site. Two major themes emerged regarding patients’ experiences with the website. First, many patients who used the website had a positive shift in their attitudes regarding interactions with their physicians. Second, use of the website prompted patients to become more actively involved in their asthma care. No patient reported any negative experiences as a result of using the website. Physicians rated the website positively. Conclusions Patients perceived that the interactive website intervention improved communication and interaction with their
Lønnberg, A S; Skov, L; Skytthe, A
We read with interest the report by Fang and colleagues of the relationship between psoriasis and asthma in a large retrospective case-control study from Taiwan . The study found a 1.38-fold increased risk of asthma among patients with psoriasis, and with an increasing risk according to higher...
Cabana, Michael D.; Slish, Kathryn K.; Evans, David; Mellins, Robert B.; Brown, Randall W.; Lin, Xihong; Kaciroti, Niko; Clark, Noreen M.
Objective: We evaluated the effectiveness of a continuing medical education program, Physician Asthma Care Education, in improving pediatricians' asthma therapeutic and communication skills and patients' health care utilization for asthma. Methods: We conducted a randomized trial in 10 regions in the United States. Primary care providers were…
Cohen, J.; Douma, W. R.; ten Hacken, N. H. T.; Vonk, J. M.; Oudkerk, M.; Postma, D. S.
Ciclesonide is delivered as a small-particle inhaled corticosteroid and improves lung function and airway hyperresponsiveness. The objective of the present study was to assess whether ciclesonide can specifically improve small airway function in asthma. A total of 16 mild-to-moderate asthma patients
Henderson, Joan; Hancock, Kerry L; Armour, Carol; Harrison, Christopher; Miller, Graeme
How general practitioners (GPs) and patients perceive asthma control, and concordance between these perceptions, may influence asthma management and medication adherence. The aims of this study were to determine asthma prevalence in adult patients, measure patient asthma control and the correlation between GP and patient perceptions of asthma control or impact. A Supplementary Analysis of Nominated Data (SAND) sub-study of the Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health (BEACH) program surveyed 2563 patients from 103 GPs. Asthma control was measured using the Asthma Control Questionnaire 5-item version (ACQ-5), and medication adherence by patient self-report. Survey procedures in SAS software and Pearson's correlation statistics were used. Asthma prevalence was 12.7% (95% confidence interval: 10.9-14.5), with good correlation between GP and patient perceptions of asthma control/impact, and with raw ACQ-5 scores. Grouped ACQ-5 scores showed higher levels of uncontrolled asthma. Medication adherence was sub-optimal. The ACQ-5 questions are useful for assessing asthma control, for prompting medication reviews, and for reinforcing benefits of medication compliance to improve long-term asthma control.
Lakupoch, Kingthong; Manuyakorn, Wiparat; Preutthipan, Aroonwan; Kamalaporn, Harutai
Providing asthma education about controller medication use and appropriate management of asthma exacerbation are the keys to improving the disease outcome. Many asthma guidelines recommend that physicians provide written asthma action plan (WAAP) to all of their asthmatic patients. However, the benefit of WAAP is unclear. Thus, we have created a new WAAP which is simplified in Thai and more user friendly. To determine the effectiveness of the newly developed asthma action plan in management of children with asthma. Asthmatic children who meet inclusion criteria all received the WAAP and they were followed up for 6 months with measurement of outcome variables, such as asthma exacerbation that required emergency room visit, unscheduled OPD visit, admission and school absence in order to compare with the past 6 months before receiving the WAAP. The analyzed outcomes of forty-nine children show significantly reduced emergency room visit (P-value 0.005), unscheduled OPD visit (P-value 0.046), admission days (P-value 0.026) and school absence days (P-value 0.022). Well controlled group and mild severity group were not the factors that contribute to decreased emergency room visit but step up therapy may be the co-factor to decreased ER visit. The results of this study suggest that the provision of newly developed WAAP is useful for improving self-care of asthma patients and reducing asthma exacerbation.
Apter, Andrea J.; Morales, Knashawn H.; Han, Xiaoyan; Perez, Luzmercy; Huang, Jingru; Ndicu, Grace; Localio, Anna; Nardi, Alyssa; Klusaritz, Heather; Rogers, Marisa; Phillips, Alexis; Cidav, Zuleyha; Schwartz, J. Sanford
Few interventions to improve asthma outcomes have targeted low-income minority adults. Even fewer have focused on the real-world practice where care is delivered. We adapted a patient navigator, here called a Patient Advocate (PA), a term preferred by patients, to facilitate and maintain access to chronic care for adults with moderate or severe asthma and prevalent co-morbidities recruited from clinics serving low-income urban neighborhoods. We describe the planning, design, methodology (informed by patient and provider focus groups), baseline results, and challenges of an ongoing randomized controlled trial of 312 adults of a PA intervention implemented in a variety of practices. The PA coaches, models, and assists participants with preparations for a visit with the asthma clinician; attends the visit with permission of participant and provider; and confirms participants’ understanding of what transpired at the visit. The PA facilitates scheduling, obtaining insurance coverage, overcoming patients’ unique social and administrative barriers to carrying out medical advice and transfer of information between providers and patients. PA activities are individualized, take account of comorbidities, and are generalizable to other chronic diseases. PAs are recent college graduates interested in health-related careers, research experience, working with patients, and generally have the same race/ethnicity distribution as potential participants. We test whether the PA intervention, compared to usual care, is associated with improved and sustained asthma control and other asthma outcomes (prednisone bursts, ED visits, hospitalizations, quality of life, FEV1) relative to baseline. Mediators and moderators of the PA-asthma outcome relationship are examined along with the intervention’s cost-effectiveness. PMID:28315481
Dürr, Selina; Hersberger, Kurt E; Zeller, Andreas; Scheuzger, Jonas; Miedinger, David; Gregoriano, Claudia; Leuppi, Jörg D; Steurer-Stey, Claudia
For successful long-term asthma care, self-management education is a cornerstone. Little is known about associations between patients' interest in education, asthma control and care delivery. We compared patients' characteristics, asthma control and patients' perspective about asthma care in subjects with and without interest in asthma education. Moreover, we assessed reasons, why patients denied participating in asthma education. Baseline data of 223 patients with asthma (age 43 ± 12 years, 38% male, 58% non-smokers, 13% current smokers), who participated in a multicentre longitudinal controlled study, are reported. At baseline, patients completed the Asthma Control Test (ACT), the Patient Assessment Chronic Illness Care questionnaire (PACIC 5A) and stated their interest in an asthma education programme. Overall, 34% of all participants showed uncontrolled asthma. One hundred and twenty-five (56%) patients were interested in education. Compared to patients without interest, they were characterised by male gender (p = 0.013), worse asthma control (p < 0.001), and perception of lower quality of chronic asthma care delivery, in particular lower self-management support (p < 0.001). Main reasons for rejecting asthma education were having sufficient asthma knowledge, having only mild asthma, receiving adequate medical support and lack of time. More than half of the patients were interested in asthma education. Interest was associated with worse asthma control and lower receipt of care according to the Chronic Care Model. Considering these aspects, this approach may help to improve care quality and allow targeting interventions to those patients who are interested in becoming active participants in their care and who might benefit most.
Gao, Jinming; Xu, Xiaohua; Ying, Zhekang; Jiang, Lei; Zhong, Mianhua; Wang, Aixia; Chen, Lung-Chi; Lu, Bo; Sun, Qinghua
This study's aim was to investigate the post-effect of an air quality improvement on systemic inflammation and circulating microparticles in asthmatic patients during, and 2 months after, the Beijing Olympics 2008. We measured the levels of circulating inflammatory cytokines and microparticles in the peripheral blood from asthma patients and healthy controls during (phase 1), and 2 months after (phase 2) the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. The concentrations of circulating cytokines (including TNFα, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10) were still seen reduced in phase 2 when compared with those in phase 1. The number of circulating endothelial cell-derived microparticles was significantly lower during the phase 2 than that during phase 1 in asthma patients. The level of plasma lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) was significantly decreased in asthmatics in phase 2. The level of norepinephrine was significantly higher in phase 2 than that in phase 1 in plasma from both asthma patients and healthy subjects. There were no significant differences in the gene profile for the toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In vitro, microvesicles from patients with asthma impaired the relaxation to bradykinin and contraction to acetylcholine, whereas microparticles from healthy subjects did not. These data suggested that reduction in systemic pro-inflammatory responses and circulating LBP and increased level of norepinephrine in asthma patients persisted even after 2 months of the air pollution intervention. These changes were independent of the TLR signaling pathway. Circulating microparticles might be associated with airway smooth muscle dysfunction.
Nair, Aiswaria S; DeMuth, Karen; Chih-Wen Cheng; Wang, May D
Asthma is a leading chronic disorder among children and adolescents. Although some children outgrow asthma while transitioning into adulthood, there are others who continue to suffer from life-threatening asthmatic exacerbations. Teenagers tend to have certain misconceptions about their asthmatic condition and treatment which are rarely recognized or addressed in regular clinical consultations. After reviewing the literature in this field, we have identified that improving patient knowledge can be effective in augmenting engagement, and considerably improving their clinical outcomes. It is necessary to develop an effective educational intervention that can help Asthma patients change their perception about self-efficacy and ultimately reduce the total health care costs incurred. Hence, a sound transfer of knowledge during the transition from childcare to adult care is highly recommended. On these very lines, Georgia Institute of Technology designed an interactive educational application called Asthma Academy in conjunction with Children's Healthcare of Atlanta. This website resides in the public cloud and uses a novel animation video-based curriculum to deliver essential healthcare education to asthmatic adolescents in an interactive manner. What distinguishes it from similar initiatives is the use of a cost-effective technique to simulate caregiver-patient interactions and the ability to cater to a wide range of socio-economic statuses and educational levels. A group-based study with twenty asthma adolescents was conducted to evaluate the user acceptance and performance of Asthma Academy supplemented by regular check-ups over a period of eight to ten weeks. Observations recorded post the study clearly indicate higher levels of engagement and the systematic dissemination of information offered by Asthma Academy.
There are few studies pertaining to asthma patients' views on complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The driving question behind the study is why some asthma patients choose noncompliance to conventional western medicine and resort to other modalities, often deemed as being 'alternative,' 'complementary,' or 'integrated.' Does the patients' emancipation movement lead to greater awareness of the benefits of alternative medicine? Does the patients' identity as asthma sufferers play a role in their decision? Case studies based on semistructured interviews were conducted between June 2009 and January 2010 with 19 asthma patients in The Netherlands who have chosen complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Patients were contacted through online forum of Dutch asthma patients' organization Astma Fonds. We have discovered that on the whole patients in the present study were well informed about risks and benefits of both prescribed and alternative medicines. We have argued that noncompliance to medical regime by some asthma patients can be explained by the rationality of their choice based on evidence of clinical trials of commonly assigned asthma medication as well as partial and anecdotal evidence of the benefits of CAM therapies. It is the patients themselves who, by invoking the same evidence-based dominant paradigm choose to address the conflict between protagonists of 'conventional,' western medicine and other modalities. The author argues that asthma patients' noncompliance with (Western) medical regime and choice for alternative medical treatment of asthma is a matter of rational choice informed by evidence-based awareness. This evidence-based rationality particularly refers here to the patients' awareness of the rather controversial results of clinical trials of commonly used asthma medicines, particularly those containing elements of budesonide (Pulmicort), an anti-inflammatory corticosteroid, and formoterol (Oxis, Foradil), a rapid-acting and long
Bulcun, Emel; Turkel, Yakup; Oguztürk, Omer; Dag, Ersel; Visal Buturak, S; Ekici, Aydanur; Ekici, Mehmet
Psychological distress of patients with asthma may be reduced when they learned to live with their illness. Asthma can change the psychological and personality characteristics. We aim to investigate the psychological and personality characteristics of patients with asthma using MMPI (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory). Thirty-three adult patients with asthma (23 female and 10 male) and 20 healthy controls (14 females and 6 males) were enrolled in this study. Psychometric evaluation was made with the Turkish version of the MMPI. The patients were separated into two groups according to the duration of symptoms (recent-onset asthma introvert. Patients with long-standing asthma have less psychological distress, suggesting that learned to cope with his illness. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mitchell, Stephanie J; Bilderback, Andrew L; Okelo, Sande O
To elucidate whether there may be a higher morbidity threshold for African American versus white children to be referred to or seek asthma specialist care. Secondary analysis of registry data captured from children presenting for an initial routine outpatient asthma consultation. Parents completed standard survey instruments, and spirometry was conducted when deemed appropriate by the provider. Wilcoxon rank sum tests revealed that African American patients had been hospitalized twice as often and admitted to the intensive care unit or intubated significantly more than 1½ times more frequently than their white patient counterparts. t tests indicated African American patients' forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) percentage predicted was significantly worse than that of whites, but there was no significant difference for FEV1/forced vital capacity ratio. t tests suggested that African American patients had statistically worse asthma control than did white patients at the time of initial presentation to the pulmonologist, but there was no difference in the distribution of asthma severity categories. Multivariate regression models indicated that racial differences in parent education did not explain the disparities in asthma morbidity. African American patients had significantly worse asthma morbidity than their white counterparts, including higher rates of hospitalization and intensive care unit admission and poorer lung functioning. Given that receipt of asthma specialist care can improve those outcomes that are disparately experienced by African American children, methods of increasing their access to and use of asthma specialist care need to be developed. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kotwani, Anita; Chhabra, Sunil K
Denial of having a chronic condition, poor knowledge of the disease process and lack of adherence to standard treatment are often considered to be important factors that increase morbidity in asthma. We evaluated the effect of standard treatment guidelines and asthma education programme on asthma control among patients enrolled from a referral health facility of Delhi in India. Fifty patients who visited the health facility first time for treatment of asthma were enrolled after confirming the diagnosis of asthma by symptoms and reversible spirometry. Patients were interviewed at baseline using three researcher-administered questionnaires - quality of asthma management questionnaire, asthma control questionnaire (ACQ) and asthma knowledge questionnaire (AKQ). All patients were given pharmacotherapy according to standard treatment guidelines. In addition, every alternate patient was also given a face-to-face educational intervention. Patients were followed up at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. The ACQ was used at each visit, and AKQ was reassessed at the twelfth week. The paired t test was used to detect significant changes in various domains of asthma control. The knowledge of asthma among patients and the care provided by previous health-care providers were found to be poor at baseline assessment. The application of standard treatment guidelines improved asthma control by the second week and the changes became significant by the fourth week, which persisted till the twelfth week (p Standard treatment guidelines and asthma education improved asthma control.
Full Text Available Caroline Trunk-Black Juel,1 Zarqa Ali,1 Lisbeth Nilas,2 Charlotte Suppli Ulrik11Respiratory Section, Internal Medicine Unit, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Hvidovre Hospital and University of Copenhagen, Hvidovre, DenmarkAim and methods: Obesity is a major health problem, and obesity is associated with a high incidence of asthma and poor asthma control. The aim of the present paper is to systematically review the current knowledge of the effect on overall asthma control of weight reduction in overweight and obese adults with asthma.Results: Weight loss in obese individuals with doctor-diagnosed asthma is associated with a 48%–100% remission of asthma symptoms and use of asthma medication. Published studies, furthermore, reveal that weight loss in obese asthmatics improves asthma control, and that especially surgically induced weight loss results in significant improvements in asthma severity, use of asthma medication, dyspnoea, exercise tolerance, and acute exacerbations, including hospitalizations due to asthma. Furthermore, weight loss in obese asthmatics is associated with improvements in level of lung function and airway responsiveness to inhaled methacholine, whereas no significant improvements have been observed in exhaled nitric oxide or other markers of eosinophilic airway inflammation.Conclusion: Overweight and obese adults with asthma experience a high symptomatic remission rate and significant improvements in asthma control, including objective measures of disease activity, after weight loss. Although these positive effects of weight loss on asthma-related health outcomes seem not to be accompanied by remission or improvements in markers of eosinophilic airway inflammation, it has potentially important implications for the future burden of asthma.Keywords: asthma, weight loss, diet, bariatric surgery, asthma control
Tønnesen, Louise Lindhardt; Meteran, Howraman; Hostrup, Morten
BACKGROUND: Behavioral interventions focusing on exercise and healthy diet improve asthma control in obese patients with asthma, but whether these interventions can lead to improvements in nonobese patients remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: In a randomized, controlled parallel-group design, we studied...... the effects of an 8-week intervention of either exercise (high-intensity interval training), diet (high protein/low glycemic index), or a combination of the 2, on asthma control and clinical outcomes in nonobese patients with asthma. METHODS: Nonobese adult patients with asthma (n = 149) were randomized to 1...... of 4 groups: an exercise group, a diet group, an exercise + diet group, or a control group. Outcomes included Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) score, asthma-related quality-of-life (Asthma-Related Quality-of-Life Questionnaire [AQLQ]) score, inflammatory cell counts in induced sputum, FEV1...
In patients with severe uncontrolled asthma, does knowledge of adherence and inhaler technique using electronic monitoring improve clinical decision making? A protocol for a randomised controlled trial.
Mokoka, Matshediso C
Many patients with asthma remain poorly controlled despite the use of inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting beta agonists. Poor control may arise from inadequate adherence, incorrect inhaler technique or because the condition is refractory. Without having an objective assessment of adherence, clinicians may inadvertently add extra medication instead of addressing adherence. This study aims to assess if incorporating objectively recorded adherence from the Inhaler Compliance Assessment (INCA) device and lung function into clinical decision making provides more cost-effective prescribing and improves outcomes.
Nygaard, Leo; Henriksen, Daniel Pilsgaard; Madsen, Hanne
Background: Omalizumab improves asthma control in patients with uncontrolled severe allergic asthma; however, appropriate patient selection is crucial. Information in this field is sparse. Objective: We aimed to estimate whether potential omalizumab candidates were appropriately selected according...... to guidelines, and the clinical effect of omalizumab treatment over time. Design: We performed a retrospective observational study on adult patients with asthma treated with omalizumab during 2006-2015 at the Department of Respiratory Medicine at Odense University Hospital (OUH), Denmark. Data were obtained...... from the Electronic Patient Journal of OUH and Odense Pharmaco-Epidemiological Database. Guideline criteria for omalizumab treatment were used to evaluate the appropriateness of omalizumab candidate selection, and the Asthma Control Test (ACT) to assess the clinical effects of omalizumab at weeks 16...
Azuma, Naoto; Katada, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Masaaki; Kojima, Makiko; Nakajima, Yumi; Shibano, Miyo; Tomita, Hitomi; Yamanaka, Takao; Harada, Yoshinori; Ishii, Taeko; Saeki, Yukihiko
There have been few reports of clinical pathway (CP) for treatment of asthma attack, because patients with asthma always admit emergently and the severity varies. We introduced CP so that standard asthma treatment can be widely used, and investigated its clinical usefulness. We designed a new CP for treating asthma attack according to the guideline (Japanese guideline (JGL) and Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA)). 136 patients who admitted to our hospital due to asthma attack from January 1999 to November 2006, were enrolled our study. Excluding cases complicated with pneumonia, COPD or cardiac failure, we evaluated 46 cases treated with the CP comparing with 19 cases treated without the CP. The clinical evaluations include systemic and inhaled steroid use, FEV1.0%, history of asthma, and the duration of asthma attack. Furthermore, we investigated difference between cases with and without prolonged admission. While the rates of systemic and inhaled steroid use in cases without the CP were 57.9% and 52.6% respectively, those in cases with the CP were approximately 100%. Employing the CP, FEV 1.0% at discharge time was elevated from 71.7% to 76.3% and the duration of hospitalization was shortened from 14.2 days to 11.5 days. Mean age of the cases with prolonged admission was higher than the rest. The asthma CP is an effective way for the standard treatment according to the guideline to be used widely even by doctors who are not familiar with asthma treatment. It improves the efficacy of in-hospital treatment.
Okelo, Sande O.; Patino, Cecilia M.; Riekert, Kristin A.; Merriman, Barry; Bilderback, Andrew; Hansel, Nadia N.; Thompson, Kathy; Thompson, Jennifer; Quartey, Ruth; Rand, Cynthia S.; Diette, Gregory B.
OBJECTIVE Although asthma is often inappropriately treated in children, little is known about what information pediatricians use to adjust asthma therapy. The purpose of this work was to assess the importance of various dimensions of patient asthma status as the basis of pediatrician treatment decisions. PATIENTS AND METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional, random-sample survey, between November 2005 and May 2006, of 500 members of the American Academy of Pediatrics using standardized case vignettes. Vignettes varied in regard to (1) acute health care use (hospitalized 6 months ago), (2) bother (parent bothered by the child’s asthma status), (3) control (frequency of symptoms and albuterol use), (4) direction (qualitative change in symptoms), and (5) wheezing during physical examination. Our primary outcome was the proportion of pediatricians who would adjust treatment in the presence or absence of these 5 factors. RESULTS Physicians used multiple dimensions of asthma status other than symptoms to determine treatment. Pediatricians were significantly more likely to increase treatment for a recently hospitalized patient (45% vs 18%), a bothered parent (67% vs 18%), poorly controlled symptoms (4–5 times per week; 100% vs 18%), or if there was wheezing on examination (45% vs 18%) compared with patients who only had well-controlled symptoms. Pediatricians were significantly less likely to decrease treatment for a child with well-controlled symptoms and recent hospitalization (28%), parents who reported being bothered (43%), or a child whose symptoms had worsened since the last doctor visit (10%) compared with children with well-controlled symptoms alone. CONCLUSIONS Pediatricians treat asthma on the basis of multiple dimensions of asthma status, including hospitalization, bother, symptom frequency, direction, and wheezing but use these factors differently to increase and decrease treatment. Tools that systematically assess multiple dimensions of asthma may be useful
AndrÃ© LuÃs Mancini
Full Text Available Introduction: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease which has increased during the last 20 years, putting a strain on medical resources, particularly severe forms of the disease. Treatment in such cases is inhaled corticosteroids and beta agonist drugs that can produce a range of side effects. The aim of this study is to identify echocardiograph abnormalities and correlate them with severity of disease. Methodology: Eight-seven outpatients were selected at the asthma unit of the Gaffree Guinle University Hospital (HUGG. Each patient underwent spirometry, electrocardiogram (ECG and echocardiogram (ECO during the trial within a month maximum. Echocardiograph abnormalities found related to degree of asthma. Statistical analysis was made by nonparametric tests. Results: We found significant differences (pÂ â¤Â 0.05 for age, disease duration and haemoglobin saturation (SaO2 between the moderate and severe groups. In the sample a high prevalence of tricuspid insufficiency (41.4% was identified. Conclusions: ECO identified a series of abnormalities that were not always dependent on severity of disease. ECO can identify pulmonary hypertension through calculation of mean pressure of the pulmonary artery. Resumo: IntroduÃ§Ã£o: A asma Ã© uma doenÃ§a inflamatÃ³ria crÃ³nica cuja prevalÃªncia vem aumentando nos Ãºltimos 20 anos. Demanda grande utilizaÃ§Ã£o de recursos, principalmente no grupo grave. Neste, hÃ¡ consumo crÃ³nico de corticÃ³ides inalatÃ³rios e de Î²2-agonistas, que podem produzir uma sÃ©rie de problemas. O objectivo deste trabalho Ã© o de rastrear as alteraÃ§Ãµes electro e ecocardiogrÃ¡ficas e relacionÃ¡-las ao grau da asma. Metodologia: SelecionÃ¡mos 87 doentes do ambulatÃ³rio de asma do HUGG, que, por rotina, possuem uma espirografia, um eletrocardiograma (ECG e um ecocardiograma (ECO feitos com um intervalo mÃ¡ximo de um mÃªs. As alteraÃ§Ãµes ecocardiogrÃ¡ficas encontradas
Warnier, Miriam J; Rutten, Frans H; Kors, Jan A
OBJECTIVE: The pathogenesis of cardiac arrhythmias in asthma patients has not been fully elucidated. Adverse drug effects, particularly those of β2-mimetics, may play a role. The aim of this study was to determine whether asthma is associated with the risk of cardiac arrhythmias and electrocardio......OBJECTIVE: The pathogenesis of cardiac arrhythmias in asthma patients has not been fully elucidated. Adverse drug effects, particularly those of β2-mimetics, may play a role. The aim of this study was to determine whether asthma is associated with the risk of cardiac arrhythmias...... and electrocardiographic characteristics of arrhythmogenicity (ECG) and to explore the role of β2-mimetics. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 158 adult patients with a diagnosis of asthma and 6303 participants without asthma from the cohort of the Utrecht Health Project-an ongoing, longitudinal, primary...... or flutter). Secondary outcomes were tachycardia, bradycardia, PVC, atrial fibrillation or flutter, mean heart rate, mean corrected QT (QTc) interval length, and prolonged QTc interval. RESULTS: Tachycardia and PVCs were more prevalent in patients with asthma (3% and 4%, respectively) than those without...
Iyoda, A; Satoh, Y
Thoracic surgery poses a risk for complications in the respiratory system. In particular, for patients with bronchial asthma, we need to care for perioperative complications because it is well known that these patients frequently have respiratory complications after surgery, and they may have bronchial spasms during surgery. If we can get good control of their bronchial asthma, we can usually perform surgery for these patients without limitations. For safe postoperative care, it is desirable that these patients have stable asthma conditions that are well-controlled before surgery, as thoracic surgery requires intrabronchial intubation for anesthesia and sometimes bronchial resection. These stimulations to the bronchus do not provide for good conditions because of the risk of bronchial spasm. Therefore, we should use the same agents that are used to control bronchial asthma if it is already well controlled. If it is not, we have to administer a β₂ stimulator, aminophylline, or steroidal agents for good control. Isoflurane or sevoflurane are effective for the safe control of anesthesia during surgery, and we should use a β₂ stimulator, with or without inhalation, or steroidal agents after surgery. It is important to understand that we can perform thoracic surgery for asthma patients if we can provide perioperative control of bronchial asthma, although these patients still have severe risks.
D'Souza, W; Burgess, C; Ayson, M; Crane, J; Pearce, N; Beasley, R
The "credit card" asthma self-management plan provides the adult asthmatic patient with simple guidelines for the self-management of asthma, which are based on the self-assessment of peak expiratory flow rate recordings and symptoms. The study was a trial of the clinical efficacy of the credit card plan in a high-risk group of asthmatic patients. In this "before-and-after" trial, patients discharged from the emergency department of Wellington Hospital, after treatment for severe asthma were invited to attend a series of hospital outpatient clinics at which the credit card plan was introduced. Questionnaires were used to compare markers of asthma morbidity, requirement for emergency medical care, and medication use during the 6-month period before and after intervention with the credit card plan. Of the 30 patients with asthma who attended the first outpatient clinic, 26 (17 women and 9 men) completed the program. In these 26 participants, there was a reduction in both morbidity and requirement for acute medical services: specifically, the proportion waking with asthma more than once a week decreased from 65% to 23% (p = 0.005) and the proportion visiting the emergency department for treatment of severe asthma decreased from 58% to 15% (p = 0.004). The patients attending the clinics commented favorably on the plan, in particular on its usefulness as an educational tool for monitoring and treating their asthma. Although the interpretation of this study is limited by the lack of a randomized control group, the findings are consistent with other evidence that the credit card asthma self-management plan can be an effective and acceptable system for improving asthma care in a high-risk group of adult patients with asthma.
Full Text Available Asthma is a common disease causing cough, wheezing and shortness of breath. It has been shown that the lung microbiota in asthma patients is different from the lung microbiota in healthy controls suggesting that a connection between asthma and the lung microbiome exists. Individuals with asthma who are also tobacco smokers experience more severe asthma symptoms and smoking cessation is associated with improved asthma control. In the present study we investigated if smoking cessation in asthma patients is associated with a change in the bacterial community in the lungs, examined using induced sputum. We found that while tobacco smokers with asthma have a greater bacterial diversity in the induced sputum compared to non-smoking healthy controls, smoking cessation does not lead to a change in the microbial diversity.
Boulet, Louis-Philippe; FitzGerald, J Mark; Levy, Mark L
In 1995, the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) published an evidence-based workshop report as a guide to clinicians managing asthma patients, and has updated it annually to ensure that recommendations remain current. Although the report has been widely disseminated and influenced clinical...... practice and research, its major objective, of forming the basis for local and national initiatives to improve services for asthma patients, remains to be achieved. Over recent years, the science of guideline implementation has progressed, and encouraging examples of successful asthma programmes have been...... published. This report is intended to draw on this experience and assist with the translation of asthma guideline recommendations into quality programmes for patients with asthma using current knowledge translation principles. It also provides examples of successful initiatives in various socioeconomic...
Bereznicki, Bonnie J; Peterson, Gregory M; Jackson, Shane L; Walters, E Haydn; Fitzmaurice, Kimbra D; Gee, Peter R
To use community pharmacy medication records to identify patients whose asthma may not be well managed and then implement and evaluate a multidisciplinary educational intervention to improve asthma management. We used a multisite controlled study design. Forty-two pharmacies throughout Tasmania ran a software application that "data-mined" medication records, generating a list of patients who had received three or more canisters of inhaled short-acting beta(2)-agonists in the preceding 6 months. The patients identified were allocated to an intervention or control group. Pre-intervention data were collected for the period May to November 2006 and post-intervention data for the period December 2006 to May 2007. Intervention patients were contacted by the community pharmacist via mail, and were sent educational material and a letter encouraging them to see their general practitioner for an asthma management review. Pharmacists were blinded to the control patients' identities until the end of the post-intervention period. Dispensing ratio of preventer medication (inhaled corticosteroids [ICSs]) to reliever medication (inhaled short-acting beta(2)-agonists). Thirty-five pharmacies completed the study, providing 702 intervention and 849 control patients. The intervention resulted in a threefold increase in the preventer-to-reliever ratio in the intervention group compared with the control group (P < 0.01) and a higher proportion of patients in the intervention group using ICS therapy than in the control group (P < 0.01). Community pharmacy medication records can be effectively used to identify patients with suboptimal asthma management, who can then be referred to their GP for review. The intervention should be trialled on a national scale to determine the effects on clinical, social, emotional and economic outcomes for people in the Australian community, with a longer follow-up to determine sustainability of the improvements noted.
Naik-Panvelkar, Pradnya; Saini, Bandana; LeMay, Kate S; Emmerton, Lynne M; Stewart, Kay; Burton, Deborah L; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia Z; Krass, Ines; Smith, Lorraine D; Armour, Carol L
If novel health services are to be implemented and sustained in practice, the perceptions and views of patients form a critical part of their evaluation. The aims of this study were to explore patient's perceptions and experiences with a pharmacy asthma service and to investigate if there was a change over time. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with patients participating in the asthma service at three time points. Data were transcribed verbatim and thematically analyzed using a framework approach. The service led to an enhanced awareness and understanding of asthma, changes in participants' beliefs and attitudes towards asthma management, changes in asthma-related health behaviours and improved self-efficacy. Participants were very positive about the service and the role of the pharmacist in asthma management. There was a shift in participant perceptions and views, from being at an abstract level in those who had completed just one visit of the service to a more experiential level in those who had experienced the entire comprehensive asthma service. A sustained experience/multiple visits in a service may lead to more concrete changes in patient perceptions of severity, beliefs, health behaviours and enhanced self-efficacy and control. The study highlights a need for such asthma services in the community. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
Axon, E J; Beach, J R; Burge, P S
Occupational asthma is the most frequently diagnosed occupational lung disease reported to the SWORD (Surveillance of Work-related and Occupational Respiratory Disease) scheme. However, diagnosing occupational asthma is not straightforward, and establishing a link with work may be difficult. This study was undertaken to determine the differences between patients with occupational asthma and those with non-occupational asthma which might help in their diagnosis. Information was collected using a self-completed questionnaire. Questionnaires were distributed to 30 subjects aged 18-65 years at each of two clinics--one for patients with occupational asthma and one for those with cryptogenic and environmental asthma. Replies were received from 26 patients with occupational asthma (87%) and 29 patients with non-occupational asthma (97%). The age of onset was significantly higher for those with occupational asthma (42.6 vs 20.7 years). Significantly more subjects with occupational asthma reported improvement on holiday, whereas no significant difference was found in the numbers reporting worsening of symptoms on work days. Those with occupational asthma were less likely to report seasonal variation in symptoms, exacerbation by allergies, pets and stress, or a family history of asthma. Subjects with occupational asthma were more likely to become unemployed (50% vs 3%). Recognition of some of these features in a patient's history may help in the difficult task of differentiating occupational from non-occupational asthma, potentially avoiding the need for exhaustive investigations in some patients. The high prevalence of holiday improvement among subjects with non-occupational asthma suggested that domestic or environmental allergies arising outside the workplace may have been making an important contribution to ongoing symptoms in these subjects.
Serrano-Pariente, J; Plaza, V; Soriano, J B; Mayos, M; López-Viña, A; Picado, C; Vigil, L
Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in asthma patients with concomitant obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) seems to have a favorable impact on asthma, but data are inconsistent due to methodological limitations of previous studies. Prospective, multicenter study. We examined asthma outcomes after 6 months of CPAP in 99 adult asthma patients (mean age 57 years) with OSAS (respiratory disturbance index ≥20). Asthma control and quality of life were assessed with the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) and the Mini Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (MiniAQLQ), respectively. Data were analyzed by intention-to-treat basis. The mean ± SD score of the ACQ decreased from 1.39 ± 0.91 at baseline to 1.0 ± 0.78 at 6 months (P = 0.003), the percentage of patients with uncontrolled asthma from 41.4% to 17.2% (P = 0.006), and the percentage of patients with asthma attacks in the 6 months before and after treatment from 35.4% to 17.2% (P = 0.015). The score of the mAQLQ increased from 5.12 ± 1.38 to 5.63 ± 1.17 (P = 0.009). There were also significant improvements in symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux and rhinitis, bronchial reversibility, and exhaled nitric oxide values (all P obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. © 2016 The Authors. Allergy published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
disturbing levels of patients adherence with management recommendations. Asthma education strategies need to be modified to engage ... and quick procedure. ... Participants' medication adherence and skills at using .... In this study 17 of the 67 patients studied .... adherence: changing behaviour to promote better self-.
Lara Noronha Ferreira; Ulisses Brito; Pedro Lopes Ferreira
In this paper we present a study whose main aim is the measurement of the Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) of patients with asthma and the presentation of a first draft of normative values as measured by the SF-6D for asthma patients. In addition, we investigate how far non-disease-specific HRQoL measures can distinguish groups in terms of sociodemographic characteristics.The Portuguese versions of the EQ-5D, SF-6D, AQLQ(S) and ACQ were administered using personal interviews to a repres...
Asthma is a chronic disease and often requires complex management. This study was undertaken in four pharmacies–V-Ninat Pharmacy, Videc Chemists, Tomabel Pharmacy and Josbet Chemists, all in Isolo, Lagos, to determine the level of adherence to the anti-asthmatic drugs by asthmatic patients who participated in the ...
Backer, V; Stensen, L; Sverrild, A
OBJECTIVE: The impact of diagnostic work-up in asthma management on medication redemption and probably also drug adherence is largely unknown, but we hypothesized that a confirmed diagnosis of asthma in a hospital-based out-patient clinic increases the willingness to subsequent medication...... redemption in a real life setting. METHODS: In a retrospective register-based study, 300 medical records of patients referred with possible asthma during one year were examined, of whom 171 had asthma (57%). One-year data on dispensed medicine was collected using the Danish Registry of Medicinal Product...... more frequently prescribed new therapy compared to those with unverified asthma (88.9% vs. 65.0%, respectively, p time redemption of prescriptions (72% vs. 64%, respectively, p = 0.3), whereas the second (52% vs. 27%, p = 0.001) and third or more asthma...
Price, David; Fletcher, Monica; van der Molen, Thys
Background: Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in the world, and previous studies have reported low levels of control. Recent developments in the availability and use of online sources of information about asthma might add to patients’ knowledge and help improve control. Aims: To investigate whether asthma control has improved by assessing levels of symptoms, exacerbations and Global Initiative for Asthma-defined control in a real-life population of patients who use the Internet and social media, as well as evaluate patient perception of control and attitudes to asthma. Methods: Online surveys were conducted among 8,000 patients with asthma (aged 18–50 years, ⩾2 prescriptions in the previous 2 years, use of social media) from 11 European countries. Results: Levels of asthma control were low: 45% of respondents had uncontrolled asthma. Acute exacerbations were common: 44% of respondents reported having used oral steroids for asthma in the previous 12 months, 24% had visited an emergency department and 12% had been hospitalised. More than 80% of respondents (overall, and among those with a history of exacerbations) considered their asthma to be controlled. Of those who had an exacerbation requiring oral steroids, 75% regarded their asthma as not serious. Conclusions: Asthma control in Europe remains poor; symptoms and exacerbations are common. Many patients regard their asthma as controlled and not serious despite experiencing symptoms and exacerbations. There is a need to assess patients’ control, risk and inhaler technique, and to ensure that patients are prescribed, and take, appropriate treatments. PMID:24921985
Diette, Gregory B; Fuhlbrigge, Anne L; Allen-Ramey, Felicia; Hopper, April; Sajjan, Shiva G; Markson, Leona E
Asthma treatment guidelines recommend medications based on the level of asthma control. To evaluate differences in asthma control between patients who initiated asthma controller monotherapy versus combination therapy. Children (5-16 years; n = 488) and adults (17-80 years; n = 530) with asthma and no controller therapy in the prior 6 months were included. Telephone surveys were conducted within 5 days of filling a new asthma controller prescription with either the caregiver of children or the adult patient. Demographics, asthma control before therapy, and asthma-related resource use were assessed for patients initiating monotherapy (filling one asthma controller prescription) and combination therapy (filling more than one controller medication or a fixed-dose combination). Mean pediatric age was 10 years; 53% were male. Mean adult age was 47 years; 25% were male. There were no significant differences in asthma control score between patients receiving monotherapy and combination therapy. Children on combination therapy did not have more nighttime awakening or short-acting β-agonist use but were more likely to have been hospitalized due to asthma attack (p = .05) and have more unscheduled (p = .0374) and scheduled (p = .009) physician visits. Adults on combination therapy were more likely to have been hospitalized due to asthma attack (p asthma (p asthma control scores in the 4 weeks before index medication suggests that asthma severity during a treatment-free period did not differ significantly for patients initiating controller monotherapy versus combination therapy. From these findings, it appears that although physicians may not focus on asthma control when choosing the intensity of initial controller therapy, the intensity of health-care encounters may be an influence.
Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Lange, Peter
Background and Aim: Disease control is not achieved in a substantial proportion of patients with asthma. Recent advances in aerosol formulations and delivery devices may offer more effective therapy. This review will focus on the importance and potential clinical benefit of targeting the lung...... half the daily dose with no increased risk of systemic effects. Clinical studies of adults with asthma have shown a greater effect of ultrafine ICS, compared with non-ultrafine ICS, on quality of life, small airway patency, and markers of pulmonary and systemic inflammation, but no difference...... with regard to conventional clinical indices of lung function and asthma control. Conclusions: Asthma patients treated with ultrafine ICS, compared with non-ultrafine ICS, have at least similar chance of achieving asthma control at a lower daily dose. Further clinical studies are needed to explore whether...
Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Lange, Peter
Background and Aim: Disease control is not achieved in a substantial proportion of patients with asthma. Recent advances in aerosol formulations and delivery devices may offer more effective therapy. This review will focus on the importance and potential clinical benefit of targeting the lung...... half the daily dose with no increased risk of systemic effects. Clinical studies of adults with asthma have shown a greater effect of ultrafine ICS, compared with non-ultrafine ICS, on quality of life, small airway patency, and markers of pulmonary and systemic inflammation, but no difference...... with regard to conventional clinical indices of lung function and asthma control. Conclusions: Asthma patients treated with ultrafine ICS, compared with non-ultrafine ICS, have at least similar chance of achieving asthma control at a lower daily dose. Further clinical studies are needed to explore whether...
Conclusion: The allergen immunotherapy improves asthma control and reduces the required doses of pharmacotherapy. These effects have an important impact on quality of life and perhaps economically for patients with asthma. The beginning at an early age seems to have a major impact.
Homer, Charles J; Forbes, Peter; Horvitz, Lisa; Peterson, Laura E; Wypij, David; Heinrich, Patricia
To test a quality improvement intervention, a learning collaborative based on the Institute for Healthcare Improvement's Breakthrough Series methodology, specifically intended to improve care and outcomes for patients with childhood asthma. Randomized trial in primary care practices. Practices in greater Boston, Mass, and greater Detroit, Mich. Forty-three practices, with 13 878 pediatric patients with asthma, randomized to intervention and control groups. Intervention Participation in a learning collaborative project based on the Breakthrough Series methodology of continuous quality improvement. Change from baseline in the proportion of children with persistent asthma who received appropriate medication therapy for asthma, and in the proportion of children whose parent received a written management plan for their child's asthma, as determined by telephone interviews with parents of 631 children. After adjusting for state, practice size, child age, sex, and within-practice clustering, no overall effect of the intervention was found. This methodologically rigorous assessment of a widely used quality improvement technique did not demonstrate a significant effect on processes or outcomes of care for children with asthma. Potential deficiencies in program implementation, project duration, sample selection, and data sources preclude making the general inference that this type of improvement program is ineffective. Additional rigorous studies should be undertaken under more optimal settings to assess the efficacy of this method for improving care.
Ghajar-Khosravi, Shadi; Tarlo, Susan M; Liss, Gary M; Chignell, Mark; Ribeiro, Marcos; Levinson, Anthony J; Gupta, Samir
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a common chronic condition. Work-related asthma (WRA) has a large socioeconomic impact and is increasing in prevalence but remains under-recognized. Although international guidelines recommend patient education, no widely available educational tool exists.OBJECTIVE: To develop a WRA educational website for adults with asthma.METHODS: An evidence-based database for website content was developed, which applied evidence-based website design principles to create a website pr...
Seda Tural Önür
Full Text Available Objective: Immune responses can change with exercise. We aimed to show the changes in cytokine levels pre- and post-exercise in patients with asthma. Methods: In this prospective control trial, data of 32 patients with asthma that was under control were classified into two groups, pre- and post-exercise. Serum IL-1β and monocyte IL-1β, IL-2, and IL-10 expressions were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The patients were advised to walk for at least 30 min for 4 days/week for 12 weeks. Results: There was no significant difference in demographic properties of the participants. Monocyte IL-1β levels in the pre- and post-exercise groups were 1.99±0.35 and 1.01±0.22 pg/mL, respectively (p=0.003. IL-10 levels in the pre- and post-exercise groups were 1.64±0.02 and 1.21±0.03 pg/mL, respectively (p=0.04. IL-2 levels in the pre- and post-exercise groups were 0.64±0.045 and 0.32±0.09 pg/mL, respectively (p=0.001. However, there was a significant difference in serum IL-1β and monocyte IL-1β, IL-2, and IL-10 levels between the groups (p=0.02, p=0.003, p=0.04, and p=0.001, respectively. Conclusion: Systemic inflammatory parameters that are commonly elevated in asthma may improve by exercise. The elucidation of the mechanism of immune control in patients with asthma is useful for the future treatment of asthma.
Price, David; Fletcher, Monica; van der Molen, Thys
BACKGROUND: Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in the world, and previous studies have reported low levels of control. Recent developments in the availability and use of online sources of information about asthma might add to patients' knowledge and help improve control. AIMS: To
Clavenna, Matthew J; Turner, Justin H; Samuelson, Madeleine; Tanner, S Bobo; Duncavage, James; Chandra, Rakesh K
Omalizumab, an anti-immunoglobulin E monoclonal antibody, is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the management of patients with allergic asthma and with refractory disease, and has also proven beneficial in the management of selected patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). The common airway model indicates that patients with both allergic asthma and CRS may be more challenging to manage clinically. This is the first study to evaluate the response of omalizumab in patients with asthma and CRS versus those with asthma alone. To compare pulmonary function test (PFT) responses in omalizumab-treated patients with asthma with CRS with omalizumab-treated patients with asthma without CRS. This was a retrospective case-control study at a tertiary university clinic. Between 2007 and 2014, a total of 259 patients with allergic asthma had been prescribed omalizumab for asthma. Outcome measures were absolute, and the percentage changes in PFT results were compared with the baseline. Overall, 81 patients had serial PFT results available for evaluation, among whom 59 (73%) had CRS. Average treatment duration was 27.2, 27.7, and 25.8 months for the entire sample, for patients with asthma and CRS, and for patients with asthma and without CRS, respectively. Overall, PFT metrics improved across all parameters (forced expiratory volume in 1 second, forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity ratio, and forced expiratory flow 25-75%). Significant improvement (p omalizumab manifested some improvement in PFT scores. CRS may add to the overall symptom burden experienced by patients with asthma, especially in those with increasing severity, but comorbid CRS did not adversely impact the therapeutic potential of omalizumab. In fact, the benefit of omalizumab was more likely to be observed in patients with asthma and with CRS than in patients with asthma and without CRS.
Huang, Yvonne J; Nariya, Snehal; Harris, Jeffrey M; Lynch, Susan V; Choy, David F; Arron, Joseph R; Boushey, Homer
Asthma is heterogeneous, and airway dysbiosis is associated with clinical features in patients with mild-to-moderate asthma. Whether similar relationships exist among patients with severe asthma is unknown. We sought to evaluate relationships between the bronchial microbiome and features of severe asthma. Bronchial brushings from 40 participants in the Bronchoscopic Exploratory Research Study of Biomarkers in Corticosteroid-refractory Asthma (BOBCAT) study were evaluated by using 16S ribosomal RNA-based methods. Relationships to clinical and inflammatory features were analyzed among microbiome-profiled subjects. Secondarily, bacterial compositional profiles were compared between patients with severe asthma and previously studied healthy control subjects (n = 7) and patients with mild-to-moderate asthma (n = 41). In patients with severe asthma, bronchial bacterial composition was associated with several disease-related features, including body mass index (P PERMANOVA), changes in Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) scores (P < .01), sputum total leukocyte values (P = .06), and bronchial biopsy eosinophil values (per square millimeter, P = .07). Bacterial communities associated with worsening ACQ scores and sputum total leukocyte values (predominantly Proteobacteria) differed markedly from those associated with body mass index (Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes). In contrast, improving/stable ACQ scores and bronchial epithelial gene expression of FK506 binding protein (FKBP5), an indicator of steroid responsiveness, correlated with Actinobacteria. Mostly negative correlations were observed between biopsy eosinophil values and Proteobacteria. No taxa were associated with a TH2-related epithelial gene expression signature, but expression of TH17-related genes was associated with Proteobacteria. Patients with severe asthma compared with healthy control subjects or patients with mild-to-moderate asthma were significantly enriched in Actinobacteria, although the largest differences
Mangione-Smith, Rita; Zhou, Chuan; Corwin, Michael J; Taylor, James A; Rice, Fiona; Stout, James W
To determine the effectiveness of the Spirometry 360 distance learning quality improvement (QI) program for enhancing the processes and outcomes of care for children with asthma. Cluster randomized controlled trial involving 25 matched pairs of pediatric primary care practices. Practices were recruited from 2 practice-based research networks: the Slone Center Office-based Research Network at Boston University, Boston, Mass, and the Puget Sound Pediatric Research Network, Seattle, Wash. Study participants included providers from one of the 50 enrolled pediatric practices and 626 of their patients with asthma. Process measures assessed included spirometry test quality and appropriate prescription of asthma controller medications. Outcome measures included asthma-specific health-related quality of life, and outpatient, emergency department, and inpatient utilization for asthma. At baseline, 25.4% of spirometry tests performed in control practices and 50.4% of tests performed in intervention practices were of high quality. During the 6-month postintervention period, 28.7% of spirometry tests performed in control practices and 49.9% of tests performed in intervention practices were of high quality. The adjusted difference-of-differences analysis revealed no intervention effect on spirometry test quality. Adjusted differences-of-differences analysis also revealed no intervention effect on appropriate use of controller medications or any of the parent- or patient-reported outcomes examined. In this study, the Spirometry 360 distance learning QI program was ineffective in improving spirometry test quality or parent- or patient-reported outcomes. QI programs like the one assessed here may need to focus on practices with lower baseline performance levels or may need to be tailored for those with higher baseline performance. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tohda, Yuji; Hozawa, Soichiro; Tanaka, Hiroshi
The asthma control questionnaires used in Japan are Japanese translations of those developed outside Japan, and have some limitations; a questionnaire designed to optimally evaluate asthma control levels for Japanese may be necessary. The present study was conducted to validate the Japan Asthma Control Survey (JACS) questionnaire in Japanese asthma patients. A total of 226 adult patients with mild to severe persistent asthma were enrolled and responded to the JACS questionnaire, asthma control questionnaire (ACQ), and Mini asthma quality of life questionnaire (Mini AQLQ) at Weeks 0 and 4. The reliability, validity, and sensitivity/responsiveness of the JACS questionnaire were evaluated. The intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) were within the range of 0.55-0.75 for all JACS scores, indicating moderate/substantial reproducibility. For internal consistency, Cronbach's alpha coefficients ranged from 0.76 to 0.92 in total and subscale scores, which were greater than the lower limit of internal consistency. As for factor validity, the cumulative contribution ratio of four main factors was 0.66. For criterion-related validity, the correlation coefficients between the JACS total score and ACQ5, ACQ6, and Mini AQLQ scores were -0.78, -0.78, and 0.77, respectively, showing a significant correlation (p asthma control status in a higher number of patients. UMIN000016589. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hisham E. Abd El Aaty
Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency was highly prevalent in asthmatic patients, there was a strong correlation between asthma severity and 25(OH vitamin D concentrations and there was a direct and a positive significant correlation between vitamin D levels and pulmonary function tests in asthmatic patients, so the measurement of serum vitamin D levels in patients with bronchial asthma is very useful.
Andréia Guedes Oliva Fernandes
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for death among patients with severe asthma. METHODS: This was a nested case-control study. Among the patients with severe asthma treated between December of 2002 and December of 2010 at the Central Referral Outpatient Clinic of the Bahia State Asthma Control Program, in the city of Salvador, Brazil, we selected all those who died, as well as selecting other patients with severe asthma to be used as controls (at a ratio of 1:4. Data were collected from the medical charts of the patients, home visit reports, and death certificates. RESULTS: We selected 58 cases of deaths and 232 control cases. Most of the deaths were attributed to respiratory causes and occurred within a health care facility. Advanced age, unemployment, rhinitis, symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease, long-standing asthma, and persistent airflow obstruction were common features in both groups. Multivariate analysis showed that male gender, FEV1 pre-bronchodilator < 60% of predicted, and the lack of control of asthma symptoms were significantly and independently associated with mortality in this sample of patients with severe asthma. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of outpatients with severe asthma, the deaths occurred predominantly due to respiratory causes and within a health care facility. Lack of asthma control and male gender were risk factors for mortality.
Naik-Panvelkar, Pradnya; Armour, Carol; Rose, John; Saini, Bandana
Long-term sustainability of health services requires an understanding of patients' values and preferences. The aim of this study was to evaluate patients' preferences as well as their willingness-to-pay (WTP) for a community pharmacy-delivered specialized asthma service using a discrete choice experiment (DCE). Patients with asthma in New South Wales, Australia, who had recently experienced a specialized asthma management service at their pharmacy were mailed DCE questionnaires. Patients were asked to choose between two hypothetical service models with varying attributes. Multinomial logit models estimated patients' marginal WTP. The study had a response rate of 47%. Patients greatly valued various aspects of the pharmacy-based specialized service and had marginal WTP values of AUD$18.00 for a private area, AUD$44.50 for lung function testing, AUD$9.18 for appointments with pharmacists, and AUD$22.80 for provision of comprehensive advice on asthma and its medications. The marginal WTP for the overall service was AUD$94.86. The findings of the study indicate that patients greatly value and are willing to pay for asthma services in pharmacies. The study results will help pharmacists and policy advisors in the development of individualized asthma services that patients will use, are willing to pay for, and thus are economically viable in the future.
Anisimova, E N; Gromovik, M V
The paper presents the analysis of studies of local anesthesia in patients with bronchial asthma. It was found that the diagnosis of hypersensitivity to sodium metabisulfite in patients with bronchial asthma must be optimized for development of local anesthesia selection algorithm in outpatient dentistry.
... quick-relief inhalers, underuse control medications Share | Asthma patients in US overuse quick-relief inhalers, underuse control ... and uncontrolled asthma result in poor health outcomes. Patients with well-controlled asthma are at lower risk ...
Prevalence of gastro-esophageal reflux disease in patients with difficult to control asthma and effect of proton pump inhibitor therapy on asthma symptoms, reflux symptoms, pulmonary function and requirement for asthma medications.
Sandur, V; Murugesh, M; Banait, V; Rathi, P M; Bhatia, S J; Joshi, J M; Kate, A
The hypothesis that GER can trigger or exacerbate asthma is supported by several clinical trials that have shown amelioration in asthma symptoms and/or an improvement in pulmonary function after antireflux therapy. To investigate the prevalence of GER in patients with difficult to control asthma and to determine the effect of omeprazole on asthma symptoms, reflux symptoms, pulmonary function and on the requirement of asthma medications. Patients with difficult to control asthma were recruited into the study. All patients underwent esophageal manometry and 24 hour esophageal pH monitoring. Pulmonary function tests were done before and after treatment. The severity of asthma and reflux was assessed by a 1 week pulmonary symptom score(PSS) and reflux symptom score(RSS) respectively before and after treatment. Those who had an abnormal pH study (pH 5% of the time) underwent anti-GER treatment with lifestyle changes, and a proton pump inhibitor (omeprazole 40 mg, bid) for 3 months. Asthma medications were added or deleted based on severity of asthma. Out of 250 asthmatic patients screened, forty patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Twenty eight of 40 patients(70%) were diagnosed to have GERD. Of the patients 28 with GER, 8 patients(28.5%) had no reflux symptoms. On 24 hr pH metry, the percentage time pH reflux symptom score(RSS) improved from 22.39 ± 14.99 to 1.04 ± 1.07, pulmonary symptom score(PSS) improved from 27.14 ± 7.49 to 13.82 ± 4.21 and night time asthma symptom score(NASS) improved from 6.71 ± 1.80 to 3.04 ± 1.23 (p-value <0.0001). After treatment, FEV1 and PEFR increased from 1.38 ± 0.57 and 4.14 ± 1.97 to 1.47 ± 0.54 and 5.56 ± 1.72, respectively (p-value 0.00114). PPI therapy improves nocturnal asthma symptoms, daytime asthma symptoms, pulmonary function and decreases requirement of asthma medications in these patients.
... Science Education & Training Home Conditions Asthma (Pediatric) Asthma (Pediatric) Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask a ... meet the rising demand for asthma care. Our pediatric asthma team brings together physicians, nurses, dietitians, physical ...
Cheung, Melissa Mei Yin; Saini, Bandana; Smith, Lorraine
As an art form, drawings can facilitate the tangible expression of patients' inner images and feelings in a range of health conditions. However, there are currently no published studies investigating adults' perspectives of asthma using drawings. This study aimed to explore how adults' drawings illustrate their perceptions and experiences of asthma. Adults with asthma participated in a one-on-one drawing activity. Analysis was grounded in the participants' accounts of their drawing, which were examined alongside the relevant image. A coding approach was used to cluster thematic material and map the data according to the Common-Sense Model of Self-Regulation (CSM). Eighteen participants took part. Three themes emerged: (1) asthma is constrictive and restrictive, (2) feeling alone, feeling different, and (3) the life journey of asthma. The drawings aligned with several domains of the CSM, in particular consequences. The images drawn by the participants and their subsequent discussions highlighted the prominence of the emotional burden of asthma. The drawings provided powerful and evocative communication of the experience of asthma. Future research using drawings can further both healthcare professionals' and patients' understanding of the physical, social and emotional demands of living with asthma, and support the development of asthma self-management practices.
Al-Jahdali, Hamdan H.; Al-Hajjaj, Mohamed S.; Alanezi, Mohamed O.; Zeitoni, Mohamed O.; Al-Tassan, Turki H.
Objective was the evaluation of asthma control using the Asthma Control Test (ACT). The ACT was used to assess asthma control among patients with bronchial asthma visiting pulmonary clinics in 5 major tertiary care hospitals in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Each hospital had target of 300 patients to recruit over the period of the study from 1st September to 30th November 2006. The total number of patients studied was 1060 patients. Males constituted 442 (42%) and the females constituted 618 (58%), the median age was 38.56 years range 15-75. One-third of the patients had no formal education. The ACT score revealed uncontrolled asthma in 677 (64%), well controlled asthma in 328 (31%) and complete controlled in 55 (5%). There were no significant correlation between the age below 40 and above 40 years and level of asthma control p=0.12. However, the younger age group less than 20 had better control of asthma in comparison with older patients p=0.0001. There was significant correlation between level of asthma control and gender, males 44% had better asthma control than females (30%, p=0.0001). Control of bronchial asthma is still major concern in our population. Further studies are needed to explore the factors leading to poor asthma control. (author)
Laforest, L; Van Ganse, É; Devouassoux, G; Chatté, G; Tamberou, C; Belhassen, M; Chamba, G
Adherence to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) remains a major issue for asthma management, even among patients receiving a regular prescription from their doctor. The frequency of deliberate interruption of ICS, and of spontaneous changes of dose, were studied in a population of asthma patients recruited in community pharmacies. Asthma patients (aged 18-50) recruited in community pharmacies reported in self-administered questionnaires their spontaneous interruptions and changes of doses of ICS during the past 3 months. The characteristics of patients who interrupted their therapy or who modified the dose were compared with other patients. The studied population included 252 patients (mean age 35 year-old, females: 59%), of whom 62% had inadequately controlled asthma. Among these patients, 25% had interrupted ICS therapy during the past 3 months, while 21% spontaneously changed the dose. The most reported reason for interrupting ICS was the cessation of symptoms (50%). In multivariate analysis, interrupting ICS was mainly associated with inadequate asthma control (OR=3.1, 95% CI 1.5-6.4), while the strongest association with changing ICS doses was the patients' perception of asthma as a concern in their lives (OR=3.2, 95% CI 1.2-8.4). These results underline a poor understanding of the purpose of ICS therapy by patients. They also highlight the need of therapeutic education to improve the management of the disease. Copyright © 2014 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: According to the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA, the levels of asthma symptom control can be divided into controlled, partially controlled and uncontrolled asthma. Optional therapy for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs-hypersensitive asthmatics uses aspirin desensitization, but until now, this therapy is not established in difficult to treat cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of aspirin desensitization in patients with poorly controlled asthma. Methods: Patients with poorly controlled asthma, NDAIDs hypersensitivity and aspirin desensitization were included in the retrospective study. The data were compared to those obtained from patients with controlled asthma and aspirin therapy. Lung function, levels of asthma symptom control, asthma medication, the size of nasal polyps (NP and smell function were evaluated over 18 months. Results: Thirty-two patients were included in the study (uncontrolled/partially controlled asthma nÂ =Â 12; controlled asthma nÂ =Â 20. After 18 months of follow-up, the patients with poorly controlled asthma had significantly increased forced expiratory volume in 1Â s (FEV1 values, as compared to the baseline (66â82%; pÂ =Â 0.02, the levels of asthma control improved significantly (pÂ Â 0.05 and the asthma medication was constant. In relation to nasal parameters the sense of smell improved significantly in both groups, NP-scores did not differ significantly. Conclusions: Patients with a poorly controlled asthma and NSAIDs hypersensitivity profit from an add-on aspirin therapy. Keywords: Asthma, Levels of asthma symptom control, GINA, Uncontrolled asthma, Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD, NSAIDs hypersensitivity, NSAIDs sensitive asthma, Nasal polyps
Background: An Adequate and an effective dose of inhalation drugs can be administered only if the correct inhaler‑specific technique is followed by asthma patients. There is paucity of data on this subject among Nigerians and Africans. Aims: This observational study was to assess the inhaler techniques among asthma ...
Background: Asthma exacerbations are caused by a variety of risk factors. Reducing exposure to these risk factors improves the control of asthma and reduces medication needs. Knowledge of the particular risk factors is essential in formulating controlling and treatment protocols. This study set out to determine the risk ...
Lingner, H; Burger, B; Kardos, P; Criée, C P; Worth, H; Hummers-Pradier, E
Treatment of asthma does not always comply with asthma guidelines (AG). This may be rooted in direct or indirect resistance on the doctors' and/or patients' side or be caused by the healthcare system. To assess whether patients' concepts and attitudes are really an implementation barrier for AG, we analysed the patients' perspective of a "good asthma therapy" and contrasted their wishes with current recommendations. Using a qualitative exploratory design, topic centred focus group (FG) discussions were performed until theoretical saturation was reached. Inclusion criteria were an asthma diagnosis and age above 18. FG sessions were recorded audio-visually and analysed via a mapping technique and content analysis performed according to Mayring (supported by MAXQDA®). Participants' speech times and the proportion of time devoted to different themes were calculated using the Videograph System® and related to the content analysis. Thirteen men and 24 women aged between 20 and 77 from rural and urban areas attended five FG. Some patients had been recently diagnosed with asthma, others years previously or in childhood. The following topics were addressed: (a) concern about or rejection of therapy components, particularly corticosteroids, which sometimes resulted in autonomous uncommunicated medication changes, (b) lack of time or money for optimal treatment, (c) insufficient involvement in therapy choices and (d) a desire for greater empowerment, (e) suboptimal communication between healthcare professionals and (f) difficulties with recommendations conflicting with daily life. Primarily, (g) participants wanted more time with doctors to discuss difficulties and (h) all aspects of living with an impairing condition. We identified some important patient driven barriers to implementing AG recommendations. In order to advance AG implementation and improve asthma treatment, the patients' perspective needs to be considered before drafting new versions of AG. These issues
Full Text Available Forty-six asthmatic children with repeated respiratory infections presented symptoms of allergic rhinitis. All patients were treated locally for allergic rhinitis either with disodium cromoglycate or beclomethasone dipropionate. After six months of treatment, 95% of the children showed improvement of allergic rhinitis and 84% improvement of bronchial asthma, as well as fewer infections. We concluded that allergic rhinitis plays an important role in facilitating infections of the upper respiratory tract, and a possible association of rhinitis, viral infections and bronchial asthma is discussed.
Lara Noronha Ferreira
Full Text Available In this paper we present a study whose main aim is the measurement of the Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL of patients with asthma and the presentation of a first draft of normative values as measured by the SF-6D for asthma patients. In addition, we investigate how far non-disease-specific HRQoL measures can distinguish groups in terms of sociodemographic characteristics.The Portuguese versions of the EQ-5D, SF-6D, AQLQ(S and ACQ were administered using personal interviews to a representative sample of the Portuguese population with asthma.Most of the individuals did not report significant problems in the dimensions used, with the exception of the physical functioning, where individuals reported moderate limitations. The mean utility value was 0.86. Male gender, young, single, individuals with high educational attainment level, employed, individuals with high income and those residing in urban areas reported higher utility levels. As expected, those who were in a severe stadium of the disease reported lower mean utility levels than those who were in a less severe stadium of the disease. Normative values for the SF-6D were computed for patients with asthma by gender, age, marital status, educational attainment level, employment status, area of residence and average monthly net income.The preference-based measures used in this study distinguish patient groups with asthma in terms of socio-demographic groups. The normative values can be used in economic evaluation and clinical studies as they incorporate patientsâ preferences and translate the value attributed to patientsâ health state. Resumo: Neste artigo Ã© descrito um estudo, cujo objectivo Ã© a mediÃ§Ã£o da qualidade de vida relacionada com a saÃºde (QdVRS de doentes com asma e a apresentaÃ§Ã£o de uma primeira aproximaÃ§Ã£o aos valores normativos, com base no SF-6D, para aquele tipo de doentes. Pretende-se ainda averiguar a capacidade de medidas gen
Dahlin, Amber; Denny, Joshua; Roden, Dan M
Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the most effective controller medications for asthma, and variability in ICS response is associated with genetic variation. Despite ICS treatment, some patients with poor asthma control experience severe asthma exacerbations, defined as a hospitalization or emerg...
Downes, Martin J; Roy, Angkana; McGinn, Thomas G; Wisnivesky, Juan P
Exposure to indoor allergens is an established risk factor for poor asthma control. Current guidelines recommend removing pets from the home of patients with asthma. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of furry pet ownership in asthmatics compared to non-asthmatics and to identify factors associated with furry pet ownership among those with asthma. Secondary analysis assessed characteristics among asthmatics that might be associated with allowing a furry pet into the bedroom. Using data from The National Asthma Survey collected from 2003 to 2004, we carried out univariate and multiple regression analyses, in 2009, to identify independent predictors of furry pet ownership in asthma sufferers after controlling for potential confounders. Overall, asthmatics were more likely to own a furry pet than nonasthmatic individuals in the general population (49.9% versus 44.8%, p ownership among asthmatics. Additionally, 68.7% of patients with asthma who own a furry pet allowed them into their bedroom. Higher income and carrying out ownership is equally or more common among asthmatics compared to those without asthma. The majority of asthmatics with furry pets allow them into the bedroom. Recognizing and addressing these problems may help decrease asthma morbidity.
Full Text Available Thomas SandströmDepartment of Respiratory Medicine and Allergy, University Hospital, Umeå, SwedenAbstract: Immunoglobulin E (IgE is central to the pathophysiology of allergic asthma. Omalizumab, an anti-IgE monoclonal antibody, binds to the FcεRI binding site on free IgE. As a result, circulating free IgE is reduced, IgE is prevented from attaching to mast cells and basophils, and FcεRI receptor expression is down-regulated. The inflammatory response to allergens and the acute and chronic effector phases of allergic inflammation are thereby attenuated. In clinical trials in adults and adolescents, omalizumab reduced asthma exacerbations, severe asthma exacerbations, inhaled corticosteroid requirements, and emergency visits, as well as significantly improving asthma-related quality of life, morning peak expiratory flow and asthma symptom scores in patients with severe allergic (IgE-mediated asthma. Results from clinical trials in children (< 12 years are consistent with those in the adult population. It is difficult to predict which patients will respond to omalizumab. Responders to omalizumab should be identified after a 16-week trial of therapy using the physician’s overall assessment. When treatment is targeted to these responders, omalizumab provides a cost-effective therapy for inadequately controlled severe allergic (IgE-mediated asthma. Long-term therapy with omalizumab shows the potential for disease-modification in asthma. Ongoing studies are also evaluating the use of omalizumab in other non-asthma IgE-mediated conditions.Keywords: omalizumab, IgE, allergic asthma
Full Text Available Introduction: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease. Genetic and environmental factors have been important role in the induction of asthma. It's estimated that asthma affect 2.7 to 35.4% of child (in average 13.4% in Iran. The aims of this study to assess the costs of asthma patients admitted in Boali hospital in Sari in the north of Iran. Patients and Methods: This descriptive study was carried out in asthma patients 1 to 20 years old that admitted in the Boali hospital in Sari from 2008 to2012. Out of 455 folders, 22 folders excluded because incomplete registrations.Results: Out of 432 patients, 280 patients (64.81% were male. 349 patients were 1-5 years old (80.78%. Average annual cost in our asthmatic patients was 1219064 Rials(Iran currency ($ 121.9 per patient, 1183655 ($ 118.3 and 1284789($ 128.5 Rials per male and per female patient respectively. Conclusions: Our study showed asthma disease has been significantly cost for patient, family
Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Kritikos, Vicky; Carter, Victoria; Yan, Kwok Yin; Armour, Carol; Ryan, Dermot; Price, David
The first aim of the study (i) assess the current asthma status of general-practitioner-managed patients receiving regular fixed-dose combination inhaled corticosteroid and long-acting beta 2 agonist (FDC ICS/LABA) therapy and (ii) explore patients' perceptions of asthma control and attitudes/behaviors regarding preventer inhaler use. A cross-sectional observational study of Australian adults with a current physician diagnosis of asthma receiving ≥2 prescriptions of FDC ICS/LABA therapy in the previous year, who were recruited through general practice to receive a structured in-depth asthma review between May 2012 and January 2014. Descriptive statistics and Chi-Square tests for independence were used for associations across asthma control levels. Only 11.5% of the patients had controlled asthma based on guideline-defined criteria. Contrarily, 66.5% of the patients considered their asthma to be well controlled. Incidence of acute asthma exacerbations in the previous year was 26.5% and 45.6% of the patients were without a diagnosis of rhinitis. Asthma medication use and inhaler technique were sub-optimal; only 41.0% of the preventer users reported everyday use. The side effects of medication were common and more frequently reported among uncontrolled and partially controlled patients. The study revealed the extent to which asthma management needs to be improved in this patient cohort and the numerous unmet needs regarding the current state of asthma care. Not only there is a need for continuous education of patients, but also education of health care practitioners to better understand the way in which patient's perceptions impact on asthma management practices, incorporating these findings into clinical decision making.
Bereznicki, B; Peterson, G; Jackson, S; Walters, E H; Gee, P
A previously published asthma intervention used a software application to data mine pharmacy dispensing records and generate a list of patients with potentially suboptimal management of their asthma; in particular, a high rate of provision of reliever medication. These patients were sent educational material from their community pharmacists and advised to seek a review of their asthma management from their general practitioner. The intervention resulted in a 3-fold improvement in the ratio of dispensed preventer medication (inhaled corticosteroids) to reliever medication (short-acting beta-2 agonists). This follow-up study aimed to determine the long-term effects of the intervention programme on the preventer-to-reliever (P:R) ratio. The same data mining software was modified so that it could re-identify patients who were originally targeted for the intervention. Community pharmacists who participated in the previous intervention installed the modified version of the software. The dispensing data were then de-identified, encrypted and transferred via the Internet to a secure server. The follow-up dispensing data for all patients were compared with their pre- and post-intervention data collected originally. Of the 1551 patients who were included in the original study, 718 (46·3%) were eligible to be included in the follow-up study. The improved P:R ratio was sustained for at least 12 months following the intervention (P < 0·01). The sustained increase in the P:R ratio was attributed to significant decreases in the average daily usage of reliever medication (P < 0·0001). The follow-up study demonstrated a sustained improvement in the ratio of dispensed preventer medication to reliever medication for asthma. The intervention has the potential to show long-lasting and widespread improvements in asthma management, improved health outcomes for patients, and ultimately, a reduced burden on the health system. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Brusselle, Guy; Canvin, Janice; Weiss, Sivan; Sun, Shawn X; Buhl, Roland
Reslizumab, an anti-interleukin-5 monoclonal antibody, significantly reduces exacerbation frequency and improves lung function, asthma control and quality of life in adults with severe eosinophilic asthma, as demonstrated in Phase III studies. This secondary analysis assessed reslizumab's efficacy in patients receiving baseline treatment per Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) Step 4 and Step 5 guidelines. Pooled data from duplicate, Phase III, reslizumab versus placebo studies in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma (blood eosinophils ≥400 cells·µL -1 ) were stratified by baseline therapy. Efficacy assessments were exacerbation rates and changes from baseline forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) and patient-reported outcomes. Of 953 patients, 69% (n=657) and 11% (n=106) were receiving Step 4 and Step 5 therapy, respectively. Compared with placebo, reslizumab reduced exacerbation rates by 53% (95% CI 0.36-0.62) and 72% (95% CI 0.15-0.52), in Step 4 and Step 5 groups respectively. By study end, reslizumab increased FEV 1 in Step 4 and Step 5 groups by 103 mL (95% CI 52-154 mL) and 237 mL (95% CI 68-407 mL), respectively. Reslizumab also improved patient-reported outcomes compared with placebo in both groups. Reslizumab reduces exacerbation rates and improves lung function and patient-reported outcomes in patients with eosinophilic asthma receiving therapy per Steps 4 and 5 of the GINA guidelines.
Sriratanaviriyakul, Narin; Kivler, Celeste; Vidovszky, Tamas J; Yoneda, Ken Y; Kenyon, Nicholas J; Murin, Susan; Louie, Samuel
Gastroesophageal reflux disease is one of the most common comorbidities in patients with asthma. Gastroesophageal reflux disease can be linked to difficult-to-control asthma. Current management includes gastric acid suppression therapy and surgical antireflux procedures. The LINX® procedure is a novel surgical treatment for patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease refractory to medical therapy. To the best of our knowledge, we report the first case of successful treatment of refractory asthma secondary to gastroesophageal reflux disease using the LINX® procedure. Our patient was a 22-year-old white woman who met the American Thoracic Society criteria for refractory asthma that had remained poorly controlled for 5 years despite progressive escalation to step 6 treatment as recommended by National Institutes of Health-National Asthma Education and Prevention Program guidelines, including high-dose oral corticosteroids, high-dose inhaled corticosteroid plus long-acting β2-agonist, leukotriene receptor antagonist, and monthly omalizumab. Separate trials with azithromycin therapy and roflumilast did not improve her asthma control, nor did bronchial thermoplasty help. Additional consultations with two other university health systems left the patient with few treatment options for asthma, which included cyclophosphamide. Instead, the patient underwent a LINX® procedure after failure of maximal medical therapy for gastroesophageal reflux disease with the additional aim of improving asthma control. After she underwent LINX® treatment, her asthma improved dramatically and was no longer refractory. She had normal exhaled nitric oxide levels and loss of peripheral eosinophilia after LINX® treatment. Prednisone was discontinued without loss of asthma control. The only immediate adverse effects due to the LINX® procedure were bloating, nausea, and vomiting. LINX® is a viable alternative to the Nissen fundoplication procedure for the treatment of patients with
O'Byrne, Paul M; Pedersen, Soren; Carlsson, Lars-Göran
Rationale: Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the mainstay of asthma treatment. Studies in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease reported increased rates of pneumonia with ICS. Concerns exist about an increased pneumonia risk in patients with asthma taking ICS. Objectives: To evaluate the risks...... of pneumonia in patients with asthma taking ICS. Methods: A retrospective analysis evaluated studies of the ICS budesonide in asthma. The primary data set were all double-blind, placebo-controlled trials lasting at least 3 months, involving budesonide (26 trials, n = 9,067 for budesonide; n = 5...... effect of ICS on pneumonia adverse events (AEs) or serious adverse events (SAEs). Measurements and Main Results: In the primary data set, the occurrence of pneumonia AEs was 0.5% (rate 10.0 events/1,000 patient-years [TPY]) for budesonide and 1.2% (19.3 per TPY) for placebo (hazard ratio, 0.52; 95...
Ghajar-Khosravi, Shadi; Tarlo, Susan M; Liss, Gary M; Chignell, Mark; Ribeiro, Marcos; Levinson, Anthony J; Gupta, Samir
Asthma is a common chronic condition. Work-related asthma (WRA) has a large socioeconomic impact and is increasing in prevalence but remains under-recognized. Although international guidelines recommend patient education, no widely available educational tool exists. To develop a WRA educational website for adults with asthma. An evidence-based database for website content was developed, which applied evidence-based website design principles to create a website prototype. This was subsequently tested and serially revised according to patient feedback in three moderated phases (one focus group and two interview phases), followed by face validation by asthma educators. Patients (n=10) were 20 to 28 years of age; seven (70%) were female, three (30%) were in university, two (20%) were in college and five (50%) were currently employed. Key format preferences included: well-spaced, bulleted text; movies (as opposed to animations); photos (as opposed to cartoons); an explicit listing of website aims on the home page; and an exploding tab structure. Participants disliked integrated games and knowledge quizzes. Desired informational content included a list of triggers, prevention⁄control methods, currently available tools and resources, a self-test for WRA, real-life scenario presentations, compensation information, information for colleagues on how to react during an asthma attack and a WRA discussion forum. The website met the perceived needs of young asthmatic patients. This resource could be disseminated widely and should be tested for its effects on patient behaviour, including job choice, workplace irritant⁄allergen avoidance and⁄or protective equipment, asthma medication use and physician prompting for management of WRA symptoms.
Bronchial asthma is characterized by chronic airway inflammation. The primary goal of treatment of asthma is to maintain the state of control. According to the Japanese guidelines (JGL2012), long-term management consists of 4 therapeutic steps, and use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) is recommended at all 4 steps. Besides ICS, inhalation of long-acting β2-agonist (LABA) is also effective. Recently, omalizumab (a humanized antihuman IgE antibody) can be available for patients with severe allergic asthma. Although there is no specific strategy for preoperative treatment of patients with asthma, preoperative systemic steroid administration seemed to be effective to prevent asthma attack during anesthesia. The most common cause of chronic bronchitis is smoking. Even the respiratory function is within normal limits, perioperative management of patients with chronic bronchitis is often troublesome. The most common problem is their sputum. To minimize perioperative pulmonary complication in these patients, smoking cessation and pulmonary rehabilitation are essential. It is known that more than 1 month of smoking cessation is required to reduce perioperative respiratory complication. However, even one or two weeks of smoking cessation can decrease sputum secretion. In summary, preoperative optimization is most important to prevent respiratory complication in patients with bronchial asthma or chronic bronchitis.
One of every 10 adolescents in the United States has asthma. Adolescents who lack asthma control are at increased risk for severe asthma episodes and death. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute 2007 asthma guidelines and research studies indicated that school nurses are instrumental in assisting adolescents to monitor their asthma, learn…
Porsbjerg, C; Sverrild, A; Stensen, L
BACKGROUND: Late onset asthma is associated with more severe disease and higher morbidity than in younger asthma patients. This may in part relate to under recognition of asthma in older adults, but evidence on the impact of patient age on diagnostic assessment of asthma in a specialist setting...
Oktay, Burcu; Selçuk, Omer Tarik; Ardiç, Sadik; Saylam, Güleser; Yüceege, Melike; Bilgin, Esra; Korkmaz, Hakan
This study was planned to evaluate vocal cord functions and to establish underlying vocal cord dysfunctions (VCD) in patients with asthma attack. All patients admitted to emergency service of our hospital with asthma attack between February 01, 2007 and June 01, 2007 were included in the evaluation. After the evaluation, all patients regarded to have asthma attacks based on GINA 2006 guide were enrolled in the study. After first intervention, patients underwent endoscopic larynx examination for the evaluation of vocal cord functions. Twenty four (65.7%) male and 11 female (31.4%), overall 35 patients diagnosed with asthma and who did not have the history of another disease were included in the study. At endoscopic larynx examination carried out after first medical examination, at the moment of asthma attack, tongue, tongue base, epiglottis and arytenoid were observed to be within normal limits. In 9 (25.7%) patients, upper respiratory tract was hyperemic and in 2 (5.7%) odematous. One patient had nasal polyposis (p> 0.05). In the evaluation of vocal cord functions, restriction in adduction was observed in merely one patient. All other functions were normal. Rima opening width was established to be mean 8.34 + or - 0.725. VCD was deteced in none of the patients included in the study. Although we did not detect VCD in any patient, VCD should be borne in mind in cases which presents with the clinical picture of asthma and responds weakly to the treatment or in cases of unexplained shortness of breath. This may prevent many unnecessary procedures such as medication, entubation, tracheostomy and iatrogenic mortality. Further longutudial studies are required in order to shed light on the assocation of asthma with VCD.
Fattah, Mohammed Abdel; Hamdy, Basant
This study aimed at evaluating the effect of massage therapy on the pulmonary functions of stable Egyptian children with asthma. This study was an open, randomized, controlled trial. The study was conducted in pediatric allergy and chest unit of the New Children's Hospital of Cairo University, Egypt. Sixty (60) children with asthma were divided randomly into two equal groups: massage therapy group and control group. Subjects in the massage therapy group received a 20-minute massage therapy by their parents at home before bedtime every night for 5 weeks in addition to the standard asthma treatment. The control group received the standard asthma treatment alone for 5 weeks. Spirometry was performed for all children on the first and last days of the study. Forced expiratory flow in first second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were recorded. At the end of the study, mean FEV1 of the massage therapy group was significantly higher than controls (2.3-0.8 L versus 1.9-0.9 L, p=0.04). There was no significant difference in FVC (2.5-0.8 L versus 2.7-0.7 L, p=0.43). However, FEV1/FVC ratio showed a significant improvement in the massage therapy group (92.3-21.5 versus 69.5-17, pmassage therapy in pediatric asthma is suggested. It improved the key pulmonary functions of the children, namely, FEV1 and FEV1/FVC ratio. However, further research on a larger scale is warranted. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Full Text Available Objective: To observe the small airways function changes of asthmatic patients in different clinical phases and to discuss its clinical significance. Methods: A total of 127 patients diagnosed as asthma were selected randomly and pulmonary function (PF of them was determined by conventional method. Then they were divided into A, B and C group based on PF results. All 34 patients in A group suffered from acute asthma attack for the first time. All 93 patients in B group had been diagnosed as asthma but in remission phase. C Group was regarded as Control group with 20 healthy volunteers. Then FEV1, FEF50%, FEF75% levels of patients in each group were analyzed, and ΔFEV1, ΔFEF75% and ΔFEF50% levels of patients in each group were compared after bronchial dilation test. Results: It was found that most patients in group A and B had abnormal small airways function, and their small airways function was significantly different compared with that of group C (P<0.01. In addition, except for group C, ΔFEF75%,ΔFEF50% levels in A and B group were improved more significantly than ΔFEV1 levels (P<0.01. Conclusions: Asthma patients in acute phase all have abnormal small airways function. Most asthma patients in remission phase also have abnormal small airways function. After bronchial dilation test, whether patients in acute phase or in remission phase, major and small airways function of them are improved, but improvement of small airways function is weaker than that of major airways. This indicates that asthma respiratory tract symptoms in different phases exists all the time and so therapeutic process is needed to perform step by step.
Baptist, Alan P; Thompson, Michael; Grossman, Karla Stoermer; Mohammed, Layla; Sy, Annie; Sanders, Georgiana M
Electronic media such as social media (Facebook, Twitter, MySpace), email, and text messaging could be useful in the management of asthma. However, patient use and preferences for electronic media in asthma management is currently unknown. A survey was sent to asthma patients between 12-40 years of age. The survey collected demographic information, use of electronic media, interest in using electronic media to receive asthma information, and interest in using electronic media to communicate with a health care provider about asthma. Free text entries were encouraged. 145 completed surveys were returned. Text messaging, email, and Facebook were used at least weekly by a majority of respondents (82%, 77%, and 65%, respectively). Email was clearly the most preferred method to receive asthma information and to communicate with a physician. There was some interest in using Facebook or text messaging, whereas Myspace and Twitter had minimal interest. On logistic regression analysis, female and Black or Hispanic participants were more likely to have an interest in the use of electronic media for asthma care. Frequent users (>1X/week) of each electronic media type had greater enthusiasm for their incorporation into asthma care. Free text entries revealed that many participants felt social media sites were for connecting with friends rather than for health care, and privacy concerns were also raised. Electronic media offers a novel way to improve asthma care. Email was the most preferred method, though text messaging and social media sites like Facebook may be appropriate for certain patients.
Maspero, Jorge; Jardim, Jose; González-Díaz, Sandra; Aranda, Alvaro; Tassinari, Paolo
Background In 2003, the Asthma Insights and Reality in Latin America (AIRLA) survey assessed, in part, perception, knowledge, and attitudes related to asthma.1 In 2011 the Latin America Asthma Insight and Management (LA AIM) survey was designed to ascertain the realities of living with asthma, disconnect between expectations in asthma management and patient experience, and unmet needs. Using results from our survey, we investigated the advances made in asthma care and the challenges that rema...
Full Text Available Background: Recently, higher efficacy of the combination of long-acting beta2-adrenoceptor agonist and inhaled corticosteroids on controlling asthma symptoms has been hypothesized. This study aimed to examine the clinical effects of the combination of Budesonide with formoterol (Symbicort and Budesonide (Pulmicort alone in persistent asthma. Materials and Methods: In a randomized double-blinded clinical trial, 76 patients with definite diagnosis of moderate-to-severe asthma were randomized to receive Pulmicort 180 mcg/inhalation two puffs twice daily, or receive Symbicort 80/4.5 mg/inhalation two puffs twice daily, or receive Symbicort 160/4.5 mg/inhalation two puffs twice daily for 3 months. All participants were initially evaluated by spirometry for assessing respiratory parameters and also the level of asthma control was assessed by Asthma Control Test (ACT. Results: More significant improvement in spirometry parameters, including forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, forced vital capacity (FVC, FEV1/FVC ratio, as well as in peak expiratory flow (PEF in both groups of Symbicort with the regimens 80/4.5 mg/inhalation or 160/4.5 mg/inhalation 2 puffs twice daily compared with Pulmicort group, ACT score was significantly improved in Symbicort group with the regimens 160/4.5 mg/inhalation compared with both Symbicort groups with lower dosage and Pulmicort group . Response to treatment in PEF parameter and also in ACT level was significantly more in those who received Symbicort with the regimens 160/4.5 mg/inhalation compared with other two interventional groups adjusted for gender and age. Conclusion: Symbicort with the regimens 160/4.5 mg/inhalation has higher efficacy in reducing asthma symptom and improving its control compared with low doses of this drug and with Pulmicort.
Tinschert, Peter; Jakob, Robert; Barata, Filipe; Kramer, Jan-Niklas; Kowatsch, Tobias
Effective disease self-management lowers asthma's burden of disease for both individual patients and health care systems. In principle, mobile health (mHealth) apps could enable effective asthma self-management interventions that improve a patient's quality of life while simultaneously reducing the overall treatment costs for health care systems. However, prior reviews in this field have found that mHealth apps for asthma lack clinical evaluation and are often not based on medical guidelines. Yet, beyond the missing evidence for clinical efficacy, little is known about the potential apps might have for improving asthma self-management. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of publicly available and well-adopted mHealth apps for improving asthma self-management. The Apple App store and Google Play store were systematically searched for asthma apps. In total, 523 apps were identified, of which 38 apps matched the selection criteria to be included in the review. Four requirements of app potential were investigated: app functions, potential to change behavior (by means of a behavior change technique taxonomy), potential to promote app use (by means of a gamification components taxonomy), and app quality (by means of the Mobile Application Rating Scale [MARS]). The most commonly implemented functions in the 38 reviewed asthma apps were tracking (30/38, 79%) and information (26/38, 68%) functions, followed by assessment (20/38, 53%) and notification (18/38, 47%) functions. On average, the reviewed apps applied 7.12 of 26 available behavior change techniques (standard deviation [SD]=4.46) and 4.89 of 31 available gamification components (SD=4.21). Average app quality was acceptable (mean=3.17/5, SD=0.58), whereas subjective app quality lied between poor and acceptable (mean=2.65/5, SD=0.87). Additionally, the sum scores of all review frameworks were significantly correlated (lowest correlation: r 36 =.33, P=.04 between number of functions and gamification
Minami, Yoshinori; Endo, Satoshi; Okumur, Shunsuke; Sasaki, Takaaki; Yamamoto, Yasushi; Ogasa, Toshiyuki; Osanai, Shinobu; Ohsaki, Yoshinobu
A high-dose administration of inhaled corticosteroid is effective in the majority of patients with bronchial asthma, but is often difficult to attain sufficient control in certain subsets of patients. Omalizumab has recently emerged as a promising drug for bronchial asthma. To assess its add-on effect we administered omalizumab to patients with uncontrolled atopic asthma for more than 16 weeks and gave them questionnaires. The study population comprised 9 patients with frequent asthmatic symptoms despite the administration of high-dose inhaled corticosteroid and other disease controllers. We scored disease control using the Asthma Health Questionnaire-33-Japan and the Asthma Control Test, and evaluated the frequencies of short-acting beta2-agonist use for rescue and drip infusion of theophyllines and/or systemic steroids in a retrospective fashion. Asthmatic scores were significantly improved after 16 weeks of omalizumab therapy. The frequencies of reliever use and drip infusion were also decreased. These trends were present even in patients in whom no aeroallergen-specific IgE antibodies were detected. No statistically significant side effects were observed. Our study confirmed the add-on effect of omalizumab based on evaluation by simple questionnaires. Further studies are needed to clarify whether omalizumab therapy is suitable for patients without specific IgE antibodies.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiac asthma is common, but has been poorly investigated. The objective was to compare the characteristics and outcome of cardiac asthma with that of classical congestive heart failure (CHF in elderly patients. Methods Prospective study in an 1,800-bed teaching hospital. Results Two hundred and twelve consecutive patients aged ≥ 65 years presenting with dyspnea due to CHF (mean age of 82 ± 8 years were included. Findings of cardiac echocardiography and natriuretic peptides levels were used to confirm CHF. Cardiac asthma patients were defined as a patient with CHF and wheezing reported by attending physician upon admission to the emergency department. The CHF group (n = 137 and the cardiac asthma group (n = 75, differed for tobacco use (34% vs. 59%, p 2 (47 ± 15 vs. 41 ± 11 mmHg, p Conclusion Patients with cardiac asthma represented one third of CHF in elderly patients. They were more hypercapnic and experienced more distal airway obstruction. However, outcomes were similar.
Munck, Christian; Helby, Jens; Westergaard, Christian G
Asthma is a common disease causing cough, wheezing and shortness of breath. It has been shown that the lung microbiota in asthma patients is different from the lung microbiota in healthy controls suggesting that a connection between asthma and the lung microbiome exists. Individuals with asthma who...
Backer, Vibeke; Sverrild, Asger; Porsbjerg, Celeste
between FENO and AHR to mannitol in unselected individuals with possible asthma. METHODS: A real-life study on patients with possible asthma referred to a specialized asthma clinic. Data on asthma history, FEV(1), FENO, atopy, smoking, treatment and AHR to mannitol were collected. RESULTS: In 217...
Small, M; Vickers, A; Anderson, P; Kay, S
It is hypothesized that a good partnership between asthma patients and their physicians has a direct and positive influence on the patients' clinical and patient-reported outcomes. Conversely, poor partnership has a detrimental effect on clinical and patient-reported outcomes. This paper uses data from a real-world observational study to define partnership through matched physician and patient data and correlate the quality of partnership with observed clinical and patient-reported outcomes. Data were drawn from Adelphi's Respiratory Disease Specific Programme, a cross-sectional study of consulting patients in five European countries undertaken between June and September 2009. A range of clinical and patient-reported outcomes were observed allowing analysis of the partnership between 2251 asthma patients and their physicians. Analysis demonstrates that the better the partnership between patient and physician, the more likely the patient is to have their asthma condition controlled (PPartnership is also associated with lower impact on lifestyle (Ppartnership is a contributory factor in the improvement of asthma treatment, and patient education may lead to improvement in a patient's ability to contribute to this. Device satisfaction is one of the markers of good partnership.
Lenney, Warren; Clayton, Sadie; Gilchrist, Francis J; Price, David; Small, Iain; Smith, Judy; Sutton, Emma J
Asthma is a very common disease that can occur at any age. In the UK and in many other countries it is mainly managed in primary care. The published evidence suggests that the key to improving diagnosis and management lies in better training and education rather than in the discovery of new medications. An asthma improvement project managed through the British Lung Foundation is attempting to do this. The project has three pilot sites: two in England supported by the Department of Health and one in Scotland supported by the Scottish Government. If the project is successful it will be rolled out to other health areas within the UK. The results of this project are not yet available. This article highlights the challenges encountered in setting up the project and may well be applicable to other areas in the UK and to other countries where similar healthcare systems exist. The encountered challenges reflect the complex nature of healthcare systems and electronic data capture in primary care. We discuss the differences between general practices in their ability and willingness to support the project, the training and education of their staff on asthma management, governance issues in relation to information technology systems, and the quality of data capture. Virtually all the challenges have now been overcome, but discussing them should ensure that others become aware of them at an early stage should they wish to undertake similar projects in the future.
G. V. Yeryomenko
Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of asthma (A and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2T necessitates administration of the adequate antiasthmatic long-term basic therapy with consideration of comorbid states. The purpose consisted in revealing the therapeutic potential of Tiotropium bromide (TB and L-arginine (Tivortine in patients having uncontrolled moderately severe asthma in combination with DM2T (A+DM2T. Forty seven A+DM2T patients underwent an in-depth study before and after their treatment. They were divided into 2 groups: treatment (group 1, n=28 and comparison (group 2, n=19. Both groups received the standard 2-component therapy: budesonide/formoterol fumarate dihydrate – 160/4.5µg by 2 breaths twice a day and metformin at a dose of 500 mg twice a day. The complex of their basic therapy for group 1 additionally included TB (18 µg a day and arginine hydrochloride preparation (Tivortine® aspartate, Yuriya-Farm orally by 15 ml twice a day during 3 months (90 days. The patients were followed up 3 months and one year later. Their general condition demonstrated positive dynamics in both groups, the number of exacerbations in group 1 reducing by a factor of 4. The complex use of L-arginine and TB preparations against a background of the basic therapy in A+DM2T patients produced a better control over the disease, a more rapid elimination of obstruction manifestations, achievement and prolongation of the clinical spirographic remission, an improvement of the quality of life, correction of disturbances in haemocoagulation, fibrinolysis and the functional state of endothelium.
Tinschert, Peter; Jakob, Robert; Barata, Filipe; Kramer, Jan-Niklas
Background Effective disease self-management lowers asthma’s burden of disease for both individual patients and health care systems. In principle, mobile health (mHealth) apps could enable effective asthma self-management interventions that improve a patient’s quality of life while simultaneously reducing the overall treatment costs for health care systems. However, prior reviews in this field have found that mHealth apps for asthma lack clinical evaluation and are often not based on medical guidelines. Yet, beyond the missing evidence for clinical efficacy, little is known about the potential apps might have for improving asthma self-management. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the potential of publicly available and well-adopted mHealth apps for improving asthma self-management. Methods The Apple App store and Google Play store were systematically searched for asthma apps. In total, 523 apps were identified, of which 38 apps matched the selection criteria to be included in the review. Four requirements of app potential were investigated: app functions, potential to change behavior (by means of a behavior change technique taxonomy), potential to promote app use (by means of a gamification components taxonomy), and app quality (by means of the Mobile Application Rating Scale [MARS]). Results The most commonly implemented functions in the 38 reviewed asthma apps were tracking (30/38, 79%) and information (26/38, 68%) functions, followed by assessment (20/38, 53%) and notification (18/38, 47%) functions. On average, the reviewed apps applied 7.12 of 26 available behavior change techniques (standard deviation [SD]=4.46) and 4.89 of 31 available gamification components (SD=4.21). Average app quality was acceptable (mean=3.17/5, SD=0.58), whereas subjective app quality lied between poor and acceptable (mean=2.65/5, SD=0.87). Additionally, the sum scores of all review frameworks were significantly correlated (lowest correlation: r36=.33, P=.04 between
... Asthma Associated Conditions Asthma & Pregnancy Asthma & Pregnancy: Medications Asthma & Pregnancy: Medications Make an Appointment Refer a Patient ... make sure you are using it correctly. Other Asthma Related Medication Treatment Annual influenza vaccine (flu shot) ...
López Tiro, J Jesús; Contreras, E Angélica Contreras; del Pozo, M Elena Ramírez; Gómez Vera, J; Larenas Linnemann, D
Even though there are multiple options for the treatment of asthma, there still exists a fair group of patients with difficult-to-control asthma. We describe for the first time the real-world effects of three-year omalizumab treatment on patients with difficult-to-control asthma, seen in a social security hospital in a Latin American country. Difficult-to-control asthmatic patients from the out-patient clinic of a regional hospital were recruited to receive a three-year omalizumab course. Efficacy parameters were asthma control test (ACT) score; FEV1; daily beclomethasone maintenance dose; and unplanned visits for asthma exacerbations (emergency room (ER), hospitalisations, intensive care). 52 patients were recruited, 47 completed the three-year treatment (42 female, 15-67 years, mean age 43.5). Comparing efficacy parameters of the year before omalizumab with the 3rd year of omalizumab: mean ACT improved from 12.4 to 20.5, mean FEV1 from 66.3% (standard deviation (SD) 19.1%) to 88.4% (SD 16.2%) of predicted, while mean beclomethasone dose reduced from 1750 to 766 mcg/day and there was a significant reduction in patients experiencing ER visits (from 95% to 19%, pomalizumab, two because of an adverse event (anaphylaxis, severe headache, both resolved without sequelae). Omalizumab improved most clinical parameters of Mexican patients with difficult-to-control asthma. Especially the rates of ER visits and hospitalisation were significantly reduced, thus reducing costs. Omalizumab was generally well tolerated. Copyright © 2013 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Karamched, Keerthi R; Hao, Wei; Song, Peter X; Carpenter, Laurie; Steinberg, Joel; Baptist, Alan P
Understanding patient preferences and desire for involvement in making medical decisions is important when managing chronic conditions. Previous studies have utilized the Autonomy Preference Index (API) in younger asthmatic patients to evaluate these preferences. To identify factors associated with autonomy, and to determine if autonomy is related to asthma outcomes among older adults. 189 older adults (>55 yr) with persistent asthma were included. Preferences for autonomy were assessed using the API, with a higher score indicating higher desire for autonomy. Scores were separated into two domains of 'information seeking' and 'decision making' preferences. The separated scores were correlated with asthma outcomes and demographic variables. To control for confounding factors, a linear regression analysis was performed. Higher 'decision making' preference scores correlated with female gender (p=0.007), higher education level (p=0.01), and lower depression scores (p=0.04). Regarding outcomes, 'decision making' scores positively correlated with asthma quality of life questionnaire (AQLQ) scores (p=0.01). On linear regression analysis, the AQLQ score remained significantly associated with 'decision making' preference scores (p=0.03). There was no association with asthma control test scores, spirometry values, and healthcare utilization. 'Information seeking' preference scores correlated with education level (p=0.03), but there was no correlation with asthma outcomes. Older asthmatic adults with a greater desire for involvement in decision making have a higher asthma related quality of life. Future studies with the intention to increase patient autonomy may help establish a causal relationship. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Mosbech, Holger; Canonica, G Walter; Backer, Vibeke
BACKGROUND: House dust mite (HDM) allergy is associated with persistent allergic rhinitis (AR) and allergic asthma. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy and safety of a SQ HDM sublingually administered immunotherapy tablet (ALK, Hørsholm, Denmark) in adults and adolescents with HDM respiratory...... allergic disease and report the AR results. METHODS: Six hundred four subjects at least 14 years old with HDM AR and mild to moderate HDM allergic asthma were randomized 1:1:1:1 to double-blinded daily treatment with 1, 3, 6 SQ-HDM or placebo. End-of-treatment rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms and medication...... score were predefined extrapulmonary end points. A subgroup analysis was conducted post hoc in subjects with a total combined rhinitis score (TCRS) > 0 (ie, with AR symptoms and/or AR medication use during the 4-week baseline period). The subgroup was comprised of 498 subjects (82%). RESULTS...
Alt, Jeremiah A; Thomas, Andrew J; Curtin, Karen; Wong, Jathine; Rudmik, Luke; Orlandi, Richard R
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a highly prevalent inflammatory condition, with significant effects on morbidity and quality of life. Given that other chronic inflammatory conditions have been associated with increased mortality risk, we sought to evaluate the relationship between mortality and CRS including the influence of asthma. Our objective was to determine if CRS, with or without asthma, is associated with altered risk of mortality. Using a statewide population database, we retrospectively identified 27,005 patients diagnosed with CRS between 1996 and 2012, and 134,440 unaffected controls matched 5:1 on birth year and sex. Risk of mortality was determined from Cox models and Kaplan-Meier curves were used to compare survival. A significant interaction between CRS and asthma status was observed in which CRS appeared to confer a protective effect in asthma patients. Asthma, when present, increased mortality in CRS-negative controls (p-interaction risk (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74 to 0.85) compared to controls. However, in patients diagnosed at or before the median age of CRS onset (42 years) independent of asthma status, survival was not improved (HR = 0.98; 95% CI, 0.81 to 1.18). Risk of mortality was greater in CRS with nasal polyps (n = 1643) compared to 25,362 polyp-negative CRS patients (HR = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.77). CRS was associated with lower risk of mortality compared to controls, and appeared to mitigate increased mortality from asthma. We posit that better survival conferred by CRS may be secondary to treatment. However, the etiology of this relationship and the effect of CRS treatment on mortality are unknown. © 2017 ARS-AAOA, LLC.
Controls were stable asthma patients recruited from the outpatient departments. A structured questionnaire was used to interview patients concerning their possible exposure to certain triggers and risk factors. Univariate and multivariate analyses with conditional logistic regression were done to determine any significant ...
McClain, Brandi L; Ivy, Zalaya K; Bryant, Valencia; Rodeghier, Mark; DeBaun, Michael R
In children with sickle cell disease (SCD), concomitant asthma is associated with increased morbidity and mortality when compared with children with SCD without asthma. Despite the well-established burden of asthma in children with SCD, no paradigm of care exists for the co-management of these two diseases. To address this gap, an integrated SCD and asthma clinic was created in a community health center that included (1) a dual respiratory therapist/asthma case manager; (2) an SCD nurse practitioner with asthma educator certification; (3) an onsite pulmonary function test laboratory; (4) a pediatric hematologist with expertise in managing SCD and asthma; and (5) application of the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program guidelines. A before (2010-2012) and after (2013-2014) study design was used to assess for improved quality of care with implementation of an integrative care model among 61 children with SCD and asthma followed from 2010 to 2014. Asthma action plan utilization after initial diagnosis increased with the integrative care model (n=16, 56% before, 100% after, p=0.003), as did the use of spirometry in children aged ≥5 years (n=41, 65% before, 95% after, pintegrative care model for SCD and asthma improved evidence-based asthma care, longer follow-up and evaluation will be needed to determine the impact on SCD-related morbidity. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Alith, Marcela Batan; Gazzotti, Mariana Rodrigues; Montealegre, Federico; Fish, James; Nascimento, Oliver Augusto; Jardim, José Roberto
To evaluate the impact of asthma on patients in Brazil, by age group (12-17 years, 18-40 years, and ≥ 41 years). From a survey conducted in Latin America in 2011, we obtained data on 400 patients diagnosed with asthma and residing in one of four Brazilian state capitals (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Curitiba, and Salvador). The data had been collected using a standardized questionnaire in face-to-face interviews. For the patients who were minors, the parents/guardians had completed the questionnaire. The questions addressed asthma control, number of hospitalizations, number of emergency room visits, and school/work absenteeism, as well as the impact of asthma on the quality of life, sleep, and leisure. We stratified the data by the selected age groups. The proportions of patients who responded in the affirmative to the following questions were significantly higher in the 12- to 17-year age group than in the other two groups: "Have you had at least one episode of severe asthma that prevented you from playing/exercising in the last 12 months?" (p = 0.012); "Have you been absent from school/work in the last 12 months?" (p age group reported that normal physical exertion was very limiting (p = 0.010 vs. the other groups), whereas 14% of the patients in the ≥ 41-year age group described social activities as very limiting (p = 0.011 vs. the other groups). In this sample, asthma had a greater impact on the patients between 12 and 17 years of age, which might be attributable to poor treatment compliance.
... BS, Burks AW, et al, eds. Middleton's Allergy Principles and Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 55. Lugogo N, Que LG, Gilstrap DL, Kraft M. Asthma: clinical diagnosis and management. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et ...
... asthma worse. If so, try to limit time outdoors when the levels of these substances in the outdoor air are high. If animal fur triggers your ... have side effects. Most doctors agree that the benefits of taking inhaled ... have. Also, work with your health care team if you have any questions about ...
Harmsen, Lotte; Gottlieb, Vibeke; Rasmussen, Linda Makowska
The frequency of smokers among asthma patients often mirrors the frequency of smokers among healthy individuals. Smoking has been shown to increase the lung function decline in adult asthma patients and change the composition of the bronchial inflammation.......The frequency of smokers among asthma patients often mirrors the frequency of smokers among healthy individuals. Smoking has been shown to increase the lung function decline in adult asthma patients and change the composition of the bronchial inflammation....
Backer, V; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Harving, H
Suboptimal asthma control may be caused by a combination of factors, such as nonadherence to guidelines, lack of compliance, and poor asthma education. The aim was to assess patients' knowledge of asthma and different management strategies, including patients' attitudes toward involvement...... of uncontrolled disease with night asthma (16%), daily symptoms (18%), or exercise-induced asthma (11%) were found. Of 285 participants with persistent asthma, 70% used inhaled corticosteroids. Lung function was measured within the preceding 6 months in 24% of patients, whereas 7% had never had their lung...
Backer, Vibeke; Ulrik, Charlotte S.; Harving, Henrik
Suboptimal asthma control may be caused by a combination of factors, such as nonadherence to guidelines, lack of compliance, and poor asthma education. The aim was to assess patients' knowledge of asthma and different management strategies, including patients' attitudes toward involvement...... of uncontrolled disease with night asthma (16%), daily symptoms (18%), or exercise-induced asthma (11%) were found. Of 285 participants with persistent asthma, 70% used inhaled corticosteroids. Lung function was measured within the preceding 6 months in 24% of patients, whereas 7% had never had their lung...
Ehteshami-Afshar, Solmaz; FitzGerald, J Mark; Carlsten, Christopher; Tavakoli, Hamid; Rousseau, Roxanne; Tan, Wan Cheng; Rolf, J Douglass; Sadatsafavi, Mohsen
Health-related productivity loss is an important, yet overlooked, component of the economic burden of disease in asthma patients of a working age. We aimed at evaluating the effect of comorbidities on productivity loss among adult asthma patients. In a random sample of employed adults with asthma, we measured comorbidities using a validated self-administered comorbidity questionnaire (SCQ), as well as productivity loss, including absenteeism and presenteeism, using validated instruments. Productivity loss was measured in 2010 Canadian dollars ($). We used a two-part regression model to estimate the adjusted difference of productivity loss across levels of comorbidity, controlling for potential confounding variables. 284 adults with the mean age of 47.8 (SD 11.8) were included (68 % women). The mean SCQ score was 2.47 (SD 2.97, range 0-15) and the average productivity loss was $317.5 per week (SD $858.8). One-unit increase in the SCQ score was associated with 14 % (95 % CI 1.02-1.28) increase in the odds of reporting productivity loss, and 9.0 % (95 % CI 1.01-1.18) increase in productivity loss among those reported any loss of productivity. A person with a SCQ score of 15 had almost $1000 per week more productivity loss than a patient with a SCQ of zero. Our study deepens the evidence-base on the burden of asthma, by demonstrating that comorbidities substantially decrease productivity in working asthma patients. Asthma management strategies must be cognizant of the role of comorbidities to properly incorporate the effect of comorbidity and productivity loss in estimating the benefit of disease management strategies.
Mäkelä, Mika J; Backer, Vibeke; Hedegaard, Morten
Suboptimal adherence to pharmacological treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has adverse effects on disease control and treatment costs. The reasons behind non-adherence revolve around patient knowledge/education, inhaler device convenience and satisfaction, age...... and clinical efficacy is positive, with improved symptom control and lung function shown in most studies of adults, adolescents and children. Satisfaction with inhaler devices is also positively correlated with improved adherence and clinical outcomes, and reduced costs. Reductions in healthcare utilisation......, adverse effects and medication costs. Age is of particular concern given the increasing prevalence of asthma in the young and increased rates of non-adherence in adolescents compared with children and adults. The correlation between adherence to inhaled pharmacological therapies for asthma and COPD...
Bäuerle, Kathrin; Feicke, Janine; Scherer, Wolfgang; Spörhase, Ulrike; Bitzer, Eva-Maria
To modify and evaluate a patient education program for adult asthma patients in consideration of quality criteria for teaching. This was a prospective single-center controlled trial in an inpatient rehabilitation center. The control group (n=215) received the usual lecture-based education program, and the intervention group (n=209) the modified patient education program. Data were assessed at admission, discharge, 6 and 12 months post discharge. The primary outcome was asthma control, the secondary outcomes were asthma knowledge, quality of life, and program acceptance. Analysis of change was performed by ANCOVA for each follow-up, adjusting for baseline values. Statistically significant increases in all health outcomes and in asthma control were maintained in both groups at 12 months: CG: +1.9 (95%-CI 1.3-2.6) IG: +1.6 (95%-CI 0.8-2.3). We observed no significant differences between the programs for asthma control and quality of life. Regarding practical asthma knowledge, after 12 months, a group*time interaction emerged with a small effect size (P=0.06, η2=0.01). The modified program was not superior to traditional patient education concerning asthma control. It permanently increased self-management knowledge. Structured and behavioral patient education fosters patient's disease management ability. Possible ways of improving asthma control need to be explored. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Abraham, I; Alhossan, A; Lee, C S; Kutbi, H; MacDonald, K
We reviewed 24 'real-life' effectiveness studies of omalizumab in the treatment of severe allergic asthma that included 4117 unique patients from 32 countries with significant heterogeneity in patients, clinicians and settings. The evidence underscores the short- and long-term benefit of anti-IgE therapy in terms of the following: improving lung function; achieving asthma control and reducing symptomatology, severe exacerbations and associated work/school days lost; reducing healthcare resource utilizations, in particular hospitalizations, hospital lengths of stay and accident specialist or emergency department visits; reducing or discontinuing other asthma medications; and improving quality of life - thus confirming, complementing and extending evidence from randomized trials. Thus, omalizumab therapy is associated with signal improvements across the full objective and subjective burden of illness chain of severe allergic asthma. Benefits of omalizumab may extend up to 2-4 years, and the majority of omalizumab-treated patients may benefit for many years. Omalizumab has positive short- and long-term safety profiles similar to what is known from randomized clinical trials. Initiated patients should be monitored for treatment response at 16 weeks. Those showing positive response at that time are highly likely to show sustained treatment response and benefit in terms of clinical, quality of life and health resource utilization outcomes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Maricoto, Tiago; Madanelo, Sofia; Rodrigues, Luís; Teixeira, Gilberto; Valente, Carla; Andrade, Lília; Saraiva, Alcina
To assess the impact that educational interventions to improve inhaler techniques have on the clinical and functional control of asthma and COPD, we evaluated 44 participants before and after such an intervention. There was a significant decrease in the number of errors, and 20 patients (46%) significantly improved their technique regarding prior exhalation and breath hold. In the asthma group, there were significant improvements in the mean FEV1, FVC, and PEF (of 6.4%, 8.6%, and 8.3% respectively). Those improvements were accompanied by improvements in Control of Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma Test scores but not in Asthma Control Test scores. In the COPD group, there were no significant variations. In asthma patients, educational interventions appear to improve inhaler technique, clinical control, and functional control. RESUMO Para avaliar o impacto do ensino da técnica inalatória no controle clínico e funcional de pacientes com asma ou DPOC, incluíram-se 44 participantes antes e após essa intervenção. Houve uma diminuição significativa no número de erros cometidos, sendo que 20 pacientes (46%) melhoraram significativamente sua técnica na expiração prévia e apneia final. No grupo asma, houve significativa melhora nas médias de FEV1 (6,4%), CVF (8,6%) e PFE (8,3%), e essa melhora correlacionou-se com os resultados no Control of Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma Test, mas não com os do Asthma Control Test. No grupo DPOC, não houve variações significativas. O ensino da técnica inalatória parece melhorar seu desempenho e os controles clínico e funcional em pacientes com asma.
Full Text Available Moderate-to-severe asthma has a substantial impact on the health-related quality of life (HR-QOL of the patients. Cordyceps sinensis is a traditional Chinese medicine that is evaluated clinically for the treatment of many diseases, such as chronic allograft nephropathy, diabetic kidney disease, and lung fibrosis. In order to investigate the effects of Cordyceps sinensis on patients with moderate-to-severe persistent asthma, 120 subjects were randomized to receive Corbin capsule containing Cordyceps sinensis for 3 months (treatment group, n=60, whereas the control group (n=60 did not receive treatment with Corbin capsule. Inhaled corticosteroid and as-needed β-agonists were used in the treatment of both groups. HR-QOL was measured with the Juniper’s Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ. The incidence of asthma exacerbation, pulmonary function testing, and serum measurements of inflammatory mediators were also evaluated. The results showed that the treatment group indicated a significant increase in AQLQ scores and lung function compared with the control group. The expression levels of the inflammation markers IgE, ICAM-1, IL-4, and MMP-9 in the serum were decreased and IgG increased in the treatment group compared with the control group. Therefore, the conclusion was reached that a formulation of Cordyceps sinensis improved the HR-QOL, asthma symptoms, lung function, and inflammatory profile of the patients with moderate-to-severe asthma. This trial is registered with ChiCTR-IPC-16008730.
Wang, Ningqun; Li, Jie; Huang, Xiaobo; Chen, Wenqiang; Chen, Yujing
Moderate-to-severe asthma has a substantial impact on the health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) of the patients. Cordyceps sinensis is a traditional Chinese medicine that is evaluated clinically for the treatment of many diseases, such as chronic allograft nephropathy, diabetic kidney disease, and lung fibrosis. In order to investigate the effects of Cordyceps sinensis on patients with moderate-to-severe persistent asthma, 120 subjects were randomized to receive Corbin capsule containing Cordyceps sinensis for 3 months (treatment group, n = 60), whereas the control group ( n = 60) did not receive treatment with Corbin capsule. Inhaled corticosteroid and as-needed β -agonists were used in the treatment of both groups. HR-QOL was measured with the Juniper's Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ). The incidence of asthma exacerbation, pulmonary function testing, and serum measurements of inflammatory mediators were also evaluated. The results showed that the treatment group indicated a significant increase in AQLQ scores and lung function compared with the control group. The expression levels of the inflammation markers IgE, ICAM-1, IL-4, and MMP-9 in the serum were decreased and IgG increased in the treatment group compared with the control group. Therefore, the conclusion was reached that a formulation of Cordyceps sinensis improved the HR-QOL, asthma symptoms, lung function, and inflammatory profile of the patients with moderate-to-severe asthma. This trial is registered with ChiCTR-IPC-16008730.
Suruki, Robert Y; Daugherty, Jonas B; Boudiaf, Nada; Albers, Frank C
Asthma exacerbations are frequent in patients with severe disease. This report describes results from two retrospective cohort studies describing exacerbation frequency and risk, emergency department (ED)/hospital re-admissions, and asthma-related costs by asthma severity in the US and UK. Patients with asthma in the US-based Clinformatics™ DataMart Multiplan IMPACT (2010-2011; WEUSKOP7048) and the UK-based Clinical Practice Research Datalink (2009-2011; WEUSKOP7092) databases were categorized by disease severity (Global Initiative for Asthma [GINA]; Step and exacerbation history) during the 12 months pre-asthma medical code (index date). Outcomes included: frequency of exacerbations (asthma-related ED visit, hospitalization, or oral corticosteroid use with an asthma medical code recorded within ±2 weeks) 12 months post-index, asthma-related ED visits/hospitalization, and asthma-related costs 30 days post-index. Risk of a subsequent exacerbation was determined by proportional hazard model. Of the 222,817 and 211,807 patients with asthma included from the US and UK databases, respectively, 12.5 and 8.4% experienced ≥1 exacerbation during the follow-up period. Exacerbation frequency increased with disease severity. Among the 5,167 and 2,904 patients with an asthma-related ED visit/hospitalization in the US and UK databases, respectively, 9.2 and 4.7% had asthma-related re-admissions within 30 days. Asthma-related re-admission rates and costs increased with disease severity, approximately doubling between GINA Step 1 and 5 and in patients with ≥2 versus <2 exacerbations in the previous year. Risk of a subsequent exacerbation increased 32-35% for an exacerbation requiring ED visit/hospitalization versus oral corticosteroids. Increased disease severity was associated with higher exacerbation frequency, ED/hospitalization re-admission, costs and risk of subsequent exacerbation, indicating that these patients require high-intensity post-exacerbation management.
Sivapalan, Pradeesh; Diamant, Zuzana; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity has significant impact on asthma incidence and manifestations. The purpose of the review is to discuss recent observations regarding the association between obesity and asthma focusing on underlying mechanisms, clinical presentation, response to therapy and effect...... of weight reduction. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical and epidemiological studies indicate that obese patients with asthma may represent a unique phenotype, which is more difficult to control, less responsive to asthma medications and by that may have higher healthcare utilization. A number of common comorbidities...... have been linked to both obesity and asthma, and may, therefore, contribute to the obese-asthma phenotype. Furthermore, recently published studies indicate that even a modest weight reduction can improve clinical manifestations and outcome of asthma. SUMMARY: Compared with normal-weight patients, obese...
To, Masako; Tajima, Makoto; Ogawa, Cyuhei; Otomo, Mamoru; Suzuki, Naohito; Sano, Yasuyuki
Stimulation to bronchial mucosa is one of the major risk factor of asthma attack. When patients receive surgical intervention and general anesthesia, they are always exposed to stimulation to bronchial mucosa. Prevention method of bronchial asthma attack during surgical intervention is not established yet. We investigated that clinical course of patients with bronchial asthma who received general anesthesia and surgical intervention. Seventy-six patients with bronchial asthma were received general anesthesia and surgical intervention from 1993 to 1998. Twenty-four patients were mild asthmatic patients, 39 were moderate asthmatic patients and 13 were severe asthmatic patients. Preoperative treatment for preventing asthma attack was as follows; Eight patients were given intravenous infusion of aminophylline before operation. Fifty-two patients were given intravenous infusion of aminophylline and hydrocortisone before operation. Three patients were given intravenous infusion of hydrocortisone for consecutive 3 days before operation. Thirteen patients were given no treatment for preventing asthma attack. One patient was suffered from asthma attack during operation. She was given no preventing treatment for asthma attack before operation. Three patients were suffered from asthma attack after operation. No wound dehiscence was observed in all patients. To prevent asthma attack during operation, intravenous infusion of steroid before operation is recommended, when patients with asthma receive general anesthesia and surgical intervention.
Romand, P; Kelkel, E; Saint-Raymond, C; Glas, N; Caillaud, D; Devouassoux, G
With an aging population and an increase in the prevalence of asthma, this disease is becoming more common in the elderly. Nevertheless, the management of severe asthma can be complex, due to an increased risk of uncontrolled disease in patients over 65 years old and partly to the inherent characteristics of old age: comorbidities, underestimation of the role of allergies, poor adherence, difficulties with inhalation devices, etc. We report two cases of women over 75 with severe persistent allergic asthma not controlled by high doses of inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting beta-2-agonists in whom treatment with omalizumab was initiated. Following treatment with omalizumab a decrease in the number and severity of exacerbations, improved asthma control and dose reduction or discontinuation of systemic corticosteroids were observed. The tolerance of omalizumab was good in both cases. Omalizumab is to be considered an effective and well-tolerated therapeutic option for elderly patients with inadequately controlled severe allergic asthma. Copyright © 2015 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Zierau, Louise; Walsted, Emil Schwarz; Thomsen, Simon Francis
INTRODUCTION: Omalizumab is a humanized monoclonal anti-IgE antibody, which is widely used for patients with severe uncontrolled asthma. Treatment with omalizumab is known to decrease the number of exacerbations and GETE score (Global Evaluation of Treatment Effectiveness) - but little is known...
Drug inhalation is an important and a common mode of .... to evaluate the use of inhaler technique among asthma patients in a .... The median duration of the use of the inhalers is 24 ..... Scalabrini A, Cukier A. Incorrect application technique of.
Butz, Arlene M.; Walker, Jennifer; Land, Cassia Lewis; Vibbert, Carrie; Winkelstein, Marilyn
Few child asthma studies address the specific content and techniques needed to enhance child communication during asthma preventive care visits. This study examined the content of child and parent communications regarding their asthma management during a medical encounter with their primary care provider (PCP). The majority of parents and children required prompting to communicate symptom information to the PCP during the clinic visit. Some high-risk families may require an asthma advocate to...
Kerstjens, Huib A M; Moroni-Zentgraf, Petra; Tashkin, Donald P
performed in parallel in patients with severe symptomatic asthma. Exploratory subgroup analyses of peak forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), trough FEV1, time to first severe exacerbation, time to first episode of asthma worsening, and seven-question Asthma Control Questionnaire responder rate were......BACKGROUND: Many patients with asthma remain symptomatic despite treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) with or without long-acting β2-agonists (LABAs). Tiotropium add-on to ICS plus a LABA has been shown to improve lung function and reduce exacerbation risk in patients with symptomatic...... asthma. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the efficacy of tiotropium add-on therapy is dependent on patients' baseline characteristics. METHODS: Two randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, twin trials (NCT00772538 and NCT00776984) of once-daily tiotropium Respimat(®) 5 μg add-on to ICS plus a LABA were...
Shelef, Deborah Q; Rand, Cynthia; Streisand, Randi; Horn, Ivor B; Yadav, Kabir; Stewart, Lisa; Fousheé, Naja; Waters, Damian; Teach, Stephen J
Stakeholder engagement has the potential to develop research interventions that are responsive to patient and provider preferences. This approach contrasts with traditional models of clinical research in which researchers determine the study's design. This article describes the effect of stakeholder engagement on the design of a randomized trial of an intervention designed to improve child asthma outcomes by reducing parental stress. The study team developed and implemented a stakeholder engagement process that provided iterative feedback regarding the study design, patient-centered outcomes, and intervention. Stakeholder engagement incorporated the perspectives of parents of children with asthma; local providers of community-based medical, legal, and social services; and national experts in asthma research methodology and implementation. Through a year-long process of multidimensional stakeholder engagement, the research team successfully refined and implemented a patient-centered study protocol. Key stakeholder contributions included selection of patient-centered outcome measures, refinement of intervention content and format, and language framing the study in a culturally appropriate manner. Stakeholder engagement was a useful framework for developing an intervention that was acceptable and relevant to our target population. This approach might have unique benefits in underserved populations, leading to sustainable improvement in health outcomes and reduced disparities. Copyright Â© 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Basheti, Iman A; Armour, Carol L; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia Z; Reddel, Helen K
To evaluate the feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of a brief intervention about inhaler technique, delivered by community pharmacists to asthma patients. Thirty-one pharmacists received brief workshop education (Active: n=16, CONTROL: n=15). Active Group pharmacists were trained to assess and teach dry powder inhaler technique, using patient-centered educational tools including novel Inhaler Technique Labels. Interventions were delivered to patients at four visits over 6 months. At baseline, patients (Active: 53, CONTROL: 44) demonstrated poor inhaler technique (mean+/-S.D. score out of 9, 5.7+/-1.6). At 6 months, improvement in inhaler technique score was significantly greater in Active cf. CONTROL patients (2.8+/-1.6 cf. 0.9+/-1.4, p<0.001), and asthma severity was significantly improved (p=0.015). Qualitative responses from patients and pharmacists indicated a high level of satisfaction with the intervention and educational tools, both for their effectiveness and for their impact on the patient-pharmacist relationship. A simple feasible intervention in community pharmacies, incorporating daily reminders via Inhaler Technique Labels on inhalers, can lead to improvement in inhaler technique and asthma outcomes. Brief training modules and simple educational tools, such as Inhaler Technique Labels, can provide a low-cost and sustainable way of changing patient behavior in asthma, using community pharmacists as educators.
Ulrik, Charlotte S
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity has significant negative impact on asthma control and risk of exacerbations. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent studies evaluating the effects of weight reduction on asthma control in obese adults. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical studies have shown that weight...... reduction in obese patients is associated with improvements in symptoms, use of controller medication, and asthma-related quality of life together with a reduction in the risk for severe exacerbations. Furthermore, several studies have also revealed improvements in lung function and airway responsiveness...... reduction in obese adults with asthma leads to an overall improvement in asthma control, including airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation. Weight reduction should be a cornerstone in the management of obese patients with asthma....
Talarowska, Monika; Florkowski, Antoni; Gałecki, Piotr; Szemraj, Janusz; Zboralski, Krzysztof; Pietras, Tadeusz; Górski, Paweł
Chronic respiratory system diseases become serious public health problem all over the world. The most prevalent are obstructive diseases (asthma and COPD). The prevalence of asthma is still high and concern patients representing wide range of age and socio-economic status. Despite progress in diagnostic and therapeutic options several studies showed that asthma has an impact on health-related quality of life and patients' coping. Asthma as chronic condition results in limitations of patients activity and social relations. Thus psychosocial variables, which may have an impact on asthma symptoms presentation and disease progress, should be considered. There are only few reports concerning cognitive functions in asthma. The aim of the study was to assess the potential impact of psychosocial factors on asthma symptoms presentation, and cognitive function in asthma patients.
de Groot, Jantina C.; ten Brinke, Anneke; Bel, Elisabeth H. D.
Now that it is generally accepted that asthma is a heterogeneous condition, phenotyping of asthma patients has become a mandatory part of the diagnostic workup of all patients who do not respond satisfactorily to standard therapy with inhaled corticosteroids. Late-onset eosinophilic asthma is
Huismans, Henrike K.; Douma, W. Rob; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; Renkema, Tineke E. J.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the behavior of asthma in patients traveling to high and extreme altitudes. Methods: Twenty-four Dutch patients with mild asthma did a trekking at high and extreme altitudes (up to 6410 m = 21030 ft) in the Tibetan Everest region. Asthma symptoms,
Ono, Seiji; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Katsushi.
Pulmonary ventilation and perfusion scan using Xe-133 gas and Tc-99m MAA were performed in 18 patients with bronchial asthma to evaluate the regional pulmonary function. The scintigraphic findings were compared with the results of the auscultation and the conventional pulmonary functioning examination (%FVC, %FEV 1.0 ). Ventilation image showed abnormality in 12 (70.6%) out of the asymptomatic 17 patients and perfusion image showed abnormality in 7 (41.2%) out of 17 patients. These 7 patients with abnormality on perfusion image all showed abnormality on ventilation image. The grade of abnormality in scintigraphic findings was compatible with the values of %FVC and %FEV 1.0 . In conclusion Xe-133 ventilation and Tc-99m MAA perfusion scan were useful procedures to estimate the pulmonary function of patients with bronchial asthma. (author)
Full Text Available The incidence of a positive family history with asthma and levels of serum IgE and IgE antibodies were examined in 136 patients with asthma in relation to age at onset of the disease. The frequency of subjects with a family history of asthma ranged from 37.9 to 75.0% in all groups classified by age at onset. The frequency of patients with a high serum IgE level (≥ 150 IU/mL was higher (51.7–63.2% in all groups than the frequency of patients with a low serum level (< 150 IU/mL. The mean level of serum IgE was significantly higher in patients with a family history than in those without a family history, in subjects between the ages of 50 and 59 years at onset (mean age 63.4 years; P < 0.02 and in those over the age of 60 years at onset (74.0 years; P < 0.01. The number of patients with a positive RAST score either to house dust mite (HDM, cockroach, and Candida tended to decrease as the age at onset increased. However, the frequency of positive RAST to HDM was higher in patients with a family history and who were over the age of 50 years at onset compared with those patients between the ages of 40 and 49 years at onset, although the frequency was significantly higher in patients with family history than in those without family history (P < 0.02. These results suggest that IgE-mediated allergic reactions are significant not only in those patients who are younger, but also in elderly patients with asthma.
Gaude, Gajanan S; Hattiholi, Jyothi; Chaudhury, Alisha
Considering the prevalence and associated burden of disease due to bronchial asthma, it is mandatory to obtain an optimal control of the disease and to improve outcomes for these patients. But it has been observed that there is very poor adherence to the inhalational therapy which leads to the suboptimal control of the disease. To study the adherence for aerosol therapy in bronchial asthma patients and to assess the impact of health education and self-action plan in improving the compliance to the therapy. A prospective study was done in a total of 500 bronchial asthma patients over a period of 2 years. Once included in the study, the patients were followed-up for a total of 12 weeks for calculation of nonadherence to the aerosol therapy. In nonadherent patients, we employed various health education strategies to improve the compliance in these cases. A total of 500 patients of bronchial asthma who were started on aerosol therapy over duration of 2 years were included in the study. At the end of 12 weeks, it was observed that, only 193 patients (38.6%) had regular compliance and 307 patients (61.4%) were noncompliant to aerosol therapy as prescribed for bronchial asthma. Factors that were associated with poor compliance were: Lower educational level status, poor socioeconomic status, cumbersome regimens, dislike of medication, and distant pharmacies. Nondrug factors that reduced the compliance were: Fears about side effects, anger about condition or its treatment, forgetfulness or complacency, and patient's ill attitudes toward health. After employing the various strategies for improving the compliance in these patients, the compliance increased in 176 patients (57.3%) among the earlier defaulted patients, while the remaining 131 patients (42.7%) were found to be noncompliant even after various educational techniques. Noncompliance in asthma management is a fact of life and no single compliance improving strategy probably will be as effective as a good physician-patient
... resources Asthma - children Patient Instructions Asthma and school Asthma - child - discharge Asthma - control drugs Asthma - quick-relief drugs Asthma - what to ask the doctor - adult Asthma - what to ask your doctor - child Exercise-induced asthma Exercising and asthma at school ...
Guti?rrez, Francisco Javier ?lvarez; Galv?n, Marta Ferrer; Gallardo, Juan Francisco Medina; Mancera, Marta Barrera; Romero, Beatriz Romero; Falc?n, Auxiliadora Romero
Background Asthma exacerbations are important events that affect disease control, but predictive factors for severe or moderate exacerbations are not known. The objective was to study the predictive factors for moderate (ME) and severe (SE) exacerbations in asthma patients receiving outpatient care. Methods Patients aged?>?12?years with asthma were included in the study and followed-up at 4-monthly intervals over a 12-month period. Clinical (severity, level of control, asthma control test [AC...
Full Text Available Nashmia Qamar1,*, Andrea A Pappalardo2,*, Vineet M Arora3, Valerie G Press41Pediatric Residency Program, University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA; 2Internal Medicine-Pediatric Residency Program, University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA; 3Section of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA; 4Section of Hospital Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA *Drs Qamar and Pappalardo contributed equally to this paperAbstract: Patient-centered care may be pivotal in improving health outcomes for patients with asthma. In addition to increased attention in both research and clinical forums, recent legislation also highlights the importance of patient-centered outcomes research in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. However, whether patient-centered care has been shown to improve outcomes for this population is unclear. To answer this question, we performed a systematic review of the literature that aimed to define current patient-focused management issues, characterize important patient-defined outcomes in asthma control, and identify current and emerging treatments related to patient outcomes and perspectives. We used a parallel search strategy via Medline®, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL® (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and PsycINFO®, complemented with a reference review of key articles that resulted in a total of 133 articles; 58 were interventions that evaluated the effect on patient-centered outcomes, and 75 were descriptive studies. The majority of intervention studies demonstrated improved patient outcomes (44; “positive” results; none showed true harm (0; “negative”; and the remainder were equivocal (14; “neutral”. Key themes emerged relating to patients’ desires for asthma knowledge, preferences for tailored management plans, and
Reddel, H. K.; Busse, W. W.; Pedersen, Søren
symptoms, evidence is lacking for the benefit of ICS and safety of bronchodilator-only treatment. We investigated asthma outcomes by baseline symptom frequency in a post-hoc analysis of the multinational inhaled Steroid Treatment As Regular Therapy in early asthma (START) study.2 METHODS: Patients aged 4......-66 years with recent-onset mild asthma (11 years] or 200 mug [patients aged 2 symptom days/week; further divided into 0-1, >1-2 symptom days/week). RESULTS: Overall, 7138 patients were included (budesonide, n=3577; placebo, n=3561). At baseline, symptom frequency was 0-1 symptom days/week for 2184 (30...... even in patients with the lowest baseline asthma symptom frequency (0-1 days/week). (Figure Presented)....
Saji, Junko; Yamamoto, Takahito; Arai, Motonaka; Mineshita, Masamichi; Miyazawa, Teruomi
The efficacy of omalizumab, an anti-immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody, has been studied in patients with severe bronchial asthma. We conducted a study to evaluate, on the basis of both objective and subjective measures, the efficacy of omalizumab as a long-term therapy in patients with severe and persistent asthma. Omalizumab was administered subcutaneously every two or four weeks. The results of pulmonary function tests, Asthma Control Test (ACT) and Asthma Health Questionnaire (AHQ)-33 scores, the dosage of methylprednisolone during the 12-month treatment period, and the number of emergency visits prior to the start of treatment with omalizumab were compared in patients pre- and post-treatment with omalizumab. Fourteen patients were enrolled in the study between June 2010 and February 2012. Ten patients completed the study. With omalizumab treatment, there was no improvement in lung function; however, the number of emergency visits (19.3 before treatment vs. 1.2 after treatment, p=0.020) and the dosage of methylprednisolone (871.5mg before treatment vs. 119.0mg after treatment, p=0.046) decreased significantly. ACT and AHQ-33 scores at 16 weeks after treatment were significantly better than baseline scores. Four patients continued treatment with omalizumab for four years, and a reduction in their corticosteroid usage was noted. Long-term omalizumab therapy in our patients was found to significantly reduce corticosteroid usage and the number of emergency visits. Long-term omalizumab therapy was effective and might have potential to reduce the frequency of asthma exacerbations. The trial has not been registered because it is not an intervention study. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Maspero, Jorge F; Jardim, Jose R; Aranda, Alvaro; Tassinari C, Paolo; Gonzalez-Diaz, Sandra N; Sansores, Raul H; Moreno-Cantu, Jorge J; Fish, James E
In 2011 the Latin America Asthma Insight and Management (LA AIM) survey explored the realities of living with asthma. We investigated perception, knowledge, and attitudes related to asthma among Latin American asthma patients. Asthma patients aged ≥12 years from four Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Venezuela) and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico responded to questions during face-to-face interviews. A sample size of 2,169 patients (approximately 400 patients/location) provided an accurate representation of asthma patients' opinions. Questions probed respondents' views on topics such as levels of asthma control, frequency and duration of exacerbations, and current and recent use of asthma medications. A total of 2,169 adults or parents of children with asthma participated in the LA AIM survey. At least 20% of respondents experienced symptoms every day or night or most days or nights. Although 60% reported their disease as well or completely controlled, only 8% met guideline criteria for well-controlled asthma. 47% of respondents reported episodes when their asthma symptoms were more frequent or severe than normal, and 44% reported seeking acute care for asthma in the past year. Asthma patients in Latin America overestimated their degree of asthma control. The LA AIM survey demonstrated the discrepancy between patient perception of asthma control and guideline-mandated criteria. Additional education is required to teach patients that, by more closely following asthma management strategies outlined by current guidelines more patients can achieve adequate asthma control.
Molinengo, Giorgia; Baiardini, Ilaria; Braido, Fulvio; Loera, Barbara
In daily practice, Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) tools are useful for supplementing clinical data with the patient's perspective. To encourage their use by clinicians, the availability of tools that can quickly provide valid results is crucial. A new HRQoL tool has been proposed for patients with asthma and rhinitis: the RhinAsthma Patient Perspective-RAPP. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric robustness of the RAPP using the Item Response Theory (IRT) approach, to evaluate the scalability of items and test whether or not patients use the items response scale correctly. 155 patients (53.5% women, mean age 39.1, range 16-76) were recruited during a multicenter study. RAPP metric properties were investigated using IRT models. Differential item functioning (DIF) was used for gender, age, and asthma control test (ACT). The RAPP adequately fitted the Rating Scale model, demonstrating the equality of the rating scale structure for all items. All statistics on items were satisfactory. The RAPP had adequate internal reliability and showed good ability to discriminate among different groups of participants. DIF analysis indicated that there were no differential item functioning issues for gender. One item showed a DIF by age and four items by ACT. The psychometric evaluation performed using IRT models demonstrated that the RAPP met all the criteria to be considered a reliable and valid method of measurement. From a clinical perspective, this will allow physicians to confidently interpret scores as good indicators of Quality of Life of patients with asthma.
Fletcher, Monica; Jha, Ashok; Dunlop, William; Heron, Louise; Wolfram, Verena; Van der Molen, Thys; Price, David
Asthma affects 30 million people in Western Europe, leading to substantial burden on healthcare systems and economies. REcognise Asthma and LInk to Symptoms and Experience (REALISE (TM)) was a large European survey across 11 countries assessing patient attitudes and behaviors towards their asthma.
Williams, Brian; Steven, Karen; Sullivan, Frank M
Goal setting is recommended in UK health policy to make health care more patient-centred, to enhance the likelihood of behaviour change and to improve health outcomes. Patient-centred care is thought to be particularly important in the management of long term conditions such as asthma. We therefore explored and compared the asthma goals of both health professionals and people with asthma within the primary care clinical consultation, and identified the potential barriers to achieving shared goals and more patient-centred care provision. We conducted a qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews with 15 people with asthma, 7 general practitioners and 6 primary care asthma nurses from Tayside, UK. The data were analysed using the 'Framework' methodology. Four potential barriers to the identification of goals were located. The first stemmed from the status and nature of patients' goals, while the remaining three related to the beliefs and practices of health professionals. These findings are discussed in relation to relevant sociological literature around the potential tensions between lay and professional knowledge, and also tensions in the relationship between knowledge and values. We conclude that barriers need to be recognised and addressed where possible before the achievement of shared asthma goals can become common practice. In particular, health professionals may require training in how to elicit goals with patients and how to differentiate between end states and goals that are in fact assumed to mediate the achievement of such desired end states. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Nicola Scichilone, Salvatore Battaglia, Alida Benfante, Vincenzo BelliaDipartimento Biomedico di Medicina Interna e Specialistica, University of Palermo, Palermo, ItalyAbstract: Asthma is a disease of all ages. This assumption has been challenged in the past, because of several cultural and scientific biases. A large body of evidence has accumulated in recent years to confirm that the prevalence of asthma in the most advanced ages is similar to that in younger ages. Asthma in the elderly may show similar functional and clinical characteristics to that occurring in young adults, although the frequent coexistence of comorbid conditions in older patients, together with age-associated changes in the human lung, may lead to more severe forms of the disease. Management of asthma in the elderly follows specific guidelines that apply to all ages, although most behaviors are pure extrapolation of what has been tested in young ages. In fact, age has always represented an exclusion criterion for eligibility to clinical trials. This review focuses specifically on the safety and efficacy of leukotriene modifiers, which represent a valid option in the treatment of allergic asthma, both as an alternative to first-line drugs and as add-on treatment to inhaled corticosteroids. Available studies specifically addressing the role of montelukast in the elderly are scarce; however, leukotriene modifiers have been demonstrated to be safe in this age group, even though cases of acute hepatitis and occurrence of Churg-Strauss syndrome have been described in elderly patients; whether this is associated with age is to be confirmed. Furthermore, leukotriene modifiers provide additional benefit when added to regular maintenance therapy, not differently from young asthmatics. In elderly patients, the simpler route of administration of leukotriene modifiers, compared with the inhaled agents, could represent a more effective strategy in improving the outcomes of asthma therapy
Farzan, Niloufar; Vijverberg, Susanne J.; Kabesch, Michael; Sterk, Peter J.; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke H.
Asthma is a complex multifactorial disease and it is the most common chronic disease in children. There is a high variability in response to asthma treatment, even in patients with good adherence to maintenance treatment, and a correct inhalation technique. Distinct underlying disease mechanisms in
Vasbinder, E.C.; Janssens, H.M.; Rutten-van Mölken, M.P.M.H.; Dijk, L. van; Winter, B.C.M. de; Groot, R.C.A. de; Vulto, A.G.; Bemt, P.M.L.A. van den
Background: Many children with asthma do not have sufficient asthma control, which leads to increased healthcare costs and productivity loss of parents. One of the causative factors are adherence problems. Effective interventions improving medication adherence may therefore improve asthma control
Rodríguez Rodríguez, María; Rodríguez Sánchez, Pedro Manuel; Brocard Arencibia, Ileana; Menéndez Porto, Lourdes
Psychological stress is part of people's lives and can sometimes contribute to exacerbation of allergic diseases such as asthma. Asthma is prevalent in all age groups. Acute asthma attacks can be triggered by stress, thus impacting control of the disease and overall quality of life in these patients. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the presence of psychological stress as a trigger in poorly controlled asthma patients and its implications in their quality of life. A descriptive study was conducted in the city of Manzanillo, Cuba, in the course of one year, from January to December, 2010, which included 33 patients with persistent asthma. They were grouped according to severity as suffering from moderate or severe asthma, and all of them met the criteria for poorly controlled disease. They were surveyed to gather data about family and personal history of atopy, age of first asthma crisis, and environmental as well as other factors. Two surveys were used: a list of indicators of vulnerability to stress and the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ). Most patients with poorly controlled asthma were in their forties. Female patients were more frequently affected than men were (28 females or 84.8%, and 5 males or 15.1%), and most patients had a family history of atopic disease. Almost all patients had high vulnerability to stress as well as low overall quality of life in all the areas surveyed. Psychological counseling is advised for asthma patients in order to reduce their stress levels.
Full Text Available The efficacy of omalizumab has been extensively investigated in clinical trials in patients with severe persistent allergic (pre-treatment total immunoglobulin E 30–700 IU·mL–1 asthma including the Investigation of Omalizumab in Severe Asthma Treatment (INNOVATE study, which enrolled patients with inadequately controlled severe persistent allergic asthma despite receiving high-dose inhaled corticosteroid in combination with a long-acting beta2-agonist, and also additional controller medication if required. In the INNOVATE study, add-on omalizumab significantly reduced clinically significant exacerbation rates by 26% (0.68 versus 0.91, severe exacerbation rates by 50% (0.24 versus 0.48 and emergency visit rates by 44% (0.24 versus 0.43 and significantly improved asthma-related quality of life (QoL compared with placebo. In a pooled analysis of data from seven studies, add-on omalizumab significantly reduced asthma exacerbation rates by 38% (0.91 versus 1.47 and total emergency visits by 47% (0.332 versus 0.623. In addition, omalizumab significantly improved QoL versus current asthma therapy in a pooled analysis of data from six studies. Omalizumab has demonstrated a good safety and tolerability profile in completed phase-I, -II and -III studies involving >7,500 patients with asthma, rhinitis or related conditions. Omalizumab represents a major advance for the treatment of severe persistent allergic asthma that is inadequately controlled despite treatment with inhaled corticosteroids and a long-acting beta2-agonist.
Paravattil, Bridget; Kheir, Nadir; Yousif, Adil
Background Patient counseling is one of the most important services a pharmacist can provide to patients. Studies have shown that counseling provided by pharmacists may prevent medication related problems and improve adherence to medication therapy. Objective To explore counseling practices among community pharmacists using simulated patients and to determine if patient, pharmacist, and pharmacy characteristics influence the counseling provided by community pharmacists. Setting Private community pharmacies within Qatar. Method This is a randomized, cross sectional study where simulated patients visited community pharmacies and presented the pharmacist with a new prescription or requested a refill for either a diabetes or asthma medication. Pharmacists completed a questionnaire at the end of the simulated interaction, which was utilized to determine if patient, pharmacist, or pharmacy characteristics had any influence on the counseling provided to patients. A scoring system was devised to assess the pharmacist's counseling practices. Main outcome measure To evaluate the type of information provided by community pharmacists to the simulated patient regarding diabetes and asthma. Results One hundred and twenty-nine pharmacists were enrolled in the study. Eighty one percent of pharmacists had a score master of pharmacy degree provided significantly better counseling (f = 3.261; p = 0.042). Many pharmacists (65%) provided hypoglycemia management to patients, however, 63% referred the patient to the physician when the patient experienced hypoglycemia from inappropriate medication administration. Only 2 (7%) pharmacists correctly counseled the patient on all 8 inhaler administration steps. Majority of pharmacists (50%) educated on the role of the rescue and controller therapy in asthma, however, 33% referred the patient to the physician when the patient inquired about controller therapy use. Conclusion Patient counseling was substandard with the majority of community
Maspero, Jorge F; Jardim, Jose R; Aranda, Alvaro; Tassinari C, Paolo; Gonzalez-Diaz, Sandra N; Sansores, Raul H; Moreno-Cantu, Jorge J; Fish, James E
Background In 2011 the Latin America Asthma Insight and Management (LA AIM) survey explored the realities of living with asthma. We investigated perception, knowledge, and attitudes related to asthma among Latin American asthma patients. Methods Asthma patients aged ?12 years from four Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Venezuela) and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico responded to questions during face-to-face interviews. A sample size of 2,169 patients (approximately 400 pati...
Objective: To investigate the therapeutic effect of oral liquid preparation of astragalus membranaceous in aged patients with chronic bronchial asthma with special reference on the serum SOD levels. Methods: Serum SOD levels were measured with RIA in 42 aged patients with chronic bronchial asthma both before and after a course of treatment with oral liquid preparation of astragalus membranaceous (10ml b. i. d for 3 months) as well as in 35 controls. Results: The patients general condition was greatly improved after the treatment. Before treatment, the serum SOD levels in the patients were significantly lower than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Oral liquid preparation of astragalus membranaceous was therapeutically useful for chronic bronchial asthma in aged patients with correction of the serum SOD levels. (authors)
Boita, Monica; Heffler, Enrico; Omedè, Paola; Bellocchia, Michela; Bussolino, Claudia; Solidoro, Paolo; Giorgis, Veronica; Guerrera, Francesco; Riva, Giuseppe; Brussino, Luisa; Bucca, Caterina; Rolla, Giovanni
Severe asthma is a heterogeneous disease, which is characterized by airway damage and remodeling. All triggers of asthma, such as allergens, bacteria, viruses, and pollutants, interact with the airway epithelial cells, which drive the airway inflammatory response through the release of cytokines, particularly IL-25, IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP). To investigate whether the expression of the IL-25, IL-33, and TSLP receptors on the basophil membrane are associated with asthma severity. Twenty-six patients with asthma (11 severe and 15 moderate/mild) and 10 healthy subjects (controls) were enrolled in the study. The results of the basophil activation test and flow cytometry analysis were assessed to investigate basophil membrane expression of IL-25, TSLP, and IL-33 receptors before and after IgE stimulation. IL-25 and IL-33 receptor expression on the basophil membrane at baseline were significantly higher in patients with severe asthma than in those with mild/moderate asthma or healthy subjects, independent of atopy, eosinophilia, asthma control, and exacerbation frequency. Following IgE stimulation, a significantly higher increase in the IL-25 and IL-33 receptors was observed in mild/moderate versus severe asthma. The high expression of the IL-25 and IL-33 receptors on the basophil membrane of patients with severe asthma indicates an overstimulation of basophils by these cytokines in severe asthma. This finding can possibly be used as a biomarker of asthma severity. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.
E Elahiyan Borojeni
Full Text Available Background & aim: In recent decades, the use of media education to control the problems of patients with chronic diseases has been taken into consideration by medical staff, but few studies have been done on their effectiveness in improving the quality of sleep in patients with bronchial asthma. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of film-based education on sleep quality in patients with bronchial asthma. Methods: The present study was a quasi-experimental study and all of the patients with bronchial asthma referred to the Asthma clinic of Boroujen were included in this study. Fifty one patients who were eligible for inclusion in the study were selected by non probability sampling method. The samples were assigned to randomly assigned blocks between the two test and control groups. For patients in the test group, patient education was performed through a 15-minute video clip by computer, DVD player and mobile phone, but patients in the control group only received routine care. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire was used to collect data one week before intervention and one month after intervention. The collected data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and t-test, Chi-square, Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests. Results: There was no significant difference before the intervention, in the overall score of sleep quality and its dimensions in the two groups (p = 0.66. There was a significant difference between the two groups after the intervention in the general score of sleep quality and the dimensions of sleep quality, sleep disturbances and sleep latency (p = 0.001 However, there was no significant difference in the use of sleep apnea, sleep duration, adequacy of sleep and daily dysfunction in the test and control groups. Conclusion: The movie-based instruction has been able to improve the quality of sleep in patients with bronchial asthma. Considering the ease of implementation of this educational method
Gryglicka, Beata; Wegrzyn-Szkutnik, Irena; Michnar, Marek; Mazur, Elzbieta; Niedźwiadek, Justyna; Milanowski, Janusz
Chlamydia pneumoniae is one of the most frequent pathogens causing airways infections. Contribution of chronic chlamydial infection to the following diseases: asthma, POChP, coronary heart disease, abdominal aortic aneurysm, is particularly interesting. The connection between such infection and bronchial asthma was described in the literature in 1991. C. pneumoniae often causes asthma exacerbation; it is suggested that it also may be an etiologic factor of the disease. In a group of 55 subjects with chronic, stable bronchial asthma treated in the Pulmonary Department, serologic characteristic of C. pneumoniae infection was found in 34 patients (61,8%). Thirteen of these subjects agreed to participate in the study. They were divided into two groups; placebo was administered to the first one and azithromycin in a dose of 1000 mg once a week--to the other one. The research was conducted using the double blind trial method. Anti-chlamydial antibody level was evaluated before and after treatment. Spirometry tests as well as subjective estimation of physical fitness and dyspnoea degree were also determined. In comparison with 'the placebo group', statistically significant improvement in respiratory parameters 'in the treated group' was not ascertained.
Salgado, Carlos E; Caballero A, Andres S; Garcia G, Elizabeth
The paper defines the asthma, includes topics as diagnostic, handling of the asthma, special situations as asthma and pregnancy, handling of the asthmatic patient's perioperatory and occupational asthma
Rasulnia, Mazi; Burton, Billy Stephen; Ginter, Robert P; Wang, Tracy Y; Pleasants, Roy Alton; Green, Cynthia L; Lugogo, Njira
Low adherence and poor outcomes provide opportunity for digital coaching to engage patients with uncontrolled asthma in their care to improve outcomes. To examine the impact of a remote digital coaching program on asthma control and patient experience. We recruited 51 adults with uncontrolled asthma, denoted by albuterol use of >2 times per week and/or exacerbations requiring corticosteroids, and applied a 12-week patient-centered remote digital coaching program using a combination of educational pamphlets, symptom trackers, best peak flow establishment, physical activity, and dietary counseling, as well as coaches who implemented emotional enforcement to motivate disease self-management through telephone, text, and email. Baseline and post-intervention measures were quality of life (QOL), spirometry, Asthma Control Test (ACT), Asthma Symptom Utility Index (ASUI), rescue albuterol use, and exacerbation history. Among 51 patients recruited, 40 completed the study. Eight subjects required assistance reading medical materials. Significant improvements from baseline were observed for Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System mental status (p = 0.010), body weight, and outpatient exacerbation frequency (p = 0.028). The changes from baseline in ACT (p = 0.005) were statistically significant but did not achieve the pre-specified minimum clinically important difference (MCID), whereas for ASUI, the MCID and statistical significance were achieved. Spirometry and rescue albuterol use were no different. A patient-oriented, remote digital coaching program that utilized trained health coaches and digital materials led to statistically significant improvement in mental status, outpatient exacerbations, body weight, and ASUI. Digital coaching programs may improve some outcomes in adults with uncontrolled asthma.
Melbye, Hasse; Drivenes, Elin; Dalbak, Lene G; Leinan, Tone; Høegh-Henrichsen, Svein; Østrem, Anders
Aims To describe symptoms and lung function in patients registered with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in primary care and to examine how spirometry findings fit with general practitioners’ (GPs) diagnoses. Methods Patients aged ≥40 years with a diagnosis of asthma or COPD registered in the electronic medical record during the previous 5 years were recruited at seven GP offices in Norway in 2009–2010. Registered diagnosis, spirometry results, comorbidity, and reported symptoms were compared. Results Among 376 patients, 62% were women. Based on Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Diseases criteria, a spirometry diagnosis of COPD could be made in 68.1% of the patients with a previous COPD diagnosis and in 17.1% of those diagnosed with asthma only (P spirometry was 0.50. A restrictive spirometry pattern was found in 19.4% and more frequently in patients diagnosed with both asthma and COPD (23.9%) than in patients diagnosed with COPD only (6.8%, P = 0.003). Conclusion The ability of GPs to differentiate between asthma and COPD seems to have considerably improved during the last decade, probably due to the dissemination of spirometry and guidelines for COPD diagnosis. A diagnosis of COPD that cannot be confirmed by spirometry represents a challenge in clinical practice, in particular when a restrictive pattern on spirometry is found. PMID:22135492
Katagiri, Shiro; Ohshima, Kazuki; Ohsawa, Takehiko.
CT scans were obtained in 45 patients with bronchial asthma including 23 patients during asthmatic attack. CT findings were as follows. 1) In all cases, thickening of bronchial wall throughout from central to peripheral bronchi and without tapering and/or slight swelling of bronchovascular bundles were observed. 2) Characteristics findings in 23 patients with asthmatic attack, lobular and multilobular high attenuation area were observed in 17 patients (74%) and nonhomogeneous attenuation in lung fields were noticed in 13 patients (57%). 3) Multiple centrilobular sized high attenuation area were observed in 23 patients, but it was difficult to differenciation whether these findings were due to tiny nodules or to small vessels. In conclusion, further studies are needed to know which pathomorphological and/or pathophysiological conditions are underlying these CT findings. (author)
Jakopović, Marko; Pavicić, Fadila; Redzepi, Gzim; Plestina, Sanja; Janković, Mateja; Franić, Zrinka; Samija, Mirko; Samarzija, Miroslav
Budesonide/formoterol as single inhaler was developed for treating asthma patients who are not adequately controlled on glucocorticoides alone. The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy, safety and patient/physician satisfaction of budesonide/formoterol therapy.Total of 268 asthma patients (120 men, mean age 38.8 +/- 37.2 years, and 148 women, mean age 42.2 +/- 32 years) were included in the study. All patients received budesonide/formoterol bid (640 mcg of budesonide and 18 mcg of formoterol daily) during run-in period for three weeks. Patients were followed during 14 weeks at 5 visits. At each visit lung function (FEV1 and PEF) was measured,presence of side affects was recorded and questionnaire was given to patients and physicians to estimate the level of satisfaction with budesonide/formoterol therapy (1 very unsatisfied to 5 very satisfied). Significant improvement was noticed in FEV1, from 76.25% of predicted value to 86.94% (p < 0.01); and in PEF from 380.84 L/min to 442.29 L/min (p < 0.01) in all patients. At the end of the study patients' satisfaction with budesonide/formeterol therapy was significantly improved comparing with satisfaction with previously taken therapy, in average grade, from 2.94 to 4.56 (p < 0.01), and similar results were noticed with physicians' satisfaction, from 2.60 to 4.41 (p < 0.01). Budesonide/formoterol in single inhaler, significantly improved lung function in patients with asthma.
Marc H. Lavietes
Full Text Available Physicians have noted dyspnea in severely ill asthmatic patients to be associated with fright or panic; in more stable patients dyspnea may reflect characteristics including lung function, personality and behavioral traits. This study evaluates the symptom of dyspnea in 32 asthmatic patients twice: first when acutely ill and again after an initial response to therapy. Spirometry was performed, dyspnea quantified (Borg scale, and panic assessed with a specialized measure of acute panic (the acute panic inventory (API in the 32 patients before and again after treatment. After treatment, questionnaires to evaluate somatization and panic disorder were also administered. When acutely ill, both the API and all spirometric measures (PEFR; FEV1; IC correlated with dyspnea. Multiple linear regression showed that measures of the API, the peak expiratory flow rate, and female sex taken together accounted for 41% of dyspnea in acute asthma. After treatment, the API again predicted dyspnea while spirometric data did not. Those subjects who described themselves as having chronic panic disorder reported high grades of dyspnea after treatment also. We conclude that interpretations of the self-report of asthma differ between acutely ill and stable asthmatic patients.
Abramson, Michael J; Schattner, Rosa L; Holton, Christine; Simpson, Pam; Briggs, Nancy; Beilby, Justin; Nelson, Mark R; Wood-Baker, Richard; Thien, Francis; Sulaiman, Nabil D; Colle, Eleonora Del; Wolfe, Rory; Crockett, Alan J; Massie, R John
To determine whether spirometry and regular medical review improved quality of life or other outcomes in children and adolescents with asthma. We conducted two cluster randomized controlled trials. We recruited 238 asthma patients aged between 7 and 17 years from 56 general practices in South Eastern Australia. Participants were randomized to receive an intervention that included spirometry or usual care. The main outcome measure was asthma related quality of life. Baseline characteristics were well matched between the intervention and control groups. Neither trial found any difference in asthma related quality of life between groups. However because of measurement properties, a formal meta-analysis could not be performed. Nor were there any significant effects of the intervention upon asthma attacks, limitation to usual activities, nocturnal cough, bother during physical activity, worry about asthma, or written asthma action plans. The findings do not support more widespread use of spirometry for the management of childhood asthma in general practice, unless it is integrated into a complete management model. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Moffat, M.; Cleland, J.; Van der Molen, T.; Price, D.
Introduction: Asthma control can be influenced by a range of non-medical issues, including psychosocial factors. Little is known about the views of patients, particularly those with severe and/or difficult asthma, towards their asthma control and their asthma-related primary care consultations. Aims
Full Text Available Objective To explore the role of group play therapy in the improvement of mental coping ability in children with asthma. Methods Forty-four asthmatic children with behavior problems were randomly divided into experimental group (n=25 and control group (n=19. All children received two tests. The tools in this research were Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL and Coping with a Disease Questionnaire (CODI. Before intervention, both groups received pretest. Members from the experimental group were provided with counseling for 3 months, once every two weeks for a total of 6 times, while during this period the members of the control group had not any experimental intervention．After intervention, the two groups received posttest. Five patients dropped out, and 39 went through this research (20 in experimental group and 19 in control group. The effects of group play therapy on behavior problems and coping strategy of children with asthma were evaluated. Results There was no statistically significant differences in the general information (age, sex, education, parents' marriage status and family structure and basic score of CBCL and CODI between the two groups (P > 0.05. After intervention, the scores of social problems, social withdrawal, depression, compulsive behavior, aggressive behavior and immature and total behavior problem score dropped significantly in experimental group (P < 0.05 while there were no significant changes in control group. And the scores of acceptance, avoidance and emotional reaction increased significantly in experimental group (P < 0.05 while there were no significant changes in control group. Conclusions Group play therapy can improve the children's confidence and interpersonal adaptability and emotion management capacity, thus correcting deviant behavior, ameliorate coping strategy, improving mental coping capability, and promote the development of mental health in children with asthma.
Merchant, Rajan; Inamdar, Rubina; Henderson, Kelly; Barrett, Meredith; Su, Jason G; Riley, Jesika; Van Sickle, David; Stempel, David
Although digital health tools are increasingly recognized as effective in improving clinical outcomes such as asthma control and medication adherence, few studies have assessed patient experiences and perception of value. The aim of this study was to evaluate patient satisfaction, perception of usability and value, and desire to continue after 12 months of using a digital health intervention to support asthma management. Participants were enrolled in a randomized controlled study evaluating the impact of a digital health platform for asthma management. Participants used electronic inhaler sensors to track medication use and accessed their information in a digital health platform. Electronic surveys were administered to intervention arm participants aged 12 years and older after 12 months of use. The survey assessed asthma control, patient satisfaction with the sensor device, and perception of the usability and value of the digital health platform through closed-ended and open-ended questions. Logistic regression models were used to assess the impact of participants' characteristics on survey completion, satisfaction, and perception of value. Of the 207 intervention arm participants aged 12 years and older, 89 submitted survey responses (42.9% response rate). Of these 89 participants, 70 reported being very satisfied (79%, 70/89) or somewhat satisfied (20%, 18/89) with the inhaler sensor device. Moreover, 93% (83/89) expressed satisfaction with the reports, and 90% (80/89) found the information from the reports useful for learning about their asthma. In addition, 72% (64/89) of the participants reported that they were interested in continuing to use the sensor and platform beyond the study. There were no significant differences in satisfaction with the device or the platform across participants' characteristics, including device type, age, sex, insurance type, asthma control, or syncing history; however, participants with smartphones and longer participation were
Background: Assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has been shown to be more relevant to patients who have chronic diseases such as asthma, as achieving the best possible quality of life is the paramount objective in the management of such patients. This study assessed the quality of life of asthma patients ...
Rossios, Christos; Pavlidis, Stelios; Hoda, Uruj; Kuo, Chih-Hsi; Wiegman, Coen; Russell, Kirsty; Sun, Kai; Loza, Matthew J.; Baribaud, Frederic; Durham, Andrew L.; Ojo, Oluwaseun; Lutter, Rene; Rowe, Anthony; Bansal, Aruna; Auffray, Charles; Sousa, Ana; Corfield, Julie; Djukanovic, Ratko; Guo, Yike; Sterk, Peter J.; Chung, Kian Fan; Adcock, Ian M.
Sputum analysis in asthmatic patients is used to define airway inflammatory processes and might guide therapy. We sought to determine differential gene and protein expression in sputum samples from patients with severe asthma (SA) compared with nonsmoking patients with mild/moderate asthma. Induced
Melo, Janaina; Moreno, Adriana; Ferriani, Virginia; Araujo, Ana Carla; Vianna, Elcio; Borges, Marcos; Roxo, Pérsio; Gonçalves, Marcos; Mello, Luane; Parreira, Rosa; Silva, Jorgete; Stefanelli, Patricia; Panazolo, Larissa; Cetlin, Andrea; Queiroz, Luana; Araujo, Rosângela; Dias, Marina; Aragon, Davi; Domingos, Nélio; Arruda, L Karla
Asthma is under-diagnosed in many parts of the world. We aimed to assess the outcome of a capacitating program on asthma for non-specialist physicians and other healthcare professionals working in the public system in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. A group of 16 asthma specialists developed a one-year capacitating program in 11 healthcare clinics in the Northern District of the city, which included lectures on asthma, training on inhalation device use and spirometry, and development of an asthma management protocol. Researchers visited one health unit 2-4 times monthly, working with doctors on patients' care, discussing cases, and delivering lectures. Asthma education was also directed to the general population, focusing on recognition of signs and symptoms and long-term treatment, including production of educational videos available on YouTube. Outcome measures were the records of doctors' prescriptions of individual asthma medications pre- and post-intervention. Prior to the program, 3205 units of inhaled albuterol and 2876 units of inhaled beclomethasone were delivered by the Northern District pharmacy. After the one-year program, there was increase to 4850 units (51.3%) for inhaled albuterol and 3526 units (22.6%) for inhaled beclomethasone. The albuterol increase followed the recommendation given to the non-specialist doctors by the asthma experts, that every patient with asthma should have inhaled albuterol as a rescue medication, by protocol. No increase was observed in other districts where no capacitating program was conducted. A systematic capacitating program was successful in changing asthma prescription profiles among non-specialist doctors, with increased delivery of inhaled albuterol and beclomethasone.
Gan, Eng Cern; Habib, Al-Rahim R; Rajwani, Alykhan; Javer, Amin R
1. To assess the efficacy of omalizumab therapy in improving sinonasal outcomes in refractory allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS) patients with moderate or severe asthma. 2. To determine if omalizumab therapy reduces the usage of corticosteroids or antifungal therapy in AFRS patients The clinical charts of patients with AFRS with moderate or severe asthma who received at least three subcutaneous injections of omalizumab therapy between 1st January 2012 and 1st May 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. These patients had undergone bilateral functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) and failed adjunct medical treatments (oral or topical corticosteroids and/or antifungal therapy) prior to omalizumab therapy. Seven patients met the inclusion criteria and were included in this study. The mean age of the patients was 48.14. The average number of subcutaneous omalizumab injections was 7.57 (range 6-11) with a mean dosage of 287mg (range 225-375mg). The mean pre-omalizumab treatment Sino-Nasal Outcome Test-22 (SNOT-22) score was 52.14 while the mean post-omalizumab treatment SNOT-22 score was 35.86 (31% improvement). The mean pre-omalizumab therapy Phillpott-Javer endoscopic score (over the last one year before omalizumab therapy) was 36 while the mean post-omalizumab therapy endoscopic score (from the last clinic visit) was 14 (61% improvement). Omalizumab therapy reduced the dependence of AFRS patients on corticosteroid and antifungal treatments. Omalizumab therapy can be considered as a potential adjunct for the treatment for patients with refractory AFRS with moderate or severe asthma. However, larger prospective studies to confirm the findings of this study will be required. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pereira Barbosa, M; Bugalho de Almeida, A; Pereira, C; Chen, C-W; Georgiou, P; Peachey, G
The real life effectiveness, safety and the use of omalizumab for Portuguese patients with uncontrolled persistent allergic asthma are not sufficiently well known. The objective of this report was to make an evaluation, in a post-marketing, non-interventional, observational registry, of the Portuguese population included in the eXpeRience study. The methods used in this report are the same as the global eXpeRience ones, applied to a Portuguese sub-population. Patients with uncontrolled allergic asthma who had started omalizumab within the previous 15 weeks were enrolled and received omalizumab add-on therapy for 24 months. The physicians' global evaluation of treatment effectiveness (GETE), asthma symptoms and control (ACT score), quality of life (mini-AQLQ score), exacerbations, and serious adverse events (SAE) were reported. Of the 943 patients recruited in the eXpeRience registry, 62 patients were from Portugal. 62.1% of them were observed to be responders with good/excellent GETE assessment at Week 16. Clinically meaningful improvements in asthma control (ACT score) and quality of life (mini-AQLQ score) were observed with omalizumab therapy at Months 12 (mean change: +7.7 [n=35]; +2.1 [n=20], respectively) and 24 (mean change: +7.0 [n=26]; +2.7 [n=13], respectively). Asthma symptoms and rescue medication usage were reduced to ≤1 day/week at Month 24 from a baseline of ≥3.5 days/week. The proportion of patients with no clinically significant exacerbations increased from 6.5% during pre-treatment (n=62) to 50% at Month 12 (n=54) and 60% at Month 24 (n=45). The findings from the Portugal subpopulation of eXpeRience registry confirm that omalizumab add-on therapy is efficacious and well tolerated in the management of uncontrolled persistent allergic asthma. Another pertinent issue is the fact that the Portuguese subpopulation response is similar to the international population average of the study. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia
Turner, M O; Noertjojo, K; Vedal, S; Bai, T; Crump, S; Fitzgerald, J M
We prospectively recruited patients admitted to the hospital with severe asthma to comprehensively evaluate the association of historical and physiologic features with the risk of near-fatal asthma (NFA). A case-control study design was used. All patients admitted with NFA (cases) were identified prospectively and compared with asthma patients admitted during the same period without respiratory failure (controls). Nineteen cases (age: 40.2 +/- 12.0 yr) (mean +/- SD) and 80 controls (age: 36 +/- 13.5 yr) were enrolled. Duration of asthma, gender, smoking status, ethnicity, and prevalence of atopy were similar in the case and control groups. More than 80% of patients in both groups reported worsening symptoms for more than 48 h before admission, and more than 50% were worse for longer than 7 d. There was no difference in degree of airways obstruction or bronchial hyperresponsiveness (PC20). Perception of dyspnea was similar in the cases and controls, but among cases the males had greater impairment than the females (Borg score: 1.9 +/- 1. 4 versus 3.9 +/- 1.2: p = 0.05). Univariate analysis identified a history of previous mechanical ventilation (OR: 27.5; 95% CI: 6.60 to 113.7), admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) (OR: 9.9; 95% CI: 3.0 to 32.9), history of worse asthma during January and February (OR: 3.5; 95% CI: 1.0 to 11.8), and use of air-conditioning (OR: 15.0; 95% CI: 1.3 to 166) as risk factors for NFA. Of concern was the dependence of most patients (59.8%) on the emergency department (ED) for initial care, and the small number of cases (16%) in which patients visited a physician before admission to the hospital. We have confirmed risk factors identified previously in retrospective studies of fatal and NFA, and have also shown that hospitalized patients with asthma, irrespective of severity of their asthma, share several characteristics, especially in terms of their failure to respond to worsening asthma.
Schneider, Tali; Panzera, Anthony D; Couluris, Marisa; Lindenberger, James; McDermott, Robert; Bryant, Carol A
Despite the growing market of e-health disease self-management tools, few studies have reported the presence of teen patients in all phases of product design. While rates of American teens using mobile Internet grow, an opportunity to deliver disease self-management targeted for teen patients exists. Building on findings from previous investigations with teens with asthma, we explored teens' insights on the development of a patient-centered asthma management application (app). Two existing asthma apps were used by 16 teen asthmatics for 7-10 days. At the end of the trial period, in-depth interviews were conducted with each participant to gather insights about the user experience. Participants requested more asthma-related content that educates them about their condition. Suggested improvements to currently available apps included a longer list of selectable symptoms to track, medication tracking, and more compelling interface features. Participants showed interest in using apps for managing their asthma, yet recommended improvements on current design. Whereas national figures point to a more ubiquitous mobile device environment, implementation efforts must respond to participants' recommendations while minding lingering digital divides. Currently available apps lack appealing components that teens seek or desire. Subsequent development should include teens' participation in component design insights.
Magnan, A; Bourdin, A; Prazma, C M; Albers, F C; Price, R G; Yancey, S W; Ortega, H
We performed post hoc analyses to evaluate the effect of humanized monoclonal antibody mepolizumab in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma previously treated with omalizumab. Data were collected from two randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled studies: MENSA (NCT01691521: 32-week treatment phase) and SIRIUS (NCT01691508: 24-week treatment phase). Active treatment was 75 mg intravenous mepolizumab (MENSA) or 100 mg subcutaneous mepolizumab (MENSA, SIRIUS). Patients had evidence of eosinophilic inflammation ≥150 cells/μl (at screening) or ≥300 cells/μl (during the previous year). Primary outcomes were the rate of exacerbations (MENSA) and the percentage reduction in oral corticosteroid (OCS) dose (SIRIUS). Other outcomes included lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s and morning peak expiratory flow), Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ-5), St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) scores, and safety. Overall, 576 patients were included from MENSA and 135 from SIRIUS, with 13% and 33% previously receiving omalizumab, respectively. In MENSA, mepolizumab reduced the rate of exacerbations by 57% (prior omalizumab) and 47% (no prior omalizumab) vs placebo. In SIRIUS, reductions in OCS use were comparable regardless of prior omalizumab use. Despite reducing chronic OCS use, mepolizumab also resulted in similar reductions in exacerbation rate relative to placebo in both subgroups. Asthma control and quality of life improved with mepolizumab vs placebo in both studies independent of prior omalizumab use, as shown by ACQ-5 and SGRQ scores. Adverse events were also comparable irrespective of prior omalizumab use. These post hoc analyses indicate that patients with severe eosinophilic asthma respond positively to mepolizumab regardless of prior use of omalizumab. © 2016 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Conclusion: Lack of corticosteroid use and upper respiratory tract infections are ... Key words: Asthma, asthma exacerbations, risk factors, corticosteroids ..... recall bias may be a limitation. ... obstructive picture on spirometry were included as.
Gevaert, Philippe; Calus, Lien; van Zele, Thibaut; Blomme, Katrien; de Ruyck, Natalie; Bauters, Wouter; Hellings, Peter; Brusselle, Guy; de Bacquer, Dirk; van Cauwenberge, Paul; Bachert, Claus
Background: Adult patients with nasal polyps often have comorbid asthma, adding to the serious effect on the quality of life of these patients. Nasal polyps and asthma might represent a therapeutic challenge; inflammation in both diseases shares many features, such as airway eosinophilia, local IgE
van den Akker, Edmée F M M; van't Hul, Alex J.; Birnie, Erwin; Chavannes, Niels H.; Rutten-van Mölken, Maureen P M H; In't Veen, Johannes C C M
A comprehensive diagnostic assessment is needed to improve understanding of the health status of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma. Therefore, this study investigated which components and subsequent instruments should be part of a holistic assessment in secondary
Gillis, R M E; van Litsenburg, W; van Balkom, R H; Muris, J W; Smeenk, F W
Previous studies showed that general practitioners have problems in diagnosing asthma accurately, resulting in both under and overdiagnosis. To support general practitioners in their diagnostic process, an asthma diagnostic consultation service was set up. We evaluated the performance of this asthma diagnostic consultation service by analysing the (dis)concordance between the general practitioners working hypotheses and the asthma diagnostic consultation service diagnoses and possible consequences this had on the patients' pharmacotherapy. In total 659 patients were included in this study. At this service the patients' medical history was taken and a physical examination and a histamine challenge test were carried out. We compared the general practitioners working hypotheses with the asthma diagnostic consultation service diagnoses and the change in medication that was incurred. In 52% (n = 340) an asthma diagnosis was excluded. The diagnosis was confirmed in 42% (n = 275). Furthermore, chronic rhinitis was diagnosed in 40% (n = 261) of the patients whereas this was noted in 25% (n = 163) by their general practitioner. The adjusted diagnosis resulted in a change of medication for more than half of all patients. In 10% (n = 63) medication was started because of a new asthma diagnosis. The 'one-stop-shop' principle was met with 53% of patients and 91% (n = 599) were referred back to their general practitioner, mostly within 6 months. Only 6% (n = 41) remained under control of the asthma diagnostic consultation service because of severe unstable asthma. In conclusion, the asthma diagnostic consultation service helped general practitioners significantly in setting accurate diagnoses for their patients with an asthma hypothesis. This may contribute to diminish the problem of over and underdiagnosis and may result in more appropriate treatment regimens. SERVICE HELPS GENERAL PRACTITIONERS MAKE ACCURATE DIAGNOSES: A consultation service can
Kaae, Susanne; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark
few studies have been conducted so far to explore why patients accept or decline offers of cognitive services at the pharmacy counter. Objective To explore patients’ reasons for accepting a particular cognitive service (the Inhaler Technique Assessment Service) a service intended to detect inhalation...... with 24 patients suffering mainly from asthma and COPD. Researchers from Copenhagen University conducted 11 long interviews and pharmacy internship students from Copenhagen University carried out 13 short interviews. The interviews were analyzed using descriptive analysis. Main outcome measure Patients......’ perceived needs of an inhalation counseling service as well as their motivation for accepting the service, including their accounts of how the service was orally offered by staff. Results The majority of participants were used to using inhaler devices. The participants felt, for several reasons, little need...
Cui Bangping; Jiang Changbin
Using radioimmunoassay to measure the substance P (SP) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in thirty patients with bronchial asthma and thirty healthy persons. Compered with healthy group (33.4±24.5 pmol/L), the SP in bronchial asthma group (240.2±18.7 pmol/L) increased significantly (p < 0.01). SP may play a role in the development of bronchial asthma
Porsbjerg, Celeste; Menzies-Gow, Andrew
Patients with severe asthma represent a minority of the total asthma population, but carry a majority of the morbidity and healthcare costs. Achieving better asthma control in this group of patients is therefore of key importance. Systematic assessment of patients with possible severe asthma...... to identify treatment barriers and triggers of asthma symptoms, including co-morbidities, improves asthma control and reduces healthcare costs and is recommended by international guidelines on management of severe asthma. This review provides the clinician with an overview of the prevalence and clinical...... impact of the most common co-morbidities in severe asthma, including chronic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyposis, allergic rhinitis, dysfunctional breathing, vocal cord dysfunction, anxiety and depression, obesity, obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD...
Mehring, Michael; Donnachie, Ewan; Mutschler, Robert; Hofmann, Frank; Keller, Manfred; Schneider, Antonius
The primary aim of the disease management program (DMP) for patients with asthma is to improve health outcomes and to reduce costs. Five years after its introduction in Germany, no consensus has yet been reached as to whether DMP has been effective in reaching these goals. To evaluate the DMP for asthma in Bavaria using routinely collected subject medical records. A longitudinal population-based study encompassing over 100,000 DMP participants between 2006 (when the program began) and 2010. The prescription rate of oral corticosteroids dropped from 15.7% in 2006 to 13.6% in 2007, and again from 7.5% in 2008 to 5.9% in 2010 (P management education increased from 4.4% to 23.4% (P management. The proportion of subjects requiring hospitalization decreased. Our results suggest that the German DMP for asthma has been effective in enhancing the quality of care in regard to an improved symptom frequency, adherence to guidelines, pharmacotherapy, and hospitalization.
Cvetkovski, Biljana; Armour, Carol; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia
To investigate the perceptions and attitudes towards asthma management of general practitioners, pharmacists and people with asthma in a rural area. Qualitative semistructured interviews. Small rural centre in New South Wales. General practitioners, pharmacists and people with asthma in a rural area. General practitioners perceived that the patient provided a barrier to the implementation of optimal asthma services. They were aware that other health care professionals had a role in asthma management but were not aware of the details, particularly in relation to that of the pharmacist and would like to improve communication methods. Pharmacists also perceived the patient to be a barrier to the delivery of optimal asthma management services and would like to improve communication with the general practitioner. The impact of the rural environment for the health care professionals included workforce shortages, availability of support services and access to continuing education. People with asthma were satisfied with their asthma management and the service provided by the health care professionals and described the involvement of family members and ambulance officers in their overall asthma management. The rural environment was an issue with regards to distance to the hospital during an emergency. General practitioners and pharmacists confirmed their existing roles in asthma management while expressing a desire to improve communication between the two professions to help overcome barriers and optimise the asthma service delivered to the patient. The patient described minimal barriers to optimising asthma management, which might suggest that they might not have great expectations of asthma care.
Improving asthma-related health outcomes among low-income, multiethnic, school-aged children: results of a demonstration project that combined continuous quality improvement and community health worker strategies.
Fox, Patrick; Porter, Patricia G; Lob, Sibylle H; Boer, Jennifer Holloman; Rocha, David A; Adelson, Joel W
The purpose of this work was to improve asthma-related health outcomes in an ethnically and geographically disparate population of economically disadvantaged school-aged children by using a team-based approach using continuous quality improvement and community health workers. A demonstration project was conducted with 7 community clinics treating approximately 3000 children with asthma 5 to 18 years of age. The overall clinic population with asthma was assessed for care-process changes through random cross-sectional chart reviews at baseline and 24 months (N = 560). A subset of patients with either moderate or severe persistent asthma or poorly controlled asthma (N = 405) was followed longitudinally for specific asthma-related clinical outcomes, satisfaction with care, and confidence managing asthma by family interview at baseline and at 12 or 24 months. Patient-centered and care-process outcomes included patient/parent assessment of quality of care and confidence in self-management, asthma action plan review, and documentation of guideline-based indicators of quality of care. Direct clinical outcomes included daytime and nighttime symptoms, use of rescue medications, acute care and emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and missed school days. Each clinic site's degree of adherence to the intervention model was evaluated and ranked to examine the correlation between model adherence and outcomes. Cross-sectional data showed clinic-wide improvements in the documentation of asthma severity, review of action plans, health services use, and asthma symptoms. At follow-up in the longitudinal sample, fewer patients reported acute visits, emergency department visits, hospitalizations, frequent daytime and nighttime symptoms, and missed school days compared with baseline. More patients reported excellent or very good quality of care and confidence in asthma self-management. Linear regression analysis of the clinical sites' model adherence ranks against site
Zhou, Yu; Shen, Xue-yong; Wang, Li-zhen; Wei, Jian-zi; Cheng, Ke
To analyze the distinctive pathological characteristics in the spectrums of spontaneous infrared radiation at the Taiyuan (LU 9) acupoint in patients with asthma. A highly sensitive infrared spectrum detecting device was used to detect the spectrums of spontaneous infrared radiation at Taiyuan (LU 9) in 37 asthma patients and 34 healthy volunteers. Asthma patients had significantly lower infrared intensity than that of the healthy volunteers (P>0.01). Asthma patients had significantly lower overall infrared radiation intensity at the left Taiyuan (LU 9) than that of healthy volunteers (P > 0.05), but there was no significant difference between healthy volunteers and asthma patients at the right Taiyuan (LU 9) (P > 0.05). The infrared radiation intensity of 17 wavelength spots at the left Taiyuan (LU 9) and 4 wavelength spots at the right Taiyuan (LU 9) in asthma patients were significantly lower than those of healthy volunteers (P > 0.05). At 2 microm, the infrared radiation intensity of asthma patients was significantly stronger than that of healthy volunteers (P > 0.05). At 19 wavelength spots in the healthy volunteers and at 4 wave-length spots in the asthma patients, the left Taiyuan (LU 9) showed a significantly stronger intensity than that of the right Taiyuan (LU 9) (P > 0.05S). By Pearson's chi2 test, healthy volunteers had more wavelength spots that were significantly different between the left and right Taiyuan (LU 9) than the asthma patients (P > 0.01). Changes in the infrared spectrum at the Taiyuan (LU 9) acupoint in asthma patients may reflect distinct pathological changes. Certain acupuncture points may be related to specific organs.
Evelim L F D Gomes
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine whether aerobic exercise involving an active video game system improved asthma control, airway inflammation and exercise capacity in children with moderate to severe asthma.A randomized, controlled, single-blinded clinical trial was carried out. Thirty-six children with moderate to severe asthma were randomly allocated to either a video game group (VGG; N = 20 or a treadmill group (TG; n = 16. Both groups completed an eight-week supervised program with two weekly 40-minute sessions. Pre-training and post-training evaluations involved the Asthma Control Questionnaire, exhaled nitric oxide levels (FeNO, maximum exercise testing (Bruce protocol and lung function.No differences between the VGG and TG were found at the baseline. Improvements occurred in both groups with regard to asthma control and exercise capacity. Moreover, a significant reduction in FeNO was found in the VGG (p < 0.05. Although the mean energy expenditure at rest and during exercise training was similar for both groups, the maximum energy expenditure was higher in the VGG.The present findings strongly suggest that aerobic training promoted by an active video game had a positive impact on children with asthma in terms of clinical control, improvement in their exercise capacity and a reduction in pulmonary inflammation.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01438294.
Gomes, Evelim L F D; Carvalho, Celso R F; Peixoto-Souza, Fabiana Sobral; Teixeira-Carvalho, Etiene Farah; Mendonça, Juliana Fernandes Barreto; Stirbulov, Roberto; Sampaio, Luciana Maria Malosá; Costa, Dirceu
The aim of the present study was to determine whether aerobic exercise involving an active video game system improved asthma control, airway inflammation and exercise capacity in children with moderate to severe asthma. A randomized, controlled, single-blinded clinical trial was carried out. Thirty-six children with moderate to severe asthma were randomly allocated to either a video game group (VGG; N = 20) or a treadmill group (TG; n = 16). Both groups completed an eight-week supervised program with two weekly 40-minute sessions. Pre-training and post-training evaluations involved the Asthma Control Questionnaire, exhaled nitric oxide levels (FeNO), maximum exercise testing (Bruce protocol) and lung function. No differences between the VGG and TG were found at the baseline. Improvements occurred in both groups with regard to asthma control and exercise capacity. Moreover, a significant reduction in FeNO was found in the VGG (p video game had a positive impact on children with asthma in terms of clinical control, improvement in their exercise capacity and a reduction in pulmonary inflammation. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01438294.
Full Text Available Hasse Melbye1, Elin Drivenes1, Lene G Dalbak2, Tone Leinan1, Svein Høegh-Henrichsen2, Anders Østrem21General Practice Research Unit, Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, 2General Practice Research Unit, Department of Health and Society, University of Oslo, NorwayAims: To describe symptoms and lung function in patients registered with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in primary care and to examine how spirometry findings fit with general practitioners’ (GPs diagnoses.Methods: Patients aged ≥40 years with a diagnosis of asthma or COPD registered in the electronic medical record during the previous 5 years were recruited at seven GP offices in Norway in 2009–2010. Registered diagnosis, spirometry results, comorbidity, and reported symptoms were compared.Results: Among 376 patients, 62% were women. Based on Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Diseases criteria, a spirometry diagnosis of COPD could be made in 68.1% of the patients with a previous COPD diagnosis and in 17.1% of those diagnosed with asthma only (P < 0.001. The κ agreement between last clinical diagnosis of COPD and COPD based on spirometry was 0.50. A restrictive spirometry pattern was found in 19.4% and more frequently in patients diagnosed with both asthma and COPD (23.9% than in patients diagnosed with COPD only (6.8%, P = 0.003.Conclusion: The ability of GPs to differentiate between asthma and COPD seems to have considerably improved during the last decade, probably due to the dissemination of spirometry and guidelines for COPD diagnosis. A diagnosis of COPD that cannot be confirmed by spirometry represents a challenge in clinical practice, in particular when a restrictive pattern on spirometry is found.Keywords: asthma, COPD, diagnosis, primary care
Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency was highly prevalent in COPD and bronchial asthma (100% and 50% respectively. Low levels of vitamin D were associated with low FEV1%, frequent exacerbations in patients with COPD and bronchial asthma, and increased COPD severity as assessed by GOLD guidelines. Important statistically significant negative associations between vitamin D level and both asthma control and asthma severity according to GINA classification were also found. Thus it is advised to include vitamin D levels in the routine assessment of patients with bronchial asthma and COPD, as well as studying the importance and clinical impact of oral supplementation of vitamin D in patients with COPD and bronchial asthma should be an important goal of future research.
Full Text Available Yoshiaki Kitaguchi, Masanori Yasuo, Masayuki Hanaoka First Department of Internal Medicine, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Japan Background: This study was conducted in order to investigate the differences in the respiratory physiology of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS, and asthma with airflow limitation (asthma FL+. Methods: The medical records for a series of all stable patients with persistent airflow limitation due to COPD, ACOS, or asthma were retrospectively reviewed and divided into the COPD group (n=118, the ACOS group (n=32, and the asthma FL+ group (n=27. All the patients underwent chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT and pulmonary function tests, including respiratory impedance. Results: The low attenuation area score on chest HRCT was significantly higher in the COPD group than in the ACOS group (9.52±0.76 vs 5.09±1.16, P<0.01. The prevalence of bronchial wall thickening on chest HRCT was significantly higher in the asthma FL+ group than in the COPD group (55.6% vs 25.0%, P<0.01. In pulmonary function, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 and peak expiratory flow rate were significantly higher in the asthma FL+ group than in the ACOS group (76.28%±2.54% predicted vs 63.43%±3.22% predicted, P<0.05 and 74.40%±3.16% predicted vs 61.08%±3.54% predicted, P<0.05, respectively. Although residual volume was significantly lower in the asthma FL+ group than in the COPD group (112.05%±4.34% predicted vs 137.38%±3.43% predicted, P<0.01 and the ACOS group (112.05%±4.34% predicted vs148.46%±6.25% predicted, P<0.01, there were no significant differences in functional residual capacity or total lung capacity. The increase in FEV1 in response to short-acting ß2-agonists was significantly greater in the ACOS group than in the COPD group (229±29 mL vs 72±10 mL, P<0.01 and the asthma FL+ group (229±29 mL vs 153±21 mL, P<0.05. Regarding
Kitaguchi, Yoshiaki; Yasuo, Masanori; Hanaoka, Masayuki
This study was conducted in order to investigate the differences in the respiratory physiology of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS), and asthma with airflow limitation (asthma FL(+)). The medical records for a series of all stable patients with persistent airflow limitation due to COPD, ACOS, or asthma were retrospectively reviewed and divided into the COPD group (n=118), the ACOS group (n=32), and the asthma FL(+) group (n=27). All the patients underwent chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and pulmonary function tests, including respiratory impedance. The low attenuation area score on chest HRCT was significantly higher in the COPD group than in the ACOS group (9.52±0.76 vs 5.09±1.16, Pbronchial wall thickening on chest HRCT was significantly higher in the asthma FL(+) group than in the COPD group (55.6% vs 25.0%, P<0.01). In pulmonary function, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and peak expiratory flow rate were significantly higher in the asthma FL(+) group than in the ACOS group (76.28%±2.54% predicted vs 63.43%±3.22% predicted, P<0.05 and 74.40%±3.16% predicted vs 61.08%±3.54% predicted, P<0.05, respectively). Although residual volume was significantly lower in the asthma FL(+) group than in the COPD group (112.05%±4.34% predicted vs 137.38%±3.43% predicted, P<0.01) and the ACOS group (112.05%±4.34% predicted vs148.46%±6.25% predicted, P<0.01), there were no significant differences in functional residual capacity or total lung capacity. The increase in FEV1 in response to short-acting β2-agonists was significantly greater in the ACOS group than in the COPD group (229±29 mL vs 72±10 mL, P<0.01) and the asthma FL(+) group (229±29 mL vs 153±21 mL, P<0.05). Regarding respiratory impedance, resistance at 5 Hz and resistance at 20 Hz, which are oscillatory parameters of respiratory resistance, were significantly higher in the asthma FL(+) group than in the COPD group
Gabriela Vázquez Armenta
Full Text Available Introduction: The family and psychological approaches in asthma patients are essential because a dysfunctional family can increase asthma symptoms of the sick child. Aim: To determine family functioning and classification of asthma in pediatric patients, and the condition in the areas that comprises it. Method: A cross-sectional study in asthmatic patients treated in pediatrics Regional General Hospital No. 1 between April and July 2015 was done. Asthma severity was classified in response to the GINA 2010 guide. The Dr. Emma Espejel Scale of Family Functioning was applied to the patient's family. Results: The male presented more severe asthma by 70%, especially in school age. The dysfunction of the control area of family dynamics in the Mexican family impact on the severity of asthma. Discussion and Conclusion: 50% of families with a carrier member of asthma reflect dysfunction; control area was the most affected. Family and psychological approaches in patients with asthma are basic to prevent changes in family function.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined the attitudes and actions of 3415 physician-recruited adults aged ≥ 16 years with asthma in eleven countries who were prescribed regular maintenance therapy with inhaled corticosteroids or inhaled corticosteroids plus long-acting β2-agonists. Methods Structured interviews were conducted to assess medication use, asthma control, and patients' ability to recognise and self-manage worsening asthma. Results Despite being prescribed regular maintenance therapy, 74% of patients used short-acting β2-agonists daily and 51% were classified by the Asthma Control Questionnaire as having uncontrolled asthma. Even patients with well-controlled asthma reported an average of 6 worsenings/year. The mean period from the onset to the peak symptoms of a worsening was 5.1 days. Although most patients recognised the early signs of worsenings, the most common response was to increase short-acting β2-agonist use; inhaled corticosteroids were increased to a lesser extent at the peak of a worsening. Conclusion Previous studies of this nature have also reported considerable patient morbidity, but in those studies approximately three-quarters of patients were not receiving regular maintenance therapy and not all had a physician-confirmed diagnosis of asthma. This study shows that patients with asthma receiving regular maintenance therapy still have high levels of inadequately controlled asthma. The study also shows that patients recognise deteriorating asthma control and adjust their medication during episodes of worsening. However, they often adjust treatment in an inappropriate manner, which represents a window of missed opportunity.
Yanik, Burcu; Ayrim, Aylin; Ozol, Duygu; Koktener, Asli; Gokmen, Derya
The etiology of osteoporosis in asthma is complex as various factors contribute to its pathogenesis. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of obesity and inhaled steroids, as well as the severity and duration of asthma, on osteoporosis in postmenopausal asthma patients as compared to healthy controls. A total of 46 patients with asthma and 60 healthy female controls, all postmenopausal, were enrolled in our study. Bone mineral density was assessed at the lumbar spine and hip using a Lunar DPX-L densitometer. Bone mineral density (BMD) scores were comparable between the asthmatic and control groups, with average scores of 0.95 +/- 0.29 and 0.88 +/- 0.14 g/cm(2), respectively. Likewise, osteoporosis was diagnosed in a similar percentage of patients in the asthmatic (39.1%) and control (43.3%) groups. Bone fracture was identified in four patients with asthma (8.6%) and in six patients from the control group (10%). We could not detect any relationship between BMD and duration of asthma, asthma severity, inhaled steroids or body mass index (BMI). There was no difference between the two groups with respect to age or years since menopause. Although asthma patients were more likely to be overweight and presented higher BMD scores on average than the control subjects, these differences were not statistically significant. There is a slight positive protective effect of high BMI against osteoporosis in asthma patients, but this effect is overcome by time and menopause status. Therefore, the protective effect of obesity against osteoporosis in asthma patients seems to not be significant.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The etiology of osteoporosis in asthma is complex as various factors contribute to its pathogenesis. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of obesity and inhaled steroids, as well as the severity and duration of asthma, on osteoporosis in postmenopausal asthma patients as compared to healthy controls. METHODS: A total of 46 patients with asthma and 60 healthy female controls, all postmenopausal, were enrolled in our study. Bone mineral density was assessed at the lumbar spine and hip using a Lunar DPX-L densitometer. RESULTS: Bone mineral density (BMD scores were comparable between the asthmatic and control groups, with average scores of 0.95 ± 0.29 and 0.88 ± 0.14 g/cm², respectively. Likewise, osteoporosis was diagnosed in a similar percentage of patients in the asthmatic (39.1% and control (43.3% groups. Bone fracture was identified in four patients with asthma (8.6% and in six patients from the control group (10%. We could not detect any relationship between BMD and duration of asthma, asthma severity, inhaled steroids or body mass index (BMI. There was no difference between the two groups with respect to age or years since menopause. Although asthma patients were more likely to be overweight and presented higher BMD scores on average than the control subjects, these differences were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: There is a slight positive protective effect of high BMI against osteoporosis in asthma patients, but this effect is overcome by time and menopause status. Therefore, the protective effect of obesity against osteoporosis in asthma patients seems to not be significant.
Gomes, Evelim L. F. D.; Carvalho, Celso R. F.; Peixoto-Souza, Fabiana Sobral; Teixeira-Carvalho, Etiene Farah; Mendonça, Juliana Fernandes Barreto; Stirbulov, Roberto; Sampaio, Luciana Maria Malosá; Costa, Dirceu
Objective The aim of the present study was to determine whether aerobic exercise involving an active video game system improved asthma control, airway inflammation and exercise capacity in children with moderate to severe asthma. Design A randomized, controlled, single-blinded clinical trial was carried out. Thirty-six children with moderate to severe asthma were randomly allocated to either a video game group (VGG; N = 20) or a treadmill group (TG; n = 16). Both groups completed an eight-week supervised program with two weekly 40-minute sessions. Pre-training and post-training evaluations involved the Asthma Control Questionnaire, exhaled nitric oxide levels (FeNO), maximum exercise testing (Bruce protocol) and lung function. Results No differences between the VGG and TG were found at the baseline. Improvements occurred in both groups with regard to asthma control and exercise capacity. Moreover, a significant reduction in FeNO was found in the VGG (p video game had a positive impact on children with asthma in terms of clinical control, improvementin their exercise capacity and a reductionin pulmonary inflammation. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01438294 PMID:26301706
Wroth, Thomas H; Boals, Joseph C
This case study demonstrates the use of quality improvement methods to improve asthma care in a busy community practice. The practice used disease-management strategies, such as population identification, self-management education, and performance measurement and feedback. The practice then applied several practice-based quality improvement methods, such as PDSA cycles, to improve care. From 1998 to 2003, process measures, such as staging of asthmatics, use of long-term control medications, use of peak flow meters and spacers, and use of action plans, improved. There was also a substantial decrease in emergency department use and hospitalizations among patients with asthma. Although there have been several studies demonstrating the efficacy of disease management strategies, most lack generalizability to community practices. Often, interventions are so intensive and cumbersome, that they are unlikely to be replicated in primary care setting. Researchers have been unable to determine which components of the interventions are most effective and replicable. Furthermore, many studies of disease management strategies enroll participants who lack the co-morbidities seen in community practice. There are also few studies of disadvantaged populations that face other barriers to care, such as lack of transportation, poor access to specialists, and medical illiteracy. In this case study, there were several unique factors that enabled the practice to improve care for this population. The AccessCare case manager who worked with the practice not only provided data and feedback to the practice team, but also served as an improvement "coach," often pushing the team and facilitating many of the improvement efforts. AccessCare's approach is in contrast to many of the commercial disease management companies' "carve out" models that do not sufficiently involve providers or practices in their interventions. The other necessary ingredient for success in this project was organizational
Pink, J.; Pink, K.; Elwyn, G.
BACKGROUND: Asthma self-management education is a key component of international guidelines. No gold standard patient centred outcome measure exists for asthma knowledge. Our aim was to identify high-quality, validated, and reliable outcome measures suitable for use in either the research or
Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate inhaler technique in outpatients with asthma and to determine associations between the correctness of that technique and the level of asthma control. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving patients > 14 years of age with physician-diagnosed asthma. The patients were recruited from the Asthma Outpatient Clinic of the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. The patients completed two questionnaires (a general questionnaire and an asthma control questionnaire based on the 2011 Global Initiative for Asthma guidelines, demonstrated their inhaler technique, and performed pulmonary function tests. Incorrect inhaler technique was defined as the incorrect execution of at least two of the predefined steps. RESULTS: We included 268 patients. Of those, 81 (30.2% showed incorrect inhaler technique, which was associated with poor asthma control (p = 0.002. Logistic regression analysis identified the following factors associated with incorrect inhaler technique: being widowed (OR = 5.01; 95% CI, 1.74-14.41; p = 0.003; using metered dose inhalers (OR = 1.58; 95% CI, 1.35-1.85; p 2 comorbidities (OR = 3.80; 95% CI, 1.03-14.02; p = 0.045. CONCLUSIONS: In the sample studied, incorrect inhaler technique was associated with poor asthma control. Widowhood, use of metered dose inhalers, low socioeconomic level, and the presence of > 2 comorbidities were associated with incorrect inhaler technique.
Full Text Available In order to improve the self care abilities of the patients with bronchial asthma a ′Self Care Manual′ (a Booklet of 26 pages on bronchial asthma was prepared. An interview schedule was developed to evaluate the usefulness of the manual. The validity and reliability of both these instruments were established. Five hundred and twenty three diagnosed patients of bronchial asthma (260 in the study group to whom the self care manual was given and 263 controls to whom no specific instructions were given were included in the study. Emotions like ′tension′, ′excessive laughter′, ′sadness′, ′happiness′ and ′anger′ etc. that triggered the symptoms were studied. The effect of self care manual on other emotions (FNx01a total of 8 items like ′anxiety due to the disease′, ′tension of taking medicine′ and ′fear of death′ etc. was also studied. Both groups were followed up at 2 weeks, 6 months and 1 year while the same interview schedule was administered on each visit. It was observed that the emotion scores decreased significantly in both the groups (8.08±5.5, 5.89±4.88, 1.44±4.63 and 1.19±4.01 in the study patients, whereas 8.50±6.30, 7.88±6.21, 7.35±6.03 and 5.97±5.81 in the controls at 0 weeks, 2 weeks, 6 months and 1 year respectively. The emotion scores were significantly less in the study group as compared to controls (unpaired ′t′ = 3.57, 8.52 and 7.67 at 2 weeks, 6 months and 1 year respectively (p< 0.001 Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the odds ratio of study group patients showing significant improvement in emotion scores was 3.34 (95% CI, 1.78-6.25 and 4.26 (95% CI, 2.34-7.63 at 6 months and 1 year respectively as compared to controls. We concluded that patient education (self care manual in the form of a booklet made significant improvement in the emotions in patients with bronchial asthma.
Conclusion: A high index of suspicion is warranted for the overlap of OSA and asthma, particularly in the presence of obesity, GERD, and in patients with severe asthma. Individualized therapy addressing these moderating factors is warranted for optimal health outcomes. Recognition and treatment of OSA in asthmatics is an important element in improving asthma control.
Majoor, Christof J.; van de Pol, Marianne A.; Kamphuisen, Pieter Willem; Meijers, Joost C. M.; Molenkamp, Richard; Wolthers, Katja C.; van der Poll, Tom; Nieuwland, Rienk; Johnston, Sebastian L.; Sterk, Peter J.; Bel, Elisabeth H. D.; Lutter, Rene; van der Sluijs, Koenraad F.
Asthma exacerbations are frequently triggered by rhinovirus infections. Both asthma and respiratory tract infection can activate haemostasis. Therefore we hypothesized that experimental rhinovirus-16 infection and asthmatic airway inflammation act in synergy on the haemostatic balance. 28 patients
Conclusions: Adult asthma patients undergoing treatment with LTRAs exhibit lower incidence rates of common cold-like symptoms than those not receiving LTRAs. LTRAs play an important role in reducing the incidence of common cold-like symptoms among asthma patients and in suppressing exacerbation of asthma symptoms possibly associated with these symptoms.
Godinho Netto AC
Full Text Available Antonio Carlos Maneira Godinho Netto,1,2 Túlio Gonçalves dos Reis,1,2 Cássia Franco Matheus,1,2 Beatriz Julião Vieira Aarestrup,3,4 Fernando Monteiro Aarestrup1,2,4 1School of Medical and Health Sciences – SUPREMA, 2Maternity Hospital Terezinha de Jesus, 3Morphology Department, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Institute of Biological Sciences, 4Laboratory of Immunopathology and Experimental Pathology, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Reproductive Biology Center (CBR, Juiz de Fora, Brazil Objective: To assess the value of fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO measurements in the diagnosis of asthma in elderly patients. Methods: The clinical symptoms of 202 elderly patients were assessed with the asthma module of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood test, which had been modified for the elderly patients, and the diagnostic routine for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, which was based on the Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria. Of the 202 patients assessed, 43 were subjected to pulmonary function evaluations (spirometry and FeNO measurements. Results: Of the 202 elderly patients, 34 had asthma (23 definite and eleven probable, 20 met COPD criteria, 13 presented with an overlap of asthma and COPD, and 135 did not fit the criteria for obstructive pulmonary disease. Among the 43 elderly patients who were subjected to FeNO measurements, ten showed altered results (23.2% and 33 had normal results (76.7%. The average value of FeNO in patients with definite and probable asthma undergoing this procedure was 29.2 parts per billion whereas that in nonasthmatic patients was 17.5 parts per billion (P=0.0002. Conclusion: We show a clear relationship between FeNO levels and asthma symptoms and previous asthma diagnoses in elderly patients. Keywords: asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, elderly patients, nitric oxide
Occupational exposure to irritants accounts for 2% to 15% of all cases of asthma. Most of the offending agents evoke an IgE allergic reaction, but some seem to act through pharmacologic rather than immunologic pathways. Usually, symptoms are worse during working hours and improve in the evening and over the weekend, but in some cases onset is delayed. Symptoms may persist for weeks after exposure ceases. Skin tests or serologic tests for IgE antibody are helpful in diagnosis. Bronchial challenge with the suspected agent is valuable research procedure that occasionally is clinically useful in diagnosis. Management requires the cooperation of the medical and industrial communities. It consists of identifying asthmatic workers, removing them from exposure to the affecting environment, and treating their symptoms; preventing exposure of susceptible people through preemployment screening; and setting and adhering to reasonable occupational safety standards
Cillessen, Linda; van de Ven, Monique O; Karremans, Johan C
The current study focused on the role of trait mindfulness in asthma-related quality of life (QoL) and asthma control in adolescent asthma patients. Furthermore, potential underlying mechanisms (general and asthma-specific stress) of this relationship were investigated. In this cross-sectional study, questionnaire data of 94 adolescents with asthma that were prescribed daily asthma medication were included. Two Structural Equation Models (SEMs), a direct model and an indirect model, were tested. We found that trait mindfulness was directly related to asthma-related QoL, but not to asthma control. The relationship between trait mindfulness and asthma-related QoL was explained by asthma-specific, but not by general stress. Furthermore, an indirect relation from mindfulness to asthma control via asthma-specific stress was found. Cross-sectional evidence for a relation between mindfulness and asthma-related QoL is found. These findings may point to the possibility that an intervention aimed at increasing mindfulness could be a promising tool to improve asthma-related QoL in adolescents via a decrease in asthma-specific stress. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Deng, Fan; Dong, Hangming; Zou, Mengchen; Zhao, Haijin; Cai, Chunqing; Cai, Shaoxi
To explore the polarization of migration dynamics of neutrophils isolated from patients with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) compared with healthy smoking and non-smoking controls. Recruited volunteers were classified as healthy controls, healthy smokers, asthma, COPD and ACOS at Nanfang Hospital from April 2013 to June 2014 according to the Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management and Prevention of COPD 2011, Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention 2011 and Consensus on Overlap Phenotype COPD-asthma in COPD 2012. Neutrophils were freshly isolated from whole blood with density gradient technique. The proportion of polarized cells with gradient concentration of formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP) in Zigmond chamber and vital component of Store Operated Calcium Entry (SOCE) (stromal interaction molecule (STIM) 1, 2 and Orai1) in neutrophils was detected by Western blot. Asthma, COPD and ACOS neutrophils demonstrated a higher spontaneous polarization rate versus healthy controls and healthy smokers ((25.05 ± 4.06)%, (16.20 ± 4.46)%, (29.43 ± 5.53)% vs (7.27 ± 0.99)%, (7.06 ± 3.12)%, all P polarization rate ((14.62 ± 2.26)%, (8.00 ± 1.75)%, all P polarization rate than healthy controls and healthy smokers ((2.45 ± 0.54)% vs (5.12 ± 1.28)%, (5.24 ± 1.34)%, all P vs 0.26 ± 0.14, 0.38 ± 0.12; STIM2: 0.52 ± 0.19, 0.22 ± 0.13, 0.24 ± 0.10 vs 0.05 ± 0.03, 0.10 ± 0.06; Orai1: 0.56 ± 0.04, 0.39 ± 0.05, 0.48 ± 0.05 vs 0.13 ± 0.04, 0.13 ± 0.03) (all P < 0.01). Asthma, COPD and ACOS neutrophils are intrinsically different than counterparts from healthy control subjects and healthy smokers. And vital components of SOCE from patient neutrophils are intrinsically up-regulated.
Full Text Available Background: Industrialization and urbanization have had a devastating impact on public health. Asthma is considered as one of the major challenges of public health. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between air pollution and the number of asthma patients admitted to hospitals in Kermanshah, Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional and ecological study, the data on the number of asthma patients, the concentration levels of air pollutants and weather conditions were collected from the city of Kermanshah. To determine the association between asthma patients admitted to hospitals and air pollutants, Poisson regression was used (P<0.05. Results: according to the statistical analysis, air pollutants had significant correlation with each other. Based on the results of multiple Poisson regression, among air pollutants CO and O3 were significantly correlated with the number of asthma patients referred to hospitals, with relative risk of 1.18 and 1.016, respectively, and based on the results of single Poisson regression, among air pollutants NOx, NO, NO2 and CO were significantly correlated with the number of asthma patients referred to hospitals with relative risk of 1.011, 1.012, 1.054 and 1.247, respectively. Conclusion: according to the results of the present study, there was a significant association between air pollutants (mainly carbon monoxide and ozone and the total number of asthma patients referred to the hospitals in Kermanshah.
Karvala, Kirsi; Uitti, Jukka; Luukkonen, Ritva; Nordman, Henrik
Long-term outcomes of asthma related to exposure to workplace dampness are not well known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of life (QOL) of patients with asthma related to damp and moldy workplaces and characterize factors influencing QOL. Using a questionnaire, we followed 1267 patients previously examined for suspected occupational respiratory disease related to exposure to damp and moldy indoor environments. In addition to demographic and other background data, the questionnaire included sections on current employment status, QOL, anxiety and depression, somatization, hypochondria, and asthma medication. We compared the QOL of patients with occupational asthma (OA) with that of patients with work-exacerbated asthma (WEA) or symptoms without asthma. Impaired QOL was found among patients diagnosed with OA when they were compared with patients in corresponding environments with WEA or symptoms only. Not working and greater use of asthma medication were major determinants of worse QOL. Psychological factors did not explain the differences between the groups. OA induced by exposure to workplace moisture and molds is associated with QOL deterioration. The impairment is related to being unemployed (due to disability, retirement, job loss or other reasons) and the need for medication.
Naik Panvelkar, Pradnya; Armour, Carol; Saini, Bandana
Patient preferences can influence the outcomes of treatment and so understanding and organizing health-care services around these preferences is vital. To explore patient preferences for types of community pharmacy-based asthma services, to investigate the influence of "experience" in molding preferences for such services, and to identify aspects of the services that patients prefer over others. Semistructured face-to-face interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of two types of asthma patients: (1) those naïve to a specialized asthma service and (2) those who had experienced a specialized asthma service. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and thematically analyzed. Eighteen interviews were conducted (8 experienced patients, 10 naïve patients). The majority of the patients wanted the pharmacist to play a greater role in their asthma management. Patients experiencing increased levels of service had increased levels of expectations as well as more specific preferences for various aspects of the service. The key aspects of an asthma service that all patients wanted their pharmacists to provide were the provision of information about asthma and its medications, lung function testing and monitoring of their asthma, and checking/correcting their inhaler technique. Patients also expressed a desire for skilled communication and behavioral aspects from the pharmacist such as friendliness, empathy, attentiveness, and dedicated time. Patients highlighted the importance of privacy in the pharmacy. There was a high level of satisfaction toward the currently delivered asthma service among both naïve and experienced patients. The provision of the specialized service was associated with increased patient loyalty to the particular pharmacy. All patients indicated a willingness to participate in future pharmacy-delivered specialized asthma services. Elements of the specialized pharmacy-based asthma services important from a patient's perspective were
Sulaiman, Imran; Greene, Garrett; MacHale, Elaine; Seheult, Jansen; Mokoka, Matshediso; D'Arcy, Shona; Taylor, Terence; Murphy, Desmond M; Hunt, Eoin; Lane, Stephen J; Diette, Gregory B; FitzGerald, J Mark; Boland, Fiona; Sartini Bhreathnach, Aoife; Cushen, Breda; Reilly, Richard B; Doyle, Frank; Costello, Richard W
In severe asthma, poor control could reflect issues of medication adherence or inhaler technique, or that the condition is refractory. This study aimed to determine if an intervention with (bio)feedback on the features of inhaler use would identify refractory asthma and enhance inhaler technique and adherence.Patients with severe uncontrolled asthma were subjected to a stratified-by-site random block design. The intensive education group received repeated training in inhaler use, adherence and disease management. The intervention group received the same intervention, enhanced by (bio)feedback-guided training. The primary outcome was rate of actual inhaler adherence. Secondary outcomes included a pre-defined assessment of clinical outcome. Outcome assessors were blinded to group allocation. Data were analysed on an intention-to-treat and per-protocol basis.The mean rate of adherence during the third month in the (bio)feedback group (n=111) was higher than that in the enhanced education group (intention-to-treat, n=107; 73% versus 63%; 95% CI 2.8%-17.6%; p=0.02). By the end of the study, asthma was either stable or improved in 54 patients (38%); uncontrolled, but poorly adherent in 52 (35%); and uncontrolled, but adherent in 40 (27%).Repeated feedback significantly improved inhaler adherence. After a programme of adherence and inhaler technique assessment, only 40 patients (27%) were refractory and adherent, and might therefore need add-on therapy. Copyright ©ERS 2018.
Li, Zhi-Tong; Ji, Feng; Han, Xin-Wei; Gu, Lin-Xia; Wang, Li; Yue, Yong-Qiang; Wang, Zhong-Gao
To determine the correlation between asthma and hiatal hernia (HH) in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)-related asthma requiring laparoscopic anti-reflux surgery. One hundred and thirty-six GERD patients with medically refractory asthma with (80 patients) or without HH (56 patients) were enrolled. Gastroesophageal reflux disease was assessed by endoscopy, esophageal manometry, reflux monitoring and symptom questionnaires, and treated with laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication (LNF) or LNF with concomitant hiatal hernia repair (LNF-HHR). The outcome measures included patients' satisfaction and drug independence. The patients with HH had lower esophageal sphincters (P = .005) and higher DeMeester scores (P = .014) than those without HH. After an average follow-up of 24 months, symptom scores were significantly decreased from the preoperative values (P reflux, but also controlled asthma symptoms. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Chen, Hao-Cheng; Huang, Chien-Da; Chang, Erin; Kuo, Han-Pin
Omalizumab (Xolair®), a recombinant monoclonal anti-IgE antibody, has demonstrated efficacy in clinical trials conducted in patients with moderate to severe persistent allergic asthma. We aimed to investigate the efficacy, discontinuation and medical resource utilization of omalizumab in the real-life setting in Taiwan. This study was a retrospective, population-based database cohort study using the Taiwan NHIRD from 2007 to 2011 assessing the efficacy of omalizumab therapy over 4 months on changes in asthma medication, asthma control, frequency of exacerbations and hospitalization rates at baseline and after omalizumab discontinuation. There was a reduction in asthma medication post omalizumab therapy and severe exacerbations and hospitalizations from baseline (31.2%, n = 282) to the end of follow-up (11.8%, n = 144, p omalizumab, the cost of ER medical expenses decreased from New Taiwan dollars (NTD) 3934 at 2 months to NTD 2860 at 12 months. Patients who received omalizumab therapy for over 4 months were more likely to reduce the use of other asthma medications and less likely to experience an asthma exacerbation, ER visits, and hospitalization, even after the discontinuation of omalizumab. These data suggest that omalizumab has efficacy in improving health outcomes in patients with moderate to severe predominately chronic oral steroid dependent asthma in the real-life setting in Taiwan.
Plaza, Vicente; Peiró, Meritxell; Torrejón, Montserrat; Fletcher, Monica; López-Viña, Antolín; Ignacio, José María; Quintano, José Antonio; Bardagí, Santiago; Gich, Ignasi
We assessed the effectiveness of an asthma educational programme based on a repeated short intervention (AEP-RSI) to improve asthma control (symptom control and future risk) and quality of life. A total of 230 adults with mild-to-moderate persistent uncontrolled asthma participated in a 1-year cluster randomised controlled multicentre study. The AEP-RSI was given in four face-to-face sessions at 3-month intervals, and included administration of a written personalised action plan and training on inhaler technique. Centres were randomised to the AEP-RSI (intervention) group or usual clinical practice group. Specialised centres using a standard educational programme were the gold standard group. A significant improvement in the Asthma Control Test score was observed in all three groups (pQuality of Life Questionnaire scores (0.95±1.04 and 0.89±0.84 versus 0.52±0.97, respectively). The AEP-RSI was effective in improving asthma symptom control, future risk and quality of life. Copyright ©ERS 2015.
Sarver, Nancy; Murphy, Kevin
The high burden of asthma indicates suboptimal control of this chronic condition. This review describes approaches for establishing asthma control based on an understanding of potential issues in the achievement and maintenance of asthma control, recent changes in asthma management guidelines that facilitate attainment of treatment goals, and the importance of the healthcare provider-patient partnership to emphasize treatment based on asthma control. Review of the published literature, asthma management guidelines, and patient asthma education resources. Asthma control is best achieved by patient-oriented versus disease-oriented management strategies that incorporate a combination of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatment modalities. Tools that assess and monitor asthma may facilitate the achievement and maintenance of asthma control. Key components of an optimal management strategy include solid partnerships between healthcare providers and patients, comprehensive patient and caregiver education, personalized written asthma action plans, patient-reported evaluation of symptom control, appropriate drug therapy, strategies for improving compliance with asthma medication regimens, and a treatment algorithm that outlines the facets of asthma management. Information presented in this article will guide nurse practitioners in helping patients with asthma achieve and maintain long-term disease control.
Bittner-Fagan, Heather; Davis, Joshua; Savoy, Margot
Communication among physicians, staff, and patients is a critical element in patient safety. Effective communication skills can be taught and improved through training and awareness. The practice of family medicine allows for long-term relationships with patients, which affords opportunities for ongoing, high-quality communication. There are many barriers to effective communication, including patient factors, clinician factors, and system factors, but tools and strategies exist to address these barriers, improve communication, and engage patients in their care. Use of universal precautions for health literacy, appropriate medical interpreters, and shared decision-making are evidence-based tools that improve communication and increase patient safety. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.
Miric, Mirjana; Ristic, Sinisa; Joksimovic, Bojan N; Medenica, Snezana; Racic, Maja; Ristic, Slavica; Joksimovic, Vedrana R; Skipina, Mirjana
Background: Benzodiazepines have a direct bronchodilatory effect. Methacholine is a non-selective muscarinic receptor agonist causing bronchoconstriction. Aim: To examine the effects of inhaled benzodiazepines, modulating bronchoconstriction induced by methacholine in patients with asthma. Patients and Methods: Twelve patients with well controlled asthma were studied. On the first day, after determining the initial values of pulmonary function, a dose response curve was carried out with progr...
Wang, Lingcheng; Gao, Shuncui; Zhu, Wei; Su, Jun
Objectives : To determine the risk factors associated with persistent airflow limitation in patients with asthma. Method s: This study was designed and carried out in the department of respiratory medicine, fourth People?s Hospital of Jinan City, Shandong province, China between Jan 2012 and Dec 2012. Three hundred and six asthma patients participating in the study were divided into persistent airflow limitation group (PAFL) and no persistent airflow limitation group (NPAFL). The patients par...
van der Molen, Thys; Fletcher, Monica; Price, David
Asthma is a highly heterogeneous disease that can be classified into different clinical phenotypes, and treatment may be tailored accordingly. However, factors beyond purely clinical traits, such as patient attitudes and behaviors, can also have a marked impact on treatment outcomes. The objective of this study was to further analyze data from the REcognise Asthma and LInk to Symptoms and Experience (REALISE) Europe survey, to identify distinct patient groups sharing common attitudes toward asthma and its management. Factor analysis of respondent data (N = 7,930) from the REALISE Europe survey consolidated the 34 attitudinal variables provided by the study population into a set of 8 summary factors. Cluster analyses were used to identify patient clusters that showed similar attitudes and behaviors toward each of the 8 summary factors. Five distinct patient clusters were identified and named according to the key characteristics comprising that cluster: "Confident and self-managing," "Confident and accepting of their asthma," "Confident but dependent on others," "Concerned but confident in their health care professional (HCP)," and "Not confident in themselves or their HCP." Clusters showed clear variability in attributes such as degree of confidence in managing their asthma, use of reliever and preventer medication, and level of asthma control. The 5 patient clusters identified in this analysis displayed distinctly different personal attitudes that would require different approaches in the consultation room certainly for asthma but probably also for other chronic diseases. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Conclusions: Our results show that the AHQ-33 is useful as a disease-specific QOL instrument in Japanese patients with asthma and that it is better than the SF-36, which is a generic QOL instrument. In the future, the AHQ-33 should be compared to other asthma-specific questionnaires.
Background: Research into asthma is proceeding at an unprecedented rate and yet we live with a disease that escalates in prevalence and severity, ... Data from Australia, Canada and Spain report that acute asthma accounted for 1 to 12% of all adult .... budesonide inhalers, oral theophylline, long-acting β2-agonists and.
one-third of the direct care costs of asthma are attributable to ED visits ... The setting for this study was the emergency unit, the primary health clinic and the asthma .... diisocyanate or when they were employed in the pharmaceutical, plastics or ...
Full Text Available Asthma is a chronic, reversible obstructive disease that when in exacerbation can present to the emergency department in a spectrum of severity. Prompt recognition of the potentially severely ill asthmatic requires a careful history and physical exam while considering alternative diagnoses for the presenting symptoms. Early administration of salbutamol and corticosteroids is indicated in almost all patients with other medications such as ipratropium and magnesium and supportive modalities like BiPAP reserved for sicker patients. The global impact of asthma is increasing, especially amongst children. While the benign clinical presentation is most common and mortality has decreased in recent decades due to improved recognition and care, the ubiquity of the condition and frequent lack of regular outpatient management contribute to the disease claiming 250,000 lives worldwide annually. The emergency physician must be prepared to assess and appropriately manage both the young child with a mild wheeze and the adult in respiratory failure.
Patients with severe asthma are clinically, physiologically and biologically a heterogeneous group. About half of children referred for medical examination for severe asthma have true severe, therapy resistant asthma. The rest of referred patients have difficult to treat asthma. Symptoms persist mostly due to drug non-compliance, inappropriate inhalation technique, persistent environmental exposures or co-morbid conditions. Compared with adults have children more frequently atopic form of severe asthma. This is associated with eosinophilia in peripheral blood and sensitization to inhaled allergens. The IgE levels are high. Therapy of co-morbidities and improvement of treatment compliance lead in most cases to full asthma control. Proportion of children will benefit from biologics like anti-IgE monoclonal antibody, administered by subcutaneous injections in 2 to 4 week intervals. By this therapy it is not only possible to suppress symptoms, but also decrease the total steroid dose and the risk of adverse effects associated with its long-term administration. By achieving a full asthma control we lower future risk of exacerbations and probably improve long-term prognosis of disease, frequently persisting for the rest of life. (author)
Van Steenis MNA
Full Text Available MNA Van Steenis,1 JA Driesenaar,2 JM Bensing,2,3 R Van Hulten,4 PC Souverein,4 L Van Dijk,2,4 PAGM De Smet,5 AM Van Dulmen2,6,71Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands; 2NIVEL (Netherlands institute for health services research, Utrecht, The Netherlands; 3Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands; 4Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Clinical Pharmacology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands; 5IQ Healthcare, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; 6Department of Primary and Community Care, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; 7Department of Health Sciences, Buskerud University College, Drammen, NorwayBackground: Beliefs play a crucial role in medication adherence. Interestingly, the relationship between beliefs and adherence varies when different adherence measures are used. How adherence, in turn, is related to asthma symptoms is still unclear. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between beliefs (ie, necessities and concerns about inhaled corticosteroids (ICS and subjectively as well as objectively measure adherence and the agreement between these measures. Further, the relationship between adherence and asthma symptoms was examined.Methods: A total of 280 patients aged 18–80 years who filled at least two ICS prescriptions in the preceding year were recruited to complete a questionnaire. The questionnaire included the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire to assess necessity beliefs and concerns about ICS, four questions about ICS use to measure self-reported adherence, and the Asthma Control Questionnaire to assess asthma symptoms. Proportion of days covered was used to determine pharmacy refill adherence.Results: Data from 93 patients with asthma were analyzed. Necessities were positively related to self-reported adherence (P = 0.01. No other
Ilmarinen, Pinja; Tuomisto, Leena E; Niemelä, Onni; Tommola, Minna; Haanpää, Jussi; Kankaanranta, Hannu
Previous cluster analyses on asthma are based on cross-sectional data. To identify phenotypes of adult-onset asthma by using data from baseline (diagnostic) and 12-year follow-up visits. The Seinäjoki Adult Asthma Study is a 12-year follow-up study of patients with new-onset adult asthma. K-means cluster analysis was performed by using variables from baseline and follow-up visits on 171 patients to identify phenotypes. Five clusters were identified. Patients in cluster 1 (n = 38) were predominantly nonatopic males with moderate smoking history at baseline. At follow-up, 40% of these patients had developed persistent obstruction but the number of patients with uncontrolled asthma (5%) and rhinitis (10%) was the lowest. Cluster 2 (n = 19) was characterized by older men with heavy smoking history, poor lung function, and persistent obstruction at baseline. At follow-up, these patients were mostly uncontrolled (84%) despite daily use of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) with add-on therapy. Cluster 3 (n = 50) consisted mostly of nonsmoking females with good lung function at diagnosis/follow-up and well-controlled/partially controlled asthma at follow-up. Cluster 4 (n = 25) had obese and symptomatic patients at baseline/follow-up. At follow-up, these patients had several comorbidities (40% psychiatric disease) and were treated daily with ICS and add-on therapy. Patients in cluster 5 (n = 39) were mostly atopic and had the earliest onset of asthma, the highest blood eosinophils, and FEV 1 reversibility at diagnosis. At follow-up, these patients used the lowest ICS dose but 56% were well controlled. Results can be used to predict outcomes of patients with adult-onset asthma and to aid in development of personalized therapy (NCT02733016 at ClinicalTrials.gov). Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli
The association between asthma and obesity is well-described, but not straightforward, and according to current guidelines asthma control is more difficult to achieve in obese patients. The currently available studies evaluating response to pharmacological asthma therapy in obese patients show...... that these patients have an altered, in general less favorable, response to both reliever and controller medication compared to normal weight patients. However, at present, the limited available evidence precludes evidence-based recommendations. The 'obesity-related asthma' phenotype has different characteristics......, including association with atopy and type of airway inflammation, compared to 'classic' asthma. Furthermore, weight loss in patients with this phenotype leads to an improvement in symptoms, lung function, and airway responsiveness, as well as a reduction in medication utilization and hospital admissions...
Jones, Christina J; Frew, Anthony; Smith, Helen
Objectives It is not known which of the many asthma-specific quality of life (QoL) questionnaires best capture the lived experience of people with asthma. The objective of this study was to explore patients' views of three commonly used asthma-specific QoL questionnaires. Design Qualitative study using semistructured interviews. Setting Primary and secondary care in Brighton and Hove, UK. Participants 30 adult people with a physician-diagnosis of asthma who were asked to complete the Juniper Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ-J), the Sydney Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ-S) and the Living with Asthma Questionnaire (LWAQ) to elicit their views on the content validity of these. Results Thematic content analysis revealed a lack of congruence between the concerns of people with asthma and the questionnaire content in terms of missing (eg, allergies) and irrelevant (eg, smoky restaurants) content. The AQLQ-J was perceived as a ‘narrow’, ‘medical’ questionnaire focused on symptoms, the environment and functional ability. In contrast, the LWAQ and the AQLQ-S were perceived to be ‘non-medical’. The LWAQ was described as a ‘test’ and as a wide-ranging, embracing and holistic questionnaire. Its strong emotional focus was irritating to some. The AQLQ-S was described as a simple, quick and easy questionnaire, although there was a perception that it was lacking in depth. Conclusions Patient interviews highlighted strengths and shortcomings in the content validity of these three asthma-specific questionnaires. For patients, the AQLQ-S content seemed to be the most pertinent in its adequacy of coverage of medical, social and emotional aspects of health-related QoL in asthma. PMID:28007706
Londoño, Ana Maria Moreno; Schulz, Peter J
The majority of current health literacy tools assess functional skills including reading, writing, and numeracy. Although these tools have been able to underline the impact of such skills on individuals' health behaviour, there is a need for comprehensive measures to examine more advanced skills. The individual's ability to use health-related information considering his/her own health context, and judging positive and negative consequences of their decisions has been conceptualized as judgment skills. The present study used a newly developed judgment skills tool to explore asthma self-management practices. Eighty asthma patients were recruited from medical offices during the year 2013. The questionnaire was self-administered and contained health literacy questions, the judgment skill tool, the Asthma Control Test, and several self-management questions. Sixty-nine percent of participants had adequate health literacy, while 24% and 5% had marginal and inadequate levels, respectively. The high-judgment group referred more to their doctor when experiencing asthma problems t(76)=-2.18, Pskills tool can help identify asthma patients' health information use and reveal how this use may affect some self-management practices. Significance for public healthPatients' health literacy has a great impact on their health behaviours and their health outcomes. Therefore, it has become more and more common to measure health literacy within the healthcare setting to determine the most effective approach to target patients. The measurement of asthma judgment skills contribute to a deeper understanding of patients' asthma self-management in crucial topics for asthma control, and have the advantage of assessing the specific abilities needed for this particular condition, which in turn benefits the translation of the findings from the use of this tool into strategies that directly tackle the needs of asthma patients.
Full Text Available Stuart W Stoloff1, Gene L Colice2, Mary Lou Hayden3, Timothy J Craig4, Nancy K Ostrom5, Nemr S Eid6, Jonathan P Parsons71University of Nevada School of Medicine, Reno, NV, 2Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC, 3University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, 4Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, PA, 5Allergy and Asthma Medical Group and Research Center, San Diego, CA, 6University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, 7Ohio State University Asthma Center, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: Exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB can represent a substantial barrier to physical activity. We present the cases of two patients with EIB, one with asthma, and one without asthma, who were evaluated at our primary care practice. The first case was a 44-year-old man with a history of seasonal allergic rhinitis but no asthma, who reported difficulty breathing when playing tennis. The second case was a 45-year-old woman who presented with persistent, generally well-controlled asthma, who was now experiencing bouts of coughing and wheezing during exercise. In both cases, an exercise challenge was used to diagnose EIB, and patients were prescribed a short-acting beta agonist to be used immediately before initiating exercise. EIB is a frequently encountered problem among patients presenting to primary care specialists. Affected patients should be made aware of the importance of proactive treatment with a short-acting beta agonist before initiating any exercise.Keywords: asthma, compliance, exercise-induced bronchospasm
Rodriguez Martinez, Carlos; Sossa, Monica Patricia
Bronchial asthma is one of the most frequent respiratory diseases in childhood. Recurrent emergency department visits for asthma produce anxiety and high costs for the system of health and for the family. It is important to know the factors related to these recurrent emergency department visits to assist the targeting of appropriate future interventions aimed at reducing this avoidable presentation. The objective of the present study was to identify factors associated with recurrent emergency department visits for asthma in children liable to be modified by means of an education program. Data obtained from a survey of parents of 146 pediatric patients with asthma attending an asthma clinic and educational program were examined. Parents completed an asthma knowledge and attitudes questionnaire that also included other socio demographic and illness-related variables, including the number of consultations to emergency department by their children asthma in the previous 6 months. Of the 146 asthmatic patients enrolled, 41 (28.1%) consulted repeatedly to the emergency department for asthma. After controlling for age of the patient, educational level of the parents, and functional severity of the disease, we found that parents who reported that they attended to emergency room because asthma attacks of their children were severe enough to go elsewhere (OR, 4.57; CL95%, 1.76- 11.85; P = 0.002), parents who reported that asthma medications should be administered only in symptomatic moments (OR 278, CL 95%, 1.05 - 7.33, P = 0.038 and parents that did not recognize the fact that asthma attacks can be avoided if medications are administered when there are no symptoms (between asthma attacks) (OR 2.61; CL95%; 1.03 - 7.02; p = 0,045), had a greater probability to attend rapidly the emergency room because of asthma of their children. The fact that parents of asthmatic patients have thought that asthma medications should be administered only in symptomatic patients, that they hadn
Dürr, Selina; Hersberger, Kurt E; Zeller, Andreas; Scheuzger, Jonas; Miedinger, David; Gregoriano, Claudia; Joos Zellweger, Ladina; Steurer-Stey, Claudia; Leuppi, Jörg Daniel
Despite great efforts in establishing optimal asthma management, asthma may remain uncontrolled. To effectively manage chronic diseases, such as asthma, it is important to train patients in self-management skills. The aim of this study was to assess the potential benefit of standardised asthma education in Switzerland for asthma control and patients' perception of received asthma care and of self-management support. For this multicentre longitudinal controlled study, asthma patients were recruited in Switzerland. The Asthma Control Test (ACT) was used to assess asthma control. The Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care questionnaire (PACIC 5A) was applied to evaluate received health-care services and self-management support. Patients were offered the possibility to attend asthma education sessions conducted by the Swiss Lung League and Swiss Allergy Centre. After 1 year, attenders and non-attenders completed the questionnaires again. Changes in ACT and PACIC 5A scores were analysed using dependent t tests. Overall, 223 patients with asthma were investigated (mean age 43 ± 12 years, 38% male, 13% current smokers, 29% ex-smokers). Sixty-one (27%) patients attended education sessions. Both groups had improved asthma control at follow-up (attenders: t(56) = -3.2, r = 0.4 [medium effect size], p = 0.002; non-attenders: t(141) = -2.6, r = 0.2 [small effect size], p = 0.010). Attenders improved in PACIC and 5A sum scores (t(50) = -3.6, r = 0.5 [medium effect size], p = 0.001). A comprehensive self-management asthma education programme in Switzerland improved asthma control and patients' perception of received asthma care and of self-management support. Professionals should motivate patients to attend asthma education in order to become active partners in managing their disease. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Soto Campos, José Gregorio; Rojas Villegas, Josefa; Padilla Galo, Alicia; Marina Malanda, Nuria; Garcia Rivero, Juan Luis; Pinedo Sierra, Celia; Garcia Salmones, Mercedes; Cabrera Galán, Carmen; Segura Molina, Esperanza; Plaza, Vicente; Pascual Erquicia, Silvia
Sexual limitations play an important role in the quality of life of patients with chronic diseases. Very limited information is available on the impact of asthma on the sexual functioning of these individuals. Cross-sectional, observational, multicenter study. Asthma patients and healthy individuals were recruited. All subjects participated in an interview in which demographic and clinical data were recorded, and completed the Goldberg Anxiety-Depression Scale (GADS) to evaluate the presence of concomitant psychiatric disease. Men also completed the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), and women, the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). A total of 276cases were included, comprising 172asthma patients (63 men and 109 women) with a mean age of 42 (±14) years, and 104 controls (52men and 51women) with a mean age of 39 (±12) years. Time since onset of asthma was 15 years and severity distribution was: 6.4% intermittent, 17.9% mild persistent, 47.4% moderate, and 28.2% severe. Disease was considered controlled in 57.7%, partially controlled in 28.2%, and uncontrolled in 14.1%. Women with asthma had greater sexual limitations than women in the control group, with a total FSFI score of 22.1 (±9) compared to 26.5 (±6.8), respectively (P<.005). Men with asthma had significantly more severe erectile dysfunction with a total IIEF score of 59.5 (±12.5) compared to 64.3 (±8.2) in male controls (P<.05). An association was also observed between sexual problems and poorer asthma control. Asthma is associated with a poorer sexual quality of life among patients. These results should arouse the interest of healthcare professionals in detecting and alleviating possible sexual limitations among their asthma patients in routine clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Miguel Román-Rodríguez,1 Lara Ibarrola-Ruiz,2 Fernando Mora,3 Vicente Plaza,4 Joaquín Sastre,5 Alfonso Torrego,4 José María Vega6 Guadalupe Sánchez-Herrero2 1Centro de Salud Son Pisà, IB-Salut, Balearic Health Service, Unidad de investigación en enfermedades crónicas respiratorias en atención primaria, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Baleares (IdISBa, Palma de Mallorca, 2GSK, 3Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Infanta Leonor, Madrid, 4Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Institut d’Investigació Biomédica Sant Pau (IIB Sant Pau, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, 5Department of Allergology, Fundación Jimenez Díaz y Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias, Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad, Madrid, 6Unidad de Gestión Clínica de Alergología, Hospital Regional Universitario de Málaga, Málaga, Spain Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the attitudes and perceptions of health care professionals (HCPs who have been trained in motivational interviewing (MI to improve adherence. Another objective of this study was to compare groups of HCPs with different levels of training in adherence (trained vs untrained; previous training in adherence education [AdhE] vs specific training in MI. Methods: For this study, a national questionnaire-based survey was conducted among HCPs treating asthma. A total of 360 HCPs were surveyed (allergists: n=110; pulmonologists: n=120; general practitioners: n=130. Of them, 180 physicians had received a training intervention (training in AdhE: n=90; training in MI to promote adherence: n=90. Results: Of the total surveyed HCPs, 92.8% reported adherence is highly important in asthma control. More professionals trained in MI compared to those trained in AdhE considered that “simplifying treatment as far as possible” (85.6% vs 68.9%, P=0.0077, “involving the patient in treatment plans” (85.6% vs
The "physician on call patient engagement trial" (POPET): measuring the impact of a mobile patient engagement application on health outcomes and quality of life in allergic rhinitis and asthma patients.
Cingi, Cemal; Yorgancioglu, Arzu; Cingi, Can Cemal; Oguzulgen, Kıvılcım; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Ulusoy, Seçkin; Orhon, Nezih; Yumru, Cengiz; Gokdag, Dursun; Karakaya, Gul; Çelebi, Şaban; Çobanoglu, H Bengü; Unlu, Halis; Aksoy, Mehmet Akif
In this prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled, double-blind study, we investigated the impact of a mobile patient engagement application on health outcomes and quality of life in allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma patients. In total, 327 patients with diagnoses of persistent AR or mild-to-severe persistent asthma were randomized into 2 intervention groups and 2 control groups upon their admission at outpatient clinics. The intervention groups (POPET-AR and POPET-Asthma) received a mobile phone application ("physician on call patient engagement trial" [POPET]), enabling them to communicate with their physician, and record their health status and medication compliance. The AR groups completed the Rhinitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ) at initiation and at the first month of the study. The asthma groups completed the Asthma Control Test (ACT) at initiation and at the third month of the study. The POPET-AR group showed better clinical improvement than the control group in terms of the overall RQLQ score as well in measures of general problems, activity, symptoms other than nose/eye, and emotion domains (p 19) compared with the control group (27%); this was statistically significant (p mobile engagement platform, such as POPET, can have a significant impact on health outcomes and quality of life in both AR and asthma, potentially decreasing the number of hospital admissions, repeat doctor visits, and losses in productivity. Improvements were seen in domains related to activity, productivity, perception of disease, and emotion. © 2015 ARS-AAOA, LLC.
People with intellectual disability are a vulnerable group of people with asthma that has, to date, largely been ignored in the medical literature. Although guidelines for medication management for people with intellectual disability suggest asthma is treated as for other populations, there are special considerations that should be taken into account when managing asthma in this group. Due to their cognitive impairment as well as comorbidities, they are likely to require support with asthma self-management, including inhaler use. Their varying degrees of autonomy mean that there is often a need to provide education and information to both the person and their caregivers. Educational aims To understand general principles of health of people with intellectual disability and how this affects the healthcare professional’s approach to asthma management. To understand how intellectual disability affects cognition, autonomy and communication, and therefore the ability of a person to self-manage asthma. To recognise ways of mitigating respiratory disease risk in people with intellectual disability. To describe ways for healthcare professionals to support people with intellectual disability and their caregivers in asthma management. PMID:28210318
Vogelmeier, Claus; Kardos, Peter; Hofmann, Thomas; Canisius, Sebastian; Scheuch, Gerhard; Muellinger, Bernhard; Nocker, Karlheinz; Menz, Guenter; Rabe, Klaus F
This phase 2/3 randomised, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial investigated oral corticosteroid (OCS)-sparing efficacy, safety and tolerability of nebulised budesonide (Bud) administered with a novel computer-controlled, compressor-driven inhalation system (AKITA) as add-on therapy to Global Initiative for Asthma step 5. Patients (18-65 years) with OCS-dependent asthma were randomised (2:1:1:1) to receive 18-week, twice-daily, double-blind treatment with AKITA inhaled corticosteroid (AICS)-Bud 1 mg, AICS-Bud 0.5 mg, AICS-placebo or open-label Bud 1 mg administered by conventional nebuliser (CN-Bud). OCS doses were tapered until week 14. 199 patients started treatment. More AICS-Bud 1 mg (80.0%) than placebo-treated (62.5%) patients had daily OCS doses reduced ≥50%, with clinical stability to week 18 (one-sided p=0.02; treatment difference: 17.5% (95% CI 0.1-34.9%), two-sided p=0.04). Mean±sd forced expiratory volume in 1 s improved (from baseline to week 18) for AICS-Bud 1 mg (239±460 mL, pcontrol. Copyright ©ERS 2015.
E.C. Vasbinder (Erwin); H.M. Janssens (Hettie); M.P.M.H. Rutten-van Mölken (Maureen); L. van Dijk (Liset); B.C.M. de Winter (Brenda); R.C.A. de Groot (Ruben); A.G. Vulto (Arnold); P.M.L.A. van den Bemt (Patricia)
textabstractBackground: Many children with asthma do not have sufficient asthma control, which leads to increased healthcare costs and productivity loss of parents. One of the causative factors are adherence problems. Effective interventions improving medication adherence may therefore improve
Full Text Available Background. Pulmonary function tests (PFT have been developed to analyze tidal breathing in patients who are minimally cooperative due to age and respiratory status. This study used tidal breathing tests in the ED to measure asthma severity. Design/Method. A prospective pilot study in pediatric patients (3 to 18 yrs with asthma/wheezing was conducted in an ED setting using respiratory inductance plethysmography and pneumotachography. The main outcome measures were testing feasibility, compliance, and predictive value for admission versus discharge. Results. Forty patients were studied, of which, 14 (35% were admitted. Fifty-five percent of the patients were classified as a mild-intermittent asthmatic, 30% were mild-persistent asthmatics, 12.5% were moderate-persistent asthmatics, and 2.5% were severe-persistent. Heart rate was higher in admitted patients as was labored breathing index, phase angle, and asthma score. Conclusions. Tidal breathing tests provide feasible, objective assessment of patient status in the enrolled age group and may assist in the evaluation of acute asthma exacerbation in the ED. Our results demonstrate that PFT measurements, in addition to asthma scores, may be useful in indicating the severity of wheezing/asthma and the need for admission.
Westergaard, Christian G; Porsbjerg, Celeste; Backer, Vibeke
BACKGROUND: Tobacco use causes long-term morbidity and mortality. In patients with asthma, the frequency of smokers is high; however, asthmatic smokers experience more pronounced symptoms, accelerated loss of lung function and treatment resistance. Varenicline is an effective drug in smoking...... cessation, when investigated in COPD patients and general populations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Varenicline on tobacco cessation in young asthmatics. METHODS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded trial, 52 asthmatic current smokers (age 19-40) ≥ 10 cigarettes....... RESULTS: In the Varenicline group, at week 12, 69% of the patients quit smoking vs. 36% in the placebo group (p = 0.017, intended-to-treat analysis), but after 24 weeks, a high relapse rate was present (quit rates 19% vs. 16%, NS). After 6 weeks of treatment, significant improvements in airway...
Meijer, RJ; Postma, DS; Kauffman, HF; Arends, LR; Koeter, GH; Kerstjens, HAM
Background There is a large variability in clinical response to corticosteroid treatment in patients with asthma. Several markers of inflammation like eosinophils and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), as well as exhaled nitric oxide (NO), are good candidates to predict clinical response. Aim We
Full Text Available Plasma from bronchial asthma patients and healthy controls was investigated for the content of lipoxygenase products. After lipid extraction using SEP-PAK C18 Cartridges, the lipoxygenase products were measured by Enzyme-Immunoassay. Elevated chemotactic B4 was found in plasma from asthmatic patients with mean value (483±75 pmoUL, while the mean value in normal healthy donors was (140± 12.1 pmol/L (M±SE. The levels of spasmogenic cysteinyl containing leukotrienes were also very high in the bronchial asthma patients. Elevations of leukotriene B4 and cysteinyl containing leukotrienes were detected during attacks of bronchial asthma. These results suggest that leukotriene B4 may be important in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma and confirmed that peptidoleukotrienes playa role as chemical mediators during the asthmatic attack.
Marín-Centeno, Heriberto A; Ramos-Valencia, Gilberto; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Mario; González-Gavillán, Jesús; Díaz-Toro, Elba C; Torres-Cintrón, Mariela
Asthma is an important and serious public health problem in Puerto Rico; however, very few studies measuring the association between health care utilization and asthma control levels in adult asthma patients in Puerto Rico have been done. This study is secondary analysis of an observational and cross-sectional database generated by the Latin American Asthma Insights and Management (LA AIM) survey. Our sub-sample consisted of adults 18 years or older living with asthma, representing a total of 343 individuals. This study determined the numbers of ambulatory physician visits, emergency visits to a physician or an emergency room, and hospitalizations that took place the 12 months prior to the survey. Patients were characterized as having well-controlled, partly controlled, or uncontrolled asthma. Descriptive and inferential statistics were performed to detect differences in the mean and number of events for physician visits, emergency visits, and hospitalizations by asthma control groups. After adjusting for age, sex, and chronic health conditions (other than asthma), adult asthma patients with controlled asthma had 92.0% fewer physician visits, 82.5% fewer emergency visits, and 92.2% fewer hospitalizations than did those with uncontrolled asthma. Interventions geared toward controlling asthma symptoms and clinical manifestations in adults asthma patients-which interventions might include strategies for controlling environmental risk factors, increasing patient and family education with regard to asthma management, and boosting the use of appropriate and effective medications-may have significant potential in terms of reducing the direct and indirect costs of asthma, costs that have a critical impact on the whole health care system.
Laura Russo Zillmer
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of asthma, by gender, in a population sample of asthma patients in Brazil. METHODS: We conducted face-to-face interviews with 400 subjects (> 12 years of age included in a national probability telephone sample of asthma patients in the Brazilian state capitals of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Curitiba, and Salvador. Each of those 400 subjects completed a 53-item questionnaire that addressed five asthma domains: symptoms; impact of asthma on quality of life; perception of asthma control; exacerbations; and treatment/medication. RESULTS: Of the 400 patients interviewed, 272 (68% were female. In relation to respiratory symptoms, the proportion of women reporting extremely bothersome symptoms (cough with sputum, tightness in the chest, cough/shortness of breath/tightness in the chest during exercise, nocturnal shortness of breath, and nocturnal cough was greater than was that of men. Daytime symptoms, such as cough, shortness of breath, wheezing, and tightness in the chest, were more common among women than among men. Women also more often reported that their asthma interfered with normal physical exertion, social activities, sleep, and life in general. Regarding the impact of asthma on quality of life, the proportion of subjects who reported that asthma caused them to feel that they had no control over their lives and affected the way that they felt about themselves was also greater among women than among men. CONCLUSIONS: Among women, asthma tends to be more symptomatic, as well as having a more pronounced effect on activities of daily living and on quality of life.
Brygge, Thor; Heinig, John Hilligsøe; Collins, Philippa
INTRODUCTION: Many patients with asthma seek alternative or adjunctive therapies. One such modality is reflexology. Our aim was to examine the popular claim that reflexology treatment benefits bronchial asthma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten weeks of either active or simulated (placebo) reflexology were...... compared in an otherwise blind, controlled trial of 40 patients with asthma. RESULTS: Objective lung function tests did not change. Subjective scores and bronchial sensitivity to histamine improved on both regimens, but no differences were found in the groups receiving active or placebo reflexology....... However, a trend in favour of reflexology became significant when a supplementary analysis of symptom diaries was carried out. At the same time a significant pattern compatible with subconscious un-blinding was found. DISCUSSION: We found no evidence that reflexology has a specific effect on asthma beyond...
Ngo, Chuong; Dippel, Falk; Tenbrock, Klaus; Leonhardt, Steffen; Lehmann, Sylvia
Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) provides information on global and regional ventilation during tidal breathing and mechanical ventilation. During forced expiration maneuvers, the linearity of EIT and spirometric data has been documented in healthy persons. The present study investigates the potential diagnostic use of EIT in pediatric patients with asthma. EIT and spirometry were performed in 58 children with asthma (average age ± SD: 11.86 ± 3.13 years), and 58 healthy controls (average age ± SD: 12.12 ± 2.9 years). The correlation between EIT data and simultaneously acquired spirometric data were tested for FEV 1 , FEV 0.5 , MEF 75 , MEF 50 , and MEF 25 . Binary classification tests were performed for the EIT-derived Tiffeneau index FEV 1 /FVC and the bronchodilator test index ΔFEV 1 . Average flow-volume (FV) loops were generated for patients with pathologic spirometry to demonstrate the feasibility of EIT for graphic diagnosis of asthma. Spirometry and global EIT-based FV loops showed a strong correlation (P 0.9 in FEV 1 and FEV 0.5 ). In all criteria, the binary classification tests yielded high specificity (>93%), a high positive predictive value (≥75%) and a high negative predictive value (>80%), while sensitivity was higher in ΔFEV 1 (86.67%) and lower in FEV 1 /FVC (25% and 35.29%). A typical concave shape of the EIT-derived average FV loops was observed for asthmatic children with improvement after bronchospasmolysis. Global FV loops derived from EIT correlate well with spirometry. Positive bronchospasmolysis can be observed in EIT-derived FV loops. Flow-volume loops originated from EIT have a potential to visualize pulmonary function. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Objective: Although many children with asthma can be diagnosed clinically, chest radiographs are routinely requested in asthma attacks. The aim of this study is to determine how often chest radiographs are requested and the factors affecting these requests in pediatric patients with asthma. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed by studying the electronic radiographic records of pediatric patients with asthma who were referred to our Pediatric Allergy and Immunology Department over a six-month period. A questionnaire was designed to obtain further information from the parents of the patients. Results: The records of 100 children with bronchial asthma, aged 21 to 192 months, were evaluated. The average number of chest radiographs was 3.9±3.8 (between 1-30. Fifty-one percent of the children underwent three or more chest radiographs. There was a positive correlation between the number of chest X-rays before asthma diagnosis and the frequency of antibiotic usage (r=0.222, p=0.026. An inverse correlation was found between the number of chest radiographs and the patients’ ages and the age at which asthma was diagnosed (r=−0.335, p=0.001; r=−0.211, p=0.035, respectively. In contrast, there was a positive correlation between the number of chest X-rays and the number of hospital admissions (r=0.205, p=0.040. A positive correlation between the frequency of antibiotic usage and the annual number of hospital admissions was determined (r=0.428, p=0.000. Furthermore, a positive correlation between the frequency of antibiotic usage and the frequency of asthma attacks was observed (r=0.292, p=0.003. Conclusion: The results of our study show that the use of chest radiographs is high in cases of childhood asthma, especially in younger children.
Jin, Hongjun; Hallstrand, Teal S.; Daly, Don S.; Matzke, Melissa M.; Nair, Parameswaran; Bigelow, Diana J.; Pounds, Joel G.; Zangar, Richard C.
Background-Airway inflammation plays an important pathophysiological role in asthma. Eosinophils produce hypobromite and bromotyrosine while neutrophils produce hypochlorite and chlorotyrosine. Objective-To evaluate halotyrosine modifications of individual airway proteins as a marker of inflammation in asthma using an antibody-based assay. Methods-We developed a novel monoclonal antibody (BTK-94C) that binds halogenated tyrosine residues, and used this antibody in a custom enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) microarray platform to examine halotyrosine levels in 23 proteins in three independent sets of sputum samples (52 samples total). Results-In 15 subjects with either no asthma, or with asthma characterized by high or low sputum eosinophil counts, we found associations between increased halotyrosine levels of at least three proteins and severity of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Treatment with mepolizumab in 17 patients with sputum eosinophilia markedly reduced the sputum eosinophilia and significantly reduced halotyrosine levels in one sputum protein. Further analysis of 10 subjects with neutrophilic asthma and 10 health controls demonstrated a broad increase in halotyrosine in the patients with airway neutrophilia. Conclusions-Significantly higher levels of halotyrosine are associated with asthma in the asthma phenotypes we examined. The halotyrosine levels correlated with indirect AHR in the form of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Clinical Implication-An antibody-based assay for tyrosine halogenation in specific proteins may prove useful for assessing airway inflammation in asthma. Capsule Summary-An antibody to measure protein monobrominated tyrosine and other halotyrosine modifications was developed and used to evaluate halogenation in specific proteins in the airways for the first time. Associations were found between levels of halotyrosine and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, and eosinophil and neutrophil inflammation in sputum from
Egeberg, A; Khalid, U; Gislason, G H
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis and asthma are disorders driven by inflammation. Psoriasis may carry an increased risk of asthma, but the reverse relationship has not been investigated. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the risk of psoriasis in subjects with childhood asthma in a nationwide Danish cohort. METHODS......: Data on all Danish individuals aged 6-14 years at study entry between 1 January 1997 and 31 December 2011 (n = 1,478,110) were linked at an individual level in nationwide registers. Incidence rates per 10,000 person-years were calculated, and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) adjusted for age, sex......, concomitant medication and comorbidity were estimated by Poisson regression models. RESULTS: There were 21,725 cases of childhood asthma and 6586 incident cases of psoriasis. There were 5697 and 889 incident cases of mild and severe psoriasis, respectively. The incidence rates of overall, mild and severe...
Liu, Andrew H; Anderson, William C; Dutmer, Cullen M; Searing, Daniel A; Szefler, Stanley J
In 2015, progress in understanding asthma ranged from insights to asthma inception, exacerbations, and severity to advancements that will improve disease management throughout the lifespan. 2015's insights to asthma inception included how the intestinal microbiome affects asthma expression with the identification of specific gastrointestinal bacterial taxa in early infancy associated with less asthma risk, possibly by promoting regulatory immune development at a critical early age. The relevance of epigenetic mechanisms in regulating asthma-related gene expression was strengthened. Predicting and preventing exacerbations throughout life might help to reduce progressive lung function decrease and disease severity in adulthood. Although allergy has long been linked to asthma exacerbations, a mechanism through which IgE impairs rhinovirus immunity and underlies asthma exacerbations was demonstrated and improved by anti-IgE therapy (omalizumab). Other key molecular pathways underlying asthma exacerbations, such as cadherin-related family member 3 (CDHR3) and orosomucoid like 3 (ORMDL3), were elucidated. New anti-IL-5 therapeutics, mepolizumab and reslizumab, were US Food and Drug Administration approved for the treatment of patients with severe eosinophilic asthma. In a clinical trial the novel therapeutic inhaled GATA3 mRNA-specific DNAzyme attenuated early- and late-phase allergic responses to inhaled allergen. These current findings are significant steps toward addressing unmet needs in asthma prevention, severity modification, disparities, and lifespan outcomes. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lu, Degan; Qiao, Yanru; Johnson, Karen C; Wang, Junling
Asthma is one of the most frequently targeted chronic diseases in the medication therapy management (MTM) programs of the Medicare prescription drug (Part D) benefits. Although racial and ethnic disparities in meeting eligibility criteria for MTM services have been reported, little is known about whether there would be similar disparities among adults with asthma in the United States. Adult patients with asthma (age ≥ 18) from Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (2011-2012) were analyzed. Bivariate analyses were conducted to compare the proportions of patients who would meet Medicare MTM eligibility criteria between non-Hispanic Blacks (Blacks), Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites (Whites). Survey-weighted logistic regression was performed to adjust for patient characteristics. Main and sensitivity analyses were conducted to cover the entire range of the eligibility thresholds used by Part D plans in 2011-2012. The sample included 4,455 patients with asthma, including 2,294 Whites, 1,218 Blacks, and 943 Hispanics. Blacks and Hispanics had lower proportions of meeting MTM eligibility criteria than did Whites (P asthma. Future studies should examine the implications of such disparities on health outcomes of patients with asthma and explore alternative MTM eligibility criteria.
Full Text Available Introduction. Asthma is a chronic disease, from which more and more people in the world suffer. It is connected with many bothersome symptoms and limitations, which result in decreased quality of life for the patient. Environmental and individual aspects do not necessarily affect individuals in the same way, so it is necessary to determine which factors have predominantly impacted on an individual, in order to minimize their impact and to take better control over treatment of asthma. The aim of this research was to compare the quality of life among patients with bronchial asthma living in Krakow in the areas where they get exposed to varying concentrations of particulate matter (PM10. Material and methods. The study included 98 adults diagnosed with bronchial asthma. The research was conducted using the AQLQ poll. PM10 concentration was measured in several Malopolska Air Pollution Monitoring Stations located throughout the city. Results. Analyzing the quality of life in the view of symptoms, activity limitations and emotional well being, there was a substantial statistical difference observed in people occupying the areas with different PM10 concentrations. No significant statistical difference was observed in the frequency of asthma symptoms caused by the environmental stimuli between the 2 discussed groups. One group of patients who came to the allergy clinic for control of asthma symptoms and the second group who live in the vicinity of the monitoring stations measuring PM10 concentrations. Conclusions. For many of the cases, the quality of life was not worse for patients with asthma living in an area with slightly elevated concentrations of PM10, and sometimes paradoxically the quality of life was improved. These results show that PM10 concentrations do not correlate with quality of life of asthma patients.
Chipps, Bradley E; Zeiger, Robert S; Luskin, Allan T; Busse, William W; Trzaskoma, Benjamin L; Antonova, Evgeniya N; Pazwash, Hooman; Limb, Susan L; Solari, Paul G; Griffin, Noelle M; Casale, Thomas B
Patients included in clinical trials do not necessarily reflect the real-world population. To understand the characteristics, including disease and comorbidity burden, of patients with asthma receiving omalizumab in a real-world setting. The Prospective Observational Study to Evaluate Predictors of Clinical Effectiveness in Response to Omalizumab (PROSPERO) was a US-based, multicenter, single-arm, and prospective study. Patients (≥12 years of age) with allergic asthma initiating omalizumab treatment based on physician-assessed need were included and followed for 12 months. Exacerbations, health care use, adverse events, and Asthma Control Test (ACT) scores were assessed monthly. Biomarkers (blood eosinophils, fractional exhaled nitric oxide, and periostin) were evaluated and patient-reported outcomes (Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire for 12 Years and Older [AQLQ+12] and Work Productivity and Activity Impairment: Asthma questionnaire [WPAI:Asthma]) were completed at baseline and months 6 and 12. The Mini Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (MiniRQLQ) was completed at baseline and 12 months. Most of the 806 enrollees (91.4%) were adults (mean age 47.3 years, SD 17.4), white (70.3%), and female (63.5%). Allergic comorbidity was frequently reported (84.2%), as were hypertension (35.5%) and depression (22.1%). In the 12 months before study entry, 22.1% of patients reported at least 1 asthma-related hospitalization, 60.7% reported at least 2 exacerbations, and 83.3% reported ACT scores no higher than 19 (uncontrolled asthma). Most patients had low biomarker levels based on prespecified cut-points. Baseline mean patient-reported outcome scores were 4.0 (SD 1.4) for AQLQ+12, 2.7 (SD 1.4) for MiniRQLQ, and 47.7 (SD 28.9) for WPAI:Asthma percentage of activity impairment and 33.5 (SD 28.7) for percentage of overall work impairment. The population initiating omalizumab in PROSPERO reported poorly controlled asthma and a substantial disease burden. Clinical
Muniz Janaína Barbosa
Full Text Available Asthma results from a combination of three essential features: airflow obstruction, hyperresponsiveness of airways to endogenous or exogenous stimuli and inflammation. Inadequacy of the techniques to use different inhalation devices is one of the causes of therapeutic failure. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate how 20 medical students, 36 resident physicians of Internal Medicine/Pediatrics, and 40 asthma patients used three devices for inhalation therapy containing placebo. All patients were followed at the Pulmonary Outpatient Service of Botucatu Medical School and had been using inhaled medication for at least six months. The following devices were evaluated: metered dose inhalers (MDI, dry powder inhalers (DPI, and MDI attached to a spacer device. A single observer applied a protocol containing the main steps necessary to obtain a good inhaler technique to follow and grade the use of different devices. Health care professionals tested all three devices and patients tested only the device being used on their management. MDI was the device best known by doctors and patients. MDI use was associated with errors related to the coordination between inspiration and device activation. Failure to exhale completely before inhalation of the powder was the most frequent error observed with DPI use. In summary, patients did not receive precise instruction on how to use inhaled medication and health care professionals were not well prepared to adequately teach their patients.
Bhutani, Mohit; Yang, William H; Hébert, Jacques; de Takacsy, Frederica; Stril, Jean-Louis
Omalizumab is a non-steroidal medication indicated for the treatment of poorly controlled moderate-to-severe allergic asthmatics. This observational study examines the "real world" effectiveness of omalizumab in this population. This is a one year open-label observational study that compared clinical outcomes including total oral corticosteroid use, exacerbation history, measures of quality of life and inflammation in patients with moderate-to-severe allergic asthma, who were prescribed omalizumab as part of their treatment with the year prior to therapy. A total of 99 patients were enrolled at 25 sites in Canada. During the study period, the mean total annual OCS dose was reduced from 2301.5 mg (prednisone equivalents) in the year prior to omalizumab to 1130.0 mg (pomalizumab remained exacerbation free when compared to the year prior to study entry. Associated with this was reduced health care utilization. There were significant improvements in the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) and Asthma Quality of Life questionnaire (AQLQ) Patients with an elevated FeNO at baseline showed a better response to treatment. No new safety issues were identified during the study period. Our study demonstrates that in "real world" clinical practice, after initiating omalizumab, there is a reduction in total OCS use and exacerbation frequency in patients with moderate-to-severe allergic asthma. Patients on treatment reported improved asthma control and quality of life. FeNO may be a useful biomarker to identify patients who may benefit with omalizumab treatment.
Methods: A randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group, multicenter trial was conducted. Male and female patients with a diagnosis of asthma requiring inhaled short-acting β2-agonists despite treatment with inhaled corticosteroids took tulobuterol tape (1 mg or 2 mg and corresponding placebo tapes for 4 weeks. Results: Mean morning peak expiratory flows (PEF in the 1 and 2 mg/day groups were significantly increased from the baseline value by 23.8 and 35.9 L/min at week 4, respectively. The increase in mean morning PEF in the 2 mg/day group was significantly higher than that in the 1 mg/day group. The mean evening PEF was significantly increased in both treatment groups compared with baseline values. Although the increase in mean evening PEF in the 2 mg/day group was greater than that in the 1 mg/day group, the difference between groups was statistically significant only at week 1. The safety profiles of the two treatments were similar. Conclusions: In patients with persistent asthma who require inhaled short-acting β2-agonists while receiving inhaled corticosteroids, transdermal tulobuterol significantly improved PEF in a dose-dependent manner, i.e., greater effect with 2 mg than with 1 mg per day.
Wilson, Elizabeth A H; Park, Denise C; Curtis, Laura M; Cameron, Kenzie A; Clayman, Marla L; Makoul, Gregory; Vom Eigen, Keith; Wolf, Michael S
We examined the effects of presentation medium on immediate and delayed recall of information and assessed the effect of giving patients take-home materials after initial presentations. Primary-care patients received video-based, print-based or no asthma education about asthma symptoms and triggers and then answered knowledge-based questions. Print participants and half the video participants received take-home print materials. A week later, available participants completed the knowledge assessment again. Participants receiving either intervention outperformed controls on immediate and delayed assessments (pprint and video participants. A week later, receiving take-home print predicted better performance (pprint (pprint participants immediately after seeing the materials (pmaterials, review predicted marginally better recall (p=0.06). Video and print interventions can promote recall of health-related information. Additionally, reviewable materials, if they are utilized, may improve retention. When creating educational tools, providers should consider how long information must be retained, its content, and the feasibility of providing tangible supporting materials. Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Raundhal, Mahesh; Oriss, Timothy B.; Ray, Prabir; Wenzel, Sally E.
The term asthma encompasses a disease spectrum with mild to very severe disease phenotypes whose traditional common characteristic is reversible airflow limitation. Unlike milder disease, severe asthma is poorly controlled by the current standard of care. Ongoing studies using advanced molecular and immunological tools along with improved clinical classification show that severe asthma does not identify a specific patient phenotype, but rather includes patients with constant medical needs, whose pathobiologic and clinical characteristics vary widely. Accordingly, in recent clinical trials, therapies guided by specific patient characteristics have had better outcomes than previous therapies directed to any subject with a diagnosis of severe asthma. However, there are still significant gaps in our understanding of the full scope of this disease that hinder the development of effective treatments for all severe asthmatics. In this Review, we discuss our current state of knowledge regarding severe asthma, highlighting different molecular and immunological pathways that can be targeted for future therapeutic development. PMID:27367183
Ye. S. Kulikov
Full Text Available Introduction: The leading mechanisms and causes of severe therapy resistant asthma are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to define global patterns of gene expression in adults with severe therapy-resistant asthma in dynamic during treatment period.Methods: Performed 24-week prospective interventional study in parallel groups. Severe asthma patients was aposterior divided at therapy sensitive and resistant patients according to ATS criteria. Global transcriptome profile was characterized using the Affymetrix HuGene ST1.0 chip. Cluster analysis was performed.Results and conclusion: According to our data several mechanisms of therapy resistance may be considered: increased levels of nitric oxide and beta2-agonists nitration, dysregulation of endogenous steroids secretion and involvement in the pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus. Absence of suppression of gene expression KEGG-pathway “asthma" may reflect the low efficiency or long period of anti-inflammatory therapy effect realization.
Guo Yinshi; Xu Yiping; Zhu Lijun; Wang Limin; Cao Lingxian; Yao Suhang
To compare the degrees of allergic reaction and the cross-reactive allergens for three strains of cockroach (Periplanceta fuliginosa , Periplaneta americana and Blattella germanica) between patients with asthma and allergic rhinitis, the specific IgE(sIgE) in asthma and allergic rhinitis for these three strains of cockroach were determined with ELISA. The results showed that the sIgE positive rates for Periplaneta americana, Periplaneta fuliginosa and Blattella germanica in patients with asthma were 23.5%, 16.0% and 14.8%, respectively. The reactive coincidence rate between Periplaneta americana and Periplaneta fuliginoas was 74.0%, between Periplaneta americana and Blattella germanica was 73.5%, and between Periplaneta fuliginosa and Blattella germanica was 85.0% in asthma patients. The IgE positive rates for Periplaneta americana, Periplaneta fuliginosa and Blattella gerraanica in allergic rhinitis patients were 24.8%, 17.6% and 15.8%, respectively. The reactive coincidence rate between Periplaneta americana and Periplaneta fuliginosa was 73.9%, between Periplaneta americana and Blattella germanica was 75.2%, and between Periplaneta fuliginosa and Blattella germanica was 86.1% in allergic rhinitis patients. There was no significant difference between asthma and allergic rhinitis patients although the sIgE positive rates of allergic rhinitis patients were higher than those of asthma patients for these three strains of cock- roach. All these results indicated that the degrees of allergic reaction are similar between asthma and allergic rhinitis patients and there are some cross-reactive allergic components among these three strains of cockroach. (authors)
Vasbinder, E.C.; Goossens, J.M.A.W.; Rutten-van Mölken, M.P.M.H.; Winter, B.C.M. de; Dijk, L. van; Vulto, A.G.; Blankman, E.; Dehhan, N; Veenstra-van Schie, M.T.M.; Versteegh, F.G.A.; Wolf, B.H.M.; Janssens, H.M.; Bemt, P.M.L.A. van den
Real-time medication monitoring (RTMM) is a promising tool for improving adherence to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), but has not been sufficiently tested in children with asthma. We aimed to study the effects of RTMM with short message service (SMS) reminders on adherence to ICS, asthma control,
Richard D O'Connor
Full Text Available Richard D O'ConnorSharp Rees-Stealy Medical Group, San Diego, CA, USAAbstract: In the United States, budesonide/formoterol pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI is approved for treatment of asthma in patients aged ≥12 years whose asthma is not adequately controlled with an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS or whose disease severity clearly warrants treatment with an ICS and a long-acting β2-adrenergic agonist. This article reviews studies of budesonide/formoterol pMDI in patients with persistent asthma, with a particular focus on patient-reported outcomes (eg, perceived onset of effect, patient satisfaction with treatment, health-related quality of life [HRQL], global assessments, sleep quality and quantity, as these measures reflect patient perceptions of asthma control and disease burden. A search of PubMed and respiratory meetings was performed to identify relevant studies. In two pivotal budesonide/formoterol pMDI studies in adolescents and adults, greater efficacy and similar tolerability were shown with budesonide/formoterol pMDI 160/9 µg and 320/9 µg twice daily versus its monocomponents or placebo. In those studies, improvements in HRQL, patient satisfaction, global assessments of asthma control, and quality of sleep also favored budesonide/formoterol pMDI compared with one or both of its monocomponents or placebo. Budesonide/formoterol pMDI has a rapid onset of effect (within 15 minutes that patients can feel, an attribute that may have benefits for treatment adherence. In summary, budesonide/formoterol pMDI is effective and well tolerated and has additional therapeutic benefits that may be important from the patient’s perspective.Keywords: budesonide, formoterol, patient-reported outcomes, efficacy, tolerability, onset of effect
Egeberg, A; Khalid, U; Gislason, G H; Mallbris, L; Skov, L; Hansen, P R
Psoriasis and asthma are disorders driven by inflammation. Psoriasis may carry an increased risk of asthma, but the reverse relationship has not been investigated. To investigate the risk of psoriasis in subjects with childhood asthma in a nationwide Danish cohort. Data on all Danish individuals aged 6-14 years at study entry between 1 January 1997 and 31 December 2011 (n = 1,478,110) were linked at an individual level in nationwide registers. Incidence rates per 10,000 person-years were calculated, and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) adjusted for age, sex, concomitant medication and comorbidity were estimated by Poisson regression models. There were 21,725 cases of childhood asthma and 6586 incident cases of psoriasis. There were 5697 and 889 incident cases of mild and severe psoriasis, respectively. The incidence rates of overall, mild and severe psoriasis were 4.49, 3.88 and 0.61 for the reference population, and 5.95, 5.18 and 0.83 for subjects with childhood asthma, respectively. The IRRs for overall, mild and severe psoriasis were 3.94 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.16-7.17], 5.03 (95% CI 2.48-10.21) and 2.27 (95% CI 0.61-8.42) for patients with childhood asthma. Childhood asthma was associated with a significantly increased risk of psoriasis. Further studies are warranted to determine the clinical significance and effects of therapeutic interventions on this association. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.
Caminati, M; Senna, G; Stefanizzi, G; Bellamoli, R; Longhi, S; Chieco-Bianchi, F; Guarnieri, G; Tognella, S; Olivieri, M; Micheletto, C; Festi, G; Bertocco, E; Mazza, M; Rossi, A; Vianello, A
In patients with asthma, particularly severe asthma, poor adherence to inhaled drugs negatively affects the achievement of disease control. A better adherence rate is expected in the case of injected drugs, such as omalizumab, as they are administered only in a hospital setting. However, adherence to omalizumab has never been systematically investigated. The aim of this study was to review the omalizumab drop-out rate in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and real-life studies. A comparative analysis was performed between published data and the Italian North East Omalizumab Network (NEONet) database. In RCTs the drop-out rate ranged from 7.1 to 19.4 %. Although the reasons for withdrawal were only occasionally reported, patient decision and adverse events were the most frequently reported causes. In real-life studies the drop-out rate ranged from 0 to 45.5 %. In most cases lack of efficacy was responsible for treatment discontinuation. According to NEONet data, 32 % of treated patients dropped out, with an increasing number of drop outs observed over time. Patient decision and lack of efficacy accounted for most treatment withdrawals. Treatment adherence is particularly crucial in patients with severe asthma considering the clinical impact of the disease and the cost of non-adherence. The risk of treatment discontinuation has to be carefully considered both in the experimental and real-life settings. Increased knowledge regarding the main reasons for patient withdrawal is important to improve adherence in clinical practice.
Adewuya, Abiodun O; Adeyeye, Olufunke O
To estimate the rate of anxiety and depression in adult asthma patients and examine the possible association with sociodemographic, clinical and other significant variables. Adult asthmatics (n = 203) were recruited from the asthma outpatient clinic and assessed for sociodemographic and clinical profiles, their levels of disability, social support, asthma treatment stigma and personality traits. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I) was used to assess for the diagnosis of Anxiety and Depression in comparison with matched healthy controls (n = 205). Seventy (34.5%) of the patients with asthma have a diagnosis of Anxiety or Depression compared with 15 (7.3%) of matched healthy controls and the difference was significant (OR 6.67, 95% CI 3.58-13.04). Although older age, lower income, use of oral corticosteroid, patients perceived severity of asthma, disability, social support and personality traits were initially significant in univariate analysis, a subsequent logistic regression analysis revealed that only disability scores above the group mean (OR 4.50, 95% CI 2.28-8.87) and not having a strong social support (OR 2.88, 95% CI 1.443-5.78) were the only variables independently associated with diagnosis of Anxiety and Depression in the group of patients with asthma. Anxiety and depression are significantly more common in adult outpatients with asthma when compared with healthy control in Nigeria and was significantly associated with levels of disability and social support. These factors should be considered while formulating predictive models for management of psychosocial problems in asthma in this environment.
Full Text Available Background/Aim: The incidence of bronchial asthma is on increase. Chemotherapy is helpful during early course of the disease, but later on morbidity and mortality increases. The efficacy of yoga therapy though appreciated is yet to be defined and modified. Aim: To study the effect of breathing exercises ( pranayama in patients with bronchial asthma of mild to moderate severity. Materials and Methods: Fifty cases of bronchial asthma (Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1 > 70% were studied for 12 weeks. Patients were allocated to two groups: group A and group B (control group. Patients in group A were treated with breathing exercises (deep breathing, Brahmari , and Omkara , etc. for 20 minutes twice daily for a period of 12 weeks. Patients were trained to perform Omkara at high pitch (forceful with prolonged exhalation as compared to normal Omkara . Group B was treated with meditation for 20 minutes twice daily for a period of 12 weeks. Subjective assessment, FEV1%, and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR were done in each case initially and after 12 weeks. Results: After 12 weeks, group A subjects had significant improvement in symptoms, FEV1, and PEFR as compared to group B subjects. Conclusion: Breathing exercises ( pranayama , mainly expiratory exercises, improved lung function subjectively and objectively and should be regular part of therapy.
Cakmak, Alpay; Zeyrek, Dost; Atas, Ali; Celik, Hakim; Aksoy, Nurten; Erel, Ozcan
Asthma is a disease where there is an accumulation of collagen in the reticular basal membrane of the airway leading to chronic inflammation. The enzyme prolidase plays an important role in the breakdown of collagen and the breakdown of intracellular protein especially in the final stage when peptides and dipeptides contain a high level of proline. To evaluate the relationship between prolidase activity and oxidative status in asthma patients. Comparison was made between 42 patients diagnosed with bronchial asthma and 32 healthy children of similar age and gender. Serum prolidase activity was measured spectrophotometrically. Oxidative status was determined using total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidant status (TOS) measurement. The prolidase activity of the asthma patient group was statistically significant compared with the control group (P< or =0.001). TAC and TOS levels in the asthma patient group were higher than the control group (P< or =0.001, P< or =0.002, respectively). No correlation was found between the prolidase and oxidative levels of the two groups. A positive correlation was determined between the prolidase activity and TAC in the asthma patient group (P< or =0.001, r=0.501). The prolidase enzyme activity, which plays a role in the collagen turnover, was low in the asthma patients; therefore, their collagen metabolism had undergone a change and this indicates that there may be an effect on the accumulation of collagen in the reticular basal membrane. Moreover, the high level of TOS indicates that these patients were exposed to severe oxidative stress with an increased TAC response. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Full Text Available Bartosz Uchmanowicz,1 Bernard Panaszek,2 Izabella Uchmanowicz,1 Joanna Rosinczuk3 1Department of Clinical Nursing, 2Department and Clinic of Internal Diseases, Geriatry and Allergology, 3Department of Nervous System Diseases, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland Background: In recent years, there has been an increased interest in the subjective quality of life (QoL of patients with bronchial asthma. Patients diagnosed with asthma experience a number of problems with regard to everyday activities and functions, which adversely affects their health-related QoL. Aim: The aim of this study is to analyze the sociodemographic factors affecting the QoL of patients with asthma. Patients and methods: The study comprised of 100 patients (73 females and 27 males aged 18–84 years (mean age 45.7 years treated in the Department and Clinic of Internal Diseases, Geriatrics and Allergology, Wroclaw Medical University. All patients with asthma who met the inclusion criteria participated in the study. We used medical record analysis and two questionnaires: the asthma quality of life questionnaire (AQLQ and the asthma control test. Up-to-date sociodemographic data were collected from all participants, including sex, age, marital status, education, and sources of income. Results: The sociodemographic variables that correlated positively with QoL in all domains of the AQLQ were professional activity and higher education level of respondents. Factors that negatively influenced the AQLQ domains were older age and lack of professional activity. Conclusion: This study shows that age, physical work, and lack of professional activity decreased the QoL in this patient group. It was found that higher education contributes to better QoL scores. Keywords: bronchial asthma, health related quality of life, sociodemographic factors
Responses to the questionnaire on the diagnosis, patient education and management of asthma indicated that a reduced number of patients with severe asthma were seen in 1993 in both Pediatric and Internal Medicine Departments compared with 5 years before, despite the increase in total number of asthma patients in Japan. Specifiic IgE radioallergosorbent test (RAST measurements were frequently performed instead of skin testing for diagnosis, and eosinophil count and bronchodilator response served as an adjunct to the diagnosis. Patients were frequently asked detailed questions about aspirin-induced asthma, which accounted for 8.8, 2.2 and 1.5% of patients with asthma in the adult, schoolchildren (6–16 years and infant (≤ 5 years groups, respectively. In achieving ‘control of asthma’, first priority was given to coping with the symptoms in children aged 5 years or less and to enabling routine daily life activities in patients 6 years of age or older. Usefulness of peak flow measurements was widely recognized and a detailed plan for allergen avoidance (house dust was often given to patients.
Full Text Available Robert Barrons,1 James Wheeler,2 J Andrew Woods1 1Wingate University School of Pharmacy, Wingate, NC, USA; 2University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Nashville, TN, USA Abstract: An anticipated surge in the elderly population will be accompanied by a rise in aging patients with asthma or COPD. Clinician selection of inhalers needs to address the unique challenges to elderly patients. These challenges to the use of inhalers include diminished physical and cognitive abilities, as well as cost reimbursement issues associated with polypharmacy and the Medicare gap. Clinicians should consider patient preferences for an inhaler device that provides ease of administration, and addresses conveniences such as portability, visual, and auditory indicators of dosing completion. The addition of spacer devices resolves hand-breath coordination difficulty with pressurized metered dose inhalers, but reduces overall inhaler convenience. Soft mist inhalers (Respimat® improve ease of administration, but use may be limited by cost and formulary availability. Multiple dose dry powder inhalers provide convenience and simplified use by requiring only one to two steps prior to administration, but concerns of peak inspiratory flow requirements remain among patients with advanced age and severity of COPD. If unaddressed, these challenges to inhaler selection contribute to inappropriate use of inhalers in 41% to 69% of patients, accompanied by at least 51% non-adherence to treatment. Clinicians must first avail themselves of reputable educational resources regarding new inhaler developments and administration, for competent patient instruction. Patient education should include a checklist of inhaler technique, with physical demonstration of each device by the patient and provider. Device demonstration significantly improves inhaler technique and identifies the need for nebulization therapy. Clinician and patient knowledge of available inhalers and their
Strong emotions, either positive or negative, as well as vulnerability to stress are often major factors in triggering, maintaining and emphasizing the symptoms of bronchial asthma. On a group of 99 patients suffering from moderately and severely persistent allergic bronchial asthma for more than 2 years, I applied a situational test of emotional intelligence, the NEO PI-R personality test provided by D&D Consultants and I also elaborated a psychosocial test form of asthma by which I evaluated the frequency of physical symptoms, the intensity of negative emotional symptoms arisen during or subsequent to the crisis and the level of the patients' quality of life. I have presumed first that if the level of the emotional intelligence grew, this fact would have a significant positive influence on controlling the negative emotional symptoms arisen during or subsequent to the crisis and on patients' quality of life. This was invalidated, the correlations between the mentioned variables being insignificant. Secondly, I have presumed the existence of positive significant correlations between the emotional intelligence coefficient and the personality dimensions: extraversion, openness, conscientiousness and a negative significant correlation between the emotional intelligence coefficient and the dimension neuroticism. This presumption was totally confirmed. Finally, we proposed a group psychotherapy plan in 7 steps for asthmatic patients that has as main objectives to improve symptoms and therefore the patients' quality of life.
Full Text Available We studied the ability of patients not experienced in the use of peak expiratory flow meters to assess the severity of their asthma exacerbations and compared it to the assessment of experienced clinicians. We also evaluated which data of physical examination and medical history are used by physicians to subjectively evaluate the severity of asthma attacks. Fifty-seven adult patients (15 men and 42 women, with a mean (± SD age of 37.3 ± 14.5 years and 24.0 ± 17.9 years of asthma symptoms with asthma exacerbations were evaluated in a University Hospital Emergency Department. Patients and physicians independently evaluated the severity of the asthma attack using a linear scale. Patient score, physician score and forced expiratory volume at the first second (FEV1 were correlated with history and physical examination variables, and were also considered as dependent variables in multiple linear regression models. FEV1 correlated significantly with the physician score (rho = 0.42, P = 0.001, but not with patient score (rho = 0.03; P = 0.77. Use of neck accessory muscles, expiratory time and wheezing intensity were the explanatory variables in the FEV1 regression model and were also present in the physician score model. We conclude that physicians evaluate asthma exacerbation severity better than patients and that physician's scoring of asthma severity correlated significantly with objective measures of airway obstruction (FEV1. Some variables (the use of neck accessory muscles, expiratory time and wheezing intensity persisted as explanatory variables in physician score and FEV1 regression models, and should be emphasized in medical schools and emergency settings.
Full Text Available We studied the ability of patients not experienced in the use of peak expiratory flow meters to assess the severity of their asthma exacerbations and compared it to the assessment of experienced clinicians. We also evaluated which data of physical examination and medical history are used by physicians to subjectively evaluate the severity of asthma attacks. Fifty-seven adult patients (15 men and 42 women, with a mean (± SD age of 37.3 ± 14.5 years and 24.0 ± 17.9 years of asthma symptoms with asthma exacerbations were evaluated in a University Hospital Emergency Department. Patients and physicians independently evaluated the severity of the asthma attack using a linear scale. Patient score, physician score and forced expiratory volume at the first second (FEV1 were correlated with history and physical examination variables, and were also considered as dependent variables in multiple linear regression models. FEV1 correlated significantly with the physician score (rho = 0.42, P = 0.001, but not with patient score (rho = 0.03; P = 0.77. Use of neck accessory muscles, expiratory time and wheezing intensity were the explanatory variables in the FEV1 regression model and were also present in the physician score model. We conclude that physicians evaluate asthma exacerbation severity better than patients and that physician's scoring of asthma severity correlated significantly with objective measures of airway obstruction (FEV1. Some variables (the use of neck accessory muscles, expiratory time and wheezing intensity persisted as explanatory variables in physician score and FEV1 regression models, and should be emphasized in medical schools and emergency settings.
Full Text Available Asthma is a common chronic illness that imposes a heavy burden on all aspects of the patient's life, including personal and health care cost expenditures. To analyze the direct cost associated to uncontrolled asthma patients, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine costs related to patients with uncontrolled and controlled asthma. Uncontrolled patient was defined by daytime symptoms more than twice a week or nocturnal symptoms during two consecutive nights or any limitations of activities, or need for relief rescue medication more than twice a week, and an ACQ score less than 2 points. A questionnaire about direct cost stratification in health services, including emergency room visits, hospitalization, ambulatory visits, and asthma medications prescribed, was applied. Ninety asthma patients were enrolled (45 uncontrolled/45 controlled. Uncontrolled asthmatics accounted for higher health care expenditures than controlled patients, US$125.45 and US$15.58, respectively [emergency room visits (US$39.15 vs US$2.70 and hospitalization (US$86.30 vs US$12.88], per patient over 6 months. The costs with medications in the last month for patients with mild, moderate and severe asthma were US$1.60, 9.60, and 25.00 in the uncontrolled patients, respectively, and US$6.50, 19.00 and 49.00 in the controlled patients. In view of the small proportion of uncontrolled subjects receiving regular maintenance medication (22.2% and their lack of resources, providing free medication for uncontrolled patients might be a cost-effective strategy for the public health system.
Friend, Mary; Morrison, Amber
Improvement of medication adherence in the school-age child can lead to improvement in quality of life, decreased morbidity, and a potential decreased risk of deferred academic, social, and emotional development. The objective of this article is to review barriers to asthma medication adherence and identify evidence-based techniques that improve medication management of the asthmatic child 5 to 12 years of age. A literature review was performed and articles were obtained through database searches within Medline, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), and PubMed. Research indicates that barriers to the adherence of medication regimens required for asthmatic children include poor understanding of the medication regimen, substandard education on symptom recognition and environmental triggers, rejection of the diagnosis, and a lack of support or understanding within the community. Researched techniques aimed to improve medication management in 5- to 12-year-olds include: computer-based education; workshops for parents, teachers, and children; incorporation of asthma education into classroom lessons; use of case managers; the introduction of a nurse practitioner in the school to provide care, including medication prescriptions for the asthmatic child; and assessment and evaluation of environmental and emotional triggers in the home and school. Collaboration of current data may help lead to a successful interventional model that can improve asthma management in this population. © The Author(s) 2014.
Sekimura, Kenshi; Ito, Harumasa; Nakamura, Yutaka; Kobayashi, Hitoshi; Oikawa, Hirobumi; Inoue, Hiroshi; Ehara, Shigeru; Yamauchi, Kohei
There is accumulating evidence that airway remodeling, which contributes to airway narrowing, plays a role in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma (BA) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Development of the multislice helical CT (MSCT) with improved spatial resolution has made it possible to obtain more precise imaging of small-sized airways. Small-sized airway wall-thickness was measured using the MSCT scan to analyze small-sized airways of smokers and BA patients, and examine the effects of a β 2 agonists on small-sized airway wall-thickness of BA patients. Thirty-six non-asthmatics who participated in the Health Check Program of Iwate Medical University and 25 patients with asthma were recruited. Amongst the 36 non-asthmatics were 20 healthy never-smokers and 15 smokers. The other 25 asthmatics were recruited from the outpatient clinic at Iwate Medical University. MSCT was performed and the right B10 bronchus was chosen for dimensional analysis. Airway wall thickness was expressed as a percentage of wall area (WA%). WA% of the 7 asthmatics before and 30 mim after procaterol (20μg) inspiration were compared. Small-sized airway wall thickness was significantly increased in smokers and patients with asthma compared to healthy never-smokers, when determined by MSCT. Both %V 50 and %V 25 had significant negative correlations with WA% among the healthy never-smokers and smoker population. Procaterol inspiration reduced WA% in the small airway of patients with asthma. Increase of small-sized airway thickness measured by MSCT scan may reflect peripheral obstructive lesions of smokers and BA patients. (author)
Tochino, Yoshihiro; Asai, Kazuhisa; Shuto, Taichi; Hirata, Kazuto
Japan is an aging society, and the number of elderly patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is consequently increasing, with an estimated incidence of approximately 5 million. In 2014, asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) was defined by a joint project of Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) committee and the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) committee. The main aims of this consensus-based document are to assist clinicians, especially those in primary care or nonpulmonary specialties. In this article, we discussed parameters to differentiate asthma and COPD in elderly patients and showed prevalence, clinical features and treatment of ACOS on the basis of the guidelines of GINA and GOLD. Furthermore, we showed also referral for specialized investigations.
Farzandipour, Mehrdad; Nabovati, Ehsan; Sharif, Reihane; Arani, Marzieh Heidarzadeh; Anvari, Shima
Objective The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the evidence regarding the effects of mobile health applications (mHealth apps) for self-management outcomes in patients with asthma and to assess the functionalities of effective interventions. Methods We systematically searched Medline, Scopus, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. We included English-language studies that evaluated the effects of smartphone or tablet computer apps on self-management outcomes in asthmatic patients. The characteristics of these studies, effects of interventions, and features of mHealth apps were extracted. Results A total of 10 studies met all the inclusion criteria. Outcomes that were assessed in the included studies were categorized into three groups (clinical, patient-reported, and economic). mHealth apps improved asthma control (five studies) and lung function (two studies) from the clinical outcomes. From the patient-reported outcomes, quality of life (three studies) was statistically significantly improved, while there was no significant impact on self-efficacy scores (two studies). Effects on economic outcomes were equivocal, so that the number of visits (in two studies) and admission and hospitalization-relevant outcomes (in one study) statistically significantly improved; and in four other studies, these outcomes did not improve significantly. mHealth apps features were categorized into seven categories (inform, instruct, record, display, guide, remind/alert, and communicate). Eight of the 10 mHealth apps included more than one functionality. Nearly all interventions had the functionality of recording user-entered data and half of them had the functionality of providing educational information and reminders to patients. Conclusion Multifunctional mHealth apps have good potential in the control of asthma and in improving the quality of life in such patients compared with traditional interventions. Further studies are needed to identify
Postma, Dirkje S.; Dekhuijzen, Richard; van der Molen, Thys; Martin, Richard J.; van Aalderen, Wim; Roche, Nicolas; Guilbert, Theresa W.; Israel, Elliot; van Eickels, Daniela; Khalid, Javaria Mona; Herings, Ron M.C.; Overbeek, Jetty A.; Miglio, Cristiana; Thomas, Victoria; Hutton, Catherine; Hillyer, Elizabeth V.
Purpose Extrafine-particle inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) have greater small airway deposition than standard fine-particle ICS. We sought to compare asthma-related outcomes after patients initiated extrafine-particle ciclesonide or fine-particle ICS (fluticasone propionate or non-extrafine beclomethasone). Methods This historical, matched cohort study included patients aged 12-60 years prescribed their first ICS as ciclesonide or fine-particle ICS. The 2 cohorts were matched 1:1 for key demographic and clinical characteristics over the baseline year. Co-primary endpoints were 1-year severe exacerbation rates, risk-domain asthma control, and overall asthma control; secondary endpoints included therapy change. Results Each cohort included 1,244 patients (median age 45 years; 65% women). Patients in the ciclesonide cohort were comparable to those in the fine-particle ICS cohort apart from higher baseline prevalence of hospitalization, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and rhinitis. Median (interquartile range) prescribed doses of ciclesonide and fine-particle ICS were 160 (160-160) µg/day and 500 (250-500) µg/day, respectively (P<0.001). During the outcome year, patients prescribed ciclesonide experienced lower severe exacerbation rates (adjusted rate ratio [95% CI], 0.69 [0.53-0.89]), and higher odds of risk-domain asthma control (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI], 1.62 [1.27-2.06]) and of overall asthma control (2.08 [1.68-2.57]) than those prescribed fine-particle ICS. The odds of therapy change were 0.70 (0.59-0.83) with ciclesonide. Conclusions In this matched cohort analysis, we observed that initiation of ICS with ciclesonide was associated with better 1-year asthma outcomes and fewer changes to therapy, despite data suggesting more difficult-to-control asthma. The median prescribed dose of ciclesonide was one-third that of fine-particle ICS. PMID:28102056
Zazzali, James L; Raimundo, Karina P; Trzaskoma, Benjamin; Rosén, Karin E; Schatz, Michael
Asthma poses a significant disease burden worldwide. Current guidelines emphasize achieving and maintaining asthma control. To describe longitudinal changes of asthma control and asthma-related work, school, and activity impairment for patients with moderate-to-severe asthma treated with omalizumab and those who did not receive omalizumab in a real-world setting. This study used 5 years of data from patients ages ≥12 years old with moderate-to-severe persistent allergic asthma who were enrolled in the Evaluating Clinical Effectiveness and Long-term Safety in Patients with Moderate-to-Severe Asthma observational study. Asthma control was assessed with the Asthma Control Test for 5 years, and asthma-related work, school, and activity impairment was measured with the Work Productivity/Activity Impairment-Asthma questionnaire for the first 2 years. The percentage of patients treated with omalizumab (n = 4930) and with well-controlled asthma (Asthma Control Test score, >20) increased from 45% at baseline to 61% at month 60, and it was 49% (baseline) and 67% (month 60) for the non-omalizumab-treated cohort (n = 2779). For new starters to omalizumab (n = 576), the percentage with well-controlled asthma increased from 25% at baseline to 51% at month 6, and to 60% at month 60. Patients in the omalizumab-treated cohort and those in the non-omalizumab-treated cohort experienced a reduction in asthma-related work, school, and activity impairment. The amount of improvement in asthma control achieved and the reduction in asthma-related work, school, and activity impairment were similar, regardless of asthma severity. On average, patients in the Evaluating Clinical Effectiveness and Long-term Safety in Patients with Moderate-to-Severe Asthma observational study who initiated omalizumab experienced clinically significant improvement in asthma control, which was observed within 6 months and persisted for 5 years.
Luo, Li; Ren, Jing; Zhang, Fengyi; Zhang, Wei; Li, Chunyang; Qiu, Zhixin; Huang, Debin
Length of hospital stay (LOS) of asthma can be a reflection of the disease burden faced by patients, and it is also sensitive to air pollution. This study aims at estimating and validating the effects of air pollution and readmission on the LOS for those who have asthma, considering their readmission history, minimum temperature, and threshold effects of air pollutants. In addition, sex, age, and season were also constructed for stratification to achieve more precise and specific results. The results show that no significant effects of PM 2.5 and NO 2 on LOS were observed in any of the patients, but there were significant effects of PM 2.5 and NO 2 on LOS when a stratifying subgroup analysis was performed. The effect of PM 10 on LOS was found to be lower than that of PM 2.5 and higher than that of NO 2 . SO 2 did not have a significant effect on LOS for patients with asthma in our study. Our study confirmed that the adverse effects of air pollutants (such as PM 10 ) on LOS for patients with asthma existed; in addition, these effects vary for different stratifications. We measured the effects of air pollutants on the LOS for patients with asthma, and this study offers policy makers quantitative evidence that can support relevant policies for health care resource management and ambient air pollutants control. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Cao, Yuan; Lin, Shi-Hua; Zhu, Ding; Xu, Feng; Chen, Zhi-Hua; Shen, Hua-Hao; Li, Wen
BACKGROUND WeChat is a convenient and popular social medium, and it seems to be an appropriate platform for education and management of patients. This study sought to identify usefulness in clinical control of cough-variant asthma (CVA). MATERIAL AND METHODS A randomized controlled trial was conducted among 80 CVA patients. After being assigned to either the traditional group (TG) or the WeChat group (WG), they received the same inhalation therapy, but patients in WG received additional education and instruction via our public account on the WeChat application. Questionnaires on asthma and chronic cough, data on pulmonary function, blood-related items, follow-up adherence, and Emergency Department (ED) visits were collected at the initial visit and at 3 months. RESULTS A total of 67 participants completed the trial for analysis. FEV1/predicted and FEV1/FVC were significantly increased in WG (pWeChat as part of treatment and management of CVA can help patients learn about their disease and medications, as well as improve disease control and therapy outcomes.
Hogaard, Nina Viskum; Rubak, Sune Leisgaard Mørck; Halken, Susanne
sensitive towards. Reducing this exposure may improve the asthma control in these children. Previous studies give conflicting information on the effect of mechanical ventilation on asthma control in children. Objectives We aim at investigating whether mechanical ventilation is capable of improving indoor...... air quality in the home and health outcomes in the outpatient clinic every three months. Fig. 1 and 2. Primary outcome is reduction in minimal effective dose of inhalation steroid. Secondary endpoints….. Perspectives Asthma patients and their families rely on good evidence-based advice on behavior...
Qian Jiangang; Ling Wanli; Ma Yunbao; Zhang Xiaoyi
Objective: To explore the role of endothelin and related cytokines (IL-5, IL-6, IL-8) in the development of bronchial asthma in pediatric patients. Methods: Plasma ET-1 (with RIA) and serum IL-5 (with ELISA), IL-6, IL-8 (with RIA) levels were measured in 42 pediatric patients with bronchial asthma and 30 controls. Results: The plasma ET-1 levels in the patients during acute attack (n=22) were significantly higher than those in patients during remission (n=20) as well as in controls (P 0.05). Levels of ET-1 were positively correlated with those of IL-5 (during attack, r=0.560, P<0.01; during remission, r=0.435, P<0.01). Conclusion: ET and the cytokines IL-5, IL-6, IL-8 participated in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma through different mechanisms and dynamic determination of which could reflect the progression of the disease. (authors)
Naik-Panvelkar, Pradnya; Armour, Carol; Rose, John M; Saini, Bandana
Specialized community pharmacy services, involving the provision of disease state management and care by pharmacists, have been developed and trialled and have demonstrated very good health outcomes. Most of these services have been developed from a healthcare professional perspective. However, for the future uptake and long-term sustainability of these services as well as for better and sustained health outcomes for patients, it is vital to gain an understanding of patients' preferences. We can then structure healthcare services to match these preferences and needs rather than around clinical viewpoints alone. The aim of this study was to elicit patient preferences for pharmacy-based specialized asthma services using a discrete choice experiment and to explore the value/importance that patients place on the different attributes of the asthma service. The existence of preference heterogeneity in the population was also investigated. The study was conducted with asthma patients who had recently experienced a specialized asthma management service at their pharmacy in New South Wales, Australia. Pharmacists delivering the asthma service mailed out the discrete choice questionnaires to participating patients at the end of 6 months of service provision. A latent class (LC) model was used to investigate each patient's strength of preference and preference heterogeneity for several key attributes related to asthma service provision: frequency of visits, access to pharmacist, interaction with pharmacy staff, availability of a private area for consultation, provision of lung function testing, type and depth of advice provision, number of days with asthma symptoms and cost of service. Eighty useable questionnaires (of 170 questionnaires sent out) were received (response rate 47.1%). The study identified various key elements of asthma services important to patients. Further, the LC analysis revealed three classes with differing patient preferences for levels of asthma service
Lai, Tianwen; Wang, Shaobin; Xu, Zhiwei; Zhang, Chao; Zhao, Yun; Hu, Yue; Cao, Chao; Ying, Songmin; Chen, Zhihua; Li, Wen; Wu, Bin; Shen, Huahao
Currently, limited information is available to clinicians regarding the long-term efficacy of omalizumab treatment for allergic asthma. In this report, we aimed to (i) systematically review the evidence regarding the long-term efficacy of omalizumab in patients with persistent uncontrolled allergic asthma, and to (ii) discuss the cost-effectiveness evidence published for omalizumab in this patient population. A comprehensive search for randomized controlled trials (RCTs; ≥52 weeks) was performed, and six studies met our final inclusion criteria (n = 2,749). Omalizumab was associated with significant improvements in quality of life and the Global Evaluation of Treatment Effectiveness. Omalizumab also allowed patients to completely withdraw from inhaled corticosteroid therapy and did not increase the overall incidence of adverse events. However, there was insufficient evidence that omalizumab reduced the incidence of exacerbations, and the cost-effectiveness of omalizumab varied across studies. Our data indicated that omalizumab use for at least 52 weeks in patients with persistent uncontrolled allergic asthma was accompanied by an acceptable safety profile, but it lacked effect on the asthma exacerbations. Use of omalizumab was associated with a higher cost than conventional therapy, but these increases may be cost-effective if the medication is used in patients with severe allergic asthma. PMID:25645133
Starobin, Daniel; Bolotinsky, Ludmila; Or, Jack; Fink, Gershon; Shtoeger, Zev
Locally delivered steroids by inhalers or nebulizers have been shown in small trials to be effective in acute asthma attack, but evidence-based data are insufficient to establish their place as routine management of adult asthma attacks. To determine the efficacy of nebulized compared to systemic steroids in adult asthmatics admitted to the emergency department following an acute attack. Adult asthmatics admitted to the ED were assigned in random consecutive case fashion to one of three protocol groups: group 1--nebulized steroid fluticasone (Flixotide Nebules), group 2--intravenous methylprednisolone, group 3--combined treatment by both routes. Objective and subjective parameters, such as peak expiratory flow, oxygen saturation, heart rate and dyspnea score, were registered before and 2 hours after ED treatment was initiated. Steroids were continued for 1 week following the ED visit according to the protocol arm. Data on hospital admission/discharge rate, ED readmissions in the week after enrollment and other major events related to asthma were registered. Altogether, 73 adult asthmatics were assigned to receive treatment: 24 patients in group 1, 23 in group 2 and 26 in group 3. Mean age was 44.4 +/- 16.8 years (range 17-75 years). Peak expiratory flow and dyspnea score significantly improved in group 1 patients compared with patients in the other groups after 2 hours of ED treatment (P = 0.021 and 0.009, respectively). The discharge rate after ED treatment was significantly higher in groups 1 and 3 than in group 2 (P = 0.05). All 73 patients were alive a week after enrollment. Five patients (20.8%) in the Flixotide treatment arm were hospitalized and required additional systemic steroids. Multivariate analysis of factors affecting hospitalization rate demonstrated that severity of asthma (odds ratio 8.11) and group 2 (OD 4.17) had a negative effect, whereas adherence to chronic anti-asthma therapy (OD 0.49) reduced the hospitalization rate. Our study cohort
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Body composition is an important parameter for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD whereas the association between asthma and obesity is not fully understood. The impact of severe refractory asthma (SRA on fat free mass (FFM has not been investigated. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 213 subjects (70 healthy smokers, 71 COPD patients and 72 asthma patients without significant comorbidities were included in the study. In all patients, body composition assessment (using bioelectrical impendance analysis, skinfold and anthropometric measurements and spirometry were performed. Differences in fat free mass index (FFMI between groups were assessed and determinants of FFMI in asthma were evaluated. Patients with SRA had lower values of FFMI compared to patients with mild-to-moderate asthma [18.0(17.3-18.3-19.5(18.4-21.5, p<0.001], despite the fact that they were more obese. The levels of FFMI in SRA were lower than those of GOLD stage I-III COPD and comparable to those of stage IV COPD patients [18.0(17.3-18.3-18.8(17.8-20.1, p = ns]. These differences were present even after proper adjustments for sex, age, smoking status, daily dose of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS and daily use of oral corticosteroids (OCS. In multivariate analysis, independent predictors of FFMI in asthmatic patients were age, use of OCS and the presence of SRA, but not smoking, sex or cumulative dose of ICS used. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: SRA is related to the presence of low FFMI that is comparable to that of GOLD stage IV COPD. The impact of this observation on asthma mechanisms and outcomes should be further investigated in large prospective studies.
Garratt, A M; Hutchinson, A; Russell, I
The study compares the psychometric properties of four different approaches to patient-assessed health outcomes in asthma, including the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ), Newcastle Asthma Symptoms Questionnaire (NASQ), SF-12 and EuroQol. The instruments were administered by means of a self-completed postal questionnaire to 394 patients recruited from general practices in the North East of England. Patients completed a follow-up questionnaire at 6 months. The levels of missing data were assessed and instrument scores compared using correlational analysis. Scores were related to self-reports of smoking behaviour, socioeconomic status and health transition. Responsiveness was assessed using standardized response means. Two hundred and thirty-five patients took part in the study giving a response rate of 59.6%. There was a relatively large amount of missing data for the individualized section of the AQLQ. Correlational analysis provided evidence of convergent validity between the specific instruments; the largest correlation was found between NASQ scores and the asthma symptoms scale of the AQLQ (r = 0.84). The NASQ was found to be the most powerful at discriminating between smokers and non-smokers. All four instruments were linearly related to self-reported asthma transition (Pscope for application in economic evaluation.
Francesca S. M. Tang
Full Text Available Background. Respiratory infections are a major cause of asthma exacerbations where neutrophilic inflammation dominates and is associated with steroid refractory asthma. Structural airway cells in asthma differ from nonasthmatics; however it is unknown if neutrophils differ. We investigated neutrophil immune responses in patients who have good (AGood and suboptimal (ASubopt asthma symptom control. Methods. Peripheral blood neutrophils from AGood (ACQ 0.75, n=7, and healthy controls (HC (n=9 were stimulated with bacterial (LPS (1 μg/mL, fMLF (100 nM, and viral (imiquimod (3 μg/mL, R848 (1.5 μg/mL, and poly I:C (10 μg/mL surrogates or live rhinovirus (RV 16 (MOI1. Cell-free supernatant was collected after 1 h for neutrophil elastase (NE and matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP- 9 measurements or after 24 h for CXCL8 release. Results. Constitutive NE was enhanced in AGood neutrophils compared to HC. fMLF stimulated neutrophils from ASubopt but not AGood produced 50% of HC levels. fMLF induced MMP-9 was impaired in ASubopt and AGood compared to HC. fMLF stimulated CXCL8 but not MMP-9 was positively correlated with FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. ASubopt and AGood responded similarly to other stimuli. Conclusions. Circulating neutrophils are different in asthma; however, this is likely to be related to airflow limitation rather than asthma control.
Full Text Available Omalizumab is a non-steroidal medication indicated for the treatment of poorly controlled moderate-to-severe allergic asthmatics. This observational study examines the "real world" effectiveness of omalizumab in this population.This is a one year open-label observational study that compared clinical outcomes including total oral corticosteroid use, exacerbation history, measures of quality of life and inflammation in patients with moderate-to-severe allergic asthma, who were prescribed omalizumab as part of their treatment with the year prior to therapy.A total of 99 patients were enrolled at 25 sites in Canada. During the study period, the mean total annual OCS dose was reduced from 2301.5 mg (prednisone equivalents in the year prior to omalizumab to 1130.0 mg (p<0.0001. There was a 71% reduction in asthma exacerbations and 56% of patients on omalizumab remained exacerbation free when compared to the year prior to study entry. Associated with this was reduced health care utilization. There were significant improvements in the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ and Asthma Quality of Life questionnaire (AQLQ Patients with an elevated FeNO at baseline showed a better response to treatment. No new safety issues were identified during the study period.Our study demonstrates that in "real world" clinical practice, after initiating omalizumab, there is a reduction in total OCS use and exacerbation frequency in patients with moderate-to-severe allergic asthma. Patients on treatment reported improved asthma control and quality of life. FeNO may be a useful biomarker to identify patients who may benefit with omalizumab treatment.
Scott, Lyne; Nichols, Breck; Choi Kwong, Kenny Yat; Morphew, Tricia; Jones, Craig A
To determine if patterns of predominant asthma disease activity are more closely related than baseline asthma severity to measures of morbidity (acute asthma attack, emergency room visit/hospitalization, missed school days, and/or steroid burst). Retrospective analysis was performed for inner-city Los Angeles asthmatic children (3 to 18 years of age) during their first year of enrollment in an asthma-specific disease management program. All measures of morbidity were more closely related to patterns of predominant disease activity than baseline severity. We conclude that patterns of predominant disease activity are a more significant predictor of asthma morbidity than is baseline severity.
Goo, Hyun Woo; Yu, Jin Ho
We report here on the redistributed regional ventilation abnormalities after the administration of a bronchodilator and as seen on xenon-inhaled dual-energy CT in a patient with asthma. The improved ventilation seen in the right lower lobe and the decreased ventilation seen in the right middle lobe after the administration of a bronchodilator on xenon-inhaled dual-energy CT could explain a positive bronchodilator response on a pulmonary function test. These changes may reflect the heterogeneity of the airway responsiveness to a bronchodilator in patients with asthma.
Goo, Hyun Woo; Yu, Jin Ho [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
We report here on the redistributed regional ventilation abnormalities after the administration of a bronchodilator and as seen on xenon-inhaled dual-energy CT in a patient with asthma. The improved ventilation seen in the right lower lobe and the decreased ventilation seen in the right middle lobe after the administration of a bronchodilator on xenon-inhaled dual-energy CT could explain a positive bronchodilator response on a pulmonary function test. These changes may reflect the heterogeneity of the airway responsiveness to a bronchodilator in patients with asthma.
Li, Jing; Huang, Ying; Lin, Xiaoping; Zhao, Deyu; Tan, Guolin; Wu, Jinzhun; Zhao, Changqing; Zhao, Jing; Spangfort, Michael D; Lai, Xuxin; Zhong, Nanshan
Allergen sensitization is influenced by genetic and environmental factors; however, the factors related to sensitizations in patients with rhinitis and asthma in China are largely unknown. This study investigated the factors associated with allergen sensitizations in patients with asthma and rhinitis in China. A cross-sectional survey was performed in 6304 patients with asthma and/or rhinitis from four regions of China. Patients completed a standardized questionnaire related to respiratory and allergic symptoms, family history of allergic diseases, smoking history, environmental exposure, and eating behaviors. They underwent skin-prick tests (SPTs) with 13 common aeroallergens. Blood samples were collected from 2268 of patients for specific IgE (sIgE) measurements against 16 common aeroallergens. Patients with both asthma and rhinitis had higher prevalence of SPT and sIgE positivity to most allergens than those with asthma or rhinitis alone (p history of allergic rhinitis, air-conditioner usage, sleeping on a mattress, and frequently eating meat were associated with increased risk of SPT and sIgE positivity. Using air-conditioner and sleeping on a mattress were further found to be associated with sIgE positivity to mites and molds. However, increased age and fish, fruit, and raw vegetable intake decreased the risk of SPT and sIgE positivity. Family history of allergic rhinitis, male gender, using an air conditioner, sleeping on a mattress, and frequent meat consumption are risk factors for allergen sensitizations, whereas increased age and frequent fish, fruit, and raw vegetable consumption may protect patients with asthma and/or rhinitis from developing sensitizations in China.
Jørgensen, Inger Merete; Jensen, V B; Bülow, S
Child death due to asthma is a rare and potentially preventable event. We investigated possible risk factors for death due to asthma in children and adolescents, as a step towards preventing or minimizing asthma death in this age group, and improving asthma management and care. We reviewed all 108...... children and young adults should regularly receive medical care and assessment, even if they suffer only a few symptoms. This study underlines the need for ongoing education of the patient's family, the patient, and doctors on long-term management and management of acute attacks. Copies of clearly written...
Wang, Ningqun; Li, Jie; Huang, Xiaobo; Chen, Wenqiang; Chen, Yujing
Moderate-to-severe asthma has a substantial impact on the health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) of the patients. Cordyceps sinensis is a traditional Chinese medicine that is evaluated clinically for the treatment of many diseases, such as chronic allograft nephropathy, diabetic kidney disease, and lung fibrosis. In order to investigate the effects of Cordyceps sinensis on patients with moderate-to-severe persistent asthma, 120 subjects were randomized to receive Corbin capsule containing Co...
Background: We compared plasma electrolytes in patients with and without asthma. Methods: Subjects for the study comprised of 17 male and 45 female asthmatics attending the Chest Clinic of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH), Benin City, Nigeria. These patients had questionnaires administered and the ...
Bozek, Andrzej; Jarzab, Jerzy; Hadas, Ewa; Jakalski, Marek; Canonica, Giorgio Walter
Evidence of an increased risk of falls in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exists; however, this has not been studied in elderly asthmatic patients. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of falls in elderly patients who were diagnosed with bronchial asthma compared to subjects with COPD. A 12 - month prospective observational study in elderly outpatients with diagnosis of either asthma or COPD was conducted. All of the participants were monitored on the following parameters: falls, comorbidities, drug therapy and The Berg Balance Scale. The rate of falls was shown as an incidence ratio. Cluster analysis for subgroups with similar features was performed on all patients included in the study. Two clusters of frequent fallers were determined. The fall incidence rate in falls per person per year was 1.41 (95% CI: 0.86-1.96) in asthmatic patients and 1.49 (95% CI: 1.05-2.11) in the COPD group. Frequent fallers were more prevalent in the COPD group, with 32% in this group compared to 28% in the groups of patients with asthma. In cluster analysis, frequent fallers were grouped into two models characterized by polytherapy, depression symptoms, hospitalizations, coronary disease, dementia and diagnosis of COPD or asthma. Elderly asthmatic patients presented a high rate of falls, which is comparable to that of patients with COPD.
Yoo, Woohyun; Kim, Soo Yun; Hong, Yangsun; Chih, Ming-Yuan; Shah, Dhavan V; Gustafson, David H
With the increasing penetration of digital mobile devices among adolescents, mobile texting messaging is emerging as a new channel for patient-clinician communication for this population. In particular, it can promote active communication between healthcare clinicians and adolescents with asthma. However, little is known about the content of the messages exchanged in medical encounters via mobile text messaging. Therefore, this study explored the content of text messaging between clinicians and adolescents with asthma. We collected a total of 2,953 text messages exchanged between 5 nurse case managers and 131 adolescents with asthma through a personal digital assistant. The text messages were coded using a scheme developed by adapting categories from the Roter Interaction Analysis System. Nurse case managers sent more text messages (n=2,639) than adolescents with asthma. Most messages sent by nurse case managers were targeted messages (n=2,475) directed at all adolescents with asthma, whereas there were relatively few tailored messages (n=164) that were created personally for an individual adolescent. In addition, both targeted and tailored messages emphasized task-focused behaviors over socioemotional behaviors. Likewise, text messages (n=314) sent by adolescents also emphasized task-focused over socioemotional behaviors. Mobile texting messaging has the potential to play an important role in patient-clinician communication. It promotes not only active interaction, but also patient-centered communication with clinicians. In order to achieve this potential, healthcare clinicians may need to focus on socioemotional communication as well as task-oriented communication.
Itoh, Takayuki; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Sahara, Shin; Ohnishi, Tetsuro; Abe, Shosaku; Ueno, Kan
We compared peripheral airway and lung parenchyma images among patients with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and healthy controls using high-resolution CT images taken by a multidetector-row CT scanner (Aquillion, Toshiba, Japan). CT images were saved as digital image and communication (DICOM) files and %low attenuation area (LAA) (<-960 Hounsfield Unit) was calculated with the imaging software. %LAA was significantly increased in patients with COPD (p<0.0001) and smokers with stable asthma (p<0.01) as compared with healthy controls. In stable asthma, mucous plugging in the airway sometime appeared, while during asthma exacerbation small nodules and mosaic pattern of peripheral lung field appeared. Since smoker's patients with asthma have hyper-secretion of sputum due to smoking, mucous plugging and airway inflammation may easily occur and consequently air trapping may increase. In the future, image diagnosis of peripheral airway should develop for early detection of airway diseases as a non-invasive examination. On the other hand, micro focus X-ray computed tomography system (Hitachi Medico Technology Co., Japan) can display CT images closely similar to the pictures of microscopic findings and it will be a useful tool to analyze radiologic-pathologic correlations of peripheral airways and lung parenchyma. (author)
van de Graaf, E. A.; Out, T. A.; Roos, C. M.; Jansen, H. M.
In patients with stable asthma, we assayed plasma proteins in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid to obtain information on plasma exudation into the airways. Fourteen nonsmoking patients with asthma who were in a stable period of their disease and eight nonsmoking healthy volunteers were studied. The
DeBoer, Emily M; Spielberg, David R; Brody, Alan S
The ability of lung imaging to phenotype patients, determine prognosis, and predict response to treatment is expanding in clinical and translational research. The purpose of this perspective is to describe current imaging modalities that might be useful clinical tools in patients with asthma and other lung disorders and to explore some of the new developments in imaging modalities of the lung. These imaging modalities include chest radiography, computed tomography, lung magnetic resonance imaging, electrical impedance tomography, bronchoscopy, and others. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nejad, Mina Motaghi; Nejad, Ghodratollah Shakeri; Tavakol, Heshmatollah; Cheraghi, Maria
The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the training program based on the Precede model and its main components on improving the quality of life in patients with asthma. It was a randomized quasi-experimental study done on 120 patients with asthma who were referred to the Imam Khomeini hospital in Ahvaz who were selected using the convenience sampling method and were randomly divided into intervention and control groups. The data collection tool consisted of two questionnaires. The first questionnaire evaluated the quality of life in patients with asthma and the other one was developed by the researcher based on the structures of the Precede model. Training intervention was conducted during four sessions twice a week and each session was carried out for an hour based on the structures of the Precede model. In order to achieve the results, SPSS software, even t -test, and χ 2 were used. The results showed that after the training intervention in the experimental group, the mean scores of predisposing factors ( p quality of life in two groups after the intervention ( p quality of life of patients in the experimental group was improved after the training intervention. The design and implementation of the training program based on the Precede model can have a positive effect on the improvement of quality of life in patients with asthma.
Roberts, James R; Newman, Nicholas; McCurdy, Leyla E; Chang, Jane S; Salas, Mauro A; Eskridge, Bernard; De Ybarrondo, Lisa; Sandel, Megan; Mazur, Lynnette; Karr, Catherine J
The National Environmental Education Foundation (NEEF) launched an initiative in 2005 to integrate environmental management of asthma into pediatric health care. This study, a follow-up to a 2013 study, evaluated the program's impact and assessed training results by 5 new faculty champions. We surveyed attendees at training sessions to measure knowledge and the likelihood of asking about and managing environmental triggers of asthma. To conduct the program evaluation, a workshop was held with the faculty champions and NEEF staff in which we identified major program benefits, as well as challenges and suggestions for the future. Trainee baseline knowledge of environmental triggers was low, but they reported robust improvement in environmental triggers knowledge and intention to recommend environmental management. The program has a broad, national scope, reaching more than 12 000 physicians, health care providers, and students, and some faculty champions successfully integrated materials into health record. Program barriers and future endeavors were identified.
Pike, Katharine C; Levy, Mark L; Moreiras, John; Fleming, Louise
This review discusses issues related to managing problematic severe asthma in children and young people. A small minority of children have genuinely severe asthma symptoms which are difficult to control. Children with genuinely severe asthma need investigations and treatments beyond those described within conventional guidelines. However, the majority of children with poor symptom control despite high-intensity treatment achieve improvement in their asthma control once attention has been paid to the basics of asthma management. Basic asthma management requires optimisation of inhaler technique and treatment adherence, avoidance of environmental triggers and self-management education. It is also important that clinicians recognise risk factors that predispose patients to asthma exacerbations and potentially life-threatening attacks. These correctable issues need to be tackled in partnership with children and young people and their families. This requires a coordinated approach between professionals across healthcare settings. Establishing appropriate infrastructure for coordinated asthma care benefits not only those with problematic severe asthma, but also the wider asthma population as similar correctable issues exist for children with asthma of all severities. Investigation and management of genuine severe asthma requires specialist multidisciplinary expertise and a systematic approach to characterising patients' asthma phenotypes and delivering individualised care. While inhaled corticosteroids continue to play a leading role in asthma therapy, new treatments on the horizon might further support phenotype-specific therapy. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Sabatelli, L; Seppälä, U; Sastre, J; Crater, G
Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a marker for type 2 airway inflammation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and budget impact of FeNO monitoring for management of adult asthma in Spain. A cost-effectiveness analysis model was used to evaluate the effect on costs of adding FeNO monitoring to asthma management. Over a 1-year period, the model estimated the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year and incremental number of exacerbations avoided when FeNO monitoring was added to standard guideline-driven asthma care compared with standard care alone. Univariate and multivariate sensitivity analyses were applied to explore uncertainty in the model. A budget impact model was used to examine the impact of FeNO monitoring on primary care costs across the Spanish health system. The results showed that adding FeNO to standard asthma care saved €62.53 per patient-year in the adult population and improved quality-adjusted life years by 0.026 per patient-year. The budget impact analysis revealed a potential net yearly saving of €129 million if FeNO monitoring had been used in primary care settings in Spain. The present economic model shows that adding FeNO to the treatment algorithm can considerably reduce costs and improve quality of life when used to manage asthma in combination with current treatment guidelines.
Conclusion: Improvements in lung function were more rapid in the budesonide group than the fluticasone group. However, patients in the fluticasone group had better anti-inflammatory responses than those in the budesonide group. We conclude that each inhaled corticosteroids have its own clinical and laboratory effects.
Tat, Tugba Songul; Cilli, Aykut
Severe asthma management in elderly patients may be difficult because of increased comorbid conditions, polypharmacy, physiologic changes that occur with aging, incorrect use of inhaler devices, and poor adherence. To evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of the anti-IgE antibody omalizumab in elderly (aged ≥65 years) patients with uncontrolled allergic asthma. The efficiency and adverse effects of omalizumab treatment were evaluated based on data extracted from medical records. Patients were evaluated monthly for efficacy and adverse reactions. Treatment efficacy was evaluated by level of asthma symptom control, using the Global Initiative for Asthma guideline. Nineteen consecutive elderly patients with asthma (female to male ratio, 14:5) formed our cohort. The mean (SD) age, disease duration, and total IgE level were 69.3 (5.8) years, 19.4 (8.6) years, and 299.1 (197.2) IU/mL, respectively. The mean (SD) duration of omalizumab treatment was 35.6 (17.8) months (range, 9-66 months). All the patients had at least 1 perennial inhalant allergen sensitivity and had uncontrolled allergic asthma. Elderly patients experienced no significantly important adverse reaction considered to be related to omalizumab treatment. Only 1 patient had a local adverse reaction and 1 had myalgia that was considered to be drug related. After omalizumab treatment, asthma symptoms were well controlled in 9 patients (47.4%) and partly controlled in 8 patients (42.1%). Two of the patients (10.5%) still had uncontrolled asthma. Our study found that omalizumab is a well-tolerated and effective therapy for elderly patients with uncontrolled asthma. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kumar, Raj; Nagar, Devender; Mallick, Adeeb; Kumar, Manoj; Tarke, Chandrakant R; Goel, Nitin
Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome is associated with significant morbidity. A high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) symptoms has been reported in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There are limited studies regarding relationship between atopy and OSA. To study the risk of obstructive sleep apnoea among middle aged chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma patients by a home based sleep study and its association with atopy. Patients with asthma and COPD were evaluated for OSA symptoms by Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) and Berlin questionnaire (BQ). ESS score > or = 9 was considered as high risk for OSA. Patients having high risk for OSA by ESS and BQ were further evaluated for OSA by home based sleep study. Skin prick test against common allergens was done to diagnose atopy in these patients. Among 400 patients (229, 57.25% male and 171, 42.75% female) 328 were asthmatics and 72 were COPD patients. ESS and BQ was positive in 11.25% (45/400) and 18.25% (73/400) patients respectively. ESS was positive in 10.67% (35/328) of asthma and 13.88% (10/72) of COPD patients. BQ was positive in 18.29% (60/328) of asthmatic and 18.05% (13/72) of COPD patients. Skin prick test was positive in 74.16% patients. The maximum positivity was found in asthmatics (139/155, 89.68%) compared to COPD patients (16/155, 10.32%). Skin prick test was done for 40 patients out of 73 of Asthma and COPD patients who were found positive by ESS and BQ. 72.5% patients were found to be atopic. Out of 19 patients in whom home polysomnography was done, 13 patients consented for skin prick test with common aeroallergens and 9 (69.23%) patients were found to be atopic. There is an increased risk of obstructive sleep apnoea among middle aged chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma patients. Atopy could be associated with OSA. The association needs to be proved in a larger study.
Kodama, Yuzo; Kishimoto, Yuki; Muramatsu, Yoko; Tatebe, Junko; Yamamoto, Yu; Hirota, Nao; Itoigawa, Yukinari; Atsuta, Ryo; Koike, Kengo; Sato, Tadashi; Aizawa, Koich; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Morita, Toshisuke; Homma, Sakae; Seyama, Kuniaki; Ishigami, Akihito
Few studies to date have investigated the antioxidant nutrients such as vitamin C (ascorbic acid), vitamin E (α-tocopherol), retinol and carotenoids in plasma from patients with pulmonary disease in Japan. To clarify the role of antioxidant nutrients such as vitamin C, vitamin E, retinol and various carotenoids in plasma of Japanese patients with chronic obstructive lung diseases (COPD), asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) and/or bronchial asthma (BA), we compared to healthy elderly controls. Ascorbic acid (AA), carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, α-carotene, β-carotene and lycopene), retinol and α-tocopherol levels in plasma were determined by using a high performance liquid chromatography. Reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidised glutathione (GSSG) in whole blood and urinary 8-OHdG were also determined. Plasma AA level of COPD subjects was significantly lower than that of healthy elderly people. Conversely, ACOS and BA subjects showed no significant difference from healthy elderly people. Moreover, plasma lycopene and total carotenoid levels and GSH content in blood were significantly lower in COPD subjects than these in healthy elderly people. However, other redox markers such as GSSG, GSH/GSSG ratio and urinary 8-OHdG found no significant differences between COPD, ACOS and BA compared to healthy elderly people. These results suggested that COPD of Japanese patients may develop partly because of oxidative stress derived from a shortage of antioxidant nutrients, especially of AA and lycopene, as well as GSH while this may not be the case in both ACOS and BA. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Arcoleo, Kimberly; Zayas, Luis E; Hawthorne, April; Begay, Rachelle
Patients' cultural health beliefs and behaviors may conflict with biomedical healthcare values and practices potentially leading to non-adherence with asthma treatment regimens. To optimize shared decision-making, healthcare providers should understand and be sensitive to these cultural beliefs and behaviors and negotiate an asthma management plan acceptable to parents. The purpose of this study was to obtain the perspective of Mexican mothers regarding (1) their experiences of living with a child with asthma, (2) their understanding of the nature of asthma, and (3) how their cultural beliefs influence asthma management. A qualitative, phenomenological study design was employed to assess mothers' lived experiences with and perceptions of their child's asthma. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of 20 Mexican mothers of children ages 5-17 years with asthma. An inductive, theory-driven, phenomenological analysis approach was used to elicit thematic findings. Mothers expressed a symptomatic perception of asthma and limited understanding of the disease. Most believe the disease is present only when their child is symptomatic. Many are surprised and puzzled by the unpredictability of their child's asthma attacks, which they report as sometimes "silent". The inconsistency of triggers also leads to frustration and worry, which may reflect their concerns around daily controller medication use and preference for alternative illness management strategies. Our clinical encounters should be refocused to better understand the context of these families' lives and the cultural lens through which they view their child's asthma.
Shen, Te-Chun; Chang, Pei-Ying; Lin, Cheng-Li; Wei, Chang-Ching; Tu, Chih-Yen; Hsia, Te-Chun; Shih, Chuen-Ming; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung
Studies have reported an association between asthma and oral diseases, including periodontal diseases. The aim of this retrospective study is to investigate risk of periodontal diseases for patients with asthma. Using the claims data of National Health Insurance of Taiwan and patients without a history of periodontal diseases, 19,206 asthmatic patients, who were newly diagnosed from 2000 through 2010, were identified. For each case, four comparison individuals without history of asthma and periodontal disease were randomly selected from the general population and frequency matched (categorical matched) by sex, age, and year of diagnosis (n = 76,824). Both cohorts were followed to the end of 2011 to monitor occurrence of periodontal diseases. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) of periodontal disease were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Overall incidence of periodontal diseases was 1.18-fold greater in the asthma cohort than in the comparison cohort (P periodontal diseases compared with those with a mean of less than one visit. Patients with at least three admissions annually also had a similar aHR (51.8) for periodontal disease. In addition, asthmatic patients on inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) therapy had greater aHRs than non-users (aHR = 1.12; 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.23). In the studied population, asthmatic patients are at an elevated risk of developing periodontal diseases. The risk is much greater for those with emergency medical demands or hospital admissions and those on ICS treatment.
Iikura, Motoyasu; Yi, Siyan; Ichimura, Yasunori; Hori, Ai; Izumi, Shinyu; Sugiyama, Haruhito; Kudo, Koichiro; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki
The avoidance of inhaled allergens or tobacco smoke has been known to have favorable effects on asthma control. However, it remains unclear whether other lifestyle-related factors are also related to asthma control. Therefore, a comprehensive study to examine the associations between various lifestyle factors and asthma control was conducted in Japanese asthmatic patients. The study subjects included 437 stable asthmatic patients recruited from our outpatient clinic over a one-year period. A written, informed consent was obtained from each participant. Asthma control was assessed using the asthma control test (ACT), and a structured questionnaire was administered to obtain information regarding lifestyle factors, including tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, physical exercise, and diet. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. The proportions of total control (ACT = 25), well controlled (ACT = 20-24), and poorly controlled (ACT smoking status and alcohol drinking were not associated with asthma control. On the other hand, younger age (smoking, periodical exercise (> 3 metabolic equivalents-h/week), and raw vegetable intake (> 5 units/week) were significantly associated with good asthma control by bivariate analysis. Younger age, periodical exercise, and raw vegetable intake were significantly associated with good asthma control by multiple linear regression analysis. Periodical exercise and raw vegetable intake are associated with good asthma control in Japanese patients.
Odler, Balázs; Ivancsó, István; Somogyi, Vivien; Benke, Kálmán; Tamási, Lilla; Gálffy, Gabriella; Szalay, Balázs; Müller, Veronika
The association between vitamin D and clinical parameters in obstructive lung diseases (OLDs), including COPD and bronchial asthma, was previously investigated. As asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) is a new clinical entity, the prevalence of vitamin D levels in ACOS is unknown. Our aim was to assess the levels of circulating vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]) in different OLDs, including ACOS patients, and its correlation with clinical parameters. A total of 106 men and women (control, n=21; asthma, n=44; COPD, n=21; and ACOS, n=20) were involved in the study. All patients underwent detailed clinical examinations; disease control and severity was assessed by disease-specific questionnaires (COPD assessment test, asthma control test, and modified Medical Research Council); furthermore, 25(OH)D levels were measured in all patients. The 25(OH)D level was significantly lower in ACOS and COPD groups compared to asthma group (16.86±1.79 ng/mL and 14.27±1.88 ng/mL vs 25.66±1.91 ng/mL). A positive correlation was found between 25(OH)D level and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (r=0.4433; PD level showed a positive correlation in the ACOS (r=0.4761; P=0.0339) but not in the asthma group. Higher COPD assessment test total scores correlated with decreased 25(OH)D in ACOS (r=-0.4446; P=0.0495); however, this was not observed in the COPD group. Vitamin D deficiency is present in ACOS patients and circulating 25(OH)D level may affect disease control and severity.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Glucocorticoid function is dependent on efficient translocation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR from the cytoplasm to the nucleus of cells. Importin-13 (IPO13 is a nuclear transport receptor that mediates nuclear entry of GR. In airway epithelial cells, inhibition of IPO13 expression prevents nuclear entry of GR and abrogates anti-inflammatory effects of glucocorticoids. Impaired nuclear entry of GR has been documented in steroid-non-responsive asthmatics. We hypothesize that common IPO13 genetic variation influences the anti-inflammatory effects of inhaled corticosteroids for the treatment of asthma, as measured by change in methacholine airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR-PC20. Methods 10 polymorphisms were evaluated in 654 children with mild-to-moderate asthma participating in the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP, a clinical trial of inhaled anti-inflammatory medications (budesonide and nedocromil. Population-based association tests with repeated measures of PC20 were performed using mixed models and confirmed using family-based tests of association. Results Among participants randomized to placebo or nedocromil, IPO13 polymorphisms were associated with improved PC20 (i.e. less AHR, with subjects harboring minor alleles demonstrating an average 1.51–2.17 fold increase in mean PC20 at 8-months post-randomization that persisted over four years of observation (p = 0.01–0.005. This improvement was similar to that among children treated with long-term inhaled corticosteroids. There was no additional improvement in PC20 by IPO13 variants among children treated with inhaled corticosteroids. Conclusion IPO13 variation is associated with improved AHR in asthmatic children. The degree of this improvement is similar to that observed with long-term inhaled corticosteroid treatment, suggesting that IPO13 variation may improve nuclear bioavailability of endogenous glucocorticoids.
Tacila Pires Mega
Full Text Available Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways that may lead to limitations in regular activities, to hospitalizations and a decrease in quality of life. Adherence to drug treatment is crucial for control of the disease. The use of medicinal herbs can reduce adherence to prescriptions, as the medication may be replaced by infusions or herbal products. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of use of traditional herbal medicine among severe asthmatics in Salvador. Information on use of homemade remedies was obtained through application of a questionnaire during patient visits to a referral center. We also collected data on economic and social aspects as well as disease control. One hundred and forty-four (91,1% out of one hundred and fifty-eight patients evaluated used herbal medicines, but only 26.5% attributed improvement of asthma symptoms to this alternative treatment and only 8 had substituted a prescribed medication by herbal medicines. There was a trend towards lower adherence to prescription drug treatment in this group of patients. Despite the high frequency of use of medicinal herbs in our sample, there was no improvement in the asthma treatment in this population compared to non-users. Adherence to conventional drug treatment was satisfactory and there was neither reduction in asthma control nor increase in hospitalizations among the users of medicinal plants.A asma é uma enfermidade inflamatória crônica das vias aéreas que pode resultar em limitações nas atividades diárias, internações e prejuízo da qualidade de vida. A adesão ao tratamento medicamentoso é fundamental para o controle da doença. O uso de plantas medicinais pode reduzir a adesão ao tratamento prescrito, à medida que os medicamentos são substituídos por chás ou ervas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a frequência de uso de plantas medicinais entre asmáticos graves em Salvador. As informações sobre uso de rem
Yin, Hsiang Shonna; Gupta, Ruchi S; Mendelsohn, Alan L; Dreyer, Benard; van Schaick, Linda; Brown, Christina R; Encalada, Karen; Sanchez, Dayana C; Warren, Christopher M; Tomopoulos, Suzy
The objective of the study was to determine whether parents who use a low-literacy, pictogram- and photograph-based written asthma action plan (WAAP) have a better understanding of child asthma management compared to parents using a standard plan. A randomized controlled study was carried out in 2 urban pediatric outpatient clinics. Inclusion criteria were English- and Spanish-speaking parents of 2- to 12-year-old asthmatic children. Parents were randomized to receive a low-literacy or standard asthma action plan (American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology) for a hypothetical patient on controller and rescue medications. A structured questionnaire was used to assess whether there was an error in knowledge of (1) medications to give everyday and when sick, (2) need for spacer use, and (3) appropriate emergency response to give albuterol and seek medical help. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed, adjusting for parent age, health literacy (Newest Vital Sign); child asthma severity, medications; and site. 217 parents were randomized (109 intervention and 108 control). Parents who received the low-literacy plan were (1) less likely to make an error in knowledge of medications to take everyday and when sick compared to parents who received the standard plan (63.0 vs. 77.3%, p = 0.03; adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.5[95% confidence interval: 0.2-0.9]) and (2) less likely to make an error regarding spacer use (14.0 vs. 51.1%, p plan improves child asthma outcomes.
Full Text Available We report the case of an asthmatic patient with blunt trachea and left main bronchus injuries who developed acute severe asthma after surgical repair. Despite medical treatment and ventilatory support, asthma persisted with high airway pressures and severe respiratory acidosis. We proposed venovenous extracorporeal life support for CO2 removal which allowed arterial blood gas normalization and airway pressures decrease. Extracorporeal life support was removed on day five after medical treatment of acute severe asthma. So we report the successful use of extracorporeal life support for operated double blunt tracheobronchial injury with acute severe asthma.
Full Text Available Background: Allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM is a clinical syndrome associated with immune sensitivity to various fungi notably Aspergillus spp. that colonize the airways of asthmatics. Early diagnosis and treatment with systemic corticosteroids is the key in preventing the progression of the disease to irreversible lung fibrosis. Aims: To study the occurrence of ABPM among asthma patients with fungal sensitization attending a chest clinic of a tertiary hospital of eastern India. The clinico-radiological and aetiological profiles are also described. Materials and Methods: All consecutive patients with asthma presenting to the chest clinic over a period of one year were screened for cutaneous hypersensitivity to 12 common fungal antigens. The skin test positive cases were further evaluated for ABPM using standard criteria. Results: One hundred and twenty-six asthma patients were screened using twelve common fungal antigens; forty patients (31.74% were found to be skin test positive, and ABPM was diagnosed in ten patients (7.93%. Of the 10 cases of ABPM, nine cases were those of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA and one case was identified as caused by sensitization to Penicillium spp. A majority of the cases of ABPM had advanced disease and had significantly lower FEV1 compared to non-ABPM skin test positive asthmatics. Central bronchiectasis on high resolution CT scan was the most sensitive and specific among the diagnostic parameters. Conclusion: There is a significant prevalence of ABPM in asthma patients attending our hospital and this reinforces the need to screen asthma patients for fungal sensitisation. This will help in early diagnosis and prevention of irreversible lung damage.
Yilmaz, Sevda; Ekici, Aydanur; Ekici, Mehmet; Keles, Hatice
Objective: Based on the hypothesis that airway remodelling is related to the duration of asthma, HRCT scanning should show greater abnormalities in the early-onset than the late-onset asthmatics. It was, therefore, intended to assess the presence and the frequency of airway and parenchymal abnormalities with high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in elderly asthmatic patients, and to determine whether these abnormalities are related to the duration of asthma. Patients and methods: Sixty-eight clinically stable asthmatic patients aged ≥60 yr were included in this prospective study. The patients were separated into two groups according to the duration of symptoms as late-onset asthma (n = 31) with disease duration of <5 yr, and early-onset asthma (n = 37) with disease duration of ≥5 yr. All patients were lifelong non-smoker and had been using inhaled beta agonists and inhaled steroids. HRCT-scanning and histamine inhalation test were performed on all patients. Results: In comparison with late-onset asthmatic patients, those with early-onset asthma had significantly higher frequency of emphysema (21.6% versus 0.0%, p = 0.006), bronchial dilatation (13.9% versus 0.0%, p 0.03) and bronchial wall thickness (41.7% versus 12.9%, p = 0.01). Multiple logistic regression analysis identified that early-onset of disease was an independent risk factor for the presence of irreversible HRCT-scan abnormalities in elderly asthmatics [odds ratio (OR): 9.4 (2.7-32.7), p 0.00001]. Conclusion: Present data suggest that HRCT abnormalities in early-onset elderly asthmatics reflect parenchymal and airway changes that become irreversible throughout the long course of the disease
Corren, Jonathan; Busse, William; Meltzer, Eli O; Mansfield, Lyndon; Bensch, George; Fahrenholz, John; Wenzel, Sally E; Chon, Yun; Dunn, Meleana; Weng, Haoling H; Lin, Shao-Lee
IL-4 and IL-13 share many biological functions important in the development of allergic airway inflammation and are implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma. AMG 317 is a fully human monoclonal antibody to IL-4Ralpha that blocks both IL-4 and IL-13 pathways. To evaluate efficacy and safety of AMG 317 in patients with moderate to severe asthma. In this phase 2, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, patients received weekly subcutaneous injections of placebo or AMG 317 (75-300 mg) for 12 weeks, followed by a 4-week follow-up period. The primary endpoint was change from baseline at Week 12 in Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) symptom score. Mean ACQ change (SE) was -0.49 (0.09) in placebo (n = 74), and -0.43 (0.11), -0.58 (0.12), and -0.70 (0.09) in the AMG 317 75 mg (n = 73), 150 mg (n = 73), and 300 mg (n = 74) groups, respectively (treatment effect P = 0.25). No statistically significant differences were observed in the secondary endpoints. Numerical decreases in number of and time to exacerbations were noted in patients receiving AMG 317 150 mg and 300 mg. Preplanned analyses by tertile of baseline ACQ revealed that patients with higher baseline ACQ scores (>or=2.86) were more likely to respond to AMG 317. Serious adverse events were reported in three patients, each noted as not related to study drug. AMG 317 did not demonstrate clinical efficacy across the overall group of patients. Clinically significant improvements were observed in several outcome measures in patients with higher baseline ACQ scores. AMG 317 was safe and well tolerated in this study population. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 00436670).
Yung, Samuel; Han, Duhyun; Lee, Jason K
Omalizumab, a monoclonal anti-immunoglobulin E antibody, has been used as an effective treatment for severe asthma associated with atopy over the past decade. Sarcoidosis is an idiopathic granulomatous disorder in which first-line treatment is usually glucocorticoids. To the authors’ knowledge, the present report describes the first case of an association between omalizumab therapy and revelation of cutaneous sarcoidosis with the withdrawal of systemic glucocorticoids. A 56-year-old woman with severe allergic asthma dependent on oral prednisone initiated omalizumab treatment. As her symptoms of asthma improved over the course of a year, her prednisone was gradually tapered. After being off glucocorticoids, she developed skin nodules that had biopsy characteristics of sarcoidosis. The present case illustrates the need to monitor closely for potential unmasking of glucocorticoid-responsive conditions when transitioning from systemic glucocorticoids to omalizumab therapy. PMID:26401982
Booms, P.; Cheung, D.; Timmers, M. C.; Zwinderman, A. H.; Sterk, P. J.
Patients with asthma who have moderate to severe airway hyperresponsiveness often demonstrate progressive, unlimited airway narrowing in response to inhaled bronchoconstrictor stimuli, which is likely to be due to inflammatory changes within the airway wall. It is unknown whether regular therapy
Ahmad Gouda El-Gazzar
Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the serum level of SCF was higher in asthmatic patients especially among eosinophilic phenotype than among healthy control subjects. Also there was a significant association between higher SCF and higher levels of asthma severity, sputum and blood eosinophil%.
Full Text Available Accumulated evidence suggests a relationship between specific allergic processes, such as atopic eczema in children, and an aberrant fecal microbiota. However, little is known about the complete microbiota profile of adult individuals suffering from asthma. We determined the fecal microbiota in 21 adult patients suffering allergic asthma (age 39.43 ± 10.98 years old and compare it with the fecal microbiota of 22 healthy controls (age 39.29 ± 9.21 years old using culture independent techniques. An Ion-Torrent 16S rRNA gene-based amplification and sequencing protocol was used to determine the fecal microbiota profile of the individuals. Sequence microbiota analysis showed that the microbial alpha-diversity was not significantly different between healthy and allergic individuals and no clear clustering of the samples was obtained using an unsupervised principal component analysis. However, the analysis of specific bacterial groups allowed us to detect significantly lower levels of bifidobacteria in patients with long-term asthma. Also, in allergic individuals the Bifidobacterium adolescentis species prevailed within the bifidobacterial population. The reduction in the levels on bifidobacteria in patients with long-term asthma suggests a new target in allergy research and opens possibilities for the therapeutic modulation of the gut microbiota in this group of patients.
Tikhonova, I V; Kosyakova, N I; Tankanag, A V; Chemeris, N K
Pulmonary hemodynamic disorders depend on the inflammatory phases and severity of the obstructive syndrome. However, the effect of asthma bronchial obstruction on the state of peripheral hemodynamics remains insufficiently known. To study the effects of airway obstruction on skin blood flow parameters and its regulatory systems in patients with persistent atopic bronchial asthma in the remission state. A comparative study of the skin peripheral blood flow in patients with bronchial asthma with severe airway obstruction (1st group) and without obstruction (2nd group) was conducted. 20 patients with confirmed diagnosis of atopic asthma of 50–74 years old participated in the study. All patients received basic therapy in a constant dosing of high doses of inhaled glucocorticosteroids/long-acting beta-2-agonists. The control group included 20 healthy volunteers without evidence of bronchial obstruction. The study lasted for 3 months. The forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) was used to evaluate the bronchial obstruction by spirometry technique. Skin blood perfusion changes were recorded by laser Doppler flowmetry at rest and in response to short-term local ischemia. Registered peripheral blood flow signals were examined using the amplitude temporal filtering in five frequency intervals to identify the functional features of the peripheral blood flow regulation systems. Consistent two-fold decrease of the oscillation amplitudes was found in the neurogenic interval at rest (p=0.031), as well as in the myogenic (p=0.043; p=0.031) and endothelial intervals (p=0.037; p≤0.001) both at rest and during the postocclusive reactive hyperemia respectively in the 1st group of patients with bronchial obstruction (FEV1 obstruction, FEV1 >80%) in comparison to control subjects. The presence of bronchial obstruction has a significant impact on the changes of the amplitudes of skin blood flow oscillations in patients with bronchial asthma in the myogenic, neurogenic and endothelial
Björnsdóttir, U S; Gizurarson, S; Sabale, U
Asthma requires individually tailored and careful management to control and prevent symptoms and exacerbations. Selection of the most appropriate treatment is dependent on both the choice of drugs and inhaler device; however, financial pressures may result in patients being switched to alternative medications and devices in an attempt to reduce costs. This review aimed to examine the published literature in order to ascertain whether switching a patient's asthma medications or device negatively impacts clinical and economic outcomes. A literature search of MEDLINE (2001-13 September 2011) was conducted to identify English-language articles focused on the direct impact of switching medications and inhaler devices and switching from fixed-dose combination to monocomponent therapy via separate inhalers in patients with asthma; the indirect impacts of switching were also assessed. Evidence showed that non-consented switching of medications and inhalers in patients with asthma can be associated with a range of negative outcomes, at both individual and organisational levels. Factors that reduce adherence may lead to compromised symptom control resulting in increased healthcare resource utilisation and poorer patient quality of life. The consequences of a non-consented switch should be weighed carefully against arguments supporting an inhaler switch without the patient's consent for non-medical/budgetary reasons, such as potential reductions in initial acquisition costs, which may be associated with subsequent additional healthcare needs. Given the increasing pressure for reduced costs and efficient allocation of limited healthcare resources, an additional investment in ensuring high medication adherence may lead to greater savings due to a potentially decreased demand for healthcare services. In contrast, savings achieved in acquisition costs may result in a greater net loss due to increased healthcare consumption caused by decreased asthma control. © 2013 The Authors
Zhao, Hai-jin; Cai, Shao-xi; Tong, Wan-cheng; Li, Wen-jun; Fu, Liang
To investigate the effect of education on self-evaluation and control level in patients with bronchial asthma. Seventy-five asthmatic patients with the initial diagnosis in line with the American Thoracic Society criteria, including 46 with junior high school education or below (group A) and 29 with senior high school education or above (group B), were asked to complete a survey to assess their symptoms and asthma attacks. Asthma control test (ACT) and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) evaluation were performed 8, 12 and 24 weeks after salmeterol/fluticasone therapy. Step-down treatment was administered according to GINA guidelines. The self-evaluation of the patients was assessed according to ACT score, physical signs and pulmonary function. An ACT score over 19 indicate well controlled condition. The effect of education on the self-evaluation and control level of bronchial asthma was assessed. The two groups had similar basal level of pulmonary function (FEV1). Eight weeks after the therapy, 29 patients in group A had ACT score over 19, including 11 with high control level; in group B, 17 had ACT score over 19, of whom 4 showed high control level. There was no significant difference between the two groups in control levels and self-evaluation (P>0.05). At 12 weeks, 37 patients in group A had ACT score over 19, with 17 having high control level; 22 patients in group B had ACT score over 19, 4 showing high control level; the two groups were similar in the control levels (P>0.05) but showed significant difference in self-evaluation (Pevaluation (Peducation level may play a role in self-evaluation and control level of bronchial asthma, but its impact differs in the course of the treatment.
Bardin, P.G.; Van Heerden, B.B.; Joubert, J.R.
The frequent association of asthma and paranasal sinusitis has been ascribed to a nasobronchial reflex, aspiration of sinus secretions, or enhanced beta-adrenergic blockade. We investigated possible pulmonary aspiration in a pilot study (eight patients) and follow-up study (13 patients) by means of a radionuclide technique. In the pilot study, the aim was to demonstrate aspiration as well as visibility of the radionuclide in the thorax during a period of 24 hours. The radionuclide was initially placed bronchoscopically in the bronchial tree in four patients and was still clearly visible in the same position after 24 hours in three patients. Aspiration from the nasopharynx was unequivocally demonstrated in two of four patients with depressed consciousness. The follow-up study population consisted of four patients with maxillary sinusitis only and nine patients with sinusitis and asthma. The radionuclide was placed in a maxillary sinus during therapeutic puncture. In the patients with only sinusitis as well as patients with asthma and sinusitis the radionuclide could be demonstrated in the maxillary sinus, nasopharynx, esophagus, and lower gastrointestinal tract during a 24-hour period. However, no pulmonary aspiration of radionuclide could be demonstrated in any patient. We conclude that seeding of the lower airways by mucopurulent secretions is unlikely to account for coexistent pulmonary disease. The association is probably related to generalized mucosal disease affecting both upper and lower airways
Slats, Annelies M.; Janssen, Kirsten; de Jeu, Ronald C.; van der Plas, Dirk T.; Schot, Robert; van den Aardweg, Joost G.; Sterk, Peter J.
Deep inspiration temporarily reduces induced airways obstruction in healthy subjects. This bronchodilatory effect of deep inspiration is impaired in asthma. Passive machine-assisted lung inflation may augment bronchodilation compared with an active deep inspiration in patients with asthma by either
Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this study was to investigate with the help of a computerized simulation model whether the treatment of an acute asthma attack can be individualized based on the severity of the attack and the characteristics of the patient. Material and Method: A stochastic lung model was used to simulate the deposition of 1 nm - 10 μm particles during a mild and a moderate asthma attack. Breathing parameters were varied to maximize deposition, and simulation results were compared with those obtained in the case of a severe asthma attack. In order to investigate the effect of height on the deposition of inhaled particles, another series of simulations was carried out with identical breathing parameters, comparing patient heights of 155 cm, 175 cm and 195 cm. Results: The optimization process yielded an increase in the maximum deposition values of around 6-7% for each type of investigated asthma attack, and the difference between attacks of different degree of severity was around 5% for both the initial and the optimized values, a higher degree of obstruction increasing the amount of deposited particles. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the individualization of asthma attack treatment cannot be based on particles of different size, as the highest deposited fraction in all three types of attacks can be obtained using 0.01 μm particles. The use of a specific set of breathing parameters yields a difference between a mild and a moderate, as well as a moderate and a severe asthma attack of around 5%.
Objective: To investigate the depression and anxiety in patients with asthma. Methods: With SAS and SDS,100 asthmatic patients were assessed. Results: The mean scores of SAS and SDS were 54.12±6.47, 44.8±7.28 respectively. 68% of sample had anxiety and 78% had depression. Conclusion: Most of patients with asthma have anxiety and depression. It suggests the treament of depression and anxiety for asthmatic patients are needed besides the conventional treatment.
Stefan, Mihaela S; Nathanson, Brian H; Priya, Aruna; Pekow, Penelope S; Lagu, Tara; Steingrub, Jay S; Hill, Nicholas S; Goldberg, Robert J; Kent, David M; Lindenauer, Peter K
Limited data are available on the use of noninvasive ventilation in patients with asthma exacerbations. The objective of this study was to characterize hospital patterns of noninvasive ventilation use in patients with asthma and to evaluate the association with the use of invasive mechanical ventilation and case fatality rate. This cross-sectional study used an electronic medical record dataset, which includes comprehensive pharmacy and laboratory results from 58 hospitals. Data on 13,558 patients admitted from 2009 to 2012 were analyzed. Initial noninvasive ventilation (NIV) or invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) was defined as the first ventilation method during hospitalization. Hospital-level risk-standardized rates of NIV among all admissions with asthma were calculated by using a hierarchical regression model. Hospitals were grouped into quartiles of NIV to compare the outcomes. Overall, 90.3% of patients with asthma were not ventilated, 4.0% were ventilated with NIV, and 5.7% were ventilated with IMV. Twenty-two (38%) hospitals did not use NIV for any included admissions. Hospital-level adjusted NIV rates varied considerably (range, 0.4-33.1; median, 5.2%). Hospitals in the highest quartile of NIV did not have lower IMV use (5.4% vs 5.7%), but they did have a small but significantly shorter length of stay. Higher NIV rates were not associated with lower risk-adjusted case fatality rates. Large variation exists in hospital use of NIV for patients with an acute exacerbation of asthma. Higher hospital rates of NIV use does not seem to be associated with lower IMV rates. These results indicate a need to understand contextual and organizational factors contributing to this variability. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bagger, Bettan; Taylor Kelly, Hélène; Hørdam, Britta
Improving patient safety is both a national and international priority as millions of patients Worldwide suffer injury or death every year due to unsafe care. University College Zealand employs innovative pedagogical approaches in educational design. Regional challenges related to geographic......, social and cultural factors have resulted in a greater emphasis upon digital technology. Attempts to improve patient safety by optimizing students’ competencies in relation to the reporting of clinical errors, has resulted in the development of an interdisciplinary e-learning concept. The program makes...
Malinovschi, Andrei; Backer, Vibeke; Harving, Henrik
The fraction of nitric oxide in exhaled air (FeNO) is used in asthma diagnosis and management. Smoking reduces FeNO and 20-35% of asthmatics are smoking. However no guidelines exist on the diagnostic value of FeNO in smokers. Therefore we assessed the value of FeNO to diagnose asthma in a populat...... in a population of subjects with asthma-like symptoms and different smoking habits.......The fraction of nitric oxide in exhaled air (FeNO) is used in asthma diagnosis and management. Smoking reduces FeNO and 20-35% of asthmatics are smoking. However no guidelines exist on the diagnostic value of FeNO in smokers. Therefore we assessed the value of FeNO to diagnose asthma...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The avoidance of inhaled allergens or tobacco smoke has been known to have favorable effects on asthma control. However, it remains unclear whether other lifestyle-related factors are also related to asthma control. Therefore, a comprehensive study to examine the associations between various lifestyle factors and asthma control was conducted in Japanese asthmatic patients. METHODS: The study subjects included 437 stable asthmatic patients recruited from our outpatient clinic over a one-year period. A written, informed consent was obtained from each participant. Asthma control was assessed using the asthma control test (ACT, and a structured questionnaire was administered to obtain information regarding lifestyle factors, including tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, physical exercise, and diet. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. RESULTS: The proportions of total control (ACT = 25, well controlled (ACT = 20-24, and poorly controlled (ACT 3 metabolic equivalents-h/week, and raw vegetable intake (> 5 units/week were significantly associated with good asthma control by bivariate analysis. Younger age, periodical exercise, and raw vegetable intake were significantly associated with good asthma control by multiple linear regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Periodical exercise and raw vegetable intake are associated with good asthma control in Japanese patients.
Veremchuk, Lyudmila V; Tsarouhas, Konstantinos; Vitkina, Tatyana I; Mineeva, Elena E; Gvozdenko, Tatyana A; Antonyuk, Marina V; Rakitskii, Valeri N; Sidletskaya, Karolina A; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Golokhvast, Kirill S
Environmental pollution, local climatic conditions and their association with the prevalence and exacerbation of asthma are topics of intense current medical investigation. Air pollution in the area of Vladivostock was estimated both by the index of emission volumes of "air gaseous components" (nitrogen oxide and nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, hydrogen sulfide, carbon monoxide) in urban atmosphere and by mass spectrometric analysis of precipitates in snow samples. A total of 172 local asthma patients (101 controlled-asthma patients-CAP and 71 non-controlled asthma patients - nCAP) were evaluated with the use of spirometry and body plethysmography. Airway obstruction reversibility was evaluated with the use of an inhaled bronchodilator. Using discriminant analysis the association of environmental parameters with clinical indices of asthma patients is explored and thresholds of impact are established. CAP presented high sensitivity to large-size suspended air particles and to several of the studied climatic parameters. Discriminant analysis showed high values of Wilks' lambda index (α = 0.69-0.81), which implies limited influence of environmental factors on the respiratory parameters of CAP. nCAP were more sensitive and susceptible to the majority of the environmental factors studied, including air suspended toxic metals particles (Cr, Zn and Ni). Air suspended particles showed higher tendency for pathogenicity in nCAP population than in the CAP, with a wider range of particle sizes being involved. Dust fractions ranging from 0 to 1 μm and from 50 to 100 μm were additionally implicated compared to CAP group. Considerably lowest thresholds levels of impact are calculated for nCAP. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Conclusions: Overall, all 3 mesh nebulizers were useful devices in treating bronchial asthma, although some differences in lung function improvement were evident. The limitation of this study is that subjects did not include patients with severe asthma attacks.
Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels in elderly patients with chronic bronchial asthma. Methods: Serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels were determined with RIA in 55 elderly patients with chronic bronchial asthma and 35 controls. Results: Serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Abnormal high serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels were important pathophysiologic features in chronic bronchial asthma. (authors)
School air quality has a major impact on asthma and other respiratory illnesses. Airborne allergens or irritants frequently trigger asthma attacks, yet environmental assessments demonstrate that schools often harbor allergen levels at or close to the th
Prins, L.C.; van Son, M.J.M.; Keimpema, A.R.; van Ranst, D; Pommer, A; Meijer, J.W.; Pop, V.J.M.
OBJECTIVE: Within the asthma population, difficult asthma (DA) is a severe condition in which patients present with frequent exacerbations, hospitalizations and emergency room visits. The identification and treatment of psychopathology is included in the management of DA. Psychopathology is supposed
Yamakage, Michiaki; Iwasaki, Sohshi; Namiki, Akiyoshi
Increased airway hyperresponsiveness is a major concern in the perioperative management of patients with bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Guidelines using evidence-based medicine are continually being updated and published regarding the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these respiratory disorders. Perioperative management in these patients involves: (1) adequate control of airway hyperresponsiveness, including detection of purulent sputum and infection before surgery; (2) evidence-based control of anesthesia; and (3) the aggressive use of beta-2 adrenergic stimulants and the systemic administration of steroids for the treatment of acute attacks. Good preoperative control, including the use of leukotriene antagonists, can reduce the incidence of life-threatening perioperative complications. Awareness of recent guidelines is thus important in the management of patients with airway hyperresponsiveness. This review covers the most recent guidelines for the perioperative management of patients with bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to find out efficacy of cognitive behavior therapy, as an adjunct to standard pharmacotherapy, in bronchial asthma. In a random-ized two-group design with pre-and post assessments, forty asthma patients were randomly allotted to two groups: self management group and cognitive behavior therapy group. Both groups were exposed to 6-8 weeks of intervention, asthma self management program and cognitive behavior therapy. Assessment measures used were-Semi structured interview schedule, Asthma Symptom Checklist, Asthma di-ary, Asthma Bother Profile, Hospital Anxiety & Depression Scale, AQLQ and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate. Within group comparison showed significant improvement in both groups at the post assessment. Between group comparisons showed that CBT group reported significantly greater change than that of SM group. Cognitive behavior therapy helps in improving the managment of asthma.
Full Text Available Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT is the only curative treatment for type-1 allergies, but sometimes shows limited therapeutic response as well as local and systemic side effects. Limited control of local inflammation and patient symptoms hampers its widespread use in severe allergic asthma.Our aim was to evaluate whether AIT is more effective in suppression of local inflammation if performed under the umbrella of short-term non-specific immunomodulation using a small molecule inhibitor of JAK pathways.In C57BL/6J mice, a model of ovalbumin (OVA-induced allergic airway inflammation and allergen-specific immunotherapy was combined with the administration of Tofacitinib (TOFA, a FDA-approved JAK inhibitor from 48 hours prior to 48 hours after therapeutic OVA-injection. The effect of TOFA on human FOXP3+CD4+ T cells was studied in vitro.AIT combined with short-term TOFA administration was significantly more effective in suppressing total cell and eosinophil infiltration into the lung, local cytokine production including IL-1β and CXCL1 and showed a trend for the reduction of IL-4, IL-13, TNF-α and IL-6 compared to AIT alone. Furthermore, TOFA co-administration significantly reduced systemic IL-6, IL-1β and OVA-specific IgE levels and induced IgG1 to the same extent as AIT alone. Additionally, TOFA enhanced the induction of human FOXP3+CD4+ T cells.This proof of concept study shows that JAK inhibition did not inhibit tolerance induction, but improved experimental AIT at the level of local inflammation. The improved control of local inflammation might extend the use of AIT in more severe conditions such as polyallergy, asthma and high-risk patients suffering from mastocytosis or anaphylaxis.
Aguilar-Pimentel, Antonio; Graessel, Anke; Alessandrini, Francesca; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Russkamp, Dennis; Chaker, Adam; Ollert, Markus; Blank, Simon; Gutermuth, Jan; Schmidt-Weber, Carsten B
Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) is the only curative treatment for type-1 allergies, but sometimes shows limited therapeutic response as well as local and systemic side effects. Limited control of local inflammation and patient symptoms hampers its widespread use in severe allergic asthma. Our aim was to evaluate whether AIT is more effective in suppression of local inflammation if performed under the umbrella of short-term non-specific immunomodulation using a small molecule inhibitor of JAK pathways. In C57BL/6J mice, a model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic airway inflammation and allergen-specific immunotherapy was combined with the administration of Tofacitinib (TOFA, a FDA-approved JAK inhibitor) from 48 hours prior to 48 hours after therapeutic OVA-injection. The effect of TOFA on human FOXP3+CD4+ T cells was studied in vitro. AIT combined with short-term TOFA administration was significantly more effective in suppressing total cell and eosinophil infiltration into the lung, local cytokine production including IL-1β and CXCL1 and showed a trend for the reduction of IL-4, IL-13, TNF-α and IL-6 compared to AIT alone. Furthermore, TOFA co-administration significantly reduced systemic IL-6, IL-1β and OVA-specific IgE levels and induced IgG1 to the same extent as AIT alone. Additionally, TOFA enhanced the induction of human FOXP3+CD4+ T cells. This proof of concept study shows that JAK inhibition did not inhibit tolerance induction, but improved experimental AIT at the level of local inflammation. The improved control of local inflammation might extend the use of AIT in more severe conditions such as polyallergy, asthma and high-risk patients suffering from mastocytosis or anaphylaxis.
Burnay, Eduardo; Cruz-Correia, Ricardo; Jacinto, Tiago; Sousa, Ana Sá; Fonseca, João
Kılıc, Hatice; Kanbay, Asiye; Karalezlı, Ayşegul; Babaoglu, Elif; Hasanoglu, H Canan; Erel, Ozcan; Ates, Can
To investigate the relationship between serum values of magnesium and the parameters of the pulmonary function tests (PFT) in patients with chronic asthma. This study recruited 50 patients with chronic stable asthma and 40 healthy individuals as a control group. Data on age, sex, severity of asthma, PFT, and details of drug therapy were obtained from each group. Serum magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, and sodium levels were also measured. To evaluate differences between groups, the Student t test or Mann-Whitney U test was performed for continuous variables, and the χ2 test for categorical variables. In the asthma group, 10% (n = 9) of the patients had hypomagnesemia and 5.5% (n = 5) had hypophosphatemia. Patients with asthma were divided into two groups: the hypomagnesemic group (n = 9) and the normomagnesemic group (n = 41). Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), FEV1%, peak expiratory flow (PEF), and PEF% were lower in the hypomagnesemic group than in the normomagnesemic group (p = 0.02). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed a statistically significant association between hypomagnesemia and PFT in the hypomagnesemic asthmatic group. The correlations of age with FEV1, FEV1%, PEF, and PEF% were as follows: p = 0.00, r = 0.29; p = 0.00, r = 0.43; p = 0.03, r = 0.22; p = 0.00, r = 0.38; and p = 0.03, r = 0.22, respectively. The correlation of serum magnesium levels with PFT (FEV1, FEV1%, PEF, PEF%) were as follows: p = 0.001, r = 0.29; p = 0.001, r = 0.43; p = 0.03, r = 0.22; and p = 0.001, r = 0.38, respectively. The other electrolytes were within the normal range in both groups. In this study, hypomagnesemia and hypophosphatemia were found to be the most common electrolyte abnormalities in patients with chronic stable asthma. FEV1, FEV1%, PEF, and PEF% were significantly lower in asthmatic patients with hypomagnesemia compared to asthmatic patients with normomagnesemia. ©2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.
Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Pierse, Nevil; Nicholls, Sarah; Gillespie-Bennett, Julie; Viggers, Helen; Cunningham, Malcolm; Phipps, Robyn; Boulic, Mikael; Fjällström, Pär; Free, Sarah; Chapman, Ralph; Lloyd, Bob; Wickens, Kristin; Shields, David; Baker, Michael; Cunningham, Chris; Woodward, Alistair; Bullen, Chris; Crane, Julian
To assess whether non-polluting, more effective home heating (heat pump, wood pellet burner, flued gas) has a positive effect on the health of children with asthma. Randomised controlled trial. Households in five communities in New Zealand. 409 children aged 6-12 years with doctor diagnosed asthma. Installation of a non-polluting, more effective home heater before winter. The control group received a replacement heater at the end of the trial. The primary outcome was change in lung function (peak expiratory flow rate and forced expiratory volume in one second, FEV(1)). Secondary outcomes were child reported respiratory tract symptoms and daily use of preventer and reliever drugs. At the end of winter 2005 (baseline) and winter 2006 (follow-up) parents reported their child's general health, use of health services, overall respiratory health, and housing conditions. Nitrogen dioxide levels were measured monthly for four months and temperatures in the living room and child's bedroom were recorded hourly. Improvements in lung function were not significant (difference in mean FEV(1) 130.7 ml, 95% confidence interval -20.3 to 281.7). Compared with children in the control group, however, children in the intervention group had 1.80 fewer days off school (95% confidence interval 0.11 to 3.13), 0.40 fewer visits to a doctor for asthma (0.11 to 0.62), and 0.25 fewer visits to a pharmacist for asthma (0.09 to 0.32). Children in the intervention group also had fewer reports of poor health (adjusted odds ratio 0.48, 95% confidence interval 0.31 to 0.74), less sleep disturbed by wheezing (0.55, 0.35 to 0.85), less dry cough at night (0.52, 0.32 to 0.83), and reduced scores for lower respiratory tract symptoms (0.77, 0.73 to 0.81) than children in the control group. The intervention was associated with a mean temperature rise in the living room of 1.10 degrees C (95% confidence interval 0.54 degrees C to 1.64 degrees C) and in the child's bedroom of 0.57 degrees C (0.05 degrees C
Vermeulen, Francois; Chirumberro, Audrey; Rummens, Peter; Bruyneel, Marie; Ninane, Vincent
In asthma patients, the assessment of activity limitation is based on questions evaluating how limited the patient feels in their activities. However, the lack of functional data complicates the interpretation of the answers. We aimed to evaluate the intensity of relationships between the patient's perception of activity limitation and the results of several functional tests. Twenty patients complaining of asthma exacerbation were invited to complete three scores (Chronic Respiratory Disease questionnaire, Asthma Control Questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale). They also underwent lung function measurements, a 6-minute walk test and a cardio-pulmonary exercise test. In addition, physical activity was studied by actigraphy. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients between the patient's perception of activity limitation and each of the other parameters were analysed. Five parameters were significantly correlated with the perception of activity limitation: ACQ question 4, related to dyspnea (rs 0.74, p perception of activity limitation. In response to questions about limitation of activity, patients do not specifically answer mentioning physical limitation but rather the psychological burden associated with this constraint.
Full Text Available Study objectives were to compare the numbers of lymphocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations in induced sputum from asthmatic patients and from healthy subjects, and to determine the effect of inhaled anti-asthmatic steroid therapy on these cell numbers. Hypertonic saline inhalation was used to non-invasively induce sputum samples in 34 patients with bronchial asthma and 21 healthy subjects. The sputum samples were reduced with dithioerythritol and absolute numbers of lymphocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations were assessed by direct immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. To assess the effect of beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP on induced sputum, numbers of lymphocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations in sputum also were evaluated after 4 weeks of BDP inhalation treatment in seven asthmatic patients. An adequate sample was obtained in 85.3% of patients with asthma and in 79.2% of the healthy subjects. Induced sputum from patients with asthma had increased numbers of lymphocytes (P = 0.009; CD4+ cells (P = 0.044; CD4+ cells-bearing interleukin-2 receptor (CD25; P = 0.016; and CD4+ cells bearing human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA-DR (P = 0.033. CD8+ cells were not increased in asthmatic patients. In patients treated with inhaled steroids, numbers of lymphocytes, CD4+ cells, CD25-bearing CD4+ cells and HLA-DR-bearing CD4+ cells in sputum decreased from pretreatment numbers (P = 0.016, 0.002, 0.003 and 0.002, respectively. Analysis of lymphocytes in induced sputum by flow cytometry is useful in assessing bronchial inflammation, and activated CD4+ lymphocytes may play a key role in the pathogenesis of airway inflammation in bronchial asthma.
Archibald, Mandy M; Hartling, Lisa; Ali, Samina; Caine, Vera; Scott, Shannon D
Although it is well established that family-centered education is critical to managing childhood asthma, the information needs of parents of children with asthma are not being met through current educational approaches. Patient-driven educational materials that leverage the power of the storytelling and the arts show promise in communicating health information and assisting in illness self-management. However, such arts-based knowledge translation approaches are in their infancy, and little is known about how to develop such tools for parents. This paper reports on the development of "My Asthma Diary" - an innovative knowledge translation tool based on rigorous research evidence and tailored to parents' asthma-related information needs. We used a multi-stage process to develop four eBook prototypes of "My Asthma Diary." We conducted formative research on parents' information needs and identified high quality research evidence on childhood asthma, and used these data to inform the development of the asthma eBooks. We established interdisciplinary consulting teams with health researchers, practitioners, and artists to help iteratively create the knowledge translation tools. We describe the iterative, transdisciplinary process of developing asthma eBooks which incorporates: (I) parents' preferences and information needs on childhood asthma, (II) quality evidence on childhood asthma and its management, and (III) the engaging and informative powers of storytelling and visual art as methods to communicate complex health information to parents. We identified four dominant methodological and procedural challenges encountered during this process: (I) working within an inter-disciplinary team, (II) quantity and ordering of information, (III) creating a composite narrative, and (IV) balancing actual and ideal management scenarios. We describe a replicable and rigorous multi-staged approach to developing a patient-driven, creative knowledge translation tool, which can be
Kravchenko, Julia; Akushevich, Igor; Abernethy, Amy P; Holman, Sheila; Ross, William G; Lyerly, H Kim
The respiratory tract is a major target of exposure to air pollutants, and respiratory diseases are associated with both short- and long-term exposures. We hypothesized that improved air quality in North Carolina was associated with reduced rates of death from respiratory diseases in local populations. We analyzed the trends of emphysema, asthma, and pneumonia mortality and changes of the levels of ozone, sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and particulate matters (PM2.5 and PM10) using monthly data measurements from air-monitoring stations in North Carolina in 1993-2010. The log-linear model was used to evaluate associations between air-pollutant levels and age-adjusted death rates (per 100,000 of population) calculated for 5-year age-groups and for standard 2000 North Carolina population. The studied associations were adjusted by age group-specific smoking prevalence and seasonal fluctuations of disease-specific respiratory deaths. Decline in emphysema deaths was associated with decreasing levels of SO2 and CO in the air, decline in asthma deaths-with lower SO2, CO, and PM10 levels, and decline in pneumonia deaths-with lower levels of SO2. Sensitivity analyses were performed to study potential effects of the change from International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 to ICD-10 codes, the effects of air pollutants on mortality during summer and winter, the impact of approach when only the underlying causes of deaths were used, and when mortality and air-quality data were analyzed on the county level. In each case, the results of sensitivity analyses demonstrated stability. The importance of analysis of pneumonia as an underlying cause of death was also highlighted. Significant associations were observed between decreasing death rates of emphysema, asthma, and pneumonia and decreases in levels of ambient air pollutants in North Carolina.
Kravchenko, Julia; Akushevich, Igor; Abernethy, Amy P; Holman, Sheila; Ross, William G; Lyerly, H Kim
Background The respiratory tract is a major target of exposure to air pollutants, and respiratory diseases are associated with both short- and long-term exposures. We hypothesized that improved air quality in North Carolina was associated with reduced rates of death from respiratory diseases in local populations. Materials and methods We analyzed the trends of emphysema, asthma, and pneumonia mortality and changes of the levels of ozone, sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and particulate matters (PM2.5 and PM10) using monthly data measurements from air-monitoring stations in North Carolina in 1993–2010. The log-linear model was used to evaluate associations between air-pollutant levels and age-adjusted death rates (per 100,000 of population) calculated for 5-year age-groups and for standard 2000 North Carolina population. The studied associations were adjusted by age group-specific smoking prevalence and seasonal fluctuations of disease-specific respiratory deaths. Results Decline in emphysema deaths was associated with decreasing levels of SO2 and CO in the air, decline in asthma deaths–with lower SO2, CO, and PM10 levels, and decline in pneumonia deaths–with lower levels of SO2. Sensitivity analyses were performed to study potential effects of the change from International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 to ICD-10 codes, the effects of air pollutants on mortality during summer and winter, the impact of approach when only the underlying causes of deaths were used, and when mortality and air-quality data were analyzed on the county level. In each case, the results of sensitivity analyses demonstrated stability. The importance of analysis of pneumonia as an underlying cause of death was also highlighted. Conclusion Significant associations were observed between decreasing death rates of emphysema, asthma, and pneumonia and decreases in levels of ambient air pollutants in North Carolina. PMID:25018627
Lv, Yubao; Wei, Ying; Abduwaki, Muhammadjan; Jurat, Tohti; Li, Fengsen; Wang, Huaizhen; Wu, Yuhua; Li, Zheng; Liu, Bo; Yin, Hongjun; Cao, Yuxue; Nurahmat, Mammat; Tang, Zihui; Dong, Jingcheng
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Uyghur medical formula Loki zupa in patients with chronic asthma. Adult patients with chronic asthma randomly received placebo or Loki zupa as add-on to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) maintenance treatment. Loki zupa or mimics was administered orally 10 ml per time, three times a day for 8 weeks. The primary endpoints were asthma control test (ACT) score and peak expiratory flow (PEF). The secondary endpoints were acute exacerbation rate, lung function, night waking days, and symptom-free days in the near 2 weeks, Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ) score and some inflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood. A total of 240 adult patients with chronic asthma were enrolled, and 218 patients were randomized to placebo (n = 109) or Loki zupa (n = 109) in addition to ICS for 8 weeks. Treatment with Loki zupa resulted in significant improvement in ACT score compared to the placebo group (p = 0.002). Furthermore, oral taken of Loki zupa increased the PEF obviously (p = 0.026). Loki zupa treatment did not improve the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1, p = 0.131) and FEV1/FVC compared to the placebo treatment (p = 0.805). The placebo group had higher rates of acute exacerbations than the Loki zupa group (6.3% vs. 0, p = 0.027). Subjects randomized to Loki zupa had increased daytime symptom-free days within 2 weeks than placebo (p = 0.016). However, Loki zupa had no effect on night waking days in the near 2 weeks (p = 0.369) and AQLQ score (p = 0.113). No significant effect was found on inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17, IL-33, IFN-γ, and TGF-β) between the two groups (p > 0.05). No adverse events and severe asthma exacerbations were recorded in the two groups (p > 0.05). Loki zupa add-on to standard ICS produced clinically significant improvements in ACT score, PEF, daytime symptom-free days and acute exacerbation in patients with chronic asthma. Clinical trial: This
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Uyghur medical formula Loki zupa in patients with chronic asthma. Adult patients with chronic asthma randomly received placebo or Loki zupa as add-on to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS maintenance treatment. Loki zupa or mimics was administered orally 10 ml per time, three times a day for 8 weeks. The primary endpoints were asthma control test (ACT score and peak expiratory flow (PEF. The secondary endpoints were acute exacerbation rate, lung function, night waking days, and symptom-free days in the near 2 weeks, Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ score and some inflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood. A total of 240 adult patients with chronic asthma were enrolled, and 218 patients were randomized to placebo (n = 109 or Loki zupa (n = 109 in addition to ICS for 8 weeks. Treatment with Loki zupa resulted in significant improvement in ACT score compared to the placebo group (p = 0.002. Furthermore, oral taken of Loki zupa increased the PEF obviously (p = 0.026. Loki zupa treatment did not improve the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1, p = 0.131 and FEV1/FVC compared to the placebo treatment (p = 0.805. The placebo group had higher rates of acute exacerbations than the Loki zupa group (6.3% vs. 0, p = 0.027. Subjects randomized to Loki zupa had increased daytime symptom-free days within 2 weeks than placebo (p = 0.016. However, Loki zupa had no effect on night waking days in the near 2 weeks (p = 0.369 and AQLQ score (p = 0.113. No significant effect was found on inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17, IL-33, IFN-γ, and TGF-β between the two groups (p > 0.05. No adverse events and severe asthma exacerbations were recorded in the two groups (p > 0.05. Loki zupa add-on to standard ICS produced clinically significant improvements in ACT score, PEF, daytime symptom-free days and acute exacerbation in patients with chronic asthma.Clinical trial
Nakamura, Shinji; Nishiyama, Tomoki; Hanaoka, Kazuo
The management of the patient with pulmonary hypertension is a challenge for the anesthesiologists because the risk of right-sided heart failure is markedly increased. We experienced a case of general anesthesia for a patient with pulmonary hypertension (mean pulmonary arterial pressure 39 mmHg), bronchial asthma and obesity. A 31-year-old woman was scheduled for arytenoid rotation for left recurrent nerve palsy. We applied routine monitors (noninvasive blood-pressure, five-lead electrocardiogram, pulse oximeter), and direct blood pressure monitoring through the radial artery. Anesthesia was induced with midazolam 4 mg, fentanyl 100 microg and sevoflurane 5%, and maintained with sevoflurane (1-2%) and nitrous oxide in oxygen. Surgery was completed in 100 minutes without any complications. We could successfully perform general anesthesia in a patient complicated by pulmonary hypertension, bronchial asthma and obesity, without invasive right-sided heart catheterization.
Full Text Available Foreign body aspiration is an urgent condition that requires immediate diagnosis and intervention. It is generally seen in children and in elderly patients with neurological problems and rarely seen in healthy adults. There may be some clinical signs and symptoms in patients with foreign body aspiration from mild to severe; such as cough, shortness of breath and respiratory arrest. A 52-year-old woman applied to our clinic with the complaints of cough and shortness of breath, and she was misdiagnosed and treated as asthma for three months. The chest radiograph showed heterogenous opacity in the right paracardiac region, computerized tomography revealed the foreign body aspiration in right main bronchus and peripheric pneumonia. Flexible bronchoscopy examination was processed and the foreign body was excluded safely with the aim of crocodile forceps. Foreign body aspiration should be kept in the mind in a adult patient with a sudden onset of asthma like disorder.
Singh, Savita; Soni, Ritu; Singh, K P; Tandon, O P
Prana is the energy, when the self-energizing force embraces the body with extension and expansion and control, it is pranayama. It may affect the milieu at the bronchioles and the alveoli particularly at the alveolo-capillary membrane to facilitate diffusion and transport of gases. It may also increase oxygenation at tissue level. Aim of our study is to compare pulmonary functions and diffusion capacity in patients of bronchial asthma before and after yogic intervention of 2 months. Sixty stable asthmatic-patients were randomized into two groups i.e group 1 (Yoga training group) and group 2 (control group). Each group included thirty patients. Lung functions were recorded on all patients at baseline, and then after two months. Group 1 subjects showed a statistically significant improvement (Pincreased significantly. It was concluded that pranayama & yoga breathing and stretching postures are used to increase respiratory stamina, relax the chest muscles, expand the lungs, raise energy levels, and calm the body.
Qi, Zhi-Ye; Duan, Jing; Zhang, Quan; Cao, Zhi-Lan; Dai, Mei; Xiong, Jing-Jing; Mo, Ya-Xiong; Lu, Ping
To investigate the prevalence of childhood asthma, and to find the distribution characteristics, precipitating factors, diagnosis and treatment status, and to provide scientific data for improving the prevention and management of asthma in children in Kunming City, China. Children were selected by random cluster sampling. A standardized preliminary questionnaire was used for screening out possible patients in the survey. Diagnosis of asthma was confirmed by diagnostic criteria in suspected asthmatic children. Asthmatic children were further asked for past diagnosis and treatment with the questionnaire of asthma in children. The total asthma incidence rate was 1.40%. The prevalence of asthma in male and female children was 1.89% and 0.88% respectively (Pasthma (1.69%) than that of school-age children (6-14 years old, 1.21%). In all asthmatic children, 51.3% were previously diagnosed with classical asthma or cough variant asthma, 26.0% were suffered attacks from December to February, and 54.0% were suffered attacks at midnight or dawn. Respiratory tract infection (87.3%) was the most common triggers of asthma exacerbation. Antibiotics were used in 80.0%, bronchodilators in 66.0%, inhaled corticosteroid in 64.0%. A peak flow meter for monitoring lung function was used in 17% of asthmatic children over 5 years old. The prevalence of asthma is associated with age and gender in children aged 0-14 years old in Kunming City. Acute asthma attack occurs mostly in winter and at midnight or dawn. Respiratory tract infection is the most common trigger of asthma exacerbation. Nearly a half of patients with asthma had not been diagnosed with asthma in the early stage. Most asthmatic children use antibiotics and only two-thirds use bronchodilators or inhaled corticosteroid in the treatment. The treatment and management of asthma in children awaits improvement as well.
Ozkaynak, Mustafa; Dziadkowiec, Oliwier; Mistry, Rakesh; Callahan, Tiffany; He, Ze; Deakyne, Sara; Tham, Eric
The purpose of this study was to describe a workflow analysis approach and apply it in emergency departments (EDs) using data extracted from the electronic health record (EHR) system. We used data that were obtained during 2013 from the ED of a children's hospital and its four satellite EDs. Workflow-related data were extracted for all patient visits with either a primary or secondary diagnosis on discharge of asthma (ICD-9 code=493). For each patient visit, eight different a priori time-stamped events were identified. Data were also collected on mode of arrival, patient demographics, triage score (i.e. acuity level), and primary/secondary diagnosis. Comparison groups were by acuity levels 2 and 3 with 2 being more acute than 3, arrival mode (ambulance versus walk-in), and site. Data were analyzed using a visualization method and Markov Chains. To demonstrate the viability and benefit of the approach, patient care workflows were visually and quantitatively compared. The analysis of the EHR data allowed for exploration of workflow patterns and variation across groups. Results suggest that workflow was different for different arrival modes, settings and acuity levels. EHRs can be used to explore workflow with statistical and visual analytics techniques novel to the health care setting. The results generated by the proposed approach could be utilized to help institutions identify workflow issues, plan for varied workflows and ultimately improve efficiency in caring for diverse patient groups. EHR data and novel analytic techniques in health care can expand our understanding of workflow in both large and small ED units. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hatta, Kotaro; Kitajima, Akiyoshi; Ito, Masanobu; Usui, Chie; Arai, Heii
A 68-year-old man was scheduled to receive 8 treatments of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for severe depression. He was being treated for long-standing asthma with a beta2 stimulant, clenbuterol hydrochloride, and had experienced no asthma attack for 9 years. Although he experienced no adverse consequence in his 7 treatments, pulmonary edema ensued from his eighth treatment despite no change in anesthesia and in the technical parameters of ECT. He was treated with oxygen and intravenous hydrocortisone, after which he quickly recovered. Transient eosinophilia was observed, but clinical symptoms of asthma did not appear. Although the association between pulmonary edema and well-controlled asthma was unclear, thiopental as induction of anesthesia or esmolol as poststimulus delivery might have played a role in the event. There may be a possibility of pulmonary edema even after several uneventful ECT treatments in a patient with asthma.
Seda Tural Önür
Full Text Available Objective: The mechanism of biological treatment molecule called omalizumab used in asthma treatment is thought to be versatile; however, the mechanism still remains unknown. This study was undertaken in severe asthma patients underwent omalizumab treatment, in order to investigate the relationship between biomarker expression and disease characteristics related to the immune system. Methods: Consecutive patients with severe asthma disease (n=15; Group IA, pretreatment and Group IB, post-treatment underwent omalizumab treatment. Control group was age- and sex-matched including 25 healthy in Group II. Blood samples from both the groups were taken during their first visit (Group IA and II and then after 12 months of treatment in asthmatic patients (Group IB. Serum levels of homocysteine (Hcy, eosinophil cationic peptide (ECP, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, soluble OX2 (sCD200 and clinical follow-up tests including fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO, asthma control test (ACT, and pulmonary function tests were evaluated. Results: After the treatment, 25(OHD levels and pulmonary function tests, including forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC levels, were significantly increased. Furthermore, total immunoglobulin E (IgE, Hcy, ECP, FeNO, and sCD200 levels were dramatically diminished. Regression analysis revealed positive correlations between ACT-FEV1 and ACT- FVC and between FeNO-age and FeNO-ECP for Group IA patients. Negative correlations were detected between ACT-IgE, age-FEV1, FeNO-FEV1, and FeNO-FVC for Group IA patients. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the potential use of serum biomolecules in concordance to the clinical status of the asthmatic patients might be a follow-up tool for the omalizumab therapy.
Yılmaz, İnsu; Çelik, Gülfem; Aydın, Ömür; Özdemir, Seçil Kepil; Soyyiğit, Şadan; Sözener, Zeynep; Özgüçlü, Selcan; Atasoy, Çetin; Düzgün, Nurşen; Mungan, Dilşad; Sin, Betül; Demirel, Yavuz Selim; Mısırlıgil, Zeynep
Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) is a rare multisystem vasculitis. Considering the variation of autoimmune diseases in different races, it is of interest to determine whether any outstanding features exist for Turkish patients with CSS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and serological features of the disease, the treatment, and long-term follow-up details, and to investigate possible etiological factors of Turkish CSS patients. The study included 14 patients who were diagnosed with CSS, and followed by our department between 2004 and 2012. Possible etiological factors, initial symptoms, clinical presentations, treatment, as well as outcomes were documented. The study was approved by the local ethics. All patients fulfilled the American College of Rheumatology criteria. Initial symptoms were worsening asthma (n = 14; 100%) and skin lesions (n = 6; 43%). All patients had a diagnosis of asthma and nasal polyps, whereas 57.1% had aspirin hypersensitivity at the time of diagnosis. The lungs (100%) and skin (43%) were most commonly involved. Peripheral eosinophilia dominated on initial presentations of all patients. Initial treatments included oral methyl prednisolone in all cases, whereas cyclophosphamide and azathioprine were used in three cases. Relapses were detected in five cases. None of the cases were able to stop the oral corticosteroid treatment. No fatalities were observed. We herein describe a new severe asthma endotype in connection with CSS. We suggest that physicians who deal with uncontrolled severe asthma cases should consider CSS in the presence of nasal polyps, aspirin hypersensitivity, and especially peripheral blood eosinophilia over 10%. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kallieri, Maria; Papaioannou, Andriana I; Papathanasiou, Evgenia; Ntontsi, Polyxeni; Papiris, Spyridon; Loukides, Stelios
Omalizumab is a recombinant humanized IgG1 monoclonal anti-IgE antibody, used for the treatment of severe refractory allergic asthma. However, not all patients with IgE levels within the limits of administration, respond to treatment. The aim of the present study, was to determine clinical and inflammatory characteristics that could predict response to omalizumab. We studied retrospectively patients treated with omalizumab as per GINA guidelines in one asthma tertiary referral center. Demographic and functional characteristics, level of asthma control, fractional exhaled nitric oxide, blood and eosinophils and IgE level, induced sputum cell count, eosinophil cationic protein and Interleukin-13 in sputum supernatant were recorded. All measurements were performed before starting treatment with omalizumab. Response to treatment was evaluated according to the physician's global evaluation of treatment effectiveness. Patients were characterized as early responders when improvement was achieved within 16 weeks and as late responders when improvement was achieved between 16 and 32 weeks. Patients who did not show any improvement after 32 weeks of therapy were considered as non-responders. Forty-one patients treated with omalizumab were included in the study. 28 (68.3%) patients were characterized as responders while 13 patients (31.7%) were considered as non-responders. Among responders, 25 (89%) were early responders and 3 (n = 11%) were late responders. Responders were characterized by lower baseline FEV 1 and FEV 1 /FVC and higher IL-13 levels in induced sputum supernatant compared to non-responders. Late responders had higher serum IgE levels, shorter disease duration and higher number of blood eosinophils. Finally, using ROC curve analysis, the best predictors of response to omalizumab were FEV 1 (AUC = 0.718) and IL-13 in sputum supernatant (AUC = 0.709). Lower baseline FEV 1 and higher IL-13 levels in induced sputum supernatant were predictors of response
Full Text Available Omana Kesary Sreelatha,1 Sathyamangalam VenkataSubbu Ramesh2 1Ophthalmology Department, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman; 2Department of Optometry, School of Allied Health Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, India Abstract: Teleophthalmology is gaining importance as an effective eye care delivery modality worldwide. In many developing countries, teleophthalmology is being utilized to provide quality eye care to the underserved urban population and the unserved remote rural population. Over the years, technological innovations have led to improvement in evidence and teleophthalmology has evolved from a research tool to a clinical tool. The majority of the current teleophthalmology services concentrate on patient screening and appropriate referral to experts. Specialty care using teleophthalmology services for the pediatric group includes screening as well as providing timely care for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. Among geriatric eye diseases, specialty teleophthalmology care is focused toward screening and referral for diabetic retinopathy (DR, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (ARMD, and other sight-threatening conditions. Comprehensive vision screening and refractive error services are generally covered as part of most of the teleophthalmology methods. Over the past decades, outcome assessment of health care system includes patients’ assessments on their health, care, and services they receive. Outcomes, by and large, remain the ultimate validators of the effectiveness and quality of medical care. Teleophthalmology produces the same desired clinical outcome as the traditional system. Remote portals allow specialists to provide care over a larger region, thereby improving health outcomes and increasing accessibility of specialty care to a larger population. A high satisfaction level and acceptance is reported in the majority of the studies because of increased accessibility and reduced traveling cost and time
Terreehorst, I; Duivenvoorden, H J; Tempels-Pavlica, Z; Oosting, A J; de Monchy, J G R; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C A F M; van Wijk, R Gerth
Environmental control has been put forward as an integral part of the management of house dust mite (HDM) allergy in sensitized patients. To validate this statement allergic disorders involved in HDM allergy--allergic asthma, rhinitis and atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome (AEDS)--should be taken together and studied in terms of the efficacy of environmental control. Because a generic quality of life questionnaire exceeds the border of disease, this may be used as major outcome parameter. To study the effects of bedding encasings in HDM allergic patients with asthma, rhinitis and AEDS. A total of 224 adult HDM allergic patients with rhinitis and/or asthma and/or dermatitis were randomly allocated impermeable or nonimpermeable encasings for mattress, pillow and duvet. Short form 36 (SF-36) was filled in at baseline and after 12 months. Lower physical (P = 0.01) and emotional (P effect was seen of encasings on either sumscore. Bedding encasings do not improve quality of life in a mixed population of subjects with combinations with rhinitis, asthma and atopic dermatitis and sensitized to HDMs.
Fujita, Jiro; Okada, Hiroki; Momoi, Atsuko; Yamadori, Ichiro; Takahara, Jiro; Tanabe, Masatada; Takahashi, Kazue; Satoh, Katashi; Ohkawa, Motoomi
Bronchial asthma is a clinical syndrome characterized by the reversibility of airway obstruction. Recently it has been suggested that remodeling of the airway causes irreversible airway obstruction which may be responsible for the patient's symptoms. With this background, the purpose of the present study was to assess patients with corticosteroid-dependent asthma by Tc-99m Technegas scintigraphy (Technegas) in both planar and SPECT images. Twelve patients (7 females and 5 males aged 36-72 years with a median age of 60 years: 4 smokers and 8 non-smokers) with oral corticosteroid-dependent asthma were enrolled in this study. Lung ventilation scanning with Technegas in both planar and SPECT images, high-resolution computed tomography, and pulmonary function tests were performed in all patients. The results of Technegas scanning were graded and correlations with other clinical parameters were evaluated. Significant abnormalities were detected by ventilation scintigraphy with Technegas in patients with corticosteroid-dependent bronchial asthma even during remission. Our data demonstrate that airflow obstruction took place in patients with corticosteroid-dependent asthma even during remission. Technegas scanning appears to be a useful radiopharmaceutical for demonstrating airflow obstruction in patients with bronchial asthma. (author)
Fujita, Jiro; Okada, Hiroki; Momoi, Atsuko; Yamadori, Ichiro; Takahara, Jiro; Tanabe, Masatada [Kagawa Medical Univ., Miki (Japan); Takahashi, Kazue; Satoh, Katashi; Ohkawa, Motoomi
Bronchial asthma is a clinical syndrome characterized by the reversibility of airway obstruction. Recently it has been suggested that remodeling of the airway causes irreversible airway obstruction which may be responsible for the patient's symptoms. With this background, the purpose of the present study was to assess patients with corticosteroid-dependent asthma by Tc-99m Technegas scintigraphy (Technegas) in both planar and SPECT images. Twelve patients (7 females and 5 males aged 36-72 years with a median age of 60 years: 4 smokers and 8 non-smokers) with oral corticosteroid-dependent asthma were enrolled in this study. Lung ventilation scanning with Technegas in both planar and SPECT images, high-resolution computed tomography, and pulmonary function tests were performed in all patients. The results of Technegas scanning were graded and correlations with other clinical parameters were evaluated. Significant abnormalities were detected by ventilation scintigraphy with Technegas in patients with corticosteroid-dependent bronchial asthma even during remission. Our data demonstrate that airflow obstruction took place in patients with corticosteroid-dependent asthma even during remission. Technegas scanning appears to be a useful radiopharmaceutical for demonstrating airflow obstruction in patients with bronchial asthma. (author)
T. N. Zaripova
Full Text Available The aim of research is to study the state of circadian arterial tension profile in the patients with bronchial asthma and hypertensive disease as comorbid disease. Materials and methods. The research has been performed at 76 patients with bronchial asthma and hypertensive disease as comorbid disease (the main group and 52 patients with hypertensive disease as the comparison group. The groups were comparable with respect to the gender and age sign. Investigation was performed in the period of clinical remission. The main method used in this research was the investigation of day arterial tension profile in the time of its monitoring. Results. It has been revealed the presence of frequent and expressed change from the side of the studied indexes, especially in the patients with comorbid pathology, which were characterized by more frequent and more significant disorders from the side of diastolic blood pressure, especially at night in combination with more considerable and more rapid rise in early morning hours. The day arterial tension profile was characterized either with insufficient decline of arterial pressure at night or, opposite, with its sharp decrease. Specified disorders were increased as far as heaving of main and comorbid diseases, presence of disorders from the side of lipid exchange were not related to the phase of bronchial asthma (remission, exacerbation and level of its flow control.
Kupryś-Lipińska, Izabela; Molińska, Katarzyna; Kuna, Piotr
Bronchial asthma is characterised by high levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) and overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukins IL-4, IL-13 and IL-5 needed for, amongst other things, the production of IgE and the differentiation, maturation, migration and survival of eosinophils. Eosinophils are one of the most important cells in allergic inflammation. Their presence in tissue is linked to the persistence of inflammatory infiltrate, tissue damage and remodelling. Although these cells are very sensitive to corticosteroids, some asthmatic patients do not respond to high doses of these drugs, even when administered systemically. Transbronchial biopsies and bronchoalveolar lavage performed in patients with steroid-resistant asthma have demonstrated higher levels of eosinophils and Th2-type cytokines (IL-4 and IL-5) compared to steroid-sensitive patients. Clinical studies have confirmed that the very effective treatment in these cases is therapy with omalizumab - an anti-IgE monoclonal antibody. The paper discusses the efficacy of omalizumab in reducing eosinophil number in peripheral blood and in the airways of asthmatic patients based on basic, clinical, observational studies and case reports. The significance of omalizumab therapy in asthma control and mechanisms that regulate the effects of omalizumab on eosinophils are evaluated.
Full Text Available Recent trials have assessed the efficacy and safety of novel monoclonal antibodies such as reslizumab and benralizumab. However, the overall efficacy and safety anti-interleukin (IL 5 treatment in asthma have not been thoroughly assessed.Randomized controlled trials (RCTs of anti-IL-5 treatment on patients with asthma published up to October 2016 in PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL that reported pulmonary function, quality of life scores, asthmatic exacerbation rate, blood and sputum eosinophil counts, short-acting β-agonist (SABA rescue use, and adverse events were included. The pooled mean difference, and relative risks (RR, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated using random-effects models.Twenty studies involving 7100 patients were identified. Pooled analysis revealed significant improvements in FEV1 (first second forced expiratory volume (MD = 0.09, 95% CI: 0.06-0.12, I2 = 10%, FEV1% (MD = 3.75, 95% CI: 1.66-5.83, I2 = 19%, Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ score (MD = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.15-0.30, I2 = 0%, decreased blood, sputum eosinophils and asthmatic exacerbation (RR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.59-0.73, I2 = 51%; peak expiratory flow (PEF (MD = 5.45, 95% CI: -2.83-13.72, I2 = 0%, histamine PC20 (MD = -0.62, 95% CI: -1.92-0.68, I2 = 0% or SABA rescue use (MD = -0.11, 95% CI: -0.3-0.07, I2 = 30% were unaffected; adverse events were not increased (RR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.89-0.98, I2 = 46%. No publication bias was observed (Egger's P = 0.78.Anti-interleukin 5 monoclonal therapies for asthma could be safe for slightly improving FEV1 (or FEV1% of predicted value, quality of life, and reducing exacerbations risk and blood and sputum eosinophils, but have no significant effect on PEF, histamine PC20, and SABA rescue use. Further trials required to establish to clarify the optimal antibody for different patients.
Brüggenjürgen, Bernd; Reinhold, Thomas; Brehler, Randolf; Laake, Eckard; Wiese, Günther; Machate, Ulrich; Willich, Stefan N
Specific immunotherapy is the only potentially curative treatment in patients with allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. Health economic evaluations on this treatment, particularly in a German context, are sparse. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of specific subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) in addition to symptomatic treatment (ST) compared with ST alone in a German health care setting. The analysis was performed as a health economic model calculation based on Markov models. In addition, we performed a concomitant expert board composed of allergy experts in pediatrics, dermatology, pneumology, and otolaryngology. The primary perspective of the study was societal. Additional sensitivity analyses were performed to prove our results for robustness. The SCIT and ST combination was associated with annual cost savings of Euro140 per patient. After 10 years of disease duration, SCIT and ST reach the breakeven point. The overall incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was Euro-19,787 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY), with a range that depended on patient age (adults, Euro-22,196; adolescents, Euro-14,747; children, Euro-12,750). From a third-party payer's perspective, SCIT was associated with slightly additional costs. Thus, the resulting ICER was Euro8,308 per QALY for all patients. Additional SCIT was associated with improved medical outcomes and cost savings compared with symptomatic treatment alone according to a societal perspective. Taking a European accepted ICER threshold of up to Euro50,000 per QALY into account, additional SCIT is considered clearly cost-effective compared with routine care in Germany. The degree of cost-effectiveness is strongly affected by costs related to SCIT and the target population receiving such treatment.
Rams, Anna; Żółciński, Marek; Zastrzeżyńska, Weronika; Polański, Stanisław; Serafin, Agnieszka; Wilańska, Joanna; Musiał, Jacek; Bazan-Socha, Stanisława
Asthma therapy with monoclonal antibodies is a promising and effective approach for those with a severe and refractory type of disease. Although such a targeted therapy is considered to be safe, unusual complications may occur. We present a case of a 45 year-old female patient with severe allergic asthma and chronic spontaneous urticaria, who developed autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 2 (APS-2) after 26 months of omalizumab administration. The patient was diagnosed with primary adrenal insufficiency (Addison's disease) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis accompanied by autoimmune atrophic gastritis. According to our knowledge this is the first description of APS-2 that developed in conjunction with omalizumab treatment, although we have no evidence that the observed phenomenon indicated a cause-effect relationship to omalizumab.
Miłkowska-Dymanowska, Joanna; Białas, Adam J; Górski, Paweł
Noncompliance with healthcare undoubtedly has a strong influence on the high prevalence of uncontrolled obstructive diseases. The aim of our study was to evaluate the quality of medical conduct in patients with asthma or chronic obstructive lung diseases (COPD), with encompassed two-levelled system of health care. A survey of general practitioners (GP), allergists and pulmonologists practicing in Poland was performed between September and December 2016. The basic survey included the data concerning the number of treated patients, the course of the visits, treatment regimens and whether the patients follow the instructions of the physician. The specialist survey recorded the details of the specialist visits, their frequency and character, an evaluation of the pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies and an evaluation of the GP's actions. The basic questionnaire was completed by 807 doctors with an average of 21 ± 9.85 years of medical experience. Most of the interviewed individuals were GPs (56%), followed by pulmonologists (28%) and allergists (16%). The GP reported 47 cases/month with obstructive pulmonary conditions, including 48.94% asthma and 51.06% COPD patients. They diagnosed three new asthma and COPD patients per month. The allergists treated patients with asthma (105 patients/ month), with 19 newly-diagnosed patients/month. The pulmonologists treated fewer asthma cases than COPD: 71 and 98 patients respectively. They reported 14 patients/month of newly-diagnosed COPD cases. The patients took inhaled glucocorticoids and long-acting b adrenoceptor agonists in separate inhalers. The most frequently-used device was a disc. In opinion of the specialists, half of the therapies initiated recently by GPs for patients with asthma and COPD required modifications. There is a disparity between the true state of medical care of asthma and COPD patients and globally-accepted standards.
[Ambulatory care of patients with asthma in Germany and disease management program for asthma from the view of statutory health insured patients. A postal survey of statutory health insured patients].
Bücker, B; Löscher, S; Schürer, C; Schaper, K; Abholz, H-H; Wilm, S
In spite of a decline in mortality due to asthma in Germany various studies point towards deficits in asthma care. Our investigation should collect data about ambulatory care from the view of statutory health insured patients (SHI), who participate in the disease management program asthma (DMP-P) or do not (NP). Primary question was, if there is a difference between asthma control. Secondary questions referred to process parameters. The postal inquiry was conducted in 2010 with 8000 randomly selected members of a SHI company with asthma (4000 DMP-P and 4000 NP). The descriptive evaluation of categorical items was performed with cross-tables. The absolute risk reduction (ARR) and 97.5 %-confidence interval (CI; multiple level 5 %) was used to evaluate the primary question. Secondary questions were analysed by ARR and 95 %-CI. The response rate of the questionnaire accounted for 31.1 % (2565). 49.2 % of all respondents lived with an uncontrolled asthma with no differences between DMP-P and NP (ARR -2.7 %, 97.5 %-CI -7.9 -2.4 %). Results did not alter after adjustment for sex and age. The secondary questions revealed significant differences (DMP-P vs. NP) in participation in asthma trainings 50.6 vs. 32.3 %, use of a peak-flow-meter 49.3 vs. 25.3 % and asthma action plan within reach 21.7 vs. 11.0 %. Half of all respondents lives selfreported - even in the DMP-group - with an uncontrolled asthma. Process parameters showed better results in the DMP-group. It can be considered, that the DMP has its desired effect on patient-centered care, but does not lead to a better therapeutic outcome. Explanations can only be assumed: insufficient impact of the process parameters on the outcome, patient behavior, that minimizes a possible effect, or selection effects, if patients, who were more sick and at the same time more motivated, were mainly included in the DMP. These aspects should be addressed in studies with a prospective design. © Georg Thieme
V. V. Lim
Full Text Available We observed sixty patients with allergic bronchial asthma (ABA and 54 with non-allergic bronchial asthma (NABA. Quantitative SOCS3 and SOCS5 mRNA expression was evaluated by means of real-time PCR. Eighteen healthy persons served as a control group. In patients with bronchial asthma (irrespectively of pathogenetic form, a significant increase of SOCS3 transcription factor expression was detected in peripheral blood mononuclears, as compared with control group. This increase was more pronounced in NABA group. The mRNA SOCS5 level was significantly decreased in bronchial asthma patients, as compared to control group, especially, in ABA subgroup rather than in NABA patients. Thus, an increased expression of SOCS3 mRNA in BA patients could be regarded as a protective antiinflammatory response Decrease of SOCS5 mRNA expression in patients with bronchial asthma (being more pronounced in ABA, may be indicative for a deficiency in negative feedback regulation of gene transcription in allergic bronchial asthma.
Del Giacco, Stefano R.; Bakirtas, A.; Bel, E.; Custovic, A.; Diamant, Z.; Hamelmann, E.; Heffler, E.; Kalayci, O.; Saglani, S.; Sergejeva, S.; Seys, S.; Simpson, A.; Bjermer, Leif
It is well recognized that atopic sensitization is an important risk factor for asthma, both in adults and in children. However, the role of allergy in severe asthma is still under debate. The term 'Severe Asthma' encompasses a highly heterogeneous group of patients who require treatment on steps
Parvin, I A; Ahmad, S A; Islam, M N
This cross sectional descriptive study was conducted among the chronic asthma patients attending three Institutes of Dhaka city namely National Asthma Center, The National Institute of Diseases of Chest and Hospital (NIDCH), Mohakhali, and Dhaka Medical College Hospital to assess the level of knowledge regarding inhaler use. Convenient sampling was adopted. Data were collected using one semi-structured questionnaire through face-to-face interview. The patients were aged from 18 to 75 years with mean age being 40.68 years and sd +/- 11.659 years. The mean monthly income of the respondents found was 8278.52 taka with standard deviation +/- 3523.315 taka. Mean duration of bronchial asthma was 9.44 years with sd +/- 4.862 years. Out of the total 298 respondents 103(35.8%) possessed "excellent knowledge" on inhalers. Ninety one (31.6%) had "adequate knowledge", sixty nine (24.0%) had "poor knowledge" and thirty five (8.7%) respondents were found having "no knowledge" about inhalers. Males were seen having better knowledge than the females (chi2 =66.582, df=3, pknowledge than those from the outdoors (pLevel of Knowledge was also found to be associated with the educational status of the respondents. Respondents with higher education possessed more than the respondents with lower education (p<0.001). Though most of the physicians now prescribe inhalers, but many of them do not explain the proper use of inhaler. This may be corrected through training and motivation of physicians at Medical Colleges and Hospitals and during various medical conferences and other programs. To reduce the extent of suffering and economic burden of asthma patients and their families, active education program for the patients and training program for the health care providers, regarding "inhaler use technique" demands early consideration.
Seyyed Shamsadin Athari
Full Text Available HBV is a non-cytopathic virus and cell mediated immune response against this. Humoral mediated immune response are responsible for allergic diseases. Balance between these two subsets of Th CD4+ cells are result of the immune system response. A 56 year old woman presented with chronic HBV infection, allergic asthma, type 2 diabetes mellitus and high blood pressure and high blood lipid. Patients should be followed for the allergic and autoimmune diseases along with their viral reactivation.
Fan, Linxia; Wang, Xiaojun; Fan, Linlan; Chen, Qizhang; Zhang, Hong; Pan, Hui; Xu, Aixia; Wang, Hongjuan; Yu, Yang
To delineate the underlying mechanism of microRNA-145 modulate the balance of Th1/Th2 via targeting RUNX3 in asthma patients. Peripheral blood samples were collected from asthma patients and healthy controls. CD4 + T cells were isolated and cultured. Using quantitative PCR detect, the level of microRNA-145 and RUNX3 mRNA level in the CD4 + T cells from asthma patients and healthy controls, meanwhile, western blot was used to detect the RUNX3 protein level. Th1 or Th2 related cytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Dual-Luciferase Reporter Assay was performed to confirm the correlation between microRNA-145 and RUNX3. MicroRNA-145 mimic or inhibitor was transfected in the CD4 + T cells and the changes of RUNX3 level, Th1 or Th2 related cytokines and the percentage of Th1 and Th2 were observed after transfection. MicroRNA-145 level of CD4 + T cells was higher with a lower RUNX3 expression in asthma patients. There is negative correlation between microRNA-145 and RUNX3. Th2 hyperactivity and Th1 deficiency was detected in the CD4 + T cells of asthma patients. Dual-Luciferase Reporter Assay has shown that RUNX3 is a target of microRNA. Up-regulation or down-regulation of miR-145 level caused RUNX3 expression changes in CD4 + T cells and influence the related cytokines. Inhibition of microRNA-145 may reverse the imbalance of Th1/Th2 in asthma patients. MicroRNA-145 could regulate the balance of Th1/Th2 through targeting the RUNX3 in asthma patients. MicroRNA-145 and RUNX3 may be used as biomarkers or targets in the diagnosis or therapy of asthma.
Netuveli, Gopalakrishnan; Hurwitz, Brian; Sheikh, Aziz
Recent studies have demonstrated marked international variations in the prevalence of asthma, but less is known about ethnic variations in asthma epidemiology within individual countries and in particular the impact of migration on risk of developing asthma. Recent within country comparisons have however revealed that despite originating from areas of the world with a low risk for developing asthma, South Asian and Afro-Caribbean people in the UK are significantly (3x and 2x respectively) more likely to be admitted to hospital for asthma related problems than Whites. Using data from the Fourth National Study of Morbidity Statistics in General Practice, a one-percent broadly representative prospective cohort study of consultations in general practice, we investigated ethnic variations in incident asthma consultations (defined as new or first consultations), and compared consultation rates between those born inside and outside the UK (migrant status). Logistic regression models were used to examine the combined effects of ethnicity and migration on asthma incident consultations. Results showed significantly lower new/first asthma consultation rates for Whites than for each of the ethnic minority groups studied (mean age-adjusted consultation rates per 1000 patient-years: Whites 26.4 (95%CI 26.4, 26.4); South Asians 30.4 (95%CI 30.3, 30.5); Afro-Caribbeans 35.1 (95%CI 34.9, 35.3); and Others 27.8 (27.7, 28.0). Within each of these ethnic groups, those born outside of the UK showed consistently lower rates of incident asthma consultations. Modelling the combined effects of ethnic and migrant status revealed that UK-born South Asians and Afro-Caribbeans experienced comparable risks for incident GP consultations for asthma to UK-born Whites. Non-UK born Whites however experienced reduced risks (adjusted OR 0.82, 95%CI 0.69, 0.97) whilst non-UK born South Asians experienced increased risks (adjusted OR 1.33, 95%CI 1.04, 1.70) compared to UK-born Whites. These findings
Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of changes of serum TNF, IL-8 and GM-CSF in pediatric patients with bronchial asthma. Methods: Serum TNF, IL-8 and GM-CSF levels were measured with RIA in 32 pediatric patients with bronchial asthma and 30 controls. Results: Serum levels of TNF, IL-8 and GM-CSF were very significantly higher in pediatric patients with bronchial asthma than those in controls (P<0.01). After one week treatment, the levels dropped considerably but still remained significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: These cytokines participated in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. Monitoring the changes of their serum levels was helpful for the management of the diseases. (authors)
Ricciardolo, Fabio L M; Sorbello, Valentina; Ciprandi, Giorgio
The current review aims to revisit literature on exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) in asthma phenotyping and management to clarify the utility of this test in clinical practice. It is increasingly evident that multiple profiles characterize asthma as a complex disease for which is necessary to find tools able to discriminate among these phenotypes to achieve the best therapeutic strategy for all asthmatic patients. Current findings indicate that FeNO, a noninvasive and easy-to-obtain biomarker, can be considered a useful tool in predicting asthma developing and exacerbation, in identifying specific asthma phenotypes, in improving asthma diagnosis and management in a selected population, and in monitoring efficacy of standard corticosteroid and biologic therapy. Based on this evidence, FeNO might become an appropriate tool for physicians to better define specific asthma phenotypes and to better deal with asthma worsening.
Black, Heather L; Priolo, Chantel; Gonzalez, Rodalyn; Geer, Sabrina; Adam, Bariituu; Apter, Andrea J
To describe and categorize contextual information relevant to patients' medical care unexpectedly volunteered to research personnel as part of a patient advocate (PA) intervention to facilitate access health care, communication with medical personnel, and self-management of a chronic disease such as asthma. We adapted a patient navigator intervention, to overcome barriers to access and communication for adults with moderate or severe asthma. Informed by focus groups of patients and providers, our PAs facilitated preparation for a visit with an asthma provider, attended the visit, confirmed understanding, and assisted with post-visit activities. During meetings with researchers, either for PA activities or for data collection, participants frequently volunteered personal and medical information relevant for achieving successful self-management that was not routinely shared with medical personnel. For this project, researchers journaled information not captured by the structured questionnaires and protocol. Using a qualitative analysis, we describe (1) researchers' journals of these unique communications; (2) their relevance for accomplishing self-management; (3) PAs' formal activities including teach-back, advocacy, and facilitating appointment making; and (4) observations of patients' interactions with the clinical practices. In 83 journals, patients' social support (83%), health (68%), and deportment (69%) were described. PA assistance with navigating the medical system (59%), teach-back (46%), and observed interactions with patient and medical staff (76%) were also journaled. Implicit were ways patients and practices could overcome barriers to access and communication. These journals describe the importance of seeking contextual and medically relevant information from all patients and, especially, those with significant morbidities, prompting patients for barriers to access to health care, and confirming understanding of medical information.
Han, Jennifer; Nguyen, John; Kim, Yuna; Geng, Bob; Romanowski, Gale; Alejandro, Lawrence; Proudfoot, James; Xu, Ronghui; Leibel, Sydney
Assess the relationship between inhaled corticosteroid use (ICS) and weight (BMI) in pediatric patients with moderate-severe asthma. Assess if the number of emergency department (ED) visits correlates with overall BMI trajectory. Assess the trend of prescribing biologic therapy in pediatric patients with moderate-severe asthma and determine its relationship with weight (BMI). A retrospective chart review was performed on 93 pediatric patients with moderate-severe asthma to determine the relationship between ICS use and weight (BMI), biologic therapy and BMI, and number of ED visits and BMI trajectory. A mixed effects model was employed with the correlation between repeated measures accounted for through the random effects. There is a statistically significant increase of 0.369 kg/m 2 in BMI trajectory per year in subjects on high-dose steroids compared to an increase of 0.195 kg/m 2 in the low dose group (p BMI of subjects initiated on biologic therapy (omalizumab or mepolizumab) had a statistically significant decrease in BMI trajectory of 0.818 kg/m 2 per year (p BMI trajectory (p BMI trajectory; the higher the dose, the greater the projected BMI increase per year. Initiation of biologic therapy decreased BMI trajectory over time. Lastly, those with frequent ED visits had a higher BMI trend. Future prospective studies are warranted that further evaluate the potential metabolic impacts of ICS and assess the effects of biologic therapy on BMI.
Crespo-Lessmann, Astrid; Plaza, Vicente; González-Barcala, Francisco-Javier; Fernández-Sánchez, Toni; Sastre, Joaquín
Differences between the opinions of patients and physicians on the impact of asthma are common. We hypothesised that patient-physician discordance may negatively affect asthma outcome. A total of 2902 patients (61% women, mean age 47 years) with moderate-severe asthma and 231 physicians participated in a prospective study. At the baseline visit, data on demographics, clinical variables, degree of asthma control according to the Asthma Control Test (ACT), basic spirometry and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were collected and an ad hoc questionnaire was completed that allowed the degree of concordance between doctors and patients to be assessed. A scheduled telephone call after 3 months was used to elicit the ACT score and the future risk of asthma. At the final visit at 6 months, the following data were recorded: ACT score, spirometry, HADS score and an ad hoc questionnaire to assess the agreement between the doctor and the patient. Changes in study variables according to patient-physician concordance or discordance were analysed. The rate of patient-physician discordance was 27.2%, with overestimation of disease impact by the physician in 12.3% and underestimation in 14.9%. Patient-physician opinion discordance, particularly in the case of physicians underestimating the impact of asthma, showed worse results with statistically significant differences in ACT score, a higher percentage of patients with poor asthma control and lower HADS scores. The need for hospital and emergency department admissions was also higher. Patient-physician opinion discordance may be contributing to lower symptomatic control and increased future risk, with a higher impact when physicians underestimate the impact of asthma on their patients.
Huang, Jing-Yang; Jian, Zhi-Hong; Ndi Nfor, Oswald; Jhang, Kai-Ming; Ku, Wen-Yuan; Ko, Pei-Chieh; Jan, Shiou-Rung; Ho, Chien-Chang; Lung, Chia-Chi; Pan, Hui-Hsien; Liang, Yu-Chiu; Liaw, Yung-Po
Pulmonary diseases [asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and tuberculosis (TB)] are associated with lung cancer mortality. However, the relationship between coexisting pulmonary diseases and survival in patients with lung squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) has not been well defined. Patients newly diagnosed with SqCC between 2003 and 2008 were identified by linking the National Health Insurance Research Database and Taiwan Cancer Registry Database. Cases with SqCC were followed up until death, loss to follow-up, or study end in 2010. Information on health status, date of death and the main causes of death was ascertained from the National Death Registry Database. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) of coexisting asthma, COPD and/or TB. During the study period, a total of 5406 cases with SqCC were enrolled. For all cause-mortality, HRs were 1.08 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.99-1.18], 1.04 (95% CI, 0.97-1.12), and 1.14 (95% CI, 1.00-1.31) for individuals with asthma, COPD, and TB, respectively. Specifically, among men with coexisting pulmonary diseases, the HRs were 1.56 (95% CI, 1.23-1.97) and 1.11 (95% CI, 1.00-1.24) for individuals with asthma+COPD+TB and asthma+COPD, respectively. Among male patients with stage III SqCC, HRs were 3.41 (95%CI, 1.27-9.17) and 1.65 (95%CI, 1.10-2.47) for individuals with asthma+TB and asthma+COPD+TB, respectively. Among male patients with stage IV SqCC, HRs were 1.40 (95%CI, 1.00-1.97) and 1.25 (95%CI, 1.03-1.52) for individuals with asthma+ COPD+TB and asthma. Among female patients with stage I and II, HR was 0.19 (95%CI, 005-0.77) for individuals with asthma. Coexisting pulmonary diseases increased the risk of mortality from SqCC in male patients. For female patients with early stage SqCC, pre-existing asthma decreased mortality. These patients deserve greater attention while undergoing cancer treatment.
Full Text Available Pulmonary diseases [asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, and tuberculosis (TB] are associated with lung cancer mortality. However, the relationship between coexisting pulmonary diseases and survival in patients with lung squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC has not been well defined.Patients newly diagnosed with SqCC between 2003 and 2008 were identified by linking the National Health Insurance Research Database and Taiwan Cancer Registry Database. Cases with SqCC were followed up until death, loss to follow-up, or study end in 2010. Information on health status, date of death and the main causes of death was ascertained from the National Death Registry Database. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to calculate the hazard ratio (HR of coexisting asthma, COPD and/or TB.During the study period, a total of 5406 cases with SqCC were enrolled. For all cause-mortality, HRs were 1.08 [95% confidence interval (CI, 0.99-1.18], 1.04 (95% CI, 0.97-1.12, and 1.14 (95% CI, 1.00-1.31 for individuals with asthma, COPD, and TB, respectively. Specifically, among men with coexisting pulmonary diseases, the HRs were 1.56 (95% CI, 1.23-1.97 and 1.11 (95% CI, 1.00-1.24 for individuals with asthma+COPD+TB and asthma+COPD, respectively. Among male patients with stage III SqCC, HRs were 3.41 (95%CI, 1.27-9.17 and 1.65 (95%CI, 1.10-2.47 for individuals with asthma+TB and asthma+COPD+TB, respectively. Among male patients with stage IV SqCC, HRs were 1.40 (95%CI, 1.00-1.97 and 1.25 (95%CI, 1.03-1.52 for individuals with asthma+ COPD+TB and asthma. Among female patients with stage I and II, HR was 0.19 (95%CI, 005-0.77 for individuals with asthma.Coexisting pulmonary diseases increased the risk of mortality from SqCC in male patients. For female patients with early stage SqCC, pre-existing asthma decreased mortality. These patients deserve greater attention while undergoing cancer treatment.
Bousquet, Jean; Bousquet, Philippe J; Godard, Philippe; Daures, Jean-Pierre
Asthma is a very common chronic disease that occurs in all age groups and is the focus of various clinical and public health interventions. Both morbidity and mortality from asthma are significant. The number of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost due to asthma worldwide is similar to that for diabetes, liver cirrhosis and schizophrenia. Asthma management plans have, however, reduced mortality and severity in countries where they have been applied. Several barriers reduce the availability, affordability, dissemination and efficacy of optimal asthma management plans in both developed and developing countries. The workplace environment contributes significantly to the general burden of asthma. Patients with occupational asthma have higher rates of hospitalization and mortality than healthy workers. The surveillance of asthma as part of a global WHO programme is essential. The economic cost of asthma is considerable both in terms of direct medical costs (such as hospital admissions and the cost of pharmaceuticals) and indirect medical costs (such as time lost from work and premature death). Direct costs are significant in most countries. In order to reduce costs and improve quality of care, employers and health plans are exploring more precisely targeted ways of controlling rapidly rising health costs. Poor control of asthma symptoms is a major issue that can result in adverse clinical and economic outcomes. A model of asthma costs is needed to aid attempts to reduce them while permitting optimal management of the disease. This paper presents a discussion of the burden of asthma and its socioeconomic implications and proposes a model to predict the costs incurred by the disease.
Full Text Available Background: Damage to lung surfactant (LS enabling the lung local immunity may contribute to the development of bronchial inflammation in patients with bronchial asthma. Methods and Results: A 40-day course of 16 LS (Surfactant-BL inhalations at the dose of 25mg was added to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS and short/long-acting bronchodilators or combined inhalers in 14 patients with bronchial asthma. After 7 inhalations, patients demonstrated a significant decrease in shortness of breath and bronchospasm attacks, double reduction of ICS dose (p=0.01, and improvement of pulmonary function. Forced vital capacity (FVC increases during treatment in a linear fashion (y=62.9+5.60•x; p<0.05, reaching the normal level (80% after 9 inhalations (Day 15. Forced expiratory volume (FEV1 increases in a linear fashion (y=50.7+4.15•x; p<0.05 without reaching the normal level (80% after 16 inhalations (Day 41. The FEV1/FVC ratio does not change significantly in the time period between Day 1 to Day 15. By Day 41 the value decreases significantly to 67.4±4.66% (p<0.05. The peak expiratory flow (PEF parameter increases in a linear fashion (y=53.9+5.00•x; p<0.01 from 57.7±6.33% to 76.2±9.33% of the predicted value. Conclusion: LS inhalations improve the condition of patients with BA, allow ICS dose reduction by 2 times, and improve pulmonary function parameters.
Full Text Available Introduction: The coexistence of asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS is more common than expected given their individual prevalence in the general population and may affect patient’s quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of asthma in chronic rhinosinusitis in Mashhad, Northeast Iran. Materials and Methods: This study was performed in two university hospital from November 2012 for 12 months. In total, 153 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis were enrolled and referred to a particular pulmonologist for asthma evaluation. Results: The mean age of participants was 40.54±13.11 years, and 41.8% were male. In total, 63.4% of patients had the polypoid form of CRS. The proportion of patients in this study with asthma was 41.8%, compared with a general asthma prevalence in this region of 13.5%. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of asthma among patients with CRS, but it often remains undiagnosed. Asthma in CRS patients should be diagnosed and treated in order to improve patient’s quality of life. We recommend an evaluation of the lower airways in all of these patients as well as further studies in this field.
Del Giacco, S R; Bakirtas, A; Bel, E; Custovic, A; Diamant, Z; Hamelmann, E; Heffler, E; Kalayci, Ö; Saglani, S; Sergejeva, S; Seys, S; Simpson, A; Bjermer, L
It is well recognized that atopic sensitization is an important risk factor for asthma, both in adults and in children. However, the role of allergy in severe asthma is still under debate. The term 'Severe Asthma' encompasses a highly heterogeneous group of patients who require treatment on steps 4-5 of GINA guidelines to prevent their asthma from becoming 'uncontrolled', or whose disease remains 'uncontrolled' despite this therapy. Epidemiological studies on emergency room visits and hospital admissions for asthma suggest the important role of allergy in asthma exacerbations. In addition, allergic asthma in childhood is often associated with severe asthma in adulthood. A strong association exists between asthma exacerbations and respiratory viral infections, and interaction between viruses and allergy further increases the risk of asthma exacerbations. Furthermore, fungal allergy has been shown to play an important role in severe asthma. Other contributing factors include smoking, pollution and work-related exposures. The 'Allergy and Asthma Severity' EAACI Task Force examined the current evidence and produced this position document on the role of allergy in severe asthma. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ono, Emiko; Taniguchi, Masami; Higashi, Noritaka; Mita, Haruhisa; Yamaguchi, Hiromichi; Tatsuno, Sayaka; Fukutomi, Yuma; Tanimoto, Hidenori; Sekiya, Kiyoshi; Oshikata, Chiyako; Tsuburai, Takahiro; Tsurikisawa, Naomi; Otomo, Mamoru; Maeda, Yuji; Hasegawa, Maki; Miyazaki, Eishi; Kumamoto, Toshihide; Akiyama, Kazuo
Cysteinyl-leukotrienes (CysLTs; LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4) play a considerable role in the pathophysiology of aspirin-intolerant asthma (AIA). Saliva has recently been validated as novel, simple, and noninvasive method for investigating inflammation in patients with asthma. The aim of this study is to clarify the molecular species of CysLT in saliva and to evaluate the CysLT and LTB4 concentrations in saliva in AIA patients. We also examined how the CysLT concentration in saliva reflects that of their corresponding urinary metabolite. We preformed an analytical cross-sectional study. CysLT and LTB4 concentrations in saliva were quantified by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) following purification by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). 1. When analyzed by EIA in combination with HPLC, saliva was found to consist of LTC4, LTD4 and LTE4 in similar amounts. 2. In saliva analysis among the three groups (AIA patients, aspirin-tolerant asthma [ATA] patients, and healthy subjects), both the concentrations of CysLTs and LTB4 were significantly higher in AIA patients than in ATA patients and healthy subjects. 3. We found significant correlations between CysLT concentration and LTB4 concentration in saliva in each group. 4. No significant correlation was found between the concentration of LTE4 in urine and that of CysLTs in saliva. In this study, we found higher concentrations of CysLTs and LTB4 in saliva from AIA patients than in saliva from ATA patients, suggesting that the quantification of CysLT and LTB4 concentrations in saliva may be another diagnostic strategy for AIA.
Ie, Kenya; Yoshizawa, Atsuto; Hirano, Satoru; Izumi, Sinyuu; Hojo, Masaaki; Sugiyama, Haruhito; Kobayasi, Nobuyuki; Kudou, Kouichirou; Maehara, Yasuhiro; Kawachi, Masaharu; Miyakoshi, Kouichi
We investigated the risk factor of perioperative asthmatic attack and effectiveness of preventing treatment for asthmatic attack before operation. We performed retrospective chart review of one hundred eleven patients with asthma underwent general anesthesia and surgical intervention from January 2006 to October 2007 in our hospital. The rate of perioperative asthmatic attack were as follows; 10.2% (5 in 49 cases) in no pretreatment group, 7.5% (3 in 40 cases) in any pretreatments except for systemic steroid, and 4.5% (1 in 22 cases) in systemic steroid pretreatment group. Neither preoperative asthma severity nor duration from the last attack had significant relevancy to perioperative attack rate. The otolaryngological surgery, especially those have nasal polyp and oral surgery had high perioperative asthma attack rate, although there was no significant difference. We recommend the systemic steroid pretreatment for asthmatic patients, especially when they have known risk factor such as administration of the systemic steroid within 6 months, or possibly new risk factor such as nasal polyp, otolaryngological and oral surgery.
Parente, Ana Alice Amaral Ibiapina; March, Maria Fátima Pombo; Evangelista, Lucia Araujo; Cunha, Antonio Ledo
To evaluate the correlation between perception of dyspnea during a mild to moderate asthma attack using the Modified Borg Scale (MBS) and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR). This was a cross-sectional study conducted with children and adolescents who sought a pediatric emergency service due to an asthma attack. Data were collected from July 2005 to June 2006. Demographic data were recorded. Patients and those in charge of them were requested to grade, individually, the patient's dyspnea using the MBS; afterwards, the peak expiratory flow rate was measured. 181 asthmatic patients were evaluated, with a mean age of 7.2 (± 2.4) years (range, 4-12). The mother sought medical aid in 83.4% of the cases (151/181). Patient symptoms included coughing in 68.5% (124/181), dyspnea in 47.0% (85/181), and wheezing in 12.7% (23/181). Thirty-six percent (65/181) had a mild attack, and 64.1% (116/181) a moderate one. A significant negative correlation was found between the patients' and accompanying adults' perceptions of patient's dyspnea and the PEFR (% predicted; rs = -0.240 and rs = -0.385, respectively). Both the patients and those looking after them had a poor perception of the severity of the patient's dyspnea. This emphasizes the need to monitor objective measures such as the PEFR and to develop better ways of evaluating dyspnea.
Garcia-Cardenas, Victoria; Armour, Carol; Benrimoj, Shalom I; Martinez-Martinez, Fernando; Rotta, Inajara; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando
The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the impact of pharmacists' interventions on clinical asthma outcomes on adult patients and to identify the outcome indicators used.PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Scielo were searched. Studies addressing pharmacists' interventions on adult asthma patients reporting clinical asthma outcomes were incorporated.11 clinical outcomes were identified in 21 studies. 10 studies measured the impact of the intervention on asthma control. Randomised controlled trials (RCT) and non-RCTs found positive results in percentages of controlled patients and Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) scores. Discordant results were found for Asthma Control Test results. Asthma severity was assessed in four studies. One RCT found a significant decrease in the percentage of severe patients; two non-RCTs found significant improvements in severity scores. 11 studies reported pulmonary function indicators, showing inconsistent results. Eight studies measured asthma symptoms; three RCTs and four non-RCTs showed significant improvements.RCTs and non-RCTs generated similar results for most outcomes. Based on the evidence generated by RCTs, pharmacists' have a positive impact on the percentage of controlled patients, ACQ scores, severity and symptoms. Future research should report using the core outcome set of indicators established for asthma (PROSPERO CRD42014007019). Copyright ©ERS 2016.
Liccardi, Gennaro; Salzillo, Antonello; Sofia, Matteo; D'Amato, Maria; D'Amato, Gennaro
The aim of this review is to underline the need for an adequate clinical and functional evaluation of respiratory function and asthma control in patients undergoing surgical procedures requiring general anesthesia to obtain useful information for an adequate preoperative pharmacological approach. It has been shown that baseline uncontrolled clinical/functional conditions of airways represent the most important risk factors for perioperative bronchospasm. In nonemergency conditions, asthma patients should undergo clinical/functional assessment at least 1 week before the surgery intervention to obtain, the better feasible control of asthma symptoms in the single patient. Some simple preoperative information given by the patient in preoperative consultation may be sufficient to identify individuals with uncontrolled or poor controlled asthmatic conditions. Spirometric evaluation is essential in individuals with poor control of symptoms, as well as in those patients with uncertain anamnestic data or limited perception of respiratory symptoms, and in those requiring lung resection. A better control of asthma must be considered the 'gold standard' for a patient at 'a reasonable low risk' to develop perioperative/postoperative bronchospasm. International consensus promoted by pulmonologists, anesthesiologists, and allergists might be useful to define a better diagnostic and therapeutic approach.
Kovačević, Milena; Ćulafić, Milica; Jovanović, Marija; Vučićević, Katarina; Kovačević, Sandra Vezmar; Miljković, Branislava
Asthma self-management is aimed to improve the quality and effectiveness of asthma care by supporting the patients to manage their illness by themselves. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of pharmacist-delivered counselling on patients knowledge and beliefs about the medicines, adherence level, and asthma control. A prospective intervention study was conducted in community pharmacies. A total of 90 patients completed the study. Four questionnaires were used: (1) Beliefs about medicines questionnaire (BMQ), (2) Knowledge of asthma and asthma medicine (KAM), (3) Asthma control test (ACT), and (4) 8-item Morisky medication adherence scale questionnaire (MMAS-8). Questionnaires were completed at baseline and 3 months later. Low level of adherence and poor asthma control were determined initially. Better asthma control was significantly associated with higher adherence level, lower concerns regarding the medication use, and knowledge of triggers. Statistically significant improvement was found after 3 months in patients knowledge of asthma and its medications, their attitude towards medications (decrease in harm, overuse and concern; increase in necessity score), asthma control score (increased from 19 to 20, p < 0.05) and level of adherence (MMAS-8 score decreased from 3 to 2 p < 0.05). Better asthma control was achieved in 60% of patients. Sixteen patients (18%) were transferred from poor to well-controlled asthma, implying no need for patients' referral to the doctor and no additional cost for the health system. Improved disease control could be a result of enhanced knowledge and understanding of the disease-medication relationship, improved inhalation technique, and support on patients' adherence. Acquired knowledge and skills, as well as improved attitude, empowered patients to take a more active part in asthma management. Education in further patients' follow-up should consider topics tailored to the patients' characteristics, needs, and prior
Full Text Available Julia Kravchenko,1 Igor Akushevich,2 Amy P Abernethy,3 Sheila Holman,4 William G Ross Jr,5 H Kim Lyerly1,6 1Department of Surgery, 2Center for Population Health and Aging, 3Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Duke University, Durham, 4Division of Air Quality, North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Raleigh, 5Nicholas School of the Environment, 6Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA Background: The respiratory tract is a major target of exposure to air pollutants, and respiratory diseases are associated with both short- and long-term exposures. We hypothesized that improved air quality in North Carolina was associated with reduced rates of death from respiratory diseases in local populations. Materials and methods: We analyzed the trends of emphysema, asthma, and pneumonia mortality and changes of the levels of ozone, sulfur dioxide (SO2, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, carbon monoxide (CO, and particulate matters (PM2.5 and PM10 using monthly data measurements from air-monitoring stations in North Carolina in 1993–2010. The log-linear model was used to evaluate associations between air-pollutant levels and age-adjusted death rates (per 100,000 of population calculated for 5-year age-groups and for standard 2000 North Carolina population. The studied associations were adjusted by age group-specific smoking prevalence and seasonal fluctuations of disease-specific respiratory deaths. Results: Decline in emphysema deaths was associated with decreasing levels of SO2 and CO in the air, decline in asthma deaths–with lower SO2, CO, and PM10 levels, and decline in pneumonia deaths–with lower levels of SO2. Sensitivity analyses were performed to study potential effects of the change from International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9 to ICD-10 codes, the effects of air pollutants on mortality during summer and winter, the impact of approach when only
Full Text Available Introduction: Almost one third of patients with asthma have symptomatic evidence for coexisting gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD, which is thought to be aggravating factor in asthma at least in some cases. We investigated the impact of coexisting GERD on asthma severity and parameters of lung function.Methods: Ninety two asthma patients diagnosed according to ATS criteria were studied. After full history and physical examination, asthma severity was measured in each patient using asthma control test (ACT. GERD symptoms was verified in each patient. Impulse oscillometry(IOS and lung volume studies (using body-plethysmography and IOS were performed. Thedifference between total airway resistance (TAWR indicated by resistance at 5 Hz and centralairway resistance (CAWR as indicated by resistance at 20 Hz in oscillometry was calculated and considered as representative of resistance at peripheral airways (PAWR. The relationship between the presences of GERD symptoms, ACT score and parameters of lung function were analyzed.Results: PAWR and TAWR were both significantly higher in asthmatic patients with GERD symptoms than patients without GERD symptoms (256.64±161.21 versus 191.68±98.64; P=0.02,and 102.73±122.39 versus 56.76±71.43; P=0.01, respectively. However, no significant difference was noted in mean values of ACT, FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec, FVC (forced vitalcapacity, PEF (peak expiratory flow, and CAWR in these two groups.Conclusion: These findings suggest that the severity of asthma as measured by ACT score is notdifferent in patients with and without GERD symptoms. However, total and peripheral airway resistance measured by IOS is significantly higher in asthmatic patients with GERD symptoms.
Full Text Available Objective: To get a comprehensive understanding about the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA and asthma by reviewing the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical manifestation and then summarizing the latest progress on diagnosis and treatment. Data Sources: Articles referred in this review were mainly collected from a comprehensive search of the PubMed published in English from 1990 to 2015 with the terms "OSA" and "asthma" as the main keywords. Highly regarded older publications were also included. Study Selection: Information about the features of the two diseases in common, the pathophysiologic association between them and their current treatments from the literature search were identified, retrieved, and summarized. Results: Both OSA and asthma are very prevalent conditions. The incidences of them have kept on rising in recent years. Asthma is often accompanied by snoring and apnea, and OSA often combines with asthma, as well. They have many predisposing and aggravating factors in common. Possible shared direct mechanistic links between them include mechanical effects, intermittent hypoxia, nerve reflex, inflammation, leptin, etc. Indirect mechanistic links include medication, nose diseases, smoking, obesity, and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Since OSA presents many similar features with nocturnal asthma, some scholars termed them as a sole syndrome - "alternative overlap syndrome," and proved that asthma symptoms in those patients could be improved through the treatment of continuous positive airway pressure. Conclusions: OSA and asthma are closely associated in pathogenesis, symptoms, and therapies. With the growing awareness of the relationship between them, we should raise our vigilance on the coexistence of OSA in those difficult-to-control asthmatic patients. Further studies are still needed to guide the clinical works.
Seyyed Hassan Adeli
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by reversible contraction of airways. Coping strategies can reduce the negative impact of the disease in individuals or cause incompatible behaviors by negative effect. This study aimed to evaluate the religious coping strategies in asthma patients and the relationship of religious coping and general health. Methods: The study included 102 asthmatic patients referred to the pulmonary clinic of Shahid Beheshti hospital of Qom. Brief religious coping strategy questionnaire and the general health questionnaire were used in this study. Results: The mean positive religious coping strategy was 26.24±9.89 and 60% of the patients had higher than average scores. The mean negative religious coping strategy was 10.56±3.99 and 35% of patients had a mean score higher than average scores. The mean total general health score was 23.91±11.9. Conclusion: The study results showed that asthmatic patients are at greater risk of depression and a negative correlation exists between positive religious coping and general health scores. It can be concluded that in asthmatic patients, depression should be suspected sooner. Also, during the course of treatment and in cases of resistant to treatment, this issue should be considered. It can be concluded that the patients who use more positive coping strategies and have a strong spiritual beliefs may have higher mental health that leads to higher physical health and a better response to treatment. Religious coping strategies; general health; depression.
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the frequency and predictability of side effects, including tremor, cramp, and palpitation, due to treatment in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. Methods: We prepared a standard questionnaire for 299 patients concerning their diagnosis, treatment, and side effects of the treatment in February 2007 at Hacettepe University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pulmonary Diseases. We prospectively examined the clinical status of the patients and side effects of the treatment at the 15th, 30th, and 180th days of the treatment. Results: In our study, there were 38 (12.7% patients with drug-induced tremor. Of these, 27 (71.1% had asthma (p=0.004 and 18 (47.4% had anamnestic palpitation. Drug-induced tremor risk was 15.3 times higher in patients who used a beta-mimetic compared with those who used any drugs. Cramp risk increased with beta-mimetic use only. In our study, drug-induced tremor was still present at the 180th day of examination in 32 (84.2% patients. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that side effects, including tremor, palpitation, and cramp, were more common in our patients compared with those in other studies. These side effects were directly related to the primary disease and the use of beta-2-agonists. Another finding of our study is that tolerance did not develop as much as that reported in literature.
Full Text Available Rick Hodder1, Pat Ray Reese2, Terra Slaton31Divisions of Pulmonary and Critical Care, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; 2Reese Associates Consulting LLC, Cary, North Carolina, USA; 3Consultant, West Columbia, South Carolina, USAAbstract: Device satisfaction and preference are important patient-reported outcomes to consider when choosing inhaled therapy. A subset of adults (n = 153 with moderate or severe asthma participating in a randomized parallel-group, double-dummy trial that compared the efficacy and safety of 12 weeks’ treatment with budesonide delivered via Respimat® Soft Mist™ Inhaler (SMI (200 or 400 µg bd or Turbuhaler® dry powder inhaler (400 µg bd, completed a questionnaire on patient device preference and satisfaction (PASAPQ as part of a psychometric validation. As the study used a double-dummy design to maintain blinding, patients used and assessed both devices, rating their satisfaction with, preference for, and willingness to continue using each device. The mean age of patients was 41 years, 69% were female and the mean duration of disease was 16 years. Total PASAPQ satisfaction scores were 85.5 and 76.9 for Respimat® SMI and Turbuhaler® respectively (p < 0.0001; 112 patients (74% preferred Respimat® SMI and 26 (17% preferred Turbuhaler®. Fourteen subjects (9% indicated no preference for either inhaler. Willingness to continue using Respimat® SMI was higher than that for Turbuhaler® (mean scores: 80/100 and 62/100, respectively. Respimat® SMI was preferred to Turbuhaler® by adult asthma patients who used both devices in a clinical trial setting.Keywords: asthma, Respimat® Soft Mist™ Inhaler, Turbuhaler®
A therapeutic method including extracorporeal x-ray irradiation of the autoblood of patients with bronchial asthma complicated by cortisone dependence and polyvalent drug intolerance, has been elaborated and clinically tested. The use of this method brings about good short-term results in 90% of cases and good long-term results in 40% of cases (14-38 months). It provides an opportunity to give up corticosteroids in more than 60% of patients and to decrease the hormone dose in the rest of cortisone-dependent patients with bronchial asthma. The above therapeutic method can be used as an independent type of treatment, especially in the presence of polyvalent drug allergy and as an element of multiple modality therapy of bronchial asthma patients. The method was used under in-patient conditions only. No side effects were marked in the course of the clinical trial. To carry out this type of therapy, patients should be thoroughly screened
Conclusion: Omalizumab can reduce asthma exacerbations and improve asthma control and pulmonary function. The reducing effect of omalizumab on metalloproteinase-9 serum level may contribute to decreased airway remodeling in patients with severe asthma.
Naar-King, Sylvie; Ellis, Deborah; Kolmodin, Karen; Cunningham, Phillippe; Secord, Elizabeth
African-American adolescents have the highest rates of asthma morbidity and mortality, yet there are few successful behavioral interventions to improve illness management for this group. Mental health providers have an opportunity to expand their services and impact by targeting adolescents with poor asthma management. We describe the adaptation…
Maykel, Cheryl; Bray, Melissa; Gelbar, Nicholas; Caterino, Linda; Avitia, Maria; Sassu, Kari; Root, Melissa
Asthma is a common, chronic respiratory disease that can be costly to both society and the individual. In addition to increased absenteeism, children with asthma may also be at a greater risk for developing comorbid anxiety and depression. Various complementary psychological treatments have been effective at reducing both asthmatic symptoms and…
Wakayama, Hisashi; Ogasawara, Tomohiko; Sato, Ai; Honda, Mamiko; Sakurai, Keiko; Uemura, Takehiro; Kasai, Daishi; Kato, Hisaaki; Tomita, Yuka; Park, Jangchul; Mizuno, Akiko; Suzuki, Masayuki
Although most patients of asthma can be controlled by inhaled corticosteroid (ICS), some patients remain uncontrolled even after the introduction of ICS treatment. In management of such difficult-to-treat asthma, systematic review including additional differential diagnosis and avoidance of exacerbating factors is very important. Here we postulate a flow sheet presenting an algorithm which intends to achieve better asthma control following ATS refractory asthma guidance. For patients with poor controlled asthma even after using ICS more than moderate dose, we used the sheet in our daily outpatient management and investigated whether we could improve the control in such patients. The sheet was constructed by an algorithm which included (1) reevaluation of inhalation technique of ICS; (2) additional differential diagnosis of COPD and other similar diseases; and (3) reevaluation of presence of exacerbating factors. In our outpatient department, seven clinicians managed 22 difficult-to-treat asthma patients using this sheet. Additional factors which might worsen asthma control could be detected in 21 patients (95.5%). Firstly, smoking was disclosed in 8 patients (36.4%). Secondly, keeping pets was identified in 7 patients (31.8%). 5 patients (22.7%) were diagnosed as COPD rather than asthma and 4 patients (18.2%) were diagnosed as having rhinosinusitis. Some improvement of asthma control was achieved in 9 patients (40.9%). Reevaluation of refractory asthma patients using our newly developed flow sheet is essential and it may facilitate understanding of management of difficult-to-treat asthma.
Nonaka, M; Sakanashi, Y; Sugahara, K; Terasaki, H
We investigated retrospectively, the incidence of intraoperative asthmatic attack in patients with bronchial asthma, and compared the past 5-year period (Jan 1, 1979 to Dec 31, 1983) and the recent 5-year period (July 1, 1990 to June 30, 1994). The influence of anesthetic methods, induction agents, and intervals between the most recent attack and anesthesia were evaluated. The incidence of the attack during anesthesia in patients with asthma was similar in both period, 6.7% in the past and 7.8% in the recent period. Patients who had a history of recurrent attacks within 2 years prior to anesthesia tended to have higher incidence of intraoperative attack in both periods. Furthermore, the incidence of asthmatic attack was significantly greater in patients receiving inhalational anesthetics for induction of anesthesia than in those given intravenous anesthetics in the recent period. Although inhalational anesthetics are considered to be used safely for asthmatic patients, care should be taken when volatile anesthetics are administered to asthmatic patients during induction of anesthesia.
García-Ruiz, A J; Quintano Jiménez, J A; García-Agua Soler, N; Ginel Mendoza, L; Hidalgo Requena, A; Del Moral, F
To perform a cost-utility analysis on asthmatic patients on beclomethasone/formoterol fixed combination in Primary Health Care. Material and methods Non-probability sampling was used to select a group of asthmatic patients with moderate/severe persistent severity (GEMA 2009), treated with beclomethasone/formoterol fixed combination, over 18 years, had given their informed consent. The study observation period was 6 months. The variables studied were: age, sex, duration of disease, health resources used, analysis of health related quality of life by EQ-5D and SF-36, and the specific Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire. For the qualitative variables, the frequency and percentages were calculated, and for the quantitative variables, the mean, SD and 95% CI. Chi-square, Student t-test and ANOVA were used for statistical inference. Comparisons were made with a statistical significance of 0.05. Of the 64 patients that completed the study, 59.4% were female. The mean age was 49 years, and mean disease duration was 93 months. For asthma control, 53% of patients had a prescription pattern of one/12h. All health related quality of life scales were modified with respect to the baseline and the differences were statistically significant. Our patients had a better health related quality of life than Spanish asthma cohort. The incremental cost utility beclomethasone/formoterol versus usual treatment option was € 6,256/QALY. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Patel, Minal R; Thomas, Lara J; Hafeez, Kausar; Shankin, Matthew; Wilkin, Margaret; Brown, Randall W
Massive resources are expended every year on cross-cultural communication training for physicians. Such training is a focus of continuing medical education nationwide and is part of the curriculum of virtually every medical school in America. There is a pressing need for evidence regarding the effects on patients of cross-cultural communication training for physicians. There is a need to understand the added benefit of such training compared to more general communication. We know of no rigorous study that has assessed whether cross-cultural communication training for physicians results in better health outcomes for their patients. The current study aims to answer this question by enhancing the Physician Asthma Care Education (PACE) program to cross cultural communication (PACE Plus), and comparing the effect of the enhanced program to PACE on the health outcomes of African American and Latino/Hispanic children with asthma. A three-arm randomized control trial is used to compare PACE Plus, PACE, and usual care. Both PACE and PACE Plus are delivered in two, two-hour sessions over a period of two weeks to 5-10 primary care physicians who treat African American and Latino/Hispanic children with asthma. One hundred twelve physicians and 1060 of their pediatric patients were recruited who self-identify as African American or Latino/Hispanic and experience persistent asthma. Physicians were randomized into receiving either the PACE Plus or PACE intervention or into the control group. The comparative effectiveness of PACE and PACE Plus on clinician's therapeutic and communication practices with the family/patient, children's urgent care use for asthma, asthma control, and quality of life, and parent/caretaker satisfaction with physician performance will be assessed. Data are collected via telephone survey and medical record review at baseline, 9 months following the intervention, and 21 months following the intervention. This study aims to reduce disparities in asthma
Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and bronchial asthma began increasing in early 1960s in the population of Yokkaichi-city (Mie Prefecture, Japan. The cause of the disease was sulfur oxide air pollution, and it is known as Yokkaichi Asthma. The pollution markedly decreased by the end of 1970s; no new cases have been reported since 1988. This study aimed at examining the late effects of air pollution on the health of Yokkaichi Asthma patients. Methods Mortality rate and life expectancy of patients, registered between 1965 and 1988, were investigated from 1975 through 2000. Results Mortality rates for COPD and asthma in patients from Yokkaichi-city were significantly higher than in the whole population of Mie Prefecture. For all ages (except for males between 80 and 84 years in 1985, the life expectancy of both males and females were significantly reduced in patients from Yokkaichi-city as compared with the whole population of Mie Prefecture. The potential gains in life expectancy excluding the mortality for respiratory diseases including COPD and asthma were larger for all ages in patients from Yokkaichi-city. Conclusion Mortality and life expectancy were adversely affected in patients from Yokkaichi-city, despite the fact that the air pollution problem has been already solved.
Eduard V. Nekrasov
Full Text Available Background. Combined airway hyper responsiveness to cold and hypoosmotic stimuli in asthma patients results in impairment of lung respiration function and poor disease control compared to patients with isolated airway hyper responsiveness to only one of the stimuli or without such responsiveness that can be connected with edema or mucus hypersecretion.Aim. The purpose of the study is the estimation of the processes of mucin secretion, plasma exudation and oxidative stress in response to cold air in asthma patients with combined airway responsiveness to cold and hypoosmotic stimuli using nasal mucosa as a model.Materials and methods. 23 patients with asthma participated in the study. For the nasal lavage procedure, a nasal cavity was pre-washed at least three times in 5-min intervals with 5 ml saline solution (~36 °C. A control nasal lavage was done 5 min after the last washing with a dwelling time of 1 min in the nasal cavity. Directly after the control lavage, a cold air nasal challenge was done: a participant was asked to breathe deeply at the pace of a metronome to ensure hyperventilation inhaling cold air (–20 °C through the nose and exhaling through the mouth for 5 min. Nasal lavages were taken at 1 min, 15, and 30 min after the challenge. Mucin secretion was estimated on the basis of total protein (TP content, total carbohydrates (TC, and water-soluble forms of mucins MUC5AC and MUC5B in the lavage fluids. For the estimation of plasma exudation, the concentration of α2-macroglobulin (α2-MG was measured. Oxidative stress was estimated by the content of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS in lavage fluid. Lung function and airway responsiveness were studied by the forced expiration spirometry method and the bronchial challenge tests with isocapnic cold air hyperventilation (CAHV and distilled water inhalation (DWI.Results. According to the bronchial challenge tests, the patients were divided into groups: 1 without airway
Selroos, Olof; Kupczyk, Maciej; Kuna, Piotr; Łacwik, Piotr; Bousquet, Jean; Brennan, David; Palkonen, Susanna; Contreras, Javier; FitzGerald, Mark; Hedlin, Gunilla; Johnston, Sebastian L; Louis, Renaud; Metcalf, Leanne; Walker, Samantha; Moreno-Galdó, Antonio; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Rosado-Pinto, José; Powell, Pippa; Haahtela, Tari
This review presents seven national asthma programmes to support the European Asthma Research and Innovation Partnership in developing strategies to reduce asthma mortality and morbidity across Europe. From published data it appears that in order to influence asthma care, national/regional asthma programmes are more effective than conventional treatment guidelines. An asthma programme should start with the universal commitments of stakeholders at all levels and the programme has to be endorsed by political and governmental bodies. When the national problems have been identified, the goals of the programme have to be clearly defined with measures to evaluate progress. An action plan has to be developed, including defined re-allocation of patients and existing resources, if necessary, between primary care and specialised healthcare units or hospital centres. Patients should be involved in guided self-management education and structured follow-up in relation to disease severity. The three evaluated programmes show that, thanks to rigorous efforts, it is possible to improve patients' quality of life and reduce hospitalisation, asthma mortality, sick leave and disability pensions. The direct and indirect costs, both for the individual patient and for society, can be significantly reduced. The results can form the basis for development of further programme activities in Europe. Copyright ©ERS 2015.
Full Text Available This review presents seven national asthma programmes to support the European Asthma Research and Innovation Partnership in developing strategies to reduce asthma mortality and morbidity across Europe. From published data it appears that in order to influence asthma care, national/regional asthma programmes are more effective than conventional treatment guidelines. An asthma programme should start with the universal commitments of stakeholders at all levels and the programme has to be endorsed by political and governmental bodies. When the national problems have been identified, the goals of the programme have to be clearly defined with measures to evaluate progress. An action plan has to be developed, including defined re-allocation of patients and existing resources, if necessary, between primary care and specialised healthcare units or hospital centres. Patients should be involved in guided self-management education and structured follow-up in relation to disease severity. The three evaluated programmes show that, thanks to rigorous efforts, it is possible to improve patients' quality of life and reduce hospitalisation, asthma mortality, sick leave and disability pensions. The direct and indirect costs, both for the individual patient and for society, can be significantly reduced. The results can form the basis for development of further programme activities in Europe.
Lang, Jason E; Fitzpatrick, Anne M; Mauger, David T; Guilbert, Theresa W; Jackson, Daniel J; Lemanske, Robert F; Martinez, Fernando D; Strunk, Robert C; Zeiger, Robert S; Phipatanakul, Wanda; Bacharier, Leonard B; Pongracic, Jacqueline A; Holguin, Fernando; Cabana, Michael D; Covar, Ronina A; Raissy, Hengameh H; Tang, Monica; Szefler, Stanley J
Overweight/obesity (OW) is linked to worse asthma and poorer inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) response in older children and adults. We sought to describe the relationships between OW and asthma severity and response to ICS in preschool children. This post hoc study of 3 large multicenter trials involving 2- to 5-year-old children compared annualized asthma symptom days and exacerbations among normal weight (NW) (body mass index: 10th-84th percentiles) versus OW (body mass index: ≥85th percentile) participants. Participants had been randomized to daily ICS, intermittent ICS, or daily placebo. Simple and multivariable linear regression was used to compare body mass index groups. Within the group not treated with a daily controller, OW children had more asthma symptom days (90.7 vs 53.2, P = .020) and exacerbations (1.4 vs 0.8, P = .009) thanNW children did. Within the ICS-treated groups, OW and NW children had similar asthma symptom days (daily ICS: 47.2 vs 44.0 days, P = .44; short-term ICS: 61.8 vs 52.9 days, P = .46; as-needed ICS: 53.3 vs 47.3 days, P = .53), and similar exacerbations (daily ICS: 0.6 vs 0.8, P = .10; short-term ICS: 1.1 vs 0.8 days, P = .25; as-needed ICS: 1.0 vs 1.1, P = .72). Compared with placebo, daily ICS in OW led to fewer annualized asthma symptom days (90.7 vs 41.2, P = .004) and exacerbations (1.4 vs 0.6, P = .006), while similar protective ICS effects were less apparent among NW. In preschool children off controller therapy, OW is associated with greater asthma impairment and exacerbations. However, unlike older asthmatic patients, OW preschool children do not demonstrate reduced responsiveness to ICS therapy. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shajahan Purathel Sulaiman
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Asthma is an important health problem worldwide. High prevalence and poor control of asthma make its management a major public health problem with more than 5,00,000 hospital admissions and 2,50,000 deaths annually all over the world. India contribute maximum to the death toll accounting for 22.3% of all global asthma deaths. Medications in the inhaled forms are the best therapeutic options currently available for asthma. Despite this, the percentage of patients opting inhalers as the preferred modality of treatment seems to be low. The patient’s ability to use the device correctly and the adherence to the treatment regimen are likely to be influenced by their beliefs, attitudes and concerns about the use of inhalers as the preferred mode of treatment. The aim of the study is to- 1. To find out the proportion of asthmatics using inhalers as the preferred modality of treatment. 2. To bring out the various beliefs and misconceptions on inhalers among the above study group. MATERIALS AND METHODS Study subjects were asthmatics in the age group of 15 to 45 years who attended the medical camps conducted in Alappuzha and Kottayam districts of Kerala during the period 2006-2009 (n=912. A semi-structured interview schedule regarding the use of inhalers were administered to collect the data. RESULTS 52% of the study subjects accept inhaled preparations as the preferred modality of treatment (male-68%, female-35%. 48% are reluctant to take inhalers in the first step (male- 32%, female- 65%. 47% believe the term inhaler is the name of a particular drug rather than a device (male- 45%, female- 48%. 76% of inhaler users do not know how to use it properly. 7% think the powder in the dry powder inhalers can block the airways. CONCLUSION Knowledge about asthma and the importance of its proper management are poor in our population. A joint effort in the form of health awareness programmes are needed to alleviate fears and misconceptions of patients
Arden-Close, Emily; Yardley, Lucy; Kirby, Sarah; Thomas, Mike; Bruton, Anne
Poor symptom control and impaired quality of life are common in adults with asthma, and breathing retraining exercises may be an effective method of self-management. This study aimed to explore the experiences of participants in the intervention arms of the BREATHE trial, which investigated the effectiveness of breathing retraining as a mode of asthma management. Sixteen people with asthma (11 women, 8 per group) who had taken part in the intervention arms of the BREATHE trial (breathing retraining delivered by digital versatile disc (DVD) or face-to-face sessions with a respiratory physiotherapist) took part in semi-structured telephone interviews about their experiences. Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Breathing retraining was perceived positively as a method of asthma management. Motivations for taking part included being asked, to enhance progress in research, to feel better/reduce symptoms, and to reduce medication. Participants were positive about the physiotherapist, liked having the materials tailored, found meetings motivational, and liked the DVD and booklet. The impact of breathing retraining following regular practice included increased awareness of breathing and development of new habits. Benefits of breathing retraining included increased control over breathing, reduced need for medication, feeling more relaxed, and improved health and quality of life. Problems included finding time to practice the exercises, and difficulty mastering techniques. Breathing retraining was acceptable and valued by almost all participants, and many reported improved wellbeing. Face to face physiotherapy was well received. However, some participants in the DVD group mentioned being unable to master techniques. PATIENTS RECEPTIVE TO BREATHING RETRAINING: Patients with asthma taught how to change their unconscious breathing patterns generally like non-pharmacological interventions. Researchers in the UK, led by Mike Thomas from the University of Southampton
González-Hernández, Y; Pedraza-Sánchez, S; Blandón-Vijil, V; del Río-Navarro, B E; Vaughan, G; Moreno-Lafont, M; Escobar-Gutiérrez, A
In humans, T cells expressing the CD161 molecule NKR-P1A constitute around 20% of the circulating CD3(+) cells and are potentially immunoregulatory in several diseases. Their role in asthma is not well known, but they could participate in asthma attacks. To determinate whether activation of CD161(+) T cells and their cytokine production correlate with clinical status of asthma, we analysed blood samples from asthma attack patients (AAP) and stable asthma patients (SAP) in comparison with healthy non-atopic controls (HC). There was a significant higher baseline expression of CD69 on T cells from AAP and the difference was more notorious on CD161(+) T cells; upregulation of CD69 was observed on both CD161(-) and CD161(+) T cells driven by Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus crude extract, whereas polyclonal stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus ionomycin predominantly induced IFN-gamma but no IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 by CD161(+) T cells in all groups; upon polyclonal stimulation, there were more CD161(+) T cells producing IFN-gamma and less CD161(-) T cells producing this cytokine, contrasting with the opposite results observed in SAP and HC groups. Our results indicate that, during asthma attack, CD161(+) T cells are activated and are able to produce predominantly IFN-gamma but no Th2 cytokines. We hypothesize that during an asthma attack, IFN-gamma produced by CD161(+) T cells could help to reestablish the Th1/Th2 equilibrium. These observations may contribute to the understanding of the immune mechanisms involved in asthma attacks.
Leidy, Nancy Kline; Gutierrez, Benjamin; Lampl, Kathy; Uryniak, Tom; O'Brien, Christopher D
Feeling a maintenance therapy work right away may provide positive reinforcement and may offer one way to improve adherence in patients with asthma. Precise measurement is required to accurately compare the presence of this effect across clinical trial treatment groups. Two randomized, controlled studies tested whether timing of assessment (daily vs weekly, study 1; and predose vs postdose, study 2) influenced patients' reports of whether they can feel a medication working right away (perception), and their satisfaction with this perception (satisfaction). These 2-week US-based multicenter double-blind, parallel-group studies included patients > or = 18 years of age with mild to moderate persistent asthma. In each, patients were randomized to one of two drugs with different onset profiles: budesonide/formoterol pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) 80/4.5 microg x 2 inhalations (160/9 microg) twice daily or budesonide pMDI 80 microg x 2 inhalations (160 microg) twice daily. Patients were further randomized to complete previously validated perception and satisfaction questions in a cross-over fashion, either daily and weekly (N = 123) or predose and postdose (N = 134). Patient surveys also assessed perceptions of the onset of effect of medication and their value of these perceptions. No significant differences were observed in patients' reports of perception, either daily versus weekly or predose versus postdose. A statistically significant difference in satisfaction was found in study 1 only, favoring weekly recall (p away (136 of 157 patients) identified positive airway sensations. Most patients reported that feeling their medication work right away is reassuring and would help them manage their asthma. Assessment timing has no effect on patient response to the perception of feeling a medication working right away. Differences found in satisfaction levels reported with weekly versus daily recall were consistent across treatment groups, indicating that no bias
Nieves, Ana; Magnan, Antoine; Boniface, Stéphanie; Proudhon, Hervé; Lanteaume, André; Romanet, Stéphanie; Vervloet, Daniel; Godard, Philippe
Immunological studies claimed that atopic and non-atopic asthma share more similarities than differences. However, these two phenotypes of asthma are considered to be distinguishable upon distinct clinical patterns, which were not systematically assessed before in a large population. We studied characteristics discriminating atopic from non-atopic asthma among 751 asthmatic patients and 80 factors were analysed in univariate and multivariate analysis. Age, age of onset of asthma, female/male ratio were higher in non-atopic (n=200) than in atopic (n=551) asthmatics. Familial asthma, seasonal symptoms, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, allergen-triggered symptoms,