WorldWideScience

Sample records for asthma european network

  1. GA2LEN (Global Allergy and Asthma European Network) addresses the allergy and asthma 'epidemic'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, J; Burney, P G; Zuberbier, T; Cauwenberge, P V; Akdis, C A; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Bonini, S; Fokkens, W J; Kauffmann, F; Kowalski, M L; Lodrup-Carlsen, K; Mullol, J; Nizankowska-Mogilnicka, E; Papadopoulos, N; Toskala, E; Wickman, M; Anto, J; Auvergne, N; Bachert, C; Bousquet, P J; Brunekreef, B; Canonica, G W; Carlsen, K H; Gjomarkaj, M; Haahtela, T; Howarth, P; Lenzen, G; Lotvall, J; Radon, K; Ring, J; Salapatas, M; Schünemann, H J; Szczecklik, A; Todo-Bom, A; Valovirta, E; von Mutius, E; Zock, J P

    2009-01-01

    who are strongly committed to this model of pan-European collaboration. The network was organized in order to increase networking for scientific projects in allergy and asthma around Europe and to make GA(2)LEN the world leader in the field. Besides these activities, research has also been carried out...

  2. The ENFUMOSA cross-sectional European multicentre study of the clinical phenotype of chronic severe asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abraham, B; Anto, JM; Barreiro, E; Bel, EHD; Bonsignore, G; Bousquet, J; Castellsague, J; Chanez, P; Cibella, F; Cuttitta, G; Dahlen, B; Dahlen, SE; Drews, N; Djukanovic, R; Fabbri, LM; Folkerts, G; Gaga, M; Gratziou, C; Guerrera, G; Holgate, ST; Howarth, PH; Johnston, SL; Kanniess, F; Kips, JC; Kerstjens, HAM; Kumlin, M; Magnussen, H; Nijkamp, FP; Papageorgiou, N; Papi, A; Postma, DS; Pauwels, RA; Rabe, KF; Richter, K; Roldaan, AC; Romagnoli, M; Roquet, A; Sanjuas, C; Siafakas, NM; Timens, W; Tzanakis, N; Vachier, [No Value; Vignola, AM; Watson, L; Yourgioti, G

    2003-01-01

    Since severe asthma is a poorly understood, major health problem, 12 clinical specialist centres in nine European countries formed a European Network For Understanding Mechanisms Of Severe Asthma (ENFUMOSA). In a cross-sectional observational study, a total of 163 subjects with severe asthma were co

  3. European birth cohort studies on asthma and atopic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, T; Kulig, M; Simpson, A;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The reasons for the rise in asthma and allergies remain unclear. To identify risk or protective factors, it is essential to carry out longitudinal epidemiological studies, preferably birth cohort studies. In Europe, several birth cohort studies on asthma and atopic diseases have been...... initiated over the last two decades. AIM: One of the work packages within the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA(2)LEN) project was designed to identify and compare European birth cohorts on asthma and atopic diseases. The present review (part I) describes their objectives, study settings......, recruitment process and follow-up rates. A subsequent review (part II) will compare outcome and exposure parameters. METHODS: For each birth cohort, we collected detailed information regarding recruitment process, study setting, baseline data (pregnancy, birth, parents/siblings) as well as follow-up rates...

  4. Cutaneous manifestations in patients with mastocytosis: Consensus report of the European Competence Network on Mastocytosis; the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; and the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Karin; Escribano, Luis; Grattan, Clive; Brockow, Knut; Carter, Melody C; Alvarez-Twose, Ivan; Matito, Almudena; Broesby-Olsen, Sigurd; Siebenhaar, Frank; Lange, Magdalena; Niedoszytko, Marek; Castells, Mariana; Oude Elberink, Joanna N G; Bonadonna, Patrizia; Zanotti, Roberta; Hornick, Jason L; Torrelo, Antonio; Grabbe, Jürgen; Rabenhorst, Anja; Nedoszytko, Boguslaw; Butterfield, Joseph H; Gotlib, Jason; Reiter, Andreas; Radia, Deepti; Hermine, Olivier; Sotlar, Karl; George, Tracy I; Kristensen, Thomas K; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C; Yavuz, Selim; Hägglund, Hans; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Schwartz, Lawrence B; Triggiani, Massimo; Maurer, Marcus; Nilsson, Gunnar; Horny, Hans-Peter; Arock, Michel; Orfao, Alberto; Metcalfe, Dean D; Akin, Cem; Valent, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous lesions in patients with mastocytosis are highly heterogeneous and encompass localized and disseminated forms. Although a classification and criteria for cutaneous mastocytosis (CM) have been proposed, there remains a need to better define subforms of cutaneous manifestations in patients with mastocytosis. To address this unmet need, an international task force involving experts from different organizations (including the European Competence Network on Mastocytosis; the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; and the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology) met several times between 2010 and 2014 to discuss the classification and criteria for diagnosis of cutaneous manifestations in patients with mastocytosis. This article provides the major outcomes of these meetings and a proposal for a revised definition and criteria. In particular, we recommend that the typical maculopapular cutaneous lesions (urticaria pigmentosa) should be subdivided into 2 variants, namely a monomorphic variant with small maculopapular lesions, which is typically seen in adult patients, and a polymorphic variant with larger lesions of variable size and shape, which is typically seen in pediatric patients. Clinical observations suggest that the monomorphic variant, if it develops in children, often persists into adulthood, whereas the polymorphic variant may resolve around puberty. This delineation might have important prognostic implications, and its implementation in diagnostic algorithms and future mastocytosis classifications is recommended. Refinements are also suggested for the diagnostic criteria of CM, removal of telangiectasia macularis eruptiva perstans from the current classification of CM, and removal of the adjunct solitary from the term solitary mastocytoma. PMID:26476479

  5. European Network Against Racism:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helene Pristed

    From the point of view of social movement theory, ENAR (European Network Against Racism) is a strange creature. Partly being an outcome of the European Year Against Racism celebrated in 1997, ENAR was created in 1998 explicitly as an interlocutor with the European Commission in terms of its...

  6. Mapping European research networks

    OpenAIRE

    Besussi, E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework for measuring the performance and mappingthe geography of the European Research Area (ERA) based on the analysis of existingresearch and knowledge networks. The objective is to provide insights into the spatialstructure of the European space from the perspective of the distribution of excellence inresearch. Starting from the debate on European spatial development, key issues such aspolycentricity, the territorial dimension and impact of European policies, the r...

  7. Researching asthma across the ages: Insights from the NHLBI Asthma Network

    OpenAIRE

    Cabana, Michael D; Kunselman, Susan J.; Nyenhuis, Sharmilee; Wechsler, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical asthma studies across different age groups, or ‘cross-age’ studies, can potentially offer insight into the similarities, differences and relationships between childhood and adult asthma. The National Institutes of Health Asthma Research Network (AsthmaNet) is unique and innovative in that it has merged pediatric and adult asthma research into one clinical research network. This combination enhances scientific exchange between pediatric and adult asthma investigators and encourages th...

  8. The European Geoparks Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NickolasZouros

    2004-01-01

    The European Geoparks Network was established in June 2000 by four regions of different European Countries--France, Germany, Spain and Greece--with similar natural and socioeconomic characteristics. These four regions are rural areas, with a particular geological heritage, natural beauty and high cultural potential, all facing problems of slow economic development,

  9. European nuclear education network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In most countries within the European Union that rely to a significant extent on nuclear power, neither undergraduate nor PhD education is producing a sufficient number of engineers and doctors to fill the needs of the industry. As a result of an EU-supported project, a new education organisation, European Nuclear Education Network (ENEN), has recently been established, with the aim to establish a European master's degree of nuclear engineering. Recently, a new EU project, Nuclear European Platform of Training and University Organisations (NEPTUNO), has been launched, aiming at the practical implementation of ENEN and harmonisation of training activities. (author)

  10. European Schoolnet: Enabling School Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scimeca, Santi; Dumitru, Petru; Durando, Marc; Gilleran, Anne; Joyce, Alexa; Vuorikari, Riina

    2009-01-01

    School networking is increasingly important in a globalised world, where schools themselves can be actors on an international stage. This article builds on the activities and experience of the longest established European initiative in this area, European Schoolnet (EUN), a network of 31 Ministries of Education. First, we offer an introduction…

  11. European ecological networks and greenways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Ib; Jongman, Rob H.G.; Kulvik, Mart

    In the context of European integration, networks are becoming increasingly important in both social and ecological sense. Since the beginning of the 1990s, societal and scientific exchanges are being restructured as the conceptual approaches towards new nature conservation strategies have been...... renewed. Within the framework of nature conservation, the notion of an ecological network has become increasingly important. Throughout Europe, regional and national approaches are in different phases of development, which are all based on recent landscape ecological principles. Ecological networks are....... This complex interaction between cultural and natural features results in quite different ways for the elaboration of ecological networks and greenways....

  12. European birth cohort studies on asthma and atopic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, T; Kulig, M; Simpson, A;

    2006-01-01

    variables (e.g. pet ownership, tobacco smoke exposure and day-care) and selected outcome measures for atopy, asthma or allergic rhinitis (e.g. sensitization assessed by IgE or skin prick tests, doctor's diagnosis of asthma, parental perception regarding asthma/wheezing or hay fever symptoms)....

  13. European environmental communication networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this presentation is apprise of special community - representatives of state and public administration, self-administration, workers of scientific institutes, schools, private companies and next privies subjects of areas of the environment with possibilities of access to actual environmental information by the Internet. Web-sites of environmental communication networks with data about the environment are presented

  14. European environmental communication networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this contribution is apprise of special community - representatives of state and public administration, self-administration, workers of scientific institutes, schools, private companies and next privies subjects of areas of the environment with possibilities of access to actual environmental information by the Internet. Web-sites of environmental communication networks with data about the environment are presented

  15. European ecological networks and greenways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongman, R.H.G.; Külvik, M.; Kristiansen, I.

    2004-01-01

    In the context of European integration, networks are becoming increasingly important in both social and ecological sense. Since the beginning of the 1990s, societal and scientific exchanges are being restructured as the conceptual approaches towards new nature conservation strategies have been renew

  16. European Nuclear Education Network Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regarding nuclear engineering education in Europe, indicators like declining university enrolment, changing industry personnel profiles, dilution of university course content, and high retirement expectations show that future of nuclear technology expertise seems at risk (OECD/NEA 2000). The European Nuclear Education Network (ENEN), started as a project under the fifth framework programme (FP5) of the European Commission in January 2002. It established the basis for conserving nuclear knowledge and expertise, created a European High Education Area for nuclear disciplines, and initiated the implementation of the Bologna declaration in nuclear disciplines. Pursuing the sustainability of the concept, the ENEN partners organized themselves into a non-profitable legal association called ENEN, in 2003 under the French law of 1901. The first general assembly was held on 11 November 2003 in Luxemburg, with representatives from the European Commission, the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development and the International Atomic Energy Agency

  17. Clinical and inflammatory characteristics of the European U-BIOPRED adult severe asthma cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Dominick E; Sousa, Ana R; Fowler, Stephen J; Fleming, Louise J; Roberts, Graham; Corfield, Julie; Pandis, Ioannis; Bansal, Aruna T; Bel, Elisabeth H; Auffray, Charles; Compton, Chris H; Bisgaard, Hans; Bucchioni, Enrica; Caruso, Massimo; Chanez, Pascal; Dahlén, Barbro; Dahlen, Sven-Erik; Dyson, Kerry; Frey, Urs; Geiser, Thomas; Gerhardsson de Verdier, Maria; Gibeon, David; Guo, Yi-Ke; Hashimoto, Simone; Hedlin, Gunilla; Jeyasingham, Elizabeth; Hekking, Pieter-Paul W; Higenbottam, Tim; Horváth, Ildikó; Knox, Alan J; Krug, Norbert; Erpenbeck, Veit J; Larsson, Lars X; Lazarinis, Nikos; Matthews, John G; Middelveld, Roelinde; Montuschi, Paolo; Musial, Jacek; Myles, David; Pahus, Laurie; Sandström, Thomas; Seibold, Wolfgang; Singer, Florian; Strandberg, Karin; Vestbo, Jorgen; Vissing, Nadja; von Garnier, Christophe; Adcock, Ian M; Wagers, Scott; Rowe, Anthony; Howarth, Peter; Wagener, Ariane H; Djukanovic, Ratko; Sterk, Peter J; Chung, Kian Fan

    2015-11-01

    U-BIOPRED is a European Union consortium of 20 academic institutions, 11 pharmaceutical companies and six patient organisations with the objective of improving the understanding of asthma disease mechanisms using a systems biology approach.This cross-sectional assessment of adults with severe asthma, mild/moderate asthma and healthy controls from 11 European countries consisted of analyses of patient-reported outcomes, lung function, blood and airway inflammatory measurements.Patients with severe asthma (nonsmokers, n=311; smokers/ex-smokers, n=110) had more symptoms and exacerbations compared to patients with mild/moderate disease (n=88) (2.5 exacerbations versus 0.4 in the preceding 12 months; pgastro-oesophageal reflux with lower lung function. Sputum eosinophil count was higher in severe asthma compared to mild/moderate asthma (median count 2.99% versus 1.05%; p=0.004) despite treatment with higher doses of inhaled and/or oral corticosteroids.Consistent with other severe asthma cohorts, U-BIOPRED is characterised by poor symptom control, increased comorbidity and airway inflammation, despite high levels of treatment. It is well suited to identify asthma phenotypes using the array of "omic" datasets that are at the core of this systems medicine approach. PMID:26357963

  18. The European Network of Uropathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egevad, Lars; Algaba, Ferran; Berney, Dan M; Boccon-Gibod, Liliane; Griffiths, David F; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Mikuz, Gregor; Varma, Murali; Montironi, Rodolfo; Vainer, Ben

    2009-01-01

    In pathology there is a need to rapidly disseminate professional information to the appropriate target groups. This is a surprisingly difficult task on an international level. Therefore, the European Network of Uropathology (ENUP) was recently organized by the Uropathology Working Group of the...... European Society of Pathology. The purposes were to establish a channel for distribution of information about uropathology, such as guidelines, consensus documents, meetings and courses; to organize research collaborations; and to set up mechanisms for survey studies. ENUP has recruited a total of 374...... conducted. Here we report on the methods used to organize this novel information network. We think that ENUP could serve as a model for other fields of pathology and other geographic regions....

  19. Asthma, COPD and overlap syndrome: a longitudinal study in young European adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Marco, Roberto; Marcon, Alessandro; Rossi, Andrea; Antó, Josep M; Cerveri, Isa; Gislason, Thorarinn; Heinrich, Joachim; Janson, Christer; Jarvis, Deborah; Kuenzli, Nino; Leynaert, Bénédicte; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Svanes, Cecilie; Wjst, Matthias; Burney, Peter

    2015-09-01

    We compared risk factors and clinical characteristics, 9-year lung function change and hospitalisation risk across subjects with the asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap syndrome (ACOS), asthma or COPD alone, or none of these diseases.Participants in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey in 1991-1993 (aged 20-44 years) and 1999-2001 were included. Chronic airflow obstruction was defined as pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacitynormal on both occasions. Based on their history of respiratory symptoms, spirometry and risk factors, subjects were classified as having asthma alone (n=941), COPD alone (n=166), ACOS (n=218) and none of these (n=5659).Subjects with ACOS shared risk factors and clinical characteristics with subjects with asthma alone, but they had an earlier age of asthma onset. FEV1 change in the ACOS group (-25.9 mL·year(-1)) was similar to that in the asthma group (-25.3 mL·year(-1)), and lower (p<0.001) than in the COPD group (-37.3 mL·year(-1)). ACOS was associated with the highest hospitalisation rate.Among young adults aged 20-44 years, ACOS seems to represent a form of severe asthma, characterised by more frequent hospitalisations, and to be the result of early-onset asthma that has progressed to fixed airflow obstruction. PMID:26113674

  20. Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it as a kid. What Causes an Asthma Flare-Up? Anything that causes an asthma flare-up (attack) is called an asthma trigger. Different kids ... doctor will think about what causes the asthma flare-ups, how fast the flare-ups happen, and how ...

  1. Prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren, and climate in west European countries: an ecologic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnedo-Pena, Alberto; García-Marcos, Luis; Bercedo-Sanz, Alberto; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Inés; González-Díaz, Carlos; García-Merino, Águeda; Busquets-Monge, Rosa; Suárez-Varela, Maria Morales; Batlles-Garrido, Juan; Blanco-Quirós, Alfredo A.; López-Silvarrey, Angel; García-Hernández, Gloria; Fuertes, Jorge

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the associations between the prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren and meteorological variables in west European countries that participated in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC), Phase III 1997-2003. An ecologic study was carried out. The prevalence of asthma was obtained from this study from 48 centers in 14 countries, and meteorological variables from those stations closest to ISAAC centers, together with other socioeconomic and health care variables. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression models were used. For schoolchildren aged 6-7 years, the prevalence rate of asthma decreased with an increase in mean annual sunshine hours, showed a positive association with rainy weather, and warm temperature, and a negative one with relative humidity and physician density (PD). Current wheeze prevalence was stronger in autumn/winter seasons and decreased with increasing PD. Severe current wheeze decreased with PD. For schoolchildren aged 13-14 years, the prevalence rates of asthma and current wheeze increased with rainy weather, and these rates decreased with increased PD. Current wheeze, as measured by a video questionnaire, was inversely associated with sunny weather, and nurse density. Severe current wheeze prevalence was stronger during autumn/winter seasons, decreased with PD, and indoor chlorinated public swimming pool density, and increased with rainy weather. Meteorological factors, including sunny and rainy weather, and PD may have some effect on the prevalence rates of asthma symptoms in children from west European countries.

  2. ENEN - European nuclear engineering network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the main objectives and expected results of European Project FP5 - ENEN - 'European Nuclear Engineering Network'. The underlying objective of the work is safeguarding the nuclear knowledge and expertise through the preservation of higher nuclear engineering education. Co-operation between universities and universities and research centres, will entail a better use of dwindling teaching capacity, scientific equipment and research infrastructure. 'Today, the priorities of the scientific community regarding basic research lie elsewhere than in nuclear sciences. Taken together, these circumstances create a significantly different situation from three to four decades ago when much of the present competence base was in fact generated. In addition, many of the highly competent engineers and scientists, who helped create the present nuclear industry, and its regulatory structure, are approaching retirement age. These competence issues need to be addressed at Community level and a well designed Community research and training programme should play a role that is more important than ever before. This is an area where the concept of an European research area should be further explored'. The outcome from this project should be a clear road map for the way ahead in nuclear engineering education in Europe. The underlying objective of the concerted action is the preservation of nuclear knowledge and expertise through the preservation of higher nuclear engineering education. 'Many diverse technologies, currently serving nations world-wide, would be affected by an inadequate number of future nuclear scientists and engineers. Nuclear technology is widespread and multidisciplinary: nuclear and reactor physics, thermal hydraulics and mechanics, material science, chemistry, health science, information technology and a variety of other areas. Yet the advancement of this technology, with all its associated benefits, will be threatened if not curtailed unless the

  3. Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by allergens or physical activity. Occasionally, doctors use X-rays to diagnose asthma. Doctors treat each asthma case ... them. If you get flare-ups during a game or workout, stop what you're doing until ...

  4. Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Harold

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Asthma is the most common respiratory disorder in Canada. Despite significant improvement in the diagnosis and management of this disorder, the majority of Canadians with asthma remain poorly controlled. In most patients, however, control can be achieved through the use of avoidance measures and appropriate pharmacological interventions. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs represent the standard of care for the majority of patients. Combination ICS/long-acting beta2-agonists (LABA inhalers are preferred for most adults who fail to achieve control with ICS therapy. Allergen-specific immunotherapy represents a potentially disease-modifying therapy for many patients with asthma, but should only be prescribed by physicians with appropriate training in allergy. Regular monitoring of asthma control, adherence to therapy and inhaler technique are also essential components of asthma management. This article provides a review of current literature and guidelines for the appropriate diagnosis and management of asthma.

  5. Towards a virtual European broadband seismograph network

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    van Eck, T.; Trabant, C.; Heinloo, A.; Dost, B.; Sleeman, R.; Goutbeek, F.; Hanka, W.; Carenno, E.; Tome de la Vega, M.; Zedník, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (2002), s. 29-38 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3012916 Keywords : seismograph network * European Communities * Project MEREDIAN Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  6. A case-control study of the relation between plasma selenium and asthma in European populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burney, P; Potts, J; Makowska, J;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is evidence that selenium levels are relatively low in Europe and may be falling. Low levels of selenium or low activity of some of the enzymes dependent on selenium have been associated with asthma. METHODS: The GA(2)LEN network has organized a multicentre case-control study in...

  7. The European Commission as Network Broker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borras, Susana

    2007-01-01

    Recent transformations in the European Union have been putting significant pressure on the management function of the European Commission. Examining its brokerage position in policy networks, this article asks what kind of role does the Commission have in the political interactions in Brussels...... reports of the Commission's demise are much exaggerated, because it continues playing a leading role in managing interaction between multiple actors at different levels of governance. The empirical results show that the Commission is a resilient central network broker....

  8. Contractual networks in European private international law

    OpenAIRE

    Grušic, Uglješa

    2016-01-01

    This article examines private international law issues raised by transnational contractual networks. The focus is on choice-of-law questions that arise in the context of 1) relations between network members who are contractually bound to one another, 2) relations between network members not connected directly by bonds of contract, and 3) relations between the network and the outsiders. The aim is to assess whether, and to what extent, European private international law is capable of dealing w...

  9. ENEN - European Nuclear Educational Network Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the pioneering initiative of BNEN, the Belgian Nuclear higher Education Network, other countries, e.g. Italy, United Kingdom, Germany, Switzerland, etc., created their own pool of education. At the European level the ENEN Association (European Nuclear Education Network) is a sustainable product generated by an FP5 project. The main objective of the ENEN Association is the preservation and the further development of higher nuclear education and expertise. This objective is realized through the co-operation between European universities, involved in education and research in the nuclear engineering field, nuclear research centres and nuclear industry

  10. Europeans build 10-GigE network

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    " CERN, SURFnet and the University of Amsterdam announced that they have succeeded in building and testing a Trans European 10 Gbps Ethernet (10 GE) network. Crossing four countries and spanning 1700 km, the network uses the new 10 GE WAN PHY transmission technology capable of transmitting the equivalent of 1.5 complete data CDs every second" (1 page).

  11. European Networks and Ideas: Changing National Policies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beate Kohler-Koch

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Wider involvement and better knowledge are keywords in the recent White Paper on European Governance. The political discourse has, quite obviously, taken up the academic debate about the importance of ideas and networks. The Commission is seen as an ideational entrepreneur which by arguing and networking is able to induce autonomous actors with quite diverse interests to follow a European course of action. Regional policy has been a most promising field of research to confirm this hypothesis. Recent investigations can be read, however, in quite a different way. The paper questions established conventional wisdom concerning the importance of European ideas and networks for policy change and raises the question how ideational and network competition could be explored in a better way.

  12. New insight into genes in association with asthma: literature-based mining and network centrality analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Rui; WANG Lei; WANG Gang

    2013-01-01

    Background Asthma is a heterogeneous disease for which a strong genetic basis has been firmly established.Until now no studies have been undertaken to systemically explore the network of asthma-related genes using an internally developed literature-based discovery approach.This study was to explore asthma-related genes by using literaturebased mining and network centrality analysis.Methods Literature involving asthma-related genes were searched in PubMed from 2001 to 2011.Integration of natural language processing with network centrality analysis was used to identify asthma susceptibility genes and their interaction network.Asthma susceptibility genes were classified into three functional groups by gene ontology (GO) analysis and the key genes were confirmed by establishing asthma-related networks and pathways.Results Three hundred and twenty-six genes related with asthma such as IGHE (IgE),interleukin (IL)-4,5,6,10,13,17A,and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha were identified.GO analysis indicated some biological processes (developmental processes,signal transduction,death,etc.),cellular components (non-structural extracellular,plasma membrane and extracellular matrix),and molecular functions (signal transduction activity) that were involved in asthma.Furthermore,22 asthma-related pathways such as the Toll-like receptor signaling pathway,hematopoietic cell lineage,JAK-STAT signaling pathway,chemokine signaling pathway,and cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction,and 17 hub genes,such as JAK3,CCR1-3,CCR5-7,CCR8,were found.Conclusions Our study provides a remarkably detailed and comprehensive picture of asthma susceptibility genes and their interacting network.Further identification of these genes and molecular pathways may play a prominent role in establishing rational therapeutic approaches for asthma.

  13. ENGL, the European Network of GMO Laboratories

    OpenAIRE

    KREYSA JOACHIM; Van den Eede, Guy; Mazzara, Marco

    2013-01-01

    When the current EU policy on Genetically Modified Organism (GMO) was designed, GMO-specific detection methods were not generally available. Under the leadership of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (JRC), a European Network of GMO Laboratories was formed, the ENGL. ENGL brings together the GMO control laboratories (including NRL) of the EU to establish standards, spread good practices, and discuss problems. Its standards are today used throughout the EU and beyond. ...

  14. ENIQ: European Network for Inspection Qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many countries are currently considering their own approach to inspection qualification and are carefully assessing experience to date. ENIQ, which stands for European Network for Inspection Qualification, groups the major part of the utilities in Western Europe. The general objective of ENIQ is to coordinate and manage at European level expertise and resources for the assessment and qualification of NDE inspection techniques and procedures, primarily for nuclear components. Also non-nuclear heavy duty components will be considered. Within ENIQ there is a growing consensus of opinion on the general principles of a European approach towards inspection qualification. In this paper the main activities, organization and actual status of ENIQ will be discussed

  15. European networks in industrial integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several institutions and electrical utilities in Europe, including the Joint Research Centre (JRC), have the capability to deal with several of the problems posed by the operation and aging of structural components and with their structural integrity assessment. These institutions and the JRC have developed cooperative programmes and organized themselves into networks. This article describes the structure and objective of the existing networks. 3 figs

  16. Qingfei Xiaoyan Wan alleviates asthma through multi-target network regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Zhenying; Miao, Yingbo; Pan, Pengwei; Cheng, Binfeng; Bai, Gang; Wu, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Background Qingfei Xiaoyan Wan (QFXY), a traditional Chinese formula, is widely used for relieving cough, asthma, upper respiratory tract infection, bronchitis, pneumonia, and etc. in clinic. Comparing with other anti-asthma drugs, it is characterised with moderate and persistent efficacy as well as few side effects, however, the underlying action mechanism still remains elusive. This study aimed to identify QFXY multi-target network regulation as an asthma controller. Methods This study esta...

  17. Population prevalence of asthma and its determinants based on European Community Respiratory Health Survey in the United Arab Emirates

    OpenAIRE

    Mahboub Bassam H; Al-Hammadi Suleiman; Rafique Mohamed; Sulaiman Nabil; Pawankar Ruby; Al Redha Abdulla I; Mehta Atul C

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background No population study has explored the population distribution of adult asthma in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The objective is to estimate asthma prevalence in general population in UAE. Methods Using standard European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) questionnaires and tools, this is a cross-sectional assessment of a random sample of the population in established quotas of the seven Emirates in the UAE. We surveyed 1,220 participants, of which 63.2% were male...

  18. European symposium on precision medicine in allergy and airways diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muraro, A; Fokkens, W J; Pietikainen, S;

    2015-01-01

    David Borrelli and with active participation of the European Respiratory Society (ERS), the European Federations of Allergy and Airways Diseases Patients Associations (EFA), the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (Ga2len), Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) and the Respiratory...... prevention, patient empowerment and cost-effective treatment strategies leading to a better health status of European citizens....

  19. Clinical and inflammatory characteristics of the European U-BIOPRED adult severe asthma cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Dominick E; Sousa, Ana R; Fowler, Stephen J;

    2015-01-01

    U-BIOPRED is a European Union consortium of 20 academic institutions, 11 pharmaceutical companies and six patient organisations with the objective of improving the understanding of asthma disease mechanisms using a systems biology approach.This cross-sectional assessment of adults with severe...... compared to patients with mild/moderate disease (n=88) (2.5 exacerbations versus 0.4 in the preceding 12 months; panxiety and depression. They also had a higher incidence of nasal polyps and gastro-oesophageal reflux with lower lung function. Sputum...

  20. The European Nuclear Education Network Association - ENEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The temporary network, established through the European 5. Framework Programme project ENEN, was given a more permanent character by the foundation of the European Nuclear Education Network Association, a non-profit-making association according to the French law of 1901, pursuing a pedagogic and scientific aim. Its main objective is the preservation and the further development of higher nuclear education and expertise. This objective is realized through the co-operation between the European universities, involved in education and research in the nuclear engineering field, the nuclear research centres and the nuclear industry. The membership of the ENEN Association now consists of 35 universities members and 6 research centres. The paper briefly describes the history and structure of the ENEN Association and elaborates on the objectives and activities of its five committees during its first two years of operation. Supported by the 5. and 6. Framework Programme of the European Community, the ENEN Association established the delivery of the European Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering certificate. In particular, education and training courses have been developed and offered to materialize the core curricula and optional fields of study in a European exchange structure. Pilot editions of those courses and try-outs of training programmes have been successfully organised with a satisfying interest, attendance and performance by the students and the support of nuclear industries and international organisations. The involvement of ENEN in the 6. EC Framework project EUROTRANS will further enlarge its field of activities into a realm of nuclear disciplines. The ENEN Association further contributes to the management of nuclear knowledge within the European Union as well as on a world-wide level, through contacts with its sister Network ANENT in Asia, and by its participation to activities of the World Nuclear University. (author)

  1. The European Nuclear Education Network Association - ENEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The temporary network, established through the European 5th Framework Programme project ENEN, was given a more permanent character by the foundation of the European Nuclear Education Network Association, a non-profit-making association according to the French law of 1901, pursuing a pedagogic and scientific aim. Its main objective is the preservation and the further development of higher nuclear education and expertise. This objective is realized through the co-operation between the European universities, involved in education and research in the nuclear engineering field, the nuclear research centres and the nuclear industry. The membership of the ENEN Association now consists of 35 universities members and 6 research centres. The paper briefly describes the history and structure of the ENEN Association and elaborates on the objectives and activities of its five committees during its first two years of operation. Supported by the 5th and 6th Framework Programme of the European Community, the ENEN Association established the delivery of the European Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering certificate. In particular, education and training courses have been developed and offered to materialise the core curricula and optional fields of study in a European exchange structure. Pilot editions of those courses and try-outs of training programmes have been successfully organised with a satisfying interest, attendance and performance by the students and the support of nuclear industries and international organisations. The involvement of ENEN in the 6th EC Framework project EUROTRANS will further enlarge its field of activities into a realm of nuclear disciplines. The ENEN Association further contributes to the management of nuclear knowledge within the European Union as well as on a world-wide level, through contacts with its sister Network ANENT in Asia, and by its participation to activities of the World Nuclear University. (author)

  2. Topology of the European Network of Earth Observation Networks and the need for an European Network of Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masó, Joan; Serral, Ivette; McCallum, Ian; Blonda, Palma; Plag, Hans-Peter

    2016-04-01

    ConnectinGEO (Coordinating an Observation Network of Networks EnCompassing saTellite and IN-situ to fill the Gaps in European Observations" is an H2020 Coordination and Support Action with the primary goal of linking existing Earth Observation networks with science and technology (S&T) communities, the industry sector, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO), and Copernicus. The project will end in February 2017. ConnectinGEO will initiate a European Network of Earth Observation Networks (ENEON) that will encompass space-based, airborne and in-situ observations networks. ENEON will be composed of project partners representing thematic observation networks along with the GEOSS Science and Technology Stakeholder Network, GEO Communities of Practices, Copernicus services, Sentinel missions and in-situ support data representatives, representatives of the European space-based, airborne and in-situ observations networks. This communication presents the complex panorama of Earth Observations Networks in Europe. The list of networks is classified by discipline, variables, geospatial scope, etc. We also capture the membership and relations with other networks and umbrella organizations like GEO. The result is a complex interrelation between networks that can not be clearly expressed in a flat list. Technically the networks can be represented as nodes with relations between them as lines connecting the nodes in a graph. We have chosen RDF as a language and an AllegroGraph 3.3 triple store that is visualized in several ways using for example Gruff 5.7. Our final aim is to identify gaps in the EO Networks and justify the need for a more structured coordination between them.

  3. The European debate on governance networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Torfing, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to take stock of the European debate on governance networks in order to assess whether or not it has succeeded to develop a new a viable paradigm based on clear concepts, sound theories and methods and an expansive research agenda. The political and institutional conditions for th...... development, the European debate on governance networks provides a new and important paradigm for understanding the emerging forms of multilateral action and pluricentric governance.......This paper aims to take stock of the European debate on governance networks in order to assess whether or not it has succeeded to develop a new a viable paradigm based on clear concepts, sound theories and methods and an expansive research agenda. The political and institutional conditions for the...... emergence of the Europe governance debate are analyzed and the notions of ‘governance’ and ‘governance networks’ are critically examined and defined. A brief assessment of the empirical significance of governance networks at different levels of governing is followed by a presentation and comparison of the...

  4. Towards the European Nuclear Engineering Education Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current priorities of the scientific community regarding basic research lie elsewhere than in nuclear sciences. The situation today is significantly different than it was three to four decades ago when much of the present competence base in nuclear sciences was in fact generated. In addition, many of the highly competent engineers and scientists, who helped create the present nuclear industry, and its regulatory structure, are approaching retirement. To preserve nuclear knowledge and expertise through the higher nuclear engineering education in the 5th framework program of the European Commission the project ENEN (European Nuclear Engineering Education Network) was launched, since the need to keep the university curricula in nuclear sciences and technology alive has been clearly recognized at European level. As the follow up of this project an international nuclear engineering education consortium of universities with partners from the nuclear sector is presently in process of being established This association called ENEN has as founding members: 14 universities and 8 research institutes from 17 European countries. (author)

  5. Developing an Intelligent System for Diagnosis of Asthma Based on Artificial Neural Network

    OpenAIRE

    Alizadeh, Behrouz; Safdari, Reza; Zolnoori, Maryam; Bashiri, Azadeh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Lack of proper diagnosis and inadequate treatment of asthma, leads to physical and financial complications. This study aimed to use data mining techniques and creating a neural network intelligent system for diagnosis of asthma. Methods: The study population is the patients who had visited one of the Lung Clinics in Tehran. Data were analyzed using the SPSS statistical tool and the chi-square Pearson’s coefficient was the basis of decision making for data ranking. The considered...

  6. ACTINET: a European Network for Actinide Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: The research in Actinide sciences appear as a strategic issue for the future of nuclear systems. Sustainability issues are clearly in connection with the way actinide elements are managed (either addressing saving natural resource, or decreasing the radiotoxicity of the waste). The recent developments in the field of minor actinide P and T offer convincing indications of what could be possible options, possible future processes for the selective recovery of minor actinides. But they point out, too, some lacks in the basic understanding of key-issues (such as for instance the control An versus Ln selectivity, or solvation phenomena in organic phases). Such lacks could be real obstacles for an optimization of future processes, with new fuel compounds and facing new recycling strategies. This is why a large and sustainable work appears necessary, here in the field of basic actinide separative chemistry. And similar examples could be taken from other aspects of An science, for various applications (nuclear fuel or transmutation targets design, or migration issues,): future developments need a strong, enlarged, scientific basis. The Network ACTINET, established with the support of the European Commission, has the following objectives: - significantly improve the accessibility of the major actinide facilities to the European scientific community, and form a set of pooled facilities, as the corner-stone of a progressive integration process, - improve mobility between the member organisations, in particular between Academic Institutions and National Laboratories holding the pooled facilities, - merge part of the research programs conducted by the member institutions, and optimise the research programs and infrastructure policy via joint management procedures, - strengthen European excellence through a selection process of joint proposals, and reduce the fragmentation of the community by putting critical mass of resources and expertise on

  7. European VLBI Network: Present and Future

    CERN Document Server

    Zensus, J A

    2015-01-01

    The European VLBI Network is a collaboration of the major radio astronomical institutes in Europe, Asia, South Africa and Puerto Rico. Established four decades ago, since then it has constantly improved its performance in terms made using resolution, data bit-rate and image fidelity with improvements in performance, and the addition of new stations and observing capabilities. The EVN provides open skies access and has over time become a common-user facility. In this contribution we discuss the present status and perspectives for the array in a continuously changing environment, especially in the era of ALMA and with the Square Kilometre Array ante portas.

  8. The European Nucelar Engineering Network Program (ENEN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As of 2002 there are 439 Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) and 264 Research Reactors (RR) in operation world-wide, out of these countries, 11 countries in Europe account for 145 NPP and 18 countries in Europe for 37 RR. A large fraction of both the NPP and the RR are over 30 years old. The same age problem exists also among the qualified nuclear staff. Most of the nuclear staff joined those facilities in the 60-ties and 70-ties and are now approaching retirement age. Due to this fact a large amount of experience and competence will be lost in the next decade [1]. Therefore it is of utmost importance to improve and harmonize the nuclear educational system among European countries. Having this target in mind an EU project, the European Nuclear Engineering Network (ENEN), was submitted by 17 countries to the European Union. The proposal was accepted and the two year project started officially on January 1's't 2002. In this paper a survey on the history and the structure of ENEN is given, the targets and timetables of the individual 10 Work Packages are discussed and the results up to September 2002 are presented.(author)

  9. European Nuclear Education Network (ENEN) Association Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of the ENEN Association is the preservation and further development of a higher nuclear education and expertise. This objective should be achieved through the co-operation between European universities involved in education and research in the nuclear engineering field, research centers and the nuclear industry. To reach this objective, the ENEN Association has to: Promote and develop the collaboration in nuclear engineering education of engineers and researchers required by the nuclear industry and the regulatory bodies; Ensure the quality of nuclear academic engineering education and training; Increase the attractiveness for engagement in the nuclear field for students and young academics. The basic objectives of the ENEN Association shall be to: Deliver an European Master of Science Degree in Nuclear Engineering and promote PhD studies; Promote exchange of students and teachers participating in the frame of this network; Increase the number of students by providing incentives; Establish a framework for mutual recognition; Foster and strengthen the relationship with research laboratories and networks, industry and regulatory bodies, by involving them in (or association them with) nuclear academic education and by offering continuous training. The aims of the ENEN Association shall be achieved by: Discussion on educational objectives, methods and course contents among the members and with external partners, particularly national European industries; Organization of internal audits on the quality of nuclear engineering curricula; Awarding the label of 'European Master degree of Science in Nuclear Engineering' to the curricula satisfying the criteria set up by the ENEN Association; Cooperation between the members, and with the research centers and the nuclear industry for enhancement of mobility of teachers and students, organization of training and advanced courses, use of large research and teaching facilities or infrastructures; Cooperation

  10. Complementary and alternative medicine for children's asthma: satisfaction, care provider responsiveness, and networks of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidin, Betina; Timmermans, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    We explain why some caretakers opt for alternative medicine for the treatment of children's asthma whereas others do not. In the past 15 years, asthma care has been standardized, with clinical practice guidelines centered on advanced pharmacological regimes. Clinicians argue that with proper biomedical treatment and environmental control, asthma should be a manageable chronic disease. Yet many patients forego available pharmacological treatments for alternative medicine or complement prescribed drugs with unconventional treatments. On the basis of open-ended, in-depth qualitative interviews with 50 mothers of children with asthma, we argue that the experience with biomedical treatments, social influence in mother's network of care, concerns about adverse and long-term effects, health care providers' responsiveness to such concerns, and familiarity with alternative treatments explain why some families rely on alternative medicine and others do not. PMID:18174534

  11. Population prevalence of asthma and its determinants based on European Community Respiratory Health Survey in the United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboub Bassam H

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No population study has explored the population distribution of adult asthma in the United Arab Emirates (UAE. The objective is to estimate asthma prevalence in general population in UAE. Methods Using standard European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS questionnaires and tools, this is a cross-sectional assessment of a random sample of the population in established quotas of the seven Emirates in the UAE. We surveyed 1,220 participants, of which 63.2% were male, and 20.1% were UAE Nationals, with a mean (SD age of 32.9 (14.1 years. Results Prevalence of individual respiratory symptoms from the ECRHS screening questionnaire in all participants were generally ranging 8 - 10%, while participants 20-44 years presented lower prevalence in all symptoms (p Conclusion We conclude that asthma is common in the UAE, and gender differences are not observed in reported asthma symptoms in young adults. This being the first population based study exploring the prevalence of asthma and its determinants in the United Arab Emirates based on the ECRHS.

  12. Identifying a biomarker network for corticosteroid resistance in asthma from bronchoalveolar lavage samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, José Eduardo; Porto, Bárbara Nery; Puga, Renato; Stein, Renato Tetelbom; Pitrez, Paulo Márcio

    2016-07-01

    Corticosteroid resistance (CR) is a major barrier to the effective treatment of severe asthma. Hence, a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in this condition is a priority. Network analysis is an emerging strategy to explore this complex heterogeneous disorder at system level to identify a small own network for CR in asthma. Gene expression profile of GSE7368 from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of CR in subjects with asthma was downloaded from the gene expression omnibus (GEO) database and compared to BAL of corticosteroid-sensitive (CS) patients. DEGs were identified by the Limma package in R language. In addition, DEGs were mapped to STRING to acquire protein-protein interaction (PPI) pairs. Topological properties of PPI network were calculated by Centiscape, ClusterOne and BINGO. Subsequently, text-mining tools were applied to design one own cell signalling for CR in asthma. Thirty-five PPI networks were obtained; including a major network consisted of 370 nodes, connected by 777 edges. After topological analysis, a minor PPI network composed by 48 nodes was indentified, which is composed by most relevant nodes of major PPI network. In this subnetwork, several receptors (EGFR, EGR1, ESR2, PGR), transcription factors (MYC, JAK), cytokines (IL8, IL6, IL1B), one chemokine (CXCL1), one kinase (SRC) and one cyclooxygenase (PTGS2) were described to be associated with inflammatory environment and steroid resistance in asthma. We suggest a biomarker network composed by 48 nodes that could be potentially explored with diagnostic or therapeutic use. PMID:27188427

  13. Types, frequency and impact of asthma triggers on patients’ lives: a quantitative study in five European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Price, David; Dale, Peter; Elder, Emma; Kenneth R Chapman

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To identify the types, frequency and impact of asthma triggers and the relationship to asthma control among adults with asthma in Europe. Methods: Adults with self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma receiving maintenance asthma treatment and self-reported exposure to known asthma triggers completed an online questionnaire; a subset completed a diary over 3–4 weeks. Information on asthma control (Asthma Control Test™ [ACT]), asthma triggers, frequency of exposure and behaviours in ...

  14. Asthma prevalence in Olympic summer athletes and the general population: an analysis of three European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burns, J.; Mason, C.; Mueller, N.; Ohlander, J.; Zock, J.P.; Drobnic, F.; Wolfarth, B.; Heinrich, J.; Omenass, E.; Stensrud, T.; Nowak, D.; Radon, K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Some studies have shown a higher prevalence of asthma in elite athletes as compared to the general population. It is inconclusive to what extent certain sport categories are especially affected. The present study offered a unique opportunity to assess these differences in asthma prevalen

  15. Comparative effectiveness of asthma interventions within a practice based research network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebert Lisa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is a chronic lung disease that affects more than 23 million people in the United States, including 7 million children. Asthma is a difficult to manage chronic condition associated with disparities in health outcomes, poor medical compliance, and high healthcare costs. The research network coordinating this project includes hospitals, urgent care centers, and outpatient clinics within Carolinas Healthcare System that share a common electronic medical record and billing system allowing for rapid collection of clinical and demographic data. This study investigates the impact of three interventions on clinical outcomes for patients with asthma. Interventions are: an integrated approach to care that incorporates asthma management based on the chronic care model; a shared decision making intervention for asthma patients in underserved or disadvantaged populations; and a school based care approach that examines the efficacy of school-based programs to impact asthma outcomes including effectiveness of linkages between schools and the healthcare providers. Methods/Design This study will include 95 Practices, 171 schools, and over 30,000 asthmatic patients. Five groups (A-E will be evaluated to determine the effectiveness of three interventions. Group A is the usual care control group without electronic medical record (EMR. Group B practices are a second control group that has an EMR with decision support, asthma action plans, and population reports at baseline. A time delay design during year one converts practices in Group B to group C after receiving the integrated approach to care intervention. Four practices within Group C will receive the shared decision making intervention (and become group D. Group E will receive a school based care intervention through case management within the schools. A centralized database will be created with the goal of facilitating comparative effectiveness research on asthma outcomes

  16. ENIQ: European Network for Inspection Qualification: Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Network for Inspection Qualification (ENIQ) groups the major part of the nuclear power plant operators in the European Union (and Switzerland). The main objective of ENIQ is to co-ordinate and manage at European level expertise and resources for the qualification of NDE inspection systems, primarily for nuclear components. In this paper the main activities, organisation and actual status of ENIQ are discussed. (author)

  17. Quality assurance network: The European pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the IAEA/WHO experience in mailed dosimetry, a Quality Assurance (QA) Network, sponsored by the EC committee ''Europe against Cancer'', has been set up in 1991 for all European centres. Besides a survey of radiotherapy infrastructure, the project includes three measurement steps: primarily, a check of beam output and quality in reference conditions with a mailed TLD-procedure, in a second step, the mailed verification of other beam data and dose calculation procedures with multipurpose phantom, and finally in vivo dosimetry at the individual patient levels with mailed dosimeters. The results concerning 162 beams from 85 centres are analysed (58 60Co beams and 104 X-ray beams). 27 beams present minor deviations (3 to 6%) and 15 beams (4/58 60Co beams and 11/104 X-ray beams) from 11 centres present major deviations (≥ 6%). The analysis shows that 17/27 minor deviations and all major deviations have been detected in centres which have not benefited from an external check during the last five years; in 14 out of 15 large deviations, the measured dose is smaller than the stated dose. In most centres with major deviation, the physicists did not have the necessary experience and did not calibrate regularly the beams. In 6 centres out of 11 there was no dosimeter or the dosimeter available has not been calibrated recently. In 3 centres, the physicist did not give any explanations. The conclusions concerning the second step (multipurpose phantom), outline the larger magnitude of the deviations for off axis points, oblique surface and the use of wedge filters. (author). 32 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs

  18. The European aerospace R&D collaboration network

    OpenAIRE

    Guffarth, Daniel; Barber, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the development of the European aerospace R&D collaboration network from 1987 to 2013 with the help of the publicly available raw data of the European Framework Programmes and the German Förderkatalog. In line with the sectoral innovation system approach, we describe the evolution of the aerospace R&D network on three levels. First, based on their thematic categories, all projects are inspected and the development of technology used over time is described. Second, the composition ...

  19. European Marine Observation Data Network - EMODnet Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzella, Giuseppe M. R.; Novellino, Antonio; D'Angelo, Paolo; Gorringe, Patrick; Schaap, Dick; Pouliquen, Sylvie; Loubrieu, Thomas; Rickards, Lesley

    2015-04-01

    The EMODnet-Physics portal (www.emodnet-physics.eu) makes layers of physical data and their metadata available for use and contributes towards the definition of an operational European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet). It is based on a strong collaboration between EuroGOOS associates and its regional operational systems (ROOSs), and it is bringing together two very different marine communities: the "real time" ocean observing institute/centers and the National Oceanographic Data Centres (NODCs) that are in charge of ocean data validation, quality check and update for marine environmental monitoring. The EMODnet-Physics is a Marine Observation and Data Information System that provides a single point of access to near real time and historical achieved data (www.emodnet-physics.eu/map) it is built on existing infrastructure by adding value and avoiding any unless complexity, it provides data access to users, it is aimed at attracting new data holders, better and more data. With a long-term vision for a pan European Ocean Observation System sustainability, the EMODnet-Physics is supporting the coordination of the EuroGOOS Regional components and the empowerment and improvement of their data management infrastructure. In turn, EMODnet-Physics already implemented high-level interoperability features (WMS, Web catalogue, web services, etc…) to facilitate connection and data exchange with the ROOS and the Institutes within the ROOSs (www.emodnet-physics.eu/services). The on-going EMODnet-Physics structure delivers environmental marine physical data from the whole Europe (wave height and period, temperature of the water column, wind speed and direction, salinity of the water column, horizontal velocity of the water column, light attenuation, and sea level) as monitored by fixed stations, ARGO floats, drifting buoys, gliders, and ferry-boxes. It does provide discovering of data sets (both NRT - near real time - and Historical data sets), visualization and free

  20. The Network of European Research and Development Projects

    CERN Document Server

    Barber, M J; Krüger, T; Roediger-Schluga, T

    2005-01-01

    We describe collaboration networks consisting of research projects funded by the European Union and the organizations involved in those projects. The networks are of substantial size and complexity, but are important to understand due to the significant impact they could have on research policies and national economies in the EU. In empirical determinations of the network properties, we observe characteristics similar to other collaboration networks, including scale-free degree distributions, small diameter, and high clustering. We present some plausible models for the formation and structure of networks with the observed properties.

  1. Benchmarking of European power network companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A European benchmark has been conducted among 63 grid companies to obtain insight in the degree of efficiency of these companies and to identify the main cost drivers. The benchmark shows that, based on the full distribution cost, the performance differs greatly from company to company. The cost of the companies with the worst performers is five times higher than that of the best performer. Dutch grid operators turn out to work relatively efficient compared to other European companies. Consumers benefit from the consequently lower energy bills. [mk

  2. Transgovernmental networks in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Mogens; Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2013-01-01

    -alarm oversight mechanisms by means of transgovernmental networks (TGNs) to its toolbox. This article examines the work mode, horizontalness and effectiveness of such networks as newer governance tools to oversee and monitor the compliance with EU law. It draws on a unique dataset on the Solvit network, enabling...... us to examine effectiveness and variation of a transgovernmental network in operation. The article substantiates the relevance of TGNs in identifying and solving manifold and complex problems of misapplied EU law, finds that the Commission constitutes a focal point in this type of multilevel...... executive and points out that learning in part explains why effectiveness varies across member states....

  3. Evaluation of a Partial Genome Screening of Two Asthma Susceptibility Regions Using Bayesian Network Based Bayesian Multilevel Analysis of Relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Ildikó Ungvári; Gábor Hullám; Péter Antal; Petra Sz Kiszel; András Gézsi; Éva Hadadi; Viktor Virág; Gergely Hajós; András Millinghoffer; Adrienne Nagy; András Kiss; Semsei, Ágnes F.; Gergely Temesi; Béla Melegh; Péter Kisfali

    2012-01-01

    Genetic studies indicate high number of potential factors related to asthma. Based on earlier linkage analyses we selected the 11q13 and 14q22 asthma susceptibility regions, for which we designed a partial genome screening study using 145 SNPs in 1201 individuals (436 asthmatic children and 765 controls). The results were evaluated with traditional frequentist methods and we applied a new statistical method, called bayesian network based bayesian multilevel analysis of relevance (BN-BMLA). Th...

  4. Creation of a European network dedicated to technology transfer

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The CERN Council recently approved the creation of a technology transfer network, whose aim will be to improve European industry’s access to the technologies developed by the particle physics community in the Member States. The gas detectors for the TOTEM experiment (GEM) offer potential for fruitful collaboration within the framework of the TT network. Many other technologies are going down the same road.The desire to set up a technology transfer network follows on from the European Strategy for Particle Physics, approved by the CERN Council on 14 July 2006 in Lisbon. In this context, special emphasis was laid on European industry’s participation in the implementation of particle physics programmes and, in particular, its access to the new technologies developed by the scientific community. It was recognised that effort needs to be put into improving the efficiency of technology transfer...

  5. European symposium on precision medicine in allergy and airways diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muraro, A; Fokkens, W J; Pietikainen, S;

    2015-01-01

    David Borrelli and with active participation of the European Respiratory Society (ERS), the European Federations of Allergy and Airways Diseases Patients Associations (EFA), the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (Ga2len), Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) and the Respiratory...... Effectiveness Group (REG). MEP Sirpa Pietikainen, Chair of the European Parliament Interest Group on Allergy and Asthma, underlined the importance of the need for a better diagnostic and therapeutic approach for patients with Allergies and Chronic Airways Diseases, and encouraged a joint initiative to control...

  6. APPLICATION OF CAPACITY ENHANCEMENT FUNCTION IN EUROPEAN ATM NETWORK

    OpenAIRE

    Shostak, Olena; National Aviation University, Kyiv; Chynchenko, Yuriy; National Aviation University, Kyiv

    2012-01-01

     The Capacity Enhancement Function (CEF) sits within the Airspace Network & Capacity section of the ATM Centre of Expertise. It provides a single focal point of coordination for all capacity-related issues, both within the EUROCONTROL Agency and for external stakeholders. The Capacity Enhancement Function acts as a catalyst for establishing and progressing cohesive and timely capacity planning and provision, at European ATM network and local level.

  7. The European Narcolepsy Network (EU-NN) database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatami, Ramin; Luca, Gianina; Baumann, Christian R; Bassetti, Claudio L; Bruni, Oliviero; Canellas, Francesca; Dauvilliers, Yves; Del Rio-Villegas, Rafael; Feketeova, Eva; Ferri, Raffaele; Geisler, Peter; Högl, Birgit; Jennum, Poul; Kornum, Birgitte R; Lecendreux, Michel; Martins-da-Silva, Antonio; Mathis, Johannes; Mayer, Geert; Paiva, Teresa; Partinen, Markku; Peraita-Adrados, Rosa; Plazzi, Guiseppe; Santamaria, Joan; Sonka, Karel; Riha, Renata; Tafti, Mehdi; Wierzbicka, Aleksandra; Young, Peter; Lammers, Gert Jan; Overeem, Sebastiaan

    2016-06-01

    Narcolepsy with cataplexy is a rare disease with an estimated prevalence of 0.02% in European populations. Narcolepsy shares many features of rare disorders, in particular the lack of awareness of the disease with serious consequences for healthcare supply. Similar to other rare diseases, only a few European countries have registered narcolepsy cases in databases of the International Classification of Diseases or in registries of the European health authorities. A promising approach to identify disease-specific adverse health effects and needs in healthcare delivery in the field of rare diseases is to establish a distributed expert network. A first and important step is to create a database that allows collection, storage and dissemination of data on narcolepsy in a comprehensive and systematic way. Here, the first prospective web-based European narcolepsy database hosted by the European Narcolepsy Network is introduced. The database structure, standardization of data acquisition and quality control procedures are described, and an overview provided of the first 1079 patients from 18 European specialized centres. Due to its standardization this continuously increasing data pool is most promising to provide a better insight into many unsolved aspects of narcolepsy and related disorders, including clear phenotype characterization of subtypes of narcolepsy, more precise epidemiological data and knowledge on the natural history of narcolepsy, expectations about treatment effects, identification of post-marketing medication side-effects, and will contribute to improve clinical trial designs and provide facilities to further develop phase III trials. PMID:26809504

  8. Asthma control and management in 8,000 European patients : the REcognise Asthma and LInk to Symptoms and Experience (REALISE) survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Price, David; Fletcher, Monica; van der Molen, Thys

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in the world, and previous studies have reported low levels of control. Recent developments in the availability and use of online sources of information about asthma might add to patients' knowledge and help improve control. AIMS: To inve

  9. A European network for nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. EMIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear medicine and radiotherapy make a vital contribution to the diagnosis and treatment of major disease. This role is likely to expand with new developments including availability of new medical isotopes. A European network (EMIR) was initiated in 2001 by the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission, to identify and solve difficulties that constrain nuclear medicine and radiotherapy development in Europe and facilitate closer interdisciplinary collaboration. Participating organisations include the main European associations of medical radiation specialists, radiopharmaceutical/radioisotope producers, nuclear research reactor institutions, research organizations and the JRC. The steering committee established task groups focusing on eight key areas for development. Liaison with non-European organizations will be encouraged. (author)

  10. Network Codes – European Energy Law in the Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Błajszczak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is preparing a series of regulations governing in detail various aspects of grid operation and free-market trade in electricity and gas, the so-called network codes. The paper reviews this process of European energy legislation development. Also discussed are the European Union bodies and major stakeholders in this process, as well as the national law making and enforcing agencies. In the past, law in Poland was created by Polish citizens. After joining the European Union the law in effect is largely created elsewhere by someone else, even if with significant participation of Polish representatives. The law on energy is not only important for producers, distributors and trading companies, but it strongly effects industrial competitiveness and hence the quality of life of the population.

  11. Geography versus topology in the European Ownership Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we investigate the network of ownership relationships among European firms and its embedding in the geographical space. We carry out a detailed analysis of geographical distances between pairs of nodes, connected by edges or by shortest paths of varying length. In particular, we study the relation between geographical distance and network distance in comparison with a random spatial network model. While the distribution of geographical distance can be fairly well reproduced, important deviations appear in the network distance and in the size of the largest strongly connected component. Our results show that geographical factors allow us to capture several features of the network, while the deviations quantify the effect of additional economic factors at work in shaping the topology. The analysis is relevant to other types of geographically embedded networks and sheds light on the link formation process in the presence of spatial constraints.

  12. Mobility and power in networked European space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Tim; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper seeks to contribute to debates about how urban, social and critical theory can conceptualise the socio-technologies of connection, resilience, mobility, and collapse in contemporary urban space. The paper offers a theoretical frame for conceptualising this New Urban Condition, focusing...... on themes of mobility, power, flow, network and scale. The analysis suggests the importance of close atention to the knowledge claims which are deployed in multi-level struggles to assert smooth futures in face of dysfunction....

  13. Gap analysis of the European Earth Observation Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closa, Guillem; Serral, Ivette; Maso, Joan

    2016-04-01

    Earth Observations (EO) are fundamental to enhance the scientific understanding of the current status of the Earth. Nowadays, there are a lot of EO services that provide large volume of data, and the number of datasets available for different geosciences areas is increasing by the day. Despite this coverage, a glance of the European EO networks reveals that there are still some issues that are not being met; some gaps in specific themes or some thematic overlaps between different networks. This situation requires a clarification process of the actual status of the EO European networks in order to set priorities and propose future actions that will improve the European EO networks. The aim of this work is to detect the existing gaps and overlapping problems among the European EO networks. The analytical process has been done by studying the availability and the completeness of the Essential Variables (EV) data captured by the European EO networks. The concept of EVs considers that there are a number of parameters that are essential to characterize the state and trends of a system without losing significant information. This work generated a database of the existing gaps in the European EO network based on the initial GAIA-CLIM project data structure. For each theme the missing or incomplete data about each EV was indentified. Then, if incomplete, the gap was described by adding its type (geographical extent, vertical extent, temporal extent, spatial resolution, etc), the cost, the remedy, the feasibility, the impact and the priority, among others. Gaps in EO are identified following the ConnectinGEO methodology structured in 5 threads; identification of observation requirements, incorporation of international research programs material, consultation process within the current EO actors, GEOSS Discovery and Access Broker analysis, and industry-driven challenges implementation. Concretely, the presented work focuses on the second thread, which is based on

  14. European survey on currently existing radiation measurement networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current situation of measurement networks in Europe is discussed under overriding aspects. This survey is based on current documentation on measurement networks in the following countries: Belgium, Germany, Denmark, France, United Kingdom, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Austria, Poland, Sweden, Switzerland, Slovak Republic, Spain, Czech Republic and Hungary. The degree of implementation of measurement and monitoring systems on the whole and of measurement networks in particular is evaluated based on existing plannings and is found to differ greatly even after 8 years following the Chernobyl events. The measurement networks of the German IMIS system, for instance, have gone into operation several years ago, whereas the measurement networks and systems in a number of European countries are still in the planning or implementation stages. This fact makes any comparative study quite difficult. The survey focusses therefore on demonstrating major aspects which are fundamental for relevant applications. (orig./HP)

  15. Realising the European network of biodosimetry: RENEB-status quo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creating a sustainable network in biological and retrospective dosimetry that involves a large number of experienced laboratories throughout the European Union (EU) will significantly improve the accident and emergency response capabilities in case of a large-scale radiological emergency. A well-organised cooperative action involving EU laboratories will offer the best chance for fast and trustworthy dose assessments that are urgently needed in an emergency situation. To this end, the EC supports the establishment of a European network in biological dosimetry (RENEB). The RENEB project started in January 2012 involving cooperation of 23 organisations from 16 European countries. The purpose of RENEB is to increase the biodosimetry capacities in case of large-scale radiological emergency scenarios. The progress of the project since its inception is presented, comprising the consolidation process of the network with its operational platform, intercomparison exercises, training activities, proceedings in quality assurance and horizon scanning for new methods and partners. Additionally, the benefit of the network for the radiation research community as a whole is addressed. (authors)

  16. Multiple Hub Network Choice in the Liberalized European Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berechman, Joseph; deWit, Jaap

    1997-01-01

    . In the meantime, open skies agreements have been concluded between the USA and most of the EU member states to facilitate strategic alliances between airlines of the states involved. As a result of this on-going liberalization the model of the single 'national' carrier using the national home base as its single hub for the designated third, fourth and sixth freedom operations will stepwise disappear. Within the EU the concept of the national carrier has already been replaced by that of the community carrier. State ownership in more and more European carriers is reduced. On the longer run mergers or even bankruptcy will further undermine the "single national carrier - single national hub" model in Europe. In the meantime, strategic alliances between national carriers in Europe will already reduce the airlines' loyalty to a single airport. Profit maximization and accountability to share holders will supersede the loyalty of these newly emerging alliances, probably looking for the opportunities of a multiple hub network to adequately cover the whole European market. As a consequence, some European airports might see a substantial decline in arriving, departing and transfer traffic, thus in revenues and financial solvency, as well as in their connection to other inter-continental and intra-European destinations. At the same time, other airports might realize a significant increase in traffic as they will be sought after by the profit maximizing airlines as their major gateway hubs. Which will be the losing airports and which will be the winning ones? Can airports anticipate the actions of airlines in deregulated markets and utilize policies which will improve their relative position? If so, what should be these anticipatory policies? These questions become the more urgent, since an increasing number of major European airports will be privatized in the near future. Although increasing airport congestion in Europe will also be reflected in a growing demand pressure for

  17. Evaluation of a partial genome screening of two asthma susceptibility regions using bayesian network based bayesian multilevel analysis of relevance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildikó Ungvári

    Full Text Available Genetic studies indicate high number of potential factors related to asthma. Based on earlier linkage analyses we selected the 11q13 and 14q22 asthma susceptibility regions, for which we designed a partial genome screening study using 145 SNPs in 1201 individuals (436 asthmatic children and 765 controls. The results were evaluated with traditional frequentist methods and we applied a new statistical method, called bayesian network based bayesian multilevel analysis of relevance (BN-BMLA. This method uses bayesian network representation to provide detailed characterization of the relevance of factors, such as joint significance, the type of dependency, and multi-target aspects. We estimated posteriors for these relations within the bayesian statistical framework, in order to estimate the posteriors whether a variable is directly relevant or its association is only mediated.With frequentist methods one SNP (rs3751464 in the FRMD6 gene provided evidence for an association with asthma (OR = 1.43(1.2-1.8; p = 3×10(-4. The possible role of the FRMD6 gene in asthma was also confirmed in an animal model and human asthmatics.In the BN-BMLA analysis altogether 5 SNPs in 4 genes were found relevant in connection with asthma phenotype: PRPF19 on chromosome 11, and FRMD6, PTGER2 and PTGDR on chromosome 14. In a subsequent step a partial dataset containing rhinitis and further clinical parameters was used, which allowed the analysis of relevance of SNPs for asthma and multiple targets. These analyses suggested that SNPs in the AHNAK and MS4A2 genes were indirectly associated with asthma. This paper indicates that BN-BMLA explores the relevant factors more comprehensively than traditional statistical methods and extends the scope of strong relevance based methods to include partial relevance, global characterization of relevance and multi-target relevance.

  18. European consensus statement on diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD: the European Network adult ADHD

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kooij, Sandra JJ

    2010-09-03

    Abstract Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most common psychiatric disorders of childhood that persists into adulthood in the majority of cases. The evidence on persistence poses several difficulties for adult psychiatry considering the lack of expertise for diagnostic assessment, limited treatment options and patient facilities across Europe. Methods The European Network Adult ADHD, founded in 2003, aims to increase awareness of this disorder and improve knowledge and patient care for adults with ADHD across Europe. This Consensus Statement is one of the actions taken by the European Network Adult ADHD in order to support the clinician with research evidence and clinical experience from 18 European countries in which ADHD in adults is recognised and treated. Results Besides information on the genetics and neurobiology of ADHD, three major questions are addressed in this statement: (1) What is the clinical picture of ADHD in adults? (2) How can ADHD in adults be properly diagnosed? (3) How should ADHD in adults be effectively treated? Conclusions ADHD often presents as an impairing lifelong condition in adults, yet it is currently underdiagnosed and treated in many European countries, leading to ineffective treatment and higher costs of illness. Expertise in diagnostic assessment and treatment of ADHD in adults must increase in psychiatry. Instruments for screening and diagnosis of ADHD in adults are available and appropriate treatments exist, although more research is needed in this age group.

  19. European Marine Observation and Data Network EMODnet Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Novellino

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently the European Commission undertook steps towards a European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet in order to standardize method for observing and assessing the grade of the Member States seas and improve access to high quality data. Since 2008-2009, European Commission, represented by the Directorate-General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries (DG MARE, is running several service contracts for creating pilot thematic components of the ur-EMODNET: Biology, Bathymetry, Chemistry, Geology, Habitats, and Physics.The existing EMODnet-Physics portal (www.emodnet-physics.eu is based on a strong collaboration between EuroGOOS member institutes and its regional operational oceanographic systems (ROOSs, and the National Oceanographic Data Centres (NODCs, and it is a marine observation information system. It includes systems for physical data from the whole Europe (wave height andperiod, temperature of the water column, wind speed and direction, salinity of the water column, horizontal velocity of the water column, light attenuation, and sea level provided mainly by fixed stations and ferry-box platforms, discovering related data sets (both near real time and historical data sets, viewing and downloading of the data from about 2100 platforms (www.emodnetphysics.eu/map and thus contributing towards the definition of an operational European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet.

  20. European network for research in global change (ENRICH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghazi, A. [European Commission, Bruxelles (Belgium). DG XII/JRC

    1995-12-31

    While approaching the beginning of the twenty first century, the scientific community is faced with the formidable tasks of monitoring and detecting, understanding and predicting changes in the Earth System and its interactions with human beings. A crucial challenge is to make scientific research results accessible and usable for those involved in the decision making process related to the concept of Sustainable Development. Major international scientific programmes under the umbrella of ICSU, such as the IGBP and WCRP, are dealing with these issues. Although there exist many well developed global change research programmes in several European countries and effective collaboration networks between research institutes, there is an urgent need for overall communication with a view to promoting wider international links ensuring complementarity, synergy and coherence. Recognizing the importance of promoting coherence in research and utilising research results for various European Union (EU) policies, the European Commissioner responsible for Science, Research and Development wrote in March 1992 to all the EU Research Ministers to propose an initiative in this domain. In a rapid response, a group of Senior Experts from the EU Member States was set up in April 1992. This Group established a Task Force to develop the concept of the European Network for Research In Global CHange (ENRICH) which was approved in July 1993

  1. Building the European Union’s Natura 2000 network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Evans

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the second half of the 20th Century there was a growing awareness of environmental problems, including the loss of species and habitats, resulting in many national and international initiatives, including the creation of organisations, such as the IUCN, treaties and conventions, such as Ramsar and the Berne Convention, and the establishment of networks of protected areas. Natura 2000 is a network of sites in the European for selected species and habitats listed in the 1979 Birds Directive and the 1992 Habitats Directive. Under the Habitats Directive a series of seminars and other meetings have been held with agreed criteria to ensure a coherent network. Despite both scientific and political difficulties the network is now nearing completion.

  2. Urban street networks: a comparative analysis of ten European cities

    CERN Document Server

    Strano, Emanuele; Cardillo, Alessio; Costa, Luciano Da Fontoura; Porta, Sergio; Latora, Vito

    2012-01-01

    We compare the structural properties of the street networks of ten different European cities using their primal representation. We investigate the properties of the geometry of the networks and a set of centrality measures highlighting differences and similarities among cases. In particular, we found that cities share structural similarities due to their quasi planarity but that there are also several distinctive geometrical proprieties. A Principal Component Analysis is also performed on the distributions of centralities and their respective moments, which is used to find distinctive characteristics by which we can classify cities into families. We believe that, beyond the improvement of the empirical knowledge on streets network proprieties, our findings can open new perspectives in the scientific relation between city planning and complex networks, stimulating the debate on the effectiveness of the set of knowledge that statistical physics can contribute for city planning and urban morphology studies.

  3. Networking as a tool to promote stakeholder involvement: Example of the European ALARA Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European ALARA Network (EAN), set up in 1996 by the European Commission, has helped reveal stakeholders needs regarding feedback on good radiation protection practice and helped towards stakeholders' satisfaction through their direct involvement into the network's life. Good examples of that involvement are the EAN workshops. The stakeholders are involved during the preparation phase, the workshops themselves, the development of recommendations and finally within the follow up actions. More and more categories of stakeholders are interested in topics covered within the EAN, and other similar networks are being set up in other regions. (author)

  4. Network bipartivity and the transportation efficiency of European passenger airlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Ernesto; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús

    2016-06-01

    The analysis of the structural organization of the interaction network of a complex system is central to understand its functioning. Here, we focus on the analysis of the bipartivity of graphs. We first introduce a mathematical approach to quantify bipartivity and show its implementation in general and random graphs. Then, we tackle the analysis of the transportation networks of European airlines from the point of view of their bipartivity and observe significant differences between traditional and low cost carriers. Bipartivity shows also that alliances and major mergers of traditional airlines provide a way to reduce bipartivity which, in its turn, is closely related to an increase of the transportation efficiency.

  5. Meta-analysis of determinants for pet ownership in 12 European birth cohorts on asthma and allergies: a GA2LEN initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, E; Roll, S; Chen, C-M;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies on pet ownership as a risk or protective factor for asthma and allergy show inconsistent results. This may be on account of insufficient adjustment of confounding factors. AIM: The objective of this study was to describe determinants of cat and dog ownership in European families...... homes without convenient ground access. In addition to parental allergies, social and housing factors should be considered as potential confounders in studies on pet exposure and allergic diseases....

  6. Validation of the Korean version of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey screening questionnaire for use in epidemiologic studies for adult asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Woo-Jung; Lee, So-Hee; Kang, Min-Gyu; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Mi-Young; Jo, Eun-Jung; Lee, Suh-Young; Lee, Seung-eun; Kim, Min-Hye; Yang, Min-Suk; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Kang, Hye-Ryun; Park, Hye-Kyung; Park, Heung-Woo; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Background Standardized questionnaire is one of key instruments for general population surveys. Objective The present study aimed to develop and validate the Korean version of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) screening questionnaire for adult asthma surveys. Methods The ECRHS screening questionnaire was translated into Korean language according to the international criteria. Study participants were prospectively recruited from six referral hospitals and one health chec...

  7. Does pet ownership in infancy lead to asthma or allergy at school age? Pooled analysis of individual participant data from 11 European birth cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin C Lødrup Carlsen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between pet keeping in early childhood and asthma and allergies in children aged 6-10 years. DESIGN: Pooled analysis of individual participant data of 11 prospective European birth cohorts that recruited a total of over 22,000 children in the 1990s. EXPOSURE DEFINITION: Ownership of only cats, dogs, birds, rodents, or cats/dogs combined during the first 2 years of life. OUTCOME DEFINITION: Current asthma (primary outcome, allergic asthma, allergic rhinitis and allergic sensitization during 6-10 years of age. DATA SYNTHESIS: Three-step approach: (i Common definition of outcome and exposure variables across cohorts; (ii calculation of adjusted effect estimates for each cohort; (iii pooling of effect estimates by using random effects meta-analysis models. RESULTS: We found no association between furry and feathered pet keeping early in life and asthma in school age. For example, the odds ratio for asthma comparing cat ownership with "no pets" (10 studies, 11489 participants was 1.00 (95% confidence interval 0.78 to 1.28 (I(2 = 9%; p = 0.36. The odds ratio for asthma comparing dog ownership with "no pets" (9 studies, 11433 participants was 0.77 (0.58 to 1.03 (I(2 = 0%, p = 0.89. Owning both cat(s and dog(s compared to "no pets" resulted in an odds ratio of 1.04 (0.59 to 1.84 (I(2 = 33%, p = 0.18. Similarly, for allergic asthma and for allergic rhinitis we did not find associations regarding any type of pet ownership early in life. However, we found some evidence for an association between ownership of furry pets during the first 2 years of life and reduced likelihood of becoming sensitized to aero-allergens. CONCLUSIONS: Pet ownership in early life did not appear to either increase or reduce the risk of asthma or allergic rhinitis symptoms in children aged 6-10. Advice from health care practitioners to avoid or to specifically acquire pets for primary prevention of asthma or allergic

  8. Respiratory symptoms in adults are related to impaired quality of life, regardless of asthma and COPD: results from the European community respiratory health survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakke Per S

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory symptoms are common in the general population, and their presence is related to Health-related quality of life (HRQoL. The objective was to describe the association of respiratory symptoms with HRQoL in subjects with and without asthma or COPD and to investigate the role of atopy, bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR, and lung function in HRQoL. Methods The European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS I and II provided data on HRQoL, lung function, respiratory symptoms, asthma, atopy, and BHR from 6009 subjects. Generic HRQoL was assessed through the physical component summary (PCS score and the mental component summary (MCS score of the SF-36. Factor analyses and linear regressions adjusted for age, gender, smoking, occupation, BMI, comorbidity, and study centre were conducted. Results Having breathlessness at rest in ECRHS II was associated with mean score (95% CI impairment in PCS of -8.05 (-11.18, -4.93. Impairment in MCS score in subjects waking up with chest tightness was -4.02 (-5.51, -2.52. The magnitude of HRQoL impairment associated with respiratory symptoms was similar for subjects with and without asthma/COPD. Adjustments for atopy, BHR, and lung function did not explain the association of respiratory symptoms and HRQoL in subjects without asthma and/or COPD. Conclusion Subjects with respiratory symptoms had poorer HRQoL; including subjects without a diagnosis of asthma or COPD. These findings suggest that respiratory symptoms in the absence of a medical diagnosis of asthma or COPD are by no means trivial, and that clarifying the nature and natural history of respiratory symptoms is a relevant challenge. Several community studies have estimated the prevalence of common respiratory symptoms like cough, dyspnoea, and wheeze in adults 123. Although the prevalence varies to a large degree between studies and geographical areas, respiratory symptoms are quite common. The prevalences of respiratory

  9. EARLINET: towards an advanced sustainable European aerosol lidar network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, G.; Amodeo, A.; Apituley, A.; Comeron, A.; Freudenthaler, V.; Linné, H.; Ansmann, A.; Bösenberg, J.; D'Amico, G.; Mattis, I.; Mona, L.; Wandinger, U.; Amiridis, V.; Alados-Arboledas, L.; Nicolae, D.; Wiegner, M.

    2014-08-01

    The European Aerosol Research Lidar Network, EARLINET, was founded in 2000 as a research project for establishing a quantitative, comprehensive, and statistically significant database for the horizontal, vertical, and temporal distribution of aerosols on a continental scale. Since then EARLINET has continued to provide the most extensive collection of ground-based data for the aerosol vertical distribution over Europe. This paper gives an overview of the network's main developments since 2000 and introduces the dedicated EARLINET special issue, which reports on the present innovative and comprehensive technical solutions and scientific results related to the use of advanced lidar remote sensing techniques for the study of aerosol properties as developed within the network in the last 13 years. Since 2000, EARLINET has developed greatly in terms of number of stations and spatial distribution: from 17 stations in 10 countries in 2000 to 27 stations in 16 countries in 2013. EARLINET has developed greatly also in terms of technological advances with the spread of advanced multiwavelength Raman lidar stations in Europe. The developments for the quality assurance strategy, the optimization of instruments and data processing, and the dissemination of data have contributed to a significant improvement of the network towards a more sustainable observing system, with an increase in the observing capability and a reduction of operational costs. Consequently, EARLINET data have already been extensively used for many climatological studies, long-range transport events, Saharan dust outbreaks, plumes from volcanic eruptions, and for model evaluation and satellite data validation and integration. Future plans are aimed at continuous measurements and near-real-time data delivery in close cooperation with other ground-based networks, such as in the ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network) www.actris.net, and with the modeling and satellite

  10. How to assess extreme weather impacts - case European transport network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviäkangas, P.

    2010-09-01

    To assess the impacts of climate change and preparing for impacts is a process. This process we must understand and learn to apply. EWENT (Extreme Weather impacts on European Networks of Transport) will be a test bench for one prospective approach. It has the following main components: 1) identifying what is "extreme", 2) assessing the change in the probabilities, 3) constructing the causal impact models, 4) finding appropriate methods of pricing and costing, 5) finding alternative strategy option, 6) assessing the efficiency of strategy option. This process follows actually the steps of standardized risk management process. Each step is challenging, but if EWENT project succeeds to assess the extreme weather impacts on European transport networks, it is one possible benchmark how to carry out similar analyses in other regions and on country level. EWENT approach could particularly useful for weather and climate information service providers, offering tools for transport authorities and financiers to assess weather risks, and then rationally managing the risks. EWENT project is financed by the European Commission and participated by met-service organisations and transport research institutes from different parts of Europe. The presentation will explain EWENT approach in detail and bring forth the findings of the first work packages.

  11. The indicative map of the pan-European ecological network in Western Europe : technical background report

    OpenAIRE

    Jongman, R.H.G.; Bouwma, I.M.; Doorn, van, M.C.A.

    2006-01-01

    The Pan European Ecological Network for Western Europe is the third project in developing the Pan European Ecological Network The objective of the Pan-European Ecological Network is to develop a vision for a coherent network of high value areas for biodiversity, as internationally and nationally protected areas in combination with other suitable habitat areas for long term favourable conservation of Europe’s key ecosystems, habitats and species

  12. Transgovernmental Networks in the European Security and Defense Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastien Irondelle

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of authors describe the European Union as an advanced form of transgovernmentalism. Whether called Europeanization, supranational intergovernmentalism, multilevel governance, administrative fusion or Brusselisation, the transgovernmentalist thesis states that European politics is shaped by the growing interaction of national government officials at every level of the decision-making process. This paper tests the transgovernmentalist thesis by looking at patterns of formal and informal cooperation in the framework of the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP. The data is based on a questionnaire circulated among 73 defence officials in France, Germany, the United Kingdom and Brussels-based institutions. The results are analyzed through social network analysis. We find that the governance of ESDP is characterized by a weak form of transgovernmentalism, in which cross-border links do exist but formal state actors occupy strategic positions. In particular, two groups display transgovernmental features: a core policy group of crisis management and capability development officials in and around the Council, and a Franco-German group of capital-based defence actors.

  13. The relation between paracetamol use and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaheen, S; Potts, J; Gnatiuc, L;

    2008-01-01

    Studies from the UK and the USA suggest that frequent use of paracetamol (acetaminophen) may increase the risk of asthma, but data across Europe are lacking.As part of a multi-centre case-control study organised by the GA(2)LEN network we have examined whether frequent paracetamol use is associated...... with adult asthma across Europe. The network compared 521 cases with a diagnosis of asthma and reporting asthma symptoms in the last 12 months with 507 controls with no diagnosis of asthma and no asthmatic symptoms in the last 12 months across 12 European centres. All cases and controls were selected...... from the same population defined by age (20-45 years) and place of residence.In a random effects meta-analysis, after controlling for confounders, the adjusted odds ratio for asthma associated with weekly use of paracetamol, compared with less frequent use, was 2.87 (95% CI: 1.49 to 5.37), P=0...

  14. European primary care surveillance networks: an overview of structure and operation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deckers, J.G.M.; Paget, W.J.; Schellevis, F.G.; Fleming, D.M.

    2004-01-01

    In many European countries, primary care networks have a important role in public health surveillance. The networks are organised and function differently in EU member states. Their information is a potential source for a European health information and monitoring system as envisaged in the European

  15. Nocturnal Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Director, Health Initiatives View full profile Nocturnal Asthma Worsening of asthma at night, or nocturnal asthma, ... give extra protection during the night. More Nocturnal Asthma Information Back to Asthma: Types Print Page Email ...

  16. Asthma Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Asthma Basics KidsHealth > For Parents > Asthma Basics Print A ... Asthma Categories en español Asma: aspectos fundamentales About Asthma Asthma is a common lung condition in kids ...

  17. EARLINET: towards an advanced sustainable European aerosol lidar network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pappalardo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The European Aerosol Research Lidar Network, EARLINET was founded in 2000 as a research project for establishing a quantitative, comprehensive and statistically significant database for the horizontal, vertical, and temporal distribution of aerosols on a continental scale. Since then EARLINET is continuing to provide the most extensive collection of ground-based data for the aerosol vertical distribution over Europe. This paper gives an overview of the network's main developments since 2000 and introduces the dedicated EARLINET special issue which reports on the present innovative and comprehensive technical solutions and scientific results related to the use of advanced lidar remote sensing techniques for the study of aerosol properties as developed within the network in the last thirteen years. Since 2000, EARLINET has strongly developed in terms of number of stations and spatial distribution, from 17 stations in 10 countries in 2000, to 27 stations in 16 countries in 2013. EARLINET has strongly developed also in terms of technological advances with the spread of advanced multi-wavelength Raman lidar stations in Europe. The developments for the quality assurance strategy, the optimization of instruments and data processing and dissemination of data have contributed to a significant improvement of the network towards a more sustainable observing system, with an increase of the observing capability and a reduction of operational costs. Consequently, EARLINET data have already been extensively used for many climatological studies, long-range transport events, Saharan dust outbreaks, plumes from volcanic eruptions and for model evaluation and satellite data validation and integration. Future plans are in the direction of continuous measurements and near real time data delivery in close cooperation with other ground-based networks, as in the ACTRIS research infrastructure, and with the modelling and satellite community, bridging the research

  18. The European Academia Network on Future Space Exploration Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, K.; Schulze, R.; Igenbergs, E.; Reimert, M.; Schmitt, D.

    2002-01-01

    The planning, preparation, and execution of space exploration missions is a programmatic challenge, which has to meet demanding and to some extent visionary mission objectives, yet in a cost-effective and viable manner. In particular in view of the significant complexity of a human mission scenario, innovative technologies are very often enabling factors for planetary exploration. As a result, such a programme is typically based on and driver for intellectual excellence and new technologies. Academia is one of, if not the most important source for new technologies. It is here where most of the creative, long-term, fundamental research takes place. Universities in Europe have changed dramatically over the past twenty years - they increasingly support the industrial base while they have a leading role to play in creating ideas and knowledge. Traditional boundaries fostering relative seclusion are being broken down and replaced by partnerships and links with industry. Research groups within universities, companies and government research institutes are joining together to share their knowledge and to pursue common strategic goals. It is with this context in mind that European Space Agency (ESA) proposed a partnership with European technical universities to foster breakthroughs in advanced concepts and leading- edge technologies, which will help Europe to define and develop its future space programmes over the next decades. The Future Human &Robotic Space Exploration Technology Network of European Academia has the focus on advanced concepts and technologies for exploration. Due to the high number of universities in Europe, it is very likely that without a co-ordinated partnership with these institutions, ESA would have difficulties to gain knowledge of many innovative ideas - ideas, which may carry a great potential for future ambitious space enterprises. On the other hand, by means of a partnership with ESA, the universities are enabled to conduct their advanced

  19. European Nuclear Education Network ENEN, Ten years of experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conclusions: Networking between European Universities based on mutual recognition (ECTS Bologna system) enabled: • Development of new academic programmes at a Master level; • Mobility of students to hosting universities, members of ENEN; • Mobility of Professors to teach in other Universities, when needed; • Maintain the quality of the educational programmes; • Joint and successful organisation of activities in the fields of: Education, Training and Knowledge Management; • The establishment of bridges between the Universities and the end-users (industries, regulatory bodies, research centres, etc.)

  20. Special features in managing European Training Networks (ETN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Daniela; Eisenhauer, Anton; Drossou-Berendes, Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    The Marie Skłodowska-Curie European Training Networks (ETN) within Horizon 2020, the EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation, aim to train a new generation of creative and innovative early-stage researchers with focus on both scientific excellence and researchers' career development extending the traditional academic research training, and providing researchers with tools to develop scientific expertise and transferable skills needed to establish career perspectives in academia as well as non-academia. This profile is different from what we know from "typical" collaborative projects, and project consortia face specific challenges with regard to international recruitment, joint organization of network activities, financial regulations, etc. The poster will give an overview of the main ETN features emphasizing special requirements and needs, and identifying main challenges, which may rise.

  1. Trans-European transport network and cross-border governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guasco, Clement Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the implementation of trans-European transport corridors in the EU and the influence it has on governance within EU member-states. It considers the implementation of such a scheme in the context of cross-border cooperation and discusses the system of governance necessary for...... coordinating knowledge, efforts and solutions across several national systems. In order to understand this governance setting, one needs to understand the specific quality of transnational governance in the EU, which is neither purely international nor federally integrated. The transport corridor between Malmö...... and Hamburg is taken as a case for discussion. Cross-border governance is analyzed within a multi-level policy network approach including actors from supranational, national and subnational levels, in order to determine the existence of a policy network across the borders. The main finding is a...

  2. 11th European VLBI Network Symposium & Users Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Bordeaux (LAB) at the University of Bordeaux (France), on behalf of the European VLBI Consortium, hosted the 11th European VLBI Network (EVN) Symposium and EVN Users Meeting on October 9-12, 2012. The Symposium was held at the "Chambre de Commerce et d'Industrie de Bordeaux", located in the "Palais de la Bourse", in the center of Bordeaux. The conference highlighted the latest scientific results and technical developments from VLBI, space VLBI and e-VLBI. All fields of astrophysics were concerned - stellar, galactic and extragalactic - as well as astrometry and planetary science. Presentations addressing synergy between (e-)VLBI and other new or planned radio facilities (ALMA, LOFAR, e-MERLIN,...) or instruments at other wavelengths (Fermi, CTA, Gaia,...) were also an integral part of the program. The scientific program was organized in 11 sessions including 71 oral presentations, with an additional 43 posters available for viewing during the entire length of the conference. An EVN Users Meeting was also held during one of the evening to foster interaction between the EVN users and the EVN organization. The symposium was attended by a total of 122 delegates originating from 47 institutes world-wide, sharing new VLBI science and innovations while also building links with other communities. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement no 283393 (RadioNet3).

  3. Network evolution, success, and regional development in the European aerospace industry

    OpenAIRE

    Guffarth, Daniel; Barber, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The success breeds success hypothesis has been mainly applied to theoretical network approaches. We investigate the European aerospace industry using data on the European Framework Programmes and on Airbus suppliers, focusing on the success breeds success hypothesis at four levels of analysis: the spatial structure of the European aerospace R&D collaboration network, its topological architecture, the individual actors that make up the network, and through a comparison of the Airbus invention ...

  4. Influence of asthma definition on the asthma-obesity relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Cetlin Andrea; Gutierrez Manoel; Bettiol Heloísa; Barbieri Marco; Vianna Elcio

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Epidemiological studies suggest an association between obesity and asthma in adults and children. Asthma diagnosis criteria are different among studies. The aim of this study was to test the influence of asthma definition on the asthma-obesity relationship. Methods In a cross-sectional analysis of 1922 men and women, subjects completed a translated questionnaire from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey and underwent spirometry and a bronchial challenge test. W...

  5. Artificial neural network approach for selection of susceptible single nucleotide polymorphisms and construction of prediction model on childhood allergic asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi Takeshi; Shirakawa Taro; Suzuki Yoichi; Hasegawa Yuko; Tomida Shuta; Tomita Yasuyuki; Honda Hiroyuki

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Screening of various gene markers such as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and correlation between these markers and development of multifactorial disease have previously been studied. Here, we propose a susceptible marker-selectable artificial neural network (ANN) for predicting development of allergic disease. Results To predict development of childhood allergic asthma (CAA) and select susceptible SNPs, we used an ANN with a parameter decreasing method (PDM) to analy...

  6. Occupational asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthma - occupational exposure; Irritant-induced reactive airways disease ... the workplace can trigger asthma symptoms, leading to occupational asthma. The most common triggers are wood dust, grain ...

  7. Drug prescribing data used in the assessment of general practitioners’ treatment of asthma and urinary tract infection – Experience from the European Drug Education Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Lagerløv

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available  ABSTRACTDescribing drug treatment given by general practitioners, and quantifying changes in their prescribingbehaviour due to educational intervention, were important parts of the method developed and appliedby the European Drug Education Project. Based on the physicians’ prescription data, individual patientswere defined as having either asthma or urinary tract infections. Prescribing indicators were establishedfor assessing the quality (acceptable or unacceptable of the drug treatment. The diagnose definitionsand prescribing indicators are discussed in more detail in relation to feeding back individual prescribingdata to educational groups of physicians to improve the quality of their drug therapy.

  8. European Symposium on Precision Medicine in Allergy and Airways Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muraro, A; Fokkens, W J; Pietikainen, S;

    2016-01-01

    The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), the European Rhinologic Society (ERS) and the European Medical Association (EMA) organized, on 14 October 2015, a symposium in the European Parliament in Brussels on Precision Medicine in Allergy and Airways Diseases, hosted by MEP...... Diseases Patients Associations (EFA), the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (Ga2len), Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) and the Respiratory Effectiveness Group (REG). The socio-economic impact of allergies and chronic airways diseases cannot be underestimated, as they represent the...... most frequently diagnosed chronic non-communicable diseases in the EU. 30% of the total European population is suffering from allergies and asthma, and more than half are deprived from adequate diagnosis and treatment. Precision Medicine represents a novel approach, embracing 4 key features...

  9. National and international interlocking directorates within Europe : Corporate networks within and among fifteen European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, K.; Kratzer, J.

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the structural aspects of interlocking directorate networks within and among fifteen European countries. The results show large quantitative differences in network densities within countries. These differences are strongly and significantly related to the 'variety of capitali

  10. The European Nuclear Society Young Generation Network: Five years of networking experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1995, Mr Jan Runermark (Sweden), aware of a need for an exchange of knowledge from the older to the younger generation, came up with the idea of starting a European Nuclear Society Young Generation Network. A first network was formed with Sweden, the Netherlands, Spain, Finland, Germany and Belgium. The ENSYGN is now affiliated to the European Nuclear Society and brings together young students and professionals from 21 member countries Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, and United Kingdom, The ENSYGN Core group meets (at least) twice a year and elects its own chair and co chair for a term of two years. The ENSYGN chair has a seat in the ENS Steering Committee and in the ENS Board. The ENSYGN works closely together with other young generation networks from the US, Australia, Japan and South America. ENSYGN organises workshops and courses on European level, takes part in international meetings (fl. UNFCCC, OECD) and stimulates networking on national level

  11. Public Health Genomics European Network: Report from the 2nd Network Meeting in Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Rosenkötter

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Dear Sirs,

    The Public Health Genomics European Network (PHGEN is a mapping exercise for the responsible and effective integration of genome-based knowledge and technologies into public policy and health services for the benefit of population health. In 2005, the European Commission called for a “networking exercise…to lead to an inventory report on genetic determinants relevant for public health”[1], this lead to the funding of a PHGEN three year project (EC project 2005313.This project started in early 2006 with a kick-off meeting in Bielefeld / Germany.The project work is comprised of, according to the public health trias, three one year periods of assessment, policy development and assurance.At the end of the assessment phase a network meeting was held in Rome from January, 31st to February 2nd 2007 with over 90 network members and network observers in attendance. The participants represented different organisations throughout the European Union with expertise in areas such as human genetics and other medical disciplines,epidemiology,public health, law, ethics, political and social sciences. The aim of the meeting was to wrap up the last year’s assessment period and to herald the policy development phase.The assessment period of PHGEN was characterised by several activities: - Contact and cooperation with other European and internationally funded networks and projects on public health genomics or related issues (e.g. EuroGenetest, EUnetHTA, Orphanet, IPTS, PHOEBE, GRaPHInt, P3G - Identification of key experts in public health genomics in the European members states, applicant countries and EFTA/EEA countries from different disciplines (e.g. human genetics and other medical disciplines, public health, law, philosophy, epidemiology, political and social sciences - Building up national task forces on public health genomics in the above mentioned countries - Establishing and work in three working groups: public health genomics

  12. [ECRIN (European clinical research infrastructures network), a pan-European infrastructure for clinical research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demotes-Mainard, Jacques

    2010-12-01

    Clinical research plays a key role both in the development of innovative health products and in the optimisation of medical strategies, leading to evidence-based practice and healthcare cost containment. ECRIN is a distributed ESFRI-roadmap pan-European infrastructure designed to support multinational clinical research, making Europe a single area for clinical studies, taking advantage of its population size to access patients, and unlocking latent scientific providing services to multinational. Servicing of multinational trials started during the preparatory phase, and ECRIN has applied for ERIC status in 2011. In parallel, ECRIN has also proposed an FP7 integrating activity project to further develop, upgrade and expand the ECRIN infrastructure built up during the past FP6 and FP7 projects, facilitating an efficient organization of clinical research in Europe, with ECRIN developing generic tools and providing generic services for multinational studies, and supporting the construction of pan-European disease-oriented networks that will in turn act as ECRIN users. This organization will improve Europe's attractiveness for industry trials, boost its scientific competitiveness, and result in better healthcare for European citizens. The three medical areas supported in this project (rare diseases, medical devices, and nutrition) will serve as pilots for other biomedical research fields. By creating a single area for clinical research in Europe, this structure will contribute to the implementation of the Europe flagship initiative 2020 'Innovation Union', whose objectives include defragmentation of research and educational capacities, tackling the major societal challenges (starting with healthy aging), and removing barriers to bringing ideas to the market. PMID:22043593

  13. ESTRO European assurance programme for radiation treatments (the EQUAL network)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO) Quality Assurance Network for Radiotherapy (EQUAL) was set up in 1998. The EQUAL programme checks, using thermoluminescent dosimeters, four dosimetric parameters for photon beams: the reference beam output, the percentage depth dose, the beam output variation for open and wedged fields, and the wedge transmission factor. For electron beams, outputs are checked for four different field sizes in electron thermoluminescence dosimetry audits. The EQUAL programme has recently been extended to include dose checks in photon fields shaped with multileaf collimators (MLCs). In the MLC audit the EQUAL programme checks doses in five fields with shapes and dimensions defined by the MLC. The ESTRO quality assurance programme shows that dosimetry accuracy is fairly good in the reference condition, but that improvements are often needed in non-reference conditions (i.e. in irradiation geometries closely simulating those used in patient treatments). (author)

  14. Progress of the European Assistive Technology Information Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, Valerio; Andrich, Renzo

    2015-01-01

    The European Assistive Technology Information Network (EASTIN), launched in 2005 as the result of a collaborative EU project, provides information on Assistive Technology products and related material through the website www.eastin.eu. In the past few years several advancements have been implemented on the EASTIN website thanks to the contribution of EU funded projects, including a multilingual query processing component for supporting non expert users, a user rating and comment facility, and a detailed taxonomy for the description of ICT based assistive products. Recently, within the framework of the EU funded project Cloud4All, the EASTIN information system has also been federated with the Unified Listing of assistive products, one of the building blocks of the Global Public Inclusive Infrastructure initiative. PMID:26294498

  15. A quality assurance network in Central European Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of the infrastructure in r[iotherapy centres in three Central European countries has been performed as a first step in the development of a quality assurance network. Data concerning r[iotherapy equipment, staff and number of patients treated in most of the r[iotherapy centres from Czech Republic, Poland and Hungary were collected at the beginning of 1994. Equipment data have shown that 35% of 182 treatment units are conventional X-ray units, 35% 60Co units, 19% linear accelerators, 7% 137Cs units and 4% betatrons. About 47% of high energy units are older than 12 years and about 20% older than 21 years. An important number of centres still have no simulator which would constitute an important handicap to carry out [equate r[iotherapy. The number of treatment planning systems has also been registered; 44% being PC-based systems with locally developed software. Large variations are observed in the number of patients treated per year, per high energy unit, but 12/47 centres treat more than 700 patients per year and unit. On the average, staffing seems [equate in numbers though there are wide variations. The main limitation of r[iotherapy infrastructure in the Central European countries is the low number of linear accelerators and simulators and the [vanced age of therapy units. (orig.)

  16. MUPBED: A Pan-European Prototype for Multi-Domain Research Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spaeth, Jan; Cavazzoni, Carlo; Foisel, Hans-Martin;

    2009-01-01

    Integration and full interoperability are challenging areas of research in wide-area networks today. A European project, MUPBED, has recently concluded and achieved the main result of integrating and demonstrating technologies and network solutions that enable the operation of future European res...

  17. Difficult asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Uslu; Tülay Özdemir

    1989-01-01

    Difficult asthma is a distinct entity of asthma, comprising approximately %5 of asthmatic patients. There is no agreed definition of difficult asthma. It will include asthma uncontrolled by new standard therapy, steroid dependent, steroid resistant and severe asthma. In this study difficult asthma; clinical features, risk factors, pathophysiology and novel therapies are summarized by literatures.

  18. European network infrastructures of observatories for terrestrial Global Change research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereecken, H.; Bogena, H.; Lehning, M.

    2009-04-01

    The earth's climate is significantly changing (e.g. IPCC, 2007) and thus directly affecting the terrestrial systems. The number and intensity hydrological extremes, such as floods and droughts, are continually increasing, resulting in major economical and social impacts. Furthermore, the land cover in Europe has been modified fundamentally by conversions for agriculture, forest and for other purposes such as industrialisation and urbanisation. Additionally, water resources are more than ever used for human development, especially as a key resource for agricultural and industrial activities. As a special case, the mountains of the world are of significant importance in terms of water resources supply, biodiversity, economy, agriculture, traffic and recreation but particularly vulnerable to environmental change. The Alps are unique because of the pronounced small scale variability they contain, the high population density they support and their central position in Europe. The Alps build a single coherent physical and natural environment, artificially cut by national borders. The scientific community and governmental bodies have responded to these environmental changes by performing dedicated experiments and by establishing environmental research networks to monitor, analyse and predict the impact of Global Change on different terrestrial systems of the Earths' environment. Several European network infrastructures for terrestrial Global Change research are presently immerging or upgrading, such as ICOS, ANAEE, LifeWatch or LTER-Europe. However, the strongest existing networks are still operating on a regional or national level and the historical growth of such networks resulted in a very heterogeneous landscape of observation networks. We propose therefore the establishment of two complementary networks: The NetwOrk of Hydrological observAtories, NOHA. NOHA aims to promote the sustainable management of water resources in Europe, to support the prediction of

  19. NET European Network on Neutron Techniques Standardization for Structural Integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improved performance and safety of European energy production systems is essential for providing safe, clean and inexpensive electricity to the citizens of the enlarged EU. The state of the art in assessing internal stresses, micro-structure and defects in welded nuclear components -as well as their evolution due to complex thermo-mechanical loads and irradiation exposure -needs to be improved before relevant structural integrity assessment code requirements can safely become less conservative. This is valid for both experimental characterization techniques and predictive numerical algorithms. In the course of the last two decades neutron methods have proven to be excellent means for providing valuable information required in structural integrity assessment of advanced engineering applications. However, the European industry is hampered from broadly using neutron research due to lack of harmonised and standardized testing methods. 35 European major industrial and research/academic organizations have joined forces, under JRC coordination, to launch the NET European Network on Neutron Techniques Standardization for Structural Integrity in May 2002. The NET collaborative research initiative aims at further development and harmonisation of neutron scattering methods, in support of structural integrity assessment. This is pursued through a number of testing round robin campaigns on neutron diffraction and small angle neutron scattering - SANS and supported by data provided by other more conventional destructive and non-destructive methods, such as X-ray diffraction and deep and surface hole drilling. NET also strives to develop more reliable and harmonized simulation procedures for the prediction of residual stress and damage in steel welded power plant components. This is pursued through a number of computational round robin campaigns based on advanced FEM techniques, and on reliable data obtained by such novel and harmonized experimental methods. The final goal of

  20. Traditional Therapies for Severe Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Eileen; Hoyte, Flavia C L

    2016-08-01

    Severe asthma is a complex and heterogeneous disease. The European Respiratory Society and American Thoracic Society guidelines define severe asthma for patients 6 years or older as "asthma which requires treatment with high-dose inhaled corticosteroids…plus a second controller or systemic corticosteroids to prevent it from becoming 'uncontrolled' or which remains 'uncontrolled' despite this therapy." This article reviews available traditional therapies, data behind their uses in severe asthma, and varying recommendations. As various asthma endotypes and phenotypes are better understood and characterized, targeted therapies should help improve disease outcomes, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness. PMID:27401628

  1. Experience with the European TSO Network (ETSON) as an Example of a Regional TSO Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical safety organizations (TSOs) have an important role in supporting the nuclear safety authorities in their safety review activities. It is important that TSOs have broad experience and capabilities in the field and that they have an important role in coordinating and performing research studies related to the development of capabilities needed in the evaluation of the safety performance of nuclear power plants or waste management facilities. In cases where a TSO provides services both to safety authorities and to a domestic or foreign licensee (utility or vendor), it has to do so in full transparency so that it is able to demonstrate that conflicts of interest are excluded. One important practical area of joint activities of the members of the European TSO Network (ETSON) is the preparation of joint safety assessment guidance documentation with the general aim of harmonizing and documenting the applied practices related to safety assessment within a number of specific fields. An important planned objective of ETSON is the provision of joint expert services by ETSON members to European and international organizations in the areas of nuclear safety, radiation protection, waste management, decommissioning and security. The members of ETSON and European safety authorities have experience in such types of activity, as they have actively cooperated in the nuclear safety assistance programmes of the European Union. (author)

  2. Social networks: a new source of psychological stress or a way to enhance self-esteem? Negative and positive implications in bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, G; Cecchi, L; Liccardi, G; Pellegrino, F; D'Amato, M; Sofia, M

    2012-01-01

    The Internet and, in particular, social networks are an increasingly important part of daily life for both adolescents and adults who maintain a virtual relationship with others sharing interests and goals. Very often, they disclose more about themselves online than they do in person. However, cyberbullying and cyberostracism can be problematic for adolescents and sensitive individuals, who might be negatively affected by social networks. Some studies have shown an increased risk of depression, whereas others suggest beneficial effects through enhanced communication, social connection, and self-esteem. Bronchial asthma is an increasingly frequent disease in the industrialized world, and psychological implications play a role in increasing or in reducing its severity. One year after the case report of an asthma exacerbation that may have been triggered by Facebook, it seems reasonable to analyze the effects of social networks on bronchial asthma. PMID:23101183

  3. Evaluation of risk factor reduction in a European City Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, Jill L; Faskunger, Johan; Mackiewicz, Karolina

    2015-06-01

    There is a substantial and growing burden of premature mortality caused by non-communicable diseases (NCDs) globally. This paper evaluates the preventive efforts of the WHO European Healthy Cities Network during its fifth phase (2009-13), specifically for four behavioural risk factors (tobacco use, alcohol abuse, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity). Drawing on case studies, questionnaire responses and other materials, it notes which cities were involved, what worked and did not, the triggers for action, challenges met and lessons learnt. Few cities appeared to have taken comprehensive approaches to NCD prevention across multiple risk factors, or have combined population- and individual-level interventions. Work on healthy food and diet predominantly focused on children in educational or care settings, and few cities appeared to take a comprehensive approach to tackling obesity. Partnerships were a strong feature for all the NCD risk factor work, and were frequently extensive, being most diverse for the Healthy Diet and Food work. There were strong examples of engagement with communities, also involved in co-designing and shaping projects. Equity also featured strongly and there were multiple examples of how attention had been paid to the social determinants of health. There was evidence that cities continue to be significant innovative forces within their countries and drivers of change, and the mutual dependency of the national and local levels was highlighted. Interventions to promote physical activity have shifted focus from specific events and projects to being more integrated with other policy areas and based on intersectoral collaboration. PMID:26069321

  4. Aerosol radiative forcing in the European Skynet Radiometers network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estelles, V.; Campanelli, M.; Expósito, F. J.; Utrillas, M. P.; Díaz, J. P.; Martínez-Lozano, J. A.

    2012-04-01

    a variety of sites. In contrast to AERONET, the European Skynet Radiometers network (ESR) is a new research network based in Europe and federated with Skynet-Asia, that uses the Prede POM radiometer, but also elaborates Cimel CE318 measurements. ESR algorithms are open and publicly available. Comparison of aerosol properties derived by ESR with AERONET were already performed (Estellés et al., 2012) with good results. In this study we present a preliminary implementation of a direct aerosol forcing methodology in ESR. The methodology is based on the García et al. (2008) implementation, although it assumes the RSTAR radiative transfer code and the SKYRAD aerosol inversions. Solar radiation data from Burjassot site (Valencia, Spain) and La Laguna (Canary Islands, Spain) are available for the validation, representing urban and maritime/dust environments, respectively.

  5. Precision medicine in patients with allergic diseases: Airway diseases and atopic dermatitis-PRACTALL document of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraro, Antonella; Lemanske, Robert F; Hellings, Peter W; Akdis, Cezmi A; Bieber, Thomas; Casale, Thomas B; Jutel, Marek; Ong, Peck Y; Poulsen, Lars K; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Simon, Hans-Uwe; Seys, Sven F; Agache, Ioana

    2016-05-01

    In this consensus document we summarize the current knowledge on major asthma, rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis endotypes under the auspices of the PRACTALL collaboration platform. PRACTALL is an initiative of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology aiming to harmonize the European and American approaches to best allergy practice and science. Precision medicine is of broad relevance for the management of asthma, rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis in the context of a better selection of treatment responders, risk prediction, and design of disease-modifying strategies. Progress has been made in profiling the type 2 immune response-driven asthma. The endotype driven approach for non-type 2 immune response asthma, rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis is lagging behind. Validation and qualification of biomarkers are needed to facilitate their translation into pathway-specific diagnostic tests. Wide consensus between academia, governmental regulators, and industry for further development and application of precision medicine in management of allergic diseases is of utmost importance. Improved knowledge of disease pathogenesis together with defining validated and qualified biomarkers are key approaches to precision medicine. PMID:27155030

  6. Advances in European drought research efforts and related research networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallaksen, Lena; van Lanen, Henny

    2010-05-01

    catchment structure (i.e. presence of stores) in drought development is still limited. Climate change projections for Europe further indicate that drought is likely to become more frequent and more severe due to warmer northern winters and a warmer and dryer Mediterranean region. This presentation reviews current knowledge on the main climate drivers of drought in Europe, important land-surface feedback processes, drought propagation (meteorological to hydrological droughts), major historical events, spatial and temporal characteristics of drought, and methodologies for monitoring and forecasting. Recent and ongoing European drought research projects and networks are presented, focusing on their role in advancing our knowledge on drought within different research areas and hydroclimatological regions. Finally, some recommendations for further research are given, including the need for access to updated data across national boundaries. A joint interdisciplinary effort is suggested to advance our knowledge through a comprehensive assessment of recent major large-scale droughts in Europe.

  7. The European pilot network for quality assurance in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the IAEA/WHO experience in mailed dosimetry, a Quality Assurance Network, sponsored by the EC Committee ''Europe against Cancer'', has been set-up in 1991. For all European Centres not involved in clinical research, besides a survey of radiotherapy facilities, the project includes three measurement steps: a check of beam output and quality in reference conditions with a mailed TLD procedure, the mailed verification of other beam data and dose calculation procedures with a multipurpose phantom, and in vivo dosimetry at the individual patient level with mailed dosimeters. The results concerning 228 beams from 105 Centres have been analysed (75 Co-60 beams and 153 X-ray beams). 33 beams present minor deviations (3 to 6%) and 12 beams (4/75 Co-60 beams and 8/153 X-ray beams) from 11 centres present major deviations (≥6%). The analysis shows that 13/33 minor deviations and all major deviations have been detected in centres which have not benefited from an external check during the last 5 years; in 10 out of 12 large deviations, the measured dose is smaller than the stated dose. This makes the clinical detection of such deviations more difficult. In most centres with major deviations, the physicists did not have the necessary experience and did not calibrate regularly the beams. In 5 Centres out of 11 there was no dosimeter or the dosimeter available had not been calibrated recently. In 4 Centres the physicist did not give any explanation. The conclusions concerning the second step (multipurpose phantom) outline the larger magnitude of the deviations for off-axis points, oblique beam incidence, and the use of wedge filters

  8. European Network of Interest in the measurement and analysis of mean sea levels from tide gauges

    OpenAIRE

    Woodworth, P. L.; Spencer, N. E.; Alcock, G

    1989-01-01

    This report attempts to define a representative current 'network' or community of engineers and scientists engaged in the measurement and analysis of European mean sea levels. Addresses are provided for PSMSL date suppliers, for GLOSS contacts and for individual researchers.

  9. Pediatric Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MD Dept. of Pediatrics View full profile Pediatric Asthma: Overview For some children with asthma, their first ... Calendar Read the News View Daily Pollen Count Asthma Treatment Program At National Jewish Health, we offer ...

  10. Mathematics Education & Digital Technologies: Facing the Challenge of Networking European Research Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottino, Rosa Maria; Kynigos, Chronis

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces the "IJCML" Special Issue dedicated to digital technologies and mathematics education and, in particular, to the work performed by the European Research Team TELMA (Technology Enhanced Learning in Mathematics). TELMA was one of the initiatives of the Kaleidoscope Network of Excellence established by the European Community…

  11. The Impact of Social Networks on Innovation: The Case of European Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso Badiola-Sánchez; Pedro Casares-Hontañón; Pablo De Castro; Pablo Coto-Millán; Miguel Ángel Pesquera

    2014-01-01

    This research analyzes the relationship between the use of social networks and the generation of innovations in European regions through a production function of innovations using human capital, technological capital and virtual relational capital with the new theoretical approach. For this, it is estimated an econometric model of panel data for the period 2007-2011 and 190 European regions.

  12. The Impact of Social Networks on Innovation: The Case of European Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Badiola-Sánchez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This research analyses the relationship between the use of social networks and the generation of innovations in European regions through a production function of innovations using human capital, technological capital and virtual relational capital with the new theoretical approach. For this, it is estimated an econometric model of panel data for the period 2007-2011 and 190 European regions.

  13. Revealing the acute asthma ignorome: characterization and validation of uninvestigated gene networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riba, Michela; Garcia Manteiga, Jose Manuel; Bošnjak, Berislav; Cittaro, Davide; Mikolka, Pavol; Le, Connie; Epstein, Michelle M; Stupka, Elia

    2016-01-01

    Systems biology provides opportunities to fully understand the genes and pathways in disease pathogenesis. We used literature knowledge and unbiased multiple data meta-analysis paradigms to analyze microarray datasets across different mouse strains and acute allergic asthma models. Our combined gene-driven and pathway-driven strategies generated a stringent signature list totaling 933 genes with 41% (440) asthma-annotated genes and 59% (493) ignorome genes, not previously associated with asthma. Within the list, we identified inflammation, circadian rhythm, lung-specific insult response, stem cell proliferation domains, hubs, peripheral genes, and super-connectors that link the biological domains (Il6, Il1ß, Cd4, Cd44, Stat1, Traf6, Rela, Cadm1, Nr3c1, Prkcd, Vwf, Erbb2). In conclusion, this novel bioinformatics approach will be a powerful strategy for clinical and across species data analysis that allows for the validation of experimental models and might lead to the discovery of novel mechanistic insights in asthma. PMID:27097888

  14. Social networking among European children: new findings on privacy, identity and connection

    OpenAIRE

    Livingstone, Sonia; Mascheroni, Giovanna; Murru, M.F.

    2014-01-01

    Social networking is arguably the fastest growing online activity among youth people. This article presents new pan-European findings from the EU Kids Online project on how children and young people navigate the peer-to-peer networking possibilities afforded by social networking sites, based on a survey of around 25,000 children (1000 children in each of 25 countries). In all, 59 % of European 9-16 year olds who use the internet have their own social networking profile. Despite popular anxiet...

  15. Planning and realization of broadband network in accordance with guidelines from European digital agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Simšič, Jaka

    2016-01-01

    Thesis contains description of European Digital Agenda (EDA) guidelines regarding the need for fast and ultra fast internet access. Republic of Slovenia supported those guidelines in document Digital Slovenia 2020 and with that confirmed the intention to fulfill the requirements set by European Commission in EDA. Current state of communication network does not suffice those guidelines. According to Agency for communication networks and services of the Republic of Slovenia (AKOS) copper connec...

  16. Compassionate use of interventions: results of a European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) survey of ten European countries

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Whitfield, Kate

    2010-11-12

    Abstract Background \\'Compassionate use\\' programmes allow medicinal products that are not authorised, but are in the development process, to be made available to patients with a severe disease who have no other satisfactory treatment available to them. We sought to understand how such programmes are regulated in ten European Union countries. Methods The European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) conducted a comprehensive survey on clinical research regulatory requirements, including questions on regulations of \\'compassionate use\\' programmes. Ten European countries, covering approximately 70% of the EU population, were included in the survey (Austria, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and the UK). Results European Regulation 726\\/2004\\/EC is clear on the intentions of \\'compassionate use\\' programmes and aimed to harmonise them in the European Union. The survey reveals that different countries have adopted different requirements and that \\'compassionate use\\' is not interpreted in the same way across Europe. Four of the ten countries surveyed have no formal regulatory system for the programmes. We discuss the need for \\'compassionate use\\' programmes and their regulation where protection of patients is paramount. Conclusions \\'Compassionate use\\' is a misleading term and should be replaced with \\'expanded access\\'. There is a need for expanded access programmes in order to serve the interests of seriously ill patients who have no other treatment options. To protect these patients, European legislation needs to be more explicit and informative with regard to the regulatory requirements, restrictions, and responsibilities in expanded access programmes.

  17. Letter to Editor: RESITA NETWORK - ACADEMIC ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND INNOVATION NETWORK OF SOUTH EASTERN EUROPEAN UNIVERSITIES: AN EXAMPLE OF SUCCESSFUL NETWORKING IN ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND INNOVATION AT ACADEMIC LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schulte

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The foundation, development, activities, and wider social impact of the AcademicEntrepreneurship and Innovation Network of South Eastern European Universities, or shortlyRESITA Network, is presented in this paper as a positive example of successful networking inentrepreneurship and innovation at academic level.

  18. Role of the European Nuclear Education Network Association in the management of nuclear knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The temporary network, established through the European 5th Framework Programme project ENEN, was given a more permanent character by the foundation of the European Nuclear Education Network (ENEN) Association with the objective of preservation and further development of higher nuclear education and expertise. The activities of the ENEN Association are organized through five committees. During the 5th and 6th Framework Programme of the European Community, the ENEN Association made progress towards the delivery of the European Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering (EMSNE) certificate. Although the ENEN Association started with its focus on nuclear engineering education, the activities of its members within the scope of the 6th European Commission framework project NEPTUNO will expand into the definition, harmonization and transnational recognition of professional training for key functions in nuclear industries and regulatory bodies. (author)

  19. A systematic review with attempted network meta-analysis of asthma therapy recommended for five to eighteen year olds in GINA steps three and four

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Mark Lonneke B

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recommendations for the treatment of moderate persistent asthma in the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA guidelines for paediatric asthma are mainly based on scientific evidence extrapolated from studies in adults or on consensus. Furthermore, clinical decision-making would benefit from formal ranking of treatments in terms of effectiveness. Our objective is to assess all randomized trial-based evidence specifically pertaining to 5-18 year olds with moderate persistent asthma. Rank the different drug treatments of GINA guideline steps 3&4 in terms of effectiveness. Methods Systematic review with network meta-analysis. After a comprehensive search in Central, Medline, Embase, CINAHL and the WHO search portal two reviewers selected RCTs performed in 4,129 children from 5-18 year old, with moderate persistent asthma comparing any GINA step 3&4 medication options. Further quality was assessed according the Cochrane Collaboration’s tool and data-extracted included papers and built a network of the trials. Attempt at ranking treatments with formal statistical methods employing direct and indirect (e.g. through placebo connections between all treatments. Results 8,175 references were screened; 23 randomized trials (RCT, comparing head-to-head (n=17 or against placebo (n=10, met the inclusion criteria. Except for theophylline as add-on therapy in step 4, a closed network allowed all comparisons to be made, either directly or indirectly. Huge variation in, and incomplete reporting of, outcome measurements across RCTs precluded assessment of relative efficacies. Conclusion Evidence-based ranking of effectiveness of drug treatments in GINA steps 3&4 is not possible yet. Existing initiatives for harmonization of outcome measurements in asthma trials need urgent implementation.

  20. European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) for Geology - A sea-bed substrate map for European marine areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanen, Ulla; Kaskela, Anu; Kotilainen, Aarno; Stevenson, Alan; Partners, EMODnet-Geology 2

    2014-05-01

    The European Union's (EU) Marine Strategy Framework Directive aims to achieve good environmental status of the EU's marine waters by 2020. In order imply effective management of the broad marine areas spatial datasets covering all European marine areas are needed. In response the European Commission has adopted the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) to assemble fragmented marine data products into publicly available datasets covering broad areas. The marine departments of the geological surveys of Europe (through the Association of European Geological Surveys - Euro GeoSurveys) took an initiative and launched the first EMODnet -Geology project (2009-2012) to compile and harmonize information from the Baltic Sea, Greater North Sea and Celtic Sea at the scale of 1:1 000 000 (http://www.emodnet-geology.eu/). The second phase of the EMODnet -Geology project started in 2013 with an expanded sea area. The 36 members from 31 countries will compile marine geological information at a scale of 1:250,000 from all European sea areas (e.g. the White Sea, Barents Sea, the Iberian Coast, and the Mediterranean Sea within EU waters). The project includes collecting and harmonizing the first sea-bed substrate map for the European Seas. The data will be essential not only for geologists but also for others interested in marine sediments like marine managers and habitat mappers. A 1:250,000 GIS layer on sea-bed substrates will be delivered in the OneGeology-Europe portal, replacing and upgrading the existing 1:1 million map layer from the previous phase. A confidence assessment will be applied to all areas to identify the information that underpins the geological interpretations.

  1. The Non-Discrimination Obligation Of Energy Network Operators : European rules and regulatory practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruimer, H.T.

    2013-01-01

    In this dissertation Hannah Kruimer analyses the application of the legal principle of non-discrimination in the context of energy network operation. Since the early 1990s the duty not to discriminate has applied to energy network operators, in order to achieve a liberalised European energy market,

  2. Issues and Options in the Economic Regulation of European Network Security

    OpenAIRE

    Tooraj Jamasb; Rabindra Nepal

    2014-01-01

    Incentive regulation needs to adapt to the emerging changes in the operating environment of the electricity networks and take into account the security of these. This paper assesses the current issues and options in economic regulation of network security across the European electricity systems. An output oriented incentive regulatory approach combines the efficiency promoting mechanisms in a revenue cap framework with output based incentives such as better provision of network security. Thus...

  3. The European Nuclear Science network touches base at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    ENSAR (European Nuclear Science and Applications Research) is an EU-supported project, which aims at fostering cooperation within the European low-energy nuclear physics community through the active sharing of expertise and best practices. The project also includes a transnational access programme to allow a large community of users to access the participating facilities, which include CERN’s ISOLDE. In the last week of April, CERN hosted the General Assembly and Programme Coordination Committee meetings, about 18 months after the project’s kick-off.   Participants in the ENSAR project. ENSAR involves 30 partner institutes, which include the seven large nuclear physics facilities in Europe. A large part of the European nuclear physics community is represented in ENSAR, in particular scientists who are performing research related to nuclear structure, nuclear astrophysics and applications of nuclear science. In 2010, the project was awarded 8 million euros from the Europe...

  4. The European Marine Observing Network and the development of an Integrated European Ocean Observing System. An EuroGOOS perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Vicente; Gorringe, Patrick; Nolan, Glenn

    2016-04-01

    The ocean benefits many sectors of society, being the biggest reservoir of heat, water, carbon and oxygen and playing a fundamental role regulating the earth's climate. We rely on the oceans for food, transport, energy and recreation. Therefore, a sustained marine observation network is crucial to further our understanding of the oceanic environment and to supply scientific data to meet society's need. Marine data and observations in Europe, collected primarily by state governmental agencies, is offered via five Regional Operational Oceanographic Systems (ROOS) within the context of EuroGOOS (http://www.eurogos.eu), an International Non-Profit Association of national governmental agencies and research organizations (40 members from 19 member states) committed to European-scale operational oceanography within the context of the Intergovernmental Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS). Strong cooperation within these regions, enabling the involvement of additional partners and countries, forms the basis of EuroGOOS work. Ocean data collected from different type of sensors (e.g. moored buoys, tide gauges, Ferrybox systems, High Frequency radars, gliders and profiling floats) is accessible to scientist and other end users through data portals and initiatives such as the European Marine Observations and Data Network (EMODnet) (www.emodnet.eu) and the Copernicus Marine Service Copernicus (www.copernicus.eu). Although a relatively mature European ocean observing capability already exists and its well-coordinated at European level, some gaps have been identified, for example the demand for ecosystem products and services, or the case that biogeochemical observations are still relatively sparse particularly in coastal and shelf seas. Assessing gaps based on the capacity of the observing system to answer key societal challenges e.g. site suitability for aquaculture and ocean energy, oil spill response and contextual oceanographic products for fisheries and ecosystems is still

  5. tEACH - European network for teaching communication in healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annegrethe

    2014-01-01

    (efteruddannelse af læger) & Annegrethe Nielsen (jordemoderuddannelsen), Danmark – alle medlemmer af tEACH Baggrund European Association of Communication in Healthcare (EACH, www.each.eu) blev stiftet i 2001 som et fælles europæisk samarbejde omkring kommunikation på sundhedsområdet. Kommunikationsundervisning er...

  6. European Managers' Interpretations of Participation: A Semantic Network Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohl, Cynthia

    1993-01-01

    Explores cultural variations in managers' interpretations of a key communicative process: worker participation. Finds that semantic patterns derived from structural analyses indicate cultural differences in meanings managers from five European Community nations attach to the term "participation." Supports two of G. Hofstede's dimensions of…

  7. Pooling birth cohorts in allergy and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, Jean; Anto, Josep; Sunyer, Jordi;

    2013-01-01

    Long-term birth cohort studies are essential to understanding the life course and childhood predictors of allergy and the complex interplay between genes and the environment (including lifestyle and socioeconomic determinants). Over 100 cohorts focusing on asthma and allergy have been initiated in...... the world over the past 30 years. Since 2004, several research initiatives funded under the EU Framework Program for Research and Technological Development FP6-FP7 have attempted to identify, compare, and evaluate pooling data from existing European birth cohorts (GA(2)LEN: Global Allergy and European...... Network, FP6; ENRIECO: Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts, FP7; CHICOS: Developing a Child Cohort Research Strategy for Europe, FP7; MeDALL: Mechanisms of the Development of ALLergy, FP7). However, there is a general lack of knowledge about these initiatives and their potentials. The aim...

  8. European experience on air and water pollution control: monitoring network and warning station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aflalo, Sergio S. [Groupe Environnement S.A., Poissy (France)

    1993-12-31

    After a review of the energy consumption and pollutants emitted in the European Community, especially those concerning the `green house effect`, the author proceeded a summary of the actual legislation and Europeans directives, and also, the Best Available Technology for reducing air pollution is discussed. Original Air Quality monitoring networks performed by Environnement SA are described including measurements obtained around Paris and other areas of France. 7 refs., 11 figs.

  9. The European ALMA Regional Centre Network: A Geographically Distributed User Support Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatziminaoglou, E.; Zwaan, M.; Andreani, P.; Barta, M.; Bertoldi, F.; Brand, J.; Gueth, F.; Hogerheijde, M.; Maercker, M.; Massardi, M.; Muehle, S.; Muxlow, Th.; Richards, A.; Schilke, P.; Tilanus, R.; Vlemmings, W.; Afonso, J.; Messias, H.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years there has been a paradigm shift from centralised to geographically distributed resources. Individual entities are no longer able to host or afford the necessary expertise in-house, and, as a consequence, society increasingly relies on widespread collaborations. Although such collaborations are now the norm for scientific projects, more technical structures providing support to a distributed scientific community without direct financial or other material benefits are scarce. The network of European ALMA Regional Centre (ARC) nodes is an example of such an internationally distributed user support network. It is an organised effort to provide the European ALMA user community with uniform expert support to enable optimal usage and scientific output of the ALMA facility. The network model for the European ARC nodes is described in terms of its organisation, communication strategies and user support.

  10. The European ALMA Regional Centre Network: A Geographically Distributed User Support Model

    CERN Document Server

    Hatziminaoglou, Evanthia; Andreani, Paola; Barta, Miroslav; Bertoldi, Frank; Brand, Jan; Gueth, Frederique; Hogerheijde, Michiel; Maercker, Matthias; Massardi, Marcella; Muehle, Stefanie; Muxlow, Thomas; Richards, Anita; Schilke, Peter; Tilanus, Remo; Vlemmings, Wouter; Afonso, Jose; Messias, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    In recent years there has been a paradigm shift from centralised to geographically distributed resources. Individual entities are no longer able to host or afford the necessary expertise in-house, and, as a consequence, society increasingly relies on widespread collaborations. Although such collaborations are now the norm for scientific projects, more technical structures providing support to a distributed scientific community without direct financial or other material benefits are scarce. The network of European ALMA Regional Centre (ARC) nodes is an example of such an internationally distributed user support network. It is an organised effort to provide the European ALMA user community with uniform expert support to enable optimal usage and scientific output of the ALMA facility. The network model for the European ARC nodes is described in terms of its organisation, communication strategies and user support.

  11. [ECRIN (European clinical research infrastructures network), a pan-European infrastructure for clinical research].

    OpenAIRE

    Demotes-Mainard, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    International audience Clinical research plays a key role both in the development of innovative health products and in the optimisation of medical strategies, leading to evidence-based practice and healthcare cost containment. ECRIN is a distributed ESFRI-roadmap pan-European infrastructure designed to support multinational clinical research, making Europe a single area for clinical studies, taking advantage of its population size to access patients, and unlocking latent scientific providi...

  12. Contribution of European cooperative projects: NESC and other networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several institutions in Europe, including the Joint Research Centre (JRC) have capabilities to deal with several of the problems posed by the ageing of structural components and their structural integrity assessment. These institutions and the JRC have developed cooperative programmes now organised in Networks. They are utilities, engineering companies, R and D laboratories and Regulatory Bodies. Networks are organised and managed like the PISC programme: the Institute for Advanced Materials of JRC plays the role of Operating Agent and Manager of these Networks: ENIQ, AMES, NESC, each of them dealing with a specific aspect of fitness for purpose of materials in structural components. There is a good complementarity between these Networks and other working groups of the EC. (authors). 2 refs., 1 fig

  13. Advanced power converters for universal and flexible power management in future electricity network - Converter applications in future European electricity network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Blaabjerg, Frede

    The present report summarizes the work done in the Work Package 2 where the main goal is to provide essential data for the other workpackages in the UNIFLEX-PM project and determines in detail the performance requirements that will be placed upon power converters to make the Future European Elect...... Electricity Network a reality....

  14. Introduction to the EC's Marie Curie Initial Training Network (MC-ITN) project: Particle Training Network for European Radiotherapy (PARTNER)

    CERN Document Server

    Dosanjh, Manjit

    2013-01-01

    PARTNER (Particle Training Network for European Radiotherapy) is a project funded by the European Commission’s Marie Curie-ITN funding scheme through the ENLIGHT Platform for 5.6 million Euro. PARTNER has brought together academic institutes, research centres and leading European companies, focusing in particular on a specialized radiotherapy (RT) called hadron therapy (HT), interchangeably referred to as particle therapy (PT). The ultimate goal of HT is to deliver more effective treatment to cancer patients leading to major improvement in the health of citizens. In Europe, several hundred million Euro have been invested, since the beginning of this century, in PT. In this decade, the use of HT is rapidly growing across Europe, and there is an urgent need for qualified researchers from a range of disciplines to work on its translational research. In response to this need, the European community of HT, and in particular 10 leading academic institutes, research centres, companies and small and medium-sized en...

  15. Analyzing and modeling European R&D collaborations: Challenges and opportunities from a large social network

    CERN Document Server

    Barber, Michael J; Scherngell, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Networks have attracted a burst of attention in the last decade, with applications to natural, social, and technological systems. While networks provide a powerful abstraction for investigating relationships and interactions, the preparation and analysis of complex real-world networks nonetheless presents significant challenges. In particular social networks are characterized by a large number of different properties and generation mechanisms which require a rich set of indicators. The objective of the current study is to analyze large social networks with respect to their community structure and mechanisms of network formation. As a case study, we consider networks derived from the European Union's Framework Programs for Research and Technological Development using methods from statistical physics and economic geography.

  16. The community structure of the European network of interlocking directorates 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heemskerk, Eelke M; Daolio, Fabio; Tomassini, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The boards of directors at large European companies overlap with each other to a sizable extent both within and across national borders. This could have important economic, political and management consequences. In this work we study in detail the topological structure of the networks that arise from this phenomenon. Using a comprehensive information database, we reconstruct the implicit networks of shared directorates among the top 300 European firms in 2005 and 2010, and suggest a number of novel ways to explore the trans-nationality of such business elite networks. Powerful community detection heuristics indicate that geography still plays an important role: there exist clear communities and they have a distinct national character. Nonetheless, from 2005 to 2010 we observe a densification of the boards interlocks network and a larger transnational orientation in its communities. Together with central actors and assortativity analyses, we provide statistical evidence that, at the level of corporate governance, Europe is getting closer. PMID:23894318

  17. The community structure of the European network of interlocking directorates 2005-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eelke M Heemskerk

    Full Text Available The boards of directors at large European companies overlap with each other to a sizable extent both within and across national borders. This could have important economic, political and management consequences. In this work we study in detail the topological structure of the networks that arise from this phenomenon. Using a comprehensive information database, we reconstruct the implicit networks of shared directorates among the top 300 European firms in 2005 and 2010, and suggest a number of novel ways to explore the trans-nationality of such business elite networks. Powerful community detection heuristics indicate that geography still plays an important role: there exist clear communities and they have a distinct national character. Nonetheless, from 2005 to 2010 we observe a densification of the boards interlocks network and a larger transnational orientation in its communities. Together with central actors and assortativity analyses, we provide statistical evidence that, at the level of corporate governance, Europe is getting closer.

  18. Occupational Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Sheppard, Dean

    1982-01-01

    Bronchospasm is a common cause of morbidity in the workplace. More than 100 agents are now recognized as occupational causes of asthma and numerous agents can cause exacerbations of preexisting asthma. Because of the large number of potential causative agents and the complexity of modern industrial processes, knowledge of the characteristic clinical features of occupational asthma is the key to recognizing this disease. Early diagnosis of occupational asthma is important in preventing long-te...

  19. Central European MetEor NeTwork: Current status and future activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srba, J.; Koukal, J.; Ferus, M.; Lenža, L.; Gorková, S.; Civiš, S.; Simon, J.; Csorgei, T.; Jedlièka, M.; Korec, M.; Kaniansky, S.; Polák, J.; Spurný, M.; Brázdil, T.; Mäsiar, J.; Zima, M.; Delinèák, P.; Popek, M.; Bahýl, V.; Piffl, R.; Èechmánek, M.

    2016-06-01

    The Central European video Meteor Network (CEMeNt) established in 2010 is a platform for cross-border cooperation in the field of video meteor observations between Czech Republic and Slovakia. During five years of operation the CEMeNt network went through an extensive development. In total, 37 video systems were working on 20 permanent stations located in Czech Republic and Slovakia during 2015. In this paper we summarize CEMeNt current status and introduce some future activities.

  20. The persistent heterogeneity of trade patterns: A comparison of four European Automotive Global Production Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent FRIGANT (E3i-IFReDE-GRES); Zumpe, Martin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the structure and the evolution of international exchanges of auto parts over the 2000-2012 period for four European countries. The first part of our study reviews the literature and points out four stylized facts about the geography of automotive supply networks. In section 2 we propose an analysis of the organisation of automotive supply chains based on the global production networks framework. We give details about this approach by stating the nature of trade flow...

  1. ENEAS: the European Network of Excellence in AsteroSeismology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aerts, C.; Baglin, A.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Goupil, M.J.; Houdek, G.; Kjeldsen, H.; Kollath, Z.; Kurtz, D.; Lebreton, Y.; Maceroni, C.; Noels, A.; Schwarzenberg-Czerny, A.; Škoda, Petr; Solano, E.; Thompson, M.J.

    Noordwijk : ESA Publication division, 2004 - (Favata, F.; Aigrain, S.; Wilson, A.), s. 247-250 ISBN 92-9092-848-4. - (ESA - SP. 538). [Eddington Workshop /2./: Stellar structure and habitable planet finding. Palermo (IT), 09.04.2003-11.04.2003] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : asteroseismology * networking * internet collaboration Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  2. European surveillance network for influenza in pigs 3 (ESNIP 3)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reid, Scott M.; Simon, Gaëlle; Larsen, Lars Erik;

    and seeks to strengthen formal interactions with human and avian surveillance networks. Materials and Methods: The project consortium comprises 24 participants, contributing a variety of specialism’s and skills ensuring multi-disciplinary cutting-edge outputs. Most partners are actively working with...

  3. Trans-European networks - an initiative of the the European Community for the set up and expansion of the European energy infra structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The title XII 'Trans-Europeaan Networks' in the treaty of the European Community meant the beginning of a new initiative which is presently taking shape in Brussels. The EC-Commission attaches much political significance to the TEN-initiative. The author explains the suggestions of the Commission for the guidelines about TEN and for the creation of favourable marginal conditions or TEN. He also describes the tasks of the Cristophersen Group and the attitude of the Federal Government towards this subject. (orig.)

  4. Italian organisations within the European nanotechnology network: presence, dynamics and effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calignano, Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is an emerging interdisciplinary field that, according to the European Commission, represents one of the world’s new technological frontiers. Nanoscience and nanotechnology play a key role in European Union research policies; they have been included among the “seven priority thematic areas” of the Sixth Framework Programme and the “nine themes” of the Cooperation Programme of the Seventh Framework Programme. The purpose of this study is to assess the role of Italian organisations in the existing European nanotechnology innovation network and to illuminate several aspects of relational and geographical dynamics as well as the scientific and economic effects of these partnerships in Italy. Using an official document issued by the European Commission entitled “Mapping Portal for Nanotechnology Research” and adopting social network analysis techniques, statistics and qualitative interviews, it is determined that Italy plays a central role in the European nanotechnology network, that Italian organisations have tended to replicate satisfactory prior collaborations, that other factors have been more significant than geographical proximity in creating research groups and developing projects, and, finally, that scientific effects have been substantially more significant than economic effects at the national level.

  5. Occupational Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... working with laboratory animals or with powdered natural rubber latex gloves have developed occupational asthma. Occupational asthma can also occur in workers after repeated exposure to small chemical molecules in the ... plastics, rubber and foam. These chemicals can cause occupational asthma ...

  6. Infection control in the management of highly pathogenic infectious diseases: consensus of the European Network of Infectious Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouqui, Philippe; Puro, Vincenzo; Fusco, Francesco M;

    2009-01-01

    The European Network for Infectious Diseases (EUNID) is a network of clinicians, public health epidemiologists, microbiologists, infection control, and critical-care doctors from the European member states, who are experienced in the management of patients with highly infectious diseases. We aim...

  7. Towards the creation of a European Network of Earth Observation Networks within GEO. The ConnectinGEO project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masó, Joan; Serral, Ivette; Menard, Lionel; Wald, Lucien; Nativi, Stefano; Plag, Hans-Peter; Jules-Plag, Shelley; Nüst, Daniel; Jirka, Simon; Pearlman, Jay; De Maziere, Martine

    2015-04-01

    ConnectinGEO (Coordinating an Observation Network of Networks EnCompassing saTellite and IN-situ to fill the Gaps in European Observations" is a new H2020 Coordination and Support Action with the primary goal of linking existing Earth Observation networks with science and technology (S&T) communities, the industry sector, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO), and Copernicus. ConnectinGEO aims to facilitate a broader and more accessible knowledge base to support the needs of GEO, its Societal Benefit Areas (SBAs) and the users of the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS). A broad range of subjects from climate, natural resources and raw materials, to the emerging UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) will be addressed. The project will generate a prioritized list of critical gaps within available observation data and models to translate observations into practice-relevant knowledge, based on stakeholder consultation and systematic analysis. Ultimately, it will increase coherency of European observation networks, increase the use of Earth observations for assessments and forecasts and inform the planning for future observation systems. ConnectinGEO will initiate a European Network of Earth Observation Networks (ENEON) that will encompass space-based, airborne and in-situ observations networks. ENEON will be composed by project partners representing thematic observation networks along with the GEOSS Science and Technology Stakeholder Network, GEO Communities of Practices, Copernicus services, Sentinel missions and in-situ support data representatives, representatives of the space-based, airborne and in-situ observations European networks (e.g. EPOS, EMSO and GROOM, etc), representatives of the industry sector and European and national funding agencies, in particular those participating in the future ERA-PlaNET. At the beginning, the ENEON will be created and managed by the project. Then the management will be transferred to the network itself to ensure

  8. The European Network of Analytical and Experimental Laboratories for Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freda, Carmela; Funiciello, Francesca; Meredith, Phil; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Troll, Valentin R.; Willingshofer, Ernst

    2013-04-01

    Integrating Earth Sciences infrastructures in Europe is the mission of the European Plate Observing System (EPOS).The integration of European analytical, experimental, and analogue laboratories plays a key role in this context and is the task of the EPOS Working Group 6 (WG6). Despite the presence in Europe of high performance infrastructures dedicated to geosciences, there is still limited collaboration in sharing facilities and best practices. The EPOS WG6 aims to overcome this limitation by pushing towards national and trans-national coordination, efficient use of current laboratory infrastructures, and future aggregation of facilities not yet included. This will be attained through the creation of common access and interoperability policies to foster and simplify personnel mobility. The EPOS ambition is to orchestrate European laboratory infrastructures with diverse, complementary tasks and competences into a single, but geographically distributed, infrastructure for rock physics, palaeomagnetism, analytical and experimental petrology and volcanology, and tectonic modeling. The WG6 is presently organizing its thematic core services within the EPOS distributed research infrastructure with the goal of joining the other EPOS communities (geologists, seismologists, volcanologists, etc...) and stakeholders (engineers, risk managers and other geosciences investigators) to: 1) develop tools and services to enhance visitor programs that will mutually benefit visitors and hosts (transnational access); 2) improve support and training activities to make facilities equally accessible to students, young researchers, and experienced users (training and dissemination); 3) collaborate in sharing technological and scientific know-how (transfer of knowledge); 4) optimize interoperability of distributed instrumentation by standardizing data collection, archive, and quality control standards (data preservation and interoperability); 5) implement a unified e-Infrastructure for data

  9. Introduction to the EC's marie curie initial training network (MC-ITN) project. Particle training network for European radiotherapy (PARTNER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PARTNER (Particle Training Network for European Radiotherapy) is a project funded by the European Commission's Marie Curie-ITN funding scheme through the ENLIGHT Platform for 5.6 million Euro. PARTNER has brought together academic institutes, research centres and leading European companies, focusing in particular on a specialized radiotherapy (RT) called hadron therapy (HT), interchangeably referred to as particle therapy (PT). The ultimate goal of HT is to deliver more effective treatment to cancer patients leading to major improvement in the health of citizens. In Europe, several hundred million Euro have been invested, since the beginning of this century, in PT. In this decade, the use of HT is rapidly growing across Europe, and there is an urgent need for qualified researchers from a range of disciplines to work on its translational research. In response to this need, the European community of HT, and in particular 10 leading academic institutes, research centres, companies and small and medium-sized enterprises, joined together to form the PARTNER consortium. All partners have international reputations in the diverse but complementary fields associated with PT: clinical, radiobiological and technological. Thus the network incorporates a unique set of competencies, expertise, infrastructures and training possibilities. This paper describes the status and needs of PT research in Europe, the importance of and challenges associated with the creation of a training network, the objectives, the initial results, and the expected long-term benefits of the PARTNER initiative. (author)

  10. Trade integration and trade imbalances in the European Union: a network perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Krings, Gautier M; Delvenne, Jean-Charles

    2013-01-01

    We study the ever more integrated and ever more unbalanced trade relationships between European countries. To better capture the complexity of economic networks, we propose two global measures that assess the trade integration and the trade imbalances of the European countries. These measures are the network (or indirect) counterparts to traditional (or direct) measures such as the trade-to-GDP (Gross Domestic Product) and trade deficit-to-GDP ratios. Our indirect tools account for the European inter-country trade structure and follow (i) a decomposition of the global trade flow into elementary flows that highlight the long-range dependencies between exporting and importing economies and (ii) the commute-time distance for trade integration,which measures the impact of a perturbation in the economy of a country on another country, possibly through intermediate partners by domino effect. Our application addresses the impact of the launch of the Euro. We find that the indirect imbalance measures better identify ...

  11. Expertise, Networks and Indicators: The Construction of the European Strategy in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand, Romuald

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the networks of experts involved in the fabrication of indicators and benchmarks supporting the Open Method of Coordination led by the European Commission. In studying international expertise, it explores the policy borrowing process and the transfer of knowledge between several agents and institutions at global level. Our…

  12. The City in Supranational and Regional Networks - The Central European Experience

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uherek, Zdeněk

    Praha, 1993 - (Uherek, Z.), s. 5-18 ISBN 80-85010-73-9. - (Prague Occasional Papers in Ethnology.. 2). [The Conference of the European Association of Social Anthropologists; Workshop; The Town in Supranational and Regional Networks /2./. Praha (CR), 30.08.1993-31.08.1993

  13. Innovation in European Vocational Education and Training: Network Learning in England, Finland and Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkila, Eila

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a comparative study of innovation in vocational education and training (VET) in three innovative European countries: England, Finland and Germany. The focus is on innovation emerging from VET practitioners' (directors, teachers, project coordinators, etc.) participation in inter-organisational networks with local,…

  14. Towards a concerted action for a European network of e-print servers

    OpenAIRE

    Dekeyser, Raf

    2001-01-01

    The author presents a communication where we can find some questions about European network of e-print servers like: Do we need a co-ordinating organisation?, How is the situation in the U.S.A.?, What do we have in Europe? and some solutions for its development.

  15. The Second Workshop of the European Network for Work Information (ENWI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borlund, Pia; Mandl, Thomas; Womser-Hacker, Christa

    2013-01-01

    The second workshop of ENWI was held in Malmö, Sweden, June 12-13, 2013. ENWI is the European Network for Work Information which intends to establish a group of researchers who share a common interest in the study of workplace information practices. The better understanding of people and their ta...

  16. Trans-European transport networks influence on the regional development and urban systems: Serbian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksin-Mićić Marija

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The trans-European transport network has different effects at macro regional mezzo-regional and micro-regional level, and its effectiveness rises with the lower regional levels. Possible approaches to the trans-European transport network impact and effect survey and policy options have been pointed out. The importance of increased accessibility and mobility for regional expansion and for a more balanced and polycentric system of city networks has been underlined. Changes in the spatial organization utilization and structure of cities, as well as in social benefits and losses subsequent to impacts of trans-European transport corridor "X" section Belgrade-Niš have been analyzed. The new trans-European or major transport infrastructure does not per se create regional and urban system network development, although it can affect the conditions for the processes that create growth and development. The effects can be increased by co-ordination of measures of regional, spatial and urban policy, land use transport, environmental and other policies. The necessary measure is the introduction of spatial impact assessment as sartorial policy instrument for the large transport infrastructure plans and projects.

  17. Report of the European Myeloma Network on multiparametric flow cytometry in multiple myeloma and related disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rawstron, Andy C.; Orfao, Alberto; Beksac, Meral; Bezdickova, Ludmila; Broolmans, Rik A.; Bumbea, Horia; Dalva, Klara; Fuhler, Gwenny; Gratama, Jan; Hose, Dirk; Kovarova, Lucie; Lioznov, Michael; Mateo, Gema; Morilla, Ricardo; Mylin, Anne K.; Omede, Paola; Pellat-Deceunynck, Catherine; Andres, Martin Perez; Petrucci, Maria; Ruggeri, Marina; Rymkiewicz, Grzegorz; Schmitz, Alexander; Schreder, Martin; Seynaeve, Carine; Spacek, Martin; de Tute, Ruth M.; Van Valckenborgh, Els; Weston-Bell, Nicky; Owen, Roger G.; Miguel, Jesus F. San; Sonneveld, Pieter; Johnsen, Hans E.

    2008-01-01

    The European Myeloma Network (EMN) organized two flow cytometry workshops. The first aimed to identify specific indications for flow cytometry in patients with monoclonal gammopathies, and consensus technical approaches through a questionnaire-based review of current practice in participating labora

  18. Report of the European Myeloma Network on multiparametric flow cytometry in multiple myeloma and related disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rawstron, Andy C; Orfao, Alberto; Beksac, Meral;

    2008-01-01

    The European Myeloma Network (EMN) organized two flow cytometry workshops. The first aimed to identify specific indications for flow cytometry in patients with monoclonal gammopathies, and consensus technical approaches through a questionnaire-based review of current practice in participating lab...

  19. Report of the European Myeloma Network on multiparametric flow cytometry in multiple myeloma and related disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Rawstron; A. Orfao (Alberto); M. Beksaç (Meral); L. Bezdickova (Ludmila); R.A. Brooimans (Rik); H. Bumbea (Horia); K. Dalva (Klara); G.M. Fuhler (Gwenny); J.W. Gratama (Jan-Willem); D. Hose (Dirk); L. Kovarova (Lucie); M. Lioznov (Michael); G. Mateo (Gema); R. Morilla (Ricardo); A.K. Mylin (Anne); P. Omedé (Paola); C. Pellat-Deceunynck (Catherine); M.P. Andres; M. Petrucci (Maria); M. Ruggeri (Marina); G. Rymkiewicz (Grzegorz); A. Schmitz; M. Schreder (Martin); C.M. Seynaeve (Caroline); M. Spacek (Martin); R.M. de Tute (Ruth); E. van Valckenborgh (Els); N. Weston-Bell (Nicky); R.G. Owen (Roger); J.F. San Miguel (Jesús Fernando); P. Sonneveld (Pieter); H.E. Johnsen (Hans)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe European Myeloma Network (EMN) organized two flow cytometry workshops. The first aimed to identify specific indications for flow cytometry in patients with monoclonal gammopathies, and consensus technical approaches through a questionnaire-based review of current practice in particip

  20. Wavelet Neural Networks Prediction of Central European Stock Markets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vácha, Lukáš; Baruník, Jozef

    Bratislava : University of Economics in Bratislava, 2008, s. 291-297 ISBN 978-80-8078-217-7. [Quantitative Methods in Economics: Multiplie Criteria Decision Making XIV. Tatranská Lomnica (SK), 05.07.2008-07.07.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GP402/08/P207; GA ČR(CZ) GA402/06/1417 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : neural networks * hard threshold denoising * wavelets Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  1. European health telematics networks for positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pilot network of positron emission tomography centers across Europe has been setup employing telemedicine services. The primary aim is to bring all PET centers in Europe (and beyond) closer, by integrating advanced medical imaging technology and health telematics networks applications into a single, easy to operate health telematics platform, which allows secure transmission of medical data via a variety of telecommunications channels and fosters the cooperation between professionals in the field. The platform runs on PCs with Windows 2000/XP and incorporates advanced techniques for image visualization, analysis and fusion. The communication between two connected workstations is based on a TCP/IP connection secured by secure socket layers and virtual private network or jabber protocols. A teleconsultation can be online (with both physicians physically present) or offline (via transmission of messages which contain image data and other information). An interface sharing protocol enables online teleconsultations even over low bandwidth connections. This initiative promotes the cooperation and improved communication between nuclear medicine professionals, offering options for second opinion and training. It permits physicians to remotely consult patient data, even if they are away from the physical examination site

  2. European health telematics networks for positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kontaxakis, George [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Madrid 28040 (Spain)]. E-mail: g.kontaxakis@upm.es; Pozo, Miguel Angel [Centro PET Complutense, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Instituto Pluridisciplinar, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Ohl, Roland [MedCom Gesellschaft fuer medizinische Bildverarbeitung mbH, Darmstadt 64283 (Germany); Visvikis, Dimitris [U650 INSERM, Lab. du Traitement de L' Information Medicale, University of Brest Occidentale, CHU Morvan, Brest 29609 (France); Sachpazidis, Ilias [Fraunhofer Institute for Computer Graphics, Darmstadt 64283 (Germany); Ortega, Fernando [Fundacion Instituto Valenciano de Oncologia, Valencia 46009 (Spain); Guerra, Pedro [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Cheze-Le Rest, Catherine [Dept. Medicine Nucleaire, CHU Morvan, Brest 29609 (France); Selby, Peter [MedCom Gesellschaft fuer medizinische Bildverarbeitung mbH, Darmstadt 64283 (Germany); Pan, Leyun [German Cancer Research Centre, Clinical Cooperation Unit Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg 69120 (Germany); Diaz, Javier [Fundacion Instituto Valenciano de Oncologia, Valencia 46009 (Spain); Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, Antonia [German Cancer Research Centre, Clinical Cooperation Unit Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg 69120 (Germany); Santos, Andres [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Strauss, Ludwig [German Cancer Research Centre, Clinical Cooperation Unit Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg 69120 (Germany); Sakas, Georgios [MedCom Gesellschaft fuer medizinische Bildverarbeitung mbH, Darmstadt 64283 (Germany); Fraunhofer Institute for Computer Graphics, Darmstadt 64283 (Germany)

    2006-12-20

    A pilot network of positron emission tomography centers across Europe has been setup employing telemedicine services. The primary aim is to bring all PET centers in Europe (and beyond) closer, by integrating advanced medical imaging technology and health telematics networks applications into a single, easy to operate health telematics platform, which allows secure transmission of medical data via a variety of telecommunications channels and fosters the cooperation between professionals in the field. The platform runs on PCs with Windows 2000/XP and incorporates advanced techniques for image visualization, analysis and fusion. The communication between two connected workstations is based on a TCP/IP connection secured by secure socket layers and virtual private network or jabber protocols. A teleconsultation can be online (with both physicians physically present) or offline (via transmission of messages which contain image data and other information). An interface sharing protocol enables online teleconsultations even over low bandwidth connections. This initiative promotes the cooperation and improved communication between nuclear medicine professionals, offering options for second opinion and training. It permits physicians to remotely consult patient data, even if they are away from the physical examination site.

  3. European health telematics networks for positron emission tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontaxakis, George; Pozo, Miguel Angel; Ohl, Roland; Visvikis, Dimitris; Sachpazidis, Ilias; Ortega, Fernando; Guerra, Pedro; Cheze-Le Rest, Catherine; Selby, Peter; Pan, Leyun; Diaz, Javier; Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, Antonia; Santos, Andres; Strauss, Ludwig; Sakas, Georgios

    2006-12-01

    A pilot network of positron emission tomography centers across Europe has been setup employing telemedicine services. The primary aim is to bring all PET centers in Europe (and beyond) closer, by integrating advanced medical imaging technology and health telematics networks applications into a single, easy to operate health telematics platform, which allows secure transmission of medical data via a variety of telecommunications channels and fosters the cooperation between professionals in the field. The platform runs on PCs with Windows 2000/XP and incorporates advanced techniques for image visualization, analysis and fusion. The communication between two connected workstations is based on a TCP/IP connection secured by secure socket layers and virtual private network or jabber protocols. A teleconsultation can be online (with both physicians physically present) or offline (via transmission of messages which contain image data and other information). An interface sharing protocol enables online teleconsultations even over low bandwidth connections. This initiative promotes the cooperation and improved communication between nuclear medicine professionals, offering options for second opinion and training. It permits physicians to remotely consult patient data, even if they are away from the physical examination site.

  4. The European VLF/LF Radio Network: the current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagi, Pier Francesco; Maggipinto, Tommaso; Schiavulli, Luigi; Ligonzo, Teresa; Colella, Roberto; Ermini, Anita; Martinelli, Giovanni; Palangio, Paolo; Moldovan, Iren; Silva, Hugo; Contadakis, Michael; Frantzis, Xenophon; Katzis, Konstantinos; Buyuksarac, Aydin; D'Amico, Sebastiano

    2014-05-01

    Since 2009 a network of VLF (20-60 kHz) and LF (150-300 kHz) radio receivers has been put into operation in Europe in order to study earthquakes precursors. At the moment the network consists of eleven receivers four of which are located in Italy, two in Greece and one in Portugal, Romania, Malta, Cyprus and Turkey. The data (sampling rate of 1min) are downloaded automatically at the end of each day and they are stored in the server located at the Department of Physics of the University of Bari (Italy), that is the central node of the network. Still, in some case, problems of connection exist. The different trends are open and visible on the web site: http://beta.fisica.uniba.it/infrep/Hom.aspx. The data files can be downloaded by the same web site but they are protected by username and password. Among the different methods of data analysis the Wavelet spectra appear to be the most sensitive ones. The software able to apply this technique on the radio data automatically at the end of each day has been planned and realized. At the moment it operates on four signals collected by one of the Italian receivers; if an anomaly stands up and it is over a fixed threshold a warning advise appears. In the web site, this activity is protected by a specific username and password.

  5. European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs: Surveillance Programs, Diagnostic Tools and Swine Influenza Virus Subtypes Identified in 14 European Countries from 2010 to 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, Gaelle; Larsen, Lars Erik; Duerrwald, Ralf;

    2014-01-01

    Swine influenza causes concern for global veterinary and public health officials. In continuing two previous networks that initiated the surveillance of swine influenza viruses (SIVs) circulating in European pigs between 2001 and 2008, a third European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs...... (ESNIP3, 2010-2013) aimed to expand widely the knowledge of the epidemiology of European SIVs. ESNIP3 stimulated programs of harmonized SIV surveillance in European countries and supported the coordination of appropriate diagnostic tools and subtyping methods. Thus, an extensive virological monitoring......, mainly conducted through passive surveillance programs, resulted in the examination of more than 9 000 herds in 17 countries. Influenza A viruses were detected in 31% of herds examined from which 1887 viruses were preliminary characterized. The dominating subtypes were the three European enzootic SIVs...

  6. Data networking for the European academic and research community is it important?

    CERN Document Server

    Carpenter, B E

    1992-01-01

    Spectacular developments in computer network technology and applications are imminent, but European research and industry are unprepared for them. The gigabit testbeds and the NREN plans in the USA and technology developments in Japan are a clear challenge. Europe has a complex pattern of national and international research networks which provide valuable services for their existing users. Evolution of these networks is hindered by a variety of regulatory, political, economic, and technical barriers to progress, especially the lack of political focus and the small scale of industrial involvement. This paper analyses the situation and makes recommendations for the way forward.

  7. Target species - species of European concern; a database driven selection of plant and animal species for the implementation of the Pan European Ecological Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozinga, W.A.; Heer, de M.; Hennekens, S.M.; Opstal, van A.J.F.M.; Schaminée, J.H.J.; Sierdsema, H.; Smits, N.A.C.; Stumpel, A.H.P.; Swaay, van C.

    2005-01-01

    The concept of ecological networks is becoming increasingly important in both policies and practices of nature conservation throughout Europe. The establishment of the Pan Ecological European Network (PEEN) can be seen as one of the priority issues for nature conservation. For the establishment of s

  8. Artificial neural network approach for selection of susceptible single nucleotide polymorphisms and construction of prediction model on childhood allergic asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobayashi Takeshi

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening of various gene markers such as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP and correlation between these markers and development of multifactorial disease have previously been studied. Here, we propose a susceptible marker-selectable artificial neural network (ANN for predicting development of allergic disease. Results To predict development of childhood allergic asthma (CAA and select susceptible SNPs, we used an ANN with a parameter decreasing method (PDM to analyze 25 SNPs of 17 genes in 344 Japanese people, and select 10 susceptible SNPs of CAA. The accuracy of the ANN model with 10 SNPs was 97.7% for learning data and 74.4% for evaluation data. Important combinations were determined by effective combination value (ECV defined in the present paper. Effective 2-SNP or 3-SNP combinations were found to be concentrated among the 10 selected SNPs. Conclusion ANN can reliably select SNP combinations that are associated with CAA. Thus, the ANN can be used to characterize development of complex diseases caused by multiple factors. This is the first report of automatic selection of SNPs related to development of multifactorial disease from SNP data of more than 300 patients.

  9. Trade integration and trade imbalances in the European Union: a network perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautier M Krings

    Full Text Available We study the ever more integrated and ever more unbalanced trade relationships between European countries. To better capture the complexity of economic networks, we propose two global measures that assess the trade integration and the trade imbalances of the European countries. These measures are the network (or indirect counterparts to traditional (or direct measures such as the trade-to-GDP (Gross Domestic Product and trade deficit-to-GDP ratios. Our indirect tools account for the European inter-country trade structure and follow (i a decomposition of the global trade flow into elementary flows that highlight the long-range dependencies between exporting and importing economies and (ii the commute-time distance for trade integration, which measures the impact of a perturbation in the economy of a country on another country, possibly through intermediate partners by domino effect. Our application addresses the impact of the launch of the Euro. We find that the indirect imbalance measures better identify the countries ultimately bearing deficits and surpluses, by neutralizing the impact of trade transit countries, such as the Netherlands. Among others, we find that ultimate surpluses of Germany are quite concentrated in only three partners. We also show that for some countries, the direct and indirect measures of trade integration diverge, thereby revealing that these countries (e.g. Greece and Portugal trade to a smaller extent with countries considered as central in the European Union network.

  10. Mapping Judicial Dialogue across National Borders: An Exploratory Network Study of Learning from Lobbying among European Intellectual Property Judges

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Lazega

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at dialogue and collective learning across borders through personal networks of judges. We focus on judges participating in the Venice Forum, bringing together European patent judges involved in institutional lobbying for the construction of a European Patent Court. Empirical observation shows that personal networks of discussion with foreign judges, reading of their work and references to their decisions do exist in this milieu and can be mapped. Our network study shows that...

  11. JERICO: a Joint European Research Infrastructure network for Coastal Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puillat, I.; Sparnocchia, S.; Bozzano, R.; Coppola, L.; Petihakis, G.; Ntoumas, M.; Lefevre, D.; Caballero, A.; Beguery, L.; Testor, P.

    2013-12-01

    Existing coastal observatories in European waters are composed of platforms such as moored buoys, piles, profiling systems, gliders, ';ferryboxes' and automated systems on board of ships of opportunity. JERICO project strives to integrate existing infrastructures and provides a platform for the identification and dissemination of best practices for the design, implementation, operation and maintenance of observing systems and the dissemination of data. In order to reach these objectives several kinds of actions are undertaken, amongst which the offer of Trans-National Access (TNA) to a number of coastal observatories and calibration facilities for international research and technology development. This presentation will give a short overview of the selected TNA proposals and a focus will be drawn on some of the TNA results. Calibrating sensors regularly is the prime requirement for getting reliable data from coastal observatories and ensuring their long-term relevance as viable providers of information on the marine environment. The calibration facilities at the HCMR complex in Crete hosted users for calibration experiments. The first one was accessed by a HCMR team to improve their experience in calibrating high-quality oceanographic temperature sensors using primary ITS-90 reference standards. The experiment involved full calibrations of two SBE 35 thermometers from Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc. owned by the HCMR that will be used as reference sensors for temperature measurements in their calibration laboratory in Crete. Gliders make oceanographic measurements traditionally collected by research vessels or moored instruments, but at a fraction of the costs. The GESEBB glider Mission started in July 2013, in the southeastern Bay of Biscay. The objective of the mission is sampling the characteristics of a mesoscale eddy that appears in the southeastern Bay of Biscay, during spring and summer. The origin of this structure is associated with the strength and extension

  12. Local food in European supply chains: reconnection and electronic networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Holt

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Après une présentation du marché des produits locaux/localisés en Grande Bretagne, ainsi qu’une définition du concept en fonction des circuits de distribution courts, de l’agriculture biologique et du commerce équitable, cet article se fonde sur des études de cas, issus de projets de recherche européens, pour identifier des différents types de réseaux concernés par les concept de produit locaux durables. Les habitudes historiques concernant l’achat des produits alimentaires jouent ici un rôle central et l’article observe l’équilibre entre les composants historiques, sociaux et environnementaux des produits locaux/localisés. A partir de ces terrains de recherche et de ces expériences il s’est avéré possible de déterminer différentes compréhensions de « produits locaux » en relation avec le concept de « distance alimentaire/ food miles ». En se référant à six cas donnés, cet article souligne l’importance des systèmes localisés en matière de durabilité alimentaire, et met en valeur le poids des qualités humaines et sociales dans la balance commerciale.After giving an overview of the market for local food in the UK, as well as a definition of the concept in relation to short supply chains, organic agriculture and fair trade, the article draws on cases encountered through EC-funded research and networking to identify different types of network concerned with the concept of sustaining local food. Historical uses of shopping habits play here a central role and the article observes the balance between historical, social and environmental components of local food. From these researches and experiences, it has been possible to demonstrate a range of understandings in relation to the concept of ‘food miles’. With reference to six cases, the article underlines the importance of local food systems within food sustainability, and highlights the weight of human and social qualities in the market balance.

  13. Practical approach to data collection in a European dialysis network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ Collection of Dialysis Treatment Data and Patient-Related Information in a Single Dialysis Unit State-of-the-art dialysis machines are capable of automatically collecting huge volumes of dialysis treatment data (blood and dialysate flow rates, venous and arterial pressures, ultrafiltration rate, ultrafiltration volume, transmembrane pressure, conductivity, etc.) and displaying the information on the monitor screen. Commercially available software allows this information to be exported to a clinical database on a server through a local network in the clinic, enabling healthcare professionals to further process, display, and evaluate the data. Moreover, on-line sensors can be used to monitor patient-related information, e.g.effective ionic dialysance as a marker of urea clearance[1-3], urea removal and additional parameters(e.g. whole-body Kt/V) based on dialysate urea measurements[4,5], and blood volume changes[6]. Although many of these sensors are available in dialysis machines, their clinical value in routine dialysis is still subject to debate[7].

  14. Occupational Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    SF Voelter-Mahlknecht

    2011-01-01

    Occupational asthma is defined as “a disease of variable airflow limitations and/or airway hyper-responsiveness due to causes and conditions attributable to a particular occupational environment and not stimuli that are being encountered outside the workplace.” An analysis of general population-based studies published up to 2007 showed that 17.6% of all adultonset asthma is due to workplace exposures. In this article, Different aspects of occupational asthma are briefly reviewed.

  15. INTERGEO - Central/East European Collaboration Network on direct application of geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovski, K. [Central/East European Collaboration Network on Direct Application of Geothermal Energy, Bitola (Yugoslavia); Arpasi, M. [International Geothermal Association - European Branch, Budapest (Hungary)

    1997-12-01

    A proposal for organisation of a Network to be known as INTERGEO is presented, which should extend and reinforce the cooperation for the development of the direct application of geothermal energy between the developed EC countries and the ones of the so called Central/East European region. Unter the term `developed countries` for this particular energy source utilisation mainly Italy, France and Germany should be understood. The Central/East European region consists the following countries: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Belarus, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lituania, Macedonia, Moldova, Poland, Roumania, Slovenia, Slovakia, Turkey, Ukraine and Yugoslavia. The idea itself, the need and possibilities for organisation, possible plan of action and expected benefits for the EC and Central/East European countries are elaborated in order to come to the conclusions for the proposal justifiableness and feasibility for realisation. (orig.)

  16. Does the European eddy flux tower network represent the climatic and ecophysiological diversity of Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfora, E.; Papale, D.; Luyssaert, S.; Sulkava, M.

    2009-04-01

    In analyzing the increase of greenhouse gas concentration in terrestrial atmosphere, the studies about the role of vegetation in the carbon exchange regulation are relevant. In this respect, a network using the eddy covariance technique to measure CO2 and H2O exchanges between terrestrial ecosystems and atmosphere, has been established. When the network was established, 16 towers all located in forest ecosystems were maintained. In the past 15 years, the network grew and the current Carboeurope-IP monitoring network consists of more than 100 flux towers (www.carboaurope.org) located all over Europe aiming to represent the diversified of geographic regions, climatic and vegetation characteristics (Plant Functional Types). Because the growth of the network was driven by funding and administrative issues rather than scientific needs, we evaluated, in retrospective, the representativeness of the current network based on climatic and ecophysiological characteristics of the sites and the European territory. We used a cluster approach based on the distance matrix of Self Organizing Maps (SOM) (Kohonen 2001), where the SOM was trained with 21 variables describing main meteorological and productivity characteristics and their inter-annual and seasonal variability of the European territory. A separate SOM was trained for each PFT and the representativeness of eddy towers sites has been evaluated on the basis of their positions on the SOM clusters map (i.e. the 21-D variable-space). The main underlying assumption was that the number of clusters within each PFT was similar to the current number of towers. The analysis showed that the current network is representing the European domain quite well in respect to the variables considered, although North-Eastern and South-Eastern climatic and ecosphysiological conditions are poorly sampled for several PFT. The same approach was used to propose a new tower arrangement that maximizes the network representativeness. Further, our

  17. The European General Practice Research Network Presents the Translations of Its Comprehensive Definition of Multimorbidity in Family Medicine in Ten European Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Jean Yves Le Reste; Patrice Nabbe; Charles Rivet; Charilaos Lygidakis; Christa Doerr; Slawomir Czachowski; Heidrun Lingner; Stella Argyriadou; Djurdjica Lazic; Radost Assenova; Melida Hasaganic; Miquel Angel Munoz; Hans Thulesius; Bernard Le Floch; Jeremy Derriennic

    2015-01-01

    Background Multimorbidity, according to the World Health Organization, exists when there are two or more chronic conditions in one patient. This definition seems inaccurate for the holistic approach to Family Medicine (FM) and long-term care. To avoid this pitfall the European General Practitioners Research Network (EGPRN) designed a comprehensive definition of multimorbidity using a systematic literature review. Objective To translate that English definition into European languages and to va...

  18. European Academic Cooperation for Landscape Architecture Education. The European Council of Landscape Architecture Schools and the LE:NOTRE thematic network project

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Bell; Ellen Fetzer

    2015-01-01

    ECLAS, the European Council of Landscape Architecture Schools, exists to foster and develop scholarship in landscape architecture throughout Europe by strengthening contacts and enriching the dialogue between members of the Europe's landscape academic community and by representing the interests of this community within the wider European social and institutional context. The council has organised an EU-funded thematic network project, LE:NOTRE, since 2002 which is currently being transformed ...

  19. Environmental engineering and pollution prevention. European network of excellence and partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary purpose of the workshop was to present and discuss the main goals, contents, projects, partners, and implications of a proposed non-profit European Research Network, which aims at establishing research nodes at key locations in European NATO and CP countries. All projects are directed to solutions for the heavily polluted 'Black Triangle' Bohemia, Saxony, and Silesia, which was selected as a nucleus for the network because of its geographical location and cross-border environmental problems. Papers are presented under the following subject headings: disarmament; environment; human resources; high technology; and health. They include papers on soil remediation at manufactured gas plants, and power generation in the Czech Republic and its contribution to air pollution prevention in Central Europe

  20. Network of European regions using space technologies an update on the NEREUS constitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Marianna; Campostrini, Pierpaolo

    2010-01-01

    The EU and ESA space research and development programmes give a consolidated model for international cooperation. They represent a good framework to develop and enhance different initiatives at global, regional and local level. The impact of space activities covers different areas of interest such as: the development of Earth observation applications for environment monitoring and risk prevention and management, the development of satellite communications and information systems, the exploitation of global satellite positioning and navigation systems, the knowledge of the Universe, the utilisation of ground segment engineering. These activities involve also the regional and local governments. This is particularly evident if we look at the competences of the European regional governments. Several European regions deal with a number of issues in areas linked to space activities. In line with these reflections a number of European regional governments supported by the Committee of the Regions launched the idea to create a Network of European Regions Using Space technologies—NEREUS. This Network is an International non-profit association (AISBL— Association International Sans But Lucratif) under Belgian law. The aim of this paper is to review the course of the initiative since its launch in April 2006, giving an update of the work done for its constitution.

  1. Current activities and challenges of the European network for inspection and qualification (ENIQ)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Oliver [European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Petten (Netherlands). Institute for Energy and Transport (IET); Martin, Etienne [EDF, St Denis (France). Direction Production Ingenierie; Booler, Russ [AMEC Clean Energy Europe, Warrington (United Kingdom); Zetterwall, Tommy [Swedish Qualification Centre, Taeby (Sweden); Walker, Tony [Rolls-Royce Submarines, Derby (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-15

    This article describes the development of the European Network for Inspection and Qualification (ENIQ) since the previous presentation of the network in the 2011 April/May edition of this journal, covering mainly the new technical challenges facing the network and resulting projects as well as the establishment of the new Task Group for Inspection Qualification Bodies. ENIQ is a utility-driven network dealing with the reliability and effectiveness of non-destructive testing (NDT) for nuclear power plants (NPP). ENIQ is recognised as one of the main contributors to today's global qualification codes and guidelines for in-service inspection (ISI) and has published nearly 50 documents. Among them are the 'European Methodology for Qualification of Non-Destructive Testing', the first qualification methodology based on technical justifications, the 'European Framework Document for Risk-Informed In-Service Inspection (RI-ISI)', and various recommend practices. In addition ENIQ has carried out two pilot studies and a number of surveys. In 2012, ENIQ joined the European based R and D association on Gen II and III reactors, NUGENIA, making ENIQ its 8{sup th} technical area. Following the entry into NUGENIA, ENIQ members have updated the ENIQ roadmap and included a number of new technical challenges facing its members in the near future. Also ENIQ established a third task group in 2013, the Task Group for Inspection Qualification Bodies (TGIQB), which should serve as an exchange forum for inspection qualification bodies. ENIQ is currently preparing or performing new projects and studies to tackle these challenges and new recommended practices and reports are likely to evolve from these projects, which will enable ENIQ to maintain its role as one of the main contributors to today's global qualification codes and guidelines for ISI.

  2. European Myeloma Network recommendations on the evaluation and treatment of newly diagnosed patients with multiple myeloma

    OpenAIRE

    Engelhardt, Monika; Terpos, Evangelos; Kleber, Martina; Gay, Francesca; Wäsch, Ralph; Morgan, Gareth; Cavo, Michele; van de Donk, Niels; Beilhack, Andreas; Bruno, Benedetto; Johnsen, Hans Erik; Hajek, Roman; Driessen, Christoph; Ludwig, Heinz; Beksac, Meral

    2014-01-01

    Multiple myeloma management has undergone profound changes in the past thanks to advances in our understanding of the disease biology and improvements in treatment and supportive care approaches. This article presents recommendations of the European Myeloma Network for newly diagnosed patients based on the GRADE system for level of evidence. All patients with symptomatic disease should undergo risk stratification to classify patients for International Staging System stage (level of evidence: ...

  3. Facilitating assessments of alien invasions in the Mediterranean: the European Alien Species Information Network (EASIN)

    OpenAIRE

    KATSANEVAKIS STYLIANOS MARIOS; SUMARES DA CRUZ NUNES ANA LUISA; TROMBETTI MARCO; DERIU IVAN; Cardoso, Ana

    2013-01-01

    The European Alien Species Information Network (EASIN) provides tools and services for the exploration of alien species information in Europe. Efficient widgets can be used for the easy creation of distribution maps of any aggregation of alien species. Herein, we investigated distribution patterns of marine alien species in the Mediterranean Sea, using EASIN tools and data from various sources. These patterns differ depending on the pathway of introduction, indicating that human activities sh...

  4. Asthma Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these triggers vary from person to person with asthma. These factors include tobacco smoke, viral and bacterial infections, exercise, exposure to allergens such as pollen, dust mites or pet dander, acid reflux, ... emotional anxiety. Asthma is a chronic disorder and may affect up ...

  5. LIDAR sensing of aerosol processes over sofia region in the frame of the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview is given of the remote sensing of the atmospheric processes over Sofia region by using lidars. Results obtained in the Institute of Electronics in the frame of the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network are presented and discussed

  6. Contribution made by biomarkers of status to an FP6 Network of Excellence, EURopean micronutrient RECommendations Aligned (EURRECA)12345

    OpenAIRE

    Fairweather-Tait, Susan J

    2011-01-01

    Dietary reference values for micronutrients vary considerably among countries, and harmonization is needed to facilitate nutrition policy and public health strategies at the European and global levels. The EURopean micronutrient RECommendations Aligned (EURRECA) Network of Excellence is developing generic instruments for systematically deriving and updating micronutrient reference values and dietary recommendations. These include best practice guidelines, interlinked web pages, online databas...

  7. "SWING": A European project for a new application of an ionospheric network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolesi, B.; Bianchi, C.; Meloni, A.; Baskaradas, J. A.; Belehaki, A.; Altadill, D.; Dalle Mese, E.

    2016-05-01

    The SWING (Short Wave critical Infrastructure Network based on a new Generation high survival radio communication system) is a European project aimed at studying a high survival high-frequency (HF) radio network to link European Critical Infrastructures (ECIs). This system is thought to replace broadband internet communication, maintaining the minimum flux of essential information for the ECIs management and control, in case of wide-scale threats, including terrorist attacks, able to put out of order internet links over the Mediterranean region. SWING is designed to evaluate the threat and increase the security awareness, as well as the level of protection, of analogous and/or interdependent ECIs. In order to meet these goals, SWING was finalized to recognize how and when the internet communication fails and to develop the standard software and hardware tools necessary for implementing communication protocols suited for a reliable and interoperable short-wave (SW) or high-frequency (HF) radio network backup. The internet broadband description and internet failure recognition were taken into consideration in the project but are not treated in this paper. It has been assessed that in case of complete failure of the internet broadband communication fundamental information for the management and control of ECIs over the Mediterranean region can be maintained with a HF network, even in case of moderate ionospheric perturbations.

  8. The Central and Eastern European Earthquake Research Network - CE3RN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragato, Pier Luigi; Costa, Giovanni; Gallo, Antonella; Gosar, Andrej; Horn, Nikolaus; Lenhardt, Wolfgang; Mucciarelli, Marco; Pesaresi, Damiano; Steiner, Rudolf; Suhadolc, Peter; Tiberi, Lara; Živčić, Mladen; Zoppé, Giuliana

    2014-05-01

    The region of the Central and Eastern Europe is an area characterised by a relatively high seismicity. The active seismogenic structures and the related potentially destructive events are located in the proximity of the political boundaries between several countries existing in the area. An example is the seismic region between the NE Italy (FVG, Trentino-Alto Adige and Veneto), Austria (Tyrol, Carinthia) and Slovenia. So when a destructive earthquake occurs in the area, all the three countries are involved. In the year 2001 the Agencija Republike Slovenije za Okolje (ARSO) in Slovenia, the Department of Mathematics and Geoscience of the University of Trieste (DMG), the OGS (Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale) in Italy and the Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (ZAMG) in Austria signed an agreement for the real-time seismological data exchange in the Southeastern Alps region. Soon after the Interreg IIIa Italia-Austria projects "Trans-National Seismological Networks in the South-Eastern Alps" and "FASTLINK" started. The main goal of these projects was the creation of a transfrontier network for the common seismic monitoring of the region for scientific and civil defense purposes. During these years the high quality data recorded by the transfrontier network has been used, by the involved institutions, for their scientific research, for institutional activities and for the civil defense services. Several common international projects have been realized with success. The instrumentation has been continuously upgraded, the installations quality improved as well as the data transmission efficiency. In the 2013 ARSO, DMG, OGS and ZAMG decided to name the cooperative network "Central and Eastern European Earthquake Research Network - CE3RN". The national/regional seismic networks actually involved in the CE3RN network are: • Austrian national BB network (ZAMG - OE) • Friuli Veneto SP network (OGS - FV) • Friuli VG

  9. European Symposium on Precision Medicine in Allergy and Airways Diseases: Report of the European Union Parliament Symposium (October 14, 2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraro, A; Fokkens, W J; Pietikainen, S; Borrelli, D; Agache, I; Bousquet, J; Costigliola, V; Joos, G; Lund, V J; Poulsen, L K; Price, D; Rolland, C; Zuberbier, T; Hellings, P W

    2016-05-01

    The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), the European Rhinologic Society (ERS), and the European Medical Association (EMA) organized, on October 14, 2015, a symposium in the European Parliament in Brussels on Precision Medicine in Allergy and Airways Diseases, hosted by MEP David Borrelli, and with active participation of the EU Commissioner for Health and Food Safety Vytenis Andriukaitis, MEP Sirpa Pietikainen, Chair of the European Parliament Interest Group on Allergy and Asthma, the European Respiratory Society (ERS), the European Federations of Allergy and Airways Diseases Patients Associations (EFA), the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (Ga2len), Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma (ARIA), and the Respiratory Effectiveness Group (REG). The socioeconomic impact of allergies and chronic airways diseases cannot be underestimated, as they represent the most frequently diagnosed chronic noncommunicable diseases in the EU; 30% of the total European population is suffering from allergies and asthma, and more than half are deprived from adequate diagnosis and treatment. Precision medicine represents a novel approach, embracing four key features: personalized care based on molecular, immunologic, and functional endotyping of the disease, with participation of the patient in the decision-making process of therapeutic actions, and considering predictive and preventive aspects of the treatment. Implementation of precision medicine into clinical practice may help to achieve the arrest of the epidemic of allergies and chronic airways diseases. Participants underscored the need for optimal patient care in Europe, supporting joint action plans for disease prevention, patient empowerment, and cost-effective treatment strategies. PMID:26660289

  10. The informal networks in food procurement by older people - A cross European comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turrini, Aida; D'Addezio, Laura; Maccati, Fabrizia;

    2010-01-01

    Healthy dietary profiles contribute to successful aging, and dietary intake is dependent upon food procurement capabilities. Both formal and informal social networks can contribute to grocery shopping capabilities and methods of food procurement. This investigation explores the role of informal...... networks in food procurement methods among adults aged 65 years and older, and compares differences across eight European countries. Food shopping ways (FSW), identified by quantitative analysis (cluster analysis and correspondence analysis), guided the content qualitative analysis which was carried out...... addressing three main research questions addressing food shopping routines, feelings of dependency and needs of informal support for shopping, and differences between past and present food shopping behaviours. Living circumstances influence food shopping habits. Informal networks differed between two groups...

  11. AMES, NESC and ENIQ: European networks in the field of structural integrity involving NDE and inspection effectiveness assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three European networks on structural integrity aspects of ageing nuclear components are presently managed by the Institute for Advanced Materials of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission: AMES (Ageing Materials Evaluation and Studies), ENIQ (European Network for Inspection Qualification) and NESC (Network for Evaluating Steel Components). All three networks involve actions, which aim at the effectiveness and reliability assessment of NDE techniques and of inspection procedures: Either for materials damage detection and characterisation or for defect detection and evaluation. This paper is describing very generally the objectives of the three networks and is then concentrating on the results obtained in ENIQ, which are relevant with ISI and regulatory issues. (orig./DGE)

  12. The European general practice research network presents the translations of its comprehensive definition of multimorbidity in family medicine in ten European languages.

    OpenAIRE

    Le Reste, Jean Yves; Nabbe, Patrice; Rivet, Charles; Lygidakis, Charilaos; Doerr, Christa; Czachowski, Slawomir; Lingner, Heidrun; Argyriadou, Stella; Lazic, Djurdjica; Assenova, Radost; Hasaganic, Melida; Munoz, Miquel Angel; Thulesius, Hans; Le Floch, Bernard; Derriennic, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Multimorbidity, according to the World Health Organization, exists when there are two or more chronic conditions in one patient. This definition seems inaccurate for the holistic approach to Family Medicine (FM) and long-term care. To avoid this pitfall the European General Practitioners Research Network (EGPRN) designed a comprehensive definition of multimorbidity using a systematic literature review.

  13. [European surveillance of tuberculosis: description of the network and recent results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infuso, A; Falzon, D

    2005-05-01

    A network for the surveillance of tuberculosis covering the WHO European Region was set up in 1996. It aims to improve the contribution of surveillance to TB control, promoting standardised methods to compare countries. Standardized individual or aggregate data on notified TB cases is provided annually from national surveillance institutions. In the enlarged European Union (EU), overall TB notification rates decreased in recent years (14/100 000 in 2002), but leveled off in some countries including France and the United Kingdom, partly due to increasing numbers of patients from high TB incidence areas (30% in 2002). Multidrug resistance (MDR) was much more frequent in the Baltic States (21% in 2002) than in other countries (1.7%; range: 0-3.7%). Treatment of new pulmonary TB cases notified in 2001 was completed within 12 months in 74% of cases, ongoing in 3%, interrupted due to death in 7%, and interrupted for other reasons or unknown in 15%. In the Balkans and Turkey, notification rates ranged between 20 and 62 per 100 000 in 2002, and decreasing or stable except for Romania (153 in 2002). In the East (former Soviet Union), TB surveillance data, although incomplete, shows an increasing incidence (97/100 000 in 2002), high prevalence of primary MDR (14% in Kazakhstan), and frequent treatment failures (10% in new cases). At the time of EU enlargement, European TB surveillance covering the whole WHO European Region should continue, with support of TB control in the East as a regional priority. PMID:15885956

  14. Inside the Mechanics of Network Development: How Competition and Strategy Reorganize European Air Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Hans

    2006-01-01

    Air transport forms complex networks that can be measured in order to understand its structural characteristics and functional properties. Recent models for network growth (i.e., preferential attachment, etc.) remain stochastic and do not seek to understand other network-specific mechanisms that may account for their development in a more microscopic way. Air traffic is made up of many constituent airlines that are either privately or publicly owned and that operate their own networks. They follow more or less similar business policies each. The way these airline networks organize among themselves into distinct traffic distributions reveals complex interaction among them, which in turn can be aggregated into larger (macro-) traffic distributions. Our approach allows for a more deterministic methodology that will assess the impact of airline strategies on the distinct distributions for air traffic, particularly inside Europe. One key question this paper is seeking to answer is whether there are distinct patterns of preferential attachment for given classes of airline networks to distinct types of European airports. Conclusions about the advancing degree of concentration in this industry and the airline operators that accelerate this process can be drawn.

  15. European TSO Network (ETSON) as Important Part of International Nuclear Safety Knowledge Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conclusion: • Nuclear networks, including ETSON, are fulfilling their respective and defined specific aims; • Common are such objectives like: – exchange of information; – transfer of knowledge; – support education and training; – collaborate effectively together; – promote coordination and – support harmonization. • Further endeavor are needed to: – Make more significant efforts in promoting the opportunities of collaborative actions; – Use more active the existing features of the modern network tools; – Combine regional or global networks with national web-based knowledge resources by developing and maintaining further the National Nuclear Regulatory Portals. • Nuclear safety and security networks are effectively contributing to build and sustain needed capacities and capabilities

  16. Influence of farming exposure on the development of asthma and asthma-like symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Wells, Adam D.; Poole, Jill A.; Romberger, Debra J.

    2014-01-01

    Based upon age and type of farming exposures, a wide range of studies demonstrate either protective or deleterious effects of the farming environment on asthma. In this review, we highlight key studies supporting the concept that farming exposure protects children from asthma and atopy based on studies performed largely in European pediatric cohorts. Various types of farming in certain regions appear to have a greater effect on asthma protection, as does the consumption of unpasteurized milk....

  17. Wheezing and Asthma in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cooperate While Using the Nebulizer? Handling an Asthma Flare-Up What's an Asthma Flare-Up? Asthma Center Asthma Basics Managing Asthma When Your ... a Health Problem Asthma Center Handling an Asthma Flare-Up How Do Asthma Medicines Work? Asthma Asthma Center ...

  18. Systemic Risk in the European Union: A Network Approach to Banks’ Sovereign Debt Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Westphal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws on network theory to investigate European banks’ sovereign debt exposures. Banks’ holdings of sovereign debt build a network of financial linkages with European countries that exhibits a long-tail distribution of node degrees. A highly connected network core of 15 banks is identified. These banks accounted for the majority of sovereign debt investments between December 2010 and December 2013 but exhibited only average and sometimes even below average capitalizations. Consequently, they constituted a potential source and transmission channel of systemic risk, especially due to their proneness to portfolio contagion. In a complementary regression analysis, the effect of counterparty risk on Credit Default Swap (CDS spreads of 15 EU sovereigns is investigated. Among the banks exposed to the debt of a particular issuer, the biggest institutions in terms of their own asset sizes are identified and some of their balance sheet characteristics included into the regression. The analysis finds that the banks’ implied volatilities had a significant and increasing effect on CDS spreads during the recent crisis years, providing evidence of the presence of counterparty risk and its effect on EU sovereign debt pricing. Furthermore, the role of the domestic financial sectors is assessed and found to have affected the CDS spreads.

  19. European expert network for the reduction of uncertainties in severe accident safety issues (EURSAFE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EURSAFE thematic network was a concerted action in the sixth framework programme of the European Commission. It established a large consensus among the main actors in nuclear safety on the severe accident issues where large uncertainties still subsist. The conclusions were derived from a first-of-kind phenomena identification and ranking tables (PIRT) on all aspects of severe accident also realised in the frame of the project. Starting from a list of all severe accident phenomena containing approximately 1000 entries and established by the twenty partner organisations, 106 phenomena were retained eventually as both important for safety and still lacking sufficient knowledge. Ultimately, 21 research areas for addressing these phenomena regrouped according to their similarities were identified. A networking structure for implementing and executing the necessary research was proposed, which promotes integration and harmonisation of the different national programmes. A severe accident database structure was proposed to ensure preservation of experimental data and enhanced communication for data exchange and use for severe accident codes assessment. The final product, named EURSAFE, is a website network, http://asa2.jrc.it/eursafe, connecting nodes located at partner sites. As the result of an action involving R and D governmental institutions, regulatory bodies, nuclear industry, utilities and universities from six EU Member States (Finland, France, Germany, Spain, Sweden, UK) plus JRC, three European third countries (Czech Republic, Hungary, Switzerland), and USA, EURSAFE represents a significant step towards harmonisation and credibility of the approaches, and resolution of the remaining severe accident issues

  20. European network on the determination of site end points for radiologically contaminated land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nexia Solutions are currently running a small European network entitled 'European Network on the Determination of Site End Points for Radiologically Contaminated Land (ENDSEP)'. Other network members include NRG (Netherlands), UKAEA (UK), CEA (France), SOGIN (Italy), Wismut (Germany), Saxon State Agency of Environment and Geology (Germany). The network is focused on the technical and socio-economical issues associated with the determination of end points for sites potentially, or actually, impacted by radiological contamination. Such issues will cover: - Those associated with the run up to establishing a site end point; - Those associated with verifying that the end points have been met; and Those associated with post closure. The network's current high level objectives can be summarized as follows: Share experience and best practice in the key issues running up to determining site end points; Gain a better understanding of the potential effects of recent and forthcoming EU legislation; Assess consistency between approaches; Highlight potential gaps within the remit of site end point determination and management; and - Consider the formulation of research projects with a view to sharing time and expense. The programme of work revolves around the following key tasks: - Share information, experience and existing good practice. - Look to determine sustainable approaches to contaminated land site end point management. - Through site visits, gain first hand experience of determining an appropriate end point strategy, and identifying and resolving end point issues. Highlight the key data gaps and consider the development of programmes to either close out these gaps or to build confidence in the approaches taken. Production of position papers on each technical are a highlighting how different countries approach/resolve a specific problem. (authors)

  1. Lean on me? The influence of parental separation and divorce on children’s support networks in four European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmijn, M.; Dronkers, J.

    2015-01-01

    Using data on 14-year old children in four European countries, this study compares the support networks of children in intact and separated families. It is found that a parental separation has significant effects on the nature of these networks. Children of separated parents are less likely to inclu

  2. Exercise and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Exercise and Asthma Page Content Article Body Almost every ... children more likely to develop asthma. How does exercise cause asthma symptoms? The symptoms of asthma are ...

  3. How Is Asthma Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Asthma Diagnosed? Your primary care doctor will diagnose asthma ... other disease may be causing your symptoms. Diagnosing Asthma in Young Children Most children who have asthma ...

  4. Pooling Birth Cohorts in Allergy and Asthma: European Union-Funded Initiatives - A MeDALL, CHICOS, ENRIECO, and GA(2)LEN Joint Paper

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bousquet, J.; Anto, J.; Sunyer, J.; Nieuwenhuijsen, N.; Vrijheid, M.; Keil, T.; Šrám, Radim

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 161, č. 1 (2013), s. 1-10. ISSN 1018-2438 Grant ostatní: EU FP6(XE) FOOD-CT-2004-506378 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : Birth cohorts * asthma * allergy Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.433, year: 2013

  5. ENES the European Network for Earth System modelling and its infrastructure projects IS-ENES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmo, Francesca; Joussaume, Sylvie; Parinet, Marie

    2016-04-01

    The scientific community working on climate modelling is organized within the European Network for Earth System modelling (ENES). In the past decade, several European university departments, research centres, meteorological services, computer centres, and industrial partners engaged in the creation of ENES with the purpose of working together and cooperating towards the further development of the network, by signing a Memorandum of Understanding. As of 2015, the consortium counts 47 partners. The climate modelling community, and thus ENES, faces challenges which are both science-driven, i.e. analysing of the full complexity of the Earth System to improve our understanding and prediction of climate changes, and have multi-faceted societal implications, as a better representation of climate change on regional scales leads to improved understanding and prediction of impacts and to the development and provision of climate services. ENES, promoting and endorsing projects and initiatives, helps in developing and evaluating of state-of-the-art climate and Earth system models, facilitates model inter-comparison studies, encourages exchanges of software and model results, and fosters the use of high performance computing facilities dedicated to high-resolution multi-model experiments. ENES brings together public and private partners, integrates countries underrepresented in climate modelling studies, and reaches out to different user communities, thus enhancing European expertise and competitiveness. In this need of sophisticated models, world-class, high-performance computers, and state-of-the-art software solutions to make efficient use of models, data and hardware, a key role is played by the constitution and maintenance of a solid infrastructure, developing and providing services to the different user communities. ENES has investigated the infrastructural needs and has received funding from the EU FP7 program for the IS-ENES (InfraStructure for ENES) phase I and II

  6. Childhood Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Training Grants & Awards Program Directors Practice Resources ASTHMA IQ Consultation and Referral Guidelines Practice Financial Survey Practice ... one child. Unfortunately, there is not a single test that provides all the answers. An allergist / immunologist, ...

  7. Occupational asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... occupational exposure; Irritant-induced reactive airways disease Images Spirometry Respiratory system References Lemiere C, Vandenplas O. Occupational allergy and asthma. In: Adkinson NF Jr., Bochner BS, Burks AW, ...

  8. Power flow tracing in a simplified highly renewable European electricity network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranberg, Bo; Thomsen, Anders B.; Rodriguez, Rolando A.; Andresen, Gorm B.; Schäfer, Mirko; Greiner, Martin

    2015-10-01

    The increasing transmission capacity needs in a future energy system raise the question of how associated costs should be allocated to the users of a strengthened power grid. In contrast to straightforward oversimplified methods, a flow tracing based approach provides a fair and consistent nodal usage and thus cost assignment of transmission investments. This technique follows the power flow through the network and assigns the link capacity usage to the respective sources or sinks using a diffusion-like process, thus taking into account the underlying network structure and injection pattern. As a showcase, we apply power flow tracing to a simplified model of the European electricity grid with a high share of renewable wind and solar power generation, based on long-term weather and load data with an hourly temporal resolution.

  9. Power flow tracing in a simplified highly renewable European electricity network

    CERN Document Server

    Tranberg, Bo; Rodriguez, Rolando A; Andresen, Gorm B; Schäfer, Mirko; Greiner, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The increasing transmission capacity needs in a future energy system raise the question how associated costs should be allocated to the users of a strengthened power grid. In contrast to straightforward oversimplified methods, a flow tracing based approach provides a fair and consistent nodal usage and thus cost assignment of transmission investments. This technique follows the power flow through the network and assigns the link capacity usage to the respective sources or sinks using a diffusion-like process, thus taking into account the underlying network structure and injection pattern. As a showcase, we apply power flow tracing to a simplified model of the European electricity grid with a high share of renewable wind and solar power generation, based on long-term weather and load data with an hourly temporal resolution.

  10. The Diffusion of Health Economics Knowledge in Europe: The EURONHEED (European Network of Health Economics Evaluation Database) Project

    OpenAIRE

    Gerard de Pouvourville; Philippe Ulmann; John Nixon; Stephanie Boulenger; Julie Glanville; Michael Drummond

    2005-01-01

    This paper overviews the EURONHEED (EUROpean Network of Health Economics Evaluation Databases) project. Launched in 2003, this project is funded by the EU. Its aim is to create a network of national and international databases dedicated to health economic evaluation of health services and innovations. Seven centres (France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the UK) are involved covering 17 countries. The network is based on two existing databases, the French CODECS (COnnaissa...

  11. Lean on me? The influence of parental separation and divorce on children’s support networks in four European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kalmijn, M.; Dronkers, J.

    2015-01-01

    Using data on 14-year old children in four European countries, this study compares the support networks of children in intact and separated families. It is found that a parental separation has significant effects on the nature of these networks. Children of separated parents are less likely to include the father in their networks and also less likely to include the mother, although this latter effect is smaller than the former. Conflict after separation is negatively associated with the prese...

  12. ESONET - European Seas Observatory NETwork. Network of Excellence (NoE). Periodic activity report : revision #1

    OpenAIRE

    PUILLAT Ingrid; Rolin, Jean-francois; Person, Roland

    2008-01-01

    The Network of Excellence ESONET started on 1st March 2007. The kick off meeting was held in Brest on 21-22-23 March 2007. Long term monitoring of environmental processes related to ecosystem life and evolution, global changes and geohazards, is now recognized as a necessary by the scientific community. To better understand geophysical, biogeochemical, oceanographic and biological active phenomena scientists need long time series of data coming from the deep sea and the seafloor at key pro...

  13. European Nuclear Education Network Association - Support for nuclear education, training and knowledge management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developed in 2002-2003 the FP5 EURATOM project 'European Nuclear Engineering Network - ENEN' aimed to establish the basis for conserving nuclear knowledge and expertise, to create an European Higher Education Area for nuclear disciplines and to facilitate the implementation of the Bologna declaration in the nuclear disciplines. In order to ensure the continuity of the achievements and results of the ENEN project, on 22 September 2003, the European Nuclear Higher Education Area was formalized by creating the European Nuclear Education Network Association. ENEN Association goals are oriented towards universities by developing a more harmonized approach for education in the nuclear sciences and engineering in Europe, integrating European education and training in nuclear safety and radiation protection and achieving a better cooperation and sharing of resources and capabilities at the national and international level. At the same time it is oriented towards the end-users (industries, regulatory bodies, research centers, universities) by creating a secure basis of knowledge and skills of value to the EU. It maintains an adequate supply of qualified human resources for design, construction, operation and maintenance of nuclear infrastructures and plants. Also it maintains the necessary competence and expertise for the continued safe use of nuclear energy and applications of radiation in industry and medicine. In 2004-2005, 35 partners continued and expanded the started in FP 5 ENEN Association activities with the FP6 project 'NEPTUNO- Nuclear Education Platform for Training and Universities Organizations'. Thus ENEN established and implemented the European Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering, expanded its activities from education to training, organized and coordinated training sessions and pilot courses and included in its activities the Knowledge Management. At present, the ENEN Association gathers 45 universities, 7 research centers and one multinational company

  14. European Network of Excellence on NPP residual lifetime prediction methodologies (NULIFE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within Europe massive investments in nuclear power have been made to meet present and future energy needs. The majority of nuclear reactors have been operating for longer than 20 years and their continuing safe operation depends crucially on effective lifetime management. Furthermore, to extend the economic return on investment and environmental benefits, it is necessary to ensure in advance the safe operation of nuclear reactors for 60 years, a period which is typically 20 years in excess of nominal design life. This depends on a clear understanding of, and predictive capability for, how safety margins may be maintained as components degrade under operational conditions. Ageing mechanisms, environment effects and complex loadings increase the likelihood of damage to safety relevant systems, structures and components. The ability to claim increased benefits from reduced conservatism via improved assessments is therefore of great value. Harmonisation and qualification are essential for industrial exploitation of approaches developed for life prediction methodology. Several European organisations and networks have been at the forefront of the development of advanced methodologies in this area. However, these efforts have largely been made at national level and their overall impact and benefit (in comparison to the situation in the USA) has been reduced by fragmentation. There is a need to restructure the networking approach in order to create a single organisational entity capable of working at European level to produce and exploit R and D in support of the safe and competitive operation of nuclear power plants. It is also critical to ensure the competitiveness of European plant life management (PLIM) services at international level, in particular with the USA and Asian countries. To the above challenges the European Network on European research in residual lifetime prediction methodologies (NULIFE) will: - Create a Europe-wide body in order to achieve scientific and

  15. The Brussels Declaration: the need for change in asthma management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holgate, S.; Bisgaard, H.; Bjermer, L.; Haahtela, T.; Haughney, J.; Horne, R.; McIvor, A.; Palkonen, S.; Price, D.B.; Thomas, M.; Valovirta, E.; Wahn, U.

    2008-01-01

    ; "real world" studies should be funded and results used to inform guidelines; variations in care across Europe should be addressed; people with asthma should participate in their own care; the impact of environmental factors should be understood; and targets should be set for improvement. The present......Asthma is a highly prevalent condition across Europe and numerous guidelines have been developed to optimise management. However, asthma can be neither cured nor prevented, treatment choices are limited and many patients have poorly controlled or uncontrolled asthma. The Brussels Declaration on...... Asthma, sponsored by The Asthma, Allergy and Inflammation Research Charity, was developed to call attention to the shortfalls in asthma management and to urge European policy makers to recognise that asthma is a public health problem that should be a political priority. The Declaration urges recognition...

  16. European networks in the field of structural integrity managed by the Joint Research Centre of the EC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three European networks on structural integrity aspects of ageing nuclear components are presently managed by the Institute for Advanced Materials of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission: AMES (Ageing Materials Evaluation and Studies), ENIQ (European Network for Inspection Qualification) and NESC (Network for Evaluating Steel Components). These club-type co-operations involving nuclear industry have the following broad objectives: 1) the integration of fragmented R and D work on structural integrity through the execution of studies and projects at European level; 2) the support or introduction of a long term strategy in some of the European groups or actions conducted by the Commission; 3) the use of European networks to influence studies and project results in the direction of codes and standards in Europe and for the harmonisation of codes in general The networks were launched during 1992 and 1993. Since then considerable progress has been achieved: AMES has identified priority items in reactor materials ageing research, which are of common interest. They were fit into a general strategy to be followed by AMES. ENIQ has moved to a Steering Committee composed of utilities as voting members. An important step was reached by issuing a consensus document about a European methodology for qualification of non-destructive testing and by developing pilot exercises. The NESC initiative provides a means for EU countries to collaborate in large scale shared cost experiments that investigate the entire process of structural integrity assessment. The pressurised thermal shock experiment of the first project NESC I has taken place during spring 1997 and it made use of the AEA Technology spinning cylinder facility. Evaluation of the test data is going on through destructive examination. (author)

  17. Qualitative Research Methods in Visual Communication. Case Study: Visual Networks in the Promotional Videos of the European Year of Volunteering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Cmeciu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available European Years are a means of promoting European issues at a macro and micro-level. The objective of this paper is to provide the visual differences in the framing of the issue of volunteering at a European and national level. The approach focuses on a blending of two qualitative research methods in visual communication: ATLAS.ti (computer assisted/ aided qualitative data analysis software and social semiotics. The results of our analysis highlight two network views on volunteering promoted through videos, a salience of transactional processes in the implementation of volunteering at a European and national level, and a classification of various types of social practices specific to Romania. This study provides an insight into the way in which two different qualitative methods may be combined in order to provide a visual representation and interpretation to a European issue.

  18. A small-world methodology of analysis of interchange energy-networks: The European behaviour in the economical crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    European energy policy pursues the objective of a sustainable, competitive and reliable supply of energy. In 2007, the European Commission adopted a proper energy policy for Europe supported by several documents and included an action plan to meet the major energy challenges Europe has to face. A farsighted diversified yearly mix of energies was suggested to countries, aiming at increasing security of supply and efficiency, but a wide and systemic view of energy interchanges between states was missing. In this paper, a Small-World methodology of analysis of Interchange Energy-Networks (IENs) is presented, with the aim of providing a useful tool for planning sustainable energy policies. A proof case is presented to validate the methodology by considering the European IEN behaviour in the period of economical crisis. This network is approached as a Small World Net from a modelling point of view, by supposing that connections between States are characterised by a probability value depending on economic/political relations between countries. - Highlights: • Different view of the imports and exports of electric energy flows between European for potential use in ruling exchanges. • Panel data from 1996 to 2010 as part of a network of exchanges was considered from Eurostat official database. • The European import/export energy flows modelled as a network with Small World phenomena, interpreting the evolution over the years. • Interesting systemic tool for ruling and governing energy flows between countries

  19. DIZZYNET-a European network initiative for vertigo and balance research: visions and aims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwergal, Andreas; Brandt, Thomas; Magnusson, Mans; Kennard, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    Vertigo is one of the most common complaints in medicine. Despite its high prevalence, patients with vertigo often receive either inappropriate or inadequate treatment. The most important reasons for this deplorable situation are insufficient interdisciplinary cooperation, nonexistent standards in diagnostics and therapy, the relatively rare translations of basic science findings to clinical applications, and the scarcity of prospective controlled multicenter clinical trials. To overcome these problems, the German Center for Vertigo and Balance Disorders (DSGZ) started an initiative to establish a European Network for Vertigo and Balance Research called DIZZYNET. The central aim is to create a platform for collaboration and exchange among scientists, physicians, technicians, and physiotherapists in the fields of basic and translational research, clinical management, clinical trials, rehabilitation, and epidemiology. The network will also promote public awareness and help establish educational standards in the field. The DIZZYNET has the following objectives as regards structure and content: to focus on multidisciplinary translational research in vertigo and balance disorders, to develop interdisciplinary longitudinal and transversal networks for patient care by standardizing and personalizing the management of patients, to increase methodological competence by implementing common standards of practice and quality management, to internationalize the infrastructure for prospective multicenter clinical trials, to increase recruitment capacity for clinical trials, to create a common data base for patients with vertigo and balance disorders, to offer and promote attractive educational and career paths in a network of cooperating institutions. In the long term, the DIZZYNET should serve as an internationally visible network for interdisciplinary and multiprofessional research on vertigo and balance disorders. It ideally should equally attract the afflicted patients and

  20. Bronchial asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008049 Activation ralated genes of memory CD+4 T cells in asthma patients. PI Weifeng(皮卫峰),et al. Dept Respir Med, Xinhua Hosp, Sch Med, Shanghai Jiaotong Univ, Shanghai 200092. Chin J Tuberc Respir Dis 2007;30(12):932-935. Objective To screen and identify the genes of activated memory CD+4 T cells in asthma. Methods Differential display polymerase chain reaction(DDPCR) was utilized to identify genes of memory CD+4 T cells after activation from asthmatic patients and normal individuals,

  1. A meta-database comparison from various European Research and Monitoring Networks dedicated to forest sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielewska A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Of a wide variety of international forest research and monitoring networks, several networks are dedicated to the effects of climate change on forests, while the effects of anthropogenic pollutants on forests have been a major area for both monitoring and research for decades. The large amounts of data already obtained within existing monitoring programmes and large-scale international projects can be used to increase understanding of the state and potential of forest mitigation and adaptation to climate change in a polluted environment, and a major challenge now is to evaluate and integrate the presently available databases. We present a meta-database with the main goal to highlight available data and integrate the information about research and monitoring of selected European Research and Monitoring Networks (ERMNs. Depending on the selected ERMNs, the list of variables and the measurement units differ widely in the databases. As a result, activities related to the identification, evaluation and integration of the presently available databases are important for the scientific community. Furthermore, and equally important, the recognition of current knowledge gaps and future needed research is made easier. This analysis suggests that: ground-level ozone is under-investigated, although it is one of the pollutants of greatest concern to forests; in addition to CO2, long-term other greenhouse gasses (GHG flux measurements should be carried out; there is still a need of improving links between monitoring of atmospheric changes and impacts on forests; research-oriented manipulative experiments in the forests are missing.

  2. Modeling the Multi-layer Nature of the European Air Transport Network: Resilience and Passengers Re-scheduling under random failures

    CERN Document Server

    Cardillo, Alessio; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús; Romance, Miguel; del Amo, Alejandro J García; Boccaletti, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    We study the dynamics of the European Air Transport Network by using a multiplex network formalism. We will consider the set of flights of each airline as an interdependent network and we analyze the resilience of the system against random flight failures in the passenger's rescheduling problem. A comparison between the single-plex approach and the corresponding multiplex one is presented illustrating that the multiplexity strongly affects the robustness of the European Air Network.

  3. The development of the MeDALL Core Questionnaires for a harmonized follow-up assessment of eleven European birth cohorts on asthma and allergies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohmann, Cynthia; Pinart, Mariona; Tischer, Christina;

    2014-01-01

    -translation of the harmonized English MeDALL-CQ into 8 other languages and (iv) implementation of the harmonized follow-up. RESULTS: Three harmonized MeDALL-CQs (2 for parents of children aged 4-9 and 14-18, 1 for adolescents aged 14-18) were developed and used for a harmonized follow-up assessment of 11......BACKGROUND: Numerous birth cohorts have been initiated in the world over the past 30 years using heterogeneous methods to assess the incidence, course and risk factors of asthma and allergies. The aim of the present work is to provide the stepwise proceedings of the development and current version...

  4. Clinical Neuropathology Views - 2/2016: Digital networking in European neuropathology: An initiative to facilitate truly interactive consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idoate, Miguel A; García-Rojo, Marcial

    2016-01-01

    Digital technology is progressively changing our vision of the practice of neuropathology. There are a number of facts that support the introduction of digital neuropathology. With the development of wholeslide imaging (WSI) systems the difficulties involved in implementing a neuropathology network have been solved. A relevant difficulty has been image standardization, but an open digital image communication protocol defined by the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standard is already a reality. The neuropathology network should be established in Europe because it is the expected geographic context for relationships among European neuropathologists. There are several limitations in the implementation of a digital neuropathology consultancy network such as financial support, operational costs, legal issues, and technical assistance of clients. All of these items have been considered and should be solved before implementing the proposal. Finally, the authors conclude that a European digital neuropathology network should be created for patients' benefit. PMID:26833552

  5. EU FP7 project 'CAMbrella' to build European research network for complementary and alternative medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weidenhammer, Wolfgang; Lewith, George; Falkenberg, Torkel;

    2011-01-01

    coordination project funded by the EU has been launched to improve the knowledge about CAM in Europe. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: The project aims to evaluate the conditions surrounding CAM use and provision in Europe and to develop a roadmap for European CAM research. Specific objectives are to establish an EU...... network involving centres of research excellence for collaborative projects, to develop consensus-based terminology to describe CAM interventions, to create a knowledge base that facilitates the understanding of patient demand for CAM and its prevalence, to review the current legal status and policies...... and will run for 36 months starting from January 2010. The project will be delivered in 9 work packages coordinated by a Management Board and directed by a Scientific Steering Committee with support of an Advisory Board. OUTPUT: The outcomes generated will be disseminated through the project's website...

  6. Spectral network based on component cells under the SOPHIA European project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the frame of the European project SOPHIA, a spectral network based on component (also called isotypes) cells has been created. Among the members of this project, several spectral sensors based on component cells and collimating tubes, so-called spectroheliometers, were installed in the last years, allowing the collection of minute-resolution spectral data useful for CPV systems characterization across Europe. The use of spectroheliometers has been proved useful to establish the necessary spectral conditions to perform power rating of CPV modules and systems. If enough data in a given period of time is collected, ideally a year, it is possible to characterize spectrally the place where measurements are taken, in the same way that hours of annual irradiation can be estimated using a pyrheliometer

  7. Spectral network based on component cells under the SOPHIA European project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Núñez, Rubén, E-mail: ruben.nunez@ies-def.upm.es; Antón, Ignacio; Askins, Steve; Sala, Gabriel [Instituto de Energía Solar - Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Domínguez, César; Voarino, Philippe [CEA-INES, 50 avenue du Lac Léman, 73375 Le Bourget-du-Lac (France); Steiner, Marc; Siefer, Gerald [Fraunhofer ISE, Heidenhofstr. 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Fucci, Rafaelle; Roca, Franco [ENEA, P.le E.Fermi 1, Località Granatello, 80055 Portici (Italy); Minuto, Alessandro; Morabito, Paolo [RSE, Via Rubattino 54, 20134 Milan (Italy)

    2015-09-28

    In the frame of the European project SOPHIA, a spectral network based on component (also called isotypes) cells has been created. Among the members of this project, several spectral sensors based on component cells and collimating tubes, so-called spectroheliometers, were installed in the last years, allowing the collection of minute-resolution spectral data useful for CPV systems characterization across Europe. The use of spectroheliometers has been proved useful to establish the necessary spectral conditions to perform power rating of CPV modules and systems. If enough data in a given period of time is collected, ideally a year, it is possible to characterize spectrally the place where measurements are taken, in the same way that hours of annual irradiation can be estimated using a pyrheliometer.

  8. What's So Special About Policy Networks? – An Exploration of the Concept and Its Usefulness in Studying European Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja A. Börzel

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available A 'Babylonian' variety of policy network concepts and applications can be found in the literature. Neither is there a common understanding of what a policy networks actually is, nor has it been agreed upon whether policy networks constitute a mere metaphor, a method, an analytical tool or a proper theory. The aim of this paper is to review the state of the art in the field of policy networks and to explore their usefulness in studying European policy-making and European governance. It is argued that policy networks are more than an analytical tool box for studying these phenomena. What is so special then about policy networks? They constitute arenas for non-strategic, communicative action providing solutions for collective action problems and accounting for more efficient and legitimate policy-making. Yet, a theoretically ambitious policy network approach has to, first, show that policy networks do not only exist but are relevant for policy process and policy outcome, and second, tackle the problem of the ambiguity of policy networks, which can do both enhance and reduce the efficiency and legitimacy of policy-making.

  9. What's So Special About Policy Networks? An Exploration of the Concept and Its Usefulness in Studying European Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja A. Börzel

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available A 'Babylonian' variety of policy network concepts and applications can be found in the literature. Neither is there a common understanding of what a policy networks actually is, nor has it been agreed upon whether policy networks constitute a mere metaphor, a method, an analytical tool or a proper theory. The aim of this paper is to review the state of the art in the field of policy networks and to explore their usefulness in studying European policy-making and European governance. It is argued that policy networks are more than an analytical tool box for studying these phenomena. What is so special then about policy networks? They constitute arenas for non-strategic, communicative action providing solutions for collective action problems and accounting for more efficient and legitimate policy-making. Yet, a theoretically ambitious policy network approach has to, first, show that policy networks do not only exist but are relevant for policy process and policy outcome, and second, tackle the problem of the ambiguity of policy networks, which can do both enhance and reduce the efficiency and legitimacy of policy-making.

  10. Networks uncover hidden lexical borrowing in Indo-European language evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson-Sathi, Shijulal; List, Johann-Mattis; Geisler, Hans; Fangerau, Heiner; Gray, Russell D; Martin, William; Dagan, Tal

    2011-06-22

    Language evolution is traditionally described in terms of family trees with ancestral languages splitting into descendent languages. However, it has long been recognized that language evolution also entails horizontal components, most commonly through lexical borrowing. For example, the English language was heavily influenced by Old Norse and Old French; eight per cent of its basic vocabulary is borrowed. Borrowing is a distinctly non-tree-like process--akin to horizontal gene transfer in genome evolution--that cannot be recovered by phylogenetic trees. Here, we infer the frequency of hidden borrowing among 2346 cognates (etymologically related words) of basic vocabulary distributed across 84 Indo-European languages. The dataset includes 124 (5%) known borrowings. Applying the uniformitarian principle to inventory dynamics in past and present basic vocabularies, we find that 1373 (61%) of the cognates have been affected by borrowing during their history. Our approach correctly identified 117 (94%) known borrowings. Reconstructed phylogenetic networks that capture both vertical and horizontal components of evolutionary history reveal that, on average, eight per cent of the words of basic vocabulary in each Indo-European language were involved in borrowing during evolution. Basic vocabulary is often assumed to be relatively resistant to borrowing. Our results indicate that the impact of borrowing is far more widespread than previously thought. PMID:21106583

  11. Thunderstorm asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    AN ASSOCIATION between asthma and thunderstorms based on retrospective data has been noted in several papers. This study, however, draws on almost-real-time, anonymised attendance data from 35 emergency departments (EDs) in the UK, and lightning-strike plots from the Met Office. PMID:25270814

  12. Animal models of asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Akkoç, Tunç

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Allergic disease such as asthma, rhinitis, and eczema are increasing prevelanceand affect up to 15% of population in Westernized countries. Among them, asthma is achronic inflammatory disease of airways and the underlying physiological and immunologicalprocesses are not fully understood. Mouse models of asthma dupicates many featuresof human asthma, including airway hyperreactivity, andairway inflammation. Therefore, relevantmodels for asthma are important to understand the mechanis...

  13. COST Action ES1401 TIDES: a European network on TIme DEpendent Seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Using the full-length records of seismic events and background ambient noise, today seismology is going beyond still-life snapshots of the interior of the Earth, and look into time-dependent changes of its properties. Data availability has grown dramatically with the expansion of seismographic networks and data centers, so as to enable much more detailed and accurate analyses. COST Action ES1401 TIDES (TIme DEpendent Seismology; http://tides-cost.eu) aims at structuring the EU seismological community to enable development of data-intensive, time-dependent techniques for monitoring Earth active processes (e.g., earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, glacial earthquakes) as well as oil/gas reservoirs. The main structure of TIDES is organised around working groups on: Workflow integration of data and computing resources; Seismic interferometry and ambient noise; Forward problems and High-performance computing applications; Seismic tomography, full waveform inversion and uncertainties; Applications in the natural environment and industry. TIDES is an open network of European laboratories with complementary skills, and is organising a series of events - workshops and advanced training schools - as well as supporting short-duration scientific stays. The first advanced training school was held in Bertinoro (Italy) on June 2015, with attendance of about 100 participants from 20 European countries, was devoted to how to manage and model seismic data with modern tools. The next school, devoted to ambient noise, will be held in 2016 Portugal: the program will be announced at the time of this conference. TIDES will strengthen Europe's role in a critical field for natural hazards and natural resource management.

  14. Supporting carrier grade services over wireless mesh networks: The approach of the European FP-7 Strep CARMEN

    OpenAIRE

    Azcorra A.; Banniza T.; Chieng D.; Fitzpatrick J.; Von-Hugo D.; Natkaniec M.; Robitzsch S.; Zdarsky F.

    2009-01-01

    CARMEN is a three-year Specific Targeted Research Project (STREP) funded by the European Commission within the 7th Framework Program. The CARMEN access network will complement existing access technologies by exploiting low cost mesh networking techniques, thus minimizing deployment and maintenance costs. The CARMEN architecture introduces an abstraction layer that hides the specifics of the underlying access technology providing an abstract interface on top of which higher layers can be easil...

  15. The challenge of implementing the European network of protected areas Natura 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kati, Vassiliki; Hovardas, Tasos; Dieterich, Martin; Ibisch, Pierre L; Mihok, Barbara; Selva, Nuria

    2015-02-01

    Established under the European Union (EU) Birds and Habitats Directives, Natura 2000 is one of the largest international networks of protected areas. With the spatial designation of sites by the EU member states almost finalized, the biggest challenge still lying ahead is the appropriate management of the sites. To evaluate the cross-scale functioning of Natura 2000 implementation, we analyzed 242 questionnaires completed by conservation scientists involved in the implementation of Natura 2000 in 24 EU member states. Respondents identified 7 key drivers of the quality of Natura 2000 implementation. Ordered in decreasing evaluation score, these drivers included: network design, use of external resources, legal frame, scientific input, procedural frame, social input, and national or local policy. Overall, conservation scientists were moderately satisfied with the implementation of Natura 2000. Tree modeling revealed that poor application of results of environmental impact assessments (EIA) was considered a major constraint. The main strengths of the network included the substantial increase of scientific knowledge of the sites, the contribution of nongovernmental organizations, the adequate network design in terms of area and representativeness, and the adequacy of the EU legal frame. The main weaknesses of Natura 2000 were the lack of political will from local and national governments toward effective implementation; the negative attitude of local stakeholders; the lack of background knowledge of local stakeholders, which prevented well-informed policy decisions; and the understaffing of Natura 2000 management authorities. Top suggestions to improve Natura 2000 implementation were increase public awareness, provide environmental education to local communities, involve high-quality conservation experts, strengthen quality control of EIA studies, and establish a specific Natura 2000 fund. PMID:25103194

  16. Policy Formulation and Networks of Practice in European eLearning: The Emergence of a European E-Learning Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salajan, Florin D.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the emergence of a European E-Learning Area (EELA) as a consequence of three factors that can be observed in the e-learning developments over the past decade. The first factor consists of the carving of a policy sector in e-learning via formal instruments such as the eLearning Programme, the Lifelong Learning Programme and…

  17. The European general practice research network presents the translations of its comprehensive definition of multimorbidity in family medicine in ten European languages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Yves Le Reste

    Full Text Available Multimorbidity, according to the World Health Organization, exists when there are two or more chronic conditions in one patient. This definition seems inaccurate for the holistic approach to Family Medicine (FM and long-term care. To avoid this pitfall the European General Practitioners Research Network (EGPRN designed a comprehensive definition of multimorbidity using a systematic literature review.To translate that English definition into European languages and to validate the semantic, conceptual and cultural homogeneity of the translations for further research.Forward translation of the EGPRN's definition of multimorbidity followed by a Delphi consensus procedure assessment, a backward translation and a cultural check with all teams to ensure the homogeneity of the translations in their national context. Consensus was defined as 70% of the scores being higher than 6. Delphi rounds were repeated in each country until a consensus was reached.229 European medical expert FPs participated in the study. Ten consensual translations of the EGPRN comprehensive definition of multimorbidity were achieved.A comprehensive definition of multimorbidity is now available in English and ten European languages for further collaborative research in FM and long-term care.

  18. Stay away from asthma triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rhinitis - what to ask your doctor - adult Allergic rhinitis - what to ask your doctor - child Asthma and school Asthma - child - discharge Asthma - control drugs Asthma - quick-relief drugs Asthma - what to ...

  19. HTR-TN a European network for the development of HTR technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A network called High-temperature reactor technology network (HTR-TN) has been created at a European level to coordinate works and knowledge on the subject with a long-term perspective and to serve as a channel for international collaboration. An analysis confirmed that the obvious economic penalty of HTR due to its low density power could be compensated by the combination of recent advances that may completely change the positioning of HTR on the energy market: -) the modular concept allowed to get a reactor free from core melt risk without intervention of any active safety system, implying a drastic simplification of the design of the reactor and the safety systems as well as a standardisation and potential for shop fabrication in series; -) the development of gas turbines, the efficiency of which increased, in 10 years, from 35% till 50% and more, enabling to consider suppression of the secondary system; -) the ultra high burn-up potential of HTR fuel and the possibility for direct disposal of spent HTR fuel elements that may reduce cost of the fuel cycle and contribute to the reduction of civil and military plutonium stockpiles. (A.C.)

  20. European Research on the Corium issues within the SARNET network of excellence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within SARNET, the corium topic covers all the behaviors of corium from early phase of core degradation to in or ex-vessel corium recovery with the exception of corium interaction with water, direct containment heating and fission product release. The corium topic regroups in three work packages the critical mass of competence required to improve significantly the corium behavior knowledge. The spirit of the SARNET networking is to share the knowledge, the facilities and the simulation tools for severe accidents, so to reach a better efficiency and to rationalize the R and D effort at European level. Extensive benchmarking has been launched in most of the areas of research. These benchmarks were mainly dedicated to the recalculation of experiments, while, in the next periods, a larger focus will be given to integral experiments or reactor applications. Eventually, all the knowledge will be accumulated in the ASTEC severe accident simulation code through physical model improvements and extension of validation database. This paper summarizes the progress that has been achieved in the frame of the networking activities. A special focus is placed on the melt pool and debris coolability and corium-concrete interaction, in which, the effects due to multidimensional geometries and heterogeneities has been shown, during SARNET, to play a crucial role and for which further research is still needed. (authors)

  1. Educating the next generation of atmospheric scientists within a European Network of Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuepbach, E.; Uherek, E.; Ladstätter-Weissenmayer, A.; Jacob, M. J.

    In order to promote the next generation of atmospheric scientists, the task Training and Education (T&E) in ACCENT, the European Network of Excellence in Atmospheric Composition Change ( www.accent-network.org) has developed and implemented an Integrated Learning Environment (ILE). For school teachers and their students, the Internet-based "Global Change Magazine" provides up-to-date and freely accessible scientific material in English and five other languages. Additionally, T&E has produced online teaching material for early-career scientists. These e-learning modules are now being used in University Master's courses across Europe. T&E also organised training events for early-career scientists, combining scientific content with development in transferable skills, to focus on interdisciplinary collaboration, interaction with senior scientists, communication with stakeholders, and dissemination to the general public. Evaluation based on participant feedback evidences the effectiveness of these events, e.g., in terms of motivation to remain in the field. Methodologies and materials from T&E are being published in a Handbook on Best Practice, intended for both educators and scientists around the globe who are involved in education in the field of air quality and climate change science.

  2. HTR-TN a European network for the development of HTR technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Lensa, W. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Sicherheitsforschung und Reaktortechnik; Guidez, J. [Joint Research Centre, JRC-IAM, HFR unit, Petten (Netherlands)

    2001-07-01

    A network called High-temperature reactor technology network (HTR-TN) has been created at a European level to coordinate works and knowledge on the subject with a long-term perspective and to serve as a channel for international collaboration. An analysis confirmed that the obvious economic penalty of HTR due to its low density power could be compensated by the combination of recent advances that may completely change the positioning of HTR on the energy market: -) the modular concept allowed to get a reactor free from core melt risk without intervention of any active safety system, implying a drastic simplification of the design of the reactor and the safety systems as well as a standardisation and potential for shop fabrication in series; -) the development of gas turbines, the efficiency of which increased, in 10 years, from 35% till 50% and more, enabling to consider suppression of the secondary system; -) the ultra high burn-up potential of HTR fuel and the possibility for direct disposal of spent HTR fuel elements that may reduce cost of the fuel cycle and contribute to the reduction of civil and military plutonium stockpiles. (A.C.)

  3. QUEST: QUantitative estimation of Earth's seismic sources and STructure: a European Initial Training Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igel, Heiner

    2010-05-01

    The Marie-Curie Initial Training Network QUEST joins scientists from 15 European partner institutions in the fields of exploration seismics, seismology, applied mathematics, high-performance computing, earthquake physics, physical inverse problems, geodynamics, from Departments of Mathematics, Physics, Earth and Computational Sciences, Oceanography and Exploration Geophysics. The main goal of QUEST is research and training in the development of strategies for seismic imaging using the increasing power of 3-D simulation technology. Existing methodologies are currently subject to a revolutionary change: While so far the observed information was severely reduced and approximate methods (e.g., ray theory) were used to determine Earth's structure, the massive increase in available computational resources allows us now to make use of the complete information contained in the observations. The QUEST objective is to integrate the various elements (wave propagation, high-performance computing, inverse problems) exploiting the synergies of the network expertise and develop the next generation of imaging tools for use on all spatial scales. The consortium is complemented by the formal partnership of one of the leading suppliers of geophysical technology to the oil and gas industry (Schlumberger Research) and Spectraseis AG (Zurich) exploiting passive imaging for industrial problems. The project offers funding for a substantial number of PhD and postdoc positons. More info at www.quest-itn.org.

  4. Test Your Asthma Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section Test Your Asthma Knowledge Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents For ... Asthma: A Chance to Heal / Test Your Asthma Knowledge Fall 2007 Issue: Volume 2 Number 4 Page ...

  5. Asthma in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have asthma. Nearly 9 million of them are children. Children have smaller airways than adults, which makes asthma especially serious for them. Children with asthma may experience wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, ...

  6. Asthma and Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Asthma and Food Allergies Page Content Article Body A family history of ... child may develop asthma . Children with asthma and food allergies are at increased risk for anaphylaxis, a severe ...

  7. Asthma Medications and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MD Medical Director, Health Initiatives View full profile Asthma and Pregnancy: Asthma Medications We would like to avoid all medicine ... make sure you are using it correctly. Other Asthma Related Medication Treatment Annual influenza vaccine (flu shot) ...

  8. Exercise-Induced Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Exercise-Induced Asthma KidsHealth > For Parents > Exercise-Induced Asthma Print A ... previous continue Tips for Kids With Exercise-Induced Asthma For the most part, kids with exercise-induced ...

  9. Asthma - child - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000001.htm Asthma - child - discharge To use the sharing features on ... for your child. Take charge of your child's asthma at home Make sure you know the asthma ...

  10. Asthma action plan

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2014-01-01

    This action plans allow each child (or parent/carer) to record his or her asthma treatment to help manage their asthma when they are well, when their symptoms get worse and when they are suffering an asthma attack.

  11. Severe asthma in children

    OpenAIRE

    Guilbert, TW; Bacharier, LB; Fitzpatrick, AM

    2014-01-01

    Severe asthma in children is characterized by sustained symptoms despite treatment with high doses of ICS or oral corticosteroids. Children with severe asthma may fall into two categories, difficult-to-treat asthma or severe therapy-resistant asthma. Difficult-to-treat asthma is defined as poor control due to an incorrect diagnosis or comorbidities, poor adherence due to adverse psychological or environmental factors. In contrast, treatment-resistant is defined as difficult asthma despite man...

  12. Social Network Type and Long-Term Condition Management Support: A Cross-Sectional Study in Six European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Network types and characteristics have been linked to the capacity of inter-personal environments to mobilise and share resources. The aim of this paper is to examine personal network types in relation to long-term condition management in order to identify the properties of network types most likely to provide support for those with a long-term condition. Method A cross-sectional observational survey of people with type 2 diabetes using interviews and questionnaires was conducted between April and October 2013 in six European countries: Greece, Spain, Bulgaria, Norway, United Kingdom, and Netherlands. 1862 people with predominantly lower socio-economic status were recruited from each country. We used k-means clustering analysis to derive the network types, and one-way analysis of variance and multivariate logistic regression analysis to explore the relationship between network type socio-economic characteristics, self-management monitoring and skills, well-being, and network member work. Results Five network types of people with long-term conditions were identified: restricted, minimal family, family, weak ties, and diverse. Restricted network types represented those with the poorest self-management skills and were associated with limited support from social network members. Restricted networks were associated with poor indicators across self-management capacity, network support, and well-being. Diverse networks were associated with more enhanced self-management skills amongst those with a long-term condition and high level of emotional support. It was the three network types which had a large number of network members (diverse, weak ties, and family) where healthcare utilisation was most likely to correspond to existing health needs. Discussion Our findings suggest that type of increased social involvement is linked to greater self-management capacity and potentially lower formal health care costs indicating that diverse networks constitute the optimal

  13. The fractal nature of the european network for airborne radioactivity monitoring and its implications for the detectability of radioactive clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both the European Communities (EC) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have agreed upon a rapid exchange of radiological data among their member states, in case of nuclear emergencies. This will happen through an information network operated by the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) and/or through the Global Telecommunications System of WMO. Data coming from nation wide on-line monitoring networks will be among the very first to be exchanged. They will constitute an important source of information for the real-time assessment of the situation after large accidents with national and international impact. In particular when data on airborne radioactivity are availably early after an accidental release, they might be used to update long range transport model predictions for the period to follow. It is therefore important to analyze the national networks in an international context, to see what information they can offer and what limitations exist

  14. European surveillance network for influenza in pigs: surveillance programs, diagnostic tools and Swine influenza virus subtypes identified in 14 European countries from 2010 to 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëlle Simon

    Full Text Available Swine influenza causes concern for global veterinary and public health officials. In continuing two previous networks that initiated the surveillance of swine influenza viruses (SIVs circulating in European pigs between 2001 and 2008, a third European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs (ESNIP3, 2010-2013 aimed to expand widely the knowledge of the epidemiology of European SIVs. ESNIP3 stimulated programs of harmonized SIV surveillance in European countries and supported the coordination of appropriate diagnostic tools and subtyping methods. Thus, an extensive virological monitoring, mainly conducted through passive surveillance programs, resulted in the examination of more than 9 000 herds in 17 countries. Influenza A viruses were detected in 31% of herds examined from which 1887 viruses were preliminary characterized. The dominating subtypes were the three European enzootic SIVs: avian-like swine H1N1 (53.6%, human-like reassortant swine H1N2 (13% and human-like reassortant swine H3N2 (9.1%, as well as pandemic A/H1N1 2009 (H1N1pdm virus (10.3%. Viruses from these four lineages co-circulated in several countries but with very different relative levels of incidence. For instance, the H3N2 subtype was not detected at all in some geographic areas whereas it was still prevalent in other parts of Europe. Interestingly, H3N2-free areas were those that exhibited highest frequencies of circulating H1N2 viruses. H1N1pdm viruses were isolated at an increasing incidence in some countries from 2010 to 2013, indicating that this subtype has become established in the European pig population. Finally, 13.9% of the viruses represented reassortants between these four lineages, especially between previous enzootic SIVs and H1N1pdm. These novel viruses were detected at the same time in several countries, with increasing prevalence. Some of them might become established in pig herds, causing implications for zoonotic infections.

  15. European Cross-National Production Networks in the Auto Industry: Eastern Europe as the Low End of European Car Complex

    OpenAIRE

    van Tulder, Rob; Ruigrok, Winifred

    1998-01-01

    Automakers have been among the first western firms to enter Central and Eastern Europe. In automobile production and distribution, International Production Networks (IPNs) linking West and East Europe are emerging. The international networking strategies of the car manufacturers, however, show remarkable differences. Some rate the CEEC region primarily as a market, some as a production site, some try to aim at both. These differences are triggered by the domestic bargaining setting (the '...

  16. Energy infrastructure priorities for 2020 and beyond. A Blueprint for an integrated European energy network. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Communication outlines a Blueprint which aims to provide the EU with a vision of what is needed for making our networks efficient. It puts forward a new method of strategic planning to map out necessary infrastructures, qualify which ones are of European interest on the basis of a clear and transparent methodology, and provide a toolbox to ensure their timely implementation, including ways to speed up authorisations, improve cost allocation and target finance to leverage private investment.

  17. Intraregional differences in asthma prevalence and risk factors for asthma among adolescents in Split-Dalmatia County, Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Gudelj, Ivan; Kobal, Iva Mrkić; Škvorc, Helena Munivrana; Miše, Kornelija; Vrbica, Žarko; Plavec, Davor; Tudorić, Neven

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Our aim was to assess the differences in intraregional prevalence of asthma in adolescents in Split-Dalmatia County to determine asthma risk factors in our population and estimate the specificity and sensitivity of the questionnaire used. Material/Methods We conducted the study using the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II short questionnaire supplemented by some questions from the International Study of Asthma in Childhood questionnaire. The participants suspec...

  18. Mapping Judicial Dialogue across National Borders: An Exploratory Network Study of Learning from Lobbying among European Intellectual Property Judges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Lazega

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at dialogue and collective learning across borders through personal networks of judges. We focus on judges participating in the Venice Forum, bringing together European patent judges involved in institutional lobbying for the construction of a European Patent Court. Empirical observation shows that personal networks of discussion with foreign judges, reading of their work and references to their decisions do exist in this milieu and can be mapped. Our network study shows that judges from some European countries are more active in this dialogue than judges from other countries. The learning process is driven, to some extent, by a small subset of super-central judges who frame this dialogue and can be considered to be opinion leaders in this social milieu. We measure a strong level of consensus among the judges on several controversial issues surrounding the procedure of a possible future European Patent Court. But strong differences between them remain. Dialogue and collective learning do not, by themselves, lead to convergence towards a uniform position in these controversies.

  19. ECRHS Screening Questionnaire Scoring: A Methodological Suggestion for Asthma Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biino, G.; Rezzani, C.; Grassi, M.; Marinoni, A.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the unidimensionality of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) screening questionnaire and determined and validated a scoring of asthma-like symptoms seriousness. Data from 6,946 adults at 3 Italian screening centers found a single dimension underlying the screening questionnaire. A scoring of asthma-like symptoms…

  20. Science Objectives and Design of the European Seas Observatory NETwork (ESONET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, H.; Géli, L.; Karstensen, J.; Colaço, A.; Lampitt, R.; Greinert, J.; Phannkuche, O.; Auffret, Y.

    2009-04-01

    The needs for a network of ocean observing systems cross many applied and research areas of earth and marine science. Many of the science areas that can be examined using such systems have direct impacts on societal health and well being and our understanding of ocean function in a shifting climate. The European Seas Observatory NETwork (ESONET) Network of Excellence has been evaluating ocean observatory design requirements, data management needs, standardization and interoperability concerns, social implications, outreach and education, as well as financial and legal aspects of developing such a system. ESONET has great potential to address a growing set of Earth science questions that require a broad and integrated network of ocean and seafloor observations. ESONET activities are also importantly integrating researchers in the European Community, as well as internationally. There is now wide recognition that research addressing science questions of international priority, such as understanding the potential impacts of climate change or geohazards like earthquakes and tsunamis should be conducted in a framework that can address questions across adequate temporal and spatial scales. We will present the relevant science priorities in the four interconnected fields of geoscience, physical oceanography, biogeochemistry, and marine ecology, and some of the practical ways in which these questions can be addressed using ESONET. Several key questions persist that will require comprehensive interdisciplinary approaches including: How can monitoring of factors such as seismic activity, fluid pore chemistry and pressure, improve seismic, slope failure, and tsunami warning? To what extent do seabed processes influence ocean physics, biogeochemistry, and marine ecosystems? How are physical and biogeochemical processes that occur at differing scales related? What aspects of physical oceanography and biogeochemical cycling will be most sensitive to climate change? What will the

  1. Interpreting canopy development and physiology using a European phenology camera network at flux sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingate, L.; Ogée, J.; Cremonese, E.; Filippa, G.; Mizunuma, T.; Migliavacca, M.; Moisy, C.; Wilkinson, M.; Moureaux, C.; Wohlfahrt, G.; Hammerle, A.; Hörtnagl, L.; Gimeno, C.; Porcar-Castell, A.; Galvagno, M.; Nakaji, T.; Morison, J.; Kolle, O.; Knohl, A.; Kutsch, W.; Kolari, P.; Nikinmaa, E.; Ibrom, A.; Gielen, B.; Eugster, W.; Balzarolo, M.; Papale, D.; Klumpp, K.; Köstner, B.; Grünwald, T.; Joffre, R.; Ourcival, J.-M.; Hellstrom, M.; Lindroth, A.; George, C.; Longdoz, B.; Genty, B.; Levula, J.; Heinesch, B.; Sprintsin, M.; Yakir, D.; Manise, T.; Guyon, D.; Ahrends, H.; Plaza-Aguilar, A.; Guan, J. H.; Grace, J.

    2015-10-01

    Plant phenological development is orchestrated through subtle changes in photoperiod, temperature, soil moisture and nutrient availability. Presently, the exact timing of plant development stages and their response to climate and management practices are crudely represented in land surface models. As visual observations of phenology are laborious, there is a need to supplement long-term observations with automated techniques such as those provided by digital repeat photography at high temporal and spatial resolution. We present the first synthesis from a growing observational network of digital cameras installed on towers across Europe above deciduous and evergreen forests, grasslands and croplands, where vegetation and atmosphere CO2 fluxes are measured continuously. Using colour indices from digital images and using piecewise regression analysis of time series, we explored whether key changes in canopy phenology could be detected automatically across different land use types in the network. The piecewise regression approach could capture the start and end of the growing season, in addition to identifying striking changes in colour signals caused by flowering and management practices such as mowing. Exploring the dates of green-up and senescence of deciduous forests extracted by the piecewise regression approach against dates estimated from visual observations, we found that these phenological events could be detected adequately (RMSE photosynthesis in ecosystems across Europe. Coupling such quasi-continuous digital records of canopy colours with co-located CO2 flux measurements will improve our understanding of how changes in growing season length are likely to shape the capacity of European ecosystems to sequester CO2 in the future.

  2. European VLBI Network imaging of 6.7 GHz methanol masers

    CERN Document Server

    Bartkiewicz, Anna; van Langevelde, Huib J

    2016-01-01

    Methanol masers at 6.7 GHz are well known tracers of high-mass star-forming regions. However, their origin is still not clearly understood. We aimed to determine the morphology and velocity structure for a large sample of the maser emission with generally lower peak flux densities than those in previous surveys. Using the European VLBI Network we imaged the remaining sources (17) from a sample of sources that were selected from the unbiased survey using the Torun 32 m dish. Together they form a database of a total of 63 source images with high sensitivity, milliarcsecond angular resolution and very good spectral resolution for detailed studies. We studied in detail the properties of the maser clouds and calculated the mean and median values of the projected size (17.4 au and 5.5 au, respectively) as well as the FWHM of the line (0.373 km s$^{-1}$ and 0.315 km s$^{-1}$ for the mean and median values, respectively), testing whether it was consistent with Gaussian profile. We also found maser clouds with velocit...

  3. On the nature of FRB 150418: clues from European VLBI Network and e-MERLIN observations

    CERN Document Server

    Giroletti, M; Garrett, M; Paragi, Z; Yang, J; Hada, K; Muxlow, T W B; Cheung, C C

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the nature of the compact, and possibly variable nuclear radio source in the centre of WISE J0716-19, the proposed host galaxy of fast radio burst, FRB 150418. We observed WISE J0716-19 at 5.0 GHz with the European VLBI Network four times between 2016 March 16 and June 2. At three epochs, we simultaneously observed the source with e-MERLIN at the same frequency. We detected a compact source in the EVN data in each epoch with a significance up to ~8sigma. The four epochs yielded consistent results within their uncertainties, for both peak surface intensity and positions. The mean values for these quantities are I_peak = (115+-9) {\\mu}Jy/beam and r.a. = 07:16:34.55496(7), dec. = -19:00:39.4754(8), respectively. The e-MERLIN data provided ~3-5sigma detections, at a position consistent with those of the EVN data. The presence of emission on angular scales intermediate between the EVN and e-MERLIN is consistent with being null. The brightness temperature of the EVN core is Tb~10^8.5K, close to the v...

  4. European cerebrospinal fluid consensus group--a TeamRoom (Lotus Notes)-based communication network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, P; Reiber, H; Brennan, C

    2000-08-01

    A group of clinical neurochemists from all over Europe used TeamRoom to share information and to trace their discussions in a computer network. TeamRoom is a Lotus Notes based groupware tool enabling collaboration amongst geographically dispersed teams. As a result of this work a picture is emerging in the virtual TeamRoom space that represents a new kind of consensus in the use of cerebrospinal fluid analysis for diagnosis of neurological diseases. This kind of consensus differs from the conventional written report in giving a more complex and potentially richer representation of the field, in which both common views and minority perspectives are revealed. If direct access to this work is made available to other clinical neurochemists for consultation via a website, they may see their own practice in a wider context. This approach to improving different evolving traditions is more suitable for a global multicultural environment than a singular view of best practice produced by a more traditional process of group discussion. We refer to the benefits of a mixture of face to face meetings, collaboration in TeamRoom and teleconferencing for work in a non-hierarchical, multicultural and multilingual group. We suggest that the TeamRoom concept is a valuable model for enhancing self-organized harmonization across the developing European Union. PMID:11071068

  5. Report of the European Myeloma Network on multiparametric flow cytometry in multiple myeloma and related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawstron, Andy C; Orfao, Alberto; Beksac, Meral; Bezdickova, Ludmila; Brooimans, Rik A; Bumbea, Horia; Dalva, Klara; Fuhler, Gwenny; Gratama, Jan; Hose, Dirk; Kovarova, Lucie; Lioznov, Michael; Mateo, Gema; Morilla, Ricardo; Mylin, Anne K; Omedé, Paola; Pellat-Deceunynck, Catherine; Perez Andres, Martin; Petrucci, Maria; Ruggeri, Marina; Rymkiewicz, Grzegorz; Schmitz, Alexander; Schreder, Martin; Seynaeve, Carine; Spacek, Martin; de Tute, Ruth M; Van Valckenborgh, Els; Weston-Bell, Nicky; Owen, Roger G; San Miguel, Jesús F; Sonneveld, Pieter; Johnsen, Hans E

    2008-03-01

    The European Myeloma Network (EMN) organized two flow cytometry workshops. The first aimed to identify specific indications for flow cytometry in patients with monoclonal gammopathies, and consensus technical approaches through a questionnaire-based review of current practice in participating laboratories. The second aimed to resolve outstanding technical issues and develop a consensus approach to analysis of plasma cells. The primary clinical applications identified were: differential diagnosis of neoplastic plasma cell disorders from reactive plasmacytosis; identifying risk of progression in patients with MGUS and detecting minimal residual disease. A range of technical recommendations were identified, including: 1) CD38, CD138 and CD45 should all be included in at least one tube for plasma cell identification and enumeration. The primary gate should be based on CD38 vs. CD138 expression; 2) after treatment, clonality assessment is only likely to be informative when combined with immunophenotype to detect abnormal cells. Flow cytometry is suitable for demonstrating a stringent complete remission; 3) for detection of abnormal plasma cells, a minimal panel should include CD19 and CD56. A preferred panel would also include CD20, CD117, CD28 and CD27; 4) discrepancies between the percentage of plasma cells detected by flow cytometry and morphology are primarily related to sample quality and it is, therefore, important to determine that marrow elements are present in follow-up samples, particularly normal plasma cells in MRD negative cases. PMID:18268286

  6. Eurosdr - the Pan-European Network for Mapping Agencies and Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streilein, A.; Remondino, F.; Pfeifer, N.; Trollvik, J. A.; Stoter, J.; Crompvoets, J.; Potůčková, M.

    2016-06-01

    EuroSDR (http://www.eurosdr.net/) is a non-profit organisation that provides a pan-European network that brings together mapping / cadastre agencies and academia for the purpose of applied research, and securing timely, research-based knowledge that allows the agencies to play their role as content providers and government competence centres for geographic information and spatial data infrastructures. EuroSDR is the recognised provider of research-based knowledge to a Europe where citizens can readily benefit from geographic information. Its mission is to develop and improve methods, systems and standards for the acquisition, processing, production, maintenance, management, visualization, and dissemination of geographic reference data in support of applications and service delivery. EuroSDR delivers advanced research-based knowledge. Its value is generated by facilitating interaction between research organisations and the public and private sector with the aim of exchanging ideas and knowledge about relevant research topics; by facilitating and contributing to research projects; and by transferring knowledge and research results to real world applications. The paper gives an overview about EuroSDR research principles, research alliances, objectives and action plans of each of the technical commissions.

  7. Analysis of the LF data collected by the European radio network during one year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagi, Pier Francesco; Righetti, Flavia; Maggipinto, Tommaso; Ermini, Anita; Moldovan, Iren; Moldovan, Adrian; Buyuksarac, Aydin; da Silva, Hugo; Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Contadakis, Michael E.

    2011-04-01

    During 2008 a radio receiver was developed by the Italian factory Elettronika. The receiver is an equipment working in VLF (15-60 kHz) and LF (150-300 kHz) bands. It can monitor 10 frequencies distributed in these bands and, for each of them, saves the electric field intensity. During 2009 six receivers were installed for the realization of the "European VLF/LF network". Actually, two of them are into operation in Italy and one in Greece, Turkey, Portugal and Romania, respectively; a sampling rate of 1 minute is used. The LF radio data collected from July 2009 to December 2010 have been analysed. At first, for each radio signal, the day time data and the night time ones were separated. Taking into account that the LF signals are characterized by the ground wave and the sky wave propagation modes, the day data are related to the ground wave and the night data to the sky wave. In a first analysis the effect of the solar activity and of the thunderstorm activity was pointed out in the different trends. Then the wavelet analysis was applied on the same trends. Some anomalies probably related to earthquakes occurred nearby some transmitter-receiver path with M>5 were revealed.

  8. Asthma and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Caroline Trunk-Black; Ali, Zarqa; Nilas, Lisbeth;

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a major health problem, and obesity is associated with a high incidence of asthma and poor asthma control. The aim of the present paper is to systematically review the current knowledge of the effect on overall asthma control of weight reduction in overweight and obese adults with asthma....

  9. Vascular Biomarkers in Asthma and COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakakos, Petros; Patentalakis, George; Papi, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remain a global health problem with significant morbidity and mortality. The changes in bronchial microvasculature that occurin asthma and COPD contribute to airway wall remodeling. Angiogenesis seems to be more prevalent in asthma and vasodilatation seemsmore relevant in COPD while vascular leak is present in both diseases. Recently, there has been increased interest in the vascular component of airway remodeling in chronic bronchial inflammation of asthma and COPD although its role in the progression of the diseases has not been fully elucidated. Various cells andmediators are involved in the vascular remodeling in asthma and COPD while proinflammatory cytokines and growth factors exert angiogenic and antiangiogenic effects. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key regulator of blood vessel growth mainly in asthma but also in COPD. In asthmatic airways VEGF promotes proliferation and differentiation of endothelial cells and induces vascular leakage and permeability. It has also been involved in enhanced allergic sensitization, upregulated subsequent T-helper-2 type inflammatory responses, chemotaxis for monocytes and eosinophils, and airway oedema. Impaired VEGF signaling has been associated with emphysema in animal models. Studies on lung biopsies have shown a decreasing effect of anti-asthma drugs to the vascular component of airway remodeling. There is less available evidence on the effect of the currently used drugs on airway microvascular network in COPD. This review article explores the current knowledge regarding vascular biomarkers in asthma and COPD as well as the therapeutic implications of these mediators. PMID:26420364

  10. Effect of spatial sampling from European flux towers for estimating carbon and water fluxes with artificial neural network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papale, D.; Black, T Andrew; Carvalhais, Nuno; Cescatti, Alessandro; Chen, Jiquan; Jung, Martin; Kiely, Gerard; Lasslop, Gitta; Mahecha, Miguel D.; Margolis, Hank; Merbold, Lutz; Montagnani, Leonardo; Moors, Eddy; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Reichstein, Markus; Tramontana, Gianluca; van Gorsel, Eva; Wohlfart, Georg; Raduly, Botond

    2015-01-01

    prediction uncertainty in both, regional GPP and LE budgets and their interannual variability. Results obtained show that for ANN upscaling for continents with relatively small networks of sites, the error due to the sampling can be large and needs to be considered and quantified. The analysis of the spatial......-output relationships, while prediction for conditions outside the training domain is generally uncertain. In this work, artificial neural networks (ANNs) were used for the prediction of gross primary production (GPP) and latent heat flux (LE) on local and European scales with the aim to assess the portion of...

  11. Occupational asthma in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Dobashi, Kunio

    2012-01-01

    Research into occupational asthma (OA) in Japan has been led by the Japanese Society of Occupational and Environmental Allergy. The first report about allergic OA identified konjac asthma. After that, many kinds of OA have been reported. Cases of some types of OA, such as konjac asthma and sea squirt asthma, have been dramatically reduced by the efforts of medical personnel. Recently, with the development of new technologies, chemical antigen-induced asthma has increased in Japan. Due to adva...

  12. Imaging of Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, John Caleb; Lynch, David; Koelsch, Tilman; Dyer, Debra

    2016-08-01

    Asthma is one of the most common diseases of the lung. Asthma manifests with common, although often subjective and nonspecific, imaging features at radiography and high-resolution computed tomography. The primary role of imaging is not to make a diagnosis of asthma but to identify complications, such as allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, or mimics of asthma, such as hypersensitivity pneumonitis. This article reviews the imaging features of asthma as well as common complications and mimics. PMID:27401624

  13. Online social networking in adolescence: patterns of use in six European countries and links with psychosocial functioning.

    OpenAIRE

    Tsitsika, A.K.; Tzavela, E.C.; Janikian, M.; Olafsson, K.; Iordache, A; Schoenmakers, T.M.; Tzavara, C.; Richardson, C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Online communication tools, such as social networking sites (SNS), have been comprehensively embraced by adolescents and have become a dominant daily social practice. Recognizing SNS as a key context of adolescent development, this study aimed to investigate associations between heavier SNS use, and adolescent competencies and internalizing problems. Methods: Data was collected in six European countries: Greece, Spain, Poland, the Netherlands, Romania, and Iceland. Participants were ...

  14. European network for promoting the physical health of residents in psychiatric and social care facilities (HELPS): background, aims and methods

    OpenAIRE

    Marginean Roxana; Lucas Ramona; Lech Katarzyna; Larsen Jens; Lai Taavi; Hjorth Peter; Henderson John; Halis Ulaş; Germanavicius Arunas; Genova Aneta; Friedrich Fabian; Freidl Marion; Dragomirecka Eva; Dernovsek Mojca; Burton Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background People with mental disorders have a higher prevalence of physical illnesses and reduced life expectancy as compared with the general population. However, there is a lack of knowledge across Europe concerning interventions that aim at reducing somatic morbidity and excess mortality by promoting behaviour-based and/or environment-based interventions. Methods and design HELPS is an interdisciplinary European network that aims at (i) gathering relevant knowledge on physical il...

  15. European network for promoting the physical health of residents in psychiatric and social care facilities (HELPS): background, aims and methods

    OpenAIRE

    Weiser, P.; Becker, T; Losert, C.; Altpekin, K.; Berti, L.; Burti, L.; Burton, A

    2009-01-01

    Background People with mental disorders have a higher prevalence of physical illnesses and reduced life expectancy as compared with the general population. However, there is a lack of knowledge across Europe concerning interventions that aim at reducing somatic morbidity and excess mortality by promoting behaviour-based and/or environment-based interventions. Methods and design HELPS is an interdisciplinary European network that aims at (i) gathering relevant knowledge on physical ...

  16. Ocean Data and Information Network for European Countries in Economical Transition (ODINECET): Progress report 2005-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Kalenchits, Maria

    2007-01-01

    The official endorsement to proceed with the establishing of a European ODIN for Eastern countries was given by IODE at its XVIII meeting, following the suggestion in the 2005 GEMIM report to IODE. The project document was prepared by the Coordinating Group, presented and reviewed at the ODINECET kick-off meeting (Oostende, 25 March 2006). On 19 April 2006 a Project Proposal was prepared. In the first stages, this network focus on aquatic information management mainly, building on the alre...

  17. Upgrading and electrification of Greek trunk line Piraeus-Athens-Thessaloniki, a connection to the European high speed network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsitouras, C. [ERGOSE Hellas Rail Consult, Athens (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    This paper explains the large amount of work being undertaken by Greek railways to improve their network and to make connections of the European development of modern, high speed railways. It describes the projects of infrastructure rehabilitation and new line sections along the main trunk line from Athens to Thessaloniki including electrification and new signalling. It also refers to adjacent projects towards the line to the Peleponese, in the Athens area and towards the northern border. (orig.)

  18. Job strain and the risk of severe asthma exacerbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkilä, K; Madsen, I E H; Nyberg, S T;

    2014-01-01

    in working-age European men and women. METHODS: We analysed individual-level data, collected between 1985 and 2010, from 102 175 working-age men and women in 11 prospective European studies. Job strain (a combination of high demands and low control at work) was self-reported at baseline. Incident...... 10 years, 1 109 individuals experienced a severe asthma exacerbation (430 with asthma as the primary diagnostic code). In the age- and sex-adjusted analyses, job strain was associated with an increased risk of severe asthma exacerbations defined using the primary diagnostic code (hazard ratio, HR: 1...

  19. Semantically supporting data discovery, markup and aggregation in the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Roy; Leadbetter, Adam

    2014-05-01

    The semantic content of the NERC Vocabulary Server (NVS) has been developed over thirty years. It has been used to mark up metadata and data in a wide range of international projects, including the European Commission (EC) Framework Programme 7 projects SeaDataNet and The Open Service Network for Marine Environmental Data (NETMAR). Within the United States, the National Science Foundation projects Rolling Deck to Repository and Biological & Chemical Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) use concepts from NVS for markup. Further, typed relationships between NVS concepts and terms served by the Marine Metadata Interoperability Ontology Registry and Repository. The vast majority of the concepts publicly served from NVS (35% of ~82,000) form the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) Parameter Usage Vocabulary (PUV). The PUV is instantiated on the NVS as a SKOS concept collection. These terms are used to describe the individual channels in data and metadata served by, for example, BODC, SeaDataNet and BCO-DMO. The PUV terms are designed to be very precise and may contain a high level of detail. Some users have reported that the PUV is difficult to navigate due to its size and complexity (a problem CSIRO have begun to address by deploying a SISSVoc interface to the NVS), and it has been difficult to aggregate data as multiple PUV terms can - with full validity - be used to describe the same data channels. Better approaches to data aggregation are required as a use case for the PUV from the EC European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) Chemistry project. One solution, proposed and demonstrated during the course of the NETMAR project, is to build new SKOS concept collections which formalise the desired aggregations for given applications, and uses typed relationships to state which PUV concepts contribute to a specific aggregation. Development of these new collections requires input from a group of experts in the application domain who can decide which PUV

  20. European network for Health Technology Assessment Joint Action (EUnetHTA JA): a process evaluation performed by questionnaires and documentary analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Woodford Guegan, Eleanor; Cook, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background: The European network for Health Technology Assessment Joint Action (EUnetHTA JA) project’s overarching objective was to ‘establish an effective and sustainable HTA [Health technology assessment] collaboration in Europe that brings added value at the regional, national and European level’. Specific objectives were to develop a strategy and business model for sustainable European collaboration on HTA, develop HTA tools and methods and promote good practice in HTA methods and process...

  1. European Myeloma Network guidelines for the management of multiple myeloma-related complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpos, Evangelos; Kleber, Martina; Engelhardt, Monika; Zweegman, Sonja; Gay, Francesca; Kastritis, Efstathios; van de Donk, Niels W C J; Bruno, Benedetto; Sezer, Orhan; Broijl, Annemiek; Bringhen, Sara; Beksac, Meral; Larocca, Alessandra; Hajek, Roman; Musto, Pellegrino; Johnsen, Hans Erik; Morabito, Fortunato; Ludwig, Heinz; Cavo, Michele; Einsele, Hermann; Sonneveld, Pieter; Dimopoulos, Meletios A; Palumbo, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    The European Myeloma Network provides recommendations for the management of the most common complications of multiple myeloma. Whole body low-dose computed tomography is more sensitive than conventional radiography in depicting osteolytic disease and thus we recommend it as the novel standard for the detection of lytic lesions in myeloma (grade 1A). Myeloma patients with adequate renal function and bone disease at diagnosis should be treated with zoledronic acid or pamidronate (grade 1A). Symptomatic patients without lytic lesions on conventional radiography can be treated with zoledronic acid (grade 1B), but its advantage is not clear for patients with no bone involvement on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. In asymptomatic myeloma, bisphosphonates are not recommended (grade 1A). Zoledronic acid should be given continuously, but it is not clear if patients who achieve at least a very good partial response benefit from its continuous use (grade 1B). Treatment with erythropoietic-stimulating agents may be initiated in patients with persistent symptomatic anemia (hemoglobin <10g/dL) in whom other causes of anemia have been excluded (grade 1B). Erythropoietic agents should be stopped after 6-8 weeks if no adequate hemoglobin response is achieved. For renal impairment, bortezomib-based regimens are the current standard of care (grade 1A). For the management of treatment-induced peripheral neuropathy, drug modification is needed (grade 1C). Vaccination against influenza is recommended; vaccination against streptococcus pneumonia and hemophilus influenza is appropriate, but efficacy is not guaranteed due to suboptimal immune response (grade 1C). Prophylactic aciclovir (or valacyclovir) is recommended for patients receiving proteasome inhibitors, autologous or allogeneic transplantation (grade 1A). PMID:26432383

  2. European Myeloma Network Guidelines for the Management of Multiple Myeloma-related Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpos, Evangelos; Kleber, Martina; Engelhardt, Monika; Zweegman, Sonja; Gay, Francesca; Kastritis, Efstathios; van de Donk, Niels W.C.J.; Bruno, Benedetto; Sezer, Orhan; Broijl, Annemiek; Bringhen, Sara; Beksac, Meral; Larocca, Alessandra; Hajek, Roman; Musto, Pellegrino; Johnsen, Hans Erik; Morabito, Fortunato; Ludwig, Heinz; Cavo, Michele; Einsele, Hermann; Sonneveld, Pieter; Dimopoulos, Meletios A.; Palumbo, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The European Myeloma Network provides recommendations for the management of the most common complications of multiple myeloma. Whole body low-dose computed tomography is more sensitive than conventional radiography in depicting osteolytic disease and thus we recommend it as the novel standard for the detection of lytic lesions in myeloma (grade 1A). Myeloma patients with adequate renal function and bone disease at diagnosis should be treated with zoledronic acid or pamidronate (grade 1A). Symptomatic patients without lytic lesions on conventional radiography can be treated with zoledronic acid (grade 1B), but its advantage is not clear for patients with no bone involvement on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. In asymptomatic myeloma, bisphosphonates are not recommended (grade 1A). Zoledronic acid should be given continuously, but it is not clear if patients who achieve at least a very good partial response benefit from its continuous use (grade 1B). Treatment with erythropoietic-stimulating agents may be initiated in patients with persistent symptomatic anemia (hemoglobin <10g/dL) in whom other causes of anemia have been excluded (grade 1B). Erythropoietic agents should be stopped after 6–8 weeks if no adequate hemoglobin response is achieved. For renal impairment, bortezomib-based regimens are the current standard of care (grade 1A). For the management of treatment-induced peripheral neuropathy, drug modification is needed (grade 1C). Vaccination against influenza is recommended; vaccination against streptococcus pneumonia and hemophilus influenza is appropriate, but efficacy is not guaranteed due to suboptimal immune response (grade 1C). Prophylactic aciclovir (or valacyclovir) is recommended for patients receiving proteasome inhibitors, autologous or allogeneic transplantation (grade 1A). PMID:26432383

  3. The need for scientists and judges to work together: regarding a new European network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosuosso Amedeo

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Is it always true to say that science is, by definition, universal whilst laws and the courts which apply them are a classic state and national expression? Yes and no. In recent years a new scenario has opened all over the world. Courts intervene more and more in disputes on matters related to scientific procedures in the biological field. In doing so the courts' decisions are affected by scientific issues and ways of reasoning and, on the other hand, affect the scientific field and its way of reasoning. While the old matter of bioethics was still alive and while judges were improving their skill in dealing with hard matters, like refusal of medical treatments, abortion, euthanasia et cetera, a new challenge appeared on the horizon, the challenge of biological sciences, and especially of the most troubled field of human genetics. A completely new awareness is developing among judges that they belong to an international judiciary community, as informal as it is real. Such a community is, even at an embryonic stage, sufficiently universal to be able to come together with the international scientific community. The authors maintain we are in urgent need for new interaction between judges and scientists and of new international means in the light of such cooperation. Judges and jurists need to become better acquainted with scientific questions and learn to exchange ideas with scientists. They also need to set themselves against the latters' conceptual systems and be willing to put their own up for discussion. A European Network for Life Sciences, Health and the Courts is taking its first steps, and judges and scientists are working side by side to tackle the new challenges. The provisional headquarters are located at the University of Pavia (I, Laboratorio di Biologia dello Sviluppo and Collegio Ghislieri (e-mail:. enlsc@unipv.it. ENLSC activity is inspired by the following idea: to be against science is as much antiscientific as to be

  4. Network of Research Infrastructures for European Seismology (NERIES)-Web Portal Developments for Interactive Access to Earthquake Data on a European Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinuso, A.; Trani, L.; Rives, S.; Thomy, P.; Euchner, F.; Schorlemmer, D.; Saul, J.; Heinloo, A.; Bossu, R.; van Eck, T.

    2009-04-01

    The Network of Research Infrastructures for European Seismology (NERIES) is European Commission (EC) project whose focus is networking together seismological observatories and research institutes into one integrated European infrastructure that provides access to data and data products for research. Seismological institutes and organizations in European and Mediterranean countries maintain large, geographically distributed data archives, therefore this scenario suggested a design approach based on the concept of an internet service oriented architecture (SOA) to establish a cyberinfrastructure for distributed and heterogeneous data streams and services. Moreover, one of the goals of NERIES is to design and develop a Web portal that acts as the uppermost layer of the infrastructure and provides rendering capabilities for the underlying sets of data The Web services that are currently being designed and implemented will deliver data that has been adopted to appropriate formats. The parametric information about a seismic event is delivered using a seismology-specific Extensible mark-up Language(XML) format called QuakeML (https://quake.ethz.ch/quakeml), which has been formalized and implemented in coordination with global earthquake-information agencies. Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) are used to assign identifiers to (1) seismic-event parameters described by QuakeML, and (2) generic resources, for example, authorities, locations providers, location methods, software adopted, and so on, described by use of a data model constructed with the resource description framework (RDF) and accessible as a service. The European-Mediterranean Seismological Center (EMSC) has implemented a unique event identifier (UNID) that will create the seismic event URI used by the QuakeML data model. Access to data such as broadband waveform, accelerometric data and stations inventories will be also provided through a set of Web services that will wrap the middleware used by the

  5. Obesity and Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Caroline Trunk-Black; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is more prevalent in obese compared with normal weight subjects. Our aim has been to review current knowledge of the impact of obesity on asthma severity, asthma control, and response to therapy.Several studies have shown that overweight and obesity is associated with more severe asthma and...... impaired quality of life compared with normal weight individuals. Furthermore, obesity is associated with poorer asthma control, as assessed by asthma control questionnaires, limitations in daily activities, breathlessness and wheezing, use of rescue medication, unscheduled doctor visits, emergency...... department visits, and hospitalizations for acute asthma. Studies of the impact of a high body mass index (BMI) on response to asthma therapy have, however, revealed conflicting results. Most studies show that overweight and obesity is associated with less favorable response to asthma therapy with regard to...

  6. ENETRAP II: European network of education and training in radiation protection, data base training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development and implementation of a European standard for high quality initial training and professional development continued in the Radiation Protection Expert-RPE and Radiation Protection Officer-RPO, also of a methodology for the mutual recognition of these professionals by making use of the available instruments of the European Union (GE).

  7. Salmeterol in the treatment of childhood asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A.P.H. Vaessen-Verberne (Anja)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractAsthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood. Although mortality rates in the Netherlands and other Western European countries are low, astlmm causes a great deal of morbidity and school absence. Incidence rates in our country are about 10% and recent epidemiologic studies show

  8. Digital Construction Promotes the Innovation of Asthma Network Management Mode%数字化建设推进哮喘病网络管理模式的创新

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建华; 代静; 吴俊丽; 赵芮

    2016-01-01

    目的:依据支气管哮喘(简称哮喘)专业特点,从当前数字化医院建设中存在的哮喘管理问题及需求出发,创新哮喘管理模式。方法:课题依托医院数字化的信息平台及六级病历系统,通过建立“哮喘的数字化网络管理平台”,进行医疗与管理的充分融合。结果:采用数字化网络管理模式对哮喘患者实施集中管理,定期短信提醒复诊督导及通知集中宣教,利用微信及QQ群与患者相互沟通,交流灵活,使患者可随时随地的接受健康指导、病情评估、随访提醒等,突破了空间的限制,同时提高了患者用药依从性,促进医患互动,大大提高了医护工作质量和效率,全面实现医院对慢性病管理的规范化、科学化、精细化,提高医院的管理水平。结论:改进现有的哮喘管理模式,探索一种医、护、患三方紧密联系的医疗服务模式,切实推广并落实哮喘的规范化治疗和管理,对提高哮喘的总体控制水平具有重要的意义,值得进行开展及推广。%Objective: On the basis of professional characteristics of bronchial asthma (hereafter referred to as asthma), starting from asthma management problems and demand existing in the current digital hospital construction, to innovate the asthma management mode. Methods: Relying on the digital information platform and six levels of medical record system of the hospital, through the establishment of the digital network management platform of asthma, the subject fully integrates healthcare and management. Results:With digital network management mode, centralized management of patients with asthma is implemented, subsequent visit is reminded of and propaganda and education are informed of regularly with SMS, with WeChat and QQ group patients are communicated with, the communication is flexible, so that the patients can accept health guidance, condition evaluation, follow-up reminder and

  9. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Asthma among Persons with Current Asthma Asthma and Obesity Percentage of People with Asthma who Smoke Insurance ... Asthma NCHS Asthma FastStats Survey Questions Resources for Health Professionals and Schools Healthcare Professionals Public Health Professionals ...

  10. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Asthma among Persons with Current Asthma Asthma and Obesity Percentage of People with Asthma who Smoke Insurance ... Asthma Resources for Professionals National Asthma Control Program America Breathing Easier Guide for State Programs Interventions Community ...

  11. For Parents of Children with Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Asthma > Managing Asthma For Parents of Children with Asthma Your Child's Asthma: A Parent's Guide to Better Breathing This step- ... health considerations you should keep in mind. Diagnosing Asthma in Young Children Most children who have asthma ...

  12. Financing investment in the European electricity transmission network: Consequences on long-term sustainability of the TSOs financial structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article focuses on the ability of European TSOs to meet the demand for substantial investments in the electricity transmission grid over the next two decades. We employ quantitative analysis to assess the impact of the required capital expenditures under a set of alternative financing strategies. We consider a best-case scenario of full cooperation between the European TSOs. It appears that under current trends in the evolution of transmission tariffs, only half the volumes of investment currently planned could be funded. A highly significant increase in transmission tariffs will be required to ensure the whole-scale investments can be delivered. Finally, alternative strategies can dampen the impact on tariffs but they can only partially substitute for this increase in charges paid by network users. -- Highlights: •We applied balance-sheet modelling to a single European Electricity TSO. •Investments planned will not be achievable under current tariffs evolution. •A three-fold higher growth of transmission network tariffs would be necessary. •New financing strategies can dampen the impact on tariffs, to a minor extent

  13. The (European) HTR Technology Network (HTR-TN) and the development of HTR technology in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HTR-TN (high temperature reactor - technology network) has been created in 2000 for building a coherent partnership for the development of HTR technology in Europe. For that purpose, HTR-TN elaborated a road-map for the emergence of a new generation of industrial HTRs. Through the fifth EURATOM Framework Programme (FP5), HTR-TN recovered the basis of past European HTR experience, addressed key feasibility issues for Generation IV high temperature systems and made significant advances in the fields of reactor physics (improved calculation methods), fuel (high quality fabrication and very high burn-up behaviour), waste management, qualification of materials for higher performance, component development and definition of safety approach for modular HTRs. In the sixth Framework Programme (FP6), a new integrated project, RAPHAEL, continues the technology developments addressed in FP5 and explores solutions for improving HTR performances towards higher temperatures (above 900 C degrees) and burn-up (up to 200 GWd/tHM): the VHTR objective. Moreover HTR-TN initiated other complementary actions in FP6. The RAPHAEL project has launched key experiments for HTR development: continuation of the graphite irradiation programme started in FP5 in HFR to higher fluences and temperature, test of a heat exchanger element in a helium loop (HE-FUS3, ENEA), irradiation of representative fuel coating material samples for modelling the evolution of their properties, fuel accident heat-up tests in the KUFA facility, integral air ingress tests (NACOK, FZJ), isotopic analysis of fuel irradiated to very high burn-up (170 GWd/tHM). The main motivation for developing a new generation of HTRs is their potential for providing high temperature heat for industrial processes. But coupling a nuclear reactor with an industrial process is very challenging. Therefore after developing base technologies for modular HTRs in FP5 and FP6, the future objective should be the demonstration of such a coupling by

  14. European VLBI Network imaging of 6.7 GHz methanol masers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkiewicz, A.; Szymczak, M.; van Langevelde, H. J.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Methanol masers at 6.7 GHz are well known tracers of high-mass star-forming regions. However, their origin is still not clearly understood. Aims: We aimed to determine the morphology and velocity structure for a large sample of the maser emission with generally lower peak flux densities than those in previous surveys. Methods: Using the European VLBI Network (EVN) we imaged the remaining sources from a sample of sources that were selected from the unbiased survey using the Torun 32 m dish. In this paper we report the results for 17 targets. Together they form a database of a total of 63 source images with high sensitivity (3σrms = 15-30 mJy beam-1), milliarcsecond angular resolution (6-10 mas) and very good spectral resolution (0.09 km s-1 or 0.18 km s-1) for detailed studies. Results: We studied in detail the properties of the maser clouds and calculated the mean and median values of the projected size (17.4 ± 1.2 au and 5.5 au, respectively) as well as the FWHM of the line (0.373 ± 0.011 km s-1 and 0.315 km s-1 for the mean and median values, respectively), testing whether it was consistent with Gaussian profile. We also found maser clouds with velocity gradients (71%) that ranged from 0.005 km s-1 au-1 to 0.210 km s-1 au-1. We tested the kinematic models to explain the observed structures of the 6.7 GHz emission. There were targets where the morphology supported the scenario of a rotating and expanding disk or a bipolar outflow. Comparing the interferometric and single-dish spectra we found that, typically, 50-70% of the flux was missing. This phenomena is not strongly related to the distance of the source. Conclusions: The EVN imaging reveals that in the complete sample of 63 sources the ring-like morphology appeared in 17% of sources, arcs were seen in a further 8%, and the structures were complex in 46% cases. The ultra-compact (UC) H II regions coincide in position in the sky for 13% of the sources. They are related both to extremely high and low

  15. Novel genetic risk factors for asthma in African American children: Precision Medicine and the SAGE II Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Marquitta J; Risse-Adams, O; Goddard, P; Contreras, M G; Adams, J; Hu, D; Eng, C; Oh, S S; Davis, A; Meade, K; Brigino-Buenaventura, E; LeNoir, M A; Bibbins-Domingo, K; Pino-Yanes, M; Burchard, E G

    2016-07-01

    Asthma, an inflammatory disorder of the airways, is the most common chronic disease of children worldwide. There are significant racial/ethnic disparities in asthma prevalence, morbidity, and mortality among US children. This trend is mirrored in obesity, which may share genetic and environmental risk factors with asthma. The majority of asthma biomedical research has been performed in populations of European decent. We sought to identify genetic risk factors for asthma in African American children. We also assessed the generalizability of genetic variants associated with asthma in European and Asian populations to African American children. Our study population consisted of 1227 (812 asthma cases, 415 controls) African American children with genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data. Logistic regression was used to identify associations between SNP genotype and asthma status. We identified a novel variant in the PTCHD3 gene that is significantly associated with asthma (rs660498, p = 2.2 × 10(-7)) independent of obesity status. Approximately 5 % of previously reported asthma genetic associations identified in European populations replicated in African Americans. Our identification of novel variants associated with asthma in African American children, coupled with our inability to replicate the majority of findings reported in European Americans, underscores the necessity for including diverse populations in biomedical studies of asthma. PMID:27142222

  16. Allergies, asthma, and dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allergic rhinitis - dust ... make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Dust is a common trigger. When your asthma or allergies become worse due to dust, you are said to have a dust allergy. ...

  17. Exercise-induced asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of exercise may be less likely to trigger asthma symptoms than others. Swimming is a good sport for people with EIA. The warm, moist air helps keep asthma symptoms away. Football, baseball, and other sports with ...

  18. Asthma and school

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with asthma need a lot of support at school. They may need help from school staff to keep their asthma under control and to be able to do school activities. You should give your child's school staff ...

  19. Smoking and asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000504.htm Smoking and asthma To use the sharing features on ... your allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Smoking is a trigger for many people who have ...

  20. Paediatric asthma and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Sean R; Platts-Mills, Thomas A E

    2006-12-01

    None of the explanations proposed for the increase in paediatric asthma have been adequate. It is becoming apparent that the cause of the increase in asthma must be multi-factorial. Increasing attention has been focused on the role of lifestyle in the development of asthma. Lifestyle changes that have occurred in children are those in diet and decreased physical activity, with obesity being the product of these changes. The increase in asthma, obesity and a sedentary lifestyle have occurred together. However, a temporal relationship between asthma, obesity and decreased physical activity has not been determined in the paediatric literature. Limited data suggest that decreased physical activity could be playing a role in the aetiology of asthma independent of obesity. Furthermore, there has been substantial research on the benefits of exercise programmes for paediatric patients with asthma. Longitudinal trials monitoring physical activity, obesity and the development of asthma are needed. PMID:17098637

  1. Managing Allergies, Asthma 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158635.html Managing Allergies, Asthma 101 Doctor offers advice to students who will ... 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Teens with allergies or asthma who are heading for college later this year ...

  2. Managing Allergies, Asthma 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158635.html Managing Allergies, Asthma 101 Doctor offers advice to students who will ... 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Teens with allergies or asthma who are heading for college later this year ...

  3. Asthma and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... best live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share Asthma and Pregnancy Saturday, 01 August 2015 In every ... her background risk. This sheet talks about whether asthma may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  4. NETOUR: A EUROPEAN NETWORK FOR EXCELLENCE IN TOURISM THROUGH ORGANIZATIONS AND UNIVERSITIES IN RUSSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Andrades, Lidia; Dimanche, Frederic

    2013-01-01

    Russia is one of the fastest growing tourism markets (+8% growth in 2011) with many resources that are yet untapped. This paper presents NETOUR, a project of European and Russian universities that aims at boosting Russia’s competitiveness as a tourism destination. The purpose of this project, funded by the European Commission through a TEMPUS grant, is to propose a model for cooperation between universities and the main stakeholders in the tourism sector, in order to favour its sustainable de...

  5. Progress and perspectives of ASTEC applications in the European Network SARNET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ASTEC integral code is jointly developed by IRSN (France) and GRS (Germany) for LWR source term Severe Accident (SA) evaluation, PSA level 2 studies and SA management evaluation. ASTEC constitutes now the reference European integral code through its role in the Network SARNET (Severe Accident Network of Excellence) in the EC 6. Framework Program. The models of next version V1.3, released before end of 2006, represent the current State of the Art, its validation is very extensive (in particular on Phebus FP) and, after next implementation of a model for reflooding of degraded cores, it will cover all needs for SA evaluation in PWR and VVER. It will be the reference code for the IRSN PSA level 2 (Probabilistic Safety Analysis) on French PWR 1300 MWe that starts in 2006. In the frame of SARNET, IRSN coordinates the ASTEC Topic gathering 30 partners that assess the code through validation against experiments and benchmarks with reference codes like CATHARE or RELAP5 for the reactor coolant circuit and COCOSYS for the containment. Plant application calculations are compared with MELCOR and MAAP4 results for a series of different SA sequences. Besides, the knowledge generated by SARNET Topics (Corium, Source Term and Containment) will be progressively integrated into the code through improved or new models. The 2. Users' Club organized at Aix-en-Provence in June 06, with 45 participants from 27 organizations, allowed fruitful discussions with the Maintenance Team. After 2 years of work, code validation shows good overall results, often close to results of reference codes. Some results reach the limits of present knowledge, for instance on Molten-Corium-Concrete-Interaction (MCCI) and Direct Containment Heating (DCH). Benchmarks on plant applications have been performed on diverse reactor types: PWR 900, Konvoi 1300, Westinghouse 1000, VVER-1000 and VVER-440. The main trends of results are similar to MELCOR or MAAP4 results. The objective of the quantitative

  6. Towards a Pan-European network for the mitigation of ionospheric threats (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakowski, N.; Hlubek, N.; Sato, H.; Berdermann, J.; Aquino, M. H.

    2013-12-01

    space weather can have on GNSS. One possible application is the estimation of the strongest possible influence of the ionosphere. This can then be used as a safety margin to fulfill the high safety requirements of aircrafts landing with GNSS and GBAS. GNSS receivers are a crucial component in countless modern systems, e.g. in telecommunication, navigation, remote sensing and precision timing. Additionally the demands on these systems with respect to accuracy, reliability and safety are permanently growing. Considering the fact that the ionospheric impact cannot be ignored enhanced research activities are required to improve current solutions for correcting or mitigating the ionospheric impact or at least to provide awareness of current threats. It is reported how the current EC funded research project TRANSMIT focuses on bringing together young researchers in this field in order to establish a Pan-European network for Ionospheric Perturbation Detection and Monitoring (IPDM) in the upcoming years. To highlight essential results of these researchers, a prototype solution is being prepared to be accessible via internet (http://swaciweb.dlr.de ).

  7. Asthma, guides for diagnostic and handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper defines the asthma, includes topics as diagnostic, handling of the asthma, special situations as asthma and pregnancy, handling of the asthmatic patient's perioperatory and occupational asthma

  8. Occupational asthma: a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Lombardo, L J; Balmes, J R

    2000-01-01

    Occupational asthma is the most common form of occupational lung disease in the developed world at the present time. In this review, the epidemiology, pathogenesis/mechanisms, clinical presentations, management, and prevention of occupational asthma are discussed. The population attributable risk of asthma due to occupational exposures is considerable. Current understanding of the mechanisms by which many agents cause occupational asthma is limited, especially for low-molecular-weight sensiti...

  9. Genetics of asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Simon F

    2015-01-01

    Asthma runs in families, and children of asthmatic parents are at increased risk of asthma. Prediction of disease risk is pivotal for the clinician when counselling atopic families. However, this is not always an easy task bearing in mind the vast and ever-increasing knowledge about asthma genetics...... of methods and advances in asthma genetics in an attempt to help the clinician keep track of the most important knowledge in the field....

  10. Psychological Factors in Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Van Lieshout Ryan J; MacQueen Glenda

    2008-01-01

    Asthma has long been considered a condition in which psychological factors have a role. As in many illnesses, psychological variables may affect outcome in asthma via their effects on treatment adherence and symptom reporting. Emerging evidence suggests that the relation between asthma and psychological factors may be more complex than that, however. Central cognitive processes may influence not only the interpretation of asthma symptoms but also the manifestation of measurable changes in im...

  11. Asthma in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel O D Addo-Yobo; Ashley Woodcock; Adorkor Allotey; Benjamin Baffoe-Bonnie; David Strachan; Adnan Custovic

    2007-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. The proportion of children with asthma is thought to be increasing worldwide, and particularly among children that live in more developed countries. However, it is not clear why this is, since many different aspects of lifestyle and the environment have been linked with the onset of asthma. In Africa, asthma has typically been thought of as being very uncommon, and indeed in many African dialects there is no word for asthma or the symptoms, such as wheezing, that ...

  12. European network for health technology assessment, EUnetHTA: planning, development, and implementation of a sustainable European network for health technology assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Finn Børlum; Mäkelä, Marjukka; Neikter, Susanna Allgurin;

    2009-01-01

    . Transparency in organization, financial transactions, and decision making was a key principle in the management of the Project as was the commitment to appropriately involve stakeholders. RESULTS: EUnetHTA activities resulted in a clear management and governance structure, efficient partnership, and...... facilitates and promotes the use of HTA at national and regional levels. Responsiveness to political developments in Europe should be balanced with maintaining a high level of ambition to promote independent, evidence-based information and well-tested tools for best practice based on a strong network of HTA...

  13. Nitrosative events in atopic asthma pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parilova O. O.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The correlation between high exhaled nitric oxide levels and eosinophilic-mediated airway inflammation in patients with atopic asthma has been well documented. This generates prerequisites that a regulatory feedback mechanism exists between them. Therefore, the paper briefly describes evidence implementing biosynthesis, enzyme structural features, expression regulation of its isoforms and effects of nitric oxide, which have helped elucidate molecular mechanisms by which nitric oxide selectively promotes asthma exacerbation. In previous study we have demonstrated that airway infiltrate of immune cells contributes to NO synthesis in the respiratory tract during allergic inflammation under guinea pig model of acute asthma with multiple challenges. On the basis of these findings the authors posits that nitric oxide represents an additional signal of the induction of Th2 subset response and be considerably involved in the complex network of immune regulation distinctive for atopic asthma phenotype.

  14. Obesity and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Zarqa; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological data has established increasing adiposity as a risk factor for incident asthma. However, the mechanisms underlying the association between obesity and asthma are incompletely understood. In the present paper, we review current knowledge of possible mechanisms mediating the observed...... association between obesity and asthma....

  15. Antifungals in severe asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parulekar, Amit D.; Diamant, Zuzana; Hanania, Nicola A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Despite guideline-based treatment, many patients with severe asthma continue to have uncontrolled disease. Fungal allergy is being increasingly recognized in the pathogenesis of severe asthma. Limited data exist on the approach to treatment of fungal asthma. This review summarizes

  16. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Do Allergies Cause Asthma? KidsHealth > For Parents > Do Allergies Cause Asthma? Print A A A Text Size en español ¿Causan asma las alergias? My daughter has asthma and I'm worried that her younger brother ...

  17. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Do Allergies Cause Asthma? KidsHealth > For Teens > Do Allergies Cause Asthma? Print A A A Text Size en español ¿Las alergias provocan asma? Do allergies cause asthma? The answer to that question is: yes and ...

  18. Analysis of the legal challenges required for the deployment of network robot systems in European urban areas

    OpenAIRE

    Sanfeliu, Alberto; Punsola, Albert; Yoshimura, Yuji; Llácer, María Rosa; Gramunt, María Dolors

    2009-01-01

    In this article we present a study of the legal challenges that must be solved in order to deploy robots and sensors in urban areas. We start describing urban issues and robot deployment problems that can derive in legal aspects. Then we identify the main challenges and then we focus in the privacy issue, discussing the concept, the European laws concerning these topics and its approach in networking robots in urban areas. Moreover, we describe some of the problems with cameras and wireless c...

  19. Involving stakeholders and developing a policy for stakeholder involvement in the European network for Health Technology Assessment, EUnetHTA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmhøj Nielsen, Camilla; Wadmann, Sarah; Børlum Kristensen, Finn; Bistrup, Marie-Louise; Cecchetti, Americo; Turk, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: This article explains how the issue of stakeholder involvement was addressed in the European network for Health Technology Assessment (EUnetHTA) Project and describes the structures of future stakeholder involvement in the EUnetHTA Collaboration. Methods: Initiatives led to a dialogue...... utilization of HTA in national/regional policy making. A stakeholder Web site, analyses of stakeholder opinions on HTA and EUnetHTA in a discussion topic catalog, and a draft stakeholder policy resulted from the work. Conclusions: Stakeholder involvement in EUnetHTA is necessary to ensure the legitimacy and...

  20. Statistically validated mobile communication networks: Evolution of motifs in European and Chinese data

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Ming-Xia; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Kaski, Kimmo; Kertész, Janos; Miccichè, Salvatore; Tumminello, Michele; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Mantegna, Rosario N

    2014-01-01

    Big data open up unprecedented opportunities to investigate complex systems including the society. In particular, communication data serve as major sources for computational social sciences but they have to be cleaned and filtered as they may contain spurious information due to recording errors as well as interactions, like commercial and marketing activities, not directly related to the social network. The network constructed from communication data can only be considered as a proxy for the network of social relationships. Here we apply a systematic method, based on multiple hypothesis testing, to statistically validate the links and then construct the corresponding Bonferroni network, generalized to the directed case. We study two large datasets of mobile phone records, one from Europe and the other from China. For both datasets we compare the raw data networks with the corresponding Bonferroni networks and point out significant differences in the structures and in the basic network measures. We show eviden...

  1. Asthma in ear, nose, and throat primary care patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frendø, Martin; Håkansson, Kåre; Schwer, Susanne;

    2016-01-01

    were prospectively recruited from nine PC ear, nose, and throat clinics in the Copenhagen area. CRSwNP was diagnosed according to the European Position Paper on Chronic Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps; severity was assessed by using a visual analog scale. Allergy, lung function, and asthma tests....... Frequently, asthma was undiagnosed. However, asthma was significantly less prevalent in PC patients compared with patients referred for ESS. The frequent concomitance of asthma, i.e., united airways disease, in PC patients calls for closer collaboration between ear, nose, and throat specialists, and asthma...

  2. Refractory asthma in the UK: cross-sectional findings from a UK multicentre registry

    OpenAIRE

    Heaney, Liam G.; Brightling, Chris E.; Menzies-Gow, Andrew; Stevenson, Michael; Niven, Rob M; ,

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Refractory asthma represents a significant unmet clinical need where the evidence base for the assessment and therapeutic management is limited. The British Thoracic Society (BTS) Difficult Asthma Network has established an online National Registry to standardise specialist UK difficult asthma services and to facilitate research into the assessment and clinical management of difficult asthma. Methods Data from 382 well characterised patients, who fulfilled the American Thoracic S...

  3. Statistically validated mobile communication networks: the evolution of motifs in European and Chinese data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Big data open up unprecedented opportunities for investigating complex systems, including society. In particular, communication data serve as major sources for computational social sciences, but they have to be cleaned and filtered as they may contain spurious information due to recording errors as well as interactions, like commercial and marketing activities, not directly related to the social network. The network constructed from communication data can only be considered as a proxy for the network of social relationships. Here we apply a systematic method, based on multiple-hypothesis testing, to statistically validate the links and then construct the corresponding Bonferroni network, generalized to the directed case. We study two large datasets of mobile phone records, one from Europe and the other from China. For both datasets we compare the raw data networks with the corresponding Bonferroni networks and point out significant differences in the structures and in the basic network measures. We show evidence that the Bonferroni network provides a better proxy for the network of social interactions than the original one. Using the filtered networks, we investigated the statistics and temporal evolution of small directed 3-motifs and concluded that closed communication triads have a formation time scale, which is quite fast and typically intraday. We also find that open communication triads preferentially evolve into other open triads with a higher fraction of reciprocated calls. These stylized facts were observed for both datasets. (paper)

  4. Asthma in the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Domenico Lorenzo Urso

    2012-01-01

    As the population increases in age, the diseases of older age will have increasing prevalence and place a greater burden on the health system. Despite asthma being usually considered a disease of younger people, asthma mortality is currently greatest in the over 55 age-group. Symptoms and emergency presentations for health care due to asthma place a great burden on the quality of life of those over age 55 with asthma. Asthma in older people is under-diagnosed due to patient and physiological ...

  5. Asthma and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatti, Rani Reddy; Teuber, Suzanne S

    2012-08-01

    Asthma is probably the most common serious medical disorder that may complicate pregnancy. A third of pregnant women with asthma will experience worsening of their symptoms, a third will see improvement of their symptoms and a third will see no change. The primary goal is to maintain optimal control of asthma for maternal health and well-being as well as fetal maturation. Vital patient education should cover the use of controller medication, avoidance of asthma triggers and early treatment of asthma exacerbations. Proper asthma management should ideally be started in the preconception period. Since smoking is probably the most modifiable risk factor of asthma, pregnant woman should avoid active and passive smoking. Acute asthma exacerbation during the first trimester is associated with an increased risk of congenital malformations. Poorly controlled asthma is associated with low birth weight, preeclampsia, and preterm birth. Medications used for asthma control in the non-pregnant population are generally the same in pregnancy with a few exceptions. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the preferred controller therapy. Budesonide is the preferred ICS. Long-acting B-agonists (LABA) are the preferred add-on therapy to medium to high dose ICS. Major triggers for asthma exacerbations during pregnancy are viral infections and ICS nonadherence. PMID:21858482

  6. Obesity and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivapalan, Pradeesh; Diamant, Zuzana; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity has significant impact on asthma incidence and manifestations. The purpose of the review is to discuss recent observations regarding the association between obesity and asthma focusing on underlying mechanisms, clinical presentation, response to therapy and effect of...... weight reduction. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical and epidemiological studies indicate that obese patients with asthma may represent a unique phenotype, which is more difficult to control, less responsive to asthma medications and by that may have higher healthcare utilization. A number of common comorbidities...... have been linked to both obesity and asthma, and may, therefore, contribute to the obese-asthma phenotype. Furthermore, recently published studies indicate that even a modest weight reduction can improve clinical manifestations and outcome of asthma. SUMMARY: Compared with normal-weight patients, obese...

  7. Preparing tomorrow's network today: RTE at the crossroads of the European electricity system. Cross-border electricity interconnections Key issues and figures - 2014 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interconnected electricity transmission network is a key element for ensuring security of supply, the creation of a single market and the integration of renewable energies. RTE and its European partners provide strengthened coordination by the use of interconnections to ensure solidarity between European countries. Interconnections also allow an electricity supplier to sell its energy to a customer located in another country in Europe. They contribute on a European scale to optimising the use of production means and in particular the integration of variable renewable energies. RTE, within the EnTSo-E (European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity), contributes to the publication of a common vision of the future of networks by 2030. The needs for new interconnection capacity are identified in the ten-year European network development plan (TYnDP) on the basis of a cost-benefit analysis. France is interconnected to all its neighbours via many cross-border links. However interconnection capacity with the various countries and its use differ widely. The usage profile of the interconnections is specific to each border and varies according to: - the characteristics of the production mix of each country, and in particular the level of production of renewable energies. - the level of consumption, which depends on the season, the type of day (working or non-working) the time of day, etc. - import and export capacity, which may be different depending on the internal constraints of the networks of each country

  8. The European VLF/LF radio network to search for earthquake precursors: setting up and natural/man-made disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. F. Biagi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last years disturbances in VLF/LF radio signals related to seismic activity have been presented. The radio data were collected by receivers located on the ground or on satellites. The ground-based research implies systematic data collection by a network of receivers. Since 2000 the "Pacific VLF network", conducted by Japanese researchers, has been in operation. During 2008 a radio receiver was developed by the Italian factory Elettronika (Palo del Colle, Bari. The receiver is equipment working in VLF and LF bands. It can monitor 10 frequencies distributed in these bands and, for each of them, it saves the power level. At the beginning of 2009, five receivers were made for the realization of the "European VLF/LF Network"; two were planned for Italy and one for Greece, Turkey and Romania, respectively. In 2010 the network was enlarged to include a new receiver installed in Portugal. In this work, first the receiver and its setting up in the different places are described. Then, several disturbances in the radio signals related to the transmitters, receivers, meteorological/geomagnetic conditions are presented and described.

  9. The Integration of Materials Data Banks into a European Information Service Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krockel, H.; Steven, G.

    1987-01-01

    This review of the events leading to a planned materials information system in Europe focuses on national policies and actions the Commission of the European Communities. Recommendations issued by a 1982 workshop are discussed, and the objectives and development of a planned demonstrator program are outlined. (11 references) (CLB)

  10. Gynecologic oncology training systems in europe: a report from the European network of young gynaecological oncologists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gultekin, Murat; Dursun, Polat; Vranes, Boris;

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to highlight some of the differences in training systems and opportunities for training in gynecologic oncology across Europe and to draw attention to steps that can be taken to improve training prospects and experiences of European trainees in gynecologic oncology....

  11. Thematic Network Projects in European Higher Education: An Analysis of Agents of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donert, Karl

    2009-01-01

    The state and status of higher education in different countries and regions has been the subject of considerable debate, research and publication; yet little continental scale research has been undertaken except in the United States of America. This paper reports on large-scale cooperation taking place in European higher education. It particularly…

  12. EurOOHnet-the European research network for out-of-hours primary health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huibers, L.; Philips, H.; Giesen, P.; Remmen, R.; Christensen, M.B.; Bondevik, G.T.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background and rationale: European countries face similar challenges in the provision of health care. Demographic factors like ageing, population growth, changing patient behaviour, and lack of work force lead to increasing demands, costs, and overcrowding of out-of-hours (OOH) care (i.e. p

  13. The European FP7 CHRON Project: Towards Cognitive Heterogeneous Reconfigurable Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miguel, I. de; Duran, R.J.; Abril, E.J.;

    2010-01-01

    We provide an overview of the EU-funded CHRON project, which addresses the challenge of controlling and managing the next generation of heterogeneous optical networks supporting the Future Internet. Such networks will be of a highly heterogeneous nature in terms of both a wide variety of services...

  14. Two years of real progress in European HEP networking: A CERN perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The last two years have been marked by real progress in networking in HEP. Home-made developments, studies and plans have given way to the use of real networks involving hundreds of HEP and other computers and based on externally produced software and hardware. Within the last year, the first generation of industrial software products following some of the international standards for networking have become available. Related developments are taking place in networking for on-line systems and indeed the LEP experiments are distinguished by their heavy and crucial reliance on both local and wide-area networks. This paper describes the progress made at CERN since the last two years and looks at perspectives for the future. (orig.)

  15. Design and feasibility of an international study assessing the prevalence of contact allergy to fragrances in the general population: the European Dermato-Epidemiology Network Fragrance Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Marta; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Diepgen, Thomas; Svensson, Ake; Elsner, Peter; Goncalo, Margarida; Bruze, Magnus; Naldi, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims: Data on contact allergy to fragrances in the general population are limited. Data from allergological services suggest that the frequency of contact allergy to fragrances is increasing. The European Dermato-Epidemiology Network (EDEN) Fragrance Study aims to obtain reliable data on the prevalence of contact allergy to fragrances and other sensitizers of the European baseline series, in the general population of different geographical areas of Europe. We report the methodology...

  16. Development of a model for integrated simulation of the European transmission networks and electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The liberalisation of electricity markets and the increase of renewable energy generation actually causes dramatic changes for the whole European power industry. The transmission system operators in particular have to meet the challenge to ensure a stable and reliable system operation in the future. Significant changes in power generation will require a substantial extension to current inadequate original transmission grids to handle increased wide area power flows. This is the only way to avoid overloading the grid and to reduce the herefrom resulting limitations for the Pan-European cross-border trade of electricity. This work describes in detail the development of a Pan-European integrated grid and an electricity market simulation tool. For this purpose an overview about the today's structure of the European electricity industry is given initially. Afterwards the configuration of the transmission grid, the used equipment and different methods for the load flow and short circuit calculation are explained. Furthermore models for the calculation of local loads and the power plant dispatch are presented in the following chapters. Following on from this a detailed model of the European electricity industry is developed and the main functions are described by means of some exemplary simulations. The simulation tool developed in this work enables the user to calculate realistic power plant schedules and the consequent resulting physical effects on the European transmission grid. It combines a time series based simulation of the electricity market with a detailed model of the transmission grid. The highly detailing of the model offers the feasibility to execute a complete AC load flow calculation using the Newton Raphson algorithm.Therefore it is possible to identify the active as well as the reactive power flows in the grid. The results of the power flow calculation are the basis for further investigations (e. g. the short circuit calculation) and to decide on

  17. Extensive monitoring of Italian forests: integration of the National Forest Inventory with the European Network of Level I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasparini P

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Extensive monitoring of Italian forests: integration of the National Forest Inventory with the European Network of Level I. Forest monitoring is important for enhancing our knowledge on such ecosystems and their changes in order to enable actions helpful for their protection. At the European level, several monitoring programmes are carried out at present to pursue a better knowledge of specific characteristics of forests. Among those, national forest inventories are carried out to give a picture of their status (forest area, forest types, timber volume, growth and others, whereas health status of forests has been monitored over twenty years thanks to a specific programme, the ICP Forests. Under LIFE+ programme 2007, the FutMon project funded country-level studies aiming at evaluating the possibility to merge national forest inventory and Level I sample plots in a unique set of plots for forest monitoring and survey protocol. The underlying idea is that a common set of plots would enhance efficiency either in terms of costs or in terms of scientific results. However, an important issue is to preserve the validity of the twenty-years-long existing data series. For this reason in Italy, in 2009 and 2010, an experiment was carried out by measuring a common set of variables both in the Level I plots and in a subset of the inventory plots, in order to evaluate differences and similarities of surveying variables in the two different plot samples. More specifically, the integration between the two programmes would imply a change in the crown-condition sample-trees selection criteria and the shift of the Level I network to the inventory one. On the basis of the results, from 2012 the National Forest Inventory protocol for sample-trees selection has already been adopted on the Level I plots, whereas the feasibility of shifting the Level I plots from the ICP network to the National Forest Inventory one is still under evaluation.

  18. Trajectories of institutional design in policy networks : European Interventions in the Dutch Fishery Network as an example

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.W. van Buuren (Arwin); E-H. Klijn (Erik-Hans)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis article focuses on the strategies and processes of institutional design. It starts by recognizing that politicians often try to change institutional structures of networks and therefore more theoretical and empirical attention for these strategies is needed. First, the article provi

  19. Flexicurity and Gender Mainstreaming: Deliberative Processes, Knowledge Networks and the European Labour Market

    OpenAIRE

    Kurian, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    textabstractGender mainstreaming and flexicurity have been adopted as separate labour market objectives in the European Union since the mid-1990s. It is remarkable that there has been a virtual absence of gender concerns in the deliberations on flexicurity for over a decade. When gender concerns were introduced into the flexicurity deliberations in 2007, they were incorporated in the 6th principle of flexicurity which “should support gender equality by promoting equal access to quality employ...

  20. Networked environmental governance in the European Union: who participates and (how) do they learn?

    OpenAIRE

    Twena, M

    2012-01-01

    With its traditional (i.e. legislative) modes of governance coming under fire due to their perceived lack of legitimacy and effectiveness, the European Union (EU) has increasingly turned to more flexible means of policy cooperation. One example is the Open Method of Coordination (OMC), which can be viewed as a more decentralised way of coordinating national policy though peer review and mutual learning. Although recent findings suggest that the OMC has largely failed to deliver its promise of...

  1. Era-Planet the European Network for Observing Our Changing Planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirrone, N.; Cinnirella, S.; Nativi, S.; Sprovieri, F.; Hedgecock, I. M.

    2016-06-01

    In the last decade a significant number of projects and programmes in different domains of Earth Observation and environmental monitoring have generated a substantial amount of data and knowledge on different aspects related to environmental quality and sustainability. Big data generated by in-situ or satellite platforms are being collected and archived with a plethora of systems and instruments making difficult the sharing of data and transfer of knowledge to stakeholders and policy makers to support key economic and societal sectors. The overarching goal of ERAPLANET is to strengthen the European Research Area in the domain of Earth Observation in coherence with the European participation in the Group on Earth Observation (GEO) and Copernicus. The expected impact is to strengthen European leadership within the forthcoming GEO 2015-2025 Work Plan. ERA-PLANET is designed to reinforce the interface with user communities, whose needs the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) intends to address. It will provide more accurate, comprehensive and authoritative information to policy and decision-makers in key societal benefit areas, such as Smart Cities and Resilient Societies; Resource efficiency and Environmental management; Global changes and Environmental treaties; Polar areas and Natural resources. ERA-PLANET will provide advanced decision-support tools and technologies aimed to better monitor our global environment and share the information and knowledge available in the different domains of Earth Observation.

  2. European network for promoting the physical health of residents in psychiatric and social care facilities (HELPS: background, aims and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marginean Roxana

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with mental disorders have a higher prevalence of physical illnesses and reduced life expectancy as compared with the general population. However, there is a lack of knowledge across Europe concerning interventions that aim at reducing somatic morbidity and excess mortality by promoting behaviour-based and/or environment-based interventions. Methods and design HELPS is an interdisciplinary European network that aims at (i gathering relevant knowledge on physical illness in people with mental illness, (ii identifying health promotion initiatives in European countries that meet country-specific needs, and (iii at identifying best practice across Europe. Criteria for best practice will include evidence on the efficacy of physical health interventions and of their effectiveness in routine care, cost implications and feasibility for adaptation and implementation of interventions across different settings in Europe. HELPS will develop and implement a "physical health promotion toolkit". The toolkit will provide information to empower residents and staff to identify the most relevant risk factors in their specific context and to select the most appropriate action out of a range of defined health promoting interventions. The key methods are (a stakeholder analysis, (b international literature reviews, (c Delphi rounds with experts from participating centres, and (d focus groups with staff and residents of mental health care facilities. Meanwhile a multi-disciplinary network consisting of 15 European countries has been established and took up the work. As one main result of the project they expect that a widespread use of the HELPS toolkit could have a significant positive effect on the physical health status of residents of mental health and social care facilities, as well as to hold resonance for community dwelling people with mental health problems. Discussion A general strategy on health promotion for people with mental

  3. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to Use Your Asthma ... 1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health File Formats Help: How do I ...

  4. Asthma & Physical Activity in the School

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some students experience asthma symptoms only when they exercise. Asthma varies from student to student and often from ... activities and other regular school activities. Table 1: BENEFITS OF ASTHMA CONTROL With good asthma management, students with asthma ...

  5. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to Use Your Asthma ... MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health File Formats Help: How do I ...

  6. Do labour mobility and networks foster geographical knowledge diffusion? The case of European regions

    OpenAIRE

    Ernest MIGUELEZ; Moreno Serrano, Rosina

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this paper is twofold: first, we aim to assess the role played by inventors’ cross-regional mobility and networks of collaboration in fostering knowledge diffusion across regions and subsequent innovation. Second, we intend to evaluate the feasibility of using mobility and networks information to build cross-regional interaction matrices to be used within the spatial econometrics toolbox. To do so, we depart from a knowledge production function where regional innovation intensity ...

  7. Examining the association between childhood asthma and parent and grandparent asthma status: Implications for Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Valerio, Melissa A.; Andreski, Patricia M.; Schoeni, Robert F.; McGonagle, Katherine A.

    2010-01-01

    Examination of intergenerational asthma beyond maternal asthma has been limited. The association between childhood asthma and intergenerational asthma status among a national cohort of children was examined.

  8. Teaching Your Child about Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Asthma Library ▸ Teaching your child about asthma Share | Teaching Your Child About Asthma This article has been ... understand? Keep It Simple for Young Children Use language that is appropriate for your child’s age to ...

  9. Asthma and Therapeutics: Recombinant Therapies in Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Cockcroft Donald W

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Numerous recombinant therapies are being investigated for the treatment of asthma. This report reviews the current status of several of these novel agents. Anti-immunoglobulin (Ig)E (omalizumab, Xolair) markedly inhibits all aspects of the allergen challenge in subjects who have reduction of free serum IgE to undetectable levels. Several clinical studies in atopic asthma have demonstrated benefit by improved symptoms and lung function and a reduction in corticosteroid requirements. E...

  10. AN APPLE GRADING SYSTEM ACCORDING TO EUROPEAN FRUIT QUALITY STANDARDS USING GABOR FILTER AND ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KEYVAN ASEFPOUR VAKILIAN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of applications of machine learning methods in food engineering in recent decades, several intelligent methods have been introduced in fruit grading technology. In this study, an apple grading system is presented using image’s textural features extraction and artificial intelligence. The objective of this study was to simplify the use of Gabor filter in classification of two varieties of apple fruits (Golden Delicious and Red Delicious in four categories according to the European fruit quality standards. Using this filter, neural network classifier was trained for four category grading of the fruits. Two textural parameters were extracted from each obtained image: mean and variance of energy values of obtained image representing image’s luminous intensity and contrast, respectively. Experimental results indicated that the training of extracted features of about 350 fruits enabled the network to classify the test samples with appropriate accuracy. Compared to the state-of-the-art, the proposed grading categories (‘Extra’, ‘Type 1’, ‘Type 2’ and ‘Rejected’ classes achieved acceptable recognition rates of about 89 % and 92 % overall accuracy for Golden Delicious and Red Delicious varieties, respectively. These experimental results show the appropriate application of proposed method in fast grading of apple fruits. Furthermore, proposed feature extraction and network training methods can be used efficiently in online applications.

  11. Psychological aspects of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Paul; Feldman, Jonathan; Giardino, Nicholas; Song, Hye-Sue; Schmaling, Karen

    2002-06-01

    Asthma can be affected by stress, anxiety, sadness, and suggestion, as well as by environmental irritants or allergens, exercise, and infection. It also is associated with an elevated prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders. Asthma and these psychological states and traits may mutually potentiate each other through direct psychophysiological mediation, nonadherence to medical regimen, exposure to asthma triggers, and inaccuracy of asthma symptom perception. Defensiveness is associated with inaccurate perception of airway resistance and stress-related bronchoconstriction. Asthma education programs that teach about the nature of the disease, medications, and trigger avoidance tend to reduce asthma morbidity. Other promising psychological interventions as adjuncts to medical treatment include training in symptom perception, stress management, hypnosis, yoga, and several biofeedback procedures. PMID:12090377

  12. Monitoring asthma in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin C. Lødrup Carlsen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of asthma treatment is to obtain clinical control and reduce future risks to the patient. However, to date there is limited evidence on how to monitor patients with asthma. Childhood asthma introduces specific challenges in terms of deciding what, when, how often, by whom and in whom different assessments of asthma should be performed. The age of the child, the fluctuating course of asthma severity, variability in clinical presentation, exacerbations, comorbidities, socioeconomic and psychosocial factors, and environmental exposures may all influence disease activity and, hence, monitoring strategies. These factors will be addressed in herein. We identified large knowledge gaps in the effects of different monitoring strategies in children with asthma. Studies into monitoring strategies are urgently needed, preferably in collaborative paediatric studies across countries and healthcare systems.

  13. Asthma and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte S

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity has significant negative impact on asthma control and risk of exacerbations. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent studies evaluating the effects of weight reduction on asthma control in obese adults. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical studies have shown that weight...... reduction in obese patients is associated with improvements in symptoms, use of controller medication, and asthma-related quality of life together with a reduction in the risk for severe exacerbations. Furthermore, several studies have also revealed improvements in lung function and airway responsiveness......: Weight reduction in obese adults with asthma leads to an overall improvement in asthma control, including airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation. Weight reduction should be a cornerstone in the management of obese patients with asthma....

  14. Tobaksrygning og asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Lange, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a well-known health hazard, probably not least for patients suffering from asthma. This review gives a short overview of the effects of passive and active smoking on the inception and outcome with of longitudinal changes in the lung function and mortality of patients with...... asthma. Substantial evidence suggests that smoking affects asthma adversely. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, especially maternal smoking in children, may be a significant risk factor for asthma. Such exposure in patients with established asthma is not only associated with more severe symptoms......, but also with a poorer quality of life, reduced lung function, and increased utilisation of health care including hospital admissions. Active smoking does not appear to be a significant risk factor for asthma, but is associated with a worse outcome with regard to both longitudinal changes in lung...

  15. Basic mechanisms of asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Boushey, H A; Fahy, J.V.

    1995-01-01

    Results of studies of the epidemiology, physiology, histopathology, and cell biology of asthma have revised our conception of the disease. Epidemiologic studies have shown asthma to be an important cause of death, suffering, and economic hardship. Physiologic studies have shown that asthma is a chronic illness characterized by persistent bronchial hyperreactivity. Histopathologic studies have shown characteristic changes: epithelial damage, deposition of collagen beneath the basement membrane...

  16. Ketotifen and nocturnal asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Catterall, J R; Calverley, P M; Power, J T; Shapiro, C M; Douglas, N J; Flenley, D. C.

    1983-01-01

    Patients with asthma often wheeze at night and they also become hypoxic during sleep. To determine whether ketotifen, a drug with sedative properties, is safe for use at night in patients with asthma, we performed a double blind crossover study comparing the effects of a single 1 mg dose of ketotifen and of placebo on arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), breathing patterns, electroencephalographic (EEG) sleep stage, and overnight change in FEV1 in 10 patients with stable asthma. After taking ke...

  17. Epidemiological Trends in Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, Malcolm R

    1996-01-01

    Many markers of asthma morbidity have shown substantial increases over the past two decades, including family physician visits, use of anti-asthma medications, emergency room visits and hospital admissions. The reported prevalence of diagnosed asthma and of wheezing has increased, especially in children, with accompanying evidence of increased atopy and increased airway responsiveness. Allergen exposure and parental smoking are significant risk factors for childhood wheezing, whereas the infl...

  18. Asthma and Mood Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Kewalramani, Anupama; Bollinger, Mary E.; Teodor T. Postolache

    2008-01-01

    The high rate of comorbidity of asthma and mood disorders would imply the possibility of potential shared pathophysiologic factors. Proposed links between asthma and mood disorders include a vulnerability (trait) and state connection. Vulnerability for both asthma and mood disorders may involve genetic and early developmental factors. State-related connections may include obstructive factors, inflammatory factors, sleep impairment, psychological reactions to chronic medical illness, as well a...

  19. Networks of European cities in worlds of global economic and environmental change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Derudder

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Geographers use a variety of economic, social, and demographic data to measure the importance of global cities and the linkages between cities. We analyze the importance and connectedness of European cities using hyperlinks, or the electronic information provided by the Google Search engine. Hyperlinks are Web sites representing information that is produced; they are especially useful in measuring the impact of contemporary crises. We use the phrases economic slowdown and global financial crisis to derive a Global Financial Score (GFS for 16 core, semiperiphery and peripheral European cities and global warming and climate change to derive a Global Environmental Score (GES. London and Paris are in the European core; Rome, Dublin, Madrid and Prague are in the semiperiphery; while Tallinn, Riga, and Belgrade are in the periphery. A strong positive relationship exists between the GES and GFS. We examine the linkages of the 16 cities to the 100 largest world cities and illustrate, with “clockgrams,” the linkages London, Brussels and Athens have with other world cities. We calculated the number of linkages each of the 16 cities had with other world cities to identify Europe’s urban cores, semiperipheries, peripheries, and deep peripheries. New York is in the core of both the economic and environmental maps. Some world cities are in the semiperiphery of one category and periphery of another. Milan, Istanbul, and Delhi are in the deep periphery for the GFS while Toronto and Athens are for the GES. Hyperlinks represent valuable databases to measure the impact of crises and regional and global urban linkages.

  20. Asthma in Olympians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Kai-Håkon

    2016-01-01

    High prevalence of asthma has been reported repeatedly among elite athletes, especially among endurance athletes. So many athletes used asthma drugs that the objective demonstration of bronchial hyperresponsiveness was required to obtain approval for their use in international sports until 2012 when the most used inhaled asthma drugs was allowed for free use, but with a maximum dose for inhaled β2-agonists. Several factors contribute to the development of asthma among the Olympians causing airways inflammation and bronchial hyper-responsiveness. PMID:26631837

  1. Asthma among mink workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Berit; Carstensen, Ole; Petersen, Rolf;

    2014-01-01

    We report two cases of asthma among mink workers. The first case is about a mink farmer who had asthma that was difficult to treat. In the medical history there was no clear relation to work, and no conclusive work relation with peak flow monitoring. He had a positive histamine release test to mink...... urine. The second case is about a mink farm worker, who had an asthma attack when handling mink furs. Peak flow monitoring showed a clear relation to this work, but there were no signs of allergy. We conclude that these two cases suggest an increased risk of asthma among mink workers....

  2. Asthma: Basic Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... physicians' office Health care providers - Medical clinics/physicians' office Health care providers - Other Parents - Home Case Studies Open Airways for Schools Asthma Care Training Wee Wheezers ...

  3. Biomarkers in Severe Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiao Chloe; Woodruff, Prescott G

    2016-08-01

    Biomarkers have been critical for studies of disease pathogenesis and the development of new therapies in severe asthma. In particular, biomarkers of type 2 inflammation have proven valuable for endotyping and targeting new biological agents. Because of these successes in understanding and marking type 2 inflammation, lack of knowledge regarding non-type 2 inflammatory mechanisms in asthma will soon be the major obstacle to the development of new treatments and management strategies in severe asthma. Biomarkers can play a role in these investigations as well by providing insight into the underlying biology in human studies of patients with severe asthma. PMID:27401625

  4. Pharmacogenomics of pediatric asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Sarika

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Asthma is a complex disease with multiple genetic and environmental factors contributing to it. A component of this complexity is a highly variable response to pharmacological therapy. Pharmacogenomics is the study of the role of genetic determinants in the variable response to therapy. A number of examples of possible pharmacogenomic approaches that may prove of value in the management of asthma are discussed below. Evidence Acquisition: A search of PubMed, Google scholar, E-Medicine, BMJ and Mbase was done using the key words "pharmacogenomics of asthma", "pharmacogenomics of β-agonist, glucocorticoids, leukotriene modifiers, theophylline, muscarinic antagonists in asthma". Results: Presently, there are limited examples of gene polymorphism that can influence response to asthma therapy. Polymorphisms that alter response to asthma therapy include Arg16Gly, Gln27Glu, Thr164Ile for β-agonist receptor, polymorphism of glucocorticoid receptor gene, CRHR1 variants and polymorphism of LTC4S, ALOX5. Polymorphic variants of muscarinic receptors, PDE4 and CYP450 gene variants. Conclusion: It was concluded that genetic variation can improve the response to asthma therapy. However, no gene polymorphism has been associated with consistent results in different populations. Therefore, asthma pharmacogenomic studies in different populations with a large number of subjects are required to make possible tailoring the asthma therapy according to the genetic characteristic of individual patient.

  5. The role of networks in the European union public health experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Peter D

    2012-12-01

    Improving our understanding of how the public health system should be organized is important, because the system's organizational structure makes a significant difference to the public's health. How the system is structured influences a practitioner's ability to respond and the system's capacity to adapt to changing circumstances. In view of the scarce resources society is willing to expend for public health, it is essential to have a structure in place that most appropriately and efficiently allocates those resources. The articles in this issue offer considerable insight from a European context, that deserves attention from US public health practitioners, advocates, and policy makers. PMID:22899843

  6. European Sero-Epidemiology Network 2: standardisation of immunoassay results for pertussis requires homogeneity in the antigenic preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammanco, Anna; Nardone, Antony; Pebody, Richard; Kafatos, George; Andrews, Nick; Chiarini, Alfredo; Taormina, Susanna; de Ory, Fernando; Prosenc, Katarina; Krize, Bohumir; Hallander, Hans; Ljungman, Margaretha; Marva, Esther; Tsakris, Athanassios; O'Flanagan, Darina; Schneider, François; Griskevicius, Algirdas; Vranckx, Robert; Karacs, Ildiko

    2008-08-18

    A standardisation process, already developed during the earlier European Sero-Epidemiology Network (ESEN) project, was employed with a more robust algorithm to harmonise results of pertussis serological assays performed in 12 European and non-European countries. Initially, results from each country's own assay were compared with those obtained at the reference laboratory by means of an in-house pertussis toxin (PT)-based ELISA: seven countries used in-house or commercial PT-ELISAs; the other countries used assays based on Bordetella pertussis whole cell extracts (WCE) (three countries) or on combined PT-FHA (filamentous haemagglutinin) antigenic preparations (two countries). The WCE assays, although admitted for diagnostic purposes, confirmed their low correlation with the PT-ELISAs and their results could not be used for standardisation; the PT-FHA ELISAs gave results that were suitable for standardisation in one country but unsatisfactory in the other; the use of purified PT in serological assays confirmed its better reliability than other preparations and all PT-ELISAs results could be calibrated against those of the reference centre. In the standardisation process two high-titre cut-offs indicative of likelihood of recent infection (from within 4 weeks of disease onset up to 1 year after) were included for evaluations as they are suggested to be more useful, for the sero-epidemiological assays of immunity to pertussis, than the cut-off of protection, commonly employed, but still not defined for pertussis. Providing PT-ELISAs are used, standardisation of pertussis assay results is always possible and, when standardisation is performed, evaluation and comparison of the impact of different interventions can be also allowed, by measuring at the distribution of high antibody titres in the populations. PMID:18602434

  7. Structure and evolution of a European Parliament via a network and correlation analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Puccio, Elena; Piilo, Jyrki; Tumminello, Michele

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of the network of relationships among elected members of the Finnish parliament, based on a quantitative analysis of initiative co-signatures, and its evolution over 16 years. To understand the structure of the parliament, we constructed a statistically validated network of members, based on the similarity between the patterns of initiatives they signed. We looked for communities within the network and characterized them in terms of members' attributes, such as electoral district and party. To gain insight on the nested structure of communities, we constructed a hierarchical tree of members from the correlation matrix. Afterwards, we studied parliament dynamics yearly, with a focus on correlations within and between parties, by also distinguishing between government and opposition. Finally, we investigated the role played by specific individuals, at a local level. In particular, whether they act as proponents who gather consensus, or as signers. Our results provide a quantitative background...

  8. A framework for a European network for a systematic environmental impact assessment of genetically modified organisms (GMO)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graaf, F; Römbke, J; Binimelis, R;

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of the impacts of growing genetically modified (GM) crops remains a major political and scientific challenge in Europe. Concerns have been raised by the evidence of adverse and unexpected environmental effects and differing opinions on the outcomes of environmental risk assessments...... within the ERA research and testing community, weaknesses in consideration of stakeholder interests and specific regional conditions, and the lack of comprehensive assessments that address the environmental and socio-economic risk assessment interface. To address these challenges, we propose a European...... Network for systematic GMO impact assessment (ENSyGMO) with the aim directly to enhance ERA and post-market environmental monitoring (PMEM) of GM crops, to harmonize and ultimately secure the long-term socio-political impact of the ERA process and the PMEM in the EU. These goals would be achieved with a...

  9. The Monitoring of Triphenylmethane Dyes in Aquaculture Products Through the European Union Network of Official Control Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdon, Eric; Bessiral, Melaine; Chotard, Marie-Pierre; Couëdor, Pierrick; Fourmond, Marie-Pierre; Fuselier, Régine; Gaugain, Murielle; Gautier, Sophie; Hurtaud-Pessel, Dominique; Laurentie, Michel; Pirotais, Yvette; Roudaut, Brigitte; Sanders, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Aquaculture has been the fastest growing animal production industry for the past four decades, and almost half of the fish eaten in the world are now farmed fish. To prevent diseases in this more intensive aquaculture farming, use of therapeutic chemicals has become a basic choice. The monitoring of malachite green, a triphenylmethane dye and one of the oldest and widely used chemicals in fish production, has gained more interest since the mid 1990s when this substance was finally proven to be toxic enough to be prohibited in seafood products destined for human consumption. The enforcement of the European Union (EU) regulation of this banned substance along with some other triphenylmethane dye congeners and their metabolites in its domestic production and in seafood imports was undertaken through the National Residue Monitoring Plans implemented in nearly all of the 28 EU member states. The reliability of the overall European monitoring of this dye contamination in aquaculture products was assessed by using the results of proficiency testing (PT) studies provided by the EU Reference Laboratory (EU-RL) in charge of the network of the EU National Reference Laboratories (NRLs). The proficiency of each NRL providing analytical support services for regulating dye residues was carefully checked during three PT rounds. In the process, the analytical methods developed and validated for this purpose have gradually been improved and extended over the last two decades. PMID:26025009

  10. A framework for a European network for a systematic environmental impact assessment of genetically modified organisms (GMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frieder Graef

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of the impacts of growing genetically modified (GM crops remains a major political and scientific challenge in Europe. Concerns have been raised by the evidence of adverse and unexpected environmental effects and differing opinions on the outcomes of environmental risk assessments (ERA. The current regulatory system is hampered by insufficiently developed methods for GM crop safety testing and introduction studies. Improvement to the regulatory system needs to address the lack of well designed GM crop monitoring frameworks, professional and financial conflicts of interest within the ERA research and testing community, weaknesses in consideration of stakeholder interests and specific regional conditions, and the lack of comprehensive assessments that address the environmental and socio-economic risk assessment interface. To address these challenges, we propose a European Network for systematic GMO impact assessment (ENSyGMO with the aim directly to enhance ERA and post-market environmental monitoring (PMEM of GM crops, to harmonize and ultimately secure the long-term socio-political impact of the ERA process and the PMEM in the EU. These goals would be achieved with a multi-dimensional and multi-sector approach to GM crop impact assessment, targeting the variability and complexity of the EU agro-environment and the relationship with relevant socio-economic factors. Specifically, we propose to develop and apply methodologies for both indicator and field site selection for GM crop ERA and PMEM, embedded in an EU-wide typology of agro-environments. These methodologies should be applied in a pan-European field testing network using GM crops. The design of the field experiments and the sampling methodology at these field sites should follow specific hypotheses on GM crop effects and use state-of-the art sampling, statistics and modelling approaches. To address public concerns and create confidence in the ENSyGMO results, actors with

  11. The European Diphtheria Surveillance Network (ESDN) a strong model to combat a rare disease and use resources efficiently, share knowledge openly, and give support effectively

    OpenAIRE

    Neal, Shona; Efstratiou, Androulla; The European Diphtheria Surveillance Network, EDSN

    2012-01-01

    Maria Paula Bajanca Lavado é a microbiologista responsável pela Diphtheria em Portugal e representa Portugal no ECDC no Grupo "The European Diphtheria Surveillance Network (EDSN)". BACKGROUND: As diphtheria is uncommon within the EU, complacency and minimal awareness is constantly observed. However, diphtheria is still seen sporadically in many EU countries and recent outbreaks have occurred worldwide. From the success of the EU-funded Diphtheria Network (DIPNET), the Europe...

  12. Economic analysis of the vertical structure of the European gas network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report prepared for the European Commission on the initial results of the competitive natural gas market, which opened in August 2000, identified various technical and organizational problems. The report highlighted the preponderant place occupied by historical natural gas suppliers in the market place and the barriers they have constructed in their former exclusively held territories, with the obvious intention of limiting the entry of new suppliers into the market. The authors conclude that to avoid such competition-limiting behaviour, it will be necessary to limit the power of the existing supply firms. To lay the foundation for a series of recommendations the authors first examine the positions occupied by the various actors in the gas supply chain, followed by a review of the principal factors affecting the European natural gas market, paying special attention to existing regulations. Based on the literature on vertical integration of markets, the final section makes certain proposals concerning the separation of the gas production and distribution functions and the resulting behaviour of the various actors in terms of their respective positions along the natural gas supply chain. Recommendations are also made regarding possible future directions in market regulations. 25 refs., 1 tab. figs

  13. Green Belt - a case of ecological network in European cultural landscape

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartoš, Michael; Kušová, Drahomíra; Zemek, František; Těšitel, Jan

    Brno : CZ-IALE Praha, 2007, s. 4-11. ISBN 978-80-86386-97-3 Grant ostatní: -(XE) Interreg IIIB CADSES Green Belt (5D107), PANET (5D194) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : green belt * habitat system * nature protection * ecological network Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  14. A meta-database comparison from various European Research and Monitoring Networks dedicated to forest sites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Danielewska, A.; Clarke, N.; Olejnik, Janusz; Hansen, K.; de Vries, W.; Lundin, L.; Tuovinen, J-P.; Fischer, R.; Urbaniak, M.; Paoletti, E.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 6, JAN 2013 (2013), s. 1-9. ISSN 1971-7458 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Research and Monitoring Network * Meta-database * Forest * Monitoring Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.150, year: 2013

  15. Nutrition and Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Increase in the asthma prevalence in many countries over the recent decades, highlights the need for a greater understanding of the risk factors for asthma. Be-cause asthma is the result of interaction between genetic and environmental fac-tors, increasing prevalence is certainly the result of changes in environmental fac-tors because of process of wesernization. That is the reason for higher prevalence in countries where a traditional to a westernized lifestyle occurred earlier. This increasing prevalence has affected both rural and urban communities, suggesting that local environmental factors such as exposure to allergens or industrial air pol-lutions are not the sole cause. In the last few years, nutrition has represented an important conditioning factor of many cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and chronic pulmonary diseases. So it has been hypothesized that dietary constituents influence the immune system and thus, may also be actively involved in the onset of asthma and other allergic diseases. Dietary constituents can play beneficial as well as det-rimental role in asthma. The possible role of diet in the development of asthma can be described as follows: first, a food allergen can cause asthma. Second, there is role of breast-feeding for prevention of asthma later in life. Third, a low intake of antioxidative dietary constituents might be a risk factor for asthma. Moreover, role of cations such as sodium, potassium and magnesium has been described in development of asthma. Finally, intake of fatty acids specially the role of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids play important role in cause of asthma.

  16. The Need for Innovative Methods of Teaching and Learning Chemistry in Higher Education--Reflections from a Project of the European Chemistry Thematic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilks, Ingo; Byers, Bill

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes the work and conclusions of a working group established by the European Chemistry Thematic Network (ECTN). The aim of the working group was to identify potential areas for innovative approaches to the teaching and learning of chemistry in Higher Education, and to survey good practice throughout the EU. The paper starts by…

  17. Active case finding of tuberculosis in Europe: a Tuberculosis Network European Trials Group (TBNET) survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothamley, G.H.; Ditiu, L.; Migliori, G.B.;

    2008-01-01

    Tuberculosis control depends on successful case finding and treatment of individuals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Passive case finding is widely practised: the present study aims to ascertain the consensus and possible improvements in active case finding across Europe. Recommendations...... from national guidelines were collected from 50 countries of the World Health Organization European region using a standard questionnaire. Contacts are universally screened for active tuberculosis and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Most countries (>70%) screen those with HIV infection, prisoners...... and in-patient contacts. Screening of immigrants is related to their contribution to national rates of tuberculosis. Only 25 (50%) out of 50 advise a request for symptoms in their guidelines. A total of 36 (72%) out of 50 countries recommend sputum examination for those with a persistent cough; 13...

  18. The European development of a full scale switching unit for the ITER switching and discharging networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Fusion Programme included since the mid-1990s, the development of a full scale, full rating current commutating unit (CCU) to be used as a centre-piece of the ITER magnet protective circuits. The CCU is mainly composed of a by-pass switch (BPS) in parallel to a vacuum circuit breaker (VCB). Both full scale switches were subjected to extensive testing in conditions simulating the actual ITER operation. The operation in absence of the saturable reactor series connected in the ITER reference design was successfully assessed. Interruption tests at low current and full counter-pulse capacitor voltage, were also satisfactorily performed. The tests included an extensive and novel characterisation of the interrupting capability of the vacuum circuit breaker in the presence of an external magnetic field as in the actual location of installation in ITER

  19. The Importance of Information through Accounting Practice in Agricultural Sector-European Data Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vazakidis Athanasios

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Present study investigated the gap between accounting practices and the magnitude role of accounting information in the agricultural sector. Problem statement: Factors for this gap are: Current general accounting rules do not reflect the particularities of farming, the need of farm management, rural development and sustainability. The introduction of International Accounting Standard 41 (IAS 41 by International Accounting Standard Committee, Approach: With the Farm Accounting Data Network (FADN in Europe, could be key elements to improve the use of agriculture accounting. Results: After mandatory and optional adoption for listed and non-listed small size companies, of IAS’s respectively, by EU at 2005, we conclude that the main contribution of IAS 41 is to provide a strong conceptual framework in agricultural accounting practice. Conclusion: FADN is an experienced data network, which could be a guide for implementing of IAS 41. Finally, we unfold IAS 41 statutory and FADN procedures grounding an informative frame for farm development policy.

  20. Asthma and Therapeutics: Recombinant Therapies in Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cockcroft Donald W

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Numerous recombinant therapies are being investigated for the treatment of asthma. This report reviews the current status of several of these novel agents. Anti-immunoglobulin (IgE (omalizumab, Xolair markedly inhibits all aspects of the allergen challenge in subjects who have reduction of free serum IgE to undetectable levels. Several clinical studies in atopic asthma have demonstrated benefit by improved symptoms and lung function and a reduction in corticosteroid requirements. Early use in atopic asthmatics may be even more effective. Several approaches target interleukin (IL-4. Soluble IL-4 receptor has been shown to effectively replace inhaled corticosteroid; further studies are under way. Recombinant anti-IL-5 and recombinant IL-12 inhibit blood and sputum eosinophils and allergen-induced eosinophilia without any effect on airway responsiveness, allergen-induced airway responses, or allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness. Efalizumab, a recombinant antibody that inhibits lymphocyte trafficking, is effective in psoriasis. A bronchoprovocation study showed a reduction in allergen-induced late asthmatic response and allergen-induced eosinophilia, which suggests that it should be effective in clinical asthma. These exciting novel therapies provide not only promise of new therapies for asthma but also valuable tools for investigation of asthma mechanisms.

  1. What Is Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that it is a combination of your family history and your environment. There is no cure for asthma. Once you ... administrators with information, education and resources to incorporate environmental management into clinical practices and standards of care for asthma patients. Top ...

  2. So You Have Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the night every night or competing in the Olympics. In other words, you should be able to live a normal active life! The following list shows what your life could be like if your asthma were controlled: As a rule, you should have: • Few, if any, asthma symptoms • ...

  3. Advances in Pediatric Asthma in 2013: Coordinating Asthma Care

    OpenAIRE

    Szefler, Stanley J.

    2014-01-01

    Last year’s Advances in Pediatric Asthma: Moving Toward Asthma Prevention concluded that: “We are well on our way to creating a pathway around wellness in asthma care and also to utilize new tools to predict the risk for asthma and take steps to not only prevent asthma exacerbations but also to prevent the early manifestations of the disease and thus prevent its evolution to severe asthma.” This year’s summary will focus on recent advances in pediatric asthma on pre- and postnatal factors alt...

  4. Necessary alternatives: patients’ views of asthma treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Kopnina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Helen Kopnina1, Joke Haafkens21Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Labor Studies, University of Amsterdam; 2Department of General Practice, Academic Medical Centre of the University of Amsterdam, The NetherlandsAbstract: This article is based on semistructured interviews and focus groups conducted with 27 asthma patients in The Netherlands who chose complementary and alternative medicine (CAM for treatment of their condition. All subjects were contacted through an online forum for asthma patients hosted by the Dutch Asthma Foundation. Nineteen subjects (12 women and seven men between the ages of 29 and 65 years participated in the interviews, held between June 2009 and January 2010. All of the participating subjects had experience with conventional medications, including anti-inflammatory corticosteroids and bronchodilators. For the focus group meeting, held in February 2010, the sample included seven subjects (four women and three men between the ages of 31 and 46 years, none of whom had ever used conventional medication and all of whom were using CAM. All subjects in the sample had been diagnosed with asthma by their physician or lung specialist. The study examined the causes of patient noncompliance with the prescribed medical regime. It is argued that evidence-based rationality on the part of subjects is an overlooked dimension of their experience of asthma. This study demonstrates the role that the patients’ social network, including medical practitioners, friends, and family, and other asthmatics, plays in the process of decision-making and choices about treating asthma. It also demonstrates the role of patients’ information-searching strategies. The author concludes that patient noncompliance with commonly prescribed medication and selection of alternative medical treatment is less a matter of denial of their diagnosis or the severity of their illness, but more a matter of choice informed by evidence-based rationality.Keywords: asthma

  5. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... AsthmaStats Asthma-related Missed School Days among Children aged 5–17 Years Asthma Severity among Adults with Current Asthma Asthma Severity among Children with Current Asthma Overuse of quick-relief medication among persons with active asthma Use of long-term control medication among ...

  6. Fertility outcomes in asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Elisabeth Juul; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Lindenberg, Svend;

    2016-01-01

    fertility treatments, and the number of successful pregnancies differ significantly between women with unexplained infertility with and without asthma.245 women with unexplained infertility (aged 23-45 years) underwent questionnaires and asthma and allergy testing while undergoing fertility treatment. 96...... women entering the study had either a former doctor's diagnosis of asthma or were diagnosed with asthma when included. After inclusion they were followed for a minimum of 12 months in fertility treatment, until they had a successful pregnancy, stopped treatment, or the observation ended.The likelihood...... pregnancies during fertility treatment, 39.6 versus 60.4% (p=0.002). Increasing age was of negative importance for expected time to pregnancy, especially among asthmatic women (interaction between age and asthma on time to pregnancy, p=0.001). Female asthmatics had a longer time to pregnancy and less often...

  7. Cough and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimi, Akio

    2011-01-01

    Cough is the most common complaint for which patients seek medical attention. Cough variant asthma (CVA) is a form of asthma, which presents solely with cough. CVA is one of the most common causes of chronic cough. More importantly, 30 to 40% of adult patients with CVA, unless adequately treated, may progress to classic asthma. CVA shares a number of pathophysiological features with classic asthma such as atopy, airway hyper-responsiveness, eosinophilic airway inflammation and various features of airway remodeling. Inhaled corticosteroids remain the most important form of treatment of CVA as they improve cough and reduce the risk of progression to classic asthma most likely through their prevention of airway remodeling and chronic airflow obstruction. PMID:22081767

  8. Asthma control: Patient and environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.H.M. Rijssenbeek-Nouwens

    2015-01-01

    Control of asthma, the goal of asthma treatment, seems hard to obtain. However, it is largely unknown why control of asthma remains difficult in many patients in spite of available powerful medication. In this thesis we studied non-pharmacological factors influencing asthma control: patient related

  9. Induced Sputum Proteome in Health and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharib, Sina A.; Nguyen, Elizabeth V.; Lai, Ying; Plampin, Jessica D.; Goodlett, David R.; Hallstrand, Teal S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Asthma is a heterogeneous disease characterized by abnormal airway pathophysiology and susceptibility to different stimuli, as exemplified by a subset of individuals with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). Induced sputum provides a noninvasive method to sample airway biofluids that are enriched in proteins. Objective We hypothesized that novel mechanisms in the pathogenesis of asthma may be revealed by studying the patterns of protein expression in induced sputum. Methods We used shotgun proteomics to analyze induced sputum from 5 normal individuals and 10 asthmatics, including 5 with EIB. Differential protein expression between asthmatics, asthma subphenotypes and control subjects was determined using spectral counting and computational methods. Results Using Gene Ontology analysis, we defined the functional landscape of induced sputum proteome and applied network analysis to construct a protein interaction map for this airway compartment. Shotgun proteomics analysis identified a number of proteins whose differential enrichment or depletion robustly distinguishedasthmatics from normal controls, and captured the effects of exercise on induced sputum proteome. Functional and network analysis identified key processes, including proteolytic activity that are known contributors to airway remodeling. Importantly, this approach highlighted previously unrecognized roles for differentially expressed proteins in pathways implicated in asthma, such as modulation of phospholipase A2 by secretoglobin, a putative role for S100A8/9 in human asthma, and selective upregulation of complement 3a in response to exercise in asthmatics. Conclusion Computationally-intensive analysis of induced sputum proteome is a powerful approach to understand the pathophysiology of asthma and a promising methodology to investigate other diseases of the airways. PMID:21906793

  10. Neural Networks with Wavelet Based Denoising Layer: Application to Central European Stock Market Forecasting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baruník, Jozef; Vácha, Lukáš

    Liberec : Technical University of Liberec, 2008 - (Řehořová, P.; Maršíková, K.), s. 1-6 ISBN 978-80-7372-387-3. [Mathematical Methods in Economics 2008. Liberec (CZ), 17.09.2008-19.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA402/06/1417; GA ČR GP402/08/P207 Grant ostatní: GAUK(CZ) 46108 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : neural networks * hard threshold denoising * time series prediction * wavelets Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2008/E/barunik-0314935.pdf

  11. Conflicts when liberalising network industries: towards a sustainable development of the European power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impacts of the changes in the industrial organisation of the (European) electricity supply industry pull in different directions. Pairs of largely antithetic issues in the transition towards a more liberalised electricity supply industry include: competition vs monopoly; efficiency vs equity and/or public service considerations; short-term vs long-term policy goals; slow vs rapid transition to a more competition-oriented industry structure; permanent vs temporary regulation; light-handed vs heavy-handed regulation; centralised vs decentralised regulation; and public vs private ownership. Because of the increasing recognition of the importance of sustainability, this paper aims to shed some light on the various impacts of electricity sector reform on sustainable development and, in turn, on how sustainable development policies tend to affect the electricity sector. We find that for a transition towards a more sustainable development in the electricity sector it is crucial that increased energy production and use does not outweigh the (efficiency, equity, social, environmental, etc.) gains that are, or have been, achieved towards sustainable development. In this respect an internalisation of external costs, which includes the abolition of subsidies for non-sustainable energy carriers ('first-best solution'), or an explicit accounting of the benefits offered by renewable and efficiency technologies ('second-best solution'), plus rigorous energy saving and energy efficiency promotion measures, are paramount on the path towards sustainability. (author)

  12. Typical investigational medicinal products follow relatively uniform regulations in 10 European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gluud Christian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to facilitate multinational clinical research, regulatory requirements need to become international and harmonised. The EU introduced the Directive 2001/20/EC in 2004, regulating investigational medicinal products in Europe. Methods We conducted a survey in order to identify the national regulatory requirements for major categories of clinical research in ten European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN countries-Austria, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and United Kingdom-covering approximately 70% of the EU population. Here we describe the results for regulatory requirements for typical investigational medicinal products, in the ten countries. Results Our results show that the ten countries have fairly harmonised definitions of typical investigational medicinal products. Clinical trials assessing typical investigational medicinal products require authorisation from a national competent authority in each of the countries surveyed. The opinion of the competent authorities is communicated to the trial sponsor within the same timelines, i.e., no more than 60 days, in all ten countries. The authority to which the application has to be sent to in the different countries is not fully harmonised. Conclusion The Directive 2001/20/EC defined the term 'investigational medicinal product' and all regulatory requirements described therein are applicable to investigational medicinal products. Our survey showed, however, that those requirements had been adopted in ten European countries, not for investigational medicinal products overall, but rather a narrower category which we term 'typical' investigational medicinal products. The result is partial EU harmonisation of requirements and a relatively navigable landscape for the sponsor regarding typical investigational medicinal products.

  13. Children with Asthma and Sports

    OpenAIRE

    Selda Yuzer; Sevinc Polat

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is one of the chronic diseases which have are widely seen among the children. The disease has recently been in the increase all over the world and affects many children. In a study conducted with International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) method, it was found out that prevalence of childhood asthma was 17.1%. Participation in sportive activities by the children with asthma, which is today considered as a part of asthma treatment program, makes contributions to the...

  14. Screening for asthma in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, A.

    1994-01-01

    The primary health care team is at the forefront of asthma management and there is evidence of improved delivery of care via nurse run, audited, general practice clinics. However, hospital admissions for asthma continue to rise. Screening for childhood asthma would appear to have advantages for patient care. This review looks critically at the literature that addresses important issues in screening for childhood asthma, including the problem of defining asthma, its prevalence rate and the imp...

  15. The Significance of Asthma Follow-Up Consultations for Adherence to Asthma Medication, Asthma Medication Beliefs, and Asthma Control

    OpenAIRE

    Malin Axelsson; Linda Ekerljung; Bo Lundbäck

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aim was to investigate adherence to asthma medication treatment, medication beliefs, and asthma control in relation to asthma follow-up consultations in asthmatics in the general population. A further aim was to describe associations between adherence, medication beliefs, and asthma control. Method. In the population-based West Sweden Asthma Study, data allowing calculation of adherence for 4.5 years based on pharmacy records were obtained from 165 adult asthmatics. Additional ...

  16. Obstructive sleep apnea and asthma*

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Salles; Regina Terse-Ramos; Adelmir Souza-Machado; Cruz, Alvaro A

    2013-01-01

    Symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing, especially obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), are common in asthma patients and have been associated with asthma severity. It is known that asthma symptoms tend to be more severe at night and that asthma-related deaths are most likely to occur during the night or early morning. Nocturnal symptoms occur in 60-74% of asthma patients and are markers of inadequate control of the disease. Various pathophysiological mechanisms are related to the worseni...

  17. Obstructive sleep apnea and asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Salles; Regina Terse-Ramos; Adelmir Souza-Machado; Cruz, Alvaro A.

    2013-01-01

    Symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing, especially obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), are common in asthma patients and have been associated with asthma severity. It is known that asthma symptoms tend to be more severe at night and that asthma-related deaths are most likely to occur during the night or early morning. Nocturnal symptoms occur in 60-74% of asthma patients and are markers of inadequate control of the disease. Various pathophysiological mechanisms are related to the worseni...

  18. Leaf water and plant wax hydrogen isotopes in a European sample network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, D. B.; Kahmen, A.

    2014-12-01

    The hydrogen isotopic composition of plant waxes in sediments is now routinely used as a hydroclimate proxy. This application is based largely on empirical calibrations that have demonstrated continental-scale correlations between source water and lipid hydrogen isotope values. But at smaller spatial scales and for individual locations it is increasingly recognized that factors that modify apparent fractionation between source water and leaf lipid hydrogen isotope values must also be considered. Isotopic enrichment of leaf water during transpiration is key among these secondary factors, and is itself sensitive to changes in hydroclimate. Leaf water enrichment also occurs prior to photosynthetic water uptake, and is therefore independent from cellular-level biomarker synthesis. Recent advances in theory have permitted mechanistic models to be developed that can be used to predict the mean leaf water hydrogen and oxygen isotope composition from readily available meteorological variables. This permits global-scale isoscape maps of leaf water isotopic composition and enrichment above source water to be generated, but these models have not been widely validated at continental spatial scales. We have established a network of twenty-one sites across Europe where we are sampling for leaf-, xylem-, and soil-water isotopes (H and O) at approximately 5-week intervals over the summer growing season. We augment the sample set with weekly to monthly precipitation samples and early- and late-season plant wax lipid samples. Collaborators at each site are conducting the sampling, and most sites are members of the FLUXNET tower network that also record high-resolution meteorological data. We present information on the implementation of the network and preliminary results from the 2014 summer season. The complete dataset will be used to track the evolution of water isotopes from source to leaf water and from leaf water to lipid hydrogen across diverse environments. This will provide

  19. Searching for phenotypic causal networks involving complex traits: an application to European quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valente Bruno D

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural equation models (SEM are used to model multiple traits and the casual links among them. The number of different causal structures that can be used to fit a SEM is typically very large, even when only a few traits are studied. In recent applications of SEM in quantitative genetics mixed model settings, causal structures were pre-selected based on prior beliefs alone. Alternatively, there are algorithms that search for structures that are compatible with the joint distribution of the data. However, such a search cannot be performed directly on the joint distribution of the phenotypes since causal relationships are possibly masked by genetic covariances. In this context, the application of the Inductive Causation (IC algorithm to the joint distribution of phenotypes conditional to unobservable genetic effects has been proposed. Methods Here, we applied this approach to five traits in European quail: birth weight (BW, weight at 35 days of age (W35, age at first egg (AFE, average egg weight from 77 to 110 days of age (AEW, and number of eggs laid in the same period (NE. We have focused the discussion on the challenges and difficulties resulting from applying this method to field data. Statistical decisions regarding partial correlations were based on different Highest Posterior Density (HPD interval contents and models based on the selected causal structures were compared using the Deviance Information Criterion (DIC. In addition, we used temporal information to perform additional edge orienting, overriding the algorithm output when necessary. Results As a result, the final causal structure consisted of two separated substructures: BW→AEW and W35→AFE→NE, where an arrow represents a direct effect. Comparison between a SEM with the selected structure and a Multiple Trait Animal Model using DIC indicated that the SEM is more plausible. Conclusions Coupling prior knowledge with the output provided by the IC algorithm

  20. COST ES0602: towards a European network on chemical weather forecasting and information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kukkonen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The COST ES0602 action provides a forum for benchmarking approaches and practices in data exchange and multi-model capabilities for chemical weather forecasting and near real-time information services in Europe. The action includes approximately 30 participants from 19 countries, and its duration is from 2007 to 2011 (http://www.chemicalweather.eu/. Major efforts have been dedicated in other actions and projects to the development of infrastructures for data flow. We have therefore aimed for collaboration with ongoing actions towards developing near real-time exchange of input data for air quality forecasting. We have collected information on the operational air quality forecasting models on a regional and continental scale in a structured form, and inter-compared and evaluated the physical and chemical structure of these models. We have also constructed a European chemical weather forecasting portal that includes links to most of the available chemical weather forecasting systems in Europe. The collaboration also includes the examination of the case studies that have been organized within COST-728, in order to inter-compare and evaluate the models against experimental data. We have also constructed an operational model forecasting ensemble. Data from a representative set of regional background stations have been selected, and the operational forecasts for this set of sites will be inter-compared and evaluated. The Action has investigated, analysed and reviewed existing chemical weather information systems and services, and will provide recommendations on best practices concerning the presentation and dissemination of chemical weather information towards the public and decision makers.

  1. Genetic data from avian influenza and avian paramyxoviruses generated by the European network of excellence (EPIZONE) between 2006 and 2011—Review and recommendations for surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dundon, William G.; Heidari, Alireza; Fusaro, Alice;

    2012-01-01

    Since 2006, the members of the molecular epidemiological working group of the European “EPIZONE” network of excellence have been generating sequence data on avian influenza and avian paramyxoviruses from both European and African sources in an attempt to more fully understand the circulation and...... impact of these viruses. This review presents a timely update on the epidemiological situation of these viruses based on sequence data generated during the lifetime of this project in addition to data produced by other groups during the same period. Based on this information and putting it all into a...

  2. Identification of a novel asthma susceptibility gene on chromosome 1qter and its functional evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Julia H; Chiano, Mathias; Wigglesworth, Mark;

    2008-01-01

    , through a series of genotyping screens. Further screening using the pedigree-based association test (PBAT) identified polymorphisms in the OPN3 and CHML genes as being associated with asthma and atopic asthma after correcting for multiple comparisons. We observed that polymorphisms flanking the OPN3 and......Asthma is a multifactorial disease, in which the intricate interplay between genetic and environmental factors underlies the overall phenotype of the disease. Using a genome-wide scan for linkage in a population comprising of Danish families, we identified a novel linked locus on chromosome 1qter...... (LOD 3.6, asthma) and supporting evidence for this locus was identified for both asthma and atopic-asthma phenotypes in the GAIN (Genetics of Asthma International Network) families. The putative susceptibility gene was progressively localized to a 4.5 Mb region on chromosome 1q adjacent to the telomere...

  3. Eosinophilic Endotype of Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Fernando; Lim, Hui Fang; Nair, Parameswaran

    2016-08-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease that can be classified into different clinical endotypes, depending on the type of airway inflammation, clinical severity, and response to treatment. This article focuses on the eosinophilic endotype of asthma, which is defined by the central role that eosinophils play in the pathophysiology of the condition. It is characterized by elevated sputum and/or blood eosinophils on at least 2 occasions and by a significant response to treatments that suppress eosinophilia. Histopathologic demonstration of eosinophils in the airways provides the most direct diagnosis of eosinophilic asthma; but it is invasive, thus, impractical in clinical practice. PMID:27401626

  4. The relation of airway obstruction to asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis and age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obaseki, D; Potts, J; Joos, G;

    2014-01-01

    history, atopy, and treatment. Multiple regression was used to assess the interactive effects of age and diagnostic group on decline in postbronchodilator ventilatory function. RESULTS: A total of 3337 participants provided adequate data (778 with asthma, 399 with CRS, 244 with both asthma and CRS and......RATIONALE: There is conflicting evidence on whether patients with asthma experience an accelerated decline in lung function with age. We examined the association between postbronchodilator lung function, asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), and atopy with age using a large European sample. METHODS......: In 17 centers in 11 European countries, case-control studies were nested within representative cross-sectional surveys of adults aged less than 75 years. Representative samples of participants with asthma, CRS or both and controls were assessed for postbronchodilator ventilatory function, smoking...

  5. Information Reference Models for European Pork Supply Networks - Identifying Gaps in Information Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Richard J.; Hermansen, John Erik; Fritz, Melanie;

    2011-01-01

    Several global developments such as diminishing production resources, limits in the availability of water and the growing demand for bio-energy as well as sector-wide crises (e.g. BSE, swine fever, dioxin) have led to a changing attitude of society towards the conse-quences of the food system‘s a....... The models support different parties involved in pork production, such as enterprises, system developers and consultants, in developing enterprise or network specific solutions.......Several global developments such as diminishing production resources, limits in the availability of water and the growing demand for bio-energy as well as sector-wide crises (e.g. BSE, swine fever, dioxin) have led to a changing attitude of society towards the conse-quences of the food system......‘s activities for social, economic and environmental issues, cap-tured in the term of sustainability. As a consequence, consumers show increasing interest in the characteristics of food, and in turn, on the availability of related information and guaran-tees. The paper introduces different information reference...

  6. Efficacy of a House Dust Mite Sublingual Allergen Immunotherapy Tablet in Adults With Allergic Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virchow, J Christian; Backer, Vibeke; Kuna, Piotr;

    2016-01-01

    corticosteroid (ICS) reduction period. DESIGN, SETTINGS, AND PARTICIPANTS: Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial conducted between August 2011 and April 2013 in 109 European trial sites. The trial included 834 adults with HDM allergy-related asthma not well controlled by ICS or combination products......, and with HDM allergy-related rhinitis. Key exclusion criteria were FEV1 less than 70% of predicted value or hospitalization due to asthma within 3 months before randomization. Efficacy was assessed during the last 6 months of the trial when ICS was reduced by 50% for 3 months and then completely...... moderate or severe asthma exacerbation during the ICS reduction period. Secondary outcomes were deterioration in asthma symptoms, change in allergen-specific immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4), change in asthma control or asthma quality-of-life questionnaires, and adverse events. RESULTS: Among 834 randomized...

  7. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Outdoors Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, and Surveillance Most Recent Asthma Data AsthmaStats Asthma-related Missed School Days among Children ...

  8. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to Use Your ... 1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health File Formats Help: How do ...

  9. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Breathing Easier [PDF - 1.1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know ... Breathing Easier [PDF - 1.1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health File ...

  10. TCM Differential Treatment of Cough Variant Asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhong-de; DENG Yi-qi; ZHANG Yu; HAN Yun; LIN Lin; CHAO En-xiang

    2010-01-01

    @@ Cough variant asthma (CVA), also called latent asthma or cough asthma, is a special type of asthma. With gradually deepened understanding of CVA in recent years, good curative effect has been achieved in TCM treatment of CVA.

  11. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Current Asthma Overuse of quick-relief medication among persons with active asthma Use of long-term control medication among persons with active asthma Uncontrolled Asthma among Persons with ...

  12. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Asthma Learn How to Control Asthma Brochures Facts Triggers Indoors ... Working on Asthma Follow @CDCasthma on Twitter to learn more about helping people with asthma live healthier ...

  13. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... PDF - 1.1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to ... PDF - 1.1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health File Formats Help: ...

  14. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Start ... Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, and Surveillance Most Recent Asthma Data AsthmaStats Asthma- ...

  15. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir You can control your asthma and avoid an attack by taking ... people with asthma live healthier lives by gaining control over their asthma. Quick Links Asthma Action Plan ...

  16. Personalized management of atrial fibrillation: Proceedings from the fourth Atrial Fibrillation competence NETwork/European Heart Rhythm Association consensus conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhof, Paulus; Breithardt, Günter; Aliot, Etienne; Al Khatib, Sana; Apostolakis, Stavros; Auricchio, Angelo; Bailleul, Christophe; Bax, Jeroen; Benninger, Gerlinde; Blomstrom-Lundqvist, Carina; Boersma, Lucas; Boriani, Giuseppe; Brandes, Axel; Brown, Helen; Brueckmann, Martina; Calkins, Hugh; Casadei, Barbara; Clemens, Andreas; Crijns, Harry; Derwand, Roland; Dobrev, Dobromir; Ezekowitz, Michael; Fetsch, Thomas; Gerth, Andrea; Gillis, Anne; Gulizia, Michele; Hack, Guido; Haegeli, Laurent; Hatem, Stephane; Häusler, Karl Georg; Heidbüchel, Hein; Hernandez-Brichis, Jessica; Jais, Pierre; Kappenberger, Lukas; Kautzner, Joseph; Kim, Steven; Kuck, Karl-Heinz; Lane, Deirdre; Leute, Angelika; Lewalter, Thorsten; Meyer, Ralf; Mont, Lluis; Moses, Gregory; Mueller, Markus; Münzel, Felix; Näbauer, Michael; Nielsen, Jens Cosedis; Oeff, Michael; Oto, Ali; Pieske, Burkert; Pisters, Ron; Potpara, Tatjana; Rasmussen, Lars; Ravens, Ursula; Reiffel, James; Richard-Lordereau, Isabelle; Schäfer, Herbert; Schotten, Ulrich; Stegink, Wim; Stein, Kenneth; Steinbeck, Gerhard; Szumowski, Lukasz; Tavazzi, Luigi; Themistoclakis, Sakis; Thomitzek, Karen; Van Gelder, Isabelle C; von Stritzky, Berndt; Vincent, Alphons; Werring, David; Willems, Stephan; Lip, Gregory Y H; Camm, A John

    2013-11-01

    The management of atrial fibrillation (AF) has seen marked changes in past years, with the introduction of new oral anticoagulants, new antiarrhythmic drugs, and the emergence of catheter ablation as a common intervention for rhythm control. Furthermore, new technologies enhance our ability to detect AF. Most clinical management decisions in AF patients can be based on validated parameters that encompass type of presentation, clinical factors, electrocardiogram analysis, and cardiac imaging. Despite these advances, patients with AF are still at increased risk for death, stroke, heart failure, and hospitalizations. During the fourth Atrial Fibrillation competence NETwork/European Heart Rhythm Association (AFNET/EHRA) consensus conference, we identified the following opportunities to personalize management of AF in a better manner with a view to improve outcomes by integrating atrial morphology and damage, brain imaging, information on genetic predisposition, systemic or local inflammation, and markers for cardiac strain. Each of these promising avenues requires validation in the context of existing risk factors in patients. More importantly, a new taxonomy of AF may be needed based on the pathophysiological type of AF to allow personalized management of AF to come to full fruition. Continued translational research efforts are needed to personalize management of this prevalent disease in a better manner. All the efforts are expected to improve the management of patients with AF based on personalized therapy. PMID:23981824

  17. Recent advances in the source term area within the SARNET European severe accident research network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herranz, L.E., E-mail: luisen.herranz@ciemat.es [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medio Ambientales y Tecnologica, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 40, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Haste, T. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, IRSN, BP 3, F-13115 St Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Kärkelä, T. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT Espoo (Finland)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Main achievements of source term research in SARNET are given. • Emphasis on the radiologically important iodine and ruthenium fission products. • Conclusions on FP release, transport in the RCS and containment behaviour. • Significance of large-scale integral experiments to validate the analyses used. • A thorough list of the most recent references on source term research results. - Abstract: Source Term has been one of the main research areas addressed within the SARNET network during the 7th EC Framework Programme of EURATOM. The entire source term domain was split into three major areas: oxidising impact on source term, iodine chemistry in the reactor coolant system and containment and data and code assessment. The present paper synthesises the main technical outcome stemming from the SARNET FWP7 project in the area of source term and includes an extensive list of references in which deeper insights on specific issues may be found. Besides, based on the analysis of the current state of the art, an outlook of future source term research is outlined, where major changes in research environment are discussed (i.e., the end of the Phébus FP project; the end of the SARNET projects; and the launch of HORIZON 2020). Most probably research projects will be streamlined towards: release and transport under oxidising conditions, containment chemistry, existing and innovative filtered venting systems and others. These will be in addition to a number of projects that have been completed or are ongoing under different national and international frameworks, like VERDON, CHIP and EPICUR started under the International Source Term Programme (ISTP), the OECD/CSNI programmes BIP, BIP2, STEM, THAI and THAI2, and the French national programme MIRE. The experimental PASSAM project under the 7th EC Framework programme, focused on source term mitigation systems, is highlighted as a good example of a project addressing potential enhancement of safety systems

  18. Recent advances in the source term area within the SARNET European severe accident research network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Main achievements of source term research in SARNET are given. • Emphasis on the radiologically important iodine and ruthenium fission products. • Conclusions on FP release, transport in the RCS and containment behaviour. • Significance of large-scale integral experiments to validate the analyses used. • A thorough list of the most recent references on source term research results. - Abstract: Source Term has been one of the main research areas addressed within the SARNET network during the 7th EC Framework Programme of EURATOM. The entire source term domain was split into three major areas: oxidising impact on source term, iodine chemistry in the reactor coolant system and containment and data and code assessment. The present paper synthesises the main technical outcome stemming from the SARNET FWP7 project in the area of source term and includes an extensive list of references in which deeper insights on specific issues may be found. Besides, based on the analysis of the current state of the art, an outlook of future source term research is outlined, where major changes in research environment are discussed (i.e., the end of the Phébus FP project; the end of the SARNET projects; and the launch of HORIZON 2020). Most probably research projects will be streamlined towards: release and transport under oxidising conditions, containment chemistry, existing and innovative filtered venting systems and others. These will be in addition to a number of projects that have been completed or are ongoing under different national and international frameworks, like VERDON, CHIP and EPICUR started under the International Source Term Programme (ISTP), the OECD/CSNI programmes BIP, BIP2, STEM, THAI and THAI2, and the French national programme MIRE. The experimental PASSAM project under the 7th EC Framework programme, focused on source term mitigation systems, is highlighted as a good example of a project addressing potential enhancement of safety systems

  19. Exercise and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Training Grants & Awards Program Directors Practice Resources ASTHMA IQ Consultation and Referral Guidelines Practice Financial Survey Practice ... conducting a physical examination and performing a breathing test called spirometry. If your breathing test shows that ...

  20. Smoking and asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Smoking is a trigger for many people who have ... do not have to be a smoker for smoking to cause harm. Exposure to someone else's smoking ( ...

  1. Reflexology and bronchial asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brygge, T; Heinig, J H; Collins, P;

    2001-01-01

    Many asthma patients seek alternative or adjunctive therapies. One such modality is reflexology, whereby finger pressure is applied to certain parts of the body. The aim of the study was to examine the popular claim that reflexology treatment benefits bronchial asthma. Ten weeks of active or...... simulated (placebo) reflexology given by an experienced reflexologist, were compared in an otherwise blind, controlled trial of 20+20 outpatients with asthma. Objective lung function tests (peak flow morning and evening, and weekly spirometry at the clinic) did not change. Subjective scores (describing...... diaries was carried out. It was accompanied by a significant pattern compatible with subconscious unblinding, in that patients tended to guess which treatment they had been receiving. No evidence was found that reflexology has a specific effect on asthma beyond placebo influence....

  2. Zoneterapi og asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brygge, Thor; Heinig, John Hilligsøe; Collins, Philippa;

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Many patients with asthma seek alternative or adjunctive therapies. One such modality is reflexology. Our aim was to examine the popular claim that reflexology treatment benefits bronchial asthma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten weeks of either active or simulated (placebo) reflexology were...... compared in an otherwise blind, controlled trial of 40 patients with asthma. RESULTS: Objective lung function tests did not change. Subjective scores and bronchial sensitivity to histamine improved on both regimens, but no differences were found in the groups receiving active or placebo reflexology....... However, a trend in favour of reflexology became significant when a supplementary analysis of symptom diaries was carried out. At the same time a significant pattern compatible with subconscious un-blinding was found. DISCUSSION: We found no evidence that reflexology has a specific effect on asthma beyond...

  3. Interleukin-16 in asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Jing-min; SHI Huan-zhong

    2006-01-01

    @@ Bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways that is characterized by lymphocyte, eosinophil, and mast cell infiltration of the submucosa along with mucous gland hyperplasia and subepithelial fibrosis.

  4. Community-based care coordination: practical applications for childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findley, Sally; Rosenthal, Michael; Bryant-Stephens, Tyra; Damitz, Maureen; Lara, Marielena; Mansfield, Carol; Matiz, Adriana; Nourani, Vesall; Peretz, Patricia; Persky, Victoria W; Valencia, Gilberto Ramos; Uyeda, Kimberly; Viswanathan, Meera

    2011-11-01

    Care coordination programs have been used to address chronic illnesses, including childhood asthma, but primarily via practice-based models. An alternative approach employs community-based care coordinators who bridge gaps between families, health care providers, and support services. Merck Childhood Asthma Network, Inc. (MCAN) sites developed community-based care coordination approaches for childhood asthma. Using a community-based care coordination logic model, programs at each site are described along with program operational statistics. Four sites used three to four community health workers (CHWs) to provide care coordination, whereas one site used five school-based asthma nurses. This school-based site had the highest caseload (82.5 per year), but program duration was 3 months with 4 calls or visits. Other sites averaged fewer cases (35 to 61 per CHW per year), but families received more (7 to 17) calls or visits over a year. Retention was 43% to 93% at 6 months and 24% to 75% at 12 months. Pre-post cross-site data document changes in asthma management behaviors and outcomes. After program participation, 93% to 100% of caregivers had confidence in controlling their child's asthma, 85% to 92% had taken steps to reduce triggers, 69% to 100% had obtained an asthma action plan, and 46% to 100% of those with moderate to severe asthma reported appropriate use of controller medication. Emergency department visits for asthma decreased by 36% to 63%, and asthma-related hospitalizations declined by 26% to 78%. More than three fourths had fewer school absences. In conclusion, MCAN community-based care coordination programs improved management behaviors and decreased morbidity across all sites. PMID:22068360

  5. Pharmacotherapy of severe asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Firszt, Rafael; Kraft, Monica

    2010-01-01

    Severe asthma is a complex and heterogeneous phenotype where management can be challenging. While many patients with severe asthma respond to high-dose inhaled corticosteroids in combination with a long-acting β-agonist, there remains a significant subset of patients that require oral corticosteroids to control symptoms. Alternative therapies are needed to help reduce the need for continuous oral corticosteroids; however, there are currently very few effective options. Several new alternative...

  6. Families, Parenting and Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Nixon, Hayley

    2011-01-01

    This thesis follows the paper based format in that Papers One and Two are stand-alone papers prepared for submission for Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review and the Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology respectively. The relevant submission guidelines are included in the appendix (Appendix 1). Asthma is the most common childhood chronic illness affecting an estimated 1.1 million children in the UK. A substantial body of research has shown that asthma prevalence and morbi...

  7. Asthma in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, J; Mroueh, S

    2001-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic disease that cannot be cured but can be effectively controlled. Control is achieved through education of the patient, monitoring of symptoms and pulmonary functions, environmental modification and pharmacologic therapy. The latter should aim at providing control with the least amount of medications. Any form of asthma more severe than mild intermittent requires the use of long term anti-inflammatory medications. PMID:12243423

  8. Japanese Guideline for Adult Asthma 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Ken Ohta; Masakazu Ichinose; Hiroyuki Nagase; Masao Yamaguchi; Hisatoshi Sugiura; Yuji Tohda; Kohei Yamauchi; Mitsuru Adachi; Kazuo Akiyama

    2014-01-01

    Adult bronchial asthma (hereinafter, asthma) is characterized by chronic airway inflammation, reversible airway narrowing, and airway hyperresponsiveness. Long-standing asthma induces airway remodeling to cause intractable asthma. The number of patients with asthma has increased, and that of patients who die from asthma has decreased (1.5 per 100,000 patients in 2012). The aim of asthma treatment is to enable patients with asthma to lead a normal life without any symptoms. A good relationship...

  9. [Asthma, obesity and diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barranco, P; Delgado, J; Gallego, L T; Bobolea, I; Pedrosa, Ma; García de Lorenzo, A; Quirce, S

    2012-01-01

    Asthma and obesity have a considerable impact on public health and their prevalence has increased in recent years. Numerous studies have linked both disorders. Most prospective studies show that obesity is a risk factor for asthma and have found a positive correlation between baseline body mass index (BMI) and the subsequent development of asthma, although these results are not conclusive when studying the association between airway hyperresponsiveness with BMI. Furthermore, several studies suggest that whereas weight gain increases the risk of asthma, weight loss improves the course of the illness. Different factors could explain this association. Obesity is capable of reducing pulmonary compliance, lung volumes and the diameter of peripheral respiratory airways as well as affecting the volume of blood in the lungs and the ventilation-perfusion relationship. Furthermore, the increase in the normal functioning of adipose tissue in obese subjects leads to a systemic proinflammatory state, which produces a rise in the serum concentrations of several cytokines, the soluble fractions of their receptors and chemokines. Many of these mediators are synthesized and secreted by cells from adipose tissue and receive the generic name of adipokines, including IL-6, IL-10, eotaxin, TNF-α, TGF- 1, PCR, leptin y adiponectin. Finally, specific regions of the human genome which are related to both asthma and obesity have been identified. Most studies point out that obesity is capable of increasing the prevalence and incidence of asthma, although this effect appears to be modest. The treatment of obese asthmatics must include a weight control program. PMID:22566313

  10. Asthma: a chronic infectious disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramori, Gaetano; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Contoli, Marco; Marku, Brunilda; Forini, Giacomo; Pauletti, Alessia; Johnston, Sebastian L; Papi, Alberto

    2012-09-01

    There are increasing data to support the "hygiene" and "microbiota" hypotheses of a protective role of infections in modulating the risk of subsequent development of asthma. There is less evidence that respiratory infections can actually cause the development of asthma. There is some evidence that rhinovirus respiratory infections are associated with the development of asthma, particularly in childhood, whereas these infections in later life seem to have a weaker association with the development of asthma. The role of bacterial infections in chronic asthma remains unclear. This article reviews the available evidence indicating that asthma may be considered as a chronic infectious disease. PMID:22929096

  11. Expression Data Analysis to Identify Biomarkers Associated with Asthma in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Wen Xu

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is characterized by recurrent episodes of wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and coughing. It is usually caused by a combination of complex and incompletely understood environmental and genetic interactions. We obtained gene expression data with high-throughput screening and identified biomarkers of children's asthma using bioinformatics tools. Next, we explained the pathogenesis of children's asthma from the perspective of gene regulatory networks: DAVID was applied to pe...

  12. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Recent Asthma Data AsthmaStats Asthma-related Missed School Days among Children aged 5–17 Years Asthma Severity ... the Nation Fact Sheet State Data Profiles (2011) Work-related Asthma NCHS Asthma FastStats Survey Questions Resources ...

  13. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Data AsthmaStats Asthma-related Missed School Days among Children aged 5–17 Years Asthma Severity among Adults with Current Asthma Asthma Severity among Children with Current Asthma Overuse of quick-relief medication ...

  14. Pooled Sequencing of Candidate Genes Implicates Rare Variants in the Development of Asthma Following Severe RSV Bronchiolitis in Infancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara G Torgerson

    Full Text Available Severe infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV during infancy is strongly associated with the development of asthma. To identify genetic variation that contributes to asthma following severe RSV bronchiolitis during infancy, we sequenced the coding exons of 131 asthma candidate genes in 182 European and African American children with severe RSV bronchiolitis in infancy using anonymous pools for variant discovery, and then directly genotyped a set of 190 nonsynonymous variants. Association testing was performed for physician-diagnosed asthma before the 7th birthday (asthma using genotypes from 6,500 individuals from the Exome Sequencing Project (ESP as controls to gain statistical power. In addition, among patients with severe RSV bronchiolitis during infancy, we examined genetic associations with asthma, active asthma, persistent wheeze, and bronchial hyperreactivity (methacholine PC20 at age 6 years. We identified four rare nonsynonymous variants that were significantly associated with asthma following severe RSV bronchiolitis, including single variants in ADRB2, FLG and NCAM1 in European Americans (p = 4.6x10-4, 1.9x10-13 and 5.0x10-5, respectively, and NOS1 in African Americans (p = 2.3x10-11. One of the variants was a highly functional nonsynonymous variant in ADRB2 (rs1800888, which was also nominally associated with asthma (p = 0.027 and active asthma (p = 0.013 among European Americans with severe RSV bronchiolitis without including the ESP. Our results suggest that rare nonsynonymous variants contribute to the development of asthma following severe RSV bronchiolitis in infancy, notably in ADRB2. Additional studies are required to explore the role of rare variants in the etiology of asthma and asthma-related traits following severe RSV bronchiolitis.

  15. Asthma in general practice : risk factors and asthma control

    OpenAIRE

    Nieuwenhof, L. van den

    2009-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic, inflammatory, pulmonary disease with a significant impact on patients, their families, and society. When symptomatic asthma is diagnosed, often irreversible changes in the airways have occurred. Therefore it is important to detect persons at high risk of asthma as early as possible. The studies described in this thesis show that certain groups with an allergy or allergic rhinitis ('hay fever') are more at risk for an asthma diagnosis than persons without these features. O...

  16. Domestic use of cleaning sprays and asthma activity in females. : Domestic cleaning sprays and asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Le Moual, Nicole; Varraso, Raphaëlle; Siroux, Valérie; Dumas, Orianne; Nadif, Rachel; Pin, Isabelle; Zock, Jean-Paul; Kauffmann, Francine

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to study the associations between the household use of cleaning sprays and asthma symptoms and control of asthma, in females from the Epidemiological Study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA). Data were available for 683 females (mean age 44 yrs, 55% never smokers, 439 without asthma and 244 with current asthma). Both domestic exposures and asthma phenotypes (asthma symptom score, current asthma, poorly-controlled asthma (56%)) were evaluated as previously described in t...

  17. Integrative systems biology approaches in asthma pharmacogenomics

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlin, Amber; Tantisira, Kelan G.

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve therapeutic outcomes, there is a tremendous need to identify patients who are likely to respond to a given asthma treatment. Pharmacogenomic studies have explained a portion of the variability in drug response and provided an increasing list of candidate genes and SNPs. However, as phenotypic variation arises from a network of complex interactions among genetic and environmental factors, rather than individual genes or SNPs, a multidisciplinary, systems-level approach is r...

  18. Contemporaneous International Asthma Guidelines Present Differing Recommendations: An Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Samir; Paolucci, Emily; Kaplan, Alan; Boulet, Louis-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Background. Several international groups develop asthma guidelines. Conflicting recommendations across guidelines have been described in several disease areas and may contribute to practice variability. Accordingly, we compared the latest Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS) asthma guideline with contemporaneous international asthma guidelines to evaluate conflicting recommendations and their causes. Methods. We identified the latest CTS asthma guideline update (2012) and the following societies which also updated their guidelines in 2012: the British Thoracic Society and Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network and the Global Initiative for Asthma. We compared these three guidelines on (1) key methodological factors and (2) adult pharmacotherapy recommendations. Results. Methods used and documentation provided for literature search strategy and dates, evidence synthesis, outcomes considered, evidence appraisal, and recommendation formulation varied between guidelines. Criteria used to define suboptimal asthma control varied widely between guidelines. Inhaled corticosteroid dosing recommendations diverged, as did recommendations surrounding use of budesonide/formoterol as a reliever and controller and recommendations in the subsequent step. Conclusions. There are important differences between recommendations provided in contemporaneous asthma guidelines. Causes include differences in methods used for interpreting evidence and formulating recommendations. Adopting a common set of valid and explicit methods across international societies could harmonize recommendations and facilitate guideline implementation.

  19. Contemporaneous International Asthma Guidelines Present Differing Recommendations: An Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Several international groups develop asthma guidelines. Conflicting recommendations across guidelines have been described in several disease areas and may contribute to practice variability. Accordingly, we compared the latest Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS asthma guideline with contemporaneous international asthma guidelines to evaluate conflicting recommendations and their causes. Methods. We identified the latest CTS asthma guideline update (2012 and the following societies which also updated their guidelines in 2012: the British Thoracic Society and Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network and the Global Initiative for Asthma. We compared these three guidelines on (1 key methodological factors and (2 adult pharmacotherapy recommendations. Results. Methods used and documentation provided for literature search strategy and dates, evidence synthesis, outcomes considered, evidence appraisal, and recommendation formulation varied between guidelines. Criteria used to define suboptimal asthma control varied widely between guidelines. Inhaled corticosteroid dosing recommendations diverged, as did recommendations surrounding use of budesonide/formoterol as a reliever and controller and recommendations in the subsequent step. Conclusions. There are important differences between recommendations provided in contemporaneous asthma guidelines. Causes include differences in methods used for interpreting evidence and formulating recommendations. Adopting a common set of valid and explicit methods across international societies could harmonize recommendations and facilitate guideline implementation.

  20. Genetics Home Reference: allergic asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... another allergic disorder, such as hay fever (allergic rhinitis) or food allergies. Asthma is sometimes part of ... the Symptoms of an Allergy? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease InfoSearch: Asthma Johns Hopkins Medicine: ...

  1. Exercising and asthma at school

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... part in recess, physical education (PE), and after-school sports is important for all children. And children with asthma should not have to sit on the side lines. School staff and coaches should know your child's asthma ...

  2. Pregnancy and Delivery in Patients with Mastocytosis Treated at the Polish Center of the European Competence Network on Mastocytosis (ECNM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Ciach

    Full Text Available To present current guidelines regarding treatment of mastocytosis in pregnancy on the example of observed patients.Case control national study.Polish Center of the European Competence Network on Mastocytosis (ECNM.23 singleton spontaneous pregnancies in 17 women diagnosed with mastocytosis in years 1999-2014, before becoming pregnant.Prospective analysis outcomes of pregnancies and deliveries.Survey developed in cooperation with the Spanish Instituto de Estudios de Mastocitosis de Castilla-La Mancha (CLMast, Hospital Virgen del Valle, Toledo, Red Espańola de Mastocitosis (REMA, Spain.All 23 pregnancies resulted from natural conception. Obstetrical complications recorded in the first trimester included spontaneous miscarriage (5 pregnancies. Four patients delivered preterm, including one delivery due to preeclampsia at 26 weeks which resulted with neonate death due to extreme prematurity. Five women delivered via cesarean: four due to obstetrical indications and one due to mastocytosis, during which no anesthesia related complications were recorded. Of patients delivering vaginally, two received extradural anesthesia, three required oxytocin infusion due to uterine hypotonia. No labor complications were recorded. In one woman with pregnancy-induced hypertension, early puerperium was complicated by the presence of persistent arterial hypertension. One neonate was born with the signs of cutaneous mastocytosis. Another neonate was diagnosed with Patau syndrome. Four women were treated for mastocytosis prior to conception and continued therapy after becoming pregnant. One patient was put on medications in the first trimester due to worsening of her symptoms. Pregnancy exerted only a slight effect on the intensity and frequency of mastocytosis-related symptoms observed. Worsening of the disease-related symptoms was documented in only four patients (23%. None of the patients showed the signs of anaphylaxis, either before becoming pregnant, or during

  3. Diagnosis and management of asthma in older adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chotirmall, Sanjay Haresh

    2009-05-01

    Despite comprehensive guidelines established by the European Global Initiative for Asthma and the U.S. National Asthma Education and Prevention Program on the diagnosis and management of asthma, its mortality in older adults continues to rise. Diagnostic and therapeutic problems contribute to older patients being inadequately treated. The diagnosis of asthma rests on the history and characteristic pulmonary function testing (PFT) with the demonstration of reversible airway obstruction, but there are unique problems in performing this test in older patients and in its interpretation. This review aims to address the difficulties in performing and interpreting PFT in older patients because of the effects of age-related changes in lung function on respiratory physiology. The concept of "airway remodeling" resulting in "fixed obstructive" PFT and the relevance of atopy in older people with asthma are assessed. There are certain therapeutic issues unique to older patients with asthma, including the increased probability of adverse effects in the setting of multiple comorbidities and issues surrounding effective drug delivery. The use of beta 2-agonist, anticholinergic, corticosteroid, and anti-immunoglobulin E treatments are discussed in the context of these therapeutic issues.

  4. Learning Networks, Networked Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Sloep, P. B. (2011). Learning Networks, Networked Learning. Presentation at Annual Assembly of the European Society for the Systemic Innovation of Education - ESSIE. May, 27, 2011, Leuven, Belgium: Open University in the Netherlands.

  5. Asthma control: Patient and environment

    OpenAIRE

    Bel, E.H.D.; Weersink, E.J.M.; Rijssenbeek-Nouwens, L.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Control of asthma, the goal of asthma treatment, seems hard to obtain. However, it is largely unknown why control of asthma remains difficult in many patients in spite of available powerful medication. In this thesis we studied non-pharmacological factors influencing asthma control: patient related factors, such as adherence and health status, as well as environmental related factors such as exposure to house dust mite allergen. Finally we studied the effect of a combination of these patient ...

  6. The Asthma Cost in Oman

    OpenAIRE

    Soriano, Joan B; Zulfikar Habibullah; Al-Busaidi, Nasser H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study evaluates the direct costs of treating asthma in Oman. Methods: Asthma prevalence and unit cost estimates were based on results from a panel using the Delphi technique, and were appliedto the total Omani population aged 5 and older to obtain the number of people diagnosed with asthma. The estimates from the Delphi exercise were multiplied by the percentage of patients using government facilities to estimate the number of asthma patients managed in Oman. Treatment costs ...

  7. Asthma in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-06-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes have been shown to have a different distribution of airway inflammation and unequal response to bronchial provocative test. Elite athletes display signs of exercise-induced symptoms, for example, nonasthmatic inspiratory wheeze, vocal cord dysfunction and cardiac arrhythmias, which could limit their physical capacity. Elite athletes should undergo comprehensive assessment to confirm an asthma diagnosis and determine its degree of severity. Treatment should be as for any other asthmatic individual, including the use of β2-agonist, inhaled steroid as well as leukotriene-antagonist. It should, however, be noted that daily use of β-agonists could expose elite athletes to the risk of developing tolerance towards these drugs. Use of β2-agonist should be replaced with daily inhaled corticosteroid treatment, the most important treatment of exercise-induced asthma. All physicians treating asthma should be aware of the doping aspects. Systemic β2-agonist intake is strictly prohibited, whereas inhaled treatment is allowed in therapeutic doses when asthma is documented and dispensation has been granted when needed. PMID:21702657

  8. Swimming pool-induced asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, S; Vivaldo, T; Morelli, M; Carlucci, P; Zuccotti, G V

    2011-01-01

    A 13-year-old elite swimmer presented with wheezing after indoor swimming training. On the basis of her clinical history and the tests performed, exercise-induced asthma and mold-induced asthma were ruled out and a diagnosis of chlorine-induced asthma was made. PMID:21548454

  9. Asthma: where is it going?

    OpenAIRE

    D.S. Faffe

    2008-01-01

    Asthma is characterized by reversible airway obstruction, airway hyperresponsiveness, and airway inflammation. Although our understanding of its pathophysiological mechanisms continues to evolve, the relative contributions of airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation are still debated. The first mechanism identified as important for asthma was bronchial hyperresponsiveness. In a second step, asthma was recognized also as an inflammatory disease, with chronic inflammation inducing structural...

  10. Rhinitis: a complication to asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J W; Thomsen, S F; Nolte, H;

    2010-01-01

    Asthma and rhinitis often co-occur, and this potentially increases the disease severity and impacts negatively on the quality of life. We studied disease severity, airway responsiveness, atopy, quality of life and treatment in subjects with both asthma and rhinitis compared to patients with asthma...

  11. Defining asthma in genetic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, GH; Postma, DS; Meijer, G.

    1999-01-01

    Genetic studies have been hampered by the lack of a gold standard to diagnose asthma. The complex nature of asthma makes it more difficult to identify asthma genes. Therefore, approaches to define phenotypes, which have been successful in other genetically complex diseases, may be applied to define

  12. [Inhaled therapy in asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza Moral, Vicente; Giner Donaire, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Because of its advantages, inhaled administration of aerosolized drugs is the administration route of choice for the treatment of asthma and COPD. Numerous technological advances in the devices used in inhaled therapy in recent decades have boosted the appearance of multiple inhalers and aerosolized drugs. However, this variety also requires that the prescribing physician is aware of their characteristics. The main objective of the present review is to summarize the current state of knowledge on inhalers and inhaled drugs commonly used in the treatment of asthma. The review ranges from theoretical aspects (fundamentals and available devices and drugs) to practical and relevant aspects for asthma care in the clinical setting (therapeutic strategies, education, and adherence to inhalers). PMID:26683076

  13. AsthmaVent – Effect of Ventilation on Asthma Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogaard, Nina Viskum; Rubak, Sune Leisgaard Mørck; Halken, Susanne;

    Background House dust mite (HDM) allergy is a frequent cause of allergic asthma among children. Children spend 14 hours of their time indoor everyday in aberage, where they are exposed to different components in the indoor air. These components are children with asthma and HDM allergy specially...... sensitive towards. Reducing this exposure may improve the asthma control in these children. Previous studies give conflicting information on the effect of mechanical ventilation on asthma control in children. Objectives We aim at investigating whether mechanical ventilation is capable of improving indoor...... air quality and thereby asthma symptoms and quality of life, in children with house dust mite allergy and asthma. Materials and Methods Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled intervention study, including 80 children from 3 Danish Pediatric outpatient clinics, with: Verified asthma, requiring a...

  14. European climate change experiments on precipitation change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Claus

    Presentation of European activities and networks related to experiments and databases within precipitation change......Presentation of European activities and networks related to experiments and databases within precipitation change...

  15. Salmeterol in paediatric asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Byrnes, C; Shrewsbury, S.; Barnes, P; Bush, A

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The addition of long acting inhaled β2 agonists is recommended at step 3 of the British guidelines on asthma management but a recent study suggested no additional benefit in children with asthma.
METHODS—The aim of this study was to compare, in a double blind, three way, crossover study, the effects of the addition of salmeterol 50 µg bd, salmeterol 100 µg bd, and salbutamol 200 µg qds in asthmatic children who were symptomatic despite treatment with inhaled co...

  16. Asthma in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes...... their physical capacity. Elite athletes should undergo comprehensive assessment to confirm an asthma diagnosis and determine its degree of severity. Treatment should be as for any other asthmatic individual, including the use of β2-agonist, inhaled steroid as well as leukotriene-antagonist. It should, however...

  17. Asthma in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes...... their physical capacity. Elite athletes should undergo comprehensive assessment to confirm an asthma diagnosis and determine its degree of severity. Treatment should be as for any other asthmatic individual, including the use of ß2-agonist, inhaled steroid as well as leukotriene-antagonist. It should, however...

  18. Childhood asthma and physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lochte, Lene; Nielsen, Kim G; Petersen, Poul Erik;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma is a global problem affecting the respiratory health of children. Physical activity (PA) plays a role in the relationship between asthma and respiratory health. We hypothesized that a low level of PA would be associated with asthma in children and adolescents. The...... objectives of our study were to (1) summarize the evidence available on associations between PA and asthma prevalence in children and adolescents and (2) assess the role of PA in new-onset or incident asthma among children and adolescents. METHODS: We searched Medline, the Cochrane Library, and Embase and......42014013761; available at: http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO [accessed: 24 March 2016])....

  19. A European network of experts with direct responsibility for monitoring and dosimetry after a deliberate release of radioactive material or a deliberate radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the event of an accidental or deliberate release of radionuclides to the environment, individual monitoring and dose assessment may be needed for large numbers of people. The consequences of such incidents are not limited by national boundaries. However, within the European Union (EU), there has not been any coordinated strategy for individual monitoring and dose assessment. CONRAD (CO-ordinatioN Action for RAdiation Dosimetry) is an EC 6th Framework Programme Co-ordination Action sponsored by EURADOS (the European Radiation Dosimetry Group, http://www.eurados.org). The objective of Task 5.4 of Work Package 5 of the CONRAD project, coordinated by HPA (UK) and STUK (Finland), is the development of a network of people and organisations with responsibilities for emergency monitoring of emergency services personnel and members of the public. The network (named EUREMON) aims to promote sharing of information between countries on plans and arrangements for individual monitoring. It currently has 51 individual members from 22 EU countries, 8 non-EU countries and two international organisations. After it was established, the network was used in a survey of plans and arrangements for emergency personal monitoring in EU countries. Information is also being compiled on portable and transportable monitoring facilities and equipment in the EU. (author)

  20. A European network of experts with direct responsibility for monitoring and dosimetry after a deliberate release of radioactive material or a deliberate radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the event of an accidental or deliberate release of radionuclides to the environment, individual monitoring and dose assessment may be needed for large numbers of people. The consequences of such incidents are not limited by national boundaries. However, within the European Union (EU), there has not been any coordinated strategy for individual monitoring and dose assessment. CONRAD (CO-ordination Action for Radiation Dosimetry) is an EC 6th Framework Programme Co-ordination Action sponsored by EURADOS (the European Radiation Dosimetry Group, http://www.eurados.org). The objective of Task 5.4 of Work Package 5 of the CONRAD project, coordinated by HPA (UK) and STUK (Finland), is the development of a network of people and organisations with responsibilities for emergency monitoring of emergency services personnel and members of the public. The network (named EUREMON) aims to promote sharing of information between countries on plans and arrangements for individual monitoring. It currently has 51 individual members from 22 EU countries, 8 non-EU countries and two international organisations. After it was established, the network was used in a survey of plans and arrangements for emergency personal monitoring in EU countries. Information is also being compiled on portable and transportable monitoring facilities and equipment in the EU. (author)

  1. Road tunnels safety according to European legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedor KÁLLAY

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with safety of European road tunnels in accordance with actual European legislation. Standards and recommendations of European Commission, PIARC and other professional bodies of the European Union define minimal technological requirements for equipment and operation of the tunnels in scope of Trans-European Road Network.

  2. Common Asthma Triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... air pollution can trigger an asthma attack. This pollution can come from factories, cars, and other sources. Pay attention to air quality forecasts on radio, television, and the Internet and check your newspaper to plan ... levels will be low. Cockroach Allergen Cockroaches and ...

  3. Occupational Neutrophilic Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Leigh

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational asthma is typically associated with an eosinophilic bronchitis. The case of a 41-year-old woman who developed symptoms of asthma after occupational exposure to metal working fluids is reported. The diagnosis of asthma was confirmed by an forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 of 1.7 (59% predicted, with 11% reversibility after inhaled bronchodilator and a provocation concentration of methacholine to cause a fall in FEV1 of 20% (PC20 of 0.4 mg/mL. Induced sputum examination showed a marked neutrophilia. Over the next six months, serial sputum analyses confirmed the presence of a marked sterile neutrophilic bronchitis during periods of occupational exposure to metal working fluids, which resolved when the patient was away from work and recurred when she returned to work. The sputum findings were mirrored by corresponding changes in spirometry and PC20 methacholine. The findings indicate the occurrence of occupational asthma associated with an intense, sterile neutrophilic bronchitis after exposure to metal working fluids.

  4. Exercise training in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satta, A

    2000-12-01

    Asthma is a chronic disease that is often limiting the exercise capacity. Rehabilitation programs are recommended and widely applied in asthmatic patients, and exercise prescription is a keystone of these programs. The impairment of exercise performance in asthmatics, the role of exercise training in such patients, the mechanisms of its beneficial effects and the suggested programs are discussed in a review, accordingly to the current evidence and available data in scientific literature. Exercise performance is impaired in most asthmatics. There is no conclusive evidence that asthma may involve a ventilatory limitation to exercise. The lesser fitness in asthmatics seems mainly due to inactivity and sedentary lifestyle. Exercise induced asthma (EIA) is a significant problem, and the best approach to minimise its effects on exercise capacity is prevention. Exercise training has been proved to have health-related benefits and to improve the quality of life. There is substantial evidence that exercise training increases exercise performance and fitness in asthmatics. It is still unclear whether physical training improves pulmonary function and bronchial responsiveness. Since asthma ranges widely, exercise prescription varies for each patient. The proper selection of the patients and the choice of exercise programs are the steps required. Accordingly with the severity of the disease, exercise strategies may range from sports activities to, when the disease is severe, inpatient hospital programs that overlap with COPD rehabilitation. Further research to clarify some aspects (effects on pulmonary function and EIA, outcomes, cost-benefit relationship) is necessary. PMID:11296996

  5. Do Written Asthma Action Plans Improve Outcomes?

    OpenAIRE

    Kelso, John M.

    2016-01-01

    With appropriate management, children with asthma should expect few symptoms, no limits on activity, rare exacerbations, and normal lung function. Appropriate education of parents and other caregivers of children with asthma has clearly been shown to help achieve these goals. Although recommended in asthma guidelines, providing written asthma action plans does not improve outcomes beyond asthma education alone.

  6. An Overlook to the Characteristics and Roles Played by Eotaxin Network in the Pathophysiology of Food Allergies: Allergic Asthma and Atopic Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Zahra; Hassanshahi, Gholamhossein; Khorramdelazad, Hossein; Zainodini, Nahid; Koochakzadeh, Leila

    2016-06-01

    Investigations revealed substantial parts accomplished by chemokines specifically eotaxins and their specific receptors. They are functionally involved in the modulation of the pathologic state of tissue inflammation which is as a result of allergic reactions. Chemokines as small proteins with approximately 8-10 kDa molecular weight are considered and fit in the bigger family of cytokines, containing basic heparin-binding polypeptide mediators. Chemokines actively interfere in the processes of selective, oriented leukocyte (including eosinophil) recruitment. As eminent from their name, more specifically, eotaxins are specialized for eosinophils' oriented locomotion toward allergic inflamed regions. To date, three members are defined for eotaxin subfamily as follows: eotaxin-1 (CCL11), eotaxin-2 (CCL24), and eotaxin-3 (CCL26), all of them bind to and activate CCR3 but have a low level of homology and appear to exhibit different physiological potentials. Allergy is described as a clinical state in which a pathologic hypersensitivity reaction is always initiated throughout an immunologic mechanism; similar to other immunologic reactions, an allergic reaction could also either be antibody or cell mediated. This type of allergic reactions occurs in all age groups and damages several different organs, having a significant impact on the emotional and social health of patients and their families and relatives. Concerning introductory comments introduced above, the authors of the present review attempted to collect and provide the latest evidences and information regarding the correlation between expression of eotaxin family members and allergy, in a wider extent, in two important allergic disorders: atopic asthma (AA) and atopic dermatitis (AD). Overall, concerning the most recent articles published within the database in the life sciences literature regarding the fundamental role(s) played by eotaxins in the pathogenesis of AA and AD, the authors of the current article

  7. Children with Asthma and Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selda Yuzer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is one of the chronic diseases which have are widely seen among the children. The disease has recently been in the increase all over the world and affects many children. In a study conducted with International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC method, it was found out that prevalence of childhood asthma was 17.1%. Participation in sportive activities by the children with asthma, which is today considered as a part of asthma treatment program, makes contributions to their physical, mental and psychological development and increases their quality of life. The most recommended sports for the children with asthma are swimming and water sports. Sports like tennis and volleyball are too advised. Choice of sports depends on severity of asthma, child and #8217;s choice and whether or not asthma is kept under control. Nursing approaches for the children with asthma include correction of symptoms, training of children and their families, assistance with disease adaptation, continuing asthma care at home and interventions to make children lead healthy activities of daily life of children. With protective measures to be taken by families and children; children should be encourage for sportive activities. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(3.000: 241-244

  8. Asthma in Adolescents: A Randomized, Controlled Trial of an Asthma Program for Adolescents and Young Adults with Severe Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Robert L Cowie; Underwood, Margot F; Little, Cinde B; Ian Mitchell; Sheldon Spier; Ford, Gordon T

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asthma is common and is often poorly controlled in adolescent subjects.OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of an age-specific asthma program on asthma control, particularly on exacerbations of asthma requiring emergency department treatment, and on the quality of life of adolescents with asthma.METHODS: The present randomized, controlled trial included patients who were 15 to 20 years of age and had visited emergency departments for management of their asthma. The interventional gr...

  9. Childhood Asthma Management Pre- and Post-Incident Asthma Hospitalization

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchi, Marina; Clavenna, Antonio; Sequi, Marco; Bortolotti, Angela; Fortino, Ida; Merlino, Luca; Bonati, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Many hospitalizations for asthma could potentially be avoided with appropriate management. The aim of this study was to analyze data on disease management of a paediatric population with a hospitalization for asthma. The study population comprised 6–17 year old subjects belonging to three local health units of the Lombardy Region, northern Italy. Regional administrative databases were used to collect data on: the number of children with an incident hospitalization for asthma during the 2004–2...

  10. Role of Asthma Education in the Management of Adult Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Côté, Johanne

    1995-01-01

    When a patient is newly diagnosed as having asthma, he or she is often prescribed new medication without getting much information on the disease and its treatment. This article emphasizes the need to educate asthmatics. Asthma treatment should begin with a proper adjustment of the medication, allowing asthmatics to lead a normal life. All asthmatics should be shown how to use their inhalation device properly. They should he knowledgeable about the basic aspects of asthma, airway inflammation ...

  11. Monitoring asthma in childhood: management-related issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart L. Rottier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Management-related issues are an important aspect of monitoring asthma in children in clinical practice. This review summarises the literature on practical aspects of monitoring including adherence to treatment, inhalation technique, ongoing exposure to allergens and irritants, comorbid conditions and side-effects of treatment, as agreed by the European Respiratory Society Task Force on Monitoring Asthma in Childhood. The evidence indicates that it is important to discuss adherence to treatment in a non-confrontational way at every clinic visit, and take into account a patient's illness and medication beliefs. All task force members teach inhalation techniques at least twice when introducing a new inhalation device and then at least annually. Exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke, combustion-derived air pollutants, house dust mites, fungal spores, pollens and pet dander deserve regular attention during follow-up according to most task force members. In addition, allergic rhinitis should be considered as a cause for poor asthma control. Task force members do not screen for gastro-oesophageal reflux and food allergy. Height and weight are generally measured at least annually to identify individuals who are susceptible to adrenal suppression and to calculate body mass index, even though causality between obesity and asthma has not been established. In cases of poor asthma control, before stepping up treatment the above aspects of monitoring deserve closer attention.

  12. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Quick Links Asthma Action Plan America Breathing Easier [PDF - 1.1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical ... Using a metered dose inhaler with a spacer [ PDF - 377 KB] Your browser does not support iframes ...

  13. Occupational asthma caused by dry metabisulphite.

    OpenAIRE

    Malo, J.L.; Cartier, A.; Desjardins, A.

    1995-01-01

    A case is described of occupational asthma in a worker with no previous history of asthma who sprinkled dried metabisulphite powder onto potatoes and developed work-related symptoms. Occupational asthma was confirmed by specific inhalation challenges.

  14. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the Nation Fact Sheet State Data Profiles (2011) Work-related Asthma NCHS Asthma FastStats Survey Questions Resources ... Informs Design Other Evaluation Resources Multimedia Messages Agencies Working on Asthma Follow @CDCasthma on Twitter to learn ...

  15. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Asthma NCHS Asthma FastStats Survey Questions Resources for Health Professionals and Schools Healthcare Professionals Public Health Professionals School and Childcare Providers More Asthma Resources ...

  16. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Asthma who Smoke Insurance coverage and barriers to care for people with asthma Tables and Graphs Asthma ... Home Pregnant Women - Medical clinics/physicians' office Health care providers - Medical clinics/physicians' office Health care providers - ...

  17. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brochures Facts Triggers Indoors In the Workplace Outdoors Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, ... Asthma NCHS Asthma FastStats Survey Questions Resources for Health Professionals and Schools Healthcare Professionals Public Health Professionals ...

  18. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Triggers Indoors In the Workplace Outdoors Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, and Surveillance ... gaining control over their asthma. Quick Links Asthma Action Plan America Breathing Easier [PDF - 1.1 MB] ...

  19. Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Baby's Growth Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma? KidsHealth > For Parents > Can the Weather Affect My ... empeorar el asma de mi hijo? Weather and Asthma The effect of weather on asthma symptoms isn' ...

  20. Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Asthma Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders are 70 percent more likely to have asthma as non-Hispanic whites. National data for this ...