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Sample records for asthma epidemiology etiology

  1. Intrathoracic neoplasia: Epidemiology and etiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1992-05-01

    Neoplasms of the thorax encompass those derived from the thoracic wall, trachea, mediastinum, lungs and pleura. They represent a wide variety of lesions including benign and malignant tumors arising from many tissues. The large surface area, 60 to 90 m{sup 2} in man, represented by the respiratory epithelium and associated thoracic structures are ideal targets for carcinogens carried by inspired air. The topic of discussion in this report is the epidemiology, etiology, and mechanisms of spontaneous intrathoracic neoplasia in animals and man. Much of what we know or suspect about thoracic neoplasia in animals has been extrapolated from experimentally-induced neoplasms.

  2. Molecular epidemiology of respiratory viruses in virus-induced asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukagoshi, Hiroyuki; Ishioka, Taisei; Noda, Masahiro; Kozawa, Kunihisa; Kimura, Hirokazu

    2013-09-12

    Acute respiratory illness (ARI) due to various viruses is not only the most common cause of upper respiratory infection in humans but is also a major cause of morbidity and mortality, leading to diseases such as bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Previous studies have shown that respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human rhinovirus (HRV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), human parainfluenza virus (HPIV), and human enterovirus infections may be associated with virus-induced asthma. For example, it has been suggested that HRV infection is detected in the acute exacerbation of asthma and infection is prolonged. Thus it is believed that the main etiological cause of asthma is ARI viruses. Furthermore, the number of asthma patients in most industrial countries has greatly increased, resulting in a morbidity rate of around 10-15% of the population. However, the relationships between viral infections, host immune response, and host factors in the pathophysiology of asthma remain unclear. To gain a better understanding of the epidemiology of virus-induced asthma, it is important to assess both the characteristics of the viruses and the host defense mechanisms. Molecular epidemiology enables us to understand the pathogenesis of microorganisms by identifying specific pathways, molecules, and genes that influence the risk of developing a disease. However, the epidemiology of various respiratory viruses associated with virus-induced asthma is not fully understood. Therefore, in this article, we review molecular epidemiological studies of RSV, HRV, HPIV, and HMPV infection associated with virus-induced asthma.

  3. Molecular epidemiology of respiratory viruses in virus-induced asthma

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    Hiroyuki eTsukagoshi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory illness (ARI due to various viruses is not only the most common cause of upper respiratory infection in humans but is also a major cause of morbidity and mortality, leading to diseases such as bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Previous studies have shown that respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, human rhinovirus (HRV, human metapneumovirus (HMPV, human parainfluenza virus (HPIV, and human enterovirus (HEV infections may be associated with virus-induced asthma. For example, it has been suggested that HRV infection is detected in the acute exacerbation of asthma and infection is prolonged. Thus it is believed that the main etiological cause of asthma is ARI viruses. Furthermore, the number of asthma patients in most industrial countries has greatly increased, resulting in a morbidity rate of around 10-15% of the population. However, the relationships between viral infections, host immune response, and host factors in the pathophysiology of asthma remain unclear. To gain a better understanding of the epidemiology of virus-induced asthma, it is important to assess both the characteristics of the viruses and the host defense mechanisms. Molecular epidemiology enables us to understand the pathogenesis of microorganisms by identifying specific pathways, molecules, and genes that influence the risk of developing a disease. However, the epidemiology of various respiratory viruses associated with virus-induced asthma is not fully understood. Therefore, in this article, we review molecular epidemiological studies of RSV, HRV, HPIV, and HMPV infection associated with virus-induced asthma.

  4. Syncope: epidemiology, etiology and prognosis.

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    Rose M F Lisboa Da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Syncope is a common medical problem, with a frequency between 15% and 39%. In the general population, the annual number episodes are 18.1 to 39.7 per 1000 patients, with similar incidence between genders. The first report of the incidence of syncope is 6.2 per 1000 person-years. However, there is a significant increase in the incidence of syncope after 70 years of age with rate annual 19.5 per thousand individuals after 80 years. It presents a recurrence rate of 35% and 29% of physical injury. Among the causes of syncope, the mediated neural reflex, known as neurocardiogenic or vasovagal syncope, is the most frequent. The others are of cardiac origin, orthostatic hypotension, carotid sinus hypersensitivity, neurological and endocrinological causes and psychiatric disorders. The diagnosis of syncope can be made by clinical method associated with the electrocardiogram in up 50% of patients. Its prognosis is determined by the underlying etiology specifically the presence and severity of cardiac disease. The annual mortality can reach between 18 and 33% if cardiac cause, and between 0 and 12% if the noncardiac cause. Thus, it is imperative to identify its cause and risk stratification for positive impact in reducing morbidity and mortality.

  5. Epidemiological Pattern and Management of Pediatric Asthma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epidemiological Pattern and Management of Pediatric Asthma Review of Ain Shams Pediatric Hospital Chest Clinic Data Cairo, Egypt 1995-2004. ... Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The) ... Conclusion & recommendations: Asthma constitutes a main problem in the Pediatric Chest Clinic. Respiratory ...

  6. Terminology, epidemiology, etiology, and pathophysiology of nocturia.

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    Van Kerrebroeck, Philip; Andersson, Karl-Erik

    2014-04-01

    Nocturia, awaking from sleep to void, has a negative impact on health and well-being. Nocturia affects men and women and is more prevalent among the elderly. More than two nocturnal voids is considered to be a clinically meaningful threshold associated with significant negative outcomes for health and well-being, and the timing of awakening has a significant bearing on the negative consequences of nocturia. Several serious underlying pathophysiologic conditions may be associated with nocturia. A thorough history and assessment of number and times of voids, void volume, and fluid intake is essential for determining the etiology of a patient's nocturia. With data obtained from the frequency-volume chart (FVC), which is used to collect quantitative voiding data, a patient's nocturia may be classified as global polyuria, nocturnal polyuria, reduced bladder capacity, or a combination of these categories. Global polyuria is defined as 24-hr urinary output that exceeds 40 ml/kg body weight and results in increased 24-hr urinary frequency. Nocturnal polyuria is defined as more than 20% of daily urine output at night in young patients and more than 33% in elderly patients. Reduced bladder capacity may be a result of idiopathic or neurogenic detrusor overactivity, bladder outlet obstruction, or reduced nocturnal bladder capacity. The pathophysiology underlying the findings of the FVC falls into five main categories: global polyuria, nocturnal polyuria, reduced bladder capacity, sleep disorders, and circadian clock disorders. This review discusses the epidemiology, etiology, and pathophysiology of nocturia. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Papilledema: epidemiology, etiology, and clinical management

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    Rigi M

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mohammed Rigi,1 Sumayya J Almarzouqi,2 Michael L Morgan,2 Andrew G Lee2–4 1Robert Cizik Eye Clinic, University of Texas, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Houston Methodist Hospital, Blanton Eye Institute, 3Baylor College of Medicine, 4Departments of Ophthalmology, Neurology, and Neurosurgery, Weill Cornell Medical College, Houston, UTMB Galveston, UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, The University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA, USA Abstract: Papilledema is optic disc swelling due to high intracranial pressure. Possible conditions causing high intracranial pressure and papilledema include intracerebral mass lesions, cerebral hemorrhage, head trauma, meningitis, hydrocephalus, spinal cord lesions, impairment of cerebral sinus drainage, anomalies of the cranium, and idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH. Irrespective of the cause, visual loss is the feared morbidity of papilledema, and the main mechanism of optic nerve damage is intraneuronal ischemia secondary to axoplasmic flow stasis. Treatment is directed at correcting the underlying cause. In cases where there is no other identifiable cause for intracranial hypertension (ie, IIH the available options include both medical and surgical modalities. Weight loss and diuretics remain the mainstays for treatment of IIH, and surgery is typically reserved for patients who fail, are intolerant to, or non-compliant with maximum medical therapy. Keywords: papilledema, intracranial hypertension, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, epidemiology, papilledema management, papilledema etiology, acetazolamide, optic nerve sheath fenestration, ventriculoperitoneal shunt, lumboperitoneal shunt, venous sinus stenting

  8. Maternal sepsis: epidemiology, etiology and outcome.

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    van Dillen, Jeroen; Zwart, Joost; Schutte, Joke; van Roosmalen, Jos

    2010-06-01

    Sepsis is a major cause of maternal death worldwide. Little is known on the incidence of severe maternal morbidity related to sepsis. In this review, we focus on new findings concerning epidemiology, etiology and outcome of maternal sepsis in low-income as well as high-income countries. It is estimated that puerperal sepsis causes at least 75,000 maternal deaths every year, mostly in low-income countries. Studies from high-income countries report incidence of maternal morbidity due to sepsis of 0.1-0.6 per 1000 deliveries. The causative microorganisms are generally polymicrobial with beta-haemolytic streptococci group A (GAS) often being the cause of severe cases of puerperal fever. The single most important risk factor for postpartum infection seems to be caesarean section, and prophylactic antibiotics during the procedure substantially reduce the infection risk. Improvements in service provision as promoted through the Surviving Sepsis Campaign can reduce the overall risk of mortality and morbidity from maternal sepsis in high-income as well as in low-income countries. Maternal sepsis is an infrequent, but important complication of pregnancy, childbirth and puerperium, resulting in significant maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Improved outcome is possible through improved service provision.

  9. Epidemiological Pattern and Management of Pediatric Asthma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EL-HAKIM

    Chemicals: as perfumes , irritant household sprays and fumes,. DISCUSSION. The epidemiological data of bronchial asthma patients who were managed in the Pediatric Chest. Clinic of Ain Shams Hospital during a ten year period from 1995 to 2004 were analyzed. These data included age and gender distribution,.

  10. Epidemiological study of risk factors in pediatric asthma | Tageldin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Childhood asthma is a major public health problem in Egypt and worldwide. Epidemiologic, physiologic, and social factors appear to be associated with an increased risk of asthma. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the most frequent risk factors of childhood asthma exacerbation and severity in ...

  11. Relationship between Asthma and Rhinitis: Epidemiologic, Pathophysiologic, and Therapeutic Aspects

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    Bergeron Celine

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the last few years, the evidence of links between rhinitis and asthma has been strengthened. This has led to the introduction of the concept of united airway disease. Rhinitis and asthma appear to be interrelated at the epidemiologic level and at the pathophysiologic level. This article reviews current epidemiologic and pathophysiologic evidence of the relationship between rhinitis and asthma and discusses the effect of treatment of one site on the other site.

  12. Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR): epidemiology and etiology.

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    Romo, Agustín; Carceller, Raquel; Tobajas, Javier

    2009-02-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is mainly due to a pathologic slow-down in the fetal growth pace, resulting in a fetus that is unable to reach its growth potential. IUGR frequency will vary depending on the discrimination criteria adopted. It is extremely important to use local or national fetal growth graphs in order to avoid some confounding factors. IUGR incidence in newborns would be between 3% and 7% of the total population. In our experience it is 5.13% a figure similar to the one obtained by other authors but with a progressively higher incidence during the last decade. There are multiple maternal factors that can generally be grouped into constitutional and general factors given that they affect age, weight, race, maternal cardiac volume, etc, socioeconomic factors with key incidence in the mother's nutrition level, where a poor maternal nutrition level would be the key factor in this group. We have evaluated multiple factors as possible contributors to the IUGR risk: race, parents' age, mother's height (cm), mother's birth weight and before pregnancy (kg), ponderal gain and blood pressure during pregnancy, and previous SGA newborns. Socioeconomic factors like social class, parents' profession, habitual residence, salary, immigration, and diet were also evaluated. We also included variables such as total daily working time and time mothers spent standing up, daily sleeping time (hrs), stress self-perception test at work and primiparity age. Toxic factors during pregnancy: tobacco (active and passive), alcohol, drugs and coffee consumption. Fetal or utero-placental factors were considered. In our study, the most significant etiologic factors were: Active and passive tobacco consuming, mother's stress level, increase of total months worked during pregnancy, total daily working hours and time mothers spent standing up and finally, the parent's height. Our data support the main objective of reducing the incidence of SGA newborns after IUGR by fighting

  13. Epidemiology of bronchial asthma among preparatory school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The prevalence of asthma and allergies is increasing in both Western and developing countries. Few studies evaluated asthma prevalence in Egypt . Objectives: Determination of the prevalence and risk factors of asthma among preparatory school children in Assiut district, in Upper Egypt. Methods: A cross ...

  14. Importance of allergy in asthma: an epidemiologic perspective.

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    Douwes, Jeroen; Brooks, Collin; van Dalen, Christine; Pearce, Neil

    2011-10-01

    There has been a global epidemic of asthma during the past half-century. More recently, the prevalence has leveled off or declined in many Western countries, whereas the prevalence in less affluent nations is still increasing. The reasons for this and the different geographical patterns of asthma prevalence remain unclear. This paper provides an epidemiologic perspective on whether allergen exposure and allergies can explain these trends. In particular, the paper discusses 1) geographical and temporal trends in asthma and the role of allergens and allergy, 2) the importance of nonallergic mechanisms, 3) nonallergenic exposures that may modify the risk of allergies and asthma, and 4) new and emerging risk and protective factors. Although allergy and asthma are closely related, allergen exposure and allergy alone cannot explain current time trends and geographical patterns of asthma. Population-based studies focusing on recently identified risk and protective factors may provide further insight.

  15. Major Depressive Disorder Definition, Etiology and Epidemiology: A Review

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    Fatmagul Helvaci Celik

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Depression is one of the most common psychiatric disorders influencing the all population. Untreated depression may lead to early death and worsening in general health. Depression has several clinically distinct subtypes which are sometimes difficult to diagnose. Diagnosis and treatment of these disorders are of concern to physicians other than psychiatrists, because of their effect on course and prognosis of general medical diseases. This is a concise and up to date overview of the epidemiology,etiology physiopathology and diagnosis of major depressive disorder. [J Contemp Med 2016; 6(1.000: 51-66

  16. Epidemiological study of school performance and asthma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Childhood asthma is a major health problem in Egypt and worldwide. Barriers to reducing the burden of asthma include symptom-based rather than disease-based approaches, tendency of care to be ''acute'' rather than “regular” and cultural attitudes towards drugs and drug delivery systems. Objective: To ...

  17. Epidemiology of bronchial asthma among preparatory school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EL-HAKIM

    analysis: a positive family history of allergy and the presence of other one or more allergic diseases were significantly associated risk factors for asthma. Exposure to dust, cigarette smoke, playing and physical activity, common cold attacks, and special food or drinks were the most common triggering factors for asthma ...

  18. Do grandmaternal smoking patterns influence the etiology of childhood asthma?

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    Miller, Laura L; Henderson, John; Northstone, Kate; Pembrey, Marcus; Golding, Jean

    2014-06-01

    Animal data suggest that tobacco smoke exposure of a mother when she is in utero influences DNA methylation patterns in her offspring and that there is an effect on the respiratory system, particularly airway responsiveness. The only study, to our knowledge, in humans suggests that there is a similar effect on asthma. The present study tests whether an association with respiratory problems can be confirmed in a large population study and aims to determine whether in utero exposure of the father has similar effects on his offspring. Information from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children was used to compare the offspring of women and of men who had themselves been exposed to cigarette smoke in utero; separate analyses were performed for children of women smokers and nonsmokers. The outcome measures were trajectories of history of early wheezing, doctor-diagnosed asthma by age 7 years, and results of lung function and methacholine challenge tests at 8 years. A variety of social and environmental factors were taken into account; offspring sexes were examined separately. There was no association with any outcome in relation to maternal prenatal exposure. There was some evidence of an increase in asthma risk with paternal prenatal exposure when the study mother was a nonsmoker (adjusted OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.97-1.41). This was particularly strong for girls (adjusted OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.04-1.86). We did not find that maternal prenatal exposure to her mother's smoking had any effect on her children's respiratory outcomes. There was suggestive evidence of paternal prenatal exposure being associated with asthma and persistent wheezing in the granddaughters.

  19. Rhinovirus infection in children hospitalized with acute bronchiolitis and its impact on subsequent wheezing or asthma: a comparison of etiologies.

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    Teeratakulpisarn, Jamaree; Pientong, Chamsai; Ekalaksananan, Tipaya; Ruangsiripiyakul, Hunsa; Uppala, Rattapon

    2014-09-01

    Children who suffer a viral lower respiratory infection early in life are prone to subsequent wheezing and asthma: RSV and rhinovirus are thought to be the primary causative pathogens. Epidemiologic and long-term data on these pathogens in Thailand are limited. To detect the causative pathogens in children hospitalized with a first episode of acute wheezing and to compare the respective impact on the recurrence of wheezing and development of asthma. We conducted a 5-year cohort study of children under 2 hospitalized with acute bronchiolitis at two tertiary hospitals. Nasopharyngeal secretions were collected at admission to determine the causative pathogens by RT-PCR. 145/170 samples (85%) were positive for pathogens. RSV, rhinovirus, influenza, bacteria and hMPV was found in 64.7%, 18.2%, 17.6%, 12.9% and 3.5% of children respectively. The majority (94/152; 62%) of participants reported having recurrent wheezing within the first year of follow-up (mean duration 5.5 ± 7.2 months). Only 16% still had wheezing episodes after 5 years. Asthma was diagnosed in 41 children (45%), most of whom were treated with inhaled corticosteroid. There were no statistically significant differences among the various etiologies. Rhinovirus ranked second after RSV as the cause of hospitalizations of children with acute bronchiolitis. More than half of these children had recurrent wheezing which mostly disappeared before the age of 6. Nearly half were subsequently diagnosed with asthma at the 5th year of follow-up. The specific pathogens did not account for a statistically significant difference in subsequent wheezing or asthma development.

  20. Epidemiological study of school performance and asthma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehab

    Therapy was taken mainly by oral than inhalation route. Other medications like cromolyns, anti-histamines, anti-leukotrienes and anti- cholinergics were rarely used. Both rectal and injection routes were rarely used also. Conclusion: Asthma has a social burden on asthmatic children as it affects both school achievement and ...

  1. Gumboro Disease: Etiology, Epidemiology, Pathology, Diagnosis And Disease Control

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    Sutiastuti Wahyuwardani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Infectious bursal disease (IBD or known as Gumboro, is a disease that attacks chicken older than 3 weeks, caused by famili Birnaviridae virus. Gumboro in Indonesia was firstly reported in 1983 and until now is commonly found. Very virulent IBD virus causes high morbidity and mortality that can even reach 100%. Clinical symptoms are exhibited as sluggish chicken, dropped wings and cloacal pasting. At gross examination, the bursa was found swollen, with yellowish fluid or hemorrhagic 3 days after infection. The bursa will get atrophy from 7 days post-infection. Meanwhile, the non virulent IBD virus causes subclinical symptoms. Chicken that survived, became stunted or dwarfed. On gross and histopathological findings, the bursa Fabricius has mild lesion and will recover at 14 days post-infection. Diagnosis of IBD can be determined based on pathological observation, supported by immunohistochemical examination and laboratory confirmation of disease by agar gel immunodiffusion, polymerase chain reaction techniques, antigen capture enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and isolation. Detection of antibodies can be made by serum neutralization technique or enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Prevention can be done by routine vaccination in the field when the maternal antibodies have declined. The review describes the etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis clinical symptoms, pathological discription and control of the disease to improve the knowledge of poultry farmer or people who are interested in poultry health.

  2. An epidemiological perspective of the pathology and etiology of sarcoidosis.

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    Sawahata, Michiru; Sugiyama, Yukihiko

    2016-08-01

    To update current knowledge on the pathology and etiology of sarcoidosis, here we review previous epidemiological research and discuss age-related differences and historical changes in the clinical characteristics of sarcoidosis we identified over the last four decades in Japan. Extrathoracic lymph node involvement was more common in young patients, while extrathoracic involvement of non-lymphatic organs and hypercalcemia were more common in older patients. Most patients in their 20s presented with bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy, but this was consistently less common among older patients. Over time, the distribution of age at diagnosis has shifted toward the older age group in the United States, Denmark, and Japan. In Japan, the incidence rate has been decreasing among young people, but there has consistently been a second peak among postmenopausal women. Age-related differences in the clinical presentation of sarcoidosis may reflect the pathways of causative antigens and the strengthening of immunoregulatory mechanisms with age. Internal and external environmental factors, such as exposure to diverse microorganisms, ovarian insufficiency, and active vitamin D deficiency, that may contribute to the onset of sarcoidosis must be identified in order to develop strategies for prevention and treatment.

  3. Pathologic bone alterations in celiac disease: etiology, epidemiology, and treatment.

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    Krupa-Kozak, Urszula

    2014-01-01

    Low bone mineral density (BMD), osteopenia, and osteoporosis are frequent complications of celiac disease (CD). The etiology of pathologic bone alterations in CD is multifactorial; however, two main mechanisms are involved: intestinal malabsorption and chronic inflammation. A strict gluten-free diet (GFD) is thought to be the only effective treatment for CD; but treating bone complications related to CD remains complex. The objective of this review is to elucidate the bones problems related to CD and to increase awareness of osteoporosis development, considered as a sign of atypical CD presentation. Currently, a question of whether GFD alone is an effective treatment to correct the bone alterations in patients with CD is under debate. This review presents factors contributing to pathologic bone derangement, recent research on the epidemiology of low BMD, osteoporosis, and fractures, and the treatment of bone problems in patients with CD. The roles of calcium and transport mechanisms are additionally presented. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Traveler's diarrhea-I. Definition, etiology and epidemiology.

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    Broor, S L; Singal, A K

    1989-01-01

    With the development of rapid and convenient means of transportation, several million persons travel from industrialized countries to developing countries every year. From USA alone, approximately 4 million persons visit Mexico annually. These travelers are at risk to develop several infections during their stay abroad, but the most commonly experienced illness is diarrhea. The attack rate of diarrhea in travelers may be as high as 25 to 50 percent; 30 percent of those who get diarrhea are ill enough to be confined to bed and another 40% have to change their scheduled travel plans. The disease affects all ranks and it has achieved worldwide fame by its several euphemisms. Various epithets used to describe this illness include GI trots, Aden gut, Barsa belly, Turkey trot, Delhi belly, Hongkong dog, Montezuma's revenge, gyppsy tummy and turista. There have been considerable advances in our understanding about the etiology and epidemiology of this disease in the last two decades and the purpose of this review is to highlight some of this new information.

  5. Epidemiology of Alzheimer's disease. Issues of etiology and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratiglioni, L

    1993-01-01

    This thesis concerns the epidemiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and some aspects of the validity of such studies. AD is a common and chronic dementing disorder among elderly people. Due to the lack of treatment and to the invalidating nature, the social impact of this disease is high in all the societies in which the proportion of elderly is increasing. Three studies on AD etiology have been performed. The first is a case-control study on early-onset AD and a wide range of putative risk factors. The cases were gathered from a clinical study on AD carried out in Italy. The information on the exposure obtained from a next-of-kin of 116 cases was compared with the information similarly collected from the next-of-kin of 116 hospital and 97 population controls. The other two etiological studies deal with late-onset AD and are a prevalence study on sociodemographic variables and a case-control study on selected putative risk factors. These two studies were performed within a population-based study on ageing and dementia that is ongoing in Stockholm, Sweden. The study on sociodemographic variables included 116 AD cases among 1810 people. The case-control study compared the information obtained by the informants of 98 AD cases and 266 controls. The main results of these three investigations are: (1) The prevalence of AD increases with age, even in advanced ages. (2) The prevalence of AD does not vary by gender and education. (3) The main risk factor for both early- and late-onset AD is the familial aggregation of dementia (relative risk of 2.6 and 3.2, respectively). (4) A second risk factor for early-onset AD may be the advanced age of the mother at index delivery, but this result needs confirmation. No other risk factors reported by others emerged in our study. (5) High relative risks were found for alcohol consumption and manual work in late-onset AD. Manual work could be an indicator of occupational exposures as well as life conditions or life habits. Although both

  6. Pediatric asthma and allergy : An epidemiological approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arabkhazaeli, A.

    2017-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis aims to gain better insight into allergic diseases in children using epidemiological approaches and different angles (severity, medication use and risk factors). The aim of this thesis was to answer the following questions: Do children with multiple atopic

  7. Epidemiology, Etiology and Treatment of Isolated Cleft Palate

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    Madeleine L Burg

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Isolated cleft palate (CPO is the rarest form of oral clefting. The incidence of CPO varies substantially by geography from 1.3 to 25.3 per 10,000 live births, with the highest rates in British Columbia, Canada and the lowest rates in Nigeria, Africa. Stratified by ethnicity/race, the highest rates of CPO are observed in non-Hispanic Whites and the lowest in Africans; nevertheless, rates of CPO are consistently higher in females compared to males. Approximately fifty percent of children born with cleft palate occur as part of a known genetic syndrome or with another malformation (e.g., congenital heart defects and the other half occur as solitary defects, referred to often as non-syndromic clefts. The etiology of CPO is multifactorial involving both genetic and environmental risk factors. Several animal models have yielded insight into the molecular pathways responsible for proper closure of the palate, including the BMP, TGF-β, and SHH signaling pathways. In terms of environmental exposures, only maternal tobacco smoke exposure has been found to have a strong association with CPO. Some studies have suggested that maternal glucocorticoid exposure may also be important. Clearly, there is a need for larger epidemiologic studies to further investigate both genetic and environmental risk factors and potential gene-environment interactions. In terms of treatment, there is a need for long-term comprehensive care including surgical, dental and speech pathology. Overall, five main themes emerge as critical in advancing research: (1 monitoring of the occurrence of CPO (capacity building; (2 detailed phenotyping of the severity (biology; (3 understanding of the genetic and environmental risk factors (primary prevention; (4 access to early detection and multidisciplinary treatment (clinical services; and (5 understanding predictors of recurrence and possible interventions among families with a child with CPO (secondary prevention.

  8. Epidemiology, Etiology, and Treatment of Isolated Cleft Palate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, Madeleine L.; Chai, Yang; Yao, Caroline A.; Magee, William; Figueiredo, Jane C.

    2016-01-01

    Isolated cleft palate (CPO) is the rarest form of oral clefting. The incidence of CPO varies substantially by geography from 1.3 to 25.3 per 10,000 live births, with the highest rates in British Columbia, Canada and the lowest rates in Nigeria, Africa. Stratified by ethnicity/race, the highest rates of CPO are observed in non-Hispanic Whites and the lowest in Africans; nevertheless, rates of CPO are consistently higher in females compared to males. Approximately fifty percent of cases born with cleft palate occur as part of a known genetic syndrome or with another malformation (e.g., congenital heart defects) and the other half occur as solitary defects, referred to often as non-syndromic clefts. The etiology of CPO is multifactorial involving genetic and environmental risk factors. Several animal models have yielded insight into the molecular pathways responsible for proper closure of the palate, including the BMP, TGF-β, and SHH signaling pathways. In terms of environmental exposures, only maternal tobacco smoke has been found to be strongly associated with CPO. Some studies have suggested that maternal glucocorticoid exposure may also be important. Clearly, there is a need for larger epidemiologic studies to further investigate both genetic and environmental risk factors and gene-environment interactions. In terms of treatment, there is a need for long-term comprehensive care including surgical, dental and speech pathology. Overall, five main themes emerge as critical in advancing research: (1) monitoring of the occurrence of CPO (capacity building); (2) detailed phenotyping of the severity (biology); (3) understanding of the genetic and environmental risk factors (primary prevention); (4) access to early detection and multidisciplinary treatment (clinical services); and (5) understanding predictors of recurrence and possible interventions among families with a child with CPO (secondary prevention). PMID:26973535

  9. Asthma control assessed in the EGEA epidemiological survey and health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siroux, Valérie; Boudier, Anne; Bousquet, Jean; Vignoud, Lucile; Gormand, Frédéric; Just, Jocelyne; Le Moual, Nicole; Leynaert, Bénédicte; Nadif, Rachel; Pison, Christophe; Scheinmann, Pierre; Vervloet, Daniel; Anto, Josep Maria; Kauffmann, Francine; Pin, Isabelle

    2012-06-01

    The aims were to assess 1) the relationship of asthma control assessed by combining epidemiological survey questions and lung function to Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQL) and 2) whether individuals with controlled asthma reach similar generic HRQL levels as individuals without asthma. The analysis included 584 individuals without asthma and 498 with asthma who participated in the follow-up of the Epidemiological study on Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA). Asthma control was assessed from survey questions and lung function, closely adapted from the 2006-2009 Global Initiative for Asthma guidelines. The Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ, scores range:1-7) and the generic SF-36 (scores range: 0-100) were used. Adjusted mean total AQLQ score decreased by 0.5 points for each asthma control steps (6.4, 5.9 and 5.4 for controlled, partly-controlled and uncontrolled asthma respectively, p < 0.0001). The differences in SF-36 scores between individuals with controlled asthma and those without asthma were minor and not significant for the PCS (-1, p = 0.09), borderline significant for the MCS (-1.6, p = 0.05) and small for the 8 domains (<5.1) although statistically significant for 4 domains. These results support the discriminative properties of the proposed asthma control grading system and its use in epidemiology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Epilepsy In Nigeria – A Review Of Etiology, Epidemiology And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epilepsy is a major public health issue especially in developing African countries. The etiologies and approach to management are significantly different in developed and developing countries, with infectious causes and treatment with phenobarbitone being the peculiarities of the developing sub-Saharan African countries.

  11. Epidemiology, etiology, and treatment of chronic leg ulcer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chronic leg ulcer (CLU) is reported to have an impact on virtually all aspects of life. Treatment is expensive and has large economic burden on many countries' health services. This presentation is to determine the impact, etiology, and presentation of CLU as well as the procedures for processing in a Nigeria ...

  12. Relationship between atopic asthma and the population prevalence rates for asthma or atopy in children: atopic and nonatopic asthma in epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchetti, Roberto; Jesenak, Milos; Rennerova, Zuzana; Barreto, Mario; Ronchetti, Francesco; Villa, Maria P

    2009-01-01

    Innumerable articles have tried to solve the "continuing enigma of atopic and nonatopic asthma" but notwithstanding the strenuous efforts to substantiate the few well-known clinico-epidemiologic differences between these two forms of asthma most studies have hitherto generated inconclusive statements. In a recent study based on the review of epidemiologic studies conducted worldwide in unselected populations of children, we documented that the prevalence of atopic asthma (AA) was high in the populations with a high prevalence of atopy. We systematically reviewed 36 articles that studied 48 populations of unselected children and reported prevalence rates for asthma and atopy in the total sample and in the subpopulations. No significant difference was found in the prevalence of asthma cases in the quartiles of childhood populations subdivided for the prevalence of atopy. In addition, atopy did not increase significantly in the subgroups of populations subdivided by asthma quartiles. In both subgroups, however, AA increased with increasing atopy or with increasing asthma (p asthma as cases of AA is misleading because the prevalence of subjects so defined is heavily influenced by the environmentally generated changes in the prevalence of atopy or asthma. Asthma in a child should be labeled as a case of AA only if skin-prick tests yield a positive reaction and the clinical history documents asthma symptoms triggered by allergen exposure.

  13. [Multiple sclerosis: etiology, epidemiology, some questions of pathogenicity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuprina, H M

    2012-01-01

    In the article the questions of ways of development of the dissipated sclerosis, as nosologies, are affected from the group of autoimmune diseases. Examined etiology, epidedemiologiya, separate links of pathogeny of the dissipated sclerosis. The analysis of multifaktors of his origin is conducted, with the detailed study of internal and external factors, marked on the important role of inherited predisposition, infectious and klimato-geograficheskogo factors in genesis of the dissipated sclerosis.

  14. Halitosis: an overview of epidemiology, etiology and clinical management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiano Kuchenbecker Rösing

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Halitosis is an unpleasant condition that causes social restraint. Studies worldwide indicate a high prevalence of moderate halitosis, whereas severe cases are restricted to around 5% of the populations. The etiological chain of halitosis relates to the presence of odoriferous substances in exhaled air, especially the volatile sulphur compounds (VSC produced by bacteria. The organoleptic diagnosis is the gold standard and clinical management includes oral approaches, especially periodontal treatment and oral hygiene instructions, including the tongue. When oral strategies are not successful, referral to physicians is warranted.

  15. [EBOLA HEMORRHAGIC FEVER; ETIOLOGY, EPIDEMIOLOGY, PATHOGENESIS, AND CLINICAL SYMPTOMS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanov, K W; Zakharenko, S M; Kovalenko, A N; Semenov, A V; Fusin, A Ya

    2015-01-01

    The data on the prevalence of disease caused by Ebola virus, biological features of its pathogen, character of the epidemiological process, pathogenesis and clinical symptoms are presented. The disease is characterized by suppression of protective immunological mechanisms and systemic inflammatory reaction accounting for the lesions of vascular endothelium, hemostatic and immune systems. It eventually leads to polyorgan insufficiency and severe shock. Lethality amounts to 50%.

  16. [Neuropediatrics: epidemiological features and etiologies at the Dakar neurology service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiaye, M; Sene-Diouf, F; Diop, A G; Ndao, A K; Ndiaye, M M; Ndiaye, I P

    1999-01-01

    Child neurology is a relatively young speciality of neurosciences which is at the frontier of Neurology and Paediatrics. Its development has been impulsed by the diagnosis techniques such as Neurobiology, Genetics, Neuroimaging and pedo-psychology. We conducted a retrospective survey among the in-patients from January 1980 to December 1997 in the service of Neurology of the University Hospital. Have been included children ranged from 0 to 15 years old without any racial, sexual or origin distinctive. In Neurology Department, children of 0 to 15 years old represent 10.06% of the in-patients received from 1980 to 1997. The mortality rate was 9.23%. The diseases are dominated by epilepsy and infantile encephalopathies with 31.02%, infectious diseases with 19.36% represented by tuberculosis, other bacterial, viral and parasitical etiologies, tumors with 10.36%, vascular pathology and degenerative disorders.

  17. Etiology and occurrence of gingival recession - An epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarpangala Mythri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Gingival recession is the term used to characterize the apical shift of the marginal gingiva from its normal position on the crown of the tooth. It is frequently observed in adult subjects. The occurrence and severity of the gingival recession present considerable differences between populations. To prevent gingival recession from occurring, it is essential to detect the underlying etiology. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence of gingival recession and to identify the most common factor associated with the cause of gingival recession. Methods: A total of 710 subjects aged between 15 years to 60 years were selected. Data were collected by an interview with the help of a proforma and then the dental examination was carried out. The presence of gingival recession was recorded using Miller's classification of gingival recession. The Silness and Loe Plaque Index, Loe and Silness gingival index, community periodontal index were recorded. The data thus obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using Chi-square test and Student's unpaired t-test. Results: Of 710 subjects examined, 291 (40.98% subjects exhibited gingival recession. The frequency of gingival recession was found to increase with age. High frequency of gingival recession was seen in males (60.5% compared to females (39.5%. Gingival recession was commonly seen in mandibular incisors (43.0%. Miller's class I gingival recession was more commonly seen. The most common cause for gingival recession was dental plaque accumulation (44.1% followed by faulty toothbrushing (42.7%. Conclusion: Approximately half of the subjects examined exhibited gingival recession. The etiology of gingival recession is multifactorial, and its appearance is always the result of more than one factor acting together.

  18. TG13 current terminology, etiology, and epidemiology of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimura, Yasutoshi; Takada, Tadahiro; Strasberg, Steven M.; Pitt, Henry A.; Gouma, Dirk J.; Garden, O. James; Büchler, Markus W.; Windsor, John A.; Mayumi, Toshihiko; Yoshida, Masahiro; Miura, Fumihiko; Higuchi, Ryota; Gabata, Toshifumi; Hata, Jiro; Gomi, Harumi; Dervenis, Christos; Lau, Wan-Yee; Belli, Giulio; Kim, Myung-Hwan; Hilvano, Serafin C.; Yamashita, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    While referring to the evidence adopted in the Tokyo Guidelines 2007 (TG07) as well as subsequently obtained evidence, further discussion took place on terminology, etiology, and epidemiological data. In particular, new findings have accumulated on the occurrence of symptoms in patients with

  19. Epidemiology and etiology of hand, foot, and mouth disease in Fujian province, 2008-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yuwei; Chen, Wei; Huang, Meng; He, Wenxiang; Zheng, Kuicheng; Yan, Yansheng

    2017-02-01

    Millions of cases of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) have been reported annually in mainland China since 2008. In this study, we investigated the epidemiology and etiology of an HFMD epidemic in Fujian province, which is located in subtropical southeastern China. Our study found similar epidemiological features of HFMD in southern areas of China, including seasonality and demographic distribution, as well as correlation between severity of illness and serotype. At least 22 serotypes of other enterovirus co-circulating with enterovirus 71 were found to belong to clade C4a, and those circulating with coxsackievirus A16 were associated with clades B1a and B1b.

  20. Association between obesity and asthma - epidemiology, pathophysiology and clinical profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muc, Magdalena; Mota-Pinto, Anabela; Padez, Cristina

    2016-12-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for asthma, and obese asthmatics have lower disease control and increased symptom severity. Several putative links have been proposed, including genetics, mechanical restriction of the chest and the intake of corticosteroids. The most consistent evidence, however, comes from studies of cytokines produced by the adipose tissue called adipokines. Adipokine imbalance is associated with both proinflammatory status and asthma. Although reverse causation has been proposed, it is now acknowledged that obesity precedes asthma symptoms. Nevertheless, prenatal origins of both conditions complicate the search for causality. There is a confirmed role of neuro-immune cross-talk mediating obesity-induced asthma, with leptin playing a key role in these processes. Obesity-induced asthma is now considered a distinct asthma phenotype. In fact, it is one of the most important determinants of asthma phenotypes. Two main subphenotypes have been distinguished. The first phenotype, which affects adult women, is characterised by later onset and is more likely to be non-atopic. The childhood obesity-induced asthma phenotype is characterised by primary and predominantly atopic asthma. In obesity-induced asthma, the immune responses are shifted towards T helper (Th) 1 polarisation rather than the typical atopic Th2 immunological profile. Moreover, obese asthmatics might respond differently to environmental triggers. The high cost of treatment of obesity-related asthma, and the burden it causes for the patients and their families call for urgent intervention. Phenotype-specific approaches seem to be crucial for the success of prevention and treatment.

  1. Epidemiology of Asthma in 94 Children with Atopic Dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Arnaldo Cantani

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present 94 children affected with Atopic Dermatitis (AD), aggravated by respiratory allergy, asthma and/ or Allergic Rhinitis (AR). AD is a common disorder, frequently complicated by asthma-like symptoms, we debate either disorder and concluded that both AR and asthma can afflict most babies with AD, especially when both parents smoke. We confirm our previous statistics, according to which little children not fed breast milk may react to smallest doses of allergens.

  2. A review of epidemiological studies of asthma in Ghana | Amoah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context/Background: The last few decades have witnessed a rise in the global prevalence of asthma with a number of risk factors being linked to this increase. Although there is insufficient data on the prevalence of asthma in Ghana, a few studies conducted in this country have shed light on the disease aetiology and ...

  3. Epidemiology of bronchial asthma in school children (10–16 years in Srinagar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uruj Altaf Qureshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the epidemiological profile of asthma in school going children in Srinagar, Kashmir. Study design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Thirty-one schools with proportionate representation from both government and private schools as well as from primary, middle, and high schools. Participants: School children aged 10–16 years with equal representation of sex and all ages. Main Outcome Measure: Prevalence of current and past asthma. Methods and Results: After administering a modified pretested questionnaire, peak expiratory flow measurement was carried. Children who had asthma-like symptoms or positive family history of asthma or physician-labeled asthma were subjected to spirometry and bronchodilator reversibility. Out of 806 children, bronchial asthma was seen in 60 (prevalence of 7.4% which included 34 boys and 26 girls. Majority of asthmatic children (78.3% [n = 47] had probable asthma; 6.7% (n = 4 had definite asthma; and 15% (n = 9 had physician-diagnosed asthma. Majority of children had intermittent asthma (78.3% [n = 47]. Mild persistent asthma was seen in 12.7% (n = 7 and 10% (n = 6 had moderate persistent asthma. None of the children had severe persistent asthma. The prevalence of current asthma was 3.2% (n = 26. On univariate analysis, the factors found to be statistically significant were family history of asthma (odds ratio [OR] =8.174; confidence interval [CI] =4.403–15.178, seasonal cough (OR = 4.266; CI = 2.336–7.791, allergic rhinitis (OR = 2.877; CI = 1.414–5.852, atopic dermatitis (OR = 6.597; CI = 2.72–16.004, and obesity (OR = 6.074; CI = 2.308–18.034. On multivariate analysis, family history, seasonal cough, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and obesity were found to be significant independent risk factors. Conclusions: Srinagar qualifies as a low prevalence area for bronchial asthma in the age group of 10–16 years. Majority of children had mild intermittent asthma resulting in under

  4. Is asthma caused by atopy (positive skin prick tests)? Epidemiologic evidence suggests a negative answer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchetti, Roberto; Jesenak, Milos; Ronchetti, Francesco; Rennerova, Zuzana

    2010-06-01

    In this paper we shortly discuss epidemiological data on the relationship between asthma and atopy according to recent personal and literature epidemiological publications. The coexistence in several subjects of asthma (and of other "atopic" diseases) and IgE hyperproduction generated the dogma that these two biological conditions are mainly genetic in origin and are linked by a strong casual relationship. In the last decades atopy increased at 5-10 % annual rate and at present atopy prevalence, although variable in different countries, reaches somewhere the prevalence of more than 60 %. Similarly, asthma prevalence increased in the last decades, especially so in western and English speaking countries, reaching in certain countries prevalence values higher than 40 %. For these reasons, although certainly dependent on a genetic predisposition, atopy and asthma can nowadays be considered to be largely determined by environmental factors. Moreover, the analysis of epidemiological data derived from studies conducted worldwide, showed that the prevalence of the two conditions were clearly not correlated so that in certain countries with a 50-60% prevalence of atopy asthma prevalence is lower than 2-6 %, while in other countries asthma prevalence is double than atopy prevalence. Further, in countries with high atopy, the prevalence this conditions is high both in asthmatics and in normal subjects and in the places where asthma prevalence reaches high levels this condition is high both in atopic and non atopic people. In conclusion, epidemiological data show that environmental factors affecting asthma prevalence are different from those affecting atopy prevalence and that subjects bearing one of the two conditions don't show any preferential tendency to develop the other one. From aetiological and pathogenetic point of view asthma and atopy appear to be independent conditions We therefore believe that the association between asthma and atopy demonstrated in almost all the

  5. Asthma and rhinitis in cleaning workers: a systematic review of epidemiological studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folletti, I.; Zock, J.P.; Moscato, G.; Siracusa, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This article presents a systematic review of epidemiological studies linking cleaning work and risk of asthma and rhinitis. Methods: Published reports were identified from PubMed covering the years from 1976 through June 30, 2012. In total, we identified 24 papers for inclusion in the

  6. Epidemiological study of risk factors in pediatric asthma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EL-HAKIM

    chemicals, odors, perfumes or drugs was inquired about as well as the exacerbation of asthma during certain seasons or months. Home environment was investigated through questions about domestic animals and cockroach exposure. The questionnaire also included associated conditions such as parasitic infestations, ...

  7. Prodromal symptoms of Parkinson's disease: Implications for epidemiological studies of disease etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbaz, A

    In recent years, there has been a major shift in our understanding of the course of Parkinson's disease (PD) from a disease of the brain to a disease of long latency, characterized by the progressive emergence of multiple non-motor symptoms, including hyposmia, constipation, depression, anxiety, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder and excessive daytime sleepiness, as well as subtle motor signs, before the typical motor signs appear. Epidemiological studies have made major contributions by allowing better characterization of subsequent PD risk in relation to non-motor symptoms. Such findings have profound implications for the conduct of epidemiological studies examining risk and protective factors in PD, and the interpretation of their findings. Given the length of the prodromal period, reverse causation in particular is a major concern with many reported associations. One striking feature of PD etiology, compared with other diseases, is the presence of numerous inverse associations. If these associations are truly causal, they would have major implications for disease prevention and for slowing disease progression. However, whether these associations are truly causal remains to be demonstrated in future studies. Experimental studies play an important role by offering a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Well-designed epidemiological studies using innovative approaches will also be key in elucidating whether these intriguing associations are causal or a consequence of reverse causation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. [Epidemiologic aspects of bronchial asthma in the Mexican Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Cairo Cueto, S; Salas-Ramírez, M; Segura-Méndez, N H

    1995-01-01

    This work was done to determine the mortality and morbidity rates secondary to asthma in Mexico, for age, gender, state of the country and time. Data were obtained from the Instituto Nacional de Estadística. Geografía e Informática. We calculated morbidity and mortality rates adjusting for age, by a direct method. In the results, there was a reduction in mortality rate in both genders, from 1960 to 1987. Age groups up to 4 years and older than 50 were the mainly affected. From 1960 to the present time, the state with highest mortality is Tlaxcala. The states with highest hospitalization rates were Morelos, Baja California Sur, Nuevo León, Durango and Tamaulipas. In conclusion, mortality rates secondary to asthma in Mexico show a decreasing trend, with a considerable rise in morbidity, especially in the adolescent group.

  9. Molecular pathological epidemiology: new developing frontiers of big data science to study etiologies and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Keum, NaNa; Nishihara, Reiko; Ogino, Shuji

    2017-03-01

    Molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE) is an integrative field that utilizes molecular pathology to incorporate interpersonal heterogeneity of a disease process into epidemiology. In each individual, the development and progression of a disease are determined by a unique combination of exogenous and endogenous factors, resulting in different molecular and pathological subtypes of the disease. Based on "the unique disease principle," the primary aim of MPE is to uncover an interactive relationship between a specific environmental exposure and disease subtypes in determining disease incidence and mortality. This MPE approach can provide etiologic and pathogenic insights, potentially contributing to precision medicine for personalized prevention and treatment. Although breast, prostate, lung, and colorectal cancers have been among the most commonly studied diseases, the MPE approach can be used to study any disease. In addition to molecular features, host immune status and microbiome profile likely affect a disease process, and thus serve as informative biomarkers. As such, further integration of several disciplines into MPE has been achieved (e.g., pharmaco-MPE, immuno-MPE, and microbial MPE), to provide novel insights into underlying etiologic mechanisms. With the advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies, available genomic and epigenomic data have expanded dramatically. The MPE approach can also provide a specific risk estimate for each disease subgroup, thereby enhancing the impact of genome-wide association studies on public health. In this article, we present recent progress of MPE, and discuss the importance of accounting for the disease heterogeneity in the era of big-data health science and precision medicine.

  10. Epidemiology and etiology of Alzheimer's disease: from genetic to non-genetic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Teng; Yu, Jin-Tai; Tian, Yan; Tan, Lan

    2013-10-01

    At present, the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is still unclear, but both genetic and non-genetic factors are thought to take part in the etiopathogenesis of AD. Epidemiologic researches revealed that genetic factors played a decisive role in the development of both early-onset AD (EOAD) and late-onset AD (LOAD). The mutations in APP, PSEN1 and PSEN2 are inherited in a Mendelian fashion and directly lead to the EOAD, while recent genome-wide association studies have identified numbers of risky genes, which influences the susceptibility to LOAD. Although genetic factors are inherited and fixed, non-genetic factors, such as occupational exposures (exposure to pesticides, electromagnetic fields, organic solvents and volatile anesthetics), pre-existing medical conditions (cerebrovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, traumatic brain injury, depression and cancer) and lifestyle factors (smoking, consumptions of alcohol and coffee, body mass index, physical activity and cognitive activity), are partly environmentally-determined. Timely interventions targeted at these non-genetic risk factors may offer opportunities for prevention and treatment of AD. In the future, more high-quality and large-sample epidemiologic studies are needed to identify risk factors for AD, and the interaction models between genetic and non-genetic risk factors required further investigation. In addition, public health campaigns targeted at modification of non-genetic risk factors should be developed among population at high risk of AD.

  11. Association of Serum Vitamin D with Asthma and Atopy in Childhood: Review of Epidemiological Observational Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolokotroni, Ourania; Middleton, Nicos; Kouta, Christiana; Raftopoulos, Vasilios; Yiallouros, Panayiotis K

    2015-01-01

    During the last decades, vitamin D deficiency has re-emerged worldwide affecting not only population's bone health, but also several other conditions including asthma and allergies. Increasing number of published epidemiological studies in the last seven years have examined the role of vitamin D deficiency in childhood in several outcomes including asthma diagnosis, asthma disease severity, allergic sensitization and atopy. This review presents evidence on this association from a systematic search in the literature of all available observational studies and their limitations. A total of 33 studies were identified: 3 prospective, 16 case-control and 14 cross-sectional studies. Overall, most of the case-control studies tend to report that asthmatics have lower vitamin D levels/status as compared to healthy children, although most of these studies are mainly descriptive in nature and tend to provide only crude, unadjusted comparisons. Studies that investigated the association of vitamin D with the prevalence, development and/or severity of asthma gave mixed findings, with the exception of studies that focused on vitamin D and severity of asthma which suggest a positive association of vitamin D levels with better asthma control, reduced use of asthma medication, fewer asthma exacerbations and lower utilisation of health care facilities for urgent treatment. Insufficient evidence also exists for the association of inadequate vitamin D status with higher risk of atopic sensitization. The lack of adequate number of prospective studies, the variable definitions for case ascertainment, the wide age range of the participants, and commonly the inadequate control for confounders make inferences difficult. Future studies are needed with a prospective design and repeated measurements of vitamin D to provide critical information on the timing and dosage of future vitamin D supplementation interventions.

  12. Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... babies. Poor asthma control increases the risk of preeclampsia, a condition in which a pregnant woman develops ... other conditions that can interfere with your asthma management. Watch for Signs That Your Asthma Is Getting ...

  13. The School Psychologist's Primer on Childhood Depression: A Review of Research Regarding Epidemiology, Etiology, Assessment, and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruderman, Matthew A.; Stifel, Skye W. F.; O'Malley, Meagan; Jimerson, Shane R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide school psychologists with a synthesis of important information regarding the epidemiology, etiology, assessment, and treatment of childhood depression. A review of the recent research and relevant literature is summarized reflecting the contemporary knowledge regarding depression during childhood and…

  14. Pesticide exposures and chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology: an epidemiologic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcke, Mathieu; Levasseur, Marie-Eve; Soares da Silva, Agnes; Wesseling, Catharina

    2017-05-23

    The main causes of chronic kidney disease (CKD) globally are diabetes and hypertension but epidemics of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) occur in Central America, Sri Lanka, India and beyond. Althoug also being observed in women, CKDu concentrates among men in agricultural sectors. Therefore, suspicions fell initially on pesticide exposure, but currently chronic heat stress and dehydration are considered key etiologic factors. Responding to persistent community and scientific concerns about the role of pesticides, we performed a systematic review of epidemiologic studies that addressed associations between any indicator of pesticide exposure and any outcome measure of CKD. Of the 21 analytical studies we identified, seven were categorized as with low, ten with medium and four with relatively high explanation value. Thirteen (62%) studies reported one or more positive associations, but four had a low explanation value and three presented equivocal results. The main limitations of both positive and negative studies were unspecific and unquantified exposure measurement ('pesticides'), the cross-sectional nature of most studies, confounding and selection bias. The four studies with stronger designs and better exposure assessment (from Sri Lanka, India and USA) all showed exposure-responses or clear associations, but for different pesticides in each study, and three of these studies were conducted in areas without CKDu epidemics. No study investigated interactions between pesticides and other concommittant exposures in agricultural occupations, in particular heat stress and dehydration. In conclusion, existing studies provide scarce evidence for an association between pesticides and regional CKDu epidemics but, given the poor pesticide exposure assessment in the majority, a role of nephrotoxic agrochemicals cannot be conclusively discarded. Future research should procure assessment of lifetime exposures to relevant specific pesticides and enough power

  15. Epidemiological and etiological characteristics of hand, foot, and mouth disease in Ningbo, China, 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Hongxia; Yi, Bo; Yin, Jianhua; Fang, Ting; He, Tianfeng; Du, Yan; Wang, Jin; Zhang, Hongwei; Xie, Lei; Ding, Yibo; Gu, Wenzhen; Zhang, Shu; Han, Yifang; Dong, Hongjun; Su, Tong; Xu, Guozhang; Cao, Guangwen

    2012-08-01

    Outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in central China have caused public health concerns since 2007. It is of particular public health significance to update epidemiology of HFMD in port cities. To investigate epidemical, etiological and clinical characteristics of HFMD in Ningbo, China, from 2008 to 2011. From May 2008 to December 2011, a total of 37,404 HFMD cases including 196 severe and 12 fatal cases were investigated. Human enteroviruses from 2360 cases were determined by real-time RT-PCR. The VP1 gene of EV71 from 78 cases and CA16 from 21 cases, the VP4 gene from 28 cases, and full-length genomes of 10 isolates were analyzed. Neutralizing antibodies were evaluated in 258 healthy subjects. Parameters associated with severe HFMD were evaluated. Annual incidence of HFMD was 3066.8/100,000 in the population of ≤5 years. EV71 C4a, CA16 B1, and other enteroviruses accounted for 63.7%, 24.0% and 12.3%, respectively. The genomes of EV71 from fatal and non-fatal cases were nearly identical. The positive rates of neutralizing antibody to EV71 increased from 13.5% to 67.6% in 1- to 5-year healthy groups. The neutralizing antibody to CA16 B1 isolate was negative. EV71, exposure history and certain early manifestations including fever, vomiting, limb exanthema and peripheral neutrophil ratio were significantly associated with HFMD severity. HFMD mainly caused by EV71 C4a and CA16 B1 is seriously epidemic in Ningbo. Future emphasis should be paid on EV71 immuno-prophylaxis and early identification of severe cases upon the etiological and clinical characteristics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their experiences with clinical research. More Information Related Health Topics Cough How the Lungs Work Oxygen Therapy Pulmonary Function Tests Other Resources NHLBI Resources "Asthma Action Plan" "Asthma and Physical Activity in the School" "At-A-Glance: Asthma" "How Asthma-Friendly Is ...

  17. Viral etiology and epidemiology of acute lower respiratory tract infections in Korean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, B Y; Kim, M R; Park, J Y; Choi, E H; Lee, H J; Yun, C K

    1995-12-01

    Viral etiologic agents of acute lower respiratory tract infections were studied from November, 1990, through April, 1994, in Korean children. From 712 children who visited or were admitted to Seoul National University Children's Hospital because of acute lower respiratory tract infections, 804 nasal aspirates were collected; viral agents were detected by virus isolation and virus antigen was detected by indirect immunofluorescent staining. One or more viral agents were identified in 369 (45.9%) cases; of which 3.3% were mixed infections. The pathogens identified were respiratory syncytial virus (27.2%), parainfluenza virus type 3 (7.8%), influenza A virus (3.9%), adenovirus (3.9%), parainfluenza virus type 1 (1.7%), influenza B virus (1.4%), parainfluenza virus type 2 (0.5%), measles virus (0.1%) and others (0.9%). The clinical patterns of viral lower respiratory tract included pneumonia (56.6%), bronchiolitis (35.2%), croup (6.5%) and tracheo-bronchitis (1.6%). Infections with respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus types 1 and 3 and influenza A and B virus occurred in epidemics, whereas adenovirus was isolated sporadically throughout the study period. The data expand our understanding of the epidemiology of acute viral lower respiratory tract infections in Korean children and may be helpful to the clinicians and researchers interested in the control of viral respiratory tract infections.

  18. Etiologic and Epidemiologic Pattern of Urolithiasis in North Iran;Review of 10-Year Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadjafari, Hamid; Barzin, Maryam; Salehifar, Ebrahim; Khademi Kord, Mahnaz; Aalaee, Abdolrasoule; Mohammadjafari, Roghieh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine epidemiologic and metabolic characteristics of renal stone in the northern Iran. Methods: We prospectively analyzed demographic, clinical and metabolic findings in children less than 16 years old with renal stone revealed by ultrasonography from September 2003 to May 2012. Evaluations included serum and urine measurement of main elements predisposing patients to stone formation. Findings : 271 children (160 males) aged 2 months to 16-years (mean 30 months) were evaluated. 91 (33.6%) had a positive family history, abdominal discomfort (18.8%), UTI (11.8%) and hematuria (11.4%) were main presenting features. 45 children were diagnosed accidentally without any specific compliant. Nearly all (99%) stones lay in kidney., 35.1% had metabolic, 10% infective and 4.1% obstructive trends, 110 children had no definable etiology. Hypercalciuria (25.5%) hyperoxaluria (18.4%) and hypocitraturia (18.1%) were more frequent than uricosuria (8.5%) and cystinuria (3.1%) Conclusion: Metabolic derangement plays significant role in stone formation in our area. Patients should be carefully evaluated considering this point of view. PMID:25793048

  19. [Etiological and molecular-epidemiological analysis on enterovirus associated encephalitis in Zhejiang, 2008-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ju-ying; Miao, Zi-ping; Lü, Hua-kun; Zhou, Jia-yue; Chen, Yin; Lu, Yi-yu; Zhang, Yan-jun

    2013-12-01

    In order to investigate etiology and molecular-epidemiological characteristics of enterovirus associated encephalitis (EAE) in Zhejiang, 2008-2012. Method Cerebrospinal fluid and stool specimens were collected from suspected EAE patients, who were admitted to our hospitals. RD and Hep-2 cell lines were used to isolate enterovirus (EV). Serotypes of these EV isolates were identified through neutralization test by using serotype specific anti-sera. VP1 genes of these isolates were sequenced, compared and used for the construction of phylogenetic tree. 127 (20.6%) human enterovirus (HEV) strains were isolated from 616 samples, which were collected from 610 patients. Serotypes of these EV isolates, including 60 coxsackievirus (CV), and 67 Echovirus (E)appeared to be CVA9, CVB1, CVB3-5, E3, E4, E6, E9, E14, E25 and E30, respectively. Predominant EV serotypes on EAE from 2008 to 2012 were seen as CVB3, CVB5, E6, E30 and E30, respectively. The full length of VP1 genes from different EV isolates was between 834 and 918 nucleotides. The VP1 gene similarities between these isolates and the reference strains were from 76.7% to 85.0% (nucleotides level) and 91.1% to 97.9% (amino acids level). The VP1 genes from E6 serotype isolates appeared most diverged, reaching 20.4% (nucleotides level) and 4.8% (amino acids level). Based on the generated phylogenetic tree, all the EV isolates were fallen on the same branch of HEV-B, and the isolates in the same serotype formed one sub-branch, suggesting there existed geographical and temporal effects. E6 isolates diverged into two branchlets. EVs from HEV-B were the etiologic agents for EAE in Zhejiang province from 2008 to 2012. All these EV isolates showed 12 serotypes, with predominant isolates varied every year. E30 was determined as the most dominant serotype while serotype E6 diverged into two sub-gene types.

  20. Uncommon and Neglected Venezuelan Viral Diseases: Etiologic Agents, Physiopathological, Clinical and Epidemiological Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Gabaldon-Figueira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract (english Viral infectious diseases are common in Venezuela, influenza, dengue, yellow fever, HIV infection, viral Hepatitis, chikungunya fever and many others represent public health problems in the country and therefore, have been well documented. However, other rarer and even unique or lethal viral illnesses present in Venezuela are usually poorly understood or even unknown. This review described Venezuelan Hemorrhagic Fever, Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis, Hantavirus Infections and Mayaro fever, named as neglected diseases, emphasizing the etiologic agents and their most relevant pathogenic mechanisms, clinical and epidemiological characteristics. Although there is not an official report about the re-emergence of these diseases, falling living standards and unsanitary conditions, together with limited accessibility to hygiene products and medical supplies, put us on alert about the re-emergence of these neglected diseases. Resumen (español Las enfermedades infecciosas virales son comunes en Venezuela, influenza, dengue, fiebre amarilla, infección por VIH, hepatitis viral, fiebre chikungunya y muchas otras representan problemas de salud pública en el país y por lo tanto, han sido bien documentadas. Sin embargo, otras enfermedades virales más raras e incluso únicas y letales presentes en Venezuela son generalmente poco estudiadas y hasta desconocidas. Esta revisión describe alguna de estas enfermedades olvidadas tales como la fiebre hemorrágica venezolana, la encefalitis equina venezolana, las infecciones por hantavirus y la fiebre de Mayaro, haciendo hincapié en los agentes etiológicos y en sus mecanismos patogénicos más relevantes, características clínicas y epidemiológicas. Aunque no hay informes oficiales sobre el resurgimiento de estas enfermedades, la caída de los niveles de vida y las condiciones insalubres, junto con el acceso limitado a los productos de higiene y suministros médicos, debe alertar sobre el

  1. [The epidemiology and etiology research of Tibetan sheep plague in Qinghai plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Baiqing; Xiong, Haoming; Yang, Xiaoyan; Yang, Yonghai; Qi, Meiying; Jin, Juan; Xin, Youquan; Li, Xiang; Yang, Hanqing; Han, Xiumin; Dai, Ruixia

    2015-03-01

    To identify the epidemiology and etiology characteristics of Tibetan sheep plague in Qinghai plateau. The background materials of Qinghai Tibetan sheep plague found during 1975 to 2009 were summarized, the regional, time and interpersonal distribution, infection routes, ecological factors for the spread were used to analyze; followed by choosing 14 Yersinia pestis strains isolated from such sheep for biochemical test, toxicity test, virulence factors identification, plasmid analysis, and DFR genotype. From 1975 to 2009, 14 Yersinia pestis strains were isolated from Tibetan sheep in Qinghai province. Tibetan sheep, as the infection source, had caused 10 cases of human plague, 25 plague patients, and 13 cases of death. All of the initial cases were infected due to eating Tibetan sheep died of plague; followed by cases due to contact of plague patients, while all the initial cases were bubonic plague. Cases of bubonic plague developed into secondary pneumonic plague and septicemia plague were most popular and with high mortality. Most of the Tibetan sheep plague and human plague occurred in Gannan ecological zone in southern Gansu province, which was closely related to its unique ecological and geographical landscape. Tibetan sheep plague coincided with human plague caused by Tibetan sheep, especially noteworthy was that November (a time for marmots to start their dormancy) witnesses the number of Yersinia pestis strains isolated from Tibetan sheep and human plague cases caused by Tibetan sheep. This constituted the underlying cause that the epidemic time of Tibetan sheep plague lags obviously behind that of the Marmot plague. It was confirmed in the study that all the 14 strains were of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau ecotype, with virulence factors evaluation and toxicity test demonstrating strains as velogenic. As found in the (Different Region) DFR genotyping, the strains isolated from Yushu county and Zhiduo county were genomovar 5, the two strain isolated from Nangqian

  2. Epidemiology of Cerebellar Ataxia on the Etiological Basis: A Cross Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simindokht Hosseini Seyede

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cerebellar ataxias are a heterogenous group of disorders, clinically and etiologically, that result in considerable health burden. Finding out about the various etiologies, and their relative prevalences in the population suffering from cerebellar ataxia helps the clinician to perform a better management, in treatment process. This is a cross sectional study designed to estimate the relative prevalence of each etiologic factor. One-hundred and thirty-five patients ,in the range of 6 to 73 years from march 1993 to march1999, were classified in different groups on the basis of etiological findings. Relative prevalence of each of the etiological factors , common accompanying disorders besides ataxia in the patients,CT and MRI changes,and CSF alterations are studied and recorded. A widely spread age group, and the extended number of the cases under study, are the advantages of the current study over the previously reported case series. Among the etiologic groups, multiple sclerosis, cerebrovascular accidents and hereditary cerebellar ataxia, were the most common etiologic factors associated with cerebellar ataxia respectively.

  3. Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Harold

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Asthma is the most common respiratory disorder in Canada. Despite significant improvement in the diagnosis and management of this disorder, the majority of Canadians with asthma remain poorly controlled. In most patients, however, control can be achieved through the use of avoidance measures and appropriate pharmacological interventions. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs represent the standard of care for the majority of patients. Combination ICS/long-acting beta2-agonists (LABA inhalers are preferred for most adults who fail to achieve control with ICS therapy. Allergen-specific immunotherapy represents a potentially disease-modifying therapy for many patients with asthma, but should only be prescribed by physicians with appropriate training in allergy. Regular monitoring of asthma control, adherence to therapy and inhaler technique are also essential components of asthma management. This article provides a review of current literature and guidelines for the appropriate diagnosis and management of asthma.

  4. Epidemiology and etiology of wegener granulomatosis, microscopic polyangiitis, churg-strauss syndrome and goodpasture syndrome: vasculitides with frequent lung involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibelin, Aude; Maldini, Carla; Mahr, Alfred

    2011-06-01

    This review focuses on the epidemiological characteristics and etiologies of four primary systemic vasculitides with frequent lung involvement, namely Wegener granulomatosis (WG), microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS), and Goodpasture syndrome (GPS). Elucidation of the mechanisms underlying these vasculitides with frequent lung involvement is complicated by their rarity, which hampers the undertaking of large-scale studies; difficulties in classification; and their multifaceted clinical presentations, which infer the existence of several etiologic pathways. Notwithstanding, epidemiological research showed some evidence for international, interethnic, and temporal variations of the frequencies of these four vasculitides; led to the identification of several genetic and environmental risk factors; and provided insight on the extent to which genes and environment might contribute to their development. Available data support the concept that WG, MPA, CSS, and GPS have unique and shared risk determinants. Although the precise causes of these vasculitides are not yet fully understood and the development of prevention strategies is out of our reach at present, current knowledge enables the formulation of etiologic hypotheses to provide caregivers and their patients with valuable information on the nature of these rare entities. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  5. Etiology and epidemiology of Pythium root rot in hydroponic crops: current knowledge and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Clifford Sutton

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The etiology and epidemiology of Pythium root rot in hydroponically-grown crops are reviewed with emphasis on knowledge and concepts considered important for managing the disease in commercial greenhouses. Pythium root rot continually threatens the productivity of numerous kinds of crops in hydroponic systems around the world including cucumber, tomato, sweet pepper, spinach, lettuce, nasturtium, arugula, rose, and chrysanthemum. Principal causal agents include Pythium aphanidermatum, Pythium dissotocum, members of Pythium group F, and Pythium ultimum var. ultimum. Perspectives are given of sources of initial inoculum of Pythium spp. in hydroponic systems, of infection and colonization of roots by the pathogens, symptom development and inoculum production in host roots, and inoculum dispersal in nutrient solutions. Recent findings that a specific elicitor produced by P. aphanidermatum may trigger necrosis (browning of the roots and the transition from biotrophic to necrotrophic infection are considered. Effects on root rot epidemics of host factors (disease susceptibility, phenological growth stage, root exudates and phenolic substances, the root environment (rooting media, concentrations of dissolved oxygen and phenolic substances in the nutrient solution, microbial communities and temperature and human interferences (cropping practices and control measures are reviewed. Recent findings on predisposition of roots to Pythium attack by environmental stress factors are highlighted. The commonly minor impact on epidemics of measures to disinfest nutrient solution as it recirculates outside the crop is contrasted with the impact of treatments that suppress Pythium in the roots and root zone of the crop. New discoveries that infection of roots by P. aphanidermatum markedly slows the increase in leaf area and whole-plant carbon gain without significant effect on the efficiency of photosynthesis per unit area of leaf are noted. The platform of

  6. Chemical-induced asthma and the role of clinical, toxicological, exposure and epidemiological research in regulatory and hazard characterization approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Melissa J; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Basketter, David; LaKind, Judy S; Dotson, G Scott; Maier, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    Uncertainties in understanding all potential modes-of-action for asthma induction and elicitation hinders design of hazard characterization and risk assessment methods that adequately screen and protect against hazardous chemical exposures. To address this challenge and identify current research needs, the University of Cincinnati and the American Cleaning Institute hosted a webinar series to discuss the current state-of-science regarding chemical-induced asthma. The general consensus is that the available database, comprised of data collected from routine clinical and validated toxicological tests, is inadequate for predicting or determining causal relationships between exposures and asthma induction for most allergens. More research is needed to understand the mechanism of asthma induction and elicitation in the context of specific chemical exposures and exposure patterns, and the impact of population variability and patient phenotypes. Validated tools to predict respiratory sensitization and to translate irritancy assays to asthma potency are needed, in addition to diagnostic biomarkers that assess and differentiate allergy versus irritant-based asthmatic responses. Diagnostic methods that encompass the diverse etiologies of asthmatic responses and incorporate robust exposure measurements capable of capturing different temporal patterns of complex chemical mixtures are needed. In the absence of ideal tools, risk assessors apply hazard-based safety assessment methods, in conjunction with active risk management, to limit potential asthma concerns, proactively identify new concerns, and ensure deployment of approaches to mitigate asthma-related risks. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Recent advances in the epidemiologic investigation of risk factors for asthma: a review of the 2011 literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antó, Josep M

    2012-06-01

    The present review aims to identify and summarize epidemiologic investigations published during 2011 on the environmental risk factors for asthma. Potentially eligible papers were identified by a MEDLINE search. In total, 1,130 items were retrieved. Based on a broad definition of environment, the following topics were included: obesity, diet, vitamin D, air pollution, farming environment, and social factors. Some of the more relevant contributions included evidence that 1) obesity precedes asthma, 2) fruit consumption is longitudinally associated with a lower risk of asthma and atopy, 3) a comprehensive statewide smoking ban was followed by a reduction in hospital admissions for asthma, 4) asthma is one of the diseases showing the largest burdens due to environmental tobacco smoke, 5) traffic-related urban air pollution is associated with bronchial inflammation as measured by fractional exhaled nitric oxide and uncontrolled asthma, 6) aeroallergens and desert dust may contribute to the short-term effects of air pollution and asthma, and 7) maternal exposure to air pollution before and during pregnancy may alter the immune competence in offspring.

  8. Low level of LAT-PLC-γ1 interaction is associated with Th2 polarized differentiation: a contributing factor to the etiology of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaohua; Cui, Zhilei; Gu, Wen; Xu, Weiguo; Guo, Xuejun

    2014-07-01

    Linker for activation of T cells (LAT) is a key adaptor in the T cell receptor (TCR) signaling pathway. The expression of LAT is lower in asthmatic patients than that in healthy people, but there is little knowledge about the mechanism underlying this phenomenon. This study was aimed to determine whether LAT-PLC-γ1 interaction was involved in the development of asthma. It was shown that the phosphorylation of PLC-γ1 decreased in the asthmatic mouse model and Th2 cell differentiated CD4(+) T cells. In addition, depleted endogenous PLC-γ1 promoted CD4(+) T cells to differentiate into IL-4-Productor. It was therefore concluded that the low level of LAT-PLC-γ1 interaction was associated with Th2 polarized differentiation, and this may contribute to the etiology of asthma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Epidemiologic and etiologic characteristics of hand, foot, and mouth disease in Chongqing, China between 2010 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Fang-Fang; Yan, Qiang; Ge, Sheng-Xiang; Tang, Xiang; Chen, Ru-Juan; Xu, Hong-Mei

    2016-03-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) has become very common in children, with widespread occurrence across China. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiologic and etiologic characteristics of HFMD, including etiologic variations in Chongqing, China. An epidemiologic investigation was based on 3,472 patients who presented with HFMD manifestations and were admitted at the Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University between 2010 and 2013. Fecal specimens from 830 patients were analyzed by nested RT-PCR to identify the enterovirus pathogens, and the molecular characterization of HFMD was illustrated by phylogenetic tree analysis. The results of this study indicate that the peak of the HFMD epidemic in Chongqing between 2010 and 2013 occurred between April and July each year. The median age of onset was 2.24 years old, and children under the age of five accounted for 96.4% of all the HFMD cases; the male-to-female ratio was 1.89:1. Enterovirus 71 accounted for a major proportion of the isolated strains every year, including the majority (74%) of severe cases. However, the proportion of Coxsackie A (CV-A) 6 infections increased from 2.11% in 2010 to 16.36% in 2013, while the proportion of CV-A16 infections decreased from 31.23% in 2010 to 4.67% in 2013. Molecular epidemiologic study showed that all enterovirus 71 strains belonged to subgenotype C4a, whereas all CV-A16 strains belonged to genotype B1, including subgenotype B1a and subgenotype B1b. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. An Epidemiological and Etiological Report on Lower Extremity Amputation in Northwest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Rouhani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lower extremity amputation has different etiologies and the purpose of the study was to describe the demographics and etiologies of amputations. This study was designed to evaluate amputations performed in the province of Eastern Azerbaijan (north-west of Iran and to       determine specific causes of amputations associated with geographical and cultural characteristics of the region.   Methods: We have done this retrospective and descriptive study from June 1st, 2005 to June 1st, 2010 in Tabriz Shohada Hospital (Tabriz, Iran. The patients were evaluated with respect to age, sex, etiology, side and level of amputations, prevalence of amputations among the sexes at different ages and surgical interventions performed. Results: One-hundred-sixty files were identified with a diagnosis of lower limb amputation. Trauma was the most frequent cause in 67 cases (46%, followed by vascular disease in 61 cases (42%, and then infection in 18 cases (12%. Eighty percent of patients were male and 20% were female. Conclusion: This investigation shows that trauma (especially due to car accidents is the most common cause of amputations in our region, followed by vascular problems.

  11. The etiology of uterine sarcomas: A pooled analysis of the epidemiology of endometrial cancer consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felix, A.S.; Cook, L.S.; Gaudet, M.M.; Rohan, T.E.; Schouten, L.J.; Setiawan, V.W.; Wise, L.A.; Anderson, K.E.; Bernstein, L.; Vivo, I. de; Friedenreich, C.M.; Gapstur, S.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Henderson, B.; Horn-Ross, P.L.; Kolonel, L.; Lacey, J.V.; Liang, X.; Lissowska, J.; Magliocco, A.; McCullough, M.L.; Miller, A.B.; Olson, S.H.; Palmer, J.R.; Park, Y.; Patel, A.V.; Prescott, J.; Rastogi, R.; Robien, K.; Rosenberg, L.; Schairer, C.; Ou Shu, X.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Virkus, R.A.; Wentzensen, N.; Xiang, Y.-B.; Xu, W.-H.; Yang, H.P.; Brinton, L.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Uterine sarcomas are characterised by early age at diagnosis, poor prognosis, and higher incidence among Black compared with White women, but their aetiology is poorly understood. Therefore, we performed a pooled analysis of data collected in the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer

  12. Congenital Upper Eyelid Coloboma: Embryologic, Nomenclatorial, Nosologic, Etiologic, Pathogenetic, Epidemiologic, Clinical, and Management Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulhafez, Mohamed H.; Fouad, Yousef A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To review the recent literature and describe the authors’ experience with congenital upper eyelid coloboma. Methods: In this review, we will summarize the embryologic and etiopathogenetic bases of congenital upper eyelid coloboma, and study the published clinical reports. We will also attempt to briefly shed some light on the rarer syndromic curiosities associated with upper eyelid coloboma. Results: Congenital upper eyelid colobomas are one of the few nontraumatic oculoplastic emergencies that may occasionally present in the first few days of life with a corneal ulcer and may even present with impending perforation. They can present with or without corneopalpebral adhesions, may be isolated findings or a part of a larger spectrum of congenital anomalies as in the case of Fraser syndrome or Goldenhar syndrome, or could be associated with other rare curiosities that could challenge the clinician with a huge diagnostic dilemma. Conclusions: Existing literature dealing with congenital colobomas of the upper eyelid is fraught with nosologic problems, confusing etiologies, and overlapping clinical features. We attempted to clarify the salient clinical features, outline the management principles, and until a time in the not-so-distant future where advances in molecular genetic testing would help redefine the etiology and the diverse clinical spectrum of genetic diseases associated with upper eyelid colobomas, we propose a simplified classification scheme based on the relation of the coloboma to the cornea, the presence or absence of systemic features, and all the syndromic and nonsyndromic associations of congenital coloboma of the upper eyelid known today. PMID:25419956

  13. Epidemiological data regarding Balkan endemic nephropathy in relationship with the Pliocene coal etiological hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluhovschi, Gh; Modalca, M; Mărgineanu, F; Velciov, Silvia; Gluhovschi, Cristina; Bob, F; Petrica, Ligia; Bozdog, Gh; Trandafirescu, V; Gădălean, F

    2011-01-01

    Balkan Endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a tubulointerstitial disease of unknown etiology signaled in a limited geographical area. In the neighbourhood of endemic villages are coal deposits from the Pliocene, that contain toxic substances that by mobilizing groundwater can leach in water sources used by the inhabitants. In the present paper the possible impact of the coal from Pliocene on people that worked many years in mines in the endemic County Mehedinti, Romania, and who lived in this area are analysed. The risk of toxicity of coal was theoretically increased in miners because they consumed frequently water from mine springs that came from coal layers, while at home water from wells could have been contaminated by toxic substances from coal. It has been found that only 5 of the 96 patients with BEN were under dialysis program in 2008. Also out of 34 former miners only 3 had GFR family doctors databases. The GFR was lower in the inhabitants from the endemic villages Bistrita and Hinova than in the investigated inhabitants from the non-endemic town Drobeta Turnu Severin (p = 0.008 and p = 0.0004 respectively). Inhabitants from the endemic village Husnicioara (Pliocene coal mine still functioning) had a higher GFR than inhabitants from Drobeta Turnu Severin and higher than inhabitants from the endemic village Livezile (mine closed 10 years ago): p = 0.0055 and p = 0.001 respectively, but a lower than the investigated inhabitants from the non-endemic town Motru (where a non-Pliocene coal mine is functioning): p relationship between exposure to Pliocene coal and the etiology of BEN.

  14. Usefulness of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry in epidemiological control of etiologic agents of infection

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    Roberto Degl’Innocenti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The use of the MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry in the routine of microbiological diagnostics has revolutionized procedures and response times of bacteriology.The use of this technique aims to epidemiological investigations in a hospital environment and represents a further significant opportunity, quickly feasible and extremely economical. Methods: By means of the MALDI-TOF-MS Vitek2 (MS Vitek2 mass spectrometer, accompanied by the AgnosTec-SARAMIS (bioMérieux, France software, were analyzed the spectra of 149 bacterial isolates (139 Staphylococcus aureus and 10 Staphylococcus epidermidis obtained from cultures of 148 patients (141 inpatients and 7 outpatients. Clinical isolates were stored at a temperature of -20°C.The isolates were then thawed and immediately cultured on agar blood medium. The colonies were subjected to analysis by MS Vitek on the day after sowing. The spectra obtained were analyzed and compared using the software AgnosTec-SARAMIS, which allowed the construction of a dendrogram. Results and conclusions: The evaluation of the data collected suggests that mass spectrometry could be an useful tool in epidemiological surveys. Speed of analysis and low costs make the MS Vitek2 an usable tool by many microbiology laboratories.

  15. Epidemiological and etiological characteristics of hand, foot, and mouth disease in Henan, China, 2008-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xueyong; Wei, Haiyan; Wu, Shuyu; Du, Yanhua; Liu, Licheng; Su, Jia; Xu, Yuling; Wang, Haifeng; Li, Xingle; Wang, Yanxia; Liu, Guohua; Chen, Weijun; Klena, John David; Xu, Bianli

    2015-03-10

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common childhood illness caused by enteroviruses. HFMD outbreaks and reported cases have sharply increased in China since 2008. Epidemiological and clinical data of HFMD cases reported in Henan Province were collected from 2008 to 2013. Clinical specimens were obtained from a subset of these cases. Descriptive epidemiological methods were used to analyze the time, region and population distribution. The VP1 gene from EV71 and CA16 isolates was amplified, and the sequences were analyzed. 400,264 cases of HFMD were reported in this study, including 22,309 severe and 141 fatal cases. Incidence peaked between April and May. Laboratory confirmation was obtained for 27,692 (6.9%) cases; EV71, CA16, and other enteroviruses accounted for 59.5%, 14.1%, 26.4%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that EV71 belonged to the C4a evolution branch of C4 sub-genotype and CA16 belonged to subtype B1a or B1b. The occurrence of HFMD in Henan was closely related to season, age and region distribution. Children under five were the most affected population. The major pathogens causing HFMD and their genotypes have not notably changed in Henan. The data strongly support the importance of EV71 vaccination in a high population density area such as Henan, China.

  16. Epidemiological and Etiological Characteristics of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Henan, China, 2008–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xueyong; Wei, Haiyan; Wu, Shuyu; Du, Yanhua; Liu, Licheng; Su, Jia; Xu, Yuling; Wang, Haifeng; Li, Xingle; Wang, Yanxia; Liu, Guohua; Chen, Weijun; Klena, John David; Xu, Bianli

    2015-01-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common childhood illness caused by enteroviruses. HFMD outbreaks and reported cases have sharply increased in China since 2008. Epidemiological and clinical data of HFMD cases reported in Henan Province were collected from 2008 to 2013. Clinical specimens were obtained from a subset of these cases. Descriptive epidemiological methods were used to analyze the time, region and population distribution. The VP1 gene from EV71 and CA16 isolates was amplified, and the sequences were analyzed. 400,264 cases of HFMD were reported in this study, including 22,309 severe and 141 fatal cases. Incidence peaked between April and May. Laboratory confirmation was obtained for 27,692 (6.9%) cases; EV71, CA16, and other enteroviruses accounted for 59.5%, 14.1%, 26.4%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that EV71 belonged to the C4a evolution branch of C4 sub-genotype and CA16 belonged to subtype B1a or B1b. The occurrence of HFMD in Henan was closely related to season, age and region distribution. Children under five were the most affected population. The major pathogens causing HFMD and their genotypes have not notably changed in Henan. The data strongly support the importance of EV71 vaccination in a high population density area such as Henan, China. PMID:25754970

  17. The Epidemiology of Childhood Asthma in Red Deer and Medicine Hat, Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick A Hessel

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To document the prevalence of asthma among school-aged children in two Alberta communities, to understand host and indoor environmental factors associated with asthma, and to compare these factors between the two communities.

  18. The School Psychologist's Primer on Early Onset Schizophrenia: A Review of Research Regarding Epidemiology, Etiology, Assessment, and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Rafael J. C.; Rime, W. Jeremy; Jimerson, Shane R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide school psychologists and other educational professionals with important information regarding the epidemiology, etiology, assessment, and treatment of early onset schizophrenia (EOS). The central aim herein is to bring science to practice by succinctly highlighting key considerations for school…

  19. [Epidemiologic and etiologic study of acute respiratory infections in children under 5 years of age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Ramos, E; Pizarro Suárez, E; Sapiáin, L A; Lugo de la Fuente, G

    1991-01-01

    This study also included epidemiologic data to determine the risk factors for the enhancement of these infections. The coagglutination technique for the rapid diagnosis of streptococcus was tried. Five hundred and thirty one samples of pharingeal swabs were obtained from children with ARI. 74% were younger than one year old. Brochopneumonias constituted 66.39% of the cases. In total 357 agents were isolated 35% corresponding to bacteria in pure culture, 23.3% to mixed infections and 11.6% only viruses. The bacteria were: Haemphilus influenza (12.4%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (11%), Staphylococcus aureus (9%), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (6.3%), Mycoplasma pneumoniae was identified in 5 children and M. hominis in 3. Adenoviruses were isolated in 98 patients, parainfluenza in 19, respiratory syncytial virus in 4, influenza in 1 and picornavirus in 2. Predominating socioeconomic factors were: overcrowding, deficient schooling and low income of parents which favor malnutrition. The more frequent agents were constitutes by bacteria. Viruses were a less cause of infection. It was confirmed that babies under 12 months are more susceptible to bacterial pneumonia and prompt treatment with antimicrobial agents lowered the lethality. Low socioeconomic level is a possible predisposing factor for respiratory diseases.

  20. The dental occlusion as a suspected cause for TMDs: epidemiological and etiological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türp, J C; Schindler, H

    2012-07-01

    The relationship between the dental occlusion and temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) has been one of the most controversial topics in the dental community. In a large epidemiological cross-sectional survey - the Study of Health in Pomerania (Germany) - associations between 15 occlusion-related variables and TMD signs or symptoms were found. In other investigations, additional occlusal variables were identified. However, statistical associations do not prove causality. By using Hill's nine criteria of causation, it becomes apparent that the evidence of a causal relationship is weak. Only bruxism, loss of posterior support and unilateral posterior crossbite show some consistency across studies. On the other hand, several reported occlusal features appear to be the consequence of TMDs, not their cause. Above all, however, biological plausibility for an occlusal aetiology is often difficult to establish, because TMDs are much more common among women than men. Symptom improvement after insertion of an oral splint or after occlusal adjustment does not prove an occlusal aetiology either, because the amelioration may be due to the change of the appliance-induced intermaxillary relationship. In addition, symptoms often abate even in the absence of therapy. Although patients with a TMD history might have a specific risk for developing TMD signs, it appears more rewarding to focus on non-occlusal features that are known to have a potential for the predisposition, initiation or perpetuation of TMDs. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Epidemiology and etiology of reported cases of child physical abuse in Zimbabwean primary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumba, A

    2001-02-01

    There were two objectives: First, to determine the nature and extent of physical abuse perpetrated on primary school pupils by their teachers; second, to determine why some teachers physically abuse their primary school pupils in Zimbabwe. Epidemiological data of reported physical abuse by teachers in Zimbabwe between January 1990 and December 1997 were analyzed using information in their files. The study found that 78.9% of the perpetrators were male while 21.1% were female; 92.1% of the perpetrators were trained teachers while 7.9% were untrained; 58.7% of the victims were male while 41.3% were female; 91.4% of the cases were reported by the pupils themselves and 8.7% by the school head; 73.9% of these cases were reported to the Ministry of Education and 26.1% to the police. In this study, 80.4% of the victims were beaten, whipped or hit by their perpetrators; 10.9% were clapped or slapped; 4.3% were punched with fists; 2.2% each were kicked and pinched, respectively. The findings indicate that teachers perpetuate various forms of physical abuse and that this form of abuse is now on the increase. The findings indicate that some perpetrators use corporal punishment on female pupils against the stipulated Public Service (Disciplinary) Regulations. What is clear is that the Public Service (Disciplinary) Regulations seem not to be deterrent enough because the majority of the perpetrators are merely fined or reprimanded while only a very small percentage is discharged from the teaching service.

  2. Death due to asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Sheffer, Albert L.

    1996-01-01

    The prevalence and fatality rate of asthma have increased worldwide. Underdiagnosis and undertreatment of asthma are central to the occurrence of fatal asthma. Atopy is the principal risk factor associated with asthma. However, consideration of the epidemiologic, physiologic, pharmacologic, pathologic and clinical parameters of asthma assessment may provide valuable insight into death due to asthma. Psychologic and socioeconomic factors may further aggravate the asthma status. Ethnic minoriti...

  3. An epidemiology study of bronchial asthma in the Li ethnic group in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi-Peng; Yao, Hong-Xia; Tang, Xiao-Lan; He, Hai-Wu; Shi, Hui-Fang; Lin, Li; Li, Min; Chen, Shan; Chen, Jing; Wang, Hai-Jiao

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of bronchial asthma in the Li ethnic group in Hainan, China. This study employed a stratified random sample design using custom-designed questionnaires. Subjects with asthma-like symptoms were first identified by two rounds of surveys and then confirmed by respiratory physicians using pulmonary function test, bronchial dilation test and challenge test. Demographic data, information on family history of asthma, history of allergies, smoking habits, domestic cooking fuel and other potential risk factors were collected. Logistic regression was performed to evaluate risk factors for asthma. The prevalence of asthma in the Li ethnic group was 3.38%, much higher than the national average level in China. Aging, agriculture industry (the rubber industry in particular), rural residence, family history of asthma, history of allergies, cold air, inhalation of dust and irritant gases, smoking, domestic cooking fuel and living environment were associated with increased risk of asthma. The high prevalence of asthma in the Li ethnic group highlights the importance of asthma prevention and treatment in this population. Risk factors indentified in this study warrant special attention. Elevating public awareness about asthma in local communities will benefit the prevention of the disease. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Epidemiology, etiology and outcomes of burn patients in a Referral Burn Hospital, Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Burns and its complications are regarded as a major problem in the society. Skin injuries resulted from ultraviolet radiation, radioactivity, electricity or chemicals as well as respiratory damage from smoke inhalation are considered burns. This study aimed to determine the epidemiology and outcome of burn patients admitted to Motahari Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Methods: Two hundred patients with second-degree burns admitted to Motahari Referral Center of Burn in Tehran, Iran. They were studied during a period of 12 months from May 2012 to May 2013. During the first week of treatment swabs were collected from the burn wounds after cleaning the site with sterile normal saline. Samples were inoculated in blood agar and McConkey agar, then incubation at 37 C for 48 hours. Identification was carried out according to standard conventional biochemical tests. Treatment continued up to epithelial formation and wound healing. Results of microbial culture for each patient was recorded. Healing time of the burn wounds in patients was recorded in log books. Chi-square test and SPSS Software v.19 (IBM, NY, USA were used for data analysis. Results: Our findings indicate that the most causes of burns are hot liquids in 57% of cases and flammable liquid in 21% of cases. The most cases of burns were found to be in the range of 21 to 30 percent with 17.5% and 7% in male and female respectively. Gram-negative bacteria were dominated in 85.7% and among them pseudomonas spp. with 37.5% were the most common cause of infected burns, followed by Enterobacter, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter and Klebsiella spp. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the most cause of burns in both sex is hot liquid. Men were more expose to burn than women and this might be due to the fact that men are involved in more dangerous jobs than female. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most common organism encountered in burn infection.

  5. [Etiology and molecular-epidemiological characteristics of viral meningoencephalitis of Zhejiang province in 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Juying; Miao, Ziping; Lyu, Huakun; Zhou, Jiayue; Gong, Liming; Mao, Haiyan; Sun, Yi; Zhang, Yanjun

    2015-03-01

    To investigate pathogens and molecular-epidemiology characteristics of viral meningoencephalitis in the monitoring sites of Zhejiang province, 2013. Cerebrospinal fluid and/or stool specimens were collected from suspected patients admitted to the monitoring hospitals in southern and northern Zhejiang province. Such specimen were subject to real-time qPCR for the detection of Human enterovirus (HEV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), Mumps virus (MuV), Herpes simplex virus (HSV) and Cytomegalovirus (CMV). HEVs were isolated using the RD and Hep-2 cell lines, while VP1 genes from all HEV-positive isolates or RNA-positive specimen were amplified, sequenced, for homology and evolution analysis. 92 (38.5%) of the 239 samples collected from 229 patients were detected as virus nucleic acid positive, including 87 HEV positive samples, 1 MuV positive, 2 HSV positive, and 2 CMV positive; of the 87 HEV positive samples, 38 were further determined to be Coxsackievirus (CV) and 49 as Echovirus (E). 56 HEV strains were isolated from 239 (23.4%) samples. From the 31 cerebral fluid specimen of nucleic acid positive yet virus isolation negative, the most specimen were identified with E9 (9 specimen), followed by CVA9 (8 specimen); the viral serotype of Zhejiang province HEV were CVA9, CVB4, CVB5, E6, E7, E9, E11, E14, E16, E25 and E30, respectively. Predominant epidemic strains identified at southern and northern Zhejiang province were CVB5 and E6 respectively. The phylogenetic analysis of VP1 gene showed that all the HEV isolates in Zhejiang province were HEV-B. The HEV-B was the main pathogen for viral meningoencephalitis in Zhejiang province in 2013, including 11 serotypes, while E7 was the first time to be isolated in Zhejiang province. The predominant isolates were CVB5 and E6 in southern and northern Zhejiang province respectively. The positive rate of viral nucleic acid detection was significantly higher than that of viral isolation. Regular EV isolation method was exposed

  6. IS IT USEFUL TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN ASTHMA AND CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY-DISEASE IN RESPIRATORY EPIDEMIOLOGY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    RIJCKEN, B; SCHOUTEN, JP; ROSNER, B; WEISS, ST

    Disagreement exists on how to define asthma in population studies. Features characteristic of asthma also have been demonstrated in nonasthmatic subjects. For example, although in a random sample of 339 subjects investigated in the Netherlands, subjects with a history of asthmatic attacks, wheeze

  7. Death due to asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert L. Sheffer

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and fatality rate of asthma have increased worldwide. Underdiagnosis and undertreatment of asthma are central to the occurrence of fatal asthma. Atopy is the principal risk factor associated with asthma. However, consideration of the epidemiologic, physiologic, pharmacologic, pathologic and clinical parameters of asthma assessment may provide valuable insight into death due to asthma. Psychologic and socioeconomic factors may further aggravate the asthma status. Ethnic minorities are at increased risk of asthma. The perception of dyspnea may be blunted in asthma sufferers. Slow-onset fatal asthma may be associated with submucosal eosinophilic, whereas sudden-onset may be associated with submucosal neutrophilia. Fatal asthma occurs in patients abusing regular |32-agonist therapy. Peak flow assessment often provides insight into asthma deterioration prior to signs of respiratory distress. Markers of risk of death due to asthma further identify the fatality-prone asthma patient.

  8. Etiology, antimicrobial susceptibility profile and epidemiological aspects in canine otitis: a retrospective study of 616 casesEtiologia, perfil de sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos e aspectos epidemiológicos na otite canina: estudo retrospectivo de 616 casos

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Verônica Baldim de Oliveira; Márcio Garcia Ribeiro; Ariani Cristina da Silva Almeida; Antônio Carlos Paes; Larissa Anuska Zeni Condas; Gustavo Henrique Batista Lara; Marília Masello Junqueira Franco; Marta Catarina Fernandes; Fernando José Paganini Listoni

    2012-01-01

    A retrospective study of etiology, antimicrobial susceptibility profile and multiple drug resistance, and major epidemiological aspects were investigated in 616 cases of canine otitis. Staphylococcus ? hemolitic (26.27...

  9. The molecular epidemiology of respiratory viruses associated with asthma attacks: A single-center observational study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraya, Takeshi; Kimura, Hirokazu; Kurai, Daisuke; Ishii, Haruyuki; Takizawa, Hajime

    2017-10-01

    Few reports have described the significance of viral respiratory infections (VRIs) in exacerbation of asthma in adult patients. The aim of this study was to elucidate the profiles of VRIs in adult patients with asthma along with their molecular epidemiology.A cross-sectional observational study was conducted at Kyorin University Hospital from August 2012 to May 2015. To identify respiratory pathogens in inpatients and outpatients suffering from asthma attacks, RT-PCR/sequencing/phylogenetic analysis methods were applied alongside conventional microbiological methods. Phylogenetic and pairwise distance analyses of 10 viruses were performed.A total of 106 asthma attack patients enrolled in this study in both inpatient (n = 49) and outpatient (n = 57) settings. The total 106 respiratory samples were obtained from nasopharyngeal swab (n = 68) or sputum (n = 38). Among these, patients with virus alone (n = 39), virus and bacterial (n = 5), and bacterial alone (n = 5) were identified. The ratio of virus-positive patients in inpatient or outpatient to the total cases were 31.1% (n = 33) and 10.4% (n = 11), respectively. The frequency of virus-positive patients was significantly higher in inpatients (75.3%, n = 33) than in outpatients (19.3%, n = 11). Major VRIs included human rhinovirus (HRV) (n = 24), human metapneumovirus (hMPV) (n = 9), influenza virus (Inf-V) (n = 8), and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (n = 3) infections with seasonal variations. HRV-A and HRV-C were the most commonly detected viruses, with wide genetic divergence on phylogenetic analysis.Asthmatic exacerbations in adults are highly associated with VRIs such as HRV-A or HRV-C, hMPV, RSV, and Inf-V infections with seasonal variations and genetic divergence, but similar frequencies of VRIs occurred in asthma attack patients throughout the seasons.

  10. Epidemiology of chronic kidney disease, with special emphasis on chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology, in the north central region of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasekara, Kithsiri Bandara; Dissanayake, Dhammika Menike; Sivakanesan, Ramiah; Ranasinghe, Asanga; Karunarathna, Ranawaka Hewage; Priyantha Kumara, Gardiye Waligamage Gamini

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the epidemiology of chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology in Sri Lanka. A cross-sectional study was carried out by analyzing health statistics, and three cohort studies were conducted (n = 15 630, 3996, and 2809) to analyze the demographic information, age-specific prevalence, etiology, and stage of presentation. We screened 7604 individuals for chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology. The results showed that the male:female ratio was 2.4:1, the mean age of patients was 54.7 ± 8 years, 92% of the patients were farmers, and 93% consumed water from shallow dug wells. Familial occurrence was common (36%). The prevalence of chronic kidney disease in different age groups was 3% in those aged 30-40 years; 7% in those aged 41-50 years, 20% in those aged 51-60 years, and 29% in those older than 60 years. Chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology was diagnosed in 70.2% of patients, while 15.7% and 9.6% were due to hypertension and diabetic mellitus, respectively. The majority of patients were stage 4 (40%) at first presentation, while 31.8% were stage 3 and 24.5% were stage 5. Stage 1 and 2 presentation accounted for only 3.4%. Low prevalence of CKDU was noticed (1.5%) among those who consumed water from natural springs. Prevalence was highest among males, rice farming communities, and those presenting at later disease stages.

  11. Epidemiologic study of neural tube defects in Los Angeles County. II. Etiologic factors in an area with low prevalence at birth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sever, L.E.

    1982-01-01

    Epidemiologic characteristics of neural tube defect (NTD) births occurring in Los Angeles County, California, residents during the period 1966-1972 are presented. The prevalence at birth was 0.52/1000 births for anencephalus, 0.51/1000 for spina bifida, and 0.08/1000 for encephalocele, rates considered to be low for a predominantly white population. We hypothesized that environmental (nongenetic) factors are of less etiologic importance in a low-prevalence population than in areas or time periods with high prevalence. We tested that hypothesis by examining epidemiologic characteristics of NTDs in Los Angeles County and comparing them with high-prevalence populations. The data did not support a major etiologic role for environmental factors: (1) no significant differences between rates by month of birth or conception; (2) no significant association with maternal age or parity for anencephalus; for spina bifida a significant maternal age effect (P < 0.01) and for encephalocele a parity effect (P < 0.02); and (3) no significant relationship with father's occupational class for either anencephalus or encephalocele but a marginally significant (P < 0.05) inverse association for spina bifida when a statistic based on ordinal relationships was used. Findings supporting the importance of genetic factors in etiology included: (1) a high percentage of males; (2) a higher twin concordance rate than in high-prevalence populations; and (3) an anencephalus rate among blacks comparable with rates for blacks in other United States populations. Our findings in conjunction with those from other areas and times of low prevalence suggest environmental factors play a relatively insignificant role in the etiology of NTDs in such populations.

  12. Etiological relationships in atopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Simon Francis; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Backer, Vibeke

    2008-01-01

    respiratory allergic symptoms, that is, asthma and hay fever, to be between .47 and .95. Furthermore, atopic traits share a portion of their genetic determinants with other complex disorders like obesity and behavioral traits. A correlation of about .3 and .34 has been reported between genes associated...... with asthma and obesity, and between genes associated with asthma and depression, respectively. We emphasize that multivariate methods applied to twin studies, especially when genetic marker information is available, provide a valuable framework within which complex etiological mechanisms underlying atopy can...

  13. Pityriasis rosea, Gianotti-Crosti syndrome, asymmetric periflexural exanthem, papular-purpuric gloves and socks syndrome, eruptive pseudoangiomatosis, and eruptive hypomelanosis: do their epidemiological data substantiate infectious etiologies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Chuh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Many clinical and laboratory-based studies have been reported for skin rashes which may be due to viral infections, namely pityriasis rosea (PR, Gianotti-Crosti syndrome (GCS, asymmetric periflexural exanthem/unilateral laterothoracic exanthem (APE/ULE, papularpurpuric gloves and socks syndrome (PPGSS, and eruptive pseudo-angiomatosis (EP. Eruptive hypomelanosis (EH is a newly discovered paraviral rash. Novel tools are now available to investigate the epidemiology of these rashes. To retrieve epidemiological data of these exanthema and analyze whether such substantiates or refutes infectious etiologies. We searched for articles published over the last 60 years and indexed by PubMed database. We then analyzed them for universality, demography, concurrent patients, temporal and spatial-temporal clustering, mini-epidemics, epidemics, and other clinical and geographical associations. Based on our criteria, we selected 55, 60, 29, 36, 20, and 4 articles for PR, GCS, APE/ULE, PPGSS, EP, and EH respectively. Universality or multiple-continental reports are found for all exanthema except EH. The ages of patients are compatible with infectious causes for PR, GCS, APE/ULE, and EH. Concurrent patients are reported for all. Significant patient clustering is demonstrated for PR and GCS. Mini-epidemics and epidemics have been reported for GCS, EP, and EH. The current epidemiological data supports, to a moderate extent, that PR, GCS, and APE could be caused by infectious agents. Support for PPGSS is marginal. Epidemiological evidences for infectious origins for EP and EH are inadequate. There might be growing epidemiological evidence to substantiate or to refute our findings in the future.

  14. Pityriasis Rosea, Gianotti-Crosti Syndrome, Asymmetric Periflexural Exanthem, Papular-Purpuric Gloves and Socks Syndrome, Eruptive Pseudoangiomatosis, and Eruptive Hypomelanosis: Do Their Epidemiological Data Substantiate Infectious Etiologies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawar, Vijay; Sciallis, Gabriel F.; Kempf, Werner; Lee, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Many clinical and laboratory-based studies have been reported for skin rashes which may be due to viral infections, namely pityriasis rosea (PR), Gianotti-Crosti syndrome (GCS), asymmetric periflexural exanthem/unilateral laterothoracic exanthem (APE/ULE), papular-purpuric gloves and socks syndrome (PPGSS), and eruptive pseudo-angiomatosis (EP). Eruptive hypomelanosis (EH) is a newly discovered paraviral rash. Novel tools are now available to investigate the epidemiology of these rashes. To retrieve epidemiological data of these exanthema and analyze whether such substantiates or refutes infectious etiologies. We searched for articles published over the last 60 years and indexed by PubMed database. We then analyzed them for universality, demography, concurrent patients, temporal and spatial-temporal clustering, mini-epidemics, epidemics, and other clinical and geographical associations. Based on our criteria, we selected 55, 60, 29, 36, 20, and 4 articles for PR, GCS, APE/ULE, PPGSS, EP, and EH respectively. Universality or multiple-continental reports are found for all exanthema except EH. The ages of patients are compatible with infectious causes for PR, GCS, APE/ULE, and EH. Concurrent patients are reported for all. Significant patient clustering is demonstrated for PR and GCS. Mini-epidemics and epidemics have been reported for GCS, EP, and EH. The current epidemiological data supports, to a moderate extent, that PR, GCS, and APE could be caused by infectious agents. Support for PPGSS is marginal. Epidemiological evidences for infectious origins for EP and EH are inadequate. There might be growing epidemiological evidence to substantiate or to refute our findings in the future. PMID:27103975

  15. Obesity and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Zarqa; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological data has established increasing adiposity as a risk factor for incident asthma. However, the mechanisms underlying the association between obesity and asthma are incompletely understood. In the present paper, we review current knowledge of possible mechanisms mediating the observed...... association between obesity and asthma....

  16. [Oral erythroplakia and erythroleukoplakia: red and red-white dysplastic lesions of the oral mucosa--part 1: epidemiology, etiology, histopathology and differential diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Valérie G A; Morger, Reto; Altermatt, Hans Jörg; Spieler, Peter; Bornstein, Michael M

    2008-01-01

    Oral erythroplakia (OE) and oral erythroleukoplakia (OEL; synonym: speckled leukoplakia) are working diagnoses for red and red-white lesions of the oral mucosa after exclusion of all other possible diagnoses for lesions with a similar clinical appearance. A good knowledge of oral medicine and possible differential diagnoses of oral mucosal pathologies is mandatory to correctly detect OE and OEL on this exclusion basis. In the present review article in a series of two, epidemiologic data, etiologic factors, possible differential diagnoses, and the histopathologic characteristics of OE and OEL will be presented and discussed regarding the current literature. A thorough histopathologic examination of these epithelial precursor lesions is mandatory to recognise the presence and the severity of epithelial dysplasia, which is a decisive factor for the subsequent treatment planning.

  17. Epidemiology, etiology, and motivation of alcohol misuse among Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders of the Northern Territory: a descriptive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamoorthi, Ramya; Jayaraj, Rama; Notaras, Leonard; Thomas, Mahiban

    2015-01-01

    The per capita alcohol consumption of the Northern Territory, Australia, is second highest in the world, estimated 15.1 liters of pure alcohol per year. Alcohol abuse is a major public health concern among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia. The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in the Northern Territory consume approximately 16.9 liters of pure alcohol per year. This descriptive review is based on current published and grey literature in the context of high risk alcohol use, with a special focus on the epidemiological, etiological, and social factors, to predict alcohol misuse among the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in Northern Territory. The methodology involved a descriptive search on PubMed, Northern Territory government reports, health databases, and Web sites with an emphasis on the etiology and epidemiology of high-risk alcohol consumption among the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders of the Northern Territory. This review has its own limitations because it does not rely on systematic review methodologies. However, it presents real data on the motives for binge drinking and alcohol-related violent assaults of this vulnerable population. Alcohol abuse and alcohol-related harms are considerably high among the rural and remote communities where additional research is needed. High-risk alcohol misuse within Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders communities often leads to a series of physical and social consequences. This review highlights the need for culturally appropriate intervention approaches focusing on alcohol misuse among the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders population of the Northern Territory.

  18. Viral etiologies and epidemiology of patients with acute respiratory infections based on sentinel hospitals in Gansu Province, Northwest China, 2011-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuechao; Li, Juansheng; Meng, Lei; Zhu, Wanqi; Liu, Xinfeng; Yang, Mei; Yu, Deshan; Niu, Lixia; Shen, Xiping

    2018-02-01

    Understanding etiological role and epidemiological profile is needed to improve clinical management and prevention of acute respiratory infections (ARIs). A 5-year prospective study about active surveillance for outpatients and inpatients with ARIs was conducted in Gansu province, China, from January 2011 to November 2015. Respiratory specimens were collected from patients and tested for eight respiratory viruses using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In this study, 2768 eligible patients with median age of 43 years were enrolled including pneumonia (1368, 49.2%), bronchitis (435, 15.7%), upper respiratory tract infection or URTI (250, 9.0%), and unclassified ARI (715, 25.8%). Overall, 29.2% (808/2768) were positive for any one of eight viruses, of whom 130 cases were identified with two or more viruses. Human rhinovirus (HRV) showed the highest detection rate (8.6%), followed by influenza virus (Flu, 7.3%), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, 6.1%), human coronavirus (hCoV, 4.3%), human parainfluenza (PIV, 4.0%), adenovirus (ADV, 2.1%), human metapneumovirus (hMPV, 1.6%), and human bocavirus (hBoV, 0.7%). Compared with URTI, RSV was more likely identified in pneumonia (χ 2  = 12.720, P infections. These findings could serve as a reference for local health authorities in drawing up further plans to prevent and control ARIs associated with viral etiologies. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Epidemiological and etiological investigation of dengue fever in the Fujian province of China during 2004-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinzhang; Chen, Hongbing; Huang, Meng; Zhang, Yongjun; Xie, Jianfeng; Yan, Yansheng; Zheng, Kuicheng; Weng, Yuwei

    2017-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is a vector-borne disease and a tremendous socioeconomic burden on tropical and subtropical countries worldwide. To explore the characteristics of DF epidemic in the Fujian province, information of DF cases in Fujian during 2004-2014 was collected and analyzed. The complete E genes of 48 viral isolates were amplified and sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. A total of 733 cases was reported, of which 612 (83.5%) occurred during the peak period from August to October. Additionally, 76% (190/250) of imported cases originated from Southeast Asia countries, by the epidemiological investigation. Phylogenetic analysis of the 48 viral isolates revealed that three genotypes (I, IV, V) of DENV1, and one genotype each of DENV2 (cosmopolitan) and DENV3 (I) circulated in Fujian during 2004-2014. Similar to the results of the epidemiological investigations, the source of most of the viral isolates, including imported and indigenous cases, may be Southeast Asia countries; however, importation from adjacent provinces was also observed in recent years. Overall, DF is considered an imported epidemic disease in Fujian. Increasing diversity of the viral source and geographic expansion of the area affected by DF in recent years highlights the necessity for strengthening surveillance of the DF epidemic and developing strategies for DF prevention and control in Fujian.

  20. The mTOR Pathway and the Role of Energy Balance Throughout Life in Colorectal Cancer Etiology and Prognosis: Unravelling Mechanisms Through a Multidimensional Molecular Epidemiologic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijenberg, Matty P; Hughes, Laura A E; Bours, Martijn J L; Simons, Colinda C J M; van Engeland, Manon; van den Brandt, Piet A

    2013-03-01

    Timing of exposure to lifestyle factors that influence energy balance may differentially affect colorectal cancer (CRC) risk and prognosis. Caloric restriction in youth and short stature, as markers of early-life exposures, have shown to decrease CRC risk, whereas large body size and low physical activity levels in adulthood are established risk factors for CRC. Regarding prognosis, overweight, sarcopenia, and their co-occurrence (sarcopenic obesity) may negatively influence the health and quality of life of CRC survivors. There is mechanistic support for disruption of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway as an underlying mechanism possibly driving these associations, because mTOR integrates signals from growth factors, nutrients, mutagens, and hormones to induce cell proliferation, resistance to apoptosis, and autophagy. However, epidemiologic evidence connecting mTOR to energy-balance-related CRC throughout the lifespan is scarce. This perspective proposes how multidimensional molecular epidemiologic studies can shed light on the etiology and prognosis of energy-balance-related CRC.

  1. Prevalence of bronchial asthma and respiratory symptoms in a group of students from grodno. An example of standardized epidemiological survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Ahiyevets

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to an insufficient knowledge of the real asthma prevalence rate among children and adults in Belarus, we conducted a population-based respiratory health survey. Aim of the study: The study aimed at estimating the prevalence rate of asthma and major respiratory symptoms among students of the Grodno Region (Western Belarus. Material and methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 and included 833 students aged 20-40 (young adults. Physician-diagnosed respiratory diseases and symptoms were ascertained using electronic version of the ISAAC questionnaire (web LimeSurvey. Results: The prevalence of asthma was 2.88% (physician-diagnosed. The obstructive (asthmatic bronchitis (without established diagnosis of asthma was found in 5.04% of the respondents. A chronic respiratory symptom occurring in the past 12 months and suggestive of asthma included attacks of dyspnea at rest, cough (5.88% or in previous periods (8.88%, and wheezing in the chest (one of the most characteristic symptoms of asthma - 8.04%, which may indicate a higher prevalence of asthma among patients. Wheezing and wheeze without diagnosed asthma, colds or infections were reported in a small number of cases (about 1.0%. 32 respondents (3.84% can be attributed to the group of risk for asthma due to the presence of specific respiratory symptoms. Conclusions: The findings show a low prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma among students of Western Belarus. Relatively low prevalence of allergic disorders among respondents of Belarus suggest underdiagnosis of allergic diseases, in particular of asthma. Presumably, cases of asthma might be diagnosed as spastic bronchitis, “obstructive bronchitis”, “asthmatic bronchitis”, a traditional label for clinical manifestation of asthma in medical practice in the region.

  2. Contemporary issues epidemiology of acute intestinal infections of viral etiology in the north-eastern region of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Malysh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective epidemiological analysis of the incidence of acute intestinal infections in 2008–2012 in Sumy region. Indicators of the incidence ranged from 172,8 to 181,7 per 100 thousand of the population. Absolute growth of acute diarrheal infections was +5,2%. In 29,8% of the samples retrieved from the feces of children and 7.5% of adults with acute intestinal infections, viruses isolated. In the structure of the viral landscape dominated by rota-, adeno- and noroviruses. The results of studies on detection of virus in samples of faeces methods of analysis immunoassay, enzyme immunoassay analysis and polymerase chain reaction were not significantly different (p >0,05.

  3. The highly leukotoxic JP2 clone of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: evolutionary aspects, epidemiology and etiological role in aggressive periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haubek, Dorte

    2010-09-01

    For many years, attention has been given to the oral bacterium Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, as a species possibly implicated in the etiology of aggressive periodontitis in adolescents. One of the major virulence factors of A. actinomycetemcomitans is the leukotoxin which is able to kill important cells of the immune system. As demonstrated in population genetic analyses, the population structure of A. actinomycetemcomitans is mainly clonal with evolutionary lineages corresponding to the serotypes. A particular highly leukotoxic clone (JP2) of serotype b has been discovered. The JP2 clone, with an estimated origin some 2400 years ago, is found to be highly conserved, based on analyses of a collection of JP2 clone strains collected through more than 20 years from individuals of diverse origin and living geographically widespread. Despite demonstration of minor evolutionary changes within the genome of JP2 clone strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans, the JP2 clone strains constitute a unique clonal type, the characteristics of which include a 530 basepair deletion in the leukotoxin operon implicated in the enhanced leukotoxic activity of the clone. Mapping of the geographic occurrence of the JP2 clone of A. actinomycetemcomitans has revealed that its colonization is largely restricted to individuals of African descent. Characteristic mutations, which allow JP2 clone isolates from the Mediterranean region to be distinguished from isolates from West Africa, including the Cape Verde islands, suggest that the JP2 clone initially emerged as a distinct genotype in the Mediterranean region of Africa and subsequently spread to West Africa, from where it might have been transferred to the American continent during the transatlantic slave trade. The finding of a sustained selective colonization of individuals of African descent, despite geographical separation from the African continent for centuries, suggests that the JP2 clone might have a distinct host tropism

  4. Childhood asthma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    atopy, night cough, exercise-induced cough and/or wheeze and seasonal variation in symptoms. Epidemiology. Asthma is on the increase in both the developed and developing countries of the world. In South Africa, its prevalence in children in Cape Town (measured by exercise challenge) was only three per cent in 1979.

  5. The acetabular fossa hot spot on {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT: epidemiology, natural history, and proposed etiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubicki, Shelby L. [Trinity University, San Antonio, TX (United States); Richardson, Michael L. [University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Martin, Thomas [X-Ray Associates of New Mexico, Department of Radiology, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rohren, Eric [The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Wei, Wei [The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Biostatistics, Houston, TX (United States); Amini, Behrang [The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Division of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-01-15

    To describe a benign focus of increased activity in the acetabular fossa (the acetabular fossa hot spot, AFHS) on {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT that can mimic a neoplasm. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT images from four patient populations were examined. Group 1 (n = 13) was collected from a search of radiology reports and used to define the AFHS and for hypothesis generation. Group 2 (n = 1,150) was used for prevalence of AFHS. Group 3 (n = 1,213) had PET/CT and MRI pelvis within a week of each other and was used to correlate metabolic and anatomic findings. Group 4 (n = 100) was used to generate the control group. Data were collected on demographics, common comorbidities, underlying cancer diagnosis and status, and hip symptoms. Prevalence of AFHS was 0.36 % (95 % CI 0.10-0.91 %). None progressed to malignancy or was associated with cancer status. The majority (71 %) were on the left, and 6 % were bilateral. Mean SUV{sub max} of the AFHS was 4.8 (range, 2.7-7.8). Male patients were more likely to have the AFHS (OR = 8.69, 95 % CI 1.88-40.13). There was no difference with respect to other collected data, including hip symptoms. Average minimum duration of AFHS was 346 days (range, 50-1,010 days). Readers did not detect corresponding hip abnormalities on MRIs. AFHS is a benign finding that may be caused by subclinical ligamentum teres injury, focal synovitis, or degeneration of acetabular fossa fat. Despite uncertainty regarding its etiology, recognition of AFHS as a benign finding can prevent morbidity associated with unnecessary biopsy or initiation of therapy. (orig.)

  6. Etiology and epidemiological analysis of glaucoma-filtering bleb infections in a tertiary eye care hospital in south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Ramakrishnan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To evaluate the microbial etiology and associated risk factors among patients with blebitis following trabeculectomy. Materials and Methods : A retrospective analysis of all culture-proven blebitis was performed in patients who underwent trabeculectomy between January 2004 and December 2008. A standardized form was filled out for each patient, documenting sociodemographic features and information pertaining to risk factors. Swabbing of the infected bleb surface was performed for all suspected cases and further subjected to microbiological analysis. Results : A total of 23 patients with culture-proven blebitis were treated during the study period, with a mean age of 59.2 years (59.2 ± SD: 12.8; range, 30-81 years. Duration of onset was early (≤36 months in six (26% cases and late (> 36 months in 17 (74% cases with a range between 15 and 144 months (mean, 82.91 months; SD: 41.89. All 23 blebs were located superiorly and of which, 21 (91% were microcystic avascular, 1 (4% diffuse avascular, and 1 (4% vascular flattened. The predominant risk factor identified was bleb leak (35%; 8 of 23 followed by thin bleb (22%; 5 of 23 and blepharitis (17%; 4 of 23. Bleb leaks (100% were recorded only in patients with late onset (≥ 9 years of infection (P< 0.001, while the incidence of ocular surface disease (100% occurred early (≤3 years (P< 0.001. Use of topical steroids was associated frequently with cases of thin blebs (80%; 4 of 5 (P< 0.001, while topical antibiotics showed bleb leaks (88%; 7 of 8 (P< 0.001. Coagulase-positive staphylococci were frequently recovered from blebitis with thin blebs (71%; 5 of 7 (P = 0.001, Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS with bleb leak (100%; 8 of 8 (P< 0.001, Corynebacterium with blepharitis (100%; 3 of 3 (P = 0.001, and Streptococci with releasable sutures (75%; 3 of 4 (P = 0.001. Conclusion : Bleb leak is the principal risk factor responsible for late-onset blebitis, while early-onset blebitis could

  7. Obesity and asthma: a coincidence or a causal relationship? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Zarqa; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2013-09-01

    Epidemiological data has established increasing adiposity as a risk factor for incident asthma. However, the mechanisms underlying the association between obesity and asthma are incompletely understood. In the present paper, we review current knowledge of possible mechanisms mediating the observed association between obesity and asthma. Systematic literature review. Obesity and asthma share some etiological factors, such as a common genetic predisposition and effects of in utero conditions, and may also have common predisposing factors such as physical activity and diet. Obesity results in important changes in the mechanical properties of the respiratory system which could explain the occurrence of asthma. However, there are also plausible biological mechanisms whereby obesity could be expected to either cause or worsen asthma. These include co-morbidities such as gastro-oesophageal reflux, complications from sleep-disordered breathing, breathing at low lung volumes, chronic systemic inflammation, and endocrine factors, including adipokines and reproductive hormones. Obesity related asthma is in general not associated with eosinophilic airway inflammation, and adipokines are likely to play important roles in the inflammatory pathogenesis of asthma in obese individuals. The association between obesity and asthma is not straightforward, and further knowledge is clearly needed, as understanding the underlying mechanisms may lead to new therapeutic options for this high-risk part of the asthma population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Five-year epidemiological survey of valvular heart disease: changes in morbidity, etiological spectrum and management in a cardiovascular center of Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang-Zhou; Xue, Yu-Mei; Liao, Hong-Tao; Zhan, Xian-Zhang; Guo, Hui-Ming; Huang, Huan-Lei; Fang, Xian-Hong; Wei, Wei; Rao, Fang; Deng, Hai; Liu, Yang; Lin, Wei-Dong; Wu, Shu-Lin

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the present study is to analyze the epidemiological profile of patients with abnormal valvular structure and function and highlight the etiological spectrum and management of valvular heart disease (VHD) in a single cardiovascular center of Southern China in five years. The retrospective study included 19,428 consecutive patients (9,441 men and 9,987 women with a mean age of 52.03±20.50 years) with abnormal valvular structure and function who were screened by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) or transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) at the in-patient department of Guangdong General Hospital from January 2009 to December 2013. Data on baseline characteristics, potential etiology, treatment strategies and discharge outcomes were collected from electronic medical records. There were 13,549 (69.7%) patients with relatively definite etiology for VHD. VHD was rheumatic in 7,197 (37.0%) patients, congenital in 2,697 (13.9%), degenerative in 2,241 (11.5%), ischemic in 2,460 (12.7%). The prevalence decreased significantly in rheumatic VHD from 2009 to 2013 (from 42.8% to 32.8%, P<0.001), but increased markedly in congenital VHD (from 9.0% to 12.3%, P<0.001), ischemic VHD (from 9.2% to 11.3%, P=0.003) and degenerative VHD (from 8.8% to 14.5%, P<0.001). Meantime, the prevalence of ischemic VHD increased after the age of 45, similar to that of degenerative VHD. From 2009 to 2013, the proportion of patients with VHD undergoing open cardiac valvular surgery decreased (from 49.5% to 44.3%, P<0.001) and that of patients treated with general medication increased (from 49.2% to 54.1%, P<0.001). However, there was markedly increment in video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) from 2009 to 2013 (from 0.3% to 4.4%, P<0.001). Increasing tendencies were showed in aortic mechanical valve replacement (from 32.1% to 34.5%, P=0.001) and double mechanical valve replacement (from 20.9% to 22.3%, P=0.035), especially in mitral valvuloplasty (from 8.5% to 15.7%, P<0

  9. Epidemiological study of myiases in the Hospital do Andaraí, Rio de Janeiro, including reference to an exotic etiological agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, A C P; de Almeida, V R G; de Jesus, D M; Rotatori, G N; Nunes, R; Proença, B; Aguiar-Coelho, V M; Lessa, C S S

    2011-01-01

    Myiases are infestations with dipteran larvae in both necrosed and living tissues, the food source of these insects. These illnesses occur in warm humid climates, and are most frequent in developing countries. We assessed the epidemiological aspects and the influence of climate on the occurrence of myiases and the bioagents in patients admitted to the federal Hospital do Andaraí in Rio de Janeiro from February 2007 to 2008. The influence of abiotic factors (temperature, humidity, and rainfall) on the incidence of myiases was investigated by using the Pearson's correlation test. Of the 40 patients studied, the prevalence of myiases was higher in adults, particularly in the 40 to 65 year-old (37.5%) African descent males (57.5%). Most of the injuries were caused by trauma (62.5%). Some patients made use of licit (50%) and illicit drugs (17.2%). The occurrence of myiases was not affected by the abiotic factors investigated. The cases reported here were treated in only one hospital, indicating that the disease is relatively common. The most frequent bioagent was Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), but Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius), Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) and Dermatobia hominis (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) were also detected causing myiases. Chrysomya albiceps is an exotic etiologic agent of myiases.

  10. Allergy in severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giacco, S R; Bakirtas, A; Bel, E; Custovic, A; Diamant, Z; Hamelmann, E; Heffler, E; Kalayci, Ö; Saglani, S; Sergejeva, S; Seys, S; Simpson, A; Bjermer, L

    2017-02-01

    It is well recognized that atopic sensitization is an important risk factor for asthma, both in adults and in children. However, the role of allergy in severe asthma is still under debate. The term 'Severe Asthma' encompasses a highly heterogeneous group of patients who require treatment on steps 4-5 of GINA guidelines to prevent their asthma from becoming 'uncontrolled', or whose disease remains 'uncontrolled' despite this therapy. Epidemiological studies on emergency room visits and hospital admissions for asthma suggest the important role of allergy in asthma exacerbations. In addition, allergic asthma in childhood is often associated with severe asthma in adulthood. A strong association exists between asthma exacerbations and respiratory viral infections, and interaction between viruses and allergy further increases the risk of asthma exacerbations. Furthermore, fungal allergy has been shown to play an important role in severe asthma. Other contributing factors include smoking, pollution and work-related exposures. The 'Allergy and Asthma Severity' EAACI Task Force examined the current evidence and produced this position document on the role of allergy in severe asthma. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The Prevalence and Endemic Nature of Dengue Infections in Guangdong, South China: An Epidemiological, Serological, and Etiological Study from 2005–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ru-ning; Lin, Jin-yan; Li, Lin-hui; Ke, Chang-wen; He, Jian-feng; Zhong, Hao-jie; Zhou, Hui-qiong; Peng, Zhi-qiang; Yang, Fen; Liang, Wen-jia

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Frequent outbreaks of dengue are considered to be associated with an increased risk for endemicity of the disease. The occurrence of a large number of indigenous dengue cases in consecutive years indicates the possibility of a changing dengue epidemic pattern in Guangdong, China. Methods To have a clear understanding of the current dengue epidemic, a retrospective study of epidemiological profile, serological response, and virological features of dengue infections from 2005–2011 was conducted. Case data were collected from the National Notifiable Infectious Diseases Reporting Network. Serum samples were collected and prepared for serological verification and etiological confirmation. Incidence, temporal and spatial distribution, and the clinical manifestation of dengue infections were analyzed. Pearson's Chi-Square test was used to compare incidences between different age groups. A seroprevalence survey was implemented in local healthy inhabitants to obtain the overall positive rate for the specific immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibody against dengue virus (DENV). Results The overall annual incidence rate was 1.87/100000. A significant difference was found in age-specific incidence (Pearson's Chi-Square value 498.008, Pdengue fever. The overall seroprevalence of dengue IgG antibody in local populations was 2.43% (range 0.28%–5.42%). DENV-1 was the predominant serotype in circulation through the years, while all 4 serotypes were identified in indigenous patients from different outbreak localities since 2009. Conclusions A gradual change in the epidemic pattern of dengue infection has been observed in recent years in Guangdong. With the endemic nature of dengue infections, the transition from a monotypic to a multitypic circulation of dengue virus in the last several years will have an important bearing on the prevention and control of dengue in the province and in the neighboring districts. PMID:24465613

  12. Etiology, antimicrobial susceptibility profile and epidemiological aspects in canine otitis: a retrospective study of 616 cases
    Etiologia, perfil de sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos e aspectos epidemiológicos na otite canina: estudo retrospectivo de 616 casos

    OpenAIRE

    Verônica Baldim de Oliveira; Márcio Garcia Ribeiro; Ariani Cristina da Silva Almeida; Antônio Carlos Paes; Larissa Anuska Zeni Condas; Gustavo Henrique Batista Lara; Marília Masello Junqueira Franco; Marta Catarina Fernandes; Fernando José Paganini Listoni

    2012-01-01

    A retrospective study of etiology, antimicrobial susceptibility profile and multiple drug resistance, and major epidemiological aspects were investigated in 616 cases of canine otitis. Staphylococcus ? hemolitic (26.27%), Malassezia pachydermatis (12.35%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8.8%) were the most common microorganisms identified. The isolates were susceptible mainly to norfloxacin (89.62%), gentamicin (83.25%), and ofloxacin (80.16%). High occurrence of resistance of isolates was obser...

  13. Obesity and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivapalan, Pradeesh; Diamant, Zuzana; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity has significant impact on asthma incidence and manifestations. The purpose of the review is to discuss recent observations regarding the association between obesity and asthma focusing on underlying mechanisms, clinical presentation, response to therapy and effect...... of weight reduction. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical and epidemiological studies indicate that obese patients with asthma may represent a unique phenotype, which is more difficult to control, less responsive to asthma medications and by that may have higher healthcare utilization. A number of common comorbidities...... have been linked to both obesity and asthma, and may, therefore, contribute to the obese-asthma phenotype. Furthermore, recently published studies indicate that even a modest weight reduction can improve clinical manifestations and outcome of asthma. SUMMARY: Compared with normal-weight patients, obese...

  14. The pharmacotherapy of the asthma

    OpenAIRE

    BROŽOVÁ, Lenka

    2008-01-01

    Asthma bronchiale is a very common chronic disorder of airways with not fully elucidated pathology, which is not fully curable at the moment. It is estimated that 300 millions of persons suffer from asthma. About 8% of adult population and 10% of children are affected in the Czech republic. The aim of this thesis is to give an overview of contemporary modern pharmacotherapy of asthma. Firstly, this work describes asthma from pathophysiological and epidemiological point of view, among others: ...

  15. Role of Obesity in Asthma Control, the Obesity-Asthma Phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Shannon Novosad; Supriya Khan; Bruce Wolfe; Akram Khan

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is a disease with distinct phenotypes that have implications for both prognosis and therapy. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated an association between asthma and obesity. Further studies have shown that obese asthmatics have poor asthma control and more severe asthma. This obese-asthma group may represent a unique phenotype. The mechanisms behind poor asthma control in obese subjects remain unclear, but recent research has focused on adipokines and their effects on the airways as ...

  16. The epidemiologic characteristics of healthcare provider-diagnosed eczema, asthma, allergic rhinitis, and food allergy in children: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David A; Grundmeier, Robert W; Ram, Gita; Spergel, Jonathan M

    2016-08-20

    The rates of childhood allergic conditions are changing, prompting the need for continued surveillance. Examination of healthcare provider-based diagnosis data is an important and lacking methodology needed to complement existing studies that rely on participant reporting. Utilizing our care network of 1,050,061 urban and sub-urban children, we defined two retrospective cohorts: (1) a closed birth cohort of 29,662 children and (2) a cross-sectional cohort of 333,200 children. These cohorts were utilized to determine the epidemiologic characteristics of the conditions studied. Logistic regression was utilized to determine the extent to which food allergy was associated with respiratory allergy. In our birth cohort, the peak age at diagnosis of eczema, asthma, rhinitis, and food allergy was between 0 and 5 months (7.3 %), 12 and 17 months (8.7 %), 24 and 29 months (2.5 %), and 12 and 17 months (1.9 %), respectively. In our cross-sectional cohort, eczema and rhinitis prevalence rates were 6.7 % and 19.9 %, respectively. Asthma prevalence was 21.8 %, a rate higher than previously reported. Food allergy prevalence was 6.7 %, with the most common allergenic foods being peanut (2.6 %), milk (2.2 %), egg (1.8 %), shellfish (1.5 %), and soy (0.7 %). Food allergy was associated with development of asthma (OR 2.16, 95 % CI 1.94-2.40), and rhinitis (OR 2.72, 95 % CI 2.45-3.03). Compared with previous reports, we measure lower rates of eczema and higher rates of asthma. The distribution of the major allergenic foods diverged from prior figures, and food allergy was associated with the development of respiratory allergy. The utilization of provider-based diagnosis data contributes an important and lacking methodology that complements existing studies.

  17. Exposure to foodborne and orofecal microbes versus airborne viruses in relation to atopy and allergic asthma: epidemiological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matricardi, Paolo M; Rosmini, Francesco; Riondino, Silvia; Fortini, Michele; Ferrigno, Luigina; Rapicetta, Maria; Bonini, Sergio

    2000-01-01

    Objective To investigate if markers of exposure to foodborne and orofecal microbes versus airborne viruses are associated with atopy and respiratory allergies. Design Retrospective case-control study. Participants 240 atopic cases and 240 non-atopic controls from a population sample of 1659 participants, all Italian male cadets aged 17-24. Setting Air force school in Caserta, Italy. Main outcome measures Serology for Toxoplasma gondii, Helicobacter pylori, hepatitis A virus, measles, mumps, rubella, chickenpox, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus type 1; skin sensitisation and IgE antibodies to relevant airborne allergens; total IgE concentration; and diagnosis of allergic asthma or rhinitis. Results Compared with controls there was a lower prevalence of T gondii (26% v 18%, P=0.027), hepatitis A virus (30% v 16%, P=0.004), and H pylori (18% v 15%, P=0.325) in atopic participants. Adjusted odds ratios of atopy decreased with a gradient of exposure to H pylori, T gondii, and hepatitis A virus (none, odds ratio 1; one, 0.70; two or three, 0.37; P for trend=0.000045) but not with cumulative exposure to the other viruses. Conversely, total IgE concentration was not independently associated with any infection. Allergic asthma was rare (1/245, 0.4%) and allergic rhinitis infrequent (16/245, 7%) among the participants (245/1659) exposed to at least two orofecal and foodborne infections (H pylori, T gondii, hepatitis A virus). Conclusion Respiratory allergy is less frequent in people heavily exposed to orofecal and foodborne microbes. Hygiene and a westernised, semisterile diet may facilitate atopy by influencing the overall pattern of commensals and pathogens that stimulate the gut associated lymphoid tissue thus contributing to the epidemic of allergic asthma and rhinitis in developed countries. PMID:10669445

  18. Asthma Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Giving Teens a Voice in Health Care Decisions Asthma KidsHealth > For Parents > Asthma Print A A A ... Should I Know? en español Asma What Is Asthma? Asthma is a condition that causes breathing problems. ...

  19. A longitudinal study of adult-onset asthma incidence among HMO members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosiello Richard A

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HMO databases offer an opportunity for community based epidemiologic studies of asthma incidence, etiology and treatment. The incidence of asthma in HMO populations and the utility of HMO data, including use of computerized algorithms and manual review of medical charts for determining etiologic factors has not been fully explored. Methods We identified adult-onset asthma, using computerized record searches in a New England HMO. Monthly, our software applied exclusion and inclusion criteria to identify an "at-risk" population and "potential cases". Electronic and paper medical records from the past year were then reviewed for each potential case. Persons with other respiratory diseases or insignificant treatment for asthma were excluded. Confirmed adult-onset asthma (AOA cases were defined as those potential cases with either new-onset asthma or reactivated mild intermittent asthma that had been quiescent for at least one year. We validated the methods by reviewing charts of selected subjects rejected by the algorithm. Results The algorithm was 93 to 99.3% sensitive and 99.6% specific. Sixty-three percent (n = 469 of potential cases were confirmed as AOA. Two thirds of confirmed cases were women with an average age of 34.8 (SD 11.8, and 45% had no evidence of previous asthma diagnosis. The annualized monthly rate of AOA ranged from 4.1 to 11.4 per 1000 at-risk members. Physicians most commonly attribute asthma to infection (59% and allergy (14%. New-onset cases were more likely attributed to infection, while reactivated cases were more associated with allergies. Medical charts included a discussion of work exposures in relation to asthma in only 32 (7% cases. Twenty-three of these (72% indicated there was an association between asthma and workplace exposures for an overall rate of work-related asthma of 4.9%. Conclusion Computerized HMO records can be successfully used to identify AOA. Manual review of these records is

  20. Incidencia, etiología y epidemiología de la brucelosis en una área rural de la Provincia de LLeida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Serra Alvarez

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio investiga, de forma prospectiva, la incidencia, la etiología y el perfil epidemiolbgico de la brucelosis humana en las comarcas del Pallars Jussà y Sobir;l (Lleida, durante el período 1995-1998.

  1. Differential assessment and management of asthma vs chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yawn, Barbara P

    2009-01-01

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are prevalent respiratory conditions with overlapping disease characteristics. Differentiation between asthma and COPD is important because several aspects of the guideline-recommended management strategies differ for these conditions. This review identifies the epidemiologic, etiologic, and clinical distinctions of these diseases to assist physicians and other clinicians in differentiating between asthma and COPD. Key components of the guideline-recommended management approaches for these conditions are also reviewed. Relevant articles were found by searching the MEDLINE database for "asthma" and "chronic obstructive pulmonary disease OR COPD" in association with the terms "diagnostic criteria" and "differential diagnosis". Recent statistical summaries (meta-analyses), reviews, and consensus-type documents were also included. A review of relevant articles found that, although asthma and COPD may occur simultaneously, differences between these diseases are frequently recognized in terms of age at onset, prevalence in relation to age and sex, potential for reversibility of airway obstruction, pathophysiology, and typical symptom presentation. A thorough clinical history in conjunction with lung function testing usually aids in diagnostic distinction and choice of therapeutic interventions. Radiologic imaging and inflammatory marker testing may also aid in the differentiation of these conditions. Over time, disease progression often differs between asthma and COPD. Although overlaps exist in the disease characteristics of asthma and COPD, careful history, physical examination, and lung function testing often reveal information that facilitates distinction between these diseases, allowing physicians and other clinicians to better tailor their therapy.

  2. Linking obesity and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, E Rand

    2014-04-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that obesity has a significant impact on asthma risk, phenotype, and prognosis. Epidemiological studies have clearly demonstrated that asthma is more likely to occur in obese patients, and health status is impaired in obese individuals with asthma, with obese asthmatics experiencing more symptoms, worse quality of life, increased healthcare use, and increased asthma severity. However, obesity has well-described effects on lung function and mechanics that can lead to symptoms of dyspnea without causing the pathophysiologic changes of asthma. Adding to the challenges of evaluating this association, some studies have failed to demonstrate a robust relationship between obesity and traditional biomarkers of airway inflammation in adult asthmatics, leading to the conclusion that obesity does not necessarily worsen airway inflammation in asthma. In this regard, emerging data suggest that nonatopic mechanisms may be relevant in obese asthmatics, and that these mechanisms may have a direct impact on the response of obese asthmatics to asthma therapies, most notably inhaled glucocorticoids. This article will review selected aspects of the contributions of obesity-related airway and systemic inflammation to asthma, with a focus on the impact of obesity as a modifier of risk, prognosis, and therapeutic response in asthma. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  3. Stress and asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Shoji Nagata; Masahiro Irie; Norio Mishima

    1999-01-01

    Three factors in recent medical research and treatment (advances in the field of psychoneuroimmunology, epidemiological evidence regarding important interaction between psychosocial factors and development of disease, and the recognition of the importance of patient education for self-management of asthma) have led clinicians and researchers to reconsider the role of psychosocial stress in asthma. There are many reports suggesting that stressful life events, family problems and a behavior pat...

  4. Percent body fat, skinfold thickness or body mass index for defining obesity or overweight, as a risk factor for asthma in schoolchildren: which one to use in epidemiological studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Marcos, Luis; Valverde-Molina, Jose; Ortega, Maria L Castaños; Sanchez-Solis, Manuel; Martinez-Torres, Antonia E; Castro-Rodríguez, Jose A

    2008-10-01

    None of the epidemiological studies indicating that obesity is a risk factor for asthma in schoolchildren have used the percent body fat (PBF) to define obesity. The present study compares the definition of obesity using body mass index (BMI), PBF and the raw sum of the thickness of four skinfolds (SFT) to evaluate this condition as a risk factor for asthma. All classes of children of the target ages of 6-8 years of all schools in four municipalities of Murcia (Spain) were surveyed. Participation rate was 70.2% and the number of children included in the study was 931. Height, weight and SFT (biceps, triceps, subscapular and suprailiac) were measured according to standard procedures. Current active asthma was defined from several questions of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire. Obesity was defined using two standard cut-off points for BMI and PBF, and the 85th percentile for BMI, PBF and SFT. The highest quartile of each type of measurement was also compared with the lowest. A multiple logistic regression analysis was made for the various obesity definitions, adjusting for age, asthma in the mother and father and gender. The adjusted odds ratios of having asthma among obese children were different for boys and girls and varied across the different obesity definitions. For the standard cut-off points of BMI they were 1.19 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.41-3.43] for girls and 2.00 (95% CI 0.97-4.10) for boys; however, for PBF (boys 25%, girls 30%) the corresponding figures were 1.54 (95% CI 0.63-3.73) and 1.20 (95% CI 0.66-2.21). BMI, PBF and SFT showed more consistency between each other when using the other cut-off points. BMI, PBF (except standard cut-off points) and SFT produce relatively comparable results when analysing the interaction between obesity and asthma.

  5. Etiology and epidemiology of catheter related bloodstream infections in patients receiving home parenteral nutrition in a gastromedical center at a tertiary hospital in denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Xiaohui Chen; Chen, Ming; Hellesøe, Anne-Marie Blok

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective epidemiologic study of catheter related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) in patients receiving long-term home parenteral nutrition (HPN) from January 2002 to December 2005. Our results showed that coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) were the most prevalent pathogens...

  6. Asthma education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-01-01

    ). Allergy and Asthma Clinic, Red Cross War Memorial Hospital. Mike Levin runs a secondary level asthma/ allergy clinic and does a tertiary allergy session once a week, focusing on difficult asthma and food allergies. He has ...

  7. Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of dengue and other etiologic agents among patients with acute febrile illness, Puerto Rico, 2012-2015.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay M Tomashek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Identifying etiologies of acute febrile illnesses (AFI is challenging due to non-specific presentation and limited availability of diagnostics. Prospective AFI studies provide a methodology to describe the syndrome by age and etiology, findings that can be used to develop case definitions and multiplexed diagnostics to optimize management. We conducted a 3-year prospective AFI study in Puerto Rico. Patients with fever ≤7 days were offered enrollment, and clinical data and specimens were collected at enrollment and upon discharge or follow-up. Blood and oro-nasopharyngeal specimens were tested by RT-PCR and immunodiagnostic methods for infection with dengue viruses (DENV 1-4, chikungunya virus (CHIKV, influenza A and B viruses (FLU A/B, 12 other respiratory viruses (ORV, enterovirus, Leptospira spp., and Burkholderia pseudomallei. Clinical presentation and laboratory findings of participants infected with DENV were compared to those infected with CHIKV, FLU A/B, and ORV. Clinical predictors of laboratory-positive dengue compared to all other AFI etiologies were determined by age and day post-illness onset (DPO at presentation. Of 8,996 participants enrolled from May 7, 2012 through May 6, 2015, more than half (54.8%, 4,930 had a pathogen detected. Pathogens most frequently detected were CHIKV (1,635, 18.2%, FLU A/B (1,074, 11.9%, DENV 1-4 (970, 10.8%, and ORV (904, 10.3%. Participants with DENV infection presented later and a higher proportion were hospitalized than those with other diagnoses (46.7% versus 27.3% with ORV, 18.8% with FLU A/B, and 11.2% with CHIKV. Predictors of dengue in participants presenting <3 DPO included leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, headache, eye pain, nausea, and dizziness, while negative predictors were irritability and rhinorrhea. Predictors of dengue in participants presenting 3-5 DPO were leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, facial/neck erythema, nausea, eye pain, signs of poor circulation, and diarrhea; presence of

  8. Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of dengue and other etiologic agents among patients with acute febrile illness, Puerto Rico, 2012-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomashek, Kay M; Lorenzi, Olga D; Andújar-Pérez, Doris A; Torres-Velásquez, Brenda C; Hunsperger, Elizabeth A; Munoz-Jordan, Jorge Luis; Perez-Padilla, Janice; Rivera, Aidsa; Gonzalez-Zeno, Gladys E; Sharp, Tyler M; Galloway, Renee L; Glass Elrod, Mindy; Mathis, Demetrius L; Oberste, M Steven; Nix, W Allan; Henderson, Elizabeth; McQuiston, Jennifer; Singleton, Joseph; Kato, Cecilia; García Gubern, Carlos; Santiago-Rivera, William; Cruz-Correa, Jesús; Muns-Sosa, Robert; Ortiz-Rivera, Juan D; Jiménez, Gerson; Galarza, Ivonne E; Horiuchi, Kalanthe; Margolis, Harold S; Alvarado, Luisa I

    2017-09-01

    Identifying etiologies of acute febrile illnesses (AFI) is challenging due to non-specific presentation and limited availability of diagnostics. Prospective AFI studies provide a methodology to describe the syndrome by age and etiology, findings that can be used to develop case definitions and multiplexed diagnostics to optimize management. We conducted a 3-year prospective AFI study in Puerto Rico. Patients with fever ≤7 days were offered enrollment, and clinical data and specimens were collected at enrollment and upon discharge or follow-up. Blood and oro-nasopharyngeal specimens were tested by RT-PCR and immunodiagnostic methods for infection with dengue viruses (DENV) 1-4, chikungunya virus (CHIKV), influenza A and B viruses (FLU A/B), 12 other respiratory viruses (ORV), enterovirus, Leptospira spp., and Burkholderia pseudomallei. Clinical presentation and laboratory findings of participants infected with DENV were compared to those infected with CHIKV, FLU A/B, and ORV. Clinical predictors of laboratory-positive dengue compared to all other AFI etiologies were determined by age and day post-illness onset (DPO) at presentation. Of 8,996 participants enrolled from May 7, 2012 through May 6, 2015, more than half (54.8%, 4,930) had a pathogen detected. Pathogens most frequently detected were CHIKV (1,635, 18.2%), FLU A/B (1,074, 11.9%), DENV 1-4 (970, 10.8%), and ORV (904, 10.3%). Participants with DENV infection presented later and a higher proportion were hospitalized than those with other diagnoses (46.7% versus 27.3% with ORV, 18.8% with FLU A/B, and 11.2% with CHIKV). Predictors of dengue in participants presenting dengue in participants presenting 3-5 DPO were leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, facial/neck erythema, nausea, eye pain, signs of poor circulation, and diarrhea; presence of rhinorrhea, cough, and red conjunctiva predicted non-dengue AFI. By enrolling febrile patients at clinical presentation, we identified unbiased predictors of laboratory

  9. The relation between paracetamol use and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaheen, S; Potts, J; Gnatiuc, L

    2008-01-01

    with adult asthma across Europe. The network compared 521 cases with a diagnosis of asthma and reporting asthma symptoms in the last 12 months with 507 controls with no diagnosis of asthma and no asthmatic symptoms in the last 12 months across 12 European centres. All cases and controls were selected from.......002. There was no evidence for heterogeneity across centres. No association was seen between use of other analgesics and asthma.These data add to the increasing and consistent epidemiological evidence implicating frequent paracetamol use in asthma in diverse populations...

  10. Epidemiology and etiology of childhood pneumonia in 2010: estimates of incidence, severe morbidity, mortality, underlying risk factors and causative pathogens for 192 countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Rudan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent series of reviews conducted within the Global Action Plan for Pneumonia and Diarrhoea (GAPPD addressed epidemiology of the two deadly diseases at the global and regional level; it also estimated the effectiveness of interventions, barriers to achieving high coverage and the main implications for health policy. The aim of this paper is to provide the estimates of childhood pneumonia at the country level. This should allow national policy–makers and stakeholders to implement proposed policies in the World Health Organization (WHO and UNICEF member countries.

  11. New developments in work-related asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirce, Santiago; Campo, Paloma; Domínguez-Ortega, Javier; Fernández-Nieto, Mar; Gómez-Torrijos, Elisa; Martínez-Arcediano, Ana; Mur, Pilar; Delgado, Julio

    2017-03-01

    Work-related asthma includes two subtypes: occupational asthma or asthma caused by specific agents (sensitizers or irritants) in the workplace, and work-exacerbated asthma or pre-existing asthma worsened by workplace exposures. Areas covered: This review provides an update on the definitions and the clinical features of the different work-related asthma subtypes as well as new insights into their etiology and the pathophysiological mechanisms involved. The diagnosis of work-related asthma should be made on objective basis using a constellation of clinical, physiologic and allergologic tests. Specific inhalation challenge with the suspected occupational agent(s) remains as the reference standard for diagnosis. A literature search was performed using the following terms: work-related asthma, occupational asthma, work-exacerbated asthma, irritant-induced asthma and etiological agents. Expert commentary: Studies focusing on the biological effects and mechanisms of environmental exposures in the development of sensitizer-induced or irritant-induced asthma in various workplace settings are of greatest interest. An integrative approach that combines clinical parameters with component-resolved diagnosis as well as inflammatory biomarkers appears to be very promising. Occupational allergy provides a good opportunity to understand the complex relationships between exposure to allergens in the workplace, interaction with genes and the co-exposures to other factors in the working environment.

  12. Retrospective epidemiological study of canine epilepsy in Japan using the International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force classification 2015 (2003-2013): etiological distribution, risk factors, survival time, and lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamoto, Yuji; Hasegawa, Daisuke; Mizoguchi, Shunta; Yu, Yoshihiko; Wada, Masae; Kuwabara, Takayuki; Fujiwara-Igarashi, Aki; Fujita, Michio

    2016-11-09

    Epilepsy is the most common neurological disease in veterinary practice. However, contrary to human medicine, epilepsy classification in veterinary medicine had not been clearly defined until recently. A number of reports on canine epilepsy have been published, reflecting in part updated proposals from the human epilepsy organization, the International League Against Epilepsy. In 2015, the International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force (IVETF) published a consensus report on the classification and definition of canine epilepsy. The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate the etiological distribution, survival time of dogs with idiopathic epilepsy (IdE) and structural epilepsy (StE), and risk factors for survival time, according to the recently published IVETF classification. We investigated canine cases with epilepsy that were referred to our teaching hospital in Japan during the past 10 years, and which encompassed a different breed population from Western countries. A total of 358 dogs with epilepsy satisfied our etiological study criteria. Of these, 172 dogs (48 %) were classified as IdE and 76 dogs (21 %) as StE. Of these dogs, 100 dogs (consisting of 65 with IdE and 35 with StE) were included in our survival study. Median survival time from the initial epileptic seizure in dogs with IdE and StE was 10.4 and 4.5 years, respectively. Median lifespan of dogs with IdE and StE was 13.5 and 10.9 years, respectively. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that risk factors for survival time in IdE were high seizure frequency (≥0.3 seizures/month) and focal epileptic seizures. Focal epileptic seizures were identified as a risk factor for survival time in IdE. Clinicians should carefully differentiate seizure type as it is difficult to identify focal epileptic seizures. With good seizure control, dogs with IdE can survive for nearly the same lifespan as the general dog population. Our results using the IVETF classification are similar to previous

  13. Behçet's disease: A comprehensive review with a focus on epidemiology, etiology and clinical features, and management of mucocutaneous lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpsoy, Erkan

    2016-06-01

    Behçet's disease (BD) is a chronic, relapsing, inflammatory multisystem disease of unknown etiology. Oral ulcers, genital ulcers, cutaneous lesions, and ocular and articular involvement are the most frequent features of the disease. Mucocutaneous lesions are considered hallmarks of the disease, and often precede other manifestations. Therefore, their recognition may permit earlier diagnosis and treatment with beneficial results for prognosis. BD is particularly prevalent in "Silk Route" populations but has a global distribution. The disease usually starts around the third or fourth decade of life. Sex distribution is roughly equal. The diagnosis is based on clinical criteria, as there is no pathognomonic test. Genetic factors have been investigated extensively, and association with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B51 is still known as the strongest genetic susceptibility factor. The T-helper 17 and interleukin (IL)-17 pathways are active, and play an important role, particularly in acute attacks of BD. Neutrophil activity is increased in BD, and the affected organs show a significant neutrophil and lymphocyte infiltration. HLA-B51 association and increased IL-17 response are thought to play a role in neutrophil activation. Treatment is mainly based on the suppression of inflammatory attacks of the disease using immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive agents. Although treatment has become much more effective in recent years with the introduction of newer drugs, BD is still associated with considerable morbidity and increased mortality. Male sex, younger age of onset and increased number of organs involved at the diagnosis are associated with a more severe disease and, therefore, require more aggressive treatment. © 2016 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  14. Incidencia, etiología y epidemiología de la brucelosis en una área rural de la Provincia de LLeida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez Jordi Serra

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos: Este estudio investiga, de forma prospectiva, la incidencia, la etiología y el perfil epidemiológico de la brucelosis humana en las comarcas del Pallars Jussà y Sobirà (Lleida, durante el período 1995-1998. Métodos: Fueron estudiados 55 pacientes diagnosticados de brucelosis. Se registró información sobre el sexo, edad, municipio de residencia, riesgo ocupacional, contacto con animales y consumo de productos lácticos no higienizados, y se obtuvieron muestras de sangre para hemocultivo. Resultados: Se registraron 10, 14, 15 y 16 casos para los años 1995, 1996, 1997 y 1998 respectivamente, y las tasas medias acumuladas fueron de 52 en el Pallars Jussà y de 129 en el Pallars Sobirà. El número de casos fue cuatro veces superior en hombres (81,8% que en mujeres (18,2% (RR: 4,4; IC95% 2,2-8,7. La incidencia máxima se produjo en los meses de Marzo-Abril y la mínima en los meses de verano. El 71% de los pacientes desarrollaba una actividad profesional de riesgo y hubo un claro predominio del mecanismo de contagio directo (71%. La especie animal más frecuentemente considerada fuente de infección fue la ovina (65%, seguida de la bovina (47% y de la caprina (25%. En el Pallars Jussà hubo predominio ovino (OR: 0,3; IC95% 0,1 - 0,9 y en el Pallars Sobirà de bovino (OR: 6,6; IC95% 1,8 - 26,2. Se aislaron 27 cepas de Brucella sp, correspondiendo todas ellas a la especie melitensis. Conclusiones: La incidencia de la zoonosis en las comarcas estudiadas ha aumentado durante el período 1995-1998. Los resultados del estudio configuran un perfil epidemiológico característico de enfermedad profesional. El agente etiológico ha sido Brucella melitensis con claro predominio de la biovariedad 1.

  15. Epidemiological and etiological characteristics of hand, foot, and mouth disease in Wuhan, China from 2012 to 2013: outbreaks of coxsackieviruses A10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qin; Ding, Jinya; Cao, Junhao; Huang, Qianchuan; Hong, Chun; Yang, Bin

    2015-06-01

    Hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) is a common infectious disease which often occurs in young children. It is caused by enteroviruses, most commonly enterovirus71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16). The present study focuses on the molecular epidemiology of the pathogen of HFMD in the Wuhan region of China during the period 2012 to 2013. A total of 463 viruses were isolated from throat swab of 3,208 HFMD patients and analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR with all sets of specific primers for EV71, CVA16, and pan-enterovirus. Of the 463 viruses, 111 (21.2%) were EV71, 52 (9.6%) were CVA16, and 300 (69.2%) were pan-enterovirus. In pan-enterovirus isolations 190 (52.8%) were CVA10, 50 (13.9%) were CVA4, 30 were CB2, 17 were CB3, 13 were CB5 identified by VP4 gene sequencing. Eleven EV71 isolates were complete genome sequenced and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the EV71 strains that circulated in Wuhan belonged to the C4 subgenotype. Among the 190 CVA10 isolations, 187 CVA10 strains have the same nucleotide sequence, the other three CVA10 strains belongs to another type of nucleotide sequence. Phylogenetic analysis based on 19 CVA10 isolations suggested that they belonged to the clade of Chinese strains, but form different clusters isolated from Japan, Europe. This study showed that EVA71 and CVA16 were detected as the predominant viruses (>60%) in 2012 and the total reported HFMD cases attained a peak in June and July. In contrast, CVA10 was also detected during April 2012 and replaced EVA71 and CVA16 as the major HFMD-associated pathogen from May 2013. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Environmental pollution and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giampaolo, L; Quecchia, C; Schiavone, C; Cavallucci, E; Renzetti, A; Braga, M; Di Gioacchino, M

    2011-01-01

    Clinical evidences and epidemiological studies show that allergic pathologies of the respiratory tract are increasing in the world areas with high pollution impact, demonstrating how many polluting substances favor both allergic sensitization and the bronchial inflammatory changes characteristic of asthma. It has been shown that asthma, as many other diseases, is a complex interaction between genetic predisposition and environmental stimuli that results in clinical expression of various phenotypes of asthma: allergic, intrinsic etc. Many pollutants have such a potential. Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) can favor allergic sensitization, induce acute asthma attacks and increase bronchial reactivity, acting both on allergen, on bronchial mucosa and on immune cells. In fact, DEP can favor B lymphocytes to shift to a production of IgE and T cells to produce Th2 cytokines. Asthma can be also induced by high exposure to many other substances as NO2 and first of all ozone (O3): strong oxidizing substance that is synthesized, in absence of ventilation, by photochemical reaction due to the combination of ultraviolet sun radiation on exhaust gases as NO2 and hydrocarbons. Ozone is abundant in cities with minimal concentration in the morning gradually increasing during the day until maximal levels in the afternoon and then decreasing during the night. Epidemiological studies show that the number of access to hospital for acute asthma and even the use of bronchodilator by asthmatics increase during the high level periods when Ozone constitute almost 90 percent of the total oxidants in the environment. Particulate matter of very small diameter have a crucial role in favoring asthma attacks, and smaller the substance deeper the penetration in the bronchial tree, with an inflammatory reaction in the peripheral bronchial mucosa characterized by increased vessel permeability, mucosal edema, inflammatory mediator production by damaged epithelium and inflammatory cells that determines

  17. Obesity-related asthma in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Nikunj A; Lazarus, Angeline

    2016-08-01

    Obesity as a risk factor for asthma has been identified in previous studies. Additionally, a disproportionate number of patients with severe or difficult-to-control asthma are obese. Patients with obesity-related asthma tend to have worse asthma control and quality of life disproportionate to their pulmonary function tests, are less responsive to corticosteroid therapy, and are more likely to have obesity-related comorbidities such as obstructive sleep apnea and gastroesophageal disease that complicate asthma treatment. With the increasing prevalence of obesity, the prevalence of asthma is anticipated to grow proportionally. Addressing weight loss and encouraging activity is essential in the management of obesity-related asthma. This article briefly overviews the epidemiology, unique distinguishing features, potential mechanisms, and approach to management of patients with obesity-related asthma in adults.

  18. Vitamin D and asthma: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Junfang; Castro, Mario

    2015-08-01

    To review the current evidence on the relationship between vitamin D and asthma. The rising morbidity and tremendous socioeconomic burden of asthma have prompted efforts to seek modifiable environmental and nutritional factors that contribute to the asthma epidemic. The association between low levels of vitamin D and asthma has been supported by many, but not all observational and epidemiologic studies. Recently, several controlled clinical trials have been undertaken to explore the effect of vitamin D supplementation on asthma control and respiratory tract infections. While some trials support the beneficial role of vitamin D supplementation in reducing asthma severity in children, several trials have found no beneficial role in adults. Given the high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in children and adults worldwide and recent randomized controlled trials of vitamin D in asthma, supplementation with vitamin D cannot be recommended as adjunctive therapy for asthma.

  19. Role of Obesity in Asthma Control, the Obesity-Asthma Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Novosad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a disease with distinct phenotypes that have implications for both prognosis and therapy. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated an association between asthma and obesity. Further studies have shown that obese asthmatics have poor asthma control and more severe asthma. This obese-asthma group may represent a unique phenotype. The mechanisms behind poor asthma control in obese subjects remain unclear, but recent research has focused on adipokines and their effects on the airways as well as the role of oxidative stress. Both surgical and nonsurgical weight loss therapy have shown promising results with improvements in asthma control and decreased asthma severity. Comorbid conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease and obstructive sleep apnea may also have a role in poor asthma control in obese asthmatics. Further research is needed to define the mechanisms behind this phenotype which will guide the development of targeted therapies.

  20. [Epigenetics, environment and asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico-Rosillo, Guadalupe; Vega-Robledo, Gloria Bertha; Silva-García, Raúl; Oliva-Rico, Diego

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the respiratory tract with a complex genetic background influenced by the exposition to a series of environmental factors. Genetic studies can only elucidate part of the heritability and susceptibility of asthma and even though several diseases have an evident genetic etiology, only a fraction of the genes involved in their pathogenicity have been identified. The epigenetic regulation of the latter is a fact one should bear in mind in order to explain the major triggers of diseases whose understanding is complicated, such as allergies and asthma. External stimulus such as nourishment, stress, physical activity, atmospheric pollution, tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking can induce either gene silencing or gene expression. In this regard, epigenetics can explain how these environmental factors influence our genetic inheritance. There is growing evidence that backs-up the fact that DNA methylation, histone post-translational modification and microRNA expression are influenced by the environment. This helps explaining how several of the risk factors mentioned contribute to the development and inheritance of asthma. In this review, different environmental factors and their relation with the main epigenetic regulatory mechanisms will be analyzed, as well as their possible role in the development of asthma.

  1. Transtorno disfórico pré-menstrual revisão: conceito, história, epidemiologia e etiologia Premenstrual dysphoric disorder review: concept, history, epidemiology and etiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislene C. Valadares

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudos epidemiológicos demonstram que até 80% das mulheres apresentam sintomas físicos e/ou psíquicos no período pré-menstrual e que cerca de 3% a 11% os apresentam de maneira severa, havendo prejuízos sociais, familiares ou profissionais, o que caracteriza o transtorno disfórico pré-menstrual (TDPM. O TDPM apresenta sintomas que aparecem na semana que antecede a menstruação, cessando nos primeiros dias após o início desta. Diversas teorias têm sido propostas para justificar a sua etiologia. Fatores hormonais, psicológicos e ambientais parecem estar envolvidos; no entanto, ainda não há conclusões precisas que justifiquem essa patologia.Epidemiologic studies show that till 80% of the women have physical and/or psychiatric symptoms in the premenstrual period, and in about 3% till 11% of them, this disease has serious consequences, causing familiar or professional damages; characterizing the premenstrual dysphoric disorder. The premenstrual dysphoric symptoms happen in the week before menstruation, stopping in the first days after menstruation beginning. A lot of theories have been proposed to justify its etiology. Hormonals, psychological and environmental factors seem to be involved, however there are no strict conclusions to justify this pathology.

  2. Asthma Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is working to explore the role of common air pollutants in the development and exacerbation of asthma at different life stages as well as other environmental and genetic factors that might make a person more sensitive to developing asthma.

  3. Research advances in liver failure of unknown etiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHU Bing

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A high proportion of the causes of liver failure remain unknown. This paper reviews the progress in the epidemiology, etiology, treatment, and prognosis of liver failure of unknown etiology. The possible causes of liver failure of unknown etiology may include occult hepatitis B virus infection, herpesvirus infection, transfusion-transmitted virus infection, hepatitis G virus infection, human parvovirus Bl9 infection, autoimmune and hepatitis. Aciclovir can be considered in the empirical treatment for patients with liver failure of unknown etiology. The mortality in patients with liver failure of unknown etiology is high. The research on the etiology and treatments should be strengthened.

  4. Cancer Epidemiology Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohort studies are fundamental for epidemiological research by helping researchers better understand the etiology of cancer and provide insights into the key determinants of this disease and its outcomes.

  5. Epidemiology and etiology of adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepis, Ty S; Rao, Uma

    2005-10-01

    Despite the socioeconomic and personal health costs directly attributed to smoking, over one-half of high school seniors have used cigarettes, and over 15% of seniors are daily smokers. This review summarizes the recent research concerning the psychosocial and physiologic risk and protective factors associated with adolescent smoking. Studies of the psychosocial risk factors have added to the evidence that stress, peers and family influences, ethnicity, and depression all serve as risk factors for the development and maintenance of smoking in adolescents. Protective factors include parental expectations and monitoring, religious activity, and sociopolitical factors, such as tobacco-related marketing bans and higher cigarette taxes. Adolescent smoking trajectories have been further defined and can be used to classify smokers in terms of dependence symptoms. Finally, neurobiological research has focused to a large extent on the concept of disinhibition as a risk factor for smoking in adolescents. While rates of smoking in adolescents have declined since 1997, millions of adolescents initiate or continue smoking each year, with deleterious health and psychosocial consequences. Research into the risk and protective factors for adolescent smoking, particularly that which ties psychosocial and neurobiological factors together, is necessary to inform the development of tailored and maximally efficacious treatments for this population.

  6. Epidemiology, etiology, and diagnosis of osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Nancy E

    2006-02-01

    Osteoporosis, a major public health problem, is becoming increasingly prevalent with the aging of the world population. Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by compromised bone strength, which predisposes the individual to an increased risk of fractures of the hip, spine, and other skeletal sites. The clinical consequences and economic burden of this disease call for measures to assess individuals who are at high risk to allow for appropriate intervention. Many risk factors are associated with osteoporotic fracture, including low peak bone mass, hormonal factors, the use of certain drugs (eg, glucocorticoids), cigarette smoking, low physical activity, low intake of calcium and vitamin D, race, small body size, and a personal or a family history of fracture. All of these factors should be taken into account when assessing the risk of fracture and determining whether further treatment is required. Because osteoporotic fracture risk is higher in older women than in older men, all postmenopausal women should be evaluated for signs of osteoporosis during routine physical examinations. Radiologic laboratory assessments of bone mineral density generally should be reserved for patients at highest risk, including all women over the age of 65, younger postmenopausal women with risk factors, and all postmenopausal women with a history of fractures. The evaluation of biochemical markers of bone turnover has been useful in clinical research. However, the predictive factor of these measurements is not defined clearly, and these findings should not be used as a replacement for bone density testing. Together, clinical assessment of osteoporotic risk factors and objective measures of bone mineral density can help to identify patients who will benefit from intervention and, thus, can potentially reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with osteoporosis-associated fractures in this population.

  7. The Saudi Initiative for asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Moamary Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Saudi Initiative for Asthma (SINA provides up-to-date guidelines for healthcare workers managing patients with asthma. SINA was developed by a panel of Saudi experts with respectable academic backgrounds and long-standing experience in the field. SINA is founded on the latest available evidence, local literature, and knowledge of the current setting in Saudi Arabia. Emphasis is placed on understanding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, medications, and clinical presentation. SINA elaborates on the development of patient-doctor partnership, self-management, and control of precipitating factors. Approaches to asthma treatment in SINA are based on disease control by the utilization of Asthma Control Test for the initiation and adjustment of asthma treatment. This guideline is established for the treatment of asthma in both children and adults, with special attention to children 5 years and younger. It is expected that the implementation of these guidelines for treating asthma will lead to better asthma control and decrease patient utilization of the health care system.

  8. Influence of asthma definition on the asthma-obesity relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies suggest an association between obesity and asthma in adults and children. Asthma diagnosis criteria are different among studies. The aim of this study was to test the influence of asthma definition on the asthma-obesity relationship. Methods In a cross-sectional analysis of 1922 men and women, subjects completed a translated questionnaire from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey and underwent spirometry and a bronchial challenge test. Weight, height and waist circumference were measured. Multiple logistic regression analysis was carried out to assess the association of variables related to obesity and asthma. Asthma was defined either by the presence of symptoms with bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) or by a self-report of a physician-made diagnosis. The following variables were separately tested for associations with asthma: socioeconomic characteristics, schooling, physical activity, smoking status, anthropometry and spirometry. Results No association was detected between asthma confirmed by BHR and obesity indicators, odds ratio (OR) = 1.08 (95% confidence interval: 0.69 - 1.68) for obesity assessed by body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2; OR = 1.02 (0.74 - 1.40) for obesity assessed by abnormal waist-to-height ratio; and, OR = 0.96 (0.69 - 1.33) for abnormal waist circumference. On the contrary, a previous diagnosis of asthma was associated with obesity, OR = 1.48 (1.01 - 2.16) for body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2; OR = 1.48 (1.13 - 1.93) for abnormal waist-to-height ratio; and, OR = 1.32 (1.00 – 1.75) for abnormal waist circumference. Female gender, schooling ≥ 12 years and smoking were associated with BHR-confirmed asthma. Physically inactive subjects were associated with a previous diagnosis of asthma. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the relationship between asthma and obesity in epidemiological studies depends on the definition adopted. Certain components of asthma, for instance, symptoms may be more prone to

  9. Genetic heterogeneity of asthma phenotypes identified by a clustering approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siroux, Valérie; González, Juan R; Bouzigon, Emmanuelle; Curjuric, Ivan; Boudier, Anne; Imboden, Medea; Anto, Josep Maria; Gut, Ivo; Jarvis, Deborah; Lathrop, Mark; Omenaas, Ernst Reidar; Pin, Isabelle; Wjst, Mathias; Demenais, Florence; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kauffmann, Francine

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was to identify genetic variants associated with refined asthma phenotypes enabling multiple features of the disease to be taken into account. Latent class analysis (LCA) was applied in 3001 adults ever having asthma recruited in the frame of three epidemiological surveys (the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS), the Swiss Study on Air Pollution and Lung Disease in Adults (SAPALDIA) and the Epidemiological Study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA)). 14 personal and phenotypic characteristics, gathered from questionnaires and clinical examination, were used. A genome-wide association study was conducted for each LCA-derived asthma phenotype, compared to subjects without asthma (n=3474). The LCA identified four adult asthma phenotypes, mainly characterised by disease activity, age of asthma onset and atopic status. Associations of genome-wide significance (pheterogeneity helps to disentangle the genetic heterogeneity of asthma.

  10. Flavonoids and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Toshio; Takahashi, Ryo

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic disease, characterized by airway inflammation, airflow limitation, hyper-reactivity and airway remodeling. It is believed that asthma is caused by the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. The prevalence of allergic diseases, including asthma, has increased worldwide during the past two decades. Although the precise reasons that have caused this increase remain unknown, dietary change is thought to be one of the environmental factors. Flavonoids, which are polyphenolic plant secondary metabolites ubiquitously present in vegetables, fruits and beverages, possess antioxidant and anti-allergic traits, as well as immune-modulating activities. Flavonoids are powerful antioxidants and anti-allergic nutrients that inhibit the release of chemical mediators, synthesis of Th2 type cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13, and CD40 ligand expression by high-affinity immunoglobulin E (IgE) receptor-expressing cells, such as mast cells and basophils. They also inhibit IL-4-induced signal transduction and affect the differentiation of naïve CD4+ T cells into effector T-cells through their inhibitory effect on the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Various studies of flavonoids in asthmatic animal models have demonstrated their beneficial effects. The results of several epidemiological studies suggest that an increase in flavonoid intake is beneficial for asthma. Moreover, clinical trials of flavonoids have shown their ameliorative effects on symptoms related to asthma. However, these human studies are currently limited; further validation is required to clarify whether an appropriate intake of flavonoids may constitute dietary treatment and for part of a preventive strategy for asthma. PMID:23752494

  11. The impact of food allergy on asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama Kewalramani

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Anupama Kewalramani, Mary E BollingerDepartment of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Allergy/Pulmonology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: Food allergy is a potentially severe immune response to a food or food additive. Although a majority of children will outgrow their food allergies, some may have lifelong issues. Food allergies and other atopic conditions, such as asthma, are increasing in prevalence in Western countries. As such, it is not uncommon to note the co-existence of food allergy and asthma in the same patient. As part of the atopic march, many food allergic patients may develop asthma later in life. Each can adversely affect the other. Food allergic patients with asthma have a higher risk of developing life-threatening food-induced reactions. Although food allergy is not typically an etiology of asthma, an asthmatic patient with food allergy may have higher rates of morbidity and mortality associated with the asthma. Asthma is rarely a manifestation of food allergy alone, but the symptoms can be seen with allergic reactions to foods. There may be evidence to suggest that early childhood environmental factors, such as the mother’s and child’s diets, factor in the development of asthma; however, the evidence continues to be conflicting. All food allergic patients and their families should be counseled on the management of food allergy and the risk of developing co-morbid asthma.Keywords: food allergy, diagnosis, treatment, asthma

  12. Etiology, antimicrobial susceptibility profile and epidemiological aspects in canine otitis: a retrospective study of 616 casesEtiologia, perfil de sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos e aspectos epidemiológicos na otite canina: estudo retrospectivo de 616 casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Baldim de Oliveira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study of etiology, antimicrobial susceptibility profile and multiple drug resistance, and major epidemiological aspects were investigated in 616 cases of canine otitis. Staphylococcus ? hemolitic (26.27%, Malassezia pachydermatis (12.35%, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8.8% were the most common microorganisms identified. The isolates were susceptible mainly to norfloxacin (89.62%, gentamicin (83.25%, and ofloxacin (80.16%. High occurrence of resistance of isolates was observed to neomicin (30.84% and cephalexin (27.63%. Multiple drug resistance to three or more and five or more of antimicrobials tested was observed in 34.9% and 15.5% of isolates, respectively. The cases of canine otitis occurred predominantly in first years of age, in mixed breeds animals, at autumn season. The presence of itch, bad smell, and secretion in ear conduct were the major signs observed at clinical examination. Estudo retrospectivo da etiologia, perfil de sensibilidade microbiana, ocorrência de multirresistência dos isolados e os principais aspectos epidemiológicos foram investigados em 616 casos de otite canina. Staphylococcus ? hemolítico (26,27%, Malassezia pachydermatis (12,35% e Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8,8% foram os micro-organismos mais frequentes. Os isolados foram sensíveis “in vitro” principalmente a norfloxacina (89,62%, gentamicina (83,25% e ofloxacina (80,16%. Alta ocorrência de resistência das linhagens foi observada frente à neomicina (30,84% e cefalexina (27,63%. A ocorrência de resistência múltipla a três ou mais e cinco ou mais dos antimicrobianos foi observada em, respectivamente, 34,9% e 15,5% dos isolados. Os casos ocorreram predominantemente nos primeiros anos de idade, em animais sem raça definida, no período do outono. A presença de prurido, mau cheiro e secreção no conduto auditivo foram os principais sinais observados ao exame clínico.

  13. Severe Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzurum, Serpil C.; Bleecker, Eugene R.; Calhoun, William J.; Castro, Mario; Comhair, Suzy A. A.; Chung, Kian Fan; Curran-Everett, Douglas; Dweik, Raed A.; Fain, Sean B.; Fitzpatrick, Anne M.; Gaston, Benjamin M.; Israel, Elliot; Hastie, Annette; Hoffman, Eric A.; Holguin, Fernando; Levy, Bruce D.; Meyers, Deborah A.; Moore, Wendy C.; Peters, Stephen P.; Sorkness, Ronald L.; Teague, W. Gerald; Wenzel, Sally E.; Busse, William W.

    2012-01-01

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Severe Asthma Research Program (SARP) has characterized over the past 10 years 1,644 patients with asthma, including 583 individuals with severe asthma. SARP collaboration has led to a rapid recruitment of subjects and efficient sharing of samples among participating sites to conduct independent mechanistic investigations of severe asthma. Enrolled SARP subjects underwent detailed clinical, physiologic, genomic, and radiological evaluations. In addition, SARP investigators developed safe procedures for bronchoscopy in participants with asthma, including those with severe disease. SARP studies revealed that severe asthma is a heterogeneous disease with varying molecular, biochemical, and cellular inflammatory features and unique structure–function abnormalities. Priorities for future studies include recruitment of a larger number of subjects with severe asthma, including children, to allow further characterization of anatomic, physiologic, biochemical, and genetic factors related to severe disease in a longitudinal assessment to identify factors that modulate the natural history of severe asthma and provide mechanistic rationale for management strategies. PMID:22095547

  14. Etiología bacteriana de la Enfermedad Diarreica Aguda durante un período de vigilancia epidemiológica y de laboratorio para el diagnóstico del cólera (junio 1° agosto 1° de 1991 Bacterial etiology of acute diarrheal disease during and epidemiological surveillance for cholera in Antioquia, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Montoya

    1993-02-01

    Full Text Available Entre junio 12 y agosto 12 de 1991, esperando la aparición de los primeros casos de cólera en el Departamento de Antioquia, Colombia, se estudiaron 50 pacientes con enfermedad diarreica aguda (EDA, en su mayoría adultos. Se les practicaron coprocultivo y una encuesta clínica. Se Identificaron en orden de frecuencia Aeromonas hydrophlia en 11 pacientes (22%, Vibrio cholerae en 9 (18%, Shigelia spp en 3 (6% y Escherichia col/ enteropatógeno y Salmonella spp en un paciente cada uno. En 25 pacientes (50% no se logró aislar ninguno de los agentes bacteria nos Investigados. Los signos y síntomas más frecuentes fueron: vómito 62%, fiebre 26% y calambres 22%; hubo deshidratación grado III en 24 pacientes (48%. Una paciente falleció. Este es el primer trabajo que revela en nuestro medio la Aeromonas hydrophlia como causa frecuente de EDA en adultos. En futuros trabajos sobre esta enfem1edad se debe incluir la búsqueda de otros agentes bacterianos y vírales.

    During the epidemiological surveillance for the first cholera cases In the Department of Antioquia (Colombia, 50 patients with acute diarrheal disease (ADD were studied between June 12 and August 12, 1991. Stool cultures and a complete clinical survey were performed In all patients, most of whom were adults. Aeromonas hydrophila was identified In 11 patients (22%, Vibrio cholerae in 9 (18%, Shigella spp In 3 (6% and enteropathogenic E. coliand Salmonella spp in 1 patient each (2%. No bacterial agent could be identified in 25 patients (50%. The most frequent clinical features were vomit In 62%, fever In 26%, cramps In 22% and grade III dehydration in 48% of the cases. One patient died. ADD can be severe, even lethal; Its clinical features can be very similar regardless of the etiology. The search for other bacterial and viral agents should be Included In future studies. Aeromonas hydrophila is reported here for the first

  15. Stress and asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoji Nagata

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Three factors in recent medical research and treatment (advances in the field of psychoneuroimmunology, epidemiological evidence regarding important interaction between psychosocial factors and development of disease, and the recognition of the importance of patient education for self-management of asthma have led clinicians and researchers to reconsider the role of psychosocial stress in asthma. There are many reports suggesting that stressful life events, family problems and a behavior pattern that increases psychological conflict may influence the development or relapse of asthma and influence its clinical course. Depression is known as one of the risk factors of fatal asthmatic attack. In laboratory studies, about 20% of asthmatics were considered reactors who showed an airway change after exposure to emotional stress. Studies regarding the pathway of stress effect on allergy and asthma are reviewed and discussed from the standpoint of psychoneuroimmunology; for example, the enhancement of IgE production and increased susceptibility to respiratory infection by stress, conditioned anaphylaxis and nerve/mast cell interaction, the effect of stress on various bronchial responses and the inhibition of the immediate and late asthmatic response by anterior hypothalamic lesioning.

  16. Asthma, GERD and Obesity: Triangle of Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Samriti; Lodha, Rakesh; Kabra, S K

    2017-11-11

    There is increasing prevalence of both asthma and obesity in children globally in recent years. Various epidemiological studies link obesity as a risk factor for asthma and suggest a possible causal association. Obesity asthma phenotype is considered as distinct in view of greater severity and poor asthma control. Various mechanisms underlying this phenotype have been suggested including mechanical effects of obesity and systemic inflammation, but still the exact mechanism is unclear. Also, the comorbidities like gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and sleep disordered breathing (SDB) lead to inflammation in airways and contribute to asthma obesity association. A better understanding of mechanisms by which obesity and GERD lead to inflammation in airways and increase the risk of asthma may provide insight towards targeted treatment approach of these patients.

  17. THE ETIOLOGY OF BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turovskiy, Yevgeniy; Noll, Katia Sutyak; Chikindas, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common vaginal infection among women of childbearing age. This condition is notorious for causing severe complications related to the reproductive health of women. Five decades of intense research established many risk factors for acquisition of BV, however due to the complexity of BV and due to lack of a reliable animal model for this condition, its exact etiology remains elusive. In this manuscript we use a historical perspective to critically review the development of major theories on the etiology of BV, ultimately implicating BV-related pathogens, healthy vaginal microbiota, bacteriophages and the immune response of the host. None of these theories on their own can reliably explain the epidemiological data. Instead, BV is caused by a complex interaction of multiple factors, which include the numerous components of the vaginal microbial ecosystem and their human host. Many of these factors are yet to be characterized because a clear understanding of their relative contribution to the etiology of BV is pivotal to formulation of an effective treatment for and prophylaxis of this condition. PMID:21332897

  18. Epidemiologie et etiologies des epistaxis dans notre pratique: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: A frequent ailment in ENT, the epistaxis is an emergency that can put the vital prognosis at stake. An adequate follow up care deserves some knowledge of etiology. Objectives: Study the epidemiological and etiological aspects of the epistaxis. Methodology: A retrospective and descriptive study conducted on ...

  19. Nasal disease and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marseglia, G L; Merli, P; Caimmi, D; Licari, A; Labó, E; Marseglia, A; Ciprandi, G; La Rosa, M

    2011-10-01

    The nose plays a primary role within the airways, working as a filter and air-conditioner, together with other important functions. Thus, it is not surprising that nasal diseases are associated with several other comorbidities, including both upper and lower airways, such as bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and asthma. Several studies have investigated the relationship existing between the upper and the lower airways and new insights are rising. Nevertheless, some uncertainties still remain, mainly because nasal disorders are quite heterogeneous, overlapping (i.e. rhinitis-rhinosinusitis-sinusitis, acute or chronic, allergic or non-allergic) and difficult to diagnose, so that, frequently, many studies don’t differentiate between the various conditions. For this reason, the purpose of this review is to systematically analyze present epidemiological, pathophysiological and clinical data on the relationship between nasal diseases and asthma, splitting up three main conditions: allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis.

  20. Clinical Epidemiology Unit - overview of research areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinical Epidemiology Unit (CEU) conducts etiologic research with potential clinical and public health applications, and leads studies evaluating population-based early detection and cancer prevention strategies

  1. Vitamin D and asthma-life after VIDA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehm, John M

    2014-09-01

    The vitamin D hypothesis postulates that lower vitamin D levels are causally associated with increased asthma risk and asthma severity. Multiple epidemiological studies have shown an inverse relationship between circulating vitamin D levels (in the form of 25-hydroxy vitamin D) and asthma severity and control and lung function. However, in the recently published vitamin D and asthma (VIDA) study, vitamin D supplementation failed to show an improvement in asthma control in adults. This article reviews the current epidemiological and trial evidence for vitamin D and asthma and explores some of the possible alternative explanations for previous findings (including "reverse causation" and the importance of studying children and adults). We also address some of the unique challenges of conducting vitamin D trials and potential ways to address them. Finally, I will argue for further clinical trials of vitamin D in asthma, especially in children, using knowledge gained from the VIDA trial.

  2. Prevalence and characteristics of asthma in the aquatic disciplines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mountjoy, M.; Fitch, K.; Boulet, L.P.; Bougault, V.; van Mechelen, W.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the health benefits of swimming as a form of exercise, evidence exists that both the swimming pool environment and endurance exercise are etiologic factors in the development of asthma. The prevalence of asthma in swimmers is high compared with that in participants in other

  3. Epidemiology, Policy, and Racial/Ethnic Minority Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Offutt-Powell, Tabatha; Kaufman, Jay S.; Giles, Wayne; Mays, Vickie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Epidemiologists have long contributed to policy efforts to address health disparities. Three examples illustrate how epidemiologists have addressed health disparities in the U.S. and abroad through a “social determinants of health” lens. Methods To identify examples of how epidemiologic research has been applied to reduce health disparities, we queried epidemiologists engaged in disparities research in the U.S., Canada, and New Zealand, and drew upon the scientific literature. Results Resulting examples covered a wide range of topic areas. Three areas selected for their contributions to policy were: 1) epidemiology's role in definition and measurement, 2) the study of housing and asthma, and 3) the study of food policy strategies to reduce health disparities. While epidemiologic research has done much to define and quantify health inequalities, it has generally been less successful at producing evidence that would identify targets for health equity intervention. Epidemiologists have a role to play in measurement and basic surveillance, etiologic research, intervention research, and evaluation research. However, our training and funding sources generally place greatest emphasis on surveillance and etiologic research. Conclusions: The complexity of health disparities requires better training for epidemiologists to effectively work in multidisciplinary teams. Together we can evaluate contextual and multilevel contributions to disease and study intervention programs in order to gain better insights into evidenced-based health equity strategies. PMID:22626003

  4. [Asthma and cyclic neutropenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar Cabrera, A N; Berrón Pérez, R; Ortega Martell, J A; Onuma Takane, E

    1996-01-01

    We report a male with history of recurrent infections (recurrent oral aphtous disease [ROAD], middle ear infections and pharyngo amigdalitis) every 3 weeks since he was 7 months old. At the age of 3 years cyclic neutropenia was diagnosed with cyclic fall in the total neutrophil count in blood smear every 21 days and prophylactic antimicrobial therapy was indicated. Episodic events every 3 weeks of acute asthma and allergic rhinitis were detected at the age of 6 years old and specific immunotherapy to Bermuda grass was given during 3 years with markedly improvement in his allergic condition but not in the ROAD. He came back until the age of 16 with episodic acute asthma and ROAD. The total neutrophil count failed to 0 every 21 days and surprisingly the total eosinophil count increased up to 2,000 at the same time, with elevation of serum IgE (412 Ul/mL). Specific immunotherapy to D.pt. and Aller.a. and therapy with timomodulin was indicated. After 3 months we observed clinical improvement in the asthmatic condition and the ROAD disappeared, but the total neutrophil count did not improve. We present this case as a rare association between 2 diseases with probably no etiological relationship but may be physiopatological that could help to understand more the pathogenesis of asthma.

  5. Evaluation of the Correlation Between Childhood Asthma and Helicobacter pylori in Kashan

    OpenAIRE

    Khamechian, Tahere; Movahedian, Amir Hossein; Ebrahimi Eskandari, Ghasem; Heidarzadeh Arani, Marzieh; Mohammadi, Abouzar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory air-way disease with increasing prevalence rate during the recent years. There are studies about the relationship between asthma and infectious diseases, including the association between asthma and Helicobacter pylori. According to the latest studies, there is an epidemiological correlation between asthma prevalence and prevalence of H. pylori. Objectives: The aim of this research was to study the correlation between H. pylori and asthma by biopsy...

  6. Diagnosing Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ribbon Commands Skip to main content Turn off Animations Turn on Animations Our Sponsors Log in | Register Menu Log in | ... were tried and if they helped Any family history of allergies or asthma It is very important ...

  7. Occupational Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the enzymes of the bacteria Bacillus subtilis, while bakers may develop an allergy and occupational asthma symptoms ... counts Continuing education center Find an allergist / immunologist Journals Login / My membership Search your symptoms Shop the ...

  8. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Voice in Health Care Decisions Do Allergies Cause Asthma? KidsHealth > For Parents > Do Allergies Cause Asthma? Print ... son la causa del asma? Do Allergies Cause Asthma? Allergies don't cause asthma. But kids who ...

  9. Asthma Medications and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Associated Conditions Asthma & Pregnancy Asthma & Pregnancy: Medications Asthma & Pregnancy: Medications Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask ... mother and child. Making Decisions about Medication During Pregnancy It is important that your asthma be controlled ...

  10. Helicobacter pylori infection prevents allergic asthma in mouse models through the induction of regulatory T cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arnold, Isabelle C; Dehzad, Nina; Reuter, Sebastian; Martin, Helen; Becher, Burkhard; Taube, Christian; Müller, Anne

    2011-01-01

    .... The increase in asthma rates has been linked epidemiologically to the rapid disappearance of Helicobacter pylori, a bacterial pathogen that persistently colonizes the human stomach, from Western societies...

  11. Pediatric asthma and development of atopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custovic, Adnan; Lazic, Nevena; Simpson, Angela

    2013-04-01

    There is ongoing controversy about the relationship between atopy and asthma. In clinical practice, specific IgE and skin test results should not be reported as 'positive' or 'negative', but as the level of IgE and the size of skin test wheal diameter. In assessment of children with severe asthma, these tests are not mutually exclusive but complementary, and both should be carried out and quantified. In the near future, their diagnostic accuracy in children with wheezing may be improved by the measurement of allergen-specific IgG. It is becoming increasingly clear that asthma is not a single disease, but a collection of several diseases with similar/same symptoms. These distinct disease entities (endotypes) may share similar observable characteristics (phenotypes), but arise via different pathophysiological mechanisms. Observable phenotypic features (e.g. sputum inflammatory phenotypes) are not stable in children with asthma. The discovery of novel, latent endotypes of asthma will require integration of a time component to take into account the phenotype instability and longitudinal changes. Not only asthma, but also 'atopy' encompasses a number of different endotypes which differ in their association with asthma. Novel endotypes of atopy and asthma which better reflect the unique pathophysiological processes underlying different diseases in the atopy and asthma syndromes can be defined through the fusion of computational thinking and novel mathematical approaches with biomedical science. These novel endotypes may be more relevant for epidemiological, genetic and therapeutic studies.

  12. Indoor air pollution and asthma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breysse, Patrick N; Diette, Gregory B; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Butz, Arlene M; Hansel, Nadia N; McCormack, Meredith C

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to review indoor air pollution factors that can modify asthma severity, particularly in inner-city environments. While there is a large literature linking ambient air pollution and asthma morbidity, less is known about the impact of indoor air pollution on asthma. Concentrating on the indoor environments is particularly important for children, since they can spend as much as 90% of their time indoors. This review focuses on studies conducted by the Johns Hopkins Center for Childhood Asthma in the Urban Environment as well as other relevant epidemiologic studies. Analysis of exposure outcome relationships in the published literature demonstrates the importance of evaluating indoor home environmental air pollution sources as risk factors for asthma morbidity. Important indoor air pollution determinants of asthma morbidity in urban environments include particulate matter (particularly the coarse fraction), nitrogen dioxide, and airborne mouse allergen exposure. Avoidance of harmful environmental exposures is a key component of national and international guideline recommendations for management of asthma. This literature suggests that modifying the indoor environment to reduce particulate matter, NO(2), and mouse allergen may be an important asthma management strategy. More research documenting effectiveness of interventions to reduce those exposures and improve asthma outcomes is needed.

  13. Deciphering Asthma Biomarkers with Protein Profiling Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhizhou Kuang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways, resulting in bronchial hyperresponsiveness with every allergen exposure. It is now clear that asthma is not a single disease, but rather a multifaceted syndrome that results from a variety of biologic mechanisms. Asthma is further problematic given that the disease consists of many variants, each with its own etiologic and pathophysiologic factors, including different cellular responses and inflammatory phenotypes. These facets make the rapid and accurate diagnosis (not to mention treatments of asthma extremely difficult. Protein biomarkers can serve as powerful detection tools in both clinical and basic research applications. Recent endeavors from biomedical researchers have developed technical platforms, such as cytokine antibody arrays, that have been employed and used to further the global analysis of asthma biomarker studies. In this review, we discuss potential asthma biomarkers involved in the pathophysiologic process and eventual pathogenesis of asthma, how these biomarkers are being utilized, and how further testing methods might help improve the diagnosis and treatment strain that current asthma patients suffer.

  14. Etiology of Spastic Diplegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The clinical and etiologic profile of spastic diplegia was studied in a retrospective chart review of 54 patients diagnosed during a 12-year period at Montreal Children’s Hospital, Quebec, Canada.

  15. Physician-derived asthma diagnoses made on the basis of questionnaire data are in good agreement with interview-based diagnoses and are not affected by objective tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, K C; Freidhoff, L R; Horowitz, E M; Mathias, R A; Mulkern, D M; Bonacum, J T; Goldman, M H; Polito, A J; Saini, S S; Marsh, D G; Beaty, T H; Togias, A

    1999-10-01

    Defining the phenotype is critical for investigating the genetic etiology of asthma. As part of the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Asthma (CSGA), the primary objective of which is to identify asthma susceptibility loci, an algorithm was designed to determine diagnoses of definite asthma, probable asthma, less than probable asthma, or no asthma. A respiratory questionnaire was designed to assist in the process of characterizing the asthma phenotype. This study was designed to determine the validity of the CSGA algorithm for the diagnosis of asthma, to determine agreement in assessing an asthma diagnosis between the information obtained by the CSGA questionnaire versus a patient interview by a panel of specialist physicians, and to determine the degree to which objective tests would alter the questionnaire-based certainty of asthma diagnosis. An expert panel of asthma clinicians (n = 4) indicated to what degree they were certain that a subject (n = 48) had asthma as determined by using a 6-point Likert scale based on a 20-minute interview (phase I), a review of the CSGA questionnaire (phase II), a review of the questionnaire plus skin test and peripheral blood eosinophilia data (phase III), and a review of phase III information plus pulmonary data (spirometry and methacholine-reversibility testing; IV). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated between the physicians' interpretation of the likelihood of asthma based on the information they received during each of the phases and between the CSGA algorithm and each of the phases. Interjudge reliability with regard to the degree of certainty with which an asthma diagnosis could be made by interview was excellent (ICC, 98; 95% confidence intervals [95% CIs], 0.87-0.99). We also found that the agreement between the physicians' interview with the patients (phase I) and the CSGA algorithm was good and at least as good with the addition of the CSGA questionnaire data and objective data (ICC, 0. 65

  16. PREVALENCE OF ASTHMA-LIKE SYMPTOMS AND DIAGNOSED ASTHMA IN THE POPULATION OF ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Namazova-Baranova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the recent years, standardised epidemiological studies of asthma and asthma'like symptoms in the population of children have been conducted. ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood questionnaire has been predominantly used as a tool to assess the prevalence of clinical implications and diagnosed conditions in children. However, this technique has limitations in terms of subject age (children aged 6–7 and 13–14. We have conducted a study on the prevalence of Asthma and allergy in adolescents (children aged 15–17 using the standardised GA2LEN (Global Allergy and Asthma European Network questionnaire in two Russian cities from central region and Siberia (Moscow and Tomsk. It has been found that the prevalence of asthma'like symptoms in adolescents was three times the level of clinically diagnosed asthma, which accounted for no more than 7%, with this indicator having no variance depending on the region of residence.Key words: asthma, GA2LEN, prevalence, epidemiology, adolescents.

  17. Maternal smoking in pregnancy and asthma in preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuman, Åsa; Hohmann, Cynthia; Orsini, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Although epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to maternal smoking during fetal and early life increases the risk of childhood wheezing and asthma, previous studies were not able to differentiate the effects of prenatal from postnatal exposure....

  18. Relation of Immunologic Mechanism of Asthma and Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Iván Falcón-Rodríguez

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: Th1 response could cause low or no association between exposure to pollution and the development of asthma in different cities, which constitutes another limitation in epidemiological studies.

  19. Breastfeeding is associated with a decreased risk of childhood asthma exacerbations later in life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmadizar, Fariba; Vijverberg, Susanne J. H.; Arets, Hubertus G. M.; de Boer, Anthonius; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D.; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke H.

    2017-01-01

    Breastfeeding has been suggested to influence the risk of asthma and asthma severity in children. However, the conclusions from epidemiologic studies are inconsistent. We used data from 960 children (aged 4-12 years) using regular asthma medication who participated in the PACMAN study. Breastfeeding

  20. Diet and asthma in Dutch school children (ISAAC-2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabak, C.; Wijga, A. H.; de Meer, G.; Janssen, N. A. H.; Brunekreef, B.; Smit, H. A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The rise in the prevalence of asthma in western societies may be related to changed dietary habits. Epidemiological studies in children have shown inverse associations of asthma related outcomes with intake of fruits, vegetables, dairy and whole grain products, and fish. In contrast to

  1. Asthma exacerbation prediction: recent insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Louise

    2018-04-01

    Asthma attacks are frequent in children with asthma and can lead to significant adverse outcomes including time off school, hospital admission and death. Identifying children at risk of an asthma attack affords the opportunity to prevent attacks and improve outcomes. Clinical features, patient behaviours and characteristics, physiological factors, environmental data and biomarkers are all associated with asthma attacks and can be used in asthma exacerbation prediction models. Recent studies have better characterized children at risk of an attack: history of a severe exacerbation in the previous 12 months, poor adherence and current poor control are important features which should alert healthcare professionals to the need for remedial action. There is increasing interest in the use of biomarkers. A number of novel biomarkers, including patterns of volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath, show promise. Biomarkers are likely to be of greatest utility if measured frequently and combined with other measures. To date, most prediction models are based on epidemiological data and population-based risk. The use of digital technology affords the opportunity to collect large amounts of real-time data, including clinical and physiological measurements and combine these with environmental data to develop personal risk scores. These developments need to be matched by changes in clinical guidelines away from a focus on current asthma control and stepwise escalation in drug therapy towards inclusion of personal risk scores and tailored management strategies including nonpharmacological approaches. There have been significant steps towards personalized prediction models of asthma attacks. The utility of such models needs to be tested in the ability not only to predict attacks but also to reduce them.

  2. Asthma - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BS, Burks AW, et al, eds. Middleton's Allergy Principles and Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 53. Lugogo N, Que LG, Gilstrap DL, Kraft M. Asthma: clinical diagnosis and management. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et ...

  3. Childhood asthma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prevalence in children in Cape Town (measured by exercise challenge) was only three per ... mortality among the five to 34-year-old age group, and fifth for asthma ... clouded by differences in terminology used by respondents, depending on ...

  4. Oxidative stress biomarkers and asthma characteristics in adults of the EGEA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianjafimasy, Miora; Zerimech, Farid; Akiki, Zeina; Huyvaert, Helene; Le Moual, Nicole; Siroux, Valérie; Matran, Régis; Dumas, Orianne; Nadif, Rachel

    2017-12-01

    Asthma is an oxidative stress related disease, but associations with asthma outcomes are poorly studied in adults. We aimed to study the associations between several biomarkers related to oxidative stress and various asthma outcomes.Cross-sectional analyses were conducted in 1388 adults (mean age 43 years, 44% with asthma) from the Epidemiological Study of the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA2). Three blood antioxidant enzyme activities (biomarkers of response to oxidative stress) and exhaled breath condensate 8-isoprostanes and plasma fluorescent oxidation products (FlOPs) levels (two biomarkers of damage) were measured. Associations between biomarkers and 1) ever asthma and 2) asthma attacks, asthma control and lung function in participants with asthma were evaluated using regression models adjusted for age, sex and smoking.Biomarkers of response were unrelated to asthma outcomes. Higher 8-isoprostane levels were significantly associated with ever asthma (odds ratio for one interquartile range increase 1.28 (95% CI 1.06-1.67). Among participants with asthma, 8-isoprostane levels were negatively associated with adult-onset asthma (0.63, 0.41-0.97) and FlOPs levels were positively associated with asthma attacks (1.33, 1.07-1.65), poor asthma control (1.30, 1.02-1.66) and poor lung function (1.34, 1.04-1.74).Our results suggest that 8-isoprostanes are involved in childhood-onset asthma and FlOPs are linked to asthma expression. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  5. Environmental epidemiology: An introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Arbabi; Masoud Amiri

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiology is increasingly coping with problems correlated with exposures which may have small relative risks. In fact, many chronic diseases, as the most recent common diseases all over the world, may have unknown etiology but also potentially related to environmental exposures. Environmental epidemiology considers the effect of environmental factors on health. More exposure with increasing number of potential environmental hazards has changed the initial application of environmental epide...

  6. Loss of asthma control and activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneeboer, M M S; Fens, N; van de Pol, M A; Majoor, C J; Meijers, J C M; Kamphuisen, P W; Lutter, R; Sterk, P J; Bel, E H D

    2016-03-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown that patients with severe asthma have increased risk of pulmonary embolism, in particular patients with frequent asthma exacerbations. Therefore, we hypothesized that asthma exacerbations are associated with increased haemostatic activity. To investigate whether induced loss of asthma control is associated with changes in coagulation and fibrinolytic parameters in peripheral blood. We performed a prospective, inhaled steroid withdrawal study in 23 patients with moderate to moderately severe asthma, consisting of a baseline visit and a visit after loss of asthma control. During the visits, we measured asthma control questionnaire (ACQ), atopy, lung function, inflammatory markers (eosinophils and neutrophils), and haemostatic parameters in plasma. Complete cessation of inhaled corticosteroids led to a loss of asthma control in 22 of 23 patients. We found increased asthma symptoms (ACQ 0.9 vs. 2.9, P fibrinolysis parameters. Loss of asthma control after cessation of inhaled corticosteroids does not lead to increased haemostatic activation in patients with moderate to moderately severe asthma. This suggests that more severe inflammation or additional risk factors are required for activation of coagulation or reduction of fibrinolysis in asthma. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Exercise-Induced Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... January 2014 More on this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Can Kids and Teens With Asthma Play Sports? Asthma Center When to Go to the ER if Your Child Has Asthma Kids and Exercise Asthma Triggers Word! Exercise-Induced Asthma ...

  8. Trends in the age of diagnosis of childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Dhenuka Kannan; Dell, Sharon D; Guttmann, Astrid; Shariff, Salimah Z; Liu, Kuan; To, Teresa

    2014-11-01

    The cause of rising asthma incidence over time remains unexplained. Examining trends in the age of diagnosis across successive birth cohorts may offer insights into asthma etiology. To examine trends in the age at asthma diagnosis and the age and proportion of children hospitalized at first asthma diagnosis in Ontario, Canada. Eight consecutive birth cohorts of children (1993-2000) were observed using administrative data from a universal health insurance plan in Ontario, Canada (population 13 million). Trends in the need for hospitalization and age at asthma diagnosis were examined with descriptive and survival analyses. The records of 1,059,511 children were examined, of whom 201,958 developed asthma in the first 8 years of life, with an average cumulative incidence of 19.1%. Mean age at asthma diagnosis decreased from 4.7 ± 1.5 years in birth year 1993 to 2.6 ± 2.0 years in birth year 2000 (P < .0001), with a higher adjusted risk of asthma diagnosis (hazard ratio, 6.7; 95% CI, 6.5-6.9) in the first 3 years of life for children born after 1996 versus children born in the period 1993 to 1995 (hazard ratio, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.3-1.4). The proportion of children hospitalized at asthma diagnosis stayed stable while the age at first asthma hospitalization decreased over time (P < .0001). This study demonstrates a significant increase in asthma incidence and a decrease in the age of asthma diagnosis across multiple birth cohorts. Changes in asthma incidence over time are primarily explained by variations in asthma rates in children younger than 3 years. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Etiology of Inguinal Hernias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öberg, Stina; Andresen, Kristoffer; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The etiology of inguinal hernias remains uncertain even though the lifetime risk of developing an inguinal hernia is 27% for men and 3% for women. The aim was to summarize the evidence on hernia etiology, with focus on differences between lateral and medial hernias. RESULTS: Lateral...... with patients with lateral hernias. However, connective tissue alteration may play a role in development of both subtypes. Inguinal hernias have a hereditary component with a complex inheritance pattern, and inguinal hernia susceptible genes have been identified that also are involved in connective tissue...... homeostasis. CONCLUSION: The etiology of lateral and medial hernias are at least partly different, but the final explanations are still lacking on certain areas. Further investigations of inguinal hernia genes may explain the altered connective tissue observed in patients with inguinal hernias. The precise...

  10. Mechanisms of Asthma in Obesity. Pleiotropic Aspects of Obesity Produce Distinct Asthma Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Anne E; Poynter, Matthew E

    2016-05-01

    The majority of patients with severe or difficult-to-control asthma in the United States are obese. Epidemiological studies have clearly established that obese patients tend to have worse asthma control and increased hospitalizations and do not respond to standard controller therapy as well as lean patients with asthma. Less clear are the mechanistic underpinnings for the striking clinical differences between lean and obese patients with asthma. Because obesity is principally a disorder of metabolism and energy regulation, processes fundamental to the function of every cell and system within the body, it is not surprising that it affects the respiratory system; it is perhaps surprising that it has taken so long to appreciate how dysfunctional metabolism and energy regulation lead to severe airway disease. Although early investigations focused on identifying a common factor in obesity that could promote airway disease, an appreciation has emerged that the asthma of obesity is a manifestation of multiple anomalies related to obesity affecting all the different pathways that cause asthma, and likely also to de novo airway dysfunction. Consequently, all the phenotypes of asthma currently recognized in lean patients (which are profoundly modified by obesity), as well as those unique to one's obesity endotype, likely contribute to obese asthma in a particular individual. This perspective reviews what we have learned from clinical studies and animal models about the phenotypes of asthma in obesity, which show how specific aspects of obesity and altered metabolism might lead to de novo airway disease and profoundly modify existing airway disease.

  11. Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium (E2C2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium studies the etiology of this common cancer and build on resources from existing studies by combining data across studies in order to advance the understanding of the etiology of this disease.

  12. Allergies, asthma, and molds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive airway - mold; Bronchial asthma - mold; Triggers - mold; Allergic rhinitis - pollen ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Mold is a common trigger. When your asthma or allergies become worse due to mold, you are ...

  13. Asthma Triggers: Gain Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... asthma. Dogs, cats, rodents (including hamsters and guinea pigs) and other warm-blooded mammals can trigger asthma ... Page Contact Us to ask a question, provide feedback, or report a problem. Asthma Indoor Air Quality ...

  14. Comparison of clinically diagnosed asthma with parental assessment of children's asthma in a questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hederos, C.A.; Hasselgren, M.; Hedlin, G.

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiological evaluations of the prevalence of asthma are usually based on written questionnaires (WQs) in combination with validation by clinical investigation. In the present investigation, we compared parental assessment of asthma among their preschool children in response to a WQ...... clinics in the same region, were analysed in parallel. Finally, a complementary WQ was sent to the parents of children identified as asthmatic by either or both of this approaches. In response to the WQ 5.9% were claimed to suffer from asthma diagnosed by a doctor. According to the medical records...... with the corresponding medical records in the same region. An International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC)-based WQ was answered by 75% of the parents of 6295 children aged 1-6 yr. Clinically diagnosed asthma, recorded in connection with admissions to the hospital or a visit to any of the outpatient...

  15. The Etiology of Giftedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lee Anne; Oehlert, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    Many theories of giftedness either explicitly or implicitly acknowledge the role of genetic influences; yet, empirical work has not been able to establish the impact that genes have specifically on gifted behavior. In contrast, a great deal of research has been targeted at understanding the etiology of individual differences in general and…

  16. Do chronic workplace irritant exposures cause asthma?

    OpenAIRE

    Dumas, Orianne; Le Moual, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The present review summarizes the recent literature on the relation between chronic workplace irritant exposures and asthma, focusing on exposures of low to moderate levels. We discuss results from epidemiological surveys, potential biological mechanisms, and needs for further research. These aspects are largely illustrated by studies on exposure to cleaning products. Recent results from nine population-based and workplace-based epidemiological studies, mostly cross-se...

  17. What Is Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Asthma Awareness National Asthma Awards Federal and Partner Organizations Public Service Announcements & Multimedia Main menu Environmental Topics Air Bed Bugs Chemicals and Toxics Environmental ...

  18. [From atopic dermatitis to asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Businco, L; Marziali, M; Furcolo, G; Meglio, P

    1997-10-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common chronic skin disorder in infancy and childhood and is the main hallmark of atopic constitution. The disease is multifactorial, and although genetic predisposition is certainly a prerequisite, a number of environmental factors modulate the phenotypic expression of AD. The majority of affected children shows IgE sensitisation towards a large variety of foods and aeroallergens. Since at least 1600, it has been recognized that patients with AD have a high predisposition to develop asthma. Recent epidemiological studies show that AD is commonly seen in individuals from families with a history of asthma. In addition, in population where asthma is uncommon, AD is also uncommon. The sex distribution of AD and asthma is the same, with boys affected significantly more often by these two atopic diseases and in similar proportions. The ETAC project (Early Treatment of the Atopic Child) is a large multicenter, multi-national, double blind, placebo controlled, randomised trial. The main objective of the study is to stop the progression from AD to asthma in young children with AD using early therapeutic intervention with Cetirizine and the second objective is to investigate the main risk factors for the onset of asthma. The results of this study indicate that exposure to potent allergens such as cat or mite significantly increased the risk of sensitisation to these allergens. Prolonged breast feeding was associated with a lowest sensitisation rate to cow milk proteins and to egg. Therefore environmental factors seem to play a crucial role in IgE sensitisation in children with AD.

  19. Behavior problems and prevalence of asthma symptoms among Brazilian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Caroline A; Santos, Darci N; Barreto do Carmo, Maria B; Santos, Letícia M; Teles, Carlos A S; Rodrigues, Laura C; Barreto, Mauricio L

    2011-09-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease in childhood and has been designated a public health problem due to the increase in its prevalence in recent decades, the amount of health service expenditure it absorbs and an absence of consensus about its etiology. The relationships among psychosocial factors and the occurrence, symptomatology, and severity of asthma have recently been considered. There is still controversy about the association between asthma and a child's mental health, since the pathways through which this relationship is established are complex and not well researched. This study aims to investigate whether behavior problems are associated with the prevalence of asthma symptoms in a large urban center in Latin America. It is a cross-section study of 869 children between 6 and 12 years old, residents of Salvador, Brazil. The International Study of Allergy and Asthma in Childhood (ISAAC) instrument was used to evaluate prevalence of asthma symptoms. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) was employed to evaluate behavioral problems. 19.26% (n=212) of the children presented symptoms of asthma. 35% were classified as having clinical behavioral problems. Poisson's robust regression model demonstrated a statistically significant association between the presence of behavioral problems and asthma symptoms occurrence (PR: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.10-1.85). These results suggest an association between behavioral problems and pediatric asthma, and support the inclusion of mental health care in the provision of services for asthma morbidity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Proceedings of a Workshop on Near Fatal Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Mark FitzGerald

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Concern has been expressed about rising asthma morbidity and mortality, although the latter appears to have declined recently. A reasonable surrogate for fatal asthma is an episode of near fatal asthma (NFA. The etiology of episodes of NFA appears to be multifactorial. Features that would characterize asthma patients at risk of NFA have been difficult to define but have included psychosocial barriers. environmental exposures, inadequate or inappropriate physician and/or patient responses to deteriorating asthma and, in particular, overreliance on symptomatic bronchodilator therapy. The association between fatal asthma and NFA with beta-agonist use has been controversial, with it being argued that high use of beta-agonists reflects severity of asthma as opposed to being causal. Studies in the laboratory and ambulatory care setting suggest that regular compared with as-required use of beta-agonists is associated with worsening in asthma control. Although a reduced perception of dyspnea has been identified in some asthma patients, it is not universally present in those with NFA. Retrospective data suggest that hyperinflation of the thorax, as judged by total lung capacity, may be a useful marker for subjects at risk of NFA. Future studies should better characterize these risk factors and develop management strategies (both therapeutic and educational that might reduce the risk of subjects experiencing episodes of NFA and, by extension, reducing the continued unacceptable mortality associated with asthma.

  1. Obesity and asthma: current knowledge and future needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivapalan, Pradeesh; Diamant, Zuzana; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has significant impact on asthma incidence and manifestations. The purpose of the review is to discuss recent observations regarding the association between obesity and asthma focusing on underlying mechanisms, clinical presentation, response to therapy and effect of weight reduction. Clinical and epidemiological studies indicate that obese patients with asthma may represent a unique phenotype, which is more difficult to control, less responsive to asthma medications and by that may have higher healthcare utilization. A number of common comorbidities have been linked to both obesity and asthma, and may, therefore, contribute to the obese-asthma phenotype. Furthermore, recently published studies indicate that even a modest weight reduction can improve clinical manifestations and outcome of asthma. Compared with normal-weight patients, obese and overweight patients with asthma have poorer asthma control and respond less to corticosteroid therapy. Future studies focusing on the mechanism underlying both obesity and asthma including the obese-asthma phenotype are required to better characterize the link between the conditions and target the management of this patient group.

  2. Obesity, Nutrition, and Asthma in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Obesity rates have increased dramatically among children in many parts of the world, especially in North America and several other English-speaking countries. The impact of obesity on pediatric health has become a major prevention initiative by the Obama administration and several public health organizations. Children with obesity are at increased risk for developing asthma, which is already one of the most common chronic diseases among children. The cause underlying obesity's impact on asthma risk is unknown. Commonly cited potential etiologies include airway smooth muscle dysfunction from thoracic restriction, obesity-related circulating inflammation priming the lung, and obesity-related comorbidities mediating asthma symptom development. Each of these theories does not fit precisely with all of the data that have accumulated over the last decade. In this review, I will explore other possible causes including: (1) dietary characteristics common in Westernized countries that might lead to both obesity and asthma; (2) reductions in physical activity; and (3) genetic alterations that increase the propensity to both obesity and asthma together. Next, I will review the current data on how obesity affects common characteristics of asthma such as airway inflammation, lung function, risk of exacerbation, atopy, and response to treatment. Obesity in children with asthma appears to be associated with greater airflow obstruction and a mildly diminished response to inhaled corticosteroids. Little objective evidence in children suggests that obesity significantly heightens the risk of exacerbation or worsens disease stability in children. Lastly, I will discuss the current literature that suggests that obese children with asthma generally should receive the same guidelines-based management as lean children. However, interventions that encourage daily physical activity, weight-loss, normalization of nutrient levels, and monitoring of common obesity-related sequelae should be

  3. Update on asthma and cleaning agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folletti, Ilenia; Siracusa, Andrea; Paolocci, Giulia

    2017-04-01

    Asthma due to cleaning products has been known for 20 years, and the interest in this topic is still large because of the number of cleaning workers with respiratory problems. In this review, we sought to highlight the most recent findings on the relationship between exposure to cleaning products and asthma and to summarize the specific literature published between 2013 and 2016. Women are confirmed as most of workers exposed to cleaning products and have a higher frequency than men of work-related respiratory symptoms and diseases. Many cases of asthma due to cleaning products occur in healthcare occupations. The increased risk of asthma has been shown to be related to the number of years in the job and to early life disadvantage. Recent evidence suggests that predisposition to adult-onset asthma may be related to interaction between genes and occupational exposure to low-molecular weight agents/irritants. There is some evidence that an irritant mechanism is more common, although several case reports showed animmunologic mechanism (e.g. disinfectants, amine compounds, aldehydes and fragrances). The review updated recent findings on epidemiology, cleaning agents and their mechanism, and prevention of asthma due to cleaning agents. This article provides new information on the level of exposure, which is still high in professional cleaners and even more in domestic cleaners, and on the frequency of asthma in professional and domestic cleaners. An irritant mechanism is more common, although an immunological mechanism is possible, especially in healthcare workers exposed to disinfectants.

  4. Vitamin D deficiency and severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Audrey H; Mahboub, Bassam; Hamid, Qutayba

    2013-11-01

    Vitamin D has received tremendous amount of attention recently due to the ever-increasing reports of association between vitamin D deficiency and a wide range of conditions, from cancer to fertility to longevity. The fascination of disease association with vitamin D deficiency comes from the relatively easy solution to overcome such a risk factor, that is, either by increase in sun exposure and/or diet supplementation. Many reviews have been written on a protective role of vitamin D in asthma and related morbidities; here, we will summarize the epidemiological evidence supporting a role of vitamin D against hallmark features of severe asthma, such as airway remodeling and asthma exacerbations. Furthermore, we discuss data from in vitro and in vivo studies which provide insights on the potential mechanisms of how vitamin D may protect against severe asthma pathogenesis and how vitamin D deficiency may lead to the development of severe asthma. Approximately 5-15% of asthmatic individuals suffer from the more severe forms of disease in spite of aggressive therapies and they are more likely to have irreversible airflow obstruction associated with airway remodeling. At present drugs commonly used to control asthma symptoms, such as corticosteroids, do not significantly reverse or reduce remodeling in the airways. Hence, if vitamin D plays a protective role against the development of severe asthma, then the most effective therapy may simply be a healthy dose of sunshine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Etiology of affective disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, M; Kariya, T

    1994-05-01

    We discussed mainly neurochemical etiology of affective disorders (A.D.). Neurochemically, decreased 5-HT uptake in the platelet, increased 5-HT2 receptor in the platelet and cortex of suicides, increased beta receptor in the brains of suicide, functional abnormality of alpha 2 receptor in clonidine, DMI test, GABAB receptor up-regulation after chronic administration of antidepressants and mood stabilizers, participation of neuropeptide Y, and abnormality of HPA axis were recognized. Moreover, we referred to the importance of psychosocial and genetic factors. As for the etiology of A.D., while predisposition and environment participate, the method of participation will be different in subtypes. Frailty to stress in a broad sense, however is commonly seen in A.D. Though psychosocial factors are important, the physical condition, which involves fatigue, cannot be ignored. And, it is the most important that the biological and genetical factors which cause A.D., in the face of stimuli, must first be elucidated.

  6. Behavior problems and prevalence of asthma symptoms among Brazilian children

    OpenAIRE

    Feitosa, Caroline Alves; Santos, Darci N.; Carmo, Maria Beatriz Barreto do; Santos, Letícia Marques dos; Teles, Carlos A. S.; Rodrigues, Laura C.; Barreto, Mauricio Lima

    2011-01-01

    Acesso ao resumo: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21843751 Objective: Asthma is the most common chronic disease in childhood and has been designated a public health problem due to the increase in its prevalence in recent decades, the amount of health service expenditure it absorbs and an absence of consensus about its etiology. The relationships among psychosocial factors and the occurrence, symptomatology, and severity of asthma have recently been considered. There is still controversy...

  7. Asthma and Its Impacts on Oral Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Keleş

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and reversible airflow obstruction. Genetic factors and environmental factors may play a role in the etiology of asthma. An approximately 300 million people worldwide have been diagnosed with asthma and there may be an additional 100 million diagnosis by 2025. Studies conducted in Turkey reported a prevalence between 1.5% and 9.4%. In the literature, there are many studies investigating the impacts of the medications used for asthma, which has a tendency to increase in our country and in the world, on oral health. However, no consensus has yet been established regarding whether these medications affect oral health. It is important to have knowledge about the impacts of asthma medications on oral and dental health and to take the necessary precautions in order to maintain oral and dental health. In this review, in addition to investigation of the impact of asthma medications on oral health, possible measures that can be taken were also evaluated.

  8. Asthma and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Caroline Trunk-Black; Ali, Zarqa; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a major health problem, and obesity is associated with a high incidence of asthma and poor asthma control. The aim of the present paper is to systematically review the current knowledge of the effect on overall asthma control of weight reduction in overweight and obese adults with asthma....

  9. Molar Incisor Hypomineralization, Prevalence, and Etiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Mohammed Allazzam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the prevalence and possible etiological factors associated with molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH among a group of children in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods. A group of 8-12-year-old children were recruited (n=267  from the Pediatric Dental Clinics at the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University. Children had at least one first permanent molar (FPM, erupted or partially erupted. Demographic information, children’s medical history, and pregnancy-related data were obtained. The crowns of the FPM and permanent incisors were examined for demarcated opacities, posteruptive breakdown (PEB, atypical restorations, and extracted FPMs. Children were considered to have MIH if one or more FPM with or without involvement of incisors met the diagnostic criteria. Results. MIH showed a prevalence of 8.6%. Demarcated opacities were the most common form. Maxillary central incisors were more affected than mandibular (P=0.01. The condition was more prevalent in children with history of illnesses during the first four years of life including tonsillitis (P=0.001, adenoiditis (P=0.001, asthma (P=0.001, fever (P=0.014, and antibiotics intake (P=0.001. Conclusions. The prevalence of MIH is significantly associated with childhood illnesses during the first four years of life including asthma, adenoid infections, tonsillitis, fever, and antibiotics intake.

  10. Asthma and exposure to cleaning products: a European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology task force consensus statement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siracusa, A.; Blay, F. de; Folletti, I.; Moscato, G.; Olivieri, M.; Quirce, S.; Raulf-Heimsoth, M.; Sastra, J.; Tarlo, S.M.; Walusiak-Skorupa, J.; Zock, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Professional and domestic cleaning is associated with work-related asthma (WRA). This position paper reviews the literature linking exposure to cleaning products and the risk of asthma and focuses on prevention. Increased risk of asthma has been shown in many epidemiological and surveillance

  11. Asthma in the elderly: a different disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Battaglia

    2016-03-01

    Asthma is a chronic airway disease that affects all ages, but does this definition also include the elderly? Traditionally, asthma has been considered a disease of younger age, but epidemiological studies and clinical experience support the concept that asthma is as prevalent in older age as it is in the young. With the ever-increasing elderly population worldwide, the detection and proper management of the disease in old age may have a great impact from the public health perspective. Whether asthma in the elderly maintains the same characteristics as in young populations is an interesting matter. The diagnostic process in older individuals with suspected asthma follows the same steps, namely a detailed history supported by clinical examination and laboratory investigations; however, it should be recognised that elderly patients may partially lose reversibility of airway obstruction. The correct interpretation of spirometric curves in the elderly should take into account the physiological changes in the respiratory system. Several factors contribute to delaying the diagnosis of asthma in the elderly, including the age-related impairment in perception of breathlessness. The management of asthma in advanced age is complicated by the comorbidities and polypharmacotherapy, which advocate for a comprehensive approach with a multidimensional assessment. It should be emphasised that older age frequently represents an exclusion criterion for eligibility in clinical trials, and current asthma medications have rarely been tested in elderly asthmatics. Ageing is associated with pharmacokinetic changes of the medications. As a consequence, absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of antiasthmatic medications can be variably affected. Similarly, drug-to-drug interactions may reduce the effectiveness of inhaled medications and increase the risk of side-effects. For this reason, we propose the term “geriatric asthma” be preferred to the more generic “asthma in the

  12. Asthma and allergic rhinitis in childhood: what's new.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrorilli, Carla; Posa, Daniela; Cipriani, Francesca; Caffarelli, Carlo

    2016-12-01

    Novel approaches are currently offered for the diagnostic workup and therapeutic management of allergic rhinitis and asthma. New predictive biomarkers of allergy and asthma are available. Primary and secondary prevention, earlier intervention, and modification of the natural history of allergic rhinitis and asthma are being intensively investigated. This review highlights advances in the understanding of the etiology, diagnosis, and management of atopic airway diseases in childhood, as well as prenatal and early-life risk factors and strategies for prevention. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. [Prevalence of asthma and determination of symptoms as risk indicators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla-Hernández, Eleazar; Medina-Ávalos, Miguel Alejandro; Barnica-Alvarado, Raúl Humberto; Soto-Candia, Diego; Guerrero-Venegas, Rosario; Zecua-Nájera, Yahvéh

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease whose prevalence has increased, especially in developed countries; the results of studies of asthma prevalence vary in different populations and even within the same country; in Mexico we observed fluctuations in prevalence of asthma from 7% to 33%. To determine the prevalence of asthma and severity of symptoms as risk indicators in school population in cities in various states of Mexico. A descriptive study of detection of asthma prevalence and analytical-comparative observational study of determination of symptoms of asthma. The surveys were applied to preschool, elementary, middle and high school population, in the cities of Puebla, Puebla; Tulancingo, Hidalgo; Tlaxcala, Tlaxcala, and Cancún, Quintana Roo; new validated questionnaire was used as instrument: Asthma Diagnostic Questionnaire for Epidemiologic Studies, consisting of eight questions with summation value for diagnosis. 8,754 surveys showed a 14% prevalence in Puebla, 17% in Tulancingo, 7% in Tlaxcala, and 14% in Cancún; average in four cities surveyed was 13%; the strength of association with asthma symptoms in descending order with significant odds ratio were: recurrent wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness, recurrent cough, cough cold, recurrent cold symptoms, predominantly nocturnal cough, cough that increases with exercise. The average prevalence of asthma in the surveyed cities was 13% and the main symptoms indicators of risk of asthma in school children were: recurrent wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness and recurrent cough.

  14. Virus-induced exacerbations in asthma and COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke eKurai

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is characterized by chronic airway inflammation and/or airflow limitation due to pulmonary emphysema. Chronic bronchitis, pulmonary emphysema, and bronchial asthma may all be associated with airflow limitation; therefore, exacerbation of asthma may be associated with the pathophysiology of COPD. Furthermore, recent studies have suggested that the exacerbation of asthma, namely virus-induced asthma, may be associated with a wide variety of respiratory viruses.COPD and asthma have different underlying pathophysiological processes and thus require individual therapies. Exacerbation of both COPD and asthma, which are basically defined and diagnosed by clinical symptoms, is associated with a rapid decline in lung function and increased mortality. Similar pathogens, including human rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus, parainfluenza virus and coronavirus, are also frequently detected during exacerbation of asthma and/or COPD. Immune response to respiratory viral infections, which may be related to the severity of exacerbation in each disease, varies in patients with both COPD and asthma. In this regard, it is crucial to recognize and understand both the similarities and differences of clinical features in patients with COPD and/or asthma associated with respiratory viral infections, especially in the exacerbative stage.In relation to definition, epidemiology, and pathophysiology, this review aims to summarize current knowledge concerning exacerbation of both COPD and asthma by focusing on the clinical significance of associated respiratory virus infections.

  15. [FAI - concept and etiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leunig, M; Ganz, R

    2009-05-01

    Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), a recently proposed mechanical concept regarding the development of osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip, is gaining increased acceptance. Both osseous deformity and use of the hip may result in hip damage. Osseous deformities are seen on the acetabular (pincer) or the femoral (cam) side of the hip, leading to characteristic alterations of the acetabular rim. Cam FAI is found in 20-30-year-old athletic men, revealing deep cartilage avulsions from the acetabular rim while the labrum is frequently intact. In pincer FAI, found in 30-40-year-old women, the labrum is frequently significantly destroyed with only minor damage to the acetabular rim. Professional or athletic impact activities can trigger even mild FAI deformities to become symptomatic. For some FAI deformities, the etiologies are known, but for most of them the exact causes are unknown. An improved understanding of the etiology of FAI and its role in the development of hip OA might lead to a reduction in the prevalence of so-called primary OA of the hip.

  16. [Genetic and environmental factors of asthma and allergy: Results of the EGEA study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzigon, E; Nadif, R; Le Moual, N; Dizier, M-H; Aschard, H; Boudier, A; Bousquet, J; Chanoine, S; Donnay, C; Dumas, O; Gormand, F; Jacquemin, B; Just, J; Margaritte-Jeannin, P; Matran, R; Pison, C; Rage, E; Rava, M; Sarnowski, C; Smit, L A M; Temam, S; Varraso, R; Vignoud, L; Lathrop, M; Pin, I; Demenais, F; Kauffmann, F; Siroux, V

    2015-10-01

    The EGEA study (epidemiological study on the genetics and environment of asthma, bronchial hyperresponsiveness and atopy), which combines a case-control and a family-based study of asthma case (n=2120 subjects) with three surveys over 20 years, aims to identify environmental and genetic factors associated with asthma and asthma-related phenotypes. We summarize the results of the phenotypic characterization and the investigation of environmental and genetic factors of asthma and asthma-related phenotypes obtained since 2007 in the EGEA study (42 articles). Both epidemiological and genetic results confirm the heterogeneity of asthma. These results strengthen the role of the age of disease onset, the allergic status and the level of disease activity in the identification of the different phenotypes of asthma. The deleterious role of active smoking, exposure to air pollution, occupational asthmogenic agents and cleaning products on the prevalence and/or activity of asthma has been confirmed. Accounting for gene-environment interactions allowed the identification of new genetic factors underlying asthma and asthma-related traits and better understanding of their mode of action. The EGEA study is contributing to the advances in respiratory research at the international level. The new phenotypic, environmental and biological data available in EGEA study will help characterizing the long-term evolution of asthma and the factors associated to this evolution. Copyright © 2015 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. International Retrospective Comparison of Inpatient Rehabilitation for Patients With Spinal Cord Dysfunction : Differences According to Etiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    New, Peter Wayne; Reeves, Ronald K.; Smith, Eimear; Eriks-Hoogland, Inge; Gupta, Anupam; Scivoletto, Giorgio; Townson, Andrea; Maurizio, Belci; Post, Marcel. W.

    Objectives: To describe and compare epidemiologic characteristics and clinical outcomes of patients with nontraumatic spinal cord dysfunction according to etiology. Design: Retrospective, multicenter open-cohort case series. Setting: Spinal rehabilitation units (SRUs) in 9 countries. Participants:

  18. International Retrospective Comparison of Inpatient Rehabilitation for Patients With Spinal Cord Dysfunction : Differences According to Etiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    New, P.W.; Reeves, Ron; Smith, Einar; Eriks-Hoogland, I.E.; Gupta, A.; Scivoletto, G.; Townson, A.; Maurizio, B.; Post, MWM

    Objectives To describe and compare epidemiologic characteristics and clinical outcomes of patients with nontraumatic spinal cord dysfunction according to etiology. Design Retrospective, multicenter open-cohort case series. Setting Spinal rehabilitation units (SRUs) in 9 countries. Participants

  19. Obesity and Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Caroline Trunk-Black; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is more prevalent in obese compared with normal weight subjects. Our aim has been to review current knowledge of the impact of obesity on asthma severity, asthma control, and response to therapy.Several studies have shown that overweight and obesity is associated with more severe asthma...... and impaired quality of life compared with normal weight individuals. Furthermore, obesity is associated with poorer asthma control, as assessed by asthma control questionnaires, limitations in daily activities, breathlessness and wheezing, use of rescue medication, unscheduled doctor visits, emergency...... department visits, and hospitalizations for acute asthma. Studies of the impact of a high body mass index (BMI) on response to asthma therapy have, however, revealed conflicting results. Most studies show that overweight and obesity is associated with less favorable response to asthma therapy with regard...

  20. Burden of asthma among children in a developing megacity: childhood asthma study, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Adeel Ahmed; Tanzil, Sana; Jamali, Tanzil; Shahid, Afshan; Naeem, Shahla; Sahito, Ambreen; Siddiqui, Fraz Anwar; Nafees, Asaad Ahmed; Fatmi, Zafar

    2014-11-01

    Global burden of childhood asthma has increased in the past few decades, particularly in low-income countries. In Pakistan, there is a lack of community-based epidemiological studies estimating the burden of asthma among children. This study determined the prevalence and predictors of asthma among children 3-17 years of age in Karachi, Pakistan. A two-stage community-based representative cross-sectional survey was conducted in Karachi from March 2012 to April 2013 comprising 1046 children aged 3-17 years. Of 7500 clusters, 80 were randomly selected, and of these, 15 children per cluster were enrolled randomly. A translated and pre-tested version of International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children questionnaire was administered. The overall prevalence of asthma among study participants was 10.2% (95% CI: 8.4-12.0). Asthma was more likely to occur among boys (adj. OR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.6-4.0), children in the younger age group (3-7 years) (adj. OR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.7-4.8), those living in households with ill-ventilated kitchens (adj. OR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-3.1), having family history of asthma (adj. OR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.3-3.9) and those of the Sindhi ethnicity (adj. OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.1-4.4). This study is the first robust evidence regarding asthma among children in Pakistan, reporting a high burden in this group. Family history, male gender, Sindhi ethnicity and ill-ventilated kitchen were identified as important predictors of asthma. Targeted preventive measures and intervention studies are required to better understand and reduce the burden of asthma among children in Pakistan.

  1. Smoking and Asthma (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Personal Plan Hot Topics Flu Facts Arrhythmias Abuse Smoking and Asthma KidsHealth > For Teens > Smoking and Asthma ... A en español Fumar y el asma Does Smoking Make Asthma Worse? Yes. If you have asthma, ...

  2. Epidemiological studies on syncope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruwald, Martin Huth

    2013-01-01

    of the patients play an essential role. In epidemiology these factors have major impact on the outcome of the patients. Until recently, even the definition of syncope differed from one study to another which has made literature reviews difficult. Traditionally the data on epidemiology of syncope has been taken......The epidemiology and prognosis of ''fainting'' or syncope has puzzled physicians over the years. Is fainting dangerous? This is a question often asked by the patient--and the answer is ''it depends on a lot of things''. The diverse pathophysiology of syncope and the underlying comorbidites......: 1) the use, validity and accuracy of the ICD-10 diagnosis of syncope R55.9 in the National Patient Registry for the use of this diagnosis in the epidemiology of syncope, 2) diagnostics used and etiology of a random selection of patients who had a discharge diagnosis of R55.9, 3) the incidence...

  3. Prevalence and characteristics of asthma in the aquatic disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountjoy, Margo; Fitch, Ken; Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Bougault, Valerie; van Mechelen, Willem; Verhagen, Evert

    2015-09-01

    Despite the health benefits of swimming as a form of exercise, evidence exists that both the swimming pool environment and endurance exercise are etiologic factors in the development of asthma. The prevalence of asthma in swimmers is high compared with that in participants in other Olympic sport disciplines. There are no publications comparing the prevalence of asthma in the 5 aquatic disciplines. The purpose of this study is to examine and compare the prevalence of asthma in the aquatic disciplines and in contrast with other Olympic sports. Therapeutic Use Exemptions containing objective evidence of athlete asthma/airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) were collected for all aquatic athletes participating in swimming, diving, synchronized swimming, water polo, and open water swimming for major events during the time period from 2004-2009. The prevalence of asthma/AHR in the aquatic disciplines was analyzed for statistical significance (with 95% CIs) and also compared with that in other Olympic sports. Swimming had the highest prevalence of asthma/AHR in comparison with the other aquatic disciplines. The endurance aquatic disciplines have a higher prevalence of asthma/AHR than the aquatic nonendurance disciplines. Asthma/AHR is more common in Oceania, Europe, and North America than in Asia, Africa, and South America. In comparison with other Olympic sports, swimming, synchronized swimming, and open water swimming were among the top 5 sports for asthma/AHR prevalence. Asthma/AHR in the endurance aquatic disciplines is common at the elite level and has a varied geographic distribution. Findings from this study demonstrate the need for development of aquatic discipline-specific prevention, screening, and treatment regimens. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Viral asthma: implications for clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Menendez

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Roger Menendez1, Michael D Goldman21Allergy and Asthma Center of El Paso, El Paso, TX, USA; 2Pulmonary Division, UCLA Gaffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: The natural history of asthma appears to be driven primarily by the timing and duration of viral respiratory infections. From the very high rate of infections in childhood, to the more sporadic pattern seen in adults, the cycle of acute injury followed by an inefficient repair process helps explain the clinical patterns of asthma severity currently recognized by asthma guidelines. Why the asthmatic host responds to viral injury in a particular way is largely a mystery and the subject of intense investigation. The role of viruses in asthma extends not just to intermittent but to persistent disease, and to both the atopic as well as nonatopic phenotypes. Future therapeutic strategies should include primary prevention via the development of antiviral innate immunity-enhancing vaccines, as well as secondary prevention via the use of antiviral agents, or immunomodulators designed to boost the antiviral response or interrupt the proinflammatory cascade.Keywords: asthma, rhinoviruses, exacerbations, epidemiology, phenotypes, clinical trials

  5. Fine particulate pollution and asthma exacerbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouazza, Naïm; Foissac, Frantz; Urien, Saik; Guedj, Romain; Carbajal, Ricardo; Tréluyer, Jean-Marc; Chappuy, Hélène

    2017-12-19

    As the results from epidemiological studies about the impact of outdoor air pollution on asthma in children are heterogeneous, our objective was to investigate the association between asthma exacerbation in children and exposure to air pollutants. A database of 1 264 585 paediatric visits during the 2010-2015 period to the emergency rooms from 20 emergency departments (EDs) of 'Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris (APHP)', the largest hospital group in Europe, was used. A total of 47 107 visits were classified as asthma exacerbations. Concentration of air pollutants (nitrogen dioxide, ozone, fine particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10  µm (PM10) and 2.5 µm (PM2.5)), as well as meteorological data, evolution of respiratory syncytial virus infection and pollen exposition, were collected on an hourly or daily basis for the same period using institutional databases. To assess the association between air pollution and asthma, mixed-effects quasi-Poisson regression modelling was performed. The only compound independently associated with ED visits for asthma was PM2.5 (Peffect, was estimated at 13.5 µg/m3. We found an association between daily asthma exacerbation in paediatric visits to the ED and fine particulate air pollutants. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Risk for Asthma in Offspring of Asthmatic Mothers versus Fathers: A Meta-Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, R.H.; Kobzik, L.; Dahl, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Background: Many human epidemiologic studies demonstrate that maternal asthma confers greater risk of asthma to offspring than does paternal disease. However, a handful have shown the opposite. Given this disparity, a meta-analysis is necessary to determine the veracity and magnitude...... of the "maternal effect.'' Methodology/Principal Findings: We screened the medical literature from 1966 to 2009 and performed a meta-analysis to compare the effect of maternal asthma vs. paternal asthma on offspring asthma susceptibility. Aggregating data from 33 studies, the odds ratio for asthma in children...... of asthmatic mothers compared with non-asthmatic mothers was significantly increased at 3.04 (95% confidence interval: 2.59-3.56). The corresponding odds ratio for asthma in children of asthmatic fathers was increased at 2.44 (2.14-2.79). When comparing the odds ratios, maternal asthma conferred greater risk...

  7. Asthma and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet, L-P

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence and incidence of asthma have increased among obese children and adults, particularly among women. Obesity seems to be a predisposing factor for the development of asthma, but the underlying mechanisms of its influence are still uncertain. Various hypotheses have been proposed to explain the link between obesity and asthma such as a common genetic predisposition, developmental changes, altered lung mechanics, the presence of a systemic inflammatory process, and an increased prevalence of associated comorbid conditions. Over-diagnosis of asthma does not seem to be more frequent in obese compared to non-obese subjects, but the added effects of obesity on respiratory symptoms can affect asthma control assessment. Obesity can make asthma more difficult to control and is associated with a reduced beneficial effect of asthma medications. This could be due to a change in asthma phenotype, particularly evidenced as a less eosinophilic type of airway inflammation combined to the added effects of changes in lung mechanics. Weight loss is associated with a universal improvement of asthma and should be part of asthma management in the obese patient. Additional research should be conducted to better determine how obesity influences the development and clinical expression of asthma, establish the optimal management of asthma in this population and determine how obesity affects long-term asthma outcomes in these patients. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. [Bronchial asthma pathogenesis and genetic prognosis development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmasova, I P; Sepiashvili, R I; Sepiashvili, Ia R; Malova, E S

    2014-01-01

    The review is dedicated to an actual problem--genetic prognosis of risk of bronchial asthma development that is quite a complex aspect of studies from a methodological viewpoint. Bronchial asthma--heterogeneous disease by both etiology and clinical characteristics. At the same time genetic prognosis is based on the unity of pathogenetic mechanisms of development, though in immunological reactions that are the base of this disease, alternative variants are possible. The aim of this review is carrying out parallels between modern achievements in the field of deciphering trigger mechanisms of bronchial asthma pathogenesis and object of genetic studies based on these mechanisms. Among the examined conceptions--role of epithelial tissue in trigger mechanisms of bronchial asthma, variants of key role of immune system cells, first of all, T-helpers of various types for further development of inflammatory-effector reactions with damage characteristic for this disease. Compliance of contemporary approaches of genetic studies and novel concepts of bronchial asthma pathogenesis is shown.

  9. For Parents of Children with Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Asthma > Managing Asthma For Parents of Children with Asthma Your Child's Asthma: A Parent's Guide to Better Breathing This step- ... health considerations you should keep in mind. Diagnosing Asthma in Young Children Most children who have asthma ...

  10. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Asthma among Persons with Current Asthma Asthma and Obesity Percentage of People with Asthma who Smoke Insurance ... Asthma Resources for Professionals National Asthma Control Program America Breathing Easier Guide for State Programs Interventions Community ...

  11. Determinação de escore e nota de corte do módulo de asma do International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood para discriminação de adultos asmáticos em estudos epidemiológicos Determining the score and cut-off point that would identify asthmatic adults in epidemiological studies using the asthma module of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elayne de Fátima Maçãira

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Validar o questionário padronizado escrito do International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, módulo sobre asma, para pesquisa de prevalência de asma, estabelecendo seu escore e a nota de corte para discriminação de adultos asmáticos. MÉTODOS: Entrevistamos pacientes ambulatoriais adultos, 40 asmáticos e 38 controles, pareados por sexo e idade, utilizando o módulo de asma do International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, composto por oito aspectos dicotômicos de asma. Determinamos o escore e a nota de corte para discriminação de asmáticos, definindo sua sensibilidade, especificidade e índice de Youden. Validamos o método em contraposição ao diagnóstico clínico e funcional. A reprodutibilidade das questões individuais foi testada por meio de reentrevistas de metade dos pacientes após algumas semanas. RESULTADOS: O escore variou de 0 a 14 pontos. Um escore = 5 pontos permitiu discriminar pacientes asmáticos (sensibilidade = 93%, especificidade = 100% e índice de Youden = 0,93. A maioria das questões apresentou boa reprodutibilidade, observada em reentrevista após 48,2 ± 11,1 dias (Kappa e Kappa ponderado variando de 0,43 a 1,00 para as questões individuais. CONCLUSÃO: A validação de uma nota de corte permite uma interpretação alternativa às informações fornecidas pelo módulo de asma do International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, levando em conta o conjunto das informações e não somente as respostas individuais de cada questão em estudos de prevalência de asma em adultos.OBJECTIVE: To validate, for use in asthma prevalence studies, the asthma module of the standardized written questionnaire developed for use in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, establishing the score and cut-off point that would identify asthmatic adults. METHODS: We interviewed 78 adult outpatients (40 adult asthmatics and 38 age-matched and gender-matched controls

  12. [Less frequent etiology in uveitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignat, F; Preda, M; Perovic, I

    2001-01-01

    This material intends to present three clinical observations regarding the uveitis etiology, that is represented by the association of some etiological factors less known: Toxoplasma gondii, Listeria monocytogenes, Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae. The uveitis described here have been severe in the fast evolution and with trends of reappearence. This work demonstrates that the strict etiological antibacteria and antiparasite therapy is not enough and only corticotherapy is able to fight against the accentuated inflammatory phenomena that go along with type of uveitis.

  13. Fitness, obesity and risk of asthma among Army trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, N; Boivin, M R; Cowan, D N

    2016-10-01

    Epidemiological data suggest an association between overweight/obesity and asthma. However, less is known about the relationship between physical fitness and asthma. To enumerate new-onset asthma diagnoses in Army recruits during the first 2 years of service and determine associations with fitness and excess body fat (EBF) at military entrance. New asthma diagnoses over 2 years in Army recruits at six entrance stations were obtained from military health and personnel records. Poisson regression models were used to determine associations of asthma diagnosis with pre-accession fitness testing, EBF and other potential factors. In 9979 weight-qualified and 1117 EBF entrants with no prior history of asthma, 256 new cases of asthma were diagnosed within 2 years of military entry. Low level of fitness, defined by a step test and EBF, was significantly associated with new asthma diagnosis [adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR), 1.47; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-1.96 and adjusted IRR, 1.53; 95% CI 1.06-2.20, respectively]. Individuals with low fitness levels, EBF or both are at higher risk of asthma diagnosis in the first 2 years of military service. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine 2016.

  14. What is Asthma?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lung Association 104 COPD Awareness Month: Connecting with Social Support American Lung Association ... Asthma - Duration: 3:36. Nucleus Medical Media 658,979 views 3:36 What is asthma. ...

  15. Obesity, adipokines and asthma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jartti, T; Saarikoski, L; Jartti, L; Lisinen, I; Jula, A; Huupponen, R; Viikari, J; Raitakari, O. T

    2009-01-01

    .... Our objective was to examine whether obesity is associated with asthma in three time points of life, and whether immunomodulatory adipokines, leptin and adiponectin are linked to overweight-associated asthma. Methods...

  16. What is Asthma?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lung Association 139 Barbara Tie talks about Alpha 1-caused COPD American Lung Association 140 Judy Pruitt ... American Lung Association 182 Asthma - Theresa Moore PSA 1 American Lung Association 183 Asthma Walk PSA American ...

  17. Exercise-induced asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000036.htm Exercise-induced asthma To use the sharing features on this page, ... such as running, basketball, or soccer. Use Your Asthma Medicine Before you Exercise Take your short-acting, ...

  18. Allergies, asthma, and pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive airway - pollen; Bronchial asthma - pollen; Triggers - pollen; Allergic rhinitis - pollen ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. It is important to know your triggers because avoiding them is your first step toward feeling better. ...

  19. What is Asthma?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clubs American Lung Association 146 Angela Abel on exercise and COPD American Lung Association 147 American Lung ... 40 Types of Asthma - Duration: 11:38. Affinity Health Plan 6,222 views 11:38 Asthma Tech - ...

  20. Smoking and asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000504.htm Smoking and asthma To use the sharing features on ... your allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Smoking is a trigger for many people who have ...

  1. Asthma - child - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000001.htm Asthma - child - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... care for your child. Take Charge of Your Child's Asthma at Home Make sure you know the ...

  2. Psychopathology in difficult asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, L.C.; van Son, M.J.M.; Keimpema, A.R.; van Ranst, D; Pommer, A; Meijer, J.W.; Pop, V.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Within the asthma population, difficult asthma (DA) is a severe condition in which patients present with frequent exacerbations, hospitalizations and emergency room visits. The identification and treatment of psychopathology is included in the management of DA. Psychopathology is supposed

  3. Epidemiological studies in mucus hypersecretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    hypothesis' it was reduced to being an innocent disorder in the 1980s but is now again recognized as a potential risk factor for an accelerated loss of lung function. Whereas early studies in mainly occupational cohorts showed no effect of chronic mucus hypersecretion on decline in lung function...... with the presence of mucus. In asthma recent findings suggest that in epidemiology chronic mucus hypersecretion may indicate lack of control which leads to an accelerated loss of lung function and increased mortality in subjects with self-reported asthma....

  4. Symposium on Obesity and Asthma –November 2, 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis-Philippe Boulet

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma and obesity are frequently associated, and obesity has been considered a factor contributing to both an increase in severity of asthma and to its development. The present document summarizes the proceedings of a symposium held in Montreal, Quebec, on November 2, 2006, under the auspices of the Réseau en santé respiratoire du Fonds de la recherche en santé du Québec in collaboration with the McGill University – Strauss Severe Asthma Program, Université Laval (Quebec City and Université de Montréal. It includes an overview of the various aspects of the relationships between asthma and obesity with regard to animal models; genetic, hormonal and physiological determinants; influence of comorbidities (eg, sleep apnea syndrome; epidemiology; clinical and psychological features; and management of asthma in the obese population.

  5. ETIOLOGY OF AUTISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir TRAJKOVSKI

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Although there is good evidence that autism is a multifactorial disorder, an adequate understanding of the genetic and nongenetic causes has yet to be achieved. With empirical research findings review is made to evidence on possible causal influences. Much the strongest evidence concerns the importance of susceptibility genes, but such genes have yet to be identified. Specific somatic conditions (tuberous sclerosis and the fragile X syndrome account for a small proportion of cases. Over recent decades there has been a major rise in the rate of diagnosed autism. The main explanation for this rise is to be found in better ascertainment and a broadening of the diagnostic concept. Progress on the elucidation of the causes of autism will be crucially dependent on the combination of epidemiology with more basic science laboratory studies.

  6. Allergy in severe asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Del Giacco, Stefano R.; Bakirtas, A.; Bel, E.; Custovic, A.; Diamant, Z.; Hamelmann, E.; Heffler, E.; Kalayci, O.; Saglani, S.; Sergejeva, S.; Seys, S.; Simpson, A.; Bjermer, Leif

    It is well recognized that atopic sensitization is an important risk factor for asthma, both in adults and in children. However, the role of allergy in severe asthma is still under debate. The term 'Severe Asthma' encompasses a highly heterogeneous group of patients who require treatment on steps

  7. Clinical phenotypes of asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bel, Elisabeth H.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Asthma is a phenotypically heterogeneous disorder and, over the years, many different clinical subtypes of asthma have been described. A precise definition of asthma phenotypes is now becoming more and more important, not only for a better understanding of pathophysiologic

  8. Recognition of asthma in adolescents and young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Postma, Dirkje S; Backer, Vibeke

    2005-01-01

    Objective assessment of airway function is important in epidemiologic studies of asthma to facilitate comparison between studies. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), peak expiratory flow (PEF) variability, and bronchodilator reversibility (BR) are widely used as markers of airway lability in such s......Objective assessment of airway function is important in epidemiologic studies of asthma to facilitate comparison between studies. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), peak expiratory flow (PEF) variability, and bronchodilator reversibility (BR) are widely used as markers of airway lability...... in such studies. Data from a survey of a population sample of adolescents and young adults (n = 609; 288 males), aged 13-23 years, were analyzed to investigate whether AHR, PEF variability, and BR can be used interchangeably as markers of asthma in an epidemiological setting....

  9. Etiological Analysis of Neurodevelopmental Disabilities: Single-Center Eight-Year Clinical Experience in South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Guo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Etiology determination of neurodevelopmental disabilities (NDDs currently remains a worldwide common challenge on child health. We herein reported the etiology distribution feature in a cohort of 285 Chinese patients with NDDs. Although concrete NDD etiologies in 48.4% of the total patients could not be identified, genetic diseases (with the proportion of 35.8% in the total cases including inborn errors of metabolism (IEM and congenital dysmorphic diseases, constituted the commonest etiology category for NDDs in this study. The two key experimental technologies in pediatric metabolomics, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, and tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS, proved to be substantially helpful for the exploration of the NDD etiologies in this clinical investigation. The findings in this paper provided latest epidemiologic information on the etiology distribution of NDDs in Chinese, and the syndromic NDDs caused by citrin deficiency and the novel chromosomal karyotype, respectively, further expanded the etiology spectrum of NDDs.

  10. Epigenetic Mechanisms in Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Avery; Vercelli, Donata

    2016-03-01

    Asthma and allergic diseases are among the most prevalent chronic noncommunicable diseases of childhood, but the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms are poorly understood. Because epigenetic mechanisms link gene regulation to environmental cues and developmental trajectories, their contribution to asthma and allergy pathogenesis is under active investigation. DNA methylation signatures associated with concurrent disease and with the development of asthma during childhood asthma have been identified, but their significance is not easily interpretable. On the other hand, the characterization of early epigenetic predictors of asthma points to a potential role of epigenetic mechanisms in regulating the inception of, and the susceptibility to, this disease.

  11. Link between environmental air pollution and allergic asthma: East meets West

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qingling; Qiu, Zhiming; Chung, Kian Fan; Huang, Shau-Ku

    2015-01-01

    With the levels of outdoor air pollution from industrial and motor vehicle emissions rising rapidly in the fastly-industrializing countries of South East Asia, the prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases has also been increasing to match those in the West. Epidemiological and experimental exposure studies indicate a harmful impact of outdoor air pollution from vehicles and factories both on the development of allergic diseases and asthma and the increase in asthma symptoms and exacerbation...

  12. Obesity and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Peter G

    2013-12-01

    There is a global epidemic of asthma and obesity that is concentrated in Westernized and developed countries. A causal association in some people with asthma is suggested by observations that obesity precedes the onset of asthma and that bariatric surgery for morbid obesity can resolve asthma. The obese asthma phenotype features poor asthma control, limited response to corticosteroids, and an exaggeration of the physiological effects of obesity on lung function, which includes a reduction in expiratory reserve volume and airway closure occurring during tidal breathing. Obesity has important implications for asthma treatment. Increasing corticosteroid doses based on poor asthma control, as currently recommended in guidelines, may lead to overtreatment with corticosteroids in obese asthma. Enhanced bronchodilation, particularly of the small airways, may reduce the component of airway closure due to increased bronchomotor tone and suggests that greater emphasis should be placed on long-acting bronchodilators in obese asthma. The societal implications of this are important: with increasing obesity there will be increasing asthma from obesity, and the need to identify successful individual and societal weight-control strategies becomes a key goal.

  13. Patient's adherence in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillisen, Adrian

    2007-11-01

    Nonadherence in asthma treatment results in increasing mortality, morbidity, and it is associated with increasing treatment costs. In asthma, adherence rates are often below 50%. Understanding of the needs and behaviors of asthma patients as well as treatment barriers to comply with asthma guidelines is important in developing programs to promote adherence. This article presents information on common types of nonadherence in asthma patients, the causes, and it reviews the literature on interventions to overcome these factors to maximize adherence rates. Although several interventions are effective in improving medication adherence in asthma, only few significantly enhance adherence rates and clinical outcomes of these patients. An improvement in treatment adherence is a complex task, requiring asthma self-management, education programs coupled with educational reinforcements, simplifying treatment planes and applications forms. Good communications skills among clinicians and patient education are also central for improving adherence. Methods to overcoming physician barriers ensure consistency in implementing guideline recommendations in practice.

  14. Recognition of asthma in adolescents and young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Postma, Dirkje S; Backer, Vibeke

    2005-01-01

    Objective assessment of airway function is important in epidemiologic studies of asthma to facilitate comparison between studies. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), peak expiratory flow (PEF) variability, and bronchodilator reversibility (BR) are widely used as markers of airway lability in such s...... in such studies. Data from a survey of a population sample of adolescents and young adults (n = 609; 288 males), aged 13-23 years, were analyzed to investigate whether AHR, PEF variability, and BR can be used interchangeably as markers of asthma in an epidemiological setting....

  15. The association between irregular menstruations and acne with asthma and atopy phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galobardes, Bruna; Patel, Sumaiya; Henderson, John; Jeffreys, Mona; Smith, George Davey

    2012-10-15

    Earlier menarche and irregular periods, among other markers of sex-hormone levels, have been associated with a higher risk of asthma and allergic diseases. This has suggested an etiologic role of sex hormones in the development of these conditions. The authors investigated the association of age at menarche, irregular periods, duration of menstruation, and acne with reported medical history of asthma and/or atopy (hay fever and/or eczema/urticaria) in a historical cohort of students born before the rise in asthma prevalence in the United Kingdom and attending university in 1948-1968. Finding consistent associations in a cohort that has experienced different life-course exposures and has different confounding structure can help to identify causal associations. In the Glasgow Alumni Cohort, irregular periods were associated with atopic asthma (multinomial odds ratio (MOR) = 2.79, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.33, 5.83) and atopy alone (MOR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.84) but not with nonatopic asthma (MOR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.45, 2.30), compared with students reporting no asthma and no atopy. The authors found no association with acne, a marker of high testosterone levels, that they hypothesized could point to polycystic ovary syndrome underpinning these associations. In summary, the authors found evidence for a potentially etiologic role of irregular menstruations with some specific asthma phenotypes, namely, atopic asthma and atopy, but not with nonatopic asthma.

  16. The asthma epidemic and our artificial habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maziak Wasim

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent increase in childhood asthma has been a puzzling one. Recent views focus on the role of infection in the education of the immune system of young children. However, this so called hygiene hypothesis fails to answer some important questions about the current trends in asthma or to account for environmental influences that bear little relation to infection. Discussion The multi-factorial nature of asthma, reflecting the different ways we tend to interact with our environment, mandates that we look at the asthma epidemic from a broader perspective. Seemingly modern affluent lifestyles are placing us increasingly in static, artificial, microenvironments very different from the conditions prevailed for most part of our evolution and shaped our organisms. Changes that occurred during the second half of the 20th century in industrialized nations with the spread of central heating/conditioning, building insulation, hygiene, TV/PC/games, manufactured food, indoor entertainment, cars, medical care, and sedentary lifestyles all seem to be depriving our children from the essential inputs needed to develop normal airway function (resistance. Asthma according to this view is a manifestation of our respiratory maladaptation to modern lifestyles, or in other words to our increasingly artificial habitats. The basis of the artificial habitat notion may lie in reduced exposure of innate immunity to a variety of environmental stimuli, infectious and non-infectious, leading to reduced formulation of regulatory cells/cytokines as well as inscribed regulatory pathways. This could contribute to a faulty checking mechanism of non-functional Th2 (and likely Th1 responses, resulting in asthma and other immuno-dysregulation disorders. Summary In this piece I discuss the artificial habitat concept, its correspondence with epidemiological data of asthma and allergy, and provide possible immunological underpinning for it from an evolutionary

  17. Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium is an open scientific forum organized to foster the development of multi-center, international and inter-disciplinary collaborations that will lead to a better understanding of the etiology, outcomes, and prevention of brain tumors.

  18. Profesi Epidemiologi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buchari Lapau

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Makalah ini pertama kali menjelaskan perlu adanya profesi kesehatan masyarakat dalam rangka pembangunan kesehatan. Lalu dijelaskan apa profesi itu dan standar keberadaan profesi, atas dasar mana dapat ditetapkan bahwa pelayanan epidemiologi merupakan salah satu profesi. Dalam rangka pembinaan profesi kesehatan masyarakat, IAKMI dan APTKMI telah membentuk Majelis Kolegium Kesehatan Masyarakat Indonesia (MKKMI yang terdiri atas 8 kolegium antara lain Kolegium Epidemiologi, yang telah menyusun Standar Profesi Epidemiologi yang terdiri atas beberapa standar. Masing-masing standar dijelaskan mulai dari kurikulum, standar pelayanan epidmiologi, profil epidemiolog kesehatan, peran epidemiolog kesehatan, fungsi epidemiolog kesehatan, standar kompetensi epidemiologi, dan standar pendidikan profesi epidemiologi.

  19. Asthma prevalence disparities and differences in sociodemographic associations with asthma, between Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander, Asian, and White adults in Hawaii - Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessop, H; Li, D; Katz, A R; Hurwitz, E L

    2017-03-30

    Despite high asthma prevalence, relatively little is known about the epidemiology of asthma in Hawaii or among Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islanders (NHOPI). We sought to better characterize racial/ethnic differences in asthma prevalence and in sociodemographic factors associated with asthma among Hawaii adults. We conducted multivariable logistic regression using 2001-2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data from Hawaii, and computed adjusted prevalence and ratios. Asthma prevalence markedly varied between self-identified census categories of race in Hawaii, with NHOPI having the highest estimates of both lifetime (20.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 19.5%-22.4%) and current (12.2%, CI: 11.2%-13.3%) asthma. Highest asthma prevalence among NHOPI persisted after controlling for potential confounders and within most sociodemographic categories. Among females Asians reported the lowest asthma prevalence, whereas among males point estimates of asthma prevalence were often lowest for Whites. Females often had greater asthma prevalence than males of the same race, but the degree to which gender modified asthma prevalence differed by both race and sociodemographic strata. Gender disparities in asthma prevalence were greatest and most frequent among Whites, and for current asthma among all races. Sociodemographic factors potentially predictive of adult asthma prevalence in Hawaii varied by race and gender. Asthma disproportionately affects or is recognized more often among women and NHOPI adults in Hawaii, and occurs less or is under-reported among Asian women. The sociodemographic characteristics included in this study's model did not explain asthma disparities between races and/or gender. This investigation provides a baseline with which to plan additionally needed prevention programs, epidemiological investigations, and surveillance for asthma in Hawaii.

  20. Analyses of shared genetic factors between asthma and obesity in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melén, Erik; Himes, Blanca E.; Brehm, John; Boutaoui, Nadia; Klanderman, Barbara J.; Sylvia, Jody S.; Lasky-Su, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies consistently show associations between asthma and obesity. Shared genetics may account for this association. Objective To identify genetic variants associated with both asthma and obesity. Methods Based on a literature search, we identified genes from: 1) Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of Body Mass Index (BMI) (n=17 genes), 2) GWAS of asthma (n=14) and 3) candidate gene studies of BMI and asthma (n=7). We used GWAS data from the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) to analyze associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these genes and asthma (n=359 subjects) and BMI (n=537). Results One top BMI GWAS SNP from the literature, rs10938397 near GNPDA2, was associated with both BMI (p=4 × 10−4) and asthma (p=0.03). Of the top asthma GWAS SNPs and the candidate gene SNPs, none was found to be associated with both BMI and asthma. Gene-based analyses that included all available SNPs in each gene found associations (pasthma GWAS genes; and PRKCA among the BMI and asthma candidate genes. Conclusions SNPs within several genes showed associations to BMI and asthma at a gene level, but none of these associations were significant after correction for multiple testing. Our analysis of known candidate genes reveals some evidence for shared genetics between asthma and obesity, but other shared genetic determinants are likely to be identified in novel loci. PMID:20816195

  1. Etiology and Pathogenesis of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel C. Mok

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is complex disease composed of different histological grades and types. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in the development of different phenotypes remain largely unknown. Epidemiological studies identified multiple exogenous and endogenous risk factors for ovarian cancer development. Among them, an inflammatory stromal microenvironment seems to play a critical role in the initiation of the disease. The interaction between such a microenvironment, genetic polymorphisms, and different epithelial components such as endosalpingiosis, endometriosis, and ovarian inclusion cyst in the ovarian cortex may induce different genetic changes identified in the epithelial component of different histological types of ovarian tumors. Genetic studies on different histological grades and types provide insight into the pathogenetic pathways for the development of different disease phenotypes. However, the link between all these genetic changes and the etiological factors remains to be established.

  2. Genetic epidemiology: an expanding scientific discipline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyszynski Diego F.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic epidemiology is a relatively new discipline that studies the interaction between genetic and environmental factors in the etiology of human diseases. Taking advantage of genetic markers provided by molecular biological research, complex computerized algorithms, and large databases, the field of genetic epidemiology has undergone significant development over the past 10 years. Using concrete examples from recent scientific literature, this article describes the objectives and methodology of genetic epidemiology.

  3. Etiology of molar incisor hypomineralization - A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Mihiri J; Scurrah, Katrina J; Craig, Jeffrey M; Manton, David J; Kilpatrick, Nicky

    2016-08-01

    Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is a common developmental dental defect of permanent teeth, which can increase the risk of dental caries, infection and hospitalization. The etiology is currently unclear although prenatal or early childhood health factors are suspected. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the strength of evidence linking etiological factors with MIH. A systematic search was conducted using the Medline and Embase electronic databases for studies investigating environmental etiological factors of MIH. Two reviewers assessed the eligibility of studies. The level of evidence and bias was determined for all eligible studies according to Australian National Health and Medical Research Council guidelines for systematic reviews of etiology and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. From a total of 2254 studies identified through electronic and hand searching, 28 were eligible for inclusion. Twenty-five of these investigated MIH and three investigated a related condition in primary teeth, hypomineralized second primary molars (HSPM), and these were analysed separately. A limited number of studies reported significant associations between MIH and pre- and perinatal factors such as maternal illness and medication use in pregnancy, prematurity and birth complications. Early childhood illness was implicated as an etiological factor in MIH in several studies, in particular fever, asthma and pneumonia. The studies investigating HSPM revealed an association with maternal alcohol consumption, infantile fever and ethnicity. However, the validity of these findings is impaired by study design, lack of adjustment for confounders, lack of detail and consistency of exposures investigated and poor reporting. Childhood illness is likely to be associated with MIH. Further prospective studies of the etiology of MIH/HSPM are needed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Preliminary study on pathogenesis of bronchial asthma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ya-Feng; Li, Hong; Xing, Xiao-Hong; Guan, Hai-Shan; Zhang, Bo-Ai; Chen, Chuan-Liang; Zhang, Jian-Hua

    2015-04-01

    The etiology and pathogenesis of bronchial asthma remain unclear. This study is to investigate the risk factors related to bronchial asthma onset in children from genetics and immunology and preliminarily reveal the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma in children. Real-time quantitative PCR was adopted to detect the expression level of TRPV1 gene and mRNA and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method to the total immunoglobulin E level and levels of IL-4, IL-5, and IFN-γ in serum in peripheral venous blood for children in two groups. Logistic regression analysis was applied to analyze the most essential factors inducing bronchial asthma in children. The mRNA level of TRPV1 in peripheral blood in the case group was higher than that in the control group (P bronchial asthma in children. The levels of TRPV1 gene expression and Th1/Th2 cytokines have a close relationship with asthma onset in children, which provides theoretical evidences for molecular targeted treatment in children with bronchial asthma.

  5. The Etiology of Primary Hyperhidrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashmonai, Moshe; Cameron, Alan E.P.; Connery, Cliff P.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Primary hyperhidrosis is a pathological disorder of unknown etiology, affecting 0.6-5% of the population, and causing severe functional and social handicaps. As the etiology is unknown, it is not possible to treat the root cause. Recently some differences between affected and non......-affected people have been reported. The aim of this review is to summarize these new etiological data. Methods: Search of the literature was performed in the PubMed/Medline Database and pertinent articles were retrieved and reviewed. Additional publications were obtained from the references of these articles...... of patients with hyperhidrosis has been reported. Conclusions: Despite these accumulated data, the etiology of primary hyperhidrosis remains obscure. Nevertheless, three main lines for future research seem to be delineated: genetics, histological observations, and enzymatic studies....

  6. Etiology and epidemiology of travelers' diarrhea in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, D N; Echeverria, P

    1986-01-01

    Travelers' diarrhea in Asia has been studied among Peace Corps volunteers in Thailand, Japanese travelers, foreign residents in Bangladesh, guests in hotels, and members of various tour groups. Rates of diarrheal attack of greater than 50% during four- to six-week sojourns were reported for these groups. Among travelers with diarrhea, the most commonly isolated pathogen was enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (20%-34%), followed by Salmonella (11%-15%), Shigella (4%-7%), Campylobacter (2%-5%), and Vibrio parahaemolyticus (1%-13%). In 9%-22% of diarrheal episodes, multiple pathogens were recovered. Among Japanese travelers, Salmonella was more commonly acquired in the Far East; Shigella and Campylobacter, in the Indian subcontinent; and V. parahaemolyticus, in Southeast Asia. Aeromonas hydrophila and Plesiomonas shigelloides were commonly isolated from ill travelers in Thailand but less frequently from other travelers. Protozoa and Vibrio species other than V. parahaemolyticus were isolated in less than 5% of episodes.

  7. Etiological and epidemiological studies on the red leaf disease of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diseased plants from the field had reduced root systems and had Neosartorya fischeri. Nematodes of the genera Aphelenchus, Pratylenchus and Helicotylenchus were recovered from roots and infrequently from the rind of the underground stem. Pineapple plants grown outdoors in steam-sterilised field soil reddened just as ...

  8. [Paraphilia, sexual preference disorders. Diagnosis, etiology, epidemiology, treatment and prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Wolfgang; Briken, P

    2007-01-01

    Hostility towards relationships is one prominent characteristic symptom for disorders of sexual preference (ICD-10) and paraphilias (DSM-IV). Paraphilic symptoms sometimes progress to obsessive or addictive- like forms leading to a loss of self-control but can occur also as single incidents or as episodic events. Besides constitutional aspects, problems in the development of close relationships to primary caregivers (attachment) play an important role in the development of these disorders. Actual relationship- and self-confidence problems often trigger the severity of disturbance, especially in the episodic forms of paraphilia. For patients who are in conflict with the law, cognitive-behavioral therapeutic approaches with the aim to minimize self-deception regarding the effects of the paraphilic behavior have become more and more relevant. Regarding the medical treatment, anti-hormonal therapy plays an important role, but also treatment with serotonergic agents and naltrexone are used. Only little can be advised in terms of prevention; general psycho-hygiene (regarding the parent-child relationship) is recommended. Beside these general measures, institutions which offer special treatment for people in danger to become delinquents may be able to prevent serious harm for possible victims of abuse.

  9. epilepsy in nigeria – a review of etiology, epidemiology and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. E. P. Gharoro

    Teaching Hospital, Benin City. Abstract ... this Julio-Claudia family is probably .... important role in epilepsy was first .... period owing to poor obstetric care, or ... epileptic patients reduces the half-life .... end of a seizure, the patient frequently.

  10. Stress Fractures: Etiology, Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Joseph J; Reynolds, Katy; Hoedebecke, Kyle L

    Stress fractures are part of a continuum of changes in healthy bones in response to repeated mechanical deformation from physical activity. If the activity produces excessive repetitive stress, osteoclastic processes in the bone may proceed at a faster pace than osteoblastic processes, thus weakening the bone and augmenting susceptibility to stress fractures. Overall stress fracture incidence is about three cases per 1,000 in active duty Servicemembers, but it is much higher among Army basic trainees: 19 per 1,000 for men and 80 per 1,000 for women. Well-documented risk factors include female sex, white ethnicity, older age, taller stature, lower aerobic fitness, prior physical inactivity, greater amounts of current physical training, thinner bones, cigarette smoking, and inadequate intake of vitamin D and/or calcium. Individuals with stress fractures present with focal tenderness and local pain that is aggravated by physical activity and reduced by rest. A sudden increase in the volume of physical activity along with other risk factors is often reported. Simple clinical tests can assist in diagnosis, but more definitive imaging tests will eventually need to be conducted if a stress fracture is suspected. Plain radiographs are recommended as the initial imaging test, but magnetic resonance imaging has higher sensitivity and is more likely to detect the injury sooner. Treatment involves first determining if the stress fracture is of higher or lower risk; these are distinguished by anatomical location and whether the bone is loaded in tension (high risk) or compression (lower risk). Lowerrisk stress fractures can be initially treated by reducing loading on the injured bone through a reduction in activity or by substituting other activities. Higher-risk stress fractures should be referred to an orthopedist. Investigated prevention strategies include modifications to physical training programs, use of shock absorbing insoles, vitamin D and calcium supplementation, modifications of military equipment, and leadership education with injury surveillance. 2017.

  11. Perfil clínico, epidemiológico e etiológico de pacientes com pneumonia adquirida na comunidade internados em um hospital geral da microrregião de Sumaré, SP Clinical, epidemiological, and etiological profile of inpatients with community-acquired pneumonia at a general hospital in the Sumaré microregion of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rita Donalisio

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar aspectos clínicos, etiológicos e epidemiológicos das pneumonias adquiridas na comunidade (PAC em indivíduos internados. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados prospectivamente 66 pacientes com PAC maiores de 14 anos no Hospital Estadual Sumaré, localizado na cidade de Sumaré (SP, entre outubro de 2005 e setembro de 2007. Coletamos dados sobre história clínica, exame clínico, escore pneumonia severity index (PSI e exames laboratoriais (hemocultura, bacterioscopia/cultura de escarro, sorologias para Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae e Legionella pneumophila, além de antígenos urinários de Legionella sp. e Streptococcus pneumoniae. RESULTADOS: A idade média dos pacientes foi de 53 anos, a maioria tinha baixa escolaridade, e 55,7% apresentavam pelo menos uma comorbidade no momento da internação. O percentual de idosos vacinados contra influenza entre os internados foi significativamente menor que os da comunidade dos municípios da microrregião de Sumaré (52,6% vs. > 70%. A febre foi menos frequente entre os idosos (p OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical, etiological, and epidemiological aspects of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP in hospitalized individuals. METHODS: We prospectively studied 66 patients (> 14 years of age with CAP admitted to the Hospital Estadual Sumaré, located in the Sumaré microregion of Brazil, between October of 2005 and September of 2007. We collected data related to clinical history, physical examination, pneumonia severity index (PSI scores, and laboratory tests (blood culture; sputum smear microscopy and culture; serology for Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophila; and detection of Legionella sp. and Streptococcus pneumoniae antigens in urine. RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 53 years. Most had a low level of education, and 55.7% presented with at least one comorbidity at the time of hospitalization. The proportion of elderly people vaccinated

  12. Understanding Allergic Asthma from Allergen Inhalation Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald W Cockcroft

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The allergen challenge has evolved, in less than 150 years, from a crude tool used to document the etiology of allergen-induced disease to a well-controlled tool used today to investigate the pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy of asthma. Highlights of the authors’ involvement with the allergen challenge include confirmation of the immunoglobulin E-dependence of the late asthmatic response, importance of (nonallergic airway hyper-responsiveness as a determinant of the airway response to allergen, identification of allergen-induced increase in airway hyper-responsiveness, documentation of beta2-agonist-induced increase in airway response to allergen (including eosinophilic inflammation, advances in understanding the pathophysiology and kinetics of allergen-induced airway responses, and development of a muticentre clinical trial group devoted to using the allergen challenge for investigating promising new therapeutic strategies for asthma.

  13. A survey of etiologic hypotheses among testicular cancer researchers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang, A; Trabert, B; Rusner, C

    2015-01-01

    Basic research results can provide new ideas and hypotheses to be examined in epidemiological studies. We conducted a survey among testicular cancer researchers on hypotheses concerning the etiology of this malignancy. All researchers on the mailing list of Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshops and ...... etiologic hypotheses that include factors related to endocrine disruption, DNA damage, inflammation, and nutrition during pregnancy. The survey results may stimulate a multidisciplinary discussion about new etiologic hypotheses of testicular cancer.......Basic research results can provide new ideas and hypotheses to be examined in epidemiological studies. We conducted a survey among testicular cancer researchers on hypotheses concerning the etiology of this malignancy. All researchers on the mailing list of Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshops...... and corresponding authors of PubMed-indexed articles identified by the search term 'testicular cancer' and published within 10 years (in total 2750 recipients) were invited to respond to an e-mail-based survey. Participants of the 8th Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshop in May 2014 were subsequently asked to rate...

  14. Monitoring asthma in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin C. Lødrup Carlsen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of asthma treatment is to obtain clinical control and reduce future risks to the patient. However, to date there is limited evidence on how to monitor patients with asthma. Childhood asthma introduces specific challenges in terms of deciding what, when, how often, by whom and in whom different assessments of asthma should be performed. The age of the child, the fluctuating course of asthma severity, variability in clinical presentation, exacerbations, comorbidities, socioeconomic and psychosocial factors, and environmental exposures may all influence disease activity and, hence, monitoring strategies. These factors will be addressed in herein. We identified large knowledge gaps in the effects of different monitoring strategies in children with asthma. Studies into monitoring strategies are urgently needed, preferably in collaborative paediatric studies across countries and healthcare systems.

  15. Tobaksrygning og asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Lange, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a well-known health hazard, probably not least for patients suffering from asthma. This review gives a short overview of the effects of passive and active smoking on the inception and outcome with of longitudinal changes in the lung function and mortality of patients...... with asthma. Substantial evidence suggests that smoking affects asthma adversely. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, especially maternal smoking in children, may be a significant risk factor for asthma. Such exposure in patients with established asthma is not only associated with more severe symptoms......, but also with a poorer quality of life, reduced lung function, and increased utilisation of health care including hospital admissions. Active smoking does not appear to be a significant risk factor for asthma, but is associated with a worse outcome with regard to both longitudinal changes in lung function...

  16. Asthma in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Lorenzo Urso

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchial asthma is a common problem with enormous medical and economics impacts. It is an inflammatory disease of the airways associated with intermittent episodes of bronchospasm. Asthma is not uncommon in the elderly patients. Prevalence of asthma is similar in older and younger adults. Asthma in the elderly patient is underdiagnosed because of false perceptions by both patient and physician. The high incidence of comorbid conditions in the elderly patient makes the diagnosis and management more difficult. Correct diagnosis is demonstrated with spirometry. The goals of asthma treatment are to achieve and maintain control of symptoms and to prevent development of irreversible airflow limitation. Asthma drugs are preferably inhaled because this route minimizes systemic absorption and, thus, improves the ratio of the therapeutic benefit to the potential side-effects in elderly patients.

  17. Asthma and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte S

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity has significant negative impact on asthma control and risk of exacerbations. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent studies evaluating the effects of weight reduction on asthma control in obese adults. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical studies have shown that weight...... reduction in obese patients is associated with improvements in symptoms, use of controller medication, and asthma-related quality of life together with a reduction in the risk for severe exacerbations. Furthermore, several studies have also revealed improvements in lung function and airway responsiveness...... reduction in obese adults with asthma leads to an overall improvement in asthma control, including airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation. Weight reduction should be a cornerstone in the management of obese patients with asthma....

  18. Late-Onset Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2017-01-01

    , to objectively confirm asthma. If necessary, a trial of oral or inhaled corticosteroid might be necessary. Asthma can be diagnosed when increased airflow variability is identified in a symptomatic patient, and if the patient does not have a history of exposure, primarily smoking, known to cause chronic...... obstructive pulmonary disease, the diagnosis is asthma even if the patient does not have fully reversible airflow obstruction. Pharmacological therapy in patients with late-onset asthma follows international guidelines, including treatment with the lowest effective dose of inhaled corticosteroid to minimize...... the risk of systemic effects. However, most recommendations are based on extrapolation from findings in younger patients. Comorbidities are very common in patients with late-onset asthma and need to be taken into account in the management of the disease. In conclusion, late-onset asthma is poorly...

  19. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Asthma Learn How to Control Asthma Asthma and Severe Weather ... Working on Asthma Follow @CDCasthma on Twitter to learn more about helping people with asthma live healthier ...

  20. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler ... MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health File Formats Help: How do I view ...

  1. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler ... ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health File Formats Help: How do I view ...

  2. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to Use Your Asthma ... 1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health File Formats Help: How do I ...

  3. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... among Children Asthma-related Missed School Days among Children aged 5–17 Years Asthma Severity among Adults with Current Asthma Asthma Severity among Children with Current Asthma Overuse of quick-relief medication ...

  4. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to Use Your Asthma ... MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health File Formats Help: How do I ...

  5. Severe Asthma in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipps, Bradley E; Parikh, Neil G; Maharaj, Sheena K

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize, diagnose, evaluate, and treat severe childhood asthma. Understanding the occurrence of the physiologic and clinical presentations of childhood severe asthma, the treatment and response may be predicted by biomarkers, but the patient's response is highly variable. The onset of severe asthma occurs early and is primarily predicted by severity of viral infection and coexistence of the atopic state.

  6. Asthma in the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braman, Sidney S

    2017-11-01

    The older population has seen the greatest increase in the prevalence of current asthma in recent years. Asthma may begin at any age and when it occurs at an advanced as opposed to a young age, it is often nonatopic, severe, and unremitting. Unfortunately, geriatric-specific guidelines are not available for the diagnosis and treatment of asthma. However, with objective monitoring, avoidance of asthma triggers, appropriate pharmacotherapy, and patient education, the disease can be managed successfully. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Asthma among mink workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Berit; Carstensen, Ole; Petersen, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    We report two cases of asthma among mink workers. The first case is about a mink farmer who had asthma that was difficult to treat. In the medical history there was no clear relation to work, and no conclusive work relation with peak flow monitoring. He had a positive histamine release test to mink...... urine. The second case is about a mink farm worker, who had an asthma attack when handling mink furs. Peak flow monitoring showed a clear relation to this work, but there were no signs of allergy. We conclude that these two cases suggest an increased risk of asthma among mink workers....

  8. Etiologic Factors in Erythema Nodosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ali Gürer

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Erythema nodosum (EN is the most common type of inflammatory nodules. Etiologic factors that lead to EN show a wide spectrum including drugs, infections, malignant and inflammatory diseases. The aim of our study was to investigate frequency of etiologic factors, clinical and laboratory findings of EN patients treated in our clinic, and to identify whether these findings were predictive for a specific etiology in these patients or not. Material and Method: A total of 72 patients diagnosed with EN in our clinic during the period 2003-2007 were included. Results: Patients were divided into two groups with regard to their etiologies. Group I was consisting of 30 cases (41.6% in whom no underlying disease or precipitating factor were found and Group II was consisting of 42 cases (58.4% in whom an etiologic factor was identified. Infections (n=24 were the most common identified etiologic factors followed by Behcet's disease (BD, drugs, pregnancy, and sarcoidosis. Statistical analysis revealed no difference according to age and sex characteristics, localization of disease, and the presence of fever and arthralgia as accompanying findings between the groups (p>0.05. The duration of disease was longer in Group II and patients in Group II were found to have more frequently >1 attack of EN, culture positivity and elevated ASO level when compared with that of Group I (p0.05.Conclusion: Infections, BD and drugs were the most frequently detected etiologic factors in our study. Our results revealed that the localization of lesions and laboratory findings like elevated ESR and CRP, leukocytosis, and anemia were not predictors of secondary EN, and that a further search for an underlying disease is necessary in patients having relapsing EN with a long disease duration. (Turkderm 2008; 42: 113-7

  9. Knowledge on bronchial asthma among teachers and educators - preliminary results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witusik, Andrzej; Mokros, Łukasz; Pietras, Tadeusz

    2017-01-23

    One of the elements contributing to development of health-promoting behaviors is knowledge transmitted by teachers. The aim of the research was to assess the teachers' and educators' knowledge on bronchial asthma. The survey consisting of closed multiple choice questions concerning bronchial asthma was conducted among 106 teachers. The questionnaire contained 12 questions selected by competent judges. To verify statistical hypotheses, we used Pearson Chi2 test with Benjamini-Hochberg correction. 98 respondents knew that bronchial asthma is a disease of allergic etiology. Seventy-two people believed that smoking induces asthma and 63 - that genetic factors predispose to development of the disease. The respondents estimated that the course of asthma is severe in 50% of patients and only 10 people answered that it is such in 5% of patients (which is the right answer). 47 claimed that a person suffering from mild asthma cannot participate in physical education classes, practice sports, or ride a bicycle. 94 respondents were aware that respiratory allergies and allergic rhinitis are risk factors for the development of bronchial asthma. As indicated by 98 respondents, a child with asthma should have inhalators with them and inform the teachers about the disease. Only 30 people estimated correctly the prevalence of bronchial asthma at the level of 5-9%, 2 at the level of 1-2%, the remaining respondents overestimated the prevalence of asthma in the Polish population. Only 42 people reported inhaled corticosteroids as drugs important in the treatment of bronchial asthma. According to 94 people, inhaled steroids caused numerous post-steroid diseases. The knowledge of teachers about associations between bronchial asthma and allergy is reliable and reflects scientific knowledge. However, teachers feel concern over the presence of a child with asthma in the class. The results of the survey indicate the teachers' anxiety about inhaled steroid therapy and lack of reliable

  10. Asthma-like attacks terminated by slow pathway ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcuk Ozturk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a chronic airway disease in which the pathological mechanisms are reversible airway obstruction, bronchial hyper reactivity, and constriction of the lower airways. Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT is a common arrhythmia which originates above the bundle of His and causing heart rates exceeding 150 beats/min. SVT patients present with palpitation, chest pain, chest discomfort, dyspnea, hyperventilation, and lightheadedness, occasionally. Besides, extraordinary presentations of SVT are available in literature. In this report, we describe a case of a patient presenting with treatment-resistant asthma-like attacks lasting for 20 years whom was suspected SVT as an underlying etiology and treated by slow pathway radiofrequency ablation.

  11. The association of sedentary lifestyle with childhood asthma. The role of nurse as educator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantaki, E; Priftis, K N; Antonogeorgos, G; Papoutsakis, C; Drakouli, M; Matziou, V

    2014-01-01

    To provide a summary of the existing published knowledge on the association between sedentary lifestyle and childhood asthma. Twelve years ago, the first longitudinal studies carried out in children showed a relationship between physical activity and asthma. Several epidemiological studies confirmed these findings, with sedentary lifestyle predicting the onset of asthma. A systematic review of epidemiological studies was conducted within the MEDLINE database. Epidemiological studies on children subjects, published in English were included in the review. A comprehensive literature search yielded 50 studies for further consideration. Following the application of the eligibility criteria, we identified 11 studies. A positive association and an excess risk of asthma during childhood were revealed to sedentary lifestyle. The findings proved the association between childhood asthma and sedentary lifestyle. The correlation between bronchial asthma and sedentary life during childhood and identifying whether preventable or treatable risk factors exist needs to be determined. Further research on the topic is essential for safer and standardised conclusions. Asthma can be controlled when managed properly. The role of the nurse as an educator should establish and maintain a relationship with patients in order to help them manage their disease. The steps towards asthma management will help paediatric patients to guide their approach to the condition. Copyright © 2013 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Nutrition and Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Increase in the asthma prevalence in many countries over the recent decades, highlights the need for a greater understanding of the risk factors for asthma. Be-cause asthma is the result of interaction between genetic and environmental fac-tors, increasing prevalence is certainly the result of changes in environmental fac-tors because of process of wesernization. That is the reason for higher prevalence in countries where a traditional to a westernized lifestyle occurred earlier. This increasing prevalence has affected both rural and urban communities, suggesting that local environmental factors such as exposure to allergens or industrial air pol-lutions are not the sole cause. In the last few years, nutrition has represented an important conditioning factor of many cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and chronic pulmonary diseases. So it has been hypothesized that dietary constituents influence the immune system and thus, may also be actively involved in the onset of asthma and other allergic diseases. Dietary constituents can play beneficial as well as det-rimental role in asthma. The possible role of diet in the development of asthma can be described as follows: first, a food allergen can cause asthma. Second, there is role of breast-feeding for prevention of asthma later in life. Third, a low intake of antioxidative dietary constituents might be a risk factor for asthma. Moreover, role of cations such as sodium, potassium and magnesium has been described in development of asthma. Finally, intake of fatty acids specially the role of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids play important role in cause of asthma.

  13. An etiological model of perfectionism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayle K Maloney

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Perfectionism has been recognized as a transdiagnostic factor that is relevant to anxiety disorders, eating disorders and depression. Despite the importance of perfectionism in psychopathology to date there has been no empirical test of an etiological model of perfectionism. METHOD: The present study aimed to address the paucity of research on the etiology of perfectionism by developing and testing an etiological model using a sample of 311 clients seeking treatment. RESULTS: Structural equation modeling showed a direct relationship between high Parental Expectations and Criticism, and Perfectionism. There was also an indirect relationship between Parental Bonding and Perfectionism that was mediated by core schemas of disconnection and rejection. Finally, it was found that Neuroticism had both an indirect relationship, which was mediated by core schemas, and a direct relationship with perfectionism. CONCLUSIONS: The study provided the first direct test of an etiological model of perfectionism to date. Clinical implications include investigating whether the inclusion of etiological factors in the understanding and treatment of perfectionism is effective.

  14. Spectrum of etiologies causing hydrometrocolpos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrah Celayir, Aysenur; Kurt, Gökmen; Sahin, Ceyhan; Cici, Inanç

    2013-01-01

    Hydrometrocolpos (HMC) develops as a result of vaginal outflow obstruction and the accumulation of secretions. It might be secondary to persistent cloaca, urogenital sinus, some syndromes, presence of the vaginal septum, vaginal atresia, and imperforate hymen. Each of them has different treatment options and follow-up protocols. This study was performed to identify the etiology and the related management of patients with HMC. A descriptive series of patients with HMC managed in our hospital between 2004 and 2011 is being presented. The medical record of these patients was analyzed for etiology, management, and outcome. Eight patients with HMC were managed during 7 years at our department. Underlying etiologies included urogenital sinus (n=3), and 1 each of imperforate hymen, transverse vaginal septum, Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome, persistent cloaca, and a variant of the cloaca. Four patients were prenatally diagnosed. The patient with imperforate hymen was managed successfully with incision and drainage. Abdominal vaginostomy was done in three patients with urogenital sinus as initial procedure. In patient with persistent cloaca, a colostomy and abdominal vaginostomy were performed. Patient with cloaca variant died due to persistent acidosis and salt wasting. HMC may have different etiological factors which may dictate different surgical management. Etiology of HMC can be as simple as imperforate hymen to the most severe cloacal malformations.

  15. European birth cohort studies on asthma and atopic diseases I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, T; Kulig, M; Simpson, A

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The reasons for the rise in asthma and allergies remain unclear. To identify risk or protective factors, it is essential to carry out longitudinal epidemiological studies, preferably birth cohort studies. In Europe, several birth cohort studies on asthma and atopic diseases have been...... initiated over the last two decades. AIM: One of the work packages within the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA(2)LEN) project was designed to identify and compare European birth cohorts on asthma and atopic diseases. The present review (part I) describes their objectives, study settings......, recruitment process and follow-up rates. A subsequent review (part II) will compare outcome and exposure parameters. METHODS: For each birth cohort, we collected detailed information regarding recruitment process, study setting, baseline data (pregnancy, birth, parents/siblings) as well as follow-up rates...

  16. What is Asthma?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lung Association 104 COPD Awareness Month: Connecting with Social Support American Lung Association 105 Ohio Cares about ... 7:59 Asthma - Duration: 3:36. Nucleus Medical Media 658,979 views 3:36 What is asthma. ...

  17. Traveling and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stress How Cliques Make Kids Feel Left Out Traveling and Asthma KidsHealth > For Kids > Traveling and Asthma Print A A A en español ... handy at all times. So if you're traveling by car, keep them where you can get ...

  18. Assessment of asthma control using asthma control test in chest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... CI 1.06-3.47) and obesity (OR 1.81; 1.01-3.27). Conclusion: Asthma remains poorly controlled in a large proportion of asthma patients under specialist care in Cameroon. Educational programs for asthma patients targeting women and based on weight loss for obese patients may help in improving the control of asthma.

  19. Advances in pediatric asthma in 2013: coordinating asthma care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szefler, Stanley J

    2014-03-01

    Last year's "Advances in pediatric asthma: moving toward asthma prevention" concluded that "We are well on our way to creating a pathway around wellness in asthma care and also to utilize new tools to predict the risk for asthma and take steps to not only prevent asthma exacerbations but also to prevent the early manifestations of the disease and thus prevent its evolution to severe asthma." This year's summary will focus on recent advances in pediatric asthma on prenatal and postnatal factors altering the natural history of asthma, assessment of asthma control, and new insights regarding potential therapeutic targets for altering the course of asthma in children, as indicated in Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology publications in 2013 and early 2014. Recent reports continue to shed light on methods to understand factors that influence the course of asthma, methods to assess and communicate levels of control, and new targets for intervention, as well as new immunomodulators. It will now be important to carefully assess risk factors for the development of asthma, as well as the risk for asthma exacerbations, and to improve the way we communicate this information in the health care system. This will allow parents, primary care physicians, specialists, and provider systems to more effectively intervene in altering the course of asthma and to further reduce asthma morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Program for the Prevention of Childhood Asthma: a specialized care program for children with wheezing or asthma in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia-Pereira, Marilyn; Avila, Jennifer; Solé, Dirceu

    2016-01-01

    To present the Programa Infantil de Prevenção de Asma (PIPA, Program for the Prevention of Childhood Asthma) and the characteristics of the patients followed in this program. Implemented in the city of Uruguaiana, Brazil, PIPA has as its target population children and adolescents ( 3 years of age, respectively. Physician-diagnosed asthma was reported in 26.5% and 82.2%, respectively. In the sample as a whole, the prevalence of passive smoking was high (> 36%), occurring during pregnancy in > 15%; > 40% of the patients had been born by cesarean section; and 30% had a mother who had had < 8 years of schooling. A prevention program for children with asthma is an effective strategy for controlling the disease. Knowledge of local epidemiological and environmental characteristics is essential to reducing the prevalence of the severe forms of asthma, to improving the use of health resources, and to preventing pulmonary changes that could lead to COPD in adulthood.

  1. Genetics of asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Simon F

    2015-01-01

    Asthma runs in families, and children of asthmatic parents are at increased risk of asthma. Prediction of disease risk is pivotal for the clinician when counselling atopic families. However, this is not always an easy task bearing in mind the vast and ever-increasing knowledge about asthma genetics....... The advent of new genotyping technologies has made it possible to sequence in great detail the human genome for asthma-associated variants, and accordingly, recent decades have witnessed an explosion in the number of rare and common variants associated with disease risk. This review presents an overview...... of methods and advances in asthma genetics in an attempt to help the clinician keep track of the most important knowledge in the field....

  2. Fertility outcomes in asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Elisabeth Juul; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Lindenberg, Svend

    2016-01-01

    of fertility treatments, and the number of successful pregnancies differ significantly between women with unexplained infertility with and without asthma.245 women with unexplained infertility (aged 23-45 years) underwent questionnaires and asthma and allergy testing while undergoing fertility treatment. 96...... women entering the study had either a former doctor's diagnosis of asthma or were diagnosed with asthma when included. After inclusion they were followed for a minimum of 12 months in fertility treatment, until they had a successful pregnancy, stopped treatment, or the observation ended.The likelihood...... pregnancies during fertility treatment, 39.6 versus 60.4% (p=0.002). Increasing age was of negative importance for expected time to pregnancy, especially among asthmatic women (interaction between age and asthma on time to pregnancy, p=0.001). Female asthmatics had a longer time to pregnancy and less often...

  3. Adolescent asthma after rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruotsalainen, Marja; Hyvärinen, Mari K; Piippo-Savolainen, Eija; Korppi, Matti

    2013-07-01

    Asthma risk is increased after bronchiolitis in infancy. Recent studies have suggested that the risk may be dependent on the causative virus. The aim of the study was to evaluate the asthma risk in adolescence in subjects hospitalized for rhinovirus or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis in infancy. At the median age of 16.5 years, a questionnaire was sent to 96 study subjects hospitalized for bronchiolitis at rhinovirus etiology of bronchiolitis had been studied in serum and respiratory samples obtained on admission in infancy. The occurrence of asthma was compared between former bronchiolitis patients and population controls recruited for this study in adolescence. Doctor-diagnosed asthma was present in 30% of former bronchiolitis patients and in 5% of controls (OR 7.9, 95% CI 3.3-19.3). The respective figures for self-reported asthma were 64% and 11% (OR 14.7, 95% CI 7.2-30.0). Self-reported asthma was more common in the former rhinovirus than RSV patients (83.3% vs. 47.6%, P = 0.023, mixed infections included; 81.3% vs. 50%, P = 0.067, mixed infections excluded). Patients hospitalized for RSV and rhinovirus bronchiolitis at rhinovirus versus non-rhinovirus bronchiolitis. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Asthma in adults and its association with chronic rhinosinusitis: The GA(2) LEN survey in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarvis, D; Newson, R; Lotvall, J

    2011-01-01

    -based epidemiological surveys. Methods:  The Global Allergy and Asthma Network of Excellence (GA(2) LEN) conducted a postal questionnaire in representative samples of adults living in Europe to assess the presence of asthma and CRS defined by the European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps....... Asthma in adults and its association with chronic rhinosinusitis: The GA(2) LEN survey in Europe. Allergy 2011; DOI: 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2011.02709.x ABSTRACT: Background:  The prevalence of asthma and its association with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) have not been widely studied in population....... The prevalence of self-reported current asthma by age group was determined. The association of asthma with CRS in each participating centre was assessed using logistic regression analyses, controlling for age, sex and smoking, and the effect estimates were combined using standard methods of meta...

  5. Prevalence of Bronchiectasis in Asthma according to Oral Steroid Requirement: Influence of Immunoglobulin Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manel Luján

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To establish the prevalence of bronchiectasis in asthma in relation to patients’ oral corticosteroid requirements and to explore whether the increased risk is due to blood immunoglobulin (Ig concentration. Methods. Case-control cross-sectional study, including 100 sex- and age-matched patients, 50 with non-steroid-dependent asthma (NSDA and 50 with steroid-dependent asthma (SDA. Study protocol: (a measurement of Ig and gG subclass concentration; (b forced spirometry; and (c high-resolution thoracic computed tomography. When bronchiectasis was detected, a specific etiological protocol was applied to establish its etiology. Results. The overall prevalence of bronchiectasis was 12/50 in the SDA group and 6/50 in the NSDA group (p=ns. The etiology was documented in six patients (four NSDA and two SDA. After excluding these patients, the prevalence of bronchiectasis was 20% (10/50 in the SDA group and 2/50 (4% in the NSDA group (P<0.05. Patients with asthma-associated bronchiectasis presented lower FEV1 values than patients without bronchiectasis, but the levels of Ig and subclasses of IgG did not present differences. Conclusions. Steroid-dependent asthma seems to be associated with a greater risk of developing bronchiectasis than non-steroid-dependent asthma. This is probably due to the disease itself rather than to other influencing factors such as immunoglobulin levels.

  6. Advances in Pediatric Asthma in 2013: Coordinating Asthma Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szefler, Stanley J.

    2014-01-01

    Last year’s Advances in Pediatric Asthma: Moving Toward Asthma Prevention concluded that: “We are well on our way to creating a pathway around wellness in asthma care and also to utilize new tools to predict the risk for asthma and take steps to not only prevent asthma exacerbations but also to prevent the early manifestations of the disease and thus prevent its evolution to severe asthma.” This year’s summary will focus on recent advances in pediatric asthma on pre- and postnatal factors altering the natural history of asthma, assessment of asthma control, and new insights regarding potential therapeutic targets for altering the course of asthma in children as indicated in Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology publications in 2013 and early 2014. Recent reports continue to shed light on methods to understand factors that influence the course of asthma, methods to assess and communicate levels of control, and new targets for intervention as well as new immunomodulators. It will now be important to carefully assess risk factors for the development of asthma as well as the risk for asthma exacerbations and to improve the way we communicate this information in the health care system. This will allow parents, primary care physicians, specialists and provider systems to more effectively intervene in altering the course of asthma and to further reduce asthma morbidity and mortality. PMID:24581430

  7. The Significance of Asthma Follow-Up Consultations for Adherence to Asthma Medication, Asthma Medication Beliefs, and Asthma Control

    OpenAIRE

    Malin Axelsson; Linda Ekerljung; Bo Lundbäck

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aim was to investigate adherence to asthma medication treatment, medication beliefs, and asthma control in relation to asthma follow-up consultations in asthmatics in the general population. A further aim was to describe associations between adherence, medication beliefs, and asthma control. Method. In the population-based West Sweden Asthma Study, data allowing calculation of adherence for 4.5 years based on pharmacy records were obtained from 165 adult asthmatics. Additional ...

  8. Children with Asthma and Sports

    OpenAIRE

    Selda Yuzer; Sevinc Polat

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is one of the chronic diseases which have are widely seen among the children. The disease has recently been in the increase all over the world and affects many children. In a study conducted with International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) method, it was found out that prevalence of childhood asthma was 17.1%. Participation in sportive activities by the children with asthma, which is today considered as a part of asthma treatment program, makes contributions to the...

  9. Tobaksrygning og asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Lange, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a well-known health hazard, probably not least for patients suffering from asthma. This review gives a short overview of the effects of passive and active smoking on the inception and outcome with of longitudinal changes in the lung function and mortality of patients with ast......Cigarette smoking is a well-known health hazard, probably not least for patients suffering from asthma. This review gives a short overview of the effects of passive and active smoking on the inception and outcome with of longitudinal changes in the lung function and mortality of patients...... with asthma. Substantial evidence suggests that smoking affects asthma adversely. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, especially maternal smoking in children, may be a significant risk factor for asthma. Such exposure in patients with established asthma is not only associated with more severe symptoms......, but also with a poorer quality of life, reduced lung function, and increased utilisation of health care including hospital admissions. Active smoking does not appear to be a significant risk factor for asthma, but is associated with a worse outcome with regard to both longitudinal changes in lung function...

  10. [Genetic and biochemical mechanisms of involvement of antioxidant defense enzymes in the development of bronchial asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonikov, A V; Ivanov, V P; Bogomazov, A D; Solodilova, M A

    2015-01-01

    In the present review we have analyzed and summarized recent literature data on genetic and biochemical mechanisms responsible for involvement of antioxidant defense enzymes in the etiology and pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. It has been shown that the mechanisms of asthma development are linked with genetically determined abnormalities in the functioning of antioxidant defense enzymes. These alterations are accompanied by a systemic imbalance between oxidative and anti-oxidative reactions with the shift of the redox state toward increased free radical production and oxidative stress, a key element in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma.

  11. Cleaning and asthma: A systematic review and approach for effective safety assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Melissa J; Parker, Ann; Maier, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    Research indicates a correlative relationship between asthma and use of consumer cleaning products. We conduct a systematic review of epidemiological literature on persons who use or are exposed to cleaning products, both in occupational and domestic settings, and risk of asthma or asthma-like symptoms to improve understanding of the causal relationship between exposure and asthma. A scoring method for assessing study reliability is presented. Although research indicates an association between asthma and the use of cleaning products, no study robustly investigates exposure to cleaning products or ingredients along with asthma risk. This limits determination of causal relationships between asthma and specific products or ingredients in chemical safety assessment. These limitations, and a lack of robust animal models for toxicological assessment of asthma, create the need for a weight-of-evidence (WoE) approach to examine an ingredient or product's asthmatic potential. This proposed WoE method organizes diverse lines of data (i.e., asthma, sensitization, and irritation information) through a systematic, hierarchical framework that provides qualitatively categorized conclusions using hazard bands to predict a specific product or ingredient's potential for asthma induction. This work provides a method for prioritizing chemicals as a first step for quantitative and scenario-specific safety assessments based on their potential for inducing asthmatic effects. Acetic acid is used as a case study to test this framework. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress in Asthma: Implications for Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidant Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hemachandra Reddy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a complex, inflammatory disorder characterized by airflow obstruction of variable degrees, bronchial hyper-responsiveness, and airway inflammation. Asthma is caused by environmental factors and a combination of genetic and environmental stimuli. Genetic studies have revealed that multiple loci are involved in the etiology of asthma. Recent cellular, molecular, and animal-model studies have revealed several cellular events that are involved in the progression of asthma, including: increased Th2 cytokines leading to the recruitment of inflammatory cells to the airway, and an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial dysfunction in the activated inflammatory cells, leading to tissue injury in the bronchial epithelium. Further, aging and animal model studies have revealed that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are involved and play a large role in asthma. Recent studies using experimental allergic asthmatic mouse models and peripheral cells and tissues from asthmatic humans have revealed antioxidants as promising treatments for people with asthma. This article summarizes the latest research findings on the involvement of inflammatory changes, and mitochondrial dysfunction/oxidative stress in the development and progression of asthma. This article also addresses the relationship between aging and age-related immunity in triggering asthma, the antioxidant therapeutic strategies in treating people with asthma.

  13. Asthma control in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren

    2016-01-01

    studies have added new information about the effects of poorly controlled asthma on a range of important, but less studied outcomes, including risk of obesity, daily physical activity, cardiovascular fitness, stress, concentration and focused attention, learning disabilities and risk of depression. From...... in whom the tests suggest good asthma control may still have poorly controlled asthma when various objective outcomes are included in the assessment. A main reason for that seems to be that none of the tests accurately detects the child's adaptation in lifestyle. If you do not exercise you have fewer...

  14. Genetics, atopy asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William O.C.M. Cookson

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a complex disease which is due to the interaction of an unknown number of genes with strong environmental factors. Segregation analysis suggests the presence of major genes underlying asthma and atopy. Different genetic effects have been recognized which predispose to generalized atopy, or modify the atopic response to particular allergens, or enhance bronchial inflammation, or modify bronchial tone. These known genes or genetic loci do not account for all of the familial clustering of asthma and atopy. Many studies are now under way to identify the remaining genes.

  15. Alcohol-nutrient interactions in cancer etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, R G

    1986-10-15

    The cancers for which there is the most compelling epidemiologic evidence of associations with both diet and alcohol are oral, pharyngeal, laryngeal, esophageal, and liver cancer. For lung, breast, stomach, and colorectal cancer, there is reasonably strong epidemiologic evidence of associations with diet, but only moderate or equivocal evidence of associations with alcohol. For pancreatic cancer there is suggestive evidence of associations with both exposures. It is probable that the quantitative relationship and the underlying biological mechanisms of the diet-alcohol interaction will not be the same for all cancers. Heavy alcohol consumption and generally poor nutrition, possibly a deficiency of several micronutrients and food groups, were the major risk factors for esophageal cancer in a case-control study of the unusually high rates for this cancer among Washington, DC black men. It is proposed that alcohol might increase risk of esophageal cancer, in part, by reducing nutrient intake. Two descriptive studies are presented that suggest that as the percent of caloric intake from alcohol increases, the daily consumption of protein, carbohydrate, fiber, and many micronutrients steadily and significantly decreases. Alcohol consumption and low fruit and vegetable intake, as well as snuff dipping and cigarette smoking, were shown to be risk factors for oral-pharyngeal cancer in a case-control study of the high rates of these cancers among North Carolina women. Since these women were not heavy drinkers, it is not likely that alcohol functioned by altering nutritional status. A number of mechanisms for the action of alcohol in cancer etiology are presented.

  16. Early life rhinovirus wheezing, allergic sensitization, and asthma risk at adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubner, Frederick J; Jackson, Daniel J; Evans, Michael D; Gangnon, Ronald E; Tisler, Christopher J; Pappas, Tressa E; Gern, James E; Lemanske, Robert F

    2017-02-01

    Early life rhinovirus (RV) wheezing illnesses and aeroallergen sensitization increase the risk of asthma at school age. Whether these remain risk factors for the persistence of asthma out to adolescence is not established. We sought to define the relationships among specific viral illnesses and the type and timing of aeroallergen sensitization with the persistence of asthma into adolescence. A total of 217 children were followed prospectively from birth to age 13 years. The etiology and timing of viral wheezing illnesses during the first 3 years of life were assessed along with patterns of allergen sensitization. The associations between viral wheezing illnesses, presence and pattern of aeroallergen sensitization, and asthma diagnosis at age 13 years were evaluated. When adjusted for all viral etiologies, wheezing with RV (odds ratio = 3.3; 95% CI, 1.5-7.1), but not respiratory syncytial virus (odds ratio = 1.0; 95% CI, 0.4-2.3), was associated with asthma at age 13 years. Age of aeroallergen sensitization also influenced asthma risk; 65% of children sensitized by age 1 year had asthma at age 13 years, compared with 40% of children not sensitized at age 1 year but sensitized by age 5 years, and 17% of children not sensitized at age 5 years. Early life aeroallergen sensitization and RV wheezing had additive effects on asthma risk at adolescence. In a high-risk birth cohort, the persistence of asthma at age 13 years was most strongly associated with outpatient wheezing illnesses with RV and aeroallergen sensitization in early life. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A review of obesity and asthma across the life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Faiza; Holguin, Fernando

    2018-02-08

    This literature review aims to compare obese-asthmatic adults and children, and to characterize differences and similarities between the two subgroups from epidemiological, demographical, phenotypical, and physiological perspectives. Literature search was conducted using Pubmed database with "obesity," "asthma," "epidemiology," "cluster analysis," "demography," "mechanics," and ''FeNO'' as search terms. Articles investigating epidemiological, demographic, phenotypical variation, and mechanical aspects of breathing specifically in obese asthmatics were identified. The studies were then divided according to age: children (18 years of age). Increase in asthma incidence and prevalence is observed in both obese-asthmatic children and adults. Asthma prevalence is greater in adult females regardless of ethnic background, and in men of African American and Hispanic ethnicities. Degree of weight gain and early onset of menarche appears to directly affect asthma severity in adolescent girls and females. Airway hyperresponsiveness and fractional exhaled nitric oxide do not have any positive correlation with high BMI in obese-asthmatic children and adults. Obesity also alters lung mechanics in asthmatics, but the impact is different for children and adults likely due to differential effect of obesity on central and peripheral airway. Existing literature suggests both similarities and differences in obese-asthmatic children and adults. The most pertinent differences are related to gender, ethnicity, and lung functions.

  18. Etiology, prevalence, and treatment of dry eye disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny L Gayton

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Johnny L GaytonEyesight Associates, Warner Robins, GA, USAPurpose: This review article examines the prevalence, etiology, and current therapies of dry eye disease, with special focus on postmenopausal women.Method: A systematic literature search utilizing MEDLINE was conducted to identify peer-reviewed articles related to dry eye published prior to September 2008. The terms “dry eye” and “women” were searched in combination with one or more of the following words or phrases: prevalence, postmenopausal, etiology, risk factors, therapy, medications, surgery, tear film, and quality of life. Articles were selected based on their direct applicability to the subject matter. A manual search was also conducted based on citations in the published literature.Results: Epidemiologic studies identified prevalence rates ranging from 7% in the United States to 33% in Taiwan and Japan. Risk factors include advanced age, female sex, smoking, extreme heat or cold weather conditions, low relative humidity, use of video display terminals, refractive surgery, contact lens wear, and certain medications.Conclusion: The last decade has brought about a better understanding of the etiology of dry eye disease. New therapies that can alleviate the signs and symptoms of dry eye disease and, consequently, improve the quality of life of dry eye patients are available in the market.Keywords: dry eye disease, etiology, prevalence, postmenopausal women

  19. The correlation between the bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine and asthma like symptoms by GINA questionnaires for the diagnosis of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, So Yeon; Jo, Young Joo; Chun, Eun Mi

    2014-10-18

    In epidemiological studies of asthma, questionnaires to differentiate asthmatics from non-asthmatics have proven to be cost-effective and convenient. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between hyperresponsiveness to methacholine and the validity of five items for the asthma like questionnaire recommended by the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA). A total of 680 subjects who visited the pulmonology department with suspected symptoms of asthma were enrolled. All participants completed five items questionnaires and underwent methacholine bronchial provocation tests (MBPT). The diagnostic value of the questionnaire was assessed through analysis of the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that questionnaires about wheezing, exercise induced dyspnea and pollution-induced dyspnea were useful for differentiating asthmatics from non-asthmatics (adjusted odds ratio (OR) =2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-3.0; OR =2.3, 95% CI 1.5-3.5; OR =2.0, 95% CI 1.3-3.0) respectively. A total symptom score of higher than 1 was associated with the highest sensitivity (98.4%) and lowest specificity (9.4%). In contrast, a total symptom score of more than 5 was associated with the highest specificity (91.9%) and lowest sensitivity (18.5%) Although questionnaires are not a sufficiently accurate method for diagnosing asthma, properly selected questionnaire can be used as effective strategies in situations such as private clinics or large population based epidemiologic studies.

  20. Contact vitiligo: etiology and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh P

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty patients of contact vitiligo were studied. EtiologicaI agents of contact vitiligo were identified by clinical history, distribution of lesions and patch testing with suspected material. All patients were advised to avoid the suspected agent and treated with PUVASOL and topical steroid. Out of 50 patients (Male 8%, Female 92% age 14-60 years., etiological agent of contact vitiligo was found to be sticking bindi alone in 24 (48%, while bindi along with other etiological agents were found to be purse, foot wear, plastic watch strap, lipstick and tooth paste in 14 ( 28% cases. 14 (28% patients also had disseminated lesions of vitiligo along with contact vitiligo. Positive reaction with patch testing was observed in 18 (36% while depigmentation was seen in 4 ( 8% cases. We observed that response of treatment was better in patients with shorter duration of disease while poor response was seen in patients with longer duration of disease.

  1. Exercise-Induced Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Institute. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-pro/resources/lung/naci/discover/action-plans.htm. Accessed Sept. 12, 2014. Mickleborough TD, et al. Exercise-induced asthma: Nutritional management. Current ...

  2. Reflexology and bronchial asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brygge, T; Heinig, J H; Collins, P

    2001-01-01

    Many asthma patients seek alternative or adjunctive therapies. One such modality is reflexology, whereby finger pressure is applied to certain parts of the body. The aim of the study was to examine the popular claim that reflexology treatment benefits bronchial asthma. Ten weeks of active...... or simulated (placebo) reflexology given by an experienced reflexologist, were compared in an otherwise blind, controlled trial of 20+20 outpatients with asthma. Objective lung function tests (peak flow morning and evening, and weekly spirometry at the clinic) did not change. Subjective scores (describing...... diaries was carried out. It was accompanied by a significant pattern compatible with subconscious unblinding, in that patients tended to guess which treatment they had been receiving. No evidence was found that reflexology has a specific effect on asthma beyond placebo influence....

  3. Asthma in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes...... their physical capacity. Elite athletes should undergo comprehensive assessment to confirm an asthma diagnosis and determine its degree of severity. Treatment should be as for any other asthmatic individual, including the use of ß2-agonist, inhaled steroid as well as leukotriene-antagonist. It should, however......, be noted that daily use of ß-agonists could expose elite athletes to the risk of developing tolerance towards these drugs. Use of ß2-agonist should be replaced with daily inhaled corticosteroid treatment, the most important treatment of exercise-induced asthma. All physicians treating asthma should...

  4. Zoneterapi og asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brygge, Thor; Heinig, John Hilligsøe; Collins, Philippa

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Many patients with asthma seek alternative or adjunctive therapies. One such modality is reflexology. Our aim was to examine the popular claim that reflexology treatment benefits bronchial asthma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten weeks of either active or simulated (placebo) reflexology were...... compared in an otherwise blind, controlled trial of 40 patients with asthma. RESULTS: Objective lung function tests did not change. Subjective scores and bronchial sensitivity to histamine improved on both regimens, but no differences were found in the groups receiving active or placebo reflexology....... However, a trend in favour of reflexology became significant when a supplementary analysis of symptom diaries was carried out. At the same time a significant pattern compatible with subconscious un-blinding was found. DISCUSSION: We found no evidence that reflexology has a specific effect on asthma beyond...

  5. Asthma in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes...... their physical capacity. Elite athletes should undergo comprehensive assessment to confirm an asthma diagnosis and determine its degree of severity. Treatment should be as for any other asthmatic individual, including the use of β2-agonist, inhaled steroid as well as leukotriene-antagonist. It should, however......, be noted that daily use of β-agonists could expose elite athletes to the risk of developing tolerance towards these drugs. Use of β2-agonist should be replaced with daily inhaled corticosteroid treatment, the most important treatment of exercise-induced asthma. All physicians treating asthma should...

  6. Vitamin D and asthma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Sheena D; Calvert, H. Hardie; Fitzpatrick, Anne M

    2012-01-01

    .... Vitamin D is of particular interest in asthma since vitamin D concentrations decrease with increased time spent indoors, decreased exposure to sunlight, less exercise, obesity, and inadequate calcium intake...

  7. So You Have Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... get all the medicine into your lungs . The best way to learn to use these devices correctly is ... bed. • Take your asthma medicine right after you brush your teeth and keep it with your toothbrush as a ...

  8. Inflammation in Asthma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ashraf

    Systemic hypersensitivity diseases include, among others, asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, otitis, rhinosinusitis ... hypersensitivity.13 As a medical specialty based on immunology, the allergy specialty (in some countries, called .... In certain countries (the United States, for instance), training in allergy encompasses both pediatrics.

  9. Pediatric asthma in a nutshell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Holger Werner

    2014-07-01

    On the basis of strong research evidence, asthma is a leading cause of emergency department visits and hospital admissions for children. On the basis of research evidence, implementation of asthma guidelines by medical professionals in not optimal. On the basis of research evidence, the Asthma Predictive Index supports a diagnosis of chronic asthma in children younger than 3 years. On the basis of strong research evidence, premedication with a short-acting β2-agonist is the preferred initial therapy for exercise-induced asthma. On the basis of strong research evidence, anti-inflammatory therapy with inhaled corticosteroids is an effective treatment for asthma. On the basis of research and consensus, assessment of impairment and risk followed by scheduled assessment for asthma control is recommended. On the basis of research and consensus, the establishment of a close cooperative relationship among medical professionals, patients with asthma, and their families is an important component of asthma management.

  10. Update in asthma 2008

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moore, Wendy C

    2009-01-01

    ... between obesity and asthma (8-10). Articles published in 2008 have advanced our understanding of the influence of genetics (11-18), factors in early life (19-21), and the environment (19, 22-24) on the development of asthma or the modification of disease severity. Basic pathobiologic studies in humans (25-35) and mice (36-46) have added to our underst...

  11. Genetics, atopy asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Cookson, William O. C. M.

    1996-01-01

    Asthma is a complex disease which is due to the interaction of an unknown number of genes with strong environmental factors. Segregation analysis suggests the presence of major genes underlying asthma and atopy. Different genetic effects have been recognized which predispose to generalized atopy, or modify the atopic response to particular allergens, or enhance bronchial inflammation, or modify bronchial tone. These known genes or genetic loci do not account for all of the familial clustering...

  12. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to learn more about helping people with asthma live healthier lives by gaining control over their asthma. Quick Links ... to learn more about helping people with asthma live healthier lives by gaining control over their asthma. ...

  13. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Recent Asthma Data Most Recent Asthma State or Territory Data Previous Most Recent Asthma Data 2014 National Data Archive 2014 State or Territory Data Archive AsthmaStats Flu Vaccination among Adults with ...

  14. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... page: About CDC.gov . Asthma Learn How to Control Asthma Asthma and Severe Weather Brochures Facts Triggers Indoors In the Workplace Outdoors Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, ...

  15. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir You can control your asthma and avoid an attack by taking ... people with asthma live healthier lives by gaining control over their asthma. Quick Links Asthma Action Plan ...

  16. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Archive 2014 State or Territory Data Archive AsthmaStats Flu Vaccination among Adults with Current Asthma Flu Vaccination among Children with Current Asthma Asthma and Fair ...

  17. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Learn How to Control Asthma Asthma and Severe Weather Brochures Facts Triggers Indoors In the Workplace Outdoors ... CDC Publications on Asthma National Asthma Control Program America Breathing Easier Guide for State Programs Interventions Community ...

  18. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to Use Your ... 1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health File Formats Help: How do ...

  19. Asthma Control Essential in Pregnancy, Study Suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... were born to mothers with active asthma during pregnancy. Those born to mothers who had mild controlled asthma were less likely to be diagnosed with asthma at an early age than those whose moms had mild uncontrolled asthma, ...

  20. Evolving Concepts of Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Anuradha; Wenzel, Sally E.

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of asthma has evolved over time from a singular disease to a complex of various phenotypes, with varied natural histories, physiologies, and responses to treatment. Early therapies treated most patients with asthma similarly, with bronchodilators and corticosteroids, but these therapies had varying degrees of success. Similarly, despite initial studies that identified an underlying type 2 inflammation in the airways of patients with asthma, biologic therapies targeted toward these type 2 pathways were unsuccessful in all patients. These observations led to increased interest in phenotyping asthma. Clinical approaches, both biased and later unbiased/statistical approaches to large asthma patient cohorts, identified a variety of patient characteristics, but they also consistently identified the importance of age of onset of disease and the presence of eosinophils in determining clinically relevant phenotypes. These paralleled molecular approaches to phenotyping that developed an understanding that not all patients share a type 2 inflammatory pattern. Using biomarkers to select patients with type 2 inflammation, repeated trials of biologics directed toward type 2 cytokine pathways saw newfound success, confirming the importance of phenotyping in asthma. Further research is needed to clarify additional clinical and molecular phenotypes, validate predictive biomarkers, and identify new areas for possible interventions. PMID:26161792

  1. The chronobiology, etiology and pathophysiology of obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaulet, M; Ordovás, JM; Madrid, JA

    2015-01-01

    The effect of CD on human health is an emerging issue. Many records link CD with diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular, cognitive impairment and obesity, all of them conducive to premature aging. The amount of sleep has declined by 1.5 h over the past century, accompanied by an important increase in obesity. Shift work, sleep deprivation and exposure to bright light at night increase the prevalence of adiposity. Animal models have shown that mice with Clock gene disruption are prone to developing obesity and MetS. This review summarizes the latest developments with regard to chronobiology and obesity, considering (1) how molecular clocks coordinate metabolism and the specific role of the adipocyte; (2) CD and its causes and pathological consequences; (3) the epidemiological evidence of obesity as a chronobiological illness; and (4) theories of circadian disruption and obesity. Energy intake and expenditure, relevance of sleep, fat intake from a circadian perspective and psychological and genetic aspects of obesity are examined. Finally, ideas about the use of chronobiology in the treatment of obesity are discussed. Such knowledge has the potential to become a valuable tool in the understanding of the relationship between the chronobiology, etiology and pathophysiology of obesity. PMID:20567242

  2. The chronobiology, etiology and pathophysiology of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaulet, M; Ordovás, J M; Madrid, J A

    2010-12-01

    The effect of CD on human health is an emerging issue. Many records link CD with diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular, cognitive impairment and obesity, all of them conducive to premature aging. The amount of sleep has declined by 1.5 h over the past century, accompanied by an important increase in obesity. Shift work, sleep deprivation and exposure to bright light at night increase the prevalence of adiposity. Animal models have shown that mice with Clock gene disruption are prone to developing obesity and MetS. This review summarizes the latest developments with regard to chronobiology and obesity, considering (1) how molecular clocks coordinate metabolism and the specific role of the adipocyte; (2) CD and its causes and pathological consequences; (3) the epidemiological evidence of obesity as a chronobiological illness; and (4) theories of circadian disruption and obesity. Energy intake and expenditure, relevance of sleep, fat intake from a circadian perspective and psychological and genetic aspects of obesity are examined. Finally, ideas about the use of chronobiology in the treatment of obesity are discussed. Such knowledge has the potential to become a valuable tool in the understanding of the relationship between the chronobiology, etiology and pathophysiology of obesity.

  3. Obesity and symptoms of depression contribute independently to the poor asthma control of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapadia, S G; Wei, C; Bartlett, S J; Lang, J; Wise, R A; Dixon, A E

    2014-08-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for poorly controlled asthma, but the reasons for poor asthma control in this patient population are unclear. Symptoms of depression have been associated with poor asthma control, and increase with higher body mass index (BMI). The purpose of this study was to assess whether depressive symptoms underlie poor asthma control in obesity. We determined the relationship between BMI, psychological morbidity and asthma control at baseline in a well-characterized patient population participating in a clinical trial conducted by the American Lung Association-Asthma Clinical Research Centers. Obese asthmatic participants had increased symptoms of depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score in lean 10.1 ± 8.1, overweight 10.0 ± 8.1, obese 12.4 ± 9.9; p = 0.03), worse asthma control (Juniper Asthma Control Questionnaire score in lean 1.43 ± 0.68, overweight 1.52 ± 0.71, obese 1.76 ± 0.75; p asthma quality of life (scores in lean 5.21 ± 1.08, overweight 5.08 ± 1.05, obese 4.64 ± 1.09; p obesity and those with symptoms of depression both had a higher risk of having poorly controlled asthma (adjusted odds ratio of 1.83 CI 1.23-3.52 for obesity, and 2.08 CI 1.23-3.52 for depression), but there was no interaction between the two. Obesity and symptoms of depression are independently associated with poor asthma control. As depression is increased in obese asthmatics it may be an important co-morbidity contributing to poor asthma control in this population, but factors other than depression also contribute to poor asthma control in obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Asthma is Different in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzurum, Serpil C.

    2015-01-01

    Gender differences in asthma incidence, prevalence and severity have been reported worldwide. After puberty, asthma becomes more prevalent and severe in women, and is highest in women with early menarche or with multiple gestations, suggesting a role for sex hormones in asthma genesis. However, the impact of sex hormones on the pathophysiology of asthma is confounded by and difficult to differentiate from age, obesity, atopy, and other gender associated environmental exposures. There are also gender discrepancies in the perception of asthma symptoms. Understanding gender differences in asthma is important to provide effective education and personalized management plans for asthmatics across the lifecourse. PMID:26141573

  5. Childhood asthma and physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lochte, Lene; Nielsen, Kim G; Petersen, Poul Erik

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma is a global problem affecting the respiratory health of children. Physical activity (PA) plays a role in the relationship between asthma and respiratory health. We hypothesized that a low level of PA would be associated with asthma in children and adolescents. The obj......BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma is a global problem affecting the respiratory health of children. Physical activity (PA) plays a role in the relationship between asthma and respiratory health. We hypothesized that a low level of PA would be associated with asthma in children and adolescents...

  6. Physical training for asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Mônica Corso

    2014-01-01

    People with asthma may show less tolerance to exercise due to worsening asthma symptoms during exercise or other reasons such as deconditioning as a consequence of inactivity. Some may restrict activities as per medical advice or family influence and this might result in reduced physical fitness. Physical training programs aim to improve physical fitness, neuromuscular coordination and self confidence. Subjectively, many people with asthma report that they are symptomatically better when fit, but results from trials have varied and have been difficult to compare because of different designs and training protocols. Also, as exercise can induce asthma, the safety of exercise programmes needs to be considered. To gain a better understanding of the effect of physical training on the respiratory and general health of people with asthma, from randomised trials. We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register of trials up to January 2013. We included randomised trials of people over eight years of age with asthma who were randomised to undertake physical training or not. Physical training had to be undertaken for at least 20 minutes, two times a week, over a minimum period of four weeks. Two review authors independently assessed eligibility for inclusion and undertook risk of bias assessment for the included studies. Twenty-one studies (772 participants) were included in this review with two additional 2012 studies identified as 'awaiting classification'. Physical training was well tolerated with no adverse effects reported. None of the studies mentioned worsening of asthma symptoms following physical training. Physical training showed marked improvement in cardiopulmonary fitness as measured by a statistically and clinically significant increase in maximum oxygen uptake (mean difference (MD) 4.92 mL/kg/min; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.98 to 5.87; P physical training may have positive effects on health-related quality of life, with four of five studies

  7. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Breathing Easier [PDF – 1.1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Asthma & Community Health Know How ... Breathing Easier [PDF – 1.1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Asthma & Community Health File Formats ...

  8. Occupational exposure to cleaning products and asthma in hospital workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Orianne; Donnay, Carole; Heederik, Dick J J; Héry, Michel; Choudat, Dominique; Kauffmann, Francine; Le Moual, Nicole

    2012-12-01

    Cleaning products may cause work-related asthma, but information regarding the specific exposures involved is scarce. We aimed to determine the associations between asthma and occupational exposure to cleaning agents in hospital workers. Analyses were conducted in 179 (136 women) hospital workers and a reference population of 545 subjects (18-79 years) from the French case-control and familial Epidemiological study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (2003-2007). Exposures to cleaning agents were estimated using three methods: self-report, expert assessment and an asthma-specific job-exposure matrix (JEM). Associations between cleaning products and current asthma were evaluated by logistic regressions, stratified by sex and adjusted for age and smoking status. According to expert assessment, 55% of male and 81% of female hospital workers were exposed to cleaning/disinfecting tasks weekly (pcleaning/disinfecting tasks and current asthma in men or in women whatever the assessment method used. In women, exposure to decalcifiers (expert assessment) was associated with current asthma (OR (95% CI):2.38 (1.06 to 5.33)). In hospital workers classified as exposed according to both the expert assessment and the JEM, additional associations were observed for exposure to ammonia (3.05 (1.19 to 7.82)) and to sprays with moderate/high intensity (2.87 (1.02 to 8.11)). Female hospital workers are often exposed to numerous cleaning products, some of which were markedly associated with current asthma. Low numbers prevented a meaningful analysis in men. Objective and more accurate estimates of occupational exposure to cleaning products are needed to better understand the adverse effects of cleaning products.

  9. Etiological factors of preterm delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Brkičević

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preterm delivery is the delivery before 37 weeks of gestation are completed. Preterm birth is a major course of neonatal morbidity and mortality, the incidence of premature delivery in developedcountries is 5 to 9%. Aims of this study were to determine the common etiological factors for preterm delivery, most common weeks of gestation for pretern delivery, and most commom way of delivery for preterm delivery.Methods: The study included 600 patients divided into two groups, experimental group (included 300 preterm delivered pregnant women, control group (included 300 term delivered women.Results: The incidence of preterm delivery in pregnant women younger than 18 years was 4.4%, and in pregnant women older than 35 years was 14%. 44.6 % of preterm delivered women at the experimentalgroup had lower education. In the experimental group burdened obstetrical history had 29%, 17.2% had a preterm delivery, 35.6% had a premature rupture of membranes, 15% had a preterm delivery before32 weeks of gestation, 12.4% between 32-33.6 weeks of gestation, while 72.6% of deliveries were between 34- 36.6 weeks of gestation. Multiple pregnancy as an etiological factor was present in 10.07% ofcases. Extragenital diseases were present in 10.4%. In the experimental group there were 29%, while in the control group there were 15% subjects with burdened obstetrical history.Conclusions: Preterm birth more often occurs in a pregnant women younger than 18 and older than 35 years, and in a pregnant women of lower educational degree. Preterm delivery in the most commoncases was fi nished in period from 34 to 36.6 weeks of gestation. The most common etiological factor of preterm delivery in the experimental group was preterm rupture of membranes and idiopathic pretermdelivery.

  10. Etiology of Nasal Bone Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Ki, So Jung; Ko, Sang Hyun

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of the etiology of nasal bone fractures (NBFs).In PubMed (500 titles) and Scopus (272), the search terms "nasal bone fracture" AND "etiology OR cause" were used. Among the 772 titles, 137 were duplicated and excluded. The 552 titles were excluded and 83 abstracts were read. Subsequently, 42 abstracts were excluded and 41 full articles providing data on etiologies of NBFs were reviewed. Finally, 26 papers were incorporated into this analysis.The causes of NBFs were different between adults and children. In adults, the most frequent causes were fights (36.3%), traffic accidents (20.8%), sports (15.3%), and falls (13.4%). In children, the most frequent causes were sports (59.3%), fights (10.8%), traffic accidents (8.3%), collisions (5.0%), and falls (3.3%). It is noticeable that fights, traffic accidents, and falls were more frequent in adults than in children, although sports and collisions were more frequent in children than in adults (P causes of NBFs varied geographically. Fights were the most frequent cause in Asia (36.7%), South America (46.5%), and Europe (40.8%). In North America, however, traffic accidents were the most frequent cause (33.6%), followed by fights (20.7%) and sports (17.3%). Among the sports injuries, ball-related sports were the most frequent cause (84.2%). Fighting-related sports (6.4%) contributed to relatively small proportion of NBFs.In efforts to prevent NBFs in children, sports injuries should be primarily considered. Restraining devices such as seatbelts are needed to prevent NBFs caused by traffic accidents, especially in North America.

  11. β-Glucan exacerbates allergic asthma independent of fungal sensitization and promotes steroid-resistant TH2/TH17 responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhonghua; Biagini Myers, Jocelyn M; Brandt, Eric B; Ryan, Patrick H; Lindsey, Mark; Mintz-Cole, Rachael A; Reponen, Tiina; Vesper, Stephen J; Forde, Frank; Ruff, Brandy; Bass, Stacey A; LeMasters, Grace K; Bernstein, David I; Lockey, James; Budelsky, Alison L; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K

    2017-01-01

    Allergic sensitization to fungi has been associated with asthma severity. As a result, it has been largely assumed that the contribution of fungi to allergic disease is mediated through their potent antigenicity. We sought to determine the mechanism by which fungi affect asthma development and severity. We integrated epidemiologic and experimental asthma models to explore the effect of fungal exposure on asthma development and severity. We report that fungal exposure enhances allergen-driven TH2 responses, promoting severe allergic asthma. This effect is independent of fungal sensitization and can be reconstituted with β-glucan and abrogated by neutralization of IL-17A. Furthermore, this severe asthma is resistant to steroids and characterized by mixed TH2 and TH17 responses, including IL-13(+)IL-17(+)CD4(+) double-producing effector T cells. Steroid resistance is dependent on fungus-induced TH17 responses because steroid sensitivity was restored in IL-17rc(-/-) mice. Similarly, in children with asthma, fungal exposure was associated with increased serum IL-17A levels and asthma severity. Our data demonstrate that fungi are potent immunomodulators and have powerful effects on asthma independent of their potential to act as antigens. Furthermore, our results provide a strong rationale for combination treatment strategies targeting IL-17A for this subgroup of fungus-exposed patients with difficult-to-treat asthma. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The prevalence of asthma and atopy in schoolchildren from Porto Alegre, Brazil, has plateaued.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, Camila; Fritscher, Leandro Genehr; Chapman, Kenneth R; Fritscher, Carlos Cezar

    2015-03-01

    A significant increase in the prevalence of asthma and atopy was observed in epidemiological studies conducted in 1980, 1989 and 1998, with schoolchildren of Porto Alegre. The present study aims to determine changes in the prevalence of symptoms of current and lifetime asthma and also to document the prevalence of atopy in schoolchildren from a region of Porto Alegre. This was a cross-sectional study in which schoolchildren from 5th to 8th grade (10-18 years), from four schools located in the same geographic area were interviewed. The questionnaire covered symptoms suggestive of lifetime or current asthma (at some point in life or in the last twelve months, respectively). In addition, skin tests were performed in a subset of 241 schoolchildren. 964 students were interviewed from a total of 1195 registered. The prevalence of lifetime asthma symptoms was found to be 41.7%, symptoms of current asthma 14.9% and atopy 52.7%. Compared to previous studies, the prevalence of lifetime asthma and atopy has stabilized while the prevalence of current asthma fell from 22% to 14.9% (P atopy and lifetime asthma has plateaued, while the prevalence of current asthma fell. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Innate lymphoid cells and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sanhong; Kim, Hye Young; Chang, Ya-Jen; DeKruyff, Rosemarie H; Umetsu, Dale T

    2014-04-01

    Asthma is a complex and heterogeneous disease with several phenotypes, including an allergic asthma phenotype characterized by TH2 cytokine production and associated with allergen sensitization and adaptive immunity. Asthma also includes nonallergic asthma phenotypes, such as asthma associated with exposure to air pollution, infection, or obesity, that require innate rather than adaptive immunity. These innate pathways that lead to asthma involve macrophages, neutrophils, natural killer T cells, and innate lymphoid cells, newly described cell types that produce a variety of cytokines, including IL-5 and IL-13. We review the recent data regarding innate lymphoid cells and their role in asthma. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Asthma-COPD overlap syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Şen, Elif; Oğuzülgen, Kıvılcım; Bavbek, Sevim; Günen, Hakan; Kıyan, Esen; Türktaş, Haluk; Yorgancıoğlu, Arzu; Polatlı, Mehmet; Yıldız, Füsun; Çelik, Gülfem; Demir, Tunçalp; Gemicioğlu, Bilun; Mungan, Dilşad; Saryal, Sevgi; Sayıner, Abdullah; Yıldırım, Nurhayat

    2015-01-01

    .... Among patient with COPD and asthma; there is a group of patients with an overlap between clinical, functional characteristics and airway inflammation patterns, named "Asthma-COPD Overlap Syndrome" (ACOS...

  15. Psychopathology in difficult asthma : Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, L.C.J.; van Son, M.A.C.; van Keimpema, A.R.J.; van Ranst, D.; Antonissen-Pommer, A.M.; Meijer, J.W.G.; Pop, V.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Within the asthma population, difficult asthma (DA) is a severe condition in which patients present with frequent exacerbations, hospitalizations and emergency room visits. The identification and treatment of psychopathology is included in the management of DA. Psychopathology is supposed

  16. Allergy and Asthma Health Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Of Age Older Adults Allergy and Asthma Health Magazine Women Infant, Children and Teenagers Living With Lung ... written by Respiratory Experts Like no other health magazine, Allergy & Asthma Health Magazine is published by people ...

  17. Etiologic Ischemic Stroke Phenotypes in the NINDS Stroke Genetics Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ay, Hakan; Arsava, Ethem Murat; Andsberg, Gunnar; Benner, Thomas; Brown, Robert D.; Chapman, Sherita N.; Cole, John W.; Delavaran, Hossein; Dichgans, Martin; Engström, Gunnar; Giralt-Steinhauer, Eva; Grewal, Raji P.; Gwinn, Katrina; Jern, Christina; Jimenez-Conde, Jordi; Jood, Katarina; Katsnelson, Michael; Kissela, Brett; Kittner, Steven J.; Kleindorfer, Dawn O.; Labovitz, Daniel L.; Lanfranconi, Silvia; Lee, Jin-Moo; Lehm, Manuel; Lemmens, Robin; Levi, Chris; Li, Linxin; Lindgren, Arne; Markus, Hugh S.; McArdle, Patrick F.; Melander, Olle; Norrving, Bo; Peddareddygari, Leema Reddy; Pedersén, Annie; Pera, Joanna; Rannikmäe, Kristiina; Rexrode, Kathryn M.; Rhodes, David; Rich, Stephen S.; Roquer, Jaume; Rosand, Jonathan; Rothwell, Peter M.; Rundek, Tatjana; Sacco, Ralph L.; Schmidt, Reinhold; Schürks, Markus; Seiler, Stephan; Sharma, Pankaj; Slowik, Agnieszka; Sudlow, Cathie; Thijs, Vincent; Woodfield, Rebecca; Worrall, Bradford B.; Meschia, James F.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose NINDS Stroke Genetics Network (SiGN) is an international consortium of ischemic stroke studies that aims to generate high quality phenotype data to identify the genetic basis of etiologic stroke subtypes. This analysis characterizes the etiopathogenetic basis of ischemic stroke and reliability of stroke classification in the consortium. Methods Fifty-two trained and certified adjudicators determined both phenotypic (abnormal test findings categorized in major etiologic groups without weighting towards the most likely cause) and causative ischemic stroke subtypes in 16,954 subjects with imaging-confirmed ischemic stroke from 12 US studies and 11 studies from 8 European countries using the web-based Causative Classification of Stroke System. Classification reliability was assessed with blinded re-adjudication of 1509 randomly selected cases. Results The distribution of etiologic categories varied by study, age, sex, and race (p<0.001 for each). Overall, only 40% to 54% of cases with a given major ischemic stroke etiology (phenotypic subtype) were classified into the same final causative category with high confidence. There was good agreement for both causative (kappa 0.72, 95%CI:0.69-0.75) and phenotypic classifications (kappa 0.73, 95%CI:0.70-0.75). Conclusions This study demonstrates that etiologic subtypes can be determined with good reliability in studies that include investigators with different expertise and background, institutions with different stroke evaluation protocols and geographic location, and patient populations with different epidemiological characteristics. The discordance between phenotypic and causative stroke subtypes highlights the fact that the presence of an abnormality in a stroke patient does not necessarily mean that it is the cause of stroke. PMID:25378430

  18. Pediatric Infective Endocarditis: Has Staphylococcus aureus Overtaken Viridans Group Streptococci as the Predominant Etiological Agent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Alshammary

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Viridans group streptococci (VGS have traditionally been the most common etiological agents of infective endocarditis (IE. Advances in cardiovascular surgery and the increasing use of long-term central venous catheters may have altered the epidemiology of pediatric IE.

  19. Etiology, diagnosis, and demographic analysis of maxillofacial trauma in elderly persons: A 10-year investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Possebon, Anna Paula da Rosa; Granke, Gabriela; Faot, Fernanda

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate etiologies and diagnoses of maxillofacial trauma in emergency services in Brazil over a period of 10 years. Additionally, associations among sex, age, accident location, and dependent variables were analyzed. Understanding the epidemiology of trauma...... (17.77%, p maxillofacial trauma in the elderly population were falls, and the primary diagnoses were fractures. Conclusion A deeper...

  20. The role of pneumococcal infection in development of exacerbations in children with bronchial asthma and obstructive bronchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Kukhtinova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumococcal infection remains the key cause of severe diseases of lower airways and deaths in children. The objective: to study the role of pneumococcal infection in pathogenesis of exacerbations of recurrent obstructive pulmonary diseases. Methods: etiological structure of lower airways infections was evaluated in 125 patients 1–15 years old with bronchial asthma or recurrent bronchitis. Results: etiologic role of Streptococcus pneumoniae in development of low airways infections was detected in 48% of patients with atopic asthma, 85% — with asthma without atopy, 97% — with recurrent bronchitis. Repeated microbiological examination confirmed chronic carriage of S. рneumoniae in nasopharinx in 31% of patients. Conclusion: early active prophylaxis with vaccine against pneumococcal infection including conjugated vaccines is able to prevent further progression of a disease.Key words: children, bronchial asthma, obstructive bronchitis, exacerbation, pneumococcal infection.

  1. Aspirin-Exacerbated Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varghese Mathew

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on aspirin-exacerbated asthma (AEA. The review includes historical perspective of aspirin, prevalence, pathogenesis, clinical features and treatment of AEA. The pathogenesis of AEA involves the cyclooxygenase and lipooxygenase pathway. Aspirin affects both of these pathways by inhibiting the enzyme cycooxygenase-1 (COX-1. Inhibition of COX-1 leads to a decrease in prostaglandin E2 (PGE2. The decrease in PGE2 results in an increase in cysteinyl leukotrienes by the lipooxygenase pathway involving the enzyme 5-lipooxygenase (5-LO. Leukotriene C4 (LTC4 synthase is the enzyme responsible for the production of leukotriene C4, the chief cysteinyl leukotriene responsible for AEA. There have been familial occurences of AEA. An allele of the LTC4 synthase gene in AEA is known as allele C. Allele C has a higher frequency in AEA. Clinical presentation includes a history of asthma after ingestion of aspirin, nasal congestion, watery rhinorrhea and nasal polyposis. Treatment includes leukotriene receptor antagonists, leukotriene inhibitors, aspirin desinsitaztion and surgery. AEA is the most well-defined phenotype of asthma. Although AEA affects adults and children with physician-diagnosed asthma, in some cases there is no history of asthma and AEA often goes unrecognized and underdiagnosed.

  2. Allergens, germs and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scadding, Glenis Kathleen

    2015-04-01

    To explore asthma pathogenesis using data from upper and lower airways. English-language papers on human asthma and nasal polyp subjects from 1990 onwards. High-quality studies in established journals. The recognition of its inflammatory nature led to a quantum leap in the understanding and treatment of asthma, with lives saved by inhaled corticosteroids. Further work at genetic, molecular, histological and clinical levels has shown that asthma is polymorphic and rarely involves isolated Th2 bronchial inflammation. Viral infections may act as an initiating event in children and adults, showing synergy with atopy. Chronic staphylococcal colonization of the mucosa may act as a promoter, as in atopic dermatitis. These two observations may be linked, with viruses providing an entry for bacteria into the mucosal epithelium. Most asthma begins in the nose and involves allergy and infection: both viral and bacterial. The combination of atopy and infection suggests new possibilities for therapy. © 2014 The Author. The Clinical Respiratory Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Asthma and dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Joseph

    2012-06-01

    Medline, government reports and conference proceedings were searched. Case-control, cohort or cross sectional studies were included if they provided relevant and applicable quantitative information on the relation between asthma and caries, had an independent study population and adequate definitions of asthma and caries and appropriate measurement of caries. Data were extracted independently by two reviewers and quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. Fixed- and random-effects models were used for the analyses. Heterogeneity and publication bias were evaluated. Eighteen articles were included; 11 provided information on primary dentition and 15 on permanent dentition. Random-effects models showed a significant association between asthma and caries for both primary and permanent dentition, the odds ratios being 2.73 (95% CI: 1.61, 4.64) and 2.04 (95% CI: 1.44, 2.89), respectively. Evidence from this analysis suggests that asthma doubles the risk of caries in both primary and permanent dentition. Publication bias diagnostics and simulation suggested possible overestimation of the summary odds ratio for permanent dentition but not for primary dentition. Physicians and dentists should recommend preventive measures against caries for people with asthma.

  4. Evaluation of CHESS: Utah asthma study, 1971-1972. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, A.R.; Tolley, H.D.; Simpson, J.C.; Namekata, T.; Woods, J.S.

    1983-02-01

    This report is divided into five main sections. The first reviews the use of asthma as a health indicator in environmental epidemiology, including a review of selected asthma panel studies. The next two sections consider the impact of the data quality: the limitations and characteristics of the aerometric data and of the panelists' data, respectively. The last two sections contain statistical analyses: analyses correcting for variation among panelists and analyses based on person-days.

  5. Obesity, Asthma, and the Microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Youngji; Shore, Stephanie A

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for asthma, but standard asthma drugs have reduced efficacy in the obese. Obesity alters the gastrointestinal microbial community structure. This change in structure contributes to some obesity-related conditions and also could be contributing to obesity-related asthma. Although currently unexplored, obesity may also be altering lung microbiota. Understanding the role of microbiota in obesity-related asthma could lead to novel treatments for these patients. ©2016 Int. Union Physiol. Sci./Am. Physiol. Soc.

  6. Obesity, Asthma, and the Microbiome

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Youngji; Shore, Stephanie A.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for asthma, but standard asthma drugs have reduced efficacy in the obese. Obesity alters the gastrointestinal microbial community structure. This change in structure contributes to some obesity-related conditions and also could be contributing to obesity-related asthma. Although currently unexplored, obesity may also be altering lung microbiota. Understanding the role of microbiota in obesity-related asthma could lead to novel treatments for these patients.

  7. Obesity, Asthma, and the Microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Youngji

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for asthma, but standard asthma drugs have reduced efficacy in the obese. Obesity alters the gastrointestinal microbial community structure. This change in structure contributes to some obesity-related conditions and also could be contributing to obesity-related asthma. Although currently unexplored, obesity may also be altering lung microbiota. Understanding the role of microbiota in obesity-related asthma could lead to novel treatments for these patients. PMID:26889016

  8. Obesity and asthma: the role of environmental pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, Sneha; Salvi, Sundeep

    2014-11-01

    Air pollution is a well-known risk for lung diseases, including asthma. Growing evidences suggesting air pollution as a novel risk factor for the development of obesity. Several Epidemiological studies have ascertained an association between various ambient and indoor air pollutants and obesity by medium of endocrine disruptive chemicals that can disrupt the normal development and homeostatic controls over adipogenesis and energy balance and induce obesity. Several obesity-induced mechanisms have been proposed that increases this vulnerability of obese individuals to harmful effects of air pollution rendering them more susceptible to developing air-pollution driven incident asthma or worsening of already existing asthma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Japanese Guideline for Adult Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Ohta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult bronchial asthma (hereinafter, asthma is characterized by chronic airway inflammation, reversible airway narrowing, and airway hyperresponsiveness. Long-standing asthma induces airway remodeling to cause an intractable asthma. The number of patients with asthma has increased, while the number of patients who die from asthma has decreased (1.7 per 100,000 patients in 2009. The aim of asthma treatment is to enable patients with asthma to lead a healthy life without any symptoms. A partnership between physicians and patients is indispensable for appropriate treatment. Long-term management with agents and elimination of causes and risk factors are fundamental to asthma treatment. Four steps in pharmacotherapy differentiate mild to intensive treatments; each step includes an appropriate daily dose of an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS, varying from low to high doses. Long-acting β2 agonists (LABA, leukotriene receptor antagonists, and theophylline sustained-release preparation are recommended as concomitant drugs, while anti-IgE antibody therapy is a new choice for the most severe and persistent asthma. Inhaled β2 agonists, aminophylline, corticosteroids, adrenaline, oxygen therapy, etc., are used as needed against acute exacerbations. Allergic rhinitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, aspirin induced asthma, pregnancy, and cough variant asthma are also important factors that need to be considered.

  10. Defining asthma in genetic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, GH; Postma, DS; Meijer, G.

    1999-01-01

    Genetic studies have been hampered by the lack of a gold standard to diagnose asthma. The complex nature of asthma makes it more difficult to identify asthma genes. Therefore, approaches to define phenotypes, which have been successful in other genetically complex diseases, may be applied to define

  11. Rhinitis: a complication to asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J W; Thomsen, S F; Nolte, H

    2010-01-01

    Asthma and rhinitis often co-occur, and this potentially increases the disease severity and impacts negatively on the quality of life. We studied disease severity, airway responsiveness, atopy, quality of life and treatment in subjects with both asthma and rhinitis compared to patients with asthma...

  12. Vitamin D in asthma and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang H

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Haidong Huang,1 Konstantinos Porpodis,2 Paul Zarogoulidis,2,3 Kalliopi Domvri,2 Paschalina Giouleka,2 Antonis Papaiwannou,2 Stella Primikyri,2 Efi Mylonaki,2 Dionysis Spyratos,2 Wolfgang Hohenforst-Schmidt,4 Ioannis Kioumis,2 Konstantinos Zarogoulidis2 1Department of Respiratory Diseases, Changhai Hospital/First Affiliated Hospital of the Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Pulmonary Department, “G Papanikolaou” General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece; 3Department of Interventional Pneumology, Ruhrlandklinik, West German Lung Center, University Hospital, University Duisburg–Essen, Essen, Germany; 4II Medical Clinic, “Coburg” Hospital, University of Würzburg, Coburg, Germany Abstract: Humans have the ability to synthesize vitamin D during the action of ultraviolet (UV radiation upon the skin. Apart from the regulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism, another critical role for vitamin D in immunity and respiratory health has been revealed, since vitamin D receptors have also been found in other body cells. The term “vitamin D insufficiency” has been used to describe low levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D that may be associated with a wide range of pulmonary diseases, including viral and bacterial respiratory infection, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cancer. This review focuses on the controversial relationship between vitamin D and asthma. Also, it has been found that different gene polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor have variable associations with asthma. Other studies investigated the vitamin D receptor signaling pathway in vitro or in experimental animal models and showed either a beneficial or a negative effect of vitamin D in asthma. Furthermore, a range of epidemiological studies has also suggested that vitamin D insufficiency is associated with low lung function. In the future, clinical trials in different asthmatic

  13. The relationship of rhinitis and asthma, sinusitis, food allergy, and eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ricardo A; Corren, Jonathan

    2011-08-01

    Epidemiologic, genetic, immunologic, and clinical studies show a close relationship between allergic rhinitis and asthma, food allergy, and atopic dermatitis. Rhinitis and sinusitis often coexist and are commonly referred to with the term rhinosinusitis. These conditions are also linked in the so-called atopic march, which is the sequential appearance of atopic manifestations starting with atopic dermatitis and later followed by food allergy, allergic rhinitis, and asthma. Allergic rhinitis and asthma are now increasingly being approached diagnostically and therapeutically as the one-airway concept. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Obesity and asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Pranab Baruwa; Kripesh Ranjan Sarmah

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic disorder affecting millions of people worldwide. The prevalence of asthma is around 300 million and is expected to increase another 100 million by 2025. Obesity, on the other hand, also affects a large number of individuals. Overweight in adults is defined when body mass index (BMI) is between 25 to 30 kg/m 2 and obesity when the BMI >30 kg/m 2 . It has been a matter of interest for researchers to find a relation between these two conditions. This knowledge will provide a ...

  15. Management of infantile asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasher, G W

    1977-09-01

    Infantile asthama is an important pediatric problem and may cause substantial morbidity and mortality in this age group. The pathophysiology of allergic asthma involves a type I hypersensitivity reaction that is mediated by reaginic antibodies of the IgE class. Various factors predisposing to infantile asthma have been suggested but not confirmed. The differential diagnosis of infantile wheezing is of particular importance in this very young age group. An appreciation of the natural history and clinical characteristics of the disease, and of the important causative factors (foods, environmental inhalants, and respiratory infections), will aid the physician in the management of this problem.

  16. Relvar Ellipta for asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    ▼Relvar Ellipta (GSK) is a dry powder inhaler that contains a corticosteroid (fluticasone furoate) and a long-acting beta2 agonist (vilanterol trifenatate). It is licensed for once-daily use as maintenance therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. In a previous article we considered its use in the management of COPD.1 Here we review the evidence for Relvar Ellipta in the treatment of patients with asthma. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Developmental Perturbation Induced by Maternal Asthma during Pregnancy: The Short- and Long-Term Impacts on Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki L. Clifton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal asthma is a common disease to complicate human pregnancy. Epidemiological studies have identified that asthma during pregnancy increases the risk of a number of poor outcomes for the neonate including growth restriction, lower birthweight, preterm delivery, neonatal resuscitation, and stillbirth. Asthma therefore represents a significant health burden to society and could have an impact on the lifelong health of the children of women with asthma. Our research has identified that maternal asthma in pregnancy induces placental dysfunction and developmental perturbation in the fetus in a sex specific manner. These alterations in development could increase the risk of metabolic disease in adulthood of children of asthmatic mothers, especially females. In this paper, we will discuss the evidence currently available that supports the hypothesis that children of mothers with asthma may be at risk of lifelong health complications which include diabetes and hypertension.

  18. Pooled Sequencing of Candidate Genes Implicates Rare Variants in the Development of Asthma Following Severe RSV Bronchiolitis in Infancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara G Torgerson

    Full Text Available Severe infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV during infancy is strongly associated with the development of asthma. To identify genetic variation that contributes to asthma following severe RSV bronchiolitis during infancy, we sequenced the coding exons of 131 asthma candidate genes in 182 European and African American children with severe RSV bronchiolitis in infancy using anonymous pools for variant discovery, and then directly genotyped a set of 190 nonsynonymous variants. Association testing was performed for physician-diagnosed asthma before the 7th birthday (asthma using genotypes from 6,500 individuals from the Exome Sequencing Project (ESP as controls to gain statistical power. In addition, among patients with severe RSV bronchiolitis during infancy, we examined genetic associations with asthma, active asthma, persistent wheeze, and bronchial hyperreactivity (methacholine PC20 at age 6 years. We identified four rare nonsynonymous variants that were significantly associated with asthma following severe RSV bronchiolitis, including single variants in ADRB2, FLG and NCAM1 in European Americans (p = 4.6x10-4, 1.9x10-13 and 5.0x10-5, respectively, and NOS1 in African Americans (p = 2.3x10-11. One of the variants was a highly functional nonsynonymous variant in ADRB2 (rs1800888, which was also nominally associated with asthma (p = 0.027 and active asthma (p = 0.013 among European Americans with severe RSV bronchiolitis without including the ESP. Our results suggest that rare nonsynonymous variants contribute to the development of asthma following severe RSV bronchiolitis in infancy, notably in ADRB2. Additional studies are required to explore the role of rare variants in the etiology of asthma and asthma-related traits following severe RSV bronchiolitis.

  19. Resolving the Etiology of Atopic Disorders by Genetic Analysis of Racial Ancestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Jayanta; Johansson, Elisabet; Bernstein, Jonathan A.; Chakraborty, Ranajit; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K.; Rothenberg, Marc E.; Mersha, Tesfaye B.

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD), food allergy (FA), allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma are common atopic disorders of complex etiology. The frequently observed “atopic march” from early AD to asthma and/or AR later in life as well as the extensive comorbidity of atopic disorders, suggests common causal mechanisms in addition to distinct ones. Indeed, both disease-specific and shared genomic regions exist for atopic disorders. Their prevalence also varies among races; for example, AD and asthma have a higher prevalence in African-Americans when compared to European-Americans. Whether this disparity stems from true genetic or race-specific environmental risk factors or both is unknown. Thus far, the majority of the genetic studies on atopic diseases have utilized populations of European ancestry, limiting their generalizability. Large cohort initiatives and new analytic methods such as admixture mapping are currently being employed to address this knowledge gap. Here we discuss the unique and shared genetic risk factors for atopic disorders in the context of ancestry variations, and the promise of high-throughput “-omics” based systems biology approach in providing greater insight to deconstruct into their genetic and non-genetic etiologies. Future research will also focus on deep phenotyping and genotyping of diverse racial ancestry, gene-environment, and gene-gene interactions. PMID:27297995

  20. Characterization of Rhinitis According to the Asthma Status in Adults Using an Unsupervised Approach in the EGEA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burte, Emilie; Bousquet, Jean; Varraso, Raphaëlle; Gormand, Frédéric; Just, Jocelyne; Matran, Régis; Pin, Isabelle; Siroux, Valérie; Jacquemin, Bénédicte; Nadif, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    The classification of rhinitis in adults is missing in epidemiological studies. To identify phenotypes of adult rhinitis using an unsupervised approach (data-driven) compared with a classical hypothesis-driven approach. 983 adults of the French Epidemiological Study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA) were studied. Self-reported symptoms related to rhinitis such as nasal symptoms, hay fever, sinusitis, conjunctivitis, and sensitivities to different triggers (dust, animals, hay/flowers, cold air…) were used. Allergic sensitization was defined by at least one positive skin prick test to 12 aeroallergens. Mixture model was used to cluster participants, independently in those without (Asthma-, n = 582) and with asthma (Asthma+, n = 401). Three clusters were identified in both groups: 1) Cluster A (55% in Asthma-, and 22% in Asthma+) mainly characterized by the absence of nasal symptoms, 2) Cluster B (23% in Asthma-, 36% in Asthma+) mainly characterized by nasal symptoms all over the year, sinusitis and a low prevalence of positive skin prick tests, and 3) Cluster C (22% in Asthma-, 42% in Asthma+) mainly characterized by a peak of nasal symptoms during spring, a high prevalence of positive skin prick tests and a high report of hay fever, allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis. The highest rate of polysensitization (80%) was found in participants with comorbid asthma and allergic rhinitis. This cluster analysis highlighted three clusters of rhinitis with similar characteristics than those known by clinicians but differing according to allergic sensitization, and this whatever the asthma status. These clusters could be easily rebuilt using a small number of variables.

  1. Status Epilepticus: Epidemiology and Public Health Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Sánchez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Status epilepticus (SE is defined as a continuous clinical and/or electrographic seizure activity lasting five minutes or more or recurrent seizure activity without return to baseline. There is a paucity of epidemiological studies of SE, as most research is derived from small population studies. The overall incidence of SE is 9.9 to 41 per 100,000/year, with peaks in children and the elderly and with febrile seizures and strokes as its main etiologies. The etiology is the major determinant of mortality. Governments and the academic community should predominantly focus on the primary prevention of etiologies linked to SE, as these are the most important risk factors for its development. This review describes the incidence, prevalence, etiology, risk factors, outcomes and costs of SE and aims to identify future research and public health needs.

  2. Vitamin D and atopy and asthma phenotypes in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollams, Elysia M

    2012-06-01

    To give an overview of the recent research into whether a lack of vitamin D contributes to the development of atopy and asthma in childhood. I describe here the recent epidemiological studies relating vitamin D status to atopy and asthma in children, focusing on determinants of major asthma phenotypes in childhood. Recent findings include the observations that vitamin D levels are inversely associated with degree of corticosteroid use, worsening airflow limitation and increased exacerbations among asthmatics. Low vitamin D has been associated with atopy and asthma in children and adolescents in a community cohort, predominantly in boys, with vitamin D at age 6 predicting these outcomes at 14. I also detail the mechanistic studies examining relevant vitamin D-regulated processes; recent findings include the demonstration that offspring of mice with vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy show reduced lung volume and function. The current literature suggests that intervention to ensure adequate vitamin D levels during both pregnancy and childhood may reduce the development of atopy and asthma in children. However, important questions need to be answered regarding the levels of vitamin D required, which may vary between the sexes and between individuals, and the optimal timing and duration of such intervention.

  3. Hygiene Hypothesis in Asthma Development: Is Hygiene to Blame?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilburg Bernardes, Erik; Arrieta, Marie-Claire

    2017-12-07

    Industrialized countries have registered epidemic rates on allergic diseases, such as hay fever, asthma, eczema, and food allergies. The Hygiene Hypothesis was born from work made by Dr. David Strachan, who observed that younger siblings were less susceptible to eczema and asthma, and proposed that this was a result of increased transmission of infectious agents via unhygienic practices within a household. This initial hypothesis was then reframed as the old friends/microbiota hypothesis, implicating non-pathogenic commensal microorganisms as the source of immunomodulatory signals necessary to prevent immune-mediated chronic disorders. Although the hygiene hypothesis is supported by epidemiological research of allergic diseases in certain industrialized settings, it often fails to explain the incidence of asthma in less affluent regions of the world. In this review, we summarize up-to-date information on genetic and environmental factors associated with asthma in different human populations, and present evidence that calls for caution when associating hygiene with the pathogenesis of asthma and other allergic conditions. Copyright © 2017 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Innate lymphoid cells at the interface between obesity and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everaere, Laetitia; Ait Yahia, Saliha; Bouté, Mélodie; Audousset, Camille; Chenivesse, Cécile; Tsicopoulos, Anne

    2018-01-01

    Obesity and asthma prevalence has dramatically and concomitantly increased over the last 25 years, and many epidemiological studies have highlighted obesity as an important risk factor for asthma. Although many studies have been performed, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Innate mechanisms have been involved in both diseases, in particular through the recently described innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). ILCs are subdivided into three groups that are defined by their cytokine production and by their master transcription factor expression, in sharp correlation with their T helper counterparts. However, unlike T helper cells, ILCs do not express antigen-specific receptors, but respond to damage-induced signals. ILCs have been found in target tissues of both diseases, and data have implicated these cells in the pathogenesis of both diseases. In particular group 2 ILCs (ILC2) are activated in both the adipose and lung tissues under the effect of interleukin-33 and interleukin-25 expression. However, counter-intuitively to the well-known association between obesity and asthma, ILC2 are beneficial for obesity but deleterious for asthma. This review will examine the roles of ILCs in each disease and recent data highlighting ILCs as a putative link between obesity and asthma. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Mouth breathing, another risk factor for asthma: the Nagahama Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuhara, Y; Matsumoto, H; Nagasaki, T; Kanemitsu, Y; Murase, K; Ito, I; Oguma, T; Muro, S; Asai, K; Tabara, Y; Takahashi, K; Bessho, K; Sekine, A; Kosugi, S; Yamada, R; Nakayama, T; Matsuda, F; Niimi, A; Chin, K; Mishima, M

    2016-07-01

    Allergic rhinitis, a known risk factor for asthma onset, often accompanies mouth breathing. Mouth breathing may bypass the protective function of the nose and is anecdotally considered to increase asthma morbidity. However, there is no epidemiological evidence that mouth breathing is independently associated with asthma morbidity and sensitization to allergens. In this study, we aimed to clarify the association between mouth breathing and asthma morbidity and allergic/eosinophilic inflammation, while considering the effect of allergic rhinitis. This community-based cohort study, the Nagahama Study, contained a self-reporting questionnaire on mouth breathing and medical history, blood tests, and pulmonary function testing. We enrolled 9804 general citizens of Nagahama City in the Shiga Prefecture, Japan. Mouth breathing was reported by 17% of the population and was independently associated with asthma morbidity. The odds ratio for asthma morbidity was 1.85 (95% CI, 1.27-2.62) and 2.20 (95% CI, 1.72-2.80) in subjects with mouth breathing alone and allergic rhinitis alone, which additively increased to 4.09 (95% CI, 3.01-5.52) when mouth breathing and allergic rhinitis coexisted. Mouth breathing in nonasthmatics was a risk for house dust mite sensitization, higher blood eosinophil counts, and lower pulmonary function after adjusting for allergic rhinitis. Mouth breathing may increase asthma morbidity, potentially through increased sensitization to inhaled allergens, which highlights the risk of mouth-bypass breathing in the 'one airway, one disease' concept. The risk of mouth breathing should be well recognized in subjects with allergic rhinitis and in the general population. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Vitamin D related genes in lung development and asthma pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kho, Alvin T; Sharma, Sunita; Qiu, Weiliang; Gaedigk, Roger; Klanderman, Barbara; Niu, Simin; Anderson, Chris; Leeder, James S; Weiss, Scott T; Tantisira, Kelan G

    2013-11-05

    Poor maternal vitamin D intake is a risk factor for subsequent childhood asthma, suggesting that in utero changes related to vitamin D responsive genes might play a crucial role in later disease susceptibility. We hypothesized that vitamin D pathway genes are developmentally active in the fetal lung and that these developmental genes would be associated with asthma susceptibility and regulation in asthma. Vitamin D pathway genes were derived from PubMed and Gene Ontology surveys. Principal component analysis was used to identify characteristic lung development genes. Vitamin D regulated genes were markedly over-represented in normal human (odds ratio OR 2.15, 95% confidence interval CI: 1.69-2.74) and mouse (OR 2.68, 95% CI: 2.12-3.39) developing lung transcriptomes. 38 vitamin D pathway genes were in both developing lung transcriptomes with >63% of genes more highly expressed in the later than earlier stages of development. In immortalized B-cells derived from 95 asthmatics and their unaffected siblings, 12 of the 38 (31.6%) vitamin D pathway lung development genes were significantly differentially expressed (OR 3.00, 95% CI: 1.43-6.21), whereas 11 (29%) genes were significantly differentially expressed in 43 control versus vitamin D treated immortalized B-cells from Childhood Asthma Management Program subjects (OR 2.62, 95% CI: 1.22-5.50). 4 genes, LAMP3, PIP5K1B, SCARB2 and TXNIP were identified in both groups; each displays significant biologic plausibility for a role in asthma. Our findings demonstrate a significant association between early lung development and asthma-related phenotypes for vitamin D pathway genes, supporting a genomic mechanistic basis for the epidemiologic observations relating maternal vitamin D intake and childhood asthma susceptibility.

  7. Work-related asthma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    grain dust, welding fumes and wood dust. (Table III).1 Exposure to animal epithelia, hairs and secretions is commonly reported among laboratory animal workers and agricultural workers. Latex allergy-related asthma appears to be less common due to the introduction of latex-free gloves in most health care settings.

  8. Treating childhood asthma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    played by additional factors, such as patient adherence and administration of medication technique. It is always necessary to treat the child as an individual, but some measures apply in all cases. It is important to allay anxiety about the diagnosis. This is best done by carefully explaining the nature and causes of asthma, ...

  9. Asthma Home Environment Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    This checklist guides home care visitors in identifying environmental asthma triggers most commonly found in homes. It includes sections on the building, home interior and room interior and provides low-cost action steps for remediation. EPA 402-F-03-030.

  10. School and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or dad to speak to the teacher, school nurse, or principal. Most teachers are glad to help. After all, if you can't breathe, you can't learn! What About Sports? You might think that because you have asthma ...

  11. Asthma and Hispanic Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to non-Hispanic whites. While all of the causes of asthma remain unclear, children exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke exposure are at increased risk for acute lower respiratory tract infections, such as bronchitis. Children living below or near the poverty level are more likely to have high levels ...

  12. Vascular remodelling in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Eugene Haydn; Soltani, Amir; Reid, David William; Ward, Chris

    2008-02-01

    We review the recent literature, focusing on 2006 and 2007, to produce an update on the patho-biology of angiogenesis and vascular endothelial growth factor in the asthmatic airway. In terms of conceptual development in asthma research, airway inflammation and remodelling have been regarded as separate processes or perhaps as sequential, with early inflammation leading later to remodelling. Recent insights identify a central role for vascular endothelial growth factor in stimulating both inflammation and vascular remodelling coincidentally, with the full panoply of vascular endothelial growth factor mediated events being complex and wide. Both nitric oxide and matrix metalloproteinase-9 induction may be important downstream pathogenic mechanisms. Virus-mediated exacerbations are a prime manifestation of the oscillating trajectory of clinical asthma. The early stimulation of vascular endothelial growth factor production is probably a central aetiological mechanism, with secondary inflammation and angiogenesis. The time scale of the latter, especially, fits with the time scale of clinico-physiological changes after exacerbation. These vascular endothelial growth factor induced changes are potentially modifiable with therapy. Insights into the importance of vascular endothelial growth factor and angiogenesis in asthma pathogenesis now lead to potential new therapeutic possibilities and elucidate why recent advances in asthma therapeutics have been so successful.

  13. Decreasing asthma morbidity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1994-12-12

    Dec 12, 1994 ... Apart from the optimal use of drugs, various supplementary methods have been tested to decrease asthma morbidity, usually in patients from reiatively affluent socio-economic backgrounds. A study of additional measures taken in a group of moderate to severe adult asthmatics from very poor socio- ...

  14. A literature review and survey of childhood pneumonia etiology studies: 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, Zunera; Kwong, Yuenting D; Levine, Orin S; Deloria-Knoll, Maria; Scott, J Anthony G; O'Brien, Katherine L; Feikin, Daniel R

    2012-04-01

    The Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) project is the largest multicountry etiology study of childhood pneumonia since the Board on Science and Technology in International Development studies of the 1980s. However, it is not the only recent or ongoing pneumonia etiology study, and even with seven sites, it cannot capture all epidemiologic settings in the developing world. Funding providers, researchers and policymakers rely on the best available evidence to strategically plan programs, new research directions and interventions. We aimed to describe the current landscape of recent pneumonia etiology studies in children under 5 years of age in the developed and developing world, as ascertained by a literature review of relevant studies with data since the year 2000 and a survey of researchers in the field of childhood pneumonia. We collected information on the study population, study design, case definitions, laboratory samples and methods and identified pathogens. A literature review identified 88 studies with child pneumonia etiology results. As of June 2010, our survey of researchers identified an additional 65 ongoing and recently completed child pneumonia etiology studies. This demonstrates the broad existing context into which the PERCH study must be placed. However, the landscape analysis also reveals a multiplicity of case definitions, levels of clinician involvement, facility types, specimen collection, and laboratory techniques. It reinforces the need for the standardization of methods and analyses for present and future pneumonia etiology studies in order to optimize their cumulative potential to accurately describe the microbial causes of childhood pneumonia.

  15. A Literature Review and Survey of Childhood Pneumonia Etiology Studies: 2000–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Yuenting D.; Levine, Orin S.; Deloria-Knoll, Maria; Scott, J. Anthony G.; O’Brien, Katherine L.; Feikin, Daniel R.

    2012-01-01

    The Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) project is the largest multicountry etiology study of childhood pneumonia since the Board on Science and Technology in International Development studies of the 1980s. However, it is not the only recent or ongoing pneumonia etiology study, and even with seven sites, it cannot capture all epidemiologic settings in the developing world. Funding providers, researchers and policymakers rely on the best available evidence to strategically plan programs, new research directions and interventions. We aimed to describe the current landscape of recent pneumonia etiology studies in children under 5 years of age in the developed and developing world, as ascertained by a literature review of relevant studies with data since the year 2000 and a survey of researchers in the field of childhood pneumonia. We collected information on the study population, study design, case definitions, laboratory samples and methods and identified pathogens. A literature review identified 88 studies with child pneumonia etiology results. As of June 2010, our survey of researchers identified an additional 65 ongoing and recently completed child pneumonia etiology studies. This demonstrates the broad existing context into which the PERCH study must be placed. However, the landscape analysis also reveals a multiplicity of case definitions, levels of clinician involvement, facility types, specimen collection, and laboratory techniques. It reinforces the need for the standardization of methods and analyses for present and future pneumonia etiology studies in order to optimize their cumulative potential to accurately describe the microbial causes of childhood pneumonia. PMID:22403223

  16. Allergy, asthma and the environment; Allergie, Asthma und Umwelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ring, J. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Dermatologie und Allergologie am Biederstein, Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Gfesser, M. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Dermatologie und Allergologie am Biederstein, Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    1996-10-11

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways. Asthma and other allergic diseases have increased in prevalence during the last decades in many industrialized countries. Among other hypotheses, the possible role of environmental pollutants has received much public and scientific attention. Some pollutants may modulate the different phases of allergic reactions. Inflammation is a critical feature in the pathogenesis of asthma and therefore, beside allergen avoidance, anti-inflammatory treatment is the first line therapy of asthma. Cysteinyl-leukotrienes are lipid mediators which appear to play a major role in the pathophysiology of asthma. Based on current data, it appears that leukotrience receptor antagonists have bronchodilative and anti-inflammatory effects and may therefore enrich the pharmacotherapeutic spectrum within the therapeutic concept of patient management in asthma. (orig.) [Deutsch] Asthma bronchiale ist eine entzuendliche Erkrankung der Atemwege. Epidemiologische Studien konnten eine deutliche Zunahme der Erkrankung in den letzten zwei Jahrzehnten aufzeigen. In der Entstehung von Allergien und Asthma bronchiale spielen Umwelteinfluesse eine grosse Rolle. Luftschadstoffe scheinen mit verschiedenen Allergie-Parametern bei der Sensibilisierung, Symptombildung und Chronifizierung zu interferieren. Da beim Asthma bronchiale neben der Bronchokonstriktion die Entzuendung der Bronchialschleimhaut eine besondere Rolle spielt, wird heute neben Allergenkarenz und prophylaktischen Massnahmen eine fruehzeitige antientzuendliche Asthmatherapie angestrebt. Cysteinyl-Leukotriene gehoeren zu den wirksamsten Entzuendungsmediatoren beim Asthma bronchiale. Leukotrien-Rezeptorantagonisten scheinen sowohl bronchodilatatorische als auch antientzuendliche Wirkungen zu haben und koennten so innerhalb eines Gesamtkonzeptes von antiallergischer und antiasthmatischer Therapie das pharmakotherapeutische Spektrum bereichern. (orig.)

  17. Physical training for asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin V. Carson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: People with asthma may show less tolerance to exercise due to worsening asthma symptoms during exercise or other reasons such as deconditioning as a consequence of inactivity. Some may restrict activities as per medical advice or family influence and this might result in reduced physical fitness. Physical training programs aim to improve physical fitness, neuromuscular coordination and self confidence. Subjectively, many people with asthma report that they are symptomatically better when fit, but results from trials have varied and have been difficult to compare because of different designs and training protocols. Also, as exercise can induce asthma, the safety of exercise programmes needs to be considered.OBJECTIVE: To gain a better understanding of the effect of physical training on the respiratory and general health of people with asthma, from randomised trials.METHODS:Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register of trials up to January 2013. Selection criteria: We included randomised trials of people over eight years of age with asthma who were randomised to undertake physical training or not. Physical training had to be undertaken for at least 20 minutes, two times a week, over a minimum period of four weeks. Data collection and analysis:Two review authors independently assessed eligibility for inclusion and undertook risk of bias assessment for the included studies.MAIN RESULTS: Twenty-one studies (772 participants were included in this review with two additional 2012 studies identified as 'awaiting classification'. Physical training was well tolerated with no adverse effects reported. None of the studies mentioned worsening of asthma symptoms following physical training. Physical training showed marked improvement in cardiopulmonary fitness as measured by a statistically and clinically significant increase in maximum oxygen uptake (mean difference (MD 4.92 mL/kg/min; 95% confidence interval (CI 3

  18. Understanding mild persistent asthma in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Szefler, Stanley J

    2005-01-01

    Limitations in asthma prevalence studies and difficulties in diagnosing pediatric asthma lead to uncertainty over the full extent of mild persistent asthma in children and adolescents. Although recent surveys have reported that the majority of pediatric patients with asthma in the United States...... and Europe have symptoms consistent with mild disease, these surveys have limitations in design. Thus, the true prevalence of mild asthma remains unknown. It is unclear whether children with mild persistent asthma progress to more severe asthma, but the risk of severe asthma exacerbations seems...... into the true prevalence of mild persistent asthma in children and adolescents, and optimal treatment....

  19. Acute bacterial exacerbations in bronchitis and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodosh, S

    1987-04-27

    Symptomatic exacerbations are frequent problems in the management of chronic bronchitis and bronchial asthma. Identification of a bacterial etiology as the cause of specific exacerbations should be based on changes in clinical symptoms and documentation of significant bronchial bacterial flora and a neutrophilic inflammatory response. Most acute bacterial exacerbations in patients with bronchitis or asthma are caused by Hemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, or Branhamella catarrhalis. Treatment with ampicillins, synthetic tetracyclines, or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole is successful in 80 to 90 percent of bacterial exacerbations. Emergence of resistant Hemophilus species and pneumococci motivates development of new orally administered antimicrobial drugs. Appropriate treatment depends on the prompt recognition that bacterial infection is present. Once instituted, antimicrobial therapy should be continued for a minimum of 10 to 14 days, which should increase the duration of the infection-free period until the next bacterial exacerbation. Adequate response should be evaluated by the return of symptoms to pre-infectious levels and by decreased sputum bacterial flora and neutrophilic inflammation.

  20. Asthma outcomes: Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szefler, Stanley J.; Wenzel, Sally; Brown, Robert; Erzurum, Serpil C.; Fahy, John V.; Hamilton, Robert G.; Hunt, John F.; Kita, Hirohito; Liu, Andrew H.; Panettieri, Reynold A.; Schleimer, Robert P.; Minnicozzi, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background Measurement of biomarkers has been incorporated within clinical research studies of asthma to characterize the population and associate the disease with environmental and therapeutic effects. Objective National Institutes of Health institutes and federal agencies convened an expert group to propose which biomarkers should be assessed as standardized asthma outcomes in future clinical research studies. Methods We conducted a comprehensive search of the literature to identify studies that developed and/or tested asthma biomarkers. We identified biomarkers relevant to the underlying disease process progression and response to treatment. We classified the biomarkers as either core (required in future studies), supplemental (used according to study aims and standardized), or emerging (requiring validation and standardization). This work was discussed at an National Institutes of Health–organized workshop convened in March 2010 and finalized in September 2011. Results Ten measures were identified; only 1, multiallergen screening to define atopy, is recommended as a core asthma outcome. Complete blood counts to measure total eosinophils, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (Feno), sputum eosinophils, urinary leukotrienes, and total and allergen-specific IgE are recommended as supplemental measures. Measurement of sputum polymorphonuclear leukocytes and other analytes, cortisol measures, airway imaging, breath markers, and system-wide studies (eg, genomics, proteomics) are considered as emerging outcome measures. Conclusion The working group participants propose the use of multiallergen screening in all asthma clinical trials to characterize study populations with respect to atopic status. Blood, sputum, and urine specimens should be stored in biobanks, and standard procedures should be developed to harmonize sample collection for clinical trial biorepositories. PMID:22386512

  1. Airway remodeling and its reversibility in equine asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Lavoie

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite effective therapies for controlling its clinical manifestations, human asthma remains an incurable disease. It is now recognized that inflammation induced structural changes (remodeling of the airways are responsible for the progressive loss of lung function in asthmatic patients. However, the peripheral airways, where most of the remodeling occurs in severe asthmatic patients, cannot be safely sampled in humans, and therefore, little is known of the effects of current therapies at reversing the established asthmatic remodeling, especially those occurring in the peripheral airways. Animal models have been studied to unravel etiological, immunopathological, and genetic attributes leading to asthma. However, experiments in which the disease is artificially induced have been shown to have limited translational potential for humans. To the contrary, horses naturally suffer from an asthma-like condition which shares marked similarities with human asthma making this model unique to investigate the kinetics, reversibility, as well as the physiological consequences of tissue remodeling (Bullone and Lavoie 2015. We reported an increased deposition of smooth muscle, collagen and elastic fibers in the peripheral airways of affected horses, which was correlated with the lung function (Herszberg et al., 2006; Setlakwe et al., 2014. The airway subepithelial collagen depositions were almost completely reversed with 6 to 12 months of treatment with either antigen avoidance or inhaled corticosteroids (ICS administration, and there was a modest (30% on average decrease in airway smooth muscle (Leclere et al., 2011. A recent study also found that ICS combined with long-acting ß2-agonists drugs (LABA and ICS monotherapy similarly induced a 30% decrease of the airway smooth muscle mass at 3 months (Buollone, 2017. However, only ICS/LABA and antigen avoidance decreased airway luminal neutrophilia. The findings indicate the enhance therapeutic effect of ICS

  2. Mast cell-nerve interactions in asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleij, Hanneke Paulina Maria van der

    2002-01-01

    Asthma is characterized by a chronic inflammatory reaction in the airways. Roughly, asthma can be subdivided into atopic asthma involving elevated levels of serum IgE and a less familiar form, non-atopic asthma. Non-atopic asthma is an increasing problem in the developed world. The mechanisms

  3. Do Written Asthma Action Plans Improve Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, John M

    2016-03-01

    With appropriate management, children with asthma should expect few symptoms, no limits on activity, rare exacerbations, and normal lung function. Appropriate education of parents and other caregivers of children with asthma has clearly been shown to help achieve these goals. Although recommended in asthma guidelines, providing written asthma action plans does not improve outcomes beyond asthma education alone.

  4. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler Recommend ... 1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  5. Cysteinyl Leukotrienes (CysLTs): Role in Obesity-Induced Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, U C S; Srivastava, S K

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies associate obesity with onset of asthma, especially in obese children, suggesting obesity as the risk factor for asthma. Obesity-induced chronic inflammation has been implicated in the lung inflammation, yet specific mediators and mechanisms are lacking. Obesity is associated with increased expression of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) pathway and increased Leukotrienes (LTs) production has been observed in obese asthma patients. However, the precise mechanism that predisposes lungs inflammation in obese is not clearly understood. This article discusses the production and regulation of LTs in obese individuals and presents probable mechanisms regarding the role of LTs in lung inflammation that may lead to obesity-induced asthma. Leukotrienes are well known mediators of asthma but their role in obesity-induced asthma is not clearly understood and thus needs further research. Since efficient antagonists and inhibitors of 5-LO pathways are known, understanding of molecular mechanism of LTs, especially Cysteinyl-LTs, in obesity-induced asthma could lead to optimal treatment regimens for the prevention and treatment of asthma in obese individuals.

  6. Childhood Asthma and Allergies in Urban, Semiurban, and Rural Residential Sectors in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Kausel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available While rural living protects from asthma and allergies in many countries, results are conflicting in Latin America. We studied the prevalence of asthma and asthma symptoms in children from urban, semiurban, and rural sectors in south Chile. A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted in semiurban and rural sectors in the province of Valdivia (n=559 using the ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire. Results were compared to prevalence in urban Valdivia (n=3105 by using data from ISAAC III study. Odds ratios (+95% confidence intervals were calculated. No statistical significant differences were found for asthma ever and eczema symptoms stratified by residential sector, but a gradient could be shown for current asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms with urban living having highest and rural living having lowest prevalence. Rural living was inversely associated in a statistical significant way with current asthma (OR: 0.4; 95% CI: 0.2–0.9 and rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms (OR: 0.3; 95% CI: 0.2–0.7 in logistic regression analyses. Rural living seems to protect from asthma and respiratory allergies also in Chile, a South American country facing epidemiological transition. These data would be improved by clinical studies of allergic symptoms observed in studied sectors.

  7. Influence of obesity on bone mineral density in postmenopausal asthma patients undergoing treatment with inhaled corticosteroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Yanik

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The etiology of osteoporosis in asthma is complex as various factors contribute to its pathogenesis. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of obesity and inhaled steroids, as well as the severity and duration of asthma, on osteoporosis in postmenopausal asthma patients as compared to healthy controls. METHODS: A total of 46 patients with asthma and 60 healthy female controls, all postmenopausal, were enrolled in our study. Bone mineral density was assessed at the lumbar spine and hip using a Lunar DPX-L densitometer. RESULTS: Bone mineral density (BMD scores were comparable between the asthmatic and control groups, with average scores of 0.95 ± 0.29 and 0.88 ± 0.14 g/cm², respectively. Likewise, osteoporosis was diagnosed in a similar percentage of patients in the asthmatic (39.1% and control (43.3% groups. Bone fracture was identified in four patients with asthma (8.6% and in six patients from the control group (10%. We could not detect any relationship between BMD and duration of asthma, asthma severity, inhaled steroids or body mass index (BMI. There was no difference between the two groups with respect to age or years since menopause. Although asthma patients were more likely to be overweight and presented higher BMD scores on average than the control subjects, these differences were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: There is a slight positive protective effect of high BMI against osteoporosis in asthma patients, but this effect is overcome by time and menopause status. Therefore, the protective effect of obesity against osteoporosis in asthma patients seems to not be significant.

  8. Influence of obesity on bone mineral density in postmenopausal asthma patients undergoing treatment with inhaled corticosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanik, Burcu; Ayrim, Aylin; Ozol, Duygu; Koktener, Asli; Gokmen, Derya

    2009-01-01

    The etiology of osteoporosis in asthma is complex as various factors contribute to its pathogenesis. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of obesity and inhaled steroids, as well as the severity and duration of asthma, on osteoporosis in postmenopausal asthma patients as compared to healthy controls. A total of 46 patients with asthma and 60 healthy female controls, all postmenopausal, were enrolled in our study. Bone mineral density was assessed at the lumbar spine and hip using a Lunar DPX-L densitometer. Bone mineral density (BMD) scores were comparable between the asthmatic and control groups, with average scores of 0.95 +/- 0.29 and 0.88 +/- 0.14 g/cm(2), respectively. Likewise, osteoporosis was diagnosed in a similar percentage of patients in the asthmatic (39.1%) and control (43.3%) groups. Bone fracture was identified in four patients with asthma (8.6%) and in six patients from the control group (10%). We could not detect any relationship between BMD and duration of asthma, asthma severity, inhaled steroids or body mass index (BMI). There was no difference between the two groups with respect to age or years since menopause. Although asthma patients were more likely to be overweight and presented higher BMD scores on average than the control subjects, these differences were not statistically significant. There is a slight positive protective effect of high BMI against osteoporosis in asthma patients, but this effect is overcome by time and menopause status. Therefore, the protective effect of obesity against osteoporosis in asthma patients seems to not be significant.

  9. Bronchiolitis: age and previous wheezing episodes are linked to viral etiology and atopic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jartti, Tuomas; Lehtinen, Pasi; Vuorinen, Tytti; Ruuskanen, Olli

    2009-04-01

    : Diagnostic criteria for bronchiolitis are variable. : To study how the risk factors for recurrent wheezing and asthma vary by different definitions of bronchiolitis. : Viral etiology and atopic characteristics were studied in 259 hospitalized wheezing children (median age, 14 months; range, 0-36 months). The data were analyzed according to age (episode. Sixteen viruses were detected by conventional and molecular methods. Atopic characteristics included the presence of eczema, specific and total IgE responses, blood eosinophil count, and modified asthma predictive index. : Evidence of respiratory virus infection was found in 93% of the cases and allergic sensitization in 26% of the cases. Rhinovirus infections and atopic characteristics (sensitization, blood eosinophil count, and modified asthma predictive index) increased by age and were significantly more common in children with recurrent wheezing episodes than in first-time wheezers in age categories of bronchiolitis, 2 clinical factors, age and number of previous wheezing episodes, are linked to inflammatory (atopy-related factors) and virologic risk factors of asthma (rhinovirus-associated disease). According to current US and UK guidelines, bronchiolitis includes wheezing children first episode of wheezing.

  10. Mechanisms of obesity in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Finn; Hancox, Robert J

    2014-02-01

    Obesity and asthma are chronic conditions affecting millions of people worldwide. The two conditions also appear to be linked with an increased risk of asthma in people who are obese. The purpose of this review is to describe mechanism(s) that may explain the association between asthma and obesity. Current evidence suggests that the association between asthma and obesity is linked by two major phenotypes and three important pathways of obesity-related asthma: one phenotype with primary (often atopic) asthma that is aggravated by obesity and a second phenotype with late-onset nonatopic asthma, which predominantly affects women and primarily seems to be associated with neutrophilic inflammation. Proposed pathways include the mechanical effects of obesity (fewer deep inspirations leading to increased airway hyperresponsiveness), an inflammatory pathway driven by obesity-related cytokines (adipokines), and finally environment and lifestyle changes that have led to an increasing prevalence of obesity over the past 50 years (including exposures in utero, physical activity, and diet) may also result in asthma in predisposed individuals. How these environmental changes influence the occurrence and expression of asthma may depend on the age of exposure and on interactions with genetic susceptibilities. Future research should be directed to shed light on the associations between obesity and asthma phenotypes, modern lifestyles and environmental exposures and genetic susceptibilities. http://links.lww.com/COAI/A6.

  11. Children with Asthma and Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selda Yuzer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is one of the chronic diseases which have are widely seen among the children. The disease has recently been in the increase all over the world and affects many children. In a study conducted with International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC method, it was found out that prevalence of childhood asthma was 17.1%. Participation in sportive activities by the children with asthma, which is today considered as a part of asthma treatment program, makes contributions to their physical, mental and psychological development and increases their quality of life. The most recommended sports for the children with asthma are swimming and water sports. Sports like tennis and volleyball are too advised. Choice of sports depends on severity of asthma, child and #8217;s choice and whether or not asthma is kept under control. Nursing approaches for the children with asthma include correction of symptoms, training of children and their families, assistance with disease adaptation, continuing asthma care at home and interventions to make children lead healthy activities of daily life of children. With protective measures to be taken by families and children; children should be encourage for sportive activities. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(3.000: 241-244

  12. Rhinoviruses, Allergic Inflammation, and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavala, Monica; Bertics, Paul J.; Gern, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Viral infections affect wheezing and asthma in children and adults of all ages. In infancy, wheezing illnesses are usually viral in origin, and children with more severe wheezing episodes are more likely to develop recurrent episodes of asthma and to develop asthma later in childhood. Children who develop allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (allergic sensitization), and those who wheeze with rhinoviruses (HRV) are at especially high risk for asthma. In older children and adults, HRV infections generally cause relatively mild respiratory illnesses and yet contribute to acute and potentially severe exacerbations in patients with asthma. These findings underline the importance of understanding the synergistic nature of allergic sensitization and infections with HRV in infants relative to the onset of asthma and in children and adults with respect to exacerbations of asthma. This review discusses clinical and experimental evidence of virus/allergen interactions and evaluates theories which relate immunologic responses to respiratory viruses and allergens to the pathogenesis and disease activity of asthma. Greater understanding of the relationship between viral respiratory infections, allergic inflammation, and asthma is likely to suggest new strategies for the prevention and treatment of asthma. PMID:21682739

  13. Ins and Outs in Environmental and Occupational Safety Studies of Asthma and Engineered Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrovolskaia, Marina A; Shurin, Michael R; Kagan, Valerian E; Shvedova, Anna A

    2017-08-22

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, approximately 25 million Americans suffer from asthma. The disease total annual cost is about $56 billion and includes both the direct and indirect costs of medications, hospital stays, missed work, and decreased productivity. Air pollution with xenobiotics, bacterial agents, and industrial nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes, contribute to the exacerbation of this condition and are a point of particular attention in environmental toxicology as well as in occupational health and safety research. Mast cell degranulation and activation of Th2 cells triggered either by allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) or by alternative mechanisms, such as locally produced neurotransmitters, underlie the pathophysiological process of airway constriction during an asthma attack. Other immune and non-immune cell types, including basophils, eosinophils, Th1, Th17, Th9, macrophages, dendritic cells, and smooth muscle cells, are involved in the inflammatory and allergic responses during asthma, which, under chronic conditions, may progress without mast cells, the key trigger of the acute asthma attack. To decipher complex molecular, cellular, and genetic mechanisms, many researchers have attempted to develop in vitro and in vivo models to study asthma. Herein, we summarize the advantages and disadvantages of various models and their applicability to nanoparticle evaluation in asthma research. We further suggest that a framework for both in vitro and in vivo methods should be used to study the impact of engineered nanomaterials on asthma etiology, pathophysiology, and treatment.

  14. AsthmaVent – Effect of Ventilation on Asthma Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogaard, Nina Viskum; Rubak, Sune Leisgaard Mørck; Halken, Susanne

    sensitive towards. Reducing this exposure may improve the asthma control in these children. Previous studies give conflicting information on the effect of mechanical ventilation on asthma control in children. Objectives We aim at investigating whether mechanical ventilation is capable of improving indoor...... and design of housing. Indoor environment factors that trigger the disease must be controlled as well as possible. The results of this project will be a significant contribution to the potential recommendations regarding the effect of ventilation on indoor air quality and asthma control of HDM allergic...... air quality and thereby asthma symptoms and quality of life, in children with house dust mite allergy and asthma. Materials and Methods Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled intervention study, including 80 children from 3 Danish Pediatric outpatient clinics, with: Verified asthma, requiring...

  15. NIAID, NIEHS, NHLBI, and MCAN Workshop Report: The indoor environment and childhood asthma-implications for home environmental intervention in asthma prevention and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Diane R; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Arshad, Syed Hasan; Celedón, Juan C; Chapman, Martin D; Chew, Ginger L; Cook, Donald N; Custovic, Adnan; Gehring, Ulrike; Gern, James E; Johnson, Christine C; Kennedy, Suzanne; Koutrakis, Petros; Leaderer, Brian; Mitchell, Herman; Litonjua, Augusto A; Mueller, Geoffrey A; O'Connor, George T; Ownby, Dennis; Phipatanakul, Wanda; Persky, Victoria; Perzanowski, Matthew S; Ramsey, Clare D; Salo, Päivi M; Schwaninger, Julie M; Sordillo, Joanne E; Spira, Avrum; Suglia, Shakira F; Togias, Alkis; Zeldin, Darryl C; Matsui, Elizabeth C

    2017-10-01

    Environmental exposures have been recognized as critical in the initiation and exacerbation of asthma, one of the most common chronic childhood diseases. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; and Merck Childhood Asthma Network sponsored a joint workshop to discuss the current state of science with respect to the indoor environment and its effects on the development and morbidity of childhood asthma. The workshop included US and international experts with backgrounds in allergy/allergens, immunology, asthma, environmental health, environmental exposures and pollutants, epidemiology, public health, and bioinformatics. Workshop participants provided new insights into the biologic properties of indoor exposures, indoor exposure assessment, and exposure reduction techniques. This informed a primary focus of the workshop: to critically review trials and research relevant to the prevention or control of asthma through environmental intervention. The participants identified important limitations and gaps in scientific methodologies and knowledge and proposed and prioritized areas for future research. The group reviewed socioeconomic and structural challenges to changing environmental exposure and offered recommendations for creative study design to overcome these challenges in trials to improve asthma management. The recommendations of this workshop can serve as guidance for future research in the study of the indoor environment and on environmental interventions as they pertain to the prevention and management of asthma and airway allergies. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Characteristics Associated with Utilization of Asthma-Related Traditional Chinese Medicine Services among Asthma Children in Taiwan: A Nationwide Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiou-Ian Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Previous studies have demonstrated the advantages of TCM use among asthmatic children. However, there is a paucity of epidemiologic reports on features of TCM users among asthmatic children. This cohort study aimed to investigate child’s, parent’s, and provider’s characteristics associated with the use of asthma-related TCM services among newly diagnosed asthmatic children. Materials and Methods. A nationally representative cohort of one million National Health Insurance beneficiaries was used. The newly diagnosed asthma children who received asthma medication from western medicine providers from 2005 to 2010 were selected as our sample for analysis. Generalized estimating equation was applied to identify the child’s, parents’, and provider’s characteristics associated with the use of asthma-related TCM among the newly diagnosed asthmatic children. Results. Of 20,080 children who were enrolled and followed up for one year, 4,034 children used TCM for asthma-related treatment. Children with prior experience of TCM, pre-school and school aged children, boys, those with more severe asthma or poorer health, with higher income parents were more likely to use asthma-related TCM. Herbal medicine was the most common modality among asthmatic children. Conclusions. There were only 20% newly diagnosed asthmatic children using TCM. The findings may shed light on possible integration of TCM with western medicine services.

  17. Yoga for asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zu-Yao Yang

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Asthma is a common chronic inflammatory disorder affecting about 300 million people worldwide. As a holistic therapy, yoga has the potential to relieve both the physical and psychological suffering of people with asthma, and its popularity has expanded globally. A number of clinical trials have been carried out to evaluate the effects of yoga practice, with inconsistent results. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of yoga in people with asthma. METHODS: Search methods: We systematically searched the Cochrane Airways Group Register of Trials, which is derived from systematic searches of bibliographic databases including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, and PsycINFO, and handsearching of respiratory journals and meeting abstracts. We also searched PEDro. We searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO ICTRP search portal. We searched all databases from their inception to 22 July 2015, and used no restriction on language of publication. We checked the reference lists of eligible studies and relevant review articles for additional studies. We attempted to contact investigators of eligible studies and experts in the field to learn of other published and unpublished studies. Selection criteria: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs that compared yoga with usual care (or no intervention or sham intervention in people with asthma and reported at least one of the following outcomes: quality of life, asthma symptom score, asthma control, lung function measures, asthma medication usage, and adverse events. Data collection and analysis: We extracted bibliographic information, characteristics of participants, characteristics of interventions and controls, characteristics of methodology, and results for the outcomes of our interest from eligible studies. For continuous outcomes, we used mean difference (MD with 95% confidence interval (CI to denote the treatment effects, if the

  18. Priapism: etiology, pathophysiology and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Der Horst C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of erectile physiology has improved the prompt diagnosis and treatment of priapism. Priapism is defined as prolonged and persistent erection of the penis without sexual stimulation and failure to subside despite orgasm. Numerous etiologies of this condition are considered. Among others a disturbed detumescence mechanism, which may due to excess release of contractile neurotransmitters, obstruction of draining venules, malfunction of the intrinsic detumescence mechanism or prolonged relaxation of intracavernosal smooth muscle are postulated. Treatment of priapism varies from a conservative medical to a drastic surgical approach. Two main types of priapism; veno-occlusive low flow (ischemic and arterial high flow (non-ischemic, must be distinguished to choose the correct treatment option for each type. Patient history, physical examination, penile hemodynamics and corporeal metabolic blood quality provides distinction between a static or dynamic pathology. Priapism can be treated effectively with intracavernous vasoconstrictive agents or surgical shunting. Alternative options, such as intracavernous injection of methylene blue (MB or selective penile arterial embolization (SPEA, for the management of high and low flow priapism are described and a survey on current treatment modalities is given.

  19. Melasma. Etiologic and therapeutic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, P E

    1995-12-01

    Melasma is a common acquired symmetric hypermelanosis characterized by irregular light- to gray-brown macules and patches involving sun-exposed areas of skin. Etiologic factors in the pathogenesis of melasma include genetic influences, exposure to UV radiation, pregnancy, hormonal therapies, cosmetics, phototoxic drugs, and antiseizure medications. Melasma is often a therapeutically challenging disease, and current treatments include hypopigmenting agents, chemical peels, and lasers. Hypopigmenting agents include phenolic and nonphenolic derivatives. Phenolic agents include hydroquinone and hydroquinone combination preparations. Despite controversies regarding the issue of hydroquinone-induced ochronosis, hydroquinone remains the most effective topically applied bleaching agent approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of melasma. Nonphenolic bleaching agents include tretinoin and azelaic acid. Superficial, medium, and deep chemical peels are more often used in lighter-complexioned patients. Such peels should be used with caution in blacks. Although lasers have demonstrated significant efficacy in the treatment of a variety of hyperpigmentary disorders, their precise efficacy and place in the therapy of melasma have yet to be established. In the hierarchy of therapies for melasma, the treating physician must consider the devastating psychosocial impact of pigmentary imperfections within the realm of the benefits and risks associated with each treatment.

  20. Increased mitochondrial arginine metabolism supports bioenergetics in asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weiling; Ghosh, Sudakshina; Comhair, Suzy A.A.; Asosingh, Kewal; Janocha, Allison J.; Mavrakis, Deloris A.; Bennett, Carole D.; Gruca, Lourdes L.; Graham, Brian B.; Queisser, Kimberly A.; Kao, Christina C.; Wedes, Samuel H.; Petrich, John M.; Tuder, Rubin M.; Kalhan, Satish C.; Erzurum, Serpil C.

    2016-01-01

    High levels of arginine metabolizing enzymes, including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and arginase (ARG), are typical in asthmatic airway epithelium; however, little is known about the metabolic effects of enhanced arginine flux in asthma. Here, we demonstrated that increased metabolism sustains arginine availability in asthmatic airway epithelium with consequences for bioenergetics and inflammation. Expression of iNOS, ARG2, arginine synthetic enzymes, and mitochondrial respiratory complexes III and IV was elevated in asthmatic lung samples compared with healthy controls. ARG2 overexpression in a human bronchial epithelial cell line accelerated oxidative bioenergetic pathways and suppressed hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) and phosphorylation of the signal transducer for atopic Th2 inflammation STAT6 (pSTAT6), both of which are implicated in asthma etiology. Arg2-deficient mice had lower mitochondrial membrane potential and greater HIF-2α than WT animals. In an allergen-induced asthma model, mice lacking Arg2 had greater Th2 inflammation than WT mice, as indicated by higher levels of pSTAT6, IL-13, IL-17, eotaxin, and eosinophils and more mucus metaplasia. Bone marrow transplants from Arg2-deficient mice did not affect airway inflammation in recipient mice, supporting resident lung cells as the drivers of elevated Th2 inflammation. These data demonstrate that arginine flux preserves cellular respiration and suppresses pathological signaling events that promote inflammation in asthma. PMID:27214549

  1. Cognitive epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deary, Ian J; Batty, G David

    2007-01-01

    This glossary provides a guide to some concepts, findings and issues of discussion in the new field of research in which intelligence test scores are associated with mortality and morbidity. Intelligence tests are devised and studied by differential psychologists. Some of the major concepts in differential psychology are explained, especially those regarding cognitive ability testing. Some aspects of IQ (intelligence) tests are described and some of the major tests are outlined. A short guide is given to the main statistical techniques used by differential psychologists in the study of human mental abilities. There is a discussion of common epidemiological concepts in the context of cognitive epidemiology. PMID:17435201

  2. The epidemiology of noncommunicable respiratory disease in sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is limited literature published on the epidemiology of COPD and Asthma from Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and Middle East and North Africa (MENA). ... Risk factors for CRD are genetic and environmental; the latter dominated by air pollution exposures including tobacco smoke, household air pollution, outdoor air ...

  3. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Quick Links Asthma Action Plan America Breathing Easier [PDF – 1.1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical ... Using a metered dose inhaler with a spacer [ PDF - 377 KB] Your browser does not support iframes ...

  4. Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Giving Teens a Voice in Health Care Decisions Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma? KidsHealth > For ... Affect My Child's Asthma? Print A A A Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma? Yes. Weather ...

  5. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In the Workplace Outdoors Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, and Surveillance Most Recent ... Archive 2014 State or Territory Data Archive AsthmaStats Flu Vaccination among Adults with Current Asthma Flu Vaccination ...

  6. Treating Asthma in Children under 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... laughing Gastrointestinal reflux Changes or extremes in weather Asthma emergencies Severe asthma attacks can be life-threatening ... Changes in activity levels or sleep patterns Control asthma triggers Depending on the triggers for your child's ...

  7. Managing Asthma: Learning to Breathe Easier

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Subscribe June 2014 Print this issue Managing Asthma Learn To Breathe Easier En español Send us ... Allergy Therapy Seeking Allergy Relief Wise Choices Controlling Asthma Get regular checkups for your asthma. Make a ...

  8. Allergies and Asthma: They Often Occur Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A family history of allergies is a major risk factor for allergic asthma. Having hay fever or other allergies yourself also increases your risk of getting asthma. Though allergic asthma is very common, there are other types ...

  9. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... among Adults with Current Asthma Flu Vaccination among Children with Current Asthma Asthma and Fair or Poor Health Usual Place for Medical Care among Children Number of Visits to a Health Care Provider(s) ...

  10. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Publications Related Articles, Publications, and Links Asthma’s Impact on the Nation Fact Sheet State Data Profiles ( ... MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to Use Your Asthma ...

  11. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Obesity Percentage of People with Asthma who Smoke Insurance coverage and barriers to care for people with ... Asthma NCHS Asthma FastStats Survey Questions Resources for Health Professionals and Schools Healthcare Professionals Public Health Professionals ...

  12. Asthma & Physical Activity in the School

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Education) How Asthma-Friendly Is Your School? (checklist in English and in Spanish) Is the Asthma ... gov/ asthma/ publications. html U.S. Department of Education Office for Civil Rights Lyndon Baines Johnson Department of ...

  13. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Messages Agencies Working on Asthma Follow @CDCasthma on Twitter to learn more about helping people with asthma ... de boca) [PDF - 276 KB] Follow @CDCasthma on Twitter to learn more about helping people with asthma ...

  14. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brochures Facts Triggers Indoors In the Workplace Outdoors Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, ... Work-related Asthma NCHS Asthma FastStats Survey Questions Resources for Health Professionals and Schools Healthcare Professionals Public ...

  15. Violence and Asthma: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Fujiwara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research shows that exposure to community violence is, directly and indirectly, associated with asthma. This article reviews the findings on the impact of violence on asthma, and the pathways for the association of violence and asthma are suggested: 1 exposure to violence is directly associated with asthma, mainly through dysregulation of sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, 2 exposure to violence is associated with the change of susceptibility of outdoor air pollution on asthma, probably through the change of an immune response, and 3 behavioral change due to exposure to violence (e.g. keeping children indoors leads to more exposure to indoor pollutants. The suggested framework may be useful to develop health policy on asthma in high-violence communities.

  16. Asthma in Children: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF School and Asthma (Nemours Foundation) Also in Spanish Teaching Your Child about Asthma (American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology) What's an Asthma Action Plan? (Nemours Foundation) ... Also in Spanish Related Issues Asthma & Physical Activity in the School ( ...

  17. Prevalence, risk factors and underdiagnosis of asthma and wheezing in adults 40 years and older: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, Mauricio; Caballero, Andres; Jaramillo, Claudia; Maldonado, Dario; Torres-Duque, Carlos A

    2015-10-01

    There are differences in the prevalence and risk factors of asthma around the world. The epidemiological situation of adults 40 years and older is not well established. Our aim was to determine the prevalence, underdiagnosis and risk factors of asthma and wheezing in adults in Colombia. A cross-sectional, population-based study including 5539 subjects from 40 to 93 years selected by a probabilistic sampling technique in five cities was conducted. respiratory symptoms and risk factors questionnaire and spirometry. (a) Wheezing: Affirmative answer to the question "have you ever had two or more attacks of "wheezes" causing you to feel short of breath?" (b) Asthma: Wheezing definition and FEV1/FVC post-bronchodilator ≥ 70%. (c) Underdiagnosis: Asthma definition without a physician-diagnosis. Logistic regression was used for exploring risk factors. Prevalence of asthma was 9.0% (95% CI: 8.3-9.8) and wheezing 11.9% (95% CI: 11.0-12.8). Asthma underdiagnosis was 69.9% and increased to 79.0% in subjects 64 years or older. The risk factors related to asthma and/or wheezing were: living in Bogota or Medellin, female gender, first degree relative with asthma, respiratory disease before 16 years of age, obesity, no education, indoor wood smoke exposure and occupational exposure to dust particles, gases or fumes. We described the epidemiologic situation of asthma in adults 40 years and older in Colombia. In addition to some recognized risk factors, our data supports the association of indoor wood smoke and occupational exposures with asthma and wheezing. Underdiagnosis of asthma in adults was high, particularly in older subjects.

  18. Asthma management: important issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Barnes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Although most attention has been focused on the drugs used to control asthma, it is increasingly recognised that effective delivery of these drugs to the lungs is just as important. The most effective drugs, beta2-agonists and corticosteroids, are given by inhalation so there has been a search for more efficient inhaler devices that are easier for patients to use. A symposium at the European Respiratory Society Annual Meeting in 2005 discussed some of the important issues in inhaler therapy in adults and children. This article summarises the major points of discussion that arose out of this symposium. New more effective inhaler devices are now becoming available and are likely to have an important impact on asthma management.

  19. MANIFEST ANXIETY IN BRONCHIAL ASTHMA

    OpenAIRE

    Sreedhar, Krishna Prasad

    1989-01-01

    SUMMARY Using a vernacular adaptation of MAS 50 bronchial asthma patients were compared with 102 normals, 60 hospital general out-patients and 50 neurotics to determine the level of anxiety in asthma. The manifest anxiety scores of the bronchial asthma patients were found to be significantly high showing that their level of anxiety was abnormally higher in comparison with that of the normals and the hospital general out-patients. The bronchial asthmatics and the neurotics did not differ in an...

  20. Aspirin-Exacerbated Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Varghese, Mathew; Lockey, Richard F

    2008-01-01

    This review focuses on aspirin-exacerbated asthma (AEA). The review includes historical perspective of aspirin, prevalence, pathogenesis, clinical features and treatment of AEA. The pathogenesis of AEA involves the cyclooxygenase and lipooxygenase pathway. Aspirin affects both of these pathways by inhibiting the enzyme cycooxygenase-1 (COX-1). Inhibition of COX-1 leads to a decrease in prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). The decrease in PGE2 results in an increase in cysteinyl leukotrienes by the lipoo...

  1. Epidemiological causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabia, Alfredo

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological methods, which combine population thinking and group comparisons, can primarily identify causes of disease in populations. There is therefore a tension between our intuitive notion of a cause, which we want to be deterministic and invariant at the individual level, and the epidemiological notion of causes, which are invariant only at the population level. Epidemiologists have given heretofore a pragmatic solution to this tension. Causal inference in epidemiology consists in checking the logical coherence of a causality statement and determining whether what has been found grossly contradicts what we think we already know: how strong is the association? Is there a dose-response relationship? Does the cause precede the effect? Is the effect biologically plausible? Etc. This approach to causal inference can be traced back to the English philosophers David Hume and John Stuart Mill. On the other hand, the mode of establishing causality, devised by Jakob Henle and Robert Koch, which has been fruitful in bacteriology, requires that in every instance the effect invariably follows the cause (e.g., inoculation of Koch bacillus and tuberculosis). This is incompatible with epidemiological causality which has to deal with probabilistic effects (e.g., smoking and lung cancer), and is therefore invariant only for the population.

  2. Japanese Guideline for Childhood Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Nishimuta

    2011-01-01

    JAGL differs from the Global Initiative for Asthma Guideline (GINA in that the former emphasizes long-term management of childhood asthma based on asthma severity and early diagnosis and intervention at <2 years and 2–5 years of age. However, a management method, including step-up or step-down of long-term management agents based on the status of asthma symptoms, is easy to understand and thus JAGL is suitable for routine medical treatment. JAGL also introduced treatment and management using a control test for children, recommending treatment and management aimed at complete control through avoiding exacerbation factors and appropriate use of antiinflammatory agents.

  3. The influence of neighborhood environment on the incidence of childhood asthma: A propensity score approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhn, Young J.; Qin, Rui; Urm, Sanghwa; Katusic, Slavica; Vargas-Chanes, Delfino

    2010-01-01

    Background The propensity score method has been underused in research concerning asthma epidemiology, which is useful for addressing covariate imbalance in observational studies. Objective: To examine the impact of neighborhood environment on asthma incidence by applying the propensity score method. Methods The study was designed as a retrospective cohort study. Study subjects were all children born in Rochester, Minn, between 1976 and 1979. Asthma status was previously determined by applying predetermined criteria. We applied the propensity score method to match children who lived in census tracts facing or not facing intersections with major highways or railroads. The propensity score of children living in a census tract facing intersections was formulated from a logistic regression model with 16 variables that may not be balanced between comparison groups. The Cox proportional hazard models were used in the matched samples to estimate hazard ratios of neighborhood environment and some other variables of interest and their corresponding 95% CIs. Results After matching with propensity scores, we found that children who lived in census tracts facing intersections with major highways or railroads had a higher risk of asthma (hazard ratios, 1.385–1.669 depending on the matching methods) compared with the matched counterparts who lived in census tracts not facing intersections with major highways or railroads. Conclusion Neighborhood environment may be an important risk factor in understanding the development of pediatric asthma. The propensity score method is a useful tool in addressing covariate imbalance and exploring for causal effect in studying asthma epidemiology. PMID:20236695

  4. Short-term ozone exposure and asthma severity: Weight-of-evidence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Julie E; Zu, Ke; Loftus, Christine T; Lynch, Heather N; Prueitt, Robyn L; Mohar, Isaac; Shubin, Sara Pacheco; Sax, Sonja N

    2018-01-01

    To determine whether evidence indicates that short-term exposure to ambient concentrations of ozone in the United States can affect asthma severity, we systematically reviewed published controlled human exposure, epidemiology, and animal toxicity studies. The strongest evidence for a potential causal relationship came from epidemiology studies reporting increased emergency department visits and hospital admissions for asthma following elevated ambient ozone concentrations. However, while controlled exposure studies reported lung function decrements and increased asthma symptoms following high ozone exposures 160-400 parts per billion [ppb]), epidemiology studies evaluating similar outcomes reported less consistent results. Animal studies showed changes in pulmonary function at high ozone concentrations (> 500ppb), although there is substantial uncertainty regarding the relevance of these animal models to human asthma. Taken together, the weight of evidence indicates that there is at least an equal likelihood that either explanation is true, i.e., the strength of the evidence for a causal relationship between short-term exposure to ambient ozone concentrations and asthma severity is "equipoise and above." Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Acute bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Ramuscello

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is one of the main causes of morbidity worldwide. It affects some 300 million individuals and has risen over the past 20 years, especially in the paediatric population. Asthma is a chronic inflammation of the airways, subject to periodic exacerbations, characterised by coughing and progressive dyspnoea. Clinical conditions may vary greatly, ranging from moderate exacerbation with an increase in nocturnal awakening and a less than 20% reduction in the flow peak, through to severe respiratory insufficiency that requires immediate intubation of the airways. Pharmacological treatment envisages a step approach that aims to obtain and maintain control over the symptoms, taking into consideration the effectiveness of the treatment available, potential side effects and cost. β2-agonists and corticosteroids are the drugs of election for both maintenance therapy and for treating exacerbations. Other therapeutic devices may prove useful in particular cases. One fundamental key point in treatment over time is the cooperation between patient and attending doctor. The latest review of the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA guidelines was published in 2006.

  6. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Providers CDC Publications on Asthma National Asthma Control Program America Breathing Easier Guide for State Programs Interventions Community Guide—Evidence-based Potentially Effective Interventions ...

  7. Perceived stress and risk of adult-onset asthma and other atopic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, N H; Kristensen, T S; Lange, Peter

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psychological stress can affect airway inflammatory response to irritants and allergens, but the importance of stress in the etiology of adult-onset respiratory and dermatologic allergic disorders remains unclear. We aim to address the relationship between perceived stress and the risk...... of adult-onset asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and asthma/bronchitis medication. METHODS: Participants (n = 9785) from the Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark, free of atopic disorders at baseline in 1981-1983 were asked questions on stress intensity and frequency. They were followed...

  8. Prevalence of asthma and rhinitis in a Tunisian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonia, Toujani; Meriem, Mjid; Yacine, Ouahchi; Nozha, Ben Salah; Nadia, Mhiri; Bechir, Louzir; Jalloul, Daghfous; Jouda, Chérif; Majed, Béji

    2016-10-12

    Asthma and rhinitis are a major public health problem because of their frequency, their impact on quality of life and economic burden. In Tunisia, epidemiological data are scarce. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of asthma and rhinitis in a representative Tunisian population and to analyze the association between them. It was a cross-sectional population-based study, involving individuals aged between 2 and 52 years, living in Tunis. A sample of the general population was generated using a random stratified sampling method. A detailed face-to-face questionnaire based on ISAAC and the ECRHS survey was used. Classification of rhinitis was evaluated according to ARIA. Data were obtained from 4470 responders (40.2% male and 59.8% female). The response rate was 96.5%. The prevalence of current asthma was 6.5% (CI 5.9%-7.8%). A slight female predominance was observed in children and adolescents but in adulthood gender-specific prevalence estimates were similar. The prevalence of rhinitis in the general population was 11.7% (CI 10.1%-13.5%) in children and 13.4% (CI 11.1%-14.6%) in 15 years and older. No statistically significant differences were found according to gender and age. Almost half of asthmatics' had current rhinitis or rhinoconjunctivitis versus 13.4% in the population sample (P < 0.001). Current asthma was reported in 22.5% subjects with current rhinitis or with rhinoconjunctivitis. Asthma and rhinitis represent a considerable public health problem in children and adults up to age 52 in Tunisian population. Our results confirm also the strong association between them. These findings highlight the need for a clinical global assessment of asthma together with rhinitis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Blood granulocyte patterns as predictors of asthma phenotypes in adults from the EGEA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadif, Rachel; Siroux, Valérie; Boudier, Anne; le Moual, Nicole; Just, Jocelyne; Gormand, Frederic; Pison, Christophe; Matran, Regis; Pin, Isabelle

    2016-10-01

    To what extent blood granulocyte patterns may predict asthma control remains under-studied. Our aim was to study associations between blood neutrophilia and eosinophilia and asthma control outcomes in adults.Analyses were conducted in 474 asthmatics from the first follow-up of the Epidemiological Study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA2), including 242 asthmatics who were adults a decade earlier (EGEA1). At EGEA2, asthma control was assessed using the Global Initiative for Asthma definition (2015), and asthma exacerbations by use of urgent care or courses of oral corticosteroids in the past year. Blood EOS lo /EOS hi was defined as EGEA2, NEU hi was associated with asthma exacerbations and poor asthma control (OR >2.10). EOS hi was associated with higher bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) (OR (95% CI) 2.21 (1.24-3.97)), poor lung function (p=0.02) and higher total IgE level (p=0.002). Almost 50% of asthmatics had a persistent pattern between surveys. Persistent NEU hi was associated with poor asthma control at EGEA2 (OR (95% CI) 3.09 (1.18-7.05)). EOS hi at EGEA1 and persistent EOS hi were associated with higher BHR (OR (95% CI) 2.36 (1.10-5.07) and 3.85 (1.11-13.34), respectively), poor lung function (pEGEA2.Granulocyte patterns were differently associated with asthma outcomes, suggesting specific roles for each one, which could be tested as predictive signatures. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  10. Parental celiac disease and risk of asthma in offspring: a Danish nationwide cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen ABT

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ane Birgitte Telén Andersen,1 Rune Erichsen,1 Michael David Kappelman,2 Trine Frøslev,1 Vera Ehrenstein1 1Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 2Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA Objective: The incidences of celiac disease (CD and asthma are increasing and the two conditions are associated in individuals. Risk of asthma may be passed on to the next generation through shared risk factors. We examined whether parental CD is associated with risk of asthma in offspring. Methods: We conducted a population-based Danish nationwide cohort study, using medical databases, covering the period 1 January 1979 to 31 December 2009. For each child with a parental history of CD, we randomly sampled 100 children without this history from the children born in the same calendar year. We used Cox proportional-hazards regression to estimate incidence rate ratios for asthma, adjusting for measured covariates. Results: We identified 1,107 children with a parental history of CD and 110,700 children without this parental history. During up to 32 years of follow-up, 6,125 children received a hospital diagnosis of asthma. The adjusted incidence rate ratio for asthma associated with a parental history of CD was 1.09 (95% confidence interval: 0.86–1.39 and was similar for maternal and paternal CD. Inclusion of asthma-medication in the definition of asthma did not substantially change the results. Conclusion: There was no convincing evidence of an increased risk of asthma among offspring of parents with CD. Keywords: asthma, celiac disease, children, cohort study, parents

  11. Prevalence and duration of social security benefits allowed to workers with asthma in Brazil in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Anadergh Barbosa de Abreu; Ildefonso, Simone de Andrade Goulart

    2012-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and duration of social security benefits (SSBs) claims to registered workers with asthma in Brazil by the Brazilian National Institute of Social Security in 2008. This was a retrospective, descriptive study, based on information obtained from the Brazilian Unified Benefit System database, on the number of SSB claims granted to registered workers with asthma in 2008. The reference population was the monthly mean number of workers registered in the Brazilian Social Registry Database in 2008. The variables studied were type of economic activity, gender, age, and type/duration of the SSB claim. The relationship between work and asthma was evaluated by the prevalence ratio (PR) between work-related and non-work-related SSB claims for asthma. In 2008, 2,483 SSB claims were granted for asthma, with a prevalence of 7.5 allowances per 100,000 registered workers. The prevalence was higher among females than among males (PR = 2.1 between the sexes). Workers > 40 years of age were 2.5 times more likely to be granted an SSB claim for asthma than were younger workers. The prevalence was highest among workers engaged in the following types of economic activity: sewage, wood and wood product manufacturing, and furniture manufacturing (78.8, 22.4, and 22.2 claims/100,000 registered workers, respectively). The median (interquartile range) duration of SSB claims for asthma was 49 (28-87) days. Asthma is a major cause of sick leave, and its etiology has a strong occupational component. This has a major impact on employers, employees, and the social security system. Being female, being > 40 years of age, and working in the areas of urban sanitation/sewage, wood and wood product manufacturing, and furniture manufacturing increase the chance of sick leave due to asthma.

  12. Mechanistic Indicators of Childhood Asthma (MICA): piloting ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Modem methods in molecular biology and advanced computational tools show promise in elucidating complex interactions that occur between genes and environmental factors in diseases such as asthma; however appropriately designed studies are critical for these methods to reach their full potential. Objective: We used a case-control study to investigate whether genomic data (blood gene expression), viewed together with a spectrum of exposure effects and susceptibility markers (blood, urine and nail), can provide a mechanistic explanation for the increased susceptibility of asthmatics to ambient air pollutants. Methods: We studied 205 non-asthmatic and asthmatic children, (9-12 years of age) who participated in a clinical study in Detroit, Michigan. The study combines a traditional epidemiological design with an integrative approach to investigate the environmental exposure of children to indoor-outdoor air. The study includes measurements of internal dose (metals, allergen specific IgE, PAH and VOC metabolites) and clinical measures of health outcome (immunological, cardiovascular and respiratory). Results: Expected immunological indications of asthma have been obtained. In addition, initial results from our analyses point to the complex nature of childhood health and risk factors linked to metabolic syndrome (obesity, blood pressure and dyslipidemia). For example, 31% and 34% of the asthmatic MICA subjects were either overweight (BMI > 25) o

  13. ASTHMA AND FARM EXPOSURES IN A COHORT OF RURAL IOWA CHILDREN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological studies of farm children are of international interest because farm children have been found to be less often atopic, to have less allergic disease, and to often have less asthma than non-farm children, findings consistent with the hygiene hypothesis. We studied ...

  14. Investigation of Occupational Asthma: Do Clinicians Fail to Identify rRelevant Occupational Exposures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo de Olim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Specific inhalation challenges (SIC enable the identification of the agent responsible of occupational asthma (OA. A clinician may fail to identify a specific agent in the workplace, which may potentially lead to a misdiagnosis. The expert assessment method performed by an occupational hygienist has been used to evaluate occupational exposures in epidemiological studies.

  15. Maternal smoking in pregnancy and asthma in preschool children: a pooled analysis of eight birth cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neuman, A.; Hohmann, C.; Pershagen, G.; Eller, E.; Kjaer, H.F.; Gehring, U.; Granell, R.; Henderson, J.; Lau, S.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.; Sunyer, J.; Tischer, C.; Torrent, M.; Wahn, U.; Wijga, A.H.; Wickman, M.; Keil, T.; Bergström, A.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Although epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to maternal smoking during fetal and early life increases the risk of childhood wheezing and asthma, previous studies were not able to differentiate the effects of prenatal from postnatal exposure. Objectives: To assess the effect of

  16. Prenatal and childhood nutrition and the development of asthma and allergy in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willers, S.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304834696

    2008-01-01

    Since the 1960’s of the last century the prevalence of asthma and allergic disease has increased considerably, especially in the Western world. Prosperity related changes in diet have possibly contributed to this increase. However, the evidence from epidemiological studies for a relation between

  17. Viruses and bacteria in acute asthma exacerbations - A GA(2) LEN-DARE* systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, N G; Christodoulou, I; Rohde, G

    2011-01-01

    and bacteria in acute asthma exacerbations - A GA(2) LEN-DARE systematic review. Allergy 2010; DOI: 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2010.02505.x. ABSTRACT: A major part of the burden of asthma is caused by acute exacerbations. Exacerbations have been strongly and consistently associated with respiratory infections...... and sensitive methodologies. This systematic review summarizes current knowledge and developments in infection epidemiology of acute asthma in children and adults, describing the known impact for each individual agent and highlighting knowledge gaps. Among infectious agents, human rhinoviruses are the most...... prevalent in regard to asthma exacerbations. The newly identified type-C rhinoviruses may prove to be particularly relevant. Respiratory syncytial virus and metapneumovirus are important in infants, while influenza viruses seem to induce severe exacerbations mostly in adults. Other agents are relatively...

  18. [Etiology and diagnosis of intellectual disability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pu; Gui, Bao-Heng; Wu, Ling-Qian

    2015-06-01

    Intellectual disability, occurring in 1%-3% of the general population, is a common disease of the nervous system in children. Since diverse genetic and environmental factors contribute to its pathogenesis, the etiological diagnosis of intellectual disability is challenging with respect to the selection of diagnostic tests. It is important to determine the etiology of intellectual disability for the assessment of prognosis, treatment and the family plan. This paper summarizes the research progress in etiology and diagnosis for intellectual disability and introduces the recommended clinical genetics diagnostic approach from the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Bio-media Citizenship and Chronic Kidney Disease of Unknown Etiology in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, M W Amarasiri

    2017-04-10

    In this article, I examine the crucial role of the biomedical industry, epidemiological and biomedical research, and the media in forming attitudes to and the understanding of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) in Sri Lanka. Local conceptions of CKDu have been shaped by the circulation in the media of epidemiological research findings pertaining to the disease, biomedical interventions in the management of the disease in hospitals and clinics, community programs involving mass blood surveys and the testing of well water, and local food and health education programs carried out through village health committees. This process of circulation I identify as bio-media citizenship. [Figure: see text].

  20. The use of remotely sensed environmental data in the study of asthma disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres-Sampaio, D.; Teodoro, A. C.; Freitas, A.; Sillero, N.

    2012-09-01

    Despite the growing use of Remote Sensing (RS) data in epidemiological studies, several diseases, including asthma, have not been studied yet using RS potentialities. Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airway that affects people of all ages throughout the world. The expression of this disease can be influenced by some environmental factors such as allergens, air pollution or climate conditions. In this study, we modeled the distribution of asthma in each season, using Maximum entropy (Maxent) model and presence data obtained from a national database with asthma public hospitals admissions in Mainland Portugal, with discharges between years 2003 and 2008. We considered data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to retrieve estimates of near-surface air temperature and relative humidity. Land-use regression (LUR) models were developed to produce estimates of three pollutants: PM10, NO2, and CO. Moreover, MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was also used in the construction of Maxent models. All Maxent models predicted similar suitable areas and obtained acceptable area under the curve (AUC) values (~0.75) of the ROC plot. Our results show a strong relationship between asthma presence and NO2, suggesting that asthmatic people living in urban areas with high traffic volume have an increased risk of suffering asthma attacks. Furthermore, there is evidence of the effect of PM10, CO, and RH (during the Summer) in asthma expression. RS data have a great potential but also presents limitations that should be addressed to allow studying more complex diseases.

  1. Childhood Overweight/Obesity and Pediatric Asthma: The Role of Parental Perception of Child Weight Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaad, Salma M. A.; Paige, Katie N.; Teran-Garcia, Margarita; Donovan, Sharon M.; Fiese, Barbara H.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood obesity and asthma are on the rise in the U.S. Clinical and epidemiological data suggest a link between the two, in which overweight and obese children are at higher risk for asthma. Prevention of childhood obesity is preferred over treatment, however, in order to be receptive to messages, parents must perceive that their child is overweight. Many parents do not accurately assess their child’s weight status. Herein, the relation between parental perceptions of child weight status, observed body mass index (BMI) percentiles, and a measure of child feeding practices were explored in the context of asthma, food allergy, or both. Out of the children with asthma or food allergy that were classified as overweight/obese by BMI percentiles, 93% were not perceived as overweight/obese by the parent. Mean scores for concern about child weight were higher in children with both asthma and food allergy than either condition alone, yet there were no significant differences among the groups in terms of pressure to eat and restrictive feeding practices. In summary, parents of children with asthma or food allergy were less likely to recognize their child’s overweight/obese status and their feeding practices did not differ from those without asthma and food allergy. PMID:24064571

  2. Controversy surrounding the increased expression of TGFβ1 in asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rola-Pleszczynski Marek

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Asthma is a waxing and waning disease that leads to structural changes in the airways, such as subepithelial fibrosis, increased mass of airway smooth muscle and epithelial metaplasia. Such a remodeling of the airways futher amplifies asthma symptoms, but its etiology is unknown. Transforming growth factor β1 is a pleiotropic cytokine involved in many fibrotic, oncologic and immunologic diseases and is believed to play an essential role in airway remodeling that occurs in asthmatic patients. Since it is secreted in an inactive form, the overall activity of this cytokine is not exclusively determined by its level of expression, but also by extensive and complex post-translational mechanisms, which are all importanin modulating the magnitude of the TGFβ1 response. Even if TGFβ1 upregulation in asthma is considered as a dogma by certain investigators in the field, the overall picture of the published litterature is not that clear and the cellular origin of this cytokine in the airways of asthmatics is still a contemporaneous debate. On the other hand, it is becoming clear that TGFβ1 signaling is increased in the lungs of asthmatics, which testifies the increased activity of this cytokine in asthma pathogenesis. The current work is an impartial and exhaustive compilation of the reported papers regarding the expression of TGFβ1 in human asthmatics. For the sake of comparison, several studies performed in animal models of the disease are also included. Inconsistencies observed in human studies are discussed and conclusions as well as trends from the current state of the litterature on the matter are proposed. Finally, the different points of regulation that can affect the amplitude of the TGFβ1 response are briefly revised and the possibility that TGFβ1 is disregulated at another level in asthma, rather than simply in its expression, is highlighted.

  3. The Future of Asthma Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis-Philippe Boulet

    1995-01-01

    identification and possible correction of genetic abnormalities responsible for the tendency to develop asthma and atopy, and prevention or functional and structural airway changes. This last goal will be achieved by improved environmental control, earlier use of more powerful and safe anti-inflammatory agents, as well as an increased involvement on the part of the asthma patient in treatment.

  4. How Do Asthma Medicines Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Kid Who's Bullied? How Do Asthma Medicines Work? KidsHealth > For Kids > How Do Asthma Medicines Work? Print A A A en español ¿Cómo funcionan ... control medicines (also called controller or maintenance medicines) work over a long period of time by keeping ...

  5. Smoking and Asthma (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Giving Teens a Voice in Health Care Decisions Smoking and Asthma KidsHealth > For Parents > Smoking and Asthma Print A A A What's in ... Antismoking Message en español Fumar y el asma Smoking is an unhealthy habit for anyone, but it's ...

  6. Adolescents and Exercise Induced Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Pamela; Bickanse, Shanna; Bogenreif, Mike; VanSickle, Kyle

    2008-01-01

    This article defines asthma and exercise induced asthma, and provides information on the triggers, signs, and symptoms of an attack. It also gives treatments for these conditions, along with prevention guidelines on how to handle an attack in the classroom or on the practice field. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

  7. Adult-onset eosinophilic asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, J.C.

    2017-01-01

    In the last decades, it has been recognized that asthma is not a single disease, but comprises several clinical syndromes, which all share respiratory symptoms and lung function abnormalities, associated with different types of airway inflammation. These syndromes are now known as different asthma

  8. Asthma in patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønnberg, A S; Skov, L; Skytthe, A

    2015-01-01

    We read with interest the report by Fang and colleagues of the relationship between psoriasis and asthma in a large retrospective case-control study from Taiwan [1]. The study found a 1.38-fold increased risk of asthma among patients with psoriasis, and with an increasing risk according to higher...

  9. Etiological approach to chronic urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupa Shankar D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 1769, William Cullen introduced the word "urticaria" (transient edematous papules, plaque with itching. Urticaria affects 15-25% of people at least once in their life time. It is a clinical reaction pattern triggered by many factors causing the liberation of vasoactive substances such as histamine, prostaglandins and kinins. Urticaria is classified according to its duration into acute (< 6 weeks duration and chronic (>6 weeks duration. Various clinical investigations may be initiated to diagnosis the cause. Aims: To evaluate the types of chronic urticaria with reference to etiology from history and investigations . Materials and Methods: A total of 150 patients with chronic urticaria of more than six weeks were studied. Autologous serum skin test (ASST was performed after physical urticarias were excluded. Standard batteries of tests were performed after ASST in all patients; and other specific investigations were done where necessary. Skin prick test was done in idiopathic urticaria. Results: The study sample consisted of 62 male and 88 female patients with a mean age of 21-40 years. About 50% of patients showed an ASST positive reaction, 3.9% were positive for antinuclear antibody (ANA, IgE titer was elevated in 37%, H. pylori antibodies was positive in 26.7%. Thyroid antibodies were positive in 6.2%. Giardia and entamoeba histolytica was reported in 3.3% on routine stool examination and on urinalysis 8% had elevated WBC counts; 12% showed para nasal sinusitis, with maxillary sinusitis of 7.3%. Random blood sugar was high in 5.3%. Four patients had ASOM, two had positive KOH mount for dermatophytes, abdominal USG showed cholecystitis in two patients. Recurrent tonsillitis was noted in two patients. Urticaria following intake of NSAIDs was observed in four patients and with oral contraceptive pills in one patient. Contact urticaria to condom (latex was seen in one patient. Cholinergic (4.7% and dermographic (4.7% urticaria were

  10. Asthma in pregnancy: association between the Asthma Control Test and the Global Initiative for Asthma classification and comparisons with spirometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Georgia Véras; Leite, Débora F B; Rizzo, José A; Sarinho, Emanuel S C

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify a possible association between the assessment of clinical asthma control using the Asthma Control Test (ACT) and the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) classification and to perform comparisons with values of spirometry. Through this cross-sectional study, 103 pregnant women with asthma were assessed in the period from October 2010 to October 2013 in the asthma pregnancy clinic at the Clinical Hospital of the Federal University of Pernambuco. Questionnaires concerning the level of asthma control were administered using the Global Initiative for Asthma classification, the Asthma Control Test validated for asthmatic expectant mothers and spirometry; all three methods of assessing asthma control were performed during the same visit between the twenty-first and twenty-seventh weeks of pregnancy. There was a significant association between clinical asthma control assessment using the Asthma Control Test and the Global Initiative for Asthma classification (pTest can be used for asthmatic expectant mothers to assess the clinical control of asthma, especially at the end of the second trimester, which is assumed to be the period of worsening asthma exacerbations during pregnancy. We highlight the importance of the Asthma Control Test as a subjective instrument with easy application, easy interpretation and good reproducibility that does not require spirometry to assess the level of asthma control and can be used in the primary care of asthmatic expectant mothers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Neutrophilic inflammation in asthma: mechanisms and therapeutic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hun Soo; Lee, Tae-Hyeong; Jun, Ji Ae; Baek, Ae Rin; Park, Jong-Sook; Koo, So-My; Kim, Yang-Ki; Lee, Ho Sung; Park, Choon-Sik

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophilic airway inflammation represents a pathologically distinct form of asthma and frequently appears in symptomatic adulthood asthmatics. However, clinical impacts and mechanisms of the neutrophilic inflammation have not been thoroughly evaluated up to date. Areas covered: Currently, distinct clinical manifestations, triggers, and molecular mechanisms of the neutrophilic inflammation (namely Toll-like receptor, Th1, Th17, inflammasome) are under investigation in asthma. Furthermore, possible role of the neutrophilic inflammation is being investigated in respect to the airway remodeling. We searched the related literatures published during the past 10 years on the website of Pub Med under the title of asthma and neutrophilic inflammation in human. Expert commentary: Epidemiologic and experimental studies have revealed that the neutrophilic airway inflammation is induced by a wide variety of stimuli including ozone, particulate matters, cigarette smoke, occupational irritants, endotoxins, microbial infection and colonization, and aeroallergens. These triggers provoke diverse immune and inflammatory responses leading to progressive and sometimes irreversible airway obstruction. Clinically, neutrophilic airway inflammation is frequently associated with severe asthma and poor response to glucocorticoid therapy, indicating the need for other treatment strategies. Accordingly, therapeutics will be targeted against the main mediators behind the underlying molecular mechanisms of the neutrophilic inflammation.

  12. Changes in leptospirosis etiology in animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasylieva, Natalia; Andreychyn, Mykhaylo; Kravchuk, Yulia; Chervinska, Оlena; Iosyk, Iaryna

    2017-12-23

    Leptospirosis is endemic in Ternopil region. In Ukraine, the disease is registered in almost all regions, including the Ternopil region. The aim of the research is to study the regularities of epidemic and epizootic processes of leptospirosis, and the circulation of its pathogens among different sources (small mammals, animals) and humans. Etiologic spectrum of leptospirosis registered in Ternopil region in 1972-2016 among small mammals, farm animals and sick people was studied. Due to the analysis of pathogens circulation among different sources (small mammals, animals), as well as the annual morbidity in humans, it was proved that new leptospira serovars are endemic and brought into the regions mostly by farm animals. Farm animals introduce the infection to humans through the environment, sometimes within 3-5-years. The spread was observed of pathogen serovars, which are new in certain areas, among all types of mouse-like small mammals and rats. It was established that livestock and small mammals are parallel reservoirs. In the regions with endemic species, the structural modification in the etiology of leptospirosis in humans is caused by additional reservoirs among animals, as well as the circulation of other pathogen serovars that were absent in the main natural reservoir, i.e. mouse-like small mammals and rats. The constant monitoring of the population, contamination and carrier state of mouse-like small mammals, rats and farm animals, is required In order to predict the future epidemiological situation on leptospirosis among the population and to improve leptospirosis diagnosis.

  13. An Etiologic Profile of Anemia in 405 Geriatric Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabea Geisel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Anemia is a common condition in the elderly and a significant risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality, reducing not only functional capacity and mobility but also quality of life. Currently, few data are available regarding anemia in hospitalized geriatric patients. Our retrospective study investigated epidemiology and causes of anemia in 405 hospitalized geriatric patients. Methods. Data analysis was performed using laboratory parameters determined during routine hospital admission procedures (hemoglobin, ferritin, transferrin saturation, C-reactive protein, vitamin B12, folic acid, and creatinine in addition to medical history and demographics. Results. Anemia affected approximately two-thirds of subjects. Of 386 patients with recorded hemoglobin values, 66.3% were anemic according to WHO criteria, mostly (85.1% in a mild form. Anemia was primarily due to iron deficiency (65%, frequently due to underlying chronic infection (62.1%, or of mixed etiology involving a combination of chronic disease and iron deficiency, with absolute iron deficiency playing a comparatively minor role. Conclusion. Greater awareness of anemia in the elderly is warranted due to its high prevalence and negative effect on outcomes, hospitalization duration, and mortality. Geriatric patients should be routinely screened for anemia and etiological causes of anemia individually assessed to allow timely initiation of appropriate therapy.

  14. Asthma symptoms in obese adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2016-01-01

    The association between asthma and obesity is well-described, but not straightforward, and according to current guidelines asthma control is more difficult to achieve in obese patients. The currently available studies evaluating response to pharmacological asthma therapy in obese patients show...... that these patients have an altered, in general less favorable, response to both reliever and controller medication compared to normal weight patients. However, at present, the limited available evidence precludes evidence-based recommendations. The 'obesity-related asthma' phenotype has different characteristics......, including association with atopy and type of airway inflammation, compared to 'classic' asthma. Furthermore, weight loss in patients with this phenotype leads to an improvement in symptoms, lung function, and airway responsiveness, as well as a reduction in medication utilization and hospital admissions...

  15. Etiology of Cervicitis and Treatment with Minocycline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R Bowie

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the etiology of cervicitis using the recommended Canadian definition, and to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of seven days of minocycline treatment, 100 versus 200 mg at bedtime.

  16. Etiology of Shock in the Emergency Department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holler, Jon Gitz; Jensen, Helene Kildegaard; Henriksen, Daniel Pilsgaard

    2018-01-01

    were included. Discharge diagnoses defined the etiology and were grouped as; distributive septic shock (SS), distributive non-septic shock (NS)), cardiogenic shock (CS), hypovolemic shock (HS), obstructive shock (OS) and other conditions (OC). Outcomes were etiology-based characteristics, annual IR per......INTRODUCTION: The knowledge of the etiology and associated mortality of undifferentiated shock in the emergency department (ED) is limited. We aimed to describe the etiology based proportions and incidence rates (IR) of shock, as well as the associated mortality in the ED. METHODS: Population......-based cohort study at an University Hospital ED in Denmark from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2011. Patients aged ≥18 years living in the ED-catchment area (N = 225,000) with a first time ED presentation with shock (n = 1,646) defined as hypotension (systolic blood pressure ≤100 mmHg)) and ≥1 organ failures...

  17. Chronic urticaria in children: Etiologies, Clinical Manifestations, Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Ghaffari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic urticaria is defined as a skin disease with central induration (wheal and erythema formation around it (flare that appears at least twice a week and remains at least for 6 weeks continually. The incidence of urticaria in children is about 0.1-3%. Most cases of chronic urticaria occur in children between 6-11 years. Autoimmune and allergy immaturity is one of the reasons of lower incidence of chronic urticaria in younger children. Quality of life impairment in children with urticaria has been known to be similar to diseases with severe atopic dermatitis, epilepsy, diabetes mellitus and asthma. There are several causes for chronic urticaria in children in different reports. In most of cases the known etiologic agents are varies from 21 to 83%. Overall, infectious causes of chronic urticaria in children are more common and obvious than other in adults .In most cases, the cause of chronic urticaria are idiopathic or autoimmune. Urticaria severity divided to mild, moderate and severe was based on the number of wheals and severity of pruritus. Diagnosis of chronic urticaria is based on a good history and physical examination. The treatment of chronic urticaria is a patient education that is to remove the triggering and aggravating agents, resolving and treating of the known disease and the use of various medicines based on the history and clinical findings. The first medical therapeutics lines in children are anti-histamines, beta-blocker H1 and new generation of non-sedating agents.

  18. The puzzle of new etiological agents in the Americas: Punta del Toro virus another piece?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Mattar V

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In a recent study of undifferentiated tropical fevers in an endemic area of Colombia, it was shown that not all acute fevers are caused by the dengue virus (1. The complex clinical-epidemiological panorama of tropical fevers has become a puzzle of difficult resolution due to the appearance of new etiological agents in the Americas such as Chikungunya and Zika. For the differential diagnosis Hantavirus, Arenavirus, Orupuche, tick thrombocytopenic virus, Heartland virus, leptospira and malaria should be considered.

  19. Etiological factors of myelo-dysplastic syndromes; Facteurs etiologiques des syndromes myelodysplasiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nisse, C. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 59 - Lille (France)

    1997-09-01

    Specific epidemiologic data on myelo-dysplastic syndromes are rare. Analysis of data is in fact affected by problems of terminology and classification. The link between the exposure to ionizing radiation or alkylating agents and MDS is well established. Etiologic factors of acute leukemia, or new factors such as non ionizing radiation, solvent, ethylene oxide, glycol ethers, tobacco smoke, exhaust gases, agricultural work have been hypothesized but should be confirmed by other studies on MDS. (author)

  20. Clinicopathological correlates of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    M Selvarajah; Weeratunga, P.; Sivayoganthan, S.; N Rathnatunga; Rajapakse, S.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) is a major healthcare issue in Sri Lanka. This study included 125 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of CKDu undergoing renal biopsy at one hospital from 2008 to 2012. Associations between renal outcome parameters, epidemiological data, and histopathological findings were examined and regression models constructed based on univariate associations with outcome variables as serum creatinine >1.2 and stage of CKD >3. The mean patient age was 4...

  1. [Asthma drugs and doping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillard, F; Rolland, Y; Rivière, D

    1999-11-01

    Some drugs regularly used in the treatment of asthma (beta-agonists and corticosteroids) are registered on the list of drugs forbidden in sport, because they have a doping action. To avoid penalizing asthmatic sportsmen, some beta-agonists (Salbutamol, Salmeterol, Terbutaline) and corticosteroids are allowed only in inhaled form, with written notification from the prescribing physician, a pneumologist or the team doctor. Considering the increase of doping with increasing involvement of physicians, good and up to date notions about the current rules of prescription in asthmatic sportsmen are needed.

  2. Manual therapy for asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondras, M A; Linde, K; Jones, A P

    2002-01-01

    A variety of manual therapies with similar postulated biologic mechanisms of action are commonly used to treat patients with asthma. Manual therapy practitioners are also varied, including physiotherapists, respiratory therapists, chiropractic and osteopathic physicians. A systematic review across disciplines is warranted. To evaluate the evidence for the effects of manual therapies for treatment of patients with bronchial asthma. Trials were searched in computerized general (EMBASE, CINAHL and MEDLINE) and specialized databases (Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field, Cochrane Rehabilitation Field, ICL, and MANTIS). In addition, bibliographies from included studies were assessed, and authors of known studies were contacted for additional information about published and unpublished trials. Date of most recent search: February 2002. Trials were included if they: (1) were randomised; (2) included asthmatic children or adults; (3) examined one or more types of manual therapy; and (4) included clinical outcomes. All three reviewers independently extracted data and assessed trial quality using a standard form. From 393 unique citations, 59 full text articles were retrieved and evaluated, which resulted in nine citations to five RCTs (290 patients) suitable for inclusion. Trials could not be pooled statistically because studies that addressed similar interventions used disparate patient groups or outcomes. The methodological quality of one of two trials examining chiropractic manipulation was good and neither trial found significant differences between chiropractic spinal manipulation and a sham manoeuvre on any of the outcomes measured. Quality of the remaining three trials was poor. One small trial compared massage therapy with a relaxation control group and found significant differences in many of the lung function measures obtained. However, this trial had poor reporting characteristics and the data have yet to be confirmed. One small trial compared chest

  3. Manual therapy for asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondras, M A; Linde, K; Jones, A P

    2005-04-18

    A variety of manual therapies with similar postulated biologic mechanisms of action are commonly used to treat patients with asthma. Manual therapy practitioners are also varied, including physiotherapists, respiratory therapists, chiropractic and osteopathic physicians. A systematic review across disciplines is warranted. To evaluate the evidence for the effects of manual therapies for treatment of patients with bronchial asthma. We searched for trials in computerized general (EMBASE, CINAHL and MEDLINE) and specialized databases (Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field, Cochrane Rehabilitation Field, Index to Chiropractic Literature (ICL), and Manual, Alternative and Natural Therapy (MANTIS)). In addition, we assessed bibliographies from included studies, and contacted authors of known studies for additional information about published and unpublished trials. Date of most recent search: August 2004. Trials were included if they: (1) were randomised; (2) included asthmatic children or adults; (3) examined one or more types of manual therapy; and (4) included clinical outcomes with observation periods of at least two weeks. All three reviewers independently extracted data and assessed trial quality using a standard form. From 473 unique citations, 68 full text articles were retrieved and evaluated, which resulted in nine citations to three RCTs (156 patients) suitable for inclusion. Trials could not be pooled statistically because studies that addressed similar interventions used disparate patient groups or outcomes. The methodological quality of one of two trials examining chiropractic manipulation was good and neither trial found significant differences between chiropractic spinal manipulation and a sham manoeuvre on any of the outcomes measured. One small trial compared massage therapy with a relaxation control group and found significant differences in many of the lung function measures obtained. However, this trial had poor reporting characteristics and the data

  4. Rhabdomyolysis with different etiologies in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Alaygut, Demet; Torun Bayram, Meral; Kasap, Belde; Soylu, Alper; Türkmen, Mehmet; Kavukcu, Salih

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate different etiologies and management of the rhabdomyolysis in children. METHODS Eight pediatric rhabdomyolysis cases who applied to the Dokuz Eylul University Faculty of Medicine Department of Pediatric Nephrology with different etiologies between January 2004 and January 2012 were evaluated in terms of age, gender, admission symptoms, physical examination findings, factors provoking rhabdomyolysis, number of rhabdomyolysis attacks, laboratory results, family history and the...

  5. The Program for the Prevention of Childhood Asthma: a specialized care program for children with wheezing or asthma in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia-Pereira, Marilyn; Avila, Jennifer; Solé, Dirceu

    2016-01-01

    Objective : To present the Programa Infantil de Prevenção de Asma (PIPA, Program for the Prevention of Childhood Asthma) and the characteristics of the patients followed in this program. Methods : Implemented in the city of Uruguaiana, Brazil, PIPA has as its target population children and adolescents ( 3 years of age, respectively. Physician-diagnosed asthma was reported in 26.5% and 82.2%, respectively. In the sample as a whole, the prevalence of passive smoking was high (> 36%), occurring during pregnancy in > 15%; > 40% of the patients had been born by cesarean section; and 30% had a mother who had had < 8 years of schooling. Conclusions : A prevention program for children with asthma is an effective strategy for controlling the disease. Knowledge of local epidemiological and environmental characteristics is essential to reducing the prevalence of the severe forms of asthma, to improving the use of health resources, and to preventing pulmonary changes that could lead to COPD in adulthood. PMID:26982040

  6. The Program for the Prevention of Childhood Asthma: a specialized care program for children with wheezing or asthma in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Urrutia-Pereira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To present the Programa Infantil de Prevenção de Asma (PIPA, Program for the Prevention of Childhood Asthma and the characteristics of the patients followed in this program. Methods : Implemented in the city of Uruguaiana, Brazil, PIPA has as its target population children and adolescents ( 3 years of age, respectively. Physician-diagnosed asthma was reported in 26.5% and 82.2%, respectively. In the sample as a whole, the prevalence of passive smoking was high (> 36%, occurring during pregnancy in > 15%; > 40% of the patients had been born by cesarean section; and 30% had a mother who had had < 8 years of schooling. Conclusions : A prevention program for children with asthma is an effective strategy for controlling the disease. Knowledge of local epidemiological and environmental characteristics is essential to reducing the prevalence of the severe forms of asthma, to improving the use of health resources, and to preventing pulmonary changes that could lead to COPD in adulthood.

  7. Early risk factors for pubertal asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovland, V; Riiser, A; Mowinckel, P; Carlsen, K-H; Lødrup Carlsen, K C

    2015-01-01

    Early life risk factors are previously described for childhood asthma, but less is known related to asthma in adolescence. We aimed to investigate early risk factors (before 2 years) for pubertal asthma and secondarily for pubertal asthma phenotypes based upon allergic comorbidities. Based on data from 550 adolescents in the prospective birth cohort 'Environment and Childhood Asthma' study, subjects were categorized by recurrent bronchial obstruction (rBO) 0-2 years, asthma 2-10 years, and pubertal asthma from 10 to 16 years including incident asthma in puberty and asthma in remission from 10 to 16 years or as never rBO/asthma 0-16 years. Asthma in puberty was further classified based on the comorbidities atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis (AR) from 10 to 16 years. Twenty-three common asthma risk factors identified by 2 years of age, including frequency and persistence of bronchial obstruction (severity score), were analysed by weighted logistic regression for each phenotype. In adjusted models, the risk of pubertal asthma increased significantly with higher severity score, parental rhinitis, being the firstborn child, and familial stress around birth. Pubertal asthma in remission was significantly associated with severity score and number of lower respiratory tract infections and inversely associated with breastfeeding beyond 4 months. Pubertal incident asthma was more common among firstborn children. All asthma phenotypes with allergic diseases were significantly associated with severity score, whereas familial perinatal stress increased the risk of asthma only. Asthma combined with AR was associated with parental asthma and being firstborn, whereas the risk of asthma with both atopic dermatitis and AR increased with higher paternal education, atopic dermatitis, being firstborn, and familial perinatal stress. Important early risk factors for pubertal asthma were early airways obstruction, parental rhinitis, being the firstborn child, and perinatal familial

  8. Global Asthma Network survey suggests more national asthma strategies could reduce burden of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, I; Haahtela, T; Selroos, O; Ellwood, P; Ellwood, E

    Several countries or regions within countries have an effective national asthma strategy resulting in a reduction of the large burden of asthma to individuals and society. There has been no systematic appraisal of the extent of national asthma strategies in the world. The Global Asthma Network (GAN) undertook an email survey of 276 Principal Investigators of GAN centres in 120 countries, in 2013-2014. One of the questions was: "Has a national asthma strategy been developed in your country for the next five years? For children? For adults?". Investigators in 112 (93.3%) countries answered this question. Of these, 26 (23.2%) reported having a national asthma strategy for children and 24 (21.4%) for adults; 22 (19.6%) countries had a strategy for both children and adults; 28 (25%) had a strategy for at least one age group. In countries with a high prevalence of current wheeze, strategies were significantly more common than in low prevalence countries (11/13 (85%) and 7/31 (22.6%) respectively, pasthma strategy was reported. A large reduction in the global burden of asthma could be potentially achieved if more countries had an effective asthma strategy. Copyright © 2017 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... PDF – 1.1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to ... PDF – 1.1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health File Formats Help: ...

  10. Exploring the obesity-asthma link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, R V; Gonzalez-Quintela, A; Vidal, C

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and risk of asthma are linked. Different distributions of adiposity, such as visceral, subcutaneous or ectopic adiposity, may affect asthma risk differently.......Obesity and risk of asthma are linked. Different distributions of adiposity, such as visceral, subcutaneous or ectopic adiposity, may affect asthma risk differently....

  11. What's an Asthma Flare-Up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy Healthy Food Shopping Healthy Drinks for Kids Asthma Flare-Ups KidsHealth > For Parents > Asthma Flare-Ups ... español ¿Qué es una crisis asmática? What Are Asthma Flare-Ups? Keeping asthma under control helps kids ...

  12. American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Life Spectrum of Asthma Meeting School-based Asthma Management Program – (SAMPRO TM ) This central resource focuses on ... AAAAI is proud to endorse HR 2285, the School-Based Respiratory Health Management Act Read Practice Matters! Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Quality ...

  13. Developing and emerging clinical asthma phenotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekking, Pieter-Paul W.; Bel, Elisabeth H.

    2014-01-01

    For more than a century, clinicians have attempted to subdivide asthma into different phenotypes based on triggers that cause asthma attacks, the course of the disease, or the prognosis. The first phenotypes that were described included allergic asthma, intrinsic or nonallergic asthma, infectious

  14. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... PDF – 1.1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir You can control your asthma and avoid an attack by taking your medicine exactly as your doctor or other medical professional ...

  15. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with asthma Tables and Graphs Asthma Call-back Survey Technical Information Prevalence Tables BRFSS Prevalence Data NHIS ... Profiles (2011) Work-related Asthma NCHS Asthma FastStats Survey Questions Resources for Health Professionals and Schools Healthcare ...

  16. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Breathing Easier [PDF – 1.1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know ... Breathing Easier [PDF – 1.1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health File ...

  17. Asthma management among allergists in Italy: results from a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnoni, M S; Caminati, M; Canonica, G W; Arpinelli, F; Rizzi, A; Senna, G

    2017-01-01

    In Europe more than 50% of asthmatic treated patients have not well-controlled asthma. Asthma affects about 2.5 million of patients in Italy. The present survey aims at investigating how Italian allergists approach asthmatic patients, in order to highlight pitfalls and unmet needs concerning real-life asthma management. An anonymous 16 item web questionnaire was available (April-October 2015) to all allergists who visited the web site of SIAAIC (Società Italiana di Allergologia, Asma Immunologia Clinica). Those who wished to give their contribution had the opportunity to answer about epidemiology, risk factors, treatment approaches, and adherence to therapy. One hundred and seventy four allergists answered the survey. 54% of them reported up to 10 patient visits per week and 35.3% between 10 and 30. The most frequent reasons of follow up visits are routine check-up (56.5% of allergists), and worsening of symptoms (41% of allergists). Nocturnal apnoeas, gastro-esophageal reflux and obesity are the most important comorbidities/risk factors of poorly controlled asthma. Bronchial hyper-responsiveness, increased NO levels and reduced exercise tolerance are the most important indicators of asthma severity. Concerning therapy, ICS combined with LABA is the treatment of choice suitable for the majority of patients. A rapid onset of action and a flexible ICS dosage are indicated as the optimal characteristics for achieving the therapeutic goals. Poor adherence to therapy is an important reason for symptom worsening for the majority of allergists. Complex dosage regimens and economic aspects are considered the most important factors impacting on adherence. Allergists are involved in the management of asthma, regularly seeing their patients. Co-morbidities are frequent in asthmatic patients and may impact negatively on disease control, thus identifying patients who need a more careful and strict monitoring. Airway hyper-responsiveness to methacholine challenge test and

  18. Pediatric allergic rhinitis and asthma: can the march be halted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsilochristou, Olympia A; Douladiris, Nikolaos; Makris, Michael; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G

    2013-12-01

    The strong epidemiologic and pathophysiologic link between allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma has led to the concept of 'united airways disease' or 'respiratory allergy', implying that allergy, in its widest sense, underlies this clinical syndrome. Progression from AR to asthma is frequent and part of the 'atopic march'. Since pediatric immune responses are more adaptable and therefore may be more amenable to treatment, interventions at early childhood are characterized by a higher chance to affect the natural history of respiratory allergy. Although current treatments are quite effective in alleviating respiratory allergy symptoms, it has proven much more difficult to confirm any influence on the progression of the disease. Much more promising is the field of specific allergen immunotherapy, where current evidence, although not yet of ideal robustness, points towards a disease-modifying effect. In addition, newer or emerging, possibly more effective or more targeted interventions are promising in the preventive sense.

  19. Eicosanoids in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Kong-Sang; Wu, Wei-Fong

    2007-01-01

    Eicosanoids belong to a diverse family of bioactive fatty acids that play important roles in regulating airway inflammation and reactivity. They are the key mediators of the pathobiology of asthma. Among the eicosanoids, lipoxins (LXs) were the first agents to be identified and recognized as potential anti-inflammatory endogenous lipid mediators. Lipoxins are biosynthesized in vivo at inflammation sites. They result mainly from the interaction between 5 and 15-lipoxygenases (LOs), which are distinct from leukotrienes (LTs) and prostaglandins (PGs) in structure and function. Leukotrienes are potent proinflammatory mediators and directly and indirectly stimulate fibroblast chemotaxis, proliferation, and collagen synthesis. Prostaglandins have both bronchoconstrictive and bronchoprotective effects and the bronchoconstriction mediated by PGD2 and PGF2alpha is only occurred in asthmatic patients but not in healthy subjects. Lipoxins counter-regulate the proinflammatory actions of LTs and activate resolution of the inflammatory response. At least two classes of receptors, CysLT1 receptors and Asprin-triggered lipoxin A4 (ALX) receptors, can interact with lipoxin A4 (LXA4) and LXA4 analogs to mediate their biologic actions. Allergen challenge initiates airway biosynthesis of LXA4 and increases expression of its receptor. In addition, LXA4 affects the release of interleukin-8 by blood mononuclear cells, and ALX affects calcium influx into epithelial cells. Therefore, the pivotal role of LXs is mediating airway homeostasis, and LXs may be part of a novel, multipronged approach for treating human asthma.

  20. Evaluation of quality of life according to asthma control and asthma severity in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Natasha Yumi; Ribeiro, Maria Angela Gonçalves de Oliveira; Saad, Ivete Alonso Bredda; Morcillo, André Moreno; Ribeiro, José Dirceu; Toro, Adyléia Aparecida Dalbo Contrera

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate quality of life according to the level of asthma control and degree of asthma severity in children and adolescents. We selected children and adolescents with asthma (7-17 years of age) from the Pediatric Pulmonology Outpatient Clinic of the State University of Campinas Hospital de Clínicas, located in the city of Campinas, Brazil. Asthma control and asthma severity were assessed by the Asthma Control Test and by the questionnaire based on the Global Initiative for Asthma, respectively. The patients also completed the Paediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ), validated for use in Brazil, in order to evaluate their quality of life. The mean age of the patients was 11.22 ± 2.91 years, with a median of 11.20 (7.00-17.60) years. We selected 100 patients, of whom 27, 33, and 40 were classified as having controlled asthma (CA), partially controlled asthma (PCA), and uncontrolled asthma (UA), respectively. As for asthma severity, 34, 19, and 47 were classified as having mild asthma (MiA), moderate asthma (MoA), and severe asthma (SA), respectively. The CA and the PCA groups, when compared with the NCA group, showed higher values for the overall PAQLQ score and all PAQLQ domains (activity limitation, symptoms, and emotional function; p Quality of life appears to be directly related to asthma control and asthma severity in children and adolescents, being better when asthma is well controlled and asthma severity is lower.