WorldWideScience

Sample records for asteroids digging soil

  1. Landing screw-rockets array on asteroids, digging soil and fueling engines in phase, to overcome the spin and to fly in space

    CERN Document Server

    Fargion, D

    2007-01-01

    To deflect impact-trajectory of massive km^3 and spinning asteroid by a few terrestrial radiuses one need a large momentum exchange. The dragging of huge spinning bodies in space by external engine seems difficult or impossible. Our solution is based on the landing of multi screw-rockets, powered by mini-nuclear engines, on the body, that dig a small fraction of the soil surface, to use as an exhaust propeller, ejecting it vertically in phase among themselves. Such a mass ejection increases the momentum exchange, their number redundancy guarantes the stability of the system. The soft landing of engine-unity may be easely achieved at low asteroid gravity. The engine array tuned activity, overcomes the asteroid angular velocity. Coherent turning of the jet heads increases the deflection efficiency. A procession along its surface may compensate at best the asteroid spin. A small skin-mass (about 2 10^4 tons) may be ejected by mini nuclear engines. Such prototypes may build first save galleries for humans on the ...

  2. Digging up the Dirt on Soil Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Should middle school science teachers be concerned about students bringing in unknown sources of soil to work on in class as the activity suggests? The science is well intended, but is it safe? What are some possible safety issues that might be of concern in dealing with soil samples? This month's column provides several examples of unsuspecting…

  3. Dynamics of digging in wet soil

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Sunghwan; Hosoi, A E

    2010-01-01

    Numerous animals live in, and locomote through, subsea soils. To move in a medium dominated by frictional interactions, many of these animals have adopted unique burrowing strategies. This paper presents a burrowing model inspired by the Atlantic razor clam ({\\it Ensis directus}), which uses deformations of its body to cyclically loosen and re-pack the surrounding soil in order to locally manipulate burrowing drag. The model reveals how an anisotropic body -- composed of a cylinder and sphere varying sinusoidally in size and relative displacement -- achieves unidirectional motion through a medium with variable frictional properties. This net displacement is attained even though the body kinematics are reciprocal and inertia of both the model organism and the surrounding medium are negligible. Our results indicate that body aspect ratio has a strong effect on burrowing velocity and efficiency, with a well-defined maximum for given kinematics and soil material properties.

  4. Structural Bionic Design for Digging Shovel of Cassava Harvester Considering Soil Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihao Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the working performance of cassava harvester, structural bionic design for its digging shovel was conducted. Taking the oriental mole cricket's paws as bionic prototype, a new structural bionic design method for digging shovel was established, which considers the morphology-configuration-function coupling bionic. A comprehensive performance comparison method was proposed, which is used to select the bionic design schemes. The proposed bionic design method was used to improve digging shovel structure of a digging-pulling style cassava harvester, and nine bionic-type digging shovels were obtained with considering the impact of soil mechanics. After conducting mechanical properties comparative analysis for bionic-type digging shovels, the bionic design rules were summed up, and the optimal design scheme of digging shovel was obtained through combining the proposed comprehensive performance comparison method with Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. Studies have shown that bionic design method not only can improve the overall mechanical properties of digging shovel, but also can help to improve the harvesting effect of cassava harvester, which provides a new idea for crops harvesting machinery's structural optimization design.

  5. SOIL-TOOL INTERACTION AS A REVIEW FOR DIGGING OPERATION OF MINI HYDRAULIC EXCAVATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BHAVESHKUMAR P. PATEL,

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the late 50’s hydraulics have been the systems of choice where high force-to-weight ratios are required. Today hydraulic excavators are widely used in construction, mining, excavation, and forestryapplications. The skilled operator also cannot know about the terrain condition, soil parameters, and the soil-tool interaction forces exerted during excavation operation are required to find because these forces helpful for better design of the tool, backhoe parts and for trajectory planning. This paper focuses on the review of a work carried out by researchers in the same field which includes the fundamental of soil mechanics, soil tool interaction forces and various parameters affect on the soil-tool interaction during itsactual digging action. This area is open to carry out further research to know the effect of various parameters on soil-tool interaction, prediction of digging trajectory and excavation forces and for robust design of backhoe mechanism.

  6. Morphological adaptations for digging and climate-impacted soil properties define pocket gopher (Thomomys spp. distributions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel E Marcy

    Full Text Available Species ranges are mediated by physiology, environmental factors, and competition with other organisms. The allopatric distribution of five species of northern Californian pocket gophers (Thomomys spp. is hypothesized to result from competitive exclusion. The five species in this environmentally heterogeneous region separate into two subgenera, Thomomys or Megascapheus, which have divergent digging styles. While all pocket gophers dig with their claws, the tooth-digging adaptations of subgenus Megascapheus allow access to harder soils and climate-protected depths. In a Northern Californian locality, replacement of subgenus Thomomys with subgenus Megascapheus occurred gradually during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. Concurrent climate change over this transition suggests that environmental factors--in addition to soil--define pocket gopher distributional limits. Here we show 1 that all pocket gophers occupy the subset of less energetically costly soils and 2 that subgenera sort by percent soil clay, bulk density, and shrink-swell capacity (a mineralogical attribute. While clay and bulk density (without major perturbations stay constant over decades to millennia, low precipitation and high temperatures can cause shrink-swell clays to crack and harden within days. The strong yet underappreciated interaction between soil and moisture on the distribution of vertebrates is rarely considered when projecting species responses to climatic change. Furthermore, increased precipitation alters the weathering processes that create shrink-swell minerals. Two projected outcomes of ongoing climate change--higher temperatures and precipitation--will dramatically impact hardness of soil with shrink-swell minerals. Current climate models do not include factors controlling soil hardness, despite its impact on all organisms that depend on a stable soil structure.

  7. ASTEROIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Andreić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Asteroids are the largest minor bodies in the Solar System. Nowadays they are in the research focus due to several facts about them: first, a subclass of asteroids can collide with Earth, and consequences of such a collision are dramatic. Second, they are now seen as source of materials that are becoming scarce on Earth, and they will be needed in future space constructions anyway. Third, they are holding clues about the origin and evolution of the Solar System. In this article, a short overview of current knowledge about asteroids is presented. Last, but not least, as several Croatian scientists were recently honored by naming an asteroid after them, a short overview of the naming process is given.

  8. ASTEROIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Željko Andreić

    2016-01-01

    Asteroids are the largest minor bodies in the Solar System. Nowadays they are in the research focus due to several facts about them: first, a subclass of asteroids can collide with Earth, and consequences of such a collision are dramatic. Second, they are now seen as source of materials that are becoming scarce on Earth, and they will be needed in future space constructions anyway. Third, they are holding clues about the origin and evolution of the Solar System. In this article, a short overv...

  9. Students Dig Deep in the Mystery Soil Lab: A Playful, Inquiry-Based Soil Laboratory Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiet, Rachel K.

    2014-01-01

    The Mystery Soil Lab, a playful, inquiry-based laboratory project, is designed to develop students' skills of inquiry, soil analysis, and synthesis of foundational concepts in soil science and soil ecology. Student groups are given the charge to explore and identify a "Mystery Soil" collected from a unique landscape within a 10-mile…

  10. Structural Bionic Design for Digging Shovel of Cassava Harvester Considering Soil Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Shihao Liu; Shaojie Weng; Yulan Liao; Dongyun Zhu

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the working performance of cassava harvester, structural bionic design for its digging shovel was conducted. Taking the oriental mole cricket's paws as bionic prototype, a new structural bionic design method for digging shovel was established, which considers the morphology-configuration-function coupling bionic. A comprehensive performance comparison method was proposed, which is used to select the bionic design schemes. The proposed bionic design method was used to impro...

  11. Soil Moisture and Excavation Behaviour in the Chaco Leaf-Cutting Ant (Atta vollenweideri): Digging Performance and Prevention of Water Inflow into the Nest

    OpenAIRE

    Steffen Pielström; Flavio Roces

    2014-01-01

    The Chaco leaf-cutting ant Atta vollenweideri is native to the clay-heavy soils of the Gran Chaco region in South America. Because of seasonal floods, colonies are regularly exposed to varying moisture across the soil profile, a factor that not only strongly influences workers' digging performance during nest building, but also determines the suitability of the soil for the rearing of the colony's symbiotic fungus. In this study, we investigated the effects of varying soil moisture on behavio...

  12. Soil moisture and excavation behaviour in the Chaco leaf-cutting ant (Atta vollenweideri: digging performance and prevention of water inflow into the nest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Pielström

    Full Text Available The Chaco leaf-cutting ant Atta vollenweideri is native to the clay-heavy soils of the Gran Chaco region in South America. Because of seasonal floods, colonies are regularly exposed to varying moisture across the soil profile, a factor that not only strongly influences workers' digging performance during nest building, but also determines the suitability of the soil for the rearing of the colony's symbiotic fungus. In this study, we investigated the effects of varying soil moisture on behaviours associated with underground nest building in A. vollenweideri. This was done in a series of laboratory experiments using standardised, plastic clay-water mixtures with gravimetric water contents ranging from relatively brittle material to mixtures close to the liquid limit. Our experiments showed that preference and group-level digging rate increased with increasing water content, but then dropped considerably for extremely moist materials. The production of vibrational recruitment signals during digging showed, on the contrary, a slightly negative linear correlation with soil moisture. Workers formed and carried clay pellets at higher rates in moist clay, even at the highest water content tested. Hence, their weak preference and low group-level excavation rate observed for that mixture cannot be explained by any inability to work with the material. More likely, extremely high moistures may indicate locations unsuitable for nest building. To test this hypothesis, we simulated a situation in which workers excavated an upward tunnel below accumulated surface water. The ants stopped digging about 12 mm below the interface soil/water, a behaviour representing a possible adaptation to the threat of water inflow field colonies are exposed to while digging under seasonally flooded soils. Possible roles of soil water in the temporal and spatial pattern of nest growth are discussed.

  13. Determination of the correction factor for computation of the soil-digging force`s component by the multipurpose ground-digging machine

    OpenAIRE

    Koval, A. B.

    2016-01-01

    Summary.  Raising  of  problem.  Expansion  of  technical  and  technological  capabilities  and  scopes  of  using  of  longitudinal digging  excavators  are  relevant  and  economically  feasible.  There  is  a  need  for  creating  of  double  appointment  machines  for performing  excavation  in  civil  engineering  and  for  fortification  arrangement  of  positions  of  troops.  Formulation  of  the  task  of creating of radically new construction machines  is logical. These machines co...

  14. SOIL-TOOL INTERACTION AS A REVIEW FOR DIGGING OPERATION OF MINI HYDRAULIC EXCAVATOR

    OpenAIRE

    BHAVESHKUMAR P. PATEL,; DR. J. M. PRAJAPATI

    2011-01-01

    Since the late 50’s hydraulics have been the systems of choice where high force-to-weight ratios are required. Today hydraulic excavators are widely used in construction, mining, excavation, and forestryapplications. The skilled operator also cannot know about the terrain condition, soil parameters, and the soil-tool interaction forces exerted during excavation operation are required to find because these forces helpful for better design of the tool, backhoe parts and for trajectory planning....

  15. Digging the New York City Skyline: soil fungal communities in green roofs and city parks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista L McGuire

    Full Text Available In urban environments, green roofs provide a number of benefits, including decreased urban heat island effects and reduced energy costs for buildings. However, little research has been done on the non-plant biota associated with green roofs, which likely affect their functionality. For the current study, we evaluated whether or not green roofs planted with two native plant communities in New York City functioned as habitats for soil fungal communities, and compared fungal communities in green roof growing media to soil microbial composition in five city parks, including Central Park and the High Line. Ten replicate roofs were sampled one year after planting; three of these roofs were more intensively sampled and compared to nearby city parks. Using Illumina sequencing of the fungal ITS region we found that green roofs supported a diverse fungal community, with numerous taxa belonging to fungal groups capable of surviving in disturbed and polluted habitats. Across roofs, there was significant biogeographical clustering of fungal communities, indicating that community assembly of roof microbes across the greater New York City area is locally variable. Green roof fungal communities were compositionally distinct from city parks and only 54% of the green roof taxa were also found in the park soils. Phospholipid fatty acid analysis revealed that park soils had greater microbial biomass and higher bacterial to fungal ratios than green roof substrates. City park soils were also more enriched with heavy metals, had lower pH, and lower quantities of total bases (Ca, K, and Mg compared to green roof substrates. While fungal communities were compositionally distinct across green roofs, they did not differentiate by plant community. Together, these results suggest that fungi living in the growing medium of green roofs may be an underestimated component of these biotic systems functioning to support some of the valued ecological services of green roofs.

  16. Digging the New York City Skyline: soil fungal communities in green roofs and city parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Krista L; Payne, Sara G; Palmer, Matthew I; Gillikin, Caitlyn M; Keefe, Dominique; Kim, Su Jin; Gedallovich, Seren M; Discenza, Julia; Rangamannar, Ramya; Koshner, Jennifer A; Massmann, Audrey L; Orazi, Giulia; Essene, Adam; Leff, Jonathan W; Fierer, Noah

    2013-01-01

    In urban environments, green roofs provide a number of benefits, including decreased urban heat island effects and reduced energy costs for buildings. However, little research has been done on the non-plant biota associated with green roofs, which likely affect their functionality. For the current study, we evaluated whether or not green roofs planted with two native plant communities in New York City functioned as habitats for soil fungal communities, and compared fungal communities in green roof growing media to soil microbial composition in five city parks, including Central Park and the High Line. Ten replicate roofs were sampled one year after planting; three of these roofs were more intensively sampled and compared to nearby city parks. Using Illumina sequencing of the fungal ITS region we found that green roofs supported a diverse fungal community, with numerous taxa belonging to fungal groups capable of surviving in disturbed and polluted habitats. Across roofs, there was significant biogeographical clustering of fungal communities, indicating that community assembly of roof microbes across the greater New York City area is locally variable. Green roof fungal communities were compositionally distinct from city parks and only 54% of the green roof taxa were also found in the park soils. Phospholipid fatty acid analysis revealed that park soils had greater microbial biomass and higher bacterial to fungal ratios than green roof substrates. City park soils were also more enriched with heavy metals, had lower pH, and lower quantities of total bases (Ca, K, and Mg) compared to green roof substrates. While fungal communities were compositionally distinct across green roofs, they did not differentiate by plant community. Together, these results suggest that fungi living in the growing medium of green roofs may be an underestimated component of these biotic systems functioning to support some of the valued ecological services of green roofs. PMID:23469260

  17. Digging the New York City Skyline: Soil Fungal Communities in Green Roofs and City Parks

    OpenAIRE

    McGuire, Krista L.; Payne, Sara G.; Palmer, Matthew I; Gillikin, Caitlyn M.; Dominique Keefe; Su Jin Kim; Gedallovich, Seren M.; Julia Discenza; Ramya Rangamannar; Koshner, Jennifer A.; Audrey L Massmann; Giulia Orazi; Adam Essene; Leff, Jonathan W.; Noah Fierer

    2013-01-01

    In urban environments, green roofs provide a number of benefits, including decreased urban heat island effects and reduced energy costs for buildings. However, little research has been done on the non-plant biota associated with green roofs, which likely affect their functionality. For the current study, we evaluated whether or not green roofs planted with two native plant communities in New York City functioned as habitats for soil fungal communities, and compared fungal communities in green...

  18. Effect of mole (Talpaеuropаеa digging activity on soil microflora in case of soil cadmium pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Y. Pakhomov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of fossorial activity of European mole Talpa еuropаеа on number and distribution of soil microorganisms under conditions of cadmium pollution of the soil is characterized. Mammals’ fossorial activity is an important natural ecological factor that contributes to microflora rehabilitation and development under conditions of contamination.

  19. Kidnapping small icy asteroids in Earth near encounter to harbour life and to deflect trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargion, Daniele

    2016-07-01

    The inter-planetary flight for human being is under danger because of unscreened and lethal solar flare radioactive showers. The screening of the astronauts by huge superconducting magnetic fields is unrealistic by many reasons. On the contrary the ability to reach nearby icy asteroids, to harbour there a complete undergound room where ecological life systems are first set, this goal may offer a later natural and safe currier for future human stations and enterprise. The need to deflect such a small size (a few thousands tons objects) maybe achieved by micro nuclear engines able to dig the asteroid icy skin, to heat and propel the soil by a synchronous jet engine array, bending and driving it to any desired trajectories. The need for such a wide collection of icy asteroid stations, often in a robotic ibernated state, it will offer the safe help station, raft in the wide space sea, where to collect material or energy in long human planetary travels.

  20. Test dig selv!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi; Nielsen, Gregers; Langstrup, Henriette;

    2011-01-01

    Teknologirådet omkring rapporten ”Test dig selv! – Vurderinger og anbefalinger vedrørende anvendelse medicinsk udstyr til selvtestning. Offentliggjort d. 25.10.11.......Teknologirådet omkring rapporten ”Test dig selv! – Vurderinger og anbefalinger vedrørende anvendelse medicinsk udstyr til selvtestning. Offentliggjort d. 25.10.11....

  1. Asteroid thermophysical modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Delbo, Marco; Emery, Joshua P; Rozitis, Ben; Capria, Maria Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The field of asteroid thermophysical modeling has experienced an extraordinary growth in the last ten years, as new thermal infrared data became available for hundreds of thousands of asteroids. The infrared emission of asteroids depends on the body's size, shape, albedo, thermal inertia, roughness and rotational properties. These parameters can therefore be derived by thermophysical modeling of infrared data. Thermophysical modeling led to asteroid size estimates that were confirmed at the few-percent level by later spacecraft visits. We discuss how instrumentation advances now allow mid-infrared interferometric observations as well as high-accuracy spectro-photometry, posing their own set of thermal-modeling challenges.We present major breakthroughs achieved in studies of the thermal inertia, a sensitive indicator for the nature of asteroids soils, allowing us, for instance, to determine the grain size of asteroidal regoliths. Thermal inertia also governs non-gravitational effects on asteroid orbits, requir...

  2. Digging Movie from Phoenix's Sol 18

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander recorded the images combined into this movie of the lander's Robotic Arm enlarging and combining the two trenches informally named 'Dodo' (left) and 'Goldilocks.' The 21 images in this sequence were taken over a period of about 2 hours during Phoenix's Sol 18 (June 13, 2008), or the 18th Martian day since landing. The main purpose of the Sol 18 dig was to dig deeper for learning the depth of a hard underlying layer. A bright layer, possibly ice, was increasingly exposed as the digging progressed. Further digging and scraping in the combined Dodo-Goldilocks trench was planned for subsequent sols. The combined trench is about 20 centimeters (about 8 inches) wide. The depth at the end of the Sol 18 digging is 5 to 6 centimeters (about 2 inches). The Goldilocks trench was the source of soil samples 'Baby Bear' and 'Mama Bear,' which were collected on earlier sols and delivered to instruments on the lander deck. The Dodo trench was originally dug for practice in collecting and depositing soil samples. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. Sequential Soil Transport and Its Influence on the Spatial Organisation of Collective Digging in Leaf-Cutting Ants

    OpenAIRE

    Steffen Pielström; Flavio Roces

    2013-01-01

    The Chaco leaf-cutting ant Atta vollenweideri (Forel) inhabits large and deep subterranean nests composed of a large number of fungus and refuse chambers. The ants dispose of the excavated soil by forming small pellets that are carried to the surface. For ants in general, the organisation of underground soil transport during nest building remains completely unknown. In the laboratory, we investigated how soil pellets are formed and transported, and whether their occurrence influences the spat...

  4. DigDag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Bo Nissen

    each archive, or archival system. The DigDag project establishes a uniform research infrastructure through a webGIS within history, archaeology, place-names, statistics and geography: a digital cartographical skeleton for thematic mapping and analysis which will generate new interdisciplinary research...

  5. Map of Phoenix Digging Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows where NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm scoop has started digging, and the next areas planned for digging. The majority of the area to the right of the current trench is being preserved for future digging. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. Digging One's Own Grave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvo Krikmann

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to demonstrate that some points in the explicationof the figurative expression digging one’s own grave via the concept of blending given by Gilles Fauconnier and Mark Turner are problematic: (1 Not understanding the consequences of one’s deeds is an almost universal presuppositionof and impulse or motivation for actualizing any utterance with a forewarning or gloating content (e.g., proverbs, not the singularity characterizing just the expression of grave-digging as such. (2 The inversion of causal and temporal structure is not the case because of metonymic association between the concepts of the grave and death, as a result of which specific causal and temporal order loses any significance. Many synonymous examples can be given in which the image refers to events before the death, between the death and funeral, as well as those after burial. (3 The source domain needs not to be restricted to natural death and modern civilized funerals but should include also the cases of violent deaths, e.g., the scenario of execution and the scenario of hunting and trapping. Preliminarily, a very brief synopsis of the main phases of development of cognitive linguistic theory of metaphor and some favourite examples of blends, used also in previous works, is provided.

  7. Microchemical and Structural Evidence for Space Weathering in Soils from Asteroid Itokawa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, M. S.; Christoffersen, R.; Zega, T. J.

    2013-01-01

    The chemistry, microstructure and optical properties of grains on the surfaces of airless bodies are continu-ously modified due to their interactions predominantly with solar energetic ions and micrometeorite impacts. Collectively known as space weathering, this phenomenon results in a discrepancy between remotely sensed spectra from asteroids and those ac-quired directly from meteorites. The return of pristine samples from the asteroid Itokawa provides insight into surface processes on airless bodies and will help in correlating remote sensing data with laboratory analysis of meteorites. Samples and Methods: We examined Itokawa samples RA-QD02-0042-01 and RA-QD-02-0042-02, ultramicrotomed sec-tions of a singular grain prepared by the Hayabusa sample cura-tion team. We analyzed these slices using a 200 keV JEOL 2010F transmission electron microscope (TEM) at Arizona State Uni-versity and a 200 keV JEOL 2500SE TEM at NASA JSC. Both field emission TEMs are equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometers (EDS) and scanning TEM (STEM) detectors. Results and Discussion: TEM observations reveal that the sectioned grain predominantly consists of a single crystal of low-Ca orthopyroxene, with subsidiary smaller regions of olivine, Fe-Ni sulfide, and Fe-Ni metal. EDS-spectrum imaging and high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) show local, nanocrystalline regions of the outermost 2 to 5 nm of the pyroxene are composed of an Fe-Mg-S-rich and Si- and O-depleted layer that is underlain by a 2- to 5-nm thick amorphous zone enriched in Si. These layers occur in multiple microtome slices and have uniform thicknesses. We also observe localized 'islands' of material on the surface of the pyroxene which HRTEM imaging indicates are amorphous and EDS measurements show are compositionally heterogeneous. A 10- to 60-nm thick partially amorphous zone occurs below the compositionally distinct rim. While this this zone is associated with the compositionally heterogeneous outer layer, it also occurs

  8. Dig-face monitoring during excavation of a radioactive plume at Mound Laboratory, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dig-face monitoring system consists of onsite hardware for collecting information on changing chemical, radiological, and physical conditions in the subsurface soil during the hazardous site excavation. A prototype dig-face system was take to Mount Laboratory for a first trial. Mound Area 7 was the site of historical disposals of 232Th, 227Ac, and assorted debris. The system was used to monitor a deep excavation aimed at removing 227Ac-contaminated soils. Radiological, geophysical, and topographic sensors were used to scan across the excavation dig-face at four successive depths as soil was removed. A 3-D image of the contamination plumes was developed; the radiation sensor data indicated that only a small portion of the excavated soil volume was contaminated. The spatial information produced by the dig-face system was used to direct the excavation activities into the area containing the 227Ac and to evaluate options for handling the separate 232Th plume

  9. Asteroid team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, D. L.

    1986-09-01

    Work on asteroid classification continued was rewarded with the discovery of two Earth-approaching M asteroids. The M class is rare and these are the first found among the near-Earth asteroids to have the spectral albedo characteristic of this class. The two asteroids are newly discovered 1986 DA and 1986 EB which were observed at N and Q bandpasses (i.e., 10 and 20 microns) with the 3 m IRTF telescope and at five wavelengths from 0.36 to 0.85 microns from Kitt peak National Observatory's 0.36 m telescope. The derived diameters are about 2 km for both objects. In the asteroid radiometry program N or Q photometry was obtained for more than 40 asteroids in Feb. 1986. Radiometric diameter calibration support were provided for stellar occultations of stars by 230 Athamantis and 129 Antigone. The data were reduced but not analyzed. Infrared spectra (0.8 to 2.6 microns) of 60 asteroids were reduced and are now ready for compositional analysis.

  10. It is not all pheromones: No evidence that pheromones affect digging face choice during ant nest excavation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Andrew I

    2016-01-01

    Ants create nests of a size that is tailored to the number of individuals in a nest via a self-organized process. It is not yet clear how they accomplish this. Deposition and evaporation of pheromones at the digging face has been hypothesised by Deneubourg and Franks (1995) and Buhl et al. (2005) to be part of the nest construction process, with models being presented to support this contention. This hypothesis was tested by allowing groups of 5 Acromyrmex lundi workers to choose between two excavation sites, one that was freshly exposed to digging and one where digging had ceased an hour previously. It was expected that if pheromones played a role in stimulating digging, then ants would show a preference for digging in the "fresh" sites rather than the "aged" sites where the putative digging pheromone had decayed. No significant difference in digging activity between "fresh" and "aged" sites was detected. It is therefore likely that, while digging pheromones may play other roles in other parts of the digging system, they do not play an important role in regulation of soil excavation at the digging face. PMID:26529291

  11. Black-footed ferret digging activity in summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eads, David A.; Biggins, Dean E.; Marsh, Dustin; Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Livieri, Travis M.

    2012-01-01

    Black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) excavate soil from prairie dog (Cynomys spp.) burrows, thereby creating characteristic soil deposits at burrow openings. These soil deposits have been observed only rarely in summer. We monitored adult ferrets during June–October of the years 2007 and 2008 on a 452-ha colony of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) in the Conata Basin, South Dakota. We located and identified ferret excavations during nighttime spotlight surveys for ferrets and daytime sampling of prairie dog burrow openings around locations where ferrets were located via spotlight. We accumulated 48 observations of in-process or recently completed ferret excavations during spotlight surveys (21 in 2007, 27 in 2008) and located 51 diggings during daytime burrow sampling (25 in 2007, 26 in 2008). We located diggings during 5.5% of spotlight observations, most frequently in July–August. These results collectively suggest ferrets may frequently excavate soil in summer, because prairie dogs frequently use soil to plug burrow openings and tunnels in defense against ferrets. Prairie dogs might frequently destroy soil deposits left by ferrets during summer, thereby reducing detection of diggings by biologists.

  12. Asteroid taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tholen, David J.; Barucci, M. Antonietta

    1989-01-01

    The spectral reflectivity of asteroid surfaces over the wavelength range of 0.3 to 1.1 micron can be used to classify these objects into several broad groups with similar spectral characteristics. The three most recently developed taxonomies group the asteroids into 9, 11, or 14 different clases, depending on the technique used to perform the analysis. The distribution of the taxonomic classes shows that darker and redder objects become more dominant at larger heliocentric distances, while the rare asteroid types are found more frequently among the small objects of the planet-crossing population.

  13. Careful where you dig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improved excavation techniques help contractors at former nuclear weapons site avoid digging up the past. The Department of Energy's Hanford Site is an excavator's nightmare. It's one of the country's oldest nuclear sites, with facilities that were built in the rush to win a world war and then a decades-long arms race. During World War II the reactors and process facilities at Hanford were constructed with utmost secrecy. For instance, the site was divided up into various, distinct processing areas -- each with its own separate survey coordinate system to confuse an invading enemy. In 1989 when the Cold War ended, Hanford began its metamorphosis from top secret defense site to the nation's largest and most complex nuclear waste cleanup project. National defense urgency and past environmental and as-built standards of the time left a legacy of chemical discharges and semi-hidden utilities. Also, the new cleanup mission included a new interest in privatization and outsourcing for engineering and services. This brought an influx of new contractors and personnel with no work experience of the Hanford Site. In the 50-year history of Hanford, various government agencies, contractors and their policies have come and gone. As federal budgets rose and fell, so did the accuracy of as-built documentation. At one point, jobs below$150,000 in value were not even documented as they were built because it wasn't considered cost-effective. Many utilities were field-routed, leaving no dependable as-built drawings. To be cost-effective, adjacent construction projects often shared a common excavation, both adding underground lines to the same trench. This 1ed to mixed confidence levels in the accuracy of the as-builts

  14. Asteroids IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Patrick; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Bottke, William F.

    Asteroids are fascinating worlds. Considered the building blocks of our planets, many of the authors of this book have devoted their scientific careers to exploring them with the tools of our trade: ground- and spacebased observations, in situ space missions, and studies that run the gamut from theoretical modeling efforts to laboratory work. Like fossils for paleontologists, or DNA for geneticists, they allow us to construct a veritable time machine and provide us with tantalizing glimpses of the earliest nature of our solar system. By investigating them, we can probe what our home system was like before life or even the planets existed. The origin and evolution of life on our planet is also intertwined with asteroids in a different way. It is believed that impacts on the primordial Earth may have delivered the basic components for life, with biology favoring attributes that could more easily survive the aftermath of such energetic events. In this fashion, asteroids may have banished many probable avenues for life to relative obscurity. Similarly, they may have also prevented our biosphere from becoming more complex until more recent eras. The full tale of asteroid impacts on the history of our world, and how human life managed to emerge from myriad possibilities, has yet to be fully told. The hazard posed by asteroid impacts to our civilization is low but singular. The design of efficient mitigation strategies strongly relies on asteroid detection by our ground- and spacebased surveys as well as knowledge of their physical properties. A more positive motivation for asteroid discovery is that the proximity of some asteroids to Earth may allow future astronauts to harvest their water and rare mineral resources for use in exploration. A key goal of asteroid science is therefore to learn how humans and robotic probes can interact with asteroids (and extract their materials) in an efficient way. We expect that these adventures may be commonplace in the future

  15. Energetic cost of digging behavior in workers of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens (Fabricius)

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto da Silva Camargo; Juliane F. S. Lopes; Luiz Carlos Forti

    2013-01-01

    Energetic cost of digging behavior in workers of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens (Fabricius). During nest excavation, leaf-cutting ant workers undergo reduction in their body reserve, particularly carbohydrates. In order to estimate the energetic cost of digging, groups of 30 workers of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens were sealed in a hermetic chamber for 24, 48 and 72 hours, with and without soil for digging, and had the CO2 concentration measured using respirometric chambers as well as ...

  16. Digging Up Local History | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Carolynne Keenan, Contributing Writer In the beginning weeks of summer, Recreation and Welfare (R&W) Club Frederick members experienced a once-in-a-lifetime activity: an archaeological dig in Walkersville, alongside Charlie Hall, Ph.D., Maryland state terrestrial archaeologist.

  17. Asteroid Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merline, W. J.

    2001-11-01

    Discovery and study of small satellites of asteroids or double asteroids can yield valuable information about the intrinsic properties of asteroids themselves and about their history and evolution. Determination of the orbits of these moons can provide precise masses of the primaries, and hence reliable estimates of the fundamental property of bulk density. This reveals much about the composition and structure of the primary and will allow us to make comparisons between, for example, asteroid taxonomic type and our inventory of meteorites. The nature and prevalence of these systems will also give clues as to the collisional environment in which they formed, and have further implications for the role of collisions in shaping our solar system. A decade ago, binary asteroids were more of a theoretical curiosity. In 1993, the Galileo spacecraft allowed the first undeniable detection of an asteroid moon, with the discovery of Dactyl, a small moon of Ida. Since that time, and particularly in the last year, the number of known binaries has risen dramatically. Previously odd-shaped and lobate near-Earth asteroids, observed by radar, have given way to signatures indicating, almost certainly, that at least four NEAs are binary systems. The tell-tale lightcurves of several other NEAs reveal a high likelihood of being double. Indications are that among the NEAs, there may be a binary frequency of several tens of percent. Among the main-belt asteroids, we now know of 6 confirmed binary systems, although their overall frequency is likely to be low, perhaps a few percent. The detections have largely come about because of significant advances in adaptive optics systems on large telescopes, which can now reduce the blurring of the Earth's atmosphere to compete with the spatial resolution of space-based imaging (which itself, via HST, is now contributing valuable observations). Most of these binary systems have similarities, but there are important exceptions. Searches among other

  18. Flyght Dynamics of Artificial Satellite of the Minor Asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, Alexander; Eismont, Natan; Ledkov, Anton; Simonov, Alexander; Pol, Vadim

    During last years the scientific interest to the asteroid is constantly growing. It may be explained by different reasons. One of the most important from them is confirmation of the fact that the asteroids present the real hazard to the Earth. The Chelyabinsk event demonstrates strong in support of this statement. Besides, the asteroids exploration promises to supply new data for understanding of the solar system origin and evolution. And the projects aimed to reach this goal have begun from the NASA NEAR mission to Eros. It was the first one when the spacecraft was landed on the surface of the asteroid. The other successive mission was fulfilled by JAXA with Hayabusa spacecraft which has returned to the Earth soil samples of Itokawa asteroid. In the nearest future the mission to RQ 36 asteroid is planned supposing landing and soil samples return. Unavoidable phase of such missions is the spacecraft flight in vicinity of the target asteroid, for example on the asteroid satellite orbit. It should be mentioned that quite visible number of asteroids has geometric form which is far from being sphere. Accordingly the gravity field of such asteroid cannot be presented as the one close to sphere. The problem is that prior to the mission to the asteroid one cannot receive good enough knowledge of its gravity field and even its gravity field constant. In the paper the flight dynamics problem of spacecraft moving along asteroid satellite orbit is explored. It is supposed that the asteroid is comparatively small with diameter (maximum size) about 300 m, like Apophis asteroid has, or less. To approximate the gravity field of asteroid the last is considered as totality of mass points. We assume such approach as more simple and effective as compared with the commonly accepted use of Legendre polynomial expansion. Different orbits near asteroid are analyzed with the sets of orbital parameters determining the size of orbit, its shape and position with respect to the Sun. The goal

  19. Radionuclide daughter inventory generator code: DIG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Daughter Inventory Generator (DIG) code accepts a tabulation of radionuclide initially present in a waste stream, specified as amounts present either by mass or by activity, and produces a tabulation of radionuclides present after a user-specified elapsed time. This resultant radionuclide inventory characterizes wastes that have undergone daughter ingrowth during subsequent processes, such as leaching and transport, and includes daughter radionuclides that should be considered in these subsequent processes or for inclusion in a pollutant source term. Output of the DIG code also summarizes radionuclide decay constants. The DIG code was developed specifically to assist the user of the PRESTO-II methodology and code in preparing data sets and accounting for possible daughter ingrowth in wastes buried in shallow-land disposal areas. The DIG code is also useful in preparing data sets for the PRESTO-EPA code. Daughter ingrowth in buried radionuclides and in radionuclides that have been leached from the wastes and are undergoing hydrologic transport are considered, and the quantities of daughter radionuclide are calculated. Radionuclide decay constants generated by DIG and included in the DIG output are required in the PRESTO-II code input data set. The DIG accesses some subroutines written for use with the CRRIS system and accesses files containing radionuclide data compiled by D.C. Kocher. 11 refs

  20. The Active Asteroids

    CERN Document Server

    Jewitt, David; Agarwal, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Some asteroids eject dust, producing transient, comet-like comae and tails; these are the active asteroids. The causes of activity in this newly-identified population are many and varied. They include impact ejection and disruption, rotational instabilities, electrostatic repulsion, radiation pressure sweeping, dehydration stresses and thermal fracture, in addition to the sublimation of asteroidal ice. These processes were either unsuspected or thought to lie beyond the realm of observation before the discovery of asteroid activity. Scientific interest in the active asteroids lies in their promise to open new avenues into the direct study of asteroid destruction, the production of interplanetary debris, the abundance of asteroid ice and the origin of terrestrial planet volatiles.

  1. Digging Deeper: Looking Beyond Behavior to Discover Meaning

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Email Client Print Español Digging Deeper: Looking Beyond Behavior to Discover Meaning A Unit of Four Online Lessons Digging Deeper: Looking Beyond Behavior to Discover Meaning is a unit of four ...

  2. Digging Deeper: Looking Beyond Behavior to Discover Meaning

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Digging Deeper: Looking Beyond Behavior to Discover Meaning A Unit of Four Online Lessons Digging Deeper: Looking Beyond Behavior to Discover Meaning is a unit of four lessons that explore and apply ...

  3. Cratering on Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, S.; Chapman, C. R.; Barnouin, O. S.; Richardson, J. E.; Vincent, J.-B.

    Impact craters are a ubiquitous feature of asteroid surfaces. On a local scale, small craters puncture the surface in a way similar to that observed on terrestrial planets and the Moon. At the opposite extreme, larger craters often approach the physical size of asteroids, thus globally affecting their shapes and surface properties. Crater measurements are a powerful means of investigation. Crater spatial and size distributions inform us of fundamental processes, such as asteroid collisional history. A paucity of craters, sometimes observed, may be diagnostic of mechanisms of erasure that are unique on low-gravity asteroids. Byproducts of impacts, such as ridges, troughs, and blocks, inform us of the bulk structure. In this chapter we review the major properties of crater populations on asteroids visited by spacecraft. In doing so we provide key examples to illustrate how craters affect the overall shape and can be used to constrain asteroid surface ages, bulk properties, and impact-driven surface evolution.

  4. Effect of Ni on aspartataminotransferase activity in Glechoma hederacea leaves subject to digging function by mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Y. Pakhomov

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Using simple and highly sensitive methods of biochemical analysis (determination of total enzyme activity of the class transferase and content of water-soluble protein fraction in Glechoma hederacea L. leaves, as response mechanisms of organisms to environmental change we have detected an environment forming role played by Talpa europaea L. (european mole, through its digging function, studied against the background of anthropogenic Ni pollution with concentrations of 0.2, 1.0 and 2.0 g/m2, which was equivalent to the presence of Ni at 1, 5, 10 times the dose of maximum permissible concentration (MPC. Thus, we discovered the fact of the reduction in total activity of aspartat­aminotransferase (AST in G. hederacea leaves by 12–65% and concentrations of water-soluble protein fraction by 30–60% relative to control (the area without pollution of Ni and digging activity of mammals. The combined effect of the digging activity of T. europaea and Ni at doses of 5, 10 MAC contributed to the increased activity of the enzyme from 2.3 to 3.0 times (compared with the control in the corresponding concentration Ni. The concentration of water soluble protein fraction under the combined effect of the digging activity and Ni at maximum concentration in G. hederacea leaves was reduced by 2 times (compared with the control in the corresponding concentration Ni, because it was difficult for the system to operate the mechanisms of recovery and normalization function, while at low and medium metal concentration the processes of protein metabolism increased by 11–150%. Вesides, the іnfluence of the digging activity of mammals (Apodemus sylvaticus L., A. flavicollis Melchior, Clethrionomys glareoles Schreber as our examples under the condition of artificial Ni soil pollution of the Ni polluted soil in the natural humid forest was assessed. Pollutants drastically influence the proteolityc activity of the soil that reflects microorganism’s metabolism. The

  5. Energetic cost of digging behavior in workers of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens (Fabricius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto da Silva Camargo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Energetic cost of digging behavior in workers of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens (Fabricius. During nest excavation, leaf-cutting ant workers undergo reduction in their body reserve, particularly carbohydrates. In order to estimate the energetic cost of digging, groups of 30 workers of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens were sealed in a hermetic chamber for 24, 48 and 72 hours, with and without soil for digging, and had the CO2 concentration measured using respirometric chambers as well as volume of soil excavated (g. As expected, the worker groups that carried out soil excavation expelled more carbon dioxide than the groups that did not excavate. Therefore, a worker with body mass of 9.65 ± 1.50 mg dug in average 0.85 ± 0.27 g of soil for 24 hours, consuming ca. 0.58 ± 0.23 J. In this study, we calculate that the energetic cost of excavation per worker per day in the experimental set-up was ca. 0.58 J.

  6. Accelerator projects digs itself into a hole

    CERN Multimedia

    Levitin, C

    1998-01-01

    The director of the Russian Academy of Sciences' Institute of High Energy Physics is under attack from colleagues for refusing to salvage an 18 million dollar boring machine being used to dig a tunnel for a new particle accelerator (1/2 page).

  7. An overview of the asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binzel, Richard P.

    1989-01-01

    An introductory overview of the field of asteroid science is presented, with emphasis placed on the accomplishments of the 1980s. Following the survey of known asteroids, attention is given to the observations of asteroids with the IRAS. Particular consideration is given to the origin and evolution of asteroids and their interrelations. Possible future directions of asteroid research are discussed together with the potential of the Hubble Space Telescope for providing new data on asteroid surface chemistry, geology, structure, and morphology.

  8. Modeling of Asteroid Shapes

    CERN Document Server

    Kokorev, Andrii

    2016-01-01

    In this article we consider different methods of modeling asteroid shapes, especially lightcurve inversion technique, and scattering laws used for it. We also introduce our program, which constructs lightcurves for a given asteroid shape model. It can be used to comparing shape model with observational data.

  9. Quantitative measures for assessment of the hydraulic excavator digging efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dragoslav JANOSEVIC; Rosen MITREV; Boban ANDJELKOVIC; Plamen PETROV

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,quantitative measures for the assessment of the hydraulic excavator digging efficiency are proposed and developed.The following factors are considered: (a) boundary digging forces allowed for by the stability of an excavator,(b) boundary digging forces enabled by the driving mechanisms of the excavator,(c) factors taking into consideration the digging position in the working range of an excavator,and (d) sign and direction of potential digging resistive force.A corrected digging force is defined and a mathematical model of kinematic chain and drive mechanisms of a five-member excavator configuration was developed comprising: an undercarriage,a rotational platform and an attachment with boom,stick,and bucket.On the basis of the mathematical model of the excavator,software was developed for computation and detailed analysis of the digging forces in the entire workspace of the excavator.By using the developed software,the analysis of boundary digging forces is conducted and the corrected digging force is determined for two models of hydraulic excavators of the same mass (around 17000 kg) with identical kinematic chain parameters but with different parameters of manipulator driving mechanisms.The results of the analysis show that the proposed set of quantitative measures can be used for assessment of the digging efficiency of existing excavator models and to serve as an optimization criterion in the synthesis of manipulator driving mechanisms of new excavator models.

  10. Polarimetric properties of asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shestopalov, D. I.; Golubeva, L. F.

    2015-11-01

    Quite frequently astronomic polarimetric observations of different celestial bodies do not guarantee a proper phase angle coverage that is required for estimating all of the attributes of their polarization phase curves with a high accuracy. To approximate the phase dependences of polarization observed for particulate surfaces, we use a simple empiric formula recently suggested by Shestopalov (2004). The efficiency of the approximating function in a wide range of phase angles is illustrated with the use of the results of polarimetric measurements of lunar areas, lunar samples, and near-Earth asteroids. For asteroids of various types, we can reproduce their negative polarization branches with adequate accuracy and roughly estimate a probable value of the maximum polarization degree at an appropriate phase angle. From the polarimetric database available at NASA PDS [Asteroid Polarimetric Database V7.0 (2012)] we calculated the main parameters of 153 polarimetric curves of asteroids in various spectral bands with the accuracy comparable to the observation errors. One more purpose of our analysis was to find correlations between the polarimetric and photometric properties of asteroids. For C-, M-, S-, E-type asteroids, the characteristics of the negative branch of polarization curves turned out to correlate closely with the phase coefficient of the photometric function of asteroids and the photometric roughness of asteroid surfaces. This implies that the complex geometry of the surface microrelief affects the polarization properties of asteroids. In particular, the data scattering around regression lines on the plots of the albedo versus the depth of negative polarization branch and the slope of the polarimetric function at inversion angle strongly depends on the differences in the photometric roughness of asteroid surfaces.

  11. Dig-event: let's socialize around events

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Zhenzhen; Liu, Ji; Crespi, Noel

    2012-01-01

    International audience Traditional social networks socialize around the contents that have uploaded to these sites and discover interesting contents uploaded by others. In this demo we aim to explore the idea of activity-oriented social networks. We design a novel social networking site called Dig-Event (Do-it-together Event), where people are able to share events through calendar, while discover interesting events shared by others. Our demo has been inspired by previous research on calend...

  12. VL1 Digs A Deep Hole On Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    VIKING LANDER DIGS A DEEP HOLE ON MARS -- This six-inch-deep, 12- inch-wide, 29-inch-long hole was dug Feb. 12 and 14 by Viking Lander 1 as the first sequence in an attempt to reach a foot beneath the surface of the red planet. The activity is in the same area where Lander 1 acquired its first soil samples last July. The trench was dug by repeatedly backhoeing in a left-right-center pattern. The backhoe teeth produced the small parallel ridges at the far end of the trench (upper left). The larger ridges running the length of the trench are material left behind during the backhoe operation. What appears to be small rocks along the ridges and in the soil at the near end of the trench are really small dirt clods. The clods and the steepness of the trench walls indicate the material is cohesive and behaves something like ordinary flour. After a later sequence, to be performed March 1 and 2, a soil sample will be taken from the bottom of the trench for inorganic soil analysis and later for biology analysis. Information about the soil taken from the bottom of the trench may help explain the weathering process on Mars and may help resolve the dilemma created by Viking findings that first suggest but then cast doubt on the possibility of life in the Martian soil. The trench shown here is a result of one of the most complex command sequences yet performed by the lander. Viking l has been operating at Chryse Planitia on Mars since it landed July 20, 1976.

  13. Asteroid Family Physical Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Masiero, Joseph; Kasuga, Toshihiro; Parker, Alex H

    2015-01-01

    An asteroid family is typically formed when a larger parent body undergoes a catastrophic collisional disruption, and as such family members are expected to show physical properties that closely trace the composition and mineralogical evolution of the parent. Recently a number of new datasets have been released that probe the physical properties of a large number of asteroids, many of which are members of identified families. We review these data sets and the composite properties of asteroid families derived from this plethora of new data. We also discuss the limitations of the current data, and the open questions in the field.

  14. Asteroid Photometry: Tricky Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, J.

    2005-05-01

    Two nagging issues (among others) that tend to afflict asteroid photometrists (and others) are (1) concerns about just what a Flat is doing (and whether it makes things better or worse), and (2) how to handle those pesky stars that keep jumping into the path of the asteroid as it cruises across the field of view (FOV) using StarZap, a program written to subtract the offending stars. We'll discuss experiments done to get a handle on these two issues.

  15. Asteroids@Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durech, Josef; Hanus, J.; Vanco, R.

    2012-10-01

    We present a new project called Asteroids@home (http://asteroidsathome.net/boinc). It is a volunteer-computing project that uses an open-source BOINC (Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing) software to distribute tasks to volunteers, who provide their computing resources. The project was created at the Astronomical Institute, Charles University in Prague, in cooperation with the Czech National Team. The scientific aim of the project is to solve a time-consuming inverse problem of shape reconstruction of asteroids from sparse-in-time photometry. The time-demanding nature of the problem comes from the fact that with sparse-in-time photometry the rotation period of an asteroid is not apriori known and a huge parameter space must be densely scanned for the best solution. The nature of the problem makes it an ideal task to be solved by distributed computing - the period parameter space can be divided into small bins that can be scanned separately and then joined together to give the globally best solution. In the framework of the the project, we process asteroid photometric data from surveys together with asteroid lightcurves and we derive asteroid shapes and spin states. The algorithm is based on the lightcurve inversion method developed by Kaasalainen et al. (Icarus 153, 37, 2001). The enormous potential of distributed computing will enable us to effectively process also the data from future surveys (Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, Gaia mission, etc.). We also plan to process data of a synthetic asteroid population to reveal biases of the method. In our presentation, we will describe the project, show the first results (new models of asteroids), and discuss the possibilities of its further development. This work has been supported by the grant GACR P209/10/0537 of the Czech Science Foundation and by the Research Program MSM0021620860 of the Ministry of Education of the Czech Republic.

  16. Asteroids - NeoWs API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NeoWs (Near Earth Object Web Service) is a RESTful web service for near earth Asteroid information. With NeoWs a user can: search for Asteroids based on their...

  17. The Asteroid Impact Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnelli, Ian; Galvez, Andres; Mellab, Karim

    2016-04-01

    The Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) is a small and innovative mission of opportunity, currently under study at ESA, intending to demonstrate new technologies for future deep-space missions while addressing planetary defense objectives and performing for the first time detailed investigations of a binary asteroid system. It leverages on a unique opportunity provided by asteroid 65803 Didymos, set for an Earth close-encounter in October 2022, to achieve a fast mission return in only two years after launch in October/November 2020. AIM is also ESA's contribution to an international cooperation between ESA and NASA called Asteroid Impact Deflection Assessment (AIDA), consisting of two mission elements: the NASA Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) mission and the AIM rendezvous spacecraft. The primary goals of AIDA are to test our ability to perform a spacecraft impact on a near-Earth asteroid and to measure and characterize the deflection caused by the impact. The two mission components of AIDA, DART and AIM, are each independently valuable but when combined they provide a greatly increased scientific return. The DART hypervelocity impact on the secondary asteroid will alter the binary orbit period, which will also be measured by means of lightcurves observations from Earth-based telescopes. AIM instead will perform before and after detailed characterization shedding light on the dependence of the momentum transfer on the asteroid's bulk density, porosity, surface and internal properties. AIM will gather data describing the fragmentation and restructuring processes as well as the ejection of material, and relate them to parameters that can only be available from ground-based observations. Collisional events are of great importance in the formation and evolution of planetary systems, own Solar System and planetary rings. The AIDA scenario will provide a unique opportunity to observe a collision event directly in space, and simultaneously from ground-based optical and

  18. Threat Mitigation: The Asteroid Tugboat

    OpenAIRE

    Schweickart, Russell; Chapman, Clark; Durda, Dan; Hut, Piet

    2006-01-01

    The Asteroid Tugboat (AT) is a fully controlled asteroid deflection concept using a robotic spacecraft powered by a high efficiency, electric propulsion system (ion or plasma) which docks with and attaches to the asteroid, conducts preliminary operations, and then thrusts continuously parallel to the asteroid velocity vector until the desired velocity change is achieved. Based on early warning, provided by ground tracking and orbit prediction, it would be deployed a decade or more prior to a ...

  19. Rising Above the Storm: DIG TEXAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellins, K. K.; Miller, K. C.; Bednarz, S. W.; Mosher, S.

    2011-12-01

    For a decade Texas educators, scientists and citizens have shown a commitment to earth science education through planning at the national and state levels, involvement in earth science curriculum and teacher professional development projects, and the creation of a model senior level capstone Earth and Space Science course first offered in 2010 - 2011. The Texas state standards for Earth and Space Science demonstrate a shift to rigorous content, career relevant skills and use of 21st century technology. Earth and Space Science standards also align with the Earth Science, Climate and Ocean Literacy framework documents. In spite of a decade of progress K-12 earth science education in Texas is in crisis. Many school districts do not offer Earth and Space Science, or are using the course as a contingency for students who fail core science subjects. The State Board for Educator Certification eliminated Texas' secondary earth science teacher certification in 2009, following the adoption of the new Earth and Space Science standards. This makes teachers with a composite teacher certification (biology, physics and chemistry) eligible to teach Earth and Space Science, as well other earth science courses (e.g., Aquatic Science, Environmental Systems/Science) even if they lack earth science content knowledge. Teaching materials recently adopted by the State Board of Education do not include Earth and Space Science resources. In July 2011 following significant budget cuts at the 20 Education Service Centers across Texas, the Texas Education Agency eliminated key staff positions in its curriculum division, including science. This "perfect storm" has created a unique opportunity for a university-based approach to confront the crisis in earth science education in Texas which the Diversity and Innovation in the Geosciences (DIG) TEXAS alliance aims to fulfill. Led by the Texas A&M University College of Geosciences and The University of Texas Jackson School of Geosciences, with

  20. Geography of the asteroid belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellner, B. H.

    1978-01-01

    The CSM classification serves as the starting point on the geography of the asteroid belt. Raw data on asteroid types are corrected for observational biases (against dark objects, for instance) to derive the distribution of types throughout the belt. Recent work on family members indicates that dynamical families have a true physical relationship, presumably indicating common origin in the breakup of a parent asteroid.

  1. Asteroid science by Gaia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muinonen, Karri; Cellino, Alberto; Dell Oro, Aldo; Tanga, Paolo; Delbo, Marco; Mignard, Francois; Thuillot, William; Berthier, Jerome; Carry, Benoit; Hestroffer, Daniel; Granvik, Mikael; Fedorets, Grigori

    2016-07-01

    Since the start of its regular observing program in summer 2014, the Gaia mission has carried out systematic photometric, spectrometric, and astrometric observations of asteroids. In total, the unique capabilities of Gaia allow for the collection of an extensive and homogeneous data set of some 350,000 asteroids down to the limiting magnitude of G = 20.7 mag. The Gaia performance remains excellent over the entire available brightness range. Starting from 2003, a working group of European asteroid scientists has explored the main capabilities of the mission, defining the expected scientific impact on Solar System science. These results have served as a basis for developing the Gaia data reduction pipeline, within the framework of the Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC). We describe the distribution of the existing and forecoming Gaia observations in space and time for different categories of objects. We illustrate the peculiar properties of each single observation, as these properties will affect the subsequent exploitation of the mission data. We will review the expected performances of Gaia, basically as a function of magnitude and proper motion of the sources. We will further focus on the areas that will benefit from complementary observational campaigns to improve the scientific return of the mission, and on the involvement of the planetary science community as a whole in the exploitation of the Gaia survey. We will thus describe the current and future opportunities for ground-based observers and forthcoming changes brought by Gaia in some observational approaches, such as stellar occultations by transneptunian objects and asteroids. We will show first results from the daily, short-term processing of Gaia data, all the way from the onboard data acquisition to the ground-based processing. We illustrate the tools developed to compute predictions of asteroid observations, we discuss the procedures implemented by the daily processing, and we illustrate

  2. Asteroid Evolution: Role of geotechnical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez Lana, Diego P.

    2015-08-01

    Over the last decade of Planetary research, the scientific community has made many advances in their understanding of the evolution of asteroids in the Solar System. One particular area of fruitful study started with the bold idea that these small planetary bodies could be gravitational aggregates and initially motivated by several different observations and early simulations.If we start with the idea that asteroids are aggregates of different sized components, and not singular monolithic bodies, it is possible to study them with some of the tools that have been used in the fields of Soil Mechanics and Granular Dynamics. In them, parameters such as porosity, cohesive and tensile strength, angles of friction and repose, particle size distributions, stress states, heterogeneity and yield criteria among others, determine how these granular systems will react when subjected to different, changing, external factors. These external factors are believed to have produced and shaped the asteroids that now exist around us and include solar photon momentum, gravitational tides, micro- and macro-impacts and internal energy dissipation.In this presentation we will review what is known about the surface and interiors of rubble pile asteroids, how different theoretical, experimental and simulation tools have been used to study them, how space mission and ground-based observations have shaped our understanding of their physical reality, and what we expect to learn from future missions. The talk will also touch on some of the latest findings obtained by different groups. In particular we will discuss the rotational evolution of self-gravitating aggregates under the influence of the YORP effect and how their angles of friction, tensile strength, porosity, internal structure and density give rise to different disruption modes and the role they play in the formation of asteroids pairs, tumblers and binary systems.

  3. Threat Mitigation: The Asteroid Tugboat

    CERN Document Server

    Schweickart, R; Durda, D; Hut, P; Chapman, Clark; Durda, Dan; Hut, Piet; Schweickart, Russell

    2006-01-01

    The Asteroid Tugboat (AT) is a fully controlled asteroid deflection concept using a robotic spacecraft powered by a high efficiency, electric propulsion system (ion or plasma) which docks with and attaches to the asteroid, conducts preliminary operations, and then thrusts continuously parallel to the asteroid velocity vector until the desired velocity change is achieved. Based on early warning, provided by ground tracking and orbit prediction, it would be deployed a decade or more prior to a potential impact. On completion of the initial rendezvous with the near-Earth object (NEO) the AT would first reduce the uncertainty in the orbit of the asteroid via Earth tracking of its radio transponder while it is station keeping with the asteroid. If on analysis of tracking data a deflection is required the AT would execute a reconnaissance phase collecting and processing information about the physical characteristics of the asteroid to support subsequent operations. The AT would then dock at the appropriate pole (i....

  4. Asteroid Lightcurve Photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A. W.

    2004-05-01

    With the advent of modestly priced CCD cameras and computer controller and reduction software, amateurs can now do photometry on fainter targets than was possible even from large observatories only a decade or so ago. This has led to an explosion of lightcurve data that in turn has yielded rich results. We now have rotation periods for more than 1500 asteroids, extending down to objects only tens of meters in diameter, and well determined shapes and pole orientations of more than 100 objects. Among smaller asteroids, the dispersion in rotation rates ranges from minutes to months, with the slower ones mostly "tumbling," or in states of non-principal axis rotation. The fastest ones must be monolithic, as centrifugal force exceeds their gravity. But among those larger than a few hundred meters diameter, there is a "rotation barrier" at the rate where gravity and centrifugal force match, suggesting that most asteroids this large or larger are "rubble piles." The broad dispersion in spin rates, almost a bimodal distribution, has long been a mystery, but now appears likely to be due to thermal radiation torques from the randomly asymmetric shapes of small asteroids. This is a major paradigm shift from the past, where mutual collisions were considered to be the dominant (or only) evolutionary process affecting spins. Amateur observations have already contributed a great deal leading to this new view, and much remains to be done, providing abundant opportunities for amateur-professional collaborations.

  5. Asteroid Kinetic Impactor Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesley, Steven

    2015-08-01

    Asteroid impact missions can be carried out as a relatively low-cost add-ons to most asteroid rendezvous missions and such impact experiments have tremendous potential, both scientifically and in the arena of planetary defense.The science returns from an impactor demonstration begin with the documentation of the global effects of the impact, such as changes in orbit and rotation state, the creation and dissipation of an ejecta plume and debris disk, and morphological changes across the body due to the transmission of seismic waves, which might induce landslides and toppling of boulders, etc. At a local level, an inspection of the impact crater and ejecta blanket reveals critical material strength information, as well as spectral differences between the surface and subsurface material.From the planetary defense perspective, an impact demonstration will prove humankind’s capacity to alter the orbit of a potentially threatening asteroid. This technological leap comes in two parts. First, terminal guidance systems that can deliver an impactor with small errors relative to the ~100-200 meter size of a likely impactor have yet to be demonstrated in a deep space environment. Second, the response of an asteroid to such an impact is only understood theoretically due to the potentially significant dependence on the momentum carried by escaping ejecta, which would tend to enhance the deflection by tens of percent and perhaps as much as a factor of a few. A lack of validated understanding of momentum enhancement is a significant obstacle in properly sizing a real-world impactor deflection mission.This presentation will describe the drivers for asteroid impact demonstrations and cover the range of such concepts, starting with ESA’s pioneering Don Quijote mission concept and leading to a brief description of concepts under study at the present time, including the OSIRIS-REx/ISIS, BASiX/KIX and AIM/DART (AIDA) concepts.

  6. Digging Deeper: Looking Beyond Behavior to Discover Meaning

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Behavior to Discover Meaning A Unit of Four Online Lessons Digging Deeper: Looking Beyond Behavior to Discover ... Behavior to Discover Meaning. A Unit of Four Online Lessons. HHS/ACF/OHS/EHSNRC. 2006. English. Last ...

  7. Digging Deeper: Looking Beyond Behavior to Discover Meaning

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Deeper: Looking Beyond Behavior to Discover Meaning A Unit of Four Online Lessons Digging Deeper: Looking Beyond Behavior to Discover Meaning is a unit of four lessons that explore and apply the ...

  8. Digging Deeper: Looking Beyond Behavior to Discover Meaning

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... there was an error. Please try again. ECLKC Home » T/TA Resources » Early Head Start » Comprehensive Services & Systems » Mental Health » Digging Deeper: Looking Beyond Behavior to Discover Meaning Open an Email- ...

  9. Digging Deeper: Looking Beyond Behavior to Discover Meaning

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Head Start and Early Head Start Creating a Culture that Embraces Data Digging Into Data Head Start ... Your Family's Health & Safety Safety and Injury Prevention Physical Health Healthy Active Living Nutrition Oral Health Mental Health ...

  10. Digging Deeper: Looking Beyond Behavior to Discover Meaning

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Email Client Print Español Digging Deeper: Looking Beyond Behavior to Discover Meaning A Unit of Four Online ... started ZIP Code Search Department of Health and Human Services Administration for Children and Families Office of ...

  11. Impact-Actuated Digging Tool for Lunar Excavation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Honeybee Robotics proposes to develop a vacuum compatible, impact-actuated digging tool for the excavation of frozen and compacted regolith on the lunar surface and...

  12. Multiple origins of asteroid pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Seth A.

    2016-01-01

    Rotationally fissioned asteroids produce unbound asteroid pairs that have very similar heliocentric orbits. Backward integration of their current heliocentric orbits provides an age of closest proximity that can be used to date the rotational fission event. Most asteroid pairs follow a predicted theoretical relationship between the primary spin period and the mass ratio of the two pair members that is a direct consequence of the YORP-induced rotational fission hypothesis. If the progenitor asteroid has strength, asteroid pairs may have higher mass ratios or faster rotating primaries. However, the process of secondary fission leaves the originally predicted trend unaltered. We also describe the characteristics of pair members produced by four alternative routes from a rotational fission event to an asteroid pair. Unlike direct formation from the event itself, the age of closest proximity of these pairs cannot generally be used to date the rotational fission event since considerable time may have passed.

  13. Multiple origins of asteroid pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobson, Seth A

    2015-01-01

    Rotationally fissioned asteroids produce unbound daughter asteroids that have very similar heliocentric orbits. Backward integration of their current heliocentric orbits provides an age of closest proximity that can be used to date the rotational fission event. Most asteroid pairs follow a predicted theoretical relationship between the primary spin period and the mass ratio of the two pair members that is a direct consequence of the YORP-induced rotational fission hypothesis. If the progenitor asteroid has strength, asteroid pairs may have high mass ratios with possibly fast rotating primaries. However, secondary fission leaves the originally predicted trend unaltered. We also describe the characteristics of pair members produced by four alternative routes from a rotational fission event to an asteroid pair. Unlike direct formation from the event itself, the age of closest proximity of these pairs cannot generally be used to date the rotational fission event since considerable time may have passed.

  14. Asteroid Surface Geophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Murdoch, Naomi; Schwartz, Stephen R; Miyamoto, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    The regolith-covered surfaces of asteroids preserve records of geophysical processes that have occurred both at their surfaces and sometimes also in their interiors. As a result of the unique micro-gravity environment that these bodies posses, a complex and varied geophysics has given birth to fascinating features that we are just now beginning to understand. The processes that formed such features were first hypothesised through detailed spacecraft observations and have been further studied using theoretical, numerical and experimental methods that often combine several scientific disciplines. These multiple approaches are now merging towards a further understanding of the geophysical states of the surfaces of asteroids. In this chapter we provide a concise summary of what the scientific community has learned so far about the surfaces of these small planetary bodies and the processes that have shaped them. We also discuss the state of the art in terms of experimental techniques and numerical simulations that...

  15. Dig Hazard Assessment Using a Stereo Pair of Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Arturo L.; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey

    2012-01-01

    This software evaluates the terrain within reach of a lander s robotic arm for dig hazards using a stereo pair of cameras that are part of the lander s sensor system. A relative level of risk is calculated for a set of dig sectors. There are two versions of this software; one is designed to run onboard a lander as part of the flight software, and the other runs on a PC under Linux as a ground tool that produces the same results generated on the lander, given stereo images acquired by the lander and downlinked to Earth. Onboard dig hazard assessment is accomplished by executing a workspace panorama command sequence. This sequence acquires a set of stereo pairs of images of the terrain the arm can reach, generates a set of candidate dig sectors, and assesses the dig hazard of each candidate dig sector. The 3D perimeter points of candidate dig sectors are generated using configurable parameters. A 3D reconstruction of the terrain in front of the lander is generated using a set of stereo images acquired from the mast cameras. The 3D reconstruction is used to evaluate the dig goodness of each candidate dig sector based on a set of eight metrics. The eight metrics are: 1. The maximum change in elevation in each sector, 2. The elevation standard deviation in each sector, 3. The forward tilt of each sector with respect to the payload frame, 4. The side tilt of each sector with respect to the payload frame, 5. The maximum size of missing data regions in each sector, 6. The percentage of a sector that has missing data, 7. The roughness of each sector, and 8. Monochrome intensity standard deviation of each sector. Each of the eight metrics forms a goodness image layer where the goodness value of each sector ranges from 0 to 1. Goodness values of 0 and 1 correspond to high and low risk, respectively. For each dig sector, the eight goodness values are merged by selecting the lowest one. Including the merged goodness image layer, there are nine goodness image layers for each

  16. Silicates in Alien Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This plot of data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescopes shows that asteroid dust around a dead 'white dwarf' star contains silicates a common mineral on Earth. The data were taken primarily by Spitzer's infrared spectrograph, an instrument that breaks light apart into its basic constituents. The yellow dots show averaged data from the spectrograph, while the orange triangles show older data from Spitzer's infrared array camera. The white dwarf is called GD 40.

  17. Asteroid Surface Geophysics

    OpenAIRE

    Murdoch, Naomi; Sanchez, Paul; Schwartz, Stephen R.; Miyamoto, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    The regolith-covered surfaces of asteroids preserve records of geophysical processes that have occurred both at their surfaces and sometimes also in their interiors. As a result of the unique micro-gravity environment that these bodies posses, a complex and varied geophysics has given birth to fascinating features that we are just now beginning to understand. The processes that formed such features were first hypothesised through detailed spacecraft observations and have been further studied ...

  18. Comet or Asteroid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-11-01

    When is a minor object in the solar system a comet? And when is it an asteroid? Until recently, there was little doubt. Any object that was found to display a tail or appeared diffuse was a comet of ice and dust grains, and any that didn't, was an asteroid of solid rock. Moreover, comets normally move in rather elongated orbits, while most asteroids follow near-circular orbits close to the main plane of the solar system in which the major planets move. However, astronomers have recently discovered some `intermediate' objects which seem to possess properties that are typical for both categories. For instance, a strange object (P/1996 N2 - Elst-Pizarro) was found last year at ESO ( ESO Press Photo 36/96 ) which showed a cometary tail, while moving in a typical asteroidal orbit. At about the same time, American scientists found another (1996 PW) that moved in a very elongated comet-type orbit but was completely devoid of a tail. Now, a group of European scientists, by means of observations carried out at the ESO La Silla observatory, have found yet another object that at first appeared to be one more comet/asteroid example. However, continued and more detailed observations aimed at revealing its true nature have shown that it is most probably a comet . Consequently, it has received the provisional cometary designation P/1997 T3 . The Uppsala-DLR Trojan Survey Some time ago, Claes-Ingvar Lagerkvist (Astronomical Observatory, Uppsala, Sweden), in collaboration with Gerhard Hahn, Stefano Mottola, Magnus Lundström and Uri Carsenty (DLR, Institute of Planetary Exploration, Berlin, Germany), started to study the distribution of asteroids near Jupiter. They were particularly interested in those that move in orbits similar to that of Jupiter and which are located `ahead' of Jupiter in the so-called `Jovian L4 Lagrangian point'. Together with those `behind' Jupiter, these asteroids have been given the names of Greek and Trojan Heroes who participated in the famous Trojan war

  19. Scientific mission to asteroid Phaethon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padevet, V.; Lala, P.; Bumba, V.

    1986-10-01

    The asteroid 3200 Phaethon (previously 1983 TB) is being suggested for direct research by interplanetary probe. The asteroid, in an Apollo-type orbit, coincides with Geminid meteor stream and is so far the only body known to have features of an asteroid as well as a comet. A special program has been prepared for a desk computer to analyze interplanetary orbits with which the asteroid could be reached by the year 2000. Direct trajectories as well as trajectories with a gravitational maneuver near Venus have been tested.

  20. Test plan for dig-face characterization performance testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josten, N.E.

    1993-09-01

    The dig-face characterization concept has been under development at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) since FY 1992 through the support of the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program. A Dig-face Characterization System conducts continuous subsurface characterization simultaneously with retrieval of hazardous and radioactive waste from buried waste sites. The system deploys multiple sensors at the retrieval operation dig-face and collects data that provide a basis for detecting, locating, and identifying hazardous conditions before they are disturbed by the retrieval equipment. This test plan describes initial efforts to test the dig-face characterization concept at the INEL Cold Test Pit using a simplified prototype apparatus and off-the-shelf sensors. The Cold Test Pit is a simulated waste site containing hazardous and radioactive waste surrogates at known locations. Testing will be directed toward three generic characterization problems: metal detection, plume detection, and radioactive source detection. The prototype apparatus will gather data using magnetometers, a ground conductivity meter, a trace gas analyzer, and a gamma ray sensor during simulated retrieval of the surrogate waste materials. The data acquired by a dig-face characterization system are unique because of the high precision, high data density, and multiple viewpoints attainable through the dig-face deployment approach. The test plan establishes procedures for collecting and validating a representative dig-face characterization data set. Analysis of these data will focus on developing criteria for predicting the depth, location, composition, and other characteristics of the surrogate waste materials. If successful, this proof-of-concept exercise will provide a foundation for future development of a fully-operational system that is capable of operating on an actual waste site.

  1. Rotational properties of asteroids: CCD observations of nine small asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birlan, M.; Barucci, M. A.; Angeli, C. A.; Doressoundiram, A.; De Sanctis, M. C.

    1996-06-01

    The observational programme on small asteroids (diameter less than about 50 km) is continued to enlarge the available dataset of small asteroids. The results are presented of CCD observations of nine small asteroids ( D≤23 km), performed in France with the 1.2 m telescope at Haute Provence Observatory and with the 2 m telescope at Pic du Midi Observatory. A total of 27 single night lightcurves for nine asteroids were obtained. All the objects were observed for the first time and rotational periods have been determined for all of the observed asteroids: 1992 Galvarino ( Psyn = 7 h.004), 2419 Moldavia ( Psyn = 2 h.412), 2921 Sophocles ( Psyn = 4 h.778), 3247 Di Martino ( Psyn = 5 h.445), 3623 Chaplin ( Psyn = 8 h.361), 3986 Rozhkovskij ( Psyn = 4 h.26), 4436 1983 EX ( Psyn = 6 h.656), 5046 1981 DQ ( Psyn = 6 h.050) and 1992 YG3 ( Psyn = 8 h.91).

  2. Small scale digital soil mapping in Southeastern Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mora Vallejo, A.P.; Claessens, L.; Stoorvogel, J.J.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.

    2008-01-01

    Digital soil mapping techniques appear to be an interesting alternative for traditional soil survey techniques. However, most applications deal with (semi-)detailed soil surveys where soil variability is determined by a limited number of soil forming factors. The question that remains is whether dig

  3. Evolutionary Pathways for Asteroid Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Seth Andrew

    2015-08-01

    The YORP-induced rotational fission hypothesis is a proposed mechanism for the creation of small asteroid binaries, which make up approximately 1/6-th of the near-Earth asteroid and small Main Belt asteroid populations. The YORP effect is a radiative torque that rotationally accelerates asteroids on timescales of thousands to millions of years. As asteroids rotationally accelerate, centrifugal accelerations on material within the body can match gravitational accelerations holding that material in place. When this occurs, that material goes into orbit. Once in orbit that material coalesces into a companion that undergoes continued dynamical evolution.Observations with radar, photometric and direct imaging techniques reveal a diverse array of small asteroid satellites. These systems can be sorted into a number of morphologies according to size, multiplicity of members, dynamical orbit and spin states, and member shapes. For instance, singly synchronous binaries have short separation distances between the two members, rapidly rotating oblate primary members, and tidally locked prolate secondary members. Other confirmed binary morphologies include doubly synchronous, tight asynchronous and wide asynchronous binaries. Related to these binary morphologies are unbound paired asteroid systems and bi-lobate contact binaries.A critical test for the YORP-induced rotational fission hypothesis is whether the binary asteroids produced evolve to the observed binary and related systems. In this talk I will review how this evolution is believed to occur according to gravitational dynamics, mutual body tides and the binary YORP effect.

  4. File list: His.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestine,_Small hg19 Histone Digestive tract Intestine, Small htt...p://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  5. File list: Unc.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_crypt [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_crypt mm9 Unclassified Digestive tract Intestinal crypt... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_crypt.bed ...

  6. File list: His.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_crypt [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_crypt mm9 Histone Digestive tract Intestinal crypt http...://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_crypt.bed ...

  7. File list: Unc.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestine,_Small mm9 Unclassified Digestive tract Intestine, Small... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  8. File list: Pol.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma mm9 RNA polymerase Digestive tract Intestinal adenoma... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma.bed ...

  9. File list: His.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma mm9 Histone Digestive tract Intestinal adenoma ...http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma.bed ...

  10. File list: Pol.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma mm9 RNA polymerase Digestive tract Intestinal adenoma... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma.bed ...

  11. File list: His.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma mm9 Histone Digestive tract Intestinal adenoma ...http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma.bed ...

  12. File list: His.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma mm9 Histone Digestive tract Intestinal adenoma ...http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma.bed ...

  13. File list: His.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma mm9 Histone Digestive tract Intestinal adenoma ...http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma.bed ...

  14. File list: Pol.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma mm9 RNA polymerase Digestive tract Intestinal adenoma... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma.bed ...

  15. File list: His.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestine,_Small mm9 Histone Digestive tract Intestine, Small http...://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  16. File list: Pol.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestine,_Small mm9 RNA polymerase Digestive tract Intestine, Small... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  17. File list: Unc.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestine,_Small hg19 Unclassified Digestive tract Intestine, Small... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  18. File list: His.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestine,_Small mm9 Histone Digestive tract Intestine, Small http...://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  19. File list: Pol.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestine,_Small hg19 RNA polymerase Digestive tract Intestine, Small... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  20. File list: His.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestine,_Small mm9 Histone Digestive tract Intestine, Small http...://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  1. File list: Unc.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestine,_Small mm9 Unclassified Digestive tract Intestine, Small... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  2. File list: Pol.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestine,_Small mm9 RNA polymerase Digestive tract Intestine, Small... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  3. File list: Pol.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestine,_Small hg19 RNA polymerase Digestive tract Intestine, Small... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  4. File list: Pol.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestine,_Small mm9 RNA polymerase Digestive tract Intestine, Small... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  5. File list: His.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestine,_Small hg19 Histone Digestive tract Intestine, Small htt...p://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  6. File list: Pol.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestine,_Small hg19 RNA polymerase Digestive tract Intestine, Small... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  7. File list: His.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestine,_Small mm9 Histone Digestive tract Intestine, Small http...://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  8. File list: Pol.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestine,_Small hg19 RNA polymerase Digestive tract Intestine, Small... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  9. File list: Unc.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestine,_Small hg19 Unclassified Digestive tract Intestine, Small... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  10. File list: His.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestine,_Small hg19 Histone Digestive tract Intestine, Small htt...p://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  11. File list: Unc.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestine,_Small hg19 Unclassified Digestive tract Intestine, Small... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  12. File list: Unc.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestine,_Small hg19 Unclassified Digestive tract Intestine, Small... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  13. New Paradigms For Asteroid Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Johansen, Anders; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Gounelle, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    Asteroids and meteorites provide key evidence on the formation of planetesimals in the Solar System. Asteroids are traditionally thought to form in a bottom-up process by coagulation within a population of initially km-scale planetesimals. However, new models challenge this idea by demonstrating that asteroids of sizes from 100 to 1000 km can form directly from the gravitational collapse of small particles which have organised themselves in dense filaments and clusters in the turbulent gas. Particles concentrate passively between eddies down to the smallest scales of the turbulent gas flow and inside large-scale pressure bumps and vortices. The streaming instability causes particles to take an active role in the concentration, by piling up in dense filaments whose friction on the gas reduces the radial drift compared to that of isolated particles. In this chapter we review new paradigms for asteroid formation and compare critically against the observed properties of asteroids as well as constraints from meteo...

  14. Asteroids and Comets

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez, Yanga R; Howell, Ellen S; Woodney, Laura M

    2015-01-01

    Asteroids and comets are remnants from the era of Solar System formation over 4.5 billion years ago, and therefore allow us to address two fundamental questions in astronomy: what was the nature of our protoplanetary disk, and how did the process of planetary accretion occur? The objects we see today have suffered many geophysically-relevant processes in the intervening eons that have altered their surfaces, interiors, and compositions. In this chapter we review our understanding of the origins and evolution of these bodies, discuss the wealth of science returned from spacecraft missions, and motivate important questions to be addressed in the future.

  15. Modelling evolution of asteroid's rotation due to the YORP effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubov, Oleksiy; Lipatova, Veronika; Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2016-05-01

    The Yarkovsky--O'Keefe--Radzievskii--Paddack (or YORP) effect is influence of light pressure on rotation of asteroids. It is the most important factor for evolution of rotation state of small asteroids, which can drastically alter their rotation rate and obliquity over cosmologic timescales.In the poster we present our program, which calculates evolution of ratation state of small asteroids subject to the YORP effect. The program accounts for both axial and obliquity components of YORP, takes into account the thermal inertia of the asteroid's soil, and the tangential YORP. The axial component of YORP is computed using the model by Steinberg and Sari (AJ, 141, 55). The thermal inertia is accounted for in the framework of Golubov et al. 2016 (MNRAS, stw540). Computation of the tangential YORP is based on a siple analytical model, whose applicability is verified via comparison to exact numeric simulations.We apply the program to different shape models of asteroids, and study coupled evolution of their rotation rate and obliquity.

  16. Active Near Earth Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenniskens, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Past activity from Near Earth Asteroids is recorded in the meteoroid streams that cause our meteor showers. Automated meteoroid orbit surveys by photographic, low-light video, specular radar, and head-echo radar reflections are providing the first maps of meteor shower activity at different particle sizes. There are distinct differences in particle size distributions among streams. The underlaying mechanisms that created these streams are illuminated: fragmentation from spin-up or thermal stresses, meteoroid ejection by water vapor drag, and ejection of icy particles by CO and CO2 sublimation. The distribution of the meteoroid orbital elements probe the subsequent evolution by planetary perturbations and sample the range of dynamical processes to which Near Earth Asteroids are exposed. The non-stream "sporadic" meteors probe early stages in the evolution from meteoroid streams into the zodiacal dust cloud. We see that the lifetime of large meteoroids is generally not limited by collisions. Results obtained by the CAMS video survey of meteoroid orbits are compared to those from other orbit surveys. Since October 2010, over 200,000 meteoroid orbits have been measured. First results from an expansion into the southern hemisphere are also presented, as are first results from the measurement of main element compositions. Among the many streams detected so far, the Geminid and Sextantid showers stand out by having a relatively high particle density and derive from parent bodies that appear to have originated in the main belt.

  17. Ion Beam Shepherd for Asteroid Deflection

    CERN Document Server

    Bombardelli, C

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel concept to impart a continuous thrust to an Earth threatening asteroid from a hovering spacecraft without need for physical attachment nor gravitational interaction with the asteroid. The concept involves an ion thruster placed at a distance of a few asteroid diameters directing a stream of quasi-neutral plasma against the asteroid surface resulting into a net transferred momentum. As the transmitted force is independent of the asteroid mass and size the method allows deflecting subkilometer asteroids with a spacecraft much lighter when compared to a gravity tractor spacecraft of equal deflection capability. The finding could make low-cost asteroid deflection missions possible in the coming years.

  18. Earthtech, Dig-Texas and Upward Bound: Outreach to At-Risk Students with Interdisciplinary STEM Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olgin, J. G.; Güereque, M.; Pennington, D. D.; Everett, A.; Dixon, J. G.; Reyes, A.; Houser, P. I. Q.; Baker, J. A.; Stocks, E.; Ellins, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Geological Sciences department at the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) hosted the EarthTech outreach program - a one-week intensive summer camp for low-income, at-risk high school students. The EarthTech program engaged students in STEM activities from geological and environmental sciences. Developed and led by university student-mentors with guidance from a supervising faculty member, the course engaged Upward Bound students with lectures, interactive projects, and excursions to local ecological preserves and geological sites around El Paso, Texas. Topics covered plant and animal distribution and diversity, water and soil dynamics, evolution and paleontology, geohazards, and planetary science. Field trips were combined with hands-on activities, including activities from DIG Texas teaching modules. The NSF-funded DIG Texas Instructional Blueprints project is organizing vetted, high quality online educational resources and learning activities into teaching modules. The modules follow a storyline and demonstrate congruency with the Next Generation Science Standards. Selected DIG Texas resources were included in the daily curriculum to complement the field trip and other hands-on activities. EarthTech students created ESRI Online GIS story maps in which they showed the locations of the field trips, incorporated photographs they had taken, and provided written reflections about their camp experiences. The DIG Texas project evaluation collected survey and interview data from the university student mentors throughout the week to ascertain the efficacy of the program. This poster presentation will include an overview of the program, including examples of work and evaluation results.

  19. Images of an Activated Asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-08-01

    In late April of this year, asteroid P/2016 G1 (PANSTARRS) was discovered streaking through space, a tail of dust extending behind it. What caused this asteroids dust activity?Asteroid or Comet?Images of asteroid P/2016 G1 at three different times: late April, late May, and mid June. The arrow in the center panel points out an asymmetric feature that can be explained if the asteroid initially ejected material in a single direction, perhaps due to an impact. [Moreno et al. 2016]Asteroid P/2016 G1 is an interesting case: though it has the orbital elements of a main-belt asteroid it orbits at just under three times the EarthSun distance, with an eccentricity of e ~ 0.21 its appearance is closer to that of a comet, with a dust tail extending 20 behind it.To better understand the nature and cause of this unusual asteroids activity, a team led by Fernando Moreno (Institute of Astrophysics of Andalusia, in Spain) performed deep observations of P/2016 G1 shortly after its discovery. The team used the 10.4-meter Great Canary Telescope to image the asteroid over the span of roughly a month and a half.A Closer Look at P/2016 G1P/2016 G1 lies in the inner region of the main asteroid belt, so it is unlikely to have any ices that suddenly sublimated, causing the outburst. Instead, Moreno and collaborators suggest that the asteroids tail may have been caused by an impact that disrupted the parent body.To test this idea, the team used computer simulations to model their observations of P/2016 G1s dust tail. Based on their models, they demonstrate that the asteroid was likely activated on February 10 2016 roughly 350 days before it reached perihelion in its orbit and its activity was a short-duration event, lasting only ~24 days. The teams models indicate that over these 24 days, the asteroid lost around 20 million kilograms of dust, and at its maximum activity level, it was ejecting around 8 kg/s!Comparison of the observation from late May (panel a) and two models: one in which

  20. Digging Deeper: Looking Beyond Behavior to Discover Meaning

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Head Start and Early Head Start Creating a Culture that Embraces Data Digging Into Data Head Start Governing Body and Tribal Council Certification Head Start Program Governance Training Quality Teaching and Learning Effective Practice Engaging Interactions and Environments ...

  1. Scribing Work Songs at an Archeological Dig in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Donna

    2011-01-01

    This article reports research conducted in the northeastern corner of Egypt's Nile Delta during an excavation at the Mendes archeological dig site in July-August, 2007. Donald Redford, Professor at Pennsylvania State University, accepted the author as the only nonarcheologist that year. In addition to duties of measuring, registering, and storing…

  2. Digging Deeper: Looking Beyond Behavior to Discover Meaning

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Looking Beyond Behavior to Discover Meaning Open an Email-sharing interface Click to Share on Facebook Click ... on Facebook × Body: Yahoo Gmail Hotmail AOL Default Email Client Print Español Digging Deeper: Looking Beyond Behavior ...

  3. Experimental analysis of the load on the bucket wheel by the digging process - Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitzschke, K.; Jacob, K.

    1984-10-01

    Bench-scale experiments aimed at modeling the digging process of bucket wheel excavators are evaluated. The design of the laboratory bucket wheel digging machine as well as the arrangement of measuring devices are explained. Measurement values were computer processed with TAKRAF programs on model dynamics for heavy surface mining equipment. Various graphs show cutting force components for single digging teeth and for an asymmetrical digging vessel. Cutting is carried out in advancing and slewing direction. Functions for mean values of digging forces are given with which the load on the bucket wheel can be determined. The mathematical description of the digging process is a means of assessing geometrical design and digging performance of buckets.

  4. Solar wind tans young asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    A new study published in Nature this week reveals that asteroid surfaces age and redden much faster than previously thought -- in less than a million years, the blink of an eye for an asteroid. This study has finally confirmed that the solar wind is the most likely cause of very rapid space weathering in asteroids. This fundamental result will help astronomers relate the appearance of an asteroid to its actual history and identify any after effects of a catastrophic impact with another asteroid. ESO PR Photo 16a/09 Young Asteroids Look Old "Asteroids seem to get a ‘sun tan' very quickly," says lead author Pierre Vernazza. "But not, as for people, from an overdose of the Sun's ultraviolet radiation, but from the effects of its powerful wind." It has long been known that asteroid surfaces alter in appearance with time -- the observed asteroids are much redder than the interior of meteorites found on Earth [1] -- but the actual processes of this "space weathering" and the timescales involved were controversial. Thanks to observations of different families of asteroids [2] using ESO's New Technology Telescope at La Silla and the Very Large Telescope at Paranal, as well as telescopes in Spain and Hawaii, Vernazza's team have now solved the puzzle. When two asteroids collide, they create a family of fragments with "fresh" surfaces. The astronomers found that these newly exposed surfaces are quickly altered and change colour in less than a million years -- a very short time compared to the age of the Solar System. "The charged, fast moving particles in the solar wind damage the asteroid's surface at an amazing rate [3]", says Vernazza. Unlike human skin, which is damaged and aged by repeated overexposure to sunlight, it is, perhaps rather surprisingly, the first moments of exposure (on the timescale considered) -- the first million years -- that causes most of the aging in asteroids. By studying different families of asteroids, the team has also shown that an asteroid

  5. Near Earth Asteroid Scout Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In considering targets for human asteroid missions, there are several major factors that will make a significant difference in assessment of mission risks that...

  6. Asteroid named after CAS scientist

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ An asteroid has been named after CAS astronomy historian XI Zezong with the approval of the International Minor Planet Nomenclature Committee (IMPNC), announced China's National Astronomical Observatories at CAS (NAOC) on 17 August.

  7. Asteroids: up close and personal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Think of our solar system. The Sun, the Moon and the nine planets come to mind first, followed by the moons of other planets and other small bodies like asteroids. In 1991, almost 30 years after planetary exploration began, an asteroid was visited by a passing spacecraft for the first time. Nearly another decade elapsed before the first dedicated asteroid mission went into orbit around Eros, a city-sized object some 34 km long. And earlier this year, the NEAR, Shoemaker spacecraft daringly descended to the surface of Eros and landed safely. Asteroids have been pushed to the tail-end of the itinerary of solar-system exploration because of their diminutive sizes. Indeed, the wealth of low-gravity phenomena associated with asteroids has captured the imagination of both researchers and the public alike. In the June issue of Physics World Clark R Chapman of the Southwest Research Institute, US, explains how the landing of a spacecraft on the asteroid Eros earlier this year has given space scientists the best view yet of small planetary bodies and has opened a new window on the solar system. (U.K.)

  8. Rapid Divergence of Nesting Depth and Digging Appendages among Tunneling Dung Beetle Populations and Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macagno, Anna L M; Moczek, Armin P; Pizzo, Astrid

    2016-05-01

    Many dung beetle communities are characterized by species that share very similar morphological, ecological, and behavioral traits and requirements yet appear to be stably maintained. Here, we document that the morphologically nearly indistinguishable, sympatric, and syntopic tunneling sister species Onthophagus taurus and Onthophagus illyricus may be avoiding competitive exclusion by nesting at remarkably different soil depths. Intriguingly, we also find rapid divergence in preferred nesting depth across native and recently established O. taurus populations. Furthermore, geometric morphometric analyses reveal that both inter- and intraspecific divergences in nesting depth are paralleled by similar changes in the shape of the primary digging appendages, the fore tibiae. Collectively, our results identify preferred nesting depth and tibial shape as surprisingly evolutionarily labile and with the potential to ease interspecific competition and/or to facilitate adaptation to local climatic conditions. PMID:27105002

  9. Asteroid Exploration and Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, John S.

    2006-01-01

    John S. Lewis is Professor of Planetary Sciences and Co-Director of the Space Engineering Research Center at the University of Arizona. He was previously a Professor of Planetary Sciences at MIT and Visiting Professor at the California Institute of Technology. Most recently, he was a Visiting Professor at Tsinghua University in Beijing for the 2005-2006 academic year. His research interests are related to the application of chemistry to astronomical problems, including the origin of the Solar System, the evolution of planetary atmospheres, the origin of organic matter in planetary environments, the chemical structure and history of icy satellites, the hazards of comet and asteroid bombardment of Earth, and the extraction, processing, and use of the energy and material resources of nearby space. He has served as member or Chairman of a wide variety of NASA and NAS advisory committees and review panels. He has written 17 books, including undergraduate and graduate level texts and popular science books, and has authored over 150 scientific publications.

  10. The small binary asteroid (939) Isberga

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Carry, B.; Matter, A.; Scheirich, Peter; Pravec, Petr; Molnar, L.; Mottola, S.; Carbognani, A.; Jehin, E.; Marciniak, A.; Binzel, R. P.; DeMeo, E.F.; Birlan, M.; Delbó, M.; Barbotin, E.; Behrend, R.; Bonnardeau, M.; Colas, F.; Farissier, P.; Fauvaud, M.; Fauvaud, S.; Gillier, C.; Gillon, M.; Hellmich, S.; Hirsch, R.; Leroy, A.; Manfroid, J.; Montier, J.; Morelle, E.; Richard, F.; Sobkowiak, K.; Strajnic, J.; Vachier, F.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 248, March (2015), s. 516-525. ISSN 0019-1035 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : asteroids * dynamics * satellites of asteroids Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.038, year: 2014

  11. Asteroid secular dynamics: Ceres' fingerprint identified

    OpenAIRE

    Novaković, Bojan; Maurel, Clara; Tsirvoulis, Georgios; Knezević, Zoran

    2015-01-01

    Here we report on the significant role of a so far overlooked dynamical aspect, namely a secular resonance between the dwarf planet Ceres and other asteroids. We demonstrate that this type of secular resonance can be the dominant dynamical factor in certain regions of the main asteroid belt. Specifically, we performed a dynamical analysis of the asteroids belonging to the (1726) Hoffmeister family. To identify which dynamical mechanisms are actually at work in this part of the main asteroid b...

  12. Asteroid Systems: Binaries, Triples, and Pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Margot, Jean-Luc; Taylor, Patrick; Carry, Benoît; Jacobson, Seth

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, the number of known binary near-Earth asteroids has more than quadrupled and the number of known large main belt asteroids with satellites has doubled. Half a dozen triple asteroids have been discovered, and the previously unrecognized populations of asteroid pairs and small main belt binaries have been identified. The current observational evidence confirms that small (20 km) binaries with small satellites are most likely created during large collisions.

  13. A Gravitational Tractor for Towing Asteroids

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, E T; Lu, Edward T.; Categories, Stanley G. Love

    2005-01-01

    We present a concept for a spacecraft that can controllably alter the trajectory of an Earth threatening asteroid using gravity as a towline. The spacecraft hovers near the asteroid with thrusters angled outward so the exhaust does not impinge on the surface. This deflection method is insensitive to the structure, surface properties, and rotation state of the asteroid.

  14. Reflectance spectroscopy and asteroid surface mineralogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffey, Michael J.; Bell, Jeffrey F.; Cruikshank, Dale P.

    1989-01-01

    Information available from reflectance spectroscopy on the surface mineralogy of asteroids is discussed. Current spectral interpretive procedures used in the investigations of asteroid mineralogy are described. Present understanding of the nature and history of asteroids is discussed together with some still unresolved issues such as the source of ordinary chondrites.

  15. Reproductive ecology of Sichuan digging frogs (Microhylidae: Kaloula rugifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. We investigated the reproductive ecology of Sichuan digging frogs (Microhylidae: Kaloula rugifera in Mianyang, China during the wet season of 2013. Male Sichuan digging frogs first appear at temporary ponds following the first heavy rain of the wet season and initiate calling. Females arrive at ponds shortly after males. Male frogs chorus extensively throughout the wet season during the evenings and nights following rainstorms. Female frogs leave the pond after laying eggs, and likely only lay one clutch annually. Amplexus lasted up to three hours. Females were larger than males in terms of body size, but we found no evidence of size-assortative mating. Clutch size varied from 920 to 2200 eggs, with egg diameter ranging from 1.33 to 1.93 mm. Larger female frogs laid more eggs, and there was no correlation between egg number and egg size. Tadpoles hatched from eggs within 18-20 hours of oviposition, and grew for 30-40 days before complete metamorphosis occurred. The initial body length of tadpoles ranged from 3-5 mm snout-vent length. Growth was fastest immediately after hatching, and declined asymptotically with increasing tadpole body size. Overall, Sichuan digging frogs have a breeding biology characterized by strong male-male competition with prolonged breeding coinciding with the annual wet season. Keywords. Breeding ecology; Kaloula rugifera; life history; mating system

  16. On the Astrid asteroid family

    CERN Document Server

    Carruba, V

    2016-01-01

    Among asteroid families, the Astrid family is peculiar because of its unusual inclination distribution. Objects at $a\\simeq$~2.764 au are quite dispersed in this orbital element, giving the family a "crab-like" appearance. Recent works showed that this feature is caused by the interaction of the family with the $s-s_C$ nodal secular resonance with Ceres, that spreads the inclination of asteroids near its separatrix. As a consequence, the currently observed distribution of the $v_W$ component of terminal ejection velocities obtained from inverting Gauss equation is quite leptokurtic, since this parameter mostly depends on the asteroids inclination. The peculiar orbital configuration of the Astrid family can be used to set constraints on key parameters describing the strength of the Yarkovsky force, such as the bulk and surface density and the thermal conductivity of surface material. By simulating various fictitious families with different values of these parameters, and by demanding that the current value of ...

  17. Volcanism on differentiated asteroids (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, L.

    2013-12-01

    The Dawn spacecraft's investigation of 4 Vesta, best-preserved of the early-forming differentiated asteroids, prompts a reappraisal of factors controlling igneous activity on such bodies. Analogy with melt transfer in zones of partial melting on Earth implies that silicate melts moved efficiently within asteroid mantles in complex networks of veins and dikes, so that only a few percent of the mantle consisted of melt at any one time. Thus even in cases where large amounts of mantle melting occurred, the melts did not remain in the mantle to form "magma oceans", but instead migrated to shallow depths. The link between magma flow rate and the stresses needed to keep fractures open and allow flow fast enough to avoid excessive cooling implies that only within asteroids with radii more than ~190-250 km would continuous magma flow from mantle to surface be possible. In all smaller asteroids (including Vesta) magma must have accumulated in sills at the base of the lithosphere (the conductively controlled ~10 km thick thermal boundary layer) or in crustal magma reservoirs near its base. Magma would then have erupted intermittently to the surface from these steadily replenished reservoirs. The average rates of eruption to the surface (or shallow intrusion) should balance the magma production rate, but since magma could accumulate and erupt intermittently from these reservoirs, the instantaneous eruption rates could be hundreds to thousands of cubic m/s, comparable to historic basaltic eruption rates on Earth and very much greater than the average mantle melting rate. The absence of asteroid atmospheres makes explosive eruptions likely even if magmas are volatile-poor. On asteroids with radii less than ~100 km, gases and sub-mm pyroclastic melt droplets would have had speeds exceeding the escape speed assuming a few hundred ppm volatiles, and only cm sized or larger clasts would have been retained. On larger bodies almost all pyroclasts will have returned to the surface

  18. AsteroidZoo: A New Zooniverse project to detect asteroids and improve asteroid detection algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, M.; Lewicki, C. A.; Smith, A.; Lintott, C.; Christensen, E.

    2013-12-01

    We present a new citizen science project: AsteroidZoo. A collaboration between Planetary Resources, Inc., the Zooniverse Team, and the Catalina Sky Survey, we will bring the science of asteroid identification to the citizen scientist. Volunteer astronomers have proved to be a critical asset in identification and characterization of asteroids, especially potentially hazardous objects. These contributions, to date, have required that the volunteer possess a moderate telescope and the ability and willingness to be responsive to observing requests. Our new project will use data collected by the Catalina Sky Survey (CSS), currently the most productive asteroid survey, to be used by anyone with sufficient interest and an internet connection. As previous work by the Zooniverse has demonstrated, the capability of the citizen scientist is superb at classification of objects. Even the best automated searches require human intervention to identify new objects. These searches are optimized to reduce false positive rates and to prevent a single operator from being overloaded with requests. With access to the large number of people in Zooniverse, we will be able to avoid that problem and instead work to produce a complete detection list. Each frame from CSS will be searched in detail, generating a large number of new detections. We will be able to evaluate the completeness of the CSS data set and potentially provide improvements to the automated pipeline. The data corpus produced by AsteroidZoo will be used as a training environment for machine learning challenges in the future. Our goals include a more complete asteroid detection algorithm and a minimum computation program that skims the cream of the data suitable for implemention on small spacecraft. Our goal is to have the site become live in the Fall 2013.

  19. NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Naasz, Bo; Cichy, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a robotic mission to visit a large near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface, and redirect it into a stable orbit around the Moon. Once returned to cislunar space in the mid-2020s, astronauts will explore the boulder and return to Earth with samples. This Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is part of NASA’s plan to advance the technologies, capabilities, and spaceflight experience needed for a human mission to the Martian system in the 2030s. Subsequent human and robotic missions to the asteroidal material would also be facilitated by its return to cislunar space. Although ARM is primarily a capability demonstration mission (i.e., technologies and associated operations), there exist significant opportunities to advance our knowledge of small bodies in the synergistic areas of science, planetary defense, asteroidal resources and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and capability and technology demonstrations. In order to maximize the knowledge return from the mission, NASA is organizing an ARM Investigation Team, which is being preceded by the Formulation Assessment and Support Team. These teams will be comprised of scientists, technologists, and other qualified and interested individuals to help plan the implementation and execution of ARM. An overview of robotic and crewed segments of ARM, including the mission requirements, NEA targets, and mission operations, will be provided along with a discussion of the potential opportunities associated with the mission.

  20. Into the regolith: digging for hydrological tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moragues-Quiroga, Cristina; Hissler, Christophe; Chabaux, François; Legout, Arnaud; Stille, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The mineralogical and trace element composition of regoliths is a source of potential tracers of water behaviour in catchment systems. We propose an assessment of the most suitable spatial tracers for water collection, mixing, storage and release processes by incorporating geochemical signatures derived from trace and major elements to the description of sources and pathways of water contributions in the stream. To date, stable isotopes are widely used to trace water sources and water transit times but they are still missing a complementary tool which allows for the identification of end-members and the understanding of mixing processes within the regolith. Trace elements are known to be powerful and precise geochemical tracers of environmental processes and, therefore, they can be useful indicators of the spatial origin and evolution of regolith materials and water chemistry. We studied a whole slate regolith profile for its mineralogical, major and trace element composition. The different regolith components were subjected to a leaching experiment in order to identify chemical zonations within and assess the potential elements mobility. Rain, soil, stream and ground waters were collected at the same location than the regolith system over 4 years, analysed for their trace and major elements composition and compared to regolith and regolith leachates data. The results deliver valuable information on exchange processes at the water-mineral interface in the different zones of the regolith. The geochemical scheme of a complete regolith and the waters it holds is here presented to prove the efficiency of trace and major elements as complementary hydrological and geochemical tracers of water migration throughout a regolith till the stream.

  1. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Gates, Michele; Johnson, Lindley; Chodas, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Ticker, Ronald

    2016-07-01

    To achieve its long-term goal of sending humans to Mars, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to proceed in a series of incrementally more complex human spaceflight missions. Today, human flight experience extends only to Low-Earth Orbit (LEO), and should problems arise during a mission, the crew can return to Earth in a matter of minutes to hours. The next logical step for human spaceflight is to gain flight experience in the vicinity of the Moon. These cis-lunar missions provide a "proving ground" for the testing of systems and operations while still accommodating an emergency return path to the Earth that would last only several days. Cis-lunar mission experience will be essential for more ambitious human missions beyond the Earth-Moon system, which will require weeks, months, or even years of transit time. In addition, NASA has been given a Grand Challenge to find all asteroid threats to human populations and know what to do about them. Obtaining knowledge of asteroid physical properties combined with performing technology demonstrations for planetary defense provide much needed information to address the issue of future asteroid impacts on Earth. Hence the combined objectives of human exploration and planetary defense give a rationale for the Asteroid Re-direct Mission (ARM). Mission Description: NASA's ARM consists of two mission segments: 1) the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), the first robotic mission to visit a large (greater than ~100 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface along with regolith samples, demonstrate a planetary defense technique, and return the asteroidal material to a stable orbit around the Moon; and 2) the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), in which astronauts will take the Orion capsule to rendezvous and dock with the robotic vehicle, conduct multiple extravehicular activities to explore the boulder, and return to Earth with samples. NASA's proposed

  2. Cyclical Regolith Processes on Hydrous Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, M. E.

    1995-09-01

    could have occurred during impacts or "volcanic" venting of gas and heat from the interior (this assumes internal heating). Thus, there should have been multiple wet-dry cycles involved in the genesis of these materials. It is well-known to soil scientists that conditions of radically alternating humidity can have important morphologic and petrologic consequences. Grains and lithic clasts can become rotated, crushed and drawn out into linear features (shearing). Porosity (including contraction and shearing cracks) and other bulk physical properties will vary in dramatic manner. These effects would be most pronounced for the CI and CR chondrites, as well as the Kaidun CM1 lithology, where the swelling clay saponite is found in abundance. Easily altered materials will be dissolved while more resistant materials will be pulverized and mixed into matrix [5]. Another important process to be considered is periodic growth and melting of ice crystals in the regolith [6]. The positive molal volume change during crystallization of water will induce oriented microfabrics to develop in the regolith, normal to the direction of ice crystal growth. Thus, platy grains (such as phyllosilicates) will develop a pronounced compaction and preferred alignment. Since the orientation of the growing ice mass will vary for each succeeding generation of growth, the eventual result will be to impart a particular, invasive, regolith fabric consisting of anastomosing strings of phyllosilicates with roughly aligned basal directions for each string. Such textures are common in the wettest chondrites: CIs and CMs. Growth and collapse of these asteroidal icicles will also impart cyclical changes in bulk regolith porosity, induce rotation and movement of crystals and lithic fragments through frost heaving, and consequent shearing. This process could also account, to some degree, for the flattened chondrules. We therefore suggest that cyclical, indigenous environmental processes, rather than impact

  3. Asteroids. Prospective energy and material resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badescu, Viorel (ed.) [Bucharest Polytechnic Univ. (Romania). Candida Oancea Institute

    2013-11-01

    Recent research on Prospective Energy and Material Resources on Asteroids. Carefully edited book dedicated to Asteroids prospective energy and material resources. Written by leading experts in the field. The Earth has limited material and energy resources while these resources in space are virtually unlimited. Further development of humanity will require going beyond our planet and exploring of extraterrestrial resources and sources of unlimited power. Thus far, all missions to asteroids have been motivated by scientific exploration. However, given recent advancements in various space technologies, mining asteroids for resources is becoming ever more feasible. A significant portion of asteroids value is derived from their location; the required resources do not need to be lifted at a great expense from the surface of the Earth. Resources derived from Asteroid not only can be brought back to Earth but could also be used to sustain human exploration of space and permanent settlements in space. This book investigates asteroids' prospective energy and material resources. It is a collection of topics related to asteroid exploration, and utilization. It presents past and future technologies and solutions to old problems that could become reality in our life time. The book therefore is a great source of condensed information for specialists involved in current and impending asteroid-related activities and a good starting point for space researchers, inventors, technologists and potential investors. Written for researchers, engineers, and businessmen interested in asteroids' exploration and exploitation.

  4. Photometry of faint asteroids and satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The smaller asteroids, having diameters of about 1 km, appear to rotate faster than do the larger asteroids (approximately 200 km diameter). Most of the bodies may be nearly spherical, probably due to a collisional erosion process in the Main Belt of asteroids. The distributions of diameter versus number were studied for low albedo (C, for carbonaceous) and high albedo (S, for silicaceous) type asteroids in the main belt, down to diameters of 25 km. Among the smaller bodies the S type asteroids are relatively more abundant, probably due to greater crushing strength for S type asteroids. This indicates that both optical types have also different properties in the interior of the body. Areas with slightly different reflectivity over the surface of an asteroid were detected; the rotational light variation of asteroid 4 (Vesta) was found to be caused by spots on its surface. Colorimetry and infrared radiometry of some Hilda asteroids, Trojans and the fainter satellites of Jupiter and Saturn, all having diameters between 100 and 200 km, show that a mixture of types exist. If some asteroids are nearly expended nuclei of comets that lost most of their volatile gaseous material, then their cometary activity is expected to be extinct or at least weak. (Auth.)

  5. File list: NoD.Dig.50.AllAg.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Dig.50.AllAg.AllCell hg19 No description Digestive tract SRX335279,SRX335159,SR...00,SRX335150 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Dig.50.AllAg.AllCell.bed ...

  6. File list: Pol.Dig.50.AllAg.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Dig.50.AllAg.AllCell hg19 RNA polymerase Digestive tract SRX100519,SRX295043,SR...078869,SRX1078862,SRX1078873,SRX1078877,SRX1078879,SRX1078878,SRX1078880 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Dig.50.AllAg.AllCell.bed ...

  7. File list: InP.Dig.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Dig.10.Input_control.AllCell hg19 Input control Input control Digestive tract S...RX155777,SRX077858,SRX863785,SRX543682,SRX286206,SRX543691 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Dig.10.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  8. File list: InP.Dig.50.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Dig.50.Input_control.AllCell hg19 Input control Input control Digestive tract S...RX155744,SRX612781,SRX543681,SRX101310,SRX648244,SRX863785 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Dig.50.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  9. File list: InP.Dig.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Dig.20.Input_control.AllCell hg19 Input control Input control Digestive tract S...X077858,SRX286206,SRX124697,SRX1183967,SRX124698,SRX543691 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Dig.20.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  10. File list: InP.Dig.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Dig.05.Input_control.AllCell hg19 Input control Input control Digestive tract S...RX124694,SRX543691,SRX543683,SRX367635,SRX286206,SRX543682 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Dig.05.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  11. File list: InP.Dig.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Dig.10.Input_control.AllCell mm9 Input control Input control Digestive tract SR...X193725,ERX040284,SRX376981 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Dig.10.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  12. File list: Oth.Dig.20.VSV-G.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Dig.20.VSV-G.AllCell hg19 TFs and others VSV-G Digestive tract SRX961218,SRX961...219 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Dig.20.VSV-G.AllCell.bed ...

  13. File list: Oth.Dig.05.VSV-G.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Dig.05.VSV-G.AllCell hg19 TFs and others VSV-G Digestive tract SRX961218,SRX961...219 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Dig.05.VSV-G.AllCell.bed ...

  14. File list: Oth.Dig.50.VSV-G.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Dig.50.VSV-G.AllCell hg19 TFs and others VSV-G Digestive tract SRX961218,SRX961...219 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Dig.50.VSV-G.AllCell.bed ...

  15. File list: Oth.Dig.10.VSV-G.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Dig.10.VSV-G.AllCell hg19 TFs and others VSV-G Digestive tract SRX961218,SRX961...219 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Dig.10.VSV-G.AllCell.bed ...

  16. File list: Oth.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_villus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_villus mm9 TFs and others Digestive tract Intestinal vi...X871677 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_villus.bed ...

  17. File list: NoD.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_crypt [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_crypt mm9 No description Digestive tract Intestinal cry...pt http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_crypt.bed ...

  18. File list: Unc.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma mm9 Unclassified Digestive tract Intestinal ade...noma SRX648717 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma.bed ...

  19. File list: Pol.Dig.50.RNA_Polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Dig.50.RNA_Polymerase_III.AllCell mm9 RNA polymerase RNA Polymerase III Digesti...ve tract http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Dig.50.RNA_Polymerase_III.AllCell.bed ...

  20. File list: Oth.Dig.10.Cdx2.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Dig.10.Cdx2.AllCell mm9 TFs and others Cdx2 Digestive tract SRX028555,SRX112502...,SRX112503,SRX112504 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Dig.10.Cdx2.AllCell.bed ...

  1. File list: Oth.Dig.05.Vdr.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Dig.05.Vdr.AllCell mm9 TFs and others Vdr Digestive tract SRX1037022,SRX1037019...,SRX1037020,SRX1037021,SRX1037018,SRX1037017 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Dig.05.Vdr.AllCell.bed ...

  2. File list: Oth.Dig.10.Vdr.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Dig.10.Vdr.AllCell mm9 TFs and others Vdr Digestive tract SRX1037022,SRX1037021...,SRX1037020,SRX1037019,SRX1037018,SRX1037017 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Dig.10.Vdr.AllCell.bed ...

  3. File list: Oth.Dig.20.Vdr.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Dig.20.Vdr.AllCell mm9 TFs and others Vdr Digestive tract SRX1037022,SRX1037021...,SRX1037020,SRX1037019,SRX1037018,SRX1037017 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Dig.20.Vdr.AllCell.bed ...

  4. File list: ALL.Dig.10.AllAg.Gastric_tumor [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Dig.10.AllAg.Gastric_tumor mm9 All antigens Digestive tract Gastric tumor SRX31...5102,SRX315094,SRX315095,SRX315096,SRX315100,SRX315101 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Dig.10.AllAg.Gastric_tumor.bed ...

  5. File list: Oth.Dig.05.AllAg.Gastric_tumor [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Dig.05.AllAg.Gastric_tumor mm9 TFs and others Digestive tract Gastric tumor SRX...315102,SRX315095,SRX315094,SRX315096,SRX315101,SRX315100 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Dig.05.AllAg.Gastric_tumor.bed ...

  6. File list: ALL.Dig.50.AllAg.Gastric_tumor [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Dig.50.AllAg.Gastric_tumor mm9 All antigens Digestive tract Gastric tumor SRX31...5102,SRX315096,SRX315100,SRX315094,SRX315095,SRX315101 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Dig.50.AllAg.Gastric_tumor.bed ...

  7. File list: DNS.Dig.05.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Dig.05.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample hg19 DNase-seq Digestive tract Gastric prim...ary sample SRX201807,SRX201812 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Dig.05.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample.bed ...

  8. File list: Pol.Dig.10.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Dig.10.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample hg19 RNA polymerase Digestive tract Gastric... primary sample http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Dig.10.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample.bed ...

  9. File list: ALL.Dig.05.AllAg.Gastric_tumor [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Dig.05.AllAg.Gastric_tumor mm9 All antigens Digestive tract Gastric tumor SRX31...5102,SRX315095,SRX315094,SRX315096,SRX315101,SRX315100 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Dig.05.AllAg.Gastric_tumor.bed ...

  10. File list: Oth.Dig.20.AllAg.Gastric_tumor [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Dig.20.AllAg.Gastric_tumor mm9 TFs and others Digestive tract Gastric tumor SRX...315102,SRX315096,SRX315100,SRX315094,SRX315095,SRX315101 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Dig.20.AllAg.Gastric_tumor.bed ...

  11. File list: ALL.Dig.20.AllAg.Gastric_tumor [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Dig.20.AllAg.Gastric_tumor mm9 All antigens Digestive tract Gastric tumor SRX31...5102,SRX315096,SRX315100,SRX315094,SRX315095,SRX315101 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Dig.20.AllAg.Gastric_tumor.bed ...

  12. File list: Pol.Dig.05.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Dig.05.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample hg19 RNA polymerase Digestive tract Gastric... primary sample http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Dig.05.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample.bed ...

  13. File list: Oth.Dig.10.AllAg.Gastric_tumor [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Dig.10.AllAg.Gastric_tumor mm9 TFs and others Digestive tract Gastric tumor SRX...315102,SRX315094,SRX315095,SRX315096,SRX315100,SRX315101 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Dig.10.AllAg.Gastric_tumor.bed ...

  14. File list: Unc.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_stem_cells mm9 Unclassified Digestive tract Intestinal stem... cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_stem_cells.bed ...

  15. File list: DNS.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_stem_cells mm9 DNase-seq Digestive tract Intestinal stem... cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_stem_cells.bed ...

  16. File list: Unc.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_stem_cells mm9 Unclassified Digestive tract Intestinal stem... cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_stem_cells.bed ...

  17. File list: Unc.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestinal_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestinal_stem_cells mm9 Unclassified Digestive tract Intestinal stem... cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestinal_stem_cells.bed ...

  18. File list: Oth.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestinal_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestinal_stem_cells mm9 TFs and others Digestive tract Intestinal stem... cells SRX1141904,SRX856961,SRX1141903 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestinal_stem_cells.bed ...

  19. File list: ALL.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_stem_cells mm9 All antigens Digestive tract Intestinal stem...p://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_stem_cells.bed ...

  20. File list: His.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_stem_cells mm9 Histone Digestive tract Intestinal stem ...cells SRX856959,SRX193722 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_stem_cells.bed ...

  1. File list: DNS.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_stem_cells mm9 DNase-seq Digestive tract Intestinal stem... cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_stem_cells.bed ...

  2. File list: Pol.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma mm9 RNA polymerase Digestive tract Intestinal a...denoma http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma.bed ...

  3. File list: Pol.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestinal_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestinal_stem_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Digestive tract Intestina...l stem cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestinal_stem_cells.bed ...

  4. File list: Oth.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma mm9 TFs and others Digestive tract Intestinal a...denoma SRX648718 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma.bed ...

  5. File list: NoD.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestines [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestines mm9 No description Digestive tract Intestines ERX421334...,ERX421319,ERX421333,ERX421323,ERX421324,ERX421320,ERX421321,ERX421336,ERX421330 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestines.bed ...

  6. File list: Pol.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_stem_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Digestive tract Intestina...l stem cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_stem_cells.bed ...

  7. File list: Pol.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestines [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestines mm9 RNA polymerase Digestive tract Intestines SRX112957...,SRX143802 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestines.bed ...

  8. File list: Unc.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestines [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestines mm9 Unclassified Digestive tract Intestines SRX112954,S...RX341757,SRX341758 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestines.bed ...

  9. File list: Pol.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestinal_crypt [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestinal_crypt mm9 RNA polymerase Digestive tract Intestinal cry...pt http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestinal_crypt.bed ...

  10. File list: His.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestinal_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestinal_stem_cells mm9 Histone Digestive tract Intestinal stem ...cells SRX856959,SRX193722 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestinal_stem_cells.bed ...

  11. File list: Oth.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestines [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestines mm9 TFs and others Digestive tract Intestines SRX143801...,SRX1431656 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestines.bed ...

  12. File list: DNS.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestine,_Small hg19 DNase-seq Digestive tract Intestine, Small S...,SRX201814,SRX055194,SRX100957,SRX201835,SRX252605 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  13. File list: InP.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestines [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestines mm9 Input control Digestive tract Intestines ERX040294,...57,ERX040282,ERX040311,ERX040306,ERX040301,ERX040310,ERX040313,ERX040297,ERX040284 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestines.bed ...

  14. File list: ALL.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestines [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestines mm9 All antigens Digestive tract Intestines ERX040305,S...40301,SRX1431657,ERX040282,SRX185790,ERX040313,ERX040304,ERX421330,ERX040284 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestines.bed ...

  15. File list: NoD.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestines [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestines mm9 No description Digestive tract Intestines ERX421330...,ERX421334,ERX421319,ERX421323,ERX421333,ERX421324,ERX421320,ERX421321,ERX421336 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestines.bed ...

  16. File list: Pol.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestines [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestines mm9 RNA polymerase Digestive tract Intestines SRX112957...,SRX143802 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestines.bed ...

  17. File list: ALL.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestine,_Small hg19 All antigens Digestive tract Intestine, Smal...3916,SRX263903,SRX213497,SRX347272,SRX142119,SRX263906 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  18. File list: ALL.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestines [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestines mm9 All antigens Digestive tract Intestines ERX040305,E...40283,ERX040288,ERX040301,ERX040313,SRX1431657,SRX341758,ERX040293,ERX040284 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestines.bed ...

  19. File list: NoD.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestines [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestines mm9 No description Digestive tract Intestines ERX421334...,ERX421319,ERX421323,ERX421333,ERX421324,ERX421320,ERX421321,ERX421336,ERX421330 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestines.bed ...

  20. File list: Oth.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_villus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_villus mm9 TFs and others Digestive tract Intestinal vi...X112502 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_villus.bed ...

  1. File list: ALL.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestinal_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestinal_stem_cells mm9 All antigens Digestive tract Intestinal ...p://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestinal_stem_cells.bed ...

  2. File list: InP.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestines [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestines mm9 Input control Digestive tract Intestines ERX040294,...06,ERX040282,ERX040311,ERX040301,ERX040310,ERX040313,ERX040297,ERX040304,ERX040284 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestines.bed ...

  3. File list: InP.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestines [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestines mm9 Input control Digestive tract Intestines ERX040294,...0,ERX040282,ERX040304,ERX040288,ERX040301,ERX040313,SRX1431657,ERX040293,ERX040284 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestines.bed ...

  4. File list: ALL.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_stem_cells mm9 All antigens Digestive tract Intestinal ...p://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_stem_cells.bed ...

  5. File list: ALL.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestines [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestines mm9 All antigens Digestive tract Intestines SRX191044,S...185803,ERX040309,ERX040302,ERX040313,ERX040297,ERX040283,ERX040300,ERX040284 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestines.bed ...

  6. File list: InP.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma mm9 Input control Digestive tract Intestinal ad...enoma http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma.bed ...

  7. File list: ALL.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestine,_Small hg19 All antigens Digestive tract Intestine, Smal...2119,SRX263903,SRX263906,SRX136956,SRX213497,SRX347272 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  8. File list: Oth.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestines [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestines mm9 TFs and others Digestive tract Intestines SRX143801...,SRX1431656 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestines.bed ...

  9. File list: Oth.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestine,_Small mm9 TFs and others Digestive tract Intestine, Sma...,SRX885790,SRX885798,SRX885799 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  10. File list: Pol.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestines [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestines mm9 RNA polymerase Digestive tract Intestines SRX112957...,SRX143802 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestines.bed ...

  11. File list: Unc.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestines [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestines mm9 Unclassified Digestive tract Intestines SRX112954,S...RX341757,SRX341758 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestines.bed ...

  12. File list: His.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_stem_cells mm9 Histone Digestive tract Intestinal stem ...cells SRX856959,SRX193722 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_stem_cells.bed ...

  13. File list: NoD.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestinal_villus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestinal_villus mm9 No description Digestive tract Intestinal vi...llus http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestinal_villus.bed ...

  14. File list: DNS.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma mm9 DNase-seq Digestive tract Intestinal adenom...a http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma.bed ...

  15. File list: Oth.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_crypt [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_crypt mm9 TFs and others Digestive tract Intestinal cry...pt SRX871676,SRX871671,SRX871675,SRX871672 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_crypt.bed ...

  16. File list: Pol.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_villus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_villus mm9 RNA polymerase Digestive tract Intestinal vi...llus http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_villus.bed ...

  17. File list: NoD.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestines [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestines mm9 No description Digestive tract Intestines ERX421319...,ERX421334,ERX421333,ERX421323,ERX421324,ERX421320,ERX421321,ERX421336,ERX421330 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestines.bed ...

  18. File list: Oth.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestines [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestines mm9 TFs and others Digestive tract Intestines SRX143801...,SRX1431656 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestines.bed ...

  19. File list: DNS.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma mm9 DNase-seq Digestive tract Intestinal adenom...a http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma.bed ...

  20. File list: NoD.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestine,_Small mm9 No description Digestive tract Intestine, Sma...ll http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  1. File list: DNS.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_villus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_villus mm9 DNase-seq Digestive tract Intestinal villus ...http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_villus.bed ...

  2. File list: NoD.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma mm9 No description Digestive tract Intestinal a...denoma http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma.bed ...

  3. File list: InP.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestinal_villus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestinal_villus mm9 Input control Digestive tract Intestinal vil...lus SRX1141901,SRX112512,SRX028556,SRX193725 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestinal_villus.bed ...

  4. File list: Oth.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma mm9 TFs and others Digestive tract Intestinal a...denoma SRX648718 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma.bed ...

  5. File list: Pol.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestines [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestines mm9 RNA polymerase Digestive tract Intestines SRX112957...,SRX143802 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestines.bed ...

  6. File list: Unc.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestines [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestines mm9 Unclassified Digestive tract Intestines SRX112954,S...RX341758,SRX341757 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestines.bed ...

  7. File list: NoD.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_villus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_villus mm9 No description Digestive tract Intestinal vi...llus http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_villus.bed ...

  8. File list: InP.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestines [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestines mm9 Input control Digestive tract Intestines ERX040308,...9,ERX040286,ERX040293,ERX040301,SRX1431657,ERX040282,ERX040313,ERX040304,ERX040284 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestines.bed ...

  9. File list: ALL.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestines [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestines mm9 All antigens Digestive tract Intestines SRX191044,S...040298,SRX341757,ERX040304,SRX185790,ERX040284,ERX040281,SRX112955,SRX185803 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestines.bed ...

  10. File list: Oth.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_crypt [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_crypt mm9 TFs and others Digestive tract Intestinal cry...pt SRX871676,SRX871672,SRX871675,SRX871671 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_crypt.bed ...

  11. File list: DNS.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestinal_crypt [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestinal_crypt mm9 DNase-seq Digestive tract Intestinal crypt ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestinal_crypt.bed ...

  12. File list: Oth.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestines [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestines mm9 TFs and others Digestive tract Intestines SRX143801...,SRX1431656 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestines.bed ...

  13. File list: Unc.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma mm9 Unclassified Digestive tract Intestinal adenoma... SRX648717 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma.bed ...

  14. File list: ALL.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma mm9 All antigens Digestive tract Intestinal adenoma... SRX648718,SRX648717 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma.bed ...

  15. File list: InP.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma mm9 Input control Digestive tract Intestinal adenoma... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma.bed ...

  16. File list: NoD.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma mm9 No description Digestive tract Intestinal adenoma... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma.bed ...

  17. File list: ALL.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma mm9 All antigens Digestive tract Intestinal adenoma... SRX648718,SRX648717 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma.bed ...

  18. File list: ALL.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma mm9 All antigens Digestive tract Intestinal adenoma... SRX648718,SRX648717 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma.bed ...

  19. File list: NoD.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma mm9 No description Digestive tract Intestinal adenoma... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma.bed ...

  20. File list: InP.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma mm9 Input control Digestive tract Intestinal adenoma... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma.bed ...

  1. File list: InP.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma mm9 Input control Digestive tract Intestinal adenoma... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma.bed ...

  2. File list: Oth.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma mm9 TFs and others Digestive tract Intestinal adenoma... SRX648718 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma.bed ...

  3. File list: DNS.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma mm9 DNase-seq Digestive tract Intestinal adenoma... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma.bed ...

  4. File list: Unc.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma mm9 Unclassified Digestive tract Intestinal adenoma... SRX648717 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma.bed ...

  5. File list: NoD.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma mm9 No description Digestive tract Intestinal adenoma... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma.bed ...

  6. File list: DNS.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma mm9 DNase-seq Digestive tract Intestinal adenoma... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma.bed ...

  7. File list: ALL.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma mm9 All antigens Digestive tract Intestinal adenoma... SRX648718,SRX648717 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma.bed ...

  8. File list: Unc.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma mm9 Unclassified Digestive tract Intestinal adenoma... SRX648717 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma.bed ...

  9. File list: Oth.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma mm9 TFs and others Digestive tract Intestinal adenoma... SRX648718 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma.bed ...

  10. File list: Pol.Dig.50.RNA_Polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Dig.50.RNA_Polymerase_II.AllCell mm9 RNA polymerase RNA Polymerase II Digestive... tract SRX112957,SRX143802 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Dig.50.RNA_Polymerase_II.AllCell.bed ...

  11. File list: Unc.Dig.20.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Dig.20.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample hg19 Unclassified Digestive tract Gastric primary... sample http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Dig.20.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample.bed ...

  12. File list: His.Dig.20.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Dig.20.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample hg19 Histone Digestive tract Gastric primary...096,SRX369094,SRX369095 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Dig.20.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample.bed ...

  13. File list: Oth.Dig.20.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Dig.20.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample hg19 TFs and others Digestive tract Gastric primary... sample http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Dig.20.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample.bed ...

  14. File list: His.Dig.10.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Dig.10.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample hg19 Histone Digestive tract Gastric primary...095,SRX369094,SRX369099 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Dig.10.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample.bed ...

  15. File list: DNS.Dig.50.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Dig.50.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample hg19 DNase-seq Digestive tract Gastric primary... sample SRX201807,SRX201812 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Dig.50.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample.bed ...

  16. File list: Oth.Dig.05.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Dig.05.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample hg19 TFs and others Digestive tract Gastric primary... sample http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Dig.05.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample.bed ...

  17. File list: Pol.Dig.50.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Dig.50.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample hg19 RNA polymerase Digestive tract Gastric primary... sample http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Dig.50.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample.bed ...

  18. File list: Unc.Dig.50.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Dig.50.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample hg19 Unclassified Digestive tract Gastric primary... sample http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Dig.50.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample.bed ...

  19. File list: Pol.Dig.20.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Dig.20.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample hg19 RNA polymerase Digestive tract Gastric primary... sample http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Dig.20.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample.bed ...

  20. File list: DNS.Dig.10.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Dig.10.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample hg19 DNase-seq Digestive tract Gastric primary... sample SRX201807,SRX201812 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Dig.10.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample.bed ...

  1. File list: Oth.Dig.10.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Dig.10.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample hg19 TFs and others Digestive tract Gastric primary... sample http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Dig.10.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample.bed ...

  2. File list: Oth.Dig.50.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Dig.50.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample hg19 TFs and others Digestive tract Gastric primary... sample http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Dig.50.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample.bed ...

  3. File list: DNS.Dig.20.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Dig.20.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample hg19 DNase-seq Digestive tract Gastric primary... sample SRX201807,SRX201812 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Dig.20.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample.bed ...

  4. File list: Unc.Dig.05.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Dig.05.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample hg19 Unclassified Digestive tract Gastric primary... sample http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Dig.05.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample.bed ...

  5. File list: His.Dig.05.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Dig.05.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample hg19 Histone Digestive tract Gastric primary...105,SRX369094,SRX369095 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Dig.05.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample.bed ...

  6. File list: DNS.Dig.05.AllAg.Colon [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Dig.05.AllAg.Colon hg19 DNase-seq Digestive tract Colon SRX100984,SRX089259,SRX...RX204363,SRX089272,SRX055154 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Dig.05.AllAg.Colon.bed ...

  7. File list: DNS.Dig.20.AllAg.Colon [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Dig.20.AllAg.Colon hg19 DNase-seq Digestive tract Colon SRX089252,SRX100958,SRX...RX089272,SRX055159,SRX055154 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Dig.20.AllAg.Colon.bed ...

  8. File list: DNS.Dig.10.AllAg.Colon [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Dig.10.AllAg.Colon hg19 DNase-seq Digestive tract Colon SRX100984,SRX089252,SRX...RX089272,SRX055159,SRX055154 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Dig.10.AllAg.Colon.bed ...

  9. File list: DNS.Dig.50.AllAg.Colon [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Dig.50.AllAg.Colon hg19 DNase-seq Digestive tract Colon SRX089252,SRX100958,SRX...RX089272,SRX055159,SRX055154 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Dig.50.AllAg.Colon.bed ...

  10. File list: His.Dig.20.H2APERIODZ.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Dig.20.H2APERIODZ.AllCell hg19 Histone H2A.Z Digestive tract SRX610758,SRX62566...5,SRX625659,SRX610766 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Dig.20.H2APERIODZ.AllCell.bed ...

  11. File list: Pol.Dig.10.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Dig.10.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell hg19 RNA polymerase RNA polymerase II Digestiv...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Dig.10.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell.bed ...

  12. File list: ALL.Dig.20.AllAg.GIST-48 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Dig.20.AllAg.GIST-48 hg19 All antigens Digestive tract GIST-48 SRX825987,SRX023...216,SRX825986,SRX023215 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Dig.20.AllAg.GIST-48.bed ...

  13. File list: ALL.Dig.50.AllAg.GIST-48 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Dig.50.AllAg.GIST-48 hg19 All antigens Digestive tract GIST-48 SRX825987,SRX023...216,SRX023215,SRX825986 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Dig.50.AllAg.GIST-48.bed ...

  14. File list: DNS.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestine,_Small mm9 DNase-seq Digestive tract Intestine, Small ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  15. File list: InP.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestine,_Small hg19 Input control Digestive tract Intestine, Small... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  16. File list: Oth.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestine,_Small mm9 TFs and others Digestive tract Intestine, Small...,SRX885790,SRX885799,SRX885798 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  17. File list: NoD.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestine,_Small hg19 No description Digestive tract Intestine, Small...90797,SRX263903,SRX263916,SRX347272,SRX142119,SRX157637,SRX263906,SRX136956,SRX213497 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  18. File list: Oth.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestine,_Small hg19 TFs and others Digestive tract Intestine, Small... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  19. File list: NoD.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestine,_Small mm9 No description Digestive tract Intestine, Small... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  20. File list: NoD.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestine,_Small hg19 No description Digestive tract Intestine, Small...90768,SRX134745,SRX157637,SRX142119,SRX263903,SRX263906,SRX136956,SRX213497,SRX347272 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  1. File list: InP.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestine,_Small mm9 Input control Digestive tract Intestine, Small...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  2. File list: NoD.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestine,_Small hg19 No description Digestive tract Intestine, Small...42119,SRX263903,SRX347272,SRX134745,SRX190768,SRX213497,SRX263906,SRX157637,SRX136956 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  3. File list: Oth.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestine,_Small hg19 TFs and others Digestive tract Intestine, Small... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  4. File list: ALL.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestine,_Small mm9 All antigens Digestive tract Intestine, Small...1,SRX885794,SRX885795 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  5. File list: DNS.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestine,_Small hg19 DNase-seq Digestive tract Intestine, Small S...,SRX201835,SRX252605,SRX201814,SRX055194,SRX055160 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  6. File list: ALL.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestine,_Small hg19 All antigens Digestive tract Intestine, Small...7272,SRX142119,SRX157637,SRX263906,SRX136956,SRX213497 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  7. File list: DNS.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestine,_Small hg19 DNase-seq Digestive tract Intestine, Small S...,SRX100957,SRX201835,SRX252605,SRX201814,SRX055194 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  8. File list: ALL.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestine,_Small mm9 All antigens Digestive tract Intestine, Small...4,SRX885798,SRX885799 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  9. File list: DNS.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestine,_Small mm9 DNase-seq Digestive tract Intestine, Small ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  10. File list: InP.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestine,_Small mm9 Input control Digestive tract Intestine, Small...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  11. File list: NoD.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestine,_Small mm9 No description Digestive tract Intestine, Small... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  12. File list: NoD.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestine,_Small mm9 No description Digestive tract Intestine, Small... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  13. File list: DNS.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestine,_Small mm9 DNase-seq Digestive tract Intestine, Small ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  14. File list: InP.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestine,_Small mm9 Input control Digestive tract Intestine, Small...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  15. File list: Oth.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestine,_Small hg19 TFs and others Digestive tract Intestine, Small... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  16. File list: InP.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestine,_Small hg19 Input control Digestive tract Intestine, Small... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  17. File list: NoD.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestine,_Small hg19 No description Digestive tract Intestine, Small...36956,SRX157637,SRX190797,SRX263916,SRX263903,SRX213497,SRX347272,SRX142119,SRX263906 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  18. File list: InP.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestine,_Small mm9 Input control Digestive tract Intestine, Small...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  19. File list: ALL.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestine,_Small mm9 All antigens Digestive tract Intestine, Small...7,SRX885796,SRX885801 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  20. File list: DNS.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestine,_Small mm9 DNase-seq Digestive tract Intestine, Small ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  1. File list: InP.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestine,_Small hg19 Input control Digestive tract Intestine, Small... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  2. File list: DNS.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestine,_Small hg19 DNase-seq Digestive tract Intestine, Small S...,SRX201835,SRX100957,SRX252605,SRX201814,SRX055194 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  3. File list: Oth.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestine,_Small mm9 TFs and others Digestive tract Intestine, Small...,SRX885799,SRX885798,SRX885790 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  4. File list: ALL.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestine,_Small mm9 All antigens Digestive tract Intestine, Small...4,SRX885795,SRX885789 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  5. File list: ALL.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestine,_Small hg19 All antigens Digestive tract Intestine, Small...0768,SRX213497,SRX055194,SRX263906,SRX157637,SRX136956 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  6. File list: Oth.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestine,_Small hg19 TFs and others Digestive tract Intestine, Small... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Dig.10.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  7. File list: Oth.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestine,_Small mm9 TFs and others Digestive tract Intestine, Small...,SRX885790,SRX885799,SRX885798 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  8. File list: InP.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestine,_Small hg19 Input control Digestive tract Intestine, Small... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestine,_Small.bed ...

  9. File list: InP.Dig.50.AllAg.Colon_cancer [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Dig.50.AllAg.Colon_cancer hg19 Input control Digestive tract Colon cancer SRX12...155774,SRX124693,SRX124698 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Dig.50.AllAg.Colon_cancer.bed ...

  10. File list: Oth.Dig.50.AllAg.Colon_cancer [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Dig.50.AllAg.Colon_cancer hg19 TFs and others Digestive tract Colon cancer SRX1...55772,SRX155775,SRX155773,SRX155776 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Dig.50.AllAg.Colon_cancer.bed ...

  11. File list: Oth.Dig.05.AllAg.Colon_cancer [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Dig.05.AllAg.Colon_cancer hg19 TFs and others Digestive tract Colon cancer SRX1...55772,SRX155773,SRX155775,SRX155776 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Dig.05.AllAg.Colon_cancer.bed ...

  12. File list: InP.Dig.20.AllAg.Colon_cancer [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Dig.20.AllAg.Colon_cancer hg19 Input control Digestive tract Colon cancer SRX12...124693,SRX124697,SRX124698 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Dig.20.AllAg.Colon_cancer.bed ...

  13. File list: Unc.Dig.50.AllAg.Colon_cancer [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Dig.50.AllAg.Colon_cancer hg19 Unclassified Digestive tract Colon cancer SRX115...0169,SRX1150170,SRX124703 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Dig.50.AllAg.Colon_cancer.bed ...

  14. File list: Oth.Dig.10.AllAg.Colon_cancer [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Dig.10.AllAg.Colon_cancer hg19 TFs and others Digestive tract Colon cancer SRX1...55772,SRX155775,SRX155773,SRX155776 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Dig.10.AllAg.Colon_cancer.bed ...

  15. File list: Oth.Dig.20.AllAg.Colon_cancer [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Dig.20.AllAg.Colon_cancer hg19 TFs and others Digestive tract Colon cancer SRX1...55772,SRX155773,SRX155775,SRX155776 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Dig.20.AllAg.Colon_cancer.bed ...

  16. File list: InP.Dig.05.AllAg.Colon_cancer [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Dig.05.AllAg.Colon_cancer hg19 Input control Digestive tract Colon cancer SRX12...124693,SRX124695,SRX124694 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Dig.05.AllAg.Colon_cancer.bed ...

  17. File list: Unc.Dig.10.AllAg.Colon_cancer [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Dig.10.AllAg.Colon_cancer hg19 Unclassified Digestive tract Colon cancer SRX115...0169,SRX124703,SRX1150170 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Dig.10.AllAg.Colon_cancer.bed ...

  18. File list: Unc.Dig.05.AllAg.Colon_cancer [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Dig.05.AllAg.Colon_cancer hg19 Unclassified Digestive tract Colon cancer SRX115...0169,SRX1150170,SRX124703 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Dig.05.AllAg.Colon_cancer.bed ...

  19. File list: Unc.Dig.20.AllAg.Colon_cancer [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Dig.20.AllAg.Colon_cancer hg19 Unclassified Digestive tract Colon cancer SRX115...0169,SRX1150170,SRX124703 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Dig.20.AllAg.Colon_cancer.bed ...

  20. File list: InP.Dig.10.AllAg.Colon_cancer [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Dig.10.AllAg.Colon_cancer hg19 Input control Digestive tract Colon cancer SRX12...155774,SRX625671,SRX155777 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Dig.10.AllAg.Colon_cancer.bed ...

  1. File list: ALL.Dig.10.AllAg.KYSE-70 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 130,SRX277131 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Dig.10.AllAg.KYSE-70.bed ... ...ALL.Dig.10.AllAg.KYSE-70 hg19 All antigens Digestive tract KYSE-70 SRX277132,SRX277

  2. File list: ALL.Dig.05.AllAg.KYSE-70 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 132,SRX277131 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Dig.05.AllAg.KYSE-70.bed ... ...ALL.Dig.05.AllAg.KYSE-70 hg19 All antigens Digestive tract KYSE-70 SRX277130,SRX277

  3. File list: Oth.Dig.10.AllAg.KYSE-150 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available X424010 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Dig.10.AllAg.KYSE-150.bed ... ...Oth.Dig.10.AllAg.KYSE-150 hg19 TFs and others Digestive tract KYSE-150 SRX424011,SR

  4. File list: Oth.Dig.05.AllAg.KYSE-150 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available X424010 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Dig.05.AllAg.KYSE-150.bed ... ...Oth.Dig.05.AllAg.KYSE-150 hg19 TFs and others Digestive tract KYSE-150 SRX424011,SR

  5. File list: Oth.Dig.20.AllAg.KYSE-70 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 77131 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Dig.20.AllAg.KYSE-70.bed ... ...Oth.Dig.20.AllAg.KYSE-70 hg19 TFs and others Digestive tract KYSE-70 SRX277132,SRX2

  6. File list: ALL.Dig.20.AllAg.KYSE-70 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 131,SRX277130 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Dig.20.AllAg.KYSE-70.bed ... ...ALL.Dig.20.AllAg.KYSE-70 hg19 All antigens Digestive tract KYSE-70 SRX277132,SRX277

  7. File list: Oth.Dig.20.AllAg.KYSE-150 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available X424010 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Dig.20.AllAg.KYSE-150.bed ... ...Oth.Dig.20.AllAg.KYSE-150 hg19 TFs and others Digestive tract KYSE-150 SRX424011,SR

  8. File list: His.Dig.50.AllAg.KYSE-150 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ,SRX424016,SRX424013,SRX424014 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Dig.50.AllAg.KYSE-150.bed ... ...His.Dig.50.AllAg.KYSE-150 hg19 Histone Digestive tract KYSE-150 SRX424017,SRX424015

  9. File list: ALL.Dig.20.AllAg.KYSE-150 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 24012,SRX424011,SRX424017,SRX424010,SRX424015,SRX424013,SRX424014 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Dig.20.AllAg.KYSE-150.bed ... ...ALL.Dig.20.AllAg.KYSE-150 hg19 All antigens Digestive tract KYSE-150 SRX424016,SRX4

  10. File list: ALL.Dig.10.AllAg.KYSE-150 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 24011,SRX424012,SRX424015,SRX424017,SRX424010,SRX424013,SRX424014 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Dig.10.AllAg.KYSE-150.bed ... ...ALL.Dig.10.AllAg.KYSE-150 hg19 All antigens Digestive tract KYSE-150 SRX424016,SRX4

  11. File list: ALL.Dig.50.AllAg.KYSE-70 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 132,SRX277130 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Dig.50.AllAg.KYSE-70.bed ... ...ALL.Dig.50.AllAg.KYSE-70 hg19 All antigens Digestive tract KYSE-70 SRX277131,SRX277

  12. File list: His.Dig.20.AllAg.KYSE-150 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ,SRX424015,SRX424013,SRX424014 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Dig.20.AllAg.KYSE-150.bed ... ...His.Dig.20.AllAg.KYSE-150 hg19 Histone Digestive tract KYSE-150 SRX424016,SRX424017

  13. File list: ALL.Dig.05.AllAg.KYSE-150 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 24016,SRX424012,SRX424015,SRX424017,SRX424010,SRX424013,SRX424014 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Dig.05.AllAg.KYSE-150.bed ... ...ALL.Dig.05.AllAg.KYSE-150 hg19 All antigens Digestive tract KYSE-150 SRX424011,SRX4

  14. File list: Oth.Dig.50.AllAg.KYSE-70 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 77132 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Dig.50.AllAg.KYSE-70.bed ... ...Oth.Dig.50.AllAg.KYSE-70 hg19 TFs and others Digestive tract KYSE-70 SRX277131,SRX2

  15. File list: Oth.Dig.05.AllAg.KYSE-70 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 77131 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Dig.05.AllAg.KYSE-70.bed ... ...Oth.Dig.05.AllAg.KYSE-70 hg19 TFs and others Digestive tract KYSE-70 SRX277132,SRX2

  16. Hvad der ikke slår dig ihjel

    OpenAIRE

    Nürnberg, Therese; Albek, Ida; Jaffke, Eva; Møller, Maria

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the genres employed in Louise Bokkenheuser’s Hvad der ikke slår dig ihjel: reportager fra København og Bagdad. To do this, the paper examines the work itself, by conduc-ting a genre analysis of the text. The focus of this study is to determine the significance of utilizing both fictional and nonfictional genres and writing styles in the telling of Louise Bokkenheuser’s story. The paper will clarify and define the genres applied in the text, using various literary theor...

  17. Near Earth Asteroid Characteristics for Asteroid Threat Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, J.; Wooden, D. H.; Bryson, K.; Ostrowski, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    Information about the physical characteristics of Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) is needed to model behavior during atmospheric entry, to assess the risk of an impact, and to model possible mitigation techniques. The intrinsic properties of interest to entry and mitigation modelers, however, rarely are directly measureable. Instead we measure other properties and infer the intrinsic physical properties, so determining the complete set of characteristics of interest is far from straightforward. In addition, for the majority of NEAs, only the basic measurements exist so often properties must be inferred from statistics of the population of more completely characterized objects. We will provide an assessment of the current state of knowledge about the physical characteristics of importance to asteroid threat assessment. In addition, an ongoing effort to collate NEA characteristics into a readily accessible database for use by the planetary defense community will be discussed.

  18. Designing Asteroid Impact Scenario Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodas, Paul

    2016-05-01

    In order to study some of the technical and geopolitical issues of dealing with an asteroid on impact trajectory, a number of hypothetical impact scenarios have been presented over the last ten years or so. These have been used, for example, at several of the Planetary Defense Conferences (PDCs), as well as in tabletop exercises with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), along with other government agencies. The exercise at the 2015 PDC involved most of the attendees, consisted of seven distinct steps (“injects”), and with all the presentations and discussions, took up nearly 10 hours of conference time. The trajectory for the PDC15 scenario was entirely realistic, and was posted ahead of the meeting. It was made available in the NEO Program’s Horizons ephemeris service so that users could , for example, design their own deflection missions. The simulated asteroid and trajectory had to meet numerous very exacting requirements: becoming observable on the very first day of the conference, yet remaining very difficult to observe for the following 7 years, and far enough away from Earth that it was out of reach of radar until just before impact. It had to be undetectable in the past, and yet provide multiple perihelion opportunities for deflection in the future. It had to impact in a very specific region of the Earth, a specific number of years after discovery. When observations of the asteroid are simulated to generate an uncertainty region, that entire region must impact the Earth along an axis that cuts across specific regions of the Earth, the “risk corridor”. This is important because asteroid deflections generally move an asteroid impact point along this corridor. One scenario had a requirement that the asteroid pass through a keyhole several years before impact. The PDC15 scenario had an additional constraint that multiple simulated kinetic impactor missions altered the trajectory at a deflection point midway between discovery and impact

  19. News from Online: Digging up Earth Day Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coldwell, Bernadette A.

    2006-01-01

    The soil science and soil chemistry is incorporated into teaching materials for earth day and beyond. It revealed some of the chemical properties of the soil through color and texture and the chemical processes relevant to soils abound, including the carbon and nitrogen cycles in the soil, acidification of soils through acid deposition, leaching…

  20. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Gates, Michele; Johnson, Lindley; Chodas, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Ticker, Ronald

    2016-07-01

    To achieve its long-term goal of sending humans to Mars, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to proceed in a series of incrementally more complex human spaceflight missions. Today, human flight experience extends only to Low-Earth Orbit (LEO), and should problems arise during a mission, the crew can return to Earth in a matter of minutes to hours. The next logical step for human spaceflight is to gain flight experience in the vicinity of the Moon. These cis-lunar missions provide a "proving ground" for the testing of systems and operations while still accommodating an emergency return path to the Earth that would last only several days. Cis-lunar mission experience will be essential for more ambitious human missions beyond the Earth-Moon system, which will require weeks, months, or even years of transit time. In addition, NASA has been given a Grand Challenge to find all asteroid threats to human populations and know what to do about them. Obtaining knowledge of asteroid physical properties combined with performing technology demonstrations for planetary defense provide much needed information to address the issue of future asteroid impacts on Earth. Hence the combined objectives of human exploration and planetary defense give a rationale for the Asteroid Re-direct Mission (ARM). Mission Description: NASA's ARM consists of two mission segments: 1) the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), the first robotic mission to visit a large (greater than ~100 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface along with regolith samples, demonstrate a planetary defense technique, and return the asteroidal material to a stable orbit around the Moon; and 2) the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), in which astronauts will take the Orion capsule to rendezvous and dock with the robotic vehicle, conduct multiple extravehicular activities to explore the boulder, and return to Earth with samples. NASA's proposed

  1. Earth-crossing asteroids - New discoveries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helin, E. F.

    1982-01-01

    An earth-crossing asteroid is an asteroid whose orbit will intersect the orbit of the earth as a result of secular perturbations. Astronomical observations have led to the discovery of 43 earth-crossing asteroids during the last fifty years. Nearly sixty percent of these were found in the decade 1971-1981. Noteworthy results of the last decade are discussed, taking into account the Aten asteroids, accidental rediscoveries, asteroids of possible cometary origin, candidates for rendezvous and sample return missions, and populations and collision rates with earth. The observed earth-crossing asteroids are listed in a table, and the orbits of earth, Mars, and four Atens projected on ecliptic plane are shown.

  2. Asteroids prospective energy and material resources

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The Earth has limited material and energy resources while these resources in space are virtually unlimited. Further development of humanity will require going beyond our planet and exploring of extraterrestrial resources and sources of unlimited power.   Thus far, all missions to asteroids have been motivated by scientific exploration. However, given recent advancements in various space technologies, mining asteroids for resources is becoming ever more feasible. A significant portion of asteroids value is derived from their location; the required resources do not need to be lifted at a great expense from the surface of the Earth.   Resources derived from Asteroid not only can be brought back to Earth but could also be used to sustain human exploration of space and permanent settlements in space.   This book investigates asteroids' prospective energy and material resources. It is a collection of topics related to asteroid exploration, and utilization. It presents past and future technologies and solutions t...

  3. Selecting asteroids for a targeted spectroscopic survey

    CERN Document Server

    Oszkiewicz, D A; Tomov, T; Birlan, M; Geier, S; Penttilä, A; Polińska, M

    2014-01-01

    Asteroid spectroscopy reflects surface mineralogy. There are few thousand asteroids whose surfaces have been observed spectrally. Determining the surface properties of those objects is important for many practical and scientific applications, such as for example developing impact deflection strategies or studying history and evolution of the Solar System and planet formation. The aim of this study is to develop a pre-selection method that can be utilized in searching for asteroids of any taxonomic complex. The method could then be utilized im multiple applications such as searching for the missing V-types or looking for primitive asteroids. We used the Bayes Naive Classifier combined with observations obtained in the course of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer surveys as well as a database of asteroid phase curves for asteroids with known taxonomic type. Using the new classification method we have selected a number of possible V-type candidates. Some of the candidates we...

  4. Migration of Near Earth Asteroid to Jovian-Crosser Asteroid:Case Study 3552 Don Quixote

    OpenAIRE

    Siregar, Suryadi

    2010-01-01

    It is generally recognized that main-belt asteroids (MBAs) and nuclei of extinct comets are the two main sources for the Near-Earth-Asteroids (NEAs). Theoretical studies of NEAs dynamics and numerical modelling of their orbital motions showed that the resonance mechanism for supplying NEAs is quite sufficient to sustain this population. Asteroid 1983 SA, also known as 3552 Don Quixote, is one of Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and the most probable candidates for NEAs of the cometary origin. In t...

  5. Anchoring a lander on an asteroid using foam stabilization Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has proposed several missions to land a craft on an asteroid and potentially to return samples from it. While large asteroids in the asteroid belt can exhibit...

  6. Families classification including multiopposition asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Andrea; Spoto, Federica; Knežević, Zoran; Novaković, Bojan; Tsirvoulis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of our new classification of asteroid families, upgraded by using catalog with > 500,000 asteroids. We discuss the outcome of the most recent update of the family list and of their membership. We found enough evidence to perform 9 mergers of the previously independent families. By introducing an improved method of estimation of the expected family growth in the less populous regions (e.g. at high inclination) we were able to reliably decide on rejection of one tiny group as a probable statistical fluke. Thus we reduced our current list to 115 families. We also present newly determined ages for 6 families, including complex 135 and 221, improving also our understanding of the dynamical vs. collisional families relationship. We conclude with some recommendations for the future work and for the family name problem.

  7. 基于 CATIA 的马铃薯挖掘铲参数化建模%Potato Digging Blade Parametric Modeling Method Based on CATIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯占峰; 王春光; 薛晶

    2014-01-01

    论述了马铃薯挖掘机关键部件挖掘铲的设计方法,并基于土壤与铲体作用力学分析建立了挖掘铲牵引阻力数学模型,最终确定了挖掘铲设计参数。同时,详细地阐述了基于 CATIA 的挖掘铲三维参数化建模的基本方法。%The principal parts design of potato harvester and the determination of parameters were stated in this article . The draught resistance mathematic model was set up based on dynamics analysis of digging blade and soil .At last the de-sign parameters of digging blade were confirmed .At the same time , a study is carried out upon three-dimensional para-metric modeling method and its technology based on CATIA , the basic method and general steps of potato digging blade 3-D parametric modeling are expounded in detail .

  8. Asteroid Evolution: Role of Geotechnical Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a brief review and latest results of the work that has been carried out by the Planetary Science community in order to understand that role of the geotechnical properties of granular asteroids (commonly known as "rubble-pile" asteroids) in their formation, evolution and possible disruption. As such, we will touch in aspects of the theoretical and numerical tools that have been used with this objective and how the obtained results compare to the observed asteroids.

  9. Stabilities of asteroid orbits in resonances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A map of the asteroid motion is studied carefully. An exponential diffusion law in the chaotic sea and an algebraic law in the mixed region are observed. The effects of perturbations on diffusion are also discussed. The fixed points, their stabilities and the diffusion properties of the map give qualitative explanations of the distribution of asteroids, i.e. the depletion and accumulation of asteroids in the outer main belt, particularly in the first order mean motion resonances with Jupiter.

  10. Composition of near-Earth asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebofsky, Larry A.

    1992-01-01

    The continuing goal is to determine whether any of the near-Earth asteroids or the satellites of Mars contain hydrated phyllosilicate (clay) minerals. If these minerals are present, they would provide a ready source of water for propellant generation and use in life support systems. Many of the dark main belt asteroids have been shown to contain hydrated phyllosilicate minerals. Some of the near-Earth asteroids are also dark, but telescopic detection of water on these near-Earth asteroids is complicated because of the faintness of these small asteroids and because thermal emission masks the diagnostic spectral features beyond 3 microns due to water of hydration for objects within 2 AU of the Sun. New techniques for asteroid classification based on spectral reflectance and mineralogy will be necessary to determine whether the water absorption features are present on any of the near-Earth asteroids. This past year, better ways to classify 'wet' vs. 'dry' asteroids in the main belt were looked at. This new classification may allow us to determine the presence of water of hydration in the surface minerals of near-Earth asteroids even when we can only observe them at wavelengths that are not affected by thermal emission.

  11. Asteroid Models from Multiple Data Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durech, J.; Carry, B.; Delbo, M.; Kaasalainen, M.; Viikinkoski, M.

    In the past decade, hundreds of asteroid shape models have been derived using the lightcurve inversion method. At the same time, a new framework of three-dimensional shape modeling based on the combined analysis of widely different data sources -- such as optical lightcurves, disk-resolved images, stellar occultation timings, mid-infrared thermal radiometry, optical interferometry, and radar delay-Doppler data -- has been developed. This multi-data approach allows the determination of most of the physical and surface properties of asteroids in a single, coherent inversion, with spectacular results. We review the main results of asteroid lightcurve inversion and also recent advances in multi-data modeling. We show that models based on remote sensing data were confirmed by spacecraft encounters with asteroids, and we discuss how the multiplication of highly detailed three-dimensional models will help to refine our general knowledge of the asteroid population. The physical and surface properties of asteroids, i.e., their spin, three-dimensional shape, density, thermal inertia, and surface roughness, are among the least known of all asteroid properties. Apart from the albedo and diameter, we have access to the whole picture for only a few hundreds of asteroids. These quantities are nevertheless very important to understand, as they affect the nongravitational Yarkovsky effect responsible for meteorite delivery to Earth, as well as the bulk composition and internal structure of asteroids.

  12. Constraints on Exposure Ages of Lunar and Asteroidal Regolith Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Eve L.; Keller, Lindsay P

    2014-01-01

    Mineral grains in lunar and asteroidal regolith samples provide a unique record of their interaction with the space environment. Exposure to the solar wind results in implantation effects that are preserved in the rims of grains (typically the outermost 100 nm), while impact processes result in the accumulation of vapor-deposited elements, impact melts and adhering grains on particle surfaces. These processes are collectively referred to as space weathering. A critical element in the study of these processes is to determine the rate at which these effects accumulate in the grains during their space exposure. For small particulate samples, one can use the density of solar flare particle tracks to infer the length of time the particle was at the regolith surface (i.e., its exposure age). We have developed a new technique that enables more accurate determination of solar flare particle track densities in mineral grains <50 micron in size that utilizes focused ion beam (FIB) sample preparation combined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging. We have applied this technique to lunar soil grains from the Apollo 16 site (soil 64501) and most recently to samples from asteroid 25143 Itokawa returned by the Hayabusa mission. Our preliminary results show that the Hayabusa grains have shorter exposure ages compared to typical lunar soil grains. We will use these techniques to re-examine the track density-exposure age calibration from lunar samples reported by Blanford et al. (1975).

  13. Is the reddening of asteroids still a dilemma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, P. F.:; Maras, A.; Folco, L.

    The association of the most abundant population of meteorites the ordinary chondrites and their parent bodies through the comparison of their reflected spectra has been a long debate In fact many of the asteroids show reddened spectra when observed in the visible and near-infrared range Gaffey 1976 Cloutis et al 1990 This reddening first observed in lunar mature soils has been demonstrated to be caused by the presence of metallic nano-particles Pieters et al 2000 Noble et al 2004 Though laboratory experiments reproduced the formation of such npFe as due to the vaporization of Fe-bearing silicates caused by the bombardment of micro meteoroids Sasaki et al 2001 the close-up observations of S-type asteroids obtained by the NEAR mission proposed a new mystery to be solved In fact if the continuous exposition to the space conditions should in principle darken and redden the surface of asteroids the slopes of the Psyche crater on Eros shows redder but brighter spectra when compared to the proposed associated meteorites Clark et al 2001 This result asked for a mechanism capable to redden much more than darken Very recently an alternative process has been suggested for surface alteration of airless bodies In fact metallic nano-particles have been demonstrated to be formed in Fe-Ni regions of ordinary chondrites where shock-induced transformation occurred Moretti et al 2005 Even if this last mechanism is capable to redden almost instantaneously localized regions on asteroids surfaces the distribution of the spectral slopes

  14. Discontinuous Inter-Granular Separations (DIGS) in the Gas Nitride Layer of ISS Race Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figert, John; Dasgupta, Rajib; Martinez, James

    2010-01-01

    The starboard solar alpha rotary joint (SARJ) race ring on the International space station (ISS) failed due to severe spalling of the outer diameter, 45 degree (outer canted) nitrided surface. Subsequent analysis at NASA-KSC revealed that almost all of the debris generated due to the failure was nitrided 15-5 stainless steel. Subsequent analysis of the nitride control coupons (NCC) at NASA-JSC revealed the presence of discontinuous inter-granular separations (DIGS) in the gas nitride layer. These DIGS were present in the inter-granular networking located in the top 2 mils of the nitride layer. The manufacturer's specification requires the maximum white structure to be 0.0003 inches and intergranular networking below the allowable white structure depth to be cause for rejection; a requirement that the NCCs did not meet. Subsequent testing and analysis revealed that lower DIGS content significantly lowered the probability of nitride spalling in simulated, dry condition runs. One batch of nitride samples with DIGS content similar to the port SARJ (did not fail on orbit) which exhibited almost no nitride spalling after being run on one test rig. Another batch of nitride samples with DIGS content levels similar to the starboard SARJ exhibited significant nitride spalling on the same test rig with the same load under dry conditions. Although DIGS were not the root cause of starboard race ring failure, testing indicates that increased DIGS reduced the robustness of the gas nitride layer under dry operating conditions.

  15. Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; Ishihara, Daisuke; Kataza, Hirokazu; Takita, Satoshi; Oyabu, Shinki; Ueno, Munetaka; Matsuhara, Hideo; Onaka, Takashi

    2011-10-01

    We present the results of an unbiased asteroid survey in the mid-infrared wavelength region with the Infrared Camera (IRC) on board the Japanese infrared satellite AKARI. About 20% of the point source events recorded in the AKARI All-Sky Survey observations are not used for the IRC Point Source Catalog (IRC-PSC) in its production process because of a lack of multiple detection by position. Asteroids, which are moving objects on the celestial sphere, remain in these ``residual events''. We identify asteroids out of the residual events by matching them with the positions of known asteroids. For the identified asteroids, we calculate the size and albedo based on the Standard Thermal Model. Finally we have a new brand of asteroid catalog, named the Asteroid Catalog Using AKARI (AcuA), which contains 5120 objects, about twice as many as the IRAS asteroid catalog. The catalog objects comprise 4953 main belt asteroids, 58 near-Earth asteroids, and 109 Jovian Trojan asteroids. The catalog is publicly available via the Internet.

  16. Migration of Near Earth Asteroid to Jovian-Crosser Asteroid:Case Study 3552 Don Quixote

    CERN Document Server

    Siregar, Suryadi

    2010-01-01

    It is generally recognized that main-belt asteroids (MBAs) and nuclei of extinct comets are the two main sources for the Near-Earth-Asteroids (NEAs). Theoretical studies of NEAs dynamics and numerical modelling of their orbital motions showed that the resonance mechanism for supplying NEAs is quite sufficient to sustain this population. Asteroid 1983 SA, also known as 3552 Don Quixote, is one of Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and the most probable candidates for NEAs of the cometary origin. In this work, an investigation on the evolution of the orbit is done by using the SWIFT subroutine package, where the gravitational perturbations of eight planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are considered. Migration of asteroid 3552 Don Quixote from Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) to Jovian-crosser asteroid is found.

  17. Dynamic wind turbine models in power system simulation tool DIgSILENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A.D.; Jauch, C.; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Iov, F.; Blaabjerg, F.

    2004-01-01

    The present report describes the dynamic wind turbine models implemented in the power system simulation tool DIgSILENT (Version 12.0). The developed models are a part of the results of a national research project, whose overall objective is to create amodel database in different simulation tools....... The report contains both the description of DIgSILENT built-in models for the electrical components of a grid connected wind turbine (e.g. inductiongenerators, power converters, transformers) and the models developed by the user, in the dynamic simulation language DSL of DIgSILENT, for the non...

  18. Spectroscopy of near-Earth asteroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, René; Nathues, Andreas; Lagerkvist, Claes-Ingvar

    2006-01-01

    We present spectra and taxonomic classifications of 12 Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and 2 inner Main Belt asteroids. The observations were carried out with the ESO 3.5 m NTT and the Danish 1.54 m telescope at La Silla, Chile. Eleven of the investigated NEAs belong to the S class while only one C...

  19. Organic matter on asteroid 130 Elektra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruikshank, D. P.; Brown, R. H.

    1987-01-01

    Infrared absorption spectra of a low-albedo water-rich asteroid appear to show a weak 3.4-micrometer carbon-hydrogen stretching mode band, which suggests the presence of hydrocarbons on asteroid 130 Elektra. The organic extract from the primitive carbonaceous chondritic Murchison meteorite shows similar spectral bands.

  20. Binary asteroid population. 1. Angular momentum content

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pravec, Petr; Harris, A. W.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 190, č. 1 (2007), s. 250-259. ISSN 0019-1035 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA205/05/0604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : asteroids * satellites of asteroids Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.869, year: 2007

  1. The Compositional Structure of the Asteroid Belt

    CERN Document Server

    DeMeo, Francesca E; Walsh, Kevin J; Chapman, Clark R; Binzel, Richard P

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has brought major improvements in large-scale asteroid discovery and characterization with over half a million known asteroids and over 100,000 with some measurement of physical characterization. This explosion of data has allowed us to create a new global picture of the Main Asteroid Belt. Put in context with meteorite measurements and dynamical models, a new and more complete picture of Solar System evolution has emerged. The question has changed from "What was the original compositional gradient of the Asteroid Belt?" to "What was the original compositional gradient of small bodies across the entire Solar System?" No longer is the leading theory that two belts of planetesimals are primordial, but instead those belts were formed and sculpted through evolutionary processes after Solar System formation. This article reviews the advancements on the fronts of asteroid compositional characterization, meteorite measurements, and dynamical theories in the context of the heliocentric distribution of...

  2. On the Astrid asteroid family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruba, V.

    2016-09-01

    Among asteroid families, the Astrid family is peculiar because of its unusual inclination distribution. Objects at a ≃ 2.764 au are quite dispersed in this orbital element, giving the family a `crab-like' appearance. Recent works showed that this feature is caused by the interaction of the family with the s - sC nodal secular resonance with Ceres, that spreads the inclination of asteroids near its separatrix. As a consequence, the currently observed distribution of the vW component of terminal ejection velocities obtained from inverting Gauss equation is quite leptokurtic, since this parameter mostly depends on the asteroids inclination. The peculiar orbital configuration of the Astrid family can be used to set constraints on key parameters describing the strength of the Yarkovsky force, such as the bulk and surface density and the thermal conductivity of surface material. By simulating various fictitious families with different values of these parameters, and by demanding that the current value of the kurtosis of the distribution in vW be reached over the estimated lifetime of the family, we obtained that the thermal conductivity of Astrid family members should be ≃0.001 W m-1 K-1, and that the surface and bulk density should be higher than 1000 kg m-3. Monte Carlo methods simulating Yarkovsky and stochastic Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) evolution of the Astrid family show its age to be T = 140 ± 30 Myr old, in good agreement with estimates from other groups. Its terminal ejection velocity parameter is in the range V_{EJ}= 5^{+17}_{-5} m s-1. Values of VEJ larger than 25 m s-1 are excluded from constraints from the current inclination distribution.

  3. The Asteroid 2015 KA122

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodniza, Alberto Quijano; Pereira, Mario Rojas

    2015-11-01

    The Asteroid “2015 KA122” was discovered on May 25/2015 by the Catalina Sky Survey. This object is not well known. Its absolute magnitude, of 23.2, indicates a diameter of about 70 meters. The asteroid was at aproximately 3.3 lunar distances from the Earth, on June 6/2015. It has an orbital period of 2.11 years. From our Observatory, located in Pasto-Colombia, we captured several pictures, videos and astrometry data during three days. Our data was published by the Minor Planet Center (MPC) and also appears at the web page of NEODyS. Our observatory’s code at the MPC is “H78”. Pictures of the asteroid were captured with the following equipment: 14” LX200 GPS MEADE (f/10 Schmidt-Cassegrain Telescope) and STL-1001 SBIG camera. Astrometry was carried out, and we calculated the orbital elements. We obtained the following orbital parameters: eccentricity = 0.4089630 +/- 0.00189, semi-major axis = 1.64254884 +/- 0.00505 A.U, orbital inclination = 12.68490 +/- 0.039 deg, longitude of the ascending node = 73.14715 +/- 0.0013 deg, argument of perihelion = 214.82393 +/- 0.007 deg, orbital period = 2.11 years (768.90 days), mean motion = 0.46819485 +/- 0.00216 deg/d, perihelion distance = 0.97080706 +/- 0.000119 A.U, aphelion distance = 2.31429061 +/- 0.0103 A.U. The parameters were calculated based on 81 observations (2015 June 3-5) with mean residual = 0.343 arcseconds. Our videos appear in the following links:http://spaceweathergallery.com/indiv_upload.php?upload_id=113197http://spaceweathergallery.com/indiv_upload.php?upload_id=113238&PHPSESSID=f2lkigjogsfgcmi1rscc9jil36http://spaceweathergallery.com/indiv_upload.php?upload_id=113257

  4. Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For Austria there exists a comprehensive soil data collection, integrated in a GIS (geographical information system). The content values of pollutants (cadmium, mercury, lead, copper, mercury, radio-cesium) are given in geographical charts and in tables by regions and by type of soil (forests, agriculture, greenland, others) for the whole area of Austria. Erosion effects are studied for the Austrian region. Legal regulations and measures for an effective soil protection, reduction of soil degradation and sustainable development in Austria and the European Union are discussed. (a.n.)

  5. Orbit Mechanics about Small Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheeres, D. J.

    2007-01-01

    Space missions to small solar system bodies must deal with multiple perturbations acting on the spacecraft. These include strong perturbations from the gravity field and solar tide, but for small bodies the most important perturbations may arise from solar radiation pressure (SRP) acting on the spacecraft. Previous research has generally investigated the effect of the gravity field, solar tide, and SRP acting on a spacecraft trajectory about an asteroid in isolation and has not considered their joint effect. In this paper a more general theoretical discussion of the joint effects of these forces is given.

  6. A Wide-Angle Camera for the Mobile Asteroid Surface Scout (MASCOT) on Hayabusa-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, N.; Koncz, A.; Jaumann, R.; Hoffmann, H.; Jobs, D.; Kachlicki, J.; Michaelis, H.; Mottola, S.; Pforte, B.; Schroeder, S.; Terzer, R.; Trauthan, F.; Tschentscher, M.; Weisse, S.; Ho, T.-M.; Biele, J.; Ulamec, S.; Broll, B.; Kruselburger, A.; Perez-Prieto, L.

    2014-04-01

    JAXA's Hayabusa-2 mission, an asteroid sample return mission, is scheduled for launch in December 2014, for a rendezvous with the C-type asteroid 1999 JU3 in 2018. MASCOT, the Mobile Asteroid Surface Scout [1], is a small lander, designed to deliver ground truth for the orbiter remote measurements, support the selection of sampling sites, and provide context for the returned samples.MASCOT's main objective is to investigate the landing site's geomorphology, the internal structure, texture and composition of the regolith (dust, soil and rocks), and the thermal, mechanical, and magnetic properties of the surface. MASCOT comprises a payload of four scientific instruments: camera, radiometer, magnetometer and hyper-spectral microscope. The camera (MASCOT CAM) was designed and built by DLR's Institute of Planetary Research, together with Airbus DS Germany.

  7. Lightcurve Analysis of Asteroids from Blue Mountains Observatory in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oey, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Photometric observations of a number of asteroids were done from Blue Mountains Observatory in 2014. The observations were made in support of the binary asteroid and asteroid pairs campaigns by Petr Pravec, and to obtain new data at favorable apparitions for asteroids with poorly defined lightcurves.

  8. Working Group Reports and Presentations: Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, John

    2006-01-01

    The study and utilization of asteroids will be an economical way to enable exploration of the solar system and extend human presence in space. There are thousands of near-earth objects (NEOs) that we will be able to reach. They offer resources, transportation, and exploration platforms, but also present a potential threat to civilization. Asteroids play a catastrophic role in the history of the Earth. Geological records indicate a regular history of massive impacts, which astronomical observations confirm is likely to continue with potentially devastating consequences. However, study and exploration of near earth asteroids can significantly increase advanced warning of an Earth impact, and potentially lead to the technology necessary to avert such a collision. Efforts to detect and prevent cataclysmic events would tend to foster and likely require international cooperation toward a unified goal of self-preservation. Exploration of asteroids will help us to understand our history and perhaps save our future. Besides the obvious and compelling scientific and security drivers for asteroid research and exploration, there are numerous engineering and industrial applications for near-term asteroid exploration. We have strong evidence that some asteroids are metal rich. Some are water and organic rich. They can be reached with a very low fuel cost compared to other solar system destinations. Once we reach them, there are efficient, simple extraction technologies available that would facilitate utilization. In addition, the costs of returning extracted resources from asteroids will be a fraction of the cost to return similar resources from the moon to Low Earth Orbit (LEO). These raw materials, extracted and shipped at relatively low cost, can be used to manufacture structures, fuel, and products which could be used to foster mankind s further exploration of the solar system. Asteroids also have the potential to offer transport to several destinations in the solar system

  9. Reproductive ecology of Sichuan digging frogs (Microhylidae: Kaloula rugifera)

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Chen; Lina Ren; Dujuan He; Ying Wang; David Pike

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. We investigated the reproductive ecology of Sichuan digging frogs (Microhylidae: Kaloula rugifera) in Mianyang, China during the wet season of 2013. Male Sichuan digging frogs first appear at temporary ponds following the first heavy rain of the wet season and initiate calling. Females arrive at ponds shortly after males. Male frogs chorus extensively throughout the wet season during the evenings and nights following rainstorms. Female frogs leave the pond after laying eggs, and lik...

  10. Dynamical dispersal of primordial asteroid families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasil, P. I. O.; Roig, F.; Nesvorný, D.; Carruba, V.; Aljbaae, S.; Huaman, M. E.

    2016-03-01

    Many asteroid families are identified and well characterized all over the main asteroid belt. Interestingly, however, none of them are older than 4 Gyr. Many mechanisms have been proposed to disperse such old primordial asteroid families that presumably have existed, but only very few have really worked. Here we present a plausible mechanism for dispersing primordial asteroid families that is based on the 5-planet instability model known as jumping Jupiter. Using two different evolutions for the jumping-Jupiter model, we have numerically integrated orbits of eight putative primordial families. Our results show that the most important effect on the asteroid families' eccentricity and inclination dispersal is that of the secular resonances, in some cases associated with the mean motion resonances. As for the semimajor axes spreading we find that the principal effect is that of close encounters with the fifth giant planet whose orbit briefly overlaps with (part of) the main belt. Therefore, the existence of a fifth giant planet with the mass comparable with that of Uranus' or Neptune's could contribute in important ways to dispersal of the primordial asteroid families. To have that effect, the interloper planet should go into and considerably interact with the asteroids during the instability phase.

  11. Olivine-dominated Asteroids: Mineralogy and Origin

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez, Juan A; Kelley, Michael S; Cloutis, Edward A; Bottke, William F; Nesvorný, David; Lucas, Michael P; Hardersen, Paul S; Gaffey, Michael J; Abell, Paul A; Corre, Lucille Le

    2013-01-01

    Olivine-dominated asteroids are a rare type of objects formed either in nebular processes or through magmatic differentiation. The analysis of meteorite samples suggest that at least 100 parent bodies in the main belt experienced partial or complete melting and differentiation before being disrupted. However, only a few olivine-dominated asteroids, representative of the mantle of disrupted differentiated bodies, are known to exist. Due to the paucity of these objects in the main belt their origin and evolution have been a matter of great debate over the years. In this work we present a detailed mineralogical analysis of twelve olivine-dominated asteroids. Within our sample we distinguish two classes, one that we call pure-olivine asteroids and another referred to as olivine-rich asteroids. For the pure-olivine asteroids the olivine chemistry was found to range from ~ Fo49 to Fo70, consistent with the values measured for brachinites and R chondrites. In the case of the olivine-rich asteroids we determined thei...

  12. Precise measurement of asteroid sizes and shapes from occultations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The observational techniques (including photoelectric observations, television recordings, and visual timings) used to measure asteroid dimensions from occultations of stars by asteroids are discussed together with the methods of analysis appropriate to occultation data. Results are presented on the determinations of asteroid diameter, density, and internal structure measures learned from occultations of 36 asteroids. Prospects for continued effective applications of the occultation technique to asteroid studies are discussed. 80 refs

  13. Delivery of meteorites from the asteroid belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Michael Craig

    The process of the delivery of meteorites to the surface of the Earth from plausible source regions such as the asteroid belt is currently understood in general terms, but important uncertainties and conflicts remain to be resolved. Stochastic effects of the rare disruptions of large asteroids on the population of meteorite-sized Earth-crossing asteroids can change the flux and the proportions of compositional types in the infalling meteorite population. These changes can be significant in magnitude over timescales of 108 years. Changes of the order of 1 percent can be expected on timescales of 105-106 y, consistent with small differences between the Antarctic meteorites and modern falls. The magnitude of changes depends strongly on poorly-understood details of collisions. Asteroids 961 Gaspra and 243 Ida were recently imaged by the Galileo spacecraft. I use a numerical hydrocode model to examine the outcomes of various sire impacts into targets the sizes of these asteroids. A shock wave fractures the asteroid in advance of crater excavation flow; thus, for impactors larger than 100 m, impacting at 5.3 km s-1, tensile strength is unimportant in these bodies, whether they are initially intact or are 'rubble piles'. Because of the shock-induced fracture, impact results are controlled by gravity. Therefore these asteroids are much more resistant to catastrophic disruption than predicted by previous estimates, which had assumed that strength was controlling these processes for rock targets. Fracture of km-size asteroids is different from fracture in terrestrial experiments using few-cm targets. The composition distribution of delivered meteorites depends on the outcomes of such asteroid impacts.

  14. A three-parameter asteroid taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Edward F.; Williams, James G.; Matson, Dennis L.; Veeder, Glenn J.; Gradie, Jonathan C.

    1989-01-01

    Broadband U, V, and x photometry together with IRAS asteroid albedos have been used to construct an asteroid classification system. The system is based on three parameters (U-V and v-x color indices and visual geometric albedo), and it is able to place 96 percent of the present sample of 357 asteroids into 11 taxonomic classes. It is noted that all but one of these classes are analogous to those previously found using other classification schemes. The algorithm is shown to account for the observational uncertainties in each of the classification parameters.

  15. Compositions of near-Earth asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebofsky, L. A.; Nelson, M. L.

    1991-01-01

    The goal is to determine whether any of the near-earth asteroids contain water-bearing phyllosilicate (clay) minerals. If these minerals are present, they would provide a readily available source of water for propellant generation and use in life support systems. Telescopic detection of water on the near-earth asteroids is complicated because thermal emission from the asteroid itself masks the diagnostic absorption features for objects this close to the sun. Sophisticated thermal models are necessary to determine whether the absorption features are present. This year, development of these models was continued and more telescopic data to test the models was obtained.

  16. Asteroids: Their composition and impact threat

    OpenAIRE

    Burbine T H

    2002-01-01

    Impacts by near-Earth asteroids are serious threats to life as we know it. The energy of the impact will be a function of the mass of the asteroid and its impact velocity. The mass of an asteroid is very difficult to determine from Earth. One way to derive a near-Earth object's mass is by estimating the object's density from its surface composition. Reflectance spectra are the best way to determine an object's composition since many minerals (e.g. olivine, pyroxene, hydrated silicates) have c...

  17. Asteroids@home - A BOINC distributed computing project for asteroid shape reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Durech, Josef; Vanco, Radim

    2015-01-01

    We present the project Asteroids@home that uses distributed computing to solve the time-consuming inverse problem of shape reconstruction of asteroids. The project uses the Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC) framework to distribute, collect, and validate small computational units that are solved independently at individual computers of volunteers connected to the project. Shapes, rotational periods, and orientations of the spin axes of asteroids are reconstructed from their disk-integrated photometry by the lightcurve inversion method.

  18. Near Earth Asteroids- Prospection, Orbit Modification and Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandl, W.; Bazso, A.

    2014-04-01

    The number of known Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) has increased continuously during the last decades. Now we understand the role of asteroid impacts for the evolution of life on Earth. To ensure that mankind will survive in the long run, we have to face the "asteroid threat" seriously. On one hand we will have to develop methods of detection and deflection for Hazardous Asteroids, on the other hand we can use these methods to modify their orbits and exploit their resources. Rare-earth elements, rare metals like platinum group elements, etc. may be extracted more easily from NEAs than from terrestrial soil, without environmental pollution or political and social problems. In a first step NEAs, which are expected to contain resources like nickel-iron, platinum group metals or rare-earth elements, will be prospected by robotic probes. Then a number of asteroids with a minimum bulk density of 2 g/cm^3 and a diameter of 150 to 500 m will be selected for mining. Given the long duration of an individual mission time of 10-20 years, the authors propose a "pipeline" concept. While the observation of NEAs can be done in parallel, the precursor missions of the the next phase can be launched in short intervals, giving time for technical corrections and upgrades. In this way a continuous data flow is established and there are no idle times. For our purpose Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs) seem to be a favorable choice for the following reasons: They have frequent closeencounters to Earth, their minimum orbit intersection distance is less than 0.05 AU (Astronomic Units) and they have diameters exceeding 150 meters. The necessary velocity change (delta V) for a spaceship is below 12 km/s to reach the PHA. The authors propose to modify the orbits of the chosen PHAs by orbital maneuvers from solar orbits to stable Earth orbits beyond the Moon. To change the orbits of these celestial bodies it is necessary to develop advanced propulsion systems. They must be able to deliver high

  19. Digging into Inquiry-Based Earth Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Bryan; Yates, Crystal; Schultz, Jayne M.

    2008-01-01

    To help eighth-grade students experience the excitement of Earth science research, the authors developed an inquiry-based project in which students evaluated and cataloged their campus geology and soils. Following class discussions of rock-weathering and soil-forming processes, students worked in groups to excavate multiple soil pits in the school…

  20. The Cratering History of Asteroid (21) Lutetia

    CERN Document Server

    Marchi, S; Vincent, J -B; Morbidelli, A; Mottola, S; Marzari, F; Kueppers, M; Besse, S; Thomas, N; Barbieri, C; Naletto, G; Sierks, H

    2011-01-01

    The European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft passed by the main belt asteroid (21) Lutetia the 10th July 2010. With its ~100km size, Lutetia is one of the largest asteroids ever imaged by a spacecraft. During the flyby, the on-board OSIRIS imaging system acquired spectacular images of Lutetia's northern hemisphere revealing a complex surface scarred by numerous impact craters, reaching the maximum dimension of about 55km. In this paper, we assess the cratering history of the asteroid. For this purpose, we apply current models describing the formation and evolution of main belt asteroids, that provide the rate and velocity distributions of impactors. These models, coupled with appropriate crater scaling laws, allow us to interpret the observed crater size-frequency distribution (SFD) and constrain the cratering history. Thanks to this approach, we derive the crater retention age of several regions on Lutetia, namely the time lapsed since their formation or global surface reset. We also investigate the influe...

  1. Properties of Near-Sun Asteroids

    CERN Document Server

    Jewitt, David

    2013-01-01

    Asteroids near the Sun can attain equilibrium temperatures sufficient to induce surface modification from thermal fracture, desiccation and decomposition of hydrated silicates. We present optical observations of nine asteroids with perihelia <0.25 AU (sub-solar temperatures greater than/equal to 800 K) taken to search for evidence of thermal modification. We find that the broadband colors of these objects are diverse but statistically indistinguishable from those of planet-crossing asteroids having perihelia near 1 AU. Furthermore, images of these bodies taken away from perihelion show no evidence for on-going mass-loss (model-dependent limits roughly less than/equal to 1 kg /s) that might result from thermal disintegration of the surface. We conclude that, while thermal modification may be an important process in the decay of near-Sun asteroids and in the production of debris, our new data provide no evidence for it.

  2. Asteroid rotation excitation by subcatastrophic impacts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Henych, T.; Pravec, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 432, č. 2 (2013), s. 1623-1631. ISSN 0035-8711 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : numerical methods * minor planets * general asteroids Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.226, year: 2013

  3. Asteroid Lightcurves from the Preston Gott Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Maurice

    2012-04-01

    Results of analysis of CCD photometry observations obtained at the Preston Gott Observatory of asteroids 970 Primula, 3015 Candy, 3751 Kiang, 6746 Zagar, 7750 McEwen, 10046 Creighton, and 19251 Totziens are presented.

  4. Chelyabinsk: Portrait of an asteroid airburst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kring, David A.; Boslough, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Video and audio from hundreds of smartphones and dashboard cameras combined with seismic, acoustic, and satellite measurements provide the first precise documentation of a 10 000-ton asteroid explosion.

  5. Collisional and Rotational Disruption of Asteroids

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Kevin J; Richardson, Derek C

    2009-01-01

    Asteroids are leftover pieces from the era of planet formation that help us understand conditions in the early Solar System. Unlike larger planetary bodies that were subject to global thermal modification during and subsequent to their formation, these small bodies have kept at least some unmodified primordial material from the solar nebula. However, the structural properties of asteroids have been modified considerably since their formation. Thus, we can find among them a great variety of physical configurations and dynamical histories. In fact, with only a few possible exceptions, all asteroids have been modified or completely disrupted many times during the age of the Solar System. This picture is supported by data from space mission encounters with asteroids that show much diversity of shape, bulk density, surface morphology, and other features. Moreover, the gravitational attraction of these bodies is so small that some physical processes occur in a manner far removed from our common experience on Earth....

  6. Chelyabinsk: Portrait of an asteroid airburst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Video and audio from hundreds of smartphones and dashboard cameras combined with seismic, acoustic, and satellite measurements provide the first precise documentation of a 10 000-ton asteroid explosion

  7. Origins for the near-earth asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binzel, Richard P.; Xu, Shui; Bus, Schelte J.; Bowell, Edward

    1992-01-01

    Because of their short dynamical lifetimes, the population of near-earth asteroids (NEAs) must be resupplied. Two sources have been hypothesized: main-belt asteroids and extinct comet nuclei. A new survey of physical properties for less than 5 kilometers diameter main-belt asteroids reveals that their spin rate and shape distributions are similar to those of NEAs, as is fully consistent with a main-belt origin for most NEAs. Physical data on comet nuclei are limited. If the existing sample is representative of the comet population, analysis of the asteroid and comet samples constrains the fraction of comet nuclei to between 0 and 40 percent of the total NEA population.

  8. Dynamics of the outer asteroid belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper considers the issue of modeling the dynamics of the outer asteroid belt. The hypotheses and assumptions of an asteroid-belt model are discussed together with their problems, of which gaps at some mean-motion resonances with Jupiter and the depletion of the outer belt are the most outstanding ones. Particular attention is given to the theory of the 2:1 gap, the depletion problem, and the mechanisms of dynamical protection against strong perturbations by Jupiter. It is suggested that the observed asteroids must have gone through a process of natural selection as a result of which all objects in unprotected orbits have been ejected from the system. Spectral observations show a reddening in spectral slope with increasing heliocentric distance; it is proposed that this is an evidence that outer-belt asteroids might be primordial objects. 41 refs

  9. Mineralogy and Surface Composition of Asteroids

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, Vishnu; Thomas, Cristina A; Moskovitz, Nicholas A; Burbine, Thomas H

    2015-01-01

    Methods to constrain the surface mineralogy of asteroids have seen considerable development during the last decade with advancement in laboratory spectral calibrations and validation of our interpretive methodologies by spacecraft rendezvous missions. This has enabled the accurate identification of several meteorite parent bodies in the main asteroid belt and helped constrain the mineral chemistries and abundances in ordinary chondrites and basaltic achondrites. With better quantification of spectral effects due to temperature, phase angle, and grain size, systematic discrepancies due to non-compositional factors can now be virtually eliminated for mafic silicate-bearing asteroids. Interpretation of spectrally featureless asteroids remains a challenge. This paper presents a review of all mineralogical interpretive tools currently in use and outlines procedures for their application.

  10. Colors of Dynamically Associated Asteroid Pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Moskovitz, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Recent dynamical studies have identified pairs of asteroids that reside in nearly identical heliocentric orbits. Possible formation scenarios for these systems include dissociation of binary asteroids, collisional disruption of a single parent body, or spin-up and rotational fission of a rubble-pile. Aside from detailed dynamical analyses and measurement of rotational light curves, little work has been done to investigate the colors or spectra of these unusual objects. A photometric and spectroscopic survey was conducted to determine the reflectance properties of asteroid pairs. New observations were obtained for a total of 34 individual asteroids. Additional photometric measurements were retrieved from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Moving Object Catalog. Colors or spectra for a total of 42 pair components are presented here. The main findings of this work are: (1) the components in the observed pair systems have the same colors within the uncertainties of this survey, and (2) the color distribution of asteroi...

  11. Digging in one last time for the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    A landmark event occurred during the second week of March, when the final cubic metres of earth were cleared away, completing the excavation phase for the entire LHC project . The event took place at Point 5, where the CMS detector will be installed, as civil engineering teams finished digging the cavern that connects the LHC tunnel with the bypass tunnel around the experimental cavern. Two new access shafts, two large caverns, two ancillary caverns, as well as the connecting tunnels have been excavated by the civil engineering teams. "The engineers heaved a huge sigh of relief when the work was done, because the excavations were quite risky. Anything can happen, and the risk of delays was far from zero," explains Jean Luc Baldy Head of ST Division's civil engineering group. This was especially true around Point 5, where unusual geology created some problems. The moraine-molasse interface lies 50 metres beneath the surface, or just about 18 metres above the roof of the caverns. Because the moraine consists of...

  12. Spectral investigation of two asteroidal fireballs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Borovička, Jiří

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 97, 3-4 (2006), s. 279-293. ISSN 0167-9295. [Asteroids, Comets, Meteors 2005. Búzios, 07.08.2005-12.08.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/05/0543; GA ČR GA205/03/1404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : asteroids * meteors * spectroscopy Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.252, year: 2006

  13. Collisional and Rotational Disruption of Asteroids

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Kevin J.; Michel, Patrick; Richardson, Derek C.

    2009-01-01

    Asteroids are leftover pieces from the era of planet formation that help us understand conditions in the early Solar System. Unlike larger planetary bodies that were subject to global thermal modification during and subsequent to their formation, these small bodies have kept at least some unmodified primordial material from the solar nebula. However, the structural properties of asteroids have been modified considerably since their formation. Thus, we can find among them a great variety of ph...

  14. ISAM - an Interactive Service for Asteroid Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartczak, P.; Marciniak, A.

    2011-10-01

    We present an interactive web service for past and future physical ephemeris of polyhedral asteroid shape models obtained mainly with the lightcurve inversion method. Our tool allows for plane-of-sky views of the models, that can be then compared with asteroid images obtained using different techniques like occultations, radar or thermal infrared. Additionally, lightcurves, animated views, and stereoscopic images can be generated by the users. The service is available at the address: http://isam.astro.amu.edu.pl

  15. Rotational properties of the Maria asteroid family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, M.-J.; Byun, Y.-I. [Department of Astronomy, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, 120-749 Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Y.-J.; Moon, H.-K.; Hinse, T. C.; Park, J.-H. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, 305-348 Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Brosch, N. [Tel Aviv University, P.O. Box 39040, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Kaplan, M.; Kaynar, S.; Uysal, Ö.; Eker, Z. [Akdeniz Universitesi, Fen Fakultesi, Dumlupinar Bulvari, Kampus, 07058 Antalya (Turkey); Güzel, E. [Department of Astronomy and Space Sciences, University of Ege, Bornova, 35100 Izmir (Turkey); Behrend, R. [Geneva Observatory, Rue de Vermont 37, 1202 Geneva (Switzerland); Yoon, J.-N. [Chungbuk National University Observatory, 802-3 Euntan-ri, Jincheon-gun, Chungcheongbuk-do (Korea, Republic of); Mottola, S.; Hellmich, S., E-mail: skarma@galaxy.yonsei.ac.kr [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Rutherfordstrasse 2, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-03-01

    The Maria family is regarded as an old-type (∼3 ± 1 Gyr) asteroid family that has experienced substantial collisional and dynamical evolution in the main belt. It is located near the 3:1 Jupiter mean-motion resonance area that supplies near-Earth asteroids to the inner solar system. We carried out observations of Maria family asteroids during 134 nights from 2008 July to 2013 May and derived synodic rotational periods for 51 objects, including newly obtained periods of 34 asteroids. We found that there is a significant excess of fast and slow rotators in the observed rotation rate distribution. The one-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test confirms that the spin rate distribution is not consistent with a Maxwellian at a 92% confidence level. From correlations among rotational periods, amplitudes of light curves, and sizes, we conclude that the rotational properties of Maria family asteroids have been changed considerably by non-gravitational forces such as the YORP effect. Using a light-curve inversion method, we successfully determined the pole orientations for 13 Maria members and found an excess of prograde versus retrograde spins with a ratio (N{sub p} /N{sub r} ) of 3. This implies that the retrograde rotators could have been ejected by the 3:1 resonance into the inner solar system since the formation of the Maria family. We estimate that approximately 37-75 Maria family asteroids larger than 1 km have entered near-Earth space every 100 Myr.

  16. Lightcurves of the Karin family asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Fumi; Ito, Takashi; Dermawan, Budi; Nakamura, Tsuko; Takahashi, Shigeru; Ibrahimov, Mansur A.; Malhotra, Renu; Ip, Wing-Huen; Chen, Wen-Ping; Sawabe, Yu; Haji, Masashige; Saito, Ryoko; Hirai, Masanori

    2016-05-01

    The Karin family is a young asteroid family formed by an asteroid breakup 5.8 Myr ago. Since the members of this family probably have not experienced significant orbital or collisional evolution yet, it is possible that they still preserve properties of the original family-forming event in terms of their spin state. We carried out a series of photometric observations of the Karin family asteroids, and here we report on the analysis of the lightcurves including the rotation period of eleven members. The mean rotation rate of the Karin family members turned out to be much lower than those of near-Earth asteroids or small main belt asteroids (diameter D 130 km). We investigated a correlation between the peak-to-trough variation and the rotation period of the eleven Karin family asteroids, and found a possible trend that elongated members have lower spin rates, and less elongated members have higher spin rates. However, this trend has to be confirmed by another series of future observations.

  17. An Early Warning System for Asteroid Impact

    CERN Document Server

    Tonry, John L

    2010-01-01

    Earth is bombarded by meteors, occasionally by one large enough to cause a significant explosion and possible loss of life. Although the odds of a deadly asteroid strike in the next century are low, the most likely impact is by a relatively small asteroid, and we suggest that the best mitigation strategy in the near term is simply to move people out of the way. We describe an "early warning" system that could provide a week's notice of most sizable asteroids or comets on track to hit the Earth. This system, dubbed "Asteroid Terrestrial-impact Last Alert System" (ATLAS), comprises two observatories separated by about 100km that simultaneously scan the visible sky twice a night, and can be implemented immediately for relatively low cost. The sensitivity of ATLAS permits detection of 140m asteroids (100 Mton impact energy) three weeks before impact, and 50m asteroids a week before arrival. An ATLAS alarm, augmented by other observations, should result in a determination of impact location and time that is accura...

  18. Asteroid 'Bites the Dust' Around Dead Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope set its infrared eyes upon the dusty remains of shredded asteroids around several dead stars. This artist's concept illustrates one such dead star, or 'white dwarf,' surrounded by the bits and pieces of a disintegrating asteroid. These observations help astronomers better understand what rocky planets are made of around other stars. Asteroids are leftover scraps of planetary material. They form early on in a star's history when planets are forming out of collisions between rocky bodies. When a star like our sun dies, shrinking down to a skeleton of its former self called a white dwarf, its asteroids get jostled about. If one of these asteroids gets too close to the white dwarf, the white dwarf's gravity will chew the asteroid up, leaving a cloud of dust. Spitzer's infrared detectors can see these dusty clouds and their various constituents. So far, the telescope has identified silicate minerals in the clouds polluting eight white dwarfs. Because silicates are common in our Earth's crust, the results suggest that planets similar to ours might be common around other stars.

  19. Asteroid Models from Multiple Data Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Durech, J; Delbo, M; Kaasalainen, M; Viikinkoski, M

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, hundreds of asteroid shape models have been derived using the lightcurve inversion method. At the same time, a new framework of 3-D shape modeling based on the combined analysis of widely different data sources such as optical lightcurves, disk-resolved images, stellar occultation timings, mid-infrared thermal radiometry, optical interferometry, and radar delay-Doppler data, has been developed. This multi-data approach allows the determination of most of the physical and surface properties of asteroids in a single, coherent inversion, with spectacular results. We review the main results of asteroid lightcurve inversion and also recent advances in multi-data modeling. We show that models based on remote sensing data were confirmed by spacecraft encounters with asteroids, and we discuss how the multiplication of highly detailed 3-D models will help to refine our general knowledge of the asteroid population. The physical and surface properties of asteroids, i.e., their spin, 3-D shape, densit...

  20. Asteroid secular dynamics: Ceres' fingerprint identified

    CERN Document Server

    Novaković, Bojan; Tsirvoulis, Georgios; Knezević, Zoran

    2015-01-01

    Here we report on the significant role of a so far overlooked dynamical aspect, namely a secular resonance between the dwarf planet Ceres and other asteroids. We demonstrate that this type of secular resonance can be the dominant dynamical factor in certain regions of the main asteroid belt. Specifically, we performed a dynamical analysis of the asteroids belonging to the (1726) Hoffmeister family. To identify which dynamical mechanisms are actually at work in this part of the main asteroid belt, i.e. to isolate the main perturber(s), we study the evolution of this family in time. The study is accomplished using numerical integrations of test particles performed within different dynamical models. The obtained results reveal that the post-impact evolution of the Hoffmeister asteroid family is a direct consequence of the nodal secular resonance with Ceres. This leads us to the conclusion that similar effects must exist in other parts of the asteroid belt. In this respect, the obtained results shed light on an i...

  1. Rotational properties of the Maria asteroid family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Maria family is regarded as an old-type (∼3 ± 1 Gyr) asteroid family that has experienced substantial collisional and dynamical evolution in the main belt. It is located near the 3:1 Jupiter mean-motion resonance area that supplies near-Earth asteroids to the inner solar system. We carried out observations of Maria family asteroids during 134 nights from 2008 July to 2013 May and derived synodic rotational periods for 51 objects, including newly obtained periods of 34 asteroids. We found that there is a significant excess of fast and slow rotators in the observed rotation rate distribution. The one-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test confirms that the spin rate distribution is not consistent with a Maxwellian at a 92% confidence level. From correlations among rotational periods, amplitudes of light curves, and sizes, we conclude that the rotational properties of Maria family asteroids have been changed considerably by non-gravitational forces such as the YORP effect. Using a light-curve inversion method, we successfully determined the pole orientations for 13 Maria members and found an excess of prograde versus retrograde spins with a ratio (Np /Nr ) of 3. This implies that the retrograde rotators could have been ejected by the 3:1 resonance into the inner solar system since the formation of the Maria family. We estimate that approximately 37-75 Maria family asteroids larger than 1 km have entered near-Earth space every 100 Myr.

  2. 挖拔式木薯收获机的研制与样机试验%Development and prototype trial of digging-pulling style cassava harvester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖宇兰; 孙佑攀; 刘世豪; 陈丹萍; 王高平

    2012-01-01

    Aim at the complexity of cassava tuber distributing in the soil,in order to harvest cassava tuber from different soils with a variety of hard levels,referencing the basic principles and structure of potatoes,garlic,sweet potatoes and other root crops harvesting machinery,a kind of digging-pulling style cassava harvester was developed based on cassava's biological and physical characteristics,which can complete tuber's digging,transportation,separation and other work simultaneously.The digging shovel,clamping conveyor and power transmission mechanism were designed and the key parameters were determined.The key parameters of the grizzly bar-type shovel is shovel's plane angle of on more 20°,the shovel's length of is 550 mm and shovel's width is 1000 mm.The total transmission ratio is 2.29,gearbox's transmission ratio is 2.The gearbox output shaft speed is 500 r/min.The chain transmission ratio is 1.15,and output speed is 435 r/min.The digging-pulling cassava harvester should be used with medium-sized tractor.Through the trial of the prototype and field test,the results showed that digging-pulling cassava harvester runs smoothly,and reaches the combination of digging and pulling to harvest cassava.%针对木薯块根在土壤中分布的复杂性,为了将木薯块根顺利地从各种松硬程度不同的土壤收获出来,模拟人工收获木薯的机理,借鉴马铃薯、大蒜、红薯等根茎类作物收获机械的基本原理和结构,以木薯生物和物理特性为依据,该文研制出一种可一次性完成薯块的挖掘、分离、输送等工作的挖拔式木薯收获机.该文主要介绍了挖掘铲、夹持输送机构及动力传输机构及关键参数的确定.该栅条式挖掘铲的关键参数为铲平面倾角为20°,铲长为550 mm,铲宽为1 000 mm.计算出整机总传动比为2.29,变速箱传动比为2,输出速度为500 r/min,链传动的传动比为1.15,输出速度为435 r/min.该机与中型拖拉机配套使用,通过样机的

  3. Walking softly : using bioremediation to reclaim sites leaves a smaller footprint than traditional dig-and-dump technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, M.

    2006-10-15

    Recent developments in the bioremediation industry in Alberta were outlined. The market for bioremediation services in the United States alone is estimated to hit $1 billion by 2010 and has become a staple of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's emergency management practices in the event of an oil spill. Alberta Environment has recently updated its policies and guidance documents on contaminated sites management, and is planning a manual that will include best bioremediation practices. Advances in the science and technology of bioremediation and a rise in environmental awareness have contributed to the sector's growth in recent years. In the past, oil companies in Alberta typically reclaimed sites by digging up contaminated soil and trucking it to landfills. Recent techniques developed by industry and bioremediation experts now mean that soil profiles can remain undisturbed, and biological treatment amendments are often introduced into the fractures to destroy contaminants where they lie. The National Research Council's Biotechnology Research Institute (NRC-BRI) is now conducting research to identify and profile unknown micro-organisms to improve conditions for the breakdown of toxins. Bioremediation techniques are also being used in urban redevelopment. It was concluded that while the environmental industry is regulatory-driven, many oil and mining companies are deciding to invest in remediation instead of waiting until a later date. A list of new bioremediation partnerships with industry, government and municipalities was also provided. 2 figs.

  4. Walking softly : using bioremediation to reclaim sites leaves a smaller footprint than traditional dig-and-dump technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent developments in the bioremediation industry in Alberta were outlined. The market for bioremediation services in the United States alone is estimated to hit $1 billion by 2010 and has become a staple of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's emergency management practices in the event of an oil spill. Alberta Environment has recently updated its policies and guidance documents on contaminated sites management, and is planning a manual that will include best bioremediation practices. Advances in the science and technology of bioremediation and a rise in environmental awareness have contributed to the sector's growth in recent years. In the past, oil companies in Alberta typically reclaimed sites by digging up contaminated soil and trucking it to landfills. Recent techniques developed by industry and bioremediation experts now mean that soil profiles can remain undisturbed, and biological treatment amendments are often introduced into the fractures to destroy contaminants where they lie. The National Research Council's Biotechnology Research Institute (NRC-BRI) is now conducting research to identify and profile unknown micro-organisms to improve conditions for the breakdown of toxins. Bioremediation techniques are also being used in urban redevelopment. It was concluded that while the environmental industry is regulatory-driven, many oil and mining companies are deciding to invest in remediation instead of waiting until a later date. A list of new bioremediation partnerships with industry, government and municipalities was also provided. 2 figs

  5. Near-Earth Asteroid Scout

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, Leslie; Johnson, Les; Clardy, Dennon; Castillo-Rogez, Julie; Frick, Andreas; Jones, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) are an easily accessible object in Earth's vicinity. Detections of NEAs are expected to grow in the near future, offering increasing target opportunities. As NASA continues to refine its plans to possibly explore these small worlds with human explorers, initial reconnaissance with comparatively inexpensive robotic precursors is necessary. Obtaining and analyzing relevant data about these bodies via robotic precursors before committing a crew to visit a NEA will significantly minimize crew and mission risk, as well as maximize exploration return potential. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are jointly examining a mission concept, tentatively called 'NEA Scout,' utilizing a low-cost CubeSats platform in response to the current needs for affordable missions with exploration science value. The NEA Scout mission concept would be a secondary payload on the Space Launch System (SLS) Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1), the first planned flight of the SLS and the second un-crewed test flight of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV).

  6. From Asteroids to Space Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkhaldoun, Zouhair; Moon, Hong-Kyu; Daassou, Ahmed; Jang-Hyun, Park; Lazrek, Mohamed

    2015-08-01

    Since 2011, the Oukaimeden Observatory (OUCA) located on the mountains of the Moroccan High Atlas has become one of the successful contributors in asteroid discovery in the world. The discovery statistics of the MOSS (Morocco Oukaimeden Sky Survey) telescope represents more than 2145 new designations to date for their credits. Its discoveries include three new NEOs and four new comets. The exceptional astro-climatic conditions in terms not only of number of clear nights, but also of atmospheric seeing are partly behind this success. Indeed the average number of observable nights is around 280 nights per year, while the average seeing is about 0.8 to 0.9 arcsec.In the meanwhile, the OUCA achieved construction and installation of a new facility in March 2015. It is a compact, 0.5 m aperture fast optics robotic telescope designed and implemented by the Optical Wide-field Patrol (OWL) team of Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI). The primary object of the OWL project is to monitor national space-based assets, howevr either wide-field imaging- or fast data acquisition- capabilities enable to undertake observational program to catalog and follow-up various transient events in the night sky. We will brief future plan for this joint project between the OUCA and KASI.Our presentation aims to share the details of instrumentation implemented and cooperation opportunities it can arouse within the community for the data analysis and interpretation.

  7. File list: InP.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestinal_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestinal_stem_cells mm9 Input control Digestive tract Intestinal... stem cells SRX1091861,SRX856960,SRX1091862,SRX193723 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestinal_stem_cells.bed ...

  8. File list: InP.Dig.10.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Dig.10.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample hg19 Input control Digestive tract Gastric primary...369082 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Dig.10.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample.bed ...

  9. File list: NoD.Dig.20.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Dig.20.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample hg19 No description Digestive tract Gastric primary...X347263,SRX190784,SRX270966,SRX190796 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Dig.20.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample.bed ...

  10. File list: NoD.Dig.10.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Dig.10.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample hg19 No description Digestive tract Gastric primary...X347274,SRX347263,SRX190796,SRX270966 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Dig.10.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample.bed ...

  11. File list: InP.Dig.50.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Dig.50.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample hg19 Input control Digestive tract Gastric primary...369070 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Dig.50.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample.bed ...

  12. File list: InP.Dig.20.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Dig.20.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample hg19 Input control Digestive tract Gastric primary...369070 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Dig.20.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample.bed ...

  13. File list: InP.Dig.05.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Dig.05.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample hg19 Input control Digestive tract Gastric primary...369082 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Dig.05.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample.bed ...

  14. File list: NoD.Dig.05.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Dig.05.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample hg19 No description Digestive tract Gastric primary...X136952,SRX136976,SRX347263,SRX190796 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Dig.05.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample.bed ...

  15. File list: NoD.Dig.50.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Dig.50.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample hg19 No description Digestive tract Gastric primary...X190784,SRX270966,SRX190796,SRX136952 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Dig.50.AllAg.Gastric_primary_sample.bed ...

  16. SOFIA observations of dark asteroids: Evidence for hydrated minerals on asteroidal surfaces?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdam, Margaret; Sunshine, Jessica M.; Kelley, Michael S. P. T.

    2015-11-01

    We present results from recent SOFIA+FORCAST observations of three primitive asteroids and compare these to archived Spitzer Space Telescope (Spitzer) observations of similar objects. Three asteroids from a total of 12 have been observed with SOFIA+FORCAST in our Cycle-3 campaign. Currently, we have observed asteroids 38 Leda, 194 Prokne with both G111 and G227 grisms and asteroid 266 Aline with G227. Both wavelength regions (G111: 8.5-13.5-μm and G227: 17.6-27.7) have recently been shown to contain spectral features directly related degree of alteration of primitive meteorites, including unaltered CO and CV meteorites (McAdam, et al., 2015a ,b). Spectral features in the 17.6-27.7-μm region can be indicative of olivine (19.5-μm), hydrated minerals (21-μm) and silica glass (22-μm). Spitzer observed eight large, primitive, main-belt asteroids using both low-resolution modes (short-low, SL and long-low, LL) of the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) covering 8.5-38-μm. Additionally, Spitzer observed 22 dark primitive asteroids in the 8.5-13.5-μm region. Asteroids observed with Spitzer fall into three categories: asteroids with a 12-μm feature of 1-5% depth, interpreted as ~60-70% hydrated minerals (McAdam, et al., 2015a) asteroids with a broader 12-13-μm feature with strengths ranging from 4-6% with potential features between 19-22-μm (where observed) and asteroids with a strong 13-μm feature (5-10%), 15-μm and potentially 19-22-μm features (where observed) interpreted as olivine-rich. However, the uncertain calibration at the edges of the LL spectral orders complicates feature identification. 194 Prokne has a feature ~12-13-μm feature and potentially a broad feature between 20-22-μm. This is consistent with primitive asteroids observed with Spitzer that are interpreted as hydrated mineral-bearing. 38 Leda is largely featureless at the noise limit of the spectrum with a potential feature at 25-μm, unlike asteroids observed by Spitzer. 266 Aline has a weak

  17. CCD-Photometry and Pole Coordinates for Eight Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, V. G.; Tungalag, N.; Chiorny, V. G.; Gaftonyuk, N. M.; Krugly, Y. N.; Harris, A. W.; Young, J. W.

    2012-05-01

    The long time photometric observations were carried out for eight asteroids: (122) Gerda, (153) Hilda, (190) Ismene, (221) Eos, (411) Xanthe, (679) Pax, (700) Auravictrix, (787) Moskva. For the observed asteroids were determined new pole coordinates.

  18. A Fast Ellipsoid Model for Asteroids Inverted From Lightcurves

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Xiaoping; You, Zhong

    2012-01-01

    The research about asteroids attracts more and more attention recently, especially focusing on their physical structures, such as the spin axis, the rotation period and the shape. The long distance between Earth observers and asteroids makes it impossible to get the shape and other parameters of asteroids directly with the exception of the NEAs (Near Earth Asteroids) and others passed by some spacecrafts. Generally photometric measurement is still the main way to obtain the research data for asteroids now, i.e. the lightcurves recording the brightness and positions of asteroids. Supposing that the shape of the asteroid is a triaxial ellipsoid with a stable spinning status, a new method is present in this article to reconstruct the shape models of asteroids from the lightcurves, with the other physical parameters together. By applying a special curvature function, the method calculates the brightness integration on a unit sphere and Lebedev Quadrature is employed for the discretization. At last the method sear...

  19. Brazil Nuts on Eros: Size-Sorting of Asteroid Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asphaug, E.; King, P. J.; Swift, M. R.; Merrifield, M. R.

    2001-01-01

    We consider the hypothesis that frequent cratering produces size- or compositionally-sorted asteroid regolith, affecting the structure, texture, and in extreme cases the shape of asteroids. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  20. Philosophy and updating of the asteroid photometric catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Per; Barucci, M. Antonietta; Capria, M. T.; Dahlgren, Mats; Fulchignoni, Marcello; Lagerkvist, C. I.

    1992-01-01

    The Asteroid Photometric Catalogue now contains photometric lightcurves for 584 asteroids. We discuss some of the guiding principles behind it. This concerns both observers who offer input to it and users of the product.

  1. 78 FR 64253 - NASA Asteroid Initiative Idea Synthesis Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Asteroid Initiative Idea Synthesis Workshop AGENCY: National Aeronautics and... Administration announces that the agency will resume the NASA Asteroid Initiative Idea Synthesis public..., Senior Technical Advisor, NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate:...

  2. Human Robotic Systems (HRS): Robotic Technologies for Asteroid Missions Element

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During 2014, the Robotic Technologies for Asteroid Missions activity has four tasks:Asteroid Retrieval Capture Mechanism Development and Testbed;Mission Operations...

  3. The Strength of Rubble Pile Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheeres, D. J.; Sanchez, P.

    2012-12-01

    The rubble pile hypothesis for small asteroids in the Near Earth and Main Belt populations have been driven by several factors, including the observed high porosity of those bodies whose mass have been measured, the evident limitation on spin rate of asteroids larger than ~500 meters, and direct observation of the surface morphology of these bodies. Given these observations, it has been presumed that small asteroids should evolve as if they were cohesionless collections of grains. Detailed geophysical analysis of these bodies by Holsapple (Icarus 2010) show that cohesionless bodies will evolve under the addition of angular momentum by the YORP effect into more distended and, paradoxically, more slowly rotating bodies. Additional analysis in Holsapple (Icarus 2007) has shown that cohesional strength within a rubble pile could strengthen a collection of grains to the point where they could sustain rapid rotation. In our current talk we use the above as a starting point and incorporate new observations of the asteroid morphology driven by recent analysis of asteroid Itokawa by the Hayabusa science team and research on the mechanics of grains in the space environment (Scheeres et al. 2010). Analysis of images of Itokawa determined a measured size distribution of 1/d^3 for larger grains on asteroid Itokawa (Michikami et al., Earth Planets Space, 60, 13-20, 2008). Analysis of the sample shows the presence of micron sized dust on that asteroid's surface (Tsuchiyama et al., Science 333, 1125, 2011). Combining these observations provides a global indication of grain distribution within rubble piles. Even assuming a less steep distribution of 1/d^2 for dust grains smaller than 1 mm in size, the interior of Itokawa should still be dominated by the finest dust grains, with the mean grain size equal to ~ twice the smallest grain in the distribution. One implication of this result is that fines are present on the surface of the rubble pile Itokawa and thus should be distributed

  4. Photometric constraints on binary asteroid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheirich, Peter

    2015-08-01

    To date, about 50 binary NEAs, 20 Mars-crossing and 80 small MB asteroids are known. We observe also a population of about 200 unbound asteroid systems (asteroid pairs). I will review the photometric observational data we have for the best observed cases and compare them with theories of binary and paired asteroids evolution.The observed characteristics of asteroid systems suggest their formation by rotational fission of parent rubble-pile asteroids after being spun up by the YORP effect. The angular momentum content of binary asteroids is close to critical. The orientations of satellite orbits of observed binary systems are non-random; the orbital poles concentrate near the obliquities of 0 and 180 degrees, i.e., near the YORP asymptotic states.Recently, a significant excess of retrograde satellite orbits was detected, which is not yet explained characteristic.An evolution of binary system depend heavily on the BYORP effect. If BYORP is contractive, the primary and secondary could end in a tidal-BYORP equilibrium. Observations of mutual events between binary components in at least four apparitions are needed for BYORP to be revealed by detecting a quadratic drift in mean anomaly of the satellite. I will show the observational evidence of single-synchronous binary asteroid with tidally locked satellite (175706 1996 FG3), i.e, with the quadratic drift equal to zero, and binary asteroid with contracting orbit (88710 2001 SL9), with positive value of the quadratic drift (the solution for the quadratic drift is ambiguous so far, with possible values of 5 and 8 deg/yr2).The spin configuration of the satellite play a crucial role in the evolution of the system under the influence of the BYORP effect. I will show that the rotational lightcurves of the satellites show that most of them have small libration amplitudes (up to 20 deg.), with a few interesting exceptions.Acknowledgements: This work has been supported by the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic, Grant P209

  5. Detecting Mass Loss in Main Belt Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Erik; Rajagopal, Jayadev; Ridgway, Susan E.; Kotulla, Ralf C.; Valdes, Francisco; Allen, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Sandberg, E., Rajagopal, J., Ridgway, S.E, Kotulla, R., Valdes, F., Allen, L.The Dark Energy Camera (DECam) on the 4m Blanco telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) is being used for a survey of Near Earth Objects (NEOs). Here we attempt to identify mass loss in main belt asteroids (MBAs) from these data. A primary motivation is to understand the role that asteroids may play in supplying dust and gas for debris disks. This work focuses on finding methods to automatically pick out asteroids that have qualities indicating possible mass loss. Two methods were chosen: looking for flux above a certain threshold in the asteroid's radial profile, and comparing its PSF to that of a point source. After sifting through 490 asteroids, several have passed these tests and should be followed up with a more rigorous analysis.Sandberg was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program (AST-1262829)

  6. Thermal Tomography of Asteroid Surface Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the surface thermal inertia of an asteroid can provide insight into surface structure: porous material has a lower thermal inertia than rock. We develop a means to estimate thermal inertia values of asteroids and use it to show that thermal inertia appears to increase with spin period in the case of main-belt asteroids (MBAs). Similar behavior is found on the basis of thermophysical modeling for near-Earth objects (NEOs). We interpret our results in terms of rapidly increasing material density and thermal conductivity with depth, and provide evidence that thermal inertia increases by factors of 10 (MBAs) to 20 (NEOs) within a depth of just 10 cm. Our results are consistent with a very general picture of rapidly changing material properties in the topmost regolith layers of asteroids and have important implications for calculations of the Yarkovsky effect, including its perturbation of the orbits of potentially hazardous objects and those of asteroid family members after the break-up event. Eviden...

  7. Tracking a Very Near Earth Asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruck, R.; Rashid, S.; Peppard, T.

    2013-09-01

    The potential effects of an asteroid passing within close proximity to the Earth were recently realized. During the February 16, 2013 event, Asteroid 2012 DA14 passed within an estimated 27,700 kilometers of the earth, well within the geosynchronous (GEO) orbital belt. This was the closest known approach of a planetoid of this size, in modern history. The GEO belt is a region that is filled with critical communications satellites which provide relays for essential government, business and private datum. On the day of the event, optical instruments at Detachment 3, 21OG, Maui GEODSS were able to open in marginal atmospheric conditions, locate and collect metric and raw video data on the asteroid as it passed a point of near heliocentric orbital propinquity to the Earth. Prior to the event, the Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) used propagated trajectory data from NASA's Near Earth Object Program Office at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to assess potential collisions with man-made objects in Earth orbit. However, the ability to actively track this asteroid through the populated satellite belt not only allowed surveillance for possible late orbital perturbations of the asteroid, but, afforded the ability to monitor possible strikes on all other orbiting bodies of anthropogenic origin either not in orbital catalogs or not recently updated in those catalogs. Although programmed only for tracking satellites in geocentric orbits, GEODSS was able to compensate and maintain track on DA14, collecting one hundred and fifty four metric observations during the event.

  8. The Dynamical Evolution of the Asteroid Belt

    CERN Document Server

    Morbidelli, Alessandro; O'Brien, David P; Minton, David A; Bottke, William F

    2015-01-01

    The asteroid belt is the leftover of the original planetesimal population in the inner solar system. However, currently the asteroids have orbits with all possible values of eccentricities and inclinations compatible with long-term dynamical stability, whereas the initial planetesimal orbits should have been quasi-circular and almost co-planar. The total mass in the asteroid population is a small fraction of that existing primordially. Also, asteroids with different chemical/mineralogical properties are not ranked in an orderly manner with mean heliocentric distance as one could expect from the existence of a radial gradient of the temperature in the proto-planetary disk, but they are partially mixed. These properties show that the asteroid belt has been severely sculpted by one or a series of processes during its lifetime. This paper reviews the processes that have been proposed so far, discussing the properties that they explain and the problems that they are confronted with. Emphasis is paid to the interpl...

  9. Standard Triaxial Ellipsoid Asteroids from AO Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Jack D.; Merline, W. J.; Conrad, A.; Dumas, C.; Carry, B.

    2008-09-01

    As part of our study of resolved asteroids using adaptive optics (AO) on large telescopes (>8; m), we have identified several that can serve as Standard Triaxial Ellipsoid Asteroids (STEAs), suitable for radar and thermo-physical calibration. These objects are modeled well as triaxial ellipsoids, having: 1) small uncertainties on their three dimensions as determined with AO; 2) rotational poles well determined from both lightcurves and AO; and 3) good sidereal periods from lightcurves. Although AO allows the opportunity to find an asteroid's dimensions and rotational pole in one night, we have developed a method to combine AO observations from different oppositions to pool into a global solution. The apparent orientation and sizes of STEAs can be predicted to within a few degrees and a few km over decades. Currently, we consider 511 Davida, 52 Europa, 2 Pallas, and 15 Eunomia as STEAs. Asteroids that are not well modeled as ellipsoids, clearly showing departures from ellipsoid figures in AO images, include 129 Antigone and 41 Daphne. We will show movies of images and models of these asteroids.

  10. [123I]-6-deoxy-6-iodo-D-glucose (6DIG): A potential tracer of glucose transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A glucose analogue labelled with iodine-123 in position 6 has been synthesized: [123I]-6-deoxy-6-iodo-D-glucose (6DIG). The aim of this study was to examine its biological behaviour in order to assess whether it could be used to evaluate glucose transport with SPECT. To establish whether 6DIG enters the cells using the glucose transporter, four biological models have been used: human erythrocytes in suspension, neonatal rat cardiomyocytes in culture, isolated perfused rat hearts, and biodistribution in mice. 6DIG competed with D-glucose to enter the cells and its entry was increased by insulin and inhibited in the presence of cytochalasin B. The biological behaviour of 6DIG was similar to that of 3-O-methyl-D-glucose. 6DIG is a tracer of glucose transport which is very promising for clinical studies

  11. [{sup 123}I]-6-deoxy-6-iodo-D-glucose (6DIG): A potential tracer of glucose transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, Christelle; Koumanov, Francoise; Ghezzi, Catherine; Morin, Christophe; Mathieu, Jean-Paul; Vidal, Michel; Leiris, Joeel de; Comet, Michel; Fagret, Daniel

    1997-08-01

    A glucose analogue labelled with iodine-123 in position 6 has been synthesized: [{sup 123}I]-6-deoxy-6-iodo-D-glucose (6DIG). The aim of this study was to examine its biological behaviour in order to assess whether it could be used to evaluate glucose transport with SPECT. To establish whether 6DIG enters the cells using the glucose transporter, four biological models have been used: human erythrocytes in suspension, neonatal rat cardiomyocytes in culture, isolated perfused rat hearts, and biodistribution in mice. 6DIG competed with D-glucose to enter the cells and its entry was increased by insulin and inhibited in the presence of cytochalasin B. The biological behaviour of 6DIG was similar to that of 3-O-methyl-D-glucose. 6DIG is a tracer of glucose transport which is very promising for clinical studies.

  12. A Fast Ellipsoid Model for Asteroids Inverted From Lightcurves

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Xiaoping; Zhao, Haibin; You, Zhong

    2012-01-01

    The research about asteroids attracts more and more attention recently, especially focusing on their physical structures, such as the spin axis, the rotation period and the shape. The long distance between Earth observers and asteroids makes it impossible to get the shape and other parameters of asteroids directly with the exception of the NEAs (Near Earth Asteroids) and others passed by some spacecrafts. Generally photometric measurement is still the main way to obtain the research data for ...

  13. Dynamical Evolution of the Hungaria Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuk, Matija; McEachern, F. M.; Stewart, S. T.

    2009-05-01

    Hungarias are a stable asteroid group of minor planets orbiting between Mars and the main asteroid belt, with high inclinations (16-30 deg), low eccentricities (eland on one of the Martian resonances. The majority of Hungarias should have crossed a Martian resonance in the past, requiring a much larger primordial population to sustain the losses. We propose an alternative scenario of continuous replenishment. We find that certain Mars-crossers can be trapped in Martian resonances for tens of millions of years, making it possible for the Yarkovsky effect to migrate them out of the resonance lock. If this exit happens while the asteroid's eccentricity (which is constantly evolving due to the resonance) is sufficiently low, a stable Hungaria is created. We speculate that S-types are more likely to have been "adopted" into the Hungaria group this way, while at least some of the E-types are likely to be primordial.

  14. AIDA: the Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Jean-Baptiste

    2016-07-01

    The Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission is a joint cooperation between European and US space agencies that consists of two separate and independent spacecraft that will be launched to a binary asteroid system, the near-Earth asteroid Didymos, to assess the possibility of deflecting an asteroid trajectory by using a kinetic impactor. The European Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) is under Phase A/B1 study at ESA from March 2015 until summer 2016. AIM is set to rendez-vous with the asteroid system a few months prior to the impact by the US Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) spacecraft to fully characterize the smaller of the two binary components. AIM is a unique mission as it will be the first time that a spacecraft will investigate the surface, subsurface, and internal properties of a small binary near Earth asteroid. In addition it will perform various important technology demonstrations that can serve other space missions: AIM will release a set of CubeSats in deep space and a lander on the surface of the smaller asteroid and for the first time, deep-space inter-satellite linking will be demonstrated between the main spacecraft, the CubeSats, and the lander, and data will also be transmitted from interplanetary space to Earth by a laser communication system. The knowledge obtained by this mission will have great implications for our understanding of the history of the Solar System. Small asteroids are believed to result from collisions and other processes (e.g., spinup, shaking) that made them what they are now. Having direct information on their surface and internal properties will allow us to understand how these processes work and transform these small bodies as well as, for this particular case, how a binary system forms. So far, our understanding of the collisional process and the validation of numerical simulations of the impact process rely on impact experiments at laboratory scales. With DART, thanks to the characterization of the

  15. The Potentially Dangerous Asteroid (101955 Bennu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Włodarczyk

    2014-01-01

    searching for close approaches with the earth, which can lead to possible impacts up to 2200. With the A2 nongravitational parameter in the motion of the asteroid (101955 Bennu we computed possible impact solutions using different JPL planetary and lunar ephemerides and different number of additional massive perturbed asteroids. The possible impact path of risk for 2175 is presented. Additionally, we computed possible impact solutions using the normal places method of the selection of Bennu’s astrometric observations. Moreover, we computed time evolution of the mean orbital elements and the orbital nodes of Bennu 5 kyr in the backwards and 1 kyr in the future using the Yarkovsky effects. We computed the mean motion and secular orbital resonances of the Bennu. We also computed the influence of the JPL planetary and lunar ephemerides DE403, DE405, DE406, DE414, and DE423 on the close approaches of the asteroid (101955 Bennu with the earth.

  16. Rock legends the asteroids and their discoverers

    CERN Document Server

    Murdin, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This book relates the history of asteroid discoveries and christenings, from those of the early pioneering giants of Hersehel and Piazzi to modern-day amateurs. Moving from history and anecdotal information to science, the book's structure is provided by the names of the asteroids, including one named after the author. Free from a need to conform to scientific naming conventions, the names evidence hero-worship, sycophancy, avarice, vanity, whimsy, erudition and wit, revealing the human side of astronomers, especially where controversy has followed the christening. Murdin draws from extensive historical records to explore the debate over these names. Each age reveals its own biases and preferences in the naming process. < Originally regarded as “vermin of the skies,” asteroids are minor planets, rocky scraps left over from the formation of the larger planets, or broken fragments of worlds that have collided. Their scientific classification as “minor” planets makes them seem unimportant, but over th...

  17. Orbital Mechanics near a Rotating Asteroid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yu Jiang; Hexi Baoyin

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates the different novel forms of the dynamical equations of a particle orbiting a rotating asteroid and the effective potential, the Jacobi integral, etc. on different manifolds. Nine new forms of the dynamical equations of a particle orbiting a rotating asteroid are presented, and the classical form of the dynamical equations has also been found. The dynamical equations with the potential and the effective potential in scalar form in the arbitrary body-fixed frame and the special body-fixed frame are presented and discussed. Moreover, the simplified forms of the effective potential and the Jacobi integral have been derived. The dynamical equation in coefficient-matrix form has been derived. Other forms of the dynamical equations near the asteroid are presented and discussed, including the Lagrange form, the Hamilton form, the symplectic form, the Poisson form, the Poisson-bracket form, the cohomology form, and the dynamical equations on Kähler manifold and another complex manifold. Novel forms of the effective potential and the Jacobi integral are also presented. The dynamical equations in scalar form and coefficient-matrix form can aid in the study of the dynamical system, the bifurcation, and the chaotic motion of the orbital dynamics of a particle near a rotating asteroid. The dynamical equations of a particle near a rotating asteroid are presented on several manifolds, including the symplectic manifold, the Poisson manifold, and complex manifolds, which may lead to novel methods of studying the motion of a particle in the potential field of a rotating asteroid.

  18. Capturing near-Earth asteroids around Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnain, Zaki; Lamb, Christopher A.; Ross, Shane D.

    2012-12-01

    The list of detected near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) is constantly growing. NEAs are likely targets for resources to support space industrialization, as they may be the least expensive source of certain needed raw materials. The limited supply of precious metals and semiconducting elements on Earth may be supplemented or even replaced by the reserves floating in the form of asteroids around the solar system. Precious metals make up a significant fraction NEAs by mass, and even one metallic asteroid of ˜1km size and fair enrichment in platinum-group metals would contain twice the tonnage of such metals already harvested on Earth. There are ˜1000 NEAs with a diameter of greater than 1 km. Capturing these asteroids around the Earth would expand the mining industry into an entirely new dimension. Having such resources within easy reach in Earth's orbit could provide an off-world environmentally friendly remedy for impending terrestrial shortages, especially given the need for raw materials in developing nations. In this paper, we develop and implement a conceptually simple algorithm to determine trajectory characteristics necessary to move NEAs into capture orbits around the Earth. Altered trajectories of asteroids are calculated using an ephemeris model. Only asteroids of eccentricity less than 0.1 have been studied and the model is restricted to the ecliptic plane for simplicity. We constrain the time of retrieval to be 10 years or less, based on considerations of the time to return on investment. For the heliocentric phase, constant acceleration is assumed. The acceleration required for transporting these asteroids from their undisturbed orbits to the sphere of influence of the Earth is the primary output, along with the impulse or acceleration necessary to effect capture to a bound orbit once the Earth's sphere of influence is reached. The initial guess for the constant acceleration is provided by a new estimation method, similar in spirit to Edelbaum's. Based on the

  19. Damage from the impacts of small asteroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hills, J.G.; Goda, M.P.

    1996-08-15

    The fragmentation of a small asteroid in the atmosphere greatly increases its aerodynamic drag and rate of energy dissipation. The differential atmospheric pressure across it disperses its fragments at a velocity that increases with atmospheric density and impact velocity and decreases with asteroid density. Extending our previous work, we use a spherical atmosphere and a fitted curve to its density profile to find the damage done by an asteroid entering the atmosphere at various zenith angles. In previous work we estimated the blast damage by scaling from data on nuclear explosions in the atmosphere during the 1940s, 1950s and early 1960s. This underestimated the blast from asteroid impacts because nuclear fireballs radiate away a larger fraction of their energy than do meteors, so less of their energy goes into the blast wave. We have redone the calculations to allow for this effect. We have found the area of destruction around the impact point in which the over pressure in the blast wave exceeds 4 pounds/inch{sup 2} = 2.8 X 10{sup 5} dynes/cm{sup 3}, which is enough to knock over trees and destroy buildings. About every 100 years an impactor should blast an area of 300 km{sup 2} or more somewhere on the land area of Earth. The optical flux from asteroids 60 meters or more in diameter is enough to ignite pine forests. However, the blast from an impacting asteroid goes beyond the radius within which the fire starts. It tends to blow out the fire, so it is likely that the impact will char the forest (as at Tunguska), but it will not produce a sustained fire. Because of the atmosphere, asteroids less than about 200 m in diameter are not effective in producing craters and earthquakes. They are also not effective in producing water waves and tsunami in ocean impacts. Tsunami is probably the most devastating type of damage for asteroids that are between 200 meters and 1 km in diameter.

  20. 6384 Kervin: A Possible Hungaria Binary Asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Brian D.; Aznar Macia, Amadeo

    2016-04-01

    Analysis of CCD photometric observations in late 2015 of the Hungaria asteroid 6384 Kervin indicates that it may be a binary asteroid with a primary lightcurve of P1 = 3.6194 ± 0.0001 h, A1 = 0.06 ± 0.01 mag. The secondary lightcurve parameters are P2 = 15.94 ± 0.01 h, A2 = 0.03 ± 0.01 mag. No mutual events (occultations or eclipses) were observed. However, other indicators give an estimated diameter ratio on the order of Ds/Dp ~ 0.3, possibly greater.

  1. Gravitational Capture of Asteroids by Gas Drag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Vieira Neto

    2009-01-01

    captured by the planet got its velocity reduced and could been trapped as an irregular satellite. It is well known that, depending on the time scale of the gas envelope, an asteroid will spiral and collide with the planet. So, we simulate the passage of the asteroid in the gas envelope with its density decreasing along the time. Using this approach, we found effective captures, and have a better understanding of the whole process. Finally, we conclude that the origin of the irregular satellites cannot be attributed to the gas drag capture mechanism alone.

  2. Asteroidal Quadruples in non Rooted Path Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutierrez Marisa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A directed path graph is the intersection graph of a family of directed subpaths of a directed tree. A rooted path graph is the intersection graph of a family of directed subpaths of a rooted tree. Rooted path graphs are directed path graphs. Several characterizations are known for directed path graphs: one by forbidden induced subgraphs and one by forbidden asteroids. It is an open problem to find such characterizations for rooted path graphs. For this purpose, we are studying in this paper directed path graphs that are non rooted path graphs. We prove that such graphs always contain an asteroidal quadruple.

  3. Characterization of the near-Earth Asteroid 2002NY40

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Lewis C; Lambert, John V; Africano, John L; Knox, Keith T; Barros, Jacob K; Hamada, Kris M; Liang, Dennis; Sydney, Paul F; Kervin, Paul

    2007-01-01

    In August 2002, the near-Earth asteroid 2002 NY40, made its closest approach to the Earth. This provided an opportunity to study a near-Earth asteroid with a variety of instruments. Several of the telescopes at the Maui Space Surveillance System were trained at the asteroid and collected adaptive optics images, photometry and spectroscopy. Analysis of the imagery reveals the asteroid is triangular shaped with significant self-shadowing. The photometry reveals a 20-hour period and the spectroscopy shows that the asteroid is a Q-type.

  4. Asteroid Shape and Spin Axis Modeling Via Light Curve Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friz, Paul; Gokhale, V.

    2013-01-01

    We present light curves and shape and spin axis models for the five asteroids: 291 Alice, 281 Lucretia, 321 Florentina, 714 Ulula, and 3169 Ostro. These models were obtained using data taken from the Truman Observatory, the Asteroid Photometric Catalogue, and the Minor Planet Center. Knowledge of individual asteroids shapes and spin axes is vital to understanding the solar system. However, currently only 213 out of the 500,000 asteroids with known orbits have been modeled. By taking many light curves of asteroids over several apparitions it is possible to determine their shapes and spin axes by a process known as light curve inversion.

  5. Guided asteroid deflection by kinetic impact: Mapping keyholes to an asteroid's surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesley, S.; Farnocchia, D.

    2014-07-01

    The kinetic impactor deflection approach is likely to be the optimal deflection strategy in most real-world cases, given the likelihood of decades of warning time provided by asteroid search programs and the probable small size of the next confirmed asteroid impact that would require deflection. However, despite its straightforward implementation, the kinetic impactor approach can have its effectiveness limited by the astrodynamics that govern the impactor spacecraft trajectory. First, the deflection from an impact is maximized when the asteroid is at perihelion, while an impact near perihelion can in some cases be energetically difficult to implement. Additionally, the asteroid change in velocity Δ V should aligned with the target's heliocentric velocity vector in order to maximize the deflection at a potential impact some years in the future. Thus the relative velocity should be aligned with or against the heliocentric velocity, which implies that the impactor and asteroid orbits should be tangent at the point of impact. However, for natural bodies such as meteorites colliding with the Earth, the relative velocity vectors tend to cluster near the sunward or anti- sunward directions, far from the desired direction. This is because there is generally a significant crossing angle between the orbits of the impactor and target and an impact at tangency is unusual. The point is that hitting the asteroid is not enough, but rather we desire to hit the asteroid at a point when the asteroid and spacecraft orbits are nearly tangent and when the asteroid is near perihelion. However, complicating the analysis is the fact that the impact of a spacecraft on an asteroid would create an ejecta plume that is roughly normal to the surface at the point of impact. This escaping ejecta provides additional momentum transfer that generally adds to the effectiveness of a kinetic deflection. The ratio β between the ejecta momentum and the total momentum (ejecta plus spacecraft) can

  6. Challenging the wall of fast rotating asteroids - constraining internal cohesive strength for MBAs and NEAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polishook, David; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Binzel, Richard P.; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Aharonson, Oded; Thomas, Cristina; Lockhart, Matthew; Thirouin, Audrey; Mommert, Michael; Trilling, David; Burt, Brian

    2015-11-01

    We report an observation of a 2 km size main belt asteroid (MBA), (60716) 2000 GD65, with a lightcurve indicating a rotation period of 1.9529±0.0002 hours, i.e. challenging the ‘rubble pile spin barrier’. This adds to a handful of MBAs, recently observed by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) survey (Chang et al. 2014, 2015), with diameters between 0.5-1.5 km and lightcurves indicating rotation periods of 1.2-1.9 hours. These asteroids are relatively large compared to the population of small near-Earth asteroids (NEAs; Dteam).We apply the Holsapple (2007) model to these two distinct populations in order to constrain the cohesion within these objects and to search for monolithic asteroids. We use the lightcurve’s amplitude as indication of the triaxial shape ratio a/b, and assume b/c=1 (i.e. a>b=c). While the density is a free parameter, the given cohesion is the average of values for density ranges between 1.5 to 2.5 gr cm^-3, which are measured density values for asteroids (Carry 2012).We find that the fast rotating MBAs must have internal cohesive strength of at least ~25 to ~250 Pa in order to prevent disruption against centrifugal acceleration. Similar cohesion values have been found within lunar soils (100-1000 Pa; Mitchell et al. 1974). However, since only a few MBAs rotate so quickly, such internal cohesive strength might be rare within the population of km-size MBAs. Among NEAs, about 25% have minimal constrained cohesion values similar to those found for the fast rotating MBAs. Approximately 65% have no need for substantial cohesion values >25 Pa. Only ~10% of NEAs must have substantial internal cohesion of over 1000 Pa to prevent disruption, however none of them are rotating fast enough to require a fully monolithic body, i.e. cohesion >10 kPa.

  7. Dynamic wind turbine models in power system simulation tool DIgSILENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Iov, F.; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar;

    This report presents a collection of models and control strategies developed and implemented in the power system simulation tool PowerFactory DIgSILENT for different wind turbine concepts. It is the second edition of Risø-R-1400(EN) and it gathers and describes a whole wind turbine model database...

  8. Twenty-one Asteroid Lightcurves at Group Observadores de Asteroides (OBAS): Late 2015 to Early 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar Macias, Amadeo; Carreno Garcerain, Alfonso; Arce Masego, Enrique; Brines Rodriguez, Pedro; Lozano de Haro, Juan; Fornas Silva, Alvaro; Fornas Silva, Gonzalo; Mas Martinez, Vicente; Rodrigo Chiner, Onofre; Herrero Porta, David

    2016-07-01

    We report on the photometric analysis result of 21 mainbelt asteroids (MBA) done by Observadores de Asteroides (OBAS). This work is part of the Minor Planet Photometric Database task initiated by a group of Spanish amateur astronomers. We have managed to obtain a number of accurate and complete lightcurves as well as additional incomplete lightcurves to help analysis at future oppositions. This is a compilation of lightcurves obtained during last quarter of 2015 and first quarter of 2016.

  9. Mobile Asteroid Surface Scout (MASCOT) - Design, Development and Delivery of a Small Asteroid Lander Aboard Hayabusa2

    OpenAIRE

    Grundmann, Jan Thimo; Auster, U.; Baturkin, Volodymyr; Bellion, Anthony; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Biele, Jens; Boden, Ralf; Bompis, Olivier; Borgs, Belinda; Bousquet, Pierre; Canalias, Elisabet; Celotti, Luca; Cenac-Morthe, Céline; Cordero, Federico; Deleuze, Muriel

    2015-01-01

    MASCOT is a small asteroid lander launched on December 3rd, 2014, aboard the Japanese HAYABUSA2 asteroid sample-return mission towards the 980 m diameter C-type near-Earth asteroid (162173) 1999 JU3. MASCOT carries four full-scale asteroid science instruments and an uprighting and relocation device within a shoebox-sized 10 kg spacecraft; a complete lander comparable in mass and volume to a medium-sized science instrument on interplanetary missions. Asteroid surface science will be ob...

  10. The infrared spectrum of asteroid 433 Eros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, H. P.; Fink, U.; Treffers, R. R.; Gautier, T. N., III

    1976-01-01

    The mineralogical composition of asteroid Eros has been determined from its infrared spectrum (0.9-2.7 micrometers; 28/cm resolution). Major minerals include metallic Ni-Fe and pyroxene; no spectroscopic evidence for olivine or plagioclase feldspar was found. The IR spectrum of Eros is most consistent with a stony-iron composition.

  11. NASA hits back in asteroid spat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2016-07-01

    Nathan Myhrvold, chief executive of the company Intellectual Ventures and a former chief technology officer of Microsoft, is at loggerheads with a group of NASA astrophysicists over the latter's ability to accurately measure the properties of tens of thousands of asteroids in the solar system.

  12. Eight billion asteroids in the Oort cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Shannon, Andrew; Veras, Dimitri; Wyatt, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The Oort cloud is usually thought of as a collection of icy comets inhabiting the outer reaches of the Solar system, but this picture is incomplete. We use simulations of the formation of the Oort cloud to show that ~4% of the small bodies in the Oort cloud should have formed within 2.5 au of the Sun, and hence be ice-free rock-iron bodies. If we assume these Oort cloud asteroids have the same size distribution as their cometary counterparts, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope should find roughly a dozen Oort cloud asteroids during ten years of operations. Measurement of the asteroid fraction within the Oort cloud can serve as an excellent test of the Solar system's formation and dynamical history. Oort cloud asteroids could be of particular concern as impact hazards as their high mass density, high impact velocity, and low visibility make them both hard to detect and hard to divert or destroy. However, they should be a rare class of object, and we estimate globally catastrophic collisions should only occur ...

  13. Asteroid models from the Lowell Photometric Database

    CERN Document Server

    Durech, J; Oszkiewicz, D; Vanco, R

    2016-01-01

    We use the lightcurve inversion method to derive new shape models and spin states of asteroids from the sparse-in-time photometry compiled in the Lowell Photometric Database. To speed up the time-consuming process of scanning the period parameter space through the use of convex shape models, we use the distributed computing project Asteroids@home, running on the Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC) platform. This way, the period-search interval is divided into hundreds of smaller intervals. These intervals are scanned separately by different volunteers and then joined together. We also use an alternative, faster, approach when searching the best-fit period by using a model of triaxial ellipsoid. By this, we can independently confirm periods found with convex models and also find rotation periods for some of those asteroids for which the convex-model approach gives too many solutions. From the analysis of Lowell photometric data of the first 100,000 numbered asteroids, we derived 328 new ...

  14. Polyhedron tracking and gravity tractor asteroid deflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ummen, N.; Lappas, V.

    2014-11-01

    In the wake of the Chelyabinsk airburst, the defense against hazardous asteroids is becoming a topic of high interest. This work improves the gravity tractor asteroid deflection approach by tracking realistic small body shapes with tilted ion engines. An algorithm for polyhedron tracking was evaluated in a fictitious impact scenario. The simulations suggest a capability increase up to 38.2% with such improved tilting strategies. The long- and short-term effects within polyhedron tracking are illustrated. In particular, the orbital reorientation effect is influential when realistic asteroid shapes and rotations are accounted for. Also analyzed is the subject of altitude profiles, a way to tailor the gravity tractor performance, and to achieve a steering ability within the B-plane. A novel analytical solution for the classic gravity tractor is derived. It removes the simulation need for classic tractor designs to obtain comparable two body model Δv figures. This paper corroborates that the asteroid shape can be exploited for maximum performance. Even a single engine tilt adjustment at the beginning of deflection operations yields more deflection than a fixed preset tilt.

  15. Lightcurves of the Karin family asteroids

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, Fumi; Dermawan, Budi; Nakamura, Tsuko; Takahashi, Shigeru; Ibrahimov, Mansur A; Malhotra, Renu; Ip, Wing Huen; Chen, Wen Ping; Sawabe, Yu; Haji, Masashige; Saito, Ryoko; Hirai, Masanori; Miyasaka, Seidai; Fukushima, Hideo; Sato, Hideo; Sato, Yusuke

    2012-01-01

    The Karin family is the first recognized very young asteroid family that was created by an asteroid breakup only 5.8 Myr ago. As the members of this family probably have not experienced significant orbital or collisional evolution yet, it is possible that they still preserve properties of the original collisional event in terms of their rotational status and surface color. We have been carrying out a series of photometric observations of the Karin family asteroids, and here we report the analysis result of lightcurves including the rotation period of eleven members as well as those of an interloper asteroid: (832) Karin, (4507) 1990 FV (an interloper), (7719) 1997 GT36, (10783) 1999 RB9, (11728) Einer, (13765) Nansmith, (16706) Svojsik, (28271) 1999 CK16, (40917) 1999 TR171, (43032) 1999 VR26, (69880) 1998 SQ81, and (71031) 1999 XE68. As for four of them we estimated their absolute magnitudes H_R and the slope parameter G_R of the solar phase curves: (832) Karin, (4507) 1990 FV, (13765) Nansmith, and (69880) ...

  16. The Bering small vehicle asteroid mission concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Rene; Andersen, Anja; Haack, Henning;

    2004-01-01

    targets. The dilemma obviously being the resolution versus distance and the statistics versus DeltaV requirements. Using advanced instrumentation and onboard autonomy, we have developed a space mission concept whose goal is to map the flux, size, and taxonomy distributions of asteroids. The main focus is...

  17. A note on cement in asteroids

    CERN Document Server

    Bilalbegovic, G

    2016-01-01

    Cement mineral tobermorite was formed in hydrothermal experiments on alternation of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. Unidentified bands at 14 microns were measured for CAIs and the matrix of the Allende meteorite sample, as well as for Hektor and Agamemnon asteroids. The presence of cement nanoparticles may explain the feature at 14 microns.

  18. Early formation of evolved asteroidal crust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, James M D; Ash, Richard D; Liu, Yang; Bellucci, Jeremy J; Rumble, Douglas; McDonough, William F; Walker, Richard J; Taylor, Lawrence A

    2009-01-01

    Mechanisms for the formation of crust on planetary bodies remain poorly understood. It is generally accepted that Earth's andesitic continental crust is the product of plate tectonics, whereas the Moon acquired its feldspar-rich crust by way of plagioclase flotation in a magma ocean. Basaltic meteorites provide evidence that, like the terrestrial planets, some asteroids generated crust and underwent large-scale differentiation processes. Until now, however, no evolved felsic asteroidal crust has been sampled or observed. Here we report age and compositional data for the newly discovered, paired and differentiated meteorites Graves Nunatak (GRA) 06128 and GRA 06129. These meteorites are feldspar-rich, with andesite bulk compositions. Their age of 4.52 +/- 0.06 Gyr demonstrates formation early in Solar System history. The isotopic and elemental compositions, degree of metamorphic re-equilibration and sulphide-rich nature of the meteorites are most consistent with an origin as partial melts from a volatile-rich, oxidized asteroid. GRA 06128 and 06129 are the result of a newly recognized style of evolved crust formation, bearing witness to incomplete differentiation of their parent asteroid and to previously unrecognized diversity of early-formed materials in the Solar System. PMID:19129845

  19. Small asteroids - rubble piles or boulders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Alan W.

    2013-10-01

    The asteroid rotation spin barrier at ~2.2 h period among asteroids 10 km > D > 200 m doesn’t prove all such asteroids are rubble piles, and the faster rotations among smaller asteroids doesn’t require monolithic strength, either. Only a very modest strength, perhaps no more than van der Waals force, might suffice to hold regolith together on a small super-fast rotator (Sanchez & Scheeres, 2013, arXif:1306.1622v1). The problem is that for a constant or only slowly varying strength with respect to diameter, the spin barrier becomes proportional to 1/D below the size where material strength is dominant, or perhaps a bit steeper if strength increases with decreasing D. What we observe in the distribution of asteroid spins versus diameter is that below D ~ 200 m, the spin barrier goes up at least ~D-3.5, if not abruptly. Models with constant or slowly varying strength fail to fit this observation, and the abrupt transition cannot be an observational selection effect: the void in the phase space of rotations would be among the easiest rotations to observe, e.g. the one conspicuous exception, 2001 OE84 (D ~ 0.7 km, P = 0.5 h) was easily and unambiguously measured (Pravec, et al. 2002, Proc. ACM 2002, ESA SP-500, 743-745). This abrupt transition is most easily explained as a real transition in material properties of asteroids in the size range ~200 m diameter, from “rubble pile” to “boulder”, although neither term may be fully descriptive of the actual structure. Two other lines of evidence suggest that this transition in properties is real: the dip in the size-frequency distribution of NEAs is maximum at ~150 m, suggesting that a transition to stronger material structure occurs about there, and we observe, e.g., Tunguska and the recent Chelyabinsk bolide, that bodies in the tens of meters size range entering the atmosphere behave more like solid rocks than rock piles (Boslough & Crawford 2008, Int. J. Imp. Eng. 35, 1441-1448). I encourage those doing computer

  20. Geologic History of Asteroid 4 Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Some types of meteorites - most irons, stony irons, some achondrites - hail from asteroids that were heated to the point where magmatism occurred within a very few million years of the formation of the earliest solids in the solar system. The largest clan of achondrites, the howardite, eucrite and diogenite (HED) meteorites, represent the crust of their parent asteroid]. Diogenites are cumulate harzburgites and orthopyroxenites from the lower crust whilst eucrites are basalts, diabases and cumulate gabbros from the upper crust. Howardites are impact-engendered breccias mostly of diogenites and eucrites. There remains only one large asteroid with a basaltic crust, 4 Vesta, which is thought to be the source of the HED clan. Differentiation models for Vesta are based on HED compositions. Proto-Vesta consisted of chondritic materials containing Al-26, a potent, short-lived heat source. Inferences from compositional data are that Vesta was melted to high degree (=50%) allowing homogenization of the silicate phase and separation of a metallic core. Convection of the silicate magma ocean allowed equilibrium crystallization, forming a harzburgitic mantle. After convective lockup occurred, melt collected between the mantle and the cool thermal boundary layer and underwent fractional crystallization forming an orthopyroxene-rich (diogenite) lower crust. The initial thermal boundary layer of chondritic material was replaced by a mafic upper crust through impact disruption and foundering. The mafic crust thickened over time as additional residual magma intrudes and penetrates the mafic crust forming plutons, dikes, sills and flows of cumulate and basaltic eucrite composition. This magmatic history may have taken only 2-3 Myr. This magma ocean scenario is at odds with a model of heat and magma transport that indicates that small degrees of melt would be rapidly expelled from source regions, precluding development of a magma ocean. Constraints from radiogenic Mg-26 distibutions

  1. Asteroid occultations today and tomorrow: toward the GAIA era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanga, P.; Delbo, M.

    2007-11-01

    Context: Observation of star occultations is a powerful tool to determine shapes and sizes of asteroids. This is key information necessary for studying the evolution of the asteroid belt and to calibrate indirect methods of size determination, such as the models used to analyze thermal infrared observations. Up to now, the observation of asteroid occultations is an activity essentially secured by amateur astronomers equipped with small, portable equipments. However, the accuracy of the available ephemeris prevents accurate predictions of the occultation events for objects smaller than ~100 km. Aims: We investigate current limits in predictability and observability of asteroid occultations, and we study their possible evolution in the future, when high accuracy asteroid orbits and star positions (such as those expected from the mission Gaia of the European Space Agency) will be available. Methods: We use a simple model for asteroid ephemeris uncertainties and numerical algorithms for estimating the limits imposed by the instruments, assuming realistic CCD performances and asteroid size distribution, to estimate the expected occultation rate under different conditions. Results: We show that high accuracy ephemerides which will be available in the future will extend toward much smaller asteroids the possibility of observing asteroid occultations, greatly increasing the number of events and objects involved. A complete set of size measurements down to ~10 km main belt asteroids could be obtained in a few years, provided that a small network of ground-based 1m telescopes are devoted to occultation studies.

  2. Another Option for the Asteroid Sample of the Asteroid Redirect Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiyun; Tang, Jingshi; Liu, Lin; Xin, Xiaosheng

    2016-07-01

    The asteroid redirect mission (ARM) consists of two phases: the asteroid redirect robotic mission (ARRM) and the asteroid redirect crewed mission (ARCM). The ARRM phase aims at capturing a boulder from the surface of an asteroid of hundred meters in diameter and returning it back to the Earth-Moon system. Currently, the option for the orbit of the returned sample is a large lunar distant retrograde orbit (LDRO) around the Moon. After the sample is returned to this LDRO, then the ARCM phase will send astronauts to the sample. The total energy cost consists of two parts: (1) from the orbit of an near-Earth asteroid to the LDRO, here as part I; (2) from the parking low Earth orbit (LEO) to the LDRO, here as part II. In the authors' work for stable motions in the real Earth-Moon system, we found that there are stable motions around the triangular libration points (TLP). Theoretically, these orbits can also be used as candidate orbits to hold the returned sample. Our previous preliminary works show that the energy of sending a manned probe from the LEO to these orbits is comparable to the option of sending it from the LEO to the LDRO. Besides, it's also possible for the sample to be returned from the orbit of a near-Earth asteroid to these stable orbits, with very small delta-V corrections. In this work, we'll study the energy cost of this option (i.e., using the stable orbits around the TLP as the orbits for the asteroid sample) in detail and compare this option with the LDRO option.

  3. Photometry and models of selected main belt asteroids. IX. Introducing interactive service for asteroid models (ISAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, A.; Bartczak, P.; Santana-Ros, T.; Michałowski, T.; Antonini, P.; Behrend, R.; Bembrick, C.; Bernasconi, L.; Borczyk, W.; Colas, F.; Coloma, J.; Crippa, R.; Esseiva, N.; Fagas, M.; Fauvaud, M.; Fauvaud, S.; Ferreira, D. D. M.; Hein Bertelsen, R. P.; Higgins, D.; Hirsch, R.; Kajava, J. J. E.; Kamiński, K.; Kryszczyńska, A.; Kwiatkowski, T.; Manzini, F.; Michałowski, J.; Michałowski, M. J.; Paschke, A.; Polińska, M.; Poncy, R.; Roy, R.; Santacana, G.; Sobkowiak, K.; Stasik, M.; Starczewski, S.; Velichko, F.; Wucher, H.; Zafar, T.

    2012-09-01

    Context. The shapes and spin states of asteroids observed with photometric techniques can be reconstructed using the lightcurve inversion method. The resultant models can then be confirmed or exploited further by other techniques, such as adaptive optics, radar, thermal infrared, stellar occultations, or space probe imaging. Aims: During our ongoing work to increase the set of asteroids with known spin and shape parameters, there appeared a need for displaying the model plane-of-sky orientations for specific epochs to compare models from different techniques. It would also be instructive to be able to track how the complex lightcurves are produced by various asteroid shapes. Methods: Basing our analysis on an extensive photometric observational dataset, we obtained eight asteroid models with the convex lightcurve inversion method. To enable comparison of the photometric models with those from other observing/modelling techniques, we created an on-line service where we allow the inversion models to be orientated interactively. Results: Our sample of objects is quite representative, containing both relatively fast and slow rotators with highly and lowly inclined spin axes. With this work, we increase the sample of asteroid spin and shape models based on disk-integrated photometry to over 200. Three of the shape models obtained here are confirmed by the stellar occultation data; this also allowed independent determinations of their sizes to be made. Conclusions: The ISAM service can be widely exploited for past and future asteroid observations with various, complementary techniques and for asteroid dimension determination. http://isam.astro.amu.edu.pl Photometric data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/545/A131

  4. SEM and TEM Observation of the Surfaces of the Fine-Grained Particles Retrieved from the Muses-C Regio on the Asteroid 25413 Itokawa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, T.; Nakamura, T.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Tanaka, M.; Hashimoto, T.; Konno, M.; Nakato, A.; Ogami, T.; Fujimura, A.; Abe, M.; Yada, T.; Mukai, T.; Ueno, M.; Okada, T.; Shirai, K.; Ishibashi, Y.; Okazaki, R.

    2011-01-01

    Surface materials on airless solar system bodies exposed to interplanetary space are gradually changed their visible to near-infrared reflectance spectra by the process called "space weathering", which makes the spectra darker and redder. Hapke et al. proposed a model of space weathering: vapor deposition of nanophase reduced iron (npFe(sup 0)) on the surfaces of the grains within the very surface of lunar regolith. This model has been proved by detailed observation of the surfaces of the lunar soil grains by transmission electron microscope (TEM). They demonstrated that npFe(sup 0) was formed by a combination of vapor deposition and irradiation effects. In other words, both micrometeorite impacts and irradiation by solar wind and galactic cosmic ray play roles on the space weathering on the Moon. Because there is a continuum of reflectance spectra from those of Q-type asteroids (almost the same as those of ordinary chondrites) to those of S-type asteroids, it is strongly suggested that reflectance spectra of asteroids composed of ordinary chondrite-like materials were modified over time to those of S-type asteroids due to space weathering. It is predicted that a small amount of npFe(sup 0) on the surface of grains in the asteroidal regolith composed of ordinary chondrite-like materials is the main agent of asteroidal space weathering.

  5. Tracing meteorite source regions through asteroid spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Cristina Ana

    By virtue of their landing on Earth, meteorites reside in near-Earth object (NEO) orbits prior to their arrival. Thus the population of observable NEOs, in principle, gives the best representation of meteorite source bodies. By linking meteorites to NEOs, and linking NEOs to their most likely main-belt source locations, we seek to gain insight into the original solar system formation locations for different meteorite classes. To forge the first link between meteorites and NEOs, we have developed a three dimensional method for quantitative comparisons between laboratory measurements of meteorites and telescopic measurements of near-Earth objects. We utilize meteorite spectra from the Reflectance Experiment Laboratory (RELAB) database and NEO data from the SpeX instrument on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). Using the Modified Gaussian Model (MGM) as a mathematical tool, we treat asteroid and meteorite spectra identically in the calculation of 1-micron and 2-micron geometric band centers and their band area ratios (BARs). Using these identical numerical parameters we quantitatively compare the spectral properties of S-, Sq-, Q- and V-type NEOs with the spectral properties of the meteorites in the H, L, LL and HED meteorite classes. For each NEO spectrum, we assign a set of probabilities for it being related to each of these meteorite classes. Our NEO- meteorite correlation probabilities are then convolved with NEO-source region probabilities to yield a final set of meteorite-source region correlations. An apparent (significant at the 2.1-sigma level) source region signature is found for the H chondrites to be preferentially delivered to the inner solar system through the 3:1 mean motion resonance. A 3:1 resonance H chondrite source region is consistent with the short cosmic ray exposure ages known for H chondrites. The spectroscopy of asteroids is subject to several sources of inherent error. The source region model used a variety of S-type spectra without

  6. Reverse Asteroids: Searching for an Effective Tool to Combat Asteroid Belt Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, F.; Eisenhamer, B.

    2014-12-01

    The public 'knows' that asteroid belts are densely packed and dangerous for spaceships to cross. Visuals from "Star Wars" to, unfortunately, the recent "Cosmos" TV series have firmly established this astronomical misconception. However, even scientifically correct graphics, such as the Minor Planet Center's plot of the inner solar system, reinforces that view. Each pixel in the image is more than a million kilometers in width, making an accurate representation of the object density impossible.To address this widespread misconception, we are investigating an educational exercise built around a computer interactive that we call "Reverse Asteroids". In the arcade classic video game, the asteroids came to the player's spaceship. For our reverse implementation, we consider an inquiry-based activity in which the spaceship must go hunting for the asteroids, using a database of real objects in our solar system. Both 3D data visualization and basic statistical analysis play crucial roles in bringing out the true space density within the asteroid belt, and perhaps a reconciliation between imagination and reality. We also emphasize that a partnership of scientists and educators is fundamental to the success of such projects.

  7. Asteroid occultations today and tomorrow: toward the GAIA era

    CERN Document Server

    Tanga, P

    2008-01-01

    Context: Observation of star occultations is a powerful tool to determine shapes and sizes of asteroids. This is key information necessary for studying the evolution of the asteroid belt and to calibrate indirect methods of size determination, such as the models used to analyze thermal infrared observations. Up to now, the observation of asteroid occultations is an activity essentially secured by amateur astronomers equipped with small, portable equipments. However, the accuracy of the available ephemeris prevents accurate predictions of the occultation events for objects smaller than ~100 km. Aims: We investigate current limits in predictability and observability of asteroid occultations, and we study their possible evolution in the future, when high accuracy asteroid orbits and star positions (such as those expected from the mission Gaia of the European Space Agency) will be available. Methods: We use a simple model for asteroid ephemeris uncertainties and numerical algorithms for estimating the limits impo...

  8. MICROLENS SURVEYS ARE A POWERFUL PROBE OF ASTEROIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While of order of a million asteroids have been discovered, the number in rigorously controlled samples that have precise orbits and rotation periods, as well as well-measured colors, is relatively small. In particular, less than a dozen main-belt asteroids with estimated diameters D < 3 km have excellent rotation periods. We show how existing and soon-to-be-acquired microlensing data can yield a large asteroid sample with precise orbits and rotation periods, which will include roughly 6% of all asteroids with maximum brightness I < 18.1 and lying within 10° of the ecliptic. This sample will be dominated by small and very small asteroids, down to D ∼ 1 km. We also show how asteroid astrometry could turn current narrow-angle OGLE proper motions of bulge stars into wide-angle proper motions. This would enable one to measure the proper-motion gradient across the Galactic bar.

  9. Asteroid rotation and orbit control via laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrisano, Massimo; Colombo, Camilla; Vasile, Massimiliano

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents an approach to control the rotational motion of an asteroid while a spacecraft is deflecting its trajectory through laser ablation. During the deflection, the proximity motion of the spacecraft is coupled with the orbital and rotational motion of the asteroid. The combination of the deflection acceleration, solar radiation pressure, gravity field and plume impingement will force the spacecraft to drift away from the asteroid. In turn, a variation of the motion of the spacecraft produces a change in the modulus and direction of the deflection action which modifies the rotational and orbital motion of the asteroid. An on-board state estimation and control algorithm is then presented that simultaneously provides an optimal proximity control and a control of the rotational motion of the asteroid. It will be shown that the simultaneous control of the rotational and proximity motions of asteroid and spacecraft has a significant impact on the required deflection time.

  10. Asteroid Deflection Using a Spacecraft in Restricted Keplerian Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Ketema, Yohannes

    2016-01-01

    A method for asteroid deflection that makes use of a spacecraft moving back and forth on a segment of an appropriate Keplerian orbit about the asteroid is described and evaluated. It is shown that, on average, the spacecraft describing such a trajectory can exert a significantly larger force on the asteroid than e.g. a stationary gravity tractor, thereby reducing the time needed to effect a desired velocity change for the asteroid. Furthermore, the current method does not require canted thrusters on the spacecraft (unlike a stationary gravity tractor), markedly reducing the amount of fuel needed to create a given change in the asteroid velocity. In addition, the method allows for the simultaneous use of several spacecraft, further strengthening the overall tugging effect on the asteroid, and distributing the thrust requirement among the spacecraft.

  11. Chang'e-2 spacecraft observations of asteroid 4179 Toutatis

    CERN Document Server

    Ji, Jianghui; Zhao, Yuhui; Wang, Su; Yu, Liangliang

    2015-01-01

    On 13 December 2012, Chang'e-2 completed a successful flyby of the near-Earth asteroid 4179 Toutatis at a closest distance of 770 meters from the asteroid's surface. The observations show that Toutatis has an irregular surface and its shape resembles a ginger-root of a smaller lobe (head) and a larger lobe (body). Such bilobate shape is indicative of a contact binary origin for Toutatis. In addition, the high-resolution images better than 3 meters provide a number of new discoveries about this asteroid, such as an 800-meter depression at the end of the large lobe, a sharply perpendicular silhouette near the neck region, boulders, indicating that Toutatis is probably a rubble-pile asteroid. Chang'e-2 observations have significantly revealed new insights into the geological features and the formation and evolution of this asteroid. In final, we brief the future Chinese asteroid mission concept.

  12. Chang'e-2 spacecraft observations of asteroid 4179 Toutatis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jianghui; Jiang, Yun; Zhao, Yuhui; Wang, Su; Yu, Liangliang

    2016-01-01

    On 13 December 2012, Chang'e-2 completed a successful flyby of the near-Earth asteroid 4179 Toutatis at a closest distance of 770 meters from the asteroid's surface. The observations show that Toutatis has an irregular surface and its shape resembles a ginger-root of a smaller lobe (head) and a larger lobe (body). Such bilobate shape is indicative of a contact binary origin for Toutatis. In addition, the high-resolution images better than 3 meters provide a number of new discoveries about this asteroid, such as an 800-meter depression at the end of the large lobe, a sharply perpendicular silhouette near the neck region, boulders, indicating that Toutatis is probably a rubble-pile asteroid. Chang'e-2 observations have significantly revealed new insights into the geological features and the formation and evolution of this asteroid. In final, we brief the future Chinese asteroid mission concept.

  13. Ancient asteroids enriched in refractory inclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunshine, J M; Connolly, H C; McCoy, T J; Bus, S J; La Croix, L M

    2008-04-25

    Calcium- and aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) occur in all classes of chondritic meteorites and contain refractory minerals predicted to be the first condensates from the solar nebula. Near-infrared spectra of CAIs have strong 2-micrometer absorptions, attributed to iron oxide-bearing aluminous spinel. Similar absorptions are present in the telescopic spectra of several asteroids; modeling indicates that these contain approximately 30 +/- 10% CAIs (two to three times that of any meteorite). Survival of these undifferentiated, large (50- to 100-kilometer diameter) CAI-rich bodies suggests that they may have formed before the injection of radiogenic 26Al into the solar system. They have also experienced only modest post-accretionary alteration. Thus, these asteroids have higher concentrations of CAI material, appear less altered, and are more ancient than any known sample in our meteorite collection, making them prime candidates for sample return. PMID:18356491

  14. Speckle interferometry of asteroids. I - 433 Eros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, J. D.; Cocke, W. J.; Hege, E. K.; Strittmatter, P. A.; Lambert, J. V.

    1985-01-01

    Analytical expressions are derived for the semimajor and semiminor axes and orientation angle of the ellipse projected by a triaxial asteroid, and the results are applied speckle-interferometry observations of the 433 Eros asteroid. The expressions were calculated as functions of the dimensions and pole of the body and of the asterocentric position of the earth and the sun. On the basis of the analytical expressions, the dimensions of 433 Eros are obtained. The light curve from December 18, 1981 is compared to the dimensions to obtain a geometric albedo of 0.156 (+ or - 0.010). A series of two-dimensional power spectra and autocorrelation functions for 433 Eros show that it is spinning in space.

  15. EVIDENCE OF AN ASTEROID ENCOUNTERING A PULSAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brook, P. R.; Karastergiou, A. [Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Buchner, S. [Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 443, Krugersdorp 1740 (South Africa); Roberts, S. J. [Information Engineering, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PJ (United Kingdom); Keith, M. J.; Johnston, S.; Shannon, R. M., E-mail: paul.brook@astro.ox.ac.uk [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia)

    2014-01-10

    Debris disks and asteroid belts are expected to form around young pulsars due to fallback material from their original supernova explosions. Disk material may migrate inward and interact with a pulsar's magnetosphere, causing changes in torque and emission. Long-term monitoring of PSR J0738–4042 reveals both effects. The pulse shape changes multiple times between 1988 and 2012. The torque, inferred via the derivative of the rotational period, changes abruptly from 2005 September. This change is accompanied by an emergent radio component that drifts with respect to the rest of the pulse. No known intrinsic pulsar processes can explain these timing and radio emission signatures. The data lead us to postulate that we are witnessing an encounter with an asteroid or in-falling debris from a disk.

  16. The detectability of asteroids and comets before earth impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hills, J.

    1996-09-01

    In this final report of a 1-y LDRD project at LANL, requirements were investigated for detecting asteroids and comets in the final years before they impact Earth. Equipment and strategies were determined for detecting impacting asteroids and comets in all their permitted orbits. When this information is combined with possible mechanisms for diverting asteroids, it will determine the degree of readiness and minimum capability of deflection mechanisms required to prevent impact of these objects with Earth.

  17. Pole orientation, sidereal period, and sense of rotation of asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R. C.; Gehrels, T.

    1986-01-01

    Pole orientations of asteroids were determined. The method, called photometric astrometry, takes precise epochs of lightcurves into account. Pole determination research on asteroids 532 Herculina, 45 Eugenia, and 3 Juno continues. Discrepancies between various pole determination techniques presently being used are analyzed. The study of asteroid shapes and creating a generalized master pole determination technique also continues which will incorporate the best features of several current methods.

  18. NEA 2015 VY105: A New Tumbling Asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbognani, Albino; Buzzi, Luca

    2016-04-01

    We present the results of photometric observations on near-Earth asteroid (NEA) 2015 VY105. Lightcurve analysis shows that it is a tumbling asteroid with synodic rotation periods P1 = 0.0386 ± 0.0001 h with amplitude A1 = 0.96 mag and P2 = 0.061 ± 0.001 h with amplitude A2 = 0.57 mag. After 2008 TC3, this NEA is the fastest and smallest tumbling asteroid.

  19. Orbital perturbation analysis of earth-crossing asteroids

    OpenAIRE

    Knudson, Wade E.

    1995-01-01

    Earth Crossing Asteroids (ECAs) are those asteroids whose orbit cross section can intersect the capture cross section of the Earth as a result of secular gravitational perturbations. This thesis provides a framework for understanding the origin, nature, and types of ECAs. The change in velocity requirements to achieve a two Earth radii deflection for long and short term warning scenarios are developed. Next, a method of developing hypothetical Earth colliding asteroid orbits is presented. The...

  20. Small asteroid fragments in earth-crossing orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duha, J.; Afonso, G. B.

    2014-10-01

    The meteorite that fell in Chelyabinsk, Russia, naturally made many people think it could be a smaller companion of the Asteroid 2012 DA14, which passed close to Earth on that same day. Some asteroid specialists discarded this hypothesis for two main reasons: The meteorite was too far away from the asteroid, because the collision happened sixteen hours before the asteroid passed close to Earth. Moreover, it was not traveling, similarly to asteroid DA14, from south to north. However the possibility of the meteorite being a companion of the Asteroid 2012 DA14 cannot be completely discarded. The Asteroid 2012 DA14, with a diameter of 45 meters, is very small. It can be considered an asteroids fragment, which is usually accompanied by other smaller fragments, scattered in space, practically in the same orbit and possibly being separated from each other by long distances. Assuming that 2012 DA14 is not an isolated asteroid, but the biggest remaining fragment from a previous impact, we developed a model to study the dynamics of an asteroid fragment, similar to DA14, and its companions, the smaller fragments. This dynamically interesting encounter with planet Earth is addressed and the orbital changes that could explain the Chelyabinsk event are discussed. As a result we find that, there could be a collision of a meteorite before, during, or after the Asteroid 2012 DA14 passing by, the same way that happens with meteorite showers, which can last several days. Therefore, it would be very interesting to look for asteroid fragments also, close to the larger fragments, more easily found.

  1. International collaboration leads to new Aten asteroid discovery, 1984 QA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helin, E. F.; Dunbar, R. S.; Barucci, M. A.

    1986-01-01

    A new earth-crossing asteroid of the Aten type (orbit smaller than earth's) was discovered on August 30, 1984 at Palomar. The asteroid, designated 1984 QA, is the fourth known member of the Aten type and the first discovered since 1978. The discovery of this object was the highlight of a collaboration between the JPL Asteroid Search Team and an ESA scientist, and demonstrates one aspect of an ongoing joint search effort with other Schmidt observers.

  2. Example Solar Electric Propulsion System asteroid tours using variational calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    Exploration of the asteroid belt with a vehicle utilizing a Solar Electric Propulsion System has been proposed in past studies. Some of those studies illustrated multiple asteroid rendezvous with trajectories obtained using approximate methods. Most of the inadequacies of those approximations are overcome in this paper, which uses the calculus of variations to calculate the trajectories and associated payloads of four asteroid tours. The modeling, equations, and solution techniques are discussed, followed by a presentation of the results.

  3. NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year One: Preliminary Asteroid Diameters and Albedos

    CERN Document Server

    Nugent, C R; Masiero, J; Bauer, J; Cutri, R M; Grav, T; Kramer, E; Sonnett, S; Stevenson, R; Wright, E L

    2015-01-01

    We present preliminary diameters and albedos for 7,959 asteroids detected in the first year of the NEOWISE Reactivation mission. 201 are near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). 7,758 are Main Belt or Mars-crossing asteroids. 17% of these objects have not been previously characterized using WISE or NEOWISE thermal measurements. Diameters are determined to an accuracy of ~20% or better. If good-quality H magnitudes are available, albedos can be determined to within ~40% or better.

  4. Design of MGA trajectories for main belt asteroid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔祜涛; 乔栋; 崔平远; 栾恩杰

    2003-01-01

    Asteroid exploration is one of the most sophisticated missions currently being investigated. Gravityassist trajectories have proven valuable in interplanetary missions such as the Pioneer, Voyager and Galileo. In this paper, we design interplanetary trajectory for main belt asteroid exploration mission with the Mars gravityassist (MGA) using "pork chop" plots and patched-conic theory and give some initial valuable trajectory parameters on main belt asteroid exploration mission with MGA.

  5. Formation of asteroid pairs by rotational fission

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pravec, Petr; Vokrouhlický, D.; Polishook, D.; Scheeres, D.J.; Harris, A. W.; Galád, Adrián; Vaduvescu, O.; Pozo, F.; Barr, A.; Longa, P.; Vachier, F.; Colas, F.; Pray, D. P.; Pollock, J.; Reichart, D. E.; Ivarsen, K.M.; Haislip, J.B.; LaCluyze, A.; Kušnirák, Peter; Henych, Tomáš; Marchis, F.; Macomber, B.; Jacobson, S.A.; Krugly, Yu. N.; Sergeev, A.V.; Leroy, A.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 466, č. 7310 (2010), s. 1085-1088. ISSN 0028-0836 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1107; GA ČR GD205/08/H005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : full 2-body problem * binary asteroids * stability Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 36.101, year: 2010

  6. Asteroids in the service of humanity

    CERN Document Server

    Crawford, Ian A

    2013-01-01

    There are at least three compelling reasons for the human race to initiate a major programme to explore and better understand the 'minor planets' of the Solar System: (1) Enhancing scientific knowledge; (2) Mitigating the impact hazard; and (3) Utilizing extraterrestrial resources. Strong synergies exist between all three. Moreover, all these activities would benefit from greater international cooperation in space exploration by the World's space agencies, and the recognition that asteroids are important targets for human and robotic exploration.

  7. Alien Asteroid Belt Compared to our Own

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Band of Light Comparison This artist's concept illustrates what the night sky might look like from a hypothetical alien planet in a star system with an asteroid belt 25 times as massive as the one in our own solar system (alien system above, ours below; see Figure 1). NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope found evidence for such a belt around the nearby star called HD 69830, when its infrared eyes spotted dust, presumably from asteroids banging together. The telescope did not find any evidence for a planet in the system, but astronomers speculate one or more may be present. The movie begins at dusk on the imaginary world, when HD 69830, like our Sun, has begun to set over the horizon. Time is sped up to show the onset of night and the appearance of a brilliant band of light. This light comes from dust in a massive asteroid belt, which scatters sunlight. In our solar system, anybody observing the skies on a moonless night far from city lights can see the sunlight that is scattered by dust in our asteroid belt. Called zodiacal light and sometimes the 'false dawn,' this light appears as a dim band stretching up from the horizon when the Sun is about to rise or set. The light is faint enough that the disk of our Milky Way galaxy remains the most prominent feature in the sky. (The Milky Way disk is shown perpendicular to the zodiacal light in both pictures.) In contrast, the zodiacal light in the HD 69830 system would be 1,000 times brighter than our own, outshining even the Milky Way.

  8. The Cratering History of Asteroid (2867) Steins

    CERN Document Server

    Marchi, S; Kueppers, M; Marzari, F; Davidsson, B; Keller, H U; Besse, S; Lamy, P; Mottola, S; Massironi, M; Cremonese, G

    2010-01-01

    The cratering history of main belt asteroid (2867) Steins has been investigated using OSIRIS imagery acquired during the Rosetta flyby that took place on the 5th of September 2008. For this purpose, we applied current models describing the formation and evolution of main belt asteroids, that provide the rate and velocity distributions of impactors. These models coupled with appropriate crater scaling laws, allow the cratering history to be estimated. Hence, we derive Steins' cratering retention age, namely the time lapsed since its formation or global surface reset. We also investigate the influence of various factors -like bulk structure and crater erasing- on the estimated age, which spans from a few hundred Myrs to more than 1Gyr, depending on the adopted scaling law and asteroid physical parameters. Moreover, a marked lack of craters smaller than about 0.6km has been found and interpreted as a result of a peculiar evolution of Steins cratering record, possibly related either to the formation of the 2.1km ...

  9. Near Earth Asteroids with measurable Yarkovsky effect

    CERN Document Server

    Farnocchia, D; Vokrouhlicky, D; Milani, A; Spoto, F

    2012-01-01

    We seek evidence of the Yarkovsky effect among Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) by measuring the Yarkovsky-related orbital drift from the orbital fit. To prevent the occurrence of unreliable detections we employ a high precision dynamical model, including the Newtonian attraction of 16 massive asteroids and the planetary relativistic terms, and a suitable astrometric data treatment. We find 21 NEAs whose orbital fits show a measurable orbital drift with a signal to noise ratio (SNR) greater than 3. The best determination is for asteroid (101955) 1999 RQ36, resulting in the recovery of one radar apparition and an orbit improvement by two orders of magnitude. In addition, we find 16 cases with a lower SNR that, despite being less reliable, are good candidates for becoming stronger detections in the future. In some cases it is possible to constrain physical quantities otherwise unknown by means of the detected orbital drift. Furthermore, the distribution of the detected orbital drifts shows an excess of retrograde ro...

  10. UBV photometry of asteroid 433 Eros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millis, R. L.; Bowell, E.; Thompson, D. T.

    1976-01-01

    UBV observations of asteroid 433 Eros were conducted on 17 nights during the winter of 1974/75. The peak-to-peak amplitude of the lightcurve varied from about 0.3 mag to nearly 1.4 mag. The absolute V mag at maximum light, extrapolated to zero phase, is 10.85. Phase coefficients of 0.0233 mag/degree, 0.0009 mag/degree, and 0.0004 mag/degree were derived for V, B-V and U-B, respectively. The zero-phase color of Eros (B-V = 0.88, U-B = 0.50) is representative of an S (silicaceous) compositional type asteroid. The color does not vary with rotation. The photometric behavior of Eros can be modeled by a cylinder with rounded ends having an axial ratio of about 2.3:1. The asteroid is rotating about a short axis with the north pole at 15 deg ecliptic longitude and 9 deg ecliptic latitude.

  11. DISINTEGRATING ASTEROID P/2013 R3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewitt, David; Li, Jing [Department of Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences, UCLA, 595 Charles Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1567 (United States); Agarwal, Jessica [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Max-Planck-Str. 2, D-37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany); Weaver, Harold [The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Mutchler, Max [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Larson, Stephen, E-mail: jewitt@ucla.edu [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 E. University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721-0092 (United States)

    2014-03-20

    Splitting of the nuclei of comets into multiple components has been frequently observed but, to date, no main-belt asteroid has been observed to break up. Using the Hubble Space Telescope, we find that main-belt asteroid P/2013 R3 consists of 10 or more distinct components, the largest up to 200 m in radius (assumed geometric albedo of 0.05) each of which produces a coma and comet-like dust tail. A diffuse debris cloud with total mass ∼2 × 10{sup 8} kg further envelopes the entire system. The velocity dispersion among the components, ΔV ∼ 0.2-0.5 m s{sup –1}, is comparable to the gravitational escape speeds of the largest members, while their extrapolated plane-of-sky motions suggest a break up between 2013 February and September. The broadband optical colors are those of a C-type asteroid. We find no spectral evidence for gaseous emission, placing model-dependent upper limits to the water production rate ≤1 kg s{sup –1}. Breakup may be due to a rotationally induced structural failure of the precursor body.

  12. How to find metal-rich asteroids

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, Alan W

    2014-01-01

    The metal content of asteroids is of great interest, not only for theories of their origins and the evolution of the solar system but, in the case of near-Earth objects (NEOs), also for impact mitigation planning and endeavors in the field of planetary resources. However, since the reflection spectra of metallic asteroids are largely featureless, it is difficult to identify them and relatively few are known. We show how data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)/NEOWISE thermal-infrared survey and similar surveys, fitted with a simple thermal model, can reveal objects likely to be metal rich. We provide a list of candidate metal-rich NEOs. Our results imply that future infrared surveys with the appropriate instrumentation could discover many more metal-rich asteroids, providing valuable data for assessment of the impact hazard and the potential of NEOs as reservoirs of vital materials for future interplanetary space activities and, eventually perhaps, for use on Earth.

  13. How Many Ore-Bearing Asteroids?

    CERN Document Server

    Elvis, Martin

    2013-01-01

    A simple formalism is presented to assess how many asteroids contain ore, i.e. commercially profitable material, and not merely a high concentration of a resource. I apply this formalism to two resource cases: platinum group metals (PGMs) and water. Assuming for now that only Ni-Fe asteroids are of interest for PGMs, then 1% of NEOs are rich in PGMs. The dearth of ultra-low delta-v (= US$1 B and the population of near-Earth objects (NEOs) larger than 100 m diameter is ~20,000 (Mainzer et al. 2011) the total population of PGM ore-bearing NEOs is roughly 10. I stress that this is a conservative and highly uncertain value. For example, an order of magnitude increase in PGM ore-bearing NEOs occurs if delta-v can as large as 5.7 km s-1. Water ore for utilization in space is likely to be found in ~1/1100 NEOs. NEOs as small as 18 m diameter can be water-ore-bodies because of the high richness of water (~20%) expected in ~25% of carbonaceous asteroids, bringing the number of water-ore-bearing NEOs to ~9000 out of th...

  14. The preventive destruction of a hazardous asteroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, A. G.; Galushina, T. Yu.; Prishchepenko, A. B.; Kholshevnikov, K. V.; Chechetkin, V. M.

    2016-06-01

    One means of countering a hazardous asteroid is discussed: destruction of the object using a nuclear charge. Explosion of such an asteroid shortly before its predicted collision would have catastrophic consequences, with numerous highly radioactive fragments falling onto the Earth. The possibility of exploding the asteroid several years before its impact is also considered. Such an approach is made feasible because the vast majority of hazardous objects pass by the Earth several times before colliding with it. Computations show that, in the 10 years following the explosion, only a negligible number of fragments fall onto the Earth, whose radioactivity has substantially reduced during this time. In most cases, none of these fragments collides with the Earth. Thus, this proposed method for eliminating a threat from space is reasonable in at least two cases: when it is not possible to undergo a soft removal of the object from the collisional path, and to destroy objects that are continually returning to near-Earth space and require multiple removals from hazardous orbits.

  15. Formation and Evolution of Binary Asteroids

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    Satellites of asteroids have been discovered in nearly every known small body population, and a remarkable aspect of the known satellites is the diversity of their properties. They tell a story of vast differences in formation and evolution mechanisms that act as a function of size, distance from the Sun, and the properties of their nebular environment at the beginning of Solar System history and their dynamical environment over the next 4.5 Gyr. The mere existence of these systems provides a laboratory to study numerous types of physical processes acting on asteroids and their dynamics provide a valuable probe of their physical properties otherwise possible only with spacecraft. Advances in understanding the formation and evolution of binary systems have been assisted by: 1) the growing catalog of known systems, increasing from 33 to nearly 250 between the Merline et al. (2002) Asteroids III chapter and now, 2) the detailed study and long-term monitoring of individual systems such as 1999 KW4 and 1996 FG3, 3...

  16. New active asteroid 313P/Gibbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present initial observations of the newly discovered active asteroid 313P/Gibbs (formerly P/2014 S4), taken to characterize its nucleus and comet-like activity. The central object has a radius ∼0.5 km (geometric albedo 0.05 assumed). We find no evidence for secondary nuclei and set (with qualifications) an upper limit to the radii of such objects near 20 m, assuming the same albedo. Both aperture photometry and a morphological analysis of the ejected dust show that mass-loss is continuous at rates ∼0.2–0.4 kg s−1, inconsistent with an impact origin. Large dust particles, with radii ∼50–100 μm, dominate the optical appearance. At 2.4 AU from the Sun, the surface equilibrium temperatures are too low for thermal or desiccation stresses to be responsible for the ejection of dust. No gas is spectroscopically detected (limiting the gas mass-loss rate to <1.8 kg s−1). However, the protracted emission of dust seen in our data and the detection of another episode of dust release near perihelion, in archival observations from 2003, are highly suggestive of an origin by the sublimation of ice. Coincidentally, the orbit of 313P/Gibbs is similar to those of several active asteroids independently suspected to be ice sublimators, including P/2012 T1, 238P/Read, and 133P/Elst–Pizarro, suggesting that ice is abundant in the outer asteroid belt.

  17. Cosmic "Dig" Reveals Vestiges of the Milky Way's Building Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Peering through the thick dust clouds of our galaxy's "bulge" (the myriads of stars surrounding its centre), and revealing an amazing amount of detail, a team of astronomers has unveiled an unusual mix of stars in the stellar grouping known as Terzan 5. Never observed anywhere in the bulge before, this peculiar "cocktail" of stars suggests that Terzan 5 is in fact one of the bulge's primordial building blocks, most likely the relic of a proto-galaxy that merged with the Milky Way during its very early days. "The history of the Milky Way is encoded in its oldest fragments, globular clusters and other systems of stars that have witnessed the entire evolution of our galaxy," says Francesco Ferraro from the University of Bologna, lead author of a paper appearing in this week's issue of the journal Nature. "Our study opens a new window on yet another piece of our galactic past." Like archaeologists, who dig through the dust piling up on top of the remains of past civilisations and unearth crucial pieces of the history of mankind, astronomers have been gazing through the thick layers of interstellar dust obscuring the bulge of the Milky Way and have unveiled an extraordinary cosmic relic. The target of the study is the star cluster Terzan 5. The new observations show that this object, unlike all but a few exceptional globular clusters, does not harbour stars which are all born at the same time - what astronomers call a "single population" of stars. Instead, the multitude of glowing stars in Terzan 5 formed in at least two different epochs, the earliest probably some 12 billion years ago and then again 6 billion years ago. "Only one globular cluster with such a complex history of star formation has been observed in the halo of the Milky Way: Omega Centauri," says team member Emanuele Dalessandro. "This is the first time we see this in the bulge." The galactic bulge is the most inaccessible region of our galaxy for astronomical observations: only infrared light can

  18. Polarization of asteroid (387) Aquitania: the newest member of a class of large inversion angle asteroids

    CERN Document Server

    Masiero, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    We present new imaging polarimetric observations of two Main Belt asteroids, (234) Barbara and (387) Aquitania, taken in the first half of 2008 using the Dual-Beam Imaging Polarimeter on the University of Hawaii 2.2 meter telescope, located on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Barbara had been previously shown to exhibit a very unusual polarization-phase curve by Cellino, et al. (2006). Our observations confirm this result and add Aquitania to the growing class of large inversion angle objects. Interestingly, these asteroids show spinel features in their IR spectra suggesting a mineralogical origin to the phase angle-dependent polarimetric features. As spinel is associated with calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions and carbonaceous chondrites, these large inversion angle asteroids may represent some of the oldest surfaces in the solar system. Circular as well as linear polarization measurements were obtained but circular polarization was not detected.

  19. BPA 与 DIgSILENT 动态模型的比较与数据转换%Comparison and Data Conversion Between Dynamic Models of BPA and DIgSILENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董炜; 潘秋萍; 雷金勇; 谢欢; 辛焕海; 吴浩

    2016-01-01

    鉴于 DIgSILENT 中缺少大规模电力系统的暂态数据,难以进行暂态仿真分析,将 BPA 的暂态数据转换至 DIgSILENT 中是一种重要且有效的方法。详细比较了 BPA 和 DIgSILENT 两种商业软件中的机电暂态模型,实现发电机和负荷的模型匹配。利用 Frame 和 Block 的双层结构,在DIgSILENT 中搭建了同步机控制系统框架和模型,实现同步机控制系统的模型匹配。利用DIgSILENT 支持的 Python 语言编写暂态数据转换程序实现数据匹配。基于模型匹配和数据匹配实现大规模电力系统数据自动转换。IEEE 3机9节点系统和411机6613节点华东电网系统的仿真计算结果验证了数据转换的准确性和实用性。%Converting the transient data of BPA to DIgSILENT is an effective method for lack of dynamic data in DIgSIELNT. This paper compares the electromechanical dynamic models of the two commercial simulation software to realize model matching of synchronous generators and loads.Building the frame and models of synchronous generator controllers based on the double layer structure of Frame and Block in DIgSILENT,realizing the matching of synchronous generator controllers. Data matching is achieved by a Python language based program that converts transient data, which is supported by DIgSILENT.Furthermore,the large-scale data is automatically converted from BPA to DIgSILENT based on model matching and data matching.The effectiveness of data conversion is verified by simulation results of an IEEE 3-machine 9-bus benchmark system,and the 41 1-machine 6 613-bus East China power grid.

  20. The Nature of C Asteroid Regolith from Meteorite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, M.; Mikouchi, T.; Hagiya, K.; Ohsumi, K.; Komatsu, M.; Jenniskens, P.; Le, L.; Yin, Q.-Z; Kebukawa, Y.; Fries, M.

    2013-01-01

    Regolith from C (and related) asteroid bodies are a focus of the current missions Dawn at Ceres, Hayabusa 2 and OSIRIS REx. An asteroid as large as Ceres is expected to be covered by a mature regolith, and as Hayabusa demonstrated, flat and therefore engineeringly-safe ponded deposits will probably be the sampling sites for both Hayabusa 2 and OSIRIS REx. Here we examine what we have learned about the mineralogy of fine-grained asteroid regolith from recent meteorite studies and the examination of the samples harvested from asteroid Itokawa by Hayabusa.