Sample records for asterina stellifera echinodermata

  1. The genus Asterina (Asterinaceae on the members of Myristicaceae in Kerala State, India

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    V.B. Hosagoudar


    Full Text Available This paper gives an account of three Asterina species infecting members of the family Myristicaceae, namely, Asterina knemae attenuatae infected the leaves of Knema attenuata, Asterina myristicae infecting the leaves of Myristica sp. and Asterina myristicacearum infecting the leaves of Myristica malabarica. Of these, Asterina myristicae and Asterina myristicacearum are found to be new species. All these three species are described and illustrated in detail and a key is provided to them. Key to all the species of the genus Asterina reported on Myristicaceae is also supplanted to this study.

  2. Biodiversity of Asterina species on Neotropical host plants: new species and records from Panama. (United States)

    Hofmann, T A; Piepenbring, M


    Two new species of the genus Asterina are described from living leaves collected in provinces Chiriquí and Bocas del Toro in western Panama. Asterina alloplecti on Alloplectus ichtyoderma (Gesneriaceae) differs from other Asterina on Gesneriaceae by its stalked appressoria and host relationship. Asterina compsoneurae on Compsoneura sprucei (Myristicaceae) can be distinguished from other members of Asterina on Myristicaceae by its larger ascomata, larger, prominently spinose ascospores and host relationship. New records for Panama are Asterina corallopoda from a new host plant species (Solanum trizygum, Solanaceae), A. diplopoda, A. ekmanii from a new host plant species (Gonzalagunia rudis, Rubiaceae), A. siphocampyli from a new host plant genus and species (Burmeistera vulgaris, Campanulaceae) and A. styracina from a new host-plant species (Styrax argenteus, Styracaceae). This study increases the number of species of Asterina known for Panama from 12 to 19 and the number of Asterinaceae from 14 to 21. Asterina corallopoda, A. diplopoda, A. ekmanii, A. siphocampyli and A. styracina are illustrated for the first time. A phylogeny inferred from the analysis of LSU rDNA sequences of species of Asterina is presented. The diversity and host-plant patterns of known Neotropical species of Asterina are discussed.

  3. Extraction and analysis of polyunsaturated fatty acid from Asterina pectinifera in Huanghai Sea

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    Guo Chenghua; Liu Wanshun; Han Baoqin; Dong Xinwei; Liu Chuanlin; Hu Dan; Soon-Teck Jung


    The full fats of Asterina pectinifera in Huanghai Sea were extracted and refined using solvent extraction combined with silica gel column chromatography with yield of 1.64 %. The full fats were analyzed by gas chromatography and the result indicated that the full fats from Asterina pectinifera contained abundant Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA) with a total of 25 kinds, especially rich in EPA and DHA. After enrichment by silica gel column chromatography, the total PUFA content in ligarine fraction is 42.20%, in which EPA and DHA account for 12.50% and 10.33% respectively. The total PUFA content in acetic ether fraction is 48.98%, in which EPA and DHA take up 17.53% and 6.59% respectively. The total amount of EPA and DHA in both fractions all exceeded that of the fish oil from deep sea. In conclusion,the Asterina pectinifera in Huanghai Sea is a favorable source of PUFA.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋斌; 李泰辉; 梁建庆


    星盾炱属新种紫玉盘星盾炱Asterina uvariae-microcarpae寄生在番荔枝科植物紫玉盘Uvaria microcarpa (Annonaceae)的叶上.新种有拉丁文和英文描述,附了显微结构图.模式标本保存在广东省微生物研究所标本室(HMIGD).%Asterina uvariae-microcarpae parasitic on Uvaria microcarpa collected in Guangdong, China is reported. Latin and English diagnoses and illustration of the new species are presented. Type specimens is deposited in the Herbarium of Guangdong Institute of Microbiology (HMIGD), Guangzhou,China.

  5. Revised sequence and expression of cyclin B cDNA from the starfish Asterina pectinifera. (United States)

    Miyake, Y; Deshimaru, S; Toraya, T


    Cyclin B cDNA was cloned from the ovary of the starfish Asterina pectinifera and analyzed by RT-PCR and 3'- and 5'-RACE techniques. The cDNA consists of a 0.13-kb upstream untranslated region, a 1.22-kb coding region, and a 0.86-kb downstream untranslated region. The open reading frame encoded a polypeptide of 404 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular weight of 45,692. All the characteristic sequences, such as destruction and cyclin boxes, cyclin B motif, and cytoplasmic retention and nuclear export signals, were found in the newly cloned cyclin B cDNA. The deduced amino acid sequence of the cyclin B cDNA was highly homologous in the middle and carboxy terminal regions to that from mature eggs of the same organism, but quite different in the amino terminal region. Evidence was obtained which suggested that this cyclin B is expressed in immature and maturing oocytes and is the same as that cloned from mature eggs.

  6. Inhibitory mechanism of l-glutamic acid on spawning of the starfish Patiria (Asterina) pectinifera. (United States)

    Mita, Masatoshi


    l-Glutamic acid was previously identified as an inhibitor of spawning in the starfish Patiria (Asterina) pectinifera; this study examined how l-glutamic acid works. Oocyte release from ovaries of P. pectinifera occurred after germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and follicular envelope breakdown (FEBD) when gonads were incubated ex vivo with either relaxin-like gonad-stimulating peptide (RGP) or 1-methyladenine (1-MeAde). l-Glutamic acid blocked this spawning phenotype, causing the mature oocytes to remain within the ovaries. Neither RGP-induced 1-MeAde production in ovarian follicle cells nor 1-MeAde-induced GVBD and FEBD was affected by l-glutamic acid. l-Glutamic acid may act through metabotropic receptors in the ovaries to inhibit spawning, as l-(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid, an agonist for metabotropic glutamate receptors, also inhibited spawning induced by 1-MeAde. Application of acetylcholine (ACH) to ovaries under inhibitory conditions with l-glutamic acid, however, brought about spawning, possibly by inducing contraction of the ovarian wall to discharge mature oocytes from the ovaries concurrently with GVBD and FEBD. Thus, l-glutamic acid may inhibit ACH secretion from gonadal nerve cells in the ovary. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Echinodermata in ecotoxicological tests: maintenance and sensitivity

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    Jocássio Batista Soares


    Full Text Available Abstract This work investigates the sensitivity of four species of Echinodermata (Lytechinus variegatus, Echinometra lucunter, Arbacia lixula and Encope emarginata, evaluating the effect of five reference toxicants (Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu and SDS on embryo-larval development, following the official protocols. It also evaluates techniques for the maintenance of L. variegatus in the laboratory, changes in its sensitivity, and the effects of chemical agents that induce the release of gametes, on the survival rates of the organisms. In terms of the maintenance of L. variegatus in the laboratory, the diet with vegetable content appears to be more favorable for maintenance and maturation in cultivation tanks. Chemical inducers such as KCl and the Anesthetic (lidocaine and epinephrine resulted in high adult mortality rates, discouraging its re-induction. The tests performed with different species of sea urchin and sand dollar, using different reference toxicants, showed no variations in sensitivity to the more toxic chemicals, indicating that different species can be used for evaluation and environmental impact assessment.

  8. Global diversity of brittle stars (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea.

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    Sabine Stöhr

    Full Text Available This review presents a comprehensive overview of the current status regarding the global diversity of the echinoderm class Ophiuroidea, focussing on taxonomy and distribution patterns, with brief introduction to their anatomy, biology, phylogeny, and palaeontological history. A glossary of terms is provided. Species names and taxonomic decisions have been extracted from the literature and compiled in The World Ophiuroidea Database, part of the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS. Ophiuroidea, with 2064 known species, are the largest class of Echinodermata. A table presents 16 families with numbers of genera and species. The largest are Amphiuridae (467, Ophiuridae (344 species and Ophiacanthidae (319 species. A biogeographic analysis for all world oceans and all accepted species was performed, based on published distribution records. Approximately similar numbers of species were recorded from the shelf (n = 1313 and bathyal depth strata (1297. The Indo-Pacific region had the highest species richness overall (825 species and at all depths. Adjacent regions were also relatively species rich, including the North Pacific (398, South Pacific (355 and Indian (316 due to the presence of many Indo-Pacific species that partially extended into these regions. A secondary region of enhanced species richness was found in the West Atlantic (335. Regions of relatively low species richness include the Arctic (73 species, East Atlantic (118, South America (124 and Antarctic (126.

  9. Nucleotide sequence and expression of relaxin-like gonad-stimulating peptide gene in starfish Asterina pectinifera. (United States)

    Haraguchi, Shogo; Ikeda, Narumi; Abe, Michiko; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Mita, Masatoshi


    Starfish gonad-stimulating substance (GSS) is the only known invertebrate peptide hormone responsible for final gamete maturation, rendering it functionally analogous to gonadotropins in vertebrates. Because GSS belongs to the relaxin-like peptide family, we propose renaming for starfish gonadotropic hormone as relaxin-like gonad-stimulating peptide (RGP). This study examined the primary structure and expression regulation of the RGP gene in starfish Asterina pectinifera. RGP consisted of 3896 base pairs (bp) divided over two exons, exon 1 of 208 bp and exon 2 of 2277 bp, and one intron of 1411 bp. Promoter sequences, CAAT and TATA boxes, were present in the 5'-upstream region of the coding DNA sequence of RGP. The transcript was 2485 bases (b) in length. The AAUAAA polyadenylation signal was found in 3'-untranslated region over 2kb away from the stop codon. This showed that only 14% of the RGP mRNA was translated into the peptide, because a size of the open-reading frame was 351 b. Furthermore, an analysis by using real-time quantitative PCR with specific primers for RGP showed that mRNA of RGP was expressed at high levels in the radial nerves. Expression was also observed in the cardiac stomachs, although the level was low, and trace levels were detected in the gonads, pyloric caeca and tube feet. This result suggests that the RGP gene is transcribed mainly in the radial nerves of A. pectinifera.

  10. Wnt, Frizzled, and sFRP gene expression patterns during gastrulation in the starfish Patiria (Asterina) pectinifera. (United States)

    Kawai, Narudo; Kuraishi, Ritsu; Kaneko, Hiroyuki


    By the initial phase of gastrulation, Wnt pathway regulation mediates endomesoderm specification and establishes the animal-vegetal axis, thereby leading to proper gastrulation in starfish. To provide insight into the ancestral mechanism regulating deuterostome gastrulation, we identified the gene expression patterns of Wnt, Frizzled (Fz), and secreted frizzled-related protein (sFRP) family genes, which play a role in the initial stage of the Wnt pathway, in starfish Patiria (Asterina) pectinifera embryos using whole mount in situ hybridization. We identified ten Wnt, four Fz, and two sFRP paralogues. From the hatching blastula to the late gastrula stage, the majority of the Wnt genes and both Fz5/8 and sFRP1/5 were expressed in the posterior and anterior half of the embryo, respectively. Wnt8, Fz1, and Fz4 showed restricted expression in the lateral ectoderm. On the other hand, several genes were expressed de novo in the restricted domain of the archenteron at the late gastrula stage. These results suggest that the canonical and/or non-canonical Wnt pathway might implicate endomesoderm specification, anterior-posterior axis establishment, anterior-posterior patterning, and archenteron morphogenesis in the developmental context of starfish embryos. From comparison with the expression patterns observed in Patria miniata, we consider that the Wnt pathway is conserved among starfishes.

  11. Three new records of asteroids (Echinodermata: Asteroidea from Peru Tres nuevos registros de asteroideos (Echinodermata: Asteroidea de Perú

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    Yuri Hooker


    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present three new shallow water (4 - >50 m records of asteroids (Echinodermata: Asteroidea for the Peruvian fauna: Astropecten regalis Gray, 1840, Paulia horrida Gray 1840 and Meyenaster gelatinosus (Meyen, 1834. Astropecten regalis geographical distribution is known that ranges from Gulf of California to Panama, this discovery extends its distribution to Mancora, Peru. Paulia horrida is known from Baja California to Isla Cocos, Costa Rica, and this record extends its southern distribution limit to Punta Sal, Peru. Meyenaster gelatinosus was considered endemic to Chilean waters, however, this record confirm its presence in Peru extending its northern distribution limit to San Juan de Marcona, Peru. Morphological and habitat information on this four species is provided, together with live pictures.En el presente trabajo se registran 3 nuevos asteroideos (Echinodermata: Asteroidea de aguas someras (4 - >50 m para el Perú: Astropecten regalis Gray, 1840, Paulia horrida Gray 1840 y Meyenaster gelatinosus (Meyen, 1834. Astropecten regalis se conocía desde el Golfo de California hasta Panamá, en el presente trabajo, se amplía su distribución hasta Máncora, Perú. La distribución geográfica de Paulia horrida era conocida desde Baja California, hasta Isla Cocos, Costa Rica, en este estudio se amplía su distribución geográfica hasta Punta Sal, Perú. A Meyenaster gelatinosus se le conocía solo de Chile, en el presente trabajo se registra y confirma su presencia en el Perú, ampliando su distribución norte hasta San Juan de Marcona. Se proporciona información morfológica de las especies, características del hábitat y fotografías in situ y de los especímenes recién recolectados.

  12. Circumpolar dataset of sequenced specimens of Promachocrinus kerguelensis (Echinodermata, Crinoidea

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    Lenaïg G. Hemery


    Full Text Available This circumpolar dataset of the comatulid (Echinodermata: Crinoidea Promachocrinus kerguelensis (Carpenter, 1888 from the Southern Ocean, documents biodiversity associated with the specimens sequenced in Hemery et al. (2012. The aim of Hemery et al. (2012 paper was to use phylogeographic and phylogenetic tools to assess the genetic diversity, demographic history and evolutionary relationships of this very common and abundant comatulid, in the context of the glacial history of the Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic shelves (Thatje et al. 2005, 2008. Over one thousand three hundred specimens (1307 used in this study were collected during seventeen cruises from 1996 to 2010, in eight regions of the Southern Ocean: Kerguelen Plateau, Davis Sea, Dumont d’Urville Sea, Ross Sea, Amundsen Sea, West Antarctic Peninsula, East Weddell Sea and Scotia Arc including the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula and the Bransfield Strait. We give here the metadata of this dataset, which lists sampling sources (cruise ID, ship name, sampling date, sampling gear, sampling sites (station, geographic coordinates, depth and genetic data (phylogroup, haplotype, sequence ID for each of the 1307 specimens. The identification of the specimens was controlled by an expert taxonomist specialist of crinoids (Marc Eléaume, Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris and all the COI sequences were matched against those available on the Barcode of Life Data System (BOLD: This dataset can be used by studies dealing with, among other interests, Antarctic and/or crinoid diversity (species richness, distribution patterns, biogeography or habitat / ecological niche modeling. This dataset is accessible through the GBIF network at

  13. Global diversity and phylogeny of the Asteroidea (Echinodermata.

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    Christopher L Mah

    Full Text Available Members of the Asteroidea (phylum Echinodermata, popularly known as starfish or sea stars, are ecologically important and diverse members of marine ecosystems in all of the world's oceans. We present a comprehensive overview of diversity and phylogeny as they have figured into the evolution of the Asteroidea from Paleozoic to the living fauna. Living post-Paleozoic asteroids, the Neoasteroidea, are morphologically separate from those in the Paleozoic. Early Paleozoic asteroid faunas were diverse and displayed morphology that foreshadowed later living taxa. Preservation presents significant difficulties, but fossil occurrence and current accounts suggests a diverse Paleozoic fauna, which underwent extinction around the Permian-Triassic interval was followed by re-diversification of at least one surviving lineage. Ongoing phylogenetic classification debates include the status of the Paxillosida and the Concentricycloidea. Fossil and molecular evidence has been and continues to be part of the ongoing evolution of asteroid phylogenetic research. The modern lineages of asteroids include the Valvatacea, the Forcipulatacea, the Spinlosida, and the Velatida. We present an overview of diversity in these taxa, as well as brief notes on broader significance, ecology, and functional morphology of each. Although much asteroid taxonomy is stable, many new taxa remain to be discovered with many new species currently awaiting description. The Goniasteridae is currently one of the most diverse families within the Asteroidea. New data from molecular phylogenetics and the advent of global biodiversity databases, such as the World Asteroidea Database ( present important new springboards for understanding the global biodiversity and evolution of asteroids.

  14. Equinodermos (Echinodermata) del occidente del Archipiélago Sabana-Camagüey, Cuba


    Valle García, R. del; M. Abreu Pérez; Rodríguez, R.; Solís-Marín, F. A.; A. Laguarda-Figueras; Durán González, A. de la L.


    Echinoderms (Echinodermata) from western Archipelago Sabana-Camagüey, Cuba. The Sabana-Camagüey Archipelago, central north region of Cuba, has been submitted to a significant tourist development, with the corresponding increase of hotel infrastructure and highways. We sampled 20 stations considering biotope variation in the macrolagoon and the external areas. The samplings were carried out in March - April and October - November, 2001 (20 days per sampling). Towards the external area - where ...




    Noriaster barberoi gen. et. sp. n. is based on a single specimen from the Calcare di Zorzino (Norian, Triassic) of northern Italy. A member of the surviving Poraniidae (Valvatida; Echinodermata), N. barberoi is the oldest-known species assignable to a Jurassic and younger family and the first such species known from the Triassic. No Paleozoic species with close affinities with crown-group families has been recognized. Noriaster and the slightly older Triassic genus Trichasteropsis from the Mu...

  16. First record of the swimming sea cucumber Enypniastes eximia Théel, 1882 (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea in Peruvian waters

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    Francisco Alonso Solís-Marín


    Full Text Available Enypniastes eximia Théel, 1882 (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea a swimming sea cucumber is reported for the first time from Peru. The species was collected in the Continental rise (563-1,201 m off Trujillo Department. Reference material has been deposited in the Coleccion Cientifica del Instituto del Mar del Peru (IMARPE, Lima, Peru.

  17. [Catalogue of neritic-benthonic echinoderms (Echinodermata: Asteroidea and Ophiuroidea) from the Cuban Archipelago]. (United States)

    Abreu-Pérez, Mercedes; Solís-Marín, Francisco A; Laguarda-Figueras, Alfredo


    This is an updated taxonomic catalogue of neritic-benthonic Echinodermata (Asteroidea and Ophiuroidea) from Cuba, that includes locality, range, habitat and depth where each species is found. The species list is based on the collections of the Oceanology Institute; Havana; the "Felipe Poey" Museum (Havana University) and the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C. Specimens for those collections were captured by a variety of field techniques, narcotized with Cloral hydrate, fixed in formalin and stored in 70-80% alcohol. A total of 75 species have been identified from Cuban waters: Asteroidea (20 species) and Ophiuroidea (55 species).

  18. [Catalogue of neritic-benthonic echinoderms (Echinodermata: Crinoidea, Echinoidea, Holothuroidea) from the Cuban Archipelago]. (United States)

    del Valle García, Rosa; Solís-Marín, Francisco A; Abreu Pérez, Mercedes; Laguarda-Figueras, Alfredo; Durán-González, Alicia


    This is an updated taxonomic catalogue of neritic-benthonic Echinodermata (Crinoidea, Echinoidea, Holothuroidea) from Cuba, that includes locality, range, habitat and depth where each species is found. The species list is based on the collections of the Oceanology Institute; Havana, and the "Felipe Poey" Museum (Havana University) Specimens for those collections were captured by a variety of field techniques, narcotized with Cloral hydrate, fixed in formalin and stored in 70-80% alcohol. A total of 53 species were recorded (eight Crinoids, 22 Echinoids and 23 Holothuroids), in 37 genera, 19 families and 12 orders. Ocnus suspectus (Ludwig, 1874) and Phyllophorus (Urodemella) occidentalis (Ludwig, 1885) are new records for Cuban waters.

  19. Preparation and identification of saponin extracted from Asterilas rollestoni, Asterina pectinifera and Ophiura kinbergi in Huanghai Sea%黄海海域三种棘皮动物皂甙的制备及性质鉴定比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭承华; 曹建国; 刘迅; 宁黔冀; 鞠宝; 刘传琳



  20. Primer registro de Heterocucumis godeffroyi(Semper, 1868 (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea en el mar peruano

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    Francisco Alonso Solís-Marín


    Full Text Available Se registra por primera vez para el Perú la especie de pepino de mar Heterocucumis godeffroyi(Semper, 1868 (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea. La especie fue recolectada a 19 m de profundidad en Pucusana, de-partamento de Lima. Este registro representa el límite más norteño de distribución de la especie reconocido hasta el momento. Material de referencia se encuentra depositado en la Colección de Zoología Acuática, del Laboratorio de Biología Marina, Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas y Fisiológicas, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Perú.

  1. Primer registro de Florometra magellanica (Bell, 1882 (Echinodermata: Crinoidea para el Perú

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    Elba Prieto Rios


    Full Text Available Se registra por primera vez para el Perú al Crinoideo (Echinodermata Florometra magellanica (Bell, 1882. La especie fue recolectada en el talud continental (360 – 814 m frente al departamento de Piura al norte del Perú (3°38,67’S, 81° 2,73’W. El material de referencia se encuentra depositado en la Colección Científica del Instituto del mar del Perú (IMARPE, Lima, Perú y en la Colección Nacional de Equinodermos de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México.

  2. Biosynthesis of polar steroids from the Far Eastern starfish Patiria (=Asterina) pectinifera. Cholesterol and cholesterol sulfate are converted into polyhydroxylated sterols and monoglycoside asterosaponin P1 in feeding experiments. (United States)

    Ivanchina, Natalia V; Kicha, Alla A; Malyarenko, Timofey V; Kalinovsky, Anatoly I; Dmitrenok, Pavel S; Stonik, Valentin A


    For the first time, it is experimentally established that the dietary cholesterol and cholesterol sulfate are biosynthetic precursors of polyhydroxysteroids and related low molecular weight glycosides in starfishes. These deuterium labeled precursors were converted into partly deuterated 5α-cholestane-3β,6α,7α,8,15α,16β,26-heptaol, 5α-cholestane-3β,4β,6α,7α,8,15β,16β,26-octaol, and steroid monoside asterosaponin P1 in result of feeding experiments on the Far Eastern starfish Patiria (=Asterina) pectinifera. The incorporations of deuterium were established by MS and NMR spectroscopy. Scheme of the first stages of biosynthesis of polar steroids in these animals was suggested on the basis of inclusion of three from six deuterium atoms and determination of their positions in biosynthetic products, when [2,2,3,4,4,6-(2)H6]cholesterol 3-sulfate was used as precursor. It was also shown that labeled cholesterol is transformed into Δ(7)-cholesterol (lathosterol) in digestive organs and gonads of the starfish.

  3. New stylophorans (Echinodermata) from the Upper Cambrian of Guangxi, South China

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    HAN NaiRen; CHEN GuiYing


    This paper describes for the first time the cornute stylophorans (Echinodermata) in China. The new material came from the Guole Formation of the Furongian (Late Cambrian) in the Guole area of Jingxi,Guangxi Province, South China. These new cornute specimens are preserved in situ and found along with well-preserved trilobites and brachiopods. One new species, Phyllocystis jingxiensis sp. nov., is proposed to accommodate these unusual materials. The new species is defined by the small,heart-shaped theca with the frame composed of ten narrow, smooth and thick marginal plates, three adoral plates and distinctive zygal and aulacophore. Both supracentrals and infracentrals are polygonal-outlined. The marginal plate M/ on the inferior face extends posteriorly to form zygal that possesses a broadened proximal end and the proximal portion joining with the conjunction between M4 and M5 on the inferior face. Aulacophore comprises ten segments at its proximal part and is conical at the middle part (named stylocone). Its distal portion is rather long and bears conspicuous ambulacrum grooves. Tectals are horizontally arranged on superior face and obliquely arranged on inferior face.Both cothurnopore and anal pyramid are vaguely seen on the right anterior corner and the extremity of theca's superior face.

  4. New stylophorans(Echinodermata) from the Upper Cambrian of Guangxi,South China

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    This paper describes for the first time the cornute stylophorans (Echinodermata) in China. The new material came from the Guole Formation of the Furongian (Late Cambrian) in the Guole area of Jingxi, Guangxi Province, South China. These new cornute specimens are preserved in situ and found along with well-preserved trilobites and brachiopods. One new species, Phyllocystis jingxiensis sp. nov., is proposed to accommodate these unusual materials. The new species is defined by the small, heart-shaped theca with the frame composed of ten narrow, smooth and thick marginal plates, three adoral plates and distinctive zygal and aulacophore. Both supracentrals and infracentrals are polygonal-outlined. The marginal plate M1’ on the inferior face extends posteriorly to form zygal that possesses a broadened proximal end and the proximal portion joining with the conjunction between M4 and M5 on the inferior face. Aulacophore comprises ten segments at its proximal part and is conical at the middle part (named stylocone). Its distal portion is rather long and bears conspicuous ambulacrum grooves. Tectals are horizontally arranged on superior face and obliquely arranged on inferior face. Both cothurnopore and anal pyramid are vaguely seen on the right anterior corner and the extremity of theca’s superior face.


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    Full Text Available Noriaster barberoi gen. et. sp. n. is based on a single specimen from the Calcare di Zorzino (Norian, Triassic of northern Italy. A member of the surviving Poraniidae (Valvatida; Echinodermata, N. barberoi is the oldest-known species assignable to a Jurassic and younger family and the first such species known from the Triassic. No Paleozoic species with close affinities with crown-group families has been recognized. Noriaster and the slightly older Triassic genus Trichasteropsis from the Muschelkalk of Germany together indicate that the diversification of crown-group asteroids was well underway at least by Middle and Late Triassic time. Phylogeny of crown-group asteroids is problematic because extant familial-level taxa are morphologically divergent, and they exhibit comparatively few uncontested characters that clearly indicate phylogenetic affinities and sequence. Familial assignment of Noriaster is supported by a new cladistic analysis. To the student of living asteroids, the appearance of a living Noriaster would be remarkable only because it would seem so commonplace. To the extent that form correlates with function, Noriaster suggests that modern asteroid life modes emerged quite promptly during the Mesozoic asteroid diversification. 

  6. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of the Fossil Crinoid Encrinus liliiformis (Echinodermata: Crinoidea) (United States)

    Dynowski, Janina F.; Nebelsick, James H.; Klein, Adrian; Roth-Nebelsick, Anita


    Crinoids, members of the phylum Echinodermata, are passive suspension feeders and catch plankton without producing an active feeding current. Today, the stalked forms are known only from deep water habitats, where flow conditions are rather constant and feeding velocities relatively low. For feeding, they form a characteristic parabolic filtration fan with their arms recurved backwards into the current. The fossil record, in contrast, provides a large number of stalked crinoids that lived in shallow water settings, with more rapidly changing flow velocities and directions compared to the deep sea habitat of extant crinoids. In addition, some of the fossil representatives were possibly not as flexible as today’s crinoids and for those forms alternative feeding positions were assumed. One of these fossil crinoids is Encrinus liliiformis, which lived during the middle Triassic Muschelkalk in Central Europe. The presented project investigates different feeding postures using Computational Fluid Dynamics to analyze flow patterns forming around the crown of E. liliiformis, including experimental validation by Particle Image Velocimetry. The study comprises the analysis of different flow directions, velocities, as well as crown orientations. Results show that inflow from lateral and oral leads to direct transport of plankton particles into the crown and onto the oral surface. With current coming from the “rear” (aboral) side of the crinoid, the conical opening of the crown produces a backward oriented flow in its wake that transports particles into the crown. The results suggest that a conical feeding position may have been less dependent on stable flow conditions compared to the parabolic filtration fan. It is thus assumed that the conical feeding posture of E. liliiformis was suitable for feeding under dynamically changing flow conditions typical for the shallow marine setting of the Upper Muschelkalk. PMID:27243221

  7. Origin and evolutionary plasticity of the gastric caecum in sea urchins (Echinodermata: Echinoidea

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    Rolet Gauthier


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The digestive tract of many metazoan invertebrates is characterized by the presence of caeca or diverticula that serve secretory and/or absorptive functions. With the development of various feeding habits, distinctive digestive organs may be present in certain taxa. This also holds true for sea urchins (Echinodermata: Echinoidea, in which a highly specialized gastric caecum can be found in members of a derived subgroup, the Irregularia (cake urchins, sea biscuits, sand dollars, heart urchins, and related forms. As such a specialized caecum has not been reported from "regular" sea urchin taxa, the aim of this study was to elucidate its evolutionary origin. Results Using morphological data derived from dissection, magnetic resonance imaging, and extensive literature studies, we compare the digestive tract of 168 echinoid species belonging to 51 extant families. Based on a number of characters such as topography, general morphology, mesenterial suspension, and integration into the haemal system, we homologize the gastric caecum with the more or less pronounced dilation of the anterior stomach that is observed in most "regular" sea urchin taxa. In the Irregularia, a gastric caecum can be found in all taxa except in the Laganina and Scutellina. It is also undeveloped in certain spatangoid species. Conclusions According to our findings, the sea urchin gastric caecum most likely constitutes a synapomorphy of the Euechinoidea. Its occurrence in "regular" euechinoids is linked to the presence of an additional festoon of the anterior stomach in ambulacrum III. Both structures, the additional festoon and the gastric caecum, are absent in the sister taxon to the Euechinoidea, the Cidaroida. Since the degree of specialization of the gastric caecum is most pronounced in the predominantly sediment-burrowing irregular taxa, we hypothesize that its evolution is closely linked to the development of more elaborate infaunal lifestyles. We

  8. Evolution of a novel muscle design in sea urchins (Echinodermata: Echinoidea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Ziegler

    Full Text Available The sea urchin (Echinodermata: Echinoidea masticatory apparatus, or Aristotle's lantern, is a complex structure composed of numerous hard and soft components. The lantern is powered by various paired and unpaired muscle groups. We describe how one set of these muscles, the lantern protractor muscles, has evolved a specialized morphology. This morphology is characterized by the formation of adaxially-facing lobes perpendicular to the main orientation of the muscle, giving the protractor a frilled aspect in horizontal section. Histological and ultrastructural analyses show that the microstructure of frilled muscles is largely identical to that of conventional, flat muscles. Measurements of muscle dimensions in equally-sized specimens demonstrate that the frilled muscle design, in comparison to that of the flat muscle type, considerably increases muscle volume as well as the muscle's surface directed towards the interradial cavity, a compartment of the peripharyngeal coelom. Scanning electron microscopical observations reveal that the insertions of frilled and flat protractor muscles result in characteristic muscle scars on the stereom, reflecting the shapes of individual muscles. Our comparative study of 49 derived "regular" echinoid species using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI shows that frilled protractor muscles are found only in taxa belonging to the families Toxopneustidae, Echinometridae, and Strongylocentrotidae. The onset of lobe formation during ontogenesis varies between species of these three families. Because frilled protractor muscles are best observed in situ, the application of a non-invasive imaging technique was crucial for the unequivocal identification of this morphological character on a large scale. Although it is currently possible only to speculate on the functional advantages which the frilled muscle morphology might confer, our study forms the anatomical and evolutionary framework for future analyses of this unusual

  9. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of the Fossil Crinoid Encrinus liliiformis (Echinodermata: Crinoidea.

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    Janina F Dynowski

    Full Text Available Crinoids, members of the phylum Echinodermata, are passive suspension feeders and catch plankton without producing an active feeding current. Today, the stalked forms are known only from deep water habitats, where flow conditions are rather constant and feeding velocities relatively low. For feeding, they form a characteristic parabolic filtration fan with their arms recurved backwards into the current. The fossil record, in contrast, provides a large number of stalked crinoids that lived in shallow water settings, with more rapidly changing flow velocities and directions compared to the deep sea habitat of extant crinoids. In addition, some of the fossil representatives were possibly not as flexible as today's crinoids and for those forms alternative feeding positions were assumed. One of these fossil crinoids is Encrinus liliiformis, which lived during the middle Triassic Muschelkalk in Central Europe. The presented project investigates different feeding postures using Computational Fluid Dynamics to analyze flow patterns forming around the crown of E. liliiformis, including experimental validation by Particle Image Velocimetry. The study comprises the analysis of different flow directions, velocities, as well as crown orientations. Results show that inflow from lateral and oral leads to direct transport of plankton particles into the crown and onto the oral surface. With current coming from the "rear" (aboral side of the crinoid, the conical opening of the crown produces a backward oriented flow in its wake that transports particles into the crown. The results suggest that a conical feeding position may have been less dependent on stable flow conditions compared to the parabolic filtration fan. It is thus assumed that the conical feeding posture of E. liliiformis was suitable for feeding under dynamically changing flow conditions typical for the shallow marine setting of the Upper Muschelkalk.

  10. A comparative study of vitellogenesis in Echinodermata: Lessons from the sea star. (United States)

    Alqaisi, Khalid M; Lamare, Miles D; Grattan, Dave R; Damsteegt, Erin L; Schneider, Wolfgang J; Lokman, P Mark


    The provision of yolk precursor proteins to the oviparous egg is crucial for normal embryo development. In Echinodermata, a transferrin-like yolk component termed major yolk protein (MYP) is a major precursor protein in Echinoidea and Holothuroidea. In contrast, in Asteroidea a single vitellogenin (Vtg) was recently identified, but its role as primary yolk protein remains unclear. To resolve the apparent MYP-Vtg dichotomy in sea stars and to understand the dynamics of candidate yolk protein gene expression during the reproductive cycle, we investigated the molecular structures of sea star Vtg and MYP and quantified their transcript levels during oogenesis. By combining protein sequencing of the predominant proteins in ovulated eggs of Patiriella regularis with ovarian transcriptome sequencing and molecular cloning, we characterized two cDNAs encoding two bona fide Vtgs (PrVtg1 and PrVtg2) and a partial cDNA encoding MYP (PrMYP). PrMYP mRNA was found in low abundance in growing oocytes, possibly as maternal transcripts for translation after ovulation. In contrast, PrVtg transcripts, whose levels varied during the reproductive cycle, were not found in developing oocytes - rather, they were detected in ovarian follicle cells and pyloric caeca, indicating an extra-oocytic origin. Vtg accumulating in oocytes was stored in the form of cleaved products, which constituted the most abundant yolk polypeptides in ovulated sea star eggs; their levels decreased during early embryonic and larval development. Together, these traits are the hallmarks of a classical yolk protein - and hence, we contend that Vtg, and not MYP, is the main yolk protein in asteroids.

  11. Preparation of Collagen Peptides and Their Antioxidant Activity from the Body Wall of Starfish Asterina Pectinifera%黄海海燕体壁胶原蛋白肽的制备及其抗氧化活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵雅娉; 刘山; 赵鑫; 刘丽; 启航


    Collagen was extracted from the body wall of starfish Asterina pectinifera, and the purity was detected using SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Then the collagen was hydrolyzed with pepsin and papain under optimum conditions. After ultrafiltrating with the 10 ku membrane , the collagen peptides molecular weight less than 10 ku was prepared. And the antioxidant activity of collagen peptides was detected using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The results indicated that the extracted collagen of high purity, with a complete triple helix;the hydrate degree of collagen treated with pepsin and papain were (5.46±0.14)%and (5.04± 0.37)%, respectively;DPPH radical scavenging ability increased with the increasing concentration of collagen peptides, at the concentration of 20 mg/mL, collagen peptides (pepsin group) and collagen peptides (papain group) on DPPH scavenging rate were (52.10±0.10)%and (46.78±0.09)%, respectively.%以黄海海燕体壁为原料提取胶原蛋白,采用SDS-PAGE电泳检测胶原蛋白的纯度;再分别用胃蛋白酶和木瓜蛋白酶在各自最适条件下水解胶原蛋白,经10 ku的超滤膜超滤后,制备出分子量小于10 ku的胶原蛋白肽;并应用电子自旋共振波谱技术检测胶原蛋白肽的抗氧化活性。结果表明,提取的胶原蛋白纯度高,具有完整三螺旋结构;胃蛋白酶与木瓜蛋白酶对胶原蛋白的水解度分别为(5.46±0.14)%和(5.04±0.37)%;胶原蛋白肽对DPPH自由基的清除能力随着浓度的升高而提高,浓度为20 mg/mL,胶原蛋白肽(胃蛋白酶组)和胶原蛋白肽(木瓜蛋白酶组)对DPPH的清除率分别为(52.10±0.10)%和(46.78±0.09)%。

  12. Remarks on Echinodermata from the South Central Mediterranean Sea based upon collections made during the MARCOS cruise (10 to 20th April, 2007)



    The MARCOS cruise, which took place in the South Central Mediterranean Sea on board the RV ‘Urania’, resulted in the collection of 27 species of Echinodermata from shallow to bathyal depths, many from around Malta (the Fisheries Management Zone). The fauna is represented by common to rare taxa already reported from the Mediterranean with the exception of the amphi-Atlantic ophiuroid Ophiotreta valenciennesi rufescens (Koehler, 1896), recorded from the Mediterranean Basin for the first time. O...

  13. Remarks on Echinodermata from the South Central Mediterranean Sea based upon collections made during the MARCOS cruise (10 to 20th April, 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The MARCOS cruise, which took place in the South Central Mediterranean Sea on board the RV ‘Urania’, resulted in the collection of 27 species of Echinodermata from shallow to bathyal depths, many from around Malta (the Fisheries Management Zone. The fauna is represented by common to rare taxa already reported from the Mediterranean with the exception of the amphi-Atlantic ophiuroid Ophiotreta valenciennesi rufescens (Koehler, 1896, recorded from the Mediterranean Basin for the first time. Odontaster mediterraneus (von Marenzeller, 1893 and Luidia sarsi Lutken, 1858 are also first records for the Maltese Islands.

  14. Comparative morphology of the axial complex and interdependence of internal organ systems in sea urchins (Echinodermata: Echinoidea

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    Ziegler Alexander


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The axial complex of echinoderms (Echinodermata is composed of various primary and secondary body cavities that interact with each other. In sea urchins (Echinoidea, structural differences of the axial complex in "regular" and irregular species have been observed, but the reasons underlying these differences are not fully understood. In addition, a better knowledge of axial complex diversity could not only be useful for phylogenetic inferences, but improve also an understanding of the function of this enigmatic structure. Results We therefore analyzed numerous species of almost all sea urchin orders by magnetic resonance imaging, dissection, histology, and transmission electron microscopy and compared the results with findings from published studies spanning almost two centuries. These combined analyses demonstrate that the axial complex is present in all sea urchin orders and has remained structurally conserved for a long time, at least in the "regular" species. Within the Irregularia, a considerable morphological variation of the axial complex can be observed with gradual changes in topography, size, and internal architecture. These modifications are related to the growing size of the gastric caecum as well as to the rearrangement of the morphology of the digestive tract as a whole. Conclusion The structurally most divergent axial complex can be observed in the highly derived Atelostomata in which the reorganization of the digestive tract is most pronounced. Our findings demonstrate a structural interdependence of various internal organs, including digestive tract, mesenteries, and the axial complex.

  15. Design of phylum-specific hybrid primers for DNA barcoding: addressing the need for efficient COI amplification in the Echinodermata. (United States)

    Hoareau, T B; Boissin, E


    Recent research has shown the usefulness of the Folmer region of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) as a genetic barcode to assist in species delimitation of echinoderms. However, amplification of COI is often challenging in echinoderms (low success or pseudogenes). We present a method that allows the design of phylum-specific hybrid primers, and use this to develop COI primers for the Echinodermata. We aligned COI sequences from 310 echinoderm species and designed all possible primers along the consensus sequence with two methods (standard degenerate and hybrid). We found much lower degeneracy for hybrid primers (4-fold degeneracy) than for standard degenerate primers (≥48-fold degeneracy). We then designed the most conserved hybrid primers to amplify a >500-bp region within COI. These primers successfully amplified this gene region in all tested taxa (123 species across all echinoderm classes). Sequencing of 30 species among these confirmed both the quality of the sequences (>500 bp, no pseudogenes) and their utility as a DNA barcode. This method should be useful for developing primers for other mitochondrial genes and other phyla. The method will also be of interest for the development of future projects involving both community-based genetic assessments on macroorganisms and biodiversity assessment of environmental samples using high-throughput sequencing.

  16. Depth-related distribution and abundance of seastars (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) in the Porcupine Seabight and Porcupine Abyssal Plain, N.E. Atlantic (United States)

    Howell, Kerry L.; Billett, David S. M.; Tyler, Paul A.


    The depth-related distribution of seastar (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) species between 150 and 4950 m in the Porcupine Seabight and Porcupine Abyssal Plain is described. 47 species of asteroid were identified from ˜14,000 individuals collected. The bathymetric range of each species is recorded. What are considered quantitative data, from an acoustically monitored epibenthic sledge and supplementary data from otter trawls, are used to display the relative abundance of individuals within their bathymetric range. Asteroid species are found to have very narrow centres of distribution in which they are abundant, despite much wider total adult depth ranges. Centres of distribution may be skewed. This might result from competition for resources or be related to the occurrence of favourable habitats at particular depths. The bathymetric distributions of the juveniles of some species extend outside the adult depth ranges. There is a distinct pattern of zonation with two major regions of faunal change and six distinct zones. An upper slope zone ranges from 150 to ˜700 m depth, an upper bathyal zone between 700 and 1100 m, a mid-bathyal zone from 1100 to1700 m and a lower bathyal zone between 1700 and 2500 m. Below 2500 m the lower continental slope and continental rise have a characteristic asteroid fauna. The abyssal zone starts at about 2800 m. Regions of major faunal change are identified at the boundaries of both upper and mid-bathyal zones and at the transition of bathyal to abyssal fauna. Diversity is greatest at ˜1800 m, decreasing with depth to ˜2600 m before increasing again to high levels at ˜4700 m.

  17. Apodida (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) of Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mucharin, Arom

    . cranium n.sp., S. lactea, S. lamperti, S. cf. macra, S. madreporica, S. media, S. psara, S. recta, S. reticulata, S. rosea, S. rosetta, S. virgata, and S. violacea. Among these, two species are new to science, 12 species were reported for the first time in Thai waters and 5 species were found on the type...

  18. [Echinoderms (Echinodermata) of the Mexican Caribbean]. (United States)

    Laguarda-Figueras, Alfredo; Solis-Marín, Francisco A; Durán-González, Alicia; Ahearn, Cynthia Gust; Buitrón Sánchez, Blanca Estela; Torres-Vega, Juan


    A systematic list of the echinoderms of the Mexican Caribbean based on museum specimens of the Colección Nacional de Equinodermos, Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México and the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. is presented. This list reveals an important echinoderm biodiversity in the Mexican Caribbean, where five of the six echinoderm classes are represented. A total of 178 echinoderm species is recorded, distributed in 113 genera, 51 families and 22 orders. 30 new records for the Mexican Caribbean are presents: Crínoidea (three), Asteroidea (two), Ophiuroidea (eleven), Echinoidea (one), Holothuroidea (thirteen).

  19. [The echinoderms (Echinodermata) from El Salvador]. (United States)

    Enrique Barraza, José; Roberto Hasbún, Carlos


    A list of echinoderms from El Salvador (tropical eastern Pacific) is presented. The results were obtained from field surveys (between the years 2000 and 2004), the scarce literature sources, and Internet information. A total of 37 species and six genera are reported. The most abundant echinoderms in rocky shores were: Phataria unifascialis, Echinometra vanbrunti, Holothuria kefersteini, as well as Astropecten armatus in soft bottoms.

  20. Impact of natural and calcined starfish (Asterina pectinifera) on the stabilization of Pb, Zn and As in contaminated agricultural soil. (United States)

    Lim, Jung Eun; Sung, Jwa Kyung; Sarkar, Binoy; Wang, Hailong; Hashimoto, Yohey; Tsang, Daniel C W; Ok, Yong Sik


    Metal stabilization using soil amendments is an extensively applied, economically viable and environmentally friendly remediation technique. The stabilization of Pb, Zn and As in contaminated soils was evaluated using natural starfish (NSF) and calcined starfish (CSF) wastes at different application rates (0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 wt%). An incubation study was conducted over 14 months, and the efficiency of stabilization for Pb, Zn and As in soil was evaluated by the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test. The TCLP-extractable Pb was reduced by 76.3-100 and 91.2-100 % in soil treated with NSF and CSF, respectively. The TCLP-extractable Zn was also reduced by 89.8-100 and 93.2-100 % in soil treated with NSF and CSF, respectively. These reductions could be associated with the increased metal adsorption and the formation of insoluble metal precipitates due to increased soil pH following application of the amendments. However, the TCLP-extractable As was increased in the soil treated with NSF, possibly due to the competitive adsorption of phosphorous. In contrast, the TCLP-extractable As in the 10 % CSF treatment was not detectable because insoluble Ca-As compounds might be formed at high pH values. Thermodynamic modeling by visual MINTEQ predicted the formation of ettringite (Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12·26H2O) and portlandite (Ca(OH)2) in the 10 % CSF-treated soil, while SEM-EDS analysis confirmed the needle-like structure of ettringite in which Pb was incorporated and stabilized in the 10 % CSF treatment.

  1. Macrobenthic Communities of the Lower Chesapeake Bay. (United States)


    ECHINODERMATA :ECHINOIDEA Arbacij Runlctulata (Lamarck) Echinarachnius Parma (Larmack) ECHINODERMATA :HOLOTHURO-DEA Holothuroidea spp. Leptosynapta ... inhaerens (Ayres) ECHINODERMATA :OPHIUROIDEA Ophiuroidea spp. * HEMICHORDATA Saccoglossus kowalewskii (Agassiz) CHORDATA :CEPHALOCHORDATA Branchiostoma

  2. Biological results of the Snellius expedition : XXIX. Echinodermata, Asteroidea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jangoux, M.


    Twenty-eight species of starfish were collected during the Snellius Expedition (19291930). The collection contains seven rare or uncommon species, i.e., Astropecten novaeguineae, A. sumbawanus, Celerina heffernani, Fromia eusticha, Disasterina abnormalis, Nepanthia briareus and Echinaster stereosomu

  3. Status and applications of echinoid (phylum echinodermata) toxicity test methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bay, S.; Burgess, R.; Nacci, D.


    The use of echinoderms for toxicity testing has focused primarily on sea urchins and sand dollars (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, Arbacia punctulata, Lytechinus pictus, and Dendraster excentricus, for example). The status and relative sensitivity of various test methods are described. The most frequently used test methods consist of short-term exposures of sea urchin sperm or embryos; these tests can be easily conducted at all times of the year by using species with complementary spawning cycles or laboratory conditioned populations of a single species. Data from reference toxicant and effluent toxicity tests are summarized. Information on the precision and sensitivity of echinoid test methods are limited and preclude rigorous comparisons with other test methods. The available data indicate that the sensitivity and precision of these methods are comparable to short-term chronic methods for other marine invertebrates and fish. Recent application of the sperm test in toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs) and studies of effluent toxicity decay and sediment toxicity illustrate the versatility of this rapid (10 to 60 min exposure) test method. Embryo tests typically use a 48 to 96 h exposure period and measure the occurrence of embryo malformations. Most recent applications of the embryo test have been for the assessment of sediment elutriate toxicity. Adult echinoderms are not frequently used to assess effluent or receiving water toxicity. Recent studies have had success in using the adult life stage of urchins and sand dollars to assess the effects of contaminated sediment on growth, behavior, and bioaccumulation.

  4. Ophiuroidea (Echinodermata) from coral reefs in the Mexican Pacific. (United States)

    Granja-Fernández, Rebeca; Herrero-Pérezrul, María D; López-Pérez, Ramón A; Hernández, Luis; Rodríguez-Zaragoza, Fabián A; Jones, Robert Wallace; Pineda-López, Rubén


    There are numerous and important coral reefs in the Mexican Pacific, but scarce studies of brittle stars conducted in these ecosystems. In this regard, this work provides the first annotated checklist of brittle stars associated with coral communities and reefs in the Mexican Pacific and an illustrated key to identify the species. We also provide taxonomic descriptions, spatial and bathymetric distributions and some important remarks of the species. We report a total of 14 species of brittle stars belonging to nine genera and seven families. Ophiocnida hispida in Jalisco, Ophiophragmus papillatus in Guerrero, and Ophiothrix (Ophiothrix) spiculata and Ophiactis simplex in Colima are new distribution records. The record of O. papillatus is remarkable because the species has not been reported since its description in 1940. The brittle stars collected in this study, represent 22.2% of the total species previously reported from the Mexican Pacific. Presently, anthropogenic activities on the coral reefs of the Mexican Pacific have increased, thus the biodiversity of brittle stars in these ecosystems may be threatened.

  5. Ophiuroidea (Echinodermata from coral reefs in the Mexican Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Granja Fernández


    Full Text Available There are numerous and important coral reefs in the Mexican Pacific, but scarce studies of brittle stars conducted in these ecosystems. In this regard, this work provides the first annotated checklist of brittle stars associated with coral communities and reefs in the Mexican Pacific and an illustrated key to identify the species. We also provide taxonomic descriptions, spatial and bathymetric distributions and some important remarks of the species. We report a total of 14 species of brittle stars belonging to nine genera and seven families. Ophiocnida hispida in Jalisco, Ophiophragmus papillatus in Guerrero, and Ophiothrix (Ophiothrix spiculata and Ophiactis simplex in Colima are new distribution records. The record of O. papillatus is remarkable because the species has not been reported since its description in 1940. The brittle stars collected in this study, represent 22.2% of the total species previously reported from the Mexican Pacific. Presently, anthropogenic activities on the coral reefs of the Mexican Pacific have increased, thus the biodiversity of brittle stars in these ecosystems may be threatened.

  6. Ophiuroidea (Echinodermata) from coral reefs in the Mexican Pacific


    Rebeca Granja Fernández; María Dinorah Herrero Pérezrul; Ramón Andrés López Pérez; Luis Hernández; Fabián Rodríguez Zaragoza; Robert Wallace Jones; Rubén Pineda López


    Abstract There are numerous and important coral reefs in the Mexican Pacific, but scarce studies of brittle stars conducted in these ecosystems. In this regard, this work provides the first annotated checklist of brittle stars associated with coral communities and reefs in the Mexican Pacific and an illustrated key to identify the species. We also provide taxonomic descriptions, spatial and bathymetric distributions and some important remarks of the species. We report a total of 14 species of...

  7. Origin of the holothurians (Echinodermata derived by constructional morphology

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    R. Haude


    Full Text Available According to a recent hypothesis, the holothurians originated by a process of extreme paedomorphism as "giant larvae", with "de novo" developed radial systems. However, the present approach, which follows the principles of constructional morphology, supports former views that the holothurian predecessor must have been echinoid-like. After constitution of a (reliable early predecessor construction as a model with machine analogies, subsequent steps of structural transformation are explained by functional improvement and economy. Following results are discussed: (i Holothurians have to be derived from a postlarval precursor; (ii "Apodida" (as molecular-genetically derived first holothurians must originally have been pedate; (iii ophiocistioids would not be cladistic “holothurians” but a precursor construction of the taxon echinoids plus holothurians; (iv the Lovenian structure of the calcareous ring of Nudicorona (Middle Devonian, possible radial series in Palaeocucumaria (Lower Devonian, and distribution of the podia in two new holothurian body fossils from the Lower and Middle Devonian (preliminary description as Prokrustia tabulifera n. gen., n. sp. and Podolepithuria walliseri n. gen., n. sp. obviously corroborate homology of holothurian and other echinoderm radial systems; (v different extent of podial and body wall skeletonization suggests the existence of respiratory trees by no later than the Middle Devonian. Nach einer neueren Erklärung, die sich auf eine Theorie zur Homologisierung von larvalen und adulten Strukturen von Echinodermen stützt, sollen die Holothurien über extreme Paedomorphose, d.h. über „Riesen-Larven” mit neugebildeten postoralen Radial-Systemen entstanden sein. Dagegen läßt sich anhand eines konstruktions-morphologischen Verfahrens zeigen, daß Holothurien auf einen Echiniden-artigen Vorläufer zurückzuführen sind. So wird zunächst eine (wahrscheinliche frühe Vorläufer-Konstruktion der Echinozoen nach Maschinen-Analogien konstituiert. Die daran anschließenden strukturellen Transformationen werden nach funktionellen und energetischen Kriterien begründet. Sie führen zwanglos zu Konstruktionen, die nicht nur rezenten Formen entsprechen, sondern offensichtlich auch durch bekannte und neue paläozoische Fossilien bestätigt werden. Im Einzelnen werden folgende Ergebnisse zur Diskussion gestellt: (i Holothurien sind von einer post-larvalen Vorläufer-Konstruktion abzuleiten; (ii die füßchenlosen „Apodida” (als molekulargenetisch früheste Holothurien müssen zunächst vollständige Radien mit Podia besessen haben; (iii bei den (nur paläozoischen Ophiocistioiden handelt es sich nicht kladistisch um „Holothurien”, sondern sie repräsentieren eine Vorläufer-Konstruktion des Taxon Echiniden plus Holothurien; (iv die Loven'sche Struktur des Schlundrings von Nudicorona (Mittel-Devon, die möglicherweise radialen Strukturen bei Palaeocucumaria (Unter-Devon und die Verteilung der Podia in zwei neuen, vollständig erhaltenen Holothurien aus dem Unter- und Mittel-Devon (vorläufige Beschreibung als Prokrustia tabulifera n. gen., n. sp. und Podolepithuria walliseri n. gen., n. sp. stützen die konstruktions-morphologische Begründung der Homologie der Radial-Systeme bei Holothurien und den übrigen Echinodermen; (v das deutlich unterschiedliche Ausmaß der Skelettierung von Podia bei den neuen Holothurien-Funden scheint anzudeuten, daß die analen Respirations-Strukturen der Holothurien spätestens ab dem Mittel-Devon vorhanden sind. doi:10.1002/mmng.20020050110

  8. Phylogeography of Holothuria (Halodeima inornata Semper, 1868 (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elba Prieto-Rios


    Full Text Available Genetic structure of the populations of H. inornata was evaluated and the barriers for genetic flux and historic processes were investigated. Samples were collected trying to cover the distribution range of the species, from Mexico to northern Perú. Based on COI sequences, 118 haplotypes from 220 specimens were detected; the differences between such haplotypes were due to 97 variable sites (21.41% of the 453 bp sequenced. A high haplotype diversity (h=0.979 and a moderate nucleotidic diversity were observed. The values of Fst, the exact test of population differentiation, and the molecular variance analysis (AMOVA were used in order to analyze the genetic differentiation. These analyses suggest the existence of two populations: northern, off the coasts of Sinaloa, Jalisco, Michoacán, Guerrero, and Oaxaca, and southern, off the coasts of Chiapas, El Salvador, Panamá and Perú. Historic events and oceanographic patterns may be the main factors determining dispersion and structure of Hi populations. It seems probable that the original population have extended first in the south and then northern. Besides, the split between these two populations may be due to several tectonic and oceanographic events constituting a barrier for H. inornata settling.

  9. Echinothurioid phylogeny and the phylogenetic significance of Kamptosoma (Echinoidea: Echinodermata) (United States)

    Mooi, Rich; Constable, Heather; Lockhart, Susanne; Pearse, John


    The Echinothurioida is an unusual group of regular sea urchins that are characterized by soft, flexible tests and in some cases, hoof-shaped spines used for locomotion across soft, deep-sea sediments. As far as is known, all species are armed with venom-bearing spines that have been known to cause serious injury in humans. There are 50 species of echinothurioids arranged in 11 extant genera. Their fossil record is very poor, being limited to two additional fossil taxa (one of which is only tentatively considered an echinothurioid), two assigned to extant taxa, and three of more dubious affinity. With very few exceptions, only disjointed plates are preserved—and those very rarely. Today, echinothurioids are found around the globe from as far north as the Arctic Circle and as far south as Antarctica, with a bathymetric distribution ranging from inshore on coral reefs to depths of almost 5000 m. The majority of species are characteristic of the deep sea, and consequently little is known about these urchins. Many are known only from type and associated material. Their fragile tests, deep benthic habitat, and rarity make it difficult to develop a complete picture of their morphology, and as we demonstrate, breakage of the test can lead to misinterpretations of plate architecture in some taxa. The sole Antarctic species, Kamptosoma asterias, is usually considered an echinothurioid, but its unusual morphology has made its position difficult to ascertain. In addition, previous genus-level phylogenies do not test the monophyly of the genera, and some studies even suggest that the echinothurioids themselves do not constitute a monophyletic group. This study focuses on finding a species level phylogeny of the echinothurioids in order to perform these tests, and to place the enigmatic Kamptosoma in a phylogenetic context that determines whether it is indeed an echinothurioid, and if so, to which clade it is most closely related. The present analysis surveys ambulacral morphology of all echinothurioids, seeking homologies that will enhance our understanding of the diversity of plate architecture in the clade. We confirm that echinothurioids are monophyletic and basal to most other extant echinoid groups, and that Kamptosoma is a relatively crownward echinothurioid, albeit a strange one. The largest genus, Araeosoma, is monophyletic, but at least one prominent genus ( Sperosoma) is not monophyletic. The resulting phylogeny also helps address questions concerning biogeographic and bathymetric distributions.

  10. Individual recognition and phenotypic variability in Acanthaster planci (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) (United States)

    Glynn, P. W.


    A coding method for identifying individuals by utilizing natural attributes (numbers and disposition of arms, madrporites, anuses, spines and deformities) permits individual recognition of crown-of-thorns sea stars Acanthaster planci. Because natural injuries altering parts of the code are frequent in A. planci (present in 20% to 40% of the individuals in a population), the physiognomy of the centrally located periproct, which is much less frequently injured than peripherally located areas, was used in combination with the arrangement of arms and madreporites. Identical madreporite/arm codes occurred in fewer sea stars in Guam (0%) than in Panamá (14%). The greater variability among sea stars at the western Pacific locality could be due in part to the higher incidence of gross deformities (presumed injuries) in Guam (43%) compared with Panamá (17%).

  11. Antarctic Starfish (Echinodermata, Asteroidea from the ANDEEP3 expedition

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    Bruno Danis


    Full Text Available This dataset includes information on sea stars collected during the ANDEEP3 expedition, which took place in 2005. The expedition focused on deep-sea stations in the Powell Basin and Weddell Sea.Sea stars were collected using an Agassiz trawl (3m, mesh-size 500µm, deployed in 16 stations during the ANTXXII/3 (ANDEEP3, PS72 expedition of the RV Polarstern. Sampling depth ranged from 1047 to 4931m. Trawling distance ranged from 731 to 3841m. The sampling area ranges from -41°S to -71°S (latitude and from 0 to -65°W (longitude. A complete list of stations is available from the PANGAEA data system (, including a cruise report ( dataset includes 50 records, with individual counts ranging from 1-10, reaching a total of 132 specimens.The andeep3-Asteroidea is a unique dataset as it covers an under-explored region of the Southern Ocean, and that very little information was available regarding Antarctic deep-sea starfish. Before this study, most of the information available focused on starfish from shallower depths than 1000m. This dataset allowed to make unique observations, such as the fact that some species were only present at very high depths (Hymenaster crucifer, Hymenaster pellucidus, Hymenaster praecoquis, Psilaster charcoti, Freyella attenuata, Freyastera tuberculata, Styrachaster chuni and Vemaster sudatlanticus were all found below -3770m, while others displayed remarkable eurybathy, with very high depths amplitudes (Bathybiaster loripes (4842m, Lysasterias adeliae (4832m, Lophaster stellans (4752m, Cheiraster planeta (4708m, Eremicaster crassus (4626m, Lophaster gaini (4560m and Ctenodiscus australis (4489m.Even if the number of records is relatively small, the data bring many new insights on the taxonomic, bathymetric and geographic distributions of Southern starfish, covering a very large sampling zone. The dataset also brings to light six species, newly reported in the Southern Ocean.The quality of the data was controlled very thoroughly, by means of on-board Polarstern GPS systems, checking of identification by a renowned specialist (Prof. Michel Jangoux, Université Libre de Bruxelles, and matching to the Register of Antarctic Marine Species (RAMS and World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS. The data is therefore fit for completing checklists, for inclusion in biodiversity patterns analysis, or niche modeling. It also nicely fills an information gap regarding deep-sea starfish from the Southern Ocean, for which data is very scarce at this time. The authors may be contacted if any additional information is needed before carrying out detailed biodiversity or biogeographic studies.

  12. Ophiuroidea (Echinodermata) from coral reefs in the Mexican Pacific (United States)

    Granja–Fernández, Rebeca; Herrero-Pérezrul, María D.; López-Pérez, Ramón A.; Hernández, Luis; Rodríguez-Zaragoza, Fabián A.; Jones, Robert Wallace; Pineda-López, Rubén


    Abstract There are numerous and important coral reefs in the Mexican Pacific, but scarce studies of brittle stars conducted in these ecosystems. In this regard, this work provides the first annotated checklist of brittle stars associated with coral communities and reefs in the Mexican Pacific and an illustrated key to identify the species. We also provide taxonomic descriptions, spatial and bathymetric distributions and some important remarks of the species. We report a total of 14 species of brittle stars belonging to nine genera and seven families. Ophiocnida hispida in Jalisco, Ophiophragmus papillatus in Guerrero, and Ophiothrix (Ophiothrix) spiculata and Ophiactis simplex in Colima are new distribution records. The record of O. papillatus is remarkable because the species has not been reported since its description in 1940. The brittle stars collected in this study, represent 22.2% of the total species previously reported from the Mexican Pacific. Presently, anthropogenic activities on the coral reefs of the Mexican Pacific have increased, thus the biodiversity of brittle stars in these ecosystems may be threatened. PMID:24843284

  13. [Echinoderms (Echinodermata) from the Gulf of California, Mexico]. (United States)

    Solís-Marín, Francisco A; Laguarda-Figueras, Alfredo; Durán-González, Alicia; Ahearn, Cynthia Gust; Torres Vega, Juan


    A systematic list of the echinoderms of the Gulf of California, based on museum specimens of the Colección Nacional de Equinodermos, Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México and the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. is presented. A total of 193 echinoderm species is recorded, distributed in 108 genera, 51 families and 19 orders. 12 new records for the Gulf of California are presented: Asteroidea (four), Ophiuroidea (three) and Holothuroidea (five).

  14. The diet of Ophionereis reticulata (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea in southeastern Brazil

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    Leonardo Q. Yokoyama


    Full Text Available The ophiuroid Ophionereis reticulata (Say, 1825 occurs in the sediment-rocky shore interface, under small stones. Its diet is analyzed in this short communication. Specimens were collected at the Praia Grande beach, located on the northern coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in July, 2002 and January, 2003. The animals were fixed in 70% ethanol and dissected to obtain their stomach contents. Of the total (35, 77.1% (27 had ingested some kind of food and, among those, 81.4% (22 had more than one item. The mean number of food items per stomach was 1.9. Ophionereis reticulata is an omnivorous species, consuming sediment, green and red algae, and polychaetes.O ofiuróide Ophionereis reticulata (Say, 1825 ocorre na interface sedimento rocha de costões rochosos, sob pequenas pedras. Alguns aspectos de sua dieta alimentar foram analisados nesta nota. A amostragem foi realizada na Praia Grande, localizada no litoral norte do estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Os indivíduos, coletados em julho de 2002 e janeiro de 2003, foram fixados em álcool 70% e dissecados para obtenção de seus conteúdos estomacais. Do total (35, 77,1% (27 tinham ingerido algum tipo de alimento, e destes, 81,4% (22 possuíam mais de um item. O número médio de itens alimentares por estômago foi 1,9. Ophionereis reticulata é uma espécie onívora, consumindo sedimento, algas verdes e vermelhas, e poliquetas.

  15. Ophiuroidea (Echinodermata: quatro novas ocorrências para o Brasil Ophiuroidea (Echinodermata: four new records for Brazil

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    Michela Borges


    Full Text Available Os ofiuróides aqui analisados são procedentes dos programas "Biodiversidade Bêntica Marinha no Estado de São Paulo" - BIOTA/FAPESP-Bentos Marinhos, "Avaliação do Potencial Sustentável dos Recursos Vivos da Zona Econômica Exclusiva" - REVIZEE/Score Sul-Bentos e "Utilização Racional dos Ecossistemas Costeiros da Região Tropical Brasileira: Estado de São Paulo" - INTEGRADO/Subprojeto Bentos. As amostras analisadas foram coletadas nas regiões da plataforma e talude continental do Sudeste e Sul brasileiros, em profundidades entre 10 e 800 m. São aqui descritas e ilustradas quatro espécies de Ophiuroidea, as quais representam novos registros de ocorrência para o Brasil, duas da família Ophiuridae, uma de Amphiuridae e uma de Ophiochitonidae. Este é também o primeiro registro desta última família para o Brasil. Somente Amphiodia trychna (Amphiuridae foi amostrada na região da plataforma interna (profundidade The ophiuroids were collected during the Programs "Biodiversidade Bêntica Marinha no Estado de São Paulo" - BIOTA/FAPESP-Marine Benthos, "Avaliação do Potencial Sustentável dos Recursos Vivos da Zona Econômica Exclusiva" - REVIZEE/Score South - Benthos and "Utilização Racional dos Ecossistemas Costeiros da Região Tropical Brasileira: Estado de São Paulo" - INTEGRADO/Subproject Benthos. Samples were obtained from the continental shelf and slope off southeast and south Brazil, between 10 and 800 m. Four species of the Ophiuroidea are described and they are new records for Brazil. Two species belong to the family Ophiuridae, and the others belong to Amphiuridae and Ophiochitonidae. The family Ophiochitonidae is recorded for the first time in Brazil. Amphiodia trychna (Amphiuridae was sampled in the inner continental shelf (depth < 50 m. The other three species were collected deeper (between 314 and 808 m.

  16. Antitumor and immune regulation activities of the extracts of some Chinese marine invertebrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lixin; FAN Xiao; HAN Lijun


    Extracts of 21 marine invertebrates belonging to Coelenterata, Mollusca, Annelida, Bryozoa,Echiura, Arthropoda, Echinodermata and Urochordata were screened for the studies on their antitumor and immune regulation activities. Antitumor activity was determined by MTT method and immune regulation activity was studied using T- and B-lymphocytes in mice spleen in vitro. It was found that the n-butanol part of Asterina pectinifera, the acetic ether part of Tubuaria marina, 95% ethanol extract of Acanthochiton rubrolineatus have a high inhibition rate of 96.7%, 63.9% and 50.5% respectively on tumor cell line HL-60 at the concentration of 0.063 mg/ml. The inhibition rate of the acetic ether part of Tubuaria marina on the tumor cell line A-549 is 65.4 % at concentration of 0.063 mg/mL. The 95% ethanol extract of Meretrix meretrix has so outstanding promoting effect on T-lymphocyfes that their multiplication increases 25% when the sample concentration is only 1 μg/ml. On B-lymphocytes, the 95% extract of Rapana venosa, at concentration of 100μg/ml, has a promotion percentage of 60%. On the other hand, under the condition of no cytotoxic effect, the 95% ethanol extracts of Acanthochiton rubrolineatus and Cellana toreum can reach 92% inhibition rate on T lymphocyte at concentration of 100 μg/ml, while the inhibition rate on B lymphocyte of the 95% extract of Acanthochiton rubrolineatus reaches 92% at the same concentration.

  17. Ophionereis reticulata (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea Regeneração dos braços em duas populações de Ophionereis reticulata (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea

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    Leonardo Q. Yokoyama


    Full Text Available This study compared the arm regeneration frequencies in two different populations of Ophionereis reticulata (Say, 1825 in São Sebastião, Southeast Brazil and observed arm regeneration between age classes (juvenile and adults and sexes (male and female. From the 1,170 individuals sampled, 1,089 (92.2% showed signs of arm regeneration. The relative frequencies of regenerating arms in the two areas were not different (Baleeiro Isthmus: 91.3% and Grande Beach: 99.5%. Both areas also presented similar values for the number of arms regenerating/individual and in the frequency of regenerating individuals. The major part of the regenerating scars was concentrated in the distal portion of the arm. Sub-lethal predation is most likely the cause to the high rates of arm regeneration in O. reticulata. There was no significant differences in the regeneration rates between females (3.57 ± 1.36 arms regenerating/individual and males (3.47 ± 1.42.Este estudo comparou as frequências de regeneração dos braços de duas populações de Ophionereis reticulata (Say, 1825, de São Sebastião, sudeste do Brasil. Além disso, foram observadas diferenças nas frequências de regeneração entre classes etárias (juvenis e adultos e entre machos e fêmeas. Dos 1.170 indivíduos coletados, 1.089 (92,2% mostraram sinais de regeneração nos braços. A frequência relativa de braços em regeneração entre as duas áreas não diferiu significativamente (Istmo do Baleeiro: 91,3% e Praia Grande: 99,5%. Ambas as áreas apresentaram valores semelhantes no número de braços regenerando/indivíduo e na frequência de indivíduos em regeneração. A maior parte das marcas de regeneração concentraram-se na porção distal dos braços, o que indica a influência de predação subletal como a causa principal da regeneração em O. reticulata. Além disso, não houve diferença significativa nos índices de regeneração entre fêmeas (3,57 ± 1,36 braços regenerando/indivíduo e machos (3,47 ± 1,42.

  18. Los equinodermos (Echinodermata de bahía Chamela, Jalisco, México The echinoderms (Echinodermata from bahía Chamela, Jalisco, Mexico

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    Eduardo Ríos-Jara


    Full Text Available Cuarenta especies de equinodermos fueron recolectadas en las zonas intermareal y submareal somero de 14 sitios de bahía Chamela. Destacan 7 nuevos registros para la costa de Jalisco. Los análisis de escalonamiento multidimensional no métrico y el índice de similitud de Jaccard permitieron identificar grupos y entidades aisladas de acuerdo a la contribución y frecuencia de las especies de 4 clases de equinodermos en los sitios de la bahía y en otras localidades del Pacífico tropical mexicano (PTM. La mayor similitud se presentó con las localidades del golfo de California. Los índices de distinción taxonómica promedio (Δ+ y su variación (Λ+ fueron utilizados para analizar la diversidad de equinodermos en los niveles de especie, género, familia, orden y clase para cada sitio de la bahía y para distintas localidades del PTM de acuerdo al número de jerarquías taxonómicas de alto orden y la variabilidad en su diversidad taxonómica. La riqueza de especies de Chamela representa el 20% de la diversidad total de equinodermos de las zonas intermareal y submareal somero del PTM, lo que indica su importancia en la contribución a la diversidad taxonómica de la región.Forty species of echinoderms were collected in the intertidal and shallow subtidal zones of 14 sites of bahía Chamela. Of particular importance are 7 new records of species for the coast of Jalisco. A nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis and the Jaccard's similarity index identified different groups and isolated entities according to the contribution and the frequency of species of 4 classes of echinoderms in the bay and in other localities of the Mexican Tropical Pacific (MTP. The highest similarity of species was with the localities of the Gulf of California. The indices of average taxonomic distinctness (Δ+ and the variation in the taxonomic distinctness (Λ+ were estimated to analyze the diversity of echinoderms at the taxonomic levels of species, genus, family, order and class for each site within the bay and for some localities of the MTP according to the number of higher taxonomic hierarchies and the variability of its taxonomic diversity. The species richness of bahía Chamela represents 20% of the total diversity of echinoderms of the intertidal and shallow subtidal zones of the MTP; this is an indicator of its importance to the contribution of the taxonomic diversity of this region.

  19. Taxonomic guide and historical review of starfishes in northeastern Brazil (Echinodermata, Asteroidea) (United States)

    Gondim, Anne Isabelley; Christoffersen, Martin Lindsey; Pereira Dias, Thelma Lúcia


    Abstract Presently more than 1900 species of sea stars are recognized, of which 77 are recorded for the coast of Brazil. Although the first starfish record in Brazil was published 363 years ago, our knowledge of this fauna remains unsatisfactory from a systematic and ecological point of view, particularly in the north and northeastern regions of the country. This study provides the first annotated list of sea stars from northeastern Brazil. Material described herein is housed at the collections of the Federal University of Paraíba, Federal University of Sergipe, and the Federal University of Bahia, Museum of Zoology of the University of São Paulo and Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro. Twenty-one species were identified, belonging to 12 genera, 10 families, and 5 orders. Descriptions of species are provided. Three new occurrences were recorded for northeast Brazil: Astropecten alligator, Luidia ludwigi scotti, and Mithrodia clavigera. Highest diversities of Asteroidea were encountered for the states of Bahia (n = 14 spp), Paraíba (n = 12 spp) and Pernambuco (n = 9 spp). No species were recorded for the states of Maranhão and Sergipe. Sandy substrates and depths below 10 m were the least sampled areas over the continental shelf. Herein we provide a first panorama on the fauna of Asteroidea occurring in the northeast region of Brazil, hopefully to function as a basic reference for biodiversity studies in this poorly studied area. PMID:25408612

  20. Cadmium, Copper and Tributyltin effects on fertilization of Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata

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    Mirella Vazzana


    Full Text Available Marine environments are continuously being threatened by a large number of xenobi- otics from anthropogenic sources. The effect of chemical pollution on living organisms are numerous and may impair reproductive success of adults species of marine invertebrate and vertebrate through effects on gamete quality. Echinoderms are characterized by external fertilizzation and gametes, free of any type of protection, may be in contact with toxic substances so the reproductive success depends largely on the environment conditions. The purpose of this work is to assess the effects on the in vitro fertiliza- tion of exposure of sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus gametes to xenobiotic substances as CuSO4, CdCl2 and TBTCl. The effect of contaminant were assessed by two experimental set in which gametes were treated with different concentration (0, 10-3, 10-5 10-7 10-9 M of different substances as CdCl2, CuSO4 and TBTCl. The effects were evaluated as percentage of fertilization. The results showed that the gametes exposure to xenobiotic decreased the percentage of fertilization and that more sensitive to treatment were the sperm cells, propably because the toxic effect affected the motility of the sperm. In conclusion, the absence of fertilization (spermiotoxicity may submit the toxic effects of these substances to the level of body and may candidate the sea urchis as biosensors for the evaluation of environmental quality.

  1. Embryonic, larval, and juvenile development of the sea biscuit Clypeaster subdepressus (Echinodermata: Clypeasteroida.

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    Bruno C Vellutini

    Full Text Available Sea biscuits and sand dollars diverged from other irregular echinoids approximately 55 million years ago and rapidly dispersed to oceans worldwide. A series of morphological changes were associated with the occupation of sand beds such as flattening of the body, shortening of primary spines, multiplication of podia, and retention of the lantern of Aristotle into adulthood. To investigate the developmental basis of such morphological changes we documented the ontogeny of Clypeaster subdepressus. We obtained gametes from adult specimens by KCl injection and raised the embryos at 26 degrees C. Ciliated blastulae hatched 7.5 h after sperm entry. During gastrulation the archenteron elongated continuously while ectodermal red-pigmented cells migrated synchronously to the apical plate. Pluteus larvae began to feed in 3 d and were 20 d old at metamorphosis; starved larvae died 17 d after fertilization. Postlarval juveniles had neither mouth nor anus nor plates on the aboral side, except for the remnants of larval spicules, but their bilateral symmetry became evident after the resorption of larval tissues. Ossicles of the lantern were present and organized in 5 groups. Each group had 1 tooth, 2 demipyramids, and 2 epiphyses with a rotula in between. Early appendages consisted of 15 spines, 15 podia (2 types, and 5 sphaeridia. Podial types were distributed in accordance to Lovén's rule and the first podium of each ambulacrum was not encircled by the skeleton. Seven days after metamorphosis juveniles began to feed by rasping sand grains with the lantern. Juveniles survived in laboratory cultures for 9 months and died with wide, a single open sphaeridium per ambulacrum, aboral anus, and no differentiated food grooves or petaloids. Tracking the morphogenesis of early juveniles is a necessary step to elucidate the developmental mechanisms of echinoid growth and important groundwork to clarify homologies between irregular urchins.

  2. Fossil echinoid (Echinoidea, Echinodermata diversity of the Early Cretaceous (Hauterivian in the Paris Basin (France

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    Sophie Benetti


    Full Text Available This dataset inventories occurrence records of fossil echinoid specimens collected in the Calcaires à Spatangues Formation (CSF that crops out in the southeast of the Paris Basin (France, and is dated from the Acanthodiscus radiatus chronozone (ca. 132 Ma, early Hauterivian, Early Cretaceous. Fossil richness and abundance of the CSF has attracted the attention of palaeontologists since the middle of the nineteenth century. This dataset compiles occurrence data (referenced by locality names and geographic coordinates with decimal numbers of fossil echinoids both collated from the literature published over a century and a half, and completed by data from collection specimens. The dataset also gives information on taxonomy (from species to order and higher taxonomic levels, which has been checked for reliability and consistency. It compiles a total of 628 georeferenced occurrence data of 26 echinoid species represented by 22 genera, 14 families, and 9 orders.

  3. Ophioderma peruana, a new species of brittlestar (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea, Ophiodermatidae from the Peruvian coast

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    Tania Pineda-Enríquez


    Full Text Available Ophioderma peruana sp. n. is a new species of Ophiodermatidae, extending the distribution of the genus Ophioderma to Lobos de Afuera Island, Peru, easily distinguishable from its congeners by its peculiarly fragmented dorsal arm plates. Dense granules, rounded or polygonal cover the disc, the radial shields may be naked or completely covered by granules. A good character for recognizing this species in the field is the dorsal side of the disc which is brown with disc granules lighter cream and brown, the arms are mottled with whitish spots and the ventral part of the disc on the interradial part is brown and the radial part bright yellow.

  4. Résultats Biologiques de L'expédition Snellius. Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea I

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    Guille, A.; Wolff, W.J.


    During our studies of this first part of the brittle-stars collection of the Snellius Expedition (1929-1930) in Indonesia, 37 species were found. Among these, a new genus and a new species of Amphiurid, Paramphichondrius tetradontus, are described; Ophiothrix picteti Loriol is transferred from the s

  5. Developmental toxicity to PbCl[sub 2] in the echinoid Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata)

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    Warnau, M. (Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium)); Pagano, G. (Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium) Instituto Nazionale Tumori, Naples (Italy))


    Heavy metals are known or suspected to be hazardous for the marine environment; 13 of them are listed in the official list drawn up by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In marine waters, lead is generally one of the most concentrated heavy metals; the main sources of lead input into the marine environment are rivers (domestic and industrial wastes) and atmosphere (mainly tetraethyl lead from automobile exhaust). Heavy metal toxicity for the marine environment is currently assessed by means of various biological tests based on different marine species. Among these, toxicity bioassays using sea urchin gametes and embryos appear to be quite sensitive and informative, offering a wide range of endpoints. Hence, sea urchin bioassays are now widely used in studies involved in the toxicological characterization of xenobiotics and in environmental monitoring. Some previous reports focused on different aspects of lead toxicity in sea urchin development; only Congiu et al. (1984) and Brunetti et al. (1991) investigated lead toxicity in Paracentroutus lividus. This sea urchin is widely distributed in the Mediterranean and European Atlantic coasts and is currently used in toxicological assessments. Its development was shown to be very sensitive to various heavy metals. In particular, Congiu et al. (1984) and Brunetti et al. (1991) reported that P. lividus development was sensitive to a lead concentration of 2.5 [times] 10[sup [minus]6]M (developmental retardation) and of 5 [times] 10[sup [minus]7]M (skeletal anomalies), respectively. The purpose of the present study was to extend available information on lead toxicity in P. lividus, by testing the effects on the fertilizing capacity of sperm and on offspring quality, as well as the effects on developing embryos. 19 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  6. Reproductive biology of Echinometra lucunter (Echinodermata: Echinoidea in a northeast Brazilian sandstone reef

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    Eduardo J.B. Lima


    Full Text Available The edible sea urchin Echinometra lucunter (Linnaeus, 1758 is a very common species on the sublittoral-midlittoral in Brazilian rocky shores. The aim of this work was to describe the gametogenesis and reproductive strategy of the E. lucunter population at Muro Alto beach in the Northeast coast of Brazil from August 2004 to August 2005. A total of 240 specimens were collected on the sandstone reef flat from a tidepool during spring low tides. The overall sex ratio was1.12:1,withoutsignificanttemporalvariationexceptinOctober2004. Firsts sexual maturity ocurred in individuals from a diameter of 20.8 mm. There was not a significant difference in gonad index between females and males during the sampling period. The female's gonad index variation was associated with a well-defined spawning, corroborated by the histological analysis of the gonads, which demonstrates sex differences of the gamete production. By contrast, the males showed no clear pattern. It is suggested that continuous reproduction with seasonal peaks in the E. lucunter population occurs at Muro Alto beach.O ouriço-do-mar comestível Echinometra lucunter (Linnaeus, 1758 é uma espécie muito comum no infralitoral e mediolitoral do Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever a gametogênese e a estratégia reprodutiva da população de E. lucunterna praia de Muro Alto entre agosto de 2004 e agosto de 2005. Um total de 240 espécimes foi capturado de uma poça de maré situada no topo recifal, durante as marés baixas de sizígia. A razão sexual total foi de 1,12:1 sem variação temporal significativa, exceto em outubro de 2004. A primeira maturidade sexual ocorreu em indivíduos a partir de 20,8 mm de diâmetro. Não houve nenhuma diferença significativa no índice gonadal entre fêmeas e machos durante o período de amostragem. A variação do índice gonadal das fêmeas foi associada a um período de desova bem definido, corroborado pela análise histológica das gônadas, que demonstra diferenças sexuais na produção de gametas. Ao contrário, os machos não apresentaram nenhum padrão. Sugere-se que a reprodução da população de E. lucunter na praia de Muro Alto é contínua, compicos sazonais.

  7. A new genus Squamophis of Asteroschematidae (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea, Euryalida from Australia

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    Massanori Okanishi


    Full Text Available Squamophis, a new genus of brittle star is described. Two species are included in the genus: Squamophis amamiensis (Okanishi & Fujita, 2009 from south-western Japan and Squamophis albozosteres sp. n. from north-western Australia. Squamophis gen. n. is distinguished from the other genera of the family Asteroschematidae by the following characters: each radial shield is single-layered and is completely covered by plate-shaped epidermal ossicles, and the relative length of the longest arm spine throughout the arms is as long as the length of the corresponding arm segment. Squamophis albozosteres sp. n. is distinguished from Squamophis amamiensis inwhite, slightly domed, plate-shaped epidermal ossicles on the aboral side of the body, the ossicles on aboral and lateral portion of the arms form transverse rows, and the other part of aboral side of disc and basal to middle portion of arms are brown but tip of the arms are light purple.

  8. Occurrence of abnormal starfish Astropecten indicus (Doderlein, 1888 (Echinodermata: Astroidea along Southeast coast of India

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    K. Prabhu


    Full Text Available Starfish Astropecten indicus was collected from bycatch landings at Mudasalodai fishing harbour, Tamil Nadu (India in November 2011. Totally 134 specimens collected among three specimens (2,2% have abnormally developed four and six arms. Normally, A. indicus has five arms and the deviation from pentamerism is a rare phenomenon in starfishes. The present observations suggest that deviations from pentamerism are not a heritable character but are a consequence of environmental perturbations on the metamorphosis of larvae and/or abnormal regeneration of arms.

  9. Biokinetics of Radiocobalt in the Asteroid Asterias rubens (Echinodermata): Sea Water and Food Exposures

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    Warnau, Michel; Fowler, Scott W.; Teyssie, Jean-Louis


    Uptake and loss of cobalt-57 were investigated in the starfish Asterias rubens, in order to assess its value as a sentinel organism for nearshore radionuclide contamination. Whole-body uptake from sea water was linear over a 32-day exposure period and reached wet weight concentration factor (CF) of 23 {+-} 5. Bioaccumulation of {sup 57}Co was dependent upon body compartment, the aboral part of the body wall concentrating cobalt to the greatest degree (wet weight CF: 77 {+-} 16). After restoration of uncontaminated conditions, radiocobalt was released following an exponential loss kinetics characterized by a biological half-life (T{sub b1/2}) of 27 {+-} 6 day. Dietary radiocobalt (taken up during a short-term feeding for 24 h on radiolabelled mussels) showed a much more rapid turnover time (T{sub b1/2}: 14 {+-} 4 d), suggesting that A. rubens accumulates this radionuclide predominantly from sea water. A. rubens, and more particularly the aboral part of its body wall, would readily reveal the presence of an environmental contamination by radiocobalt and could preserve this information over a period of few months.

  10. Abnormal growth patterns in the sea urchin Tripneustes cf. gratilla (l. ) under pollution (Echinodermata, Echinoidea)

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    Dafni, J.


    Two populations of deformed sea-urchins were found near a combined power and desalination plant in the Gulf of Eilat, Red Sea. This area is highly polluted by thermohaline and heavy metal ion effluents. More than 60% of the urchins showed irregular bulging of the aboral half of the test. The height to diameter ratio for the most affected population was 0.70, compared with 0.53 for a normal population. The deformed sea-urchins had a wider peristome aperture and larger Aristotle's lantern, and fewer interambulacral plants than normal urchins of the same diameter. Growth rate of highly deformed urchins was very low. Growth lines in the deformed urchins' plates indicate excessive growth in the meridional direction. Some possible controlling mechanisms are suggested. (4 graphs, 1 map, 11 photos, 32 references, 3 tables)

  11. Inhibition of arm regeneration by Ophioderma brevispina (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea) by tributyltin oxide and triphenyltin oxide

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    Walsh, G.E.; McLaughlin, L.L.; Louie, M.K.; Deans, C.H.; Lores, E.M.


    Effects of water-bourne toxicants on regeneration of arms by the brittle star, Ophioderma brevispina, are described. Regeneration was inhibited by 0.1 micrograms liter-1 bis(tri-n-butyltin)oxide and bis(triphenyltin)oxide. Both substances are known to act upon the nervous system, and it is suggested that inhibition was caused by neurotoxicological action of the tin compounds or by their direct effect upon tissue at the breakage point. The former is most likely because regeneration is mediated by the radial nerves of brittle stars.

  12. Taxonomic guide and historical review of starfishes in northeastern Brazil (Echinodermata, Asteroidea

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    Anne Gondim


    Full Text Available Presently more than 1900 species of sea stars are recognized, of which 77 are recorded for the coast of Brazil. Although the first starfish record in Brazil was published 363 years ago, our knowledge of this fauna remains unsatisfactory from a systematic and ecological point of view, particularly in the north and northeastern regions of the country. This study provides the first annotated list of sea stars from northeastern Brazil. Material described herein is housed at the collections of the Federal University of Paraíba, Federal University of Sergipe, and the Federal University of Bahia, Museum of Zoology of the University of São Paulo and Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro. Twenty-one species were identified, belonging to 12 genera, 10 families, and 5 orders. Descriptions of species are provided. Three new occurrences were recorded for northeast Brazil: Astropecten alligator, Luidia ludwigi scotti, and Mithrodia clavigera. Highest diversities of Asteroidea were encountered for the states of Bahia (n = 14 spp, Paraíba (n = 12 spp and Pernambuco (n = 9 spp. No species were recorded for the states of Maranhão and Sergipe. Sandy substrates and depths below 10 m were the least sampled areas over the continental shelf. Herein we provide a first panorama on the fauna of Asteroidea occurring in the northeast region of Brazil, hopefully to function as a basic reference for biodiversity studies in this poorly studied area.

  13. The Holothurioidea (Echinodermata) collected during the Tyro Mauritania-II expedition 1988

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massin, C.


    During the tyro Mauritania-II expedition ( 15 holothurian species were collected between 19 and 1,900 m depth. Twelve species are new to the fauna of Mauritania, including Paracucumaria deridderae spec. nov. Mauritania represents the southern distribution limit of four species also know

  14. Reef-dwelling Holothuroidea (Echinodermata) of the Spermonde Archipelago (South-West Sulawesi, Indonesia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massin, C.


    During a survey at the Spermonde Archipelago (22.viii-5.x.1994) 56 holothurian species were collected; ten are new to the fauna of Indonesia and one is new to science: Stichopus quadrifasciatus spec. nov. Most of the species are described, figured and discussed. As far as possible, all literature re

  15. Asthenosoma marisrubri n.sp. (Echinodermata, Echinoidea) from the Red Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinberg, Steven; Ridder, de Chantal


    Indopacific echinoids of the genus Asthenosoma that have hitherto been described as A. varium actually belong to two distinct species that are geographically separated. Animals of the eastern population, extending from Sri Lanka to Hawaii and centered around the Indonesian Archipelago and the Philip

  16. Population Biology of Tripneustes gratilla (Linnaeus (Echinodermata in Seagrass Beds of Southern Guimaras, Philippines

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    Joshua Militar Regalado


    Full Text Available The sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla is a major grazer found in seagrass beds of southern Guimaras, Philippines. Monthly length-frequency data from January 2008 to June 2009 were used to estimate the growth, recruitment pattern and mortality rate with the use of FiSAT II. The estimated values for the Von Bertalanffy growth parameters L(n/k(asymptotic length and K (growth coefficient were 114.2 mm and 1.08 respectively. Monthly densities ranged from 0.06 to 0.58 per m² with a mean value of 0.26 per m². Monthly biomass ranged from 4.1 to 49.5 grams per m² with a mean value of 21.15 grams per m². T. gratilla density and biomass were observed to be highest during the month of November 2008. The recruitment pattern showed a major broad peak and a minor peak separated by four months. Total mortality (Z from the length-converted catch curve was computed to be 4.74 per year.

  17. Do genes lie? Mitochondrial capture masks the Red Sea collector urchin's true identity (Echinodermata: Echinoidea: Tripneustes). (United States)

    Bronstein, Omri; Kroh, Andreas; Haring, Elisabeth


    Novel COI and bindin sequences of the Red Sea collector echinoid Tripneustes gratilla elatensis are used to show that (1) discordance between mitochondrial and nuclear loci exists in this echinoid genus, (2) Tripneustes gratilla as currently defined possibly comprises a complex of cryptic species, and (3) Red Sea Tripneustes form a genetically distinct clade in the bindin tree, which diverged from other Tripneustes clades at least 2-4million years ago. Morphological reassessment of T. gratilla elatensis shows perfect congruence between identification based on skeletal features and genetic data based on a nuclear marker sequence. Hence the Red Sea Tripneustes subspecies established by Dafni in 1983 is a distinct biological unit. All T. g. elatensis samples analyzed are highly similar to or share mtDNA haplotypes with Philippine T. g. gratilla, as do representatives from other edge-of-range occurrences. This lack of genetic structure in Indo-Pacific Tripneustes is interpreted as a result of wide-spread mitochondrial introgression. New fossil specimens from the Red Sea area confirm the sympatric occurrence of T. g. elatensis and T. g. gratilla in the northern Red Sea during Late Pleistocene, identifying a possible timing for the introgression. In addition, present-day distribution shows a contact zone in the Southern Red Sea (in the Dahlak Archipelago). T. g. elatensis, is yet another example of a Red Sea taxon historically identified as conspecific with its Indo-Pacific relatives, but which turned out to be a morphologically and genetically distinct endemic taxon, suggesting that the level of endemism in the Red Sea may still be underestimated.

  18. [Abundance of Diadema antillarum (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) in the coasts of Venezuela]. (United States)

    Noriega, Nicida; Pauls, Sheila M; del Mónaco, Carlos


    Diadema antillarum is a shallow-water sea-urchin from the tropical Atlantic whose populations almost disappeared in 1983-84 because of widespread mortalities which reached 87-100 %. In Venezuela, urchin population densities before the mortality event were comparable to those of other Caribbean regions; however, later abundancies remain unknown. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the recent densities of certain D. antillarum populations along the Venezuelan coasts and compare the densities at the Parque Nacional Mochima before and after the mortality. At each location urchin densities were determined by means of transects using 1 m2-quadrats as sampling units. The highest mean densities were observed at the sites on the central coast: Ensenada de Oricao, 0.28 ind/m2 (2002) and 1.05 ind/m2 (2003), and Chichiriviche de la Costa, 0.84 ind/m2 (2002) and 0.74 ind/m2 (2003). In Mochima, the mean density before the mortality for D. antillarum oscillated between 0.28 and 4 ind/m2, after the mortality event the mean density varied between 0.15 ind/m2 (2000) and 0.47 ind/m2 (2000). The populations of D. antillarum studied at Parque Nacional Morrocoy and Refugio de Fauna Silvestre Cuare showed highest densities at Playuela (0.43 ind/m2) and Cayo Sur (0.95 ind/m2) respectively, whereas other sites showed densities below 0.1 ind/m2. The density registered at Playuela in 2003 is lower than that reported before the mortality event (0.58-3.64 ind/m2). The density for Parque Nacional Archipiélago de Los Roques, specifically for the Arrecife de Herradura remained constant between 2002 and 2003 with values between 0.22-0.23 ind/m2 respectively. To conclude, the sea urchin abundancies observed at most of the Venezuelan coastal sites that we studied were higher than those reported for other areas of the northern Caribbean, even though the values have not yet returned to those preceding the 1984 mass-mortality event, due to the slow recovery of the populations.

  19. Reproductive biology in the starfish Echinaster (Othilia guyanensis (Echinodermata: Asteroidea in southeastern Brazil

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    Fátima L. F. Mariante


    Full Text Available Echinaster (Othilia guyanensis Clark, 1987 is an endangered starfish distributed throughout the Caribbean and Atlantic Ocean. Even though it has been extensively harvested, little is known about the biology and ecology of this starfish. Here, we examine reproduction seasonality in E. (O. guyanensis. Individuals were collected monthly for one year, including four complete lunar phases. The gonad index (GI was calculated to determine annual and monthly reproductive peaks. Gametogenesis stages were also determined. Sex ratio was 1:1.33 (M:F. Gonadosomatic index, body weight, central disc width and arm length were similar for both sexes. Gonads were present in all animals with arm length greater than 36.2 mm. Lunar phase was not associated with E. (O. guyanensis reproduction. GI and gametogenesis patterns suggest that starfish have an annual reproductive peak with spawning during autumn months (March to May.

  20. Holothuria (Selenkothuria) parvispinea n. sp. (Echinodermata, Hololthuroidea, Holothuriidae) with key to the sub-genus Selenkothuria. (United States)

    Massin, Claude


    Description of a new species from Australia, belonging to the subgenus Selenkothuria (Holothuria, Aspidochirotida). A dichotomous key of the thirteen valid species included in the subgenus is also given. The species H. perrieri Thandar, 1977 and H. spinea Cherbonnier, 1988 are considered as non valid.

  1. Ophiomusium acuferum (Ophiolepididae and Ophiomisidium pulchellum (Ophiuridae (Ophiuroidea: Echinodermata, redescription based on the Brazilian specimens

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    Michela Borges


    Full Text Available Ophiomusium (Ophiolepididae and Ophiomisidium (Ophiuridae are similar, but differ in features such as size of the adult, number of disc dorsal plates, length of the arms, shape of the first ventral arm plates and number of the tentacle. In this contribution, a large number of specimens of Ophiomusium acuferum Lyman, 1869 and Ophiomisidium pulchellum (Wyville Thomson, 1878 were sampled from southeastern and southern Brazilian at depths ranging from 46 to 1300 m. A close analysis has shown that specimens identified as Ophiomisidium pulchellum (C.W. Thomson, 1877 in several Brazilian museums are actually Ophiomusium acuferum Lyman, 1875. A total of 2330 individuals were examined: 2046 specimens of Ophiomusium acuferum ('Evaluation of the sustainable potential of living resources from the Brazilian Economic Exclusive Zone/Score South - Benthos' - REVIZEE; 'Rational usage of coastal ecosystems from the Brazilian Tropical Region: São Paulo State - Integrated Project/Subproject Benthos' - INTEGRADO; and the MD55/Brazil and 284 of Ophiomisidium pulchellum (MD55/Brazil. The disc diameter of each individual was measured and the specimens were digitally photographed. The samples studied are deposited in the Museum of Zoology of the University of Campinas and Institute of Biology at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. The specimens from the MD55 are deposited at the Paris Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle. An identification key to these species is provided here. A detailed morphological analysis and redescription of both species, comparisons, and their geographic distribution in Brazil are discussed.

  2. Embryonic, Larval, and Early Juvenile Development of the Tropical Sea Urchin, Salmacis sphaeroides (Echinodermata: Echinoidea

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    M. Aminur Rahman


    Full Text Available Salmacis sphaeroides (Linnaeus, 1758 is one of the regular echinoids, occuring in the warm Indo-West Pacific, including Johor Straits, between Malaysia and Singapore. In order to investigate the developmental basis of morphological changes in embryos and larvae, we documented the ontogeny of S. sphaeroides in laboratory condition. Gametes were obtained from adult individuals by 0.5 M KCl injection into the coelomic cavity. Fertilization rate at limited sperm concentration (10−5 dilution was 96.6±1.4% and the resulting embryos were reared at 24°C. First cleavage (2-cell, 4-cell, 8-cell, 16-cell, 32-cell, and multicell (Morulla stages were achieved 01.12, 02.03, 02.28, 02.51, 03.12, and 03.32 h postfertilization. Ciliated blastulae with a mean length of 174.72±4.43 μm hatched 08.45 h after sperm entry. The gastrulae formed 16.15 h postfertilization and the archenteron elongated constantly while ectodermal red-pigmented cells migrated synchronously to the apical plate. Pluteus larva started to feed unicellular algae in 2 d, grew continuously, and finally attained metamorphic competence in 35 d after fertilization. Metamorphosis took approximately 1 h 30 min from attachment to the complete resorption of larval tissues and the development of complete juvenile structure with adult spines, extended tubefeet and well-developed pedicellaria, the whole event of which usually took place within 1 d postsettlement. This study represents the first successful investigation on embryonic, larval, and early juvenile development of S. sphaeroides. The findings would greatly be helpful towards the understanding of ontogeny and life-history strategies, which will facilitate us to develop the breeding, seed production, and culture techniques of sea urchins in captive condition.

  3. Henricia djakonovi sp. nov. (Echinodermata, Echinasteridae): a new sea star species from the Sea of Japan. (United States)

    Chichvarkhin, Anton


    A new sea star species, H. djakonovi sp.n., was discovered in Rudnaya Bay in the Sea of Japan. This is a sympatric species of the well-known and common species Henricia pseudoleviuscula Djakonov, 1958. Both species are similar in body size and proportions, shape of skeletal plates, and life coloration, which distinguishes them from the other Henricia species inhabiting the Sea of Japan. Nevertheless, these species can be distinguished by their abactinal spines: in both species, they are short and barrel-like, but the new species is the only Henricia species in Russian waters of the Pacific that possesses such spines with a massive, smooth, bullet-like tip. The spines in H. pseudoleviuscula are crowned with a variable number of well-developed thorns. About half (<50%) of the abactinal pseudopaxillae in the new species are oval, not crescent-shaped as in H. pseudoleviuscula.

  4. The oldest post-Palaeozoic Crinoid and Permian-Triassic origins of the Articulata (Echinodermata). (United States)

    Oji, Tatsuo; Twitchett, Richard J


    The Crinoidea are the most primitive class of living echinoderms, and suffered a severe crisis during the Late Permian mass extinction event. All post-Palaeozoic crinoids, including living species, belong to the Articulata, and morphological and recent molecular studies demonstrate that they form a monophyletic clade. The Articulata originated from Palaeozoic cladid crinoids, but the nature and timing of their origination remains obscure. Problems with understanding the origin and early evolution of the Articulata have arisen because the Permian-Triassic crinoid fossil record is particularly poor. We report on a new genus and species from the earliest Triassic, which is the oldest known post-Palaeozoic articulate crinoid and fundamentally alters our understanding of the early evolution of the Articulata. Prior to this study, the most primitive post-Palaeozoic articulate was thought to be Holocrinus of the order Isocrinida. Unexpectedly, the new taxon belongs to the order Encrinida, which reveals a previously hidden diversity of crinoids in the earliest Triassic. Its discovery implies either a dramatic radiation of crinoids in the immediate post-extinction aftermath, when environmental conditions were at their most severe, or a pre-extinction origin of the crown group articulates and survival of multiple lineages.

  5. Patterns of asexual reproduction in the fissiparous seastar Coscinasterias acutispina (Asteroidea: Echinodermata) in Japan. (United States)

    Haramoto, Shinji; Komatsu, Miéko; Yamazaki, Yuji


    The morphological and anatomical characteristics of the fissiparous seastar Coscinasterias acutispina were investigated at 23 sites around Japan in order to clarify the environmental factors determining asexual reproduction. The frequency of recent fission among the sites differed, although no significant differences were evident among the three major sea areas around Japan (the Sea of Japan, Seto Inland Sea, and Pacific Ocean), indicating that the spatial variability in incidence of fission might be determined on a local scale. Morphological observations revealed that the seastars endoparasitized by Dendrogaster okadai had not undergone fission recently, suggesting that fission was suppressed by parasitism. Stepwise multiple regression analysis of the frequency of seastars that had recently undergone fission revealed that nutrient conditions affected the incidence of fission. The relationships between the pyloric caeca index and arm length ratio at the individual level suggested that good nutritional conditions were required before the occurrence of fission. Additionally, regression analysis showed that high temperature was one of the triggers of fission in C. acutispina. Thus, the process of asexual reproduction in C. acutispina appears to be governed by intricate interactions among several factors, including parasitism by D. okadai, nutrient conditions, and high temperature.

  6. Assessment of microplastic toxicity to embryonic development of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea). (United States)

    Nobre, C R; Santana, M F M; Maluf, A; Cortez, F S; Cesar, A; Pereira, C D S; Turra, A


    Apart from the physiological impacts on marine organisms caused by ingesting microplastics, the toxicity caused by substances leaching from these particles into the environment requires investigation. To understand this potential risk, we evaluated the toxicity of virgin (raw) and beach-stranded plastic pellets to the development of embryos of Lytechinus variegatus, simulating transfers of chemical compounds to interstitial water and water column by assays of pellet-water interface and elutriate, respectively. Both assays showed that virgin pellets had toxic effects, increasing anomalous embryonic development by 58.1% and 66.5%, respectively. The toxicity of stranded pellets was lower than virgin pellets, and was observed only for pellet-water interface assay. These results show that (i) plastic pellets act as a vector of pollutants, especially for plastic additives found on virgin particles; and that (ii) the toxicity of leached chemicals from pellets depends on the exposure pathway and on the environmental compartment in which pellets accumulate.

  7. Some observations on the morphology of Sclerasterias richardi a rarely encountered Mediterranean Sea star (Echinodermata: Asteriidae

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    Full Text Available The presence of specimens of the asteroid Sclerasterias richardi(Perrier, 1882 in Maltese waters,with some new details of its morphology (observed by SEM and with special reference to its madreporites,is reported.

  8. Abundance, distribution and size structure of Diadema antillarum (Echinodermata: Diadematidae) in South Eastern Cuban coral reefs. (United States)

    Martín Blanco, F; González Sansón, G; Pina Amargós, F; Clero Alonso, L


    The 1983-1984 mass mortality event of Diadema antillarum affected more than 93% of the total Caribbean population. Although there are no records about the status of Diadema populations before and after die-off on Cuban reefs, anecdotal information suggests that populations were struck. We analyzed spatial variation in the abundance and size structure of D. antillarum in 22 reefs sites in Jardines de la Reina, from June 2004 to September 2005. Counts of Diadema were performed in five 30x2 m transects at each sampling site and sampling time, and test diameters were measured in September 2005 at the same fore reefs. Abundances were higher at reef crests (mean densities 0.08-2.18 ind./m2), while reef slope populations reached a maximum site level of 0.13 ind./m2 at only one site and showed values up to three orders of magnitude lower than those from reef crests. Highest abundance occurred at the west margin of major channels between keys where larval recruitment seems to be favored by local oceanographic features and facilitated by the abundance of Echinometra lucunter. The size frequency distribution of D. antillarum indicates that recruitment began to be noticeable three years before September 2005, suggesting these populations were depleted in the past and they are recovering now.

  9. Histamine is a modulator of metamorphic competence in Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea

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    Sutherby Josh


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A metamorphic life-history is present in the majority of animal phyla. This developmental mode is particularly prominent among marine invertebrates with a bentho-planktonic life cycle, where a pelagic larval form transforms into a benthic adult. Metamorphic competence (the stage at which a larva is capable to undergo the metamorphic transformation and settlement is an important adaptation both ecologically and physiologically. The competence period maintains the larval state until suitable settlement sites are encountered, at which point the larvae settle in response to settlement cues. The mechanistic basis for metamorphosis (the morphogenetic transition from a larva to a juvenile including settlement, i.e. the molecular and cellular processes underlying metamorphosis in marine invertebrate species, is poorly understood. Histamine (HA, a neurotransmitter used for various physiological and developmental functions among animals, has a critical role in sea urchin fertilization and in the induction of metamorphosis. Here we test the premise that HA functions as a developmental modulator of metamorphic competence in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Results Our results provide strong evidence that HA leads to the acquisition of metamorphic competence in S. purpuratus larvae. Pharmacological analysis of several HA receptor antagonists and an inhibitor of HA synthesis indicates a function of HA in metamorphic competence as well as programmed cell death (PCD during arm retraction. Furthermore we identified an extensive network of histaminergic neurons in pre-metamorphic and metamorphically competent larvae. Analysis of this network throughout larval development indicates that the maturation of specific neuronal clusters correlates with the acquisition of metamorphic competence. Moreover, histamine receptor antagonist treatment leads to the induction of caspase mediated apoptosis in competent larvae. Conclusions We conclude that HA is a modulator of metamorphic competence in S. purpuratus development and hypothesize that HA may have played an important role in the evolution of settlement strategies in echinoids. Our findings provide novel insights into the evolution of HA signalling and its function in one of the most important and widespread life history transitions in the animal kingdom - metamorphosis.

  10. [Echinoderms (Echinodermata) from the Mexican waters of the Gulf of Mexico]. (United States)

    Durán-González, Alicia; Laguarda-Figueras, Alfredo; Solís-Marin, Francisco A; Buitrón Sánchez, Blanca Estela; Ahearn, Cynthia Gust; Torres-Vega, Juan


    We present a systematic list of the echinoderms from Gulf of Mexico's Mexican waters based on specimens of the Colecci6n Nacional de Equinodermos, Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia, Universidad Nacional Aut6noma de México and the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. This list reveals an important echinoderm biodiversity present in the Gulf of Mexico, where five of the six echinoderm classes are represented. A total of 209 echinoderm species is recorded, distributed in 129 genera, 63 families and 25 orders. 31 new records for the Gulf of Mexico are presented: Asteroidea (16), Ophiuroidea (nine), Echinoidea (one) and Holothuroidea (five).

  11. Avoidance of crude-oil contaminated sediment by the Australian seastar, Patiriella exigua (Echinodermata: Asteroidea)

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    Ryder, K. [RMIT University, Victoria (Australia). Department of Biotechnology and Environmental Biology; Temara, A. [RMIT University, Victoria (Australia). Department of Biotechnology and Environmental Biology; Procter and Gamble, Environmental Safety (Belgium); Holdway, D.A. [RMIT University, Victoria (Australia). Department of Biotechnology and Environmental Biology; University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, Ont. (Canada). Faculty of Science


    This study attempted to determine whether Patiriella exigua, an Australian seastar, could detect and/or avoid oiled sediment when given an equal choice of unoiled sediment. The sediment was spiked once to produce one of three concentrations of oiled sediment used in the test chambers versus unoiled sediment. Behavioral observations were repeated over a 32 day period to test the effects of aging the oiled sediment. Results show that Patiriella exigua was capable of detecting oiled sediment and/or an oiled environment. Seastars avoided oiled sediment, with significantly higher numbers choosing either to reside on the clean sediment (p<0.05) or to travel up the glass sides of the tanks (p<0.0001). Avoidance of oiled sediment increased with increasing sediment oil concentrations. Aging the oiled sediment decreased the oil content of the sediment and increased the number of seastars able to inhabit it (p<0.001). A potential narcotic effect of exposure to oiled sediment was observed. (author)

  12. Novel Circular Single-Stranded DNA Viruses among an Asteroid, Echinoid and Holothurian (Phylum: Echinodermata) (United States)

    Jackson, Elliot W.; Bistolas, Kalia S. I.; Button, Jason B.; Hewson, Ian


    Echinoderms are prone to large population fluctuations that can be mediated by pervasive disease events. For the majority of echinoderm disease events the causative pathogen is unknown. Viruses have only recently been explored as potential pathogens using culture-independent techniques though little information currently exists on echinoderm viruses. In this study, ten circular ssDNA viruses were discovered in tissues among an asteroid (Asterias forbesi), an echinoid (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) and a holothurian (Parastichopus californicus) using viral metagenomics. Genome architecture and sequence similarity place these viruses among the rapidly expanding circular rep-encoding single stranded (CRESS) DNA viral group. Multiple genomes from the same tissue were no more similar in sequence identity to each other than when compared to other known CRESS DNA viruses. The results from this study are the first to describe a virus from a holothurian and continue to show the ubiquity of these viruses among aquatic invertebrates. PMID:27855181

  13. Identification of echinoderms (Echinodermata) from an anchialine cave in Cozumel Island, Mexico, using DNA barcodes. (United States)

    Bribiesca-Contreras, Guadalupe; Solís-Marín, Francisco A; Laguarda-Figueras, Alfredo; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro


    The echinoderm species richness of the Aerolito de Paraiso anchialine cave, on Cozumel Island, in the Mexican Caribbean, is assessed on the basis of morphological and DNA barcoding data. We included specimens from this cave system and from different open sea areas, and employed two different approaches for species delineation based on DNA barcoding data: a 2% cox1 divergence and the general mixed Yule-coalescent (GMYC) approaches. We subsequently compared the results derived from these approaches with our morphospecies discrimination. A total of 188 cox1 sequences belonging to specimens of four echinoderm classes were examined. The 2% cox1 divergence and GMYC approaches recovered 78 and 70 putative species, respectively, 24 and 22 of which corresponded to specimens from the anchialine system. Of 26 echinoderm species identified in the cave system, seven appear to be endemic to it. Among these are Copidaster carvenicola Solís-Marín & Laguarda-Figueras, 2010, two morphologically distinctive, undescribed species belonging to Asterinides and Ophionereis and four probably cryptic undescribed species originally assigned to Amphipholis squamata (Delle Chiaje, 1839), Astropecten duplicatus Gray, 1840, Copidaster lymani (AH Clark, 1948) and Ophiothrix angulata (Say, 1825). Further research and protection of this particularly fragile ecosystem becomes urgent because construction of tourism developments is planned nearby.

  14. Echinodermata das praias de Salvador (Bahia, Brasil The Echinoderms of Salvador beaches (Bahia, Brazil

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    Orane Falcão de Souza Alves


    Full Text Available This paper presents 28 species of Echinoderms collected on 5 beaches of Salvador (12º54' to 13º01' S and 38º26' to 38º33' W, Brazil, which are distributed in 19 families. Ophiuroidea represented 53,6% of the collected species, followed by Echinoidea (28,6%, Asteroidea (7,1%, Holothuroidea (7,1%, and Crinoidea (3,6%. Ophiuroidea and Echinoidea were the most frequent groups, occurring at all the studied beaches while Crinoidea occurred only on 20% of them. Most of the species are characterized as belonging to the tropical warm waters, some to the shallow coastal areas and some having a broad bathymetric distribution. The richness of species values on beaches ranged from 7 to 24, at Itapua Beach, and from 2 to 14 among different kinds of habitats, where protected ones showed higher values.

  15. Influence of sediment-organic matter quality on growth and polychlorobiphenyl bioavailability in Echinodermata (Amphiura filiformis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnarsson, J.S.; Granberg, M.E.; Nilsson, H.C.; Rosenberg, R.; Hellman, B.


    Sediment total organic carbon (TOC) content is considered to be a primary food source for benthic invertebrates and a major factor influencing the partitioning and bioavailability of sediment-associated organic contaminants. Most studies report that both toxicity and uptake of sediment-associated contaminants by benthic organisms are inversely proportional to sediment TOC content. The aim of this study was to determine the importance of the TOC quality for the bioavailability of sediment-associated organic contaminants and the growth of benthic macrofauna. The common infaunal brittle star Amphiura filiformis was exposed to a base sediment covered by a {sup 14}C-polychlorobipenyl (3,3{prime}4,4{prime}-{sup 14}C-tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCB)) contaminated top layer (0--2 cm), enriched to the same TOC content with 31 g TOC/m{sup 2} of different quality and origin. The following carbon sources, ranging from labile to refractory, were used: (1) green macroalga (Ulva lactuca), (2) brown macroalga (Ascophyllum nodosum), (3) eelgrass (Zostera Marina), (4) phytoplankton (Ceratium spp.), and (5) lignins of terrestrial origin. Characterization of the organic matter quality was accomplished by measuring the content of amino acids, lipids, C, N, and polyphenolic compounds. The reactivity of the sedimentary organic matter was assessed by means of respiration and dissolved inorganic nitrogen flux measurements. The experiment was carried out in 1-L glass jars, each containing four brittle stars and the contaminated and enriched sediment. The jars were circulated in a flow-through mode with filtered seawater. Somatic growth (regeneration of a precut arm) and bioaccumulation of {sup 14}C-TCB were measured at 10 sampling occasions during 48 d of exposure. Growth rates, TCB uptake rates, and steady-state concentrations differed significantly between treatments and were correlated to the qualities of the organic substrates. The greatest TCB accumulation and growth were observed in treatments with the most labile organic substrates and the lowest accumulation and growth were seen with the most refractory substrates. Results from this experiment suggest that the bioaccumulation of organic contaminants in benthic infauna is dependent on the nutritional quality of the sedimentary organic matter.

  16. A field guide to the Silurian Echinodermata of the British Isles: Part 1 - Eleutherozoa and Rhombifera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewis, D.N.; Donovan, S.K.; Crabb, P.; Gladwell, D.J.


    The Palaeozoic echinoderms of the British Isles are most diverse in the Silurian and Lower Carboniferous. This guide discusses and illustrates members of all major groups of echinoderms, apart from the crinoids, from the Silurian of these islands. Groups considered include the echinoids (five taxa),

  17. Leptosynapta brasiliensis: a new species of synaptid holothurian (Echinodermata from a sandy beach in southeastern Brazil

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    Carolina Arruda de Oliveira Freire


    Full Text Available A new species of synaptid holothurian, Leptosynapta brasiliensis n. sp., is described. The species shows affinities with Leptosynapta minuta (BECHER, 1906, presenting 12 simple tentacles and 12 dumb-bell shaped pieces constituting the calcareous ring; anchor ossicles exhibit a sharply bifurcate stock. All individuals were collected in Praia Vermelha, Rio de Janeiro - RJ, Brazil, in coarse sand, at a depth of some 3 m.

  18. Equinodermos (Echinodermata) del occidente del Archipiélago Sabana-Camagüey, Cuba


    R. del Valle García; M. Abreu Pérez; Rodríguez, R.; F.A. Solís-Marín; A. Laguarda-Figueras; A. de la L. Durán González


    El Archipiélago Sabana-Camagüey, región norte central de Cuba, ha sido sometido a un gran desarrollo turístico, con el correspondiente aumento de la infraestructura hotelera y de carreteras. Se muestreó un total de 20 estaciones, teniendo en cuenta los diferentes biotopos tanto en la macrolaguna como en las áreas externas. Los muestreos se llevaron a cabo en marzo-abril y octubre-noviembre del 2001, ambos con 20 días de duración. Hacia la zona externa donde existe un menor impacto antrópico, ...

  19. Estrutura fina do espermatozóide de Mellita quinquiesperforata Leske (Echinodermata do litoral norte do Brasil Fine structure of the spermatozoon of the Mellita quinquiesperforata (Echinodermata of the Northern littoral of Brazil

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    Edilson Matos


    Full Text Available The fine structure of the spermatozoon in the Mellita quinquiesperforata Leske, 1778 was studied. Collected from the Amazon region, were described by light and transmission electron microscopy. The spermatozoon consisted of a acrosome complex, nucleus, four to six mitochondria, two centrioles and flagellum. The acrosome was composed of a acrosome complex, the acrosomal vesicle and the subacrosomal space. The nucleus are composed by dense material. The middle piece contains 4-6 mitochondria which are arranged around the centrioles, the 9p+0, whose axoneme has the classic 9p+2 microtubular construction.

  20. Deep-water Asteroidea (Echinodermata collected during the TALUD cruises in the Gulf of California, Mexico Asteroidea (Echinodermata de aguas profundas recolectados durante cruceros TALUD en el Golfo de California, México

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    Michel E. Hendrickx


    Full Text Available During a series of cruises aboard the R/V "El Puma" aimed at collecting the deep-water benthic and pelagic fauna off the Pacific coast of Mexico, in the eastern Pacific, samples of Asteroidea were collected below 500 m depth (587-1 526 m. A total of 335 specimens were collected, belonging to 18 species, 14 identified to species, 3 to genus, and 1 previously undescribed species. New records are provided for Dipsacaster laetmophilus Fisher, 1910, Myxoderma sacculatum (Fisher, 1905, Peribolaster biserialis Fisher, 1905, Ampheraster chiroplus Fisher, 1928, Ampheraster hyperoncus (H. L. Clark, 1913, Anteliaster coscinactis Fisher, 1923, Nearchaster aciculosus (Fisher, 1910, Ceramaster leptoceramus (Fisher, 1905, Mediaster transfuga Ludwig, 1905, and Lophaster furcilliger Fisher, 1905. All species were collected below the oxygen minimum zone that extends throughout the central and southern Gulf of California, or within the threshold zone where severe to mild hypoxic conditions prevail. Epibenthic dissolved oxygen concentrations associated with the capture of the specimens show support for strong tolerance to severe hypoxia (Durante una serie de campañas oceanográficas realizadas a bordo del B/O "El Puma", enfocadas a la recolección de la fauna bentónica y pelágica de aguas profundas en la costa del Pacífico de México, en el Pacífico oriental, se recolectaron ejemplares de Asteroidea por debajo de 500 m de profundidad (587-1 526 m. Un total de 335 ejemplares fueron recolectados, pertenecientes a 18 especies; 14 fueron determinadas hasta especie, 3 hasta género y 1 especie no descrita. Se proporcionan nuevos registros para Dipsacaster laetmophilus Fisher, 1910, Myxoderma sacculatum (Fisher, 1905, Peribolaster biserialis Fisher, 1905, Ampheraster chiroplus Fisher, 1928, Ampheraster hyperoncus (H. L. Clark, 1913, Anteliaster coscinactis Fisher, 1923, Nearchaster aciculosus (Fisher, 1910, Ceramaster leptoceramus (Fisher, 1905, Mediaster transfuga Ludwig, 1905, y Lophaster furcilliger Fisher, 1905. Todas las especies se recolectaron por debajo de la zona del mínimo de oxígeno que se extiende por las zonas central y sur del golfo de California, o en el umbral de la zona donde prevalecen condiciones de hipoxia de leves a severas. Las concentraciones de oxígeno disuelto epibentónicas asociadas con la captura de los ejemplares indican una fuerte tolerancia a la hipoxia severa (<1,0 ml O2 / l para la mayoría de las especies, y a hipoxia leve para Ctenodiscus crispatus (Retzius, 1805 y Nymphaster diomedeae Ludwig, 1905. Se incluye una lista de todas las especies de asteroideos que se encuentran por debajo de 500 m de profundidad frente a la costa del Pacífico de México.

  1. Ophiuroidea das regiões antartica e subantartica: 2. variação em Gorgonocephalus chílensis (Philippi (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea, Gorgonocephalidae Ophiuroidea from antarctic and subantarctic regions: 2. variation on Gorgonocephalus chilensis (Philippi (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea, Gorgonocephalidae

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    Ana Maria Gouveia Monteiro


    Full Text Available Foram examinados 198 exemplares de Gorgonocephalus chilensis das regiões antártica e subantartica, tendo-se em vista a variação de caracteres morfológicos externos. Foi constatada uma grande variação nas características morfológicas externas, que parece independer de localização geográfica.A revision is presented on the variability of the ornamentation and other extermal morphological aspects of Gorgonocephalus chilensis. The samples were obtained along the period of 1962 to 1972 by the R/V "Hero" and "Eltanin" (USARP and by the R/V "Almirante Saldanha" from the Brazilian Navy.

  2. Inferring the developmental basis of the sea star abnormality "double ambulacral groove" (Echinodermata: Asteroidea Inferencia sobre la base de desarrollo en estrellas de mar de la anormalidad "doble surco ambulacral" (Echinodermata: Asteroidea

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    Full Text Available Very rarely a ray of a sea star is unusually wide and has two parallel ambulacral grooves that extend to a single tip. Such a ray has two terminal plates that are coalesced laterally. This abnormality is inferred to develop as a rare result of regeneration because it is recorded from a species with obligate asexual reproduction (fission and regeneration of halves; no gametes. This conclusion is supported also by an example where the abnormality affects only the distal third of a rayMuy raramente un rayo de estrella de mar es desproporcionadamente ancho y tiene dos surcos ambulacrales paralelos que se extienden hasta su único extremo. Dicho rayo tiene dos placas terminales que coalecen lateralmente. Se ha inferido que esta anormalidad se desarrolla como un resultado raro de regeneración, porque se describe de una especie con reproducción asexual obligada (fisión y regeneración de mitades; no gametos. Además, esta conclusión se sostiene por un ejemplo de anormalidad que afecta sólo el tercio distal de un rayo

  3. Nuevos registros de ofiuroideos (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea para localidades de Zihuatanejo (Guerrero y Puerto Escondido (Oaxaca, Pacífico mexicano New records of ophiuroids (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea from localities at Zihuatanejo (Guerrero and Puerto Escondido (Oaxaca, Mexican Pacific

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    M. Rebeca Granja-Fernández


    Full Text Available Se presentan nuevos registros de ofiuroideos para localidades de Zihuatanejo, Guerrero y de Puerto Escondido, Oaxaca en el Pacífico mexicano. Mediante recolectas realizadas en diversos sustratos se obtuvieron 12 especies, de las cuales Ophiocoma alexandri Lyman, 1860 y Ophiothela mirabilis (Verrill, 1867 fueron las más ampliamente distribuidas. Este número de especies, el más alto registrado respecto a trabajos previos, se atribuye a la mayor amplitud espacial del esfuerzo de muestreo y a la mayor diversidad de sustratos explorados. Se dan a conocer nuevos sustratos habitados por O. mirabilis y Ophioderma panamensis Lütken, 1859. Se presenta el primer registro de asociación de un organismo juvenil de O. alexandri con un hidrozoo del orden Leptothecata en el Pacífico oriental. A pesar del incremento en el número de especies reconocidas para las localidades, se sugiere llevar a cabo una prospección más amplia del Pacífico tropical mexicano y un mayor esfuerzo de muestreo en diversos sustratos con el fin de incrementar el conocimiento de la biodiversidad de ofiuros en la zona.New records of ophiuroids from localities at Zihuatanejo, Guerrero and Puerto Escondido, Oaxaca in the Mexican Pacific are presented. Based on specimens collected on diverse substrata, 12 species were identified; Ophiocoma alexandri Lyman, 1860 and Ophiothela mirabilis (Verrill, 1867 being the most widely distributed. The larger number of recorded species compared to previous studies may result from a spatially broader sampling and a more thorough survey involving a larger variety of substrata. New substrata for O. mirabilis and Ophioderma panamensis Lütken, 1859 are reported. We document, for first time, the relationship between a juvenile of O. alexandri and a hydrozoan of the order Leptothecata in the Eastern Pacific. Although this paper documents a significant increase in the number of recorded species in the study area, we highlight the need for a large scale survey in the tropical Mexican Pacific, along with a more thorough sampling on a larger number of substrata in order to increase our knowledge about ophiuroids in the area.

  4. Biologia reprodutiva de Echinometra lucunter (Echinodermata: Echinoidea na Praia da Costa, Vila Velha, Espírito Santo Reproductive biology of Echinometra lucunter (Echinodermata: Echinoidea in Praia da Costa, Vila Velha, Espírito Santo

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    Fátima L. F. Mariante


    Full Text Available Echinometra lucunter Linnaeus, 1758 is a tropical sea urchin with strong bioerosive potential. Consequently, this species has great ecological importance. The species occurs in high densities along the Brazilian coast, particularly in the south and southeast. The objective of this work was to evaluate both the effects of annual seasonality and the lunar cycle on the reproduction of E. lucunter. Individuals were sampled monthly for a period of one year and during four complete lunar cycles. The gonadosomatic index (GI was calculated to determine the annual and monthly reproductive peaks based on the lunar phase. The sex ratio (male:female was 1:1.04, without significant difference in sexual proportion. The GI was significantly higher for males than for females. The first sexual maturation occurs when carapace width reaches 23.30 mm, and 50% of the animals have gonads with 28.22 mm. The spawning peak generally occurs during the whole year from the full moon to the waning moon. However, there is an annual reproductive peak from summer to autumn.

  5. Reprodução de Lytechinus variegatus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea: efeito do ciclo lunar e características da população = Reproduction of Lytechinus variegatus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea: effect of lunar cycle and population characteristics

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    Alexandra Mara Cruz Lage


    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou as características reprodutivas de uma população do ouriço do mar Lytechinus variegatus e a influência do ciclo lunar na liberação de gametas. Foram realizadas oito coletas para avaliação do índice gonadossomático (IG e dos parâmetros populacionais relacionados com a reprodução. Para avaliação do efeito da Lua na liberação de gametas foram realizadas coletas em três ciclos lunares completos. Ao todo foram coletados 295 indivíduos, sendo 156 machos e 131 fêmeas (proporção 1,19:1, porém não houve diferença significativa na proporção sexual da população. O peso dos machos foisignificativamente maior que o das fêmeas, porém não houve diferença significativa no IG, peso gonadal e diâmetro entre os sexos. Com a amplitude no diâmetro dos animais coletados (5,5-8,7 cm foram estabelecidas cinco classes de tamanho. Não houve diferençassignificativas no IG entre as classes de tamanho. Houve efeito da periodicidade lunar na liberação de gametas, com menor IG na lua nova, indicando que esta ocorre no primeiro quarto lunar e em marés de sizígia.This work evaluated the spawning of sea urchin Lytechinus variegates based on lunar cycle and population characteristics. Eight monthly collections were realized to estimate the gonadosomatic index (GI and population parameters regarding reproduction. To evaluate the effect of the lunar cycle on spawning, samples were taken for each moon phase of three lunar cycles. In the entire work 295 individuals were collected, 156 males and 131 females (1.19:1 ratio. However, there was no significant difference in the sex ratio of the population. The weight of males was significantly greater than that of females. There were no differences between males and females in gonadosomatic index (GI, gonad weight and diameter. There was aneffect of the lunar periodicity on spawning, with lower GI in new moon, indicating that spawning occurs on the first lunar quarter in spring tide.

  6. A new species of starfish (Echinodermata: Asteroidea from an anchialine cave in the Mexican Caribbean Una especie nueva de estrella de mar (Echinodermata: Asteroidea de una caverna anquialina en el Caribe mexicano

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    Francisco Alonso Solís-Marín


    Full Text Available Copidaster cavernicola n. sp. is described from an anchialine cave system in Cozumel, Mexico. Copidaster cavernicola differs from its congeners in having 1-8 papulae in each papular area, and numerous excavate pedicellariae on all surfaces, except between furrow spines and subambulacral spines. C. cavernicola is possibly endemic to the anchialine system which it inhabits.Se describe una especie nueva de la estrella de mar del género Copidaster encontrada en un sistema de cuevas anquihalinas del Caribe, en Cozumel, México. Copidaster cavernicola n. sp. es la primera especie cavernícola de equinodermo que es descrita, y se caracteriza por tener de 1 a 8 pápulas por cada zona papular, numerosos pedicelarios excavados presentes en toda la superficie del cuerpo excepto en el surco ubicado entre las espinas ambulacrales y subambulacrales. Se sugiere que C. cavernicola es una especie endémica propia del sistema anquihalino en el que habita.

  7. Reproductive cycle of Mellita quinquiesperforata (Leske (Echinodermata, Echinoidea in two contrasting beach environments Reprodução de Mellita quinquiesperforata (Leske (Echinodermata, Echinoidea em dois ecossistemas praiais contrastantes

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    Yara A. G. Tavares


    Full Text Available The reproductive cycle of the irregular echinoid Mellita quinquiesperforata (Leske, 1778 was studied in populations from two sand beaches with different morphodynamic conditions in Parana coast, from February 1992 through July 1994. Gametogenesis was described by histological and gonad index methods and the differences between both populations were observed in the extension of nutrient storage and spawning period. Both populations exhibited a main reproductive period during spring/summer and a nutrient storage period during autumn/winter months. The spawning period at the intermediate-dissipative beach was shorter than at the reflective beach. Meanwhile, a nutrient storage stage was more extensive in the latter. Gonad index varied between both sexes and it was influenced by population characteristics. Different strategies in allocation of resources between maintenance and reproduction effort (oocyte size confirm the high adaptive plasticity developed by this species to live in contrasting beach environments.O ciclo reprodutivo do equinóide irregular Mellita quinquiesperforata (Leske, 1778 foi estudado em populações de duas praias com diferentes condições morfodinâmicas na costa paranaense, de fevereiro de 1992 a julho de 1994. A gametogênese foi descrita pela análise histológica das gônadas e pela variação do índice gonadal. Foram encontradas diferenças com relação à extensão do período de estocagem de nutrientes e do período de liberação dos gametas nas populações. Ambas exibiram um marcado período reprodutivo na primavera e no verão e uma época de estocagem de nutrientes no outono e no inverno. Na praia intermediária-dissipativa a liberação de gametas ocorreu num período menor do que na reflectiva, porém a fase de acúmulo de reservas nutritivas foi mais extensa na primeira. O índice gonadal apresentou variações entre os sexos e foi influenciado pelas características populacionais. As diferentes estratégias na alocação dos recursos entre manutenção e esforço reprodutivo (tamanho do ovócito confirmam a elevada plasticidade adaptativa desenvolvida pela espécie para habitar ambientes praiais contrastantes.

  8. Diadema ascensionisMortensen, 1909 (Echinodermata: Echinoidea is not restricted to Oceanic Islands: evidence from morphological data

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    AI Gondim

    Full Text Available The genus Diadema presently consists of seven species, two of which are known from the Brazilian coast: D. antillarum and D. ascensionis. The first is usually known for shallow coastal areas, while the second was apparently restricted to oceanic islands. In February 2011, a dense population of D. ascensionis was observed on the coastal reefs of Praia do Francês (Alagoas State, northeastern Brazil. Five specimens were collected and transported to the laboratory where morphological studies of the test and pedicellariae were conducted. Subsequently, visits were made to scientific collections in order to compare and confirm species identifications. Our observations confirm the presence of tridentate pedicellariae with narrow and strongly curved valves. The axial cavity in the tips of the spines is filled with dense nonreticular tissue. This taxonomic data confirms the occurrence of D. ascensionis in coastal areas. On the coastal reefs of Praia do Francês, animals were observed from the beach to the reef formations about 200 m offshore in areas with a sandy substrate and in reef cavities, usually in clear and well illuminated waters. Solitary individuals or groups of up to 15 individuals formed dense populations in the area. We stress the importance of pedicellariae for the specific identification of the Diadematidae, considering that they are quite constant and reliable at this taxonomic level. Our results demonstrate that D. ascensionis is not restricted to insular environments and that this species may be common in shallow coastal habitats.

  9. Effect of particle size frequency distribution of the substratum on the burrowing ability of Chiridota rigida (semper) (Echinodermata: holothuroidea)

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    Lawrence, J.M.; Murdoch, J.


    Chiridota rigida (Semper) burrows easily into well-sorted substrata, moving between particles in coarse substrata and pushing aside particles in fine substrata. Chiridota rigida does not burrow easily into poorly sorted substrata because spaces which can be penetrated are not available and because the particles cannot be moved as a result of increased stability of the substratum. In poorly sorted substrata, burrowing ability increases with increases in the proportion of fine particles. It would appear that the distribution and abundance of chiridota rigida and other chiridotids would be affected by the effect of the substratum on their ability to burrow.

  10. Uptake and utilization of dissolved free amino acids by the brittlestar Microphiopholis gracillima (Say, 1852) (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) during disc regeneration

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    Clements, L.A.J.


    Dissolved organic material (DOM) may be especially important to marine organisms unable to feed due to lack of a digestive system, injury or autotomy. Disc autotomy by the brittlestar Microphiopholis gracillima includes loss of the gut and gonads, and precludes ingestion of particulate food by the animal until gut regeneration is complete. The influence of DOM on the rate of disc regeneration by autotomized M. gracillima was tested by incubating animals in artificial seawater containing different concentrations of amino acids. Rates of uptake of amino acids and excretion of amino acids, ammonia and urea by intact and regenerating M. gracillima individuals were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. Uptake and catabolism of leucine and glycine were examined using radioisotopic techniques. Both intact and regenerating M. gracillima increased their uptake of {sup 14}C-glycine with starvation, but rates of uptake were higher for intact animals. Catabolism of leucine and glycine, as evidenced by release of labeled CO{sub 2}, was highest among intact animals indicating that the amino acids were being used as energy sources during starvation. However, regenerating animals catabolized less than 2% of the labeled glycine acquired from seawater.

  11. Results of the Rumphius Biohistorical Expedition to Ambon . Part 12. The Asteroidea (Echinodermata) collected from Ambon, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fujita, T.; Marsh, L.M.


    During the Rumphius Biohistorical Expedition (4.xi-17.xii.1990) and some additional field trips to Ambon, a total of 26 species of asteroids were collected. Seven species were new to Ambon, and four species new to Indonesia. The asteroid fauna of Ambon is now represented by 44 species. Anthenea diff

  12. Ophiacantha clypeata n. sp. from the Bering Sea, with a redescription of Ophiacantha rhachophora Clark (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea)

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    Kyte, M.A.


    Ophiacantha clypeata differs from O. rhachophora in having the distal tips of the radial shields concealed, the basal upper arm plates with thorny stumps, small and inconspicuous genital slits, oral shields quadrangular and wider than long, first lateral arm shields and oral shields contiguous, not separated by the aboral plates, arm spines on the first basal segment not meeting on the aboral side of the arm segment, and entirely smooth uppermost arm spines. While the oral papillae of O. rhachophora are markedly thorny, the 6 to 10 papillae of O. clypeata are only slightly serrate. A papilla does not arise from the adoral shield in O. clypeata. Geographical distribution supports the evidence from morphological differences. While O. clypeata occurs only in the Bering Sea, O. rhachophora is apparently restricted to Japanese waters and the Eastern Sea (Clark, 1911; Matsumoto, 1917). Although the depth ranges of the 2 species overlap, O. rhachophora is found in somewhat shallower water than O. clypeata This geographical separation and the morphological differences indicate clearly that Clark's (1911) Bering Sea specimens of O. rhachophora should be separated as a distinct species.

  13. Phylogeny of Comatulidae (Echinodermata: Crinoidea: Comatulida): a new classification and an assessment of morphological characters for crinoid taxonomy. (United States)

    Summers, Mindi M; Messing, Charles G; Rouse, Greg W


    Comatulidae Fleming, 1828 (previously, and incorrectly, Comasteridae A.H. Clark, 1908a), is a group of feather star crinoids currently divided into four accepted subfamilies, 21 genera and approximately 95 nominal species. Comatulidae is the most commonly-encountered and species-rich crinoid group on shallow tropical coral reefs, particularly in the Indo-western Pacific region (IWP). We conducted a molecular phylogenetic analysis of the group with concatenated data from up to seven genes for 43 nominal species spanning 17 genera and all subfamilies. Basal nodes returned low support, but maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, and Bayesian analyses were largely congruent, permitting an evaluation of current taxonomy and analysis of morphological character transformations. Two of the four current subfamilies were paraphyletic, whereas 15 of the 17 included genera returned as monophyletic. We provide a new classification with two subfamilies, Comatulinae and Comatellinae n. subfamily Summers, Messing, & Rouse, the former containing five tribes. We revised membership of analyzed genera to make them all clades and erected Anneissia n. gen. Summers, Messing, & Rouse. Transformation analyses for morphological features generally used in feather star classification (e.g., ray branching patterns, articulations) and those specifically for Comatulidae (e.g., comb pinnule form, mouth placement) were labile with considerable homoplasy. These traditional characters, in combination, allow for generic diagnoses, but in most cases we did not recover apomorphies for subfamilies, tribes, and genera. New morphological characters that will be informative for crinoid taxonomy and identification are still needed. DNA sequence data currently provides the most reliable method of identification to the species-level for many taxa of Comatulidae.

  14. Bioenergetic trade-offs in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) in response to CO2-driven ocean acidification. (United States)

    Yuan, Xiutang; Shao, Senlin; Yang, Xiaolong; Yang, Dazuo; Xu, Qinzeng; Zong, Humin; Liu, Shilin


    Ocean acidification (OA) caused by excessive CO2 is a potential ecological threat to marine organisms. The impacts of OA on echinoderms are well-documented, but there has been a strong bias towards sea urchins, and limited information is available on sea cucumbers. This work examined the effect of medium-term (60 days) exposure to three pH levels (pH 8.06, 7.72, and 7.41, covering present and future pH variability) on the bioenergetic responses of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, an ecologically and economically important holothurian in Asian coasts. Results showed that the measured specific growth rate linearly decreased with decreased pH, leading to a 0.42 %·day(-1) decrease at pH 7.41 compared with that at pH 8.06. The impacts of pH on physiological energetics were variable: measured energy consumption and defecation rates linearly decreased with decreased pH, whereas maintenance energy in calculated respiration and excretion were not significantly affected. No shift in energy allocation pattern was observed in A. japonicus upon exposure to pH 7.72 compared with pH 8.06. However, a significant shift in energy budget occurred upon exposure to pH 7.41, leading to decreased energy intake and increased percentage of energy that was lost in feces, thereby resulting in a significantly lowered allocation into somatic growth. These findings indicate that adult A. japonicus is resilient to the OA scenario at the end of the twenty-first century, but further acidification may negatively influence the grazing capability and growth, thereby influencing its ecological functioning as an "ecosystem engineer" and potentially harming its culture output.

  15. A New Morphological Phylogeny of the Ophiuroidea (Echinodermata Accords with Molecular Evidence and Renders Microfossils Accessible for Cladistics.

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    Ben Thuy

    Full Text Available Ophiuroid systematics is currently in a state of upheaval, with recent molecular estimates fundamentally clashing with traditional, morphology-based classifications. Here, we attempt a long overdue recast of a morphological phylogeny estimate of the Ophiuroidea taking into account latest insights on microstructural features of the arm skeleton. Our final estimate is based on a total of 45 ingroup taxa, including 41 recent species covering the full range of extant ophiuroid higher taxon diversity and 4 fossil species known from exceptionally preserved material, and the Lower Carboniferous Aganaster gregarius as the outgroup. A total of 130 characters were scored directly on specimens. The tree resulting from the Bayesian inference analysis of the full data matrix is reasonably well resolved and well supported, and refutes all previous classifications, with most traditional families discredited as poly- or paraphyletic. In contrast, our tree agrees remarkably well with the latest molecular estimate, thus paving the way towards an integrated new classification of the Ophiuroidea. Among the characters which were qualitatively found to accord best with our tree topology, we selected a list of potential synapomorphies for future formal clade definitions. Furthermore, an analysis with 13 of the ingroup taxa reduced to the lateral arm plate characters produced a tree which was essentially similar to the full dataset tree. This suggests that dissociated lateral arm plates can be analysed in combination with fully known taxa and thus effectively unlocks the extensive record of fossil lateral arm plates for phylogenetic estimates. Finally, the age and position within our tree implies that the ophiuroid crown-group had started to diversify by the Early Triassic.

  16. Fixed, free, and fixed: the fickle phylogeny of extant Crinoidea (Echinodermata) and their Permian-Triassic origin. (United States)

    Rouse, Greg W; Jermiin, Lars S; Wilson, Nerida G; Eeckhaut, Igor; Lanterbecq, Deborah; Oji, Tatsuo; Young, Craig M; Browning, Teena; Cisternas, Paula; Helgen, Lauren E; Stuckey, Michelle; Messing, Charles G


    Although the status of Crinoidea (sea lilies and featherstars) as sister group to all other living echinoderms is well-established, relationships among crinoids, particularly extant forms, are debated. All living species are currently placed in Articulata, which is generally accepted as the only crinoid group to survive the Permian-Triassic extinction event. Recent classifications have recognized five major extant taxa: Isocrinida, Hyocrinida, Bourgueticrinina, Comatulidina and Cyrtocrinida, plus several smaller groups with uncertain taxonomic status, e.g., Guillecrinus, Proisocrinus and Caledonicrinus. Here we infer the phylogeny of extant Crinoidea using three mitochondrial genes and two nuclear genes from 59 crinoid terminals that span the majority of extant crinoid diversity. Although there is poor support for some of the more basal nodes, and some tree topologies varied with the data used and mode of analysis, we obtain several robust results. Cyrtocrinida, Hyocrinida, Isocrinida are all recovered as clades, but two stalked crinoid groups, Bourgueticrinina and Guillecrinina, nest among the featherstars, lending support to an argument that they are paedomorphic forms. Hence, they are reduced to families within Comatulida. Proisocrinus is clearly shown to be part of Isocrinida, and Caledonicrinus may not be a bourgueticrinid. Among comatulids, tree topologies show little congruence with current taxonomy, indicating that much systematic revision is required. Relaxed molecular clock analyses with eight fossil calibration points recover Articulata with a median date to the most recent common ancestor at 231-252mya in the Middle to Upper Triassic. These analyses tend to support the hypothesis that the group is a radiation from a small clade that passed through the Permian-Triassic extinction event rather than several lineages that survived. Our tree topologies show various scenarios for the evolution of stalks and cirri in Articulata, so it is clear that further data and taxon sampling are needed to recover a more robust phylogeny of the group.

  17. Deep-sea ophiuroids (Echinodermata) from reducing and non-reducing environments in the North Atlantic Ocean


    Stohr, Sabine; Segonzac, Michel


    The animal communities associated with the deep-sea reducing environment have been studied for almost 30 years, but until now only a single species of ophiuroid, Ophioctenella acies, has been found at both hydrothermal vents and methane cold seeps. Since the faunal overlap between vent and seep communities is small and many endemic species have been found among other taxa (e.g. Mollusca, Crustacea), additional species of ophiuroids were expected at previously unstudied sites. Chemical composi...

  18. Brittle stars (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) from seamounts in the Andaman Sea (Indian Ocean): first account, with descriptions of new species

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Stohr, S.; Sautya, S.; Ingole, B.S.

    , consisting of larger muscle opening and smaller nerve opening with low rim. Ventral disk formed by large, quadrangular to pentagonal scales. Jaws with pointed triangular apical papilla (presumably first tooth). Oval, bowl-shaped dental plate with long... first pore, the sparse granulation of the disk, the bowl-shaped dental plate bearing few teeth, the along most of the arm widely separated ventral arm plates and the low number of spines are all indications of a juvenile, paedomorphic state that may...

  19. Nuevos datos sobre la distribución de Centrostephanus longispinus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea en las costas españolas

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    Moreno, Diego


    Full Text Available Some new records of the rare sea urchin Centrostephanus longispinus are given in the Spanish coasts, all of them widespread along the Balearic Islands, Levante, Alboran Sea and Atlantic side of the Strait of Gibraltar. From these data, conclusions about its range of distribution in Spanish water, habitat and its optimal range of temperature are provided.Se aportan nuevas citas del raro erizo de mar Centrostephanus longispinus en las costas españolas, repartidas por el archipiélago balear, Levante español, mar de Alborán y vertiente atlántica del estrecho de Gibraltar. Con los datos obtenidos se obtienen una serie de conclusiones sobre la distribución de la especie en aguas españolas, su hábitat y el intervalo de temperaturas que tolera.


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    Full Text Available Omanaster imbricatus is a new genu s and species of Sakmarian (Early Permian asteroids collected from the basal Pachycyrtella Bed of the Saiwan Formation of Oman, Arabian Peninsula; the family Omanasteridae is recognized. Late Paleozoic and especially Permian asteroids are rare and O. imbricatus differs significantly from those previously described, thereby providing an important addition to known late Paleozoic diversity. Unfortunately the single available specimen is incomplete with remaining ossicles both leached and partially fused, and available data are limited. Adambulacral form and arrangement of O. imbricatus are both suggestive of corresponding expressions of certain earlier Paleozoic species and unlike those of the crown-group, suggesting an enduring Paleozoic lineage but one not phylogenetically a part of the Mesozoic diversification. The Pachycyrtella Bed has been interpreted as recording a succession of pioneer palaeocommunities colonizing a turbulent, shallow-water settingaffected by oscillatory flows. The apparently flattened appearance of O. imbricatus is suggestive of appearances of certain Cretaceous and extant species recovered from similar environments thus suggesting both homoplasy and the versatility of asteroid evolution across extended spans of geologic time.

  1. Functional Morphology of the Arm Spine Joint and Adjacent Structures of the Brittlestar Ophiocomina nigra (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) (United States)

    Wilkie, Iain C.


    The skeletal morphology of the arm spine joint of the brittlestar Ophiocomina nigra was examined by scanning electron microscopy and the associated epidermis, connective tissue structures, juxtaligamental system and muscle by optical and transmission electron microscopy. The behaviour of spines in living animals was observed and two experiments were conducted to establish if the spine ligament is mutable collagenous tissue: these determined (1) if animals could detach spines to which plastic tags had been attached and (2) if the extension under constant load of isolated joint preparations was affected by high potassium stimulation. The articulation normally operates as a flexible joint in which the articular surfaces are separated by compliant connective tissue. The articular surfaces comprise a reniform apposition and peg-in-socket mechanical stop, and function primarily to stabilise spines in the erect position. Erect spines can be completely immobilised, which depends on the ligament having mutable tensile properties, as was inferred from the ability of animals to detach tagged spines and the responsiveness of isolated joint preparations to high potassium. The epidermis surrounding the joint has circumferential constrictions that facilitate compression folding and unfolding when the spine is inclined. The interarticular connective tissue is an acellular meshwork of collagen fibril bundles and may serve to reduce frictional forces between the articular surfaces. The ligament consists of parallel bundles of collagen fibrils and 7–14 nm microfibrils. Its passive elastic recoil contributes to the re-erection of inclined spines. The ligament is permeated by cell processes containing large dense-core vesicles, which belong to two types of juxtaligamental cells, one of which is probably peptidergic. The spine muscle consists of obliquely striated myocytes that are linked to the skeleton by extensions of their basement membranes. Muscle contraction may serve mainly to complete the process of spine erection by ensuring close contact between the articular surfaces. PMID:27974856

  2. Influence of Diadema antillarum populations (Echinodermata: Diadematidae) on algal community structure in Jardines de la Reina, Cuba. (United States)

    Martín Blanco, Félix; Clero Alonso, Lídice; González Sansón, Gaspar; Amargós Fabián, Pina


    The 1983-1984 mass mortality of Diadema antillarum produced severe damages on Caribbean reefs contributing to substantial changes in community structure that still persist. Despite the importance of Diadema grazing in structuring coral reefs, available information on current abundances and algal-urchin interactions in Cuba is scarce. We analyzed spatial variations in Diadema abundance and its influence on algal community structure in 22 reef sites in Jardines de la Reina, in June/2004 and April/2005. Urchins were counted in five 30 x 2m transects per site, and algal coverage was estimated in randomly located 0.25m side quadrats (15 per site). Abundances of Diadema were higher at reef crests (0.013-1.553 ind/m2), while reef slope populations showed values up to three orders of magnitude lower and were overgrown by macroalgae (up to 87%, local values). Algal community structure at reef slopes were dominated by macroalgae, especially Dictyota, Lobophora and Halimeda while the most abundant macroalgae at reef crests were Halimeda and Amphiroa. Urchin densities were negatively and positively correlated with mean coverage of macroalgae and crustose coralline algae, respectively, when analyzing data pooled across all sites, but not with data from separate habitats (specially reef crest), suggesting, along with historical fish biomass, that shallow reef community structure is being shaped by the synergistic action of other factors (e.g. fish grazing) rather than the influence of Diadema alone. However, we observed clear signs of Diadema grazing at reef crests and decreased macroalgal cover according to 2001 data, what suggest that grazing intensity at this habitat increased at the same time that Diadema recruitment began to be noticeable. Furthermore, the excessive abundance of macroalgae at reef slopes and the scarcity of crustose coralline algae seems to be due by the almost complete absence of D. antillarum at mid depth reefs, where local densities of this urchin were predominantly low.

  3. Impact of CO2-driven acidification on the development of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea). (United States)

    Yuan, Xiutang; Shao, Senlin; Dupont, Sam; Meng, Leiming; Liu, Yongjian; Wang, Lijun


    We evaluated the impact of ocean acidification on the early development of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. The effect of pH-levels (pH 8.04, 7.85, 7.70 and 7.42) were tested on post-fertilization success, developmental (stage duration) and growth rates. Post-fertilization success decreased linearly with pH leading to a 6% decrease at pH 7.42 as compared to pH 8.1. The impact of pH on developmental time was stage-dependent: (1) stage duration increased linearly with decreasing pH in early-auricularia stage; (2) decreased linearly with decreasing pH in the mid-auricularia stage; but (3) pH decline had no effect on the late-auricularia stage. At the end of the experiment, the size of doliolaria larvae linearly increased with decreasing pH. In conclusion, a 0.62 unit decrease in pH had relatively small effects on A. japonicus early life-history compared to other echinoderms, leading to a maximum of 6% decrease in post-fertilization success and subtle effects on growth and development.

  4. 16S rRNA Gene Phylogenesis of Culturable Predominant Bacteria from Diseased Apostichopus japonicus(Holothuroidea, Echinodermata)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Haiyan; JIANG Guoliang; WU Zhiqiang; WANG Xin


    Cultured Apostichopusjaponicus in China suffers from a kind of skin ulceration disease that has caused severe economic loss in recent years. The disease, pathogens of which are supposed to be bacteria by most researchers, is highly infectious and can often cause all individuals in the same culture pool to die in a very short time. The 16S rRNA gene phylogenesis of the culturable bacteria from the lesions of diseased individuals was conducted to study the biodiversity of the bacterial communities in the lesions and to identify probable pathogen(s) associated with this kind of disease. S. japonica samples were selected from a hatchery located in the eastern part of Qingdao, China. Bacterial universal primers GM5F and DS907R were used to amplify the 16S rRNA gene of bacteria colonies, and touchdown PCR was performed to amplify the target sequences. The results suggest that γ- proteobacteria (Alteromonadales and Vibrionales) of CFB group, many strains of which have been also determined as pathogens in other marine species, are the predominant bacterial genera of the diseased Apostichopusjaponicus individuals.

  5. Isolation and Characterization of Adhesive Secretion from Cuvierian Tubules of Sea Cucumber Holothuria forskåli (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea

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    Malgorzata Baranowska


    Full Text Available The sea cucumber Holothuria forskåli possesses a specialized system called Cuvierian tubules. During mechanical stimulation white filaments (tubules are expelled and become sticky upon contact with any object. We isolated a protein with adhesive properties from protein extracts of Cuvierian tubules from H. forskåli. This protein was identified by antibodies against recombinant precollagen D which is located in the byssal threads of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. To find out the optimal procedure for extraction and purification, the identified protein was isolated by several methods, including electroelution, binding to glass beads, immunoprecipitation, and gel filtration. Antibodies raised against the isolated protein were used for localization of the adhesive protein in Cuvierian tubules. Immunostaining and immunogold electron microscopical studies revealed the strongest immunoreactivity in the mesothelium; this tissue layer is involved in adhesion. Adhesion of Cuvierian tubule extracts was measured on the surface of various materials. The extracted protein showed the strongest adhesion to Teflon surface. Increased adhesion was observed in the presence of potassium and EDTA, while cadmium caused a decrease in adhesion. Addition of antibodies and trypsin abolished the adhesive properties of the extract.

  6. Abyssal aggregations of Kolga hyalina Danielssen and Koren (Echinodermata: Holothurioidea) in the northeast Atlantic Ocean: a preliminary report (United States)

    Billett, D. S. M.; Hansen, B.


    Kolga hyalina Danielssen and Koren has been found in dense numbers between 2755 and 4080 m in the Porcupine Seabight. All of the specimens were small and of a similar size at any one station. The narrow size distributions were typical of the species over a wide geographic area and size range. Gonadial development is evident in the smallest specimens examined (3 mm long). The life-history traits of K. hyalina are discussed in relation to its association with the unstable environment of the Gollum Channel system. The dispersion pattern of K. hyalina changed temporally and, to a lesser extent, spatially. In some cases dense aggregations were formed. Taxonomic details are also presented.

  7. Growth, reproduction and possible recruitment variability in the abyssal brittle star Ophiocten hastatum (Ophiuroidea: Echinodermata) in the NE Atlantic (United States)

    Gage, John D.; Anderson, Roslyn M.; Tyler, Paul A.; Chapman, Rachel; Dolan, Emily


    Growth was studied from skeletal growth markers in the cosmopolitan abyssal brittle star Ophiocten hastatm. Samples for analysis were taken at five sites located in the southern (2900 m) and central (2000 m) Rockall Trough, at ca. 3000 and 4000 m in the Porcupine Seabight, and at 4850 m on the Porcupine Abyssal Plain. Growth bands were assumed to reflect an annual cycle in skeletal growth. Band measurements on arm vertebrae, standardised to disc diameter, were used to provide size-at-age data and size-increment data that took into account overgrowth of early bands in older individuals. The Richards growth function marginally provides best fit to pooled size-at-age data, although the asymptote-less Tanaka function and the Gompertz growth function also provided good fit to size-at-age data which showed a rather linear growth pattern with little indication of a growth asymptote. Log e transformed size-increment data were linearised by applying the Ford-Walford method to approximate Gompertz growth so that growth could be compared at the five sites. Grouped linear regression and analysis of covariance showed no significant differences between growth at the sites and a common fitted regression. However, pairwise comparisons suggest growth differences with increasing bathymetric separation. Oocyte size frequencies measured from histological preparations of the gonad of specimens from the Porcupine Abyssal Plain indicate marked reproductive periodicity, with spawn-out in late winter that is likely followed by planktotrophic early development in spring with benthic settlement in summer. Although usually rare in the trawl and epibenthic sled samples, several years of successful recruitment followed by a period when recruitment was low or absent might explain size structure observed in a single unusually large sample from the Rockall Trough. This is consistent with previous observations during the late 1990s of a large population increase on the Porcupine Abyssal Plain. Analysis of growth bands of these specimens sampled in 1997 suggest the population increase derives from a single or small number of year classes recruited during the early 1990s.

  8. Phylogenetic position of Licnophora, Lechriopyla, and Schizocaryum, three unusual ciliates (phylum Ciliophora) endosymbiotic in echinoderms (phylum Echinodermata). (United States)

    Lynn, Denis H; Strüder-Kypke, Michaela


    Various echinoderms are colonized by species from several classes of the Phylum Ciliophora, indicating that the echinoderm "habitat" has been invaded independently on numerous occasions throughout evolutionary history. Two "echinoderm" ciliates whose phylogenetic positions have been problematic are Licnophora macfarlandi Stevens, 1901 and Schizocaryum dogieli Poljansky and Golikova, 1957. Licnophora macfarlandi is an endosymbiont of the respiratory trees of holothuroids, and S. dogieli is found in the esophagus of echinoids. A third species, Lechriopyla mystax Lynch, 1930, is a plagiopylid ciliate found in the intestine of echinoids. Host echinoderms were collected near the Friday Harbor Laboratories, San Juan Island, WA. Specimens of S. dogieli and L. mystax were obtained from the esophagus and intestine, respectively, of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus pallidus. Specimens of L. macfarlandi were collected from the fluid obtained from the respiratory trees of Parastichopus californicus. Using small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSrRNA) sequences of these three ciliates and a global alignment of SSrRNA sequences of other ciliates, we established the following. 1) Licnophora is a spirotrich ciliate, clearly related to the hypotrichs and stichotrichs; this is corroborated by its possession of macronuclear replication bands. 2) Lechriopyla is the sister genus to Plagiopyla and is a member of the Class Plagiopylea, which was predicted based on its cytology. 3) Schizocaryum clusters in the Class Oligohymenophorea and is most closely related to the scuticociliates; there are currently no morphological features known to relate Schizocaryum to the scuticociliates.

  9. The central nervous system of sea cucumbers (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea shows positive immunostaining for a chordate glial secretion

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    Grondona Jesus M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Echinoderms and chordates belong to the same monophyletic taxon, the Deuterostomia. In spite of significant differences in body plan organization, the two phyla may share more common traits than was thought previously. Of particular interest are the common features in the organization of the central nervous system. The present study employs two polyclonal antisera raised against bovine Reissner's substance (RS, a secretory product produced by glial cells of the subcomissural organ, to study RS-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of sea cucumbers. Results In the ectoneural division of the nervous system, both antisera recognize the content of secretory vacuoles in the apical cytoplasm of the radial glia-like cells of the neuroepithelium and in the flattened glial cells of the non-neural epineural roof epithelium. The secreted immunopositive material seems to form a thin layer covering the cell apices. There is no accumulation of the immunoreactive material on the apical surface of the hyponeural neuroepithelium or the hyponeural roof epithelium. Besides labelling the supporting cells and flattened glial cells of the epineural roof epithelium, both anti-RS antisera reveal a previously unknown putative glial cell type within the neural parenchyma of the holothurian nervous system. Conclusion Our results show that: a the glial cells of the holothurian tubular nervous system produce a material similar to Reissner's substance known to be synthesized by secretory glial cells in all chordates studied so far; b the nervous system of sea cucumbers shows a previously unrealized complexity of glial organization. Our findings also provide significant clues for interpretation of the evolution of the nervous system in the Deuterostomia. It is suggested that echinoderms and chordates might have inherited the RS-producing radial glial cell type from the central nervous system of their common ancestor, i.e., the last common ancestor of all the Deuterostomia.

  10. The Occurrence of Ophiocnemis marmorata (Echinodermata:Ophiuroidea) Associated with the Rhizostome Medusa Rhopilema hispidum (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Govindan Kanagaraj; Pithchai Sampath Kumar; Andr(e) C. Morandini


    The association of scyphomedusae with invertebrates has been long known in the literature; especially with hyperiidsamphipods.The association of echinoderms with jellyfish is not common and rarely recorded.We reported the association of theophiuroid Ophiocnemis marmorata with the rhizostome scyphomedusa Rhopilema hispidum collected in Vellar estuary (on thesoutheast coast of India).O.marmorata is supposed to be a filter feeding ophiuroid,quite common in soft bottom of shallow waters.The brittle stars possibly seek for food supply,shelter and protection through the association.

  11. Bathyal sea urchins of the Bahamas, with notes on covering behavior in deep sea echinoids (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) (United States)

    Pawson, David L.; Pawson, Doris J.


    In a survey of the bathyal echinoderms of the Bahama Islands region using manned submersibles, approximately 200 species of echinoderms were encountered and documented; 33 species were echinoids, most of them widespread in the general Caribbean area. Three species were found to exhibit covering behavior, the piling of debris on the upper surface of the body. Active covering is common in at least 20 species of shallow-water echinoids, but it has been reliably documented previously only once in deep-sea habitats. Images of covered deep-sea species, and other species of related interest, are provided. Some of the reasons adduced in the past for covering in shallow-water species, such as reduction of incident light intensity, physical camouflage, ballast in turbulent water, protection from desiccation, presumably do not apply in bathyal species. The main reasons for covering in deep, dark, environments are as yet unknown. Some covering behavior in the deep sea may be related to protection of the genital pores, ocular plates, or madreporite. Covering in some deep-sea species may also be merely a tactile reflex action, as some authors have suggested for shallow-water species.

  12. Decline in the species richness contribution of Echinodermata to the macrobenthos in the shelf seas of China (United States)

    Jin, Shaofei; Wang, Yongli; Xia, Jiangjiang; Xiao, Ning; Zhang, Junlong; Xiong, Zhe

    Echinoderms play crucial roles in the structure of marine macrobenthic communities. They are sensitive to excess absorption of CO2 by the ocean, which induces ocean acidification and ocean warming. In the shelf seas of China, the mean sea surface temperature has a faster warming rate compared with the mean rate of the global ocean, and the apparent decrease in pH is due not only to the increased CO2 absorption in seawater, but also eutrophication. However, little is known about the associated changes in the diversity of echinoderms and their roles in macrobenthic communities in the seas of China. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis of 77 case studies in 51 papers to examine the changes in the contribution of echinoderm species richness to the macrobenthos in the shelf seas of China since the 1980s. The relative species richness (RSR) was considered as the metric to evaluate these changes. Trends analysis revealed significant declines in RSR in the shelf seas of China, the Yellow Sea, and the East China Sea from 1997 to 2009. Compared with the RSR before 1997, no significant changes in mean RSR were found after 1997, except in the Bohai Sea. In addition, relative change in the RSR of echinoderms and species richness of macrobenthos led to more changes (decrease or increase) in their respective biomasses. Our results imply that changes in species richness may alter the macrobenthic productivity of the marine benthic ecosystem.

  13. Ontogenetic habitat shift, population growth, and burrowing behavior of the Indo-Pacific beach star, Archaster typicus (Echinodermata; Asteroidea). (United States)

    Bos, Arthur R; Gumanao, Girley S; van Katwijk, Marieke M; Mueller, Benjamin; Saceda, Marjho M; Tejada, Rosie Lynn P


    Archaster typicus, a common sea star in Indo-Pacific regions, has been a target for the ornamental trade, even though little is known about its population biology. Spatial and temporal patterns of abundance and size structure of A. typicus were studied in the Davao Gulf, the Philippines (125°42.7'E, 7°0.6'N), from February 2008 to December 2009. Specimens of A. typicus were associated with intertidal mangrove prop roots, seagrass meadows, sandy beaches, and shoals. Among prop roots, specimens were significantly smaller and had highest densities (131 ind. m(-2)) between November and March. High organic matter in sediment and a relatively low predation rate seemed to support juvenile life among mangroves. Size and density analyses provided evidence that individuals gradually move to seagrass, sandy habitats, and shoals as they age. Specimens were significantly larger at a shoal (maximum radius R = 81 mm). New recruits were found between August and November in both 2008 and 2009. Timing of recruitment and population size frequencies confirmed a seasonal reproductive cycle. Juveniles had relatively high growth rates (2-7 mm month(-1)) and may reach an R of 20-25 mm after 1 year. Growth rates of larger specimens (R > 30 mm) were generally stars and provides new biological information as a basis for management of harvested A. typicus populations.

  14. SALMFamide salmagundi: the biology of a neuropeptide family in echinoderms. (United States)

    Elphick, Maurice R


    The SALMFamides are a family of neuropeptides that occur in species belonging to the phylum Echinodermata. The prototypes for this neuropeptide family (S1 and S2) were discovered in starfish but subsequently SALMFamides were identified in other echinoderms. There are two types of SALMFamides: L-type, which have the C-terminal motif SxLxFamide, and F-type, which have the C-terminal motif SxFxFamide. They are derived from two types of precursor proteins: an L-type SALMFamide precursor, which comprises only L-type or L-type-like SALMFamides and an F-type SALMFamide precursor, which contains several F-type or F-type-like SALMFamides and, typically, one or more L-type SALMFamides. Thus, SALMFamides occur as heterogeneous mixtures of neuropeptides - a SALMFamide salmagundi. SALMFamides are produced by distinct populations of neurons in echinoderm larval and adult nervous systems and are present in the innervation of neuromuscular organs. Both L-type and F-type SALMFamides cause muscle relaxation in echinoderms and, for example, in starfish this effect of SALMFamides may mediate neural control of cardiac stomach eversion in species that feed extra-orally (e.g., Asterias rubens). The SALMFamide S1 also causes inhibition of neural release of a relaxin-like gonadotropin in the starfish Asterina pectinifera. An important issue that remains to be resolved are the relationships of SALMFamides with neuropeptides that have been identified in other phyla. However, it has been noted that the C-terminal SxLxFamide motif of L-type SALMFamides is a feature of some members of a bilaterian neuropeptide family that includes gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) in vertebrates and SIFamide-type neuropeptides in protostomes. Similarly, the C-terminal FxFamide motif of F-type SALMFamides is a feature of vertebrate QRFP (26RFa)-type neuropeptides. These sequence similarities may provide a basis for molecular identification of receptors that mediate effects of SALMFamides. Furthermore

  15. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series : Black mildews (Ascomycetes from southern Western Ghats of peninsular India with description of 14 new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.B. Hosagoudar


    Full Text Available This paper gives an account of fifteen black mildew fungi collected from Kodagu in Karnataka and Kollam in Kerala state. Of these, Asterina cassiigena, A. chrysophylligena, A. hemidesmi, A. ushae, A. thevalakkaraensis, A. vitacearum, Asterostomella derridicola, A. vernoniae, Prillieuxina humboltiae, Echinodella mimusopsidis, Mahanteshamyces litseae, Sarcinella bischofiae, S. pogostemonis and S. securinegae are the new species, while Asterina antidesmatis forms a new record to India.

  16. Asociación a sustratos de los erizos regulares (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) en la laguna arrecifal de Isla Verde, Veracruz, México


    E.V. Celaya-Hernández; F.A. Solís-Marín; A. Laguarda-Figueras; A. de la L. Durán-González; T. Ruiz Rodríguez


    Se presenta el estudio de la diversidad, abundancia, distribución y asociación de sustrato de las especies de erizos regulares presentes en la parte Sur de la laguna arrecifal de Isla Verde, Veracruz, México. Se realizaron cuatro recolectas entre octubre del 2000 a octubre del 2002. Se seleccionó un cuadrante de muestreo, el más representativo, en la zona suroeste de la laguna arrecifal, con un área de 23 716 m2, asi mismo se muestreó en toda la parte sur de la laguna arrecifal. Las especies ...

  17. A taxonomic guide to the brittle-stars (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea) from the State of Paraíba continental shelf, Northeastern Brazil (United States)

    Gondim, Anne I.; Alonso, Carmen; Dias, Thelma L. P.; Manso, Cynthia L. C.; Christoffersen, Martin L.


    Abstract We provide the first annotated checklist of ophiuroids from the continental shelf of the State of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. Identification keys and taxonomic diagnoses for 23 species, belonging to 14 genera and 8 families, are provided. The material is deposited in the Invertebrate Collection Paulo Young, at the Federal University of Paraíba. Ophiopsila hartmeyeri represents the first record for the northeastern region of Brazil, while Ophiolepis impressa, Ophiolepis paucispina, Amphiura stimpsoni, Amphiodia riisei, Ophiactis quinqueradia, Ophiocoma wendtii and Ophionereis olivaceae are new records for the State of Paraíba. The number of species known for the state was increased from 16 to 23, representing approximately 17% of the species known for Brazil and 54% of the species known for northeastern Brazil. The recorded fauna has a large geographical and bathymetrical distribution. PMID:23794923

  18. Mechanical properties of the compass depressors of the sea-urchin Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata, Echinoidea and the effects of enzymes, neurotransmitters and synthetic tensilin-like protein.

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    Iain C Wilkie

    Full Text Available The compass depressors (CDs of the sea-urchin lantern are ligaments consisting mainly of discontinuous collagen fibrils associated with a small population of myocytes. They are mutable collagenous structures, which can change their mechanical properties rapidly and reversibly under nervous control. The aims of this investigation were to characterise the baseline (i.e. unmanipulated static mechanical properties of the CDs of Paracentrotus lividus by means of creep tests and incremental force-extension tests, and to determine the effects on their mechanical behaviour of a range of agents. Under constant load the CDs exhibited a three-phase creep curve, the mean coefficient of viscosity being 561±365 MPa.s. The stress-strain curve showed toe, linear and yield regions; the mean strain at the toe-linear inflection was 0.86±0.61; the mean Young's modulus was 18.62±10.30 MPa; and the mean tensile strength was 8.14±5.73 MPa. Hyaluronidase from Streptomyces hyalurolyticus had no effect on creep behaviour, whilst chondroitinase ABC prolonged primary creep but had no effect on secondary creep or on any force-extension parameters; it thus appears that neither hyaluronic acid nor sulphated glycosaminoglycans have an interfibrillar load transfer function in the CD. Acetylcholine, the muscarinic agonists arecoline and methacholine, and the nicotinic agonists nicotine and 1-[1-(3,4-dimethyl-phenyl-ethyl]-piperazine produced an abrupt increase in CD viscosity; the CDs were not differentially sensitive to muscarinic or nicotinic agonists. CDs showed either no, or no consistent, response to adrenaline, L-glutamic acid, 5-hydroxytryptamine and γ-aminobutyric acid. Synthetic echinoid tensilin-like protein had a weak and inconsistent stiffening effect, indicating that, in contrast to holothurian tensilins, the echinoid molecule may not be involved in the regulation of collagenous tissue tensility. We compare in detail the mechanical behaviour of the CD with that of mammalian tendon and highlight its potential as a model system for investigating poorly understood aspects of the ontogeny and phylogeny of vertebrate collagenous tissues.

  19. Chronic toxicity test with sea urchin Echinometra lucunter and Lytechinus variegatus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea, exposed to light-stick - flag paternoster used for longline surface fishing

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    Caio Cesar-Ribeiro


    Full Text Available In this work, the chronic toxicity of a mixture of light-stick chemicals and water was tested. The light-stick is used in fishery activities to catch swordfish. The tubes were collected on the beaches of the Costa dos Coqueiros - BA, Brazil, in the period from 14th to 31st July 2007. The method used was a short chronic toxicity test where embryos of the sea urchins Echinometra lucunter and Lytechinus variegatus were exposed to a stock solution consisting of the supernatant formed from a mixture of sea water and the orange-colored light-stick chemical. After a preliminary test, concentrations defined were 0.002, 0.003, 0.01, 0.02, 0.1, 1.0% of stock solution. The final test ran for 36 hours for E. Lucunter and 24 hours for L. variegatus with 4 replicates for each concentration. The value of EC50 - 36h was 0.062% with confidence limits ranging from 0.042 to 0.079% and the EC50 - 24h was 0.011% with confidence limits ranging from 0.009 to 0.014%, i.e., the chemical mix present in the light-stick is potentially toxic. So, as these flags are commonly used for fishing there is potential danger in their disposal in the open ocean.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a toxicidade crônica da água do mar em contato com o líquido contido no light-stick, sinalizador utilizado em pesca de espinhel de superfície para a captura de espadarte. Os tubos foram coletados nas praias da Costa dos Coqueiros - BA, no período de 14 a 31 de Julho de 2007. O método utilizado para a verificação da toxicidade crônica foi o teste de curta duração com embriões de ouriço-do-mar Echinometra lucunter e Lytechinus variegatus, os ensaios foram realizados com solução estoque que consiste do sobrenadante formado a partir de uma mistura de água do mar com o líquido do sinalizador de coloração laranja. Após um teste preliminar as concentrações definidas foram 0.002; 0.003; 0.01; 0.02; 0.1; 1.0%. O teste definitivo teve duração de 36 horas para E. lucunter e 24 horas para L. variegatus, sendo preparadas 4 réplicas para cada concentração. O valor da CE50 - 36h encontrado foi de 0.062% com limites de aceitabilidade variando de 0.042 a 0.079% e a CE50 - 24h encontrada foi de 0.011% com limites de aceitabilidade variando de 0.009 a 0.014%, ou seja, os compostos químicos presentes no light-stick são potencialmente tóxicos. Portanto já que esses sinalizadores são utilizados comumente como petrechos de pesca há a necessidade de que eles sejam recolhidos, pois podem causar efeitos adversos quando abrem nos oceanos.

  20. Advances in the Application of Molecular Technique for Echinodermata%生物技术在棘皮动物研究中的应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  1. Les étoiles de mer (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) récoltées par le M/V Calamar au large des Guyanes et du Venezuela

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jangoux, Michel


    Fourteen species of starfish are recorded from the sea off the Guyanas and Venezuela. Most of them are shallow-water animals including two uncommon forms, Chaetaster nodosus Perrier and Verrillaster spinulosus (Verrill). Two interesting deep-sea starfishes were collected, viz. Cheiraster planus Verr

  2. Four new species and one new subspecies of Asteroidea (Echinodermata) collected by the “Siboga” Expedition in the Indo-Malayan region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aziz, Aznam; Jangoux, Michel


    Four new species and one new subspecies of asteroids collected by the “Siboga” Expedition in the Indo-Malayan region are described. They are deep-water species belonging to the families Goniasteridae, Solasteridae, Ganeriidae, Asteriidae and Brisingidae.

  3. A taxonomic guide to the brittle-stars (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea from the State of Paraíba continental shelf, Northeastern Brazil

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    Anne Gondim


    Full Text Available We provide the first annotated checklist of ophiuroids from the continental shelf of the State of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. Identification keys and taxonomic diagnoses for 23 species, belonging to 14 genera and 8 families, are provided. The material is deposited in the Invertebrate Collection Paulo Young, at the Federal University of Paraíba. Ophiopsila hartmeyeri represents the first record for the northeastern region of Brazil, while Ophiolepis impressa, O. paucispina, Amphiura stimpsoni, Amphiodia riisei, Ophiactis quinqueradia, Ophiocoma wendtii and Ophionereis olivaceae are new records for the State of Paraíba. The number of species known for the state was increased from 16 to 23, representing approximately 17% of the species known for Brazil and 54% of the species known for northeastern Brazil. The recorded fauna has a large geographical and bathymetrical distribution.

  4. Results of the Rumphius Biohistorical Expedition to Ambon Part. 4. The Holothurioidea (Echinodermata) collected at Ambon during the Rumphius Biohistorical Expedition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massin, C.


    During the Rumphius Biohistorical Expedition (4.xi-14.xii.l990) 52 specimens representing 27 holothurian species were collected. All the species are described, figured and discussed systematically. Six species are new to the fauna of Ambon; two of these are new to the fauna of Indonesia, and two are

  5. Taxonomic revision and phylogeny of the Ophiocoma brevipes group (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea, with description of a new subgenus (Breviturma and a new species

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    Sabine Stöhr


    Full Text Available The taxonomy of the genus Ophiocoma was last revised by Devaney in 1970. Recent discoveries of new species and re-instatement of previously synonymized names suggest that we still do not fully understand the species limits in this genus. A recent biodiversity survey of the SW Indian Ocean shallow reefs strongly suggested an unrecognised species in the genus, closely related to O. brevipes/O. dentata. This study examined both the molecular phylogenetic relationships and the morphological characteristics of several species in the genus in order to characterise the unrecognised species. The focal species clusters with O. brevipes, O. dentata, O. doederleini within a monophyletic clade supported by molecular data for the first time. The name Breviturma subgen. nov. is proposed for this clade, previously known as brevipes group. Type material of nominal species that have been synonymized with O. dentata was examined and re-assessed. Ophiocoma marmorata proved not conspecific with O. dentata. A rarely used character, dorsal disc granule density, was tested and showed differences between the examined species at similar sizes. In combination with colour pattern, disc granule density, arm spine sequence and maximum disc size, the new species was delimited morphologically and described as Ophiocoma krohi sp. nov.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has failed to distinguish between smaller gut regions and larger haemal sinuses in sea urchins (Echinodermata: Echinoidea

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    Ghiselin Michael T


    Full Text Available Abstract A response to Ziegler A, Faber C, Mueller S, Bartolomaeus T: Systematic comparison and reconstruction of sea urchin (Echinoidea internal anatomy: a novel approach using magnetic resonance imaging. BMC Biol 2008, 6: 33.

  7. Density of Diadema antillarum (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) on live coral patch reefs and dead Acropora cervicornis rubble patches near Loggerhead Key, Dry Tortugas National Park, Florida, USA (United States)

    Density of adult Diadema antillarum was assessed on live coral patch reefs and dead Acropora cervicornis rubble patches next to Loggerhead Key, Dry Tortugas National Park, Florida, USA in June 2009. Mean density on live coral patch reefs (0.49 individuals m-2) was not statistical...

  8. On Mellitella stokesii and Amphipholis geminata (Echinodermata), from an intertidal flat in the upper Gulf of Nicoya estuary, Pacific, Costa Rica. (United States)

    Vargas, José A; Solano, Sylvia


    Information on changes over time in the biodiversity and ecology of tropical systems is of increasing importance against the background of local, regional, and global dynamics. This study aimed to contribute with long-term data on the abundance fluctuations of two species of echinoderms from a tropical tidal flat. From February 1984 to December 1986, March 1985 to April 1987, and July 1994 to September 1996 (total: 76 dates), core samples (17.7 cm2, 15 cm deep) were collected at low tide at a mud-sand flat in the mid upper Gulf of Nicoya estuary, Costa Rica, as part of a survey of the benthic community. Among more than 100 taxa, the burrowing brittle star, Amphipholis geminata, and the sand dollar, Mellitella stokesii, consistently appeared in the samples over the study period. A total of 63 M. stokesii and 149 A. geminata were collected. The 43 sand dollars found during 1984-1985, give an approximate density of 35 ind./m2, which is within the range reported for this species. M. stokesii was almost absent from 1994 to 1996, while A. geminata had its peak of abundance at the end of 1995. Low abundances of the sand dollar during the rainy seasons (May-November) and slight increments in dry seasons (December-April) cores, also agrees with a report from the region. A. geminata also presented an irregular pattern of abundance, with slight increases at the end of the rainy seasons or during the dry seasons, when higher salinities are more suitable for echinoderms. The patchy spatial distribution of both species makes difficult the detection of patterns with a corer. Nevertheless, this information is unique due to its extensive time coverage and provides a baseline for future surveys designed specifically for the study of tropical intertidal estuarine echinoderms.

  9. NADPH-, NADH- and cumene hydroperoxide-dependent metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene by pyloric caeca microsomes of the sea star Asterias rubens L. (Echinodermata: Asteroidea). (United States)

    den Besten, P J; Lemaire, P; Livingstone, D R


    1. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) metabolism was studied in microsomes of the pyloric caeca (main digestive tissue and site of P450) of the echinoderm sea star (starfish) Asterias rubens. 2. NADPH-dependent metabolism of BaP produced phenols (36% of total metabolism), quinones (19%), dihydrodiols (25%) and putative protein adducts (20%). 3. NADH-dependent rates of BaP metabolism were approximately twice those found for NADPH-dependent metabolism, and metabolite formation was shifted towards dihydrodiols and quinones. 4. Cumene hydroperoxide (CHP)-dependent rates of BaP metabolism were also higher than NADPH-dependent rates by a factor of six for quinone and putative protein adduct production, and by a factor of four for phenol and dihydrodiol production. 5. Microsomal rates of BaP metabolism in BaP-exposed sea stars appeared to be elevated more in the case of NADPH-dependent than for CHP-dependent metabolism (respectively, increases of 130 and 41%), indicating the induction of forms of P450 preferentially catalysing NADPH-dependent metabolism. 6. 1,1,1-Trichloropropene-2,3-oxide (TCPO) inhibited dihydrodiol formation from both NADPH- and CHP-dependent BaP metabolism, indicating the involvement of epoxide hydratase in BaP metabolism. 7. Incubations of pyloric caeca microsomes with BaP and a superoxide anion radical-generating system (xanthine/xanthine oxidase) produced putative protein adducts but no free metabolites.

  10. Crinoids columnals (Echinodermata) of the Ererê Formation (late Eifelian-early Givetian, Amazon Basin), State of Pará, Brazil (United States)

    Scheffler, S. M.; Fernandes, A. C. S. F.; da Fonseca, V. M. M.


    The faunal composition of stalked echinoderms in the Brazilian Devonian is still largely unknown despite the great abundance of crinoids in the shallow epicontinental seas of the Paleozoic. The first Devonian crinoids of Brazil, recorded in the literature in 1875 and 1903, were from the sedimentary rocks of the Ererê Formation in the Amazon Basin. Since then, the echinoderms of this formation have not been studied. This study, based on isolated pluricolumnals and columnals, described and identified Botryocrinus meloi n. sp., the first record for this genus in Brazil. In addition to this species, two other morphological patterns were identified: Tjeecrinus sp. and Morphotype AM/Er-01. The form of occurrence of the crinoid material and the paleoautoecology of B. meloi allow preliminary characterization of the habitat as a moderately deep water with weak to moderate currents and soft substrate. The similarity between B. meloi and Botryocrinus montguyonensis and of Tjeecrinus? sp. and T. crassijugatus, from the Devonian of the Armorican and Rhenan Massif, represents new evidence for the existence of contact between the faunas of the Amazon Basin with those of northern Gondwana and Armorica during the Middle Devonian.

  11. Leptosynapta inhaerens (O.F. Müller 1776) (Echinodermata, Holothuroidea): a new record for the Belgian marine waters


    Massin, C.; Wittoeck, J; K. Hostens


    This is the first record of Leptosynapta inhaerens (O.F. Müller, 1776) in Belgian marine waters and adds a second apodid species, the first being Leptosynapta minuta (Becher, 1906), to the Belgian holothuroid fauna. This paper contains a morphological description of the specimens, the habitat characteristics, and includes a world distribution map of L. inhaerens. Relationships between L. inhaerens and environmental data are discussed.

  12. Molecular systematics of the genus Holothuria in the Mediterranean and Northeastern Atlantic and a molecular clock for the diversification of the Holothuriidae (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea). (United States)

    Borrero-Pérez, Giomar Helena; Gómez-Zurita, Jesús; González-Wangüemert, Mercedes; Marcos, Concepción; Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel


    This work investigates the systematics of the genus Holothuria in the Mediterranean Sea and Northeastern Atlantic in the light of a wider molecular phylogenetic hypothesis of Holothuriidae, and it also provides a time-scale for the family diversification using mitochondrial markers and the molecular clock hypothesis. The subgenera Holothuria and Roweothuria are retrieved as paraphyletic. At least four separate lineages, with quite different time frameworks were identified. There are at least three species with an apparent long evolutionary history, H. forskali, H. sanctori and H. impatiens and six species belonging to Holothuria, Roweothuria and Vaneyothuria, which have diverged relatively recently.

  13. Reprodução de Lytechinus variegatus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea: efeito do ciclo lunar e características da população - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i3.5124 Reproduction of Lytechinus variegatus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea: effect of lunar cycle and population characteristics - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i3.5124

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    Levy de Carvalho Gomes


    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou as características reprodutivas de uma população do ouriço do mar Lytechinus variegatus e a influência do ciclo lunar na liberação de gametas. Foram realizadas oito coletas para avaliação do índice gonadossomático (IG e dos parâmetros populacionais relacionados com a reprodução. Para avaliação do efeito da Lua na liberação de gametas foram realizadas coletas em três ciclos lunares completos. Ao todo foram coletados 295 indivíduos, sendo 156 machos e 131 fêmeas (proporção 1,19:1, porém não houve diferença significativa na proporção sexual da população. O peso dos machos foi significativamente maior que o das fêmeas, porém não houve diferença significativa no IG, peso gonadal e diâmetro entre os sexos. Com a amplitude no diâmetro dos animais coletados (5,5-8,7 cm foram estabelecidas cinco classes de tamanho. Não houve diferenças significativas no IG entre as classes de tamanho. Houve efeito da periodicidade lunar na liberação de gametas, com menor IG na lua nova, indicando que esta ocorre no primeiro quarto lunar e em marés de sizígia.This work evaluated the spawning of sea urchin Lytechinus variegates based on lunar cycle and population characteristics. Eight monthly collections were realized to estimate the gonadosomatic index (GI and population parameters regarding reproduction. To evaluate the effect of the lunar cycle on spawning, samples were taken for each moon phase of three lunar cycles. In the entire work 295 individuals were collected, 156 males and 131 females (1.19:1 ratio. However, there was no significant difference in the sex ratio of the population. The weight of males was significantly greater than that of females. There were no differences between males and females in gonadosomatic index (GI, gonad weight and diameter. There was an effect of the lunar periodicity on spawning, with lower GI in new moon, indicating that spawning occurs on the first lunar quarter in spring tide.

  14. Estructura comunitaria y trófica de las estrellas de mar (Echinodermata: Asteroidea en arrecifes rocosos de Loreto, Golfo de California, México Community and trophic structure of sea stars (Echinodermata: Asteroidea in rocky reefs of Loreto, Gulf of California, Mexico

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    Betsabé Montserrat Luna Salguero


    Full Text Available Las estrellas de mar (Asteroidea son invertebrados de gran importancia en hábitats rocosos y coralinos al ocupar diversos niveles de las cadenas tróficas y al actuar muchas veces como depredadores tope en esos ecosistemas. El conocimiento sobre este grupo en México es adecuado en los campos de la taxonomía y la biogeografía, pero existe muy poca información sobre la ecología y función de sus ensamblajes. El objetivo de este trabajo fue comparar la estructura comunitaria y trófica de los asteroideos de fondos rocosos en dos regiones del Golfo de California: Loreto y Ligüi (25.5° a 26.5°N. Los individuos fueron censados dentro de transectos de banda de 25 × 2 m (N = 106, a profundidades de 3 a 12 m y se estimó la abundancia, riqueza de especies, diversidad (H', y uniformidad (J', así como el número de estrellas por gremio trófico (carnívoros, herbívoros y detritívoros, y de gremios presentes en cada transecto. Los resultados indican que las asociaciones de estrellas de mar de ambas zonas estuvieron dominadas por la especie Phataria unifascialis, y que la región de Loreto tuvo significativamente mayor riqueza, abundancia y diversidad de asteroideos que Ligüi, probablemente debido a que presenta mayor número de hábitat y recursos alimenticios. Con respecto a la composición trófica, en ambas localidades predominaron en número los herbívoros, luego los detritívoros y finalmente los carnívoros. La abundancia por transecto en cada uno de los niveles tróficos fue significativamente mayor en Loreto, y además se presentaron más grupos tróficos por transecto en esa localidad.Sea stars (Asteroidea are invertebrates with remarkable importance in rocky and coral habitats as they occupy several levels in trophic webs, and many times act as top predators in these ecosystems. The taxonomic and biogeographic knowledge about this group in México is adequate, but there is still limited information on the ecology and functioning of its assemblages. The objective of this study was to compare the community and trophic structure of rocky bottom asteroids in two regions of the Gulf of California: Loreto and Ligüi (25.5° to 26.5°N. Individuals were censused in belt transects 25 × 2 m (N = 106, at depths from 3 to 12 m, abundance, species richness, diversity (H' and evenness (J' was estimated, as well as the number of seastars per trophic guild (carnivores, herbivores and detritivores, and of guilds present per transect. The results indicate that starfish assemblages in both zones were dominated by the species Phataria unifascialis, and that Loreto had significantly higher richness, abundance and diversity of asteroids than Ligüi, probably as a consequence of higher number of habitats and food resources. In relation to the trophic composition, in both areas herbivores predominated, followed by detritivores and finally by carnivores. Abundance in each trophic level was statistically higher in Loreto, and also there were more trophic groups per transect at that location.

  15. Deep-water Holothuroidea (Echinodermata collected during the TALUD cruises off the Pacific coast of Mexico, with the description of two new species Holothuroidea (Echinodermata de mar profundo recolectadas durante las campañas TALUD frente a la costa del Pacífico mexicano, con la descripción de dos especies nuevas

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    Claude Massin


    Full Text Available Research cruises aboard the R/V "El Puma" were organized to collect deep-water benthic and pelagic specimens off the Pacific coast of Mexico. Seventy four specimens of Holothuroidea were collected off the Pacific coast of Mexico in depths of 377-2 200 m. The collection includes representatives of 5 of the 6 orders of Holothuroidea, 3 Dendrochirotida, 2 Dactylochirotida, 2 Aspidochirotida, 4 Elasipodida and 2 Molpadiida. Apodida were not represented. Of the 13 species recognized, 11 were identified to species level and 2, belonging to the genera Ypsilocucumis Panning, 1949, and Mitsukuriella Heding and Panning, 1954, are new to science. Five species represent new geographic or depth records. A list of Mexican localities previously and newly reported for each species are plotted on distribution maps. Environmental data, i.e., depth, temperature, and dissolved oxygen measured at the bottom level during the survey are provided. When compared with other areas of the world, the reduced number of specimens collected during this survey could be linked to the limiting effect of the Pacific Mexico Oxygen Minimum Zone. An updated checklist of species of Holothuroidea recorded below 350 m depth along the Pacific coast of Mexico is also provided totaling 31 species: 13 of these occur in the California Current area, 20 in the Gulf of California, and 15 (16 along the SW coast of Mexico.Una serie de campañas oceanográficas fue organizada a bordo del B/O "El Puma", frente a las costas del Pacífico mexicano con el propósito de recolectar ejemplares de la fauna bentónica y pelágica de aguas profundas. La recolección incluyó representantes de 5 de los 6 órdenes de Holothuroidea, i.e., 3 Dendrochirotida, 2 Dactylochirotida, 2 Aspidochirotida, 4 Elasipodida y 2 Molpadiida. Los Apodida no están representados. De las 13 especies capturadas por debajo de los 350 m de profundidad (377-2 200 m, 11 fueron identificadas hasta especie y 2 pertenecientes a los géneros Ypsilocucumis Panning, 1949, y Mitsukuriella Heding y Panning, 1954, son nuevas para la ciencia. El material examinado comprende 74 ejemplares. Las localidades previas y nuevas registradas para cada especie recolectada están compiladas para el Pacífico mexicano en mapas de distribución. Se proporciona información acerca de las condiciones de captura de cada especie (temperatura y oxígeno disuelto. Comparativamente con otras áreas del mundo, el número reducido de organismos recolectados durante el estudio podría estar relacionado con la presencia de una zona del mínimo de oxígeno a lo largo del Pacífico mexicano. Se anexa una lista actualizada de las especies de Holothuroidea registradas en profundidades mayores a 350 m frente a la costa del Pacífico mexicano. En total, 31 especies están registradas: 13 en el área de la corriente de California, 20 en el golfo de California y 15 (16 a lo largo de la costa SO de México.

  16. Variación espacio-temporal de la densidad poblacional de erizo rojo Strongylocentrotus franciscanus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea: Strongylocentrotidae en Baja California Spatial and temporal variation of the population density of the red sea urchin Stronngylocenntrotus franciscanus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea: Strongylocentrotidae in Baja California

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    Julio S. Palleiro-Nayar


    Full Text Available Se estimó la densidad poblacional de erizo rojo, Strongylocentrotus franciscanus, en 10 localidades de la costa occidental de Baja California, México, donde se realiza la extracción comercial de este recurso pesquero. Se compararon las estimaciones realizadas en cuatro años muestreados: 2003, 2005, 2006 y 2008. Las variaciones observadas en las localidades analizadas indicaron diferencias espacio-temporales para la densidad de erizo rojo y diferencias en la estructura de tallas, las cuales estuvieron influenciadas principalmente por la intensidad de la pesca y al esporádico reclutamiento en cada sitio. Se encontraron dos localidades (Isla San Jerónimo y Arrecife Sacramento que destacaron por presentar una alta densidad de erizo rojo y una amplia estructura de tallas, predominando individuos de tallas entre 50 a 80 mm diámetro de caparazón, lo que podría indicar que la intensidad de pesca aparentemente tiene un menor efecto que en los otros sitios.Density estimations of red sea urchin Strongylocentrotus franciscanus were recorded in ten sites with commercial fisheries on the west coast of Baja California, Mexico. The estimations for the years 2003, 2005, 2006 and 2008 were compared. The variations observed in the study sites indicate important spatial and temporal differences in density and size structure, influenced by fishing intensity and sporadic recruitment in each site. We found two sites (San Jeronimo Island and Sacramento Reef with a high density and wide size structure; with a predominance of individuals of sizes from 50 to 80 mm with lest impact possible in fishing mortality for all sites.


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    Michel Leclerc


    Full Text Available Immunizations with various antigens of the sea stars Asterina gibbosa and Asterias rubens produce specific humoral immune reactions which initiate the antibody factor. This antibody factor is correlated with kappa genes and could be composed of 4 kappa chains. It is the first time that such phenomenom was described in an invertebrate.

  18. Processing of 13C-labelled phytoplankton in a fine-grained sandy-shelf sediment (North Sea): relative importance of different macrofauna species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Anja; Witte, Ursula


    during the incubation periods. F. fabula, a facultative (surface) deposit- and suspension-feeder, Lanice conchilega (Polychaeta: Terebellidae), a suspension-feeder and the (sur- face) deposit-feeder Echinocardium cordatum (Echinodermata: Spatangidae) were responsible for the majority of macrofaunal...

  19. Temporary expansion to shelf depths rather than an onshore-offshore trend: the shallow-water rise and demise of the modern deep-sea brittle star family Ophiacanthidae (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Thuy


    Full Text Available Hypotheses on the age and possible antiquity of the modern deep-sea fauna put forward to date almost all agree on the assumption that the deep-sea fauna is largely the result of colonisation from shallow-water environments. Here, the fossil record of the Ophiacanthidae, a modern deep-sea brittle star family with extensive fossil occurrences at shelf depths, is systematically traced against a calibrated phylogeny. Several lines of evidence suggest that the Ophiacanthidae originated and greatly diversified in the deep sea, with most extant clades having diverged by the end of the Triassic at the latest. During the Jurassic, the family temporarily invaded shelf environments, attaining relative abundances and diversities comparable to those found in coeval and modern deep-sea settings, and gradually declined in abundance subsequently, to become largely restricted to the deep-sea again. The pattern of temporary expansion to shelf environments suggested here underpins the potential of deep-sea environments to contribute significantly to shallow-water biodiversity; an aspect that has mostly been neglected so far. It is speculated that the large-scale ophiacanthid invasion of shelf environments around the Triassic-Jurassic boundary was initiated by a change from thermohaline to halothermal circulation, attenuating the thermal stratification of the water column and thus providing opportunities for enhanced vertical migration of marine taxa.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 廖玉麟; 李新正



  1. 夏眠对刺参(Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka))能量收支的影响%Effects of aestivation on energy budget of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus(Selenka)(Echinodermata: Holothuroidea)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁秀堂; 杨红生; 王丽丽; 周毅; 张涛; 刘鹰


    夏眠是刺参最重要的生理特征;水温升高是其夏眠的主要诱发因子,而夏眠的临界温度与刺参体重密切相关.为揭示刺参夏眠对其能量利用对策的影响,测定了2种体重规格(134.0±13.5)g和(73.6±2.2)g刺参在10、15、20、25 ℃和30 ℃ 5个温度梯度下的能量收支.结果表明,温度和体重及其交互作用对刺参能量的摄入均有显著影响;而温度是影响其摄食能分配的主要因素.研究发现,刺参在非夏眠期、夏眠临界期和完全夏眠期的能量利用对策有所不同:在非夏眠期,刺参摄食能支出的最大组分是粪便能,占摄食能的比例超过50%,其次为呼吸耗能,占19.8%~39.4%,而生长能和排泄能占的比例较小,分别为5.7%~10.7%和2.9%~3.7%;在夏眠临界温度下,呼吸和排泄耗能占摄食能的比例均显著增大(分别为88.3%和13.6%),而生长能所占比例降为负值(-55.3%),刺参表现为负生长;而在夏眠期,刺参的摄食能和排粪能为零,为维持其基本生理活动,不得不动用以往贮存于体内的能量,消耗于呼吸和排泄等生理过程,供维持生命之用.总之,从能量生物学的角度看,夏眠的主要生态学意义在于刺参长时间处于相对高温环境,进而导致摄食受阻条件下的一种能量节约方式.

  2. Introduction to a new invasive pest, Ceroplastes stellifer (Westwood)(Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae)%我国大陆——新入侵种:七角星蜡蚧(半翅目:蚧总科:蚧科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓鋆; 李海斌; 王戌勃; 武三安


    七角星蜡蚧Ceroplastes stellifera(Westwood)是一种多食、热带广布害虫,2007年被列入《中华人民共和国进境植物检疫性有害生物名录》中.该虫在我国以前仅记录于台湾省,2013年10月下旬,发现该虫在云南省西双版纳地区危害鹅掌柴(Schefflera octophylla)和芒果(Mangifera indica),为我国大陆的新入侵害虫.本文介绍了其形态特征、地理分布、寄主植物、经济重要性等.

  3. Occurrence of a black mildew in Santalum album plantation at Anakulam, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.B. Hosagoudar


    Full Text Available The Anakulam sub-unit of the Trivandrum Division of the Kerala Forest Development Corporation has planted 7.84 ha of sandal wood trees in Block V, including the plantation of 5200 plants in the year 2010 and 3000 plants during the year 2011 at a spacing of 3x3m. This area is located at an altitude of 300m. The entire sandal wood plantation is being affected with a black mildew fungus, identified as Asterina congesta.

  4. Natural Diet of Callinectes ornatus Ordway, 1863 (Decapoda, Portunidae in the Itapocoroy Inlet, Penha, SC, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branco Joaquim Olinto


    Full Text Available From January to December 1995, 332 individuals of the Callinectes ornatus species were collected from the Itapocoroy inlet in Penha, Sta. Catarina, Brazil to study its natural diet and the seasonal variations of diet. Results showed a diversified trophic spectrum with a generalized dietary strategy comprising the algae, macrophyta, foraminiferida, mollusca, polychaeta, crustacea, echinodermata, Osteichthyes and NIOM (Nonidentified Organic Matter groups.

  5. The Asteroids of the coastal waters of Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walenkamp, J.H.C.


    Introduction ... 3 List of the stations, where Asteroidea were collected ... 4 Taxonomic report ... 11 Survey of the species ... 18 Literature cited ... 82 Explanation of the plates ... 88 Index ... 90 INTRODUCTION The present paper deals with the Asteroidea (Echinodermata), collected during two sur

  6. List of scientific publications by Professor Dr. H. Engel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van der Bauke


    From the following bibliography, most of the publications directed to the general public, such as articles in newspapers, etc., as well as part of the book-reviews, have been omitted. The topics are divided over six headings: Hirudinea, Echinodermata, Opisthobranchia, History of Biology, Museology,

  7. A Preliminary Study on the Breeding Biology of Sea Star, Asterias amurensis (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) Along the Coast of Qingdao, North China%青岛近海多棘海盘车繁殖生物学的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀梅; 李淑芸; 刘佳; 吴桑桑; 李文涛


    通过常规生物学测定、解剖观察和组织切片方法,对2011年6月~2012年5月采自青岛浮山湾海域的多棘海盘车(Asterias amurensis)样本进行繁殖生物学研究.结果表明:青岛近海多棘海盘车的繁殖季节为10月至次年1月;雌雄发育同步,性比为1.05∶1;根据卵巢和精巢的外观特征、组织学结构特点和性成熟系数,可将两者的发育分为Ⅰ~Ⅵ期,每个分期具有不同的性腺结构特点和配子特征;海水温度和日照长短会影响性腺发育,温度降低会刺激个体繁殖;性腺生长由消化腺提供能量,性成熟系数和消化腺指数在一周年内呈负相关关系.

  8. The phylogenetic status of Paxillosida (Asteroidea) based on complete mitochondrial DNA sequences. (United States)

    Matsubara, Mioko; Komatsu, Miéko; Araki, Takeyoshi; Asakawa, Shuichi; Yokobori, Shin-ichi; Watanabe, Kimitsuna; Wada, Hiroshi


    One of the most important issues in asteroid phylogeny is the phylogenetic status of Paxillosida. This group lacks an anus and suckers on the tube feet in adults and does not develop the brachiolaria stage in early development. Two controversial hypotheses have been proposed for the phylogenetic status of Paxillosida, i.e., Paxillosida is primitive or rather specialized in asteroids. In this study, we determined the complete mitochondrial DNA nucleotide sequences from two paxillosidans (Astropecten polyacanthus and Luidia quinaria) and one forcipulatidan (Asterias amurensis). The mitochondrial genomes of the three asteroids were identical with respect to gene order and transcription direction, and were identical to the previously reported mitochondrial genomes of Asterina pectinifera (Valvatida) and Pisaster ochraceus (Forcipulatida) in this respect. Therefore, the comparison of genome structures was uninformative for the purposes of asteroid phylogeny. However, molecular phylogenetic analyses based on the amino acid sequences and the nucleotide sequences from the five asteroids supported the monophyly of the clade that included the two paxillosidans and Asterina. This suggests that the paxillosidan characters are secondarily derived ones.

  9. Historical aspects of meetings, publication series, and digital resources dedicated to echinoderms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Ziegler


    Full Text Available Half a century after the first scientific meeting dedicated to marine spiny-skinned animals (Deuterostomia: Echinodermata was held in Washington, DC, we take this opportunity to provide information on a number of historical aspects related to the echinoderm scientific community. Apart from shedding light on the historical origins of modern echinoderm conferences, the present contribution presents photographs taken during the first meeting of echinoderm researchers in 1963 as well as during the first installments of the International Echinoderm Conference and the European Conference on Echinoderms. Furthermore, we provide background information on publication series dedicated solely to the Echinodermata as well as descriptions of selected digital resources that focus on echinoderms. Finally, we present a number of echinoderm conference logos and flyers in addition to selected information about specific echinoderm meetings.

  10. Genetic structure of the white sea urchin Tripneustes ventricosus of Fernando de Noronha Archipelago-PE and Salvador-BA


    Wander Oliveira Godinho


    Echinodermata are marine-exclusive animals found in various habitat types and depth.Sea urchins have great relevance in this group because of important control exerted on algal community and reef bioerosion. Population of sea urchins has been experiencing variances on its natural density, thus impacting the marine biodiversity and testing habitats resilience. Anthropogenic or natural aspects are the main drivers of this event once observed only in temperate areas, but now noticed worldwide. A...

  11. Analysis of the Nutritional Components of Stichopus variegates Thelenota ananas and Stichopus Chloronotus Boandt%花刺参、梅花参和绿刺参营养成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王远红; 于明明; 王冬燕; 郭丽萍; 王聪; 吕志华


    @@ 花刺参(Stichopus variegates)又称梅花小参、梅花参(Thelenota ananas)和绿刺参(Stichopus Chloronotus Boandt)又称四方刺参或方柱参,属于无脊椎动物棘皮动物门(Echinodermata)、海参纲(Holothuroidea)、楯手目(Aspidochirotida)、刺参科(Stichopodidae).

  12. Assessment System for Aircraft Noise (ASAN) Citation Database. Volume 2 (United States)


    Arachnida Aramidae *Arctic peregrine falcon Arctocephalus *Arctocephalus townsendi...Orconectes shoupi 04.03.o0.00.00.00 . Arachnida " Scorpions " Spiders 05.00000000.00 Echinodermata Echinoderms Sea-Cucumbers Sea-Urchins Starfishes Endangered or Threatened Species Are Identified with an Asterisk

  13. DNA primers for amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I from diverse metazoan invertebrates. (United States)

    Folmer, O; Black, M; Hoeh, W; Lutz, R; Vrijenhoek, R


    We describe "universal" DNA primers for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a 710-bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI) from 11 invertebrate phyla: Echinodermata, Mollusca, Annelida, Pogonophora, Arthropoda, Nemertinea, Echiura, Sipuncula, Platyhelminthes, Tardigrada, and Coelenterata, as well as the putative phylum Vestimentifera. Preliminary comparisons revealed that these COI primers generate informative sequences for phylogenetic analyses at the species and higher taxonomic levels.

  14. Investigations of Antibacterial Activity of Methanol and Aqueous Ex-tracts of the Body Wall of Sea Cucumber Holothuria leucospilota on some Human Pathogenic Bacteria


    M Nazemi; Y. Moradi; M. Gozari; F. Legzaee; Karimpour, M.


    Introduction & Objective: Holothuria leucospilota, sea cucumber, is a species of the Phylum Echinodermata. Sea cucumbers have the most natural products with biological activity. In this study we investigated the antibacterial activity of aqueous and methanol extract of H. leucospilota used against gram positive and gram negative human pathogenic bacteria. Materials & Methods: 9 Samples of H. leucospilota were harvested from the Hengam Island,. The methanol extract was prepared from the pow...

  15. Release of relaxin-like gonad-stimulating substance from starfish radial nerves by lonomycin. (United States)

    Mita, Masatoshi


    In starfish, the peptide hormone gonad-stimulating substance (GSS) secreted from nervous tissue stimulates oocyte maturation to induce 1-methyladenine (1-MeAde) production by ovarian follicle cells. Recently, GSS was purified from radial nerves of the starfish Asterina pectinifera and identified as a relaxin-like peptide. This study examines the mechanism of GSS secretion from radial nerves. When radial nerves isolated from A. pectinifera were incubated in artificial seawater containing ionomycin as a calcium ionophore, GSS release increased in a dose-dependent manner; 50% activity of GSS release was obtained with approximately 10 µM ionomycin. Another calcium ionophore, A23187, also stimulated GSS release from radial nerves. In contrast, membrane permeable cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP analogs failed to induce GSS release. These results suggest that GSS secretion is induced by intracellular Ca(2+) as a second messenger.

  16. Post larval, short-term, colonization patterns: The effect of substratum complexity across subtidal, adjacent, habitats (United States)

    García-Sanz, Sara; Tuya, Fernando; Navarro, Pablo G.; Angulo-Preckler, Carlos; Haroun, Ricardo J.


    Benthic habitats are colonized by organisms from the water column and adjacent habitats. There are, however, variations in the 'acceptability' of any habitat to potential colonists. We assessed whether the structural complexity of artificial substrata affected patterns of short-term colonization of post larval faunal assemblages across subtidal habitats within a coastal landscape. Specifically, we tested whether short-term colonization patterns on 3 types of artificial substrata encompassing a range of complexities, including a leaf-like unit, a cushion-shaped leaf-like unit and a cushion-shaped unit, were consistent across 4 adjacent habitats: macroalgal-dominated bottoms, urchin-grazed barrens, seagrass meadows and sandy patches, at Gran Canaria (eastern Atlantic). A total of 16,174 organisms were collected after 4 weeks and 4 taxonomic groups (Crustacea, Chordata, Echinodermata and Mollusca) dominated the assemblage. Despite considerable among-taxa variability being observed in response to habitat effects, the total abundance of colonizers, as well as the abundance of Arthropoda, Chordata and Echinodermata, was affected by the habitat where collectors were deployed, but did not differ among types of collectors. Similarly, the assemblage structure of colonizers was mainly affected by the habitat, but not by the type of collector; habitat contributed to explain most variation in the assemblage structure of the four dominant taxonomic groups (from ca. 5.44-19.23%), and obscured, in all cases, variation explained by the type of collector. As a result, the variation in short-term colonization patterns of faunal assemblages into artificial collectors was mostly affected by variation associated with habitats rather than by differences in the structural complexity of collectors. The largest abundances of colonizers, particularly Echinodermata, were found on sandy patches relative to other habitats, suggesting that the 'availability', rather than any particular attribute

  17. Determination of the Major Nutrient Constituents from Ophiopholis mirabilis%紫蛇尾(Ophiopholis mirabilis)主要营养成分含量测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王荣镇; 郭承华; 董新伟; 牛宗亮


    @@ 紫蛇尾(Ophiopholis mirabilis),属于棘皮动物门(Echinodermata), 蛇尾纲(Ophiuroidea),颚蛇尾压目(Gnathophiurina),辐蛇尾科(Ophiactidae),紫蛇尾属(Ophiopholis Muller et Troschel).盘直径10mm,腕长约为盘直径4倍,盘圆形,背面盖有大小不同的鳞片,每个鳞片周围有许多颗粒状突起.盘中央和间辐部散布短钝小棘.

  18. Sea cucumber sibling species: polypeptide chain types and oxygen equilibrium of hemoglobin. (United States)

    Manwell, C


    The hemoglobin of the "thin" sibling species of Thyonella gemmata (phylum: Echinodermata; class: Holothuria) has three electrophoretically distinct polypeptide chains. In "stout" sibling species of T. gemmata there are only two chain types. These results account for the greater number of multiple hemoglobins in "thins" than in "stouts," as well as for differences in the amounts of some of the multiple hemoglobins when comparisons are mnade of hemolyzates of erythrocytes from the water vascular systemn and from the main body cavity of the "thin" but not the "stout" sibling species.

  19. Taxonomy Icon Data: purple urchin [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available purple urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus Echinodermata Strongylocentrotus_purpuratus_L.png Strongylocentr...otus_purpuratus_NL.png Strongylocentrotus_purpuratus_S.png Strongylocentrotus_purpu...ratus_NS.png ...

  20. 海星化学成分及药理作用研究进展%Chemical Compositions and Research Progress Pharmacological Effect of Starfish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋凯; 张小军; 金雷; 梅光明


    Starfish belonged to Asteroidea of Echinodermata, Compendium of Materia Medica said that got pain in wet weather, drink the broth of starfish, sweating was overcome. So far, many chemical compositions were isolated from the starfish, mainly included saponin, sterols, polysaccharides, alkaloids and collagen protein and so on. Modern pharmacological studies showed that the active ingredients in starfish had anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anti-virus, blood pressure and hemolysis, so the natural resource had good value for development.%海星(Starfish),属棘皮动物门(Echinodermata)海星纲(Asteroidea),《本草纲目》中海星纲的海燕有“阴雨发损痛,煮汁服,取汗即解,亦入滋阴药”的记载。到目前为止,从海星中分离得到的化学成分主要有皂苷、甾醇、多糖、生物碱及胶原蛋白等。现代药理研究表明海星中的有效成分具有抗炎、抗菌、抗病毒、降压、溶血等作用,可见海星这种天然资源有良好的开发价值。

  1. Evolution of a pentameral body plan was not linked to translocation of anterior Hox genes: the echinoderm HOX cluster revisited. (United States)

    Byrne, Maria; Martinez, Pedro; Morris, Valerie


    Echinodermata is a large phylum of marine invertebrates characterized by an adult, pentameral body plan. This morphology is clearly derived as all members of Deuterostomia (the superphylum to which they belong) have a bilateral body plan. The origin of the pentameral plan has been the subject of intense debate. It is clear that the ancestor of Echinodermata had a bilateral plan but how this ancestor transformed its body "architecture" in such a drastic manner is not clear. Data from the fossil record and ontogeny are sparse and, so far, not very informative. The sequencing of the sea urchin genome a decade ago opened the possibility that the pentameral body plan was a consequence of a broken Hox cluster and a series of papers dwelt on the putative relationship between Hox gene arrangements in the chromosomes and the origin of pentamery. This relationship, sound as it was, is challenged by the revelation that the sea star HOX cluster is, in fact, intact, thus falsifying the hypothesis of a direct relationship between HOX cluster arrangement and the origin of the pentameral body plan. Here, we explore the relationship between Hox gene arrangements and echinoderm body "architecture," the expression of Hox genes in development and alternative scenarios for the origin of pentamery, with putative roles for signaling centers in generating multiple axes.

  2. Revisão das espécies de Ceroplastinae Atkinson (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Coccidae do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Revision of the species of Ceroplastinae Atkinson (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Coccidae from the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Benfatti Gonzalez Peronti


    Full Text Available As espécies de Ceroplastinae (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Coccidae que ocorrem no Estado de São Paulo são revisadas. São estudadas 36 espécies de Ceroplastinae, das quais 9 são sinonimizadas, 8 espécies novas são descritas e 19 são redescritas. Ceroplastes campinensis Hempel, 1901, C. bicolor Hempel, 1901, C. excaericae Hempel, 1912 e C. farmairii (Signoret, 1866, mencionadas para o Estado de São Paulo, não foram examinadas, devido a não localização do material tipo ou de outros exemplares. Nossos estudos indicaram que C. albolineatus Cockerell, 1894 e C. confluens Cockerell & Tinsley, 1898 foram erroneamente citadas por Hempel, 1900 para o estado de São Paulo. Coccus stellifer Westwood, 1871, atualmente Vinsonia stellifera (Westwood, 1871, é transferida para gênero Ceroplastes como Ceroplastes stellifer (Westwood, 1871 n. comb. C. flosculoides Matile-Ferrero, 1993 é registrada pela primeira vez para o país e C. cassiae (Chavannes, 1848, C. deodorensis Hempel, 1937, C. formosus Hempel, 1900 e C. quadratus Green, 1935 são registradas pela primeira vez no Estado de São Paulo. Ceroplastinae é agora representada por 31 espécies no Estado de São Paulo, todas incluídas no gênero Ceroplastes. Ilustrações e uma chave para espécies são incluídas. Novos sinônimos: C. formicarius Hempel = Ceroplastes communis Hempel, 1900 n. sin.; C. janeirensis Gray, 1828 = Ceroplastes psidii (Chavannes, 1848 n. sin. = C. simplex Hempel, 1900 n. sin.; C. cirripediformis Comstock, 1881 = C. cultus Hempel, 1900 n. sin. = C. cuneatus Hempel, 1900 n. sin. = C. rarus Hempel, 1900 n. sin e C. rotundus Hempel, 1900 n. sin.; C. lucidus Hempel, 1900 = C. novaesi Hempel, 1900 n. sin.; C. grandis Hempel, 1900 = C. rhizophorae Hempel, 1918 n. sin. Novas espécies descritas: C. acutus sp. nov.; C. bragai sp. nov.; C. coronatus sp. nov; C. glomeratus sp. nov; C. jordanensis sp. nov.; C. minimus sp. nov.; C. solanaceus sp. nov.; C. willinkae sp. nov. Esp

  3. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Black mildews of Kodagu, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Jagath Thimmaiah


    Full Text Available The systematic survey of the foliicolous fungi of Kodagu was initiated by one of the authors (VBH in the year 2002, conducted four field tours to the area and subsequently taken over by the other authors (CJT & MCJ. Of these, only black mildews are presented here. More than 400 collections of black mildews are collected from Kodagu recorded on 265 host plants belonging to 65 families of flowering plants represented three fungal groups: Meliolales, Asterinales and Schiffnerulaceae belonging to 20 fungal genera: Amazonia - 4, Appendiculella - 1, Armatella - 4, Asterdiella - 21, Asterina - 61, Asterolibertia - 2, Asterostomella - 5, Cirsosia - 2, Echidnodella - 2, Eupelte - 1, Irenopsis - 11, Ishwaramyces - 1, Lembosia - 4, Mahanteshamyces - 1, Meliola - 82, Meliolaster - 1, Prillieuxina - 2, Questieriella - 3, Sarcinella - 6, Schiffnerula - 9. Of these, Asteridiella kodavae, Meliola coorgiana, Meliola kodaguensis, Meliola madhucae, Meliola cauveriana and Meliola goniothalami are new species. The area forms type locality for several taxa. This is the first of its kind for the area and forms a base for the subsequent work.

  4. Effects of UV-B radiation on tetraspores of Chondrus ocellatus Holm (Rhodophyta), and effects of red and blue light on repair of UV-B-induced damage (United States)

    Ju, Qing; Xiao, Hui; Wang, You; Tang, Xuexi


    We evaluated the effects of red and blue light on the repair of UV-B radiation-induced damage in tetraspores of Chondrus ocellatus Holm. Tetraspores of C. ocellatus were treated with different UV-B radiation levels (0, 36, 72, 108, 144 and 180 J/m2), and thereafter subjected to PAR, darkness, or red or blue light during a 2-h repair stage, each day for 48 days. The diameters and cellular contents of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimmers (CPDs), chlorophyll a (Chl a), phycoerythrin, and UV-B-absorbing mycosporinelike amino acids (MAAs) contents of the tetraspores were determined. Our results show that low doses of UV-B radiation (36 and 72 J/m2) promoted the growth of C. ocellatus; however, increased UV-B radiation gradually reduced the C. ocellatus growth (greater than 72 J/m2). The MAAs (palythine and asterina-330) in C. ocellatus were detected and analyzed by LC/MS. Our results suggest that moderate red light could induce the growth of this alga in aquaculture. In addition, photorepair was inhibited by red light, so there may be some other DNA repair mechanism activated by red light. Blue light promoted the activity of DNA photolyase, greatly improving remediation efficiency. Red and blue lights were found to reduce the capacity of C. ocellatus to form MAAs. Therefore, PAR, red light, and blue light play different roles during the repair processes for damage induced by UV-B radiation.

  5. A new relaxin-like gonad-stimulating peptide identified in the starfish Asterias amurensis. (United States)

    Mita, Masatoshi; Daiya, Misaki; Haraguchi, Shogo; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Nagahama, Yoshitaka


    Relaxin-like gonad-stimulating peptide (RGP) of starfish Asterina pectinifera was the first invertebrate gonadotropin to have its chemical structure identified. However, it is unclear whether gonadotropic hormones in other species starfish are relaxin-like peptides. Thus, this study tried to identify the molecular structure of gonadotropic hormone in Asterias amurensis. As a result, we identified A. amurensis gonadotropic hormone as the RGP (AamRGP). The DNA sequence encoding AamRGP consisted of 330 base pairs with an open reading frame encoding a peptide of 109 amino acids (aa), including a signal peptide (26 aa), B-chain (20 aa), C-peptide (38 aa) and A-chain (25 aa). Comparing with A. pectinifera RGP (ApeRGP), the amino acid identity levels between AmaRGP and ApeRGP were 58% for the A-chain and 73% for the B-chain. Furthermore, chemical synthetic AamRGP induced gamete spawning and oocyte maturation in ovarian fragments of A. amurensis. In contrast, the ovary of A. pectinifera failed to respond to the AamRGP. This suggested that AamRGP is a new relaxin-like peptide.

  6. Relaxin-like gonad-stimulating substance in an echinoderm, the starfish: a novel relaxin system in reproduction of invertebrates. (United States)

    Mita, Masatoshi


    Gonad-stimulating substance (GSS) in starfish is the only known invertebrate peptide hormone responsible for final gamete maturation, rendering it functionally analogous to gonadotropins in vertebrates. Recently, GSS was purified from the radial nerves of the starfish Asterina pectinifera and its chemical structure determined. This review summarizes the chemical structure of relaxin-like peptide, GSS, from a starfish as the first identified gonadotropin in invertebrates and its hormonal action on reproduction. The starfish GSS is a relaxin-like heterodimeric peptide composed of two peptides (A- and B-chains) with disulfide cross-linkages. Chemically synthesized GSS induced oocyte maturation and ovulation in vitro and an unique spawning behavior followed by release of gametes in vivo. GSS is a first trigger for oocyte maturation in starfish, but its effect is indirect because GSS acts on the ovary to produce a second mediator, 1-methyladenine (1-MeAde), as a maturation-inducing hormone of starfish. The action of GSS on ovarian follicle cells to produce 1-MeAde is mediated through the activation of its receptor, G-protein, and adenylyl cyclase. In contrast to follicle cells in a fully grown state, GSS fails to induce 1-MeAde production in growing follicle cells because of a lack of Gs-proteins. Thus, relaxin-like GSS is a major factor in the neuroendocrine cascade controlling reproduction in starfish.

  7. A relaxin-like gonad-stimulating peptide from the starfish Aphelasterias japonica. (United States)

    Mita, Masatoshi; Katayama, Hidekazu


    Relaxin-like gonad-stimulating peptide (RGP) in starfish is the first identified invertebrate gonadotropin responsible for final gamete maturation. In this study, a new ortholog RGP was identified from Aphelasterias japonica. The DNA sequence encoding A. japonica RGP (AjaRGP) consists of 342 base pairs with an open reading frame encoding a peptide of 113 amino acids (aa), including a signal peptide (26aa), B-chain (20aa), C-peptide (42aa), and A-chain (25aa). AjaRGP is a heterodimeric peptide with disulfide cross-linkages. Comparing with Asterias amurensis RGP (AamRGP) and Patiria (=Asterina) pectinifera RGP (PpeRGP), the amino acid identity levels of AjaRGP with respect to AamRGP and PpeRGP are 84% and 58% for the A-chain and 90% and 68% for the B-chain, respectively. This suggests that AjaRGP is closer to AmaRGP rather than PpeRGP. Although chemical synthetic AjaRGP can induce gamete spawning and oocyte maturation in ovarian fragments of A. japonica, the ovary of P. pectinifera fails to respond to AjaRGP. This suggests that AjaRGP acts species-specifically.

  8. Starfish gonadotropic hormone: Relaxin-like gonad-stimulating peptides. (United States)

    Mita, Masatoshi


    Relaxin-like gonad-stimulating peptide (RGP) of starfish Patiria (= Asterina) pectinifera is the first identified invertebrate gonadotropin to trigger final gamete maturation. Recently, chemical structures of RGP were identified in several species of starfish. Three kinds of RGP molecules are found in the class Asteroidea. The chemical structure of P. pectinifera RGP (PpeRGP) is conserved among starfish of the order Valvatida beyond species. In contrast, the chemical structures of RGP identified in Asterias amurensis and Aphelasterias japonica of the order Forcipulatida are quite different from that of PpeRGP. The chemical structure of RGP in A. amurensis (AamRGP) is exactly the same as that in Asterias rubens (the order Forcipulatida), Astropecten scoparius (the order Paxillosida), Astropecten polyacanthus (the order Paxillosida), and Echinaster luzonicus (the order Spinulosida). The chemical structure of Coscinasterias acutispina RGP (the order Forcipulatida) is consistent with that of A. japonica RGP (AjaRGP). In cross-experiments using P. pectinifera, A. amurensis, and A. japonica ovaries, AamRGP and AjaRGP can induce each species of ovaries. Neither AamRGP nor AjaRGP induce oocyte maturation and ovulation in the ovary of P. pectinifera, although the PpeRGP is active in ovaries of A. amurensis and A. japonica. This suggests that the AamRGP and AjaRGP partly act species specificity.

  9. Feeding broodstocks different starfish diets affect growth and survival of larvae of trumpet shell ( Charonia lampas sauliae Reeve 1844) (United States)

    Kang, Kyoungho; Kim, Malhee; Hong, Hyeran; Cha, Guyong; Sui, Zhenghong


    Trumpet shell ( Charonia lampas sauliae) (Mollusca, Heterogastropoda, Cymatidae) has extensive economic value. Studies on the artificial larval development of C. lampas sauliae for aquaculture utilization have become especially important due to the finite natural resources. In the present study, the growth and survival rate of the larvae of C. lampas sauliae broodstocks fed three types of starfish diets, Asterina pectinifera Müller & Troschel 1842, A. amurensis Lütken 1871 and their mixture were compared. The larval size increased gradually between day 10 and day 20 after hatching at 15°C and 20°C. No difference was found in body size and specific growth rate (SGR) (two-way ANOVA; P > 0.05). However, during transition from trochophore to veliger stage 20 days after hatching, significant increases in larval survival and growth rates were observed. The maximum survival rate was observed on day 10. The mean survival rate was 0.463, 0.730 and 0.515 at 15°C, and 0.369, 0.713 and 0.444 at 20°C when A. pectinifera, A. amurensis and their mixture were fed, respectively. The SGR and survival rate of the larvae were definitely influenced by the diets ( P < 0.05), and the effect of A. amurensis alone was higher than that of A. pectinifera alone and their mixture.

  10. Heterologous expression and catalytic properties of the C-terminal domain of starfish cdc25 dual-specificity phosphatase, a cell cycle regulator. (United States)

    Deshimaru, Shungo; Miyake, Yasuo; Ohmiya, Tadamasa; Tatsu, Yoshiro; Endo, Yasuko; Yumoto, Noboru; Toraya, Tetsuo


    The 3'-terminal region of starfish Asterina pectinifera cdc25 cDNA encoding the C-terminal catalytic domain was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The C-terminal domain consisted of 226 amino acid residues containing the signature motif HCxxxxxR, a motif highly conserved among protein tyrosine and dual-specificity phosphatases, and showed phosphatase activity toward p-nitrophenyl phosphate. The enzyme activity was strongly inhibited by SH inhibitors. Mutational studies indicated that the cysteine and arginine residues in the conserved motif are essential for activity, but the histidine residue is not. These results suggest that the enzyme catalyzes the reaction through a two-step mechanism involving a phosphocysteine intermediate like in the cases of other protein tyrosine and dual-specificity phosphatases. The C-terminal domain of Cdc25 activated the histone H1 kinase activity of the purified, inactive form of Cdc2.cyclin B complex (preMPF) from extracts of immature starfish oocytes. Synthetic diphosphorylated di- to nonadecapeptides mimicking amino acid sequences around the dephosphorylation site of Cdc2 still retained substrate activity. Phosphotyrosine and phosphothreonine underwent dephosphorylation in this order. This is the reverse order to that reported for the in vivo and in vitro dephosphorylation of preMPF. Monophosphopeptides having the same sequence served as much poorer substrates. As judged from the results with synthetic phosphopeptides, the presence of two phosphorylated residues was important for specific recognition of substrates by the Cdc25 phosphatase.

  11. Developmental gene regulatory network architecture across 500 million years of echinoderm evolution (United States)

    Hinman, Veronica F.; Nguyen, Albert T.; Cameron, R. Andrew; Davidson, Eric H.


    Evolutionary change in morphological features must depend on architectural reorganization of developmental gene regulatory networks (GRNs), just as true conservation of morphological features must imply retention of ancestral developmental GRN features. Key elements of the provisional GRN for embryonic endomesoderm development in the sea urchin are here compared with those operating in embryos of a distantly related echinoderm, a starfish. These animals diverged from their common ancestor 520-480 million years ago. Their endomesodermal fate maps are similar, except that sea urchins generate a skeletogenic cell lineage that produces a prominent skeleton lacking entirely in starfish larvae. A relevant set of regulatory genes was isolated from the starfish Asterina miniata, their expression patterns determined, and effects on the other genes of perturbing the expression of each were demonstrated. A three-gene feedback loop that is a fundamental feature of the sea urchin GRN for endoderm specification is found in almost identical form in the starfish: a detailed element of GRN architecture has been retained since the Cambrian Period in both echinoderm lineages. The significance of this retention is highlighted by the observation of numerous specific differences in the GRN connections as well. A regulatory gene used to drive skeletogenesis in the sea urchin is used entirely differently in the starfish, where it responds to endomesodermal inputs that do not affect it in the sea urchin embryo. Evolutionary changes in the GRNs since divergence are limited sharply to certain cis-regulatory elements, whereas others have persisted unaltered.

  12. Quantitative analysis of mycosporine-like amino acids in marine algae by capillary electrophoresis with diode-array detection. (United States)

    Hartmann, Anja; Murauer, Adele; Ganzera, Markus


    Marine species have evolved a variety of physical or chemical strategies to diminish damage from elevated environmental ultraviolet radiation. Mycosporine-like amino acids, a group of widely distributed small water soluble compounds, are biologically relevant because of their photo-protective potential. In addition, presumed antioxidant and skin protective strategies raise the interest for possible medicinal and cosmetic applications. In this study the first CE method for the quantification of mycosporine-like amino acids in marine species is presented. A borate buffer system consisting of 30mM sodium tetraborate in water at a pH-value of 10.3 enabled the baseline separation of five MAAs, namely palythine, mycosporine-serinol, asterina-330, shinorine and porphyra-334, in 27min. Separation voltage, temperature and detection wavelength were 25kV, 25°C and 320nm, respectively. The optimized method was fully validated and applied for the quantitative determination of MAAs in the marine macroalgae Palmaria palmata, Porphyra umbilicalis, and Porphyra sp., as well as the lichen Lichina pygmaea.

  13. Equinodermes do Brasil: IV. Sobre seis espécies novas de Ophiuroidea da região ao largo da Ilha Grande (RJ

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    Luiz Roberto Tommasi


    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta a descrição, distribuição, dados ecológicos, chaves para classificação e fotografias de seis espécies novas de Ophiuroidea pertencentes às famílias Ophiolepididae, Amphiuridae, Ophiacanthidae , Ophiomyxidae e Amphilepididae (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea. Os animais foram coletados das dragagens efetuadas pelo N/Oc. "Prof. W. Besnard" ao largo da Ilha Grande (RJ em fevereiro e julho de 1969. Os gêneros Ophiornastus, Ophioleptoplax e Amphilepis são registrados pela primeira vez no Atlântico Sul Ocidental.Description, distribution and ecological observations are presented for the following six new Ophiuroidea species: Ophiomastus satelitae sp. n., Ophiomusium anaelisae sp. n., Amphioplus mathildae sp. n., Ophiaoantha brasiliensis sp. n., Ophioleptoplax brasiliana sp. n. and Amphilepis teodorae sp. n.. The species were collected in front of Ilha Grande (RJ, from 50-500 m depth.

  14. 海胆多糖的化学与药理研究进展%Research progress of chemical and pharmacological studies on sea urchin polysaccharides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘纯慧; 曹吉超; 王凤山; 李平利



  15. 不同附着基类型对刺参浮游幼体成活和变态附着的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜恩宏; 于秀青


    @@ 仿刺参(Apostichopus japonicus Selenka),属棘皮动物门(Echinodermata)、海参纲(Holothuroidea)、楯手目(Aspidochirota)、刺参科(Stichopodidae)、仿刺参属(Apostichopus),又称刺参(文中以下称刺参),是我国有记载的21种食用海参中唯一分布于黄渤海区的温带种类,营养价值很高,为"海产八珍"之一.目前世界上只有中国等少数几个国家开展了刺参的增养殖工作.

  16. Geologic controls on the charateristics of carbonate reservoir. Case study on the Thamama Zone IV A of the Mubarras Field, Abu Dhabi, U. A. E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamoto, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Yoshihiro; Sunauchi, Hisao; Oshima, Kazukiyo


    Sedimentary environment of Thamama WA facies ranges in the shallow, continental shelf from Lagoon to Pahaya; it shows a good oil characteristics without containing lime-mud in the vicinity of the barrier with high wave energy; it shows a poor oil characteristics containing lime mud where the wave energy is low. The Thamama IV A facies is in the transgression period showing three cycles of transgression and regression. A diagenetic action consists of miclitization, dissolving action, cementation, dolomitization, styloitization, and tar mat; cementation among which worst influences the oil characteristics. The Thamama IV A facies consists of six layers among which the peloidal grainstone gives the best oil characteristics; the rock structure of this facies is mostly grainstone; most of the particles are peloid of ultra fine to fine sand sizes, the remaining portion containing Echinodermata, shells, and Foraminifera. (4 figs, 1 tab)


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    Haryo Triajie


    Full Text Available Teripang atau Timun laut (Echinodermata adalah salah satu jenis komoditi laut yang bernilai domestik maupun internasional sub sektor perikanan yang cukup potensial. Salah satu zat bioaktif yang terkandung dalam teripang adalah senyawa steroid. Penelitian ini bertujuan menentukan tingkat efektivitas ekstrak kasar daging teripang yang telah diformulasikan dalam air media pemeliharaan juvenile udang galah terhadap keberhasilan mendapatkan jantan fenotif. Hipotesa yang dipakai pada penelitian ini adalah bahwa masa aktif pemberian ekstrak kasar daging teripang hasil formulasi yang diberikan dalam air media, efektif dapat berpengaruh dalam perkembangan juvenil menjadi jantan fenotif. Metode perendaman dengan dosis ekstrak teripang 10 mg/L, 15 mg/L dan 25 mg/L, dapat menghasilkan populasi jantan lebih tinggi dari kontrol (kontrol negatif/tanpa perlakuan hormon. Kata Kunci : teripang, steroid, jantan fenotif

  18. A New Approach in Teaching the Features and Classifications of Invertebrate Animals in Biology Courses

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    Fatih SEZEK


    Full Text Available This study examined the effectiveness of a new learning approach in teaching classification of invertebrate animals in biology courses. In this approach, we used an impersonal style: the subject jigsaw, which differs from the other jigsaws in that both course topics and student groups are divided. Students in Jigsaw group were divided into five “subgroups” since teaching the features and classification of invertebrate animals is divided into five subtopics (modules A, B, C, D and E. The subtopics are concerning characteristics used in classification of invertebrate animals and fundamental structures of: phyla porifera and cnidarians (module A, annelid (module B, mollusks (module C, arthropods (module D and Echinodermata (module E. The data obtained in the tests indicated that the the new learning approach was more successful than teacher-centered learning.

  19. Gulf of Mexico continental slope study annual report, year 2. Volume 2. Primary volume. Interim report 1985-1986. [Sampling for hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report, which was prepared in three volumes (Executive Summary, Primary Volume, and Appendix), details the findings of two years of sampling on the continental slope of the northern Gulf of Mexico at depths of 300-3000 m. Preliminary results from a third year of sampling are also presented. Physical and chemical measurements included: CTD casts at 35 stations; sediment characteristics, including hydrocarbons and bulk sediment parameters from 60 stations; tissue hydrocarbon levels of representative benthic organisms; and delta carbon-13 values from sediments and organisms, including comparison of areas of natural petroleum seepage to prevailing slope conditions. The biological oceanography section provides detailed enumeration of megafaunal specimens collected by trawling and of macro- and meiofaunal specimens collected with a 600 sq cm box core. Major megafaunal groups treated are Arthropoda, Echinodermata, and demersal fishes.

  20. Antarctic, Sub-Antarctic and cold temperate echinoid database

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    Benjamin Pierrat


    Full Text Available This database includes spatial data of Antarctic, Sub-Antarctic and cold temperate echinoid distribution (Echinodermata: Echinoidea collected during many oceanographic campaigns led in the Southern Hemisphere from 1872 to 2010. The dataset lists occurrence data of echinoid distribution south of 35°S latitude, together with information on taxonomy (from species to genus level, sampling sources (cruise ID, sampling dates, ship names and sampling sites (geographic coordinates and depth. Echinoid occurrence data were compiled from the Antarctic Echinoid Database (David et al., 2005a, which integrates records from oceanographic cruises led in the Southern Ocean until 2003. This database has been upgraded to take into account data from oceanographic cruises led after 2003. The dataset now reaches a total of 6160 occurrence data that have been checked for systematics reliability and consistency. It constitutes today the most complete database on Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic echinoids.

  1. Environmental quality assessment of Grand Harbour (Valletta, Maltese Islands): a case study of a busy harbour in the Central Mediterranean Sea. (United States)

    Romeo, Teresa; D'Alessandro, Michela; Esposito, Valentina; Scotti, Gianfranco; Berto, Daniela; Formalewicz, Malgorzata; Noventa, Seta; Giuliani, Silvia; Macchia, Simona; Sartori, Davide; Mazzola, Angelo; Andaloro, Franco; Giacobbe, Salvatore; Deidun, Alan; Renzi, Monia


    Contamination levels by plastic debris, trace elements and persistent organic pollutants were assessed and related to macrobenthic diversity within soft bottoms of Grand Harbour (Malta, Central Mediterranean). Sediment toxicity was evaluated by ecotoxicological method, deploying Bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), Echinodermata (Paracentrotus lividus) and Crustacea (Corophium orientale). Univariate analysis (Pearson's test) was used to test relationships between biodiversity indices, pollutants and grain size. A multivariate approach (PERMANOVA) was applied to investigate for any significant differences among sampling stations concerning plastic abundances and to test the relationship between infaunal abundances and pollutant concentrations (the BIOENV test). Significant differences in the plastic abundances were found between sampling stations. The lowest value for Shannon-Wiener biodiversity index was associated to the highest sediment pollution level. Multivariate analyses suggest that MBT and TBT were factors that most influenced macrozoobenthic abundance and biodiversity. The bivalve Corbula gibba and the introduced polychaete Monticellina dorsobranchialis were the most abundant found species.

  2. Opportunities and challenges for digital morphology

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    Prohaska Steffen


    Full Text Available Abstract Advances in digital data acquisition, analysis, and storage have revolutionized the work in many biological disciplines such as genomics, molecular phylogenetics, and structural biology, but have not yet found satisfactory acceptance in morphology. Improvements in non-invasive imaging and three-dimensional visualization techniques, however, permit high-throughput analyses also of whole biological specimens, including museum material. These developments pave the way towards a digital era in morphology. Using sea urchins (Echinodermata: Echinoidea, we provide examples illustrating the power of these techniques. However, remote visualization, the creation of a specialized database, and the implementation of standardized, world-wide accepted data deposition practices prior to publication are essential to cope with the foreseeable exponential increase in digital morphological data. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Marc D. Sutton (nominated by Stephan Beck, Gonzalo Giribet (nominated by Lutz Walter, and Lennart Olsson (nominated by Purificación López-García.

  3. Food habits and seasonal variation of stomach contents of tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis (Günther) in the Bohai Sea (United States)

    Dou, Shuozeng


    Examination of the food habits and seasonal variation of the stomach contents of adult tongue sole, Cynoglossus semilaevis (Günther) taken in July 1982 July 1983 from Laizhou Bay and the Huanghe River estuary of the Bohai Sea showed crustacea, bivalvia and small fishes comprised the main prey. Invertebrates such as polychaeta, cephalopoda, gastropoda, echinodermata and actiniaria were also intermittently found in them. They intensively fed all the year found (monthly feeding rate of over 80%). The main food items were Alpheus japonica, Alpheus distinguendus. Oratosquilla oratoria, Eucrate crenata and Carcinoplax vestitus, etc. In summer and autumn, the portion of bivalvia such as Cultellus attenuatus and Musculus senhousei increased steadily. From summer to winter, a stable proportion of small fishes such as Rhinogobius pflaumi and Setipinna taty was in the diet.

  4. Antitumor and antifungal activities of organic extracts of seacucumber Holothuria atra from the southeast coast of India (United States)

    Dhinakaran, Devaraj Isaac; Lipton, Aaron Premnath


    In phylum Echinodermata, the family Holothuridae is distinguished by its capacity of bioactive compounds. Sea cucumber Holothuria atra is commonly known as the lollyfish. The antifungal activity was detected using agar well diffusion method against the various fungal strains such as Trichoderma viride, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavis, Candida albicans and Penicillium chrysogenum. Relatively high antifungal activity was seen against Candida albicans at 100 μL-1 concentration of extracts. Zone of inhibition was measured at 18 mm of diameter. The anti-tumor activities were detected against the Vero and Hep2 cell lines using MTT assay. The cells were treated with H. atra extract at concentrations 0.078-10mg mL-1. The extract showed high proliferative activity against the Hep2 cells. The body wall extracts of sea cucumber ( H. atra) showed effective antifungal and antitumor activities. All these findings suggest that the extracts could be used for the development of drugs.

  5. Zoogeografía de macroinvertebrados bentónicos de la costa de Chile: contribución para la conservación marina Zoogeography of benthic macroinvertebrates of the Chilean coast: contribution for marine conservation

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    Full Text Available La diversidad de macroinvertebrados marinos ha recibido una atención creciente, no obstante, con un escaso tratamiento en el contexto biogeográfico. Este estudio analiza los registros de 1.601 especies de macroinvertebrados bentónicos pertenecientes a: Demospongiae, Anthozoa, Polychaeta, Mollusca, Crustacea, Echinodermata y Ascideacea, agrupados en 10 zonas y tratados desde una perspectiva zoogeográfica. Mollusca (611 especies, Polychaeta (403 y Crustacea (370 corresponden a los grupos mejor representados a lo largo de la costa chilena, determinantes en el patrón global de la biodiversidad. Este aumenta suavemente de norte a sur, interrumpido por máximos que sugieren esfuerzos diferenciales de estudio más que un comportamiento natural de la biodiversidad. El grado de agrupamiento entre las zonas muestra las tres unidades biogeográficas definidas recientemente por Lancellotti & Vásquez. Este arreglo, que representa lo exhibido por los grupos más diversos, se ve alterado en los grupos menos representados donde las diferencias obedecen al patrón de afinidades mostradas por las zonas comprendidas dentro de la Región Templada Transicional. El quiebre zoogeográfico alrededor de los 41º S, sugerido largamente en la literatura, sólo ocurre en Echinodermata y Demospongiae, evidenciando en los otros taxa la existencia de un área de transición entre los 35º y 48º S, caracterizada por un reemplazo gradual de especies. Dentro de las regiones la biodiversidad muestra homogeneidad, contrario al endemismo, el que alcanza un máximo de 52% en la Región Templada Fría y que parece ser consecuencia del alto número de especies con registros únicos (38,2% de especies citadas para una sóla zona. Esto sugiere un desconocimiento de los macroinvertebrados chilenos (distribución y diversidad, sobrestimando el endemismo regional y distorsionando los patrones locales de biodiversidadThe diversity of marine macroinvertebrates has received increasing

  6. Conservation and diversification of Msx protein in metazoan evolution. (United States)

    Takahashi, Hirokazu; Kamiya, Akiko; Ishiguro, Akira; Suzuki, Atsushi C; Saitou, Naruya; Toyoda, Atsushi; Aruga, Jun


    Msx (/msh) family genes encode homeodomain (HD) proteins that control ontogeny in many animal species. We compared the structures of Msx genes from a wide range of Metazoa (Porifera, Cnidaria, Nematoda, Arthropoda, Tardigrada, Platyhelminthes, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, Annelida, Echiura, Echinodermata, Hemichordata, and Chordata) to gain an understanding of the role of these genes in phylogeny. Exon-intron boundary analysis suggested that the position of the intron located N-terminally to the HDs was widely conserved in all the genes examined, including those of cnidarians. Amino acid (aa) sequence comparison revealed 3 new evolutionarily conserved domains, as well as very strong conservation of the HDs. Two of the three domains were associated with Groucho-like protein binding in both a vertebrate and a cnidarian Msx homolog, suggesting that the interaction between Groucho-like proteins and Msx proteins was established in eumetazoan ancestors. Pairwise comparison among the collected HDs and their C-flanking aa sequences revealed that the degree of sequence conservation varied depending on the animal taxa from which the sequences were derived. Highly conserved Msx genes were identified in the Vertebrata, Cephalochordata, Hemichordata, Echinodermata, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, and Anthozoa. The wide distribution of the conserved sequences in the animal phylogenetic tree suggested that metazoan ancestors had already acquired a set of conserved domains of the current Msx family genes. Interestingly, although strongly conserved sequences were recovered from the Vertebrata, Cephalochordata, and Anthozoa, the sequences from the Urochordata and Hydrozoa showed weak conservation. Because the Vertebrata-Cephalochordata-Urochordata and Anthozoa-Hydrozoa represent sister groups in the Chordata and Cnidaria, respectively, Msx sequence diversification may have occurred differentially in the course of evolution. We speculate that selective loss of the conserved domains in Msx family

  7. Involvement of Gαs-proteins in the action of relaxin-like gonad-stimulating substance on starfish ovarian follicle cells. (United States)

    Mita, Masatoshi; Haraguchi, Shogo; Watanabe, Miho; Takeshige, Yuki; Yamamoto, Kazutoshi; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi


    Gonad-stimulating substance (GSS) in starfish is the only known invertebrate peptide hormone responsible for final gamete maturation, rendering it functionally analogous to gonadotropins in vertebrates. In breeding season (stage V), GSS stimulates oocyte maturation to induce 1-methyladenine (1-MeAde) by ovarian follicle cells. The hormonal action of GSS is mediated through the activation of its receptor, G-proteins and adenylyl cyclase. It has been reported that GSS fails to induce 1-MeAde and cyclic AMP (cAMP) production in follicle cells of ovaries during oogenesis (stage IV). This study examined the regulatory mechanism how ovarian follicle cells acquire the potential to respond to GSS by producing 1-MeAde and cAMP. Because the failure of GSS action was due to G-proteins of follicle cells, the molecular structures of Gαs, Gαi, Gαq and Gβ were identified in follicle cells of starfish Asterina pectinifera. The cDNA sequences of Gαs, Gαi, Gαq and Gβ consisted of ORFs encoding 379, 354, 353 and 353 amino acids. The expression levels of Gαs were extremely low in follicle cells at stage IV, whereas the mRNA levels increased markedly in stage V. On contrary, the mRNA levels of Gαi were almost constant regardless of stage IV and V. These findings strongly suggest that de novo synthesis of Gαs-proteins is contributed to the action of GSS on follicle cells to produce 1-MeAde and cAMP.

  8. Community characteristics of macrobenthos in the Huanghe (Yellow River) Estuary during water and sediment discharge regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Zhonghua; LI Fan; WEI Jiali; LI Shaowen; LV Zhenbo; GAO Yanjie; CONG Xuri


    The community characteristics of macrobenthos in the Huanghe (Yellow River) Estuary is influenced by a combination of natural and anthropogenic factors. Here, we investigated short-term changes (1-month) in macrobenthic community structure in response to water and sediment discharge regulation (WSDR) in 2011. Specifically, we sampled the macrobenthos at 18 sampling stations situated at four distances (5, 10, 20, and 40 km) from the mouth of the Huanghe Estuary before (mid-June), during (early-July), and after (mid-July) WSDR. The results showed that a total of 73, 72, and 85 species were collected before, during, and after WSDR, respectively. Then, 13, 1, and 16 dominant species were detected at this three periods. Four phyla were primarily detected at all three periods (Annelida, Mollusca, Arthropoda, and Echinodermata). However, while Mollusca and Annelida were the most important phyla in our study, Echinodermata and Annelida were the most important phyla in 1982, demonstrating major changes to community structure over a 3-decadal period. All stations were of high quality BOPA index before WSDR, whereas two and three stations were of reduced quality BOPA index during and after WSDR, respectively. The results of ABC curves showed that had incurred disturbed conditions after human activities WSDR. Most important of all, multivariate analyses and RDA analysis indicated that the structure of the macrobenthic community was closely linked to environment factors, including that organic content factor caused the distribution of macrobenthic community mostly during WSDR, while water depth after WSDR affected the macro benthos community structure seriously, and during WSDR, the environment factor influencing it was not single, including organic content, sulfide content, Hg and As. These differences may have been due to changes in water transparency negatively impacting the growth and development of macrobenthos, due to specific life-history requirements. Our results

  9. Caracterización preliminar de los invertebrados bentónicos capturados accidentalmente en la pesca de camarones en el norte del estado de Río de Janeiro, sudeste de Brasil Preliminary characterization of benthic invertebrates caught as by-catch in the shrimp fishery in the north of the Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil

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    Igor David da Costa


    Full Text Available Para caracterizar la biodiversidad de invertebrados bentónicos que componen la fauna asociada a la pesca de camarones en el puerto del Farol de Sao Thomé, costa norte del estado de Río de Janeiro, se realizaron 11 pescas mensuales en el año 2004 con redes de arrastre de fondo, cuya área de operaciones comprende 3-5 mn desde la línea de costa, entre 22°00'S y 22°20'S. Los datos registrados de cada taxon y/o especie se refieren a la frecuencia de ocurrencia, frecuencia numérica, biomasa, índice de Importancia Relativa y abundancia. En total se registraron 27 especies de invertebrados bentónicos de Porifera, Cnidaria, Mollusca, Annelida, Crustácea, Echinodermata y Bryozoa. Crustácea fue el más representativo, tanto en número de ejemplares de Petrochirus diogenes, Hepatus pudibundus y Callinectes ornatos, como en biomasa de P. diogenes y H. pudibundas. En términos de frecuencia de ocurrencia en los muéstreos, 11 especies (40,7% fueron constantes; 6 (22,2% accesorias y 10 (37,0% accidentales.In order to characterize the biodiversity of the benthic invertebrate by-catch associated with the shrimp fishery at Farol de Sao Thome harbor, northern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, in 2004, 11 monthly trawls were conducted using bottom trawl nets between 22°00'S and 22°20'S and from 3 to 5 nm from the shoreline. The analyzed data for each talon and/or species include frequency of occurrence, numeric frequency, biomass, index of Relative Importance, and abundance. In total, 27 benthic invertebrate species were recorded, including Peripheral, Cnidarians, Mollusk, Annelid, Crustacea, Echinodermata, and Bryozoa. The most representative group was Crustacea, both in number of specimens (Petrochirus diogenes, Hepatus pudibundus, Callinectes ornatus and in biomass (P. diogenes, H. pudibundus. In terms of the frequency of occurrence in the samples, 11 species (40.7% were constant, 6 species (22.2% were accessories, and 10 species (37.0% were by-catch.

  10. Neoparamoeba branchiphila infections in moribund sea urchins Diadema aff. antillarum in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. (United States)

    Dyková, Iva; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Kostka, Martin; Valladares, Basilio; Pecková, Hana


    A total of 109 sea urchins from 3 species collected in 2 localities off the coast of Tenerife Island, Spain, were examined for the presence of free-living amoebae in their coelomic fluid. Amoeba trophozoites were isolated exclusively from moribund individuals of long-spined sea urchins Diadema aff. antillarum (Philippi) (Echinoidea, Echinodermata) that manifested lesions related to sea urchin bald disease on their tests (16 out of 56 examined). No amoebae were detected in Arbacia lixula (L.) and Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck). From the former sea urchin species, 8 strains, established from 10 primary isolates, were identified as Neoparamoeba branchiphila Dyková et al., 2005 using morphological and molecular methods. Results of this study (limited to the screening for free-living amoebae) together with data on agents of sea urchin mortalities reported to date justify the hypothesis that free-living amoebae play an opportunistic role in D. aff. antillarum mortality. The enlargement of the dataset of SSU rDNA sequences brought new insight into the phylogeny of Neoparamoeba species.

  11. Extraction and Characterization of Collagen from Sea Cucumber Flesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Sea cucumber (Stichopus variegatus is one of the Echinodermata phylum that grows along Indonesian coastal. Sea cucumber is potential source of collagen. The purposes of this research were to determine the optimal concentration of NaOH and CH3COOH solution in collagen production and analyze the physicochemical characteristics of collagen from S. variegatus. Yield of the collagen was 1.5% (based on wet weight basis, produced by pretreatment with NaOH 0,30%, hydrolysis with CH3COOH 0.10% and extracted using distilled water. Protein, moisture, and ash content of the collagen was 67.68%, 13.64%, and 4.15%, respectively. Collagen was extracted using distilled water at 45°C during 2h and still had triple helix structure ; pH 7.37 ; melting temperature 163.67°C and whiteness 69.25%. The major amino acid content of collagen were glycine, alanine, proline and glutamic acid.

  12. The Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance (GIGA): Developing Community Resources to Study Diverse Invertebrate Genomes

    KAUST Repository

    Bracken-Grissom, Heather


    Over 95% of all metazoan (animal) species comprise the invertebrates, but very few genomes from these organisms have been sequenced. We have, therefore, formed a Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance (GIGA). Our intent is to build a collaborative network of diverse scientists to tackle major challenges (e.g., species selection, sample collection and storage, sequence assembly, annotation, analytical tools) associated with genome/transcriptome sequencing across a large taxonomic spectrum. We aim to promote standards that will facilitate comparative approaches to invertebrate genomics and collaborations across the international scientific community. Candidate study taxa include species from Porifera, Ctenophora, Cnidaria, Placozoa, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, Annelida, Bryozoa, and Platyhelminthes, among others. GIGA will target 7000 noninsect/nonnematode species, with an emphasis on marine taxa because of the unrivaled phyletic diversity in the oceans. Priorities for selecting invertebrates for sequencing will include, but are not restricted to, their phylogenetic placement; relevance to organismal, ecological, and conservation research; and their importance to fisheries and human health. We highlight benefits of sequencing both whole genomes (DNA) and transcriptomes and also suggest policies for genomic-level data access and sharing based on transparency and inclusiveness. The GIGA Web site () has been launched to facilitate this collaborative venture.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇; 张兴亮; 郭俊峰; 丁莲芳; 韩健; 舒德干


    在用醋酸浸泡处理采自贵州瓮安新元古代陡山沱组磷酸质岩石样品时,获得大量微体动物骨骼化石.文中重点报道部分管柱状微体化石,即:Sinoquadraticus poratus gen. et sp. nov.和 Sinoquadraticus wenganensis gen. et sp. nov..并对Sinocyclocylicus的部分特征进行补充.%In 1992 Xue et al. reported some skeletal fossils, including one genus and two species, from the Neoprotorozoic Doushantuo Formation at Weng'an, Guizhou, and assigned them to Echinodermata. In this paper, new materials of phosphatized cylindrical and tabulate microfossils, including a new genus and two new species, are described from the same layer and locality. It provides us much more evidence not only to display the Neoproterozoic biodiversity, but also to explore the origin and the early evolution of biomineralization.

  14. Combined mitochondrial and nuclear sequences support the monophyly of forcipulatacean sea stars. (United States)

    Foltz, D W; Bolton, M T; Kelley, S P; Kelley, B D; Nguyen, A T


    Previous molecular phylogenetic analyses of forcipulatacean sea stars (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) have reconstructed a non-monophyletic order Forcipulatida, provided that two or more forcipulate families are included. This result could mean that one or more assumptions of the reconstruction method was violated, or else the traditional classification could be erroneous. The present molecular phylogenetic analysis included 12 non-forcipulatacean and 39 forcipulatacean sea stars, with multiple representatives of all but one of the forcipulate families and/or subfamilies. Bayesian analysis of approximately 4.2kb of sequence data representing seven partitions (nuclear 18S rRNA and 28S rRNA, mitochondrial 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, 5 tRNAs and cytochrome oxidase I with first and second codon positions analyzed separately from third codon positions) recovered a consensus tree with three well-supported clades (78%-100% bootstrap support) that corresponded at least approximately to traditional taxonomic ranks: the superorder Forcipulatacea (Forcipulatida + Brisingida) + Pteraster, the Brisingida/Brisingidae and Asteriidae + Rathbunaster + Pycnopodia. When a molecular clock was enforced, the partitioned Bayesian analysis recovered the traditional Forcipulatacea. Five of six genera represented by two or more species were monophyletic with 100% bootstrap support. Most of the traditional subfamilial and familial groupings within the Forcipulatida were either unresolved or non-monophyletic. The separate partitions differed considerably in estimates of model parameters, mainly between nuclear sequences (with high GC content, low rates of sequence substitution and high transition/transversion rate ratios) and mitochondrial sequences.

  15. The evolution and future of carbonate precipitation in marine invertebrates: Witnessing extinction or documenting resilience in the Anthropocene?

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    Jeana L. Drake


    Full Text Available Abstract Morphological and phylogenetic analyses suggest that the ability to precipitate carbonates evolved several times in marine invertebrates in the past 600 million years. Over the past decade, there has been a profusion of genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analyses of calcifying representatives from three metazoan phyla: Cnidaria, Echinodermata, and Mollusca. Based on this information, we compared proteins intimately associated with precipitated calcium carbonate in these three phyla. Specifically, we used a cluster analysis and gene ontology approach to compare ∼1500 proteins, from over 100 studies, extracted from calcium carbonates in stony corals, in bivalve and gastropod mollusks, and in adult and larval sea urchins to identify common motifs and differences. Our analysis suggests that there are few sequence similarities across all three phyla, supporting the independent evolution of biomineralization. However, there are core sets of conserved motifs in all three phyla we examined. These motifs include acidic proteins that appear to be responsible for the nucleation reaction as well as inhibition; structural and adhesion proteins that determine spatial patterning; and signaling proteins that modify enzymatic activities. Based on this analysis and the fossil record, we propose that biomineralization is an extremely robust and highly controlled process in metazoans that can withstand extremes in pH predicted for the coming century, similar to their persistence through the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (∼55 Mya.

  16. Antitumor and Antifungal Activities of Organic Extracts of SeacucumberHolothuria atra from the Southeast Coast of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Devaraj Isaac DHINAKARAN; Aaron Premnath LIPTON


    In phylum Echinodermata, the family Holothuridae is distinguished by its capacity of bioactive compounds. Sea cu-cumberHolothuria atra is commonly known as the lollyfish. The antifungal activity was detected using agar well diffusion method against the various fungal strains such asTrichoderma viride, Aspergillus niger,Aspergillus flavis,Candida albicansandPenicillium chrysogenum. Relatively high antifungal activity was seen againstCandida albicans at 100µL−1 concentration of extracts. Zone of inhibition was measured at 18mm of diameter. The anti-tumor activities were detected against the Vero and Hep2 cell lines using MTT assay. The cells were treated withH. atra extract at concentrations 0.078−10mgmL−1. The extract showed high proliferative activity against the Hep2 cells. The body wall extracts of sea cucumber (H. atra)showed effective antifungal and antitumor activities. All these findings suggest that the extracts could be used for the development of drugs.

  17. Tidal effects on short-term mesozooplankton distribution in small channels of a temperate-turbid estuary, Southwestern Atlantic

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    Javier Chazarreta


    Full Text Available Abstract The short-term variability of mesozooplankton distribution and physicochemical variables was examined in two different channels of the Bahía Blanca Estuary, Argentina, during two tidal cycles. All the physicochemical measurements and mesozooplankton sampling were performed at a fixed site during approximately 22-23 h at 3-h intervals. Pumps were used to obtain surface and bottom mesozooplankton samples and the water speed of each stratum was measured with an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP. In all, 23 mesozooplanktonic taxa belonging to four phyla (Arthropoda, Annelida, Echinodermata and Chordata were identified. The most abundant taxa during the two tidal cycles were Balanus glandula larvae, Eurytemora americana and Acartia tonsa. A discernible variability in the water conditions and vertical mesozooplankton distribution (VMD different from that known for the estuary's main channel, was found in the other two selected channels. VMD varied during the tidal cycle in both channels in accordance with the channel's geomorphology and water dynamic characteristics of each of them. The variation of the abundance of the different taxa during ebb and flood currents might indicate the existence of a tidal vertical migration of the mesozooplankton as a response to particular dynamic water conditions.

  18. Anticancer Activity of Sea Cucumber Triterpene Glycosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry L. Aminin


    Full Text Available Triterpene glycosides are characteristic secondary metabolites of sea cucumbers (Holothurioidea, Echinodermata. They have hemolytic, cytotoxic, antifungal, and other biological activities caused by membranotropic action. These natural products suppress the proliferation of various human tumor cell lines in vitro and, more importantly, intraperitoneal administration in rodents of solutions of some sea cucumber triterpene glycosides significantly reduces both tumor burden and metastasis. The anticancer molecular mechanisms include the induction of tumor cell apoptosis through the activation of intracellular caspase cell death pathways, arrest of the cell cycle at S or G2/M phases, influence on nuclear factors, NF-κB, and up-down regulation of certain cellular receptors and enzymes participating in cancerogenesis, such as EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor, Akt (protein kinase B, ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinases, FAK (focal adhesion kinase, MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase-9 and others. Administration of some glycosides leads to a reduction of cancer cell adhesion, suppression of cell migration and tube formation in those cells, suppression of angiogenesis, inhibition of cell proliferation, colony formation and tumor invasion. As a result, marked growth inhibition of tumors occurs in vitro and in vivo. Some holothurian triterpene glycosides have the potential to be used as P-gp mediated MDR reversal agents in combined therapy with standard cytostatics.

  19. Abundance, size composition and benthic assemblages of two Mediterranean echinoids off the

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzahrae Elmasry


    Full Text Available This study is concerned with the variability in abundance, size composition and benthic assemblages of two echinoid species, the common sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816 and black urchin Arbacia lixula (Linnaeus, 1758 in the Southeastern Mediterranean (SEM along the coast of Alexandria, Egypt. Four seasonal trips were made during the years 2014–2015 covering 55 km of the shore with depths ranging between 3 and 9 m. The sea urchin species composition, density and size structure and distribution were compared. The associated macrobenthic invertebrates with prominent presence and biomass were observed as well as other benthic fauna and flora associations. The present results showed that P. lividus was the dominant echinoid spatially and temporally. A. lixula showed frequent occurrence in Sidi Bishr and Sidi Gaber stations in the spring season. The most dominant size class was the medium to large-sized classes for P. lividus and large-sized classes for A. lixula. The commercial size for the edible P. lividus represented 33% of the sampled population. Furthermore, the most dominant macrobenthic assemblages beside the echinoid population were primarily oysters, sea cucumbers, and mussels. Beside these, assemblage of seaweeds (red, green, brown and crustose algae, Porifera, Cnidaria, Crustacea, other Echinodermata, Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Tunicata, Bryozoa and Annelida were found. The present study shows that the investigated area represents stable habitats for the echinoid population with rich and diversified algal assemblages as well as other potential food resources.

  20. Two Streptomyces species producing antibiotic, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory compounds are widespread among intertidal macroalgae and deep-sea coral reef invertebrates from the central Cantabrian Sea. (United States)

    Braña, Alfredo F; Braña, Afredo F; Fiedler, Hans-Peter; Nava, Herminio; González, Verónica; Sarmiento-Vizcaíno, Aida; Molina, Axayacatl; Acuña, José L; García, Luis A; Blanco, Gloria


    Streptomycetes are widely distributed in the marine environment, although only a few studies on their associations to algae and coral ecosystems have been reported. Using a culture-dependent approach, we have isolated antibiotic-active Streptomyces species associated to diverse intertidal marine macroalgae (Phyllum Heterokontophyta, Rhodophyta, and Chlorophyta), from the central Cantabrian Sea. Two strains, with diverse antibiotic and cytotoxic activities, were found to inhabit these coastal environments, being widespread and persistent over a 3-year observation time frame. Based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis, the strains were identified as Streptomyces cyaneofuscatus M-27 and Streptomyces carnosus M-40. Similar isolates to these two strains were also associated to corals and other invertebrates from deep-sea coral reef ecosystem (Phyllum Cnidaria, Echinodermata, Arthropoda, Sipuncula, and Anelida) living up to 4.700-m depth in the submarine Avilés Canyon, thus revealing their barotolerant feature. These two strains were also found to colonize terrestrial lichens and have been repeatedly isolated from precipitations from tropospheric clouds. Compounds with antibiotic and cytotoxic activities produced by these strains were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and database comparison. Antitumor compounds with antibacterial activities and members of the anthracycline family (daunomycin, cosmomycin B, galtamycin B), antifungals (maltophilins), anti-inflamatory molecules also with antituberculosis properties (lobophorins) were identified in this work. Many other compounds produced by the studied strains still remain unidentified, suggesting that Streptomyces associated to algae and coral ecosystems might represent an underexplored promising source for pharmaceutical drug discovery.

  1. Response of seafloor ecosystems to abrupt global climate change. (United States)

    Moffitt, Sarah E; Hill, Tessa M; Roopnarine, Peter D; Kennett, James P


    Anthropogenic climate change is predicted to decrease oceanic oxygen (O2) concentrations, with potentially significant effects on marine ecosystems. Geologically recent episodes of abrupt climatic warming provide opportunities to assess the effects of changing oxygenation on marine communities. Thus far, this knowledge has been largely restricted to investigations using Foraminifera, with little being known about ecosystem-scale responses to abrupt, climate-forced deoxygenation. We here present high-resolution records based on the first comprehensive quantitative analysis, to our knowledge, of changes in marine metazoans (Mollusca, Echinodermata, Arthropoda, and Annelida; >5,400 fossils and trace fossils) in response to the global warming associated with the last glacial to interglacial episode. The molluscan archive is dominated by extremophile taxa, including those containing endosymbiotic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (Lucinoma aequizonatum) and those that graze on filamentous sulfur-oxidizing benthic bacterial mats (Alia permodesta). This record, from 16,100 to 3,400 y ago, demonstrates that seafloor invertebrate communities are subject to major turnover in response to relatively minor inferred changes in oxygenation (>1.5 to 1,000 y, and illustrate the crucial role of climate and oceanographic change in driving long-term successional changes in ocean ecosystems.

  2. Macrobenthic community structure and species composition in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea in jellyfish bloom (United States)

    Peng, Songyao; Li, Xinzheng; Wang, Hongfa; Zhang, Baolin


    To understand the characteristics of macrobenthic structures and the relationship between environment and benthic assemblages in jellyfish bloom, we studied the macrobenthos and related environmental factors in the coastal waters of the Yellow Sea and East China Sea. Data were collected during two seasonal cruises in April and August of 2011, and analyzed with multivariate statistical methods. Up to 306 macrobenthic species were registered from the research areas, including 115 species of Polychaeta, 78 of Crustacea, 61 of Mollusca, 30 of Echinodermata, and 22 of other groups. Nine polychaete species occurred at frequencies higher than 25% from the sampling stations: Lumbrineris longifolia, Notomastus latericeus, Ninöe palmata, Ophelina acuminata, Nephtys oligobranchia, Onuphis geophiliformis, Glycera chirori, Terebellides stroemii, and Aricidea fragilis. Both the average biomass and abundance of macrobenthos are higher in August (23.8 g/m2 and 237.7 ind./m2) than those in April (11.3 g/m2 and 128 ind./m2); the dissimilarity of macrobenthic structures among stations is as high as 70%. In terms of the dissimilarity values, we divided the stations into four clusters in spring and eight in summer. The ABC curve shows that the macrofauna communities in high jellyfish abundance were not changed. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that depth, temperature, median grain size, total organic carbon of sediment and total nitrogen in sediment were important factors affecting the macrozoobenthic community in the study area.

  3. Holothurian Nervous System Diversity Revealed by Neuroanatomical Analysis. (United States)

    Díaz-Balzac, Carlos A; Lázaro-Peña, María I; Vázquez-Figueroa, Lionel D; Díaz-Balzac, Roberto J; García-Arrarás, José E


    The Echinodermata comprise an interesting branch in the phylogenetic tree of deuterostomes. Their radial symmetry which is reflected in their nervous system anatomy makes them a target of interest in the study of nervous system evolution. Until recently, the study of the echinoderm nervous system has been hindered by a shortage of neuronal markers. However, in recent years several markers of neuronal and fiber subpopulations have been described. These have been used to identify subpopulations of neurons and fibers, but an integrative study of the anatomical relationship of these subpopulations is wanting. We have now used eight commercial antibodies, together with three antibodies produced by our group to provide a comprehensive and integrated description and new details of the echinoderm neuroanatomy using the holothurian Holothuria glaberrima (Selenka, 1867) as our model system. Immunoreactivity of the markers used showed: (1) specific labeling patterns by markers in the radial nerve cords, which suggest the presence of specific nerve tracts in holothurians. (2) Nerves directly innervate most muscle fibers in the longitudinal muscles. (3) Similar to other deuterostomes (mainly vertebrates), their enteric nervous system is composed of a large and diverse repertoire of neurons and fiber phenotypes. Our results provide a first blueprint of the anatomical organization of cells and fibers that form the holothurian neural circuitry, and highlight the fact that the echinoderm nervous system shows unexpected diversity in cell and fiber types and their distribution in both central and peripheral nervous components.

  4. Molecular phylogeny of four homeobox genes from the purple sea star Pisaster ochraceus. (United States)

    Matassi, Giorgio; Imai, Janice Hitomi; Di Gregorio, Anna


    Homeobox genes cloned from the purple sea star Pisaster ochraceus (Phylum Echinodermata/Class Asteroidea) were used along with related sequences available from members of other representative animal phyla to generate molecular phylogenies for Distal-less/Dlx, Hox5, Hox7, and Hox9/10 homeobox genes. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred based on the predicted 60 amino acid homeodomain, using amino acid (AA) and nucleotide (NT) models as well as the recently developed codon substitution models of sequence evolution. The resulting phylogenetic trees were mostly congruent with the consensus species-tree, grouping these newly identified genes with those isolated from other Asteroidea. This analysis also allowed a preliminary comparison of the performance of codon models with that of NT and AA evolutionary models in the inference of homeobox phylogeny. We found that, overall, the NT models displayed low reliability in recovering major clades at the Superphylum/Phylum level, and that codon models were slightly more dependable than AA models. Remarkably, in the majority of cases, codon substitution models seemed to outperform both AA and NT models at both the Class level and homeobox paralogy-group level of classification.

  5. Response of seafloor ecosystems to abrupt global climate change (United States)

    Moffitt, Sarah E.; Hill, Tessa M.; Roopnarine, Peter D.; Kennett, James P.


    Anthropogenic climate change is predicted to decrease oceanic oxygen (O2) concentrations, with potentially significant effects on marine ecosystems. Geologically recent episodes of abrupt climatic warming provide opportunities to assess the effects of changing oxygenation on marine communities. Thus far, this knowledge has been largely restricted to investigations using Foraminifera, with little being known about ecosystem-scale responses to abrupt, climate-forced deoxygenation. We here present high-resolution records based on the first comprehensive quantitative analysis, to our knowledge, of changes in marine metazoans (Mollusca, Echinodermata, Arthropoda, and Annelida; >5,400 fossils and trace fossils) in response to the global warming associated with the last glacial to interglacial episode. The molluscan archive is dominated by extremophile taxa, including those containing endosymbiotic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (Lucinoma aequizonatum) and those that graze on filamentous sulfur-oxidizing benthic bacterial mats (Alia permodesta). This record, from 16,100 to 3,400 y ago, demonstrates that seafloor invertebrate communities are subject to major turnover in response to relatively minor inferred changes in oxygenation (>1.5 to 1,000 y, and illustrate the crucial role of climate and oceanographic change in driving long-term successional changes in ocean ecosystems.

  6. Copper, zinc and cadmium in benthic organisms from the Java Sea and estuarine and coastal areas around East Java (United States)

    Everaarts, J. M.; Boon, J. P.; Kastoro, W.; Fischer, C. V.; Razak, H.; Sumanta, I.

    A study was made of the concentrations of copper, zinc and cadmium in benthic organisms, representing the phyla Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata and Pisces, from the riverine and estuarine areas of the rivers Brantas and Solo (East Java) and the adjacent coastal area. Moreover, an assessment was made of the contamination of the benthic biota with these elements in the Java Sea and Bali Sea. Benthic organisms show a species-specific uptake pattern for each element. Compared to the same type of animals from estuaries and coastal areas in temperate regions of western Europe, the concentrations of cadmium are considerably higher, while copper and zinc concentrations are somewhat lower. There is no general trend in concentration levels of the metals in specimens from rivers, estuaries, coastal zone and open sea. In some groups of organisms ( e.g. shrimp, starfish) the concentrations of copper and zinc are highest in specimens from rivers and estuaries. In contrast, cadmium concentration levels in e.g. crab, shrimp and squid are lowest in riverine and estuarine areas. Significant differences in metal concentrations in these organisms were found between the dry monsoon period (July, August) and the beginning of the wet monsoon (November, December). No relationship existed between the metal concentration of the organisms and the silt fraction of the sediment (grain size < 63 μm) or the bulk sediment.

  7. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the polychaete annelidPlatynereis dumerilii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boore, Jeffrey L.


    Complete mitochondrial genome sequences are now available for 126 metazoans (see Boore 1999; Mitochondrial Genomics link at, but the taxonomic representation is highly biased. For example, 80 are from a single phylum, Chordata, and show little variation for many molecular features. Arthropoda is represented by 16 taxa, Mollusca by eight, and Echinodermata by five, with only 17 others from the remaining {approx}30 metazoan phyla. With few exceptions (see Wolstenholme 1992 and Boore 1999) these are circular DNA molecules, about 16 kb in size, and encode the same set of 37 genes. A variety of non-standard names are sometimes used for animal mitochondrial genes; see Boore (1999) for gene nomenclature and a table of synonyms. Mitochondrial genome comparisons serve as a model of genome evolution. In this system, much smaller and simpler than that of the nucleus, are all of the same factors of genome evolution, where one may find tractable the changes in tRNA structure, base composition, genetic code, gene arrangement, etc. Further, patterns of mitochondrial gene rearrangements are an exceptionally reliable indicator of phylogenetic relationships (Smith et al.1993; Boore et al. 1995; Boore, Lavrov, and Brown 1998; Boore and Brown 1998, 2000; Dowton 1999; Stechmann and Schlegel 1999; Kurabayashi and Ueshima 2000). To these ends, we are sampling further the variation among major animal groups in features of their mitochondrial genomes.

  8. Unusually long palindromes are abundant in mitochondrial control regions of insects and nematodes.

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    K P Arunkumar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Palindromes are known to be involved in a variety of biological processes. In the present investigation we carried out a comprehensive analysis of palindromes in the mitochondrial control regions (CRs of several animal groups to study their frequency, distribution and architecture to gain insights into the origin of replication of mtDNA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Many species of Arthropoda, Nematoda, Mollusca and Annelida harbor palindromes and inverted repeats (IRs in their CRs. Lower animals like cnidarians and higher animal groups like chordates are almost devoid of palindromes and IRs. The study revealed that palindrome occurrence is positively correlated with the AT content of CRs, and that IRs are likely to give rise to longer palindromes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study attempts to explain possible reasons and gives in silico evidence for absence of palindromes and IRs from CR of vertebrate mtDNA and acquisition and retention of the same in insects. Study of CRs of different animal phyla uncovered unique architecture of this locus, be it high abundance of long palindromes and IRs in CRs of Insecta and Nematoda, or short IRs of 10-20 nucleotides with a spacer region of 12-14 bases in subphylum Chelicerata, or nearly complete of absence of any long palindromes and IRs in Vertebrata, Cnidaria and Echinodermata.


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    Full Text Available The presence of marine alien species in El-Kouf National Park and the neighbouring areas was assessed using a compilation of available information and observations, a field survey conducted on October 2010 in the framework of the MedMPAnet project and results of further monitoring during June and September 2012. A total of 9 alien species were reported: the Rhodophyta Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile Trevisan de Saint-Léon, the Chlorophyta Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea (Sonder Verlaque, Huisman & Boudouresque, the crab Percnon gibbesi (H. Milne-Edwards, 1853 and the fishes Fistularia commersonii Rüppell, 1838, Siganus luridus (Rüppell, 1829, Siganus rivulatus Forsskål, 1775, Pempheris vanicolensis Cuvier, 1831, Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmelin, 1789 and Sphyraena flavicauda Rüppell, 1838. Several of them were until now unknown for the National Park. The list of alien marine species of Libya is updated and discussed. Until now 63 marine aliens species were recorded along the Libyan coasts. These include 3 Foraminifera, 3 Ochrophyta, 5 Rhodophyta, 5 Chlorophyta, 1 Magnoliophyta, 11 Arthropoda, 13 Mollusca, 1 Echinodermata and 21 Chordata. Among these Non Indigenous Species, 43 are known as established along the Libyan coast including 8 invasive, 11 casual, 6 questionable, 3 cryptogenic and 1 unknown. An in-depth study of the marine organisms would substantially increase the number of alien species occurring in Libya. Monitoring of marine assemblages of MPAs is a valuable opportunity to go further into the knowledge of native and introduced species.

  10. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in aquatic animals: signaling pathways, expressions and immune responses. (United States)

    Rauta, Pradipta R; Samanta, Mrinal; Dash, Hirak R; Nayak, Bismita; Das, Surajit


    The innate system's recognition of non-self and danger signals is mediated by a limited number of germ-line encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are single, non-catalytic, membrane-spanning PRRs present in invertebrates and vertebrates. They act by specifically recognizing PAMPs of a variety of microbes and activate signaling cascades to induce innate immunity. A large number of TLRs have been identified in various aquatic animals of phyla Cnidaria, Annelida, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata and Chordata. TLRs of aquatic and warm-blooded higher animals exhibit some distinctive features due to their diverse evolutionary lineages. However, majority of them share conserve signaling pathways in pathogen recognition and innate immunity. Functional analysis of novel TLRs in aquatic animals is very important in understanding the comparative immunology between warm-blooded and aquatic animals. In additions to innate immunity, recent reports have highlighted the additional roles of TLRs in adaptive immunity. Therefore, vaccines against many critical diseases of aquatic animals may be made more effective by supplementing TLR activators which will stimulate dendritic cells. This article describes updated information of TLRs in aquatic animals and their structural and functional relationship with warm-blooded animals.

  11. Assessment of Anti- Inflammatory effect of sea urchin Echinometra mathaei From the Persian Gulf

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    Solmaz Soleimani


    Full Text Available Background: sea urchins belonging to phylum echinoderms of marine invertebrates them found to possess excellent. Inflammation can be considered a set of complex processes that many body systems including the immune and nervous system are involved. The aim of the present research was undertaken to study the anti- inflammatory activity of different extracts, coelomic fluid and pigments shells and spines of sea urchin of Echinodermata mathaei. Material and method: Isolation of different tissues extracts (spine, shell, gonad and aristotol lantern sea urchin by three solvents (n- hexan, ethyl acetate, methanol. Isolation coelomic fluid by buffered mode and pigments shell and spine by HCl of sea urchin evaluation antioxidant (DPPH radical scavenging and anti- inflammatory activity investigated through inhibition albumin serum denaturation. Resuts: According to the results of the study, the spine- methanoli and coelomic fluid (CF had the highest activity in the DPPH radical scavenging and aristotol lantern- ethyl acetate and pigment shell highest activity in the anti- inflammatory methods. Significant differences were observed at P<0.05. Conclusion: The result of this research indicated that sea urchin of E.mathaei due to the high antioxidant activity, have anti- inflammatory activities too.

  12. Ultraviolet radiation and echinoderms: past, present and future perspectives. (United States)

    Lamare, Miles; Burritt, David; Lister, Kathryn


    There is general consensus that solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) negatively impacts many marine species. Echinoderms are ubiquitous within the marine environment, with members of the phyla often long-lived and numerically dominant within the benthic macrofauna, consequently the impact of UVR on the population dynamics of these organisms will influence marine communities and ecosystems. Research to date has shown that exposure of echinoderms to solar UVR can, affect reproduction and development, change behaviour, cause numerous biochemical and physiological changes and potentially cause increased mutation rates, by causing DNA damage. There is also considerable evidence that echinoderms utilise several different mechanisms to protect themselves against excessive UVR and subsequent UVR-induced damage. However, these protective mechanisms may pose conflicting selection pressures on echinoderms, as UVR is an additional stressor in oceans subjected to anthropogenic-induced climate change. This review summarises our knowledge of the effects of UVR on the Echinodermata. We outline the research conducted to date, highlight key studies on UVR that have utilised echinoderms and look to the future of UVR research in a rapidly changing ocean.

  13. Echinoderms: potential model systems for studies on muscle regeneration. (United States)

    García-Arrarás, José E; Dolmatov, Igor Yu


    Organisms of the phylum Echinodermata show some of the most impressive regenerative feats within the animal kingdom. Following injury or self-induced autotomy, species in this phylum can regenerate most tissues and organs, being the regeneration of the muscular systems one of the best studied. Even though echinoderms are closely related to chordates, they are little known in the biomedical field, and therefore their uses to study pharmacological effects on muscle formation and/or regeneration have been extremely limited. In order to rectify this lack of knowledge, we describe here the echinoderm muscular systems, particularly the somatic and visceral muscle components. In addition, we provide details of the processes that are known to take place during muscle regeneration, namely dedifferentiation, myogenesis and new muscle formation. Finally, we provide the available information on molecular and pharmacological studies that involve echinoderm muscle regeneration. We expect that by making this information accessible, researchers consider the use of echinoderms as model systems for pharmacological studies in muscle development and regeneration.

  14. Exploring Canadian Echinoderm Diversity through DNA Barcodes (United States)


    DNA barcoding has proven an effective tool for species identification in varied groups of marine invertebrates including crustaceans, molluscs, polychaetes and echinoderms. In this study, we further validate its utility by analyzing almost half of the 300 species of Echinodermata known from Canadian waters. COI sequences from 999 specimens were assigned to 145 BINs. In most cases, species discrimination was straightforward due to the large difference (25-fold) between mean intra- (0.48%) and inter- (12.0%) specific divergence. Six species were flagged for further taxonomic investigation because specimens assigned to them fell into two or three discrete sequence clusters. The potential influence of larval dispersal capacity and glacial events on patterns of genetic diversity is discussed for 19 trans-oceanic species. Although additional research is needed to clarify biogeographic patterns and resolve taxonomic questions, this study represents an important step in the assembly of a DNA barcode library for all Canadian echinoderms, a valuable resource for future biosurveillance programs. PMID:27870868

  15. Food utilization of adult flatfishes co-occurring in the Bohai Sea of China (United States)

    Shuozeng, Dou

    Stomach contents were examined of 4527 adult individuals of 12 flatfish species collected during the 1982-1983 Bohai Sea Fisheries Resources Investigation. Their food habits, diet diversity, similarity of prey taxa, trophic niche breadth and diet overlap were systematically analysed. Ninety-seven prey species belonging to the Coelenterata, Nemertinea, Polychaeta, Mollusca, Crustacea, Echinodermata, Hemichordata and fish were found and five of them were considered to be principal prey for flatfishes: Alpheus japonicus, Oratosquilla oratoria, Alpheus distinguendus, Loligo japonicus and Crangon affinis. Among the flatfishes, Paralichthys olivaceus was piscivorous, whereas Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae and Pseudopleuronectes herzensteini both had polychaetes and molluscs as their main prey groups. Pleuronichthys cornutus was classified as a polychaete-mollusc eater, with a strong preference for crustaceans. Verasper variegatus, Cynoglossus semilaevis, Eopsetta grigorjewi and Cleisthenes herzensteini ate crustaceans. Kareius bicoloratus was classified as a mollusc-crustacean eater. Cynoglossus abbreviatus, Cynoglossus joyneri and Zebrias zebra were grouped as crustacean-fish eaters. However, Z. zebra also took polychaetes and C. abbreviatus and C. joyneri preyed on some molluscs. Trophic relationships among the flatfishes were complicated, but they occupied distinctive microhabitats in different seasons and selected their specific prey items, which was favourable to the stability of the flatfish community in the Bohai Sea.

  16. Benthic Macrofauna Associated with Submerged Bottoms of a Tectonic Estuary in Tropical Eastern Pacific

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    Carlos E. Guevara-Fletcher


    Full Text Available The composition and distribution of the main associations of submerged macrobenthos of Bahía Málaga (Colombian pacific coast, were studied in relation to the distribution of hard and soft substrates and some abiotic factors. Eight localities were sampled during six months: three in the external border of the estuary and five in the inner part. In total, 728 organisms were registered, belonging to 207 species, 132 genera, 86 families, and 14 orders of six invertebrate groups (Porifera, Cnidaria, Polychaeta, Mollusca, Crustacea, and Echinodermata. The submerged bottoms presented soft and hard substrates, with rocks and thick sand in five sites, soft bottoms with fine sand in one, and soft bottoms with slime and clay in two. The temperature and salinity values were higher in the external localities, while dissolved oxygen and pH were higher in the internal localities. The localities with hard substrates presented the highest richness of species while the soft substrates, were characterized by a paucity of species and individuals. The similarity classification analyses showed two groups: one characterized by having 61 species in common and high richness with 113 exclusive species. The other group with low diversity and richness values, 37 species in common and 23 exclusive species.

  17. Biodiversity of the white coral bank off Cape Santa Maria di Leuca (Mediterranean Sea): An update (United States)

    Mastrototaro, F.; D'Onghia, G.; Corriero, G.; Matarrese, A.; Maiorano, P.; Panetta, P.; Gherardi, M.; Longo, C.; Rosso, A.; Sciuto, F.; Sanfilippo, R.; Gravili, C.; Boero, F.; Taviani, M.; Tursi, A.


    The biodiversity of the Santa Maria di Leuca (SML) coral bank is summarized and its description is updated using data collected by means of underwater video systems, benthic samplers and fishing gears. A total of 222 living species have been recorded within the coral bank area in the depth range 280-1121 m. The most abundant benthic taxa recorded are Porifera (36 species) followed by Mollusca (35) and Cnidaria (31). The scleractinian corals Madrepora oculata and Lophelia pertusa are the main colonial species in the structure of the SML bank. Annelida, Crustacea and Bryozoa have been found with 24, 23 and 19 species, respectively. A total of 40 species of demersal fish have been recorded. Other faunal taxa were found with small numbers of species. One hundred and thirty-five species are new for the SML bank, 31 of which represent new records for the north-western Ionian Sea (2 Porifera, 17 Cnidaria, 1 Mollusca, 3 Annelida, 2 Crustacea, 4 Bryozoa and 4 Echinodermata). The finding of the annelid Harmothoë vesiculosa represents the first record for the Mediterranean Sea. The SML coral bank represents a biodiversity "hot-spot" on the bathyal bottoms of the Mediterranean Sea.

  18. Investigations of Antibacterial Activity of Methanol and Aqueous Ex-tracts of the Body Wall of Sea Cucumber Holothuria leucospilota on some Human Pathogenic Bacteria

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    M. Nazemi


    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Holothuria leucospilota, sea cucumber, is a species of the Phylum Echinodermata. Sea cucumbers have the most natural products with biological activity. In this study we investigated the antibacterial activity of aqueous and methanol extract of H. leucospilota used against gram positive and gram negative human pathogenic bacteria. Materials & Methods: 9 Samples of H. leucospilota were harvested from the Hengam Island,. The methanol extract was prepared from the powder of sea cucumber. The antibacterial activity of the extracts was determined by broth dilution methods against clinical Gram-negative bacteria to identify MIC and MBC. Results: Aqueous extract of H. leucospilota was inactive on the bacteria. Methanol extract was active on Gram-negetive bacteria; E. coli, Salmonella typhi and Serratia marcescens. But it killed only Salmonella typhi and Serratia marcescens. The MBC of H. leucospilota methanol extract was 10 mg/ml. Methanol extract was active on all Gram-positive bacteria; B. pumilus, B. cereus and S. aureus but it killed only S. aureus. The MBC of H. leucospilota methanol extract was 40 mg/ml. Conclusion: Based on our results, H. leucospilota methanol extract. can be considered as a source of novel antibiotic. Contrary to many marine organisms, sea cucumbers are active against gram-negative bacteria. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2016; 23 (1:75-82

  19. Complete mitochondrial genome sequences for Crown-of-thorns starfish Acanthaster planci and Acanthaster brevispinus

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    Saba Masaki


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci (L., has been blamed for coral mortality in a large number of coral reef systems situated in the Indo-Pacific region. Because of its high fecundity and the long duration of the pelagic larval stage, the mechanism of outbreaks may be related to its meta-population dynamics, which should be examined by larval sampling and population genetic analysis. However, A. planci larvae have undistinguished morphological features compared with other asteroid larvae, hence it has been difficult to discriminate A. planci larvae in plankton samples without species-specific markers. Also, no tools are available to reveal the dispersal pathway of A. planci larvae. Therefore the development of highly polymorphic genetic markers has the potential to overcome these difficulties. To obtain genomic information for these purposes, the complete nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial genome of A. planci and its putative sibling species, A. brevispinus were determined and their characteristics discussed. Results The complete mtDNA of A. planci and A. brevispinus are 16,234 bp and 16,254 bp in size, respectively. These values fall within the length variation range reported for other metazoan mitochondrial genomes. They contain 13 proteins, 2 rRNA, and 22 tRNA genes and the putative control region in the same order as the asteroid, Asterina pectinifera. The A + T contents of A. planci and A. brevispinus on their L strands that encode the majority of protein-coding genes are 56.3% and 56.4% respectively and are lower than that of A. pectinifera (61.2%. The percent similarity of nucleotide sequences between A. planci and A. brevispinus is found to be highest in the CO2 and CO3 regions (both 90.6% and lowest in ND2 gene (84.2% among the 13 protein-coding genes. In the deduced putative amino acid sequences, CO1 is highly conserved (99.2%, and ATP8 apparently evolves faster any of the other protein

  20. GC-biased gene conversion impacts ribosomal DNA evolution in vertebrates, angiosperms, and other eukaryotes. (United States)

    Escobar, Juan S; Glémin, Sylvain; Galtier, Nicolas


    Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is one of the most conserved genes in eukaryotes. The multiples copies of rDNA in the genome evolve in a concerted manner, through unequal crossing over and/or gene conversion, two mechanisms related to homologous recombination. Recombination increases local GC content in several organisms through a process known as GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC). gBGC has been well characterized in mammals, birds, and grasses, but its phylogenetic distribution across the tree of life is poorly understood. Here, we test the hypothesis that recombination affects the evolution of base composition in 18S rDNA and examine the reliability of this thoroughly studied molecule as a marker of gBGC in eukaryotes. Phylogenetic analyses of 18S rDNA in vertebrates and angiosperms reveal significant heterogeneity in the evolution of base composition across both groups. Mammals, birds, and grasses experience increases in the GC content of the 18S rDNA, consistent with previous genome-wide analyses. In addition, we observe increased GC contents in Ostariophysi ray-finned fishes and commelinid monocots (i.e., the clade including grasses), suggesting that the genomes of these two groups have been affected by gBGC. Polymorphism analyses in rDNA confirm that gBGC, not mutation bias, is the most plausible explanation for these patterns. We also find that helix and loop sites of the secondary structure of ribosomal RNA do not evolve at the same pace: loops evolve faster than helices, whereas helices are GC richer than loops. We extend analyses to major lineages of eukaryotes and suggest that gBGC might have also affected base composition in Giardia (Diplomonadina), nudibranch gastropods (Mollusca), and Asterozoa (Echinodermata).

  1. 秋季乳山湾潮间带大型底栖动物的群落结构特征%Community Structure Characters of the Macrobenthos in the Intertidal Zone of Rushan Bay in Autumn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨传平; 赵宁; 季相星; 王振钟; 于子山


    于2011年10月对乳山湾潮间带进行了8条断面的大型底栖动物定量调查,在调查潮间带共鉴定出大型底栖动物104种,其中多毛类45种、软体动物14种,甲壳动物37种、棘皮动物2种和其他类6种。调查潮间带大型底栖动物总平均丰度为817.22 ind/m2,总平均生物量为14.01g/m2。调查潮间带多样性指数在1.173~4.332,平均值为2.770。以40%相似性尺度,可将所调查潮间带站点划分为4个站组。%Macrobenthos were investigated at 8 transects in the intertidal zone of Rushan Bay in October 2011.A total of 104 macrobenthic species were identified in the survey intertidal zone,of which 45 spe-cies were Polychaeta,37 were Crustacea,2 were Mollusca,2 were Echinodermata,and the rest 6 spe-cies were other taxonomical groups.The average abundances and biomasses were estimated to be 817.22ind./m2 and 14.01g/m2 respectively.Shannon-Wiener's diversity index ranged between 1.173~4.332,with the mean value of 2.770.Four macrobenthic station groups could be identified at the 40%similarity level according to CLUSTER.

  2. RNA-Seq reveals dynamic changes of gene expression in key stages of intestine regeneration in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. [corrected].

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    Lina Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sea cucumbers (Holothuroidea; Echinodermata have the capacity to regenerate lost tissues and organs. Although the histological and cytological aspects of intestine regeneration have been extensively studied, little is known of the genetic mechanisms involved. There has, however, been a renewed effort to develop a database of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs in Apostichopus japonicus, an economically-important species that occurs in China. This is important for studies on genetic breeding, molecular markers and special physiological phenomena. We have also constructed a library of ESTs obtained from the regenerative body wall and intestine of A. japonicus. The database has increased to ~30000 ESTs. RESULTS: We used RNA-Seq to determine gene expression profiles associated with intestinal regeneration in A. japonicus at 3, 7, 14 and 21 days post evisceration (dpe. This was compared to profiles obtained from a normally-functioning intestine. Approximately 5 million (M reads were sequenced in every library. Over 2400 up-regulated genes (>10% and over 1000 down-regulated genes (~5% were observed at 3 and 7dpe (log2Ratio ≥ 1, FDR ≤ 0.001. Specific "Go terms" revealed that the DEGs (Differentially Expressed Genes performed an important function at every regeneration stage. Besides some expected pathways (for example, Ribosome and Spliceosome pathway term, the "Notch signaling pathway," the "ECM-receptor interaction" and the "Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction" were significantly enriched. We also investigated the expression profiles of developmental genes, ECM-associated genes and Cytoskeletal genes. Twenty of the most important differentially expressed genes (DEGs were verified by Real-time PCR, which resulted in a trend concordance of almost 100% between the two techniques. CONCLUSION: Our studies demonstrated dynamic changes in global gene expression during intestine regeneration and presented a series of candidate genes and enriched


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振钟; 隋吉星; 曲方圆; 季相星; 赵宁; 于子山


    于2009年5月对辽东湾西部海域进行了4条断面12个站位的大型底栖动物调查.调查海域共出现大型底栖动物78种,其中多毛类37种、甲壳类24种、软体动物13种、棘皮动物2种和其他类2种(分别是腔肠动物、纽形动物).调查海域大型底栖动物总平均丰度为1675.8 ind./m2,总平均生物量为21.366 g/m2.该海域大型底栖动物群落按40%相似性程度可划分为4个.调查海域大型底栖动物群落整体正常,个别站位群落受到轻度扰动.%Macrobenthos was investigated at 12 stations in the western waters of Liaodong Bay in May 2009. A total of 78 macrobenthic species were identified in the survey area in which 37 species were Polychaeta, 24 were Crustacea, 13 were Mollusca, 2 were Echinodermata, and the rest 2 species were other taxonomical groups. The average abundance and biomass were estimated to be 1675. 8 ind. /m2 and 21. 366 g/m2respectively. Four macrobenthic community groups could be identified at the 40% similarity levels according to CLUSTER. The macrobenthic community structures were slightly disturbed in two stations.

  4. 海参:海中人参——关于海参及其成分保健医疗功能的研究与开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ 1海参在我国食、药两用的概况 海参(Holothurian,sea cucumber)归属无脊椎动物棘皮动物门(Echinodermata),是海参纲(Holothuroidea)动物的泛称.根据Pawson et Fell的分类系统,海参纲下设3亚纲、6目和24科.全球有记录的参种数近一千,我国约有140种.海参分布于全球各大洋,绝大多数行底栖生活.印度洋-西太平洋区是世界上海参种类最多、资源量最大的区域,而在大西洋乃至南极洲海域也生活着不同海参种群,个别参种资源量很可观.除了个大、体壁厚且其中石灰质骨片含量低的参种--它们多数分属於手目(Aspidochirotida)的海参科(Holothuriidea)和刺参科(Stichopodidea),及少数来自枝手目(Dendrochirotida)的瓜参科(Cucumariidea)和芋参目(Molpadida)的尻参科(Caudinidae)外--绝大多数海参并无食用价值.据统计,全世界约有40种,我国约20种海参可供食用,个别参种有较高商品价值.

  5. ENSO and sandy beach macrobenthos of the tropical East Pacific: some speculations

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    T. Vanagt


    Full Text Available The influence of the ENSO cycle on marine fauna and flora has only recently been given the attention it deserves. The very strong 1997–1998 El Niño and its obvious effects on marine biota was a key point in ENSO research, but unfortunately few quantitative data about the 1997–1998 El Niño itself are available. To gather information about the effect of ENSO on the macrobenthos, we performed a bi-weekly transect monitoring on an Ecuadorian sandy beach in 2000–2001, during the strong La Niña following the 1997–1998 El Niño, and in the normal period of 2002–2004. In this paper, intertidal macrofaunal densities at higher taxonomic level are used to compare a La Niña phase with the 'normal' situation. The few existing documents about El Niño and sandy beach macrobenthos, and scattered data from previous and current research, were used to complete the picture. Total macrobenthos densities were 300% lower during the La Niña phase compared with equal months in the normal phase. Especially Crustacea and Mollusca showed a marked increase in densities towards the normal situation (94% and 341% respectively. Polychaeta and Echinodermata, however, showed higher densities during the La Niña phase (22% and 73% respectively. Two possible explanations are proposed. (1 Low densities during the La Niña could be due to the very strong preceding El Niño, suggesting the populations were still recovering. This hypothesis is supported by previous work done in the south of Peru. This is, however, a cold water system, compared to the Ecuadorian warm water system. (2 The second hypothesis states that a La Niña will have a very severe impact on the intertidal macrofauna of a warm water system like the Ecuadorian coast.

  6. When Ontogeny Matters: A New Japanese Species of Brittle Star Illustrates the Importance of Considering both Adult and Juvenile Characters in Taxonomic Practice.

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    Alexander Martynov

    Full Text Available Current taxonomy offers numerous approaches and methods for species delimitation and description. However, most of them are based on the adult characters and rarely suggest a dynamic representation of developmental transformations of taxonomically important features. Here we show how the underestimation of ontogenetic changes may result in long term lack of recognition of a new species of one of the most common ophiacanthid brittle stars (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea from the North Pacific. Based on vast material collected predominantly by various Japanese expeditions in the course of more than 50 years, and thorough study of appropriate type material, we revise the complex of three common species of the ophiuroid genus Ophiacantha which have been persistently confused with each other. The present study thus reveals the previously unrecognized new species Ophiacantha kokusai sp.nov. which is commonly distributed off the Pacific coast of Japan. The new species shows developmental differentiation from the closely related species Ophiacantha rhachophora H. L. Clark, 1911 and retains clearly expressed early juvenile features in the adult morphology. Another species, Ophiacantha clypeata Kyte, 1977, which had been separated from O. rhachophora, is in turn shown to be just a juvenile stage of another North Pacific species, Ophiacantha trachybactra H.L. Clark, 1911. For every species, detailed morphological data from both adult and juvenile specimens based on scanning electron microscopy are presented. A special grinding method showing complex internal features has been utilized for the first time. For all three species in this complex, a clear bathymetric differentiation is revealed: O. rhachophora predominantly inhabits shallow waters, 0-250 m, the new species O. kokusai lives deeper, at 250-600 m, and the third species, O. trachybactra, is found at 500-2,000 m. The present case clearly highlights the importance of considering developmental

  7. An ancient repeat sequence in the ATP synthase beta-subunit gene of forcipulate sea stars. (United States)

    Foltz, David W


    A novel repeat sequence with a conserved secondary structure is described from two nonadjacent introns of the ATP synthase beta-subunit gene in sea stars of the order Forcipulatida (Echinodermata: Asteroidea). The repeat is present in both introns of all forcipulate sea stars examined, which suggests that it is an ancient feature of this gene (with an approximate age of 200 Mya). Both stem and loop regions show high levels of sequence constraint when compared to flanking nonrepetitive intronic regions. The repeat was also detected in (1) the family Pterasteridae, order Velatida and (2) the family Korethrasteridae, order Velatida. The repeat was not detected in (1) the family Echinasteridae, order Spinulosida, (2) the family Astropectinidae, order Paxillosida, (3) the family Solasteridae, order Velatida, or (4) the family Goniasteridae, order Valvatida. The repeat lacks similarity to published sequences in unrestricted GenBank searches, and there are no significant open reading frames in the repeat or in the flanking intron sequences. Comparison via parametric bootstrapping to a published phylogeny based on 4.2 kb of nuclear and mitochondrial sequence for a subset of these species allowed the null hypothesis of a congruent phylogeny to be rejected for each repeat, when compared separately to the published phylogeny. In contrast, the flanking nonrepetitive sequences in each intron yielded separate phylogenies that were each congruent with the published phylogeny. In four species, the repeat in one or both introns has apparently experienced gene conversion. The two introns also show a correlated pattern of nucleotide substitutions, even after excluding the putative cases of gene conversion.

  8. Advanced formulation of base pair changes in the stem regions of ribosomal RNAs; its application to mitochondrial rRNAs for resolving the phylogeny of animals. (United States)

    Otsuka, Jinya; Sugaya, Nobuyoshi


    The ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) of animal mitochondria, especially those of arthropod mitochondria, have a higher content of G:U and U:G base pairs in their stem regions than the nuclear rRNAs. Thus, the theoretical formulation of base pair changes is extended to incorporate the faster base pair changes A:UG:UG:C and U:AU:GC:G into the previous formulation of the slower base pair changes between A:U, G:C, C:G and U:A. The relative base pair change probability containing the faster and slower base pair changes is theoretically derived to estimate the divergence time of rRNAs under the influence of selection for these base pairs. Using the cartilaginous fish-teleost fish divergence and the crustacean-insect divergence as calibration points, the present method successfully predicts the divergence times of the main branches of animals: Deuterostomia and Protostomia diverged 9.2 x 10(8) years ago, the divergence of Echinodermata, Hemichordata and Cephalochordata succeedingly occurred during the period from 8 x 10(8) to 6 x 10(8) years ago, while Arthropoda, Annelida and Mollusca diverged almost concomitantly about 7 x 10(8) years ago. The dating for the divergence of Platyhelminthes and Cnidaria is traced back to 1.2 x 10(9) years ago. This result is consistent with the fossil records in the Stirling Range Formation of southwestern Australia, the Ediacara and Avalon faunas and the Cambrian Burgess Shale. Thus, the present method may be useful for estimating the divergence times of animals ranging from 10(8) to 10(9) years ago, resolving the difficult problems, e.g. deviation from rate constancy and large sampling variances, in the usual methods of treating apparent change rates between individual bases and/or base pairs.

  9. Trends in the discovery of new marine natural products from invertebrates over the last two decades--where and what are we bioprospecting?

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    Miguel Costa Leal

    Full Text Available It is acknowledged that marine invertebrates produce bioactive natural products that may be useful for developing new drugs. By exploring untapped geographical sources and/or novel groups of organisms one can maximize the search for new marine drugs to treat human diseases. The goal of this paper is to analyse the trends associated with the discovery of new marine natural products from invertebrates (NMNPI over the last two decades. The analysis considers different taxonomical levels and geographical approaches of bioprospected species. Additionally, this research is also directed to provide new insights into less bioprospected taxa and world regions. In order to gather the information available on NMNPI, the yearly-published reviews of Marine Natural Products covering 1990-2009 were surveyed. Information on source organisms, specifically taxonomical information and collection sites, was assembled together with additional geographical information collected from the articles originally describing the new natural product. Almost 10000 NMNPI were discovered since 1990, with a pronounced increase between decades. Porifera and Cnidaria were the two dominant sources of NMNPI worldwide. The exception was polar regions where Echinodermata dominated. The majority of species that yielded the new natural products belong to only one class of each Porifera and Cnidaria phyla (Demospongiae and Anthozoa, respectively. Increased bioprospecting efforts were observed in the Pacific Ocean, particularly in Asian countries that are associated with the Japan Biodiversity Hotspot and the Kuroshio Current. Although results show comparably less NMNPI from polar regions, the number of new natural products per species is similar to that recorded for other regions. The present study provides information to future bioprospecting efforts addressing previously unexplored taxonomic groups and/or regions. We also highlight how marine invertebrates, which in some cases have no

  10. Trends in the discovery of new marine natural products from invertebrates over the last two decades--where and what are we bioprospecting? (United States)

    Leal, Miguel Costa; Puga, João; Serôdio, João; Gomes, Newton C M; Calado, Ricardo


    It is acknowledged that marine invertebrates produce bioactive natural products that may be useful for developing new drugs. By exploring untapped geographical sources and/or novel groups of organisms one can maximize the search for new marine drugs to treat human diseases. The goal of this paper is to analyse the trends associated with the discovery of new marine natural products from invertebrates (NMNPI) over the last two decades. The analysis considers different taxonomical levels and geographical approaches of bioprospected species. Additionally, this research is also directed to provide new insights into less bioprospected taxa and world regions. In order to gather the information available on NMNPI, the yearly-published reviews of Marine Natural Products covering 1990-2009 were surveyed. Information on source organisms, specifically taxonomical information and collection sites, was assembled together with additional geographical information collected from the articles originally describing the new natural product. Almost 10000 NMNPI were discovered since 1990, with a pronounced increase between decades. Porifera and Cnidaria were the two dominant sources of NMNPI worldwide. The exception was polar regions where Echinodermata dominated. The majority of species that yielded the new natural products belong to only one class of each Porifera and Cnidaria phyla (Demospongiae and Anthozoa, respectively). Increased bioprospecting efforts were observed in the Pacific Ocean, particularly in Asian countries that are associated with the Japan Biodiversity Hotspot and the Kuroshio Current. Although results show comparably less NMNPI from polar regions, the number of new natural products per species is similar to that recorded for other regions. The present study provides information to future bioprospecting efforts addressing previously unexplored taxonomic groups and/or regions. We also highlight how marine invertebrates, which in some cases have no commercial value

  11. Could the acid-base status of Antarctic sea urchins indicate a better-than-expected resilience to near-future ocean acidification? (United States)

    Collard, Marie; De Ridder, Chantal; David, Bruno; Dehairs, Frank; Dubois, Philippe


    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration alters the chemistry of the oceans towards more acidic conditions. Polar oceans are particularly affected due to their low temperature, low carbonate content and mixing patterns, for instance upwellings. Calcifying organisms are expected to be highly impacted by the decrease in the oceans' pH and carbonate ions concentration. In particular, sea urchins, members of the phylum Echinodermata, are hypothesized to be at risk due to their high-magnesium calcite skeleton. However, tolerance to ocean acidification in metazoans is first linked to acid-base regulation capacities of the extracellular fluids. No information on this is available to date for Antarctic echinoderms and inference from temperate and tropical studies needs support. In this study, we investigated the acid-base status of 9 species of sea urchins (3 cidaroids, 2 regular euechinoids and 4 irregular echinoids). It appears that Antarctic regular euechinoids seem equipped with similar acid-base regulation systems as tropical and temperate regular euechinoids but could rely on more passive ion transfer systems, minimizing energy requirements. Cidaroids have an acid-base status similar to that of tropical cidaroids. Therefore Antarctic cidaroids will most probably not be affected by decreasing seawater pH, the pH drop linked to ocean acidification being negligible in comparison of the naturally low pH of the coelomic fluid. Irregular echinoids might not suffer from reduced seawater pH if acidosis of the coelomic fluid pH does not occur but more data on their acid-base regulation are needed. Combining these results with the resilience of Antarctic sea urchin larvae strongly suggests that these organisms might not be the expected victims of ocean acidification. However, data on the impact of other global stressors such as temperature and of the combination of the different stressors needs to be acquired to assess the sensitivity of these organisms to global

  12. Excellent amino acid racemization results from Holocene sand dollars (United States)

    Kosnik, M.; Kaufman, D. S.; Kowalewski, M.; Whitacre, K.


    Amino acid racemization (AAR) is widely used as a cost-effective method to date molluscs in time-averaging and taphonomic studies, but it has not been attempted for echinoderms despite their paleobiological importance. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of AAR geochronology in Holocene aged Peronella peronii (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) collected from Sydney Harbour (Australia). Using standard HPLC methods we determined the extent of AAR in 74 Peronella tests and performed replicate analyses on 18 tests. We sampled multiple areas of two individuals and identified the outer edge as a good sampling location. Multiple replicate analyses from the outer edge of 18 tests spanning the observed range of D/Ls yielded median coefficients of variation 0.95) for these four amino acids. The ages of 11 individuals spanning the observed range of D/L values were determined using 14C analyses, and Bayesian model averaging was used to determine the best AAR age model. The averaged age model was mainly composed of time-dependent reaction kinetics models (TDK, 71%) based on phenylalanine (Phe, 94%). Modelled ages ranged from 14 to 5539 yrs, and the median 95% confidence interval for the 74 analysed individuals is ±28% of the modelled age. In comparison, the median 95% confidence interval for the 11 calibrated 14C ages was ±9% of the median age estimate. Overall Peronella yields exceptionally high-quality AAR D/L values and appears to be an excellent substrate for AAR geochronology. This work opens the way for time-averaging and taphonomic studies of echinoderms similar to those in molluscs.

  13. 大连市区沿海底栖动物的种、量和对环境质量的评价%Species and number of benthos and evaluation about environment in the waters of Dalian coast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹善茂; 周一兵


    1997年10月~1998年7月对大连市区沿海10个站位(南部沿海4个站位、大连湾6个站位)进行了3次底栖动物调查,共获大型底栖动物79种,其中多毛类42种、软体动物23种、节肢动物7种、棘皮动物2种、海鞘2种、其它3种。平均栖息密度为4 663.3个/m2,平均生物量为740.5 g/m2。同时测定了相关的水化指标。经分析表明该海区处于轻度和中度污染状态。%The benthos were studied based on three surveys in 10 stations in the waters of Dalian coast from Docter, 1997 to July, 1998. The results showed that 79 species of benthos were indentified, 42 species of which are polychaeta, 23 mullusca, 7 arthropoda, 3 echinodermata, 2 tunicata and 2 other animals. The average density and biomass (wet weight) of benthos was 4663.3 ind./m2 and 740.5 g/m2. The analysis based on the resuls showed that the waters of Dalian coast have been polluted lightly or moderately.

  14. The mineralogical responses of marine calcifiers to CO2-induced ocean acidification (United States)

    Ries, J. B.; Cohen, A. L.; McCorkle, D. C.


    We have conducted 6-month laboratory experiments to investigate the effect of pCO2-induced reductions in seawater CaCO3 saturation state on biocalcification by 18 aragonitic and calcitic (low-high Mg) taxa representing eight of the major marine calcifying groups: Chlorophyta; Rhodophyta; Crustacea; Bivalvia; Gastropoda; Annelida; Cnidaria; and Echinodermata. The CaCO3 saturation states of the experimental seawaters, constrained by intercalibrated determinations of pH, alkalinity, and DIC, were attained with bubbled air-CO2 mixtures of 400 (ambient), 600, 900, and 2850 ppm pCO2, yielding Ωarag of 2.5 (ambient), 2.0, 1.5, 0.7, respectively. We previously showed that while rates of net calcification obtained from buoyant weighing declined with increasing pCO2 for nearly half of the species investigated, a nearly equal number exhibited constant or, in some cases, increased calcification under moderately (600 ppm) or extremely (900 or 2850 ppm) elevated pCO2. The organisms' investigated in this study secrete various forms of CaCO3, which differ in crystallographic structure and therefore solubility: aragonite and high-Mg are generally more soluble than low-Mg calcite. We have employed powder x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, inductively-coupled-plasma mass-spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy to quantify changes in the organisms' skeletal mineralogy (aragonite:calcite ratio) and Mg-content (MgCO3:CaCO3 ratio) that occurred in response to the prescribed reductions in seawater CaCO3 saturation state. We will compare calcification and mineralogical response patterns amongst the organisms to elucidate the role of mineral lability in driving species-specific responses to CO2-induced ocean acidification.

  15. Distribution and evolution of the serine/aspartate racemase family in invertebrates. (United States)

    Uda, Kouji; Abe, Keita; Dehara, Yoko; Mizobata, Kiriko; Sogawa, Natsumi; Akagi, Yuki; Saigan, Mai; Radkov, Atanas D; Moe, Luke A


    Free D-amino acids have been found in various invertebrate phyla, while amino acid racemase genes have been identified in few species. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the distribution, function, and evolution of amino acid racemases in invertebrate animals. We searched the GenBank databases, and found 11 homologous serine racemase genes from eight species in eight different invertebrate phyla. The cloned genes were identified based on their maximum activity as Acropora millepora (Cnidaria) serine racemase (SerR) and aspartate racemase (AspR), Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematoda) SerR, Capitella teleta (Annelida) SerR, Crassostrea gigas (Mollusca) SerR and AspR, Dugesia japonica (Platyhelminthes) SerR, Milnesium tardigradum (Tardigrada) SerR, Penaeus monodon (Arthropoda) SerR and AspR and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Echinodermata) AspR. We found that Acropora, Aplysia, Capitella, Crassostrea and Penaeus had two amino acid racemase paralogous genes and these paralogous genes have evolved independently by gene duplication at their recent ancestral species. The transcriptome analyses using available SRA data and enzyme kinetic data suggested that these paralogous genes are expressed in different tissues and have different functions in vivo. Phylogenetic analyses clearly indicated that animal SerR and AspR are not separated by their particular racemase functions and form a serine/aspartate racemase family cluster. Our results revealed that SerR and AspR are more widely distributed among invertebrates than previously known. Moreover, we propose that the triple serine loop motif at amino acid positions 150-152 may be responsible for the large aspartate racemase activity and the AspR evolution from SerR.

  16. Breakdown of phylogenetic signal: a survey of microsatellite densities in 454 shotgun sequences from 154 non model eukaryote species.

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    Emese Meglécz

    Full Text Available Microsatellites are ubiquitous in Eukaryotic genomes. A more complete understanding of their origin and spread can be gained from a comparison of their distribution within a phylogenetic context. Although information for model species is accumulating rapidly, it is insufficient due to a lack of species depth, thus intragroup variation is necessarily ignored. As such, apparent differences between groups may be overinflated and generalizations cannot be inferred until an analysis of the variation that exists within groups has been conducted. In this study, we examined microsatellite coverage and motif patterns from 454 shotgun sequences of 154 Eukaryote species from eight distantly related phyla (Cnidaria, Arthropoda, Onychophora, Bryozoa, Mollusca, Echinodermata, Chordata and Streptophyta to test if a consistent phylogenetic pattern emerges from the microsatellite composition of these species. It is clear from our results that data from model species provide incomplete information regarding the existing microsatellite variability within the Eukaryotes. A very strong heterogeneity of microsatellite composition was found within most phyla, classes and even orders. Autocorrelation analyses indicated that while microsatellite contents of species within clades more recent than 200 Mya tend to be similar, the autocorrelation breaks down and becomes negative or non-significant with increasing divergence time. Therefore, the age of the taxon seems to be a primary factor in degrading the phylogenetic pattern present among related groups. The most recent classes or orders of Chordates still retain the pattern of their common ancestor. However, within older groups, such as classes of Arthropods, the phylogenetic pattern has been scrambled by the long independent evolution of the lineages.

  17. Macro- and megafauna recorded in the submarine Bari Canyon (southern Adriatic, Mediterranean Sea using different tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Macro- and megafauna were recorded in the submarine Bari Canyon (southern Adriatic Sea, Mediterranean Sea during an oceanographic cruise carried out in May-June 2012 and an experimental fishing survey conducted in November 2013. During the former, a total of 20 benthic samples were taken using a Van Veen grab at depths between 268 and 770 m and 4 deployments of a baited lander, for about 43 hours of video records, were carried out at depths between 443 and 788 m. During the latter, 8 longline fishing operations were conducted from 338 down to 612 m. Eighty-five living benthic and benthopelagic species were recorded: 29 Porifera, 1 Cnidaria, 2 Mollusca, 11 Annelida, 1 Arthropoda, 19 Bryozoa, 3 Echinodermata and 19 Chordata. A total of 51 species are new records for the Bari Canyon, 29 new records for the Adriatic Sea. Among the Porifera Cerbaris curvispiculifer is a new addition for the Italian Sponge Fauna. The first certain record of living specimens for the bryozoan Crisia tenella longinodata is reported. A total of 6 Mediterranean endemic species have been identified: 4 Porifera and 2 Annelida. The bathymetric range of some species has been extended. New information acquired for deep sea species confirms their importance in the structure of cold-water coral communities. This study has updated the knowledge on the biodiversity of the Adriatic Sea, as well as of the Bari Canyon in particular, one of the sites designated as “jewels of the Mediterranean” for which urgent conservation measures are needed.

  18. Annotated list of marine alien species in the Mediterranean with records of the worst invasive species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This collaborative effort by many specialists across the Mediterranean presents an updated annotated list of alien marine species in the Mediterranean Sea. Alien species have been grouped into six broad categories namely established, casual, questionable, cryptogenic, excluded and invasive, and presented in lists of major ecofunctional/taxonomic groups. The establishment success within each group is provided while the questionable and excluded records are commented in brief. A total of 963 alien species have been reported from the Mediterranean until December 2005, 218 of which have been classified as excluded (23% leaving 745 of the recorded species as valid aliens. Of these 385 (52% are already well established, 262 (35% are casual records, while 98 species (13% remain “questionable” records. The species cited in this work belong mostly to zoobenthos and in particular to Mollusca and Crustacea, while Fish and Phytobenthos are the next two groups which prevail among alien biota in the Mediterranean. The available information depends greatly on the taxonomic group examined. Thus, besides the three groups explicitly addressed in the CIESM atlas series (Fish, Decapoda/Crustacea and Mollusca, which are however updated in the present work, Polychaeta, Phytobenthos, Phytoplankton and Zooplankton are also addressed in this study. Among other zoobenthic taxa sufficiently covered in this study are Echinodermata, Sipuncula, Bryozoa and Ascidiacea. On the contrary, taxa such as Foraminifera, Amphipoda and Isopoda, that are not well studied in the Mediterranean, are insufficiently covered. A gap of knowledge is also noticed in Parasites, which, although ubiquitous and pervasive in marine systems, have been relatively unexplored as to their role in marine invasions. Conclusively the lack of funding purely systematic studies in the region has led to underestimation of the number of aliens in the Mediterranean. Emphasis is put on those species that are

  19. Ancestral state reconstruction by comparative analysis of a GRN kernel operating in echinoderms. (United States)

    Erkenbrack, Eric M; Ako-Asare, Kayla; Miller, Emily; Tekelenburg, Saira; Thompson, Jeffrey R; Romano, Laura


    Diverse sampling of organisms across the five major classes in the phylum Echinodermata is beginning to reveal much about the structure and function of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) in development and evolution. Sea urchins are the most studied clade within this phylum, and recent work suggests there has been dramatic rewiring at the top of the skeletogenic GRN along the lineage leading to extant members of the euechinoid sea urchins. Such rewiring likely accounts for some of the observed developmental differences between the two major subclasses of sea urchins-cidaroids and euechinoids. To address effects of topmost rewiring on downstream GRN events, we cloned four downstream regulatory genes within the skeletogenic GRN and surveyed their spatiotemporal expression patterns in the cidaroid Eucidaris tribuloides. We performed phylogenetic analyses with homologs from other non-vertebrate deuterostomes and characterized their spatiotemporal expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and whole-mount in situ hybridization (WMISH). Our data suggest the erg-hex-tgif subcircuit, a putative GRN kernel, exhibits a mesoderm-specific expression pattern early in Eucidaris development that is directly downstream of the initial mesodermal GRN circuitry. Comparative analysis of the expression of this subcircuit in four echinoderm taxa allowed robust ancestral state reconstruction, supporting hypotheses that its ancestral function was to stabilize the mesodermal regulatory state and that it has been co-opted and deployed as a unit in mesodermal subdomains in distantly diverged echinoderms. Importantly, our study supports the notion that GRN kernels exhibit structural and functional modularity, locking down and stabilizing clade-specific, embryonic regulatory states.

  20. Biosynthesis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Sea Urchins: Molecular and Functional Characterisation of Three Fatty Acyl Desaturases from Paracentrotus lividus (Lamark 1816) (United States)

    Carboni, Stefano; Davie, Andrew; Oboh, Angela


    Sea urchins are broadly recognised as a delicacy and their quality as food for humans is highly influenced by their diet. Lipids in general and the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in particular, are essential nutrients that determine not only the nutritional value of sea urchins but also guarantee normal growth and reproduction in captivity. The contribution of endogenous production (biosynthesis) of LC-PUFA in sea urchins remained unknown. Using Paracentrotus lividus as our model species, we aimed to characterise both molecularly and functionally the repertoire of fatty acyl desaturases (Fads), key enzymes in the biosynthesis of LC-PUFA, in sea urchins. Three Fads, namely FadsA, FadsC1 and FadsC2, were characterised. The phylogenetic analyses suggested that the repertoire of Fads within the Echinodermata phylum varies among classes. On one hand, orthologues of the P. lividus FadsA were found in other echinoderm classes including starfishes, brittle stars and sea cucumbers, thus suggesting that this desaturase is virtually present in all echinoderms. Contrarily, the FadsC appears to be sea urchin-specific desaturase. Finally, a further desaturase termed as FadsB exists in starfishes, brittle stars and sea cucumbers, but appears to be missing in sea urchins. The functional characterisation of the P. lividus Fads confirmed that the FadsA was a Δ5 desaturase with activity towards saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA). Moreover, our experiments confirmed that FadsA plays a role in the biosynthesis of non-methylene interrupted FA, a group of compounds typically found in marine invertebrates. On the other hand, both FadsC desaturases from P. lividus showed Δ8 activity. The present results demonstrate that P. lividus possesses desaturases that account for all the desaturation reactions required to biosynthesis the physiological essential eicosapentaenoic and arachidonic acids through the so-called “Δ8 pathway”. PMID:28052125

  1. Arrays in rays: terminal addition in echinoderms and its correlation with gene expression. (United States)

    Mooi, Rich; David, Bruno; Wray, Gregory A


    The echinoderms are deuterostomes that superimpose radial symmetry upon bilateral larval morphology. Consequently, they are not the first animals that come to mind when the concepts of segmentation and terminal addition are being discussed. However, it has long been recognized that echinoderms have serial elements along their radii formed in accordance with the ocular plate rule (OPR). The OPR is a special case of terminal growth, forming elements of the ambulacra that define the rays in echinoderms. New elements are added at the terminus of the ray, which may or may not be marked by a calcified element called the terminal plate (the "ocular" of sea urchins). The OPR operates in every echinoderm, from the occasionally bizarre fossils of the Cambrian to the most familiar extant taxa. Using the OPR and other criteria of recognition, echinoderm body wall can be divided into two main regions: extraxial components are associated with the somatocoels, axial components (formed in accordance with the OPR) with the hydrocoel. We compare patterns of development in axial regions of echinoderms with those found in the anterior-posterior axes of the earliest echinoderms as well as other invertebrates. Although axial and extraxial skeletons appear to be composed of the same biomineral matrix, the genes involved in patterning these two skeletal components are likely distinct. During development of the axial skeleton, for instance, the genes engrailed and orthodenticle are expressed in spatial and temporal patterns consistent with the OPR. Other genes such as distal-less seem to demarcate early ontogenetic boundaries between the axial rudiment and the extraxial larval body. There is a complex and pervasive reorganization of gene expression domains to produce the highly divergent morphologies seen in the Echinodermata. We integrate morphological and genetic information, particularly with respect to the origins of radial symmetry in the rudiment, and the concomitant development of

  2. The protein precursors of peptides that affect the mechanics of connective tissue and/or muscle in the echinoderm Apostichopus japonicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice R Elphick

    Full Text Available Peptides that cause muscle relaxation or contraction or that modulate electrically-induced muscle contraction have been discovered in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Phylum Echinodermata; Class Holothuroidea. By analysing transcriptome sequence data, here the protein precursors of six of these myoactive peptides (the SALMFamides Sticho-MFamide-1 and -2, NGIWYamide, stichopin, GN-19 and GLRFA have been identified, providing novel insights on neuropeptide and endocrine-type signalling systems in echinoderms. The A. japonicus SALMFamide precursor comprises eight putative neuropeptides including both L-type and F-type SALMFamides, which contrasts with previous findings from the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus where L-type and F-type SALMFamides are encoded by different genes. The NGIWYamide precursor contains five copies of NGIWYamide but, unlike other NG peptide-type neuropeptide precursors in deuterostomian invertebrates, the NGIWYamide precursor does not have a C-terminal neurophysin domain, indicating loss of this character in holothurians. NGIWYamide was originally discovered as a muscle contractant, but it also causes stiffening of mutable connective tissue in the body wall of A. japonicus, whilst holokinins (PLGYMFR and derivative peptides cause softening of the body wall. However, the mechanisms by which these peptides affect the stiffness of body wall connective tissue are unknown. Interestingly, analysis of the A. japonicus transcriptome reveals that the only protein containing the holokinin sequence PLGYMFR is an alpha-5 type collagen. This suggests that proteolysis of collagen may generate peptides (holokinins that affect body wall stiffness in sea cucumbers, providing a novel perspective on mechanisms of mutable connective tissue in echinoderms.

  3. Mg isotopes in biocarbonates: new insight into vital effects associated to echinoderms and bivalves calcification (United States)

    Planchon, F.; Hermans, J.; Borremans, C.; Dubois, P.; Poulain, C.; Paulet, Y.; Andre, L.


    Mg isotopes can be helpful tracers to reveal the fundamental pathways of Mg incorporation during biomineralisation. We report in this study a detailed characterisation of the Mg isotopic signatures of different biominerals: high magnesium calcitic skeletons of selected echinoderms (sea urchins and starfish) and low magnesium aragonitic shells of a bivalve species (clam). State of the art analytical procedures were applied including sample purification step followed by high precision measurements using MC-ICP-MS (Nu instrument) in dry plasma conditions. 26Mg/24Mg and 25Mg/24Mg are expressed as per mil deviations from the DSM3 (Dead Sea Metal 3) reference standard in delta notation (d26Mg and d25Mg). For echinoderms, we considered: (a) adult specimens of six starfish species (Asteria r., Marthasterias g., Anseropoda p., Asterina g., Echinaster s. and Henricia o.), sampled in Brittany (France); (b) a sea urchin species (Paracentrotus lividus) with field samples (Mediterranean Sea, Marseille, France) and culture specimen under T and S controlled conditions. In vivo endoskeletons display negative, but different d26Mg values of -3.06 for starfish (with uniform interspecies signatures) and -2.65 for sea urchin. Relative to seawater signature (-0.82), all echinoderms favour the incorporation of light isotopes during biocalcification. The d26Mg depletion is lower than theoretically expected from a inorganic calcite precipitation from seawater (at -3.5). These differences suggest that on its route from seawater to the shell, Mg isotopes are partly biologically fractionationated through "vital effects" leaving heavier Mg isotopic signatures. Taken into account that calcification in echinoderms is an intra- cellular process involving transient amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) phase, the observed bio-fractionation factors can be related to: (1) changes in the isotopic composition of the precipitating intracellular fluids due to active pumping in and out of the cell; (2) a

  4. 海参的干制技术及其研究进展%Research progress of dry-cure technology of sea cucumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段续; 王辉; 任广跃; 朱克瑞


    The sea cucumber is an invertebrate animal living in sea water belonging to the phylum Echinodermata.Up to now,more than 50 kinds of nutrition contents had been found in the sea cucumber.Sea cucumber is looked on as a delicious and expense dish for its high nutrition and tonic function.There are many valuable active components in the sea cucumber.The sea cucumber can autolyze after leaving sea water,it is difficult to preserve and transport.As a result,most of the fresh sea cucumber all over the world is processed to dehydrated product.Up to now,most of sea cucumbers are dehydrated by traditional techniques which need to add salt,boil again and again and expose to solar radiation.In this paper,some new drying methods of sea cucumbers were introduced and the development direction of the drying technology was also shown.%海参是归属于无脊椎动物棘皮动物门(Echinodermata)的无脊椎动物,截止目前已发现海参体内含有50多种对人体生理活动有益的营养成分,具有极高的食疗价值,是珍贵的海产美味。但海参离开海水会自溶,所以必须尽快加工以便流通。市场上流通的海参大多是干制品,所采用的干燥脱水方法主要还是传统的蒸煮、挂盐、晾晒等手段,急需新型的干燥脱水加工技术。本文介绍了当前利用现代食品加工手段来干燥海参的方法以及相关的研究进展,指出了海参干燥技术的发展方向。

  5. Temporal and spatial distribution of the meiobenthic community in Daya Bay, South China Sea

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    L. Tang


    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal biodiversity patterns of the meiobenthos were studied for the first time in Daya Bay, which is a tropical semi-enclosed basin located in the South China Sea. The abundance, biomass, and composition of the meiobenthos and the basic environmental factors in the bay were investigated. The following 19 taxonomic groups were represented in the meiofauna: Nematoda, Copepoda, Polychaeta, Oligochaeta, Kinorhyncha, Gastrotricha, Ostracoda, Bivalvia, Turbellaria, Nemertinea, Sipuncula, Hydroida, Amphipoda, Cumacea, Halacaroidea, Priapulida, Echinodermata, Tanaidacea, and Rotifera. Total abundance and biomass of the meiobenthos showed great spatial and temporal variation, with mean values of 993.57 ± 455.36 ind cm−2 and 690.51 ± 210.64 μg 10 cm−2, respectively. Nematodes constituted 95.60 % of the total abundance and thus had the greatest effect on meiofauna quantity and distribution, followed by copepods (1.55 % and polychaetes (1.39 %. Meiobenthos abundance was significantly negatively correlated with water depth at stations (r=−0.747, P<0.05 and significantly negatively correlated with silt-clay content (r=−0.516, P<0.01 and medium diameter (r=−0.499, P<0.01 of the sediment. Similar results were found for correlations of biomass and abundance of nematodes with environmental parameters. Polychaete abundance was positively correlated with the bottom water temperature (r=0.456, P<0.01. Meiobenthos abundance differed significantly among seasons (P<0.05, although no significant difference among stations and the interaction of station × season was detected by two-way ANOVA. In terms of vertical distribution, most of the meiobenthos was found in the surface layer of sediment. This pattern was apparent for nematodes and copepods, but a vertical distribution pattern for polychaetes was not as obvious. Based on the biotic indices and analyses of

  6. Molecular mechanism and ecological function of animal carrying tetrodotoxin%动物携带河豚毒素的分子机制与生态作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏捷; 姜琳琳; 吴靖娜; 王茵; 张农


    河豚毒素在自然界中分布广泛,从微生物到植物、动物都有发现.除河豚外,河豚毒素还在节肢动物、棘皮动物、软体动物、蠕虫、蝾螈、青蛙等其他物种中都有不同含量的分布.不同动物产生、富集河豚毒素的机制可能存在很大差别,但是河豚毒素对其携带动物在自然选择进化中发挥着重大的作用.目前中国对河豚毒素的研究主要集中在河豚毒素的分离纯化、检测分析及抗体制备等方面,而对河豚毒素产生的分子机制及生态作用的研究还很少,文章通过综述国外对河豚毒素分子机制及生态作用的研究,进一步阐释动物携带河豚毒素的分子机制及河豚毒素对动物的重要生态作用.%Tetrodotoxin has a wide range distribution in the wild.In addition to puffer fish,there are many animals,including arthropod,echinodermata,mollusc,worm,newt,frog,etc,contain tetrodotoxin.Although the existing mechanism may be different to various animals,tetrodotoxin plays a very important role in poisonous animal during natural selection and evolvement.In China,the studies of tetrodotoxin are mostly on purification,detecting analysis and antibody preparation,while less work has been performed on its molecular mechanism and ecological function.The present study sums up the related researches on tetrodotoxin's molecular mechanism and ecological function and tries to illustrate the molecular mechanism of carrying tetrodotoxin in the animals.

  7. The enigmatic mitochondrial genome of Rhabdopleura compacta (Pterobranchia reveals insights into selection of an efficient tRNA system and supports monophyly of Ambulacraria

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    Stadler Peter F


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Hemichordata comprises solitary-living Enteropneusta and colonial-living Pterobranchia, sharing morphological features with both Chordata and Echinodermata. Despite their key role for understanding deuterostome evolution, hemichordate phylogeny is controversial and only few molecular data are available for phylogenetic analysis. Furthermore, mitochondrial sequences are completely lacking for pterobranchs. Therefore, we determined and analyzed the complete mitochondrial genome of the pterobranch Rhabdopleura compacta to elucidate deuterostome evolution. Thereby, we also gained important insights in mitochondrial tRNA evolution. Results The mitochondrial DNA of Rhabdopleura compacta corresponds in size and gene content to typical mitochondrial genomes of metazoans, but shows the strongest known strand-specific mutational bias in the nucleotide composition among deuterostomes with a very GT-rich main-coding strand. The order of the protein-coding genes in R. compacta is similar to that of the deuterostome ground pattern. However, the protein-coding genes have been highly affected by a strand-specific mutational pressure showing unusual codon frequency and amino acid composition. This composition caused extremely long branches in phylogenetic analyses. The unusual codon frequency points to a selection pressure on the tRNA translation system to codon-anticodon sequences of highest versatility instead of showing adaptations in anticodon sequences to the most frequent codons. Furthermore, an assignment of the codon AGG to Lysine has been detected in the mitochondrial genome of R. compacta, which is otherwise observed only in the mitogenomes of some arthropods. The genomes of these arthropods do not have such a strong strand-specific bias as found in R. compacta but possess an identical mutation in the anticodon sequence of the tRNALys. Conclusion A strong reversed asymmetrical mutational constraint in the mitochondrial genome of

  8. Localization of neuropeptide gene expression in larvae of an echinoderm, the starfish Asterias rubens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana D Mayorova


    Full Text Available Neuropeptides are an ancient class of neuronal signaling molecules that regulate a variety of physiological and behavioral processes in animals. The life cycle of many animals includes a larval stage(s that precedes metamorphic transition to a reproductively active adult stage but, with the exception of Drosophila melanogaster and other insects, research on neuropeptide signaling has hitherto largely focused on adult animals. However, recent advances in genome/transcriptome sequencing have facilitated investigation of neuropeptide expression/function in the larvae of protostomian (e.g. the annelid Platynereis dumerilii and deuterostomian (e.g. the urochordate Ciona intestinalis invertebrates. Accordingly, here we report the first multi-gene investigation of larval neuropeptide precursor expression in a species belonging to the phylum Echinodermata - the starfish Asterias rubens. Whole-mount mRNA in situ hybridization was used to visualize in bipinnaria and brachiolaria stage larvae the expression of eight neuropeptide precursors: L-type SALMFamide (S1, F-type SALMFamide (S2, vasopressin/oxytocin-type, NGFFYamide, thyrotropin-releasing hormone-type, gonadotropin-releasing hormone-type, calcitonin-type and corticotropin-releasing hormone-type. Expression of only three of the precursors (S1, S2, NGFFYamide was observed in bipinnaria larvae but by the brachiolaria stage expression of all eight precursors was detected. An evolutionarily conserved feature of larval nervous systems is the apical organ and in starfish larvae this comprises the bilaterally symmetrical lateral ganglia, but only the S1 and S2 precursors were found to be expressed in these ganglia. A prominent feature of brachiolaria larvae is the attachment complex, comprising the brachia and adhesive disk, which mediates larval attachment to a substratum prior to metamorphosis. Interestingly, all of the neuropeptide precursors examined here are expressed in the attachment complex, with

  9. Conodonts, Calcichordates and the Origin of Vertebrates

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    J. Bergström


    Full Text Available Interpretation of early deuterostome evolution and relationships has been hampered by the lack of soft-part preservation in most groups. In addition, a recently revealed upside-down life orientation of vertebrates (the only real notoneuralians compared to other bilateral animals has been misinterpreted as evidence for a unique body design in all deuterostomes, misleading any search for relatives. Regarding echinoderms, the variety of body plans is confusing. The interpretation of some fossils with echinoderm-type calcite skeletons as “calcichordate” ancestors of chordates, however, involves a hypothetical reconstruction of an unusual body plan and a long series of hypothetical transitions. The number of necessary steps is much lower if cephalochordates (amphioxus or lancelet are derived directly from hemichordate enteropneusts. “Sensation interpretations” of fossils (Yunnanozoon, Cathaymyrus from Burgess Shale type deposits have added further confusion. Soft-part preservation of conodont animals, with V-shaped myomeres and a notochord, shows that they were segmented chordates, while probable eyes and teeth suggest that they were already on the vertebrate side. Die Interpretation früher Deuterostomia hinsichtlich ihrer Evolution und verwandtschaftlichen Beziehungen ist in den meisten Gruppen durch den Mangel an Weichkörpererhaltung sehr erschwert. Die kürzlich entdeckte Tatsache, daß Vertebraten, d. h. die einzigen echten Notoneuralia, im Gegensatz zu anderen bilateral symmetrischen Organismen eine mit ihrer ursprünglichen Oberseite nach unten gerichtete Lebensstellung einnehmen, hat zu der irrtümlichen Ansicht geführt, daß alle Deuostomia über einen im Tierreich einzigartigen Bauplan verfügen. Diese Interpretation brachte naturgemäß jede Suche nach Verwandtschaftsverhältnissen auf Abwege. Hinsichtlich der Echinodermata ist die bauplanmäßige Variation in der Tat verwirrend. Die Interpretation einiger Fossilien mit

  10. The Sinbad retrotransposon from the genome of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni, and the distribution of related Pao-like elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales Maria E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Of the major families of long terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposons, the Pao/BEL family is probably the least well studied. It is becoming apparent that numerous LTR retrotransposons and other mobile genetic elements have colonized the genome of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni. Results A proviral form of Sinbad, a new LTR retrotransposon, was identified in the genome of S. mansoni. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Sinbad belongs to one of five discreet subfamilies of Pao/BEL like elements. BLAST searches of whole genomes and EST databases indicated that members of this clade occurred in species of the Insecta, Nematoda, Echinodermata and Chordata, as well as Platyhelminthes, but were absent from all plants, fungi and lower eukaryotes examined. Among the deuterostomes examined, only aquatic species harbored these types of elements. All four species of nematode examined were positive for Sinbad sequences, although among insect and vertebrate genomes, some were positive and some negative. The full length, consensus Sinbad retrotransposon was 6,287 bp long and was flanked at its 5'- and 3'-ends by identical LTRs of 386 bp. Sinbad displayed a triple Cys-His RNA binding motif characteristic of Gag of Pao/BEL-like elements, followed by the enzymatic domains of protease, reverse transcriptase (RT, RNAseH, and integrase, in that order. A phylogenetic tree of deduced RT sequences from 26 elements revealed that Sinbad was most closely related to an unnamed element from the zebrafish Danio rerio and to Saci-1, also from S. mansoni. It was also closely related to Pao from Bombyx mori and to Ninja of Drosophila simulans. Sinbad was only distantly related to the other schistosome LTR retrotransposons Boudicca, Gulliver, Saci-2, Saci-3, and Fugitive, which are gypsy-like. Southern hybridization and bioinformatics analyses indicated that there were about 50 copies of Sinbad in the S. mansoni genome. The presence of ESTs

  11. Studying the Relative Strengths of Environmental Factors that Influence Echinoderm Body Size Trends (United States)

    Low, A.; Randhawa, S.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.


    Body size is often a useful metric in observing how a clade responds to environmental changes. Previous research has uncovered how environmental factors such as carbon dioxide and oxygen levels influence body size evolution. However, we wanted to look into how these natural factors interact and which factors seem to have a stronger relative influence on echinoderm body size. We analyzed carbon dioxide levels, a proxy for paleotemperature, oxygen levels, and sea level. Our research process involved measuring and calculating the volume of Phanerozoic echinoderm fossils recorded in the Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, plotting their mean volumes over various natural factors, and using statistical tools such as correlation tests and the PaleoTS statistical analysis software to compare the relative strengths of these factors. Furthermore, we divided our data into the following three subsets to uncover more specific relationships: 1) A set that included all data of the phylum Echinodermata 2) A set that focused on the two classes with the most recorded data, Echinoidea and Crinoidea 3) A set that focused on the crinoid specimens that originated in the Paleozoic and in the post-Paleozoic. In the first subset, echinoderms had the strongest correlation with carbon dioxide, a proxy for temperature, and possessed a weaker correlation with oxygen. In the second subset, we discovered that the echinoid data also possessed a strong correlation with carbon dioxide and a weaker correlation with oxygen. For crinoids, we found that the class as a whole showed no strong correlation with any measured environmental factors. However, when we divided the crinoids based on age, we found that both Paleozoic and post-Paleozoic crinoids individually correlated strongly with sea level. However, some uncertainty with this correlation arose as the comparison of the environmental correlate models suggested that an unbiased random walk was the best fit for the data. This stands as a sharp

  12. Effect of environmental variables on body size evolution of crinoids between periods of mass extinctions (United States)

    Jani, T.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.


    Body size plays a major role in determining whether or not an organism can sustain in its local environment. The ecosystem of an animal has a major effect on the fitness of organisms, and it would be interesting to note the degree to which various environmental factors alter body size. In my project, I identify three environmental factors that seem to affect body size of crinoids, marine invertebrates from phylum Echinodermata, and explore how these variables play out in the intervals between the five mass extinctions. The particular factors I study include atmospheric CO2 concentration (proxy for temperature), O2 concentration, and sea level. Although the r and p values for all of these factors were statistically insignificant to definitively make any correlation, there was a visual correlation. For O2, I noted a generally positive correlation with body size over time. CO2 trends suggested a negative correlation until the K-T boundary, but a positive correlation afterwards. Correlation with sea level was a little more complicated: correlation was positive from the start of the Phanerozoic to the Permian extinction; it turned negative until the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary; afterwards, it again became positive. However, for all three variables, statistical values are too low to say definitively mark any correlation. Out of all three factors, CO2 levels had the highest correlation and lowest p-values in the most time intervals: from the start of the Phanerozoic to Ordovician-Silurian Extinction, from the Late Devonian to the Permian Extinction, and from the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary to the present. When considering first differences, CO2 levels also had the highest correlation from the Permian Extinction to Triassic-Jurassic Extinction and from the Triassic-Jurassic Extinction to Cretaceous-Tertiary Extinction. Using PaleoTS, I found that body size evolution patterns either seemed to follow either an unbiased random walk (URW) or stasis in the intervals between

  13. Identification of a novel starfish neuropeptide that acts as a muscle relaxant. (United States)

    Kim, Chan-Hee; Kim, Eun Jung; Go, Hye-Jin; Oh, Hye Young; Lin, Ming; Elphick, Maurice R; Park, Nam Gyu


    peptide (SMP), a novel member of the PP/OK-type neuropeptide identified in the starfish Patiria pectinifera (phylum Echinodermata). SMP is the first PP/OK-type neuropeptide to be functionally characterised in a deuterostome.

  14. Resolving Metazoan phyla divergence times during cambrian explosion by COX I protein molecules%COXI蛋白质分子确定“寒武纪生物大爆发”时期物种分歧时间

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    By using the equation for calculating absolute evolutionary rates of biological molecules presented by the author and classic"molecular clock"Cytochrome oxidase subunit I ( COX I ) protein molecules , the metazoan phyla divergence times during Cambrian explosion were obtained .These results show that Protostomia and Deuterostomia separated at560 million years( myrs ) ago.The phyla divergence times of four major deuterstomia:Cephalochordata , Urochordata, Hemichordata and Echinodermata are 536 myrs ago, 540 myrs ago, 548 myrs ago and 545 myrs ago, respectively.These divergence times agree well with their fossil records , and are obviously better than those obtained by other current molecular clock methods .Our method may provide a new way to understand origins and evo-lution of creatures .%使用经典分子钟分子COX I蛋白质和作者提出的同源生物分子绝对进化速率计算公式,对“寒武纪生物大爆发”期间的一些主要动物门类分歧时间进行了计算。结果表明:原口动物和后口动物分歧时间为5.60亿年前,后口动物中的头索动物、尾索动物、半索动物和棘皮动物的分歧时间分别为5.36亿年前、5.40亿年前、5.48亿年前和5.45亿年前。这些结果与化石记录基本符合,明显好于现有分子钟理论得到的结果。为研究生物起源和演化提供了一种的新的思路和方法。

  15. The relationship between zooplankton and the environmental factors in the coastal waters of Hainan Island in the early summer%海南岛近岸海域夏初浮游动物与环境因子的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张光星; 陈石泉; 陈丹丹; 吴钟解; 李元超; 蔡泽富; 王道儒


    根据2011年夏初在海南岛近岸海域采集的浮游动物样本,分析了该海域浮游动物的种类组成、优势种类、丰度、生态类群,生物多样性及均匀度,并对浮游动物与环境因子之间的关系进行了探讨。海南岛近岸海域共鉴定出终生性浮游动物164种,阶段性浮游幼体11个类群,其中以桡足类的种类最多,40属82种。优势种主要有棘皮动物幼体 Echinodermata larva、鸟喙尖头蟤 Penilia avirostris 、异体住囊虫Oikopleura dioica 、长尾类幼体 Macrura larva、肥胖软箭虫 Ferosagitta enflata 、羽长腹剑水蚤Oithona plumifera 、小齿海樽 Doliolum denticulatum 、中型莹虾 Lucifer intermedius 、泡抱球虫 Globig-erina bulloides 、微驼隆哲水蚤 Acrocalanus gracilis 等。海南岛近岸海域浮游动物丰度平均值为1348.68 ind/m3,东部海域浮游动物丰度最高,由近岸向远岸呈递减趋势,而北部湾海域和南部海域由近岸向远岸则呈先增后减的趋势。夏初由于受沿岸流和南海暖流的影响,海南岛近岸海域的生态类群以暖水沿岸种和广布暖水外海种为主。浮游动物多样性指数和均匀度平均值为3.03和0.72,东部海域的多样性指数和均匀度较低,主要原因是阶段性浮游幼体的偶然性暴发。相关性分析显示,海南岛近岸海域浮游动物丰度与 pH 值呈极显著负相关(p <0.05,r=-0.360);与浮游植物丰度(PA)呈极显著正相关(p <0.01,r=0.395);与盐度、DO、CODMn、NO3-N 浓度、NH4-N 浓度、PO4-P 浓度成正相关,与温度、NO2-N 浓度、SiO3-Si 浓度呈负相关。%Based on the zooplankton samples that were collected from the coastal waters of Hainan Island in the early summer of 2011,the factors such as species composition,dominant species,abundance,ecological groups,Shannon-Wiener index and evenness of zooplankton were analyzed ,and the relationship

  16. Ecological characteristics and seasonal variation of macrobenthos near the Ningjin coastal water of Shandong, East China%宁津近岸海域大型底栖动物生态学特征和季节变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘志彬; 李新正; 王洪法; 张宝琳


    The coastal water off Ningjin is located at the eastern end of the Shandong Peninsula, the boundary of the Northern and Southern Yellow Sea. In this paper, the ecological characteristics and seasonal variation of macrobenthic community in this region were studied, based on the investigation data collected from the four cruises in January (winter), April (spring), July (summer), and October (autumn), 2007. A total of 243 macrobenthic species were identified, of which, 96 species were of Polychaeta, 77 were of Crustacea, 43 were of Mollusca, 13 were of Echinodermata, and the rest 14 species were of other benthic groups. The dominant species varied with seasons, but Parala-cydonin paradoxa (Polychaeta) and Amphioplus japonhcus (Echinodermata) were dominant throughout the four seasons. The average biomass of the macrobenthos estimated from the four cruises was 9. 5 g ·nT-2, with the highest biomass during the spring cruise and the lowest one during the winter cruise. The average abundance estimated from the four cruises was 219. 6 ind·m-2, with the highest abundance during the winter cruise and the lowest one during the autumn cruise. The Shannon index (H) of the macrobenthos community varied from 2. 82 to 3. 23, the species richness index (D) varied from 2.28 to 2.75, and the species evenness index (J) varied from 0.82 to 0.86. The Bray-Curtis similarity cluster analysis and MDS ordination analyses indicated that there was a distinct distribution of macrobenthic communities from seashore to offshore, which was closely correlated with the spatial structure of bathymetry and the sediment type in the study region.%宁津海域位于山东半岛东端,南北黄海交界处.根据2007年1、4、7及10月4个航次(冬、春、夏、秋)对宁津近岸海域大型底栖动物调查资料,采用优势度指数、物种多样性指数、丰富度指数、均匀度指数,Bray-Curtis相似性聚类分析以及MDS标序等方法,分析了该区域内大型底栖动物的生

  17. Analysis of Phenoloxidase Activity in the Coelomic Fluid of Strongylocentrotus intermedius%虾夷马粪海胆(Strongylocentrotus intermedius)体腔液的酚氧化酶活性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王轶南; 刘学伟; 刘艳萍; 常亚青


    Phenoloxidase (PO) activity and proPO induction in plasma and coelomocyte lysate supernatan (CLS) of Strongylocentrotus intermedius was detected, and the effect of disease on the enzyme actives of sea urchin was analyzed. The results showed that PO of the coelomic fluid of S. intermedius was mainly distributed in plasma, and the PO activity in plasma was 48.28 ±6.69 U, that in CLS was 2.24 ±1.81 U; and prpPO existed in CLS was at very low level. After being activated by 1 mg/mL Trypsin and 100 mmol/L MgCl2, the PO activity increased 2.24 U and 7.86 U, respectively. The LPS, SDS, CaCl2 and methanol had no obviously inductive effect; and the PO activity of bacteria-infected S. intermedius was 12.90 ± 2.03 U, which declined significantly ( P < 0.05 ) comparing with that of the healthy ones (30.63 ±2.21 U). While the PO activity of diseased S. intermedius increased 4. 19 ± 1.96 U after induced by 100 mmol/L MgCl2, which increased significantly ( P < 0.05 ) comparing with thai of the healthy ones (2. 76 ± 1.15 U). The above results provide basis for further studies on immune defense mechanism of S. intermedius and other Echinodermata aminals.%分别测定虾夷马粪海胆血浆和体腔细胞溶解上清液(CLS)中的酚氧化酶(PO)活性以及不同刺激物对其酚氧化酶原系统(proPO)的激活效果,并初步分析了患病虾夷马粪海胆体腔液中酚氧化酶活性的变化.结果显示:虾夷马粪海胆体腔液的PO主要分布于血浆中,且个体差异较大,血浆中PO活性为48.28±6.69U,CLS中PO活性为2.24±1.81 U;proPO存在于体腔细胞中,含量较少,其被1 mg/mL Trypsin及100 mmol/LMgCl2激活后,PO活性分别提高2.24 U和7.86 U,LPS、SDS、CaCl2和甲醇等对酚氧化酶原无明显激活效果;虾夷马粪海胆感染细菌后体腔液的酚氧化酶活性为12.90±2.03U,相较于健康海胆(30.63±2.21 U)显著降低(P<0.05),而在100 mmol/L MgCl2作用下酚氧化酶活性提高4.19±1.96 U,相较于健康海胆(2

  18. Effect of sodium selenite on some enzymes of coelomic fluid to the immune response of holothurian Apostichopus japonicus%亚硒酸钠对刺参免疫反应中体腔液酶活力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪展; 郑风荣; 孙修勤; 唐学玺


    The aquaculture of the sea cucumber Apostichopus jp0nicus(Echinodermata,Holothuroidea)has been growing rapidly over recent years in China in response to increasing consumer demand. Indeed, it has become an important sector of the marine industry in Northern China. However,with rapid growth and the use of non-standard practices and culture techniques,epidemic diseases of A. Japonicus now pose increasing problems to the industry. Therefore, the healthy aquaculture of A. Japonicus is important. For a reasonable evaluation of selenium effect on sea cucumber aquaculture, using laboratory tests to simulate the sodium selenite treatment and virus infection conditions, the detection and observation of the sea cucumber body cavity fluid immune enzyme changes, pathological changes and the relative rate of protection were made. The results showed that: the change of immune enzymes in coelomic fluid of sea cucumbers under simulated sodium selenite treatments and bacteria infected conditions was tested in order to reasonably evaluate the influence of selenium on aquaculture diseases. Results indicated that the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase ( GPx), lysozyme ( LYZ), phenoloxidase ( PO) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)in coelomic fluid rose after sodium selenite treatments were enhanced. However,SOD,GPX and LYZ activities first ascended and then declined, and PO and ALP activities showed continued rise under additional pathogen injection into sea cucumbers, but the increasing extent of ALP activity was reduced along with increased sodium selenite concentration, and total diseased incidence rose and relative percent survival decreased under the severe sodium selenite treatment. This suggested that applying sodium selenite with moderate concentration could enhance immunity of sea cucumber to bacterial infection, but infecting also aggravated immune damage of sea cucumber by sodium selenite stress. Therefore, the diseases of cultured sea cucumber can

  19. 河北昌黎生态监控区8月潮间带生物多样性年际变化趋势%The inter-annual variation trend of intertidal biodiversity in August in the ecology-monitoring area of Changli in Hebei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张月明; 梁晓林; 赵志楠; 韩晓庆; 金照光; 高伟明


    According to the monitoring data and information obtained from National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center, the species composition, density, biomass, dominant species andthe trend of biodiversity variation in the ecology-monitoring area of Changli in Hebei Province from 2009 to 2013 were analyzed. The results showed that 5 phylum including arthropods, annelid, mollusks, echinodermata and chordata, totally 17 family and 26 species were identified. The types and number of species were declined annually. The density and biomass were consistent with the characteristics of low tidal zone>medium tidal zone>high tidal zone. The dominant species were changed significantly, by which arthropods, annelid and mollusks appearing alternately. As the decreasing of the number of dominant species, the dominance index went up which suppressed the other species. The Shannon-Wiener’s index(H’), Margalef’s richness index (dMa) were low, and their variation ranges were 0.81~3.23 and 0.48~3.96, respectively. The variation range of Pielou’s evenness index (J) was0.64~0.8, which presented a miniature uptrend and stable status.%依据国家海洋环境监测中心2009~2013年测得的数据和资料,对河北昌黎生态监控区潮间带生物的种类组成、栖息密度、生物量、优势种以及多样性指数进行统计运算,分析该监控区5年时间尺度的潮间带生物多样性变化趋势。结果表明:监控区共鉴定出潮间带生物5门,包括节肢动物、环节动物、软体动物、棘皮动物和脊索动物,共17科,26种,类型较少,年际种数呈逐年下降趋势;栖息密度与生物量较低,保持低潮带>中潮带>高潮带的特征;优势种群变化显著,节肢动物、环节动物和软体动物交替出现,优势种数逐年减少,优势度上升,对其他物种抑制作用增强;均匀度指数(J)呈微上升趋势,变化范围为0.64~0.81,状况良好,物种多样性指数(H′)和丰富度指数(d

  20. Causes of Reticular Cracks in Ordovician Baota Formation Limestone in Southern Shaanxi%陕南奥陶系宝塔组灰岩网状裂缝成因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王安东; 周瑶琪; 仲岩磊; 段竟; 王子阳; 张振凯


    为了研究奥陶系宝塔组灰岩网状裂缝的形成原因,利用古生物鉴定、野外露头对比及镜下薄片观察等方法进行分析.古生物以头足类、三叶虫、介形类和棘皮类为主,偶见腕足类,未见藻类.裂缝延伸到生物化石时停止,贯穿地层顶底面但未穿透相邻地层,平面呈瘤状、龟裂纹和S曲线等,锯齿状缝合线切穿裂缝.镜下发现灰质基块内散布着泥质团块,泥质团块通过微裂隙互相连通或连通主裂缝,泥质内夹的灰质碎屑长轴沿裂缝展布,新鲜剖面灰质基块与泥质裂缝无明显界限.提出宝塔期扬子板块处于稳定克拉通沉积环境,网状裂缝是在较深水缓慢沉积的低能开阔台地环境下,由于化学分异作用灰质质点聚集、压实作用胶态粘土矿物脱水收缩、泥质随水排出时充填裂缝而形成的,为非构造成因裂缝.%Through Paleontology appraisal, outcrop contrast and under mirror slice observation methods, this paper analyzes the causes of reticular cracks. Baota Formation limestone. Ordovician. Paleontology is mainly of cephalopods (Sinoceras chinen-sis). Trilobites, ostracoda and echinodermata (Metacrinus). Occasionally including Brachiopoda, noalga. The formation is divided into two units: the lower purple and the upper celadon. The crack, stretching from the surface and bottom without penetrating the adjacent formation, stops when extended to the biological fossils. The patterns are of nodular, tortoise shell and the S curve, etc; dentate suture lines cut through the crack. Microscopic study shows that shale mass spreads in the limy matrices, with shale mass connected each other or connected to the main crack by the micro crack, the macroaxis of the limy chipping in shale exhibited along the crack. There are no obvious boundaries between limy matrices and shale crack in fresh profile. It is concluded that the Yangtze plate. Baota period was in a stable craton sedimentary environment, and

  1. Sea urchins, their predators and prey in SW Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Mamede


    Full Text Available Sea urchins play a key role structuring benthic communities of rocky shores through an intense herbivory. The most abundant sea urchin species on shallow rocky subtidal habitats of the SW coast of Portugal is Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea. It is considered a key species in various locations throughout its geographical distribution by affecting the structure of macroalgae communities and may cause the abrupt transformation of habitats dominated by foliose algae to habitats dominated by encrusting algae - the urchin barrens. The removal of P. lividus predators by recreational and commercial fishing is considered a major cause of this phenomenon by affecting the trophic relationships between predators, sea urchins and algae communities. Marine protected areas (MPAs usually lead to the recovery of important predator species that control sea urchin populations and restore habitats dominated by foliose macroalgae. Therefore, MPAs provide a good opportunity to test cascading effects and indirect impacts of fishing at the ecosystem level. The ecological role of P. lividus was studied on rocky subtidal habitats of the SW coast of Portugal (Alentejo considering three trophic levels: population of P. lividus, their predators (fish and shellfish and their prey (macroalgae communities. Several studies were conducted: (1 a non-destructive observational study on the abundance and distribution patterns of P. lividus, their predators and preys, comparing areas with different protection; (2 a manipulative in situ study with cages to assess the role of P. lividus as an herbivore and the influence of predation; (3 a descriptive study of P. lividus predators based on underwater filming; (4 and a study of human perception on these trophic relationships and other issues on sea urchin ecology and fishery, based on surveys made to fishermen and divers. Subtidal studies were performed with SCUBA diving at 3-12 m deep. Results indicate that in the

  2. 我国海洋大型底栖生物多样性研究及展望:以黄海为例%An overview of studies on marine macrobenthic biodiversity from Chinese waters: principally from the Yellow Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The progress on the studies of marine macrobenthic biodiversity from Chinese waters with a focus on the Yellow Sea is summarized in the present paper, with discussions of achievements in the fields of species composition, individual consistency, biomass, biodiversity, secondary productivity, macrobenthic community energy levels, and the introductions of research methods, impacts of environmental change and pollution. To date, Jiaozhou Bay, Changjiang Estuary, and the Fujian and Zhejiang coastal zones are the most intensively studied regions. The seminal research projects on macrobenthic ecology and biodiversity within the study region are also listed. In conclusion of the studies of macrobenthic ecology and biodiversity in China seas, the macrobenthic fauna from the Bohai Bay is the most simple. A total of 413 macrobenthic species have been found in this gulf, the common or dominant species are usually the hypothermal, euryhalinous warm water species; the annual mean biomass is 19.83 g/m2, the Mollusca is the main contributing group to the biomass; the annual mean density is 474 inds./m2, the Polychaeta and Mollusca are the two main contributing groups to the density. In the Yellow Sea, 853 macrobenthic species have been found. The common or dominant species are stenohaline warm water species; the annual mean biomass from the northern Yellow Sea is 99.66 g/m2, the Echinodermata is the main contributing group to the biomass, the annual mean biomass from the southern Yellow Sea is 27.69 g/m2, which is much lower than that from the northern Yellow Sea, the Polychaeta is the main contributor; the annual mean density from the northern Yellow Sea is 2,017.40 inds./m2, that from the southern Yellow Sea is only 88.67 inds./m2. In fact, the mean density and biomass from the northern Yellow Sea is much higher than those from other areas in China seas; the annual mean secondary productivity from the southern Yellow Sea is 4.98 g(APDW)/m2, the two high areas of secondary

  3. Spatiotemporal distribution of macrobenthic communities and its relationships with environmental factors in Sanmen Bay%三门湾大型底栖动物时空分布及其与环境因子的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖一波; 寿鹿; 曾江宁; 高爱根


    In November 2006 and in January, April, and August 2007, an investigation on the macrobenthic communities was conducted at 18 stations in Sanmen Bay to study the relationships between the macrobenthic communities and environmental factors. A total of 124 taxa were collect-ed , including 44 species of Polychaeta, 34 species of Crustacea, 22 species of Mollusca, 11 spe-cies of Echinodermata, and 13 species of others. The species of Polychaeta and Mollusca accounted for 62. 9% of the total, which constituted the main population of the communities. Aglaophamus di-branchis, Capitella capitata, and Sternaspis scutata were the dominant species in spring, Stemaspis scutaia, Aglaophamus dibranchis, and Spionidae spp. were the dominant species in summer, S. scutata, C. capitata, A. dibranchis and Virgularia gustaviana were the dominant species in au-tumn , and A. dibranchis, S. scutata, C. capitata, and Spionidae spp. were the dominant species in winter. There was a significant difference in the average biomass and average density of the mac-robenthic communities between different seasons. The annual average biomass was 17.36 g ·m-2, and the annual average density was 72 ind · m-2. The diversity indices of the macrobenthic commu-nities also differed significantly between different seasons. The seasonal average Shannon diversity index was from 1.53 to 1.89, seasonal average Margalef species richness index was from 2. 25 to 2. 96, and seasonal average Pielou evenness index was from 0. 83 to 0. 94. Canonical correspon-dence analysis showed that the sea water temperature, salinity, and dissolved inorganic nitrogen, and the organic matter, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus in surface sediment were the main envi-ronmental factors affecting the macrobenthic communities. Environmental variables could better ex-plain the changes of main macrobenthic species.%2006年11月、2007年1月、4月和8月在三门湾18个采样点对大型底栖动物进行调查,分析了其时空分


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏晓; 程方平; 李超伦; 孙松


    Estimation of zooplankton diversity and distribution is important for understanding local marine ecosystem conditions,and may serve as sensitive indicators for climate-induced changes.The scarcity of taxonomists and subtle morphological variations in some groups pose a problem for the identification of zooplanktons,especially at their larval stages.DNA barcodes provide an alternative approach to accurate identification of zooplankton species.The efficiency of the mitochondrial cox1 fragments for species reorganization in zooplanktons was evaluated in this study.The samples were collected from the Jiaozhou Bay and a station in the South Yellow Sea.82 DNA barcodes were determined for 45 common species that belonged to six different phyla in the local region,including:Arthropoda,Chaetognatha,Chordata,Cnidaria,Echinodermata,and Mollusca.According to the saturation plot,the cox1 gene was substitutionally saturated for the alignment,which was best illustrated by the wobble codons of the gene.The wobble codons quickly got saturated at around 0.2 substitution per site.K2P genetic distances between individuals within the same species ranged from 0 to 0.11,with an average of 0.013(SE = 0.003);meanwhile,genetic distance between species within the same genera ranged from 0.137 to 0.369,with an average of 0.265(SE = 0.002).Thus the genetic distance between species was at least 20 times larger that of the within species,indicating a barcode gap,which ensured that cox1 sequences can be used as reliable characters for species identification for the zooplankton assemblages.However,species with extremely large intraspecific divergences were still noticed in our study,which may be explained by population genetic divergence owing to ecological or geographical isolation,unidentified cryptic speciation,and mis-identification.The significant barcode gap and the long-branch isolated shallow tips topology for the Sagitta bedoti suggested a possible cryptic speciation for the

  5. 辽宁獐子岛马牙滩潮间带及近岸海区大型底栖动物群落特征%Macrobenthic fauna in the intertidal and offshore areas of Zhangzi Island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王全超; 韩庆喜; 李宝泉


    identify the distribution and potential anthropogenic impacts on this aquatic community. Four biodiversity indices, Bray-Curtis similarity, MDS ordination analyses, and ABC curves were used in the present work to analyze the community structure. We identified 39 total macrobenthic species in the intertidal zone of Maya Beach, of which the most dominant groups were the Polychaeta, followed by Crustacea, and Mollusca. We found four dominant species belonging to Poly-chaeta, including Capitella capitata, Lycastopsis augenari, Naineris laevigata, and Lumbrineris latreilli. Average biomass of the intertidal zone was 25.76 ±41.08 g/m2, of which Mollusca contributed most. Average density was 315.11 ± 160.73 ind./m2, of which the Polychaeta contributed most. The average value of three biodiversity indices were relatively low (Richness index 1.17 ± 0.89, Evenness index 0.74 ±0.17 and Shannon-Wiener index 1.80 ± 1.09). We identified 40 species in the offshore areas, of which the most dominant group was Polychaeta, followed by Crustacea, Mollusca and Echinodermata. We also identified five domi-nant species in offshore areas, including Ophiopholis mirabilis, Amphioplus japonicus, Lumbrineris latreilli, Echinocardium cordatum, and Ophiura sarsiivadicola. The average value of biomass and density was higher in the offshore areas compared to that of intertidal zone, with 218.86 ± 152.24 g/m2 and 700.00 ±471.51 ind./m2, respectively. The average value of Richness index was 1.40 ± 0.60, Evenness index 0.64 ±0.19 , and Shannon-Wiener index 2.04 ± 0.78. MDS ordination analysis showed that community structure was significantly different within the intertidal zone and the offshore areas. Lastly, the macrobenthos fauna in intertidal zone were impacted by a moderate anthropogenic disturbance, whereas the fauna in offshore areas was slightly disturbed.

  6. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geologia - Dissertações Defendidas 1998 - Mestrado - Instituto de Geociências - Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro

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    revisão sistemática dos equinóides regulares (ECHINODERMATA-ECHINOIDEA procedentes das rochas da Formação Pirabas (Oligo-Mioceno, Pará, Brasil. São redescritos Phyllacanthus priscus Brito & Ramirez, Histocidaris sp. e Prionocidaris sp., e são assinaladas, pela primeira vez, radíolos em “forma de leque” no Cenozóico das Américas atribuídos ao gênero “Cidaris”, e a primeira carapaça de um euequinóide regular, Psammechinus sp., em rochas do Cenozóico do Brasil. As análises tafonômica e paleoecológica preliminares sugerem uma deposição dos sedimentos da Formação Pirabas em mar de águas quentes e tranqüilas, sujeito a ações de tempestades, com condições excepcionais de fossilização localizadas. A nível filogenético é reafirmada a estreita relação dos equinóides regulares assinalados nas rochas da Formação Pirabas, com formas similares existentes na Província Faunística Caribeana durante o Cenozóico. Nome: Margareth de Toledo Conte Zulian Título: Um Estudo sobre Infiltração de Águas Pluviais em Fraturas Naturais na Porção Oeste da Serra da Carioca, Município do Rio de Janeiro Orientador: Eurípedes do Amaral Vargas Jr. Resumo: Através do mapeamento de duas áreas-piloto representativas da Serra da Carioca, o Morro da Formiga (vertente noroeste e a Ponta do Marisco (vertente sudoeste, verificou-se que a serra é seccionada por um sistema de fraturas, o qual apresenta duas famílias principais de direções NW-SE e NE-SW, com mergulhos subverticais. Famílias secundárias de direções aproximadas E-W e N-S, com mergulhos subverticais, NW-SE, com baixos ângulos de mergulho para SW e ainda E-W, com baixos ângulos de mergulho para S também são observadas e caracterizadas como juntas de alívio. Em todas as famílias foram estudadas as propriedades geométricas (orientação, persistência, espaçamento, a percolação de fluxo, as aberturas e o tipo de preenchimento, com o objetivo de entender o papel das fraturas na