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Sample records for asterina stellifera echinodermata

  1. Geographical implications of seasonal reproduction in the bat star Asterina stellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meretta, Pablo E.; Rubilar, Tamara; Cledón, Maximiliano; Ventura, C. Renato R.

    2014-01-01

    The reproductive cycle and environmental cues that regulate gonad production in Asterina stellifera were studied from April 2009 to April 2011 in a rocky subtidal habitat at the southernmost limit of its distribution (Mar del Plata, Argentina). The geographic variation in reproductive traits between latitudinal range limits was analyzed. The gonadal and pyloric caeca weight varied with sea star size and time in both sexes. Despite a previous study which suggested the absence of recruitment in a 4 year period, our data of the same period demonstrated that spawning happens from early spring to early summer. The gonad and pyloric caeca weight did not show an inverse relationship, this suggested that there is no dependence on energy transfer between the organs and that the bat star presented a good nutritional state. Seawater temperature appears to be the variable explaining gonad proliferation at the range limits of A. stellifera distribution. Furthermore, differences in sex ratio, oocyte production, oogenesis duration and capability of energy transformation into ova were found between range limits.

  2. Apodida (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) of Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mucharin, Arom

    Systematics of Apodida (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea), with emphasis on Thai species was studied by means of adult morphology and anatomy, ossicle morphology, and phylogenetic analysis (COI). Over 300 Apodida specimens of Apodida were found in different parts of Thailand. The order comprises 25...

  3. Geographic diff erentiation between populations of the starfi sh Asterina pectinifera

    OpenAIRE

    MATSUOKA, Norimasa; Asano, Hirofumi

    2009-01-01

    The genetic differentiation and relationships among five local populations of the common starfish Asterina pectinifera were studied by allozyme analysis of 12 enzymes. The localities of five local populations examined were as follows: Asamushi from Mutsu Bay; Simoburo from Shimokita Peninsula; Esashi, Fukaura and Atsumi from northern parts of Japan Sea. From allele frequencies data in 23 genetic loci scored, the genetic identities(I) and genetic distances(D)between populations were calculated...

  4. Three new records of asteroids (Echinodermata: Asteroidea from Peru Tres nuevos registros de asteroideos (Echinodermata: Asteroidea de Perú

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    Yuri Hooker

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present three new shallow water (4 - >50 m records of asteroids (Echinodermata: Asteroidea for the Peruvian fauna: Astropecten regalis Gray, 1840, Paulia horrida Gray 1840 and Meyenaster gelatinosus (Meyen, 1834. Astropecten regalis geographical distribution is known that ranges from Gulf of California to Panama, this discovery extends its distribution to Mancora, Peru. Paulia horrida is known from Baja California to Isla Cocos, Costa Rica, and this record extends its southern distribution limit to Punta Sal, Peru. Meyenaster gelatinosus was considered endemic to Chilean waters, however, this record confirm its presence in Peru extending its northern distribution limit to San Juan de Marcona, Peru. Morphological and habitat information on this four species is provided, together with live pictures.En el presente trabajo se registran 3 nuevos asteroideos (Echinodermata: Asteroidea de aguas someras (4 - >50 m para el Perú: Astropecten regalis Gray, 1840, Paulia horrida Gray 1840 y Meyenaster gelatinosus (Meyen, 1834. Astropecten regalis se conocía desde el Golfo de California hasta Panamá, en el presente trabajo, se amplía su distribución hasta Máncora, Perú. La distribución geográfica de Paulia horrida era conocida desde Baja California, hasta Isla Cocos, Costa Rica, en este estudio se amplía su distribución geográfica hasta Punta Sal, Perú. A Meyenaster gelatinosus se le conocía solo de Chile, en el presente trabajo se registra y confirma su presencia en el Perú, ampliando su distribución norte hasta San Juan de Marcona. Se proporciona información morfológica de las especies, características del hábitat y fotografías in situ y de los especímenes recién recolectados.

  5. Global diversity and phylogeny of the Asteroidea (Echinodermata.

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    Christopher L Mah

    Full Text Available Members of the Asteroidea (phylum Echinodermata, popularly known as starfish or sea stars, are ecologically important and diverse members of marine ecosystems in all of the world's oceans. We present a comprehensive overview of diversity and phylogeny as they have figured into the evolution of the Asteroidea from Paleozoic to the living fauna. Living post-Paleozoic asteroids, the Neoasteroidea, are morphologically separate from those in the Paleozoic. Early Paleozoic asteroid faunas were diverse and displayed morphology that foreshadowed later living taxa. Preservation presents significant difficulties, but fossil occurrence and current accounts suggests a diverse Paleozoic fauna, which underwent extinction around the Permian-Triassic interval was followed by re-diversification of at least one surviving lineage. Ongoing phylogenetic classification debates include the status of the Paxillosida and the Concentricycloidea. Fossil and molecular evidence has been and continues to be part of the ongoing evolution of asteroid phylogenetic research. The modern lineages of asteroids include the Valvatacea, the Forcipulatacea, the Spinlosida, and the Velatida. We present an overview of diversity in these taxa, as well as brief notes on broader significance, ecology, and functional morphology of each. Although much asteroid taxonomy is stable, many new taxa remain to be discovered with many new species currently awaiting description. The Goniasteridae is currently one of the most diverse families within the Asteroidea. New data from molecular phylogenetics and the advent of global biodiversity databases, such as the World Asteroidea Database (http://www.marinespecies.org/Asteroidea/ present important new springboards for understanding the global biodiversity and evolution of asteroids.

  6. Circumpolar dataset of sequenced specimens of Promachocrinus kerguelensis (Echinodermata, Crinoidea

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    Lenaïg G. Hemery

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This circumpolar dataset of the comatulid (Echinodermata: Crinoidea Promachocrinus kerguelensis (Carpenter, 1888 from the Southern Ocean, documents biodiversity associated with the specimens sequenced in Hemery et al. (2012. The aim of Hemery et al. (2012 paper was to use phylogeographic and phylogenetic tools to assess the genetic diversity, demographic history and evolutionary relationships of this very common and abundant comatulid, in the context of the glacial history of the Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic shelves (Thatje et al. 2005, 2008. Over one thousand three hundred specimens (1307 used in this study were collected during seventeen cruises from 1996 to 2010, in eight regions of the Southern Ocean: Kerguelen Plateau, Davis Sea, Dumont d’Urville Sea, Ross Sea, Amundsen Sea, West Antarctic Peninsula, East Weddell Sea and Scotia Arc including the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula and the Bransfield Strait. We give here the metadata of this dataset, which lists sampling sources (cruise ID, ship name, sampling date, sampling gear, sampling sites (station, geographic coordinates, depth and genetic data (phylogroup, haplotype, sequence ID for each of the 1307 specimens. The identification of the specimens was controlled by an expert taxonomist specialist of crinoids (Marc Eléaume, Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris and all the COI sequences were matched against those available on the Barcode of Life Data System (BOLD: http://www.boldsystems.org/index.php/IDS_OpenIdEngine. This dataset can be used by studies dealing with, among other interests, Antarctic and/or crinoid diversity (species richness, distribution patterns, biogeography or habitat / ecological niche modeling. This dataset is accessible through the GBIF network at http://ipt.biodiversity.aq/resource.do?r=proke.

  7. A NEW, EARLY CROWN-GROUP ASTEROID (ECHINODERMATA) FROM THE NORIAN (TRIASSIC) OF NORTHERN ITALY

    OpenAIRE

    DANIEL B. BLAKE; ANDREA TINTORI; HANS HAGDORN

    2000-01-01

    Noriaster barberoi gen. et. sp. n. is based on a single specimen from the Calcare di Zorzino (Norian, Triassic) of northern Italy. A member of the surviving Poraniidae (Valvatida; Echinodermata), N. barberoi is the oldest-known species assignable to a Jurassic and younger family and the first such species known from the Triassic. No Paleozoic species with close affinities with crown-group families has been recognized. Noriaster and the slightly older Triassic genus Trichasteropsis from the Mu...

  8. First record of the swimming sea cucumber Enypniastes eximia Théel, 1882 (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea in Peruvian waters

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    Francisco Alonso Solís-Marín

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Enypniastes eximia Théel, 1882 (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea a swimming sea cucumber is reported for the first time from Peru. The species was collected in the Continental rise (563-1,201 m off Trujillo Department. Reference material has been deposited in the Coleccion Cientifica del Instituto del Mar del Peru (IMARPE, Lima, Peru.

  9. First record of the swimming sea cucumber Enypniastes eximia Théel, 1882 (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) in Peruvian waters

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Alonso Solís-Marín; Yuri Hooker; Alfredo Laguarda-Figueras

    2012-01-01

    Enypniastes eximia Théel, 1882 (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) a swimming sea cucumber is reported for the first time from Peru. The species was collected in the Continental rise (563-1,201 m) off Trujillo Department. Reference material has been deposited in the Coleccion Cientifica del Instituto del Mar del Peru (IMARPE), Lima, Peru.

  10. Primer registro de Heterocucumis godeffroyi(Semper, 1868 (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea en el mar peruano

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    Francisco Alonso Solís-Marín

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Se registra por primera vez para el Perú la especie de pepino de mar Heterocucumis godeffroyi(Semper, 1868 (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea. La especie fue recolectada a 19 m de profundidad en Pucusana, de-partamento de Lima. Este registro representa el límite más norteño de distribución de la especie reconocido hasta el momento. Material de referencia se encuentra depositado en la Colección de Zoología Acuática, del Laboratorio de Biología Marina, Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas y Fisiológicas, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Perú.

  11. Abyssal fauna of the UK-1 polymetallic nodule exploration claim, Clarion-Clipperton Zone, central Pacific Ocean: Echinodermata

    OpenAIRE

    Glover, Adrian G.; Wiklund,Helena; Rabone, Muriel; Amon, Diva J; Smith, Craig R.; O'Hara,Tim; Mah, Christopher L.; Dahlgren, Thomas G

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We present data from a DNA taxonomy register of the abyssal benthic Echinodermata collected as part of the Abyssal Baseline (ABYSSLINE) environmental survey cruise ‘AB01’ to the UK Seabed Resources Ltd (UKSRL) polymetallic-nodule exploration claim ‘UK-1’ in the eastern Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ), central Pacific Ocean abyssal plain. Morphological and genetic data are presented for 17 species (4 Asteroidea , 4 Crinoidea , 2 Holothuroidea and 7 Ophiuroidea ) identified by a combinat...

  12. Alteration of bioluminescence in Amphipholis squamata (Ophiuroidea: Echinodermata) by heavy metals contamination: a field study

    OpenAIRE

    Deheyn, D; Jangoux, M.; Warnau, M.

    2000-01-01

    The ophiuroid Amphipholis squamata (Echinodermata) is a bioluminescent species whose light production varies with physico-chemical parameters of the medium. Individuals collected in the bay of Portman along a gradient of heavy metal contamination show different patterns of light production: the ones from the highest contaminated area showing a bioluminescence weaker and slower than those from the lowest contaminated area. Individuals that were transferred for 3 days from the lowest to the hig...

  13. Extraction of collagen from body wall of star fish Asterina pectinifera%海燕体壁胶原蛋白提取工艺的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘远平; 张琳琳; 张慧怡; 赵丹; 马然; 汪秋宽

    2011-01-01

    Acid -soluble collagen (ASC) and pepsin- solubilized collagen (PSC) were extracted from body wall of star fish Asterina pectinifera by two different methods. The optimum extraction of ASC with the yield of 7.93%were found at hydrolyzing temperature of 10 ℃, hydrolyzing time of 72 h and the concentration of 0.5 mol/L acetic acid -sodium acetate. The optimum conditions for the extraction of PSC with yield of 49.61% were found as follows:hydrolyzing temperature of 17 ℃, hydrolyzing time of 96 h, and the pepsin dose of 4%. The UV spectra and Amino Acid Analysis revealed that ASC and PSC from body wall of the star fish were classified as type I collagen.%采用两种不同的方法从海燕Asterina pectinifera体壁中提取出酸溶性胶原蛋白(ASC)和胃蛋白酶促溶性胶原蛋白(PSC).结果表明:ASC的最佳反应条件是,温度为10 ℃,提取液种类为乙酸-乙酸钠溶液,提取液浓度为0.5 mol/L,提取时间为72 h,ASC得率为7.93%;PSC的最佳反应条件是,温度为17℃、胃蛋白酶酶加量为4%、提取时间为96 h,PSC得率为49.61%.经紫外光谱和氨基酸组成分析,结果表明,ASC和PSC均为典型的Ⅰ型胶原蛋白.

  14. A NEW, EARLY CROWN-GROUP ASTEROID (ECHINODERMATA FROM THE NORIAN (TRIASSIC OF NORTHERN ITALY

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    DANIEL B. BLAKE

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Noriaster barberoi gen. et. sp. n. is based on a single specimen from the Calcare di Zorzino (Norian, Triassic of northern Italy. A member of the surviving Poraniidae (Valvatida; Echinodermata, N. barberoi is the oldest-known species assignable to a Jurassic and younger family and the first such species known from the Triassic. No Paleozoic species with close affinities with crown-group families has been recognized. Noriaster and the slightly older Triassic genus Trichasteropsis from the Muschelkalk of Germany together indicate that the diversification of crown-group asteroids was well underway at least by Middle and Late Triassic time. Phylogeny of crown-group asteroids is problematic because extant familial-level taxa are morphologically divergent, and they exhibit comparatively few uncontested characters that clearly indicate phylogenetic affinities and sequence. Familial assignment of Noriaster is supported by a new cladistic analysis. To the student of living asteroids, the appearance of a living Noriaster would be remarkable only because it would seem so commonplace. To the extent that form correlates with function, Noriaster suggests that modern asteroid life modes emerged quite promptly during the Mesozoic asteroid diversification. 

  15. Determination of toxic heavy metals in Echinodermata and Chordata species from South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Yeon; Habte, Girum; Khan, Naeem; Nho, Eun Yeong; Hong, Joon Ho; Choi, Hoon; Park, Kyung Su; Kim, Kyong Su

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at analysing concentrations of heavy metals including arsenic, lead, cadmium, aluminium and mercury in commonly consumed seafood species belonging to Echinodermata (Anthocidaris crassispina and Stichopus japonicus) and Chordata (Halocynthia roretzi and Styela plicata). The samples were digested by a microwave system and analysed for As, Cd and Pb by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer, for Al by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer and Hg by Direct Mercury Analyser. The analytical method was validated by determining sensitivity, linearity, precision, spiking recoveries and analysis of the Standard Reference Material (SRM) NIST 1566-b, an Oyster Tissue. Results showed considerably higher accumulation of Al and As in analysed samples, compared to Pb and Cd, while Hg had the lowest contamination. On comparison, the obtained results with the recommended standards by the Food and Agriculture Organization, European Commission and Ministry of Food and Drug Safety of Korea, it was concluded that the analysed seafoods were safe and thus would not pose a threat to consumers. PMID:24916139

  16. Preparation and identification of saponin extracted from Asterilas rollestoni, Asterina pectinifera and Ophiura kinbergi in Huanghai Sea%黄海海域三种棘皮动物皂甙的制备及性质鉴定比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭承华; 曹建国; 刘迅; 宁黔冀; 鞠宝; 刘传琳

    2000-01-01

    @@棘皮动物(Echinodermata)的许多重要生理、药理活物质及其在医药应用方面的价值,以及相关的化学成分,已日益引起国内外研究者的关注[1~3]。迄今为止,各国研究人员仅从各种海星纲动物体内就获得了十几类具有生物活性的化学物质[4

  17. Starfish (Asteroidea, Echinodermata) from the Faroe Islands; spatial distribution and abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringvold, H.; Andersen, T.

    2016-01-01

    "Marine benthic fauna of the Faroe Islands" (BIOFAR) is a large programme with a focus on collecting invertebrate fauna from the Faroes (62°N and 7°W). Cruises were undertaken from 1987 to 1990, and starfish (Asteroidea, Echinodermata) collected during this time were analysed. Asteroidea were sampled at ~50% of all BIOFAR stations. A Detritus sledge and a Triangular dredge proved to be the most efficient equipment, collecting over 60% of the specimens. In total 2473 specimens were collected from 20 to 1500 m depth, including 41 species from 17 families and 31 genera. Henricia pertusa (O. F. Müller, 1776) group, Pontaster tenuispinus (Düben & Koren, 1846), and Leptychaster arcticus (M. Sars, 1851) showed highest relative abundance. Maximum species diversity was found at 500-700 m depth, which coincides with the transition zone of water masses (North Icelandic Winter Water and Arctic Intermediate Water (NI/AI)) at approximately 400-600 m depth. 63% of the species were recorded at an average-weighted depth above 600 m. Two different ordination methods (detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS)) gave highly consistent representations of the community structure gradients. The first ordination axis scores did not show significant relationships with any environmental variable. Biological covariates like the presence of Lophelia corals were not significantly related to ordination scores on any axis. The second ordination axis scores were significantly correlated with depth. Temperature and salinity were highly correlated (r=0.90), and both negatively correlated with depth (r=-0.69 and r=-0.57, respectively).

  18. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of the Fossil Crinoid Encrinus liliiformis (Echinodermata: Crinoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynowski, Janina F; Nebelsick, James H; Klein, Adrian; Roth-Nebelsick, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Crinoids, members of the phylum Echinodermata, are passive suspension feeders and catch plankton without producing an active feeding current. Today, the stalked forms are known only from deep water habitats, where flow conditions are rather constant and feeding velocities relatively low. For feeding, they form a characteristic parabolic filtration fan with their arms recurved backwards into the current. The fossil record, in contrast, provides a large number of stalked crinoids that lived in shallow water settings, with more rapidly changing flow velocities and directions compared to the deep sea habitat of extant crinoids. In addition, some of the fossil representatives were possibly not as flexible as today's crinoids and for those forms alternative feeding positions were assumed. One of these fossil crinoids is Encrinus liliiformis, which lived during the middle Triassic Muschelkalk in Central Europe. The presented project investigates different feeding postures using Computational Fluid Dynamics to analyze flow patterns forming around the crown of E. liliiformis, including experimental validation by Particle Image Velocimetry. The study comprises the analysis of different flow directions, velocities, as well as crown orientations. Results show that inflow from lateral and oral leads to direct transport of plankton particles into the crown and onto the oral surface. With current coming from the "rear" (aboral) side of the crinoid, the conical opening of the crown produces a backward oriented flow in its wake that transports particles into the crown. The results suggest that a conical feeding position may have been less dependent on stable flow conditions compared to the parabolic filtration fan. It is thus assumed that the conical feeding posture of E. liliiformis was suitable for feeding under dynamically changing flow conditions typical for the shallow marine setting of the Upper Muschelkalk. PMID:27243221

  19. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of the Fossil Crinoid Encrinus liliiformis (Echinodermata: Crinoidea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina F Dynowski

    Full Text Available Crinoids, members of the phylum Echinodermata, are passive suspension feeders and catch plankton without producing an active feeding current. Today, the stalked forms are known only from deep water habitats, where flow conditions are rather constant and feeding velocities relatively low. For feeding, they form a characteristic parabolic filtration fan with their arms recurved backwards into the current. The fossil record, in contrast, provides a large number of stalked crinoids that lived in shallow water settings, with more rapidly changing flow velocities and directions compared to the deep sea habitat of extant crinoids. In addition, some of the fossil representatives were possibly not as flexible as today's crinoids and for those forms alternative feeding positions were assumed. One of these fossil crinoids is Encrinus liliiformis, which lived during the middle Triassic Muschelkalk in Central Europe. The presented project investigates different feeding postures using Computational Fluid Dynamics to analyze flow patterns forming around the crown of E. liliiformis, including experimental validation by Particle Image Velocimetry. The study comprises the analysis of different flow directions, velocities, as well as crown orientations. Results show that inflow from lateral and oral leads to direct transport of plankton particles into the crown and onto the oral surface. With current coming from the "rear" (aboral side of the crinoid, the conical opening of the crown produces a backward oriented flow in its wake that transports particles into the crown. The results suggest that a conical feeding position may have been less dependent on stable flow conditions compared to the parabolic filtration fan. It is thus assumed that the conical feeding posture of E. liliiformis was suitable for feeding under dynamically changing flow conditions typical for the shallow marine setting of the Upper Muschelkalk.

  20. A comparative study of vitellogenesis in Echinodermata: Lessons from the sea star.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqaisi, Khalid M; Lamare, Miles D; Grattan, Dave R; Damsteegt, Erin L; Schneider, Wolfgang J; Lokman, P Mark

    2016-08-01

    The provision of yolk precursor proteins to the oviparous egg is crucial for normal embryo development. In Echinodermata, a transferrin-like yolk component termed major yolk protein (MYP) is a major precursor protein in Echinoidea and Holothuroidea. In contrast, in Asteroidea a single vitellogenin (Vtg) was recently identified, but its role as primary yolk protein remains unclear. To resolve the apparent MYP-Vtg dichotomy in sea stars and to understand the dynamics of candidate yolk protein gene expression during the reproductive cycle, we investigated the molecular structures of sea star Vtg and MYP and quantified their transcript levels during oogenesis. By combining protein sequencing of the predominant proteins in ovulated eggs of Patiriella regularis with ovarian transcriptome sequencing and molecular cloning, we characterized two cDNAs encoding two bona fide Vtgs (PrVtg1 and PrVtg2) and a partial cDNA encoding MYP (PrMYP). PrMYP mRNA was found in low abundance in growing oocytes, possibly as maternal transcripts for translation after ovulation. In contrast, PrVtg transcripts, whose levels varied during the reproductive cycle, were not found in developing oocytes - rather, they were detected in ovarian follicle cells and pyloric caeca, indicating an extra-oocytic origin. Vtg accumulating in oocytes was stored in the form of cleaved products, which constituted the most abundant yolk polypeptides in ovulated sea star eggs; their levels decreased during early embryonic and larval development. Together, these traits are the hallmarks of a classical yolk protein - and hence, we contend that Vtg, and not MYP, is the main yolk protein in asteroids. PMID:27085373

  1. Abyssal fauna of the UK-1 polymetallic nodule exploration claim, Clarion-Clipperton Zone, central Pacific Ocean: Echinodermata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Adrian G; Wiklund, Helena; Rabone, Muriel; Amon, Diva J; Smith, Craig R; O'Hara, Tim; Mah, Christopher L; Dahlgren, Thomas G

    2016-01-01

    We present data from a DNA taxonomy register of the abyssal benthic Echinodermata collected as part of the Abyssal Baseline (ABYSSLINE) environmental survey cruise 'AB01' to the UK Seabed Resources Ltd (UKSRL) polymetallic-nodule exploration claim 'UK-1' in the eastern Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ), central Pacific Ocean abyssal plain. Morphological and genetic data are presented for 17 species (4 Asteroidea, 4 Crinoidea, 2 Holothuroidea and 7 Ophiuroidea) identified by a combination of morphological and genetic data. No taxa matched previously published genetic sequences, but 8 taxa could be assigned to previously-described species based on morphology, although here we have used a precautionary approach in taxon assignments to avoid over-estimating species ranges. The Clarion-Clipperton Zone is a region undergoing intense exploration for potential deep-sea mineral extraction. We present these data to facilitate future taxonomic and environmental impact study by making both data and voucher materials available through curated and accessible biological collections. PMID:26929713

  2. Remarks on Echinodermata from the South Central Mediterranean Sea based upon collections made during the MARCOS cruise (10 to 20th April, 2007

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    C. MIFSUD

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The MARCOS cruise, which took place in the South Central Mediterranean Sea on board the RV ‘Urania’, resulted in the collection of 27 species of Echinodermata from shallow to bathyal depths, many from around Malta (the Fisheries Management Zone. The fauna is represented by common to rare taxa already reported from the Mediterranean with the exception of the amphi-Atlantic ophiuroid Ophiotreta valenciennesi rufescens (Koehler, 1896, recorded from the Mediterranean Basin for the first time. Odontaster mediterraneus (von Marenzeller, 1893 and Luidia sarsi Lutken, 1858 are also first records for the Maltese Islands.

  3. Preparation of Collagen Peptides and Their Antioxidant Activity from the Body Wall of Starfish Asterina Pectinifera%黄海海燕体壁胶原蛋白肽的制备及其抗氧化活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵雅娉; 刘山; 赵鑫; 刘丽; 启航

    2014-01-01

    Collagen was extracted from the body wall of starfish Asterina pectinifera, and the purity was detected using SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Then the collagen was hydrolyzed with pepsin and papain under optimum conditions. After ultrafiltrating with the 10 ku membrane , the collagen peptides molecular weight less than 10 ku was prepared. And the antioxidant activity of collagen peptides was detected using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The results indicated that the extracted collagen of high purity, with a complete triple helix;the hydrate degree of collagen treated with pepsin and papain were (5.46±0.14)%and (5.04± 0.37)%, respectively;DPPH radical scavenging ability increased with the increasing concentration of collagen peptides, at the concentration of 20 mg/mL, collagen peptides (pepsin group) and collagen peptides (papain group) on DPPH scavenging rate were (52.10±0.10)%and (46.78±0.09)%, respectively.%以黄海海燕体壁为原料提取胶原蛋白,采用SDS-PAGE电泳检测胶原蛋白的纯度;再分别用胃蛋白酶和木瓜蛋白酶在各自最适条件下水解胶原蛋白,经10 ku的超滤膜超滤后,制备出分子量小于10 ku的胶原蛋白肽;并应用电子自旋共振波谱技术检测胶原蛋白肽的抗氧化活性。结果表明,提取的胶原蛋白纯度高,具有完整三螺旋结构;胃蛋白酶与木瓜蛋白酶对胶原蛋白的水解度分别为(5.46±0.14)%和(5.04±0.37)%;胶原蛋白肽对DPPH自由基的清除能力随着浓度的升高而提高,浓度为20 mg/mL,胶原蛋白肽(胃蛋白酶组)和胶原蛋白肽(木瓜蛋白酶组)对DPPH的清除率分别为(52.10±0.10)%和(46.78±0.09)%。

  4. Holothurians (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea)

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, John E.; Pawson, David L.

    1984-01-01

    A total of 213 holothurians, representing 16 species, was collected during Project Hourglass, a 28-month systematic survey of ten stations along two transects (6-73 m) off central western Florida. This material, supplemented with 8 1 additional Gulf of Mexico specimens supplied by the Florida Department of Natural Resources, brings the total number of species reported in this paper to 20. Of these species, 19 have previously been reported from the Gulf of Mexico. One, Allothyone m...

  5. Purification and characterization of alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidases I and II from the starfish Asterina amurensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harun-Or-Rashid, Md; Matsuzawa, Tomomi; Satoh, Youichi; Shiraishi, Takayuki; Ando, Masayuki; Sadik, Golam; Uda, Yutaka

    2010-01-01

    Two alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidases, alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (alpha-GalNAcase) I and II, were purified from the digestive organ of starfish. Purified alpha-GalNAcase I and II gave nearly single protein bands on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, individually. Even the final preparation of alpha-GalNAcase I contained alpha-galactosidase activity, while alpha-GalNAcase II was almost free from that activity with p-nitrophenyl and 4-methylumbelliferyl alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminides as substrates. alpha-GalNAcase I and II both hydrolyzed terminal alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminyl linkages of the natural compounds investigated: Forssman hapten glycolipid, blood group A active oligosaccharide and GalNAc-alpha1-O-serine. On the other hand, oligosaccharides, and glycolipid containing alpha-galactosyl terminals were hydrolyzed by alpha-GalNAcase I but not by alpha-GalNAcase II. The substrate specificities and other enzymatic properties of alpha-GalNAcase I were similar to those of human placental alpha-GalNAcase, but distinct from alpha-GalNAcase II. PMID:20139603

  6. Echinothurioid phylogeny and the phylogenetic significance of Kamptosoma (Echinoidea: Echinodermata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooi, Rich; Constable, Heather; Lockhart, Susanne; Pearse, John

    2004-07-01

    The Echinothurioida is an unusual group of regular sea urchins that are characterized by soft, flexible tests and in some cases, hoof-shaped spines used for locomotion across soft, deep-sea sediments. As far as is known, all species are armed with venom-bearing spines that have been known to cause serious injury in humans. There are 50 species of echinothurioids arranged in 11 extant genera. Their fossil record is very poor, being limited to two additional fossil taxa (one of which is only tentatively considered an echinothurioid), two assigned to extant taxa, and three of more dubious affinity. With very few exceptions, only disjointed plates are preserved—and those very rarely. Today, echinothurioids are found around the globe from as far north as the Arctic Circle and as far south as Antarctica, with a bathymetric distribution ranging from inshore on coral reefs to depths of almost 5000 m. The majority of species are characteristic of the deep sea, and consequently little is known about these urchins. Many are known only from type and associated material. Their fragile tests, deep benthic habitat, and rarity make it difficult to develop a complete picture of their morphology, and as we demonstrate, breakage of the test can lead to misinterpretations of plate architecture in some taxa. The sole Antarctic species, Kamptosoma asterias, is usually considered an echinothurioid, but its unusual morphology has made its position difficult to ascertain. In addition, previous genus-level phylogenies do not test the monophyly of the genera, and some studies even suggest that the echinothurioids themselves do not constitute a monophyletic group. This study focuses on finding a species level phylogeny of the echinothurioids in order to perform these tests, and to place the enigmatic Kamptosoma in a phylogenetic context that determines whether it is indeed an echinothurioid, and if so, to which clade it is most closely related. The present analysis surveys ambulacral morphology of all echinothurioids, seeking homologies that will enhance our understanding of the diversity of plate architecture in the clade. We confirm that echinothurioids are monophyletic and basal to most other extant echinoid groups, and that Kamptosoma is a relatively crownward echinothurioid, albeit a strange one. The largest genus, Araeosoma, is monophyletic, but at least one prominent genus ( Sperosoma) is not monophyletic. The resulting phylogeny also helps address questions concerning biogeographic and bathymetric distributions.

  7. The oldest synallactid sea cucumber (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea: Aspidochirotida)

    OpenAIRE

    Reich, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Aspidochirote holothurian ossicles were discovered in Upper Ordovician-aged Öjlemyr cherts from Gotland, Sweden. The well-preserved material allows definitive assignment to the family Synallactidae, a deep-sea sea cucumber group that is distributed worldwide today. The new taxon Tribrachiodemas ordovicicus gen. et sp. nov. is described, representing the oldest member of the Aspidochirotida. The further fossil record of Synallactidae and evolutionary implications are also discussed.

  8. Ophiuroidea (Echinodermata) from coral reefs in the Mexican Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granja–Fernández, Rebeca; Herrero-Pérezrul, María D.; López-Pérez, Ramón A.; Hernández, Luis; Rodríguez-Zaragoza, Fabián A.; Jones, Robert Wallace; Pineda-López, Rubén

    2014-01-01

    Abstract There are numerous and important coral reefs in the Mexican Pacific, but scarce studies of brittle stars conducted in these ecosystems. In this regard, this work provides the first annotated checklist of brittle stars associated with coral communities and reefs in the Mexican Pacific and an illustrated key to identify the species. We also provide taxonomic descriptions, spatial and bathymetric distributions and some important remarks of the species. We report a total of 14 species of brittle stars belonging to nine genera and seven families. Ophiocnida hispida in Jalisco, Ophiophragmus papillatus in Guerrero, and Ophiothrix (Ophiothrix) spiculata and Ophiactis simplex in Colima are new distribution records. The record of O. papillatus is remarkable because the species has not been reported since its description in 1940. The brittle stars collected in this study, represent 22.2% of the total species previously reported from the Mexican Pacific. Presently, anthropogenic activities on the coral reefs of the Mexican Pacific have increased, thus the biodiversity of brittle stars in these ecosystems may be threatened. PMID:24843284

  9. Phylogeography of Holothuria (Halodeima inornata Semper, 1868 (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elba Prieto-Rios

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Genetic structure of the populations of H. inornata was evaluated and the barriers for genetic flux and historic processes were investigated. Samples were collected trying to cover the distribution range of the species, from Mexico to northern Perú. Based on COI sequences, 118 haplotypes from 220 specimens were detected; the differences between such haplotypes were due to 97 variable sites (21.41% of the 453 bp sequenced. A high haplotype diversity (h=0.979 and a moderate nucleotidic diversity were observed. The values of Fst, the exact test of population differentiation, and the molecular variance analysis (AMOVA were used in order to analyze the genetic differentiation. These analyses suggest the existence of two populations: northern, off the coasts of Sinaloa, Jalisco, Michoacán, Guerrero, and Oaxaca, and southern, off the coasts of Chiapas, El Salvador, Panamá and Perú. Historic events and oceanographic patterns may be the main factors determining dispersion and structure of Hi populations. It seems probable that the original population have extended first in the south and then northern. Besides, the split between these two populations may be due to several tectonic and oceanographic events constituting a barrier for H. inornata settling.

  10. The diet of Ophionereis reticulata (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Q. Yokoyama

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The ophiuroid Ophionereis reticulata (Say, 1825 occurs in the sediment-rocky shore interface, under small stones. Its diet is analyzed in this short communication. Specimens were collected at the Praia Grande beach, located on the northern coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in July, 2002 and January, 2003. The animals were fixed in 70% ethanol and dissected to obtain their stomach contents. Of the total (35, 77.1% (27 had ingested some kind of food and, among those, 81.4% (22 had more than one item. The mean number of food items per stomach was 1.9. Ophionereis reticulata is an omnivorous species, consuming sediment, green and red algae, and polychaetes.O ofiuróide Ophionereis reticulata (Say, 1825 ocorre na interface sedimento rocha de costões rochosos, sob pequenas pedras. Alguns aspectos de sua dieta alimentar foram analisados nesta nota. A amostragem foi realizada na Praia Grande, localizada no litoral norte do estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Os indivíduos, coletados em julho de 2002 e janeiro de 2003, foram fixados em álcool 70% e dissecados para obtenção de seus conteúdos estomacais. Do total (35, 77,1% (27 tinham ingerido algum tipo de alimento, e destes, 81,4% (22 possuíam mais de um item. O número médio de itens alimentares por estômago foi 1,9. Ophionereis reticulata é uma espécie onívora, consumindo sedimento, algas verdes e vermelhas, e poliquetas.

  11. Incapacity of Response to Disulfide-Reducing Agent in Triton X-100-Treated Oocytes of Starfish, Asterina pectinifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Masatoshi

    2005-04-01

    Resumption of meiosis in starfish oocytes is induced by the natural maturation-inducing hormone, 1-methyladenine (1-MeAde). Oocyte maturation is also induced by the disulfide-reducing agent, dithiothreitol (DTT). Previous studies have shown that 1-MeAde controls meiosis by interacting with its receptors, which are located exclusively on oocyte plasma membrane. However, little is known about the mechanism of oocyte maturation induced by DTT. Thus, this study examined whether DTT interacts with 1-MeAde receptors to induce oocyte maturation. When oocytes were treated with Triton X-100, they failed to respond to 1-MeAde and DTT. Although the Triton X-100-treated oocytes recovered the capacity to respond to 1-MeAde during incubation in seawater, they remained unresponsive to DTT during seawater incubations. These results suggest that DTT does not interact with 1-MeAde receptors to induce oocyte maturation in starfish. It is possible that a protein essential for mediating DTT-induced maturation is eliminated from the oocytes surface following Triton X-100 treatment.

  12. Antitumor and immune regulation activities of the extracts of some Chinese marine invertebrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lixin; FAN Xiao; HAN Lijun

    2005-01-01

    Extracts of 21 marine invertebrates belonging to Coelenterata, Mollusca, Annelida, Bryozoa,Echiura, Arthropoda, Echinodermata and Urochordata were screened for the studies on their antitumor and immune regulation activities. Antitumor activity was determined by MTT method and immune regulation activity was studied using T- and B-lymphocytes in mice spleen in vitro. It was found that the n-butanol part of Asterina pectinifera, the acetic ether part of Tubuaria marina, 95% ethanol extract of Acanthochiton rubrolineatus have a high inhibition rate of 96.7%, 63.9% and 50.5% respectively on tumor cell line HL-60 at the concentration of 0.063 mg/ml. The inhibition rate of the acetic ether part of Tubuaria marina on the tumor cell line A-549 is 65.4 % at concentration of 0.063 mg/mL. The 95% ethanol extract of Meretrix meretrix has so outstanding promoting effect on T-lymphocyfes that their multiplication increases 25% when the sample concentration is only 1 μg/ml. On B-lymphocytes, the 95% extract of Rapana venosa, at concentration of 100μg/ml, has a promotion percentage of 60%. On the other hand, under the condition of no cytotoxic effect, the 95% ethanol extracts of Acanthochiton rubrolineatus and Cellana toreum can reach 92% inhibition rate on T lymphocyte at concentration of 100 μg/ml, while the inhibition rate on B lymphocyte of the 95% extract of Acanthochiton rubrolineatus reaches 92% at the same concentration.

  13. First record of Lissothuria antillensis (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea from the Gulf of Mexico Primer registro de Lissothuria antillensis (Echinodermata:Holothuroidea en el golfo de México

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    Julio Adrián Arriaga-Ochoa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Two specimens of Lissothuria antillensis Pawson, 1967 were collected at 2 localities from the Gulf of Mexico, Isla Verde and Tuxpan Reef, Veracruz, Mexico. This species had been reported previously only from the Caribbean Sea.Dos ejemplares de Lissothuria antillensis Pawson, 1967 fueron capturados en 2 localidades del golfo de México, en Isla Verde, Veracruz y en el arrecife de Tuxpan, Veracruz, México. Esta especie ha sido registrada anteriormente sólo para el mar Caribe.

  14. On two Psolidae (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea from the Gulf of California, Mexico Dos Psolidae (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea del golfo de California, México

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    Claude Massin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Two species of holothuroids of the family Psolidae have been collected in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Psolus diomedeae Ludwig, 1894, a species previously known from the Pacific coast of Mexico and abundant in the Gulf of California was collected in 3 stations, in a depth range of 58 to 260 m. Lissothuria hancocki (Deichmann, 1941, previously reported for the California Current and the Gulf of California, was collected in one station at 260 m depth, together with P. diomedeae.Se recolectaron 2 especies de holotúridos de la familia Psolidae en el golfo de California, México. Psolus diomedeae Ludwig, 1894, una especie previamente registrada en el Pacífico mexicano y abundante en el golfo de California fue encontrada en 3 estaciones, en un intervalo batimétrico de 58 a 260 m. Lissothuria hancocki (Deichmann, 1941, citada previamente para la zona de la corriente de California y en el golfo de California, fue recolectada en una estación, a 260 m de profundidad, junto con P. diomedeae.

  15. Ophionereis reticulata (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea Regeneração dos braços em duas populações de Ophionereis reticulata (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Q. Yokoyama

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the arm regeneration frequencies in two different populations of Ophionereis reticulata (Say, 1825 in São Sebastião, Southeast Brazil and observed arm regeneration between age classes (juvenile and adults and sexes (male and female. From the 1,170 individuals sampled, 1,089 (92.2% showed signs of arm regeneration. The relative frequencies of regenerating arms in the two areas were not different (Baleeiro Isthmus: 91.3% and Grande Beach: 99.5%. Both areas also presented similar values for the number of arms regenerating/individual and in the frequency of regenerating individuals. The major part of the regenerating scars was concentrated in the distal portion of the arm. Sub-lethal predation is most likely the cause to the high rates of arm regeneration in O. reticulata. There was no significant differences in the regeneration rates between females (3.57 ± 1.36 arms regenerating/individual and males (3.47 ± 1.42.Este estudo comparou as frequências de regeneração dos braços de duas populações de Ophionereis reticulata (Say, 1825, de São Sebastião, sudeste do Brasil. Além disso, foram observadas diferenças nas frequências de regeneração entre classes etárias (juvenis e adultos e entre machos e fêmeas. Dos 1.170 indivíduos coletados, 1.089 (92,2% mostraram sinais de regeneração nos braços. A frequência relativa de braços em regeneração entre as duas áreas não diferiu significativamente (Istmo do Baleeiro: 91,3% e Praia Grande: 99,5%. Ambas as áreas apresentaram valores semelhantes no número de braços regenerando/indivíduo e na frequência de indivíduos em regeneração. A maior parte das marcas de regeneração concentraram-se na porção distal dos braços, o que indica a influência de predação subletal como a causa principal da regeneração em O. reticulata. Além disso, não houve diferença significativa nos índices de regeneração entre fêmeas (3,57 ± 1,36 braços regenerando/indivíduo e machos (3,47 ± 1,42.

  16. Los equinodermos (Echinodermata de bahía Chamela, Jalisco, México The echinoderms (Echinodermata from bahía Chamela, Jalisco, Mexico

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    Eduardo Ríos-Jara

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cuarenta especies de equinodermos fueron recolectadas en las zonas intermareal y submareal somero de 14 sitios de bahía Chamela. Destacan 7 nuevos registros para la costa de Jalisco. Los análisis de escalonamiento multidimensional no métrico y el índice de similitud de Jaccard permitieron identificar grupos y entidades aisladas de acuerdo a la contribución y frecuencia de las especies de 4 clases de equinodermos en los sitios de la bahía y en otras localidades del Pacífico tropical mexicano (PTM. La mayor similitud se presentó con las localidades del golfo de California. Los índices de distinción taxonómica promedio (Δ+ y su variación (Λ+ fueron utilizados para analizar la diversidad de equinodermos en los niveles de especie, género, familia, orden y clase para cada sitio de la bahía y para distintas localidades del PTM de acuerdo al número de jerarquías taxonómicas de alto orden y la variabilidad en su diversidad taxonómica. La riqueza de especies de Chamela representa el 20% de la diversidad total de equinodermos de las zonas intermareal y submareal somero del PTM, lo que indica su importancia en la contribución a la diversidad taxonómica de la región.Forty species of echinoderms were collected in the intertidal and shallow subtidal zones of 14 sites of bahía Chamela. Of particular importance are 7 new records of species for the coast of Jalisco. A nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis and the Jaccard's similarity index identified different groups and isolated entities according to the contribution and the frequency of species of 4 classes of echinoderms in the bay and in other localities of the Mexican Tropical Pacific (MTP. The highest similarity of species was with the localities of the Gulf of California. The indices of average taxonomic distinctness (Δ+ and the variation in the taxonomic distinctness (Λ+ were estimated to analyze the diversity of echinoderms at the taxonomic levels of species, genus, family, order and class for each site within the bay and for some localities of the MTP according to the number of higher taxonomic hierarchies and the variability of its taxonomic diversity. The species richness of bahía Chamela represents 20% of the total diversity of echinoderms of the intertidal and shallow subtidal zones of the MTP; this is an indicator of its importance to the contribution of the taxonomic diversity of this region.

  17. Histamine is a modulator of metamorphic competence in Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea

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    Sutherby Josh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A metamorphic life-history is present in the majority of animal phyla. This developmental mode is particularly prominent among marine invertebrates with a bentho-planktonic life cycle, where a pelagic larval form transforms into a benthic adult. Metamorphic competence (the stage at which a larva is capable to undergo the metamorphic transformation and settlement is an important adaptation both ecologically and physiologically. The competence period maintains the larval state until suitable settlement sites are encountered, at which point the larvae settle in response to settlement cues. The mechanistic basis for metamorphosis (the morphogenetic transition from a larva to a juvenile including settlement, i.e. the molecular and cellular processes underlying metamorphosis in marine invertebrate species, is poorly understood. Histamine (HA, a neurotransmitter used for various physiological and developmental functions among animals, has a critical role in sea urchin fertilization and in the induction of metamorphosis. Here we test the premise that HA functions as a developmental modulator of metamorphic competence in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Results Our results provide strong evidence that HA leads to the acquisition of metamorphic competence in S. purpuratus larvae. Pharmacological analysis of several HA receptor antagonists and an inhibitor of HA synthesis indicates a function of HA in metamorphic competence as well as programmed cell death (PCD during arm retraction. Furthermore we identified an extensive network of histaminergic neurons in pre-metamorphic and metamorphically competent larvae. Analysis of this network throughout larval development indicates that the maturation of specific neuronal clusters correlates with the acquisition of metamorphic competence. Moreover, histamine receptor antagonist treatment leads to the induction of caspase mediated apoptosis in competent larvae. Conclusions We conclude that HA is a modulator of metamorphic competence in S. purpuratus development and hypothesize that HA may have played an important role in the evolution of settlement strategies in echinoids. Our findings provide novel insights into the evolution of HA signalling and its function in one of the most important and widespread life history transitions in the animal kingdom - metamorphosis.

  18. A new species of starfish (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) from an anchialine cave in the Mexican Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Alonso Solís-Marín; Alfredo Laguarda-Figueras

    2010-01-01

    Copidaster cavernicola n. sp. is described from an anchialine cave system in Cozumel, Mexico. Copidaster cavernicola differs from its congeners in having 1-8 papulae in each papular area, and numerous excavate pedicellariae on all surfaces, except between furrow spines and subambulacral spines. C. cavernicola is possibly endemic to the anchialine system which it inhabits.

  19. Ophiomusium acuferum (Ophiolepididae and Ophiomisidium pulchellum (Ophiuridae (Ophiuroidea: Echinodermata, redescription based on the Brazilian specimens

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    Michela Borges

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ophiomusium (Ophiolepididae and Ophiomisidium (Ophiuridae are similar, but differ in features such as size of the adult, number of disc dorsal plates, length of the arms, shape of the first ventral arm plates and number of the tentacle. In this contribution, a large number of specimens of Ophiomusium acuferum Lyman, 1869 and Ophiomisidium pulchellum (Wyville Thomson, 1878 were sampled from southeastern and southern Brazilian at depths ranging from 46 to 1300 m. A close analysis has shown that specimens identified as Ophiomisidium pulchellum (C.W. Thomson, 1877 in several Brazilian museums are actually Ophiomusium acuferum Lyman, 1875. A total of 2330 individuals were examined: 2046 specimens of Ophiomusium acuferum ('Evaluation of the sustainable potential of living resources from the Brazilian Economic Exclusive Zone/Score South - Benthos' - REVIZEE; 'Rational usage of coastal ecosystems from the Brazilian Tropical Region: São Paulo State - Integrated Project/Subproject Benthos' - INTEGRADO; and the MD55/Brazil and 284 of Ophiomisidium pulchellum (MD55/Brazil. The disc diameter of each individual was measured and the specimens were digitally photographed. The samples studied are deposited in the Museum of Zoology of the University of Campinas and Institute of Biology at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. The specimens from the MD55 are deposited at the Paris Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle. An identification key to these species is provided here. A detailed morphological analysis and redescription of both species, comparisons, and their geographic distribution in Brazil are discussed.

  20. Avoidance of crude-oil contaminated sediment by the Australian seastar, Patiriella exigua (Echinodermata: Asteroidea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryder, K. [RMIT University, Victoria (Australia). Department of Biotechnology and Environmental Biology; Temara, A. [RMIT University, Victoria (Australia). Department of Biotechnology and Environmental Biology; Procter and Gamble, Environmental Safety (Belgium); Holdway, D.A. [RMIT University, Victoria (Australia). Department of Biotechnology and Environmental Biology; University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, Ont. (Canada). Faculty of Science

    2004-12-01

    This study attempted to determine whether Patiriella exigua, an Australian seastar, could detect and/or avoid oiled sediment when given an equal choice of unoiled sediment. The sediment was spiked once to produce one of three concentrations of oiled sediment used in the test chambers versus unoiled sediment. Behavioral observations were repeated over a 32 day period to test the effects of aging the oiled sediment. Results show that Patiriella exigua was capable of detecting oiled sediment and/or an oiled environment. Seastars avoided oiled sediment, with significantly higher numbers choosing either to reside on the clean sediment (p<0.05) or to travel up the glass sides of the tanks (p<0.0001). Avoidance of oiled sediment increased with increasing sediment oil concentrations. Aging the oiled sediment decreased the oil content of the sediment and increased the number of seastars able to inhabit it (p<0.001). A potential narcotic effect of exposure to oiled sediment was observed. (author)

  1. First record of Euthyonidiella destichada (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) in the Mexican Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Alfredo Laguarda-Figueras; Francisco Alonso Solís-Marín; Magali Honey-Escandón; Vivianne Solis-Weiss

    2013-01-01

    One specimen of Euthyonidiella destichada (Deichmann, 1930) was collected in Puerto Morelos, Quintana Roo, Mexico. This species was previously recorded from Florida, the eastern Gulf of México, Cuba, Belize, Panama, Venezuela, Puerto Rico, and Martinique. This is the first record of this species in Mexico and the Mexican Caribbean; new illustrations of different ossicles are provided.

  2. [Juvenile production of the red sea urchin Strongylocentrotus franciscanus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) in Baja California, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Garza, A; Carpizo-Ituarte, E; Parés-Sierra, G; Martínez-López, R; Quintana-Rodríguez, R

    2005-12-01

    The red sea urchin Strongylocentrotusfranciscanus (Agassiz 1863) is harvested commercially in Baja California, Mexico, since 1970; however, in the last ten years the capture per unit effort (CPUE) has decreased from 310 kg/fishing unit/day to 120 kg/fishing unit/day. For this reason, actions were taken to develop a culture technology allowing massive production of juveniles for re-stocking natural populations or for growing them commercially. We summarize some of the basic studies and main achievements in this effort. In Baja California, considerably faster larval development (approximately 21 days) has been attained than in the US northwest coast (62 days). Spawning of red sea urchins was routinely induced with KCI while egg fertilization was performed using a 100,000-sperm/ml solution. Six microalgae species were tested and Rhodomonas sp. produced the best larval development. The mean survival rate at the end of the larval period was 25%, but results varied widely with bactch. From the feed ratios tested, best results were obtained using 7000 cel/ml during the first week of larval development, followed by 10,000 cel/ml during the second and 15,000 cel/ml during the third week. KCl proved the most consistent metamorphic inducer, regularly yielding metamorphosis percentages higher than 90%. Metamorphosis was considered complete when the functional jaw that juveniles use for first benthic feeding appeared (as soon as 20 days after induction). With this method several thousands of red sea urchin juveniles were produced. They reached up to 1.5 mm in size during the first 50 days of culture after metamorphosis, showing the great potential for mass production of this species in the laboratory. PMID:17469265

  3. Embryonic, larval, and early juvenile development of the tropical sea urchin, Salmacis sphaeroides (Echinodermata: Echinoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Aminur; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Arshad, A; Shamsudin, Mariana Nor; Amin, S M N

    2012-01-01

    Salmacis sphaeroides (Linnaeus, 1758) is one of the regular echinoids, occuring in the warm Indo-West Pacific, including Johor Straits, between Malaysia and Singapore. In order to investigate the developmental basis of morphological changes in embryos and larvae, we documented the ontogeny of S. sphaeroides in laboratory condition. Gametes were obtained from adult individuals by 0.5 M KCl injection into the coelomic cavity. Fertilization rate at limited sperm concentration (10(-5) dilution) was 96.6 ± 1.4% and the resulting embryos were reared at 24°C. First cleavage (2-cell), 4-cell, 8-cell, 16-cell, 32-cell, and multicell (Morulla) stages were achieved 01.12, 02.03, 02.28, 02.51, 03.12, and 03.32 h postfertilization. Ciliated blastulae with a mean length of 174.72 ± 4.43 μm hatched 08.45 h after sperm entry. The gastrulae formed 16.15 h postfertilization and the archenteron elongated constantly while ectodermal red-pigmented cells migrated synchronously to the apical plate. Pluteus larva started to feed unicellular algae in 2 d, grew continuously, and finally attained metamorphic competence in 35 d after fertilization. Metamorphosis took approximately 1 h 30 min from attachment to the complete resorption of larval tissues and the development of complete juvenile structure with adult spines, extended tubefeet and well-developed pedicellaria, the whole event of which usually took place within 1 d postsettlement. This study represents the first successful investigation on embryonic, larval, and early juvenile development of S. sphaeroides. The findings would greatly be helpful towards the understanding of ontogeny and life-history strategies, which will facilitate us to develop the breeding, seed production, and culture techniques of sea urchins in captive condition. PMID:23055824

  4. Embryonic, Larval, and Early Juvenile Development of the Tropical Sea Urchin, Salmacis sphaeroides (Echinodermata: Echinoidea)

    OpenAIRE

    M. Aminur Rahman; Fatimah Md. Yusoff; Arshad, A.; Mariana Nor Shamsudin; Amin, S.M.N.

    2012-01-01

    Salmacis sphaeroides (Linnaeus, 1758) is one of the regular echinoids, occuring in the warm Indo-West Pacific, including Johor Straits, between Malaysia and Singapore. In order to investigate the developmental basis of morphological changes in embryos and larvae, we documented the ontogeny of S. sphaeroides in laboratory condition. Gametes were obtained from adult individuals by 0.5 M KCl injection into the coelomic cavity. Fertilization rate at limited sperm concentration (10−5 dilution) was...

  5. The occurrence of Ophiocnemis marmorata (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) associated with the rhizostome medusa Rhopilema hispidum (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagaraj, Govindan; Kumar, Pithchai Sampath; Morandini, André C.

    2008-11-01

    The association of scyphomedusae with invertebrates has been long known in the literature; especially with hyperiids amphipods. The association of echinoderms with jellyfish is not common and rarely recorded. We reported the association of the ophiuroid Ophiocnemis marmorata with the rhizostome scyphomedusa Rhopilema hispidum collected in Vellar estuary (on the southeast coast of India). O. marmorata is supposed to be a filter feeding ophiuroid, quite common in soft bottom of shallow waters. The brittle stars possibly seek for food supply, shelter and protection through the association.

  6. Redescription of Psolus tessellatus Koehler, 1896 (Echinodermata, Holothuroidea with neotype designation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Massin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the bycatch of a scientific campaign in the Bay of Biscay (VITAL 2002 a third specimen of Psolus tessellatus Koehler, 1896 was collected very close to the type locality. This specimen is here fully illustrated and designated as the neotype.

  7. Echinodermata das praias de Salvador (Bahia, Brasil The Echinoderms of Salvador beaches (Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orane Falcão de Souza Alves

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents 28 species of Echinoderms collected on 5 beaches of Salvador (12º54' to 13º01' S and 38º26' to 38º33' W, Brazil, which are distributed in 19 families. Ophiuroidea represented 53,6% of the collected species, followed by Echinoidea (28,6%, Asteroidea (7,1%, Holothuroidea (7,1%, and Crinoidea (3,6%. Ophiuroidea and Echinoidea were the most frequent groups, occurring at all the studied beaches while Crinoidea occurred only on 20% of them. Most of the species are characterized as belonging to the tropical warm waters, some to the shallow coastal areas and some having a broad bathymetric distribution. The richness of species values on beaches ranged from 7 to 24, at Itapua Beach, and from 2 to 14 among different kinds of habitats, where protected ones showed higher values.

  8. Embryonic, Larval, and Early Juvenile Development of the Tropical Sea Urchin, Salmacis sphaeroides (Echinodermata: Echinoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aminur Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmacis sphaeroides (Linnaeus, 1758 is one of the regular echinoids, occuring in the warm Indo-West Pacific, including Johor Straits, between Malaysia and Singapore. In order to investigate the developmental basis of morphological changes in embryos and larvae, we documented the ontogeny of S. sphaeroides in laboratory condition. Gametes were obtained from adult individuals by 0.5 M KCl injection into the coelomic cavity. Fertilization rate at limited sperm concentration (10−5 dilution was 96.6±1.4% and the resulting embryos were reared at 24°C. First cleavage (2-cell, 4-cell, 8-cell, 16-cell, 32-cell, and multicell (Morulla stages were achieved 01.12, 02.03, 02.28, 02.51, 03.12, and 03.32 h postfertilization. Ciliated blastulae with a mean length of 174.72±4.43 μm hatched 08.45 h after sperm entry. The gastrulae formed 16.15 h postfertilization and the archenteron elongated constantly while ectodermal red-pigmented cells migrated synchronously to the apical plate. Pluteus larva started to feed unicellular algae in 2 d, grew continuously, and finally attained metamorphic competence in 35 d after fertilization. Metamorphosis took approximately 1 h 30 min from attachment to the complete resorption of larval tissues and the development of complete juvenile structure with adult spines, extended tubefeet and well-developed pedicellaria, the whole event of which usually took place within 1 d postsettlement. This study represents the first successful investigation on embryonic, larval, and early juvenile development of S. sphaeroides. The findings would greatly be helpful towards the understanding of ontogeny and life-history strategies, which will facilitate us to develop the breeding, seed production, and culture techniques of sea urchins in captive condition.

  9. Phylogenomic Analyses of Echinodermata Support the Sister Groups of Asterozoa and Echinozoa

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Reich; Casey Dunn; Koji Akasaka; Gary Wessel

    2015-01-01

    Echinoderms (sea urchins, sea stars, brittle stars, sea lilies and sea cucumbers) are a group of diverse organisms, second in number within deuterostome species to only the chordates. Echinoderms serve as excellent model systems for developmental biology due to their diverse developmental mechanisms, tractable laboratory use, and close phylogenetic distance to chordates. In addition, echinoderms are very well represented in the fossil record, including some larval features, making echinoderms...

  10. Photographic observations of the life style of a deep-sea ophiuroid Asteronyx loveni (Echinodermata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Toshihiko; Ohta, Suguru

    1988-12-01

    The life style of a deep-sea ophiuroid, Asteronyx loveni was studied from underwater photographs (7 stations) and trawled samples (11 stations) between about 800 and 1700 m along the Pacific coast of Japan and in the Flores Sea, Indonesia. This ophiuroid typically clings to gorgonians ( Radicipes spp.) and pennatulids ( Funiculina quadrangularis and Anthoptilum sp.). The stomach contents of A. loveni included fragments of crustaceans, polychaete setae, sediment particles and flocculent material, but no tissues of the host coelenterates. Bottom photographs show the ophiuroids extending several arms into the water column presumably for suspension feeding. There was rarely more than one ophiuroid per coelenterate host, perhaps due to intraspecific competition for perch sites. Stereoscopic analysis of photographs revealed that most of the ophiuroids perched 20-35 cm above the sea floor. This may be the most effective height for feeding on particulate material resuspended from the sea floor by bottom currents.

  11. [Abundance of Diadema antillarum (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) in the coasts of Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noriega, Nicida; Pauls, Sheila M; del Mónaco, Carlos

    2006-09-01

    Diadema antillarum is a shallow-water sea-urchin from the tropical Atlantic whose populations almost disappeared in 1983-84 because of widespread mortalities which reached 87-100 %. In Venezuela, urchin population densities before the mortality event were comparable to those of other Caribbean regions; however, later abundancies remain unknown. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the recent densities of certain D. antillarum populations along the Venezuelan coasts and compare the densities at the Parque Nacional Mochima before and after the mortality. At each location urchin densities were determined by means of transects using 1 m2-quadrats as sampling units. The highest mean densities were observed at the sites on the central coast: Ensenada de Oricao, 0.28 ind/m2 (2002) and 1.05 ind/m2 (2003), and Chichiriviche de la Costa, 0.84 ind/m2 (2002) and 0.74 ind/m2 (2003). In Mochima, the mean density before the mortality for D. antillarum oscillated between 0.28 and 4 ind/m2, after the mortality event the mean density varied between 0.15 ind/m2 (2000) and 0.47 ind/m2 (2000). The populations of D. antillarum studied at Parque Nacional Morrocoy and Refugio de Fauna Silvestre Cuare showed highest densities at Playuela (0.43 ind/m2) and Cayo Sur (0.95 ind/m2) respectively, whereas other sites showed densities below 0.1 ind/m2. The density registered at Playuela in 2003 is lower than that reported before the mortality event (0.58-3.64 ind/m2). The density for Parque Nacional Archipiélago de Los Roques, specifically for the Arrecife de Herradura remained constant between 2002 and 2003 with values between 0.22-0.23 ind/m2 respectively. To conclude, the sea urchin abundancies observed at most of the Venezuelan coastal sites that we studied were higher than those reported for other areas of the northern Caribbean, even though the values have not yet returned to those preceding the 1984 mass-mortality event, due to the slow recovery of the populations. PMID:18491619

  12. The asteroid genus Haccourtaster (Echinodermata, Goniasteridae) in the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žítt, Jiří

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 2 (2005), s. 225-237. ISSN 0195-6671 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/01/1580 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Cretaceous * Asteroidea * New species Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.981, year: 2005

  13. Ultrastructural evidence of the excretory function in the asteroid axial organ (Asteroidea, Echinodermata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezhova, O V; Egorova, E A; Malakhov, V V

    2016-05-01

    The ultrastructure of the axial organ of Asterias amurensis has been studied The organ is a network of canals of the axial coelom separated by haemocoelic spaces. The axial coelom is lined with two types of monociliary cells: podocytes and musculo-epithelial cells. Podocytes form numerous basal processes adjacent to the basal lamina on the coelomic side. Musculo-epithelial cells form processes running along the basal lamina. Some bundles of these processes wrapped in the basal lamina pass through haemocoelic spaces between neighboring coelomic canals. It is hypothesized that the axial organ serves for filtration of fluid from haemocoelic spaces into the axial coelom cavity, from which urine is excreted through the madreporite to the exterior. PMID:27411825

  14. Gametogenic cycle of Ophioderma januarii, a common Ophiodermatidae (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) in southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Michela Borges; Leonardo Q Yokoyama; Antonia C. Z. Amaral

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the gametogenic cycle of Ophioderma januarii Lütken, 1856, a common species of ophiuroid in Southeastern Brazil. The specimens were collected during the project "Biodiversidade Bêntica Marinha no Estado de São Paulo-BIOTA/FAPESP-Bentos Marinho" (Marine benthic biodiversity in the State of São Paulo-BIOTA/ Fapesp-Marine Benthos) which was conducted off the northern coast of the state of São Paulo. Specimens were captured monthly between February 2001 and December 2002. Due...

  15. Embryonic, larval, and juvenile development of the sea biscuit Clypeaster subdepressus (Echinodermata: Clypeasteroida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno C Vellutini

    Full Text Available Sea biscuits and sand dollars diverged from other irregular echinoids approximately 55 million years ago and rapidly dispersed to oceans worldwide. A series of morphological changes were associated with the occupation of sand beds such as flattening of the body, shortening of primary spines, multiplication of podia, and retention of the lantern of Aristotle into adulthood. To investigate the developmental basis of such morphological changes we documented the ontogeny of Clypeaster subdepressus. We obtained gametes from adult specimens by KCl injection and raised the embryos at 26 degrees C. Ciliated blastulae hatched 7.5 h after sperm entry. During gastrulation the archenteron elongated continuously while ectodermal red-pigmented cells migrated synchronously to the apical plate. Pluteus larvae began to feed in 3 d and were 20 d old at metamorphosis; starved larvae died 17 d after fertilization. Postlarval juveniles had neither mouth nor anus nor plates on the aboral side, except for the remnants of larval spicules, but their bilateral symmetry became evident after the resorption of larval tissues. Ossicles of the lantern were present and organized in 5 groups. Each group had 1 tooth, 2 demipyramids, and 2 epiphyses with a rotula in between. Early appendages consisted of 15 spines, 15 podia (2 types, and 5 sphaeridia. Podial types were distributed in accordance to Lovén's rule and the first podium of each ambulacrum was not encircled by the skeleton. Seven days after metamorphosis juveniles began to feed by rasping sand grains with the lantern. Juveniles survived in laboratory cultures for 9 months and died with wide, a single open sphaeridium per ambulacrum, aboral anus, and no differentiated food grooves or petaloids. Tracking the morphogenesis of early juveniles is a necessary step to elucidate the developmental mechanisms of echinoid growth and important groundwork to clarify homologies between irregular urchins.

  16. Cadmium, Copper and Tributyltin effects on fertilization of Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella Vazzana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine environments are continuously being threatened by a large number of xenobi- otics from anthropogenic sources. The effect of chemical pollution on living organisms are numerous and may impair reproductive success of adults species of marine invertebrate and vertebrate through effects on gamete quality. Echinoderms are characterized by external fertilizzation and gametes, free of any type of protection, may be in contact with toxic substances so the reproductive success depends largely on the environment conditions. The purpose of this work is to assess the effects on the in vitro fertiliza- tion of exposure of sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus gametes to xenobiotic substances as CuSO4, CdCl2 and TBTCl. The effect of contaminant were assessed by two experimental set in which gametes were treated with different concentration (0, 10-3, 10-5 10-7 10-9 M of different substances as CdCl2, CuSO4 and TBTCl. The effects were evaluated as percentage of fertilization. The results showed that the gametes exposure to xenobiotic decreased the percentage of fertilization and that more sensitive to treatment were the sperm cells, propably because the toxic effect affected the motility of the sperm. In conclusion, the absence of fertilization (spermiotoxicity may submit the toxic effects of these substances to the level of body and may candidate the sea urchis as biosensors for the evaluation of environmental quality.

  17. Population Biology of Tripneustes gratilla (Linnaeus (Echinodermata in Seagrass Beds of Southern Guimaras, Philippines

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    Joshua Militar Regalado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla is a major grazer found in seagrass beds of southern Guimaras, Philippines. Monthly length-frequency data from January 2008 to June 2009 were used to estimate the growth, recruitment pattern and mortality rate with the use of FiSAT II. The estimated values for the Von Bertalanffy growth parameters L(n/k(asymptotic length and K (growth coefficient were 114.2 mm and 1.08 respectively. Monthly densities ranged from 0.06 to 0.58 per m² with a mean value of 0.26 per m². Monthly biomass ranged from 4.1 to 49.5 grams per m² with a mean value of 21.15 grams per m². T. gratilla density and biomass were observed to be highest during the month of November 2008. The recruitment pattern showed a major broad peak and a minor peak separated by four months. Total mortality (Z from the length-converted catch curve was computed to be 4.74 per year.

  18. A new species of starfish (Echinodermata: Asteroidea from an anchialine cave in the Mexican Caribbean Una especie nueva de estrella de mar (Echinodermata: Asteroidea de una caverna anquialina en el Caribe mexicano

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    Francisco Alonso Solís-Marín

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Copidaster cavernicola n. sp. is described from an anchialine cave system in Cozumel, Mexico. Copidaster cavernicola differs from its congeners in having 1-8 papulae in each papular area, and numerous excavate pedicellariae on all surfaces, except between furrow spines and subambulacral spines. C. cavernicola is possibly endemic to the anchialine system which it inhabits.Se describe una especie nueva de la estrella de mar del género Copidaster encontrada en un sistema de cuevas anquihalinas del Caribe, en Cozumel, México. Copidaster cavernicola n. sp. es la primera especie cavernícola de equinodermo que es descrita, y se caracteriza por tener de 1 a 8 pápulas por cada zona papular, numerosos pedicelarios excavados presentes en toda la superficie del cuerpo excepto en el surco ubicado entre las espinas ambulacrales y subambulacrales. Se sugiere que C. cavernicola es una especie endémica propia del sistema anquihalino en el que habita.

  19. Biologia reprodutiva de Echinometra lucunter (Echinodermata: Echinoidea na Praia da Costa, Vila Velha, Espírito Santo Reproductive biology of Echinometra lucunter (Echinodermata: Echinoidea in Praia da Costa, Vila Velha, Espírito Santo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima L. F. Mariante

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Echinometra lucunter Linnaeus, 1758 is a tropical sea urchin with strong bioerosive potential. Consequently, this species has great ecological importance. The species occurs in high densities along the Brazilian coast, particularly in the south and southeast. The objective of this work was to evaluate both the effects of annual seasonality and the lunar cycle on the reproduction of E. lucunter. Individuals were sampled monthly for a period of one year and during four complete lunar cycles. The gonadosomatic index (GI was calculated to determine the annual and monthly reproductive peaks based on the lunar phase. The sex ratio (male:female was 1:1.04, without significant difference in sexual proportion. The GI was significantly higher for males than for females. The first sexual maturation occurs when carapace width reaches 23.30 mm, and 50% of the animals have gonads with 28.22 mm. The spawning peak generally occurs during the whole year from the full moon to the waning moon. However, there is an annual reproductive peak from summer to autumn.

  20. Estrutura fina do espermatozóide de Mellita quinquiesperforata Leske (Echinodermata do litoral norte do Brasil Fine structure of the spermatozoon of the Mellita quinquiesperforata (Echinodermata of the Northern littoral of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilson Matos

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The fine structure of the spermatozoon in the Mellita quinquiesperforata Leske, 1778 was studied. Collected from the Amazon region, were described by light and transmission electron microscopy. The spermatozoon consisted of a acrosome complex, nucleus, four to six mitochondria, two centrioles and flagellum. The acrosome was composed of a acrosome complex, the acrosomal vesicle and the subacrosomal space. The nucleus are composed by dense material. The middle piece contains 4-6 mitochondria which are arranged around the centrioles, the 9p+0, whose axoneme has the classic 9p+2 microtubular construction.

  1. Inferring the developmental basis of the sea star abnormality "double ambulacral groove" (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) Inferencia sobre la base de desarrollo en estrellas de mar de la anormalidad "doble surco ambulacral" (Echinodermata: Asteroidea)

    OpenAIRE

    FREDERICK H C HOTCHKISS

    2000-01-01

    Very rarely a ray of a sea star is unusually wide and has two parallel ambulacral grooves that extend to a single tip. Such a ray has two terminal plates that are coalesced laterally. This abnormality is inferred to develop as a rare result of regeneration because it is recorded from a species with obligate asexual reproduction (fission and regeneration of halves; no gametes). This conclusion is supported also by an example where the abnormality affects only the distal third of a rayMuy raram...

  2. Inferring the developmental basis of the sea star abnormality "double ambulacral groove" (Echinodermata: Asteroidea Inferencia sobre la base de desarrollo en estrellas de mar de la anormalidad "doble surco ambulacral" (Echinodermata: Asteroidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FREDERICK H C HOTCHKISS

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Very rarely a ray of a sea star is unusually wide and has two parallel ambulacral grooves that extend to a single tip. Such a ray has two terminal plates that are coalesced laterally. This abnormality is inferred to develop as a rare result of regeneration because it is recorded from a species with obligate asexual reproduction (fission and regeneration of halves; no gametes. This conclusion is supported also by an example where the abnormality affects only the distal third of a rayMuy raramente un rayo de estrella de mar es desproporcionadamente ancho y tiene dos surcos ambulacrales paralelos que se extienden hasta su único extremo. Dicho rayo tiene dos placas terminales que coalecen lateralmente. Se ha inferido que esta anormalidad se desarrolla como un resultado raro de regeneración, porque se describe de una especie con reproducción asexual obligada (fisión y regeneración de mitades; no gametos. Además, esta conclusión se sostiene por un ejemplo de anormalidad que afecta sólo el tercio distal de un rayo

  3. Reproductive cycle of Mellita quinquiesperforata (Leske (Echinodermata, Echinoidea in two contrasting beach environments Reprodução de Mellita quinquiesperforata (Leske (Echinodermata, Echinoidea em dois ecossistemas praiais contrastantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara A. G. Tavares

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive cycle of the irregular echinoid Mellita quinquiesperforata (Leske, 1778 was studied in populations from two sand beaches with different morphodynamic conditions in Parana coast, from February 1992 through July 1994. Gametogenesis was described by histological and gonad index methods and the differences between both populations were observed in the extension of nutrient storage and spawning period. Both populations exhibited a main reproductive period during spring/summer and a nutrient storage period during autumn/winter months. The spawning period at the intermediate-dissipative beach was shorter than at the reflective beach. Meanwhile, a nutrient storage stage was more extensive in the latter. Gonad index varied between both sexes and it was influenced by population characteristics. Different strategies in allocation of resources between maintenance and reproduction effort (oocyte size confirm the high adaptive plasticity developed by this species to live in contrasting beach environments.O ciclo reprodutivo do equinóide irregular Mellita quinquiesperforata (Leske, 1778 foi estudado em populações de duas praias com diferentes condições morfodinâmicas na costa paranaense, de fevereiro de 1992 a julho de 1994. A gametogênese foi descrita pela análise histológica das gônadas e pela variação do índice gonadal. Foram encontradas diferenças com relação à extensão do período de estocagem de nutrientes e do período de liberação dos gametas nas populações. Ambas exibiram um marcado período reprodutivo na primavera e no verão e uma época de estocagem de nutrientes no outono e no inverno. Na praia intermediária-dissipativa a liberação de gametas ocorreu num período menor do que na reflectiva, porém a fase de acúmulo de reservas nutritivas foi mais extensa na primeira. O índice gonadal apresentou variações entre os sexos e foi influenciado pelas características populacionais. As diferentes estratégias na alocação dos recursos entre manutenção e esforço reprodutivo (tamanho do ovócito confirmam a elevada plasticidade adaptativa desenvolvida pela espécie para habitar ambientes praiais contrastantes.

  4. Ophiuroidea das regiões antartica e subantartica: 2. variação em Gorgonocephalus chílensis (Philippi (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea, Gorgonocephalidae Ophiuroidea from antarctic and subantarctic regions: 2. variation on Gorgonocephalus chilensis (Philippi (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea, Gorgonocephalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Gouveia Monteiro

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram examinados 198 exemplares de Gorgonocephalus chilensis das regiões antártica e subantartica, tendo-se em vista a variação de caracteres morfológicos externos. Foi constatada uma grande variação nas características morfológicas externas, que parece independer de localização geográfica.A revision is presented on the variability of the ornamentation and other extermal morphological aspects of Gorgonocephalus chilensis. The samples were obtained along the period of 1962 to 1972 by the R/V "Hero" and "Eltanin" (USARP and by the R/V "Almirante Saldanha" from the Brazilian Navy.

  5. Brittle stars (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) from seamounts in the Andaman Sea (Indian Ocean): first account, with descriptions of new species

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Stohr, S.; Sautya, S.; Ingole, B.S.

    remarks on certain genera and species. Marine Biology Research 4: 76–111. McClain, CR. 2007. Seamounts: identity crisis or split personality? Journal of Biogeography 34: 2001–2008. McKnight, DG. 1975. Some echinoderms from the Northern Tasman Sea. New..., 1981; Guille & Vadon, 1986; Vadon, 1991; Guille & Vadon, 1985; Rowe & Richmond, 2004; Stöhr, Conand & Boissin., 2008). An inventory of shallow water echinoderms of the Indo-West Pacific was compiled by Clark & Rowe (1971) thirty years ago...

  6. Reconstructing SALMFamide neuropeptide precursor evolution in the phylum Echinodermata: ophiuroid and crinoid sequence data provide new insights

    OpenAIRE

    Elphick, Maurice R; Semmens, Dean C.; Blowes, Liisa M.; Judith eLevine; Lowe, Christopher J.; Maria Ina Arnone; Clark, Melody S.

    2015-01-01

    The SALMFamides are a family of neuropeptides that act as muscle relaxants in echinoderms. Analysis of genome/transcriptome sequence data from the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Echinoidea), the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Holothuroidea) and the starfish Patiria miniata (Asteroidea) reveals that in each species there are two types of SALMFamide precursor: an L-type precursor comprising peptides with a C-terminal LxFamide-type motif and an F-type precursor solely or largely...

  7. Reconstructing SALMFamide neuropeptide precursor evolution in the phylum Echinodermata: ophiuroid and crinoid sequence data provide new insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice R Elphick

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The SALMFamides are a family of neuropeptides that act as muscle relaxants in echinoderms. Analysis of genome/transcriptome sequence data from the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Echinoidea, the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Holothuroidea and the starfish Patiria miniata (Asteroidea reveals that in each species there are two types of SALMFamide precursor: an L-type precursor comprising peptides with a C-terminal LxFamide-type motif and an F-type precursor solely or largely comprising peptides with a C-terminal FxFamide-type motif. Here we have identified transcripts encoding SALMFamide precursors in the brittle star Ophionotus victoriae (Ophiuroidea and the feather star Antedon mediterranea (Crinoidea. We have also identified SALMFamide precursors in other species belonging to each of the five echinoderm classes. As in S. purpuratus, A. japonicus and P. miniata, in O. victoriae there is one L-type precursor and one F-type precursor. However, in A. mediterranea only a single SALMFamide precursor was found, comprising two peptides with a LxFamide-type motif, one with a FxFamide-type motif, five with a FxLamide-type motif and four with a LxLamide-type motif. As crinoids are basal to the Echinozoa (Holothuroidea + Echinoidea and Asterozoa (Asteroidea + Ophiuroidea in echinoderm phylogeny, one model of SALMFamide precursor evolution would be that ancestrally there was a single SALMFamide gene encoding a variety of SALMFamides (as in crinoids, which duplicated in a common ancestor of the Echinozoa and Asterozoa and then specialised to encode L-type SALMFamides or F-type SALMFamides. Alternatively, a second SALMFamide precursor may remain to be discovered or may have been lost in crinoids. Further insights will be obtained if SALMFamide receptors are identified, which would provide a molecular basis for experimental analysis of the functional significance of the cocktails of SALMFamides that exist in echinoderms.

  8. 16S rRNA gene phylogenesis of culturable predominant bacteria from diseased Apostichopus japonicus (Holothuroidea, Echinodermata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Haiyan; Jiang, Guoliang; Wu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Xin

    2009-06-01

    Cultured Apostichopus japonicus in China suffers from a kind of skin ulceration disease that has caused severe economic loss in recent years. The disease, pathogens of which are supposed to be bacteria by most researchers, is highly infectious and can often cause all individuals in the same culture pool to die in a very short time. The 16S rRNA gene phylogenesis of the culturable bacteria from the lesions of diseased individuals was conducted to study the biodiversity of the bacterial communities in the lesions and to identify probable pathogen(s) associated with this kind of disease. S. japonica samples were selected from a hatchery located in the eastern part of Qingdao, China. Bacterial universal primers GM5F and DS907R were used to amplify the 16S rRNA gene of bacteria colonies, and touchdown PCR was performed to amplify the target sequences. The results suggest that γ- proteobacteria (Alteromonadales and Vibrionales) of CFB group, many strains of which have been also determined as pathogens in other marine species, are the predominant bacterial genera of the diseased Apostichopus japonicus individuals.

  9. Reconstructing SALMFamide Neuropeptide Precursor Evolution in the Phylum Echinodermata: Ophiuroid and Crinoid Sequence Data Provide New Insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elphick, Maurice R; Semmens, Dean C; Blowes, Liisa M; Levine, Judith; Lowe, Christopher J; Arnone, Maria I; Clark, Melody S

    2015-01-01

    The SALMFamides are a family of neuropeptides that act as muscle relaxants in echinoderms. Analysis of genome/transcriptome sequence data from the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Echinoidea), the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Holothuroidea), and the starfish Patiria miniata (Asteroidea) reveals that in each species there are two types of SALMFamide precursor: an L-type precursor comprising peptides with a C-terminal LxFamide-type motif and an F-type precursor solely or largely comprising peptides with a C-terminal FxFamide-type motif. Here, we have identified transcripts encoding SALMFamide precursors in the brittle star Ophionotus victoriae (Ophiuroidea) and the feather star Antedon mediterranea (Crinoidea). We have also identified SALMFamide precursors in other species belonging to each of the five echinoderm classes. As in S. purpuratus, A. japonicus, and P. miniata, in O. victoriae there is one L-type precursor and one F-type precursor. However, in A. mediterranea only a single SALMFamide precursor was found, comprising two peptides with a LxFamide-type motif, one with a FxFamide-type motif, five with a FxLamide-type motif, and four with a LxLamide-type motif. As crinoids are basal to the Echinozoa (Holothuroidea + Echinoidea) and Asterozoa (Asteroidea + Ophiuroidea) in echinoderm phylogeny, one model of SALMFamide precursor evolution would be that ancestrally there was a single SALMFamide gene encoding a variety of SALMFamides (as in crinoids), which duplicated in a common ancestor of the Echinozoa and Asterozoa and then specialized to encode L-type SALMFamides or F-type SALMFamides. Alternatively, a second SALMFamide precursor may remain to be discovered or may have been lost in crinoids. Further insights will be obtained if SALMFamide receptors are identified, which would provide a molecular basis for experimental analysis of the functional significance of the "cocktails" of SALMFamides that exist in echinoderms. PMID:25699014

  10. Impact of CO2-driven acidification on the development of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiutang; Shao, Senlin; Dupont, Sam; Meng, Leiming; Liu, Yongjian; Wang, Lijun

    2015-06-15

    We evaluated the impact of ocean acidification on the early development of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. The effect of pH-levels (pH 8.04, 7.85, 7.70 and 7.42) were tested on post-fertilization success, developmental (stage duration) and growth rates. Post-fertilization success decreased linearly with pH leading to a 6% decrease at pH 7.42 as compared to pH 8.1. The impact of pH on developmental time was stage-dependent: (1) stage duration increased linearly with decreasing pH in early-auricularia stage; (2) decreased linearly with decreasing pH in the mid-auricularia stage; but (3) pH decline had no effect on the late-auricularia stage. At the end of the experiment, the size of doliolaria larvae linearly increased with decreasing pH. In conclusion, a 0.62 unit decrease in pH had relatively small effects on A. japonicus early life-history compared to other echinoderms, leading to a maximum of 6% decrease in post-fertilization success and subtle effects on growth and development. PMID:25913790

  11. Reconstructing SALMFamide Neuropeptide Precursor Evolution in the Phylum Echinodermata: Ophiuroid and Crinoid Sequence Data Provide New Insights

    OpenAIRE

    Elphick, Maurice R; Semmens, Dean C.; Blowes, Liisa M.; Levine, Judith; Lowe, Christopher J.; Arnone, Maria I.; Clark, Melody S.

    2015-01-01

    The SALMFamides are a family of neuropeptides that act as muscle relaxants in echinoderms. Analysis of genome/transcriptome sequence data from the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Echinoidea), the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Holothuroidea), and the starfish Patiria miniata (Asteroidea) reveals that in each species there are two types of SALMFamide precursor: an L-type precursor comprising peptides with a C-terminal LxFamide-type motif and an F-type precursor solely or largel...

  12. A New Morphological Phylogeny of the Ophiuroidea (Echinodermata) Accords with Molecular Evidence and Renders Microfossils Accessible for Cladistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuy, Ben; Stöhr, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Ophiuroid systematics is currently in a state of upheaval, with recent molecular estimates fundamentally clashing with traditional, morphology-based classifications. Here, we attempt a long overdue recast of a morphological phylogeny estimate of the Ophiuroidea taking into account latest insights on microstructural features of the arm skeleton. Our final estimate is based on a total of 45 ingroup taxa, including 41 recent species covering the full range of extant ophiuroid higher taxon diversity and 4 fossil species known from exceptionally preserved material, and the Lower Carboniferous Aganaster gregarius as the outgroup. A total of 130 characters were scored directly on specimens. The tree resulting from the Bayesian inference analysis of the full data matrix is reasonably well resolved and well supported, and refutes all previous classifications, with most traditional families discredited as poly- or paraphyletic. In contrast, our tree agrees remarkably well with the latest molecular estimate, thus paving the way towards an integrated new classification of the Ophiuroidea. Among the characters which were qualitatively found to accord best with our tree topology, we selected a list of potential synapomorphies for future formal clade definitions. Furthermore, an analysis with 13 of the ingroup taxa reduced to the lateral arm plate characters produced a tree which was essentially similar to the full dataset tree. This suggests that dissociated lateral arm plates can be analysed in combination with fully known taxa and thus effectively unlocks the extensive record of fossil lateral arm plates for phylogenetic estimates. Finally, the age and position within our tree implies that the ophiuroid crown-group had started to diversify by the Early Triassic. PMID:27227685

  13. First insights into the biochemistry of tube foot adhesive from the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (Echinoidea, Echinodermata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, R; da Costa, G; Franco, C; Gomes-Alves, P; Flammang, P; Coelho, A V

    2009-01-01

    Sea urchins are common inhabitants of wave-swept shores. To withstand the action of waves, they rely on highly specialized independent adhesive organs, the adoral tube feet. The latter are extremely well-designed for temporary adhesion being composed by two functional subunits: (1) an apical disc that produces an adhesive secretion to fasten the sea urchin to the substratum, as well as a deadhesive secretion to allow the animal to move and (2) a stem that bears the tensions placed on the animal by hydrodynamism. Despite their technological potential for the development of new biomimetic underwater adhesives, very little is known about the biochemical composition of sea urchin adhesives. A characterization of sea urchin adhesives is presented using footprints. The latter contain inorganic residues (45.5%), proteins (6.4%), neutral sugars (1.2%), and lipids (2.5%). Moreover, the amino acid composition of the soluble protein fraction revealed a bias toward six amino acids: glycine, alanine, valine, serine, threonine, and asparagine/aspartic acid, which comprise 56.8% of the total residues. In addition, it also presents higher levels of proline (6.8%) and half-cystine (2.6%) than average eukaryotic proteins. Footprint insolubility was partially overcome using strong denaturing and reducing buffers, enabling the visualization of 13 proteins by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The conjugation of mass spectrometry with homology-database search allowed the identification of six proteins: alpha and beta tubulin, actin, and histones H2B, H3, H2A, and H4, whose location and function in the adhesive are discussed but require further investigation. For the remaining unidentified proteins, five de novo-generated peptide sequences were found that were not present in the available protein databases, suggesting that they might be novel or modified proteins. PMID:19221839

  14. Shallow-water reef ophiuroids (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) of Réunion (Mascarene Islands), with biogeographic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissin, Emilie; Hoareau, Thierry B; Paulay, Gustav; Bruggemann, J Henrich

    2016-01-01

    Despite their importance in marine biodiversity, invertebrates are far less studied than vertebrates. Given the current global biodiversity crisis and insufficient taxonomic resources, sustained efforts need to be undertaken to assess species diversity, especially in the highly threatened 'biodiversity hotspots'. Réunion is a young volcanic island lying in the Mascarene Islands (south-western Indian Ocean, SWIO), a marine biodiversity hotspot. A substantial sampling effort was conducted around Réunion Island to document shallow water reef-associated ophiuroid (brittle-stars) diversity, a class recognised as the most diverse among echinoderms. A total of 33 species were documented, increasing the known species richness of the island by 56%. Findings include 15 new records for Réunion, 11 for the Mascarene Islands and 8 for the Indian Ocean. The most diverse family was Ophiocomidae, a family of large, abundant and conspicuous tropical species. Even in this well studied family, a new species was revealed by this survey. Morphological variants together with DNA sequence variations within several species revealed cryptic species. We compared our results with the known fauna of other Mascarene Islands and discuss biogeographic implications for the region. PMID:27394586

  15. [Larvae and postlarvae production of the green-white sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) in culture conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago, Esperanza; Lodeiros Seijo, César

    2005-12-01

    We evaluated the biological feasibility of massive larvae and postlarvae production of the Caribbean green-white urchin Lytechinus variegatus. Experiments were designed to choose the initial larval density and microalgae diets under culture, to study metamorphosis, postlarval and juvenile growth. Massive production of competent larvae 650 microm long at 12-13 days is possible using larval densities of 0.25 to 1 larva/ml. The microalgae Rhodomonas sp. was suitable for the optimization of larval growth and survival. Metamorphosis of 100% of the larvae can be induced with films of bentic diatoms (Navicula sp. and Amphora sp.), after 96 h; however, diatoms are not adequate for postlarval development and a food supply of Ulva lactuta is necessary for proper growth. For juveniles, a diet of macroalgae (U. lactuta) and/or commercial marine shrimp culture pellet food is enough for growth, but the best results were obtained with shrimp or U. lactuta used alone (85-86%, against 46% with the mixed diet). We recommend future experiments on nutritional requirements to optimize growth of these and subsequent stages. PMID:17469262

  16. Effect of particle size frequency distribution of the substratum on the burrowing ability of Chiridota rigida (semper) (Echinodermata: holothuroidea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, J.M.; Murdoch, J.

    1977-01-01

    Chiridota rigida (Semper) burrows easily into well-sorted substrata, moving between particles in coarse substrata and pushing aside particles in fine substrata. Chiridota rigida does not burrow easily into poorly sorted substrata because spaces which can be penetrated are not available and because the particles cannot be moved as a result of increased stability of the substratum. In poorly sorted substrata, burrowing ability increases with increases in the proportion of fine particles. It would appear that the distribution and abundance of chiridota rigida and other chiridotids would be affected by the effect of the substratum on their ability to burrow.

  17. 16S rRNA Gene Phylogenesis of Culturable Predominant Bacteria from Diseased Apostichopus japonicus(Holothuroidea, Echinodermata)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Haiyan; JIANG Guoliang; WU Zhiqiang; WANG Xin

    2009-01-01

    Cultured Apostichopusjaponicus in China suffers from a kind of skin ulceration disease that has caused severe economic loss in recent years. The disease, pathogens of which are supposed to be bacteria by most researchers, is highly infectious and can often cause all individuals in the same culture pool to die in a very short time. The 16S rRNA gene phylogenesis of the culturable bacteria from the lesions of diseased individuals was conducted to study the biodiversity of the bacterial communities in the lesions and to identify probable pathogen(s) associated with this kind of disease. S. japonica samples were selected from a hatchery located in the eastern part of Qingdao, China. Bacterial universal primers GM5F and DS907R were used to amplify the 16S rRNA gene of bacteria colonies, and touchdown PCR was performed to amplify the target sequences. The results suggest that γ- proteobacteria (Alteromonadales and Vibrionales) of CFB group, many strains of which have been also determined as pathogens in other marine species, are the predominant bacterial genera of the diseased Apostichopusjaponicus individuals.

  18. The Occurrence of Ophiocnemis marmorata (Echinodermata:Ophiuroidea) Associated with the Rhizostome Medusa Rhopilema hispidum (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Govindan Kanagaraj; Pithchai Sampath Kumar; Andr(e) C. Morandini

    2008-01-01

    The association of scyphomedusae with invertebrates has been long known in the literature; especially with hyperiidsamphipods.The association of echinoderms with jellyfish is not common and rarely recorded.We reported the association of theophiuroid Ophiocnemis marmorata with the rhizostome scyphomedusa Rhopilema hispidum collected in Vellar estuary (on thesoutheast coast of India).O.marmorata is supposed to be a filter feeding ophiuroid,quite common in soft bottom of shallow waters.The brittle stars possibly seek for food supply,shelter and protection through the association.

  19. Isolation and Characterization of Adhesive Secretion from Cuvierian Tubules of Sea Cucumber Holothuria forskåli (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea)

    OpenAIRE

    Malgorzata Baranowska; Ute Schloßmacher; J. Douglas McKenzie; Werner E. G. Müller; Heinz C. Schröder

    2011-01-01

    The sea cucumber Holothuria forskåli possesses a specialized system called Cuvierian tubules. During mechanical stimulation white filaments (tubules) are expelled and become sticky upon contact with any object. We isolated a protein with adhesive properties from protein extracts of Cuvierian tubules from H. forskåli. This protein was identified by antibodies against recombinant precollagen D which is located in the byssal threads of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. To find out the optima...

  20. The central nervous system of sea cucumbers (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea shows positive immunostaining for a chordate glial secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grondona Jesus M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Echinoderms and chordates belong to the same monophyletic taxon, the Deuterostomia. In spite of significant differences in body plan organization, the two phyla may share more common traits than was thought previously. Of particular interest are the common features in the organization of the central nervous system. The present study employs two polyclonal antisera raised against bovine Reissner's substance (RS, a secretory product produced by glial cells of the subcomissural organ, to study RS-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of sea cucumbers. Results In the ectoneural division of the nervous system, both antisera recognize the content of secretory vacuoles in the apical cytoplasm of the radial glia-like cells of the neuroepithelium and in the flattened glial cells of the non-neural epineural roof epithelium. The secreted immunopositive material seems to form a thin layer covering the cell apices. There is no accumulation of the immunoreactive material on the apical surface of the hyponeural neuroepithelium or the hyponeural roof epithelium. Besides labelling the supporting cells and flattened glial cells of the epineural roof epithelium, both anti-RS antisera reveal a previously unknown putative glial cell type within the neural parenchyma of the holothurian nervous system. Conclusion Our results show that: a the glial cells of the holothurian tubular nervous system produce a material similar to Reissner's substance known to be synthesized by secretory glial cells in all chordates studied so far; b the nervous system of sea cucumbers shows a previously unrealized complexity of glial organization. Our findings also provide significant clues for interpretation of the evolution of the nervous system in the Deuterostomia. It is suggested that echinoderms and chordates might have inherited the RS-producing radial glial cell type from the central nervous system of their common ancestor, i.e., the last common ancestor of all the Deuterostomia.

  1. Oceanographic conditions and diversity of sea stars (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) in the Gulf of California, México

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos E. Cintra-Buenrostro; Héctor Reyes-Bonilla; María Dinorah Herrero-Pérezrul

    2005-01-01

    Species richness is one of the best indicators of biodiversity. However, there are few investigations on concordance of diversity patterns and environmental settings for marine regions. The objectives of this study were to correlate species richness of shallow water ( 200 m deep) sea stars with key oceanographic factors in the Gulf of California, México, and to predict species richness of Asteroidea using multiple regressions. In these analyses the Gulf was divided into nine sections of one d...

  2. OMANASTER IMBRICATUS (ECHINODERMATA, ASTEROIDEA, A NEW GENUS AND SPECIES FROM THE SAKMARIAN (LOWER PERMIAN SAIWAN FORMATION OF OMAN, ARABIAN PENINSULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL B. BLAKE

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Omanaster imbricatus is a new genu s and species of Sakmarian (Early Permian asteroids collected from the basal Pachycyrtella Bed of the Saiwan Formation of Oman, Arabian Peninsula; the family Omanasteridae is recognized. Late Paleozoic and especially Permian asteroids are rare and O. imbricatus differs significantly from those previously described, thereby providing an important addition to known late Paleozoic diversity. Unfortunately the single available specimen is incomplete with remaining ossicles both leached and partially fused, and available data are limited. Adambulacral form and arrangement of O. imbricatus are both suggestive of corresponding expressions of certain earlier Paleozoic species and unlike those of the crown-group, suggesting an enduring Paleozoic lineage but one not phylogenetically a part of the Mesozoic diversification. The Pachycyrtella Bed has been interpreted as recording a succession of pioneer palaeocommunities colonizing a turbulent, shallow-water settingaffected by oscillatory flows. The apparently flattened appearance of O. imbricatus is suggestive of appearances of certain Cretaceous and extant species recovered from similar environments thus suggesting both homoplasy and the versatility of asteroid evolution across extended spans of geologic time.

  3. [Demography and fishery of the sea urchin Loxechinus albus (Echinodermata: Echinidae) in south-austral Chile region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana, Patricio M

    2005-12-01

    In the Magellan Region of southern Chile (52 degrees 20'S - 55 degrees 30'S), the edible urchin Loxechinus albus is collected by 1200 artisanal fishermen, of whom 450 are divers. About 360 small fishing boats and 54 transport vessels carry the fresh product to 16 processing plants. Landings of about 27 000 tons were recorded between January and December 1995. Test diameters of urchins harvested monthly were measured for a total of 119 239 specimens, and 36 406 specimens were individually weighed; sex determination was carried out on 2 314 specimens. Field data indicate that the harvest was about 6.6 x 106 dozen urchins (this is a measuring method employed by fishermen in the region), with an extractive effort of 14 753 diver/days. The fisheries yield ranged from an annual minimum of 235 DUDD (dozen urchins per diver/day) to a maximum of 660 DUDD. In overall terms, the lowest average yields were between January and April (415-427 DUDD), and the highest yields between May and December (456-510 DUDD). Mean sizes increased from June to November and decreased from December to June. Size frequency of males and females were polymodal, with the most relevant modes at 72-84 mm in males, and at 79-88 mm in the females. The percentage of individuals below the minimum legal size (70 mm) did not exceed 4.9% for males and 3.6% for females. The size-weight records fit a power model which suggested that this species has a negative allometric growth (b = 2.007). Regarding weight, urchins in the size range from 80.0 to 84.9 mm were those with the maximum contribution to the regional landings. The highest values recorded for the utilized condition factor were: Average Condition Factor (ACF) = May to July, and November; Isometric (or Cubic) Condition Factor (ICF) = July; and Allometric Condition Factor (ACF) = June. Spawning occurred mainly between August and September, and ended by the end of October. Exploitation of this species represents one of the main sources of employment for the artisanal fisheries sector in the Magellan Region. The main difficulty observed in this fishery was obtaining a sufficient supply of urchins with a yellow-gold colored gonadic material, which forms the basis for demand of this urchin by the international market. PMID:17469267

  4. Bioenergetic trade-offs in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) in response to CO2-driven ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiutang; Shao, Senlin; Yang, Xiaolong; Yang, Dazuo; Xu, Qinzeng; Zong, Humin; Liu, Shilin

    2016-05-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) caused by excessive CO2 is a potential ecological threat to marine organisms. The impacts of OA on echinoderms are well-documented, but there has been a strong bias towards sea urchins, and limited information is available on sea cucumbers. This work examined the effect of medium-term (60 days) exposure to three pH levels (pH 8.06, 7.72, and 7.41, covering present and future pH variability) on the bioenergetic responses of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, an ecologically and economically important holothurian in Asian coasts. Results showed that the measured specific growth rate linearly decreased with decreased pH, leading to a 0.42 %·day(-1) decrease at pH 7.41 compared with that at pH 8.06. The impacts of pH on physiological energetics were variable: measured energy consumption and defecation rates linearly decreased with decreased pH, whereas maintenance energy in calculated respiration and excretion were not significantly affected. No shift in energy allocation pattern was observed in A. japonicus upon exposure to pH 7.72 compared with pH 8.06. However, a significant shift in energy budget occurred upon exposure to pH 7.41, leading to decreased energy intake and increased percentage of energy that was lost in feces, thereby resulting in a significantly lowered allocation into somatic growth. These findings indicate that adult A. japonicus is resilient to the OA scenario at the end of the twenty-first century, but further acidification may negatively influence the grazing capability and growth, thereby influencing its ecological functioning as an "ecosystem engineer" and potentially harming its culture output. PMID:26782325

  5. Nuevos datos sobre la distribución de Centrostephanus longispinus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea en las costas españolas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno, Diego

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Some new records of the rare sea urchin Centrostephanus longispinus are given in the Spanish coasts, all of them widespread along the Balearic Islands, Levante, Alboran Sea and Atlantic side of the Strait of Gibraltar. From these data, conclusions about its range of distribution in Spanish water, habitat and its optimal range of temperature are provided.Se aportan nuevas citas del raro erizo de mar Centrostephanus longispinus en las costas españolas, repartidas por el archipiélago balear, Levante español, mar de Alborán y vertiente atlántica del estrecho de Gibraltar. Con los datos obtenidos se obtienen una serie de conclusiones sobre la distribución de la especie en aguas españolas, su hábitat y el intervalo de temperaturas que tolera.

  6. Reconstructing SALMFamide Neuropeptide Precursor Evolution in the Phylum Echinodermata: Ophiuroid and Crinoid Sequence Data Provide New Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elphick, Maurice R.; Semmens, Dean C.; Blowes, Liisa M.; Levine, Judith; Lowe, Christopher J.; Arnone, Maria I.; Clark, Melody S.

    2015-01-01

    The SALMFamides are a family of neuropeptides that act as muscle relaxants in echinoderms. Analysis of genome/transcriptome sequence data from the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Echinoidea), the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Holothuroidea), and the starfish Patiria miniata (Asteroidea) reveals that in each species there are two types of SALMFamide precursor: an L-type precursor comprising peptides with a C-terminal LxFamide-type motif and an F-type precursor solely or largely comprising peptides with a C-terminal FxFamide-type motif. Here, we have identified transcripts encoding SALMFamide precursors in the brittle star Ophionotus victoriae (Ophiuroidea) and the feather star Antedon mediterranea (Crinoidea). We have also identified SALMFamide precursors in other species belonging to each of the five echinoderm classes. As in S. purpuratus, A. japonicus, and P. miniata, in O. victoriae there is one L-type precursor and one F-type precursor. However, in A. mediterranea only a single SALMFamide precursor was found, comprising two peptides with a LxFamide-type motif, one with a FxFamide-type motif, five with a FxLamide-type motif, and four with a LxLamide-type motif. As crinoids are basal to the Echinozoa (Holothuroidea + Echinoidea) and Asterozoa (Asteroidea + Ophiuroidea) in echinoderm phylogeny, one model of SALMFamide precursor evolution would be that ancestrally there was a single SALMFamide gene encoding a variety of SALMFamides (as in crinoids), which duplicated in a common ancestor of the Echinozoa and Asterozoa and then specialized to encode L-type SALMFamides or F-type SALMFamides. Alternatively, a second SALMFamide precursor may remain to be discovered or may have been lost in crinoids. Further insights will be obtained if SALMFamide receptors are identified, which would provide a molecular basis for experimental analysis of the functional significance of the “cocktails” of SALMFamides that exist in echinoderms. PMID:25699014

  7. Elucidation of molecular diversity and body distribution of saponins in the sea cucumber Holothuria forskali (Echinodermata) by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyck, Séverine; Gerbaux, Pascal; Flammang, Patrick

    2009-02-01

    Sea cucumbers contain triterpene glycosides called saponins. We investigated the complex saponin mixture extracted from the common Mediterranean species Holothuria forskali. Two different body components were analyzed separately: the body wall (which protects the animal and is moreover the most important organ in terms of surface and weight) and the Cuvierian tubules (a defensive organ that can be expelled on predators in response to an attack). MALDI/MS and MALDI/MS/MS were used to detect saponins and describe their molecular structures. As isomers have been found in the Cuvierian tubules, LC/MS and LC/MS/MS were performed to identify each saponin separately. Twelve saponins have been detected in the body wall and 26 in the Cuvierian tubules. All the saponins from the body wall are also present in the Cuvierian tubules but the latter also contain 14 specific saponins. The presence of isomeric saponins complicated structure elucidation for the whole set but 16 saponins have been described tentatively. Among these, 3 had already been reported in the literature as holothurinosides A and C, and desholothurin A. Molecular structures have been proposed for the 13 others which, in the present work, have been provisionally named holothurinosides E, F, G, H, I, A(1), C(1), E(1), F(1), G(1), H(1) and I(1) and desholothurin A(1). The diversity and organ specificity of the saponins described here are much higher than what had been reported to date in any sea cucumber species. PMID:19036349

  8. Isolation and Characterization of Adhesive Secretion from Cuvierian Tubules of Sea Cucumber Holothuria forskåli (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Baranowska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The sea cucumber Holothuria forskåli possesses a specialized system called Cuvierian tubules. During mechanical stimulation white filaments (tubules are expelled and become sticky upon contact with any object. We isolated a protein with adhesive properties from protein extracts of Cuvierian tubules from H. forskåli. This protein was identified by antibodies against recombinant precollagen D which is located in the byssal threads of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. To find out the optimal procedure for extraction and purification, the identified protein was isolated by several methods, including electroelution, binding to glass beads, immunoprecipitation, and gel filtration. Antibodies raised against the isolated protein were used for localization of the adhesive protein in Cuvierian tubules. Immunostaining and immunogold electron microscopical studies revealed the strongest immunoreactivity in the mesothelium; this tissue layer is involved in adhesion. Adhesion of Cuvierian tubule extracts was measured on the surface of various materials. The extracted protein showed the strongest adhesion to Teflon surface. Increased adhesion was observed in the presence of potassium and EDTA, while cadmium caused a decrease in adhesion. Addition of antibodies and trypsin abolished the adhesive properties of the extract.

  9. A taxonomic guide to the brittle-stars (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea from the State of Paraíba continental shelf, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Gondim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We provide the first annotated checklist of ophiuroids from the continental shelf of the State of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. Identification keys and taxonomic diagnoses for 23 species, belonging to 14 genera and 8 families, are provided. The material is deposited in the Invertebrate Collection Paulo Young, at the Federal University of Paraíba. Ophiopsila hartmeyeri represents the first record for the northeastern region of Brazil, while Ophiolepis impressa, O. paucispina, Amphiura stimpsoni, Amphiodia riisei, Ophiactis quinqueradia, Ophiocoma wendtii and Ophionereis olivaceae are new records for the State of Paraíba. The number of species known for the state was increased from 16 to 23, representing approximately 17% of the species known for Brazil and 54% of the species known for northeastern Brazil. The recorded fauna has a large geographical and bathymetrical distribution.

  10. Evidence for cospeciation events in the host–symbiont system involving crinoids (Echinodermata) and their obligate associates, the myzostomids (Myzostomida, Annelida)

    OpenAIRE

    Lanterbecq, D.; Rouse, G W; Eeckhaut, I

    2010-01-01

    Although molecular-based phylogenetic studies of hosts and their associates are increasingly common in the literature, no study to date has examined the hypothesis of coevolutionary process between hosts and commensals in the marine environment. The present work investigates the phylogenetic relationships among 16 species of obligate symbiont marine worms (Myzostomida) and their echinoderm hosts (Crinoidea) in order to estimate the phylogenetic congruence existing between the two lineages. Th...

  11. Chronic toxicity test with sea urchin Echinometra lucunter and Lytechinus variegatus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea, exposed to light-stick - flag paternoster used for longline surface fishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Cesar-Ribeiro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the chronic toxicity of a mixture of light-stick chemicals and water was tested. The light-stick is used in fishery activities to catch swordfish. The tubes were collected on the beaches of the Costa dos Coqueiros - BA, Brazil, in the period from 14th to 31st July 2007. The method used was a short chronic toxicity test where embryos of the sea urchins Echinometra lucunter and Lytechinus variegatus were exposed to a stock solution consisting of the supernatant formed from a mixture of sea water and the orange-colored light-stick chemical. After a preliminary test, concentrations defined were 0.002, 0.003, 0.01, 0.02, 0.1, 1.0% of stock solution. The final test ran for 36 hours for E. Lucunter and 24 hours for L. variegatus with 4 replicates for each concentration. The value of EC50 - 36h was 0.062% with confidence limits ranging from 0.042 to 0.079% and the EC50 - 24h was 0.011% with confidence limits ranging from 0.009 to 0.014%, i.e., the chemical mix present in the light-stick is potentially toxic. So, as these flags are commonly used for fishing there is potential danger in their disposal in the open ocean.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a toxicidade crônica da água do mar em contato com o líquido contido no light-stick, sinalizador utilizado em pesca de espinhel de superfície para a captura de espadarte. Os tubos foram coletados nas praias da Costa dos Coqueiros - BA, no período de 14 a 31 de Julho de 2007. O método utilizado para a verificação da toxicidade crônica foi o teste de curta duração com embriões de ouriço-do-mar Echinometra lucunter e Lytechinus variegatus, os ensaios foram realizados com solução estoque que consiste do sobrenadante formado a partir de uma mistura de água do mar com o líquido do sinalizador de coloração laranja. Após um teste preliminar as concentrações definidas foram 0.002; 0.003; 0.01; 0.02; 0.1; 1.0%. O teste definitivo teve duração de 36 horas para E. lucunter e 24 horas para L. variegatus, sendo preparadas 4 réplicas para cada concentração. O valor da CE50 - 36h encontrado foi de 0.062% com limites de aceitabilidade variando de 0.042 a 0.079% e a CE50 - 24h encontrada foi de 0.011% com limites de aceitabilidade variando de 0.009 a 0.014%, ou seja, os compostos químicos presentes no light-stick são potencialmente tóxicos. Portanto já que esses sinalizadores são utilizados comumente como petrechos de pesca há a necessidade de que eles sejam recolhidos, pois podem causar efeitos adversos quando abrem nos oceanos.

  12. Elucidation of molecular diversity and body distribution of saponins in the sea cucumber Holothuria forskali (Echinodermata) by mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Van Dyck, S.; Gerbaux, P.; Flammang, P

    2009-01-01

    Sea cucumbers contain triterpene glycosides called saponins. We investigated the complex saponin mixture extracted from the common Mediterranean species Holothuria forskali. Two different body components were analyzed separately: the body wall (which protects the animal and is moreover the most important organ in terms of surface and weight) and the Cuvierian tubules (a defensive organ that can be expelled on predators in response to an attack). MALDI/MS and MALDI/MS/MS were used to detect sa...

  13. New records of the sea cucumbers Holothuria (Semperothuria imitates Ludwig and Stichopus herrmanni Semper (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea from the southwestern coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P. Deepa

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a succinct description of two species of seacucumbers, Holothuria (Semperothuria imitans Ludwig and Stichopus herrmanni Semper, recorded for the first time from the southwest coast of India.

  14. Taxonomic revision and phylogeny of the Ophiocoma brevipes group (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea, with description of a new subgenus (Breviturma and a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Stöhr

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy of the genus Ophiocoma was last revised by Devaney in 1970. Recent discoveries of new species and re-instatement of previously synonymized names suggest that we still do not fully understand the species limits in this genus. A recent biodiversity survey of the SW Indian Ocean shallow reefs strongly suggested an unrecognised species in the genus, closely related to O. brevipes/O. dentata. This study examined both the molecular phylogenetic relationships and the morphological characteristics of several species in the genus in order to characterise the unrecognised species. The focal species clusters with O. brevipes, O. dentata, O. doederleini within a monophyletic clade supported by molecular data for the first time. The name Breviturma subgen. nov. is proposed for this clade, previously known as brevipes group. Type material of nominal species that have been synonymized with O. dentata was examined and re-assessed. Ophiocoma marmorata proved not conspecific with O. dentata. A rarely used character, dorsal disc granule density, was tested and showed differences between the examined species at similar sizes. In combination with colour pattern, disc granule density, arm spine sequence and maximum disc size, the new species was delimited morphologically and described as Ophiocoma krohi sp. nov.

  15. Colour varieties as sibling species in the polychromatic ophiuroid Amphipholis squamata (Echinodermata): evidence from inheritance of body colour and luminescence characters

    OpenAIRE

    Deheyn, D; Jangoux, M.

    1999-01-01

    Individuals of Amphipholis squamata from two colour varieties (beige and black) that differ strongly in luminescence performance, were collected from the field and raised in aquaria through three subsequent generations. The ophiuroid is a brooding species and a simultaneous hermaphrodite. Progeny from mature isolated adults and from pairs of adults of the same or of different colour varieties were scored for their characters of body colour and luminescence. Both characters change with age of ...

  16. Induction of larval metamorphosis, survival and growth of early juveniles of the burrowing echinoid Echinocardium cordatum (Echinodermata)

    OpenAIRE

    P. Nunes, C.D.A.; Jangoux, M.

    2008-01-01

    Recruitment in most marine invertebrates depends on the larval supply and the success of metamorphosis as well as on the growth and survival of the early juveniles. These two aspects of the early-life history of the burrowing echinoid Echinocardium cordatum have been investigated in the laboratory. Seven natural substrata were tested with competent larvae to assess their metamorphosis inducing capacity. Sediment (the natural substratum inhabited by the echinoids) - har-bouring or not conspeci...

  17. Characterization by 16S rRNA gene analysis and in situ hybridization of bacteria living in the hindgut of a deposit-feeding echinoid (Echinodermata)

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva, S.G.; Gillan, D. C.; Dubilier, N.; De Ridder, C.

    2006-01-01

    The hindgut caecum of the deposit-feeding echinoid Echinocardium cordatum harbours a symbiotic bacterial microflora, organized into layered mats around detrital particles owing to the proliferation of filamentous bacteria. The bacterial community was analysed using 16S rRNA gene analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization. The purpose was to characterize its biodiversity and to identify its predominant members. The majority of the 16S sequences belong to the delta -Proteobacteria (61.5%),...

  18. Shallow-water brittle-star (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) assemblages from the Aptian (Early Cretaceous) of the North Atlantic:first insights into bathymetric distribution patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Thuy, Ben; Gale, Andrew S.; Stöhr, Sabine; Wiese, Frank

    2014-01-01

    In spite of their excellent preservation potential and abundance, brittle-star microfossils are still an underexploited source of alpha-taxonomical data. Knowledge on the Lower Cretaceous fossil record of the ophiuroids is particularly patchy, hampering the use of the ophiuroids as a model organism to explore macroevolutionary, taphonomic and other further-reaching aspects. Here, we describe three ophiuroid assemblages mostly based on dissociated lateral arm plates from the early Aptian of Cu...

  19. Mechanical properties of the compass depressors of the sea-urchin Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata, Echinoidea and the effects of enzymes, neurotransmitters and synthetic tensilin-like protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain C Wilkie

    Full Text Available The compass depressors (CDs of the sea-urchin lantern are ligaments consisting mainly of discontinuous collagen fibrils associated with a small population of myocytes. They are mutable collagenous structures, which can change their mechanical properties rapidly and reversibly under nervous control. The aims of this investigation were to characterise the baseline (i.e. unmanipulated static mechanical properties of the CDs of Paracentrotus lividus by means of creep tests and incremental force-extension tests, and to determine the effects on their mechanical behaviour of a range of agents. Under constant load the CDs exhibited a three-phase creep curve, the mean coefficient of viscosity being 561±365 MPa.s. The stress-strain curve showed toe, linear and yield regions; the mean strain at the toe-linear inflection was 0.86±0.61; the mean Young's modulus was 18.62±10.30 MPa; and the mean tensile strength was 8.14±5.73 MPa. Hyaluronidase from Streptomyces hyalurolyticus had no effect on creep behaviour, whilst chondroitinase ABC prolonged primary creep but had no effect on secondary creep or on any force-extension parameters; it thus appears that neither hyaluronic acid nor sulphated glycosaminoglycans have an interfibrillar load transfer function in the CD. Acetylcholine, the muscarinic agonists arecoline and methacholine, and the nicotinic agonists nicotine and 1-[1-(3,4-dimethyl-phenyl-ethyl]-piperazine produced an abrupt increase in CD viscosity; the CDs were not differentially sensitive to muscarinic or nicotinic agonists. CDs showed either no, or no consistent, response to adrenaline, L-glutamic acid, 5-hydroxytryptamine and γ-aminobutyric acid. Synthetic echinoid tensilin-like protein had a weak and inconsistent stiffening effect, indicating that, in contrast to holothurian tensilins, the echinoid molecule may not be involved in the regulation of collagenous tissue tensility. We compare in detail the mechanical behaviour of the CD with that of mammalian tendon and highlight its potential as a model system for investigating poorly understood aspects of the ontogeny and phylogeny of vertebrate collagenous tissues.

  20. Deep-water Holothuroidea (Echinodermata collected during the TALUD cruises off the Pacific coast of Mexico, with the description of two new species Holothuroidea (Echinodermata de mar profundo recolectadas durante las campañas TALUD frente a la costa del Pacífico mexicano, con la descripción de dos especies nuevas

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    Claude Massin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Research cruises aboard the R/V "El Puma" were organized to collect deep-water benthic and pelagic specimens off the Pacific coast of Mexico. Seventy four specimens of Holothuroidea were collected off the Pacific coast of Mexico in depths of 377-2 200 m. The collection includes representatives of 5 of the 6 orders of Holothuroidea, 3 Dendrochirotida, 2 Dactylochirotida, 2 Aspidochirotida, 4 Elasipodida and 2 Molpadiida. Apodida were not represented. Of the 13 species recognized, 11 were identified to species level and 2, belonging to the genera Ypsilocucumis Panning, 1949, and Mitsukuriella Heding and Panning, 1954, are new to science. Five species represent new geographic or depth records. A list of Mexican localities previously and newly reported for each species are plotted on distribution maps. Environmental data, i.e., depth, temperature, and dissolved oxygen measured at the bottom level during the survey are provided. When compared with other areas of the world, the reduced number of specimens collected during this survey could be linked to the limiting effect of the Pacific Mexico Oxygen Minimum Zone. An updated checklist of species of Holothuroidea recorded below 350 m depth along the Pacific coast of Mexico is also provided totaling 31 species: 13 of these occur in the California Current area, 20 in the Gulf of California, and 15 (16 along the SW coast of Mexico.Una serie de campañas oceanográficas fue organizada a bordo del B/O "El Puma", frente a las costas del Pacífico mexicano con el propósito de recolectar ejemplares de la fauna bentónica y pelágica de aguas profundas. La recolección incluyó representantes de 5 de los 6 órdenes de Holothuroidea, i.e., 3 Dendrochirotida, 2 Dactylochirotida, 2 Aspidochirotida, 4 Elasipodida y 2 Molpadiida. Los Apodida no están representados. De las 13 especies capturadas por debajo de los 350 m de profundidad (377-2 200 m, 11 fueron identificadas hasta especie y 2 pertenecientes a los géneros Ypsilocucumis Panning, 1949, y Mitsukuriella Heding y Panning, 1954, son nuevas para la ciencia. El material examinado comprende 74 ejemplares. Las localidades previas y nuevas registradas para cada especie recolectada están compiladas para el Pacífico mexicano en mapas de distribución. Se proporciona información acerca de las condiciones de captura de cada especie (temperatura y oxígeno disuelto. Comparativamente con otras áreas del mundo, el número reducido de organismos recolectados durante el estudio podría estar relacionado con la presencia de una zona del mínimo de oxígeno a lo largo del Pacífico mexicano. Se anexa una lista actualizada de las especies de Holothuroidea registradas en profundidades mayores a 350 m frente a la costa del Pacífico mexicano. En total, 31 especies están registradas: 13 en el área de la corriente de California, 20 en el golfo de California y 15 (16 a lo largo de la costa SO de México.

  1. Estructura comunitaria y trófica de las estrellas de mar (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) en arrecifes rocosos de Loreto, Golfo de California, México Community and trophic structure of sea stars (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) in rocky reefs of Loreto, Gulf of California, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Betsabé Montserrat Luna Salguero; Héctor Reyes Bonilla

    2010-01-01

    Las estrellas de mar (Asteroidea) son invertebrados de gran importancia en hábitats rocosos y coralinos al ocupar diversos niveles de las cadenas tróficas y al actuar muchas veces como depredadores tope en esos ecosistemas. El conocimiento sobre este grupo en México es adecuado en los campos de la taxonomía y la biogeografía, pero existe muy poca información sobre la ecología y función de sus ensamblajes. El objetivo de este trabajo fue comparar la estructura comunitaria y trófica de los aste...

  2. Variación espacio-temporal de la densidad poblacional de erizo rojo Strongylocentrotus franciscanus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea: Strongylocentrotidae) en Baja California Spatial and temporal variation of the population density of the red sea urchin Stronngylocenntrotus franciscanus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea: Strongylocentrotidae) in Baja California

    OpenAIRE

    Julio S. Palleiro-Nayar; Gabriela Montaño-Moctezuma; Óscar Sosa-Nishizaki

    2012-01-01

    Se estimó la densidad poblacional de erizo rojo, Strongylocentrotus franciscanus, en 10 localidades de la costa occidental de Baja California, México, donde se realiza la extracción comercial de este recurso pesquero. Se compararon las estimaciones realizadas en cuatro años muestreados: 2003, 2005, 2006 y 2008. Las variaciones observadas en las localidades analizadas indicaron diferencias espacio-temporales para la densidad de erizo rojo y diferencias en la estructura de tallas, las cuales es...

  3. Variación espacio-temporal de la densidad poblacional de erizo rojo Strongylocentrotus franciscanus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea: Strongylocentrotidae en Baja California Spatial and temporal variation of the population density of the red sea urchin Stronngylocenntrotus franciscanus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea: Strongylocentrotidae in Baja California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio S. Palleiro-Nayar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Se estimó la densidad poblacional de erizo rojo, Strongylocentrotus franciscanus, en 10 localidades de la costa occidental de Baja California, México, donde se realiza la extracción comercial de este recurso pesquero. Se compararon las estimaciones realizadas en cuatro años muestreados: 2003, 2005, 2006 y 2008. Las variaciones observadas en las localidades analizadas indicaron diferencias espacio-temporales para la densidad de erizo rojo y diferencias en la estructura de tallas, las cuales estuvieron influenciadas principalmente por la intensidad de la pesca y al esporádico reclutamiento en cada sitio. Se encontraron dos localidades (Isla San Jerónimo y Arrecife Sacramento que destacaron por presentar una alta densidad de erizo rojo y una amplia estructura de tallas, predominando individuos de tallas entre 50 a 80 mm diámetro de caparazón, lo que podría indicar que la intensidad de pesca aparentemente tiene un menor efecto que en los otros sitios.Density estimations of red sea urchin Strongylocentrotus franciscanus were recorded in ten sites with commercial fisheries on the west coast of Baja California, Mexico. The estimations for the years 2003, 2005, 2006 and 2008 were compared. The variations observed in the study sites indicate important spatial and temporal differences in density and size structure, influenced by fishing intensity and sporadic recruitment in each site. We found two sites (San Jeronimo Island and Sacramento Reef with a high density and wide size structure; with a predominance of individuals of sizes from 50 to 80 mm with lest impact possible in fishing mortality for all sites.

  4. Estructura comunitaria y trófica de las estrellas de mar (Echinodermata: Asteroidea en arrecifes rocosos de Loreto, Golfo de California, México Community and trophic structure of sea stars (Echinodermata: Asteroidea in rocky reefs of Loreto, Gulf of California, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsabé Montserrat Luna Salguero

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Las estrellas de mar (Asteroidea son invertebrados de gran importancia en hábitats rocosos y coralinos al ocupar diversos niveles de las cadenas tróficas y al actuar muchas veces como depredadores tope en esos ecosistemas. El conocimiento sobre este grupo en México es adecuado en los campos de la taxonomía y la biogeografía, pero existe muy poca información sobre la ecología y función de sus ensamblajes. El objetivo de este trabajo fue comparar la estructura comunitaria y trófica de los asteroideos de fondos rocosos en dos regiones del Golfo de California: Loreto y Ligüi (25.5° a 26.5°N. Los individuos fueron censados dentro de transectos de banda de 25 × 2 m (N = 106, a profundidades de 3 a 12 m y se estimó la abundancia, riqueza de especies, diversidad (H', y uniformidad (J', así como el número de estrellas por gremio trófico (carnívoros, herbívoros y detritívoros, y de gremios presentes en cada transecto. Los resultados indican que las asociaciones de estrellas de mar de ambas zonas estuvieron dominadas por la especie Phataria unifascialis, y que la región de Loreto tuvo significativamente mayor riqueza, abundancia y diversidad de asteroideos que Ligüi, probablemente debido a que presenta mayor número de hábitat y recursos alimenticios. Con respecto a la composición trófica, en ambas localidades predominaron en número los herbívoros, luego los detritívoros y finalmente los carnívoros. La abundancia por transecto en cada uno de los niveles tróficos fue significativamente mayor en Loreto, y además se presentaron más grupos tróficos por transecto en esa localidad.Sea stars (Asteroidea are invertebrates with remarkable importance in rocky and coral habitats as they occupy several levels in trophic webs, and many times act as top predators in these ecosystems. The taxonomic and biogeographic knowledge about this group in México is adequate, but there is still limited information on the ecology and functioning of its assemblages. The objective of this study was to compare the community and trophic structure of rocky bottom asteroids in two regions of the Gulf of California: Loreto and Ligüi (25.5° to 26.5°N. Individuals were censused in belt transects 25 × 2 m (N = 106, at depths from 3 to 12 m, abundance, species richness, diversity (H' and evenness (J' was estimated, as well as the number of seastars per trophic guild (carnivores, herbivores and detritivores, and of guilds present per transect. The results indicate that starfish assemblages in both zones were dominated by the species Phataria unifascialis, and that Loreto had significantly higher richness, abundance and diversity of asteroids than Ligüi, probably as a consequence of higher number of habitats and food resources. In relation to the trophic composition, in both areas herbivores predominated, followed by detritivores and finally by carnivores. Abundance in each trophic level was statistically higher in Loreto, and also there were more trophic groups per transect at that location.

  5. Spatial and temporal variation of echinoderm assemblages from soft bottoms of the Çanakkale Strait (Turkish Strait System) with a taxonomic key of the genus Amphiura (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea)

    OpenAIRE

    CİHANGİR, Herdem ASLAN; PAPADOPOULOU, Maria Antonietta PANCUCCI

    2012-01-01

    This study deals with the structure of echinoderm assemblages and their relationships with the biotic and abiotic conditions in the Çanakkale Strait in 2006 and 2007. A total of 25 echinoderm species were found, 4 species of which [Amphiura securigera (Düben & Koren, 1846); Amphiura lacazei Guille, 1976; Amphiura cherbonnieri Guille, 1972; and Thyone fusus (O.F. Müller, 1776)] were new records for Turkish fauna; 1 species [Ophiopsila annulosa (M. Sars, 1859)] was new for the Turkish Strai...

  6. Processing of 13C-labelled phytoplankton in a fine-grained sandy-shelf sediment (North Sea): relative importance of different macrofauna species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Anja; Witte, Ursula

    2005-01-01

    during the incubation periods. F. fabula, a facultative (surface) deposit- and suspension-feeder, Lanice conchilega (Polychaeta: Terebellidae), a suspension-feeder and the (sur- face) deposit-feeder Echinocardium cordatum (Echinodermata: Spatangidae) were responsible for the majority of macrofaunal...

  7. 青森県日本海沿岸および陸奥湾の棘皮動物相

    OpenAIRE

    松岡, 教理

    2011-01-01

    The author surveyed echinoderm fauna in Japan Sea and Mutsu Bay of Aomori Prefecture at June and July of 2010. In result, the following species were found: (1) Asterina pectinifera, (2) Astropecten scoparis, (3) Astropecten polyacanhus, and (4) Hemicenrotus pulcherrimus. The above 1, 2 and 3 are asteroids and 4 is echinoid. The common echinoid, Strongylocentrotus nudus, was not found, but the echinoid is commonly found in Tottori Pref., Shimane Pref. and Yamaguchi Pref. The author obtained th...

  8. The nucleotide sequences of 5S rRNAs from a sea-cucumber, a starfish and a sea-urchin.

    OpenAIRE

    Ohama, T; Hori, H; Osawa, S

    1983-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of 5S rRNA from three echinoderms, a sea-cucumber Stichopus oshimae, a starfish Asterina pectinifera and a sea-urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus have been determined. These 5S rRNAs are all 120 nucleotides long. The echinoderm sequences are more related to the sequences of proterostomes animals such as mollusc, annelids and some others (87% identity on average) than to those of vertebrates (82% identity on average).

  9. Anticancer Activity of Sea Cucumber Triterpene Glycosides

    OpenAIRE

    Aminin, Dmitry L.; Menchinskaya, Ekaterina S.; Pisliagin, Evgeny A.; Silchenko, Alexandra S.; Avilov, Sergey A.; Kalinin, Vladimir I.

    2015-01-01

    Triterpene glycosides are characteristic secondary metabolites of sea cucumbers (Holothurioidea, Echinodermata). They have hemolytic, cytotoxic, antifungal, and other biological activities caused by membranotropic action. These natural products suppress the proliferation of various human tumor cell lines in vitro and, more importantly, intraperitoneal administration in rodents of solutions of some sea cucumber triterpene glycosides significantly reduces both tumor burden and metastasis. The a...

  10. Underwater Still Camera Works in the Habitat of Nautilus off the Southeast Coast of Koror, Palau

    OpenAIRE

    SHINOMIYA, Akihiko; Suzuki, Hiroshi; OKI, Kimihiko; Tsukahara, Junzo; TANABE, Kazushige; NARUO, Augusto; シノミヤ, アキヒコ; スズキ, ヒロシ; オオキ, キミヒコ; ツカハラ, ジュンゾウ; タナベ, カズシゲ; 四宮, 明彦; 鈴木, 廣志; 大木, 公彦; 塚原, 潤三

    1995-01-01

    Photographing Nautilus and other organism gathering around bait, and analysis of species composition and their searching and feeding behavior were carried out. Nautilus appeared on almost every occasion and showed active feeding behavior. Nine species of Crustacea, two of Echinodermata and six of Pisces also appeared, and showed active food search and feeding behavior.

  11. Proximate composition of marine invertebrates from tropical coastal waters, with emphasis on the relationship between nitrogen and protein contents

    OpenAIRE

    Graciela S Diniz; Elisabete Barbarino; João Oiano-Neto; Sidney Pacheco; Sergio O. Lourenço

    2014-01-01

    The chemical profiles of Desmapsamma anchorata, Hymeniacidon heliophila (Porifera), Bunodosoma caissarum, Renilla muelleri (Cnidaria), Aplysia brasiliana, Eledone massyae, Isognomon bicolor (Mollusca), Echinaster brasiliensis, Echinometra lucunter, Holothuria grisea, Lytechinus variegatus (Echinodermata), and Phallusia nigra (Chordata) were determined. Hydrosoluble protein was the most abundant class of substances for all species, except for the ascidian Phallusia nigra, in which the carbohyd...

  12. Bheemamyces, a new genus of the family Asterinaceae (Ascomycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.B. Hosagoudar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Bheemamyces with its type B. argyreicola, a new genus and a new species of the family Asterinaceae, collected on the leaves of Argyreia nervosa from the Malabar Botanic Garden, Kozhikode, Kerala, has been described and illustrated in detail. This genus differs from other genera of the family Asterinaceae in having the mycelia originated from the main hyphae, lifted slightly above the host surface, appearing like a ‘whip’, possessing intercalary and sub intercalary or sub lateral appressoria. Another such taxon, Asterina argyreiae Hansf. has been brought under this genus as Bheemamyces argyreiae (Hansf. comb. nov.

  13. Antiproliferative and Antioxidant Activities and Mycosporine-Like Amino Acid Profiles of Wild-Harvested and Cultivated Edible Canadian Marine Red Macroalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasantha Athukorala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antiproliferative and antioxidant activities and mycosporine-like amino acid (MAA profiles of methanol extracts from edible wild-harvested (Chondrus crispus, Mastocarpus stellatus, Palmaria palmata and cultivated (C. crispus marine red macroalgae were studied herein. Palythine, asterina-330, shinorine, palythinol, porphyra-334 and usujirene MAAs were identified in the macroalgal extracts by LC/MS/MS. Extract reducing activity rankings were (p < 0.001: wild P. palmata > cultivated C. crispus = wild M. stellatus > wild low-UV C. crispus > wild high-UV C. crispus; whereas oxygen radical absorbance capacities were (p < 0.001: wild M. stellatus > wild P. palmata > cultivated C. crispus > wild low-UV C. crispus > wild high-UV C. crispus. Extracts were antiproliferative against HeLa and U-937 cells (p < 0.001 from 0.125–4 mg/mL, 24 h. Wild P. palmata and cultivated C. crispus extracts increased (p < 0.001 HeLa caspase-3/7 activities and the proportion of cells arrested at Sub G1 (apoptotic compared to wild-harvested C. crispus and M. stellatus extracts. HeLa cells incubated with wild P. palmata and cultivated C. crispus extracts also exhibited morphological changes characteristic of apoptosis (shrinkage, rounding. Thus, extracts rich in low-polarity usujirene and polar palythine and asterina-330 MAAs were antiproliferative as inducers of apoptosis in HeLa cells.

  14. RNA-Seq Reveals Dynamic Changes of Gene Expression in Key Stages of Intestine Regeneration in the Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicas

    OpenAIRE

    Lina Sun; Hongsheng Yang; Muyan Chen; Deyou Ma; Chenggang Lin

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sea cucumbers (Holothuroidea; Echinodermata) have the capacity to regenerate lost tissues and organs. Although the histological and cytological aspects of intestine regeneration have been extensively studied, little is known of the genetic mechanisms involved. There has, however, been a renewed effort to develop a database of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) in Apostichopus japonicus, an economically-important species that occurs in China. This is important for studies on genetic br...

  15. The Protein Precursors of Peptides That Affect the Mechanics of Connective Tissue and/or Muscle in the Echinoderm Apostichopus japonicus

    OpenAIRE

    Elphick, Maurice R

    2012-01-01

    Peptides that cause muscle relaxation or contraction or that modulate electrically-induced muscle contraction have been discovered in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Phylum Echinodermata; Class Holothuroidea). By analysing transcriptome sequence data, here the protein precursors of six of these myoactive peptides (the SALMFamides Sticho-MFamide-1 and -2, NGIWYamide, stichopin, GN-19 and GLRFA) have been identified, providing novel insights on neuropeptide and endocrine-type signallin...

  16. Brittlestars contain highly sulfated chondroitin sulfates/dermatan sulfates that promote fibroblast growth factor 2-induced cell signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandra, Rashmi; Namburi, Ramesh B; Ortega-Martinez, Olga; Shi, Xiaofeng; Zaia, Joseph; Dupont, Sam T.; Thorndyke, Michael C; Lindahl, Ulf; Spillmann, Dorothe

    2013-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) isolated from brittlestars, Echinodermata class Ophiuroidea, were characterized, as part of attempts to understand the evolutionary development of these polysaccharides. A population of chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) chains with a high overall degree of sulfation and hexuronate epimerization was the major GAG found, whereas heparan sulfate (HS) was below detection level. Enzymatic digestion with different chondroitin lyases revealed exceptionally high p...

  17. PCR survey of 50 introns in animals: cross-amplification of homologous EPIC loci in eight non-bilaterian, protostome and deuterostome phyla

    OpenAIRE

    Gérard, Karin; Guilloton, Edith; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie; Aurelle, Didier; Bastrop, Ralf; Chevaldonné, Pierre; Derycke, Sophie; Hanel, Reinhold; Lapègue, Sylvie; Lejeusne, Christopher; Mousset, Sylvain; Ramsak, Andreja; Remerie, Thomas; Viard, Frédérique; Feral, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Exon Primed Intron Crossing (EPIC) markers provide molecular tools that are susceptible to be variable within species while remaining amplifiable by PCR using potentially universal primers. In this study we tested the possibility of obtaining PCR products from 50 EPIC markers on 23 species belonging to seven different phyla (Porifera, Cnidaria, Arthropoda, Nematoda, Mollusca, Annelida, Echinodermata) using 70 new primer pairs. A previous study had identified and tested those loci in a dozen s...

  18. Sulfated compounds from marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornprobst, J M; Sallenave, C; Barnathan, G

    1998-01-01

    More than 500 sulfated compounds have been isolated from marine organisms so far but most of them originate from two phyla only, Spongia and Echinodermata. The sulfated compounds are presented according to the phyla they have been identified from and to their chemical structures. Biological activities, when available, are also given. Macromolecules have also been included in this review but without structural details. PMID:9530808

  19. Extraction and Characterization of Collagen from Sea Cucumber Flesh

    OpenAIRE

    Alhana; Pipih Suptijah; Kustiariyah tarman

    2015-01-01

    Sea cucumber (Stichopus variegatus) is one of the Echinodermata phylum that grows along Indonesian coastal. Sea cucumber is potential source of collagen. The purposes of this research were to determine the optimal concentration of NaOH and CH3COOH solution in collagen production and analyze the physicochemical characteristics of collagen from S. variegatus. Yield of the collagen was 1.5% (based on wet weight basis), produced by pretreatment with NaOH 0,30%, hydrolysis with CH3C...

  20. Investigations of Antibacterial Activity of Methanol and Aqueous Ex-tracts of the Body Wall of Sea Cucumber Holothuria leucospilota on some Human Pathogenic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    M. Nazemi; Y. Moradi; M. Gozari; F. Legzaee; M Karimpour

    2016-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Holothuria leucospilota, sea cucumber, is a species of the Phylum Echinodermata. Sea cucumbers have the most natural products with biological activity. In this study we investigated the antibacterial activity of aqueous and methanol extract of H. leucospilota used against gram positive and gram negative human pathogenic bacteria. Materials & Methods: 9 Samples of H. leucospilota were harvested from the Hengam Island,. The methanol extract was prepared from the pow...

  1. Karakterisasi Simplisia dan Uji Aktivitas Antioksidan Ekstrak Etanol Serta Fraksi n-Heksan dan Etilasetat Teripang Holothuria atra Jaeger

    OpenAIRE

    Hutahuruk, Melva Martua

    2016-01-01

    Sea cucumbers are marine invertebrates of the phylum of Echinodermata that much found in Indonesian. Sea cucumber’s contain are high protein and collagen, and mineral, mucopolysacarides, glucasaninoglycans, amino acid and chondroitin. Sea cucumber also contain saponin glycosides and Super oxide dismutase activity thus has great potential to developed in the field of medicine. The purpose of this observed is to establish simplex characterization and antioxidant activity assay of ethanol extrac...

  2. Evaluation of Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816) exotrophic larvae as live feed for marine decapod crustacean larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Repolho, Tiago Filipe Baptista da Rosa, 1974-

    2012-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Biologia (Biologia Marinha e Aquacultura), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2012 In the present study, we have evaluated 4‐arm exotrophic larvae of sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) as live feed in marine decapod crustacean larviculture, in comparison to Artemia spp. naupliar stages, a commonly used live prey in marine hatcheries. We therefore investigated several key parameters to assess the potential of P. lividus plutei as l...

  3. Anchialine fauna of the Corona lava tunnel (Lanzarote,Canary Islands): diversity, endemism and distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez, Alexandro; Palmero, A M; Brito, M C; Núñez, J; Worsaae, Katrine

    2009-01-01

    A checklist of 77 taxa recorded from the anchialine sections of the Corona lava tube is provided, including information on habitats, faunal distribution within the cave, and main references. Of the nine major groups recorded, Crustacea shows the highest diversity with 31 species and the highest d...... Mollusca, 2 Nematoda, 2 Cnidaria, and 1 species each of Priapula, Ctenophora, Echinodermata and Echiura, are known from the lava tube, of which only 1 mollusc is endemic to this cave system....

  4. Isolasi dan Identifikasi Senyawa Steroid/Triterpenoid Dari Landak Laut Diadema setosum

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmi, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Sea urchin Diadema setosum is a sea animal that in Echinodermata group that lives on coral reef zone and seabed. This animal has a body covered with shells and 95% parts of shell are covered by the poisonous spines. Toxins produced by poison of sea urchins have bioactive compounds. Chemical compounds contained in sea urchin spines and shells are alkaloids, glycosides, saponins and steroid / triterpenoid. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of simplicia, chemical co...

  5. The Echinoderm Files: a database-facilitated access to a hidden treasure trove

    OpenAIRE

    A. Kroh; Jangoux, M.; Mirantsev, G.V.; Ziegler, A.

    2013-01-01

    During the fifty years that have passed since the first echinoderm meeting was held in 1963, numerous scientific articles on the phylum Echinodermata have been published in conference proceedings volumes or as special symposium journal issues. In order to provide the research community with a more rapid access to the information contained within these publications, we have compiled a database that lists all abstracts and articles published following the main gatherings of the echinoderm scien...

  6. Evolution of the chordate body plan: New insights from phylogenetic analyses of deuterostome phyla

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, Chris B.; Garey, James R.; Swalla, Billie J.

    2000-01-01

    The deuterostome phyla include Echinodermata, Hemichordata, and Chordata. Chordata is composed of three subphyla, Vertebrata, Cephalochordata (Branchiostoma), and Urochordata (Tunicata). Careful analysis of a new 18S rDNA data set indicates that deuterostomes are composed of two major clades: chordates and echinoderms + hemichordates. This analysis strongly supports the monophyly of each of the four major deuterostome taxa: Vertebrata + Cephalochordata, Urochordata, Hemichordata, and Echinode...

  7. Metaphylogeny of 82 gene families sheds a new light on chordate evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Vienne, Alexandre; Pontarotti, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Achieving a better comprehension of the evolution of species has always been an important matter for evolutionary biologists. The deuterostome phylogeny has been described for many years, and three phyla are distinguishable: Echinodermata (including sea stars, sea urchins, etc…), Hemichordata (including acorn worms and pterobranchs), and Chordata (including urochordates, cephalochordates and extant vertebrates). Inside the Chordata phylum, the position of vertebrate species is quite unanimous...

  8. A list of macrofauna on the continental shelf of Gökçeada Island (northern Aegean Sea) with a new record (Gryphus vitreus Born, 1778) (Brachiopoda, Rhynchonellata) for the Turkish seas

    OpenAIRE

    Gönülal, Onur; Güreşen, Sedat Ozan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Long-term sampling (1974-2013) of macro fauna of the Gökçeada Island (northern Aegean Sea) provided qualitative information on many taxa including Porifera, Cnidaria Mollusca, Arthropoda, Brachiopoda, Bryozoa, Spinculida, Echinodermata, Chordata. Gryphus vitreus (Brachiopoda) and Funiculina quadrangularis (Pallas, 1766) are the first records for the Turkish seas and the Aegean coast of Turkey, respectively. The present paper aims to describe macrofauna occurring on the continental sh...

  9. Chordate evolution and the three-phylum system

    OpenAIRE

    Satoh, Noriyuki; Rokhsar, Daniel; Nishikawa, Teruaki

    2014-01-01

    Traditional metazoan phylogeny classifies the Vertebrata as a subphylum of the phylum Chordata, together with two other subphyla, the Urochordata (Tunicata) and the Cephalochordata. The Chordata, together with the phyla Echinodermata and Hemichordata, comprise a major group, the Deuterostomia. Chordates invariably possess a notochord and a dorsal neural tube. Although the origin and evolution of chordates has been studied for more than a century, few authors have intimately discussed taxonomi...

  10. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U09114-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SH2/SH3 adaptor prote... 50 2e-04 A48063( A48063 ) mammary tumor/squamous cell c...PLFN*nqnkqiqrly exnsipatt Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: kylflsninrysfsn*dnnl*qqkqqviv...ated protein,... 56 2e-06 AF053957_1( AF053957 |pid:none) Drosophila melanogaster dynamin as... 55 4e-06 BT024977_1( BT024977 |pid...... 42 0.033 AY518774_1( AY518774 |pid:none) Asterina miniata Src family tyrosi..... EST 2 Link to clone list U09114 List of clone(s) est1= SFL416F ,1,464 est2= SFL416Z ,465,1205 Translated Amino Acid sequ

  11. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05016-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ers... 44 6.1 1 ( DU791500 ) APKH4135.b2 HF770_12-21-03 uncultured marine micr... 44 6.1 1 ( DH361395 ) Oryzias...mic 12.0 %: mitochondrial 8.0 %: Golgi 4.0 %: vesicles of secretory system 4.0 %: endoplas...4 0.30 2 ( BJ387217 ) Dictyostelium discoideum cDNA clone:dds12j23, 5' ... 34 0.30 2 ( CP000770 ) Candidatus Sulcia muelleri...pCMVSport6 l... 46 1.5 1 ( FF420407 ) G125P60026RA1.T0 Acorn worm blastula/gastrula pCM... 46 1.5 1 ( FH4566...modium berghei strain ANKA cDNA clone:MZ00715... 44 6.1 1 ( DB427759 ) Asterina pectinifera cDNA

  12. Dicty_cDB: SLI137 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available d sequence (All Frames) Frame A: qlvslslkwslvmkcqpmvhygns*evikllislnlvntlihfik*f*i**nqi...nklkkkkk*yy*k*y*nt Frame B: nwchfl*nghw**nanqwsimgtvkk**sy*fp*tw*il*ftlssnsrydeikyn*knif rsnfik*kysisstktfks...alue AF215861_1( AF215861 |pid:none) Drosophila melanogaster Myt1 kinas... 47 3e-04 AM494957_94( AM494957 |pid:none) Leishman...none) Asterina pectinifera Myt1 mRNA, co... 39 0.054 AM502252_83( AM502252 |pid:none) Leishmania infantum ch...romosome 34. 38 0.12 CT005271_98( CT005271 |pid:none) Leishmania major strain Friedlin,... 38 0.12 AP007159_

  13. Post larval, short-term, colonization patterns: The effect of substratum complexity across subtidal, adjacent, habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sanz, Sara; Tuya, Fernando; Navarro, Pablo G.; Angulo-Preckler, Carlos; Haroun, Ricardo J.

    2012-10-01

    Benthic habitats are colonized by organisms from the water column and adjacent habitats. There are, however, variations in the 'acceptability' of any habitat to potential colonists. We assessed whether the structural complexity of artificial substrata affected patterns of short-term colonization of post larval faunal assemblages across subtidal habitats within a coastal landscape. Specifically, we tested whether short-term colonization patterns on 3 types of artificial substrata encompassing a range of complexities, including a leaf-like unit, a cushion-shaped leaf-like unit and a cushion-shaped unit, were consistent across 4 adjacent habitats: macroalgal-dominated bottoms, urchin-grazed barrens, seagrass meadows and sandy patches, at Gran Canaria (eastern Atlantic). A total of 16,174 organisms were collected after 4 weeks and 4 taxonomic groups (Crustacea, Chordata, Echinodermata and Mollusca) dominated the assemblage. Despite considerable among-taxa variability being observed in response to habitat effects, the total abundance of colonizers, as well as the abundance of Arthropoda, Chordata and Echinodermata, was affected by the habitat where collectors were deployed, but did not differ among types of collectors. Similarly, the assemblage structure of colonizers was mainly affected by the habitat, but not by the type of collector; habitat contributed to explain most variation in the assemblage structure of the four dominant taxonomic groups (from ca. 5.44-19.23%), and obscured, in all cases, variation explained by the type of collector. As a result, the variation in short-term colonization patterns of faunal assemblages into artificial collectors was mostly affected by variation associated with habitats rather than by differences in the structural complexity of collectors. The largest abundances of colonizers, particularly Echinodermata, were found on sandy patches relative to other habitats, suggesting that the 'availability', rather than any particular attribute

  14. Sistemática y distribución de los equinodermos de la Bahía de La Paz

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Alonso Solís Marín; Héctor Reyes Bonilla; Oscar Arizpe Covarrubias; María Dinorah Herrero Pérezrul; Alfredo Laguarda Figueras

    1997-01-01

    Los objetivos del presente trabajo fueron los de determinar el elenco sistemático, la riqueza y la distribución local de las especies del phylum Echinodermata en la Bahía de La Paz. Para ello, se realizó una revisión exhaustiva de la literatura publicada sobre el tema desde el siglo pasado hasta 1995, complementada con el análisis de los especímenes recolectados en la zona e incluidos en las colecciones de equinodermos de la UNAM y la UABCS. Una vez analizada y validada taxonómicamente la inf...

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: purple urchin [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available purple urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus Echinodermata Strongylocentrotus_purpuratus_L.png Strongylocentr...otus_purpuratus_NL.png Strongylocentrotus_purpuratus_S.png Strongylocentrotus_purpu...ratus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Strongylocentrotus+purpuratus&t=L http://biosc...iencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Strongylocentrotus+purpuratus&t=NL http://bi...osciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Strongylocentrotus+purpuratus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Strongylocentrotus+purpuratus&t=NS ...

  16. Benthic invertebrate fauna in the islets of Namuseom and Bukhyeongjeseom off Busan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosung Hwang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the benthic invertebrate fauna inhabiting in the subtidal zone in and around the islets of Namuseom and Bukhyeongjeseom off the coast of Busan by SCUBA diving in September 2013. As a consequence, it was confirmed that a total of 6 phyla, 14 classes, 20 orders, 46 families, and 73 species of zoobenthos inhabit in and around those islets. The total number of species surveyed by taxon during the study is 22 species of Arthropoda (30%, 20 species of Mollusca (27%, 15 species of Cnidaria (21%, 10 species of Echinodermata (14%, four species of Poridera (5%, and two species of Chordata.

  17. Preliminary Study on Coral Reef and Its Associated Biota in Qatari Waters, Arabian Gulf

    OpenAIRE

    Al Ansi, Mohsin A. [محسن عبد الله العنسي; AL-KHAYAT, Jassim A.

    1999-01-01

    Coral reef grounds and their associated biota m Qatari waters were investigated by Scuba diving. Four selected reef-sites were studied. Coral was presented by 17 species. Descriptive notes of each site and an initial list of associated fauna and flora were presented. The associated biota composed mainly of Algae 23 sp, Porifera 5 sp, Bryozoa 4 sp, Polychaeta 17 sp, Echinodermata 21 sp, Mollusca 102 sp, Chordata 4 sp, and Crustacea 15 sp. Mollusca was the predominant group in all visited sites...

  18. Structural analysis of the α subunit of Na(+)/K(+) ATPase genes in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabet, Rahma; Rouault, J-D; Ayadi, Habib; Leignel, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The Na(+)/K(+) ATPase is a ubiquitous pump coordinating the transport of Na(+) and K(+) across the membrane of cells and its role is fundamental to cellular functions. It is heteromer in eukaryotes including two or three subunits (α, β and γ which is specific to the vertebrates). The catalytic functions of the enzyme have been attributed to the α subunit. Several complete α protein sequences are available, but only few gene structures were characterized. We identified the genomic sequences coding the α-subunit of the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase, from the whole-genome shotgun contigs (WGS), NCBI Genomes (chromosome), Genomic Survey Sequences (GSS) and High Throughput Genomic Sequences (HTGS) databases across distinct phyla. One copy of the α subunit gene was found in Annelida, Arthropoda, Cnidaria, Echinodermata, Hemichordata, Mollusca, Placozoa, Porifera, Platyhelminthes, Urochordata, but the nematodes seem to possess 2 to 4 copies. The number of introns varied from 0 (Platyhelminthes) to 26 (Porifera); and their localization and length are also highly variable. Molecular phylogenies (Maximum Likelihood and Maximum Parsimony methods) showed some clusters constituted by (Chordata/(Echinodermata/Hemichordata)) or (Plathelminthes/(Annelida/Mollusca)) and a basal position for Porifera. These structural analyses increase our knowledge about the evolutionary events of the α subunit genes in the invertebrates. PMID:26812300

  19. Effects of different light conditions on repair of UV-B-induced damage in carpospores of Chondrus ocellatus Holm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Qing; Xiao, Hui; Wang, You; Tang, Xuexi

    2015-05-01

    We evaluated the effects of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation and different light conditions on the repair of UV-B-induced damage in carpospores of Chondrus ocellatus Holm (Rhodophyta) in laboratory experiments. Carpospores were treated daily with different doses of UV-B radiation for 48 days, when vertical branches had formed in all treatments; after each daily treatment, the carpospores were subjected to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), darkness, red light, or blue light during a 2-h repair stage. Carpospore diameters were measured every 4 days. We measured the growth and cellular contents of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs), chlorophyll a, phycoerythrin, and UV-B-absorbing mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) in carpospores on Day 48. Low doses of UV-B radiation (36 and 72 J/m2) accelerated the growth of C. ocellatus. However, as the amount of UV-B radiation increased, the growth rate decreased and morphological changes occurred. UV-B radiation significant damaged DNA and photosynthetic pigments and induced three kind of MAAs, palythine, asterina-330, and shinorine. PAR conditions were best for repairing UV-B-induced damage. Darkness promoted the activity of the DNA darkrepair mechanism. Red light enhanced phycoerythrin synthesis but inhibited light repair of DNA. Although blue light, increased the activity of DNA photolyase, greatly improving remediation efficiency, the growth and development of C. ocellatus carpospores were slower than in other light treatments.

  20. Effects of UV-B radiation on tetraspores of Chondrus ocellatus Holm (Rhodophyta), and effects of red and blue light on repair of UV-B-induced damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Qing; Xiao, Hui; Wang, You; Tang, Xuexi

    2015-05-01

    We evaluated the effects of red and blue light on the repair of UV-B radiation-induced damage in tetraspores of Chondrus ocellatus Holm. Tetraspores of C. ocellatus were treated with different UV-B radiation levels (0, 36, 72, 108, 144 and 180 J/m2), and thereafter subjected to PAR, darkness, or red or blue light during a 2-h repair stage, each day for 48 days. The diameters and cellular contents of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimmers (CPDs), chlorophyll a (Chl a), phycoerythrin, and UV-B-absorbing mycosporinelike amino acids (MAAs) contents of the tetraspores were determined. Our results show that low doses of UV-B radiation (36 and 72 J/m2) promoted the growth of C. ocellatus; however, increased UV-B radiation gradually reduced the C. ocellatus growth (greater than 72 J/m2). The MAAs (palythine and asterina-330) in C. ocellatus were detected and analyzed by LC/MS. Our results suggest that moderate red light could induce the growth of this alga in aquaculture. In addition, photorepair was inhibited by red light, so there may be some other DNA repair mechanism activated by red light. Blue light promoted the activity of DNA photolyase, greatly improving remediation efficiency. Red and blue lights were found to reduce the capacity of C. ocellatus to form MAAs. Therefore, PAR, red light, and blue light play different roles during the repair processes for damage induced by UV-B radiation.

  1. Lesions of Copper Toxicosis in Captive Marine Invertebrates With Comparisons to Normal Histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDouceur, E E B; Wynne, J; Garner, M M; Nyaoke, A; Keel, M K

    2016-05-01

    Despite increasing concern for coral reef ecosystem health within the last decade, there is scant literature concerning the histopathology of diseases affecting the major constituents of coral reef ecosystems, particularly marine invertebrates. This study describes histologic findings in 6 species of marine invertebrates (California sea hare [Aplysia californica], purple sea urchin [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus], sunburst anemone [Anthopleura sola], knobby star [Pisaster giganteus], bat star [Asterina miniata], and brittle star [Ophiopteris papillosa]) with spontaneous copper toxicosis, 4 purple sea urchins with experimentally induced copper toxicosis, and 1 unexposed control of each species listed. The primary lesions in the California sea hare with copper toxicosis were branchial and nephridial necrosis. Affected echinoderms shared several histologic lesions, including epidermal necrosis and ulceration and increased numbers of coelomocytes within the water-vascular system. The sunburst anemone with copper toxicosis had necrosis of both epidermis and gastrodermis, as well as expulsion of zooxanthellae from the gastrodermis. In addition to the lesions attributed to copper toxicosis, our results describe normal microscopic features of these animals that may be useful for histopathologic assessment of marine invertebrates. PMID:26459519

  2. A relaxin-like gonad-stimulating peptide from the starfish Aphelasterias japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Masatoshi; Katayama, Hidekazu

    2016-04-01

    Relaxin-like gonad-stimulating peptide (RGP) in starfish is the first identified invertebrate gonadotropin responsible for final gamete maturation. In this study, a new ortholog RGP was identified from Aphelasterias japonica. The DNA sequence encoding A. japonica RGP (AjaRGP) consists of 342 base pairs with an open reading frame encoding a peptide of 113 amino acids (aa), including a signal peptide (26aa), B-chain (20aa), C-peptide (42aa), and A-chain (25aa). AjaRGP is a heterodimeric peptide with disulfide cross-linkages. Comparing with Asterias amurensis RGP (AamRGP) and Patiria (=Asterina) pectinifera RGP (PpeRGP), the amino acid identity levels of AjaRGP with respect to AamRGP and PpeRGP are 84% and 58% for the A-chain and 90% and 68% for the B-chain, respectively. This suggests that AjaRGP is closer to AmaRGP rather than PpeRGP. Although chemical synthetic AjaRGP can induce gamete spawning and oocyte maturation in ovarian fragments of A. japonica, the ovary of P. pectinifera fails to respond to AjaRGP. This suggests that AjaRGP acts species-specifically. PMID:26944483

  3. 不同附着基类型对刺参浮游幼体成活和变态附着的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜恩宏; 于秀青

    2010-01-01

    @@ 仿刺参(Apostichopus japonicus Selenka),属棘皮动物门(Echinodermata)、海参纲(Holothuroidea)、楯手目(Aspidochirota)、刺参科(Stichopodidae)、仿刺参属(Apostichopus),又称刺参(文中以下称刺参),是我国有记载的21种食用海参中唯一分布于黄渤海区的温带种类,营养价值很高,为"海产八珍"之一.目前世界上只有中国等少数几个国家开展了刺参的增养殖工作.

  4. Opportunities and challenges for digital morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prohaska Steffen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Advances in digital data acquisition, analysis, and storage have revolutionized the work in many biological disciplines such as genomics, molecular phylogenetics, and structural biology, but have not yet found satisfactory acceptance in morphology. Improvements in non-invasive imaging and three-dimensional visualization techniques, however, permit high-throughput analyses also of whole biological specimens, including museum material. These developments pave the way towards a digital era in morphology. Using sea urchins (Echinodermata: Echinoidea, we provide examples illustrating the power of these techniques. However, remote visualization, the creation of a specialized database, and the implementation of standardized, world-wide accepted data deposition practices prior to publication are essential to cope with the foreseeable exponential increase in digital morphological data. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Marc D. Sutton (nominated by Stephan Beck, Gonzalo Giribet (nominated by Lutz Walter, and Lennart Olsson (nominated by Purificación López-García.

  5. Spatial and temporal variability of mobile macro-invertebrate assemblages associated to coralligenous habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. BEDINI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate patterns of spatial and temporal variability of mobile macroinvertebrate assemblages associated to coralligenous habitat. A multi-factorial sampling design was used to test the hypotheses that the structure of assemblages and their spatial and temporal variability changed in relation to substrate inclination. Moreover, macroalgae and sessile macro-invertebrates were also investigated in order to detect eventual relationship between sessile and mobile assemblages. A total of 236 mobile macro-invertebrate taxa were identified, among them 2 Platyhelminthes, 4 Sipuncula, 6 Nemertea, 27 Mollusca, 86 Annelida, 103 Arthropoda, 8 Echinodermata. Results of the study showed that mobile macro-invertebrate assemblages of coralligenous habitat were little influenced by the inclination of substrate and by the morphology of sessile organisms, as patterns of variation were different between the two assemblages. Mobile macro-invertebrate assemblages changed among sampling dates within one year period and they showed high variability at the spatial scale examined.

  6. Antitumor and antifungal activities of organic extracts of seacucumber Holothuria atra from the southeast coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhinakaran, Devaraj Isaac; Lipton, Aaron Premnath

    2015-02-01

    In phylum Echinodermata, the family Holothuridae is distinguished by its capacity of bioactive compounds. Sea cucumber Holothuria atra is commonly known as the lollyfish. The antifungal activity was detected using agar well diffusion method against the various fungal strains such as Trichoderma viride, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavis, Candida albicans and Penicillium chrysogenum. Relatively high antifungal activity was seen against Candida albicans at 100 μL-1 concentration of extracts. Zone of inhibition was measured at 18 mm of diameter. The anti-tumor activities were detected against the Vero and Hep2 cell lines using MTT assay. The cells were treated with H. atra extract at concentrations 0.078-10mg mL-1. The extract showed high proliferative activity against the Hep2 cells. The body wall extracts of sea cucumber ( H. atra) showed effective antifungal and antitumor activities. All these findings suggest that the extracts could be used for the development of drugs.

  7. Environmental quality assessment of Grand Harbour (Valletta, Maltese Islands): a case study of a busy harbour in the Central Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Teresa; D'Alessandro, Michela; Esposito, Valentina; Scotti, Gianfranco; Berto, Daniela; Formalewicz, Malgorzata; Noventa, Seta; Giuliani, Silvia; Macchia, Simona; Sartori, Davide; Mazzola, Angelo; Andaloro, Franco; Giacobbe, Salvatore; Deidun, Alan; Renzi, Monia

    2015-12-01

    Contamination levels by plastic debris, trace elements and persistent organic pollutants were assessed and related to macrobenthic diversity within soft bottoms of Grand Harbour (Malta, Central Mediterranean). Sediment toxicity was evaluated by ecotoxicological method, deploying Bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), Echinodermata (Paracentrotus lividus) and Crustacea (Corophium orientale). Univariate analysis (Pearson's test) was used to test relationships between biodiversity indices, pollutants and grain size. A multivariate approach (PERMANOVA) was applied to investigate for any significant differences among sampling stations concerning plastic abundances and to test the relationship between infaunal abundances and pollutant concentrations (the BIOENV test). Significant differences in the plastic abundances were found between sampling stations. The lowest value for Shannon-Wiener biodiversity index was associated to the highest sediment pollution level. Multivariate analyses suggest that MBT and TBT were factors that most influenced macrozoobenthic abundance and biodiversity. The bivalve Corbula gibba and the introduced polychaete Monticellina dorsobranchialis were the most abundant found species. PMID:26563234

  8. Zoogeografía de macroinvertebrados bentónicos de la costa de Chile: contribución para la conservación marina Zoogeography of benthic macroinvertebrates of the Chilean coast: contribution for marine conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOMINGO A. LANCELLOTTI

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available La diversidad de macroinvertebrados marinos ha recibido una atención creciente, no obstante, con un escaso tratamiento en el contexto biogeográfico. Este estudio analiza los registros de 1.601 especies de macroinvertebrados bentónicos pertenecientes a: Demospongiae, Anthozoa, Polychaeta, Mollusca, Crustacea, Echinodermata y Ascideacea, agrupados en 10 zonas y tratados desde una perspectiva zoogeográfica. Mollusca (611 especies, Polychaeta (403 y Crustacea (370 corresponden a los grupos mejor representados a lo largo de la costa chilena, determinantes en el patrón global de la biodiversidad. Este aumenta suavemente de norte a sur, interrumpido por máximos que sugieren esfuerzos diferenciales de estudio más que un comportamiento natural de la biodiversidad. El grado de agrupamiento entre las zonas muestra las tres unidades biogeográficas definidas recientemente por Lancellotti & Vásquez. Este arreglo, que representa lo exhibido por los grupos más diversos, se ve alterado en los grupos menos representados donde las diferencias obedecen al patrón de afinidades mostradas por las zonas comprendidas dentro de la Región Templada Transicional. El quiebre zoogeográfico alrededor de los 41º S, sugerido largamente en la literatura, sólo ocurre en Echinodermata y Demospongiae, evidenciando en los otros taxa la existencia de un área de transición entre los 35º y 48º S, caracterizada por un reemplazo gradual de especies. Dentro de las regiones la biodiversidad muestra homogeneidad, contrario al endemismo, el que alcanza un máximo de 52% en la Región Templada Fría y que parece ser consecuencia del alto número de especies con registros únicos (38,2% de especies citadas para una sóla zona. Esto sugiere un desconocimiento de los macroinvertebrados chilenos (distribución y diversidad, sobrestimando el endemismo regional y distorsionando los patrones locales de biodiversidadThe diversity of marine macroinvertebrates has received increasing

  9. A study on the biodiversity of benthic invertebrates in the waters of Seogwipo, Jeju Island, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Young Cho

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The biodiversity of benthic invertebrates in the intertidal and subtidal regions of Gapado, Beomseom, and Munseom islets was surveyed twice in May and September 2013 to study the state of biodiversity in Seogwipo, Jeju Island. As a result, a total of 77 species, 46 families, 25 orders, 14 classes, and nine phyla of benthic invertebrates were found. The species which were found, by taxon, consisted of the following: 26 species of Cnidaria (34%, 24 species of Mollusca (31%, seven species of Chordata (9%, six species of Arthropoda (8%, six species of Porifera (8%, five species of Echinodermata (7%, one species of Bryozoa (1%, one species of Annelida (1%, and one species of Ctenophora (1%.

  10. Caracterización preliminar de los invertebrados bentónicos capturados accidentalmente en la pesca de camarones en el norte del estado de Río de Janeiro, sudeste de Brasil Preliminary characterization of benthic invertebrates caught as by-catch in the shrimp fishery in the north of the Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor David da Costa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Para caracterizar la biodiversidad de invertebrados bentónicos que componen la fauna asociada a la pesca de camarones en el puerto del Farol de Sao Thomé, costa norte del estado de Río de Janeiro, se realizaron 11 pescas mensuales en el año 2004 con redes de arrastre de fondo, cuya área de operaciones comprende 3-5 mn desde la línea de costa, entre 22°00'S y 22°20'S. Los datos registrados de cada taxon y/o especie se refieren a la frecuencia de ocurrencia, frecuencia numérica, biomasa, índice de Importancia Relativa y abundancia. En total se registraron 27 especies de invertebrados bentónicos de Porifera, Cnidaria, Mollusca, Annelida, Crustácea, Echinodermata y Bryozoa. Crustácea fue el más representativo, tanto en número de ejemplares de Petrochirus diogenes, Hepatus pudibundus y Callinectes ornatos, como en biomasa de P. diogenes y H. pudibundas. En términos de frecuencia de ocurrencia en los muéstreos, 11 especies (40,7% fueron constantes; 6 (22,2% accesorias y 10 (37,0% accidentales.In order to characterize the biodiversity of the benthic invertebrate by-catch associated with the shrimp fishery at Farol de Sao Thome harbor, northern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, in 2004, 11 monthly trawls were conducted using bottom trawl nets between 22°00'S and 22°20'S and from 3 to 5 nm from the shoreline. The analyzed data for each talon and/or species include frequency of occurrence, numeric frequency, biomass, index of Relative Importance, and abundance. In total, 27 benthic invertebrate species were recorded, including Peripheral, Cnidarians, Mollusk, Annelid, Crustacea, Echinodermata, and Bryozoa. The most representative group was Crustacea, both in number of specimens (Petrochirus diogenes, Hepatus pudibundus, Callinectes ornatus and in biomass (P. diogenes, H. pudibundus. In terms of the frequency of occurrence in the samples, 11 species (40.7% were constant, 6 species (22.2% were accessories, and 10 species (37.0% were by-catch.

  11. Community characteristics of macrobenthos in the Huanghe (Yellow River) Estuary during water and sediment discharge regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Zhonghua; LI Fan; WEI Jiali; LI Shaowen; LV Zhenbo; GAO Yanjie; CONG Xuri

    2016-01-01

    The community characteristics of macrobenthos in the Huanghe (Yellow River) Estuary is influenced by a combination of natural and anthropogenic factors. Here, we investigated short-term changes (1-month) in macrobenthic community structure in response to water and sediment discharge regulation (WSDR) in 2011. Specifically, we sampled the macrobenthos at 18 sampling stations situated at four distances (5, 10, 20, and 40 km) from the mouth of the Huanghe Estuary before (mid-June), during (early-July), and after (mid-July) WSDR. The results showed that a total of 73, 72, and 85 species were collected before, during, and after WSDR, respectively. Then, 13, 1, and 16 dominant species were detected at this three periods. Four phyla were primarily detected at all three periods (Annelida, Mollusca, Arthropoda, and Echinodermata). However, while Mollusca and Annelida were the most important phyla in our study, Echinodermata and Annelida were the most important phyla in 1982, demonstrating major changes to community structure over a 3-decadal period. All stations were of high quality BOPA index before WSDR, whereas two and three stations were of reduced quality BOPA index during and after WSDR, respectively. The results of ABC curves showed that had incurred disturbed conditions after human activities WSDR. Most important of all, multivariate analyses and RDA analysis indicated that the structure of the macrobenthic community was closely linked to environment factors, including that organic content factor caused the distribution of macrobenthic community mostly during WSDR, while water depth after WSDR affected the macro benthos community structure seriously, and during WSDR, the environment factor influencing it was not single, including organic content, sulfide content, Hg and As. These differences may have been due to changes in water transparency negatively impacting the growth and development of macrobenthos, due to specific life-history requirements. Our results

  12. Food utilization of adult flatfishes co-occurring in the Bohai Sea of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuozeng, Dou

    Stomach contents were examined of 4527 adult individuals of 12 flatfish species collected during the 1982-1983 Bohai Sea Fisheries Resources Investigation. Their food habits, diet diversity, similarity of prey taxa, trophic niche breadth and diet overlap were systematically analysed. Ninety-seven prey species belonging to the Coelenterata, Nemertinea, Polychaeta, Mollusca, Crustacea, Echinodermata, Hemichordata and fish were found and five of them were considered to be principal prey for flatfishes: Alpheus japonicus, Oratosquilla oratoria, Alpheus distinguendus, Loligo japonicus and Crangon affinis. Among the flatfishes, Paralichthys olivaceus was piscivorous, whereas Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae and Pseudopleuronectes herzensteini both had polychaetes and molluscs as their main prey groups. Pleuronichthys cornutus was classified as a polychaete-mollusc eater, with a strong preference for crustaceans. Verasper variegatus, Cynoglossus semilaevis, Eopsetta grigorjewi and Cleisthenes herzensteini ate crustaceans. Kareius bicoloratus was classified as a mollusc-crustacean eater. Cynoglossus abbreviatus, Cynoglossus joyneri and Zebrias zebra were grouped as crustacean-fish eaters. However, Z. zebra also took polychaetes and C. abbreviatus and C. joyneri preyed on some molluscs. Trophic relationships among the flatfishes were complicated, but they occupied distinctive microhabitats in different seasons and selected their specific prey items, which was favourable to the stability of the flatfish community in the Bohai Sea.

  13. An adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) gene from Apostichopus japonicus; molecular cloning and expression analysis in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge and thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiu-Ning; Chai, Xin-Yue; Tu, Jie; Xin, Zhao-Zhe; Li, Chao-Feng; Jiang, Sen-Hao; Zhou, Chun-Lin; Tang, Bo-Ping

    2016-02-01

    The adenine nucleotide translocases (ANTs) play a vital role in energy metabolism via ADP/ATP exchange in eukaryotic cells. Apostichopus japonicus (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) is an important economic species in China. Here, a cDNA representing an ANT gene of A. japonicus was isolated and characterized from respiratory tree and named AjANT. The full-length AjANT cDNA is 1924 bp, including a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 38 bp, 3'-UTR of 980 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 906 bp encoding a polypeptide of 301 amino acids. The protein contains three homologous repeat Mito_carr domains (Pfam00153). The deduced AjANT protein sequence has 49-81% in comparison to ANT proteins from other individuals. The predicted tertiary structure of AjANT protein is highly similar to animal ANT proteins. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the AjANT is closely related to Holothuroidea ANT genes. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qPCR) analysis showed that AjANT expression is higher in the respiratory tree than in other examined tissues. After thermal stress or LPS challenge, expression of AjANT was significantly fluctuant compared to the control. These results suggested that changes in the expression of ANT gene might be involved in immune defense and in protecting A. japonicus against thermal stress. PMID:26706223

  14. Evaluation of body weight of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus by computer vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Xu, Qiang; Liu, Shilin; Zhang, Libin; Yang, Hongsheng

    2015-01-01

    A postichopus japonicus (Holothuroidea, Echinodermata) is an ecological and economic species in East Asia. Conventional biometric monitoring method includes diving for samples and weighing above water, with highly variable in weight measurement due to variation in the quantity of water in the respiratory tree and intestinal content of this species. Recently, video survey method has been applied widely in biometric detection on underwater benthos. However, because of the high flexibility of A. japonicus body, video survey method of monitoring is less used in sea cucumber. In this study, we designed a model to evaluate the wet weight of A. japonicus, using machine vision technology combined with a support vector machine (SVM) that can be used in field surveys on the A. japonicus population. Continuous dorsal images of free-moving A. japonicus individuals in seawater were captured, which also allows for the development of images of the core body edge as well as thorn segmentation. Parameters that include body length, body breadth, perimeter and area, were extracted from the core body edge images and used in SVM regression, to predict the weight of A. japonicus and for comparison with a power model. Results indicate that the use of SVM for predicting the weight of 33 A. japonicus individuals is accurate ( R 2=0.99) and compatible with the power model ( R 2 =0.96). The image-based analysis and size-weight regression models in this study may be useful in body weight evaluation of A. japonicus in lab and field study.

  15. The alternative NADH dehydrogenase is present in mitochondria of some animal taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matus-Ortega, Macario Genaro; Salmerón-Santiago, Karina Gabriela; Flores-Herrera, Oscar; Guerra-Sánchez, Guadalupe; Martínez, Federico; Rendón, Juan Luis; Pardo, Juan Pablo

    2011-09-01

    The distribution of the alternative NADH dehydrogenase (NDH-2) in the living world was explored. The enzyme, although present in representatives of all living kingdoms, does not have a universal distribution. With the exception of ε-proteobacteria, the enzyme was found in all eubacterial groups. In contrast with the known presence of the NDH-2 in Archaea, the alternative oxidase (AOX) is absent in this group. With regard to the Eukarya domain, the NDH-2 was found in representatives of Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia. In the latter, however, the presence of the enzyme was restricted to some primitive Metazoa (Placozoa and Cnidaria), and two members of the Deuterostomate lineage of the Bilateria (Echinodermata and Urochordata). No evidence for the presence of the NDH-2 was found in any representative of the Protostomate branch of the Bilateria, contrasting with the existence of the AOX in this same group. It is worth mentioning that those animal species containing the NDH-2 also have an AOX. The actual distribution of the NDH-2 in the various living kingdoms is discussed within the framework of the endosymbiotic theory; in addition, a hypothesis is proposed to explain the disappearance of the alternative NDH-2 and AOX from the majority of the animals. PMID:21632289

  16. Anticancer Activity of Sea Cucumber Triterpene Glycosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry L. Aminin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Triterpene glycosides are characteristic secondary metabolites of sea cucumbers (Holothurioidea, Echinodermata. They have hemolytic, cytotoxic, antifungal, and other biological activities caused by membranotropic action. These natural products suppress the proliferation of various human tumor cell lines in vitro and, more importantly, intraperitoneal administration in rodents of solutions of some sea cucumber triterpene glycosides significantly reduces both tumor burden and metastasis. The anticancer molecular mechanisms include the induction of tumor cell apoptosis through the activation of intracellular caspase cell death pathways, arrest of the cell cycle at S or G2/M phases, influence on nuclear factors, NF-κB, and up-down regulation of certain cellular receptors and enzymes participating in cancerogenesis, such as EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor, Akt (protein kinase B, ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinases, FAK (focal adhesion kinase, MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase-9 and others. Administration of some glycosides leads to a reduction of cancer cell adhesion, suppression of cell migration and tube formation in those cells, suppression of angiogenesis, inhibition of cell proliferation, colony formation and tumor invasion. As a result, marked growth inhibition of tumors occurs in vitro and in vivo. Some holothurian triterpene glycosides have the potential to be used as P-gp mediated MDR reversal agents in combined therapy with standard cytostatics.

  17. [Conditionally neutral phylogenetic markers of major taxa: a new aspect of the evolution of macromolecules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, N B; Aleshin, V V

    2002-08-01

    The current phase of molecular phylogenetics can be named the 18S rRNA gene era, which is now approaching the end. To date, almost all phyla of metazoans and many taxa of protists are represented in databases of 18S rRNA gene sequences. The elements of the phylogenetic tree of Metazoa inferred from 18S rRNA genes are characterized by unequal validity: some of them seem to be well grounded; others are not adequately supported, and probably will be revised later. The validity of phylogenetic reconstruction is influenced by two main factors: (1) erroneous grouping of long branches that occur because of abnormally high evolution rate; (2) deficit of phylogenetically informative characters. A method for overcoming these difficulties is suggested in addition to known tools: using phylogenetic markers that are stable within individual taxa and evolve by punctuated equilibrium. These markers are least influenced by the convergence caused by a high evolution rate of the entire gene. The nature of these markers of ancient taxa, paradoxical from the perspective of neutral evolution, is discussed, as well as their importance for establishing monophyly of both new large-scale taxonomic groups of invertebrates (Bilateria + Rhombozoa + Orthonectida + Myxozoa + Cnidaria + Placozoa and Echinodermata + Hemichordata) and some major taxa of Nematoda. PMID:12244690

  18. Benthic Macrofauna Associated with Submerged Bottoms of a Tectonic Estuary in Tropical Eastern Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Guevara-Fletcher

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition and distribution of the main associations of submerged macrobenthos of Bahía Málaga (Colombian pacific coast, were studied in relation to the distribution of hard and soft substrates and some abiotic factors. Eight localities were sampled during six months: three in the external border of the estuary and five in the inner part. In total, 728 organisms were registered, belonging to 207 species, 132 genera, 86 families, and 14 orders of six invertebrate groups (Porifera, Cnidaria, Polychaeta, Mollusca, Crustacea, and Echinodermata. The submerged bottoms presented soft and hard substrates, with rocks and thick sand in five sites, soft bottoms with fine sand in one, and soft bottoms with slime and clay in two. The temperature and salinity values were higher in the external localities, while dissolved oxygen and pH were higher in the internal localities. The localities with hard substrates presented the highest richness of species while the soft substrates, were characterized by a paucity of species and individuals. The similarity classification analyses showed two groups: one characterized by having 61 species in common and high richness with 113 exclusive species. The other group with low diversity and richness values, 37 species in common and 23 exclusive species.

  19. Biodiversity of the white coral bank off Cape Santa Maria di Leuca (Mediterranean Sea): An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrototaro, F.; D'Onghia, G.; Corriero, G.; Matarrese, A.; Maiorano, P.; Panetta, P.; Gherardi, M.; Longo, C.; Rosso, A.; Sciuto, F.; Sanfilippo, R.; Gravili, C.; Boero, F.; Taviani, M.; Tursi, A.

    2010-03-01

    The biodiversity of the Santa Maria di Leuca (SML) coral bank is summarized and its description is updated using data collected by means of underwater video systems, benthic samplers and fishing gears. A total of 222 living species have been recorded within the coral bank area in the depth range 280-1121 m. The most abundant benthic taxa recorded are Porifera (36 species) followed by Mollusca (35) and Cnidaria (31). The scleractinian corals Madrepora oculata and Lophelia pertusa are the main colonial species in the structure of the SML bank. Annelida, Crustacea and Bryozoa have been found with 24, 23 and 19 species, respectively. A total of 40 species of demersal fish have been recorded. Other faunal taxa were found with small numbers of species. One hundred and thirty-five species are new for the SML bank, 31 of which represent new records for the north-western Ionian Sea (2 Porifera, 17 Cnidaria, 1 Mollusca, 3 Annelida, 2 Crustacea, 4 Bryozoa and 4 Echinodermata). The finding of the annelid Harmothoë vesiculosa represents the first record for the Mediterranean Sea. The SML coral bank represents a biodiversity "hot-spot" on the bathyal bottoms of the Mediterranean Sea.

  20. Atmospheric Dispersal of Bioactive Streptomyces albidoflavus Strains Among Terrestrial and Marine Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento-Vizcaíno, Aida; Braña, Alfredo F; González, Verónica; Nava, Herminio; Molina, Axayacatl; Llera, Eva; Fiedler, Hans-Peter; Rico, José M; García-Flórez, Lucía; Acuña, José L; García, Luis A; Blanco, Gloria

    2016-02-01

    Members of the Streptomyces albidoflavus clade, identified by 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analyses, are widespread among predominant terrestrial lichens (Flavoparmelia caperata and Xanthoria parietina) and diverse intertidal and subtidal marine macroalgae, brown red and green (Phylum Heterokontophyta, Rhodophyta, and Chlorophyta) from the Cantabrian Cornice. In addition to these terrestrial and coastal temperate habitats, similar strains were also found to colonize deep-sea ecosystems and were isolated mainly from gorgonian and solitary corals and other invertebrates (Phylum Cnidaria, Annelida, Echinodermata, Arthropoda, and Porifera) living up to 4700-m depth and at a temperature of 2-4 °C in the submarine Avilés Canyon. Similar strains have been also repeatedly isolated from atmospheric precipitations (rain drops, snow, and hailstone) collected in the same area throughout a year observation time. These ubiquitous strains were found to be halotolerant, psychrotolerant, and barotolerant. Bioactive compounds with diverse antibiotic and cytotoxic activities produced by these strains were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and database comparison. These include antibacterials (paulomycins A and B), antifungals (maltophilins), antifungals displaying also cytotoxic activities (antimycins and 6-epialteramides), and the antitumor compound fredericamycin. A hypothetical dispersion model is here proposed to explain the biogeographical distribution of S. albidoflavus strains in terrestrial, marine, and atmospheric environments. PMID:26224165

  1. Зоология = Zoology : учебные тексты : пособие для студентов 1 курса биологического факультета БГУ / [сост. Т. А. Богомолова и др.

    OpenAIRE

    Богомолова, Татьяна Анатольевна

    2009-01-01

    Пособие состоит из 22 текстов, в которых рассматриваются следующие группы животных: Protozoa, Porifera, Coelenterata, Platyhelminthes, Nemathelminthes, Echinodermata, Annelida, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Chordata. Каждый текст включает комплекс упражнений для развития навыков чтения, речи и письма по специальной литературе.

  2. Antitumor and Antifungal Activities of Organic Extracts of SeacucumberHolothuria atra from the Southeast Coast of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Devaraj Isaac DHINAKARAN; Aaron Premnath LIPTON

    2015-01-01

    In phylum Echinodermata, the family Holothuridae is distinguished by its capacity of bioactive compounds. Sea cu-cumberHolothuria atra is commonly known as the lollyfish. The antifungal activity was detected using agar well diffusion method against the various fungal strains such asTrichoderma viride, Aspergillus niger,Aspergillus flavis,Candida albicansandPenicillium chrysogenum. Relatively high antifungal activity was seen againstCandida albicans at 100µL−1 concentration of extracts. Zone of inhibition was measured at 18mm of diameter. The anti-tumor activities were detected against the Vero and Hep2 cell lines using MTT assay. The cells were treated withH. atra extract at concentrations 0.078−10mgmL−1. The extract showed high proliferative activity against the Hep2 cells. The body wall extracts of sea cucumber (H. atra)showed effective antifungal and antitumor activities. All these findings suggest that the extracts could be used for the development of drugs.

  3. Tidal effects on short-term mesozooplankton distribution in small channels of a temperate-turbid estuary, Southwestern Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Chazarreta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The short-term variability of mesozooplankton distribution and physicochemical variables was examined in two different channels of the Bahía Blanca Estuary, Argentina, during two tidal cycles. All the physicochemical measurements and mesozooplankton sampling were performed at a fixed site during approximately 22-23 h at 3-h intervals. Pumps were used to obtain surface and bottom mesozooplankton samples and the water speed of each stratum was measured with an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP. In all, 23 mesozooplanktonic taxa belonging to four phyla (Arthropoda, Annelida, Echinodermata and Chordata were identified. The most abundant taxa during the two tidal cycles were Balanus glandula larvae, Eurytemora americana and Acartia tonsa. A discernible variability in the water conditions and vertical mesozooplankton distribution (VMD different from that known for the estuary's main channel, was found in the other two selected channels. VMD varied during the tidal cycle in both channels in accordance with the channel's geomorphology and water dynamic characteristics of each of them. The variation of the abundance of the different taxa during ebb and flood currents might indicate the existence of a tidal vertical migration of the mesozooplankton as a response to particular dynamic water conditions.

  4. Genes of ancient microtubule-stabilizing proteins traveled through pre-Cambrian Echinoidea to advanced life forms of dry land and ended up in the human genome as the fusion oncogenes-oncoproteins eml1/EML1-abl/ABL, and eml4/EML4-alk/ALK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JG Sinkovics

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The genes eml1/4 of the Echinodermata microtubule-stabilizing gene product-like 1/4 proteins EML1/4 of the sea cucumbers (Holothuroidea traveled through the evolutionary scale up to the human genome. Human cells malignantly transformed by oncogenes abl or alk enlist the protein products EML1/4 for the activation and protection of the gene product oncoproteins ABL or ALK against destruction by ubiquitination, and for gaining virulence and chemotherapy resistance. Neither the abl nor the alk genes act as oncogenes without fusion with another particular gene, such as eml1/4 in this case. A large number of ancient but conserved gene product proteins chaperon, protect and enhance oncoproteins. These mechanisms indicate that ancient cell survival pathways exist conserved in the genomes of advanced multicellular diplo- and triploblastic hosts (including Homo. These genomic pathways are on special occasions constitutively reactivated in extant cells undergoing transformations for survival under adverse circumstances. Extant cells under threat react by re-living scenarios that characterized life forms in the primordial physico-chemical universe. In the clinical practice these cells are recognized as chemoradiotherapy-resistant cancer cells undergoing a process of retrograde immortalization.

  5. Investigations of Antibacterial Activity of Methanol and Aqueous Ex-tracts of the Body Wall of Sea Cucumber Holothuria leucospilota on some Human Pathogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nazemi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Holothuria leucospilota, sea cucumber, is a species of the Phylum Echinodermata. Sea cucumbers have the most natural products with biological activity. In this study we investigated the antibacterial activity of aqueous and methanol extract of H. leucospilota used against gram positive and gram negative human pathogenic bacteria. Materials & Methods: 9 Samples of H. leucospilota were harvested from the Hengam Island,. The methanol extract was prepared from the powder of sea cucumber. The antibacterial activity of the extracts was determined by broth dilution methods against clinical Gram-negative bacteria to identify MIC and MBC. Results: Aqueous extract of H. leucospilota was inactive on the bacteria. Methanol extract was active on Gram-negetive bacteria; E. coli, Salmonella typhi and Serratia marcescens. But it killed only Salmonella typhi and Serratia marcescens. The MBC of H. leucospilota methanol extract was 10 mg/ml. Methanol extract was active on all Gram-positive bacteria; B. pumilus, B. cereus and S. aureus but it killed only S. aureus. The MBC of H. leucospilota methanol extract was 40 mg/ml. Conclusion: Based on our results, H. leucospilota methanol extract. can be considered as a source of novel antibiotic. Contrary to many marine organisms, sea cucumbers are active against gram-negative bacteria. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2016; 23 (1:75-82

  6. Unusually long palindromes are abundant in mitochondrial control regions of insects and nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K P Arunkumar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Palindromes are known to be involved in a variety of biological processes. In the present investigation we carried out a comprehensive analysis of palindromes in the mitochondrial control regions (CRs of several animal groups to study their frequency, distribution and architecture to gain insights into the origin of replication of mtDNA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Many species of Arthropoda, Nematoda, Mollusca and Annelida harbor palindromes and inverted repeats (IRs in their CRs. Lower animals like cnidarians and higher animal groups like chordates are almost devoid of palindromes and IRs. The study revealed that palindrome occurrence is positively correlated with the AT content of CRs, and that IRs are likely to give rise to longer palindromes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study attempts to explain possible reasons and gives in silico evidence for absence of palindromes and IRs from CR of vertebrate mtDNA and acquisition and retention of the same in insects. Study of CRs of different animal phyla uncovered unique architecture of this locus, be it high abundance of long palindromes and IRs in CRs of Insecta and Nematoda, or short IRs of 10-20 nucleotides with a spacer region of 12-14 bases in subphylum Chelicerata, or nearly complete of absence of any long palindromes and IRs in Vertebrata, Cnidaria and Echinodermata.

  7. ALIEN MARINE SPECIES OF LIBYA: FIRST INVENTORY AND NEW RECORDS IN EL-KOUF NATIONAL PARK (CYRENAICA AND THE NEIGHBOURING AREAS

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    H. BAZAIRI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The presence of marine alien species in El-Kouf National Park and the neighbouring areas was assessed using a compilation of available information and observations, a field survey conducted on October 2010 in the framework of the MedMPAnet project and results of further monitoring during June and September 2012. A total of 9 alien species were reported: the Rhodophyta Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile Trevisan de Saint-Léon, the Chlorophyta Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea (Sonder Verlaque, Huisman & Boudouresque, the crab Percnon gibbesi (H. Milne-Edwards, 1853 and the fishes Fistularia commersonii Rüppell, 1838, Siganus luridus (Rüppell, 1829, Siganus rivulatus Forsskål, 1775, Pempheris vanicolensis Cuvier, 1831, Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmelin, 1789 and Sphyraena flavicauda Rüppell, 1838. Several of them were until now unknown for the National Park. The list of alien marine species of Libya is updated and discussed. Until now 63 marine aliens species were recorded along the Libyan coasts. These include 3 Foraminifera, 3 Ochrophyta, 5 Rhodophyta, 5 Chlorophyta, 1 Magnoliophyta, 11 Arthropoda, 13 Mollusca, 1 Echinodermata and 21 Chordata. Among these Non Indigenous Species, 43 are known as established along the Libyan coast including 8 invasive, 11 casual, 6 questionable, 3 cryptogenic and 1 unknown. An in-depth study of the marine organisms would substantially increase the number of alien species occurring in Libya. Monitoring of marine assemblages of MPAs is a valuable opportunity to go further into the knowledge of native and introduced species.

  8. Extraction and Characterization of Collagen from Sea Cucumber Flesh

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    Alhana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumber (Stichopus variegatus is one of the Echinodermata phylum that grows along Indonesian coastal. Sea cucumber is potential source of collagen. The purposes of this research were to determine the optimal concentration of NaOH and CH3COOH solution in collagen production and analyze the physicochemical characteristics of collagen from S. variegatus. Yield of the collagen was 1.5% (based on wet weight basis, produced by pretreatment with NaOH 0,30%, hydrolysis with CH3COOH 0.10% and extracted using distilled water. Protein, moisture, and ash content of the collagen was 67.68%, 13.64%, and 4.15%, respectively. Collagen was extracted using distilled water at 45°C during 2h and still had triple helix structure ; pH 7.37 ; melting temperature 163.67°C and whiteness 69.25%. The major amino acid content of collagen were glycine, alanine, proline and glutamic acid.

  9. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the polychaete annelidPlatynereis dumerilii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2004-08-15

    Complete mitochondrial genome sequences are now available for 126 metazoans (see Boore 1999; Mitochondrial Genomics link at http://www.jgi.doe.gov), but the taxonomic representation is highly biased. For example, 80 are from a single phylum, Chordata, and show little variation for many molecular features. Arthropoda is represented by 16 taxa, Mollusca by eight, and Echinodermata by five, with only 17 others from the remaining {approx}30 metazoan phyla. With few exceptions (see Wolstenholme 1992 and Boore 1999) these are circular DNA molecules, about 16 kb in size, and encode the same set of 37 genes. A variety of non-standard names are sometimes used for animal mitochondrial genes; see Boore (1999) for gene nomenclature and a table of synonyms. Mitochondrial genome comparisons serve as a model of genome evolution. In this system, much smaller and simpler than that of the nucleus, are all of the same factors of genome evolution, where one may find tractable the changes in tRNA structure, base composition, genetic code, gene arrangement, etc. Further, patterns of mitochondrial gene rearrangements are an exceptionally reliable indicator of phylogenetic relationships (Smith et al.1993; Boore et al. 1995; Boore, Lavrov, and Brown 1998; Boore and Brown 1998, 2000; Dowton 1999; Stechmann and Schlegel 1999; Kurabayashi and Ueshima 2000). To these ends, we are sampling further the variation among major animal groups in features of their mitochondrial genomes.

  10. Complete mitogenome of the edible sea urchin Loxechinus albus: genetic structure and comparative genomics within Echinozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cea, Graciela; Gaitán-Espitia, Juan Diego; Cárdenas, Leyla

    2015-06-01

    The edible Chilean red sea urchin, Loxechinus albus, is the only species of its genus and endemic to the Southeastern Pacific. In this study, we reconstructed the mitochondrial genome of L. albus by combining Sanger and pyrosequencing technologies. The mtDNA genome had a length of 15,737 bp and encoded the same 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and two ribosomal RNA genes as other animal mtDNAs. The size of this mitogenome was similar to those of other Echinodermata species. Structural comparisons showed a highly conserved structure, composition, and gene order within Echinoidea and Holothuroidea, and nearly identical gene organization to that found in Asteroidea and Crinoidea, with the majority of differences explained by the inversions of some tRNA genes. Phylogenetic reconstruction supported the monophyly of Echinozoa and recovered the monophyletic relationship of Holothuroidea and Echinoidea. Within Holothuroidea, Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses recovered a sister-group relationship between Dendrochirotacea and Aspidochirotida. Similarly within Echinoidea, these analyses revealed that L. albus was closely related to Paracentrotus lividus, both being part of a sister group to Strongylocentrotidae and Echinometridae. In addition, two major clades were found within Strongylocentrotidae. One of these clades comprised all of the representative species Strongylocentrotus and Hemicentrotus, whereas the other included species of Mesocentrotus and Pseudocentrotus. PMID:25433433

  11. Macrobenthic community structure and species composition in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea in jellyfish bloom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Songyao; Li, Xinzheng; Wang, Hongfa; Zhang, Baolin

    2014-05-01

    To understand the characteristics of macrobenthic structures and the relationship between environment and benthic assemblages in jellyfish bloom, we studied the macrobenthos and related environmental factors in the coastal waters of the Yellow Sea and East China Sea. Data were collected during two seasonal cruises in April and August of 2011, and analyzed with multivariate statistical methods. Up to 306 macrobenthic species were registered from the research areas, including 115 species of Polychaeta, 78 of Crustacea, 61 of Mollusca, 30 of Echinodermata, and 22 of other groups. Nine polychaete species occurred at frequencies higher than 25% from the sampling stations: Lumbrineris longifolia, Notomastus latericeus, Ninöe palmata, Ophelina acuminata, Nephtys oligobranchia, Onuphis geophiliformis, Glycera chirori, Terebellides stroemii, and Aricidea fragilis. Both the average biomass and abundance of macrobenthos are higher in August (23.8 g/m2 and 237.7 ind./m2) than those in April (11.3 g/m2 and 128 ind./m2); the dissimilarity of macrobenthic structures among stations is as high as 70%. In terms of the dissimilarity values, we divided the stations into four clusters in spring and eight in summer. The ABC curve shows that the macrofauna communities in high jellyfish abundance were not changed. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that depth, temperature, median grain size, total organic carbon of sediment and total nitrogen in sediment were important factors affecting the macrozoobenthic community in the study area.

  12. The Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance (GIGA): Developing Community Resources to Study Diverse Invertebrate Genomes

    KAUST Repository

    Bracken-Grissom, Heather

    2013-12-12

    Over 95% of all metazoan (animal) species comprise the invertebrates, but very few genomes from these organisms have been sequenced. We have, therefore, formed a Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance (GIGA). Our intent is to build a collaborative network of diverse scientists to tackle major challenges (e.g., species selection, sample collection and storage, sequence assembly, annotation, analytical tools) associated with genome/transcriptome sequencing across a large taxonomic spectrum. We aim to promote standards that will facilitate comparative approaches to invertebrate genomics and collaborations across the international scientific community. Candidate study taxa include species from Porifera, Ctenophora, Cnidaria, Placozoa, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, Annelida, Bryozoa, and Platyhelminthes, among others. GIGA will target 7000 noninsect/nonnematode species, with an emphasis on marine taxa because of the unrivaled phyletic diversity in the oceans. Priorities for selecting invertebrates for sequencing will include, but are not restricted to, their phylogenetic placement; relevance to organismal, ecological, and conservation research; and their importance to fisheries and human health. We highlight benefits of sequencing both whole genomes (DNA) and transcriptomes and also suggest policies for genomic-level data access and sharing based on transparency and inclusiveness. The GIGA Web site () has been launched to facilitate this collaborative venture.

  13. Environmental impact of bleufin tuna aquaculture on benthic assemblages in the western coast of Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Castaneda, V.

    2013-05-01

    Sea-cage farming results in a constant rain of organic waste onto the surrounding benthos. In Baja California there is growing concern over the effects of sea-cages on the local environment: sediment chemistry and benthic communities. Samples were taken in 18 stations using a Van veen grab (0.1 m2) in Bahía Salsipuedes, Baja California in 2003, 2004, 2006 and 2008. Organisms belonging to 7 Phyla were collected: Polychaeta, Mollusca, Crustacea, Echinodermata, Cnidaria, Sipuncula and Bryozoa. Polychaetes were the dominant group followed by crustaceans and mollusks. Polychaetes were represented by 37 families and 157 species. Best represented families were Paraonidae, Cirratulidae, Spionidae, Glyceridae and Maldanidae. This study shows that in the NW area of the bay organic carbon (2.54%) and organic nitrogen (0.95%) are being accumulated (higher concentrations and lower Eh values) and smaller opportunistic species are increasing rapidly near the tuna pens. It is crucial to maintain "healthy" macrofaunal populations in order to enhance decomposition of organic matter and to prevent its excessive accumulation. The most abundant polychaete species were Aphelochaeta multifinis, Mediomastus ambiseta, Prionospio steenstrupi Spiophanes bombyx, Apoprionospio pygnaea, Paraonella sp, Monticellina sp, Aricidea (Allia) ramosa, Spiophanes bombyx and Levinsenia gracilis. The dominant trophic groups were deposit-feeders and carnivores. The buildup of organic matter on the seafloor has attracted scavenger species particularly peracarid crustaceans. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS) separated stations depending of the distance to the tuna pens.

  14. Metaphylogeny of 82 gene families sheds a new light on chordate evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Achieving a better comprehension of the evolution of species has always been an important matter for evolutionary biologists. The deuterostome phylogeny has been described for many years, and three phyla are distinguishable: Echinodermata (including sea stars, sea urchins, etc…, Hemichordata (including acorn worms and pterobranchs, and Chordata (including urochordates, cephalochordates and extant vertebrates. Inside the Chordata phylum, the position of vertebrate species is quite unanimously accepted. Nonetheless, the position of urochordates in regard with vertebrates is still the subject of debate, and has even been suggested by some authors to be a separate phylum from cephalochordates and vertebrates. It was also the case for agnathans species –myxines and hagfish– for which phylogenetic evidence was recently given for a controversial monophyly. This raises the following question: which one of the cephalochordata or urochordata is the sister group of vertebrates and what are their relationships? In the present work, we analyzed 82 protein families presenting homologs between urochordata and other deuterostomes and focused on two points: 1 testing accurately the position of urochordata and cephalochordata phyla in regard with vertebrates as well as chordates monophyly, 2 performing an estimation of the rate of gene loss in the Ciona intestinalis genome. We showed that the urochordate phyla is the vertebrate sister group and that gene loss played a major role in structuring the urochordate genome.

  15. Evaluación del Riego Ambiental del Insecticida Metamidofos en Bioensayos con Cuatro Organismos Acuáticos no Destinatarios Environmental Risk Assessment of the Insecticide Metamidophos in Bioassays with Four Non-Target Aquatic Organisms

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    José Iannacone O

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto ecotoxicológico del metamidofos, en dos formulaciones de diferente categoría toxicológica [Monofos®, categoría Ia (extremadamente peligroso y Tamaron®, categoría Ib (altamente peligroso] sobre cuatro organismos acuáticos no destinatarios: la lombriz roja Chironomus calligraphus (Goeldi, 1905 (Diptera:Chironomidae, el erizo negro Tetrapygus niger Molina, 1782 (Echinodermata: Arbaciidae, el neón tetra Paracheirodon innesi (Rabout, 1940 (Osteichthyes: Characidae y la trucha Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792 (Osteichthyes: Salmonidae. Ambas formulaciones del metamidofos provocaron un alto riesgo sobre el ambiente acuático, al encontrarse efectos sobre las larvas de C. calligraphus (Clase Ia, CL50 a 48 h = 1,32 mg i.a. L-1 y Clase Ib, CL50 a 48 h = 4,5 mg i.a. L-1, sobre la fertilización de T. niger (Class Ia, CI50 a 1 h = 1423 mg i.a. L-1 y Clase Ib, CI50 a 1 h = 608 mg i.a. L-1, en P. innesi (Clase Ia, CL50 a 96 h = 20,56 mg i.a. L-1 y Clase Ib, CL50 a 96 h = 10,13 mg i.a. L-1 y en O. mykiss (Clase Ib, CL50 a 96 h = 19,12 mg i.a. L-1. La secuencia de sensibilidad al metamidofos en ambas formulaciones fue: C. calligraphus > O. mykiss ≈ P. innesi > T. niger. En adición, se evaluaron dos efectos subletales en P. innesi, inmovilización y nado extraño, y finalmente, incremento de movimiento opercular en O. mykiss. Los cuocientes de riesgo (CR indicaron en todos los casos un alto riesgo del metamidofos en el ambiente acuático.The aim of this research was to evaluate the ecotoxicological effect of methamidophos using two formulations of different toxicological class [Monofos®, class Ia (extremely dangerous and Tamaron®, class Ib (highly dangerous] on four non-target aquatic organisms: bloodworm Chironomus calligraphus (Goeldi, 1905 (Diptera: Chironomidae, black sea urchin Tetrapygus niger Molina, 1782 (Echinodermata: Arbaciidae, neon tetra Paracheirodon innesi (Rabout, 1940

  16. RNA-Seq reveals dynamic changes of gene expression in key stages of intestine regeneration in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. [corrected].

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    Lina Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sea cucumbers (Holothuroidea; Echinodermata have the capacity to regenerate lost tissues and organs. Although the histological and cytological aspects of intestine regeneration have been extensively studied, little is known of the genetic mechanisms involved. There has, however, been a renewed effort to develop a database of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs in Apostichopus japonicus, an economically-important species that occurs in China. This is important for studies on genetic breeding, molecular markers and special physiological phenomena. We have also constructed a library of ESTs obtained from the regenerative body wall and intestine of A. japonicus. The database has increased to ~30000 ESTs. RESULTS: We used RNA-Seq to determine gene expression profiles associated with intestinal regeneration in A. japonicus at 3, 7, 14 and 21 days post evisceration (dpe. This was compared to profiles obtained from a normally-functioning intestine. Approximately 5 million (M reads were sequenced in every library. Over 2400 up-regulated genes (>10% and over 1000 down-regulated genes (~5% were observed at 3 and 7dpe (log2Ratio ≥ 1, FDR ≤ 0.001. Specific "Go terms" revealed that the DEGs (Differentially Expressed Genes performed an important function at every regeneration stage. Besides some expected pathways (for example, Ribosome and Spliceosome pathway term, the "Notch signaling pathway," the "ECM-receptor interaction" and the "Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction" were significantly enriched. We also investigated the expression profiles of developmental genes, ECM-associated genes and Cytoskeletal genes. Twenty of the most important differentially expressed genes (DEGs were verified by Real-time PCR, which resulted in a trend concordance of almost 100% between the two techniques. CONCLUSION: Our studies demonstrated dynamic changes in global gene expression during intestine regeneration and presented a series of candidate genes and enriched

  17. Construction of cDNA library from intestine, mesentery and coelomocyte of Apostichopus japonicus Selenka infected with Vibrio sp. and a preliminary analysis of immunity-related genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongzhan; Zheng, Fengrong; Sun, Xiuqin; Cai, Yimei

    2012-06-01

    The aquaculture of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Echinodermata, Holothuroidea) has grown rapidly during recent years and has become an important sector of the marine industry in Northern China. However, with the rapid growth of the industry and the use of non-standard culture techniques, epidemic diseases of A. japonicus now pose increasing problems to the industry. To screen the genes with stress response to bacterial infection in sea cucumber at a genome wide level, we constructed a cDNA library from A. japonicus Selenka (Aspidochirotida: Stichopodidae) after infecting them with Vibrio sp. for 48 h. Total RNA was extracted from the intestine, mesentery and coelomocyte of infected sea cucumber using Trizol and mRNA was isolated by Oligotex mRNA Kits. The ligated cDNAs were transformed into DH5α, and a library of 3.24×105 clones (3.24×105 cfu mL-1) was obtained with the sizes of inserted fragments ranging from 0.8 to 2.5 kb. Sequencing the cDNA clones resulted in a total of 1106 ESTs that passed the quality control. BlastX and BlastN searches have identified 168 (31.5%) ESTs sharing significant homology with known sequences in NCBI protein or nucleotide databases. Among a panel of 25 putative immunity-related genes, serum lectin isoform, complement component 3, complement component 3-like genes were further studied by real-time PCR and they all increased more than 5 fold in response to Vibrio sp. challenge. Our library provides a valuable molecular tool for future study of invertebrate immunity against bacterial infection and our gene expression data indicates the importance of the immune system in the evolution and development of sea cucumber.

  18. The protein precursors of peptides that affect the mechanics of connective tissue and/or muscle in the echinoderm Apostichopus japonicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice R Elphick

    Full Text Available Peptides that cause muscle relaxation or contraction or that modulate electrically-induced muscle contraction have been discovered in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Phylum Echinodermata; Class Holothuroidea. By analysing transcriptome sequence data, here the protein precursors of six of these myoactive peptides (the SALMFamides Sticho-MFamide-1 and -2, NGIWYamide, stichopin, GN-19 and GLRFA have been identified, providing novel insights on neuropeptide and endocrine-type signalling systems in echinoderms. The A. japonicus SALMFamide precursor comprises eight putative neuropeptides including both L-type and F-type SALMFamides, which contrasts with previous findings from the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus where L-type and F-type SALMFamides are encoded by different genes. The NGIWYamide precursor contains five copies of NGIWYamide but, unlike other NG peptide-type neuropeptide precursors in deuterostomian invertebrates, the NGIWYamide precursor does not have a C-terminal neurophysin domain, indicating loss of this character in holothurians. NGIWYamide was originally discovered as a muscle contractant, but it also causes stiffening of mutable connective tissue in the body wall of A. japonicus, whilst holokinins (PLGYMFR and derivative peptides cause softening of the body wall. However, the mechanisms by which these peptides affect the stiffness of body wall connective tissue are unknown. Interestingly, analysis of the A. japonicus transcriptome reveals that the only protein containing the holokinin sequence PLGYMFR is an alpha-5 type collagen. This suggests that proteolysis of collagen may generate peptides (holokinins that affect body wall stiffness in sea cucumbers, providing a novel perspective on mechanisms of mutable connective tissue in echinoderms.

  19. Spatial distribution and abundance of the megabenthic fauna community in Gabes gulf (Tunisia, eastern Mediterranean Sea

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    H. EL LAKHRACH

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to bring to light the knowledge of marine diversity of invertebrates in Gabes gulf. The spatial distribution of the megabenthic fauna community in Gabes gulf (Tunisia, Eastern Mediterranean Sea, together with the bottom type and vegetation cover, were studied. The abundance of the megabenthic fauna was represented by eight groups: Echinodermata (38%, Crustacea (21%, Tunicata (19%, Mollusca (13%, Porifera (4%, Cnidaria (3%, Bryozoa, and Annelida (2%. It was spatially more concentrated in the coast area of the gulf than in the offshore waters. This area, especially, in Southern Kerkennah, North-est of Gabes and North-east of Djerba appeared to be in a good ecological condition  hosting a variety of species like the paguridsPaguristes eremita and Pagurus cuanensis, the brachyura Medorippe lanata, Inachus doresttensis, the Gastropoda Hexaplex trunculus, Bolinus brandaris, Aporrhais pespelecani, andErosaria turdus, the Bivalvia Fulvia fragilis, the Echinoidea Psammechinus microtuberculatus, Holothuria polii,Ophiothrix fragilis and Antedon mediterranea, and the AscidiaceaAplidium cf. conicum, Didemnum spp, and Microcosmus exasperatus.The species’ compositions of the megabentic fauna community showed clearly that the spatial analysis represented the differences between the community of these two regions (inshore waters and offshore waters. These differences were closely related to peculiar characters of the fauna and biotopes (depth, bottom type and vegetation cover community. The results of the present study should be considered as a necessary starting point for a further analysis of priceless benthic fauna contribution to the marine environment and its organisms.

  20. The response of abyssal organisms to low pH conditions during a series of CO2-release experiments simulating deep-sea carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, J. P.; Buck, K. R.; Lovera, C.; Brewer, P. G.; Seibel, B. A.; Drazen, J. C.; Tamburri, M. N.; Whaling, P. J.; Kuhnz, L.; Pane, E. F.

    2013-08-01

    The effects of low-pH, high-pCO2 conditions on deep-sea organisms were examined during four deep-sea CO2 release experiments simulating deep-ocean C sequestration by the direct injection of CO2 into the deep sea. We examined the survival of common deep-sea, benthic organisms (microbes; macrofauna, dominated by Polychaeta, Nematoda, Crustacea, Mollusca; megafauna, Echinodermata, Mollusca, Pisces) exposed to low-pH waters emanating as a dissolution plume from pools of liquid carbon dioxide released on the seabed during four abyssal CO2-release experiments. Microbial abundance in deep-sea sediments was unchanged in one experiment, but increased under environmental hypercapnia during another, where the microbial assemblage may have benefited indirectly from the negative impact of low-pH conditions on other taxa. Lower abyssal metazoans exhibited low survival rates near CO2 pools. No urchins or holothurians survived during 30-42 days of exposure to episodic, but severe environmental hypercapnia during one experiment (E1; pH reduced by as much as ca. 1.4 units). These large pH reductions also caused 75% mortality for the deep-sea amphipod, Haploops lodo, near CO2 pools. Survival under smaller pH reductions (ΔpH<0.4 units) in other experiments (E2, E3, E5) was higher for all taxa, including echinoderms. Gastropods, cephalopods, and fish were more tolerant than most other taxa. The gastropod Retimohnia sp. and octopus Benthoctopus sp. survived exposure to pH reductions that episodically reached -0.3 pH units. Ninety percent of abyssal zoarcids (Pachycara bulbiceps) survived exposure to pH changes reaching ca. -0.3 pH units during 30-42 day-long experiments.

  1. Extracellular Ca2+ influx is crucial for the early embryonic development of the sea urchin Echinometra lucunter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo Leite, Jocelmo Cássio; Marques-Santos, Luis Fernando

    2012-03-01

    The involvement of Ca(2+) in the activation of eggs and in the first steps of the embryonic development of several species is a well-known phenomenon. An association between Ca(2+) sources with the fate of the blastopore during embryonic development has been investigated by several authors. Ca(2+) influx mediated by voltage-gated channels and Ca(2+) mobilization from intracellular stores are the major sources of Ca(2+) to egg activation and succeeding cell divisions. Studies on sea urchins embryonic development show that intracellular Ca(2+) stores are responsible for egg activation and early embryogenesis. In the present work we investigated the involvement of extracellular Ca(2+) in the first stages of the embryonic development of the sea urchin Echinometra lucunter. Divalent cation chelators EDTA and EGTA strongly blocked the early embryonic development. Adding to this, we demonstrated the involvement of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels in E. lucunter embryogenesis since Ca(2+) channel blockers powerfully inhibited the early embryonic development. Our data also revealed that Ca(2+) influx is crucial for embryonic development during only the first 40 min postfertilization. However, intracellular Ca(2+) remains mandatory to embryonic development 40 min postfertilization, seen that both the intracellular Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA-AM and calmodulin antagonists trifluoperazine and chlorpromazine inhibited the first stages of development when added to embryos culture 50 min postfertilization. Our work highlights the crucial role of extracellular Ca(2+) influx through voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels for the early embryonic development of the sea urchin E. lucunter and characterizes an exception in the phylum Echinodermata. PMID:22532474

  2. Excellent amino acid racemization results from Holocene sand dollars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosnik, M.; Kaufman, D. S.; Kowalewski, M.; Whitacre, K.

    2015-12-01

    Amino acid racemization (AAR) is widely used as a cost-effective method to date molluscs in time-averaging and taphonomic studies, but it has not been attempted for echinoderms despite their paleobiological importance. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of AAR geochronology in Holocene aged Peronella peronii (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) collected from Sydney Harbour (Australia). Using standard HPLC methods we determined the extent of AAR in 74 Peronella tests and performed replicate analyses on 18 tests. We sampled multiple areas of two individuals and identified the outer edge as a good sampling location. Multiple replicate analyses from the outer edge of 18 tests spanning the observed range of D/Ls yielded median coefficients of variation HPLC injections sampled from 74 individuals are also very high (pearson r2 > 0.95) for these four amino acids. The ages of 11 individuals spanning the observed range of D/L values were determined using 14C analyses, and Bayesian model averaging was used to determine the best AAR age model. The averaged age model was mainly composed of time-dependent reaction kinetics models (TDK, 71%) based on phenylalanine (Phe, 94%). Modelled ages ranged from 14 to 5539 yrs, and the median 95% confidence interval for the 74 analysed individuals is ±28% of the modelled age. In comparison, the median 95% confidence interval for the 11 calibrated 14C ages was ±9% of the median age estimate. Overall Peronella yields exceptionally high-quality AAR D/L values and appears to be an excellent substrate for AAR geochronology. This work opens the way for time-averaging and taphonomic studies of echinoderms similar to those in molluscs.

  3. Macro- and megafauna recorded in the submarine Bari Canyon (southern Adriatic, Mediterranean Sea using different tools

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    G. D'ONGHIA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Macro- and megafauna were recorded in the submarine Bari Canyon (southern Adriatic Sea, Mediterranean Sea during an oceanographic cruise carried out in May-June 2012 and an experimental fishing survey conducted in November 2013. During the former, a total of 20 benthic samples were taken using a Van Veen grab at depths between 268 and 770 m and 4 deployments of a baited lander, for about 43 hours of video records, were carried out at depths between 443 and 788 m. During the latter, 8 longline fishing operations were conducted from 338 down to 612 m. Eighty-five living benthic and benthopelagic species were recorded: 29 Porifera, 1 Cnidaria, 2 Mollusca, 11 Annelida, 1 Arthropoda, 19 Bryozoa, 3 Echinodermata and 19 Chordata. A total of 51 species are new records for the Bari Canyon, 29 new records for the Adriatic Sea. Among the Porifera Cerbaris curvispiculifer is a new addition for the Italian Sponge Fauna. The first certain record of living specimens for the bryozoan Crisia tenella longinodata is reported. A total of 6 Mediterranean endemic species have been identified: 4 Porifera and 2 Annelida. The bathymetric range of some species has been extended. New information acquired for deep sea species confirms their importance in the structure of cold-water coral communities. This study has updated the knowledge on the biodiversity of the Adriatic Sea, as well as of the Bari Canyon in particular, one of the sites designated as “jewels of the Mediterranean” for which urgent conservation measures are needed.

  4. Annotated list of marine alien species in the Mediterranean with records of the worst invasive species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ZENETOS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This collaborative effort by many specialists across the Mediterranean presents an updated annotated list of alien marine species in the Mediterranean Sea. Alien species have been grouped into six broad categories namely established, casual, questionable, cryptogenic, excluded and invasive, and presented in lists of major ecofunctional/taxonomic groups. The establishment success within each group is provided while the questionable and excluded records are commented in brief. A total of 963 alien species have been reported from the Mediterranean until December 2005, 218 of which have been classified as excluded (23% leaving 745 of the recorded species as valid aliens. Of these 385 (52% are already well established, 262 (35% are casual records, while 98 species (13% remain “questionable” records. The species cited in this work belong mostly to zoobenthos and in particular to Mollusca and Crustacea, while Fish and Phytobenthos are the next two groups which prevail among alien biota in the Mediterranean. The available information depends greatly on the taxonomic group examined. Thus, besides the three groups explicitly addressed in the CIESM atlas series (Fish, Decapoda/Crustacea and Mollusca, which are however updated in the present work, Polychaeta, Phytobenthos, Phytoplankton and Zooplankton are also addressed in this study. Among other zoobenthic taxa sufficiently covered in this study are Echinodermata, Sipuncula, Bryozoa and Ascidiacea. On the contrary, taxa such as Foraminifera, Amphipoda and Isopoda, that are not well studied in the Mediterranean, are insufficiently covered. A gap of knowledge is also noticed in Parasites, which, although ubiquitous and pervasive in marine systems, have been relatively unexplored as to their role in marine invasions. Conclusively the lack of funding purely systematic studies in the region has led to underestimation of the number of aliens in the Mediterranean. Emphasis is put on those species that are

  5. Strong pathways for incorporation of terrestrially derived organic matter into benthic communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Rebecca J.; Wing, Stephen R.

    2009-05-01

    In Fiordland, New Zealand, large volumes of organic matter are deposited into the marine environment from pristine forested catchments. Analyses of δ15N, δ13C and δ34S were employed to determine whether these inputs were contributing to marine food webs via assimilation by common macroinvertebrates inhabiting the inner reaches of the fjords. Terrestrially derived organic matter (TOM) had values of δ15N, δ13C and δ34S that were distinct from other carbon source pools, providing sufficient power to quantify the contribution of TOM to the benthic food web. Isotopic values among macroinvertebrates varied significantly, with consistently low values of δ15N, δ13C and δ34S for the abundant deposit feeders Echinocardium cordatum (Echinodermata) and Pectinaria australis (Annelida), indicating assimilation of TOM. High concentrations of bacterial fatty acid biomarkers in E. cordatum, and values of δ13C of these biomarkers similar to TOM (-27 to -30‰) confirmed that TOM is indirectly assimilated by these sea urchins via heterotrophic bacteria. TOM was also found to enter the infaunal food web via chemoautotrophic bacteria that live symbiotically within Solemya parkinsonii (Bivalvia). Echinocardium cordatum, Pectinaria australis and S. parkinsonii comprised up to 33.5% of the biomass of the macroinfaunal community, and thus represent strong pathways for movement of organic matter from the forested catchments into the benthic food web. This demonstration of connectivity among adjacent marine and terrestrial habitats has important implications for coastal land management, and highlights the importance of intact coastal forests to marine ecosystem function.

  6. Could the acid-base status of Antarctic sea urchins indicate a better-than-expected resilience to near-future ocean acidification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collard, Marie; De Ridder, Chantal; David, Bruno; Dehairs, Frank; Dubois, Philippe

    2015-02-01

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration alters the chemistry of the oceans towards more acidic conditions. Polar oceans are particularly affected due to their low temperature, low carbonate content and mixing patterns, for instance upwellings. Calcifying organisms are expected to be highly impacted by the decrease in the oceans' pH and carbonate ions concentration. In particular, sea urchins, members of the phylum Echinodermata, are hypothesized to be at risk due to their high-magnesium calcite skeleton. However, tolerance to ocean acidification in metazoans is first linked to acid-base regulation capacities of the extracellular fluids. No information on this is available to date for Antarctic echinoderms and inference from temperate and tropical studies needs support. In this study, we investigated the acid-base status of 9 species of sea urchins (3 cidaroids, 2 regular euechinoids and 4 irregular echinoids). It appears that Antarctic regular euechinoids seem equipped with similar acid-base regulation systems as tropical and temperate regular euechinoids but could rely on more passive ion transfer systems, minimizing energy requirements. Cidaroids have an acid-base status similar to that of tropical cidaroids. Therefore Antarctic cidaroids will most probably not be affected by decreasing seawater pH, the pH drop linked to ocean acidification being negligible in comparison of the naturally low pH of the coelomic fluid. Irregular echinoids might not suffer from reduced seawater pH if acidosis of the coelomic fluid pH does not occur but more data on their acid-base regulation are needed. Combining these results with the resilience of Antarctic sea urchin larvae strongly suggests that these organisms might not be the expected victims of ocean acidification. However, data on the impact of other global stressors such as temperature and of the combination of the different stressors needs to be acquired to assess the sensitivity of these organisms to global

  7. Blastoid Body Size - Changes from the Carboniferous to the End-Permian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, L.; Tolosa, R.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2013-12-01

    Climate, known for affecting biodiversity within genera of animal species, is often addressed as a major variable of geological systems. The Mississippian subperiod of the Carboniferous was noted for its lush, tropical climate that sustained a variety of biological life. In contrast, the Permian era was marked primarily by an ice age that had started earlier during the Pennsylvanian. The blastoids, a class of the Echinodermata phylum, were in existence from the Silurian (443.4 Ma) to the end of the Permian (252.28 Ma). This study focused on whether climate affected blastoid theca size over the span of those one hundred million years between the Mississippian and the Permian or if was simply a negligible factor. We analyzed size data from the Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology and correlated it to both Cope's Rule, which states that size increases with geologic time, and Bergmann's Rule, which states that latitude and temperature are catalysts for size change. CO2 levels from known records served as a proxy for global temperature. Our results indicated that the blastoids increased in size by 59% over geologic time. The size of the blastoids increased over geologic time, following Cope's Rule. According to our graphs in R, there was an inverse relationship between volume and climate. Size decreased as temperature increased, which follows Bergmann's Rule. However, we also wanted to observe spatial factors regarding Bergmann's Rule such as paleolatitude and paleolongitude. This info was taken from the Paleobiology Database and showed that a majority of the blastoids were found near the equator, which, according to the other part of Bergmann's Rule, suggests that they would therefore increase in size. Further tests implied strong correlations between temperature, volume, and paleolocation. We ultimately believe that although Cope's Rule is in effect, Bergmann's mechanisms for size may not apply to the blastoids due to the environments that the blastoids lived in or

  8. Distribution and evolution of the serine/aspartate racemase family in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uda, Kouji; Abe, Keita; Dehara, Yoko; Mizobata, Kiriko; Sogawa, Natsumi; Akagi, Yuki; Saigan, Mai; Radkov, Atanas D; Moe, Luke A

    2016-02-01

    Free D-amino acids have been found in various invertebrate phyla, while amino acid racemase genes have been identified in few species. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the distribution, function, and evolution of amino acid racemases in invertebrate animals. We searched the GenBank databases, and found 11 homologous serine racemase genes from eight species in eight different invertebrate phyla. The cloned genes were identified based on their maximum activity as Acropora millepora (Cnidaria) serine racemase (SerR) and aspartate racemase (AspR), Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematoda) SerR, Capitella teleta (Annelida) SerR, Crassostrea gigas (Mollusca) SerR and AspR, Dugesia japonica (Platyhelminthes) SerR, Milnesium tardigradum (Tardigrada) SerR, Penaeus monodon (Arthropoda) SerR and AspR and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Echinodermata) AspR. We found that Acropora, Aplysia, Capitella, Crassostrea and Penaeus had two amino acid racemase paralogous genes and these paralogous genes have evolved independently by gene duplication at their recent ancestral species. The transcriptome analyses using available SRA data and enzyme kinetic data suggested that these paralogous genes are expressed in different tissues and have different functions in vivo. Phylogenetic analyses clearly indicated that animal SerR and AspR are not separated by their particular racemase functions and form a serine/aspartate racemase family cluster. Our results revealed that SerR and AspR are more widely distributed among invertebrates than previously known. Moreover, we propose that the triple serine loop motif at amino acid positions 150-152 may be responsible for the large aspartate racemase activity and the AspR evolution from SerR. PMID:26352274

  9. Quantification of intensive hybrid coastal reclamation for revealing its impacts on macrozoobenthos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Managing and identifying the sources of anthropogenic stress in coastal wetlands requires an in-depth understanding of relationships between species diversity and human activities. Empirical and experimental studies provide clear evidence that coastal reclamation can have profound impacts on marine organisms, but the focus of such studies is generally on comparative or laboratory research. We developed a compound intensity index (reclamation intensity index, RI) on hybrid coastal reclamation, to quantify the impacts of reclamation on coastal ecosystems. We also made use of mean annual absolute changes to a number of biotic variables (biodiversity, species richness, biomass of total macrozoobenthos, and species richness and biomass of Polychaeta, Mollusca, Crustacea, and Echinodermata) to determine Hedges’d index, which is a measure of the potential effects of coastal reclamation. Our results showed that there was significant difference of coastal reclamation intensity between Yellow Sea, East China Sea and South China Sea, the biological changes in effect sizes of the three regions differed greatly over time. Our modelling analyses showed that hybrid coastal reclamation generally had significant negative impacts on species diversity and biomass of macrozoobenthos. These relationships varied among different taxonomic groups and included both linear and nonlinear relationships. The results indicated that a high-intensity of coastal reclamation contributed to a pronounced decline in species diversity and biomass, while lower-intensity reclamation, or reclamation within certain thresholds, resulted in a small increase in species diversity and biomass. These results have important implications for biodiversity conservation and the ecological restoration of coastal wetlands in face of the intensive reclamation activities. (letter)

  10. Triploblastic relationships with emphasis on the acoelomates and the position of Gnathostomulida, Cycliophora, Plathelminthes, and Chaetognatha: a combined approach of 18S rDNA sequences and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giribet, G; Distel, D L; Polz, M; Sterrer, W; Wheeler, W C

    2000-09-01

    Triploblastic relationships were examined in the light of molecular and morphological evidence. Representatives for all triploblastic "phyla" (except Loricifera) were represented by both sources of phylogenetic data. The 18S ribosomal (rDNA) sequence data for 145 terminal taxa and 276 morphological characters coded for 36 supraspecific taxa were combined in a total evidence regime to determine the most consistent picture of triploblastic relationships for these data. Only triploblastic taxa are used to avoid rooting with distant outgroups, which seems to happen because of the extreme distance that separates diploblastic from triploblastic taxa according to the 18S rDNA data. Multiple phylogenetic analyses performed with variable analysis parameters yield largely inconsistent results for certain groups such as Chaetognatha, Acoela, and Nemertodermatida. A normalized incongruence length metric is used to assay the relative merit of the multiple analyses. The combined analysis having the least character incongruence yields the following scheme of relationships of four main clades: (1) Deuterostomia [((Echinodermata + Enteropneusta) (Cephalochordata (Urochordata + Vertebrata)))]; (2) Ecdysozoa [(((Priapulida + Kinorhyncha) (Nematoda + Nematomorpha)) ((Onychophora + Tardigrada) Arthropoda))]; (3) Trochozoa [((Phoronida + Brachiopoda) (Entoprocta (Nemertea (Sipuncula (Mollusca (Pogonophora (Echiura + Annelida)))))))]; and (4) Platyzoa [((Gnathostomulida (Cycliophora + Syndermata)) (Gastrotricha + Plathelminthes))]. Chaetognatha, Nemertodermatida, and Bryozoa cannot be assigned to any one of these four groups. For the first time, a data analysis recognizes a clade of acoelomates, the Platyzoa (sensu Cavalier-Smith, Biol. Rev. 73:203-266, 1998). Other relationships that corroborate some morphological analyses are the existence of a clade that groups Gnathostomulida + Syndermata (= Gnathifera), which is expanded to include the enigmatic phylum Cycliophora, as sister group

  11. Effects of sediment organic matter quality on bioaccumulation, degradation, and distribution of pyrene in two macrofaunal species and their surrounding sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granberg, Maria E; Selck, Henriette

    2007-09-01

    Sediment dwelling macrofauna (infauna) are important vectors for the transfer of sediment-associated contaminants to higher trophic levels. Sedimenting organic matter constitutes an important food source for all benthic organisms and changes seasonally in terms of quantity and quality. Sediment organic matter (SOM) quality affects organism activity and feeding behaviour, and is therefore also likely to affect contaminant fate in benthic systems. We investigated the impact of SOM quality (enrichment with either labile Tetraselmis sp. or refractory lignin) on the accumulation and metabolism of sediment-associated pyrene in Nereis diversicolor (Annelida) and Amphiura filiformis (Echinodermata), as well as the combined effect of SOM quality and infaunal bioturbation on pyrene distribution and metabolism in the sediment. After 45 d of exposure, SOM quality almost doubled pyrene bioaccumulation in both species, while pyrene metabolism remained unaffected. Metabolites comprised approximately 80% of the total tissue pyrene in N. diversicolor and approximately 40% in A. filiformis. A. filiformis arms contained one fifth of the disk pyrene concentration. Approximately 20% of the pyrene found in A. filiformis arms was found to be covalently bound to, e.g. DNA, RNA or proteins, thus reducing pyrene bioavailability to arm-cropping predators. The sedimentary pyrene distribution and metabolism was species-dependent, but correlated poorly with prevailing knowledge on species-specific bioturbation patterns. This was attributed to the comparably high biodegradability of the contaminant thus altering its sorptive characteristics and function as inert tracer. Subduction of pyrene and metabolites occurred, and the fraction of pyrene covalently bound to SOM increased with depth, thereby removing pyrene from the bioavailable pool. Our results imply that bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of sediment-associated PAH should increase following fresh organic matter input, e.g. after

  12. Breakdown of phylogenetic signal: a survey of microsatellite densities in 454 shotgun sequences from 154 non model eukaryote species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emese Meglécz

    Full Text Available Microsatellites are ubiquitous in Eukaryotic genomes. A more complete understanding of their origin and spread can be gained from a comparison of their distribution within a phylogenetic context. Although information for model species is accumulating rapidly, it is insufficient due to a lack of species depth, thus intragroup variation is necessarily ignored. As such, apparent differences between groups may be overinflated and generalizations cannot be inferred until an analysis of the variation that exists within groups has been conducted. In this study, we examined microsatellite coverage and motif patterns from 454 shotgun sequences of 154 Eukaryote species from eight distantly related phyla (Cnidaria, Arthropoda, Onychophora, Bryozoa, Mollusca, Echinodermata, Chordata and Streptophyta to test if a consistent phylogenetic pattern emerges from the microsatellite composition of these species. It is clear from our results that data from model species provide incomplete information regarding the existing microsatellite variability within the Eukaryotes. A very strong heterogeneity of microsatellite composition was found within most phyla, classes and even orders. Autocorrelation analyses indicated that while microsatellite contents of species within clades more recent than 200 Mya tend to be similar, the autocorrelation breaks down and becomes negative or non-significant with increasing divergence time. Therefore, the age of the taxon seems to be a primary factor in degrading the phylogenetic pattern present among related groups. The most recent classes or orders of Chordates still retain the pattern of their common ancestor. However, within older groups, such as classes of Arthropods, the phylogenetic pattern has been scrambled by the long independent evolution of the lineages.

  13. Mg isotopes in biocarbonates: new insight into vital effects associated to echinoderms and bivalves calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planchon, F.; Hermans, J.; Borremans, C.; Dubois, P.; Poulain, C.; Paulet, Y.; Andre, L.

    2007-12-01

    Mg isotopes can be helpful tracers to reveal the fundamental pathways of Mg incorporation during biomineralisation. We report in this study a detailed characterisation of the Mg isotopic signatures of different biominerals: high magnesium calcitic skeletons of selected echinoderms (sea urchins and starfish) and low magnesium aragonitic shells of a bivalve species (clam). State of the art analytical procedures were applied including sample purification step followed by high precision measurements using MC-ICP-MS (Nu instrument) in dry plasma conditions. 26Mg/24Mg and 25Mg/24Mg are expressed as per mil deviations from the DSM3 (Dead Sea Metal 3) reference standard in delta notation (d26Mg and d25Mg). For echinoderms, we considered: (a) adult specimens of six starfish species (Asteria r., Marthasterias g., Anseropoda p., Asterina g., Echinaster s. and Henricia o.), sampled in Brittany (France); (b) a sea urchin species (Paracentrotus lividus) with field samples (Mediterranean Sea, Marseille, France) and culture specimen under T and S controlled conditions. In vivo endoskeletons display negative, but different d26Mg values of -3.06 for starfish (with uniform interspecies signatures) and -2.65 for sea urchin. Relative to seawater signature (-0.82), all echinoderms favour the incorporation of light isotopes during biocalcification. The d26Mg depletion is lower than theoretically expected from a inorganic calcite precipitation from seawater (at -3.5). These differences suggest that on its route from seawater to the shell, Mg isotopes are partly biologically fractionationated through "vital effects" leaving heavier Mg isotopic signatures. Taken into account that calcification in echinoderms is an intra- cellular process involving transient amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) phase, the observed bio-fractionation factors can be related to: (1) changes in the isotopic composition of the precipitating intracellular fluids due to active pumping in and out of the cell; (2) a

  14. PCR survey of 50 introns in animals: cross-amplification of homologous EPIC loci in eight non-bilaterian, protostome and deuterostome phyla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, K; Guilloton, E; Arnaud-Haond, S; Aurelle, D; Bastrop, R; Chevaldonné, P; Derycke, S; Hanel, R; Lapègue, S; Lejeusne, C; Mousset, S; Ramšak, A; Remerie, T; Viard, F; Féral, J-P; Chenuil, A

    2013-12-01

    Exon Primed Intron Crossing (EPIC) markers provide molecular tools that are susceptible to be variable within species while remaining amplifiable by PCR using potentially universal primers. In this study we tested the possibility of obtaining PCR products from 50 EPIC markers on 23 species belonging to seven different phyla (Porifera, Cnidaria, Arthropoda, Nematoda, Mollusca, Annelida, Echinodermata) using 70 new primer pairs. A previous study had identified and tested those loci in a dozen species, including another phylum, Urochordata (Chenuil et al., 2010). Results were contrasted among species. The best results were achieved with the oyster (Mollusca) where 28 loci provided amplicons susceptible to contain an intron according to their size. This was however not the case with the other mollusk Crepidula fornicata, which seems to have undergone a reduction in intron number or intron size. In the Porifera, 13 loci appeared susceptible to contain an intron, a surprisingly high number for this phylum considering its phylogenetic distance with genomic data used to design the primers. For two cnidarian species, numerous loci (24) were obtained. Ecdysozoan phyla (arthropods and nematodes) proved less successful than others as expected considering reports of their rapid rate of genome evolution and the worst results were obtained for several arthropods. Some general patterns among phyla arose, and we discuss how the results of this EPIC survey may give new insights into genome evolution of the study species. This work confirms that this set of EPIC loci provides an easy-to-use toolbox to identify genetic markers potentially useful for population genetics, phylogeography or phylogenetic studies for a large panel of metazoan species. We then argue that obtaining diploid sequence genotypes for these loci became simple and affordable owing to Next-Generation Sequencing development. Species surveyed in this study belong to several genera (Acanthaster, Alvinocaris, Aplysina

  15. Studying the Relative Strengths of Environmental Factors that Influence Echinoderm Body Size Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, A.; Randhawa, S.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2013-12-01

    Body size is often a useful metric in observing how a clade responds to environmental changes. Previous research has uncovered how environmental factors such as carbon dioxide and oxygen levels influence body size evolution. However, we wanted to look into how these natural factors interact and which factors seem to have a stronger relative influence on echinoderm body size. We analyzed carbon dioxide levels, a proxy for paleotemperature, oxygen levels, and sea level. Our research process involved measuring and calculating the volume of Phanerozoic echinoderm fossils recorded in the Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, plotting their mean volumes over various natural factors, and using statistical tools such as correlation tests and the PaleoTS statistical analysis software to compare the relative strengths of these factors. Furthermore, we divided our data into the following three subsets to uncover more specific relationships: 1) A set that included all data of the phylum Echinodermata 2) A set that focused on the two classes with the most recorded data, Echinoidea and Crinoidea 3) A set that focused on the crinoid specimens that originated in the Paleozoic and in the post-Paleozoic. In the first subset, echinoderms had the strongest correlation with carbon dioxide, a proxy for temperature, and possessed a weaker correlation with oxygen. In the second subset, we discovered that the echinoid data also possessed a strong correlation with carbon dioxide and a weaker correlation with oxygen. For crinoids, we found that the class as a whole showed no strong correlation with any measured environmental factors. However, when we divided the crinoids based on age, we found that both Paleozoic and post-Paleozoic crinoids individually correlated strongly with sea level. However, some uncertainty with this correlation arose as the comparison of the environmental correlate models suggested that an unbiased random walk was the best fit for the data. This stands as a sharp

  16. Effect of environmental variables on body size evolution of crinoids between periods of mass extinctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jani, T.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2013-12-01

    Body size plays a major role in determining whether or not an organism can sustain in its local environment. The ecosystem of an animal has a major effect on the fitness of organisms, and it would be interesting to note the degree to which various environmental factors alter body size. In my project, I identify three environmental factors that seem to affect body size of crinoids, marine invertebrates from phylum Echinodermata, and explore how these variables play out in the intervals between the five mass extinctions. The particular factors I study include atmospheric CO2 concentration (proxy for temperature), O2 concentration, and sea level. Although the r and p values for all of these factors were statistically insignificant to definitively make any correlation, there was a visual correlation. For O2, I noted a generally positive correlation with body size over time. CO2 trends suggested a negative correlation until the K-T boundary, but a positive correlation afterwards. Correlation with sea level was a little more complicated: correlation was positive from the start of the Phanerozoic to the Permian extinction; it turned negative until the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary; afterwards, it again became positive. However, for all three variables, statistical values are too low to say definitively mark any correlation. Out of all three factors, CO2 levels had the highest correlation and lowest p-values in the most time intervals: from the start of the Phanerozoic to Ordovician-Silurian Extinction, from the Late Devonian to the Permian Extinction, and from the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary to the present. When considering first differences, CO2 levels also had the highest correlation from the Permian Extinction to Triassic-Jurassic Extinction and from the Triassic-Jurassic Extinction to Cretaceous-Tertiary Extinction. Using PaleoTS, I found that body size evolution patterns either seemed to follow either an unbiased random walk (URW) or stasis in the intervals between

  17. Resolving Metazoan phyla divergence times during cambrian explosion by COX I protein molecules%COXI蛋白质分子确定“寒武纪生物大爆发”时期物种分歧时间

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李可群

    2016-01-01

    By using the equation for calculating absolute evolutionary rates of biological molecules presented by the author and classic"molecular clock"Cytochrome oxidase subunit I ( COX I ) protein molecules , the metazoan phyla divergence times during Cambrian explosion were obtained .These results show that Protostomia and Deuterostomia separated at560 million years( myrs ) ago.The phyla divergence times of four major deuterstomia:Cephalochordata , Urochordata, Hemichordata and Echinodermata are 536 myrs ago, 540 myrs ago, 548 myrs ago and 545 myrs ago, respectively.These divergence times agree well with their fossil records , and are obviously better than those obtained by other current molecular clock methods .Our method may provide a new way to understand origins and evo-lution of creatures .%使用经典分子钟分子COX I蛋白质和作者提出的同源生物分子绝对进化速率计算公式,对“寒武纪生物大爆发”期间的一些主要动物门类分歧时间进行了计算。结果表明:原口动物和后口动物分歧时间为5.60亿年前,后口动物中的头索动物、尾索动物、半索动物和棘皮动物的分歧时间分别为5.36亿年前、5.40亿年前、5.48亿年前和5.45亿年前。这些结果与化石记录基本符合,明显好于现有分子钟理论得到的结果。为研究生物起源和演化提供了一种的新的思路和方法。

  18. Macrobenthic fauna in the intertidal and offshore areas of Zhangzi Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QuanchaoWang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We completed a quantitative investigation of the macrobenthic community in the intertidal zone and offshore areas of Zhangzi Island in November 2011 to identify the distribution and potential anthropogenic impacts on this aquatic community. Four biodiversity indices, Bray-Curtis similarity, MDS ordination analyses, and ABC curves were used in the present work to analyze the community structure. We identified 39 total macrobenthic species in the intertidal zone of Maya Beach, of which the most dominant groups werethe Polychaeta, followed by Crustacea, and Mollusca. We found four dominant species belonging to Polychaeta, including Capitella capitata, Lycastopsis augenari, Naineris laevigata, and Lumbrineris latreilli. Average biomass of the intertidal zone was 25.76 ± 41.08 g/m2, of which Mollusca contributed most. Average density was 315.11 ± 160.73 ind./m2, of which the Polychaeta contributed most. The average value of three biodiversity indices were relatively low (Richness index 1.17 ± 0.89, Evenness index 0.74 ± 0.17 and Shannon-Wiener index 1.80 ± 1.09. We identified 40 species in the offshore areas, of which the most dominant group was Polychaeta, followed by Crustacea, Mollusca and Echinodermata. We also identified five dominant species in offshore areas, including Ophiopholis mirabilis, Amphioplus japonicus, Lumbrineris latreilli, Echinocardium cordatum, and Ophiura sarsiivadicola. The average value of biomass and density was higher in the offshore areas compared to that of intertidal zone, with 218.86 ± 152.24 g/m2 and 700.00 ± 471.51 ind./m2, respectively. The average value of Richness index was 1.40 ± 0.60, Evenness index 0.64 ± 0.19 , and Shannon-Wiener index 2.04 ± 0.78. MDS ordination analysis showed that community structure was significantly different within the intertidal zone and the offshore areas. Lastly, the macrobenthos fauna in intertidal zone were impacted by a moderate anthropogenic disturbance, whereas the fauna

  19. Late-summer zooplankton community structure, abundance, and distribution in the Hudson Bay system (Canada) and their relationships with environmental conditions, 2003-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Rafael; Harvey, Michel; Gosselin, Michel; Starr, Michel; Galbraith, Peter S.; Straneo, Fiammetta

    2012-08-01

    Zooplankton communities were examined for the first time in three different hydrographic regions of the Hudson Bay system (HBS) in early August to early September from 2003 to 2006. Sampling was conducted at 50 stations distributed along different transects located in Hudson Bay (HB), Hudson Strait (HS), and Foxe Basin (FB). Variations in zooplankton biomass, abundance, taxonomic composition, and diversity in relation to environmental variables were studied using multivariate techniques. During all sampling years, the total zooplankton biomass was on average four times lower in HB than in HS and FB. Clustering samples by their relative species compositions revealed no interannual variation in zooplankton community but showed a marked interregional variability between the three regions. Water column stratification explained the greatest proportion (25%) of this spatial variability. According to redundancy analysis (RDA), the zooplankton taxa that contribute most to the separation of the three regions are Microcalanus spp., Oithona similis, Oncaea borealis, Aeginopsis laurentii, Sagitta elegans, Fritillaria sp., and larvae of cnidaria, chaetognatha, and pteropoda in HB; hyperiid amphipods in FB; and Pseudocalanus spp. CI-CV, Calanus glacialis CI-CVI, Calanus finmarchicus CI-CVI, Calanus hyperboreus CV-CVI, Acartia longiremis CI-CV, Metridia longa N3-N6 CI-CIII CVIf, Eukrohnia hamata, larvae of echinodermata, mollusca, cirripedia, appendicularia, and polychaeta in the northwestern and southeastern HS transects. For the HB transect, the RDA analyzed allowed us to distinguish three regions (HB west, central, and east) with different environmental gradients and zooplankton assemblages, in particular higher concentration of Pseudocalanus spp. nauplii and CI-CVI, as well as benthic macrozooplankton and meroplankton larvae in western HB. In HS, Calanoid species (mainly C. finmarchicus and C. glacialis) were mostly observed at the north shore stations associated with the

  20. Proximate composition of marine invertebrates from tropical coastal waters, with emphasis on the relationship between nitrogen and protein contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela S Diniz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemical profiles of Desmapsamma anchorata, Hymeniacidon heliophila (Porifera, Bunodosoma caissarum, Renilla muelleri (Cnidaria, Aplysia brasiliana, Eledone massyae, Isognomon bicolor (Mollusca, Echinaster brasiliensis, Echinometra lucunter, Holothuria grisea, Lytechinus variegatus (Echinodermata, and Phallusia nigra (Chordata were determined. Hydrosoluble protein was the most abundant class of substances for all species, except for the ascidian Phallusia nigra, in which the carbohydrate content was higher. The percentages of hydrosoluble protein (dry weight, dw varied widely among the invertebrates, ranging from 5.88% (R. muelleri to 47.6% (Eledone massyae of the dw .The carbohydrate content fluctuated from 1.3% (R. muelleri to 18.4% (Aplysia brasiliana of the dw. For most of the species, lipid was the second most abundant class of substances, varying from 2.8% (R. muelleri to 25.3% (Echinaster brasiliensis of the dw. Wide variations were also found for the invertebrates nitrogen content, with the lowest value recorded in the cnidarian R. muelleri (2.02% of the dw and the highest in the molluscan E. massyae (12.7% of the dw. The phosphorus content of the dw varyed from 0.24% (R. muelleri to 1.16% (E. massyae. The amino acid composition varied largely among the species, but for most of the species glycine, arginine, glutamic acid, and aspartic acid were the most abundant amino acids, with histidine and tyrosine among the less abundant amino acids. The actual content of total protein in the samples was calculated by the sum of amino acid residues, establishing dw values that fluctuated from 11.1% (R. muelleri to 66.7% (E. massyae. The proteinaceous nitrogen content was high in all species, with an average value of 97.3% of the total nitrogen. From data of total amino acid residues and total nitrogen, specific nitrogen-to-protein conversion factors were calculated for each species. The nitrogen-to-protein conversion factors ranged from 5.10 to

  1. The Sinbad retrotransposon from the genome of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni, and the distribution of related Pao-like elements

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    Morales Maria E

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Of the major families of long terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposons, the Pao/BEL family is probably the least well studied. It is becoming apparent that numerous LTR retrotransposons and other mobile genetic elements have colonized the genome of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni. Results A proviral form of Sinbad, a new LTR retrotransposon, was identified in the genome of S. mansoni. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Sinbad belongs to one of five discreet subfamilies of Pao/BEL like elements. BLAST searches of whole genomes and EST databases indicated that members of this clade occurred in species of the Insecta, Nematoda, Echinodermata and Chordata, as well as Platyhelminthes, but were absent from all plants, fungi and lower eukaryotes examined. Among the deuterostomes examined, only aquatic species harbored these types of elements. All four species of nematode examined were positive for Sinbad sequences, although among insect and vertebrate genomes, some were positive and some negative. The full length, consensus Sinbad retrotransposon was 6,287 bp long and was flanked at its 5'- and 3'-ends by identical LTRs of 386 bp. Sinbad displayed a triple Cys-His RNA binding motif characteristic of Gag of Pao/BEL-like elements, followed by the enzymatic domains of protease, reverse transcriptase (RT, RNAseH, and integrase, in that order. A phylogenetic tree of deduced RT sequences from 26 elements revealed that Sinbad was most closely related to an unnamed element from the zebrafish Danio rerio and to Saci-1, also from S. mansoni. It was also closely related to Pao from Bombyx mori and to Ninja of Drosophila simulans. Sinbad was only distantly related to the other schistosome LTR retrotransposons Boudicca, Gulliver, Saci-2, Saci-3, and Fugitive, which are gypsy-like. Southern hybridization and bioinformatics analyses indicated that there were about 50 copies of Sinbad in the S. mansoni genome. The presence of ESTs

  2. The enigmatic mitochondrial genome of Rhabdopleura compacta (Pterobranchia reveals insights into selection of an efficient tRNA system and supports monophyly of Ambulacraria

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    Stadler Peter F

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Hemichordata comprises solitary-living Enteropneusta and colonial-living Pterobranchia, sharing morphological features with both Chordata and Echinodermata. Despite their key role for understanding deuterostome evolution, hemichordate phylogeny is controversial and only few molecular data are available for phylogenetic analysis. Furthermore, mitochondrial sequences are completely lacking for pterobranchs. Therefore, we determined and analyzed the complete mitochondrial genome of the pterobranch Rhabdopleura compacta to elucidate deuterostome evolution. Thereby, we also gained important insights in mitochondrial tRNA evolution. Results The mitochondrial DNA of Rhabdopleura compacta corresponds in size and gene content to typical mitochondrial genomes of metazoans, but shows the strongest known strand-specific mutational bias in the nucleotide composition among deuterostomes with a very GT-rich main-coding strand. The order of the protein-coding genes in R. compacta is similar to that of the deuterostome ground pattern. However, the protein-coding genes have been highly affected by a strand-specific mutational pressure showing unusual codon frequency and amino acid composition. This composition caused extremely long branches in phylogenetic analyses. The unusual codon frequency points to a selection pressure on the tRNA translation system to codon-anticodon sequences of highest versatility instead of showing adaptations in anticodon sequences to the most frequent codons. Furthermore, an assignment of the codon AGG to Lysine has been detected in the mitochondrial genome of R. compacta, which is otherwise observed only in the mitogenomes of some arthropods. The genomes of these arthropods do not have such a strong strand-specific bias as found in R. compacta but possess an identical mutation in the anticodon sequence of the tRNALys. Conclusion A strong reversed asymmetrical mutational constraint in the mitochondrial genome of

  3. Marine biodiversity of Aotearoa New Zealand.

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    Dennis P Gordon

    Full Text Available The marine-biodiversity assessment of New Zealand (Aotearoa as known to Māori is confined to the 200 nautical-mile boundary of the Exclusive Economic Zone, which, at 4.2 million km(2, is one of the largest in the world. It spans 30 degrees of latitude and includes a high diversity of seafloor relief, including a trench 10 km deep. Much of this region remains unexplored biologically, especially the 50% of the EEZ deeper than 2,000 m. Knowledge of the marine biota is based on more than 200 years of marine exploration in the region. The major oceanographic data repository is the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA, which is involved in several Census of Marine Life field projects and is the location of the Southwestern Pacific Regional OBIS Node; NIWA is also data manager and custodian for fisheries research data owned by the Ministry of Fisheries. Related data sources cover alien species, environmental measures, and historical information. Museum collections in New Zealand hold more than 800,000 registered lots representing several million specimens. During the past decade, 220 taxonomic specialists (85 marine from 18 countries have been engaged in a project to review New Zealand's entire biodiversity. The above-mentioned marine information sources, published literature, and reports were scrutinized to give the results summarized here for the first time (current to 2010, including data on endemism and invasive species. There are 17,135 living species in the EEZ. This diversity includes 4,315 known undescribed species in collections. Species diversity for the most intensively studied phylum-level taxa (Porifera, Cnidaria, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, Bryozoa, Kinorhyncha, Echinodermata, Chordata is more or less equivalent to that in the ERMS (European Register of Marine Species region, which is 5.5 times larger in area than the New Zealand EEZ. The implication is that, when all other New Zealand phyla are equally well studied

  4. Conodonts, Calcichordates and the Origin of Vertebrates

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    J. Bergström

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Interpretation of early deuterostome evolution and relationships has been hampered by the lack of soft-part preservation in most groups. In addition, a recently revealed upside-down life orientation of vertebrates (the only real notoneuralians compared to other bilateral animals has been misinterpreted as evidence for a unique body design in all deuterostomes, misleading any search for relatives. Regarding echinoderms, the variety of body plans is confusing. The interpretation of some fossils with echinoderm-type calcite skeletons as “calcichordate” ancestors of chordates, however, involves a hypothetical reconstruction of an unusual body plan and a long series of hypothetical transitions. The number of necessary steps is much lower if cephalochordates (amphioxus or lancelet are derived directly from hemichordate enteropneusts. “Sensation interpretations” of fossils (Yunnanozoon, Cathaymyrus from Burgess Shale type deposits have added further confusion. Soft-part preservation of conodont animals, with V-shaped myomeres and a notochord, shows that they were segmented chordates, while probable eyes and teeth suggest that they were already on the vertebrate side. Die Interpretation früher Deuterostomia hinsichtlich ihrer Evolution und verwandtschaftlichen Beziehungen ist in den meisten Gruppen durch den Mangel an Weichkörpererhaltung sehr erschwert. Die kürzlich entdeckte Tatsache, daß Vertebraten, d. h. die einzigen echten Notoneuralia, im Gegensatz zu anderen bilateral symmetrischen Organismen eine mit ihrer ursprünglichen Oberseite nach unten gerichtete Lebensstellung einnehmen, hat zu der irrtümlichen Ansicht geführt, daß alle Deuostomia über einen im Tierreich einzigartigen Bauplan verfügen. Diese Interpretation brachte naturgemäß jede Suche nach Verwandtschaftsverhältnissen auf Abwege. Hinsichtlich der Echinodermata ist die bauplanmäßige Variation in der Tat verwirrend. Die Interpretation einiger Fossilien mit

  5. The inter-annual variation trend of intertidal biodiversity in August in the ecology-monitoring area of Changli in Hebei%河北昌黎生态监控区8月潮间带生物多样性年际变化趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张月明; 梁晓林; 赵志楠; 韩晓庆; 金照光; 高伟明

    2014-01-01

    依据国家海洋环境监测中心2009~2013年测得的数据和资料,对河北昌黎生态监控区潮间带生物的种类组成、栖息密度、生物量、优势种以及多样性指数进行统计运算,分析该监控区5年时间尺度的潮间带生物多样性变化趋势。结果表明:监控区共鉴定出潮间带生物5门,包括节肢动物、环节动物、软体动物、棘皮动物和脊索动物,共17科,26种,类型较少,年际种数呈逐年下降趋势;栖息密度与生物量较低,保持低潮带>中潮带>高潮带的特征;优势种群变化显著,节肢动物、环节动物和软体动物交替出现,优势种数逐年减少,优势度上升,对其他物种抑制作用增强;均匀度指数(J)呈微上升趋势,变化范围为0.64~0.81,状况良好,物种多样性指数(H′)和丰富度指数(dMa)水平较低,分别为0.81~3.23和0.48~3.96,生物多样性水平呈下降态势。%According to the monitoring data and information obtained from National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center, the species composition, density, biomass, dominant species andthe trend of biodiversity variation in the ecology-monitoring area of Changli in Hebei Province from 2009 to 2013 were analyzed. The results showed that 5 phylum including arthropods, annelid, mollusks, echinodermata and chordata, totally 17 family and 26 species were identified. The types and number of species were declined annually. The density and biomass were consistent with the characteristics of low tidal zone>medium tidal zone>high tidal zone. The dominant species were changed significantly, by which arthropods, annelid and mollusks appearing alternately. As the decreasing of the number of dominant species, the dominance index went up which suppressed the other species. The Shannon-Wiener’s index(H’), Margalef’s richness index (dMa) were low, and their variation ranges were 0.81~3.23 and 0.48~3.96, respectively. The variation range of Pielou’s evenness index (J) was

  6. 辽宁獐子岛马牙滩潮间带及近岸海区大型底栖动物群落特征%Macrobenthic fauna in the intertidal and offshore areas of Zhangzi Island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王全超; 韩庆喜; 李宝泉

    2013-01-01

    identify the distribution and potential anthropogenic impacts on this aquatic community. Four biodiversity indices, Bray-Curtis similarity, MDS ordination analyses, and ABC curves were used in the present work to analyze the community structure. We identified 39 total macrobenthic species in the intertidal zone of Maya Beach, of which the most dominant groups were the Polychaeta, followed by Crustacea, and Mollusca. We found four dominant species belonging to Poly-chaeta, including Capitella capitata, Lycastopsis augenari, Naineris laevigata, and Lumbrineris latreilli. Average biomass of the intertidal zone was 25.76 ±41.08 g/m2, of which Mollusca contributed most. Average density was 315.11 ± 160.73 ind./m2, of which the Polychaeta contributed most. The average value of three biodiversity indices were relatively low (Richness index 1.17 ± 0.89, Evenness index 0.74 ±0.17 and Shannon-Wiener index 1.80 ± 1.09). We identified 40 species in the offshore areas, of which the most dominant group was Polychaeta, followed by Crustacea, Mollusca and Echinodermata. We also identified five domi-nant species in offshore areas, including Ophiopholis mirabilis, Amphioplus japonicus, Lumbrineris latreilli, Echinocardium cordatum, and Ophiura sarsiivadicola. The average value of biomass and density was higher in the offshore areas compared to that of intertidal zone, with 218.86 ± 152.24 g/m2 and 700.00 ±471.51 ind./m2, respectively. The average value of Richness index was 1.40 ± 0.60, Evenness index 0.64 ±0.19 , and Shannon-Wiener index 2.04 ± 0.78. MDS ordination analysis showed that community structure was significantly different within the intertidal zone and the offshore areas. Lastly, the macrobenthos fauna in intertidal zone were impacted by a moderate anthropogenic disturbance, whereas the fauna in offshore areas was slightly disturbed.

  7. 基于线粒体cox1片段序列的胶州湾浮游动物DNA条形码分析%DNA BARCODING OF ZOOPLANKTON IN THE JIAOZHOU BAY FOR SPECIES IDENTIFICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏晓; 程方平; 李超伦; 孙松

    2011-01-01

    Estimation of zooplankton diversity and distribution is important for understanding local marine ecosystem conditions,and may serve as sensitive indicators for climate-induced changes.The scarcity of taxonomists and subtle morphological variations in some groups pose a problem for the identification of zooplanktons,especially at their larval stages.DNA barcodes provide an alternative approach to accurate identification of zooplankton species.The efficiency of the mitochondrial cox1 fragments for species reorganization in zooplanktons was evaluated in this study.The samples were collected from the Jiaozhou Bay and a station in the South Yellow Sea.82 DNA barcodes were determined for 45 common species that belonged to six different phyla in the local region,including:Arthropoda,Chaetognatha,Chordata,Cnidaria,Echinodermata,and Mollusca.According to the saturation plot,the cox1 gene was substitutionally saturated for the alignment,which was best illustrated by the wobble codons of the gene.The wobble codons quickly got saturated at around 0.2 substitution per site.K2P genetic distances between individuals within the same species ranged from 0 to 0.11,with an average of 0.013(SE = 0.003);meanwhile,genetic distance between species within the same genera ranged from 0.137 to 0.369,with an average of 0.265(SE = 0.002).Thus the genetic distance between species was at least 20 times larger that of the within species,indicating a barcode gap,which ensured that cox1 sequences can be used as reliable characters for species identification for the zooplankton assemblages.However,species with extremely large intraspecific divergences were still noticed in our study,which may be explained by population genetic divergence owing to ecological or geographical isolation,unidentified cryptic speciation,and mis-identification.The significant barcode gap and the long-branch isolated shallow tips topology for the Sagitta bedoti suggested a possible cryptic speciation for the

  8. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geologia - Dissertações Defendidas 1998 - Mestrado - Instituto de Geociências - Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro

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    1998-01-01

    revisão sistemática dos equinóides regulares (ECHINODERMATA-ECHINOIDEA procedentes das rochas da Formação Pirabas (Oligo-Mioceno, Pará, Brasil. São redescritos Phyllacanthus priscus Brito & Ramirez, Histocidaris sp. e Prionocidaris sp., e são assinaladas, pela primeira vez, radíolos em “forma de leque” no Cenozóico das Américas atribuídos ao gênero “Cidaris”, e a primeira carapaça de um euequinóide regular, Psammechinus sp., em rochas do Cenozóico do Brasil. As análises tafonômica e paleoecológica preliminares sugerem uma deposição dos sedimentos da Formação Pirabas em mar de águas quentes e tranqüilas, sujeito a ações de tempestades, com condições excepcionais de fossilização localizadas. A nível filogenético é reafirmada a estreita relação dos equinóides regulares assinalados nas rochas da Formação Pirabas, com formas similares existentes na Província Faunística Caribeana durante o Cenozóico. Nome: Margareth de Toledo Conte Zulian Título: Um Estudo sobre Infiltração de Águas Pluviais em Fraturas Naturais na Porção Oeste da Serra da Carioca, Município do Rio de Janeiro Orientador: Eurípedes do Amaral Vargas Jr. Resumo: Através do mapeamento de duas áreas-piloto representativas da Serra da Carioca, o Morro da Formiga (vertente noroeste e a Ponta do Marisco (vertente sudoeste, verificou-se que a serra é seccionada por um sistema de fraturas, o qual apresenta duas famílias principais de direções NW-SE e NE-SW, com mergulhos subverticais. Famílias secundárias de direções aproximadas E-W e N-S, com mergulhos subverticais, NW-SE, com baixos ângulos de mergulho para SW e ainda E-W, com baixos ângulos de mergulho para S também são observadas e caracterizadas como juntas de alívio. Em todas as famílias foram estudadas as propriedades geométricas (orientação, persistência, espaçamento, a percolação de fluxo, as aberturas e o tipo de preenchimento, com o objetivo de entender o papel das fraturas na