Sample records for asterina stellifera echinodermata

  1. Jaspiferin A and B: Two New Secondary Metabolites from the South China Sea Sponge Jaspis stellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengan Tang


    Full Text Available A chemical investigation of marine sponge Jaspis stellifera, collected from South China Sea, led to the isolation of two new compounds, Jaspiferin A and B (1-2, and six known compounds, gibepyrone F (3 , p- hydroxy benzaldehyde (4 , 3-Indole-3-aldehyde (5 , Thymine (6 , 24(28-dehydroaplysterol (7 , (25s-26- methylene-cholest-4-en-3-one (8. Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis in association with physical and chemical properties, as well as comparison of their spectral data with these reported in literatures. The biogenetic transformation of compound 2 was also speculated.

  2. Apodida (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) of Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mucharin, Arom

    Systematics of Apodida (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea), with emphasis on Thai species was studied by means of adult morphology and anatomy, ossicle morphology, and phylogenetic analysis (COI). Over 300 Apodida specimens of Apodida were found in different parts of Thailand. The order comprises 25...... locality. The genus Synaptula was found to live in symbiosis with sponges....

  3. Ultrastructure of spermatogenesis in the sea star, Asterina minor. (United States)

    Yamagata, A


    The ultrastructural features of spermatogenesis were investigated in the hermaphroditic sea star Asterina minor. The primordial germ cells in the genital rachis contain small clusters of electron-dense material (nuage material) and a stack of annulate lamellae. They also have a flagellum and basal body complex situated close to the Golgi complex. After the development of the genital rachis into the ovotestis, spermatogenic cells increase in number and differentiation begins. Nuage material is observed in spermatogonia, but it gradually disappears in spermatocytes. The annulate lamellae do not exist beyond the early spermatogonial stage. By contrast, a flagellum and basal body complex are found throughout spermatogenesis. The Golgi-derived proacrosomal vesicles appear in the spermatocyte and coalesce to form an acrosomal vesicle in the early spermatid. The process of acrosome formation is as follows: (1) a lamella of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) continuous with the outer nuclear membrane encloses the posterior portion of the acrosomal vesicle; (2) the vesicle attaches to the cell membrane with its anterior portion; (3) periacrosomal material accumulates in the space between the acrosomal vesicle and the ER; (4) the nucleus proper changes its features to surround the acrosome; (5) amorphous, electron-dense material is deposited under the electron-dense disk; and (6) the nucleus forms a hollow opposite the electron-dense material.

  4. Echinodermata

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 23, 2015 ... the FMRFamide-related peptides family, in echinoderm species ... water balance, neuroendocrine and neuromodulatory activities ..... London) for his contributions to this work and help with antibody ... Kwalalumpur, Malaysia.

  5. Echinodermata

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 23, 2015 ... 4Aquatic Animal Biotechnology Research Center, Surat Thani Campus, Surat Thani 84100, Thailand. Received ... medicinal value but there is a threat of extinction on the ..... observed to cause relaxation of intestinal muscles.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arindra Trisna Widiansyah


    Pantai Gatra merupakan salah satu ekowisata pantai di Kabupaten Malang yang memiliki zona pasang surut dengan substrat dominan batu. Substrat berbatu merupakan daerah yang paling padat makroorganismenya. Arthropoda dan Echinodermata mempunyai peranan penting dari segi sumber makanan maupun ekologi. Mengingat belum adanya pelaporan jenis Arthropoda dan Echinodermata di zona pasang surut Pantai Gatra, maka dilakukan penelitian inventarisasi di daerah ini. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah invetarisasi jenis Arthropoda dan Echinodermata. Hasil penelitian tentang inventarisasi jenis Arthropoda dan Echinodermata di zona pasang surut pantai Gatra Kabupaten Malang, secara keseluruhan ditemukan 14 jenis, 13 genus, dan 11 famili dari filum Arthropoda dan Echinodermata.

  7. Inhibitory mechanism of l-glutamic acid on spawning of the starfish Patiria (Asterina) pectinifera. (United States)

    Mita, Masatoshi


    l-Glutamic acid was previously identified as an inhibitor of spawning in the starfish Patiria (Asterina) pectinifera; this study examined how l-glutamic acid works. Oocyte release from ovaries of P. pectinifera occurred after germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and follicular envelope breakdown (FEBD) when gonads were incubated ex vivo with either relaxin-like gonad-stimulating peptide (RGP) or 1-methyladenine (1-MeAde). l-Glutamic acid blocked this spawning phenotype, causing the mature oocytes to remain within the ovaries. Neither RGP-induced 1-MeAde production in ovarian follicle cells nor 1-MeAde-induced GVBD and FEBD was affected by l-glutamic acid. l-Glutamic acid may act through metabotropic receptors in the ovaries to inhibit spawning, as l-(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid, an agonist for metabotropic glutamate receptors, also inhibited spawning induced by 1-MeAde. Application of acetylcholine (ACH) to ovaries under inhibitory conditions with l-glutamic acid, however, brought about spawning, possibly by inducing contraction of the ovarian wall to discharge mature oocytes from the ovaries concurrently with GVBD and FEBD. Thus, l-glutamic acid may inhibit ACH secretion from gonadal nerve cells in the ovary. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 84: 246-256, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Global diversity and phylogeny of the Asteroidea (Echinodermata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L Mah

    Full Text Available Members of the Asteroidea (phylum Echinodermata, popularly known as starfish or sea stars, are ecologically important and diverse members of marine ecosystems in all of the world's oceans. We present a comprehensive overview of diversity and phylogeny as they have figured into the evolution of the Asteroidea from Paleozoic to the living fauna. Living post-Paleozoic asteroids, the Neoasteroidea, are morphologically separate from those in the Paleozoic. Early Paleozoic asteroid faunas were diverse and displayed morphology that foreshadowed later living taxa. Preservation presents significant difficulties, but fossil occurrence and current accounts suggests a diverse Paleozoic fauna, which underwent extinction around the Permian-Triassic interval was followed by re-diversification of at least one surviving lineage. Ongoing phylogenetic classification debates include the status of the Paxillosida and the Concentricycloidea. Fossil and molecular evidence has been and continues to be part of the ongoing evolution of asteroid phylogenetic research. The modern lineages of asteroids include the Valvatacea, the Forcipulatacea, the Spinlosida, and the Velatida. We present an overview of diversity in these taxa, as well as brief notes on broader significance, ecology, and functional morphology of each. Although much asteroid taxonomy is stable, many new taxa remain to be discovered with many new species currently awaiting description. The Goniasteridae is currently one of the most diverse families within the Asteroidea. New data from molecular phylogenetics and the advent of global biodiversity databases, such as the World Asteroidea Database ( present important new springboards for understanding the global biodiversity and evolution of asteroids.

  9. First record of the swimming sea cucumber Enypniastes eximia Théel, 1882 (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea in Peruvian waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Alonso Solís-Marín


    Full Text Available Enypniastes eximia Théel, 1882 (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea a swimming sea cucumber is reported for the first time from Peru. The species was collected in the Continental rise (563-1,201 m off Trujillo Department. Reference material has been deposited in the Coleccion Cientifica del Instituto del Mar del Peru (IMARPE, Lima, Peru.

  10. Primer registro de Florometra magellanica (Bell, 1882 (Echinodermata: Crinoidea para el Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elba Prieto Rios


    Full Text Available Se registra por primera vez para el Perú al Crinoideo (Echinodermata Florometra magellanica (Bell, 1882. La especie fue recolectada en el talud continental (360 – 814 m frente al departamento de Piura al norte del Perú (3°38,67’S, 81° 2,73’W. El material de referencia se encuentra depositado en la Colección Científica del Instituto del mar del Perú (IMARPE, Lima, Perú y en la Colección Nacional de Equinodermos de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México.

  11. Primer registro de Heterocucumis godeffroyi(Semper, 1868 (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea en el mar peruano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Alonso Solís-Marín


    Full Text Available Se registra por primera vez para el Perú la especie de pepino de mar Heterocucumis godeffroyi(Semper, 1868 (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea. La especie fue recolectada a 19 m de profundidad en Pucusana, de-partamento de Lima. Este registro representa el límite más norteño de distribución de la especie reconocido hasta el momento. Material de referencia se encuentra depositado en la Colección de Zoología Acuática, del Laboratorio de Biología Marina, Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas y Fisiológicas, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Perú.

  12. Tres nuevos registros de asteroideos (Echinodermata: Asteroidea de Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Hooker


    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se registran 3 nuevos asteroideos (Echinodermata: Asteroidea de aguas someras (4 - >50 m para el Perú: Astropecten regalis Gray, 1840, Paulia horrida Gray 1840 y Meyenaster gelatinosus (Meyen, 1834. Astropecten regalis se conocía desde el Golfo de California hasta Panamá, en el presente trabajo, se amplía su distribución hasta Máncora, Perú. La distribución geográfica de Paulia horrida era conocida desde Baja California, hasta Isla Cocos, Costa Rica, en este estudio se amplía su distribución geográfica hasta Punta Sal, Perú. A Meyenaster gelatinosus se le conocía solo de Chile, en el presente trabajo se registra y confirma su presencia en el Perú, ampliando su distribución norte hasta San Juan de Marcona. Se proporciona información morfológica de las especies, características del hábitat y fotografías in situ y de los especímenes recién recolectados.

  13. Antitropical distributions and species delimitation in a group of ophiocomid brittle stars (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea: Ophiocomidae). (United States)

    Naughton, K M; O'Hara, T D; Appleton, B; Cisternas, P A


    In this paper we examine the phylogeny and biogeography of the temperate genera of the Ophiocomidae (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) which have an interesting asymmetrical anti-tropical distribution, with two genera (Ophiocomina and Ophiopteris) previously considered to have a separate species in both the North and South hemispheres, and the third (Clarkcoma) diversifying in the southern Australian/New Zealand region. Our phylogeny, generated from one mitochondrial and two nuclear markers, revealed that Ophiopteris is sister to a mixed Ophiocomina/Clarkcoma clade. Ophiocomina was polyphyletic, with O. nigra and an undescribed species from the South Atlantic Ocean sister to a clade including Clarkcoma species and O. australis. The phylogeny also revealed a number of recently diverged lineages occurring within Clarkcoma, some of which are considered to be cryptic species due to the similarity in morphology combined with the apparent absence of interbreeding in a sympatric distribution, while the status of others is less certain. The phylogeny provides support for two transequatorial events in the group under study. A molecular clock analysis places both events in the middle to late Miocene. The analysis excludes a tectonic vicariance hypothesis for the antitropical distribution associated with the breakup of Pangaea and also excludes the hypothesis of more recent gene flow associated with Plio/Pleistocene glacial cycling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Abyssal fauna of the UK-1 polymetallic nodule exploration claim, Clarion-Clipperton Zone, central Pacific Ocean: Echinodermata. (United States)

    Glover, Adrian G; Wiklund, Helena; Rabone, Muriel; Amon, Diva J; Smith, Craig R; O'Hara, Tim; Mah, Christopher L; Dahlgren, Thomas G


    We present data from a DNA taxonomy register of the abyssal benthic Echinodermata collected as part of the Abyssal Baseline (ABYSSLINE) environmental survey cruise 'AB01' to the UK Seabed Resources Ltd (UKSRL) polymetallic-nodule exploration claim 'UK-1' in the eastern Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ), central Pacific Ocean abyssal plain. Morphological and genetic data are presented for 17 species (4 Asteroidea, 4 Crinoidea, 2 Holothuroidea and 7 Ophiuroidea) identified by a combination of morphological and genetic data. No taxa matched previously published genetic sequences, but 8 taxa could be assigned to previously-described species based on morphology, although here we have used a precautionary approach in taxon assignments to avoid over-estimating species ranges. The Clarion-Clipperton Zone is a region undergoing intense exploration for potential deep-sea mineral extraction. We present these data to facilitate future taxonomic and environmental impact study by making both data and voucher materials available through curated and accessible biological collections.

  15. Abundancia de Diadema antillarum (Echinodermata: Echinoidea en las costas de Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicida Noriega


    lento incremento de las poblaciones.Abundance of Diadema antillarum (Echinodermata: Echinoidea in the coasts of Venezuela. Diadema antillarum is a shallow-water sea-urchin from the tropical Atlantic whose populations almost disappeared in 1983-84 because of widespread mortalities which reached 87-100 %. In Venezuela, urchin population densities before the mortality event were comparable to those of other Caribbean regions; however, later abundancies remain unknown. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the recent densities of certain D. antillarum populations along the Venezuelan coasts and compare the densities at the Parque Nacional Mochima before and after the mortality. At each location urchin densities were determined by means of transects using 1m²-quadrats as sampling units. The highest mean densities were observed at the sites on the central coast: Ensenada de Oricao, 0.28 ind/m² (2002 and 1.05 ind/m² (2003, and Chichiriviche de la Costa, 0.84 ind/m² (2002 and 0.74 ind/m² (2003. In Mochima, the mean density before the mortality for D. antillarum oscillated between 0.28 and 4 ind/m², after the mortality event the mean density varied between 0.15 ind/m² (2000 and 0.47 ind/m² (2000. The populations of D. antillarum studied at Parque Nacional Morrocoy and Refugio de Fauna Silvestre Cuare showed highest densities at Playuela (0.43 ind/m² and Cayo Sur (0.95 ind/m² respectively, whereas other sites showed densities below 0.1 ind/m². The density registered at Playuela in 2003 is lower than that reported before the mortality event (0.58-3.64 ind/m². The density for Parque Nacional Archipiélago de Los Roques, specifically for the Arrecife de Herradura remained constant between 2002 and 2003 with values between 0.22-0.23 ind/m² respectively. To conclude, the sea urchin abundancies observed at most of the Venezuelan coastal sites that we studied were higher than those reported for other areas of the northern Caribbean, even though the values have not

  16. Biology of Incidental Catch Sea Star Stellaster childreni Gray, 1840 (Echinodermata: Asteroidea, from Malaysian Borneo Exclusive Economic Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhana Hassan


    Full Text Available Sea star (class Asteroidea, phylum Echinodermata is one of the most successful marine organisms inhabiting a wide range of habitats. As one of the key stone species, sea stars are responsible for maintaining much of the local diversity of species within certain communities. Malaysian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ Resource Survey had been carried out from 16th Aug to 6th Nov 2015 and one of the invertebrate by-catch organisms is sea star Stellaster childreni Gray, 1840. This study documents morphological characters and diet of the sea star, besides providing brief descriptions of the habitats based on particle size analysis and vessel log data sheet. A total of 217 individuals had been examined throughout this study. Fragments of flora and fauna were found in the gut including Mollusca (gastropod, bivalves, and scaphopods, sponge seagrass, and seaweed as well as benthic Foraminifera. Stellaster childreni were found at depth of 45 m to 185 m in the South China Sea off Sarawak Malaysia, with various sea bottom substrata. Approximately 41% of S. childreni were found at a mixture of sandy and muddy substratum, followed by mixture of sandy and coral (19.3%, muddy substratum (17.5%, coral substratum (11.5%, and sandy areas (10.6%. The widely distributed sea star on different types of sea beds suggested healthy deep sea ecosystem; thus Malaysia should explore further potential fisheries resources in the EEZ off Sarawak coast.

  17. Biology of Incidental Catch Sea Star Stellaster childreni Gray, 1840 (Echinodermata: Asteroidea), from Malaysian Borneo Exclusive Economic Zone. (United States)

    Hassan, Ruhana; Lee, Suet Yee; Morni, Wan Zabidii Wan


    Sea star (class Asteroidea, phylum Echinodermata) is one of the most successful marine organisms inhabiting a wide range of habitats. As one of the key stone species, sea stars are responsible for maintaining much of the local diversity of species within certain communities. Malaysian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) Resource Survey had been carried out from 16th Aug to 6th Nov 2015 and one of the invertebrate by-catch organisms is sea star Stellaster childreni Gray, 1840. This study documents morphological characters and diet of the sea star, besides providing brief descriptions of the habitats based on particle size analysis and vessel log data sheet. A total of 217 individuals had been examined throughout this study. Fragments of flora and fauna were found in the gut including Mollusca (gastropod, bivalves, and scaphopods), sponge seagrass, and seaweed as well as benthic Foraminifera. Stellaster childreni were found at depth of 45 m to 185 m in the South China Sea off Sarawak Malaysia, with various sea bottom substrata. Approximately 41% of S. childreni were found at a mixture of sandy and muddy substratum, followed by mixture of sandy and coral (19.3%), muddy substratum (17.5%), coral substratum (11.5%), and sandy areas (10.6%). The widely distributed sea star on different types of sea beds suggested healthy deep sea ecosystem; thus Malaysia should explore further potential fisheries resources in the EEZ off Sarawak coast.

  18. A new species of brooding Psolidae (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) from deep-sea off Argentina, Southwestern Atlantic Ocean (United States)

    Martinez, Mariano I.; Penchaszadeh, Pablo E.


    This paper describes a new species of Psolus (Holothuroidea, Echinodermata), P. lawrencei sp. nov., (19 specimens) found in the deep sea (308-1398 m) in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean (SWAO) (around 38°S-54°W) with brooders (up to 3.15 mm) in the tentacles of females and a penis-like genital papilla on males. The presence of dorsal scales, the concave shape of the ossicles with a bridge, the distribution of podia on the dorsal side and the absence of large and conspicuous oral and anal valves are unique for this species. Furthermore, this is the first species of this genus found outside Antarctica that broods between its tentacles. The paper also reviews the reproductive, brooding development and morphological characteristics of P. lawrencei sp. nov. and compares them with those of several members of the family Psolidae. Finally, a possible connectivity between the deep-sea populations in the SWAO and in Antarctica is considered based on the appearance of a similar reproductive pattern in populations found in both areas, which suggests a past or present connection between these regions.

  19. Comparative morphology of the axial complex and interdependence of internal organ systems in sea urchins (Echinodermata: Echinoidea). (United States)

    Ziegler, Alexander; Faber, Cornelius; Bartolomaeus, Thomas


    The axial complex of echinoderms (Echinodermata) is composed of various primary and secondary body cavities that interact with each other. In sea urchins (Echinoidea), structural differences of the axial complex in "regular" and irregular species have been observed, but the reasons underlying these differences are not fully understood. In addition, a better knowledge of axial complex diversity could not only be useful for phylogenetic inferences, but improve also an understanding of the function of this enigmatic structure. We therefore analyzed numerous species of almost all sea urchin orders by magnetic resonance imaging, dissection, histology, and transmission electron microscopy and compared the results with findings from published studies spanning almost two centuries. These combined analyses demonstrate that the axial complex is present in all sea urchin orders and has remained structurally conserved for a long time, at least in the "regular" species. Within the Irregularia, a considerable morphological variation of the axial complex can be observed with gradual changes in topography, size, and internal architecture. These modifications are related to the growing size of the gastric caecum as well as to the rearrangement of the morphology of the digestive tract as a whole. The structurally most divergent axial complex can be observed in the highly derived Atelostomata in which the reorganization of the digestive tract is most pronounced. Our findings demonstrate a structural interdependence of various internal organs, including digestive tract, mesenteries, and the axial complex.

  20. Patterns and Drivers of Egg Pigment Intensity and Colour Diversity in the Ocean: A Meta-Analysis of Phylum Echinodermata. (United States)

    Montgomery, E M; Hamel, J-F; Mercier, A

    Egg pigmentation is proposed to serve numerous ecological, physiological, and adaptive functions in egg-laying animals. Despite the predominance and taxonomic diversity of egg layers, syntheses reviewing the putative functions and drivers of egg pigmentation have been relatively narrow in scope, centring almost exclusively on birds. Nonvertebrate and aquatic species are essentially overlooked, yet many of them produce maternally provisioned eggs in strikingly varied colours, from pale yellow to bright red or green. We explore the ways in which these colour patterns correlate with behavioural, morphological, geographic and phylogenetic variables in extant classes of Echinodermata, a phylum that has close phylogenetic ties with chordates and representatives in nearly all marine environments. Results of multivariate analyses show that intensely pigmented eggs are characteristic of pelagic or external development whereas pale eggs are commonly brooded internally. Of the five egg colours catalogued, orange and yellow are the most common. Yellow eggs are a primitive character, associated with all types of development (predominant in internal brooders), whereas green eggs are always pelagic, occur in the most derived orders of each class and are restricted to the Indo-Pacific Ocean. Orange eggs are geographically ubiquitous and may represent a 'universal' egg pigment that functions well under a diversity of environmental conditions. Finally, green occurs chiefly in the classes Holothuroidea and Ophiuroidea, orange in Asteroidea, yellow in Echinoidea, and brown in Holothuroidea. By examining an unprecedented combination of egg colours/intensities and reproductive strategies, this phylum-wide study sheds new light on the role and drivers of egg pigmentation, drawing parallels with theories developed from the study of more derived vertebrate taxa. The primary use of pigments (of any colour) to protect externally developing eggs from oxidative damage and predation is

  1. Echinodermata: Holothuroidea: Dendrochirotida

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10-25 mm. Whitish. Present. Arranged in double rows along the radii, diminishing to single rows towards the anterior and posterior ends, also found scattered along interambulacra, becoming denser ventrally. Radial plates subdivided. interracial plates compact. non-bitld anteriorly. Rounded, compact, multi-layered plates,.

  2. from Pyura stolollifera (Echinodermata, Ascidiacea)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    May 5, 1994 ... Doropygus pyurus verskil van die meeste van die spesies in die genus t.o.v. die struktuur van die antennule an monddele, maar veral van D. pulex a.g.v. die unieke samestelling van die swempote. Species of the genus DoropyguJ Thorell, 1859 are cosmopo- litan, pharyngeal associates of ascidians, which ...

  3. Holothurian (Echinodermata) Diversity in the Glorieuses Archipelago

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Holothuria, Glorieuses Islands, Western Indian Ocean, occurrence, diversity, coral reefs. Abstract—Due to their isolation, ... the Mozambique Channel (Western Indian Ocean). Inventories of several taxa, including the ... associated sandbars that emerge at low tide, complete the archipelago, with a land surface.

  4. Molecular phylogeny of extant Holothuroidea (Echinodermata). (United States)

    Miller, Allison K; Kerr, Alexander M; Paulay, Gustav; Reich, Mike; Wilson, Nerida G; Carvajal, Jose I; Rouse, Greg W


    Sea cucumbers (Holothuroidea) are a morphologically diverse, ecologically important, and economically valued clade of echinoderms; however, the understanding of the overall systematics of the group remains controversial. Here, we present a phylogeny of extant Holothuroidea assessed with maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian approaches using approximately 4.3kb of mt- (COI, 16S, 12S) and nDNA (H3, 18S, 28S) sequences from 82 holothuroid terminals representing 23 of the 27 widely-accepted family-ranked taxa. Currently five holothuroid taxa of ordinal rank are accepted. We find that three of the five orders are non-monophyletic, and we revise the taxonomy of the groups accordingly. Apodida is sister to the rest of Holothuroidea, here considered Actinopoda. Within Actinopoda, Elasipodida in part is sister to the remaining Actinopoda. This latter clade, comprising holothuroids with respiratory trees, is now called Pneumonophora. The traditional Aspidochirotida is paraphyletic, with representatives from three orders (Molpadida, Dendrochirotida, and Elasipodida in part) nested within. Therefore, we discontinue the use of Aspidochirotida and instead erect Holothuriida as the sister group to the remaining Pneumonophora, here termed Neoholothuriida. We found four well-supported major clades in Neoholothuriida: Dendrochirotida, Molpadida and two new clades, Synallactida and Persiculida. The mapping of traditionally-used morphological characters in holothuroid systematics onto the phylogeny revealed marked homoplasy in most characters demonstrating that further taxonomic revision of Holothuroidea is required. Two time-tree analyses, one based on calibrations for uncontroversial crown group dates for Eleutherozoa, Echinozoa and Holothuroidea and another using these calibrations plus four more from within Holothuroidea, showed major discrepancies, suggesting that fossils of Holothuroidea may need reassessment in terms of placing these forms with existing crown clades. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Biodiesel production via the transesterification of soybean oil using waste starfish (Asterina pectinifera). (United States)

    Jo, Yong Beom; Park, Sung Hoon; Jeon, Jong-Ki; Ko, Chang Hyun; Ryu, Changkook; Park, Young-Kwon


    Calcined waste starfish was used as a base catalyst for the production of biodiesel from soybean oil for the first time. A batch reactor was used for the transesterification reaction. The thermal characteristics and crystal structures of the waste starfish were investigated by thermo-gravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction. The biodiesel yield was determined by measuring the content of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). The calcination temperature appeared to be a very important parameter affecting the catalytic activity. The starfish-derived catalyst calcined at 750 °C or higher exhibited high activity for the transesterification reaction. The FAME content increased with increasing catalyst dose and methanol-over-oil ratio.

  6. Phylogenetic study of the oxytocin-like immunoreactive system in invertebrates. (United States)

    Mizuno, J; Takeda, N


    1. A phylogenetic study of oxytocin (OXT)-like immunoreactive cells was performed by the PAP method in the central nervous system of invertebrates. 2. The immunoreactivity was detected in the nerve cells of Hydra magnipapillata of the Coelenterata; Neanthes japonica and Pheretima communissima of the Annelida; Oncidium verrucosum, Limax marginatus and Meretrix lamarckii of the Mollusca; and Baratha brassica of the Arthropoda. 3. No immunoreactive cells were found in Bipalium sp. of the Platyhelminthes; Pomacea canaliculata, Aplysia kurodai, Bradybaena similaris and Achatina fulica of the Mollusca; and Gnorimosphaeroma rayi, Procambarus clarkii, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, Helice tridens and Gryllus bimaculatus of the Arthropoda; Asterina pectinifera of the Echinodermata; and Halocynthia roretzi of the Protochordata. 4. These results demonstrate that an OXT-immunoreactive substance is widely present not only in vertebrates but also in invertebrates. 5. OXT seems to have been introduced into these invertebrates at an early stage of their phylogenetic history.

  7. Phylogenetic study of the arginine-vasotocin/arginine-vasopressin-like immunoreactive system in invertebrates. (United States)

    Mizuno, J; Takeda, N


    1. A phylogenetic study of arg-vasotocin (AVT)/arg-vasopressin (AVP)-like immunoreactive cells was performed by the PAP method in the central nervous system of invertebrates. 2. The immunoreactivity was detected in the nerve cells of Hydra magnipapillata of the Coelenterata; Neanthes japonica and Pheretima communissima of the Annelida; Pomacea canaliculata, Aplysia kurodai, Oncidium verrucosum, Bradybaena similaris, Achatina fulica, Limax marginatus and Meretrix lamarckii of the Mollusca; Gnorimosphaeroma rayi, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, Gryllus bimaculatus and Baratha brassicae of the Arthropoda; Asterina pectinifera of the Echinodermata; and Halocynthia roretzi of the Protochordata. 3. No immunoreactivity was detected in Bipalium sp. of the Platyhelminthes, or in Procambarus clarkii and Helice tridens of the Arthropoda. 4. From these results, it appears that AVT/AVP is a phylogenetically ancient peptide which is present in a wide variety of invertebrates. 5. The actions of AVT/AVP and its presence in invertebrates are discussed.

  8. Impact of natural and calcined starfish (Asterina pectinifera) on the stabilization of Pb, Zn and As in contaminated agricultural soil. (United States)

    Lim, Jung Eun; Sung, Jwa Kyung; Sarkar, Binoy; Wang, Hailong; Hashimoto, Yohey; Tsang, Daniel C W; Ok, Yong Sik


    Metal stabilization using soil amendments is an extensively applied, economically viable and environmentally friendly remediation technique. The stabilization of Pb, Zn and As in contaminated soils was evaluated using natural starfish (NSF) and calcined starfish (CSF) wastes at different application rates (0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 wt%). An incubation study was conducted over 14 months, and the efficiency of stabilization for Pb, Zn and As in soil was evaluated by the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test. The TCLP-extractable Pb was reduced by 76.3-100 and 91.2-100 % in soil treated with NSF and CSF, respectively. The TCLP-extractable Zn was also reduced by 89.8-100 and 93.2-100 % in soil treated with NSF and CSF, respectively. These reductions could be associated with the increased metal adsorption and the formation of insoluble metal precipitates due to increased soil pH following application of the amendments. However, the TCLP-extractable As was increased in the soil treated with NSF, possibly due to the competitive adsorption of phosphorous. In contrast, the TCLP-extractable As in the 10 % CSF treatment was not detectable because insoluble Ca-As compounds might be formed at high pH values. Thermodynamic modeling by visual MINTEQ predicted the formation of ettringite (Ca 6 Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 (OH) 12 ·26H 2 O) and portlandite (Ca(OH) 2 ) in the 10 % CSF-treated soil, while SEM-EDS analysis confirmed the needle-like structure of ettringite in which Pb was incorporated and stabilized in the 10 % CSF treatment.

  9. Seasonal changes in biochemical composition of Holothuria leucospilota (Echinodermata)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayasree, V.; Parulekar, A.H.; Wahidullah, S.; Kamat, S.Y.

    Biochemical composition of body wall and gonads of Holothuria leucospilota was analysed for protein, carbohydrate, lipid, ash, dry weight and calorific values and was discussed in relation to its spawning activities. Lipids constituted the major...

  10. The holothurian (Echinodermata) diversity of the Glorieuses Islands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glorieuses archipelago is one of the Eparses Islands, French islands scattered in the Mozambique Channel (Western Indian Ocean). ... In November 2012, a multidisciplinary team explored the reef slopes of the island by scuba diving down to 20 meters (10 sites), and the reef flats at low tide (12 sites) collecting specimens ...

  11. Antarctic Starfish (Echinodermata, Asteroidea) from the ANDEEP3 expedition. (United States)

    Danis, Bruno; Jangoux, Michel; Wilmes, Jennifer


    This dataset includes information on sea stars collected during the ANDEEP3 expedition, which took place in 2005. The expedition focused on deep-sea stations in the Powell Basin and Weddell Sea.Sea stars were collected using an Agassiz trawl (3m, mesh-size 500µm), deployed in 16 stations during the ANTXXII/3 (ANDEEP3, PS72) expedition of the RV Polarstern. Sampling depth ranged from 1047 to 4931m. Trawling distance ranged from 731 to 3841m. The sampling area ranges from -41°S to -71°S (latitude) and from 0 to -65°W (longitude). A complete list of stations is available from the PANGAEA data system (, including a cruise report ( dataset includes 50 records, with individual counts ranging from 1-10, reaching a total of 132 specimens.The andeep3-Asteroidea is a unique dataset as it covers an under-explored region of the Southern Ocean, and that very little information was available regarding Antarctic deep-sea starfish. Before this study, most of the information available focused on starfish from shallower depths than 1000m. This dataset allowed to make unique observations, such as the fact that some species were only present at very high depths (Hymenaster crucifer, Hymenaster pellucidus, Hymenaster praecoquis, Psilaster charcoti, Freyella attenuata, Freyastera tuberculata, Styrachaster chuni and Vemaster sudatlanticus were all found below -3770m), while others displayed remarkable eurybathy, with very high depths amplitudes (Bathybiaster loripes (4842m), Lysasterias adeliae (4832m), Lophaster stellans (4752m), Cheiraster planeta (4708m), Eremicaster crassus (4626m), Lophaster gaini (4560m) and Ctenodiscus australis (4489m)).Even if the number of records is relatively small, the data bring many new insights on the taxonomic, bathymetric and geographic distributions of Southern starfish, covering a very large sampling zone. The dataset also brings to light six species, newly reported in the Southern Ocean.The quality of the data was controlled very thoroughly, by means of on-board Polarstern GPS systems, checking of identification by a renowned specialist (Prof. Michel Jangoux, Université Libre de Bruxelles), and matching to the Register of Antarctic Marine Species (RAMS) and World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS). The data is therefore fit for completing checklists, for inclusion in biodiversity patterns analysis, or niche modeling. It also nicely fills an information gap regarding deep-sea starfish from the Southern Ocean, for which data is very scarce at this time. The authors may be contacted if any additional information is needed before carrying out detailed biodiversity or biogeographic studies.

  12. Phylogeography of Holothuria (Halodeima inornata Semper, 1868 (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elba Prieto-Rios


    Full Text Available Genetic structure of the populations of H. inornata was evaluated and the barriers for genetic flux and historic processes were investigated. Samples were collected trying to cover the distribution range of the species, from Mexico to northern Perú. Based on COI sequences, 118 haplotypes from 220 specimens were detected; the differences between such haplotypes were due to 97 variable sites (21.41% of the 453 bp sequenced. A high haplotype diversity (h=0.979 and a moderate nucleotidic diversity were observed. The values of Fst, the exact test of population differentiation, and the molecular variance analysis (AMOVA were used in order to analyze the genetic differentiation. These analyses suggest the existence of two populations: northern, off the coasts of Sinaloa, Jalisco, Michoacán, Guerrero, and Oaxaca, and southern, off the coasts of Chiapas, El Salvador, Panamá and Perú. Historic events and oceanographic patterns may be the main factors determining dispersion and structure of Hi populations. It seems probable that the original population have extended first in the south and then northern. Besides, the split between these two populations may be due to several tectonic and oceanographic events constituting a barrier for H. inornata settling.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The Paleozoic-Mesozoic transition saw the disappearance of asteroid stem groups and the ascent of the crown group, but late Paleozoic and Triassic asteroids are rare and transition events are poorly documented. Three new Middle and Late Triassic specimens augment existing data; included are a specimen of Trichasteropsis weissmanni from Germany, a specimen of Trichasteropsis? sp. indet. from Italy, and a possible member of the extant Poraniidae from Slovenia. Presence of a small ossicle at the interbrachial midline and adjacent to the marginal series of the new T. weissmanni specimen is consistent with similar expressions not only of other trichasteropsids but also occurrence of two interbrachial ossicles in Paleozoic, stem-group asterozoans; presence is in turn consistent with a hypothesis of derivation of the axillary/odontophore coupling from two ossicles rather than direct derivation of the crown-group odontophore from a single stem-group axillary. Morphology of Trichasteropsis? sp. indet., including, for example, the evenly-tapering arms are reminiscent of those of diverse crown-group asteroids whereas the enlarged distal arms of T. weissmanni are unique, the morphology of T? sp. indet. thereby potentially indicative of a plesiomorphic, stemward positioning within the Trichasteropsiidae. The range of the Poraniidae is tentatively extended to the Carnian. Similarities shared by the Poraniidae and the Trichasteropsiidae suggest stemward positioning within crown-group diversification; however, known Triassic fossils do not appear closely related to extant taxa identified in recent molecular studies as basal within the crown-group. A temperate climate is suggested as preferred by the Triassic asteroids rather than a tropical, warmer one.

  14. Los equinodermos (Echinodermata de bahía Chamela, Jalisco, México The echinoderms (Echinodermata from bahía Chamela, Jalisco, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ríos-Jara


    Full Text Available Cuarenta especies de equinodermos fueron recolectadas en las zonas intermareal y submareal somero de 14 sitios de bahía Chamela. Destacan 7 nuevos registros para la costa de Jalisco. Los análisis de escalonamiento multidimensional no métrico y el índice de similitud de Jaccard permitieron identificar grupos y entidades aisladas de acuerdo a la contribución y frecuencia de las especies de 4 clases de equinodermos en los sitios de la bahía y en otras localidades del Pacífico tropical mexicano (PTM. La mayor similitud se presentó con las localidades del golfo de California. Los índices de distinción taxonómica promedio (Δ+ y su variación (Λ+ fueron utilizados para analizar la diversidad de equinodermos en los niveles de especie, género, familia, orden y clase para cada sitio de la bahía y para distintas localidades del PTM de acuerdo al número de jerarquías taxonómicas de alto orden y la variabilidad en su diversidad taxonómica. La riqueza de especies de Chamela representa el 20% de la diversidad total de equinodermos de las zonas intermareal y submareal somero del PTM, lo que indica su importancia en la contribución a la diversidad taxonómica de la región.Forty species of echinoderms were collected in the intertidal and shallow subtidal zones of 14 sites of bahía Chamela. Of particular importance are 7 new records of species for the coast of Jalisco. A nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis and the Jaccard's similarity index identified different groups and isolated entities according to the contribution and the frequency of species of 4 classes of echinoderms in the bay and in other localities of the Mexican Tropical Pacific (MTP. The highest similarity of species was with the localities of the Gulf of California. The indices of average taxonomic distinctness (Δ+ and the variation in the taxonomic distinctness (Λ+ were estimated to analyze the diversity of echinoderms at the taxonomic levels of species, genus, family, order and class for each site within the bay and for some localities of the MTP according to the number of higher taxonomic hierarchies and the variability of its taxonomic diversity. The species richness of bahía Chamela represents 20% of the total diversity of echinoderms of the intertidal and shallow subtidal zones of the MTP; this is an indicator of its importance to the contribution of the taxonomic diversity of this region.

  15. The sequence of origin of the postmetamorphic rays in Heliaster and Labidiaster (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) Origen sequencial de los rayos postmetamorficos en Heliaster y Labidiaster (Echinodermata: Asteroidea)




    Postmetamorphic rays in Heliaster and Labidiaster originate in four `quadrants' between the five primary rays, and not normally in the madreporic interradius. The rays originate in one of two very definite sequences depending on the species. H. kubiniji and H. multiradiatus share one sequence, whereas H. canopus, H. helianthus and Labidiaster share the other sequence. Pycnopodia, Rathbunaster, Heliaster and Labidiaster add rays at far greater sizes and in a manner that is distinctive from oth...

  16. Reproductive biology of Echinometra lucunter (Echinodermata: Echinoidea in a northeast Brazilian sandstone reef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo J.B. Lima


    Full Text Available The edible sea urchin Echinometra lucunter (Linnaeus, 1758 is a very common species on the sublittoral-midlittoral in Brazilian rocky shores. The aim of this work was to describe the gametogenesis and reproductive strategy of the E. lucunter population at Muro Alto beach in the Northeast coast of Brazil from August 2004 to August 2005. A total of 240 specimens were collected on the sandstone reef flat from a tidepool during spring low tides. The overall sex ratio was1.12:1,withoutsignificanttemporalvariationexceptinOctober2004. Firsts sexual maturity ocurred in individuals from a diameter of 20.8 mm. There was not a significant difference in gonad index between females and males during the sampling period. The female's gonad index variation was associated with a well-defined spawning, corroborated by the histological analysis of the gonads, which demonstrates sex differences of the gamete production. By contrast, the males showed no clear pattern. It is suggested that continuous reproduction with seasonal peaks in the E. lucunter population occurs at Muro Alto beach.O ouriço-do-mar comestível Echinometra lucunter (Linnaeus, 1758 é uma espécie muito comum no infralitoral e mediolitoral do Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever a gametogênese e a estratégia reprodutiva da população de E. lucunterna praia de Muro Alto entre agosto de 2004 e agosto de 2005. Um total de 240 espécimes foi capturado de uma poça de maré situada no topo recifal, durante as marés baixas de sizígia. A razão sexual total foi de 1,12:1 sem variação temporal significativa, exceto em outubro de 2004. A primeira maturidade sexual ocorreu em indivíduos a partir de 20,8 mm de diâmetro. Não houve nenhuma diferença significativa no índice gonadal entre fêmeas e machos durante o período de amostragem. A variação do índice gonadal das fêmeas foi associada a um período de desova bem definido, corroborado pela análise histológica das gônadas, que demonstra diferenças sexuais na produção de gametas. Ao contrário, os machos não apresentaram nenhum padrão. Sugere-se que a reprodução da população de E. lucunter na praia de Muro Alto é contínua, compicos sazonais.

  17. Histamine is a modulator of metamorphic competence in Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutherby Josh


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A metamorphic life-history is present in the majority of animal phyla. This developmental mode is particularly prominent among marine invertebrates with a bentho-planktonic life cycle, where a pelagic larval form transforms into a benthic adult. Metamorphic competence (the stage at which a larva is capable to undergo the metamorphic transformation and settlement is an important adaptation both ecologically and physiologically. The competence period maintains the larval state until suitable settlement sites are encountered, at which point the larvae settle in response to settlement cues. The mechanistic basis for metamorphosis (the morphogenetic transition from a larva to a juvenile including settlement, i.e. the molecular and cellular processes underlying metamorphosis in marine invertebrate species, is poorly understood. Histamine (HA, a neurotransmitter used for various physiological and developmental functions among animals, has a critical role in sea urchin fertilization and in the induction of metamorphosis. Here we test the premise that HA functions as a developmental modulator of metamorphic competence in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Results Our results provide strong evidence that HA leads to the acquisition of metamorphic competence in S. purpuratus larvae. Pharmacological analysis of several HA receptor antagonists and an inhibitor of HA synthesis indicates a function of HA in metamorphic competence as well as programmed cell death (PCD during arm retraction. Furthermore we identified an extensive network of histaminergic neurons in pre-metamorphic and metamorphically competent larvae. Analysis of this network throughout larval development indicates that the maturation of specific neuronal clusters correlates with the acquisition of metamorphic competence. Moreover, histamine receptor antagonist treatment leads to the induction of caspase mediated apoptosis in competent larvae. Conclusions We conclude that HA is a modulator of metamorphic competence in S. purpuratus development and hypothesize that HA may have played an important role in the evolution of settlement strategies in echinoids. Our findings provide novel insights into the evolution of HA signalling and its function in one of the most important and widespread life history transitions in the animal kingdom - metamorphosis.

  18. Abundance, distribution and size structure of Diadema antillarum (Echinodermata: Diadematidae in South Eastern Cuban coral reefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Martín Blanco


    Full Text Available The 1983-1984 mass mortality event of Diadema antillarum affected more than 93% of the total Caribbean population. Although there are no records about the status of Diadema populations before and after die-off on Cuban reefs, anecdotal information suggests that populations were struck. We analyzed spatial variation in the abundance and size structure of D. antillarum in 22 reefs sites in Jardines de la Reina, from June 2004 to September 2005. Counts of Diadema were performed in five 30x2m transects at each sampling site and sampling time, and test diameters were measured in September 2005 at the same fore reefs. Abundances were higher at reef crests (mean densities 0.08-2.18 ind./m², while reef slope populations reached a maximum site level of 0.13 ind./m² at only one site and showed values up to three orders of magnitude lower than those from reef crests. Highest abundance occurred at the west margin of major channels between keys where larval recruitment seems to be favored by local oceanographic features and facilitated by the abundance of Echinometra lucunter. The size frequency distribution of D. antillarum indicates that recruitment began to be noticeable three years before September 2005, suggesting these populations were depleted in the past and they are recovering now. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (2: 663-676. Epub 2010 June 02.La mortalidad de Diadema antillarum en 1983-1984 afectó más del 93% de la población del Caribe. Aunque no existen datos publicados sobre el estado de sus poblaciones en arrecifes cubanos antes y después de la mortalidad, se conoce anecdóticamente que fueron afectadas. En el presente trabajo se analizan las variaciones espaciales de la abundancia y estructura de tallas de D. antillarum en 22 arrecifes frontales en Jardines de la Reina, para lo cual se realizaron cinco recorridos de 30x2m en cada sitio entre Junio de 2004 y Septiembre de 2005. Las densidades de Diadema fueron mayores en las crestas arrecifales (0.08-2.18 ind./m² mientras que en las pendientes fueron hasta tres órdenes de magnitud menor y la densidad máxima fue 0.13 ind./m². Las crestas con mayor abundancia de Diadema están ubicadas en los márgenes de las grandes pasas existentes entre cayos donde el reclutamiento parece estar favorecido por las condiciones oceanográficas locales y facilitado por la abundancia de Echinometra lucunter. La distribución de frecuencia de tallas de Diadema sugiere que el reclutamiento comenzó a ser notable aproximadamente tres años antes del muestreo, indicando que en el pasado sus poblaciones estuvieron afectadas y ahora están recuperándose.

  19. Marine Flora and Fauna of the Northeastern United States. Echinodermata: Holothuroidea. (United States)

    Pawson, David L.

    This report is part of a subseries entitled "Marine Flora and Fauna of the Northeastern United States" which is designed for use by biology students, biologists, biological oceanographers and informed laymen. Contents of this report include: (1) Introduction; (2) Morphology; (3) Systematic Characters; (4) Examination Procedures; (5)…

  20. Assessment of microplastic toxicity to embryonic development of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea). (United States)

    Nobre, C R; Santana, M F M; Maluf, A; Cortez, F S; Cesar, A; Pereira, C D S; Turra, A


    Apart from the physiological impacts on marine organisms caused by ingesting microplastics, the toxicity caused by substances leaching from these particles into the environment requires investigation. To understand this potential risk, we evaluated the toxicity of virgin (raw) and beach-stranded plastic pellets to the development of embryos of Lytechinus variegatus, simulating transfers of chemical compounds to interstitial water and water column by assays of pellet-water interface and elutriate, respectively. Both assays showed that virgin pellets had toxic effects, increasing anomalous embryonic development by 58.1% and 66.5%, respectively. The toxicity of stranded pellets was lower than virgin pellets, and was observed only for pellet-water interface assay. These results show that (i) plastic pellets act as a vector of pollutants, especially for plastic additives found on virgin particles; and that (ii) the toxicity of leached chemicals from pellets depends on the exposure pathway and on the environmental compartment in which pellets accumulate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A New Species of Sexually Dimorphic Brittle Star of the Genus Ophiodaphne (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea). (United States)

    Tominaga, Hideyuki; Hirose, Mamiko; Igarashi, Hikaru; Kiyomoto, Masato; Komatsu, Miéko


    We describe a new species of sexually dimorphic brittle star, Ophiodaphne spinosa, from Japan associated with the irregular sea urchin, Clypeaster japonicus based on its external morphology, and phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial COI (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I). Females of this new species of Ophiodaphne are characterized mainly by the presence of wavy grooves on the surface of the radial shields, needle-like thorns on the oral skeletal jaw structures, and a low length-to-width ratio of the jaw angle in comparison with those of type specimens of its Ophiodaphne congeners: O. scripta, O. materna, and O. formata. A tabular key to the species characteristics of Ophiodaphne is provided. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that the new species of Ophiodaphne, O. scripta, and O. formata are monophyletic. Our results indicate that the Japanese Ophiodaphne include both the new species and O. scripta, and that there are four Ophiodaphne species of sexually dimorphic brittle stars with androphorous habit.

  2. Henricia djakonovi sp. nov. (Echinodermata, Echinasteridae): a new sea star species from the Sea of Japan. (United States)

    Chichvarkhin, Anton


    A new sea star species, H. djakonovi sp.n., was discovered in Rudnaya Bay in the Sea of Japan. This is a sympatric species of the well-known and common species Henricia pseudoleviuscula Djakonov, 1958. Both species are similar in body size and proportions, shape of skeletal plates, and life coloration, which distinguishes them from the other Henricia species inhabiting the Sea of Japan. Nevertheless, these species can be distinguished by their abactinal spines: in both species, they are short and barrel-like, but the new species is the only Henricia species in Russian waters of the Pacific that possesses such spines with a massive, smooth, bullet-like tip. The spines in H. pseudoleviuscula are crowned with a variable number of well-developed thorns. About half (new species are oval, not crescent-shaped as in H. pseudoleviuscula .

  3. Morphological diagnoses of higher taxa in Ophiuroidea (Echinodermata in support of a new classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy D. O'Hara


    Full Text Available A new classification of Ophiuroidea, considering family rank and above, is presented. The new family and superfamily taxa in O’Hara et al. (2017 were proposed to ensure a better readability of the new phylogeny but are unavailable under the provisions of the ICZN. Here, the morphological diagnoses to all 33 families and five superfamilies are provided. Ten new families, Ophiosphalmidae fam. nov., Ophiomusaidae fam. nov., Ophiocamacidae fam. nov., Ophiopteridae fam. nov., Clarkcomidae fam. nov., Ophiopezidae fam. nov., Ophiernidae fam. nov., Amphilimnidae fam. nov., Ophiothamnidae fam. nov. and Ophiopholidae fam. nov., are described. The family Ophiobyrsidae Matsumoto, 1915, not yet discovered in the previous publication, is added, based on new molecular data. A new phylogenetic reconstruction is presented. Definitions of difficult-to-apply morphological characters are given.

  4. Trophic ecology of deep-sea Asteroidea (Echinodermata) from eastern Canada (United States)

    Gale, Katie S. P.; Hamel, Jean-François; Mercier, Annie


    Asteroids (sea stars) can be important predators in benthic communities and are often present in ecologically important and vulnerable deep-sea coral and sponge habitats. However, explicit studies on the trophic ecology of deep-sea asteroids are rare. We investigated the diets of seven species of deep-sea asteroid from the bathyal zone of Newfoundland and Labrador, eastern Canada. A multifaceted approach including live animal observations, stomach content analysis, and stable isotope analysis revealed the asteroids to be either top predators of megafauna or secondary consumers (mud ingesters, infaunal predators, and suspension feeders). The stable isotope signatures of Ceramaster granularis, Hippasteria phrygiana, and Mediaster bairdi are characteristic of high-level predators, having δ15N values 4.4‰ (more than one trophic level) above Ctenodiscus crispatus, Leptychaster arcticus, Novodinia americana, and Zoroaster fulgens. We present strong evidence that corals and sponges are common food items for two of the predatory species, C. granularis and H. phrygiana. During laboratory feeding trials, live H. phrygiana fed on several species of soft coral and C. granularis fed on sponges. Stomach content analysis of wild-caught individuals revealed sclerites from sea pens (e.g. Pennatula sp.) in the stomachs of both asteroid species; H. phrygiana also contained sclerites from at least two other species of octocoral and siliceous sponge spicules were present in the stomachs of C. granularis. The stomach contents of the secondary consumers contained a range of invertebrate material. Leptychaster arcticus and Ctenodiscus crispatus feed infaunally on bulk sediment and molluscs, Zoroaster fulgens is a generalist infaunal predator, and the brisingid Novodinia americana is a specialist suspension feeder on benthopelagic crustaceans. This study provides a foundation for understanding the ecological roles of bathyal asteroids, and suggests that some species may have the potential to be important modulators of deep-sea benthic communities.

  5. Cadmium, Copper and Tributyltin effects on fertilization of Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella Vazzana


    Full Text Available Marine environments are continuously being threatened by a large number of xenobi- otics from anthropogenic sources. The effect of chemical pollution on living organisms are numerous and may impair reproductive success of adults species of marine invertebrate and vertebrate through effects on gamete quality. Echinoderms are characterized by external fertilizzation and gametes, free of any type of protection, may be in contact with toxic substances so the reproductive success depends largely on the environment conditions. The purpose of this work is to assess the effects on the in vitro fertiliza- tion of exposure of sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus gametes to xenobiotic substances as CuSO4, CdCl2 and TBTCl. The effect of contaminant were assessed by two experimental set in which gametes were treated with different concentration (0, 10-3, 10-5 10-7 10-9 M of different substances as CdCl2, CuSO4 and TBTCl. The effects were evaluated as percentage of fertilization. The results showed that the gametes exposure to xenobiotic decreased the percentage of fertilization and that more sensitive to treatment were the sperm cells, propably because the toxic effect affected the motility of the sperm. In conclusion, the absence of fertilization (spermiotoxicity may submit the toxic effects of these substances to the level of body and may candidate the sea urchis as biosensors for the evaluation of environmental quality.

  6. Population Biology of Tripneustes gratilla (Linnaeus (Echinodermata in Seagrass Beds of Southern Guimaras, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Militar Regalado


    Full Text Available The sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla is a major grazer found in seagrass beds of southern Guimaras, Philippines. Monthly length-frequency data from January 2008 to June 2009 were used to estimate the growth, recruitment pattern and mortality rate with the use of FiSAT II. The estimated values for the Von Bertalanffy growth parameters L(n/k(asymptotic length and K (growth coefficient were 114.2 mm and 1.08 respectively. Monthly densities ranged from 0.06 to 0.58 per m² with a mean value of 0.26 per m². Monthly biomass ranged from 4.1 to 49.5 grams per m² with a mean value of 21.15 grams per m². T. gratilla density and biomass were observed to be highest during the month of November 2008. The recruitment pattern showed a major broad peak and a minor peak separated by four months. Total mortality (Z from the length-converted catch curve was computed to be 4.74 per year.

  7. Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea, Gorgonocephalus Leach, 1815: First report of the genus for the Brazilian continental margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barboza, C. A. M.


    Full Text Available The Gorgonocephalidae includes 38 genera, five of them reported for Brazilian waters. Gorgonocephalus chilensishas a wide distribution throughout Antartica and Subantartican regions and its northern limit was restricted to the coast ofUruguay. This work aims to report the first occurrence of the Gorgonocephalus genus for the Brazilian continental marginand extend the northern limit of distribution of G. chilensis to the coast of Santa Catarina. Tolerance to a large temperatureand bathimetric range are crucial to understand the distributions patterns of ophiuroids from the polar circle that alsooccur at southern South America.

  8. The asteroid genus Haccourtaster (Echinodermata, Goniasteridae) in the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žítt, Jiří


    Roč. 26, č. 2 (2005), s. 225-237 ISSN 0195-6671 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/01/1580 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Cretaceous * Asteroidea * New species Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.981, year: 2005

  9. Embryonic, Larval, and Early Juvenile Development of the Tropical Sea Urchin, Salmacis sphaeroides (Echinodermata: Echinoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aminur Rahman


    Full Text Available Salmacis sphaeroides (Linnaeus, 1758 is one of the regular echinoids, occuring in the warm Indo-West Pacific, including Johor Straits, between Malaysia and Singapore. In order to investigate the developmental basis of morphological changes in embryos and larvae, we documented the ontogeny of S. sphaeroides in laboratory condition. Gametes were obtained from adult individuals by 0.5 M KCl injection into the coelomic cavity. Fertilization rate at limited sperm concentration (10−5 dilution was 96.6±1.4% and the resulting embryos were reared at 24°C. First cleavage (2-cell, 4-cell, 8-cell, 16-cell, 32-cell, and multicell (Morulla stages were achieved 01.12, 02.03, 02.28, 02.51, 03.12, and 03.32 h postfertilization. Ciliated blastulae with a mean length of 174.72±4.43 μm hatched 08.45 h after sperm entry. The gastrulae formed 16.15 h postfertilization and the archenteron elongated constantly while ectodermal red-pigmented cells migrated synchronously to the apical plate. Pluteus larva started to feed unicellular algae in 2 d, grew continuously, and finally attained metamorphic competence in 35 d after fertilization. Metamorphosis took approximately 1 h 30 min from attachment to the complete resorption of larval tissues and the development of complete juvenile structure with adult spines, extended tubefeet and well-developed pedicellaria, the whole event of which usually took place within 1 d postsettlement. This study represents the first successful investigation on embryonic, larval, and early juvenile development of S. sphaeroides. The findings would greatly be helpful towards the understanding of ontogeny and life-history strategies, which will facilitate us to develop the breeding, seed production, and culture techniques of sea urchins in captive condition.

  10. An occurence records database of Irregular Echinoids (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) in Mexico. (United States)

    Martínez-Melo, Alejandra; Solís-Marín, Francisco Alonso; Buitrón-Sánchez, Blanca Estela; Laguarda-Figueras, Alfredo


    Research on echinoderms in Mexico began in the late nineteenth century. We present a dataset that includes the taxonomic and geographic information of irregular echinoids from Mexico, housed in four collections: 1) Colección Nacional de Equinodermos "Ma. Elena Caso Muñoz" from the Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología (ICML), Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM); 2) Invertebrate Zoology Collection, Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C., United States of America (USA); 3) Invertebrate Collection, Museum of Comparative Zoology, University of Harvard, Boston, Massachusetts, USA and 4) Invertebrate Zoology, Peabody Museum, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA. A total of six orders, 17 families, 35 genera and 68 species are reported, 37 distributed in the Pacific coast and 31 in the Atlantic coast, none of them was found in both coasts. The most diverse region is the Gulf of California (S=32); the most diverse order is Spatangoida with 31 species reported in mexican waters.

  11. Males and females gonad fatty acids of the sea urchins and (Echinodermata)


    Martínez-Pita , Inés; García , Francisco J.; Pita , María-Luisa


    Abstract The aim of this study was to analyze male and female gonad fatty acids of two sea urchin species, Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula, from the south coast of Spain. Additionally, we investigated possible differences between two locations. The ovaries of both species showed higher percentages of 14:0, 16:0, 16:1n-7, 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3 and 18:4n-3 than testes and lower levels of 18:0, 22:1n-9, 20:4n-6 and 22:5n-3. In P. lividus but not in A. lixula, the level of 20:5n-3 ...

  12. The northward expansion of Synaptula reciprocans (Echinodermata) in the Mediterranean Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ragkousis, Michail; Marmara, Dimitra; Filiz, Halit


    Synaptula reciprocans was reported in the Mediterranean Sea for the first time back in 1986. Since then there have been numerous reports, following the species' gradual expansion and establishment in the eastern Mediterranean basin. Here we report, by using citizen science methods, from the project...... titled "Is it Alien to you? Share it" of iSea, the most recent known expansion sites of S. reciprocans, including its new northern-most frontier. Furthermore, the provided photographic evidence testifies for possible interspecies relationships, for the first time....

  13. Embryonic, larval, and juvenile development of the sea biscuit Clypeaster subdepressus (Echinodermata: Clypeasteroida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno C Vellutini

    Full Text Available Sea biscuits and sand dollars diverged from other irregular echinoids approximately 55 million years ago and rapidly dispersed to oceans worldwide. A series of morphological changes were associated with the occupation of sand beds such as flattening of the body, shortening of primary spines, multiplication of podia, and retention of the lantern of Aristotle into adulthood. To investigate the developmental basis of such morphological changes we documented the ontogeny of Clypeaster subdepressus. We obtained gametes from adult specimens by KCl injection and raised the embryos at 26 degrees C. Ciliated blastulae hatched 7.5 h after sperm entry. During gastrulation the archenteron elongated continuously while ectodermal red-pigmented cells migrated synchronously to the apical plate. Pluteus larvae began to feed in 3 d and were 20 d old at metamorphosis; starved larvae died 17 d after fertilization. Postlarval juveniles had neither mouth nor anus nor plates on the aboral side, except for the remnants of larval spicules, but their bilateral symmetry became evident after the resorption of larval tissues. Ossicles of the lantern were present and organized in 5 groups. Each group had 1 tooth, 2 demipyramids, and 2 epiphyses with a rotula in between. Early appendages consisted of 15 spines, 15 podia (2 types, and 5 sphaeridia. Podial types were distributed in accordance to Lovén's rule and the first podium of each ambulacrum was not encircled by the skeleton. Seven days after metamorphosis juveniles began to feed by rasping sand grains with the lantern. Juveniles survived in laboratory cultures for 9 months and died with wide, a single open sphaeridium per ambulacrum, aboral anus, and no differentiated food grooves or petaloids. Tracking the morphogenesis of early juveniles is a necessary step to elucidate the developmental mechanisms of echinoid growth and important groundwork to clarify homologies between irregular urchins.

  14. Distribución, densidad y estructura de talla de Oreaster reticulatus y Luidia senegalensis (Echinodermata: Asteroidea en isla de Cubagua, Venezuela Distribution, density an size structure of Oreaster reticulatus and Luidia senegalensis (Echinodermata: Asteroidea in Cubagua Island, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Tagliafico


    Full Text Available Las estrellas de mar: Oreaster reticulatus y Luidia senegalensis, han sido objeto de escasos estudios en aguas venezolanas. Actualmente son consideradas especies amenazadas en diversas zonas del Caribe, Brasil y Colombia. Por esto, se planteó como objetivo generar información sobre su densidad poblacional, distribución y estructura de talla en los alrededores de la isla de Cubagua. Para ello, durante el año 2008, se realizaron cuatro transectas bandas de 50m2 cada una, en 52 estaciones ubicadas alrededor de la isla. Entre los resultados obtenidos para O. reticulatus destacan: 167.3ind/ha, un 33% inmaduros y 67% adultos con un promedio de tallas de 10.7±5cm (rango: 2.2-21cm; una amplia distribución en los alrededores de la isla, con mayores densidades en la zona este y suroeste. Luidia senegalensis mostró una densidad promedio de 40ind/ha, 95% superaba la talla de madurez reportada, con talla promedio de 12cm±3.5cm (rango: 3.5-22.3cm. Se recomienda realizar estudios de reproducción, así como monitoreos de sus densidades poblacionales que permitan inferir sus variaciones temporales.There is limited biological information about the starfish Oreaster reticulatus and the nine-armed starfish Luidia senegalensis in Venezuelan waters. These species are currently considered threatened in many localities of the Caribbean, Brazil and Colombia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe their population density, size distribution and population structure in Cubagua Island. During 2008, 52 stations located around the island were evaluated using band transects of 50m2. Each organism was counted and measured (maximum radius, and its size was compared to the maturity length reported in the literature. The results for O. reticulatus include: 167.3ind./ha; 33% juveniles and 67% adults; average size of 10.7±5cm (range: 2.2-21cm; a wide distribution around the island, with higher densities in the Eastern and Southwest areas. The 50% of the specimens were found in seagrass beds, 25% in sand, 16% in areas covered by decomposed seaweeds, 9% in oyster beds and 1% coralline patches. The densities of O. reticulatus were higher than those reported in the Caribbean, Panama and Puerto Rico, but lower than Venezuelan National Parks: Mochima and Morrocoy; as well as in the Virgin Islands and Belize. For L. senegalensis we found an average density of 40ind./ha; 95% exceeded the reported size at maturity, with mean length of 12cm±3.5cm (range: 3.5-22.3cm; they were found only in 15% of the stations of which 92.5% were sandy bottoms and the other 7.5% oyster beds. The degree of aggregation of L. senegalensis was greater than O. reticulatus, with an estimated k of 0.06. However, it was not possible to compare the densities of L. senegalensis with any other study. For both species is recommended to carry out reproductive studies and to monitor their population densities to infer temporal variations.

  15. Inferring the developmental basis of the sea star abnormality "double ambulacral groove" (Echinodermata: Asteroidea Inferencia sobre la base de desarrollo en estrellas de mar de la anormalidad "doble surco ambulacral" (Echinodermata: Asteroidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Very rarely a ray of a sea star is unusually wide and has two parallel ambulacral grooves that extend to a single tip. Such a ray has two terminal plates that are coalesced laterally. This abnormality is inferred to develop as a rare result of regeneration because it is recorded from a species with obligate asexual reproduction (fission and regeneration of halves; no gametes. This conclusion is supported also by an example where the abnormality affects only the distal third of a rayMuy raramente un rayo de estrella de mar es desproporcionadamente ancho y tiene dos surcos ambulacrales paralelos que se extienden hasta su único extremo. Dicho rayo tiene dos placas terminales que coalecen lateralmente. Se ha inferido que esta anormalidad se desarrolla como un resultado raro de regeneración, porque se describe de una especie con reproducción asexual obligada (fisión y regeneración de mitades; no gametos. Además, esta conclusión se sostiene por un ejemplo de anormalidad que afecta sólo el tercio distal de un rayo

  16. Reprodução de Lytechinus variegatus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea: efeito do ciclo lunar e características da população = Reproduction of Lytechinus variegatus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea: effect of lunar cycle and population characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Mara Cruz Lage


    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou as características reprodutivas de uma população do ouriço do mar Lytechinus variegatus e a influência do ciclo lunar na liberação de gametas. Foram realizadas oito coletas para avaliação do índice gonadossomático (IG e dos parâmetros populacionais relacionados com a reprodução. Para avaliação do efeito da Lua na liberação de gametas foram realizadas coletas em três ciclos lunares completos. Ao todo foram coletados 295 indivíduos, sendo 156 machos e 131 fêmeas (proporção 1,19:1, porém não houve diferença significativa na proporção sexual da população. O peso dos machos foisignificativamente maior que o das fêmeas, porém não houve diferença significativa no IG, peso gonadal e diâmetro entre os sexos. Com a amplitude no diâmetro dos animais coletados (5,5-8,7 cm foram estabelecidas cinco classes de tamanho. Não houve diferençassignificativas no IG entre as classes de tamanho. Houve efeito da periodicidade lunar na liberação de gametas, com menor IG na lua nova, indicando que esta ocorre no primeiro quarto lunar e em marés de sizígia.This work evaluated the spawning of sea urchin Lytechinus variegates based on lunar cycle and population characteristics. Eight monthly collections were realized to estimate the gonadosomatic index (GI and population parameters regarding reproduction. To evaluate the effect of the lunar cycle on spawning, samples were taken for each moon phase of three lunar cycles. In the entire work 295 individuals were collected, 156 males and 131 females (1.19:1 ratio. However, there was no significant difference in the sex ratio of the population. The weight of males was significantly greater than that of females. There were no differences between males and females in gonadosomatic index (GI, gonad weight and diameter. There was aneffect of the lunar periodicity on spawning, with lower GI in new moon, indicating that spawning occurs on the first lunar quarter in spring tide.

  17. Biologia reprodutiva de Echinometra lucunter (Echinodermata: Echinoidea na Praia da Costa, Vila Velha, Espírito Santo Reproductive biology of Echinometra lucunter (Echinodermata: Echinoidea in Praia da Costa, Vila Velha, Espírito Santo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima L. F. Mariante


    Full Text Available Echinometra lucunter Linnaeus, 1758 is a tropical sea urchin with strong bioerosive potential. Consequently, this species has great ecological importance. The species occurs in high densities along the Brazilian coast, particularly in the south and southeast. The objective of this work was to evaluate both the effects of annual seasonality and the lunar cycle on the reproduction of E. lucunter. Individuals were sampled monthly for a period of one year and during four complete lunar cycles. The gonadosomatic index (GI was calculated to determine the annual and monthly reproductive peaks based on the lunar phase. The sex ratio (male:female was 1:1.04, without significant difference in sexual proportion. The GI was significantly higher for males than for females. The first sexual maturation occurs when carapace width reaches 23.30 mm, and 50% of the animals have gonads with 28.22 mm. The spawning peak generally occurs during the whole year from the full moon to the waning moon. However, there is an annual reproductive peak from summer to autumn.

  18. Nuevos registros de ofiuroideos (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea para localidades de Zihuatanejo (Guerrero y Puerto Escondido (Oaxaca, Pacífico mexicano New records of ophiuroids (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea from localities at Zihuatanejo (Guerrero and Puerto Escondido (Oaxaca, Mexican Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rebeca Granja-Fernández


    Full Text Available Se presentan nuevos registros de ofiuroideos para localidades de Zihuatanejo, Guerrero y de Puerto Escondido, Oaxaca en el Pacífico mexicano. Mediante recolectas realizadas en diversos sustratos se obtuvieron 12 especies, de las cuales Ophiocoma alexandri Lyman, 1860 y Ophiothela mirabilis (Verrill, 1867 fueron las más ampliamente distribuidas. Este número de especies, el más alto registrado respecto a trabajos previos, se atribuye a la mayor amplitud espacial del esfuerzo de muestreo y a la mayor diversidad de sustratos explorados. Se dan a conocer nuevos sustratos habitados por O. mirabilis y Ophioderma panamensis Lütken, 1859. Se presenta el primer registro de asociación de un organismo juvenil de O. alexandri con un hidrozoo del orden Leptothecata en el Pacífico oriental. A pesar del incremento en el número de especies reconocidas para las localidades, se sugiere llevar a cabo una prospección más amplia del Pacífico tropical mexicano y un mayor esfuerzo de muestreo en diversos sustratos con el fin de incrementar el conocimiento de la biodiversidad de ofiuros en la zona.New records of ophiuroids from localities at Zihuatanejo, Guerrero and Puerto Escondido, Oaxaca in the Mexican Pacific are presented. Based on specimens collected on diverse substrata, 12 species were identified; Ophiocoma alexandri Lyman, 1860 and Ophiothela mirabilis (Verrill, 1867 being the most widely distributed. The larger number of recorded species compared to previous studies may result from a spatially broader sampling and a more thorough survey involving a larger variety of substrata. New substrata for O. mirabilis and Ophioderma panamensis Lütken, 1859 are reported. We document, for first time, the relationship between a juvenile of O. alexandri and a hydrozoan of the order Leptothecata in the Eastern Pacific. Although this paper documents a significant increase in the number of recorded species in the study area, we highlight the need for a large scale survey in the tropical Mexican Pacific, along with a more thorough sampling on a larger number of substrata in order to increase our knowledge about ophiuroids in the area.

  19. Estrutura fina do espermatozóide de Mellita quinquiesperforata Leske (Echinodermata do litoral norte do Brasil Fine structure of the spermatozoon of the Mellita quinquiesperforata (Echinodermata of the Northern littoral of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilson Matos


    Full Text Available The fine structure of the spermatozoon in the Mellita quinquiesperforata Leske, 1778 was studied. Collected from the Amazon region, were described by light and transmission electron microscopy. The spermatozoon consisted of a acrosome complex, nucleus, four to six mitochondria, two centrioles and flagellum. The acrosome was composed of a acrosome complex, the acrosomal vesicle and the subacrosomal space. The nucleus are composed by dense material. The middle piece contains 4-6 mitochondria which are arranged around the centrioles, the 9p+0, whose axoneme has the classic 9p+2 microtubular construction.

  20. Ophiuroidea das regiões antartica e subantartica: 2. variação em Gorgonocephalus chílensis (Philippi (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea, Gorgonocephalidae Ophiuroidea from antarctic and subantarctic regions: 2. variation on Gorgonocephalus chilensis (Philippi (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea, Gorgonocephalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Gouveia Monteiro


    Full Text Available Foram examinados 198 exemplares de Gorgonocephalus chilensis das regiões antártica e subantartica, tendo-se em vista a variação de caracteres morfológicos externos. Foi constatada uma grande variação nas características morfológicas externas, que parece independer de localização geográfica.A revision is presented on the variability of the ornamentation and other extermal morphological aspects of Gorgonocephalus chilensis. The samples were obtained along the period of 1962 to 1972 by the R/V "Hero" and "Eltanin" (USARP and by the R/V "Almirante Saldanha" from the Brazilian Navy.

  1. Macrofaunal involvement in the sublittoral decay of kelp debris: The sea urchin Psammechinus miliaris (Gmelin) (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) (United States)

    Bedford, A. P.; Moore, P. G.


    Psammechinus miliaris occurs in the Clyde Sea area in large numbers (diet of rotting weed but not on fresh weed. Large seasonal variation existed, however, with fast growth occurring in June-August and little, or no, growth in December-February, irrespective of diet. Starved controls did not grow. Correcting for seasonality, rotting kelp still promoted faster growth of young urchins than did fresh weed. Larger (older) individuals showed no difference. Urchins fed fresh weed had significantly longer gut retention times. Protein absorption efficiency was higher on fresh than rotting weed, varying with weed protein content and size of urchin. Very young individuals can only digest high protein weed efficiently, eg. material derived from near the frond meristem. Organic carbon content of rotting weed was significantly lower than fresh weed. Carbon absorption efficiencies were significantly higher on fresh weed which related to organic carbon content. Standard-sized urchins fed rotting weed produced larger dry weights of faeces per day, reflecting increased ingestion rate. In closed-system choice experiments urchins preferred rotting weed kinetically. Size-frequency analysis of field populations suggested that weed beds are principally colonized by larval settlement from the plankton. Mature Psammechinus have evolved different 'strategies' for exploiting fresh and rotting weed. Fresh weed is relatively difficult to digest and long gut retention times allow high protein absorption efficiencies to be attained. Rotting weed has microbial protein in quantities and a lower organic carbon fraction. Some bacterial protein is seemingly unavailable though and lower protein absorption efficiencies result. Thus gut retention time is shortened and more food passed through the gut. Growth remains equivalent. Substratum digestion is of paramount importance for Psammechinus feeding on either fresh or rotting weed, cf. the 'classical' microbe-stripping detritivore of Fenchel.

  2. Non-destructive morphological observations of the fleshy brittle star, Asteronyx loveni using micro-computed tomography (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea, Euryalida). (United States)

    Okanishi, Masanori; Fujita, Toshihiko; Maekawa, Yu; Sasaki, Takenori


    The first morphological observation of a euryalid brittle star, Asteronyx loveni , using non-destructive X-ray micro-computed tomography (µCT) was performed. The body of euryalids is covered by thick skin, and it is very difficult to observe the ossicles without dissolving the skin. Computed tomography with micrometer resolution (approximately 4.5-15.4 µm) was used to construct 3D images of skeletal ossicles and soft tissues in the ophiuroid's body. Shape and positional arrangement of taxonomically important ossicles were clearly observed without any damage to the body. Detailed pathways inside the vertebral ossicles, lateral arm plates, and arm spines for passage of nerves and water vascular structures were observed. Inter-vertebral muscles were also observed. Forms and 3D arrangements of many important taxonomical characters of the euryalids were scrutinized by µCT in high enough resolution for taxonomic description of ophiuroids.

  3. Non-destructive morphological observations of the fleshy brittle star, Asteronyx loveni using micro-computed tomography (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea, Euryalida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massanori Okanishi


    Full Text Available The first morphological observation of a euryalid brittle star, Asteronyx loveni, using non-destructive X-ray micro-computed tomography (µCT was performed. The body of euryalids is covered by thick skin, and it is very difficult to observe the ossicles without dissolving the skin. Computed tomography with micrometer resolution (approximately 4.5–15.4 µm was used to construct 3D images of skeletal ossicles and soft tissues in the ophiuroid’s body. Shape and positional arrangement of taxonomically important ossicles were clearly observed without any damage to the body. Detailed pathways inside the vertebral ossicles, lateral arm plates, and arm spines for passage of nerves and water vascular structures were observed. Inter-vertebral muscles were also observed. Forms and 3D arrangements of many important taxonomical characters of the euryalids were scrutinized by µCT in high enough resolution for taxonomic description of ophiuroids.

  4. Axial complex and associated structures of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus pallidus (Sars, G.O. 1871) (Echinodermata: Echinoidea). (United States)

    Ezhova, Olga Vladimirovna; Malakhov, Vladimir Vasil'yevich; Egorova, Ekaterina Alekseevna


    Studies of echinoid microscopic anatomy over the last two centuries have created a number of inaccuracies and mistakes that have accumulated in the descriptions of the intricate organization of the coelomic system of Echinoidea. To clarify the situation, we reconstructed the axial complex and radial complex of the echinoid Strongylocentrotus pallidus. The water ring is located between the perivisceral coelom and the perioral coelom. The oral haemal ring lies between the coelothelia of the water-vascular, perivisceral, and perioral rings. The axial part of the axial organ communicates with the oral haemal ring in interradius CD, but the axial coelom does not form the axocoelomic perihaemal ring. The ventral intestinal haemal vessel originates from the oral haemal ring in radius A, and then branches into a network of capillaries, from which the dorsal intestinal vessel starts. The pericardial coelom envelopes the pericardial part of the axial organ, the lacunae of which communicate with the haemocoel of the body wall and with the axial part of the axial organ. The genital haemal ring and the dorsal intestinal vessel communicate with the axial organ. The genital coelom passes in the CD interradius on the side opposite to the hindgut. There is a somatocoelomic perihaemal ring, which sends a pair of coelomic outgrowths into each radius, accompanied by a radial haemal vessel in the oral part. The mistakes and inaccuracies of early descriptions of the echinoid axial complex are listed. The axial complex and associated structures of sea urchins are compared with other eleutherozoans. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. A new species of the remarkable brittle star genus Astrophiura (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) from the western Atlantic Ocean. (United States)

    Pawson, David L


    Astrophiura caroleae, new species, is described from off Curacao in the southern Caribbean, and from the western Gulf of Mexico, in depths of 244 to 434 meters. This new species, the first in the genus Astrophiura to be described from the Atlantic Ocean, has a distinctive combination of characters, including regularly arranged primary plates, large radial shields whose radial edges are in contact for their entire visible length, and prominent tubercles on central and radial plates. The mottled reddish coloration of the dorsal surface of this species usually contrasts with the color of the substratum, rendering it readily visible in situ, despite its disc diameter of less than 10 mm. Like its congeners, A. caroleae is gonochoric, the gonads of females containing conspicuous masses of bright orange eggs that are approximately 165 µm in diameter. DNA Barcoding data are provided for this new species, these are the first for Astrophiura.

  6. Isolation and Characterization of Adhesive Secretion from Cuvierian Tubules of Sea Cucumber Holothuria forskåli (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Baranowska


    Full Text Available The sea cucumber Holothuria forskåli possesses a specialized system called Cuvierian tubules. During mechanical stimulation white filaments (tubules are expelled and become sticky upon contact with any object. We isolated a protein with adhesive properties from protein extracts of Cuvierian tubules from H. forskåli. This protein was identified by antibodies against recombinant precollagen D which is located in the byssal threads of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. To find out the optimal procedure for extraction and purification, the identified protein was isolated by several methods, including electroelution, binding to glass beads, immunoprecipitation, and gel filtration. Antibodies raised against the isolated protein were used for localization of the adhesive protein in Cuvierian tubules. Immunostaining and immunogold electron microscopical studies revealed the strongest immunoreactivity in the mesothelium; this tissue layer is involved in adhesion. Adhesion of Cuvierian tubule extracts was measured on the surface of various materials. The extracted protein showed the strongest adhesion to Teflon surface. Increased adhesion was observed in the presence of potassium and EDTA, while cadmium caused a decrease in adhesion. Addition of antibodies and trypsin abolished the adhesive properties of the extract.

  7. Sediment toxicity assessment in the Lagoon of Venice (Italy) using Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) fertilization and embryo bioassays. (United States)

    Volpi Ghirardini, A; Arizzi Novelli, A; Tagliapietra, D


    The capacity of two toxicity bioassays (fertilization and embryo toxicity tests) to discriminate sediment toxicity using the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus was tested in five stations with different levels of pollution in the Lagoon of Venice. Two stations were located in estuarine sites, two in the industrial zone, and one in a site at the top of our quality gradient (reference). Elutriate was chosen as sediment matrix to assess the potential effects of bioavailable pollutants in the water column as a consequence of sediment resuspension (dredging and dumping, fishing gear, etc.). An experimental design based on Quality Assurance/Quality Control procedures (QA/QC) was adopted in order to set the methodological basis for an effective use of these bioassays in monitoring programs. Results revealed both higher embriotoxicity than spermiotoxicity in all stations and the efficacy of combined use of both toxicity bioassays in discriminating differing pollution/bioavailability between stations and periods. The good representativeness of the integrated sampling scheme and the standardization of all experimental phases yielded high precision of results. Clear Toxicity Fingerprints were evidenced for the investigated sites through the combined use of both bioassays. A good fit between ecotoxicological data and chemical contamination levels was found, except for unnatural sediment texture.

  8. Spatial and seasonal variation of the gonad index of Diadema antillarum (Echinodermata:Echinoidea in the Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Hernández


    Full Text Available Diadema antillarum Philippi occurs in high density populations in the Canary Islands, creating extensive barren areas. During one year we determined seasonal changes in the algal abundance and population densities, test diameter, gut contents and gonad index of sea urchins in two localities (Abades and Boca Cangrejo. Boca Cangrejo shows higher algae cover and species richness than Abades. The sea urchin population at Abades had a higher density and smaller urchins than Boca Cangrejo. Boca Cangrejo sea urchins showed higher specific richness in gut contents than Abades urchins. The sea urchin population at Abades did not have a clearer reproductive periodicity or higher gonad index than the Boca Cangrejo population. Temporal and spatial changes in gonad periodicity of Diadema antillarum are attributed, at least in part, to benthic food availability (algal cover and algal species number and intra-specific competition.

  9. Bioenergetic trade-offs in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) in response to CO2-driven ocean acidification. (United States)

    Yuan, Xiutang; Shao, Senlin; Yang, Xiaolong; Yang, Dazuo; Xu, Qinzeng; Zong, Humin; Liu, Shilin


    Ocean acidification (OA) caused by excessive CO2 is a potential ecological threat to marine organisms. The impacts of OA on echinoderms are well-documented, but there has been a strong bias towards sea urchins, and limited information is available on sea cucumbers. This work examined the effect of medium-term (60 days) exposure to three pH levels (pH 8.06, 7.72, and 7.41, covering present and future pH variability) on the bioenergetic responses of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, an ecologically and economically important holothurian in Asian coasts. Results showed that the measured specific growth rate linearly decreased with decreased pH, leading to a 0.42 %·day(-1) decrease at pH 7.41 compared with that at pH 8.06. The impacts of pH on physiological energetics were variable: measured energy consumption and defecation rates linearly decreased with decreased pH, whereas maintenance energy in calculated respiration and excretion were not significantly affected. No shift in energy allocation pattern was observed in A. japonicus upon exposure to pH 7.72 compared with pH 8.06. However, a significant shift in energy budget occurred upon exposure to pH 7.41, leading to decreased energy intake and increased percentage of energy that was lost in feces, thereby resulting in a significantly lowered allocation into somatic growth. These findings indicate that adult A. japonicus is resilient to the OA scenario at the end of the twenty-first century, but further acidification may negatively influence the grazing capability and growth, thereby influencing its ecological functioning as an "ecosystem engineer" and potentially harming its culture output.

  10. A new species of Chiridota (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea: Apodida: Chiridotidae) from Japan, and First record of C. rigida from Japan. (United States)

    Yamana, Yusuke; Tanaka, Hayato


    A new apodid sea cucumber, Chiridota impatiens sp. nov., is described from the intertidal zone of Okinawa, Japan, and C. rigida Semper, 1867 is also described from the intertidal zone of Wakayama, as new to Japan. C. impatiens sp. nov. is approximately 60-70 mm, with 12 tentacles and 4-7 pairs of digits per tentacle, red or reddish brown in living specimens. The tentacles contain curved rod ossicles, with spinous processes and many branches in C. rigida, however, in C. impatiens sp. nov., the curved rod ossicles are crescent-shaped, sometimes distally, with spinous processes and rarely a few branches on the circumference. In both species, the body wall contains flattened rod ossicles, mostly present along the longitudinal muscle and mesentery, curved rod ossicles primarily in the body wall, and wheel ossicles only in the wheel-papillae. In C. rigida, the contents of the wheel-papillae form a hemispherical sack-shaped structures, in which the teeth-side of the wheel ossicles mostly faces towards the outside of the body. In C. impatiens sp. nov., the contents of the wheel-papillae form a cord-shaped structure (present in both preserved and living specimens), in which the teeth-side of the wheel ossicles faces various directions, and that can be induced to break through the skin of the papillae if stimulated in living specimens.

  11. Brittle stars (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) from seamounts in the Andaman Sea (Indian Ocean): first account, with descriptions of new species

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Stohr, S.; Sautya, S.; Ingole, B.S.

    and it is still the standard reference work on the subject. A recent census counted 319 species of ophiuroid for the Indian Ocean (Stöhr, O'Hara & Thuy, in press), about a quarter of them endemic to the region. By comparison, the same study found 831 species... of the first lateral arm plates. Up to 18 fringe spines in each interradius. Second tentacle pore slit-shaped, opening into the mouth slit, bordered by several low scales. No other tentacle scales along arm. Large round ventral spine articulation...

  12. Diadema ascensionisMortensen, 1909 (Echinodermata: Echinoidea is not restricted to Oceanic Islands: evidence from morphological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AI Gondim

    Full Text Available The genus Diadema presently consists of seven species, two of which are known from the Brazilian coast: D. antillarum and D. ascensionis. The first is usually known for shallow coastal areas, while the second was apparently restricted to oceanic islands. In February 2011, a dense population of D. ascensionis was observed on the coastal reefs of Praia do Francês (Alagoas State, northeastern Brazil. Five specimens were collected and transported to the laboratory where morphological studies of the test and pedicellariae were conducted. Subsequently, visits were made to scientific collections in order to compare and confirm species identifications. Our observations confirm the presence of tridentate pedicellariae with narrow and strongly curved valves. The axial cavity in the tips of the spines is filled with dense nonreticular tissue. This taxonomic data confirms the occurrence of D. ascensionis in coastal areas. On the coastal reefs of Praia do Francês, animals were observed from the beach to the reef formations about 200 m offshore in areas with a sandy substrate and in reef cavities, usually in clear and well illuminated waters. Solitary individuals or groups of up to 15 individuals formed dense populations in the area. We stress the importance of pedicellariae for the specific identification of the Diadematidae, considering that they are quite constant and reliable at this taxonomic level. Our results demonstrate that D. ascensionis is not restricted to insular environments and that this species may be common in shallow coastal habitats.

  13. The biomass, abundance, and distribution pattern of starfish Asterias sp. (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) in East Coast of Surabaya (United States)

    Dewi, N. N.; Pursetyo, K. T.; Aprilianitasari, L.; Zakaria, M. H.; Ramadhan, M. R.; Triatmaja, R. A.


    This study aims to determine the biomass, density, and distribution patterns of Asterias sp. Samples were collected from three locations such as Wonokromo, Dadapan and Juanda, each divided into 3 zones. In each zone, samples were taken as many as 5 repetitions using swept area method. Temporarily, the highest biomass of starfish was 2.95 gr/m2 in Dadapan Zone on January. Spatially, biomass of starfish was found in Dadapan Zone (3,35 gr/m2). Similarly, the high density was also found in Dadapan Zone on January (9 ind/10 m2). In general, the distributionpattern of starfish in East Coast Surabaya throughspatial and temporal showed that the pattern of starfish was grouping distribution (Id value > 1) for Dadapan and Juanda, and uniform for Wonokromo. Oceanographic condition, antropogenic activity, and water quality in East Cost of Surabaya become important things which is affected the biomass, densityand distribution pattern of starfish. The knowledge of starfish biomass and density is very important given that this biota has ecological value as a balancing ecosystem in the waters.

  14. A New Morphological Phylogeny of the Ophiuroidea (Echinodermata Accords with Molecular Evidence and Renders Microfossils Accessible for Cladistics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Thuy

    Full Text Available Ophiuroid systematics is currently in a state of upheaval, with recent molecular estimates fundamentally clashing with traditional, morphology-based classifications. Here, we attempt a long overdue recast of a morphological phylogeny estimate of the Ophiuroidea taking into account latest insights on microstructural features of the arm skeleton. Our final estimate is based on a total of 45 ingroup taxa, including 41 recent species covering the full range of extant ophiuroid higher taxon diversity and 4 fossil species known from exceptionally preserved material, and the Lower Carboniferous Aganaster gregarius as the outgroup. A total of 130 characters were scored directly on specimens. The tree resulting from the Bayesian inference analysis of the full data matrix is reasonably well resolved and well supported, and refutes all previous classifications, with most traditional families discredited as poly- or paraphyletic. In contrast, our tree agrees remarkably well with the latest molecular estimate, thus paving the way towards an integrated new classification of the Ophiuroidea. Among the characters which were qualitatively found to accord best with our tree topology, we selected a list of potential synapomorphies for future formal clade definitions. Furthermore, an analysis with 13 of the ingroup taxa reduced to the lateral arm plate characters produced a tree which was essentially similar to the full dataset tree. This suggests that dissociated lateral arm plates can be analysed in combination with fully known taxa and thus effectively unlocks the extensive record of fossil lateral arm plates for phylogenetic estimates. Finally, the age and position within our tree implies that the ophiuroid crown-group had started to diversify by the Early Triassic.

  15. The central nervous system of sea cucumbers (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea shows positive immunostaining for a chordate glial secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grondona Jesus M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Echinoderms and chordates belong to the same monophyletic taxon, the Deuterostomia. In spite of significant differences in body plan organization, the two phyla may share more common traits than was thought previously. Of particular interest are the common features in the organization of the central nervous system. The present study employs two polyclonal antisera raised against bovine Reissner's substance (RS, a secretory product produced by glial cells of the subcomissural organ, to study RS-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of sea cucumbers. Results In the ectoneural division of the nervous system, both antisera recognize the content of secretory vacuoles in the apical cytoplasm of the radial glia-like cells of the neuroepithelium and in the flattened glial cells of the non-neural epineural roof epithelium. The secreted immunopositive material seems to form a thin layer covering the cell apices. There is no accumulation of the immunoreactive material on the apical surface of the hyponeural neuroepithelium or the hyponeural roof epithelium. Besides labelling the supporting cells and flattened glial cells of the epineural roof epithelium, both anti-RS antisera reveal a previously unknown putative glial cell type within the neural parenchyma of the holothurian nervous system. Conclusion Our results show that: a the glial cells of the holothurian tubular nervous system produce a material similar to Reissner's substance known to be synthesized by secretory glial cells in all chordates studied so far; b the nervous system of sea cucumbers shows a previously unrealized complexity of glial organization. Our findings also provide significant clues for interpretation of the evolution of the nervous system in the Deuterostomia. It is suggested that echinoderms and chordates might have inherited the RS-producing radial glial cell type from the central nervous system of their common ancestor, i.e., the last common ancestor of all the Deuterostomia.

  16. A new species of deep-water Holothuroidea (Echinodermata of the genus Synallactes from off western Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Massin


    Full Text Available An undescribed species of Synallactes was collected during a deep-water benthic fauna survey off the Pacific coast of Mexico in the East Pacific, with the R/V El Puma. This new species differs from all the other known Synallactes by the presence of huge massive rods in the tube feet, some of them club-shaped. The later ossicle shape is unique among Holothuroidea. This is the first record of a Synallactes in the Gulf of California.

  17. Megafauna of the UKSRL exploration contract area and eastern Clarion-Clipperton Zone in the Pacific Ocean: Echinodermata. (United States)

    Amon, Diva J; Ziegler, Amanda F; Kremenetskaia, Antonina; Mah, Christopher L; Mooi, Rich; O'Hara, Tim; Pawson, David L; Roux, Michel; Smith, Craig R


    There is growing interest in mining polymetallic nodules from the abyssal Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ) in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Despite being the focus of environmental studies for decades, the benthic megafauna of the CCZ remain poorly known. In order to predict and manage the environmental impacts of mining in the CCZ, baseline knowledge of the megafauna is essential. The ABYSSLINE Project has conducted benthic biological baseline surveys in the UK Seabed Resources Ltd polymetallic-nodule exploration contract area (UK-1). Prior to these research cruises in 2013 and 2015, no biological studies had been done in this area of the eastern CCZ. Using a Remotely Operated Vehicle and Autonomous Underwater Vehicle, the megafauna within the UKSRL exploration contract area (UK-1) and at a site ~250 km east of the UK-1 area were surveyed, allowing us to make the first estimates of megafaunal morphospecies richness from the imagery collected. Here, we present an atlas of the abyssal echinoderm megafauna observed and collected during the ABYSSLINE cruises to the UK-1 polymetallic-nodule exploration contract area in the CCZ. There appear to be at least 62 distinct morphospecies (13 Asteroidea, 5 Crinoidea, 9 Echinoidea, 29 Holothuroidea and 6 Ophiuroidea) identified mostly by imagery but also using molecular barcoding for a limited number of animals that were collected. This atlas will aid the synthesis of megafaunal presence/absence data collected by contractors, scientists and other stakeholders undertaking work in the CCZ, ultimately helping to decipher the biogeography of the megafauna in this threatened habitat.

  18. Influence of Diadema antillarum populations (Echinodermata: Diadematidae on algal community structure in Jardines de la Reina, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Martín Blanco


    Full Text Available The 1983-1984 mass mortality of Diadema antillarum produced severe damages on Caribbean reefs contributing to substantial changes in community structure that still persist. Despite the importance of Diadema grazing in structuring coral reefs, available information on current abundances and algal-urchin interactions in Cuba is scarce. We analyzed spatial variations in Diadema abundance and its influence on algal community structure in 22 reef sites in Jardines de la Reina, in June/2004 and April/2005. Urchins were counted in five 30x2m transects per site, and algal coverage was estimated in randomly located 0.25m side quadrats (15 per site. Abundances of Diadema were higher at reef crests (0.013-1.553 ind/m², while reef slope populations showed values up to three orders of magnitude lower and were overgrown by macroalgae (up to 87%, local values. Algal community structure at reef slopes were dominated by macroalgae, especially Dictyota, Lobophora and Halimeda while the most abundant macroalgae at reef crests were Halimeda and Amphiroa. Urchin densities were negatively and positively correlated with mean coverage of macroalgae and crustose coralline algae, respectively, when analyzing data pooled across all sites, but not with data from separate habitats (specially reef crest, suggesting, along with historical fish biomass, that shallow reef community structure is being shaped by the synergistic action of other factors (e.g. fish grazing rather than the influence of Diadema alone. However, we observed clear signs of Diadema grazing at reef crests and decreased macroalgal cover according to 2001 data, what suggest that grazing intensity at this habitat increased at the same time that Diadema recruitment began to be noticeable. Furthermore, the excessive abundance of macroalgae at reef slopes and the scarcity of crustose coralline algae seems to be due by the almost complete absence of D. antillarum at mid depth reefs, where local densities of this urchin were predominantly low. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 1149-1163. Epub 2011 September 01.A pesar de la importancia del forrageo de Diadema en la estructuración de los arrecifes de coral, la información disponible sobre la actual abundancia de algas y de las interacciones de erizos en Cuba es escasa. Por lo tanto, se analizan las variaciones espaciales en la abundancia de Diadema antillarum y su influencia sobre las algas en 22 arrecifes en Jardines de la Reina, en junio/2004 y abril/2005. Los erizos se muestrearon en recorridos de 30x2m (5/sitio y las algas en cuadrículas de 0.25m de lado (15/sitio. Las densidades de Diadema fueron mayores en las crestas arrecifales (0.013-1.553ind/m² mientras que las pendientes mostraron valores hasta tres ordenes de magnitud menor y presentaron un cubrimiento excesivo de macroalgas (hasta 87%, siendo las más abundantes Dictyota, Lobophora y Halimeda. Las densidades de erizos estuvieron correlacionadas negativa y positivamente con el cubrimiento de macroalgas y algas costrosas, respectivamente, en el análisis global, pero no en hábitats separados (especialmente en crestas, sugiriendo, conjuntamente con la biomasa histórica de peces, que la estructura de las comunidades en las crestas está determinada por la acción sinérgica de otros factores (herbivoría de peces más que por la influencia de Diadema solo. No obstante, se observaron indicios del forrajeo de Diadema, y el cubrimiento de macroalgas disminuyó desde 2001, lo cual sugiere que la intensidad de la herbivoría aumentó al mismo tiempo que el reclutamiento de Diadema.

  19. Shallow-water brittle stars (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) from Araçá Bay (Southeastern Brazil), with spatial distribution considerations. (United States)

    Alitto, Renata A S; Bueno, Maristela L; Guilherme, Pablo D B; Di Domenico, Maikon; Christensen, Ana Beardsley; Borges, Michela


    The detailed study of arm ossicles, particularly the lateral arm plates, is providing valuable information in the elucidation of ophiuroid taxonomy. The present study describes in detail 16 species of brittle stars from Araçá Bay, Brazil. This information is used to construct the first interactive electronic key, providing a valuable resource for a broad range of researchers. Brittle stars families were divided into three groups based on their spatial distribution: i) infaunal species of intertidal and shallow subtidal belonging to Amphiuridae and Ophiactidae, ii) epizoic species belonging to Amphiuridae, Ophiactidae, and Ophiotrichidae and, iii) epifaunal species of the subtidal belonging to Ophiodermatidae and Hemieuryalidae. In the global context of recent revisions of ophiuroid taxonomy, the present work provides additional characters for use in future phylogenetic studies.

  20. Immune mediators of sea-cucumber Holothuria tubulosa (Echinodermata) as source of novel antimicrobial and anti-staphylococcal biofilm agents. (United States)

    Schillaci, Domenico; Cusimano, Maria Grazia; Cunsolo, Vincenzo; Saletti, Rosaria; Russo, Debora; Vazzana, Mirella; Vitale, Maria; Arizza, Vincenzo


    The present study aims to investigate coelomocytes, immune mediators cells in the echinoderm Holothuria tubulosa, as an unusual source of antimicrobial and antibiofilm agents. The activity of the 5kDa peptide fraction of the cytosol from H. tubulosa coelomocytes (5-HCC) was tested against a reference group of Gram-negative and Gram-positive human pathogens. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 125 to 500 mg/ml were determined against tested strains. The observed biological activity of 5-HCC could be due to two novel peptides, identified by capillary RP-HPLC/nESI-MS/MS, which present the common chemical-physical characteristics of antimicrobial peptides. Such peptides were chemically synthesized and their antimicrobial activity was tested. The synthetic peptides showed broad-spectrum activity at 12.5 mg/ml against the majority of the tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains, and they were also able to inhibit biofilm formation in a significant percentage at a concentration of 3.1 mg/ml against staphylococcal and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains.The immune mediators in H. tubulosa are a source of novel antimicrobial peptides for the development of new agents against biofilm bacterial communities that are often intrinsically resistant to conventional antibiotics.

  1. Abyssal aggregations of Kolga hyalina Danielssen and Koren (Echinodermata: Holothurioidea) in the northeast Atlantic Ocean: a preliminary report (United States)

    Billett, D. S. M.; Hansen, B.


    Kolga hyalina Danielssen and Koren has been found in dense numbers between 2755 and 4080 m in the Porcupine Seabight. All of the specimens were small and of a similar size at any one station. The narrow size distributions were typical of the species over a wide geographic area and size range. Gonadial development is evident in the smallest specimens examined (3 mm long). The life-history traits of K. hyalina are discussed in relation to its association with the unstable environment of the Gollum Channel system. The dispersion pattern of K. hyalina changed temporally and, to a lesser extent, spatially. In some cases dense aggregations were formed. Taxonomic details are also presented.

  2. Two new species of Syndesmis (Platyhelminthes, Rhabdocoela, Umagillidae from the sea urchin Pseudechinus magellanicus (Echinodermata, Echinoidea in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Brusa


    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe two new species of Syndesmis living in Pseudechinus magellanicus in the Southwest Atlantic Ocean. The new species have a long stylet in the male reproductive system, which is different from that of the known species of the genus. Specimens of Syndesmis selknami n. sp. have a ∼220-μm-long stylet (∼1/3 of the body length, 0.69 mm. This ratio is unique because only four species (Syndesmis echinorum, Syndesmis rubida, Syndesmis inconspicua and Syndesmis echiniacuti have similar stylet lengths but are larger in body sizes (3–5 mm. Specimens of Syndesmis aonikenki n. sp. have a ∼148-μm-long stylet (∼1/10 of the body length, 1.11 mm. Syndesmis pallida has a similar ratio but the uterus is located posteriorly, and the filament glands are very small and located in the posterior region of the body. These are the first flatworms reported parasitizing Pseudechinus magellanicus.

  3. Chronic toxicity test with sea urchin Echinometra lucunter and Lytechinus variegatus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea, exposed to light-stick - flag paternoster used for longline surface fishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Cesar-Ribeiro


    Full Text Available In this work, the chronic toxicity of a mixture of light-stick chemicals and water was tested. The light-stick is used in fishery activities to catch swordfish. The tubes were collected on the beaches of the Costa dos Coqueiros - BA, Brazil, in the period from 14th to 31st July 2007. The method used was a short chronic toxicity test where embryos of the sea urchins Echinometra lucunter and Lytechinus variegatus were exposed to a stock solution consisting of the supernatant formed from a mixture of sea water and the orange-colored light-stick chemical. After a preliminary test, concentrations defined were 0.002, 0.003, 0.01, 0.02, 0.1, 1.0% of stock solution. The final test ran for 36 hours for E. Lucunter and 24 hours for L. variegatus with 4 replicates for each concentration. The value of EC50 - 36h was 0.062% with confidence limits ranging from 0.042 to 0.079% and the EC50 - 24h was 0.011% with confidence limits ranging from 0.009 to 0.014%, i.e., the chemical mix present in the light-stick is potentially toxic. So, as these flags are commonly used for fishing there is potential danger in their disposal in the open ocean.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a toxicidade crônica da água do mar em contato com o líquido contido no light-stick, sinalizador utilizado em pesca de espinhel de superfície para a captura de espadarte. Os tubos foram coletados nas praias da Costa dos Coqueiros - BA, no período de 14 a 31 de Julho de 2007. O método utilizado para a verificação da toxicidade crônica foi o teste de curta duração com embriões de ouriço-do-mar Echinometra lucunter e Lytechinus variegatus, os ensaios foram realizados com solução estoque que consiste do sobrenadante formado a partir de uma mistura de água do mar com o líquido do sinalizador de coloração laranja. Após um teste preliminar as concentrações definidas foram 0.002; 0.003; 0.01; 0.02; 0.1; 1.0%. O teste definitivo teve duração de 36 horas para E. lucunter e 24 horas para L. variegatus, sendo preparadas 4 réplicas para cada concentração. O valor da CE50 - 36h encontrado foi de 0.062% com limites de aceitabilidade variando de 0.042 a 0.079% e a CE50 - 24h encontrada foi de 0.011% com limites de aceitabilidade variando de 0.009 a 0.014%, ou seja, os compostos químicos presentes no light-stick são potencialmente tóxicos. Portanto já que esses sinalizadores são utilizados comumente como petrechos de pesca há a necessidade de que eles sejam recolhidos, pois podem causar efeitos adversos quando abrem nos oceanos.

  4. Reproductive cycle of Loxechinus albus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea in two areas of the Magellan Region (53ºS, 70-72ºW, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia T. Oyarzún


    Full Text Available The reproductive cycle of the Chilean edible sea urchin, Loxechinus albus, was studied in two areas of the Magellan region, the Cockburn Channel (53°43´S, 70°42´W and Dawson Island (53°43´S, 72°00´W. Eleven monthly samplings were carried out from April 1996 to May 1997 in each area and samples of between 88 and 100 organisms were collected. Test diameter, total wet weight, and wet gonad weight was measured for each organism. Sex, gonad index, maturity index and gametogenic condition were estimated for each organism through histological analyses. The results indicate that L. albus in the Magellan region has an annual reproductive cycle in which the temporal sequence of different gametogenic processes can not be distinguished accurately due to the rapid and continuous gonadal recovery and gamete production after the spawning period. Although mature organisms were present most of the year, simultaneous spawning of males and females occurred from August to September in Dawson Island and from July to September in the Cockburn Channel. Gametes of those organisms that became mature after the spawning period were resorbed by nutritive phagocytes. Results from this study suggest that small-scale variability of spawning period in the Magellan region may be explained by the differences in food type and availability among areas. Our results also suggest that the Magellan region is an exception to the latitudinal pattern of spawning period reported for most of the Chilean coast. This large-scale variability may be explained by the simultaneous occurrence of low temperatures and short days during late winter and early spring.

  5. Mechanical properties of the compass depressors of the sea-urchin Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata, Echinoidea and the effects of enzymes, neurotransmitters and synthetic tensilin-like protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain C Wilkie

    Full Text Available The compass depressors (CDs of the sea-urchin lantern are ligaments consisting mainly of discontinuous collagen fibrils associated with a small population of myocytes. They are mutable collagenous structures, which can change their mechanical properties rapidly and reversibly under nervous control. The aims of this investigation were to characterise the baseline (i.e. unmanipulated static mechanical properties of the CDs of Paracentrotus lividus by means of creep tests and incremental force-extension tests, and to determine the effects on their mechanical behaviour of a range of agents. Under constant load the CDs exhibited a three-phase creep curve, the mean coefficient of viscosity being 561±365 MPa.s. The stress-strain curve showed toe, linear and yield regions; the mean strain at the toe-linear inflection was 0.86±0.61; the mean Young's modulus was 18.62±10.30 MPa; and the mean tensile strength was 8.14±5.73 MPa. Hyaluronidase from Streptomyces hyalurolyticus had no effect on creep behaviour, whilst chondroitinase ABC prolonged primary creep but had no effect on secondary creep or on any force-extension parameters; it thus appears that neither hyaluronic acid nor sulphated glycosaminoglycans have an interfibrillar load transfer function in the CD. Acetylcholine, the muscarinic agonists arecoline and methacholine, and the nicotinic agonists nicotine and 1-[1-(3,4-dimethyl-phenyl-ethyl]-piperazine produced an abrupt increase in CD viscosity; the CDs were not differentially sensitive to muscarinic or nicotinic agonists. CDs showed either no, or no consistent, response to adrenaline, L-glutamic acid, 5-hydroxytryptamine and γ-aminobutyric acid. Synthetic echinoid tensilin-like protein had a weak and inconsistent stiffening effect, indicating that, in contrast to holothurian tensilins, the echinoid molecule may not be involved in the regulation of collagenous tissue tensility. We compare in detail the mechanical behaviour of the CD with that of mammalian tendon and highlight its potential as a model system for investigating poorly understood aspects of the ontogeny and phylogeny of vertebrate collagenous tissues.

  6. Four new species and one new subspecies of Asteroidea (Echinodermata) collected by the “Siboga” Expedition in the Indo-Malayan region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aziz, Aznam; Jangoux, Michel


    Four new species and one new subspecies of asteroids collected by the “Siboga” Expedition in the Indo-Malayan region are described. They are deep-water species belonging to the families Goniasteridae, Solasteridae, Ganeriidae, Asteriidae and Brisingidae.

  7. On Mellitella stokesii and Amphipholis geminata (Echinodermata, from an intertidal flat in the upper Gulf of Nicoya estuary, Pacific, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A Vargas


    Full Text Available Information on changes over time in the biodiversity and ecology of tropical systems is of increasing importance against the background of local, regional, and global dynamics. This study aimed to contribute with long-term data on the abundance fluctuations of two species of echinoderms from a tropical tidal flat. From February 1984 to December 1986, March 1985 to April 1987, and July 1994 to September 1996 (total: 76 dates, core samples (17.7cm², 15cm deep were collected at low tide at a mud-sand flat in the mid upper Gulf of Nicoya estuary, Costa Rica, as part of a survey of the benthic community. Among more than 100 taxa, the burrowing brittle star, Amphipholis geminata, and the sand dollar, Mellitella stokesii, consistently appeared in the samples over the study period. A total of 63 M. stokesii and 149 A. geminata were collected. The 43 sand dollars found during 1984-1985, give an approximate density of 35 ind./m² , which is within the range reported for this species. M. stokesii was almost absent from 1994 to 1996, while A. geminata had its peak of abundance at the end of 1995. Low abundances of the sand dollar during the rainy seasons (May-November and slight increments in dry seasons (December-April cores, also agrees with a report from the region. A. geminata also presented an irregular pattern of abundance, with slight increases at the end of the rainy seasons or during the dry seasons, when higher salinities are more suitable for echinoderms. The patchy spatial distribution of both species makes difficult the detection of patterns with a corer. Nevertheless, this information is unique due to its extensive time coverage and provides a baseline for future surveys designed specifically for the study of tropical intertidal estuarine echinoderms. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (1: 193-198. Epub 2011 March 01.La información sobre cambios en el tiempo, en la biodiversidad y ecología de los sistemas tropicales, es de importancia creciente en el contexto de la dinámica local, regional, o global. Este estudio tuvo por objetivo el contribuir con información de largo-plazo sobre fluctuaciones en la abundancia de dos especies de equinodermos en una planicie mareal tropical. De febrero 1984 a diciembre 1986, marzo 1985 a abril 1987, y julio 1994 a septiembre 1996 (total: 76 fechas, muestras de barreno (17.7cm², 15cm de profundidad fueron recolectadas durante la marea baja en una planicie fangosa-arenosa en la región media del estuario del Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica, como parte de un estudio de la comunidad bentónica. Entre las más de 100 especies, la estrella frágil excavadora, Amphipholis geminata y la galleta de mar, Mellitella stokesii, aparecieron en las muestras a lo largo del estudio. Un total de 63 M. stokesii, y 149 A. geminata fueron recolectadas. Las 43 galletas de mar encontradas durante 1984-1985, dan una densidad aproximada de 35 ind./m², la que está dentro del ámbito informado para esta especie. M. stokesii estuvo casi ausente entre 1994 y 1996, mientras que A. geminata tuvo su pico de abundancia a fines de 1995. Escasa abundancia de la galleta durante la estación de lluvias (Mayo a Noviembre, y pequeños incrementos durante la estación seca (Diciembre a Abril, también están dentro de lo informado para la región. A. geminata también presentó un patrón irregular de abundancia, con pequeños incrementos durante el fin de la estación de lluvias o durante la estación seca, cuando las salinidades altas son más adecuadas para los equinodermos. La distribución agregada de ambas especies hace difícil la identificación de patrones con el barrreno. No obstante, esta información es única debido a lo amplio de la cobertura temporal, y provee una línea base para futuros muestreos diseñados específicamente para el estudio de los equinodermos estuarinos tropicales de la zona de entre-mareas.

  8. Studies of the reproductive biology of deep-sea megabenthos. 7: The Porcellanasteridae (Asteroidea: Echinodermata) including material collected at Great Meteor East, during Discovery cruise 156

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, P.A.; Muirhead, A.


    The reproductive biology of Porcellanaster ceruleus, Hyphalaster inermis and Styrachaster horridus is described. P. ceruleus was collected as part of the time series study in the rockall Trough, N.E. Atlantic. This species had a maximum size of 7.0mm arm radius although maximum size known is 36.0mm arm radius. Relatively few eggs are produced and in these samples grow to a maximum size of 230μm. There was no evidence of reproductive seasonality. In Hyphalaster inermis and Styrachaster horridus the eggs grow to 600μm diameter. At this size the cytoplasm is reticulate and filled with neutral fat whilst the periphery is an amorphous layer. Development of the testes in all three species appears typical of deep-sea asteroids. (author)

  9. A new genus and a new species in the sea cucumber subfamily Colochirinae (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea: Dendrochirotida: Cucumariidae) in the Mediterranean Sea. (United States)

    Mjobo, Sifiso; Thandar, Ahmed S


    A new genus Hemiocnus is here erected to accommodate the Mediterranean dendrochirotid sea cucumber Cladodactyla syracusana Grube, currently classified, with some doubt, in the cucumariid genus Pseudocnella. At the same time a new cucumariid species, Hemiocnus rubrobrunneus, is described from some Tunisian material, misidentified as Pseudocnella syracusana (Grube), received from the United States National Museum. The new genus appears most closely related to Pseudocnella than to any other genus within the Colochirinae. Although its body wall ossicles resemble those of Pseudocnella spp. it differs in that the two ventral-most tentacles are reduced and in the presence of rosettes in the tentacles. P. syracusana also cannot be classified in Ocnus because of the presence of multi-layered, fir-cone shaped plates in the body wall, often with one end denticulate; such ossicles are lacking in the type species of the latter genus. The new species, Hemiocnus rubrobrunneus, on the other hand, shows some resemblance to H. syracusanus in its characteristic buttons and incomplete baskets, differing in its softer body wall, lack of fir-cone-shaped plates and in the presence of rosettes and complete baskets in the body wall. There are also some resemblances of the new species to the Mediterranean species of Ocnus viz. O. brunneus, O. planci and O. lacteus, but the soft nature of the body wall, shallow quadrilocular instead of deep trilocular baskets, and the presence of large knobbed plates in the anal region precludes its inclusion in this genus.

  10. New species of the genera Havelockia and Thyone (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) and first record of T. crassidisca from the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. (United States)

    Martins, Luciana; Tavares, Marcos


    Two new species in the genera Thyone and Havelockia are described and illustrated based upon specimens collected from off the southeastern Brazilian coast. Thyone florianoi sp. nov. is characterized by having two pillared body wall tables with four-holed discs and introvert with multilocular tables. Thyone crassidisca is recorded herein for the first time from the South Atlantic Ocean (Brazil). Havelockia mansoae sp. nov. is distinctive in having two pillared body wall tables with four-holed discs and introvert with plates. This is the first record of the genus Havelockia from Brazilian waters.

  11. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 9, No 6 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DNA sequence and prokaryotic expression analysis of vitellogenin from Antheraea pernyi · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... The effect of phytosphingosine isolated from Asterina pectinifera on cell damage induced by mite antigen in HaCaT cell and antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ...

  12. Additions to black mildews of Pakhal Wildlife Sanctuary, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.B. Hosagoudar


    Full Text Available This paper gives an account of seven black mildew fungi belonging to the genera Asterina, Prillieuxina, Sarcinella and Schiffnerula. Of these, Sarcinella chloroxyli and Sarcinella strychni are the new species while the others are reported for the first time from Pakhal Wildlife Sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh, India.

  13. Impact of benthic disturbance on megafauna in Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rodrigues, N; Sharma, R.; Nath, B.N

    , M., 1980. La nutrition d’echinodermes abyssaux I. Alimentation des holothuries. Marine Biology 60, 17–26. Koelher, R., Vaney, C., 1905. Echinodermata of the Indian Museum, Holothuroidea. Indian Museum, Calcutta. Lampitt, R.S., Rice, A.L., Thurston, M.... Pawson, D.L., Foell, E.J., 1983. Atlas of photographs of megafauna from the study area. Report No. MS – 200 – 146, 120pp. Pawson, D.L., Foell, E.J., 1986. Peniagone leander new species, an abyssal benthopelagic sea cucumber (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea...

  14. Ecology of benthic production in the coastal zone of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harkantra, S.N.; Parulekar, A.H.

    was comprised of Polychaeta (58.5%), Mollusca (18.1%), Crustacea (9.1%), Echinodermata (7.1%) and other minor taxa (7.3%) Population count and biomass varied from 25 to 7823 m-2 (X- = 1256 m-2) and 0.2 to 2251.25 g m-2 (X- = 67.07 g m-2) respectively The higher...

  15. Benthos off Cochin, Southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harkantra, S.N.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Macro-invertebrate benthic fauna off Cochin mainly composed of polychaeta (82.45%), crustacea (7.62%), mollusca (5.92%), sipuncula (2.25%), nemertinea (0.96%) and echinodermata (0.80%). The maximum population density and biomass values were 304 plus...

  16. The application of "double isolation" in Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance sustained off-resonance irradiation collisionally-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry to remove labile isobaric impurities. (United States)

    Gates, Paul J; Lopes, Norberto P; Pinto, Emani; Colepicolo, Pio; Cardozo, Karina H M


    This study reports the application of "double isolation" in sustained off-resonance irradiation collisionally-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (SORI-CID-MS/MS) to remove radio- frequency (RF) fragment ions of very close mass isobaric ions (0.02 m/z apart). Analyses were performed with a fraction of a biological extract isolated from a macroalgae containing the mycosporine-like amino acid asterina-330. Direct isolation of the precursor ion by narrowing the isolation window proved ineffective as it impinged upon the required ion thus substantially reducing its intensity. By increasing the correlated sweep time, ejection efficiency of the isolation was improved, but caused the unwanted side-effect of RF fragmentation of labile ions. Finally, by skipping the ion activation step and performing a second isolation (in the MS(3) module) the RF fragments from the first isolation were removed leaving a very pure isolation of the required precursor ion and allowed a very clean CID fragmentation. We demonstrated that the m/z 272.1351 ion is derived from the loss of NH(3) from m/z 289.1620 isobaric impurity and is not related to asterina-330. This application represents a powerful tool to remove unwanted ions in the MS/MS spectrum that result from fragmentation of isobaric ions.

  17. Historical aspects of meetings, publication series, and digital resources dedicated to echinoderms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Ziegler


    Full Text Available Half a century after the first scientific meeting dedicated to marine spiny-skinned animals (Deuterostomia: Echinodermata was held in Washington, DC, we take this opportunity to provide information on a number of historical aspects related to the echinoderm scientific community. Apart from shedding light on the historical origins of modern echinoderm conferences, the present contribution presents photographs taken during the first meeting of echinoderm researchers in 1963 as well as during the first installments of the International Echinoderm Conference and the European Conference on Echinoderms. Furthermore, we provide background information on publication series dedicated solely to the Echinodermata as well as descriptions of selected digital resources that focus on echinoderms. Finally, we present a number of echinoderm conference logos and flyers in addition to selected information about specific echinoderm meetings.

  18. Biological activities and biomedical potential of sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gun-Woo Oh


    Full Text Available Abstract Members of the phylum Echinodermata, commonly known as echinoderms, are exclusively marine invertebrates. Among the Echinodermata, sea cucumber belongs to the family Holothuroidea. The sea cucumber Stichopus (Apostichous japonicus (Selenka is an invertebrate animal inhabiting the coastal sea around Korean, Japan, China, and Russia. Sea cucumber has a significant commercial value, because it contains valuable nutrients such as vitamins and minerals. They possess a number of distinctive biologically and pharmacologically important compounds. In particular, the body wall of sea cucumber is a major edible part. It consists of peptide, collagen, gelatin, polysaccharide, and saponin, which possess several biological activities such as anti-cancer, anti-coagulation, anti-oxidation, and anti-osteoclastogenesis. Furthermore, the regenerative capacity of sea cucumber makes it a medically important organism. This review presents the various biological activities and biomedical potential of sea cucumber S. japonicus.

  19. Production of Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids from Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Rhodophyta) Cultured Through One Year in an Integrated Multi-trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) System. (United States)

    Barceló-Villalobos, Marta; Figueroa, Félix L; Korbee, Nathalie; Álvarez-Gómez, Félix; Abreu, Maria H


    This study evaluates the production of biomass and mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) throughout the year in Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Rhodophyta) collected in Ria de Aveiro (Portugal). The algae were grown in outdoor tanks in seawater with the addition of fishpond effluents under two different water flows (100 and 200 L h -1 ) in an integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) system (tanks 1200 L; 1.5 m 2 ) and different algal densities (3, 5, and 7 kg m -2 ). MAA content in IMTA seaweeds was significantly affected by the interaction of time and stocking density, but not by the water flow. The highest MAA content was observed in April (about 3.13 mg g -1 DW) followed by May (1.79 mg g -1 DW). Seaweed biomass productivity was higher in May (372.06 g DW m -2  week -1 ) than in April (353.40 g DW m -2  week -1 ). Four MAAs were identified by HPLC and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) in G. vermiculophylla: Porphyra-334, Shinorine, Palythine and Asterina-330. The highest levels of Porphyra-334 and Shinorine were reached from November to January and the Palythine + Asterina-330 from April to August. Taking into account the average biomass and MAA production of G. vermiculophylla growing in this IMTA system (8.56 g of MAA in 18 m 2 culture along 8 months; 35.5% produced in April), a total amount of 71.33 g MAA year -1 could be produced in this system by scaling up to 100 m 2 . MAAs could be further used as photoprotector and antioxidant compounds in cosmetic products.

  20. Catalog of taxa introduced by Luitfried Salvini-Plawen (1939-2014). (United States)

    Affenzeller, Susanne; Steiner, Gerhard


    Luitfried Salvini-Plawen was one of the most distinguished researchers for molluscan phylogenetic systematics of the last decades. In his publications he described a total of 193 species: 134 Solenogastres, 34 Caudofoveata, 14 interstitial Gastropoda, one polyplacophoran and the remaining comprising Cnidaria, Priapulida, Kamptozoa, and Echinodermata. In addition, he introduced 47 genus-group names and 54 names for family-level and higher taxa. This catalog comprises lists of all taxon names published by Luitfried Salvini-Plawen. The catalog entries contain taxonomic information, original citations, type localities and type collections. It aims to facilitate further research on these and related taxa.

  1. Natural Diet of Callinectes ornatus Ordway, 1863 (Decapoda, Portunidae in the Itapocoroy Inlet, Penha, SC, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Olinto Branco


    Full Text Available From January to December 1995, 332 individuals of the Callinectes ornatus species were collected from the Itapocoroy inlet in Penha, Sta. Catarina, Brazil to study its natural diet and the seasonal variations of diet. Results showed a diversified trophic spectrum with a generalized dietary strategy comprising the algae, macrophyta, foraminiferida, mollusca, polychaeta, crustacea, echinodermata, Osteichthyes and NIOM (Nonidentified Organic Matter groups.Alimentação natural de Callinectes ornatus Ordway, 1863 (Decapoda, Portunidae na Armação do Itapocoroy, Penha, SC - Brasil. No período de janeiro a dezembro de 1995, foram coletados 332 indivíduos de Callinectes ornatus, procedentes da Armação do Itapocoroy (Penha, SC. Foi estudada a alimentação natural da espécie e as variações sazonais da dieta. Os resultados mostram um espectro trófico diversificado, com estratégia alimentar generalista, sendo Algas, Macrófitas, Foraminiferida, Mollusca, Polychaeta, Crustacea, Echinodermata, Osteichthyes e matéria orgânica não identificada, os grupos que compõem sua dieta.

  2. Exploring the Sea Urchin Neuropeptide Landscape by Mass Spectrometry. (United States)

    Monroe, Eric B; Annangudi, Suresh P; Wadhams, Andinet A; Richmond, Timothy A; Yang, Ning; Southey, Bruce R; Romanova, Elena V; Schoofs, Liliane; Baggerman, Geert; Sweedler, Jonathan V


    Neuropeptides are essential cell-to-cell signaling messengers and serve important regulatory roles in animals. Although remarkable progress has been made in peptide identification across the Metazoa, for some phyla such as Echinodermata, limited neuropeptides are known and even fewer have been verified on the protein level. We employed peptidomic approaches using bioinformatics and mass spectrometry (MS) to experimentally confirm 23 prohormones and to characterize a new prohormone in nervous system tissue from Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, the purple sea urchin. Ninety-three distinct peptides from known and novel prohormones were detected with MS from extracts of the radial nerves, many of which are reported or experimentally confirmed here for the first time, representing a large-scale study of neuropeptides from the phylum Echinodermata. Many of the identified peptides and their precursor proteins have low homology to known prohormones from other species/phyla and are unique to the sea urchin. By pairing bioinformatics with MS, the capacity to characterize novel peptides and annotate prohormone genes is enhanced. Graphical Abstract.

  3. Structural analysis of the α subunit of Na(+)/K(+) ATPase genes in invertebrates. (United States)

    Thabet, Rahma; Rouault, J-D; Ayadi, Habib; Leignel, Vincent


    The Na(+)/K(+) ATPase is a ubiquitous pump coordinating the transport of Na(+) and K(+) across the membrane of cells and its role is fundamental to cellular functions. It is heteromer in eukaryotes including two or three subunits (α, β and γ which is specific to the vertebrates). The catalytic functions of the enzyme have been attributed to the α subunit. Several complete α protein sequences are available, but only few gene structures were characterized. We identified the genomic sequences coding the α-subunit of the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase, from the whole-genome shotgun contigs (WGS), NCBI Genomes (chromosome), Genomic Survey Sequences (GSS) and High Throughput Genomic Sequences (HTGS) databases across distinct phyla. One copy of the α subunit gene was found in Annelida, Arthropoda, Cnidaria, Echinodermata, Hemichordata, Mollusca, Placozoa, Porifera, Platyhelminthes, Urochordata, but the nematodes seem to possess 2 to 4 copies. The number of introns varied from 0 (Platyhelminthes) to 26 (Porifera); and their localization and length are also highly variable. Molecular phylogenies (Maximum Likelihood and Maximum Parsimony methods) showed some clusters constituted by (Chordata/(Echinodermata/Hemichordata)) or (Plathelminthes/(Annelida/Mollusca)) and a basal position for Porifera. These structural analyses increase our knowledge about the evolutionary events of the α subunit genes in the invertebrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Exploring the Sea Urchin Neuropeptide Landscape by Mass Spectrometry (United States)

    Monroe, Eric B.; Annangudi, Suresh P.; Wadhams, Andinet A.; Richmond, Timothy A.; Yang, Ning; Southey, Bruce R.; Romanova, Elena V.; Schoofs, Liliane; Baggerman, Geert; Sweedler, Jonathan V.


    Neuropeptides are essential cell-to-cell signaling messengers and serve important regulatory roles in animals. Although remarkable progress has been made in peptide identification across the Metazoa, for some phyla such as Echinodermata, limited neuropeptides are known and even fewer have been verified on the protein level. We employed peptidomic approaches using bioinformatics and mass spectrometry (MS) to experimentally confirm 23 prohormones and to characterize a new prohormone in nervous system tissue from Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, the purple sea urchin. Ninety-three distinct peptides from known and novel prohormones were detected with MS from extracts of the radial nerves, many of which are reported or experimentally confirmed here for the first time, representing a large-scale study of neuropeptides from the phylum Echinodermata. Many of the identified peptides and their precursor proteins have low homology to known prohormones from other species/phyla and are unique to the sea urchin. By pairing bioinformatics with MS, the capacity to characterize novel peptides and annotate prohormone genes is enhanced. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. Exploring the Sea Urchin Neuropeptide Landscape by Mass Spectrometry (United States)

    Monroe, Eric B.; Annangudi, Suresh P.; Wadhams, Andinet A.; Richmond, Timothy A.; Yang, Ning; Southey, Bruce R.; Romanova, Elena V.; Schoofs, Liliane; Baggerman, Geert; Sweedler, Jonathan V.


    Neuropeptides are essential cell-to-cell signaling messengers and serve important regulatory roles in animals. Although remarkable progress has been made in peptide identification across the Metazoa, for some phyla such as Echinodermata, limited neuropeptides are known and even fewer have been verified on the protein level. We employed peptidomic approaches using bioinformatics and mass spectrometry (MS) to experimentally confirm 23 prohormones and to characterize a new prohormone in nervous system tissue from Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, the purple sea urchin. Ninety-three distinct peptides from known and novel prohormones were detected with MS from extracts of the radial nerves, many of which are reported or experimentally confirmed here for the first time, representing a large-scale study of neuropeptides from the phylum Echinodermata. Many of the identified peptides and their precursor proteins have low homology to known prohormones from other species/phyla and are unique to the sea urchin. By pairing bioinformatics with MS, the capacity to characterize novel peptides and annotate prohormone genes is enhanced. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. Lesions of Copper Toxicosis in Captive Marine Invertebrates With Comparisons to Normal Histology. (United States)

    LaDouceur, E E B; Wynne, J; Garner, M M; Nyaoke, A; Keel, M K


    Despite increasing concern for coral reef ecosystem health within the last decade, there is scant literature concerning the histopathology of diseases affecting the major constituents of coral reef ecosystems, particularly marine invertebrates. This study describes histologic findings in 6 species of marine invertebrates (California sea hare [Aplysia californica], purple sea urchin [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus], sunburst anemone [Anthopleura sola], knobby star [Pisaster giganteus], bat star [Asterina miniata], and brittle star [Ophiopteris papillosa]) with spontaneous copper toxicosis, 4 purple sea urchins with experimentally induced copper toxicosis, and 1 unexposed control of each species listed. The primary lesions in the California sea hare with copper toxicosis were branchial and nephridial necrosis. Affected echinoderms shared several histologic lesions, including epidermal necrosis and ulceration and increased numbers of coelomocytes within the water-vascular system. The sunburst anemone with copper toxicosis had necrosis of both epidermis and gastrodermis, as well as expulsion of zooxanthellae from the gastrodermis. In addition to the lesions attributed to copper toxicosis, our results describe normal microscopic features of these animals that may be useful for histopathologic assessment of marine invertebrates. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Sources of mycosporine-like amino acids in planktonic Chlorella-bearing ciliates (Ciliophora) (United States)



    Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are a family of secondary metabolites known to protect organisms exposed to solar UV radiation. We tested their distribution among several planktonic ciliates bearing Chlorella isolated from an oligo-mesotrophic lake in Tyrol, Austria. In order to test the origin of these compounds, the MAAs were assessed by high performance liquid chromatography in both the ciliates and their symbiotic algae. Considering all Chlorella-bearing ciliates, we found: (i) seven different MAAs (mycosporine-glycine, palythine, asterina-330, shinorine, porphyra-334, usujirene, palythene); (ii) one to several MAAs per species and (iii) qualitative and quantitative seasonal changes in the MAAs (e.g. in Pelagodileptus trachelioides). In all species tested, concentrations of MAAs were always <1% of ciliate dry weight. Several MAAs were also identified in the Chlorella isolated from the ciliates, thus providing initial evidence for their symbiotic origin. In Uroleptus sp., however, we found evidence for a dietary source of MAAs. Our results suggest that accumulation of MAAs in Chlorella-bearing ciliates represents an additional benefit of this symbiosis and an adaptation for survival in sunlit, UV-exposed waters.

  8. Quantitative analysis of mycosporine-like amino acids in marine algae by capillary electrophoresis with diode-array detection (United States)

    Hartmann, Anja; Murauer, Adele; Ganzera, Markus


    Marine species have evolved a variety of physical or chemical strategies to diminish damage from elevated environmental ultraviolet radiation. Mycosporine-like amino acids, a group of widely distributed small water soluble compounds, are biologically relevant because of their photo-protective potential. In addition, presumed antioxidant and skin protective strategies raise the interest for possible medicinal and cosmetic applications. In this study the first CE method for the quantification of mycosporine-like amino acids in marine species is presented. A borate buffer system consisting of 30 mM sodium tetraborate in water at a pH-value of 10.3 enabled the baseline separation of five MAAs, namely palythine, mycosporine-serinol, asterina-330, shinorine and porphyra-334, in 27 min. Separation voltage, temperature and detection wavelength were 25 kV, 25 °C and 320 nm, respectively. The optimized method was fully validated and applied for the quantitative determination of MAAs in the marine macroalgae Palmaria palmata, Porphyra umbilicalis, and Porphyra sp., as well as the lichen Lichina pygmaea. PMID:28213175

  9. Ontogenetic change in the abundance of mycosporine-like amino acids in non-zooxanthellate coral larvae (United States)

    Yakovleva, Irina M.; Baird, Andrew H.


    Although mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) have been extensively investigated in reef-building corals, the sources of these MAAs and the process of their interconversion remain a topic of interest. Here we examined ontogenetic change in the abundance of MAAs in planula larvae of the spawning scleractinian coral Goniastrea retiformis in the absence of zooxanthellae and other dietary input. In order to examine the potential contribution of prokaryotes in the synthesis of MAAs in animal tissue, one group of larvae were treated with the antibiotic rifampicin. High concentrations of MAAs (mycosporine-glycine, shinorine, palythinol, asterina-330), were present in the asymbiotic eggs and adults; however, no MAAs were present in the endosymbiotic zooxanthellae. We documented a steady decline in the total MAA concentrations through time in larvae treated with rifampicin; however, in the absence of antibiotic there was a significant increase in the concentration of MAAs, driven by a sharp increase in the abundance of shinorine and palythinol between day 3 and 7. Our results suggest that MAA synthesis and conversion in G. retiformis larvae occurred in the absence of symbiotic zooxanthellae, and indicate a possible contribution of prokaryotes associated with the animal tissue to these processes.

  10. Mycosporine-like amino acids in six scleractinian coral species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad A. Al-Utaibi


    Full Text Available Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs were studied in stony coral species (Fungiidae along the Eastern coast of the Red Sea. Six species - Fungia scutaria, F. danai, F. corona, F. repanda, Ctenactis echinata and Lithophyllor lobata - were examined for MAAs at water depths of 5, 10, 15 and 20 m. Protein and chlorophyll were also determined and showed higher contents in winter than in summer. Generally, the total content of MAAs in summer was found to be approximately three times greater than in winter. Overall, concentrations of MAAs were greatest at a depth of 5 m. Porphyra-334 was the most abundant MAA in F. Scutaria and F. Danai, whereas asterina-330 was either not detectable (e.g. L. lobata or present in low concentrations (e.g. F. danai, F. repanda and C. echinata. Shinorine was not detected in F. danai or L. lobata. Both C. echinata and L. Lobata had the lowest concentrations of MAAs, presumably because of their large calcareous skeletons. The variation in MAA concentrations among seasons and water depths is probably due to a number of factors, including the intensity of solar radiation, turbidity and phylogenetic variation.

  11. Effects of UV-B radiation on tetraspores of Chondrus ocellatus Holm (Rhodophyta), and effects of red and blue light on repair of UV-B-induced damage (United States)

    Ju, Qing; Xiao, Hui; Wang, You; Tang, Xuexi


    We evaluated the effects of red and blue light on the repair of UV-B radiation-induced damage in tetraspores of Chondrus ocellatus Holm. Tetraspores of C. ocellatus were treated with different UV-B radiation levels (0, 36, 72, 108, 144 and 180 J/m2), and thereafter subjected to PAR, darkness, or red or blue light during a 2-h repair stage, each day for 48 days. The diameters and cellular contents of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimmers (CPDs), chlorophyll a (Chl a), phycoerythrin, and UV-B-absorbing mycosporinelike amino acids (MAAs) contents of the tetraspores were determined. Our results show that low doses of UV-B radiation (36 and 72 J/m2) promoted the growth of C. ocellatus; however, increased UV-B radiation gradually reduced the C. ocellatus growth (greater than 72 J/m2). The MAAs (palythine and asterina-330) in C. ocellatus were detected and analyzed by LC/MS. Our results suggest that moderate red light could induce the growth of this alga in aquaculture. In addition, photorepair was inhibited by red light, so there may be some other DNA repair mechanism activated by red light. Blue light promoted the activity of DNA photolyase, greatly improving remediation efficiency. Red and blue lights were found to reduce the capacity of C. ocellatus to form MAAs. Therefore, PAR, red light, and blue light play different roles during the repair processes for damage induced by UV-B radiation.

  12. Revisão das espécies de Ceroplastinae Atkinson (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Coccidae do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Revision of the species of Ceroplastinae Atkinson (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Coccidae from the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Benfatti Gonzalez Peronti


    Full Text Available As espécies de Ceroplastinae (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Coccidae que ocorrem no Estado de São Paulo são revisadas. São estudadas 36 espécies de Ceroplastinae, das quais 9 são sinonimizadas, 8 espécies novas são descritas e 19 são redescritas. Ceroplastes campinensis Hempel, 1901, C. bicolor Hempel, 1901, C. excaericae Hempel, 1912 e C. farmairii (Signoret, 1866, mencionadas para o Estado de São Paulo, não foram examinadas, devido a não localização do material tipo ou de outros exemplares. Nossos estudos indicaram que C. albolineatus Cockerell, 1894 e C. confluens Cockerell & Tinsley, 1898 foram erroneamente citadas por Hempel, 1900 para o estado de São Paulo. Coccus stellifer Westwood, 1871, atualmente Vinsonia stellifera (Westwood, 1871, é transferida para gênero Ceroplastes como Ceroplastes stellifer (Westwood, 1871 n. comb. C. flosculoides Matile-Ferrero, 1993 é registrada pela primeira vez para o país e C. cassiae (Chavannes, 1848, C. deodorensis Hempel, 1937, C. formosus Hempel, 1900 e C. quadratus Green, 1935 são registradas pela primeira vez no Estado de São Paulo. Ceroplastinae é agora representada por 31 espécies no Estado de São Paulo, todas incluídas no gênero Ceroplastes. Ilustrações e uma chave para espécies são incluídas. Novos sinônimos: C. formicarius Hempel = Ceroplastes communis Hempel, 1900 n. sin.; C. janeirensis Gray, 1828 = Ceroplastes psidii (Chavannes, 1848 n. sin. = C. simplex Hempel, 1900 n. sin.; C. cirripediformis Comstock, 1881 = C. cultus Hempel, 1900 n. sin. = C. cuneatus Hempel, 1900 n. sin. = C. rarus Hempel, 1900 n. sin e C. rotundus Hempel, 1900 n. sin.; C. lucidus Hempel, 1900 = C. novaesi Hempel, 1900 n. sin.; C. grandis Hempel, 1900 = C. rhizophorae Hempel, 1918 n. sin. Novas espécies descritas: C. acutus sp. nov.; C. bragai sp. nov.; C. coronatus sp. nov; C. glomeratus sp. nov; C. jordanensis sp. nov.; C. minimus sp. nov.; C. solanaceus sp. nov.; C. willinkae sp. nov. Esp

  13. Zoogeografía de macroinvertebrados bentónicos de la costa de Chile: contribución para la conservación marina Zoogeography of benthic macroinvertebrates of the Chilean coast: contribution for marine conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available La diversidad de macroinvertebrados marinos ha recibido una atención creciente, no obstante, con un escaso tratamiento en el contexto biogeográfico. Este estudio analiza los registros de 1.601 especies de macroinvertebrados bentónicos pertenecientes a: Demospongiae, Anthozoa, Polychaeta, Mollusca, Crustacea, Echinodermata y Ascideacea, agrupados en 10 zonas y tratados desde una perspectiva zoogeográfica. Mollusca (611 especies, Polychaeta (403 y Crustacea (370 corresponden a los grupos mejor representados a lo largo de la costa chilena, determinantes en el patrón global de la biodiversidad. Este aumenta suavemente de norte a sur, interrumpido por máximos que sugieren esfuerzos diferenciales de estudio más que un comportamiento natural de la biodiversidad. El grado de agrupamiento entre las zonas muestra las tres unidades biogeográficas definidas recientemente por Lancellotti & Vásquez. Este arreglo, que representa lo exhibido por los grupos más diversos, se ve alterado en los grupos menos representados donde las diferencias obedecen al patrón de afinidades mostradas por las zonas comprendidas dentro de la Región Templada Transicional. El quiebre zoogeográfico alrededor de los 41º S, sugerido largamente en la literatura, sólo ocurre en Echinodermata y Demospongiae, evidenciando en los otros taxa la existencia de un área de transición entre los 35º y 48º S, caracterizada por un reemplazo gradual de especies. Dentro de las regiones la biodiversidad muestra homogeneidad, contrario al endemismo, el que alcanza un máximo de 52% en la Región Templada Fría y que parece ser consecuencia del alto número de especies con registros únicos (38,2% de especies citadas para una sóla zona. Esto sugiere un desconocimiento de los macroinvertebrados chilenos (distribución y diversidad, sobrestimando el endemismo regional y distorsionando los patrones locales de biodiversidadThe diversity of marine macroinvertebrates has received increasing

  14. Environmental quality assessment of Grand Harbour (Valletta, Maltese Islands): a case study of a busy harbour in the Central Mediterranean Sea. (United States)

    Romeo, Teresa; D'Alessandro, Michela; Esposito, Valentina; Scotti, Gianfranco; Berto, Daniela; Formalewicz, Malgorzata; Noventa, Seta; Giuliani, Silvia; Macchia, Simona; Sartori, Davide; Mazzola, Angelo; Andaloro, Franco; Giacobbe, Salvatore; Deidun, Alan; Renzi, Monia


    Contamination levels by plastic debris, trace elements and persistent organic pollutants were assessed and related to macrobenthic diversity within soft bottoms of Grand Harbour (Malta, Central Mediterranean). Sediment toxicity was evaluated by ecotoxicological method, deploying Bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), Echinodermata (Paracentrotus lividus) and Crustacea (Corophium orientale). Univariate analysis (Pearson's test) was used to test relationships between biodiversity indices, pollutants and grain size. A multivariate approach (PERMANOVA) was applied to investigate for any significant differences among sampling stations concerning plastic abundances and to test the relationship between infaunal abundances and pollutant concentrations (the BIOENV test). Significant differences in the plastic abundances were found between sampling stations. The lowest value for Shannon-Wiener biodiversity index was associated to the highest sediment pollution level. Multivariate analyses suggest that MBT and TBT were factors that most influenced macrozoobenthic abundance and biodiversity. The bivalve Corbula gibba and the introduced polychaete Monticellina dorsobranchialis were the most abundant found species.

  15. Gluconeogenesis: An ancient biochemical pathway with a new twist. (United States)

    Miyamoto, Tetsuya; Amrein, Hubert


    Synthesis of sugars from simple carbon sources is critical for survival of animals under limited nutrient availability. Thus, sugar-synthesizing enzymes should be present across the entire metazoan spectrum. Here, we explore the evolution of glucose and trehalose synthesis using a phylogenetic analysis of enzymes specific for the two pathways. Our analysis reveals that the production of trehalose is the more ancestral biochemical process, found in single cell organisms and primitive metazoans, but also in insects. The gluconeogenic-specific enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) first appears in Cnidaria, but is also present in Echinodermata, Mollusca and Vertebrata. Intriguingly, some species of nematodes and arthropods possess the genes for both pathways. Moreover, expression data from Drosophila suggests that G6Pase and, hence, gluconeogenesis, initially had a neuronal function. We speculate that in insects-and possibly in some vertebrates-gluconeogenesis may be used as a means of neuronal signaling.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryo Triajie


    Full Text Available Teripang atau Timun laut (Echinodermata adalah salah satu jenis komoditi laut yang bernilai domestik maupun internasional sub sektor perikanan yang cukup potensial. Salah satu zat bioaktif yang terkandung dalam teripang adalah senyawa steroid. Penelitian ini bertujuan menentukan tingkat efektivitas ekstrak kasar daging teripang yang telah diformulasikan dalam air media pemeliharaan juvenile udang galah terhadap keberhasilan mendapatkan jantan fenotif. Hipotesa yang dipakai pada penelitian ini adalah bahwa masa aktif pemberian ekstrak kasar daging teripang hasil formulasi yang diberikan dalam air media, efektif dapat berpengaruh dalam perkembangan juvenil menjadi jantan fenotif. Metode perendaman dengan dosis ekstrak teripang 10 mg/L, 15 mg/L dan 25 mg/L, dapat menghasilkan populasi jantan lebih tinggi dari kontrol (kontrol negatif/tanpa perlakuan hormon. Kata Kunci : teripang, steroid, jantan fenotif

  17. Aktivitas Inhibitor Enzim Pengubah Angiotensin (ACE dan Antioksidan Peptida Kolagen dari Teripang Gama (Stichopus variegatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Habbib Khirzin


    Full Text Available Teripang merupakan salah satu echinodermata yang memiliki kandungan protein tinggi dan sekitar 70% dari proteinnya merupakan kolagen. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui aktivitas inhibitor Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE dan antioksidan dari peptida kolagen teripang Gama (Stichopus variegatus. Ekstraksi kolagen dilakukan menggunakan asam asetat 0,5 M. Peptida kolagen diperoleh melalui hidrolisis kolagen menggunakan enzim pepsin dengan konsentrasi 0,1 U/g kolagen, selama 0; 30; 60; 90; 120; 180; dan 240 menit. Aktivitas inhibitor ACE dan antioksidan peptida kolagen diuji dengan metode spektroskopi. Kolagen yang dihasilkan memiliki rendemen 16,40% dengan berat molekul 130,33 kDa. Aktivitas inhibitor ACE tertinggi dihasilkan dari proses hidrolisis selama 180 menit dengan penghambatan sebesar 82,31%, sedangkan aktivitas antioksidan tertinggi dihasilkan oleh peptida kolagen dari hidrolisis kolagen selama 120 menit dengan nilai IC50 1,9 mg/ml.

  18. Brittlestars contain highly sulfated chondroitin sulfates/dermatan sulfates that promote fibroblast growth factor 2-induced cell signaling. (United States)

    Ramachandra, Rashmi; Namburi, Ramesh B; Ortega-Martinez, Olga; Shi, Xiaofeng; Zaia, Joseph; Dupont, Sam T; Thorndyke, Michael C; Lindahl, Ulf; Spillmann, Dorothe


    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) isolated from brittlestars, Echinodermata class Ophiuroidea, were characterized, as part of attempts to understand the evolutionary development of these polysaccharides. A population of chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) chains with a high overall degree of sulfation and hexuronate epimerization was the major GAG found, whereas heparan sulfate (HS) was below detection level. Enzymatic digestion with different chondroitin lyases revealed exceptionally high proportions of di- and trisulfated CS/DS disaccharides. The latter unit appears much more abundant in one of four individual species of brittlestars, Amphiura filiformis, than reported earlier in other marine invertebrates. The brittlestar CS/DS was further shown to bind to growth factors such as fibroblast growth factor 2 and to promote FGF-stimulated cell signaling in GAG-deficient cell lines in a manner similar to that of heparin. These findings point to a potential biological role for the highly sulfated invertebrate GAGs, similar to those ascribed to HS in vertebrates.

  19. Conservation and diversification of Msx protein in metazoan evolution. (United States)

    Takahashi, Hirokazu; Kamiya, Akiko; Ishiguro, Akira; Suzuki, Atsushi C; Saitou, Naruya; Toyoda, Atsushi; Aruga, Jun


    Msx (/msh) family genes encode homeodomain (HD) proteins that control ontogeny in many animal species. We compared the structures of Msx genes from a wide range of Metazoa (Porifera, Cnidaria, Nematoda, Arthropoda, Tardigrada, Platyhelminthes, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, Annelida, Echiura, Echinodermata, Hemichordata, and Chordata) to gain an understanding of the role of these genes in phylogeny. Exon-intron boundary analysis suggested that the position of the intron located N-terminally to the HDs was widely conserved in all the genes examined, including those of cnidarians. Amino acid (aa) sequence comparison revealed 3 new evolutionarily conserved domains, as well as very strong conservation of the HDs. Two of the three domains were associated with Groucho-like protein binding in both a vertebrate and a cnidarian Msx homolog, suggesting that the interaction between Groucho-like proteins and Msx proteins was established in eumetazoan ancestors. Pairwise comparison among the collected HDs and their C-flanking aa sequences revealed that the degree of sequence conservation varied depending on the animal taxa from which the sequences were derived. Highly conserved Msx genes were identified in the Vertebrata, Cephalochordata, Hemichordata, Echinodermata, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, and Anthozoa. The wide distribution of the conserved sequences in the animal phylogenetic tree suggested that metazoan ancestors had already acquired a set of conserved domains of the current Msx family genes. Interestingly, although strongly conserved sequences were recovered from the Vertebrata, Cephalochordata, and Anthozoa, the sequences from the Urochordata and Hydrozoa showed weak conservation. Because the Vertebrata-Cephalochordata-Urochordata and Anthozoa-Hydrozoa represent sister groups in the Chordata and Cnidaria, respectively, Msx sequence diversification may have occurred differentially in the course of evolution. We speculate that selective loss of the conserved domains in Msx family

  20. Mycosporine-like amino acids are multifunctional molecules in sea hares and their marine community (United States)

    Kicklighter, Cynthia E.; Kamio, Michiya; Nguyen, Linh; Germann, Markus W.; Derby, Charles D.


    Molecules of keystone significance are relatively rare, yet mediate a variety of interactions between organisms. They influence the distribution and abundance of species, the transfer of energy across multiple trophic levels, and thus they play significant roles in structuring ecosystems. Despite their potential importance in facilitating our understanding of ecological systems, only three molecules thus far have been proposed as molecules of keystone significance: saxitoxin and dimethyl sulfide in marine communities and tetrodotoxin in riparian communities. In the course of studying the neuroecology of chemical defenses, we identified three mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs)—N-ethanol palythine (= asterina-330), N-isopropanol palythine (= aplysiapalythine A), and N-ethyl palythine (= aplysiapalythine B)—as intraspecific alarm cues for sea hares (Aplysia californica). These alarm cues are released in the ink secretion of sea hares and cause avoidance behaviors in neighboring conspecifics. Further, we show that these three bioactive MAAs, two [aplysiapalythine A (APA) and -B (APB)] being previously unknown molecules, are present in the algal diet of sea hares and are concentrated in their defensive secretion as well as in their skin. MAAs are known to be produced by algae, fungi, and cyanobacteria and are acquired by many aquatic animals through trophic interactions. MAAs are widely used as sunscreens, among other uses, but sea hares modify their function to serve a previously undocumented role, as intraspecific chemical cues. Our findings highlight the multifunctionality of MAAs and their role in ecological connectivity, suggesting that they may function as molecules of keystone significance in marine ecosystems. PMID:21709250

  1. Tinted windows: The presence of the UV absorbing compounds called mycosporine-like amino acids embedded in the frustules of marine diatoms (United States)

    Ingalls, Anitra E.; Whitehead, Kenia; Bridoux, Maxime C.


    Diatom frustule-bound organic compounds presumably play an important role in biomineralization and constitute an important pool of organic matter preserved in diatom frustule-rich sediments. In this study, detailed analysis of diatom frustule-bound organic matter in opal-rich Southern Ocean plankton and sediments revealed for the first time the presence of low molecular weight, UV light absorbing compounds called mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). Chemically cleaned diatom frustule-derived biosilica was dissolved in HF, releasing bound or entrapped organic compounds that were subsequently characterized using liquid chromatography with UV-Vis and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC/PDA/ESI-MS). Palythine ([M+H] + = 245), porphyra-334 ([M+H] + = 347) and shinorine ([M+H] + = 333) were the most abundant MAAs detected in HF digests of plankton and sediment. Traces of asterina ([M+H] + = 289), palythinol ([M+H] + = 303) and palythinic acid ([M+H] + = 329) were also detected. MAAs in cleaned HF digested frustules were up to two orders of magnitude more abundant than methanol extractable MAAs. MAAs are substituted with acid hydrolysable amino acid residues. Our results suggest that MAAs, and not proteins, could be responsible for the high proportion of the amino acids glycine and threonine found in hydrolysates of HF digested diatom-rich environmental samples. Total MAAs accounted for 3-27% of the carbon and 2-18% of total nitrogen in the frustules undergoing various chemical cleaning treatments. This is the first report of MAAs in close association with a mineral phase and we hypothesize that the mineral matrix could stabilize these compounds, thereby enhancing photoprotection against the harmful effects of UV light. The presence of frustule-bound MAAs in sediment cores further suggests the possibility that they could be used in compound-specific isotope analysis of diatom-bound organic matter and as indicators of past solar irradiance.

  2. Phylogenetic relationships and generic delimitation of Eurasian Aster (Asteraceae: Astereae) inferred from ITS, ETS and trnL-F sequence data (United States)

    Li, Wei-Ping; Yang, Fu-Sheng; Jivkova, Todorka; Yin, Gen-Shen


    Background and Aims The classification and phylogeny of Eurasian (EA) Aster (Asterinae, Astereae, Asteraceae) remain poorly resolved. Some taxonomists adopt a broad definition of EA Aster, whereas others favour a narrow generic concept. The present study aims to delimit EA Aster sensu stricto (s.s.), elucidate the phylogenetic relationships of EA Aster s.s. and segregate genera. Methods The internal and external transcribed spacers of nuclear ribosomal DNA and the plastid DNA trnL-F region were used to reconstruct the phylogeny of EA Aster through maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses. Key Results The analyses strongly support an Aster clade including the genera Sheareria, Rhynchospermum, Kalimeris (excluding Kalimeris longipetiolata), Heteropappus, Miyamayomena, Turczaninowia, Rhinactinidia, eastern Asian Doellingeria, Asterothamnus and Arctogeron. Many well-recognized species of Chinese Aster s.s. lie outside of the Aster clade. Conclusions The results reveal that EA Aster s.s. is both paraphyletic and polyphyletic. Sheareria, Rhynchospermum, Kalimeris (excluding K. longipetiolata), Heteropappus, Miyamayomena, Turczaninowia, Rhinactinidia, eastern Asian Doellingeria, Asterothamnus and Arctogeron should be included in Aster, whereas many species of Chinese Aster s.s. should be excluded. The recircumscribed Aster should be divided into two subgenera and nine sections. Kalimeris longipetiolata, Aster batangensis, A. ser. Albescentes, A. series Hersileoides, a two-species group composed of A. senecioides and A. fuscescens, and a six-species group including A. asteroides, should be elevated to generic level. With the Aster clade, they belong to the Australasian lineages. The generic status of Callistephus should be maintained. Whether Galatella (including Crinitina) and Tripolium should remain as genera or be merged into a single genus remains to be determined. In addition, the taxonomic status of A. auriculatus and the A. pycnophyllus–A. panduratus clade remains

  3. Caracterización preliminar de los invertebrados bentónicos capturados accidentalmente en la pesca de camarones en el norte del estado de Río de Janeiro, sudeste de Brasil Preliminary characterization of benthic invertebrates caught as by-catch in the shrimp fishery in the north of the Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor David da Costa


    Full Text Available Para caracterizar la biodiversidad de invertebrados bentónicos que componen la fauna asociada a la pesca de camarones en el puerto del Farol de Sao Thomé, costa norte del estado de Río de Janeiro, se realizaron 11 pescas mensuales en el año 2004 con redes de arrastre de fondo, cuya área de operaciones comprende 3-5 mn desde la línea de costa, entre 22°00'S y 22°20'S. Los datos registrados de cada taxon y/o especie se refieren a la frecuencia de ocurrencia, frecuencia numérica, biomasa, índice de Importancia Relativa y abundancia. En total se registraron 27 especies de invertebrados bentónicos de Porifera, Cnidaria, Mollusca, Annelida, Crustácea, Echinodermata y Bryozoa. Crustácea fue el más representativo, tanto en número de ejemplares de Petrochirus diogenes, Hepatus pudibundus y Callinectes ornatos, como en biomasa de P. diogenes y H. pudibundas. En términos de frecuencia de ocurrencia en los muéstreos, 11 especies (40,7% fueron constantes; 6 (22,2% accesorias y 10 (37,0% accidentales.In order to characterize the biodiversity of the benthic invertebrate by-catch associated with the shrimp fishery at Farol de Sao Thome harbor, northern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, in 2004, 11 monthly trawls were conducted using bottom trawl nets between 22°00'S and 22°20'S and from 3 to 5 nm from the shoreline. The analyzed data for each talon and/or species include frequency of occurrence, numeric frequency, biomass, index of Relative Importance, and abundance. In total, 27 benthic invertebrate species were recorded, including Peripheral, Cnidarians, Mollusk, Annelid, Crustacea, Echinodermata, and Bryozoa. The most representative group was Crustacea, both in number of specimens (Petrochirus diogenes, Hepatus pudibundus, Callinectes ornatus and in biomass (P. diogenes, H. pudibundus. In terms of the frequency of occurrence in the samples, 11 species (40.7% were constant, 6 species (22.2% were accessories, and 10 species (37.0% were by-catch.

  4. The Sponge Zygomycale parishii(Bowerbank) and its Endobiotic Fauna (United States)

    Duarte, Luiz; Nalesso, Rosebel


    The endobiotic fauna of the sponge Zygomycale parishii(Bowerbank) was studied for 2·5 years at two sites, Ubatuba and São Sebastião, on the northern coast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Ninety-two macrofaunal species (over 1 mm long) were identified among which Cnidaria, Turbellaria, Nemertinea, Sipuncula, Polychaeta, Mollusca, Crustacea, Pycnogonida, Echinodermata, Ascidiacea and Pisces were represented. The results obtained on the number of species (species richness), the abundances of different species and faunal composition were related to the physico-biotic characteristics of the study sites. The influence of sample volume and other methodological artifacts on sample characteristics were also examined. The ophiuroid Ophiactis savignyi(Müller & Troschell) was the dominant endobiotic species, comprising 64% of all individuals collected. The São Sebastião endobiotic fauna was more diversified than the Ubatuba endobiotic fauna, possibly due to higher larval recruitment, and to the closeness of Z. parishiito the sea-floor providing a greater possibility for inhabitants of this microhabitat to find and to live inside the sponge.

  5. Seasonal and spatial changes of macrobenthic community structure and diversity in South Yellow Sea (United States)

    Li, X.; Xu, Y.


    The seasonal and spatial characteristics of macrobenthic community in South Yellow Sea were studied based on the data from three voyages carried out in spring, summer and autumn, 2012. A total of 218 species were obtained, including 80 species of Polychaeta, 75 of Crustacea, 35 of Mollusca, 15 of Echinodermata and 13 of other groups. Mean abundance varied from 151.4 ind./m2 in spring to 188 ind./m2 in autumn showing an increasing trend with season and mean biomass ranged from 12.1 g/m2 in spring to 33.4 g/m2 in summer. Mean secondary productivity varied from 2.5 g(AFDW)/(m2·a) in spring to 5.7 g(AFDW)/(m2·a) in summer. Two-way ANOVA indicated that biomass were significantly different among seasons and number of species and Shannon-Weiner index had significant differences among stations. But abundance, Pielou's evenness index and average taxonomic distinctness were not significantly different among either seasons or stations. Non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test showed significant differences of secondary productivity among tations. Two-way crossed ANOSIM indicated overall significant differences of community structure among both seasons and stations. The stations were divided into four groups in spring and five in summer and autumn through the CLUSTER and nMDS analysis. Depth was an important factor influencing distribution of macrobenthos in the South Yellow Sea.

  6. Exploring Canadian Echinoderm Diversity through DNA Barcodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara K S Layton

    Full Text Available DNA barcoding has proven an effective tool for species identification in varied groups of marine invertebrates including crustaceans, molluscs, polychaetes and echinoderms. In this study, we further validate its utility by analyzing almost half of the 300 species of Echinodermata known from Canadian waters. COI sequences from 999 specimens were assigned to 145 BINs. In most cases, species discrimination was straightforward due to the large difference (25-fold between mean intra- (0.48% and inter- (12.0% specific divergence. Six species were flagged for further taxonomic investigation because specimens assigned to them fell into two or three discrete sequence clusters. The potential influence of larval dispersal capacity and glacial events on patterns of genetic diversity is discussed for 19 trans-oceanic species. Although additional research is needed to clarify biogeographic patterns and resolve taxonomic questions, this study represents an important step in the assembly of a DNA barcode library for all Canadian echinoderms, a valuable resource for future biosurveillance programs.

  7. Diastereoisomer- and species-specific distribution of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in fish and marine invertebrates. (United States)

    Son, Min-Hui; Kim, Jongchul; Shin, Eun-Su; Seo, Sung-Hee; Chang, Yoon-Seok


    The levels and distributional characteristics of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) diastereoisomers have been largely reported for various fish and select shellfish. In this study, we reclassified a number and variety of marine invertebrates, including shellfish, to further contribute to the comprehensive understanding of the effects and assessment of human exposure to HBCD. Overall, 30 marine invertebrate species (n=188) were investigated and the following order of ∑2HBCD (α- and γ-HBCD) was observed: fish>chordata>cephalopoda>echinodermata>bivalve>crustacea. The marine invertebrates that were reclassified into nektonic and benthic organisms showed similar concentration of ∑2HBCD. The feeding habits and modes of the marine organisms were considered to compare the degree of bioaccumulation and diastereoisomer-specific distribution of HBCD due to the effects of the environment in and around pollution sources, as well as the organisms' metabolic capacities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the species-specific distribution patterns of HBCD for both fish and marine invertebrates. We expect to significantly expand the understanding of the environmental fate of HBCD for marine organisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Medicinal benefits of marine invertebrates: sources for discovering natural drug candidates. (United States)

    De Zoysa, Mahanama


    Marine invertebrates are one of the major groups of organisms, which could be diversified under the major taxonomic groups of Porifera, Cnidaria, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, and many other minor phyla. To date, range of medicinal benefits and a significant number of marine natural products (MNPs) have been discovered from marine invertebrates. Seafood diet from edible marine invertebrates such as mollusks and crustaceans has been linked with various medicinal benefits to improve human health. Among marine invertebrates, spongers from phylum Porifera is the most dominant group responsible for discovering large number of MNPs, which have been used as template to develop therapeutic drugs. MNPs isolated from invertebrates have shown wide range of therapeutic properties including antimicrobial, antioxidant, antihypertensive, anticoagulant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, wound healing and immune modulator, and other medicinal effects. Therefore, marine invertebrates are rich sources of chemical diversity and health benefits for developing drug candidates, cosmetics, nutritional supplements, and molecular probes that can be supported to increase the healthy life span of human. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Role and convergent evolution of competing RNA secondary structures in mutually exclusive splicing. (United States)

    Yue, Yuan; Hou, Shouqing; Wang, Xiu; Zhan, Leilei; Cao, Guozheng; Li, Guoli; Shi, Yang; Zhang, Peng; Hong, Weiling; Lin, Hao; Liu, Baoping; Shi, Feng; Yang, Yun; Jin, Yongfeng


    Exon or cassette duplication is an important means of expanding protein and functional diversity through mutually exclusive splicing. However, the mechanistic basis of this process in non-arthropod species remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that MRP1 genes underwent tandem exon duplication in Nematoda, Platyhelminthes, Annelida, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, and early-diverging Chordata but not in late-diverging vertebrates. Interestingly, these events were of independent origin in different phyla, suggesting convergent evolution of alternative splicing. Furthermore, we showed that multiple sets of clade-conserved RNA pairings evolved to guide species-specific mutually exclusive splicing in Arthropoda. Importantly, we also identified a similar structural code in MRP exon clusters of the annelid, Capitella teleta, and chordate, Branchiostoma belcheri, suggesting an evolutionarily conserved competing pairing-guided mechanism in bilaterians. Taken together, these data reveal the molecular determinants and RNA pairing-guided evolution of species-specific mutually exclusive splicing spanning more than 600 million years of bilaterian evolution. These findings have a significant impact on our understanding of the evolution of and mechanism underpinning isoform diversity and complex gene structure.

  10. Understanding regulation of microRNAs on intestine regeneration in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus using high-throughput sequencing. (United States)

    Sun, Lina; Sun, Jingchun; Li, Xiaoni; Zhang, Libin; Yang, Hongsheng; Wang, Qing


    The sea cucumber, as a member of the Echinodermata, has the capacity to restore damaged organs and body parts, which has always been a key scientific issue. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of short noncoding RNAs, play important roles in regulating gene expression. In the present study, we applied high-throughput sequencing to investigate alterations of miRNA expression in regenerative intestine compared to normal intestine. A total of 73 differentially expressed miRNAs were obtained, including 59 up-regulated miRNAs and 14 down-regulated miRNAs. Among these molecules, Aja-miR-1715-5p, Aja-miR-153, Aja-miR-252a, Aja-miR-153-5p, Aja-miR-252b, Aja-miR-2001, Aja-miR-64d-3p, and Aja-miR-252-5p were differentially expressed over 10-fold at 3days post-evisceration (dpe). Notably, real-time PCR revealed that Aja-miR-1715-5p was up-regulated 1390-fold at 3dpe. Moreover, putative target gene co-expression analyses, gene ontology, and pathway analyses suggest that these miRNAs play important roles in specific cellular events (cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis), metabolic regulation, and energy redistribution. These results will provide a basis for future studies of miRNA regulation in sea cucumber regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of body weight of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus by computer vision (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Xu, Qiang; Liu, Shilin; Zhang, Libin; Yang, Hongsheng


    A postichopus japonicus (Holothuroidea, Echinodermata) is an ecological and economic species in East Asia. Conventional biometric monitoring method includes diving for samples and weighing above water, with highly variable in weight measurement due to variation in the quantity of water in the respiratory tree and intestinal content of this species. Recently, video survey method has been applied widely in biometric detection on underwater benthos. However, because of the high flexibility of A. japonicus body, video survey method of monitoring is less used in sea cucumber. In this study, we designed a model to evaluate the wet weight of A. japonicus, using machine vision technology combined with a support vector machine (SVM) that can be used in field surveys on the A. japonicus population. Continuous dorsal images of free-moving A. japonicus individuals in seawater were captured, which also allows for the development of images of the core body edge as well as thorn segmentation. Parameters that include body length, body breadth, perimeter and area, were extracted from the core body edge images and used in SVM regression, to predict the weight of A. japonicus and for comparison with a power model. Results indicate that the use of SVM for predicting the weight of 33 A. japonicus individuals is accurate ( R 2=0.99) and compatible with the power model ( R 2 =0.96). The image-based analysis and size-weight regression models in this study may be useful in body weight evaluation of A. japonicus in lab and field study.

  12. Hemolytic and cytotoxic properties of saponin purified from Holothuria leucospilota sea cucumber. (United States)

    Soltani, Mozhgan; Parivar, Kazem; Baharara, Javad; Kerachian, Mohammad Amin; Asili, Javad


    Holothuroids (sea cucumbers) are members of the phylum echinodermata, which produce saponins. Saponins exhibit a wide spectrum of pharmacological and biological activities. In this study, we isolated the crude saponins from the body wall of the dominant Iranian species of sea cucumber, Holothuria leucospilota (H. leucospilota). The purpose of this study was to confirm the presence of saponins in the Persian Gulf H. leucospilota and study the hemolytic and cytotoxic activities of these compounds. The body wall of sea cucumber was dried and powdered and the crude saponins were isolated using various solvents. The crude saponins were further purified by column chromatography using HP-20 resin. The foam test, Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), hemolytic assay, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the presence of saponins. Cytotoxicity was analyzed using a 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay on A549 cells, a human lung cancer cell line. The foam test, hemolytic assay, and TLC supported the presence of saponin compounds in the 80% ethanol fraction of H. leucospilota. The infrared (IR) spectrum of the extract showed hydroxyl (-OH), alkyl (C-H), ether (C-O) and ester (-C=O) absorption characteristic of teriterpenoid saponins. The C-O-C absorption indicated glycoside linkages to the sapogenins. The crude saponin extracted from sea cucumber was cytotoxic to A549 cells. The 80% ethanol fraction of saponin isolated from H. leucospilota exhibited hemolytic activity and offers promise as an anti-cancer candidate.

  13. Evidence for a Saponin Biosynthesis Pathway in the Body Wall of the Commercially Significant Sea Cucumber Holothuria scabra. (United States)

    Mitu, Shahida Akter; Bose, Utpal; Suwansa-Ard, Saowaros; Turner, Luke H; Zhao, Min; Elizur, Abigail; Ogbourne, Steven M; Shaw, Paul Nicholas; Cummins, Scott F


    The sea cucumber (phylum Echinodermata) body wall is the first line of defense and is well known for its production of secondary metabolites; including vitamins and triterpenoid glycoside saponins that have important ecological functions and potential benefits to human health. The genes involved in the various biosynthetic pathways are unknown. To gain insight into these pathways in an echinoderm, we performed a comparative transcriptome analysis and functional annotation of the body wall and the radial nerve of the sea cucumber Holothuria scabra ; to define genes associated with body wall metabolic functioning and secondary metabolite biosynthesis. We show that genes related to signal transduction mechanisms were more highly represented in the H. scabra body wall, including genes encoding enzymes involved in energy production. Eight of the core triterpenoid biosynthesis enzymes were found, however, the identity of the saponin specific biosynthetic pathway enzymes remains unknown. We confirm the body wall release of at least three different triterpenoid saponins using solid phase extraction followed by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight-mass spectrometry. The resource we have established will help to guide future research to explore secondary metabolite biosynthesis in the sea cucumber.

  14. Evidence for a Saponin Biosynthesis Pathway in the Body Wall of the Commercially Significant Sea Cucumber Holothuria scabra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahida Akter Mitu


    Full Text Available The sea cucumber (phylum Echinodermata body wall is the first line of defense and is well known for its production of secondary metabolites; including vitamins and triterpenoid glycoside saponins that have important ecological functions and potential benefits to human health. The genes involved in the various biosynthetic pathways are unknown. To gain insight into these pathways in an echinoderm, we performed a comparative transcriptome analysis and functional annotation of the body wall and the radial nerve of the sea cucumber Holothuria scabra; to define genes associated with body wall metabolic functioning and secondary metabolite biosynthesis. We show that genes related to signal transduction mechanisms were more highly represented in the H. scabra body wall, including genes encoding enzymes involved in energy production. Eight of the core triterpenoid biosynthesis enzymes were found, however, the identity of the saponin specific biosynthetic pathway enzymes remains unknown. We confirm the body wall release of at least three different triterpenoid saponins using solid phase extraction followed by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight-mass spectrometry. The resource we have established will help to guide future research to explore secondary metabolite biosynthesis in the sea cucumber.

  15. Low coverage sequencing of three echinoderm genomes: the brittle star Ophionereis fasciata, the sea star Patiriella regularis, and the sea cucumber Australostichopus mollis. (United States)

    Long, Kyle A; Nossa, Carlos W; Sewell, Mary A; Putnam, Nicholas H; Ryan, Joseph F


    There are five major extant groups of Echinodermata: Crinoidea (feather stars and sea lillies), Ophiuroidea (brittle stars and basket stars), Asteroidea (sea stars), Echinoidea (sea urchins, sea biscuits, and sand dollars), and Holothuroidea (sea cucumbers). These animals are known for their pentaradial symmetry as adults, unique water vascular system, mutable collagenous tissues, and endoskeletons of high magnesium calcite. To our knowledge, the only echinoderm species with a genome sequence available to date is Strongylocentrotus pupuratus (Echinoidea). The availability of additional echinoderm genome sequences is crucial for understanding the biology of these animals. Here we present assembled draft genomes of the brittle star Ophionereis fasciata, the sea star Patiriella regularis, and the sea cucumber Australostichopus mollis from Illumina sequence data with coverages of 12.5x, 22.5x, and 21.4x, respectively. These data provide a resource for mining gene superfamilies, identifying non-coding RNAs, confirming gene losses, and designing experimental constructs. They will be important comparative resources for future genomic studies in echinoderms.

  16. Investigations of Antibacterial Activity of Methanol and Aqueous Ex-tracts of the Body Wall of Sea Cucumber Holothuria leucospilota on some Human Pathogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nazemi


    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Holothuria leucospilota, sea cucumber, is a species of the Phylum Echinodermata. Sea cucumbers have the most natural products with biological activity. In this study we investigated the antibacterial activity of aqueous and methanol extract of H. leucospilota used against gram positive and gram negative human pathogenic bacteria. Materials & Methods: 9 Samples of H. leucospilota were harvested from the Hengam Island,. The methanol extract was prepared from the powder of sea cucumber. The antibacterial activity of the extracts was determined by broth dilution methods against clinical Gram-negative bacteria to identify MIC and MBC. Results: Aqueous extract of H. leucospilota was inactive on the bacteria. Methanol extract was active on Gram-negetive bacteria; E. coli, Salmonella typhi and Serratia marcescens. But it killed only Salmonella typhi and Serratia marcescens. The MBC of H. leucospilota methanol extract was 10 mg/ml. Methanol extract was active on all Gram-positive bacteria; B. pumilus, B. cereus and S. aureus but it killed only S. aureus. The MBC of H. leucospilota methanol extract was 40 mg/ml. Conclusion: Based on our results, H. leucospilota methanol extract. can be considered as a source of novel antibiotic. Contrary to many marine organisms, sea cucumbers are active against gram-negative bacteria. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2016; 23 (1:75-82


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The presence of marine alien species in El-Kouf National Park and the neighbouring areas was assessed using a compilation of available information and observations, a field survey conducted on October 2010 in the framework of the MedMPAnet project and results of further monitoring during June and September 2012. A total of 9 alien species were reported: the Rhodophyta Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile Trevisan de Saint-Léon, the Chlorophyta Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea (Sonder Verlaque, Huisman & Boudouresque, the crab Percnon gibbesi (H. Milne-Edwards, 1853 and the fishes Fistularia commersonii Rüppell, 1838, Siganus luridus (Rüppell, 1829, Siganus rivulatus Forsskål, 1775, Pempheris vanicolensis Cuvier, 1831, Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmelin, 1789 and Sphyraena flavicauda Rüppell, 1838. Several of them were until now unknown for the National Park. The list of alien marine species of Libya is updated and discussed. Until now 63 marine aliens species were recorded along the Libyan coasts. These include 3 Foraminifera, 3 Ochrophyta, 5 Rhodophyta, 5 Chlorophyta, 1 Magnoliophyta, 11 Arthropoda, 13 Mollusca, 1 Echinodermata and 21 Chordata. Among these Non Indigenous Species, 43 are known as established along the Libyan coast including 8 invasive, 11 casual, 6 questionable, 3 cryptogenic and 1 unknown. An in-depth study of the marine organisms would substantially increase the number of alien species occurring in Libya. Monitoring of marine assemblages of MPAs is a valuable opportunity to go further into the knowledge of native and introduced species.

  18. Feeding habits of Pagellus acarne (Sparidae in the Gulf of Tunis, central Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafika Fehri-Bedoui


    Full Text Available The feeding habits of the axillary seabream, Pagellus acarne (Risso, 1810, from the Gulf of Tunis were investigated in relation to season, sex and fish size (juveniles TL < 14.5 cm and adults TL ≥ 14.5 cm. A total of 536 specimens (males, females, unsexed and hermaphroditic, ranging between 11.0 and 25.2 cm TL, were collected with trammel nets from June 2005 to July 2006. Their stomach contents were analysed. Of the total number of examined stomachs, 279 stomachs were empty (Vacuity index, VI = 52%. The VI did not reveal significant seasonal differences when all of the specimens were analysed together; however, significant seasonal variations were observed for females. The diet of the axillary seabream was composed of 36 different prey species. The most important prey were Arthropoda, Mollusca and Echinodermata. Both the dietary indices and the Spearman’s coefficient of correlation indicated seasonal variations in the diet. The diet was more diversified in adults than in juveniles. The axillary seabream fed on a wide range of prey items, endofauna and nekton, and can be considered a carnivorous and euryphagous predator.

  19. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the polychaete annelidPlatynereis dumerilii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boore, Jeffrey L.


    Complete mitochondrial genome sequences are now available for 126 metazoans (see Boore 1999; Mitochondrial Genomics link at, but the taxonomic representation is highly biased. For example, 80 are from a single phylum, Chordata, and show little variation for many molecular features. Arthropoda is represented by 16 taxa, Mollusca by eight, and Echinodermata by five, with only 17 others from the remaining {approx}30 metazoan phyla. With few exceptions (see Wolstenholme 1992 and Boore 1999) these are circular DNA molecules, about 16 kb in size, and encode the same set of 37 genes. A variety of non-standard names are sometimes used for animal mitochondrial genes; see Boore (1999) for gene nomenclature and a table of synonyms. Mitochondrial genome comparisons serve as a model of genome evolution. In this system, much smaller and simpler than that of the nucleus, are all of the same factors of genome evolution, where one may find tractable the changes in tRNA structure, base composition, genetic code, gene arrangement, etc. Further, patterns of mitochondrial gene rearrangements are an exceptionally reliable indicator of phylogenetic relationships (Smith et al.1993; Boore et al. 1995; Boore, Lavrov, and Brown 1998; Boore and Brown 1998, 2000; Dowton 1999; Stechmann and Schlegel 1999; Kurabayashi and Ueshima 2000). To these ends, we are sampling further the variation among major animal groups in features of their mitochondrial genomes.

  20. Extraction and Characterization of Collagen from Sea Cucumber Flesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Sea cucumber (Stichopus variegatus is one of the Echinodermata phylum that grows along Indonesian coastal. Sea cucumber is potential source of collagen. The purposes of this research were to determine the optimal concentration of NaOH and CH3COOH solution in collagen production and analyze the physicochemical characteristics of collagen from S. variegatus. Yield of the collagen was 1.5% (based on wet weight basis, produced by pretreatment with NaOH 0,30%, hydrolysis with CH3COOH 0.10% and extracted using distilled water. Protein, moisture, and ash content of the collagen was 67.68%, 13.64%, and 4.15%, respectively. Collagen was extracted using distilled water at 45°C during 2h and still had triple helix structure ; pH 7.37 ; melting temperature 163.67°C and whiteness 69.25%. The major amino acid content of collagen were glycine, alanine, proline and glutamic acid.

  1. Abundance, size composition and benthic assemblages of two Mediterranean echinoids off the

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzahrae Elmasry


    Full Text Available This study is concerned with the variability in abundance, size composition and benthic assemblages of two echinoid species, the common sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816 and black urchin Arbacia lixula (Linnaeus, 1758 in the Southeastern Mediterranean (SEM along the coast of Alexandria, Egypt. Four seasonal trips were made during the years 2014–2015 covering 55 km of the shore with depths ranging between 3 and 9 m. The sea urchin species composition, density and size structure and distribution were compared. The associated macrobenthic invertebrates with prominent presence and biomass were observed as well as other benthic fauna and flora associations. The present results showed that P. lividus was the dominant echinoid spatially and temporally. A. lixula showed frequent occurrence in Sidi Bishr and Sidi Gaber stations in the spring season. The most dominant size class was the medium to large-sized classes for P. lividus and large-sized classes for A. lixula. The commercial size for the edible P. lividus represented 33% of the sampled population. Furthermore, the most dominant macrobenthic assemblages beside the echinoid population were primarily oysters, sea cucumbers, and mussels. Beside these, assemblage of seaweeds (red, green, brown and crustose algae, Porifera, Cnidaria, Crustacea, other Echinodermata, Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Tunicata, Bryozoa and Annelida were found. The present study shows that the investigated area represents stable habitats for the echinoid population with rich and diversified algal assemblages as well as other potential food resources.

  2. Anticancer Activity of Sea Cucumber Triterpene Glycosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry L. Aminin


    Full Text Available Triterpene glycosides are characteristic secondary metabolites of sea cucumbers (Holothurioidea, Echinodermata. They have hemolytic, cytotoxic, antifungal, and other biological activities caused by membranotropic action. These natural products suppress the proliferation of various human tumor cell lines in vitro and, more importantly, intraperitoneal administration in rodents of solutions of some sea cucumber triterpene glycosides significantly reduces both tumor burden and metastasis. The anticancer molecular mechanisms include the induction of tumor cell apoptosis through the activation of intracellular caspase cell death pathways, arrest of the cell cycle at S or G2/M phases, influence on nuclear factors, NF-κB, and up-down regulation of certain cellular receptors and enzymes participating in cancerogenesis, such as EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor, Akt (protein kinase B, ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinases, FAK (focal adhesion kinase, MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase-9 and others. Administration of some glycosides leads to a reduction of cancer cell adhesion, suppression of cell migration and tube formation in those cells, suppression of angiogenesis, inhibition of cell proliferation, colony formation and tumor invasion. As a result, marked growth inhibition of tumors occurs in vitro and in vivo. Some holothurian triterpene glycosides have the potential to be used as P-gp mediated MDR reversal agents in combined therapy with standard cytostatics.

  3. Getting around when you're round: quantitative analysis of the locomotion of the blunt-spined brittle star, Ophiocoma echinata. (United States)

    Astley, Henry C


    Brittle stars (Ophiuroidea, Echinodermata) are pentaradially symmetrical echinoderms that use five multi-jointed limbs to locomote along the seafloor. Prior qualitative descriptions have claimed coordinated movements of the limbs in a manner similar to tetrapod vertebrates, but this has not been evaluated quantitatively. It is uncertain whether the ring-shaped nervous system, which lacks an anatomically defined anterior, is capable of generating rhythmic coordinated movements of multiple limbs. This study tested whether brittle stars possess distinct locomotor modes with strong inter-limb coordination as seen in limbed animals in other phyla (e.g. tetrapods and arthropods), or instead move each limb independently according to local sensory feedback. Limb tips and the body disk were digitized for 56 cycles from 13 individuals moving across sand. Despite their pentaradial anatomy, all individuals were functionally bilateral, moving along the axis of a central limb via synchronous motions of contralateral limbs (±~13% phase lag). Two locomotor modes were observed, distinguishable mainly by whether the central limb was directed forwards or backwards. Turning was accomplished without rotation of the body disk by defining a different limb as the center limb and shifting other limb identities correspondingly, and then continuing locomotion in the direction of the newly defined anterior. These observations support the hypothesis that, in spite of their radial body plan, brittle stars employ coordinated, bilaterally symmetrical locomotion.

  4. Faunistic assemblages of a sublittoral coarse sand habitat of the northwestern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Pubill


    Full Text Available The sublittoral megabenthic assemblages of a northwestern Mediterranean coarse sandy beach exploited for the bivalve Callista chione were studied. The spatial and bathymetric variability of its distinctive faunal assemblages was characterised by quantitative sampling performed with a clam dredge. The taxa studied were Mollusca Bivalvia and Gastropoda, Crustacea Decapoda, Echinodermata and Pisces, which accounted for over 99% of the total biomass. Three well-differentiated species assemblages were identified: (1 assemblage MSS (Medium Sand Shallow in medium sand (D50=0.37 mm and shallow waters (mean depth =6.5 m, (2 assemblage CSS (Coarse Sand Shallow in coarse sand (D50=0.62 mm in shallow waters (mean depth =6.7 m, and (3 assemblage CSD (Coarse Sand Deep in coarse sand (D50=0.64 mm in deeper waters (mean depth =16.2 m. Assemblage MSS was characterised by the codominance of the bivalves Mactra stultorum and Acanthocardia tuberculata. C. chione was dominant in both density and biomass in assemblages CSS and CSD. The occurrence of the crab Thia scutellata also characterised assemblage CSS, whereas the occurrence of the sea urchin Echinocardium mediterraneum characterised assemblage CSD. A depth breaking point of around 10 m determined the discontinuity between assemblages CSS and CSD, which was related to the closure depth of the beaches in the study area. Species richness was highest in the coarse sand communities; however, Shannon-Wiener diversity and Pielou equitability indexes were higher in the shallow fine sand community.

  5. Tidal effects on short-term mesozooplankton distribution in small channels of a temperate-turbid estuary, Southwestern Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Chazarreta


    Full Text Available Abstract The short-term variability of mesozooplankton distribution and physicochemical variables was examined in two different channels of the Bahía Blanca Estuary, Argentina, during two tidal cycles. All the physicochemical measurements and mesozooplankton sampling were performed at a fixed site during approximately 22-23 h at 3-h intervals. Pumps were used to obtain surface and bottom mesozooplankton samples and the water speed of each stratum was measured with an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP. In all, 23 mesozooplanktonic taxa belonging to four phyla (Arthropoda, Annelida, Echinodermata and Chordata were identified. The most abundant taxa during the two tidal cycles were Balanus glandula larvae, Eurytemora americana and Acartia tonsa. A discernible variability in the water conditions and vertical mesozooplankton distribution (VMD different from that known for the estuary's main channel, was found in the other two selected channels. VMD varied during the tidal cycle in both channels in accordance with the channel's geomorphology and water dynamic characteristics of each of them. The variation of the abundance of the different taxa during ebb and flood currents might indicate the existence of a tidal vertical migration of the mesozooplankton as a response to particular dynamic water conditions.

  6. An updated checklist of Echinoderms from Indian waters. (United States)

    Samuel, Vijay Kumar Deepak; Krishnan, Pandian; Sreeraj, Chemmencheri Ramakrishnan; Chamundeeswari, Kanagaraj; Parthiban, Chermapandi; Sekar, Veeramuthu; Patro, Shesdev; Saravanan, Raju; Abhilash, Kottarathil Rajendran; Ramachandran, Purvaja; Ramesh, Ramachandran


    Species checklists enlist the species available within the defined geographical region and thus serve as essential input for developing conservation and management strategies. The fields of conservation biology and ecology confront the challenge of inflated biodiversity, attributed to non-recognition of taxonomic inconsistencies such as synonyms, alternate representation, emendations etc. Critical review of the checklists and distributional records of Phylum Echinodermata from Indian waters and subsequent validation of species names with World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) database, revealed that the current literature included 236 incorrect entries comprising of 162 synonyms, 15 emendations, 5 nomina dubia, 1 nomen nudum, 40 species under alternate representation, 9 species with author misnomer, 1 subspecies and 1 unaccepted. The 226 species found to be mixed with valid names and a revised checklist was prepared. The revised and updated checklist holds 741 species of echinoderms comprising of 182 asteroids (24.56%), 70 crinoids (9.45%), 138 echinoids (18.62%), 179 holothuroids (24.16%) and 172 ophiuroids (23.21%), placed under 28 orders and 107 families. This paper discusses the cause for taxonomic inflation and argues that such taxonomic inconsistencies alter our interpretations of a species including its inaccurate distribution and, could possibly impede the country's conservation and management efforts.

  7. An uncommon or just an ecologically demanding species? Finding of aggregations of the brittle-star Ophiothrix maculata on the Northwest African slope (United States)

    Calero, Belén; Ramos, Ana; Ramil, Fran


    Ophiuroidea constitutes the largest class of the phylum Echinodermata. It includes families with suspension-feeder behaviour that can be found in dense aggregations in all oceans worldwide. Ophiothrix maculata was known as a rare suspension-feeder brittle star, with only four records in the Eastern Central Atlantic dating from almost 100 years ago. During the ten multidisciplinary Spanish and Norwegian surveys carried out from 2004 to 2012 off Northwest Africa, between the Gibraltar Strait and the Sierra Leone border from 19 to 1888 m depth, we sampled 1298 stations. We gathered about one million individuals and 124 kg of brittle stars at 501 of the stations. Eight hundred and thirty-two specimens of Ophiothrix maculata were collected at six localities on the continental slope off Mauritania, Western Sahara and Guinea Bissau, at depths between 155 and 594 m. The Guinea Bissau samples represent the southernmost current record for the species. Even though Ophiothrix maculata has been previously recorded only in isolation, we discovered dense concentrations on the Mauritanian slope on the Wolof's Seamount (580 individuals) and off the Western Sahara, in a Lophelia pertusa reef (202 individuals). In this paper, we describe these findings and discuss the association of this species to hard-bottom habitats and high primary production areas, outside of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). We also analyse what other factors may explain the patchy distribution of O. maculata on the Northwest African slope.

  8. Soft-bottom macrobenthic faunal associations in the southern Chilean glacial fjord complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ríos


    Full Text Available Macrobenthic associations were investigated at 29 sampling stations with a semi-quantitative Agassiz trawl, ranging from the South Patagonian Icefield to the Straits of Magellan in the South Chilean fjord system. A total of 1,895 individuals belonging to 131 species were collected. 19 species belong to colonial organisms, mainly Bryozoa (17 species and Octocorallia (2 species. The phylum Echinodermata was the most diverse in species number (47 species, with asteroids (25 species and ophiuroids (13 species being the best represented within this taxon. Polychaeta was the second dominant group in terms of species richness (46 species. Multidimensional scaling ordination (MDS separated two station groups, one related to fjords and channels off the South Patagonian Icefield and the second one to stations surrounding the Straits of Magellan. 45 species account for 90% of the dissimilarity between these two groups. These differences can mainly be explained by the influence of local environmental conditions determined by processes closely related to the presence/absence of glaciers. Abiotic parameters such as water depth, type of sediment and chemical features of the superficial sediment were not correlated with the numbers of individuals caught by the Agassiz trawl in each group of sampling stations.

  9. The Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance (GIGA): Developing Community Resources to Study Diverse Invertebrate Genomes

    KAUST Repository

    Bracken-Grissom, Heather


    Over 95% of all metazoan (animal) species comprise the invertebrates, but very few genomes from these organisms have been sequenced. We have, therefore, formed a Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance (GIGA). Our intent is to build a collaborative network of diverse scientists to tackle major challenges (e.g., species selection, sample collection and storage, sequence assembly, annotation, analytical tools) associated with genome/transcriptome sequencing across a large taxonomic spectrum. We aim to promote standards that will facilitate comparative approaches to invertebrate genomics and collaborations across the international scientific community. Candidate study taxa include species from Porifera, Ctenophora, Cnidaria, Placozoa, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, Annelida, Bryozoa, and Platyhelminthes, among others. GIGA will target 7000 noninsect/nonnematode species, with an emphasis on marine taxa because of the unrivaled phyletic diversity in the oceans. Priorities for selecting invertebrates for sequencing will include, but are not restricted to, their phylogenetic placement; relevance to organismal, ecological, and conservation research; and their importance to fisheries and human health. We highlight benefits of sequencing both whole genomes (DNA) and transcriptomes and also suggest policies for genomic-level data access and sharing based on transparency and inclusiveness. The GIGA Web site () has been launched to facilitate this collaborative venture.

  10. Pharmacological Potential of Phylogenetically Diverse Actinobacteria Isolated from Deep-Sea Coral Ecosystems of the Submarine Avilés Canyon in the Cantabrian Sea. (United States)

    Sarmiento-Vizcaíno, Aida; González, Verónica; Braña, Alfredo F; Palacios, Juan J; Otero, Luis; Fernández, Jonathan; Molina, Axayacatl; Kulik, Andreas; Vázquez, Fernando; Acuña, José L; García, Luis A; Blanco, Gloria


    Marine Actinobacteria are emerging as an unexplored source for natural product discovery. Eighty-seven deep-sea coral reef invertebrates were collected during an oceanographic expedition at the submarine Avilés Canyon (Asturias, Spain) in a range of 1500 to 4700 m depth. From these, 18 cultivable bioactive Actinobacteria were isolated, mainly from corals, phylum Cnidaria, and some specimens of phyla Echinodermata, Porifera, Annelida, Arthropoda, Mollusca and Sipuncula. As determined by 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analyses, all isolates belong to the phylum Actinobacteria, mainly to the Streptomyces genus and also to Micromonospora, Pseudonocardia and Myceligenerans. Production of bioactive compounds of pharmacological interest was investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques and subsequent database comparison. Results reveal that deep-sea isolated Actinobacteria display a wide repertoire of secondary metabolite production with a high chemical diversity. Most identified products (both diffusible and volatiles) are known by their contrasted antibiotic or antitumor activities. Bioassays with ethyl acetate extracts from isolates displayed strong antibiotic activities against a panel of important resistant clinical pathogens, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as fungi, all of them isolated at two main hospitals (HUCA and Cabueñes) from the same geographical region. The identity of the active extracts components of these producing Actinobacteria is currently being investigated, given its potential for the discovery of pharmaceuticals and other products of biotechnological interest.

  11. Продуктивность ежевики (Rubus subg. Eubatus focke в условиях Лесостепи Украины

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The productivity of twenty-five blackberry cultivars of Ukrainian and foreign breeding in the condi-tions of Right-Bank part of the western Forest-Steppe of Ukraine has been evaluated. The trailing Thornfree culti-var, characterized by an average shoot–forming ability and a large number of fruit-bearing branches and berries on them, had the highest productivity, namely 5,14 kg/bush; 9,59 t/ha on average, over the years of research (2016-2017. The semi-erect blackberries Asterina, Heaven can Wait and Orkan were also found to be high-yielding. The remontant cultivars Reuben and Black Magic, characterized by late fruit setting, gave low yields (020/kg/bush; 0,47 t/ha and 0,38 kg/bush; 1,00 t/ha respectively. The Black Butte Blackberry and Kiowa varieties were distinguished by the highest average mass per berry, namely 9,5 g and 8,22 g, respectively. Most of the studied blackberry cultivars have medium-sized berries ranging from 4,4 to 5,8 g. Реферат. Проведена оценка продуктивности 25 сортов ежевики украинской и зарубежной селекции в условиях Правобережной части Западной Лесостепи Украины. Стелющийся сорт Thornfree, для которого характерна средняя побегообразовательная способность и образование большого количества плодонося-щих веточек и ягод на них, имеет самый высокий показатель производительности: 5,14 кг/куст; 9,59 т/га в среднем за годы исследований (2016-2017. Также высокоурожайными оказались полупряморослые сорта Asterina, Heaven can Wait и Orkan. Сорта ремонтантного типа Reuben и Black Magic, характеризующиеся

  12. Macro- and megafauna recorded in the submarine Bari Canyon (southern Adriatic, Mediterranean Sea using different tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Macro- and megafauna were recorded in the submarine Bari Canyon (southern Adriatic Sea, Mediterranean Sea during an oceanographic cruise carried out in May-June 2012 and an experimental fishing survey conducted in November 2013. During the former, a total of 20 benthic samples were taken using a Van Veen grab at depths between 268 and 770 m and 4 deployments of a baited lander, for about 43 hours of video records, were carried out at depths between 443 and 788 m. During the latter, 8 longline fishing operations were conducted from 338 down to 612 m. Eighty-five living benthic and benthopelagic species were recorded: 29 Porifera, 1 Cnidaria, 2 Mollusca, 11 Annelida, 1 Arthropoda, 19 Bryozoa, 3 Echinodermata and 19 Chordata. A total of 51 species are new records for the Bari Canyon, 29 new records for the Adriatic Sea. Among the Porifera Cerbaris curvispiculifer is a new addition for the Italian Sponge Fauna. The first certain record of living specimens for the bryozoan Crisia tenella longinodata is reported. A total of 6 Mediterranean endemic species have been identified: 4 Porifera and 2 Annelida. The bathymetric range of some species has been extended. New information acquired for deep sea species confirms their importance in the structure of cold-water coral communities. This study has updated the knowledge on the biodiversity of the Adriatic Sea, as well as of the Bari Canyon in particular, one of the sites designated as “jewels of the Mediterranean” for which urgent conservation measures are needed.

  13. When Ontogeny Matters: A New Japanese Species of Brittle Star Illustrates the Importance of Considering both Adult and Juvenile Characters in Taxonomic Practice. (United States)

    Martynov, Alexander; Ishida, Yoshiaki; Irimura, Seiichi; Tajiri, Rie; O'Hara, Timothy; Fujita, Toshihiko


    Current taxonomy offers numerous approaches and methods for species delimitation and description. However, most of them are based on the adult characters and rarely suggest a dynamic representation of developmental transformations of taxonomically important features. Here we show how the underestimation of ontogenetic changes may result in long term lack of recognition of a new species of one of the most common ophiacanthid brittle stars (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) from the North Pacific. Based on vast material collected predominantly by various Japanese expeditions in the course of more than 50 years, and thorough study of appropriate type material, we revise the complex of three common species of the ophiuroid genus Ophiacantha which have been persistently confused with each other. The present study thus reveals the previously unrecognized new species Ophiacantha kokusai sp.nov. which is commonly distributed off the Pacific coast of Japan. The new species shows developmental differentiation from the closely related species Ophiacantha rhachophora H. L. Clark, 1911 and retains clearly expressed early juvenile features in the adult morphology. Another species, Ophiacantha clypeata Kyte, 1977, which had been separated from O. rhachophora, is in turn shown to be just a juvenile stage of another North Pacific species, Ophiacantha trachybactra H.L. Clark, 1911. For every species, detailed morphological data from both adult and juvenile specimens based on scanning electron microscopy are presented. A special grinding method showing complex internal features has been utilized for the first time. For all three species in this complex, a clear bathymetric differentiation is revealed: O. rhachophora predominantly inhabits shallow waters, 0-250 m, the new species O. kokusai lives deeper, at 250-600 m, and the third species, O. trachybactra, is found at 500-2,000 m. The present case clearly highlights the importance of considering developmental transformations, not only for

  14. Trends in the Discovery of New Marine Natural Products from Invertebrates over the Last Two Decades – Where and What Are We Bioprospecting? (United States)

    Leal, Miguel Costa; Puga, João; Serôdio, João; Gomes, Newton C. M.; Calado, Ricardo


    It is acknowledged that marine invertebrates produce bioactive natural products that may be useful for developing new drugs. By exploring untapped geographical sources and/or novel groups of organisms one can maximize the search for new marine drugs to treat human diseases. The goal of this paper is to analyse the trends associated with the discovery of new marine natural products from invertebrates (NMNPI) over the last two decades. The analysis considers different taxonomical levels and geographical approaches of bioprospected species. Additionally, this research is also directed to provide new insights into less bioprospected taxa and world regions. In order to gather the information available on NMNPI, the yearly-published reviews of Marine Natural Products covering 1990–2009 were surveyed. Information on source organisms, specifically taxonomical information and collection sites, was assembled together with additional geographical information collected from the articles originally describing the new natural product. Almost 10000 NMNPI were discovered since 1990, with a pronounced increase between decades. Porifera and Cnidaria were the two dominant sources of NMNPI worldwide. The exception was polar regions where Echinodermata dominated. The majority of species that yielded the new natural products belong to only one class of each Porifera and Cnidaria phyla (Demospongiae and Anthozoa, respectively). Increased bioprospecting efforts were observed in the Pacific Ocean, particularly in Asian countries that are associated with the Japan Biodiversity Hotspot and the Kuroshio Current. Although results show comparably less NMNPI from polar regions, the number of new natural products per species is similar to that recorded for other regions. The present study provides information to future bioprospecting efforts addressing previously unexplored taxonomic groups and/or regions. We also highlight how marine invertebrates, which in some cases have no commercial value

  15. Hemolytic and Cytotoxic Properties of Saponin Purified from Holothuria leucospilota Sea Cucumber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Soltani


    Full Text Available Background: Holothuroids (sea cucumbers are members of the phylum echinodermata, which produce saponins. Saponins exhibit a wide spectrum of pharmacological and biological activities. In this study, we isolated the crude saponins from the body wall of the dominant Iranian species of sea cucumber, Holothuria leucospilota (H. leucospilota. The purpose of this study was to confirm the presence of saponins in the Persian Gulf H. leucospilota and study the hemolytic and cytotoxic activities of these compounds. Methods: The body wall of sea cucumber was dried and powdered and the crude saponins were isolated using various solvents. The crude saponins were further purified by column chromatography using HP-20 resin. The foam test, Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC, hemolytic assay, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR confirmed the presence of saponins. Cytotoxicity was analyzed using a 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay on A549 cells, a human lung cancer cell line. Results: The foam test, hemolytic assay, and TLC supported the presence of saponin compounds in the 80% ethanol fraction of H. leucospilota. The infrared (IR spectrum of the extract showed hydroxyl (-OH, alkyl (C-H, ether (C-O and ester (–C=O absorption characteristic of teriterpenoid saponins. The C-O-C absorption indicated glycoside linkages to the sapogenins. The crude saponin extracted from sea cucumber was cytotoxic to A549 cells. Conclusion: The 80% ethanol fraction of saponin isolated from H. leucospilota exhibited hemolytic activity and offers promise as an anti-cancer candidate.

  16. The protein precursors of peptides that affect the mechanics of connective tissue and/or muscle in the echinoderm Apostichopus japonicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice R Elphick

    Full Text Available Peptides that cause muscle relaxation or contraction or that modulate electrically-induced muscle contraction have been discovered in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Phylum Echinodermata; Class Holothuroidea. By analysing transcriptome sequence data, here the protein precursors of six of these myoactive peptides (the SALMFamides Sticho-MFamide-1 and -2, NGIWYamide, stichopin, GN-19 and GLRFA have been identified, providing novel insights on neuropeptide and endocrine-type signalling systems in echinoderms. The A. japonicus SALMFamide precursor comprises eight putative neuropeptides including both L-type and F-type SALMFamides, which contrasts with previous findings from the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus where L-type and F-type SALMFamides are encoded by different genes. The NGIWYamide precursor contains five copies of NGIWYamide but, unlike other NG peptide-type neuropeptide precursors in deuterostomian invertebrates, the NGIWYamide precursor does not have a C-terminal neurophysin domain, indicating loss of this character in holothurians. NGIWYamide was originally discovered as a muscle contractant, but it also causes stiffening of mutable connective tissue in the body wall of A. japonicus, whilst holokinins (PLGYMFR and derivative peptides cause softening of the body wall. However, the mechanisms by which these peptides affect the stiffness of body wall connective tissue are unknown. Interestingly, analysis of the A. japonicus transcriptome reveals that the only protein containing the holokinin sequence PLGYMFR is an alpha-5 type collagen. This suggests that proteolysis of collagen may generate peptides (holokinins that affect body wall stiffness in sea cucumbers, providing a novel perspective on mechanisms of mutable connective tissue in echinoderms.

  17. Extraction, Identification and Biological Activities of Saponins in Sea Cucumber Pearsonothuria graeffei. (United States)

    Khattab, Rafat Afifi; Elbandy, Mohamed; Lawrence, Andrew; Paget, Tim; Rae-Rho, Jung; Binnaser, Yaser S; Ali, Imran


    Secondary metabolism in marine organisms produces a diversity of biologically important natural compounds that are not present in terrestrial species. Sea cucumbers belong to the invertebrate Echinodermata and are famous for their nutraceutical, medical and food values. They are known for possession triterpenoid glycosides (saponins) with various ecological roles. The current work aimed to separate, identify and test various biological activities (antibacterial, antifungal, antileishmanial and anticancer properties) of saponins produced by the holothurian Pearsonothuria graeffei from the Red Sea, Egypt. The structures were identified by 1D and 2D NMR (1H, 13C, TOCSY, COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and ROESY) experiments and acid hydrolysis. The crude and purified fractions was analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS)/MS to identify saponins and characterize their molecular structures. Partially purified fraction, mainly containing compounds 1 and 2, was screened for its antifungal activity against three clinical isolates of Candida albicans (Candida 580 (1), Candida 581(2) and Candida MEO47228. Antileishmanial activity against Leishmania major and toxicity on colon cell-line were also evaluated. Two lanostane type sulfated triterpene monoglycosides were isolated from the Holothurian Pearsonothuria graeffei from the Red Sea, Egypt. Holothurin A (1) and echinoside A (2) triterpene saponins were separated by reversed phase semi-preparative HPLC. LC50 values (µg/mL); calculated for the fraction containing saponins 1 and 2 as major constituents; against Candida albicans, Leishmania major and colon cell-line were 10, 20 and 0.50, respectively. Consequently, this study demonstrated the potential use of sea cucumber Pearsonothuria graeffei not only as appreciated functional food or nutraceuticals but also as the source of functional ingredients for pharmaceutical products with antifungal, antileishmanial and anticancer properties

  18. RNA-Seq reveals dynamic changes of gene expression in key stages of intestine regeneration in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sea cucumbers (Holothuroidea; Echinodermata have the capacity to regenerate lost tissues and organs. Although the histological and cytological aspects of intestine regeneration have been extensively studied, little is known of the genetic mechanisms involved. There has, however, been a renewed effort to develop a database of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs in Apostichopus japonicus, an economically-important species that occurs in China. This is important for studies on genetic breeding, molecular markers and special physiological phenomena. We have also constructed a library of ESTs obtained from the regenerative body wall and intestine of A. japonicus. The database has increased to ~30000 ESTs. RESULTS: We used RNA-Seq to determine gene expression profiles associated with intestinal regeneration in A. japonicus at 3, 7, 14 and 21 days post evisceration (dpe. This was compared to profiles obtained from a normally-functioning intestine. Approximately 5 million (M reads were sequenced in every library. Over 2400 up-regulated genes (>10% and over 1000 down-regulated genes (~5% were observed at 3 and 7dpe (log2Ratio ≥ 1, FDR ≤ 0.001. Specific "Go terms" revealed that the DEGs (Differentially Expressed Genes performed an important function at every regeneration stage. Besides some expected pathways (for example, Ribosome and Spliceosome pathway term, the "Notch signaling pathway," the "ECM-receptor interaction" and the "Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction" were significantly enriched. We also investigated the expression profiles of developmental genes, ECM-associated genes and Cytoskeletal genes. Twenty of the most important differentially expressed genes (DEGs were verified by Real-time PCR, which resulted in a trend concordance of almost 100% between the two techniques. CONCLUSION: Our studies demonstrated dynamic changes in global gene expression during intestine regeneration and presented a series of candidate genes and enriched

  19. Annotated list of marine alien species in the Mediterranean with records of the worst invasive species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This collaborative effort by many specialists across the Mediterranean presents an updated annotated list of alien marine species in the Mediterranean Sea. Alien species have been grouped into six broad categories namely established, casual, questionable, cryptogenic, excluded and invasive, and presented in lists of major ecofunctional/taxonomic groups. The establishment success within each group is provided while the questionable and excluded records are commented in brief. A total of 963 alien species have been reported from the Mediterranean until December 2005, 218 of which have been classified as excluded (23% leaving 745 of the recorded species as valid aliens. Of these 385 (52% are already well established, 262 (35% are casual records, while 98 species (13% remain “questionable” records. The species cited in this work belong mostly to zoobenthos and in particular to Mollusca and Crustacea, while Fish and Phytobenthos are the next two groups which prevail among alien biota in the Mediterranean. The available information depends greatly on the taxonomic group examined. Thus, besides the three groups explicitly addressed in the CIESM atlas series (Fish, Decapoda/Crustacea and Mollusca, which are however updated in the present work, Polychaeta, Phytobenthos, Phytoplankton and Zooplankton are also addressed in this study. Among other zoobenthic taxa sufficiently covered in this study are Echinodermata, Sipuncula, Bryozoa and Ascidiacea. On the contrary, taxa such as Foraminifera, Amphipoda and Isopoda, that are not well studied in the Mediterranean, are insufficiently covered. A gap of knowledge is also noticed in Parasites, which, although ubiquitous and pervasive in marine systems, have been relatively unexplored as to their role in marine invasions. Conclusively the lack of funding purely systematic studies in the region has led to underestimation of the number of aliens in the Mediterranean. Emphasis is put on those species that are

  20. Quantification of intensive hybrid coastal reclamation for revealing its impacts on macrozoobenthos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Jiaguo; Cui, Baoshan; Zheng, Jingjing; Xie, Tian; Wang, Qing; Li, Shanze


    Managing and identifying the sources of anthropogenic stress in coastal wetlands requires an in-depth understanding of relationships between species diversity and human activities. Empirical and experimental studies provide clear evidence that coastal reclamation can have profound impacts on marine organisms, but the focus of such studies is generally on comparative or laboratory research. We developed a compound intensity index (reclamation intensity index, RI) on hybrid coastal reclamation, to quantify the impacts of reclamation on coastal ecosystems. We also made use of mean annual absolute changes to a number of biotic variables (biodiversity, species richness, biomass of total macrozoobenthos, and species richness and biomass of Polychaeta, Mollusca, Crustacea, and Echinodermata) to determine Hedges’d index, which is a measure of the potential effects of coastal reclamation. Our results showed that there was significant difference of coastal reclamation intensity between Yellow Sea, East China Sea and South China Sea, the biological changes in effect sizes of the three regions differed greatly over time. Our modelling analyses showed that hybrid coastal reclamation generally had significant negative impacts on species diversity and biomass of macrozoobenthos. These relationships varied among different taxonomic groups and included both linear and nonlinear relationships. The results indicated that a high-intensity of coastal reclamation contributed to a pronounced decline in species diversity and biomass, while lower-intensity reclamation, or reclamation within certain thresholds, resulted in a small increase in species diversity and biomass. These results have important implications for biodiversity conservation and the ecological restoration of coastal wetlands in face of the intensive reclamation activities. (letter)

  1. Triploblastic relationships with emphasis on the acoelomates and the position of Gnathostomulida, Cycliophora, Plathelminthes, and Chaetognatha: a combined approach of 18S rDNA sequences and morphology. (United States)

    Giribet, G; Distel, D L; Polz, M; Sterrer, W; Wheeler, W C


    Triploblastic relationships were examined in the light of molecular and morphological evidence. Representatives for all triploblastic "phyla" (except Loricifera) were represented by both sources of phylogenetic data. The 18S ribosomal (rDNA) sequence data for 145 terminal taxa and 276 morphological characters coded for 36 supraspecific taxa were combined in a total evidence regime to determine the most consistent picture of triploblastic relationships for these data. Only triploblastic taxa are used to avoid rooting with distant outgroups, which seems to happen because of the extreme distance that separates diploblastic from triploblastic taxa according to the 18S rDNA data. Multiple phylogenetic analyses performed with variable analysis parameters yield largely inconsistent results for certain groups such as Chaetognatha, Acoela, and Nemertodermatida. A normalized incongruence length metric is used to assay the relative merit of the multiple analyses. The combined analysis having the least character incongruence yields the following scheme of relationships of four main clades: (1) Deuterostomia [((Echinodermata + Enteropneusta) (Cephalochordata (Urochordata + Vertebrata)))]; (2) Ecdysozoa [(((Priapulida + Kinorhyncha) (Nematoda + Nematomorpha)) ((Onychophora + Tardigrada) Arthropoda))]; (3) Trochozoa [((Phoronida + Brachiopoda) (Entoprocta (Nemertea (Sipuncula (Mollusca (Pogonophora (Echiura + Annelida)))))))]; and (4) Platyzoa [((Gnathostomulida (Cycliophora + Syndermata)) (Gastrotricha + Plathelminthes))]. Chaetognatha, Nemertodermatida, and Bryozoa cannot be assigned to any one of these four groups. For the first time, a data analysis recognizes a clade of acoelomates, the Platyzoa (sensu Cavalier-Smith, Biol. Rev. 73:203-266, 1998). Other relationships that corroborate some morphological analyses are the existence of a clade that groups Gnathostomulida + Syndermata (= Gnathifera), which is expanded to include the enigmatic phylum Cycliophora, as sister group

  2. Broad Phylogenetic Occurrence of the Oxygen-Binding Hemerythrins in Bilaterians. (United States)

    Costa-Paiva, Elisa M; Schrago, Carlos G; Halanych, Kenneth M


    Animal tissues need to be properly oxygenated for carrying out catabolic respiration and, as such, natural selection has presumably favored special molecules that can reversibly bind and transport oxygen. Hemoglobins, hemocyanins, and hemerythrins (Hrs) fulfill this role, with Hrs being the least studied. Knowledge of oxygen-binding proteins is crucial for understanding animal physiology. Hr genes are present in the three domains of life, Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukaryota; however, within Animalia, Hrs has been reported only in marine species in six phyla (Annelida, Brachiopoda, Priapulida, Bryozoa, Cnidaria, and Arthropoda). Given this observed Hr distribution, whether all metazoan Hrs share a common origin is circumspect. We investigated Hr diversity and evolution in metazoans, by employing in silico approaches to survey for Hrs from of 120 metazoan transcriptomes and genomes. We found 58 candidate Hr genes actively transcribed in 36 species distributed in 11 animal phyla, with new records in Echinodermata, Hemichordata, Mollusca, Nemertea, Phoronida, and Platyhelminthes. Moreover, we found that "Hrs" reported from Cnidaria and Arthropoda were not consistent with that of other metazoan Hrs. Contrary to previous suggestions that Hr genes were absent in deuterostomes, we find Hr genes present in deuterostomes and were likely present in early bilaterians, but not in nonbilaterian animal lineages. As expected, the Hr gene tree did not mirror metazoan phylogeny, suggesting that Hrs evolutionary history was complex and besides the oxygen carrying capacity, the drivers of Hr evolution may also consist of secondary functional specializations of the proteins, like immunological functions. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  3. Temporal and spatial distribution of the meiobenthic community in Daya Bay, South China Sea (United States)

    Tang, L.; Li, H. X.; Yan, Y.


    Spatial and temporal biodiversity patterns of the meiobenthos were studied for the first time in Daya Bay, which is a tropical semi-enclosed basin located in the South China Sea. The abundance, biomass, and composition of the meiobenthos and the basic environmental factors in the bay were investigated. The following 19 taxonomic groups were represented in the meiofauna: Nematoda, Copepoda, Polychaeta, Oligochaeta, Kinorhyncha, Gastrotricha, Ostracoda, Bivalvia, Turbellaria, Nemertinea, Sipuncula, Hydroida, Amphipoda, Cumacea, Halacaroidea, Priapulida, Echinodermata, Tanaidacea, and Rotifera. Total abundance and biomass of the meiobenthos showed great spatial and temporal variation, with mean values of 993.57 ± 455.36 ind cm-2 and 690.51 ± 210.64 μg 10 cm-2, respectively. Nematodes constituted 95.60 % of the total abundance and thus had the greatest effect on meiofauna quantity and distribution, followed by copepods (1.55 %) and polychaetes (1.39 %). Meiobenthos abundance was significantly negatively correlated with water depth at stations (r=-0.747, P<0.05) and significantly negatively correlated with silt-clay content (r=-0.516, P<0.01) and medium diameter (r=-0.499, P<0.01) of the sediment. Similar results were found for correlations of biomass and abundance of nematodes with environmental parameters. Polychaete abundance was positively correlated with the bottom water temperature (r=0.456, P<0.01). Meiobenthos abundance differed significantly among seasons (P<0.05), although no significant difference among stations and the interaction of station × season was detected by two-way ANOVA. In terms of vertical distribution, most of the meiobenthos was found in the surface layer of sediment. This pattern was apparent for nematodes and copepods, but a vertical distribution pattern for polychaetes was not as obvious. Based on the biotic indices and analyses of their correlations and variance, the diversity of this community was likely to be influenced by

  4. Could the acid-base status of Antarctic sea urchins indicate a better-than-expected resilience to near-future ocean acidification? (United States)

    Collard, Marie; De Ridder, Chantal; David, Bruno; Dehairs, Frank; Dubois, Philippe


    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration alters the chemistry of the oceans towards more acidic conditions. Polar oceans are particularly affected due to their low temperature, low carbonate content and mixing patterns, for instance upwellings. Calcifying organisms are expected to be highly impacted by the decrease in the oceans' pH and carbonate ions concentration. In particular, sea urchins, members of the phylum Echinodermata, are hypothesized to be at risk due to their high-magnesium calcite skeleton. However, tolerance to ocean acidification in metazoans is first linked to acid-base regulation capacities of the extracellular fluids. No information on this is available to date for Antarctic echinoderms and inference from temperate and tropical studies needs support. In this study, we investigated the acid-base status of 9 species of sea urchins (3 cidaroids, 2 regular euechinoids and 4 irregular echinoids). It appears that Antarctic regular euechinoids seem equipped with similar acid-base regulation systems as tropical and temperate regular euechinoids but could rely on more passive ion transfer systems, minimizing energy requirements. Cidaroids have an acid-base status similar to that of tropical cidaroids. Therefore Antarctic cidaroids will most probably not be affected by decreasing seawater pH, the pH drop linked to ocean acidification being negligible in comparison of the naturally low pH of the coelomic fluid. Irregular echinoids might not suffer from reduced seawater pH if acidosis of the coelomic fluid pH does not occur but more data on their acid-base regulation are needed. Combining these results with the resilience of Antarctic sea urchin larvae strongly suggests that these organisms might not be the expected victims of ocean acidification. However, data on the impact of other global stressors such as temperature and of the combination of the different stressors needs to be acquired to assess the sensitivity of these organisms to global

  5. Seasonal monitoring of deep-sea megabenthos in Barkley Canyon cold seep by internet operated vehicle (IOV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Doya

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the processes shaping deep-sea benthic communities at seasonal scales in cold-seep environments is incomplete. Cold seeps within highly dynamic regions, such as submarine canyons, where variable current regimes may occur, are particularly understudied. Novel Internet Operated Vehicles (IOVs, such as tracked crawlers, provide new techniques for investigating these ecosystems over prolonged periods. In this study a benthic crawler connected to the NEPTUNE cabled infrastructure operated by Ocean Networks Canada was used to monitor community changes across 60 m2 of a cold-seep area of the Barkley Canyon, North East Pacific, at ~890 m depth within an Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ. Short video-transects were run at 4-h intervals during the first week of successive calendar months, over a 14 month period (February 14th 2013 to April 14th 2014. Within each recorded transect video megafauna abundances were computed and changes in environmental conditions concurrently measured. The responses of fauna to environmental conditions as a proxy of seasonality were assessed through analysis of abundances in a total of 438 video-transects (over 92 h of total footage. 7698 fauna individuals from 6 phyla (Cnidaria, Ctenophora, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, Mollusca, and Chordata were logged and patterns in abundances of the 7 most abundant taxa (i.e. rockfish Sebastidae, sablefish Anoplopoma fimbria, hagfish Eptatretus stoutii, buccinids (Buccinoidea, undefined small crabs, ctenophores Bolinopsis infundibulum, and Scyphomedusa Poralia rufescens were identified. Patterns in the reproductive behaviour of the grooved tanner crab (Chionnecetes tanneri were also indicated. Temporal variations in biodiversity and abundance in megabenthic fauna was significantly influenced by variabilities in flow velocity flow direction (up or down canyon, dissolved oxygen concentration and month of study. Also reported here for the first time are transient mass aggregations of

  6. Asteroidea, Echinoidea y Holothuroidea en fondos someros de la Bahía de Loreto, Baja California Sur, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Holguin Quiñones


    Full Text Available Para evaluar distribución, abundancia y densidades de erizos, estrellas y pepinos de mar en la Bahía de Loreto se empleó un transecto de 50 metros, por duplicado, con un margen de observación de 2.5 m a cada lado del mismo por estación y fecha de muestreo. Se observaron mayores abundancias y densidades en la clase Echinoidea: Echinometra vanbrunti (94.1+ 52.9 ind, 0.25 ind/m², Centrostephanus coronatus (38.15+9.15 ind, 0.06 ind/m², Tripneustes depressus (28.68 + 6.86 ind, 0.039 ind/ m², Eucidaris thouarsii (10.66+3.37 ind, 0.025 ind/m² y Diadema mexicanum (11.75+4.92 ind, 0.023 ind/ m²; y para la clase Asteroidea: Phataria unifascialis, Mithrodia bradleyi y Acanthaster planci. Por el número de especies domina Asteroidea con 12, le siguen Echinoidea con 10 y Holothuroidea con 4.To evaluate echinoderm distribution, abundance and density a double 50 m transect, with a side observation range of 2.5 m was used at each of 11 stations (bimonthly samplings, Aug. 1997-Febr. 1998. In Bahía de Loreto the Phylum Echinodermata consists of 26 taxa. The greatest mean abundance by transect and mean densities in order of importance for Echinoidea were: Echinometra vanbrunti (94.1+ 52.9 ind, 0.25 ind/m², Centrostephanus coronatus (38.15. + 9.15 ind, 0.06 ind/m², Tripneustes depressus (28.68 + 6.86 ind, 0.039 ind/ m², Eucidaris thouarsii (10.66 + 3.37 ind, 0.025 ind/m² and Diadema mexicanum (11.75 + 4.92 ind, 0.023 ind/ m²; for Asteroidea were: Phataria unifascialis, Mithrodia bradleyi and Acanthaster planci. Asteroidea was the dominant class with 12 species, followed by Echinoidea with ten and Holothuroidea was represented by four species.

  7. The Sinbad retrotransposon from the genome of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni, and the distribution of related Pao-like elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales Maria E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Of the major families of long terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposons, the Pao/BEL family is probably the least well studied. It is becoming apparent that numerous LTR retrotransposons and other mobile genetic elements have colonized the genome of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni. Results A proviral form of Sinbad, a new LTR retrotransposon, was identified in the genome of S. mansoni. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Sinbad belongs to one of five discreet subfamilies of Pao/BEL like elements. BLAST searches of whole genomes and EST databases indicated that members of this clade occurred in species of the Insecta, Nematoda, Echinodermata and Chordata, as well as Platyhelminthes, but were absent from all plants, fungi and lower eukaryotes examined. Among the deuterostomes examined, only aquatic species harbored these types of elements. All four species of nematode examined were positive for Sinbad sequences, although among insect and vertebrate genomes, some were positive and some negative. The full length, consensus Sinbad retrotransposon was 6,287 bp long and was flanked at its 5'- and 3'-ends by identical LTRs of 386 bp. Sinbad displayed a triple Cys-His RNA binding motif characteristic of Gag of Pao/BEL-like elements, followed by the enzymatic domains of protease, reverse transcriptase (RT, RNAseH, and integrase, in that order. A phylogenetic tree of deduced RT sequences from 26 elements revealed that Sinbad was most closely related to an unnamed element from the zebrafish Danio rerio and to Saci-1, also from S. mansoni. It was also closely related to Pao from Bombyx mori and to Ninja of Drosophila simulans. Sinbad was only distantly related to the other schistosome LTR retrotransposons Boudicca, Gulliver, Saci-2, Saci-3, and Fugitive, which are gypsy-like. Southern hybridization and bioinformatics analyses indicated that there were about 50 copies of Sinbad in the S. mansoni genome. The presence of ESTs

  8. Localization of neuropeptide gene expression in larvae of an echinoderm, the starfish Asterias rubens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana D Mayorova


    Full Text Available Neuropeptides are an ancient class of neuronal signaling molecules that regulate a variety of physiological and behavioral processes in animals. The life cycle of many animals includes a larval stage(s that precedes metamorphic transition to a reproductively active adult stage but, with the exception of Drosophila melanogaster and other insects, research on neuropeptide signaling has hitherto largely focused on adult animals. However, recent advances in genome/transcriptome sequencing have facilitated investigation of neuropeptide expression/function in the larvae of protostomian (e.g. the annelid Platynereis dumerilii and deuterostomian (e.g. the urochordate Ciona intestinalis invertebrates. Accordingly, here we report the first multi-gene investigation of larval neuropeptide precursor expression in a species belonging to the phylum Echinodermata - the starfish Asterias rubens. Whole-mount mRNA in situ hybridization was used to visualize in bipinnaria and brachiolaria stage larvae the expression of eight neuropeptide precursors: L-type SALMFamide (S1, F-type SALMFamide (S2, vasopressin/oxytocin-type, NGFFYamide, thyrotropin-releasing hormone-type, gonadotropin-releasing hormone-type, calcitonin-type and corticotropin-releasing hormone-type. Expression of only three of the precursors (S1, S2, NGFFYamide was observed in bipinnaria larvae but by the brachiolaria stage expression of all eight precursors was detected. An evolutionarily conserved feature of larval nervous systems is the apical organ and in starfish larvae this comprises the bilaterally symmetrical lateral ganglia, but only the S1 and S2 precursors were found to be expressed in these ganglia. A prominent feature of brachiolaria larvae is the attachment complex, comprising the brachia and adhesive disk, which mediates larval attachment to a substratum prior to metamorphosis. Interestingly, all of the neuropeptide precursors examined here are expressed in the attachment complex, with

  9. Toxicity of organic compounds to marine invertebrate embryos and larvae: a comparison between the sea urchin embryogenesis bioassay and alternative test species. (United States)

    Bellas, Juan; Beiras, Ricardo; Mariño-Balsa, José Carlos; Fernández, Nuria


    This study investigated the toxic effects of the insecticides lindane and chlorpyrifos, the herbicide diuron, the organometallic antifoulant tributyltin (TBT), and the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the early life stages of Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata, Euechinoidea), Ciona intestinalis (Chordata, Ascidiacea), Maja squinado and Palaemon serratus (Arthropoda, Crustacea) in laboratory acute toxicity tests. The assays studied embryogenesis success from fertilized egg to normal larvae in P. lividus (48 h incubation at 20 degrees C) and C. intestinalis (24 h incubation at 20 degrees C), and larval mortality at 24 and 48 h in M. squinado and P. serratus. For P. lividus, the median effective concentrations (EC50) reducing percentages of normal larvae by 50% were: 350 microg l(-1) for chlorpyrifos, 5500 microg l(-1) for diuron, 4277 microg l(-1) for SDS, and 0.309 microg l(-1) for TBT. For C. intestinalis, the EC50 values affecting embryogenesis success were 5666 microg l(-1) for chlorpyrifos, 24,397 microg (l-1) for diuron, 4412 microg l(-1) for lindane, 5145 microg I(-1) for SDS, and 7.1 microg l(-1) for TBT. The median lethal concentrations (LC50) for M. squinado larval survival were 0.84 microg l(-1) (24 h) and 0.79 microg l(-1) (48 h) for chlorpyrifos, 2.23 microg(l(-1) (24 h) and 2.18 microg l(-1) (48 h) for lindane, and 687 microg l(-1) (48 h) for SDS. For P. serratus the LC50 values obtained were 0.35 microg l(-1) (24 h) and 0.22 microg l(-1) (48 h) for chlorpyrifos, 3011 microg l(-1) (24 h) and 3044 microg l(-1) (48 h) for diuron, 5.20 microg l(-1) (24 h) and 5.59 microg l(-1) (48 h) for lindane, and 22.30 microg l(-1) (24 h) and 17.52 microg l(-1) (48 h) for TBT. Decapod larvae, as expected, were markedly more sensitive to the insecticides than sea urchins and ascidians, and SDS was the least toxic compound tested for these organisms. Lowest observed effect concentrations (LOEC) of TBT for sea urchin and ascidian embryos, chlorpyrifos and

  10. Proximate composition of marine invertebrates from tropical coastal waters, with emphasis on the relationship between nitrogen and protein contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela S Diniz


    Full Text Available The chemical profiles of Desmapsamma anchorata, Hymeniacidon heliophila (Porifera, Bunodosoma caissarum, Renilla muelleri (Cnidaria, Aplysia brasiliana, Eledone massyae, Isognomon bicolor (Mollusca, Echinaster brasiliensis, Echinometra lucunter, Holothuria grisea, Lytechinus variegatus (Echinodermata, and Phallusia nigra (Chordata were determined. Hydrosoluble protein was the most abundant class of substances for all species, except for the ascidian Phallusia nigra, in which the carbohydrate content was higher. The percentages of hydrosoluble protein (dry weight, dw varied widely among the invertebrates, ranging from 5.88% (R. muelleri to 47.6% (Eledone massyae of the dw .The carbohydrate content fluctuated from 1.3% (R. muelleri to 18.4% (Aplysia brasiliana of the dw. For most of the species, lipid was the second most abundant class of substances, varying from 2.8% (R. muelleri to 25.3% (Echinaster brasiliensis of the dw. Wide variations were also found for the invertebrates nitrogen content, with the lowest value recorded in the cnidarian R. muelleri (2.02% of the dw and the highest in the molluscan E. massyae (12.7% of the dw. The phosphorus content of the dw varyed from 0.24% (R. muelleri to 1.16% (E. massyae. The amino acid composition varied largely among the species, but for most of the species glycine, arginine, glutamic acid, and aspartic acid were the most abundant amino acids, with histidine and tyrosine among the less abundant amino acids. The actual content of total protein in the samples was calculated by the sum of amino acid residues, establishing dw values that fluctuated from 11.1% (R. muelleri to 66.7% (E. massyae. The proteinaceous nitrogen content was high in all species, with an average value of 97.3% of the total nitrogen. From data of total amino acid residues and total nitrogen, specific nitrogen-to-protein conversion factors were calculated for each species. The nitrogen-to-protein conversion factors ranged from 5.10 to

  11. Marine biodiversity of Aotearoa New Zealand. (United States)

    Gordon, Dennis P; Beaumont, Jennifer; MacDiarmid, Alison; Robertson, Donald A; Ahyong, Shane T


    The marine-biodiversity assessment of New Zealand (Aotearoa as known to Māori) is confined to the 200 nautical-mile boundary of the Exclusive Economic Zone, which, at 4.2 million km(2), is one of the largest in the world. It spans 30 degrees of latitude and includes a high diversity of seafloor relief, including a trench 10 km deep. Much of this region remains unexplored biologically, especially the 50% of the EEZ deeper than 2,000 m. Knowledge of the marine biota is based on more than 200 years of marine exploration in the region. The major oceanographic data repository is the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), which is involved in several Census of Marine Life field projects and is the location of the Southwestern Pacific Regional OBIS Node; NIWA is also data manager and custodian for fisheries research data owned by the Ministry of Fisheries. Related data sources cover alien species, environmental measures, and historical information. Museum collections in New Zealand hold more than 800,000 registered lots representing several million specimens. During the past decade, 220 taxonomic specialists (85 marine) from 18 countries have been engaged in a project to review New Zealand's entire biodiversity. The above-mentioned marine information sources, published literature, and reports were scrutinized to give the results summarized here for the first time (current to 2010), including data on endemism and invasive species. There are 17,135 living species in the EEZ. This diversity includes 4,315 known undescribed species in collections. Species diversity for the most intensively studied phylum-level taxa (Porifera, Cnidaria, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, Bryozoa, Kinorhyncha, Echinodermata, Chordata) is more or less equivalent to that in the ERMS (European Register of Marine Species) region, which is 5.5 times larger in area than the New Zealand EEZ. The implication is that, when all other New Zealand phyla are equally well studied, total marine

  12. Conodonts, Calcichordates and the Origin of Vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bergström


    Full Text Available Interpretation of early deuterostome evolution and relationships has been hampered by the lack of soft-part preservation in most groups. In addition, a recently revealed upside-down life orientation of vertebrates (the only real notoneuralians compared to other bilateral animals has been misinterpreted as evidence for a unique body design in all deuterostomes, misleading any search for relatives. Regarding echinoderms, the variety of body plans is confusing. The interpretation of some fossils with echinoderm-type calcite skeletons as “calcichordate” ancestors of chordates, however, involves a hypothetical reconstruction of an unusual body plan and a long series of hypothetical transitions. The number of necessary steps is much lower if cephalochordates (amphioxus or lancelet are derived directly from hemichordate enteropneusts. “Sensation interpretations” of fossils (Yunnanozoon, Cathaymyrus from Burgess Shale type deposits have added further confusion. Soft-part preservation of conodont animals, with V-shaped myomeres and a notochord, shows that they were segmented chordates, while probable eyes and teeth suggest that they were already on the vertebrate side. Die Interpretation früher Deuterostomia hinsichtlich ihrer Evolution und verwandtschaftlichen Beziehungen ist in den meisten Gruppen durch den Mangel an Weichkörpererhaltung sehr erschwert. Die kürzlich entdeckte Tatsache, daß Vertebraten, d. h. die einzigen echten Notoneuralia, im Gegensatz zu anderen bilateral symmetrischen Organismen eine mit ihrer ursprünglichen Oberseite nach unten gerichtete Lebensstellung einnehmen, hat zu der irrtümlichen Ansicht geführt, daß alle Deuostomia über einen im Tierreich einzigartigen Bauplan verfügen. Diese Interpretation brachte naturgemäß jede Suche nach Verwandtschaftsverhältnissen auf Abwege. Hinsichtlich der Echinodermata ist die bauplanmäßige Variation in der Tat verwirrend. Die Interpretation einiger Fossilien mit

  13. Benthic communities associated to Thalassia testudinum (Hydrocharitaceae at three localities of Morrocoy National Park, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Bitter - Soto


    Full Text Available The benthic community associated with the turtlegrass Thalassia testudinum beds was analized at three localities of Morrocoy National Park, Venezuela. The localities were selected according to their exposure to the open sea : A (protected, B (intermediate and C (exposed. At each locality, a 20 x 20 m area was randomly chosen, delimited and divided into 400 1x1 m quadrats. Inside each, ten randomly selected quadrats/month were sampled during 13 consecutive months. At each site all macroinvertebrates and several physical variables were recorded, as well as leaf and rhizome biomass of T. testudinum. All parameters had a step- wise gradient from A through C: organic matter, carbon nitrogen, oxygen, salinity and temperature gradient was: ABC. Percentages of sand, silt and clay showed an inverse gradient; ASe analizó la comunidad bentónica asociada a Thalassia testudinum y su relación con algunos parámetros bióticos y abióticos, en tres localidades del Parque Nacional Morrocoy, Falcón-Venezuela; éstas fueron seleccionadas de acuerdo al grado de exposición al mar abierto: A(protegída, B (intermedia y C (expuesta. En cada localidad se demarcó un área de 20 x 20m, se muestrearon aleatoriamente 10cuadrantes/mes, (130 cuadrantes/localidad. Se efectuaron registros de oxígeno disuelto, salinidad, temperatura, porcentajes de materia orgánica, carbono y nitrógeno, textura del sedimento, biomasa foliar y de rizoma de T. testudinum. Todos los parámetros analizados presentaron un gradiente escalonado. Materia Orgánica, Carbono y Nitrógeno, Oxígeno disuelto, Salinidad y Temperatura presentaron el gradiente: ABC. Los porcentages de Arena, Limo y Arcilla presentaron un gradiente inverso. El patrón en la Diversidad, Equidad y Dominancia fue: BCA. La fauna colectada estuvo compuesta por los grupos: Coelenterata (Anthozoa, Polichaeta, Sipuncula, Molusca, Crustacea y Echinodermata. Se identificaron 15 especies de moluscos (gastrópodos y bivalvos, (3

  14. Sea urchins, their predators and prey in SW Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Mamede


    Full Text Available Sea urchins play a key role structuring benthic communities of rocky shores through an intense herbivory. The most abundant sea urchin species on shallow rocky subtidal habitats of the SW coast of Portugal is Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea. It is considered a key species in various locations throughout its geographical distribution by affecting the structure of macroalgae communities and may cause the abrupt transformation of habitats dominated by foliose algae to habitats dominated by encrusting algae - the urchin barrens. The removal of P. lividus predators by recreational and commercial fishing is considered a major cause of this phenomenon by affecting the trophic relationships between predators, sea urchins and algae communities. Marine protected areas (MPAs usually lead to the recovery of important predator species that control sea urchin populations and restore habitats dominated by foliose macroalgae. Therefore, MPAs provide a good opportunity to test cascading effects and indirect impacts of fishing at the ecosystem level. The ecological role of P. lividus was studied on rocky subtidal habitats of the SW coast of Portugal (Alentejo considering three trophic levels: population of P. lividus, their predators (fish and shellfish and their prey (macroalgae communities. Several studies were conducted: (1 a non-destructive observational study on the abundance and distribution patterns of P. lividus, their predators and preys, comparing areas with different protection; (2 a manipulative in situ study with cages to assess the role of P. lividus as an herbivore and the influence of predation; (3 a descriptive study of P. lividus predators based on underwater filming; (4 and a study of human perception on these trophic relationships and other issues on sea urchin ecology and fishery, based on surveys made to fishermen and divers. Subtidal studies were performed with SCUBA diving at 3-12 m deep. Results indicate that in the

  15. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geologia - Dissertações Defendidas 1998 - Mestrado - Instituto de Geociências - Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    revisão sistemática dos equinóides regulares (ECHINODERMATA-ECHINOIDEA procedentes das rochas da Formação Pirabas (Oligo-Mioceno, Pará, Brasil. São redescritos Phyllacanthus priscus Brito & Ramirez, Histocidaris sp. e Prionocidaris sp., e são assinaladas, pela primeira vez, radíolos em “forma de leque” no Cenozóico das Américas atribuídos ao gênero “Cidaris”, e a primeira carapaça de um euequinóide regular, Psammechinus sp., em rochas do Cenozóico do Brasil. As análises tafonômica e paleoecológica preliminares sugerem uma deposição dos sedimentos da Formação Pirabas em mar de águas quentes e tranqüilas, sujeito a ações de tempestades, com condições excepcionais de fossilização localizadas. A nível filogenético é reafirmada a estreita relação dos equinóides regulares assinalados nas rochas da Formação Pirabas, com formas similares existentes na Província Faunística Caribeana durante o Cenozóico. Nome: Margareth de Toledo Conte Zulian Título: Um Estudo sobre Infiltração de Águas Pluviais em Fraturas Naturais na Porção Oeste da Serra da Carioca, Município do Rio de Janeiro Orientador: Eurípedes do Amaral Vargas Jr. Resumo: Através do mapeamento de duas áreas-piloto representativas da Serra da Carioca, o Morro da Formiga (vertente noroeste e a Ponta do Marisco (vertente sudoeste, verificou-se que a serra é seccionada por um sistema de fraturas, o qual apresenta duas famílias principais de direções NW-SE e NE-SW, com mergulhos subverticais. Famílias secundárias de direções aproximadas E-W e N-S, com mergulhos subverticais, NW-SE, com baixos ângulos de mergulho para SW e ainda E-W, com baixos ângulos de mergulho para S também são observadas e caracterizadas como juntas de alívio. Em todas as famílias foram estudadas as propriedades geométricas (orientação, persistência, espaçamento, a percolação de fluxo, as aberturas e o tipo de preenchimento, com o objetivo de entender o papel das fraturas na