WorldWideScience

Sample records for aster yellows

  1. A New Disease of Cherry Plum Tree with Yellow Leaf Symptoms Associated with a Novel Phytoplasma in the Aster Yellows Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zheng-nan; ZHANG Lei; TAO Ye; CHI Ming; XIANG Yu; WU Yun-feng

    2014-01-01

    A novel phytoplasma was detected in a cherry plum (Prunus cerasifera Ehrh) tree that mainly showed yellow leaf symptom. The tree was growing in an orchard located in Yangling District, Shaanxi Province, China. The leaves started as chlorotic and yellowing along leaf minor veins and leaf tips. Chlorosis rapidly developed to inter-veinal areas with the whole leaf becoming pale yellow in about 1-4 wk. Large numbers of phytoplasma-like bodies (PLBs) were seen under transmission electron microscopy. The majority of the PLBs was spherical or elliptical vesicles, with diameters in range of 0.1-0.6 µm, and distributed in the phloem cells of the infected tissues. A 1 246-bp 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene fragment was ampliifed from DNA samples extracted from the yellow leaf tissues using two phytoplasma universal primer pairs R16mF2/R16mR1 and R16F2n/R16R2. Phylogenetic analysis using the 16S rRNA gene sequence suggested that the phytoplasma associated with the yellow leaf symptoms belongs to a novel subclade in the aster yellows (AY) group (16SrI group). Virtual and actual restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the 16S rRNA gene fragment revealed that the phytoplasma was distinguishable from all existing 19 subgroups in the AY group (16SrI) by four restriction sites, Hinf I, Mse I, Sau3A I and Taq I. The similarity coefifcients of comparing the RFLP pattern of the 16S rRNA gene fragment of this phytoplasma to each of the 19 reported subgroups ranged from 0.73 to 0.87, which indicates the phytoplasma associated with the cherry plum yellow leaf (CPYL) symptoms is probably a distinct and novel subgroup lineage in the AY group (16SrI). In addition, the novel phytoplasma was experimentally transmitted to periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) plants from the tree with CPYL symptoms and then back to a healthy 1-yr-old cherry plum tree via dodder (Cuscuta odorata) connections.

  2. Ultrastructural changes in aster yellows phytoplasma affected Limonium sinuatum Mill. plants II. Pathology of cortex parenchyma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rudzińska-Langwald

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In Limonium sinuatum Mill, plants with severe symptoms of aster yellows infection phytoplasmas were present not only in the phloem but also in some cortex parenchymas cells. These parenchyma cells were situated at some distance from the conducting bundles. The phytoplasmas were observed directly in parenchyma cells cytoplasm. The number of phytoplasmas present in each selected cell varies. The cells with a small number of phytoplasmas show little pathological changes compared with the unaffected cells of the same zone of the stem as well with the cells of healthy plants. The cells filled with a number of phytoplasmas had their protoplast very much changed. The vacuole was reduced and in the cytoplasm a reduction of the number of ribosomes was noted and regions of homogenous structure appeared. Mitochondria were moved in the direction of the tonoplast and plasma membrane. Compared to the cells unaffected by phytoplasma, the mitochondria were smaller and had an enlarged cristae internal space. The chloroplasts from affected cells had a very significant reduction in size and the tylacoids system had disappeared. The role of these changes for creating phytoplasma friendly enviroment is discused.

  3. Changes of ultrastructure and cytoplasmic free calcium in Gladiolus x hybridus Van Houtte roots infected by aster yellows phytoplasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rudzińska-Langwald

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Roots of Gladiolus x hybridus Van Houtte plants infected with aster yellows phytoplasma were examined. The infected plants had a reduced root system in comparison to control plants. Their roots were thinner and the stele organisation was changed. Phytoplasmas were present in sieve tubes, companion cells and phloem parenchyma cells of the infected plant roots. Free calcium ions were localized in the cells of infected plants. Cells of the stele of infected roots, especially these infected with phytoplasmas, showed an increase of calcium antimonite deposits in theirs protoplasts. Also the number of calcium antimonite deposits increased in sieve tubes of infected roots. The deposits were present on plasma membrane, around the sieve tube plate and also in the lumen of the sieve tube. The increase of free calcium ions in sieve tubes did not cause the occlusion of sieve tube pores. Companion cells and some parenchyma cells with phytoplasmas did not react to phytoplasma infection with an increase of Ca2+ ions in protoplast. The parenchyma cells showing signs of degeneration reacted with high increase of calcium ions. The Ca2+ ions were present mainly in cytoplasm of infected parenchyma cells. There were calcium antimonite deposits in infected plant roots xylem elements and in intracellular spaces of cortex parenchyma. Such deposits were not present in control plants.

  4. ASTER Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This image of Saudi Arabia shows a great sea of linear dunes in part of the Rub' al Khali, or the Empty Quarter. Acquired on June 25, 2000, the image covers an area 37 kilometers (23 miles) wide and 28 kilometers (17 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. The dunes are yellow due to the presence of iron oxide minerals. The inter-dune area is made up of clays and silt and appears blue due to its high reflectance in band 1. The Rub' al Khali is the world's largest continuous sand desert. It covers about 650,000 square kilometers (250,966 square miles) and lies mainly in southern Saudi Arabia, though it does extend into the United Arab Emirates, Oman, and Yemen. One of the world's driest areas, it is uninhabited except for the Bedouin nomads who cross it. The first European to travel through the desert was Bertram Thomas in 1930.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Examples of

  5. Aster yellows group (16SrI), subgroups 16SrI-A and 16SrI-B, phytoplasmas associated with lettuce yellows in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2013, an epidemic of lettuce yellows occurred in the Winter Garden region of Texas. The infected plants were stunted with blanching and chlorosis in young heart leaves. A total of thirteen samples, including three apparently asymptomatic, from Romaine and leaf lettuce cultivars, on two different...

  6. ASTER Mexicali

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Dramatic differences in land use patterns are highlighted in this image of the U.S.-Mexico border. Lush, regularly gridded agricultural fields on the U.S. side contrast with the more barren fields of Mexico This June 12, 2000, sub-scene combines visible and near infrared bands, displaying vegetation in red. The town of Mexicali-Calexico spans the border in the middle of the image; El Centro, California, is in the upper left. Watered by canals fed from the Colorado River, California's Imperial Valley is one of the country's major fruit and vegetable producers. This image covers an area 24 kilometers (15 miles) wide and 30 kilometers (19 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA

  7. ASTER Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    In this image of the Andes along the Chile-Bolivia border, the visible and infrared data have been computer enhanced to exaggerate the color differences of the different materials. The scene is dominated by the Pampa Luxsar lava complex, occupying the upper right two-thirds of the scene. Lava flows are distributed around remnants of large dissected cones, the largest of which is Cerro Luxsar. On the middle left edge of the image are the Olca and Parumastrato volcanoes, which appear in blue due to a lack of vegetation (colored red in this composite). This image covers an area 60 kilometers (37 miles) wide and 60 kilometers (37 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. It was acquired on April 7, 2000.The image is located at 21 degrees south latitude, 68.3 degrees west longitude. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Examples of applications include monitoring glacial advances and retreats

  8. The Aster code; Code Aster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbecq, J.M

    1999-07-01

    The Aster code is a 2D or 3D finite-element calculation code for structures developed by the R and D direction of Electricite de France (EdF). This dossier presents a complete overview of the characteristics and uses of the Aster code: introduction of version 4; the context of Aster (organisation of the code development, versions, systems and interfaces, development tools, quality assurance, independent validation); static mechanics (linear thermo-elasticity, Euler buckling, cables, Zarka-Casier method); non-linear mechanics (materials behaviour, big deformations, specific loads, unloading and loss of load proportionality indicators, global algorithm, contact and friction); rupture mechanics (G energy restitution level, restitution level in thermo-elasto-plasticity, 3D local energy restitution level, KI and KII stress intensity factors, calculation of limit loads for structures), specific treatments (fatigue, rupture, wear, error estimation); meshes and models (mesh generation, modeling, loads and boundary conditions, links between different modeling processes, resolution of linear systems, display of results etc..); vibration mechanics (modal and harmonic analysis, dynamics with shocks, direct transient dynamics, seismic analysis and aleatory dynamics, non-linear dynamics, dynamical sub-structuring); fluid-structure interactions (internal acoustics, mass, rigidity and damping); linear and non-linear thermal analysis; steels and metal industry (structure transformations); coupled problems (internal chaining, internal thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling, chaining with other codes); products and services. (J.S.)

  9. Opportunities within ASTERICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Rob; Cimò, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    ASTERICS, The Astronomy ESFRI and Research Infrastructure Cluster project, brings together astronomers and astroparticle physicists of 22 institutes in Europe to help Europe's world-leading observatories work together to find common solutions to their Big Data challenges, their interoperability and scheduling, and their data access, searching for cross-cutting solutions with mutual and wide-ranging benefit to all concerned. ASTERICS is a four year project, funded through the European Union's Horizon 2020 Framework Programme. The facilities supported by ASTERICS include SKA, CTA, KM3NeT, E-ELT. ASTERICS aims to open up multi messenger astronomy to all scientists and the public through the Virtual Observatory and the citizen science work. I will draw a picture of the landscape in which ASTERICS operates and the possible interaction with the Very Large Volume Neutrino Telescope community. Attention will be given to emerging opportunities for the Neutrino community and how these can be recognised or created.

  10. ASTER Expedited Data Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, K. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on the Terra spacecraft offers near real-time data delivery through an expedited system used to support emergency responders and science field campaigns. Data acquired and processed in this manner can be available for download within six hours of collection, as compared with a lag time of many days before standard products become available at two distribution sites. The orbit revisit frequency is 16 days for nadir views, but this can be reduced substantially through off-nadir pointing, at high latitudes, and by night observations. Scheduling confirmation takes place two to four days prior to imaging. ASTER is a joint mission involving the U.S. and Japan. ASTER expedited data are generated at the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC), where standard products are also archived after receipt from affiliates at the Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center (ERSDAC) in Tokyo. The ASTER instrument operates through scheduled observations, and is very successfully completing a global mapping mission. With three visible and near-infrared (VNIR) bands at 15 m ground resolution, six shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands at 30 m resolution, and five thermal infrared (TIR) bands at 90 m resolution, the 1.7-million scene archive of ASTER data acquired during the last decade provides utility in a wide range of investigations. A back-looking band is also present that enables the generation of digital elevation models (DEM). ASTER expedited data have been requested by national and international emergency response organizations to provide current views of many types of disaster situations, including volcanoes, hurricanes, wildfires, floods, tsunamis, landslides and other events. ASTER data have been provided in response to activations of the International Charter, Space and Major Disasters. Examples of data acquired for a variety of disaster situations will be provided. Recent events supported

  11. ASTER Images the Island of Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    These images of the Island of Hawaii were acquired on March 19, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. Data are shown from the short wavelength and thermal infrared spectral regions, illustrating how different and complementary information is contained in different parts of the spectrum.Left image: This false-color image covers an area 60 kilometers (37 miles) wide and 120 kilometers (75 miles) long in three bands of the short wavelength infrared region. While, much of the island was covered in clouds, the dominant central Mauna Loa volcano, rising to an altitude of 4115 meters (13,500 feet), is cloud-free. Lava flows can be seen radiating from the central crater in green and black tones. As they reach lower elevations, the flows become covered with vegetation, and their image color changes to yellow and orange. Mauna Kea volcano to the north of Mauna Loa has a thin cloud-cover, producing a bluish tone on the image. The ocean in the lower right appears brown due to the color processing.Right image: This image is a false-color composite of three thermal infrared bands. The brightness of the colors is proportional to the temperature, and the hues display differences in rock composition. Clouds are black, because they are the coldest objects in the scene. The ocean and thick vegetation appear dark green because they are colder than bare rock surfaces, and have no thermal spectral features. Lava flows are shades of magenta, green, pink and yellow, reflecting chemical changes due to weathering and relative age differences.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched

  12. ASTER DEM performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisada, H.; Bailey, G.B.; Kelly, Glen G.; Hara, S.; Abrams, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument onboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Terra spacecraft has an along-track stereoscopic capability using its a near-infrared spectral band to acquire the stereo data. ASTER has two telescopes, one for nadir-viewing and another for backward-viewing, with a base-to-height ratio of 0.6. The spatial resolution is 15 m in the horizontal plane. Parameters such as the line-of-sight vectors and the pointing axis were adjusted during the initial operation period to generate Level-1 data products with a high-quality stereo system performance. The evaluation of the digital elevation model (DEM) data was carried out both by Japanese and U.S. science teams separately using different DEM generation software and reference databases. The vertical accuracy of the DEM data generated from the Level-1A data is 20 m with 95% confidence without ground control point (GCP) correction for individual scenes. Geolocation accuracy that is important for the DEM datasets is better than 50 m. This appears to be limited by the spacecraft position accuracy. In addition, a slight increase in accuracy is observed by using GCPs to generate the stereo data. ?? 2005 IEEE.

  13. ASTER Images San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    These images of the San Francisco Bay region were acquired on March 3, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. Each covers an area 60 kilometers (37 miles) wide and 75 kilometers (47 miles) long. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image the Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.Upper Left: The color infrared composite uses bands in the visible and reflected infrared. Vegetation is red, urban areas are gray; sediment in the bays shows up as lighter shades of blue. Thanks to the 15 meter (50-foot) spatial resolution, shadows of the towers along the Bay Bridge can be seen.Upper right: A composite of bands in the short wave infrared displays differences in soils and rocks in the mountainous areas. Even though these regions appear entirely vegetated in the visible, enough surface shows through openings in the vegetation to allow the ground to be imaged.Lower left: This composite of multispectral thermal bands shows differences in urban materials in varying colors. Separation of materials is due to differences in thermal emission properties, analogous to colors in the visible.Lower right: This is a color coded temperature image of water temperature, derived from the thermal bands. Warm waters are in white and yellow, colder waters are blue. Suisun Bay in the upper right is fed directly from the cold Sacramento River. As the water flows through San Pablo and San Francisco Bays on the way to the Pacific, the waters warm up.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for

  14. NASA ASTER Level 1T

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is an advanced multispectral imager that was launched on board NASA's Terra spacecraft in...

  15. Physical Basis of Large Microtubule Aster Growth

    CERN Document Server

    Ishihara, Keisuke; Mitchison, Timothy J

    2016-01-01

    Microtubule asters - radial arrays of microtubules organized by centrosomes - play a fundamental role in the spatial coordination of animal cells. The standard model of aster growth assumes a fixed number of microtubules originating from the centrosomes. However, aster morphology in this model does not scale with cell size, and we recently found evidence for non-centrosomal microtubule nucleation. Here, we combine autocatalytic nucleation and polymerization dynamics to develop a biophysical model of aster growth. Our model predicts that asters expand as traveling waves and recapitulates all major aspects of aster growth. As the nucleation rate increases, the model predicts an explosive transition from stationary to growing asters with a discontinuous jump of the growth velocity to a nonzero value. Experiments in frog egg extract confirm the main theoretical predictions. Our results suggest that asters observed in large frog and amphibian eggs are a meshwork of short, unstable microtubules maintained by autoca...

  16. ASTER Flyby of San Francisco

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer, ASTER, is an international project: the instrument was supplied by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint US/Japan science team developed algorithms for science data products, and is validating instrument performance. With its 14 spectral bands, extremely high spatial resolution, and 15 meter along-track stereo capability, ASTER is the zoom lens of the Terra satellite. The primary mission goals are to characterize the Earth's surface; and to monitor dynamic events and processes that influence habitability at human scales. ASTER's monitoring and mapping capabilities are illustrated by this series of images of the San Francisco area. The visible and near infrared image reveals suspended sediment in the bays, vegetation health, and details of the urban environment. Flying over San Francisco (3.2MB) (high-res (18.3MB)), we see the downtown, and shadows of the large buildings. Past the Golden Gate Bridge and Alcatraz Island, we cross San Pablo Bay and enter Suisun Bay. Turning south, we fly over the Berkeley and Oakland Hills. Large salt evaporation ponds come into view at the south end of San Francisco Bay. We turn northward, and approach San Francisco Airport. Rather than landing and ending our flight, we see this is as only the beginning of a 6 year mission to better understand the habitability of the world on which we live. For more information: ASTER images through Visible Earth ASTER Web Site Image courtesy of MITI, ERSDAC, JAROS, and the U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  17. Shape-motion relationships of centering microtubule asters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Hirokazu; Kimura, Akatsuki; Minc, Nicolas

    2016-03-28

    Although mechanisms that contribute to microtubule (MT) aster positioning have been extensively studied, still little is known on how asters move inside cells to faithfully target a cellular location. Here, we study sperm aster centration in sea urchin eggs, as a stereotypical large-scale aster movement with extreme constraints on centering speed and precision. By tracking three-dimensional aster centration dynamics in eggs with manipulated shapes, we show that aster geometry resulting from MT growth and interaction with cell boundaries dictates aster instantaneous directionality, yielding cell shape-dependent centering trajectories. Aster laser surgery and modeling suggest that dynein-dependent MT cytoplasmic pulling forces that scale to MT length function to convert aster geometry into directionality. In contrast, aster speed remains largely independent of aster size, shape, or absolute dynein activity, which suggests it may be predominantly determined by aster growth rate rather than MT force amplitude. These studies begin to define the geometrical principles that control aster movements. PMID:27022090

  18. Two New Diterpene Acetylxylosides From Aster Veitchianus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Er Wei LI; Kun GAO; Zhong Jian JIA

    2004-01-01

    Two new acetylxylosides, ent-manool-13-O-β-D-2'-acetylxylopyranoside(1)and ent-manool-13-O-β-D-2',4'-diacetylxylopyranoside(2)were isolated from Aster veitchianus.Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods.

  19. A New Diterpenoid Glucoside from Aster smithianus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shou Jun GUO; Xing Hua ZHAO; Dong Liang CHENG

    2004-01-01

    A new diterpenoid trisaccharide, smithoside A, was isolated from Aster smithianus. Its structure was identified as pimar-15 (16)-β-en-3β, 8β, 1 1α-triol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (l→3)-[β-glucopyranosyl (1→2)]-β-D-glucopyranoside on the basis of the spectral and chemical methods.

  20. [Yellow fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatani, Sergio; Fiorino, Sirio

    2007-06-01

    After the discovery of the New World, yellow fever proved to be an important risk factor of morbidity and mortality for Caribbean populations. In the following centuries epidemic risk, expanded by sea trade and travel, progressively reached the settlements in North America and Brazil as well as the Atlantic seaboard of tropical and equatorial Africa. In the eighteenth century and the first half of the nineteenth century epidemics of yellow fever were reported in some coastal towns in the Iberian peninsula, French coast, Great Britain and Italy, where, in 1804 at Leghorn, only one epidemic was documented. Prevention and control programs against yellow fever, developed at the beginning of the twentieth century in Cuba and in Panama, were a major breakthrough in understanding definitively its aetiology and pathogenesis. Subsequently, further advances in knowledge of yellow fever epidemiology were obtained when French scientists, working in West and Central Africa, showed that monkeys were major hosts of the yellow fever virus (the wild yellow fever virus), besides man. In addition, advances in research, contributing to the development of vaccines against the yellow fever virus in the first half of the nineteenth century, are reported in this paper. PMID:17599002

  1. Laser yellowing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M B Sai Prasad; Salvatore Siano

    2010-12-01

    Over the past few years there has been an increasing interest in researches related to the application of lasers in conservation, analysis and diagnostics of artwork surfaces. Among the many interesting problems to be tackled, one issue was drawing more interest because of the limitations it can impose on the use of lasers. Laser yellowing is a phenomenon wherein artwork surfaces assume a yellow hue when cleaned with Q-switched Nd:YAG (1064 nm) lasers in particular. Here the effect of yellowing has been studied and quantified for artwork surfaces (marble) using SFR Nd:YAG and LQS Nd:YAG lasers. Colorimetric measurements by employing a spectroradiometer helps to quantify the effect of yellowing by analysing three variables (chromaticity coordinates) of interest.

  2. Regional tsunami vulnerability analysis through ASTER imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Osso, Filippo; Cavalletti, Alessandra; Immordino, Francesco; Gonella, Marco

    2010-05-01

    Analysis of vulnerability to natural hazards is a key issue of prevention measures within ICZM. Knowledge of susceptibility to damage and how this is distributed along the coast allows to optimize possible prevention and mitigation actions. The present study focuses on tsunami vulnerability of a large extension of coastline: the entire westerly Thailand's coast. The work is a follow up of the CRATER project (Coastal Risk Analysis for Tsunamis and Environmental Remediation) carried out on the aftermath of the 26th December 2004 Tsunami event. Vulnerability is analyzed considering an inundation scenario given by a tsunami of seismic origin, causing a maximum run-up of 25m.. An innovative methodology have been here developed and applied, based on the combined use of ASTER (Advanced Spaceborn Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) satellite imagery, SRTM v-3 (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission - version #3) DEMs and GIS. Vulnerability level has been calculated combining information on coastal geomorphology, land use, topography and distance from the shoreline. Land use has been extrapolated from ASTER images through a multi-spectral analysis (a pixel-based and supervised classification process) of ASTER bands 1 to 9, plus one band for the NDVI index (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index). Coastal geomorphology has been obtained through a photo-interpretation process. Results have been organized in a set of vectorial vulnerability maps with horizontal resolution of 90m. The proposed methodology has the great advantage of being repeatable for any case of vulnerability analysis at small-medium scale (i.e. at Regional/National level) with a moderate investment in term of costs and human resources.

  3. ASTER system operating achievement for 15 years on orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inada, Hitomi; Ito, Yoshiyuki; Kikuchi, Masakuni; Sakuma, Fumihiro; Tatsumi, Kenji; Akagi, Shigeki; Ono, Hidehiko

    2015-10-01

    ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) System is operating more than 15 years since launched on board of NASA's Terra spacecraft in December 1999. ASTER System is composed of 3 radiometers (VNIR (Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer), SWIR (Short-Wave Infrared Radiometer), and TIR (Thermal Infrared Radiometer)), CSP (Common Signal Processor) and MSP (Master Power Supply). This paper describes the ASTER System operating history and the achievement of ASTER System long term operation since the initial checkout operation, the normal operation, and the continuous operation. Through the 15 years operation, ASTER system had totally checked the all subsystems (MPS, VNIR, TIR, SWIR, and CSP) health and safety check using telemetry data trend evaluation, and executed the necessary action. The watch items are monitored as the life control items. The pointing mechanics for VNIR, SWIR and TIR, and the cooler for SWIR and TIR are all operating with any problem for over 15 years. In 2003, ASTER was successfully operated for the lunar calibration. As the future plan, ASTER team is proposing the 2nd lunar calibration before the end of mission.

  4. Comparison of ASTER Global Emissivity Database (ASTER-GED) With In-Situ Measurement In Italian Vulcanic Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, M.; Musacchio, M.; Buongiorno, M. F.; Amici, S.; Piscini, A.

    2015-12-01

    LP DAAC released the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Emissivity Database (GED) datasets on April 2, 2014. The database was developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology. The database includes land surface emissivities derived from ASTER data acquired over the contiguous United States, Africa, Arabian Peninsula, Australia, Europe, and China. In this work we compare ground measurements of emissivity acquired by means of Micro-FTIR (Fourier Thermal Infrared spectrometer) instrument with the ASTER emissivity map extract from ASTER-GED and the emissivity obtained by using single ASTER data. Through this analysis we want to investigate differences existing between the ASTER-GED dataset (average from 2000 to 2008 seasoning independent) and fall in-situ emissivity measurement. Moreover the role of different spatial resolution characterizing ASTER and MODIS, 90mt and 1km respectively, by comparing them with in situ measurements. Possible differences can be due also to the different algorithms used for the emissivity estimation, Temperature and Emissivity Separation algorithm for ASTER TIR band( Gillespie et al, 1998) and the classification-based emissivity method (Snyder and al, 1998) for MODIS. In-situ emissivity measurements have been collected during dedicated fields campaign on Mt. Etna vulcano and Solfatara of Pozzuoli. Gillespie, A. R., Matsunaga, T., Rokugawa, S., & Hook, S. J. (1998). Temperature and emissivity separation from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) images. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 36, 1113-1125. Snyder, W.C., Wan, Z., Zhang, Y., & Feng, Y.-Z. (1998). Classification-based emissivity for land surface temperature measurement from space. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 19, 2753-2574.

  5. ASTER Level 1B Registered Radiance at the Sensor

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is an advanced multispectral imager that was launched on board NASA's Terra spacecraft in...

  6. ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset 100-meter V003 - AG100

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer Global Emissivity Database (ASTER GED) was developed by the National Aeronautics and Space...

  7. Aster Global dem Version 3, and New Aster Water Body Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, M.

    2016-06-01

    In 2016, the US/Japan ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) project released Version 3 of the Global DEM (GDEM). This 30 m DEM covers the earth's surface from 82N to 82S, and improves on two earlier versions by correcting some artefacts and filling in areas of missing DEMs by the acquisition of additional data. The GDEM was produced by stereocorrelation of 2 million ASTER scenes and operation on a pixel-by-pixel basis: cloud screening; stacking data from overlapping scenes; removing outlier values, and averaging elevation values. As previously, the GDEM is packaged in ~ 23,000 1 x 1 degree tiles. Each tile has a DEM file, and a NUM file reporting the number of scenes used for each pixel, and identifying the source for fill-in data (where persistent clouds prevented computation of an elevation value). An additional data set was concurrently produced and released: the ASTER Water Body Dataset (AWBD). This is a 30 m raster product, which encodes every pixel as either lake, river, or ocean; thus providing a global inland and shore-line water body mask. Water was identified through spectral analysis algorithms and manual editing. This product was evaluated against the Shuttle Water Body Dataset (SWBD), and the Landsat-based Global Inland Water (GIW) product. The SWBD only covers the earth between about 60 degrees north and south, so it is not a global product. The GIW only delineates inland water bodies, and does not deal with ocean coastlines. All products are at 30 m postings.

  8. Yellow Fever Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is yellow fever?Yellow fever is a serious disease caused by the yellow fever virus. It is found in certain parts ... person to person by direct contact. People with yellow fever disease usually have to be hospitalized. Yellow fever can ...

  9. ASTER Imaging and Analysis of Glacier Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargel, Jeffrey; Furfaro, Roberto; Kaser, Georg; Leonard, Gregory; Fink, Wolfgang; Huggel, Christian; Kääb, Andreas; Raup, Bruce; Reynolds, John; Wolfe, David; Zapata, Marco

    Most scientific attention to glaciers, including ASTER and other satellite-derived applications in glacier science, pertains to their roles in the following seven functions: (1) as signposts of climate change (Kaser et al. 1990; Williams and Ferrigno 1999, 2002; Williams et al. 2008; Kargel et al. 2005; Oerlemans 2005), (2) as natural reservoirs of fresh water (Yamada and Motoyama 1988; Yang and Hu 1992; Shiyin et al. 2003; Juen et al. 2007), (3) as contributors to sea-level change (Arendt et al. 2002), (4) as sources of hydropower (Reynolds 1993); much work also relates to the basic science of glaciology, especially (5) the physical phenomeno­logy of glacier flow processes and glacier change (DeAngelis and Skvarca 2003; Berthier et al. 2007; Rivera et al. 2007), (6) glacial geomorphology (Bishop et al. 1999, 2003), and (7) the technology required to acquire and analyze satellite images of glaciers (Bishop et al. 1999, 2000, 2003, 2004; Quincey et al. 2005, 2007; Raup et al. 2000, 2006ab; Khalsa et al. 2004; Paul et al. 2004a, b). These seven functions define the important areas of glaciological science and technology, yet a more pressing issue in parts of the world is the direct danger to people and infrastructure posed by some glaciers (Trask 2005; Morales 1969; Lliboutry et al. 1977; Evans and Clague 1988; Xu and Feng 1989; Reynolds 1993, 1998, 1999; Yamada and Sharma 1993; Hastenrath and Ames 1995; Mool 1995; Ames 1998; Chikita et al. 1999; Williams and Ferrigno 1999; Richardson and Reynolds 2000a, b; Zapata 2002; Huggel et al. 2002, 2004; Xiangsong 1992; Kääb et al. 2003, 2005, 2005c; Salzmann et al. 2004; Noetzli et al. 2006).

  10. An Introduction to ASTER GDEM and Procedure Reading%ASTER GDEM数据介绍与程序读取

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康晓伟; 冯钟葵

    2011-01-01

    2009年6月30日,期待已久的ASTER GDEM数据由日本经济产业省(METI)和美国航天局(NASA)共同发布,其空间分辨率达到了1弧秒×1弧秒(约30m× 30m),相比2003年NASA发布的SRTM数据有了很大的提高,并且其陆地表面覆盖率也大幅提高,达到了陆地面积的99%.本文介绍了ASTER GDEM的相关特性以及使用程序读取该数据的方法.%On 30th,June 2009,METI and NASA distributed the ASTER GDEM(Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Global Digital Elevation Model). The space resolution of ASTER GDEM is 1 arc-secX 1 arc-sec(ap-proximately 30m × 30m) and the land surface coverage reached 99%, both have much greater improvement than SRTM which was distributed in 2003 by NASA. This paper introduced characteristics of ASTER GDEM and how to read the data with programming language.

  11. Evaluation of Aster Gdem v3 Using Icesat Laser Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabajal, C. C.; Boy, J.-P.

    2016-06-01

    We have used a set of Ground Control Points (GCPs) derived from altimetry measurements from the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) to evaluate the quality of the 30 m posting ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) V3 elevation products produced by NASA/METI for Greenland and Antarctica. These data represent the highest quality globally distributed altimetry measurements that can be used for geodetic ground control, selected by applying rigorous editing criteria, useful at high latitudes, where other topographic control is scarce. Even if large outliers still remain in all ASTER GDEM V3 data for both, Greenland and Antarctica, they are significantly reduced when editing ASTER by number of scenes (N≥5) included in the elevation processing. For 667,354 GCPs in Greenland, differences show a mean of 13.74 m, a median of -6.37 m, with an RMSE of 109.65 m. For Antarctica, 6,976,703 GCPs show a mean of 0.41 m, with a median of -4.66 m, and a 54.85 m RMSE, displaying smaller means, similar medians, and less scatter than GDEM V2. Mean and median differences between ASTER and ICESat are lower than 10 m, and RMSEs lower than 10 m for Greenland, and 20 m for Antarctica when only 9 to 31 scenes are included.

  12. Recent Release of the ASTER Global DEM Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnke, J.; Hall, A.; Meyer, D.; Sohre, T.; Doescher, C.

    2009-12-01

    On June 29th, the ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (DEM) release was announced to the public and to a very eager audience. ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) is an imaging instrument flying on Terra, a satellite launched in December 1999 as part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS). ASTER is a cooperative effort between NASA, Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) and Japan's Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center (ERSDAC). On June 21, NASA Headquarters along with colleagues in Japan (METI) signed a plan for distribution of this product. The global digital elevation model of Earth is available online to users everywhere at no cost from NASA's Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) located at Sioux Falls, SD. The DAAC is a joint project of NASA and the USGS and is a key component of NASA's EOSDIS. The new ASTER GDEM was created from nearly 1.3 million individual stereo-pair images acquired by the Japanese Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (Aster) instrument aboard NASA’s Terra satellite. The ASTER elevation model was jointly developed by NASA and METI under contract to Sensor Information Laboratory Corp., Tsukuba, Japan. On June 29, the NASA press release was picked up quickly by numerous news organizations and online sites. Response to the product was incredible! The news of the release of the product was carried on websites across the globe, this fueled a tremendous response from users. Here are a few interesting metrics about the release: - over 41,000 unique visitors to website in first week following release - top countries in order were: US (approx. 20%), Germany, U.K., Brazil, Austria, Canada, Spain, Switzerland, Japan - approximately 29,000 visitors came to the news page in the first week and about 11,000 of these users downloaded the actual press release - by the end of August, over 2 Million ASTER GDEM files had been downloaded from the Land

  13. CHROMITITE PROSPECTING USING LANDSAT TM AND ASTER REMOTE SENSING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Beiranvand Pour

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Studying the ophiolite complexes using multispectral remote sensing satellite data are interesting because of high diversity of minerals and the source of podiform chromitites. This research developed an approach to discriminate lithological units and detecting host rock of chromitite bodies within ophiolitic complexes using the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER and Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM satellite data. Three main ophiolite complexes located in south of Iran have been selected for the study. Spectral transform techniques, including minimum noise fraction (MNF and specialized band ratio were employed to detect different rock units and the identification of high-potential areas of chromite ore deposits within ophiolitic complexes. A specialized band ratio (4/1, 4/5, 4/7 of ASTER, MNF components and Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM on ASTER and Landsat TM data were used to distinguish ophiolitic rock units. Results show that the specialized band ratio was able to identify different rock units and serpentinized dunite as host rock of chromitites within ophiolitic complexes, appropriately. MNF components of ASTER and Landsat TM data were suitable to distinguish ophiolitic rock complexes at a regional scale. The integration of SAM and Feature Level Fusion (FLF used in this investigation discriminated the ophiolitic rock units and prepared detailed geological map for the study area. Accordingly, high potential areas (serpentinite dunite were identified in the study area for chromite exploration targets.The approach used in this research offers the image processing techniques as a robust, reliable, fast and cost-effective method for detecting serpentinized dunite as host rock of chromitite bodies within vast ophiolite complexes using ASTER and Landsat TM satellite data.

  14. Identificación de metabasaltos alterados mediante datos ASTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Castro Godoy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Los datos del sensor ASTER permitieron desarrollar una metodología sencilla, utilizando las bandas del infrarrojo de onda corta (subsistema SWIR, para prospectar cuerpos ígneos alterados que manifiestan diferencias espectrales con respecto a la roca de caja. A modo de ejemplo se detectó la alteración clorítica presente en metabasaltos intercalados en metasedimentitas de la Formación Puntilla de Uspallata en la Precordillera mendocina.

  15. ASTER temperature and emissivity validation on volcano Teide

    OpenAIRE

    Amici, Stefania; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione CNT, Roma, Italia; Piscini, Alessandro; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione CNT, Roma, Italia; Buongiorno, Fabrizia; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione CNT, Roma, Italia

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER ) has operated since 19 December 1999 from NASA’s Terra Earth-orbiting, sun synchronous satellite. Emissivity and temperature standard products are based on the TES algorithms and require periodical validation campaign. In the frame of the EC project PREVIEW (http://www.preview-risk.com/) a field campaign on Volcano Teide was carried on, from the 16th to 24th of September 2007, to validate and to integrate the satellite...

  16. Using ASTER Stereo Images to Quantify Surface Roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushkin, Amit; Gillespie, Alan

    The unresolved topographic expression of surfaces, surface roughness (SR), is a fundamental surface property that conveys useful information for a wide range of Earth and planetary sciences. Yet, this information is difficult to measure remotely because most spaceborne imagers have resolutions on the order of meters to hundreds of meters and SR can vary significantly below these scales. One way to measure SR is to exploit differential shadowing in stereo images, and in particular, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), with its nadir (3N) and backward-looking (3B) near-infrared channels. We have proposed a simple ratio of land-leaving radiance in those two channels as a measure of relative SR at scales photo-interpretation. Moreover, one could calibrate the ratio data to physical parameters, such as RMS height, and translate to SR maps at 15 m/pixel resolution. Two calibration schemes enable this translation: empirical calibration against independent in situ roughness measurements and model-based calibration against forward simulations of ­two-look ratios from very high-resolution (<5 mm) digital elevation models of natural ­surfaces, measured with a ground-based light detection and ranging ­system. Here, we focus on the latter scheme that enables construction of calibration curves for any given viewing and illumination geometries encountered by ASTER. ASTER now ­provides a global archive of images, and the two-look approach with ASTER stereo data enables a unique quantitative mapping capability of SR at 15 m/pixel spatial resolution for almost anywhere on Earth.

  17. Identificación de metabasaltos alterados mediante datos ASTER Identification of altered metabasalts from ASTER data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Castro Godoy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Los datos del sensor ASTER permitieron desarrollar una metodología sencilla, utilizando las bandas del infrarrojo de onda corta (subsistema SWIR, para prospectar cuerpos ígneos alterados que manifiestan diferencias espectrales con respecto a la roca de caja. A modo de ejemplo se detectó la alteración clorítica presente en metabasaltos intercalados en metasedimentitas de la Formación Puntilla de Uspallata en la Precordillera mendocina.ASTER data allowed developing a simple methodology, using the Short Wave Infrared spectral bands (SWIR, in order to detect alteration minerals that affect igneous bodies and have spectral differences with the country rock. As an example chloritic alteration was detected in metabasalts interbedded in metasediments of Puntilla de Uspallata Formation, Precordillera Mendocina.

  18. Discrepancy Between ASTER- and MODIS- Derived Land Surface Temperatures: Terrain Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Yasushi Yamaguchi; Yuanbo Liu; Yousuke Noumi

    2009-01-01

    The MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) are onboard the same satellite platform NASA TERRA. Both MODIS and ASTER offer routine retrieval of land surface temperatures (LSTs), and the ASTER- and MODIS-retrieved LST products have been used worldwide. Because a large fraction of the earth surface consists of mountainous areas, variations in elevation, terrain slope and aspect angles can cause biases in th...

  19. Collective behavior of minus-ended motors in mitotic microtubule asters gliding toward DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microtubules (MTs) nucleated by centrosomes form star-shaped structures referred to as asters. Aster motility and dynamics is vital for genome stability, cell division, polarization and differentiation. Asters move either toward the cell center or away from it. Here, we focus on the centering mechanism in a membrane independent system of Xenopus cytoplasmic egg extracts. Using live microscopy and single particle tracking, we find that asters move toward chromatinized DNA structures. The velocity and directionality profiles suggest a random-walk with drift directed toward DNA. We have developed a theoretical model that can explain this movement as a result of a gradient of MT length dynamics and MT gliding on immobilized dynein motors. In simulations, the antagonistic action of the motor species on the radial array of MTs leads to a tug-of-war purely due to geometric considerations and aster motility resembles a directed random-walk. Additionally, our model predicts that aster velocities do not change greatly with varying initial distance from DNA. The movement of asymmetric asters becomes increasingly super-diffusive with increasing motor density, but for symmetric asters it becomes less super-diffusive. The transition of symmetric asters from superdiffusive to diffusive mobility is the result of number fluctuations in bound motors in the tug-of-war. Overall, our model is in good agreement with experimental data in Xenopus cytoplasmic extracts and predicts novel features of the collective effects of motor-MT interactions. (paper)

  20. The influence of Aster x salignus Willd. Invasion on the diversity of soil yeast communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushakova, A. M.; Kachalkin, A. V.; Chernov, I. Yu.

    2016-07-01

    The annual dynamics of yeast communities were studied in the soddy-podzolic soil under the thickets of Aster x salignus Willd., one of the widespread invasive plant species in central Russia. Yeast groups in the soils under continuous aster thickets were found to differ greatly from the yeast communities in the soils under the adjacent indigenous meadow vegetation. In both biotopes the same species ( Candida vartiovaarae, Candida sake, and Cryptococcus terreus) are dominants. However, in the soils under indigenous grasses, eurybiontic yeasts Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, which almost never occur in the soil under aster, are widespread. In the soil under aster, the shares of other typical epiphytic and pedobiontic yeast fungi (ascomycetic species Wickerhamomyces aniomalus, Barnettozyma californica and basidiomycetic species Cystofilobasidium macerans, Guehomyces pullulans) significantly increase. Thus, the invasion of Aster x salignus has a clear effect on soil yeast complexes reducing their taxonomic and ecological diversity.

  1. Yellow nail syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixit Ramakant

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of yellow nail syndrome is described in a forty year old male patient who presented with classical triad of this syndrome i.e. deformed yellow nails, lymph-edema and chronic recurrent pleural effusion. The practical problems in the di-agnosis are also briefly discussed with emphasis on awareness of this rare clinical entity.

  2. Prediction of landslides using ASTER imagery and data mining models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kyo-Young; Oh, Hyun-Joo; Choi, Jaewon; Park, Inhye; Lee, Changwook; Lee, Saro

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify landslide-related factors using only remotely sensed data and to present landslide susceptibility maps using a geographic information system, data-mining models, an artificial neural network (ANN), and an adaptive neuro-fuzzy interface system (ANFIS). Landslide-related factors were identified in Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) satellite imagery. The slope, aspect, and curvature of topographic features were calculated from a digital elevation model that was made using the ASTER imagery. Lineaments, land-cover, and normalized difference vegetative index layers were also extracted from the imagery. Landslide-susceptible areas were analyzed and mapped based on occurrence factors using the ANN and ANFIS. The generalized bell-shaped built-in membership function of the ANFIS was applied to landslide susceptibility mapping. Analytical results were validated using landslide test location data. In the validation results, the ANN model showed 80.42% prediction accuracy and the ANFIS model showed 86.55% prediction accuracy. These results suggest that the ANFIS model has a better performance than does the ANN in predicting landslide susceptibility.

  3. Stereo Pair with ASTER Image, Iturralde Structure, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    An 8-kilometer (5-mile) wide crater of possible impact origin is shown in this stereoscopic view of an isolated part of the Bolivian Amazon. The view is derived from an Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) satellite image and a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation model. The circular feature covering much of the image, known as the Iturralde Structure, is possibly the Earth's most recent 'big' impact event recording collision with a meteor or comet that might have occurred between 11,000 and 30,000 years ago.Although the structure was identified on satellite photographs in the mid-1980s, its location is so remote that it has only been visited by scientific investigators twice, most recently by a team from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in September 2002. Lying in an area of very low relief, the landform is a quasi-circular closed depression only about 20 meters (66 feet) in depth, with sharply defined sub-angular 'rim' materials. It resembles a 'cookie cutter' in that its appearance 'cuts' the heavily vegetated soft-sediments and pampas of this part of Bolivia. The SRTM data have provided investigators with the first topographic map of the site and will allow studies of its three-dimensional structure crucial to determining whether it actually is of impact origin.This stereoscopic image was generated by first draping the ASTER satellite image over the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model. Two differing perspectives were then calculated, one for each eye. They can be seen in 3-D by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing) or by downloading and printing the image pair and viewing them with a stereoscope. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.Thick vegetation in part defines the surface that the SRTM radar sees as it maps the terrain. Much of the local

  4. INTEGRATION OF PALSAR AND ASTER SATELLITE DATA FOR GEOLOGICAL MAPPING IN TROPICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Beiranvand Pour

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the integration of the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER satellite data for geological mapping applications in tropical environments. The eastern part of the central belt of peninsular Malaysia has been investigated to identify structural features and mineral mapping using PALSAR and ASTER data. Adaptive local sigma and directional filters were applied to PALSAR data for detecting geological structure elements in the study area. The vegetation, mineralogic and lithologic indices for ASTER bands were tested in tropical climate. Lineaments (fault and fractures and curvilinear (anticline or syncline were detected using PALSAR fused image of directional filters (N-S, NE-SW, and NW-SE.Vegetation index image map show vegetation cover by fusing ASTER VNIR bands. High concentration of clay minerals zone was detected using fused image map derived from ASTER SWIR bands. Fusion of ASTER TIR bands produced image map of the lithological units. Results indicate that data integration and data fusion from PALSAR and ASTER sources enhanced information extraction for geological mapping in tropical environments.

  5. Ship extraction and categorization from ASTER VNIR imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partsinevelos, Panagiotis; Miliaresis, George

    2014-08-01

    We present a methodology for ship extraction and categorization from relatively low resolution multispectral ASTER imagery, corresponding to the sea region south east of Athens in Greece. At a first level, in the radiometrically corrected image, quad tree decomposition and bounding rectangular extraction automatically outline location of objects - possible ships, by statistically evaluating spectral responses throughout the segmented image. Subsequently, the object borders within the rectangular regions are extracted, while connected component labelling combined by size and shape filtering allows ship characterization. The ships' spectral signature is determined in green, red and infrared bands while cluster analysis allows the identification of ship categories on the basis of their size and reflectance. Additional pixel- based measures reveal estimated ship orientation, direction, movement, stability and turning. The results are complemented with additional geographic information and inference tools are formed towards the determination of probable ship type and its destination.

  6. Poly-Pattern Compressive Segmentation of ASTER Data for GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Wayne; Warner, Eric; Tutwiler, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Pattern-based segmentation of multi-band image data, such as ASTER, produces one-byte and two-byte approximate compressions. This is a dual segmentation consisting of nested coarser and finer level pattern mappings called poly-patterns. The coarser A-level version is structured for direct incorporation into geographic information systems in the manner of a raster map. GIs renderings of this A-level approximation are called pattern pictures which have the appearance of color enhanced images. The two-byte version consisting of thousands of B-level segments provides a capability for approximate restoration of the multi-band data in selected areas or entire scenes. Poly-patterns are especially useful for purposes of change detection and landscape analysis at multiple scales. The primary author has implemented the segmentation methodology in a public domain software suite.

  7. Thermal mapping of Hawaiian volcanoes with ASTER satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Matthew R.; Witzke, Coral-Nadine

    2011-01-01

    Thermal mapping of volcanoes is important to determine baseline thermal behavior in order to judge future thermal activity that may precede an eruption. We used cloud-free kinetic temperature images from the ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) sensor obtained between 2000 and 2010 to produce thermal maps for all five subaerial volcanoes in Hawai‘i that have had eruptions in the Holocene (Kīlauea, Mauna Loa, Hualālai, Mauna Kea, and Haleakalā). We stacked the images to provide time-averaged thermal maps, as well as to analyze temperature trends through time. Thermal areas are conspicuous at the summits and rift zones of Kīlauea and Mauna Loa, and the summit calderas of these volcanoes contain obvious arcuate, concentric linear thermal areas that probably result from channeling of rising gas along buried, historical intracaldera scarps. The only significant change in thermal activity noted in the study period is the opening of the Halema‘uma‘u vent at Kīlauea's summit in 2008. Several small thermal anomalies are coincident with pit craters on Hualālai. We suspect that these simply result from the sheltered nature of the depression, but closer inspection is warranted to determine if genuine thermal activity exists in the craters. Thermal areas were not detected on Haleakalā or Mauna Kea. The main limitation of the study is the large pixel size (90 m) of the ASTER images, which reduces our ability to detect subtle changes or to identify small, low-temperature thermal activity. This study, therefore, is meant to characterize the broad, large-scale thermal features on these volcanoes. Future work should study these thermal areas with thermal cameras and thermocouples, which have a greater ability to detect small, low-temperature thermal features.

  8. Travelers' Health: Yellow Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Learn About Destination See a Doctor Pre-Travel Appointment Your Health Status How Diseases Spread Pack Smart ... YFV transmission is present,” as defined by the World Health Organization, are countries or areas where “yellow ...

  9. Yellow fever: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monath, T P

    2001-08-01

    Yellow fever, the original viral haemorrhagic fever, was one of the most feared lethal diseases before the development of an effective vaccine. Today the disease still affects as many as 200,000 persons annually in tropical regions of Africa and South America, and poses a significant hazard to unvaccinated travellers to these areas. Yellow fever is transmitted in a cycle involving monkeys and mosquitoes, but human beings can also serve as the viraemic host for mosquito infection. Recent increases in the density and distribution of the urban mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, as well as the rise in air travel increase the risk of introduction and spread of yellow fever to North and Central America, the Caribbean and Asia. Here I review the clinical features of the disease, its pathogenesis and pathophysiology. The disease mechanisms are poorly understood and have not been the subject of modern clinical research. Since there is no specific treatment, and management of patients with the disease is extremely problematic, the emphasis is on preventative vaccination. As a zoonosis, yellow fever cannot be eradicated, but reduction of the human disease burden is achievable through routine childhood vaccination in endemic countries, with a low cost for the benefits obtained. The biological characteristics, safety, and efficacy of live attenuated, yellow fever 17D vaccine are reviewed. New applications of yellow fever 17D virus as a vector for foreign genes hold considerable promise as a means of developing new vaccines against other viruses, and possibly against cancers. PMID:11871403

  10. ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset 1-kilometer Binary V003 - AG1KMB

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer Global Emissivity Database (ASTER GED) was developed by the National Aeronautics and Space...

  11. ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset 1-kilometer V003 - AG1KM

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer Global Emissivity Database (ASTER GED) was developed by the National Aeronautics and Space...

  12. ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset Monthly 0.05 degree NetCDF4

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Emissivity Dataset (GED) is a collection of monthly files (see known issues for gaps)...

  13. ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset 100-meter Binary V003 - AG100B

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer Global Emissivity Database (ASTER GED) was developed by the National Aeronautics and Space...

  14. ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset Monthly 0.05 degree HDF5

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Emissivity Dataset (GED) is a collection of monthly files (see known issues for gaps)...

  15. ASTER, ALI and Hyperion sensors data for lithological mapping and ore minerals exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Beiranvand Pour, Amin; Hashim, Mazlan

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Advanced Land Imager (ALI), and Hyperion data and applications of the data as a tool for ore minerals exploration, lithological and structural mapping. Spectral information extraction from ASTER, ALI, and Hyperion data has great ability to assist geologists in all disciplines to map the distribution and detect the rock units exposed at the earth’s surface. The near coincidence of Earth ...

  16. On-Orbit Spatial Characterization of MODIS with ASTER Aboard the Terra Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yong; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2011-01-01

    This letter presents a novel approach for on-orbit characterization of MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) band-to-band registration (BBR) using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) aboard the Terra spacecraft. The spatial resolution of ASTER spectral bands is much higher than that of MODIS, making it feasible to characterize MODIS on-orbit BBR using their simultaneous observations. The ground target selected for on-orbit MODIS BBR characterization in this letter is a water body, which is a uniform scene with high signal contrast relative to its neighbor areas. A key step of this approach is to accurately localize the measurements of each MODIS band in an ASTER measurement plane coordinate (AMPC). The ASTER measurements are first interpolated and aggregated to simulate the measurements of each MODIS band. The best measurement match between ASTER and each MODIS band is obtained when the measurement difference reaches its weighted minimum. The position of each MODIS band in the AMPC is then used to calculate the BBR. The results are compared with those derived from MODIS onboard Spectro-Radiometric Calibration Assembly. They are in good agreement, generally less than 0.1 MODIS pixel. This approach is useful for other sensors without onboard spatial characterization capability. Index Terms Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), band-to-band registration (BBR), MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), spatial characterization.

  17. Remote sensing of volcanic plumes using the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henney, Lorna Alison

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) has been used to quantify SO2 emissions from passively degassing volcanoes. This dissertation explores ASTER's capability to detect SO 2 with satellite validation, enhancement techniques and extensive processing of images at a variety of volcanoes. ASTER is compared to the Mini UV Spectrometer (MUSe), a ground based instrument, to determine if reasonable SO2 fluxes can be quantified from a plume emitted from Lascar, Chile. The two sensors were in good agreement with ASTER proving to be a reliable detector of SO2. ASTER illustrated the advantages of imaging a plume in 2D, with better temporal resolution than the MUSe. SO2 plumes in ASTER imagery are not always discernible in the raw TIR data. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Decorrelation Stretch (DCS) enhancement techniques were compared to determine how well they highlight a variety of volcanic plumes. DCS produced a consistent output and the composition of the plumes was easy to identify from explosive eruptions. As the plumes became smaller and lower in altitude they became harder to distinguish using DCS. PCA proved to be better at identifying smaller low altitude plumes. ASTER was used to investigate SO2 emissions at Lascar, Chile. Activity at Lascar has been characterized by cyclic behavior and persistent degassing (Matthews et al. 1997). Previous studies at Lascar have primarily focused on changes in thermal infrared anomalies, neglecting gas emissions. Using the SO2 data along with changes in thermal anomalies and visual observations it is evident that Lascar is at the end an eruptive cycle that began in 1993. Declining gas emissions and crater temperatures suggest that the conduit is sealing. ASTER and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) were used to determine the annual contribution of SO2 to the troposphere from the Central and South American volcanic arcs between 2000 and 2011. Fluxes of 3.4 Tg/a for Central America and 3

  18. Validation of ASTER Surface Temperature Data with In Situ Measurements to Evaluate Heat Islands in Complex Urban Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Bonggeun Song; Kyunghun Park

    2014-01-01

    This study compared Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) surface temperature data with in situ measurements to validate the use of ASTER data for studying heat islands in urban settings with complex spatial characteristics. Eight sites in Changwon, Korea, were selected for analyses. Surface temperature data were extracted from the thermal infrared (TIR) band of ASTER on four dates during the summer and fall of 2012, and corresponding in situ measurements of tempe...

  19. Preliminary Attitude Control Studies for the ASTER Mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work discusses an attitude control study for the ASTER mission, the first Brazilian mission to the deep space. The study is part of a larger scenario that is the development of optimal trajectories to navigate in the 2001 SN263 asteroid system, together with the generation of orbit and attitude controllers for autonomous operation. The spacecraft attitude is defined from the orientation of the body reference system to the Local Vertical Local Horizontal (LVLH) of a circular orbit around the Alpha asteroid. The rotational equations of motion involve the dynamic equations, where the three angular speeds are generated from a set of three reaction wheels and the gravitational torque. The rotational kinematics is represented in the Euler angles format. The controller is developed via the linear quadratic regulator approach with output feedback. It involves the generation of a stability augmentation (SAS) loop and a tracking outer loop, with a compensator of desired structure. It was chosen the feedback of the p, q and r angular speeds in the SAS, one for each reaction wheel. In the outer loop, it was chosen a proportional integral compensator. The parameters are tuned using a numerical minimization that represents a linear quadratic cost, with weightings in the tracking error and controls. Simulations are performed with the nonlinear model. For small angle manoeuvres, the linear results with reaction wheels or thrusters are reasonable, but, for larger manoeuvres, nonlinear control techniques shall be applied, for example, the sliding mode control

  20. Eat Healthy, Eat Yellow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cindy Gu

    2011-01-01

    What comes to mind when you think of yellow? Sunflowers, the school bus or the smiley face? As a food-junkie and a health nut, when I hear the word yellow, savory soy beans, munchy bananas and sweet corn are things that pop into my mind. That's how much I love food. Hopeless? Perhaps.

  1. The yellow Light Offensive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Arevised traffic regulation, seen as the harshest ever by many, took effect on January 1. Accordingly, drivers who run yellow lights will have six points deducted from the 12 allocated on their licenses. Those who have any part of their vehicles crossing the line at the time of change will not be punished.

  2. Yellow substance (gelbstoff)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The different values of the mean slope (S) of the absorption coefficient a(λ) of gelbstoff (yellow substance) for each region under the same hydrological conditions and the correlation between the quantity of absorption (CA) of gelbstoff and sea water parameter is discussed. 12 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  3. Asian Yellow Goat Cloned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ It was released on August 24,2005 by Prof. CHEN Dayuan (Da-Yuan Chen) from the CAS Institute of Zoology that the first success in cloning the Asian Yellow Goat by nuclear transfer had recently been achieved in east China's Shandong Province.

  4. Yellow Blotch of Pleurotus ostreatus

    OpenAIRE

    Bessette, Alan E.; Kerrigan, R. W.; Jordan, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Yellow blotch disease of the oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) was first observed in a commercial mushroom farm in California in 1983. The disease, caused by Pseudomonas agarici, is characterized by primordia, with yellow droplets on their surface, which become stunted, yellow to orange, and deformed as they mature.

  5. Estimation of broadband emissivity (8-12 um) from ASTER data by using RM-NN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, K B; Ma, Y; Shen, X Y; Li, B P; Li, C Y; Li, Z L

    2012-08-27

    Land surface window emissivity is a key parameter for estimating the longwave radiative budget. The combined radiative transfer model (RM) with neural network (NN) algorithm is utilized to directly estimate the window (8-12 um) emissivity from the brightness temperature of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) with 90 m spatial resolution. Although the estimation accuracy is very high when the broadband emissivity is estimated from AST05 (ASTER Standard Data Product) by using regression method, the accuracy of AST05 is about ± 0.015 for 86 spectra which is determined by the atmosphere correction for ASTER 1B data. The MODTRAN 4 is used to simulate the process of radiance transfer, and the broadband emissivity is directly estimated from the brightness temperature of ASTER 1B data at satellite. The comparison analysis indicates that the RM-NN is more competent to estimate broadband emissivity than other method when the brightness temperatures of band 11, 12, 13, 14 are made as input nodes of dynamic neural network. The estimation average accuracy is about 0.009, and the estimation results are not sensitive to instrument noise. The RM-NN is applied to extract broadband emissivity from an image of ASTER 1B data in China, and the comparison against a classification based multiple bands with 15 m spatial resolution shows that the estimation results from RM-NN are very good.

  6. Estimation of broadband emissivity (8-12 um) from ASTER data by using RM-NN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, K B; Ma, Y; Shen, X Y; Li, B P; Li, C Y; Li, Z L

    2012-08-27

    Land surface window emissivity is a key parameter for estimating the longwave radiative budget. The combined radiative transfer model (RM) with neural network (NN) algorithm is utilized to directly estimate the window (8-12 um) emissivity from the brightness temperature of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) with 90 m spatial resolution. Although the estimation accuracy is very high when the broadband emissivity is estimated from AST05 (ASTER Standard Data Product) by using regression method, the accuracy of AST05 is about ± 0.015 for 86 spectra which is determined by the atmosphere correction for ASTER 1B data. The MODTRAN 4 is used to simulate the process of radiance transfer, and the broadband emissivity is directly estimated from the brightness temperature of ASTER 1B data at satellite. The comparison analysis indicates that the RM-NN is more competent to estimate broadband emissivity than other method when the brightness temperatures of band 11, 12, 13, 14 are made as input nodes of dynamic neural network. The estimation average accuracy is about 0.009, and the estimation results are not sensitive to instrument noise. The RM-NN is applied to extract broadband emissivity from an image of ASTER 1B data in China, and the comparison against a classification based multiple bands with 15 m spatial resolution shows that the estimation results from RM-NN are very good. PMID:23037062

  7. Yellow Nail Syndrome (Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Haki Sucaklı

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Yellow nail syndrome, usually autosomal dominant transition and occurs with yellow nails, lymph edema and pleural effusion triad. In this article, a girl, 13 months, who was diagnosed as yellow nail syndrome and followed with pericardial effusion and lymph edema from her birth, has been presented. Yellow nail syndrome has been diagnosed lately due to the occurrence of clinical symptoms which are often more obvious after the puberty. However, neonatal or infant period of pericardial effusion in patients with lymphedema and yellow nail syndrome should be kept in mind.

  8. Using a deformable mirror to generate custom laser guidestar asterisms: simulation and laboratory results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Andrew P.; Srinath, Srikar; Gavel, Donald; Kupke, Renate; Dillon, Daren

    2014-08-01

    It is possible to create custom laser guidestar (LGS) asterisms from a single beam by using a deformable mirror to pattern the phase of the outgoing laser guidestar beam. This avoids the need for multiple laser launch assemblies, and in principle would allow one to position the multiple LGS spots in any desired arrangement around the science target, as well as dynamically rotate the LGS pattern on-sky and control the distribution of intensity in each spot. Simulations and laboratory experiments indicate that a PTT111 and PTT489 IrisAO MEMS deformable mirror and a Hamamatsu X8267 spatial light modulator may have applications for creating small LGS asterisms for biological imaging with adaptive optics. For astronomy applications, the phase values required to produce the "3+1" laser guidestar asterism of Keck's Next Generation AO system is also investigated.

  9. Mapping advanced argillic alteration zones with ASTER and Hyperion data in the Andes Mountains of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Yuddy; Goïta, Kalifa; Péloquin, Stéphane

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluates Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Hyperion hyperspectral sensor datasets to detect advanced argillic minerals. The spectral signatures of some alteration clay minerals, such as dickite and alunite, have similar absorption features; thus separating them using multispectral satellite images is a complex challenge. However, Hyperion with its fine spectral bands has potential for good separability of features. The Spectral Angle Mapper algorithm was used in this study to map three advanced argillic alteration minerals (alunite, kaolinite, and dickite) in a known alteration zone in the Peruvian Andes. The results from ASTER and Hyperion were analyzed, compared, and validated using a Portable Infrared Mineral Analyzer field spectrometer. The alterations corresponding to kaolinite and alunite were detected with both ASTER and Hyperion (80% to 84% accuracy). However, the dickite mineral was identified only with Hyperion (82% accuracy).

  10. Discrimination of iron ore deposits of granulite terrain of Southern Peninsular India using ASTER data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Sankaran; Thirunavukkarasu, A.; Balamurugan, G.; Shankar, K.

    2011-04-01

    This work describes a new image processing technique for discriminating iron ores (magnetite quartzite deposits) and associated lithology in high-grade granulite region of Salem, Southern Peninsular India using visible, near-infrared and short wave infrared reflectance data of Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). Image spectra show that the magnetite quartzite and associated lithology of garnetiferrous pyroxene granulite, hornblende biotite gneiss, amphibolite, dunite, and pegmatite have absorption features around spectral bands 1, 3, 5, and 7. ASTER band ratios ((1 + 3)/2, (3 + 5)/4, (5 + 7)/6) in RGB are constructed by summing the bands representing the shoulders of absorption features as a numerator, and the band located nearest the absorption feature as a denominator to map iron ores and band ratios ((2 + 4)/3, (5 + 7)/6, (7 + 9)/8) in RGB for associated lithology. The results show that ASTER band ratios ((1 + 3)/2, (3 + 5)/4, (5 + 7)/6) in a Red-Green-Blue (RGB) color combination identifies the iron ores much better than previously published ASTER band ratios analysis. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is applied to reduce redundant information in highly correlated bands. PCA (3, 2, and 1 for iron ores and 5, 4, 2 for granulite rock) in RGB enabled the discrimination between the iron ores and garnetiferrous pyroxene granulite rock. Thus, this image processing technique is very much suitable for discriminating the different types of rocks of granulite region. As outcome of the present work, the geology map of Salem region is provided based on the interpretation of ASTER image results and field verification work. It is recommended that the proposed methods have great potential for mapping of iron ores and associated lithology of granulite region with similar rock units of granulite regions of Southern Peninsular India. This work also demonstrates the ability of ASTER's to provide information on iron ores, which is valuable

  11. Reducing the Discrepancy Between ASTER and MODIS Land Surface Temperature Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changqing Ke

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Human-induced global warming has significantly increased the importance ofsatellite monitoring of land surface temperature (LST on a global scale. The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS provides a 1-km resolution LST productwith almost daily coverage of the Earth, invaluable to both local and global change studies.The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Reflection Radiometer (ASTER provides aLST product with a high spatial resolution of 90-m and a 16-day recurrent cycle,simultaneously acquired at the same height and nadir view as MODIS. ASTER andMODIS are complementary in resolution, offering a unique opportunity for scale-relatedstudies. ASTER and MODIS LST have been widely used but the errors in LST were mostlydisregarded. Correction of ASTER-to-MODIS LST discrepancies is essential for studiesreliant upon the joint use of these sensors. In this study, we compared three correctionapproaches: the Wan et al.’s approach, the refined Wan et al.’s approach, and thegeneralized split window (GSW algorithm based approach. The Wan et al.’s approachcorrects the MODIS 1-km LST using MODIS 5-km LST. The refined approach modifiesthe Wan et al.’s approach through incorporating ASTER emissivity and MODIS 5-km data.The GSW algorithm approach does not use MODIS 5-km but only ASTER emissivity data. We examined the case over a semi-arid terrain area for the part of the Loess Plateau of China. All the approaches reduced the ASTER-to-MODIS LST discrepancy effectively. With terrain correction, the original ASTER-to-MODIS LST difference reduced from 2.7±1.28 K to -0.1±1.87 K for the Wan et al.’s approach, 0.2±1.57 K for the refined approach, and 0.1±1.33 K for the GSW algorithm based approach. Among all the approaches, the GSW algorithm based approach performed best in terms of mean, standard deviation, root mean square root, and correlation coefficient.

  12. Application Analysis of Global Public Data Resources ASTER GDEM%全球公众数据资源ASTER GDEM的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛

    2015-01-01

    Based on the global public data resources ASTER GDEM (space borne thermal emission and reflection ra⁃diometer global digital elevation model) data publicly announced by the USA space agency (NASA),this paper con⁃ducted practical processing and research, and carried out statistical validation on its accuracy.%本文利用美国太空总署(NASA)对外公布的全球公众数据资源ASTER GDEM(星载热发射和反射辐射仪全球数字高程模型)数据进行了实践性处理和研究,并对其精度进行统计验证。

  13. Exploring the limits of identifying sub-pixel thermal features using ASTER TIR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, R.G.; Keszthelyi, L.P.; Davies, A.G.; Schneider, D.J.; Jaworowski, C.; Heasler, H.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the characteristics of volcanic thermal emissions and how they change with time is important for forecasting and monitoring volcanic activity and potential hazards. Satellite instruments view volcanic thermal features across the globe at various temporal and spatial resolutions. Thermal features that may be a precursor to a major eruption, or indicative of important changes in an on-going eruption can be subtle, making them challenging to reliably identify with satellite instruments. The goal of this study was to explore the limits of the types and magnitudes of thermal anomalies that could be detected using satellite thermal infrared (TIR) data. Specifically, the characterization of sub-pixel thermal features with a wide range of temperatures is considered using ASTER multispectral TIR data. First, theoretical calculations were made to define a "thermal mixing detection threshold" for ASTER, which quantifies the limits of ASTER's ability to resolve sub-pixel thermal mixing over a range of hot target temperatures and % pixel areas. Then, ASTER TIR data were used to model sub-pixel thermal features at the Yellowstone National Park geothermal area (hot spring pools with temperatures from 40 to 90 ??C) and at Mount Erebus Volcano, Antarctica (an active lava lake with temperatures from 200 to 800 ??C). Finally, various sources of uncertainty in sub-pixel thermal calculations were quantified for these empirical measurements, including pixel resampling, atmospheric correction, and background temperature and emissivity assumptions.

  14. Improvement of dem Generation from Aster Images Using Satellite Jitter Estimation and Open Source Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girod, L.; Nuth, C.; Kääb, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) system embarked on the Terra (EOS AM-1) satellite has been a source of stereoscopic images covering the whole globe at a 15m resolution at a consistent quality for over 15 years. The potential of this data in terms of geomorphological analysis and change detection in three dimensions is unrivaled and needs to be exploited. However, the quality of the DEMs and ortho-images currently delivered by NASA (ASTER DMO products) is often of insufficient quality for a number of applications such as mountain glacier mass balance. For this study, the use of Ground Control Points (GCPs) or of other ground truth was rejected due to the global "big data" type of processing that we hope to perform on the ASTER archive. We have therefore developed a tool to compute Rational Polynomial Coefficient (RPC) models from the ASTER metadata and a method improving the quality of the matching by identifying and correcting jitter induced cross-track parallax errors. Our method outputs more accurate DEMs with less unmatched areas and reduced overall noise. The algorithms were implemented in the open source photogrammetric library and software suite MicMac.

  15. First report of Alternaria alternata causing leaf spot on Ruth's golden aster (Pityopsis ruthii) in Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth’s golden aster, Pityopsis ruthii (Small), is an endangered, herbaceous perennial plant that is only endemic to small sections of the Hiwassee and Ocoee Rivers, in Polk County, Tennessee. In July 2015, a greenhouse grown plant exhibited symptoms of disease that included elongated brown lesions o...

  16. Dynamics of microtubule asters in microfabricated chambers: The role of catastrophes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faivre-Moskalenko, Cendrine; Dogterom, Marileen

    2002-01-01

    Recent in vivo as well as in vitro experiments have indicated that microtubule pushing alone is sufficient to position a microtubule-organizing center within a cell. Here, we investigate the effect of catastrophes on the dynamics of microtubule asters within microfabricated chambers that mimic the confining geometry of living cells. The use of a glass bead as the microtubule-organizing center allows us to manipulate the aster by using optical tweezers. In the case in which microtubules preexist, we show that because of microtubule buckling, repositioning almost never occurs after relocation with the optical tweezers, although initial microtubule growth always leads the aster to the geometrical center of the chamber. When a catastrophe promoter is added, we find instead that the aster is able to efficiently explore the chamber geometry even after being relocated with the optical tweezers. As predicted by theoretical calculations, the results of our in vitro experiments clearly demonstrate the need for catastrophes for proper positioning in a confining geometry. These findings correlate with recent observations of nuclear positioning in fission yeast cells. PMID:12486218

  17. Cross-Calibration of Earth Observing System Terra Satellite Sensors MODIS and ASTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCorkel, J.

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emissive and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) are two of the five sensors onboard the Earth Observing System's Terra satellite. These sensors share many similar spectral channels while having much different spatial and operational parameters. ASTER is a tasked sensor and sometimes referred to a zoom camera of the MODIS that collects a full-earth image every one to two days. It is important that these sensors have a consistent characterization and calibration for continued development and use of their data products. This work uses a variety of test sites to retrieve and validate intercalibration results. The refined calibration of Collection 6 of the Terra MODIS data set is leveraged to provide the up-to-date reference for trending and validation of ASTER. Special attention is given to spatially matching radiance measurements using prelaunch spatial response characterization of MODIS. Despite differences in spectral band properties and spatial scales, ASTER-MODIS is an ideal case for intercomparison since the sensors have nearly identical views and acquisitions times and therefore can be used as a baseline of intercalibration performance of other satellite sensor pairs.

  18. ASTER and USGS EROS disaster response: emergency imaging after Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Kenneth A.; Abrams, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The value of remotely sensed imagery during times of crisis is well established, and the increasing spatial and spectral resolution in newer systems provides ever greater utility and ability to discriminate features of interest (International Charter, Space and Major Disasters, 2005). The existing suite of sensors provides an abundance of data, and enables warning alerts to be broadcast for many situations in advance. In addition, imagery acquired soon after an event occurs can be used to assist response and remediation teams in identifying the extent of the affected area and the degree of damage. The data characteristics of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Refl ection Radiometer (ASTER) are well-suited for monitoring natural hazards and providing local and regional views after disaster strikes. For this reason, and because of the system fl exibility in scheduling high-priority observations, ASTER is often tasked to support emergency situations. The Emergency Response coordinators at the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) work closely with staff at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) at EROS and the ASTER Science Team as they fulfi ll their mission to acquire and distribute data during critical situations. This article summarizes the role of the USGS/EROS Emergency Response coordinators, and provides further discussion of ASTER data and the images portrayed on the cover of this issue

  19. Ecosystem engineering effects of Aster tripolium and Salicornia procumbens saltmarsh on macrofaunal community structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wal, D.; Herman, P.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines how perennial Aster tripolium and annual Salicornia procumbens salt marshes alter the biomass, density, taxon diversity, and community structure of benthic macrofauna, and also examines the role of elevation, sediment grain size, plant cover, and marsh age. Core samples were coll

  20. Bewaren van onbeworteld stek : bewaring van onbeworteld stek van aster en solidago

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eveleens, B.; Krijger, D.; Kouwenhoven, D.; Berg, van den T.; Telgen, van H.J.

    2002-01-01

    In de praktijk worden geoogste stekken van Aster ericoides en Solidago maximaal een week bewaard. Bij langere bewaring (of transport) treden vaak problemen op als uitval ten gevolge van rot en/of slechte beworteling. Een langere bewaarduur is gewenst, zowel voor planning van werkzaamheden als behoud

  1. Glacier Volume Change Estimation Using Time Series of Improved Aster Dems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girod, Luc; Nuth, Christopher; Kääb, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Volume change data is critical to the understanding of glacier response to climate change. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) system embarked on the Terra (EOS AM-1) satellite has been a unique source of systematic stereoscopic images covering the whole globe at 15m resolution and at a consistent quality for over 15 years. While satellite stereo sensors with significantly improved radiometric and spatial resolution are available to date, the potential of ASTER data lies in its long consistent time series that is unrivaled, though not fully exploited for change analysis due to lack of data accuracy and precision. Here, we developed an improved method for ASTER DEM generation and implemented it in the open source photogrammetric library and software suite MicMac. The method relies on the computation of a rational polynomial coefficients (RPC) model and the detection and correction of cross-track sensor jitter in order to compute DEMs. ASTER data are strongly affected by attitude jitter, mainly of approximately 4 km and 30 km wavelength, and improving the generation of ASTER DEMs requires removal of this effect. Our sensor modeling does not require ground control points and allows thus potentially for the automatic processing of large data volumes. As a proof of concept, we chose a set of glaciers with reference DEMs available to assess the quality of our measurements. We use time series of ASTER scenes from which we extracted DEMs with a ground sampling distance of 15m. Our method directly measures and accounts for the cross-track component of jitter so that the resulting DEMs are not contaminated by this process. Since the along-track component of jitter has the same direction as the stereo parallaxes, the two cannot be separated and the elevations extracted are thus contaminated by along-track jitter. Initial tests reveal no clear relation between the cross-track and along-track components so that the latter seems not to be

  2. Validation of ASTER Surface Temperature Data with In Situ Measurements to Evaluate Heat Islands in Complex Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonggeun Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Reflection Radiometer (ASTER surface temperature data with in situ measurements to validate the use of ASTER data for studying heat islands in urban settings with complex spatial characteristics. Eight sites in Changwon, Korea, were selected for analyses. Surface temperature data were extracted from the thermal infrared (TIR band of ASTER on four dates during the summer and fall of 2012, and corresponding in situ measurements of temperature were also collected. Comparisons showed that ASTER derived temperatures were generally 4.27°C lower than temperatures collected by in situ measurements during the daytime, except on cloudy days. However, ASTER temperatures were higher by 2.23–2.69°C on two dates during the nighttime. Temperature differences between a city park and a paved area were insignificant. Differences between ASTER derived temperatures and onsite measurements are caused by a variety of factors including the application of emissivity values that do not consider the complex spatial characteristics of urban areas. Therefore, to improve the accuracy of surface temperatures extracted from infrared satellite imagery, we propose a revised model whereby temperature data is obtained from ASTER and emissivity values for various land covers are extracted based on in situ measurements.

  3. Febre amarela Yellow fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A febre amarela é doenca infecciosa não-contagiosa causada por um arbovírus mantido em ciclos silvestres em que macacos atuam como hospedeiros amplificadores e mosquitos dos gêneros Aedes na África, e Haemagogus e Sabethes na América, são os transmissores. Cerca de 90% dos casos da doença apresentam-se com formas clínicas benignas que evoluem para a cura, enquanto 10% desenvolvem quadros dramáticos com mortalidade em torno de 50%. O problema mostra-se mais grave em África onde ainda há casos urbanos. Nas Américas, no período de 1970-2001, descreveram-se 4.543 casos. Os países que mais diagnosticaram a doença foram o Peru (51,5%, a Bolívia (20,1% e o Brasil (18,7%. Os métodos diagnósticos utilizados incluem a sorologia (IgM, isolamento viral, imunohistoquímica e RT-PCR. A zoonose não pode ser erradicada, mas, a doença humana é prevenível mediante a vacinação com a amostra 17D do vírus amarílico. A OMS recomenda nova vacinação a cada 10 anos. Neste artigo são revistos os principais conceitos da doença e os casos de mortes associados à vacina.Yellow fever is an infectious and non-contagious disease caused by an arbovirus, the yellow fever virus. The agent is maintained in jungle cycles among primates as vertebrate hosts and mosquitoes, especially Aedes in Africa, and Haemagogus and Sabethes in America. Approximately 90% of the infections are mild or asymptomatic, while 10% course to a severe clinical picture with 50% case-fatality rate. Yellow fever is largely distributed in Africa where urban epidemics are still reported. In South America, between 1970-2001, 4,543 cases were reported, mostly from Peru (51.5%, Bolivia (20.1% and Brazil (18.7%. The disease is diagnosed by serology (detection of IgM, virus isolation, immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Yellow fever is a zoonosis and cannot be eradicated, but it is preventable in man by using the 17D vaccine. A single dose is enough to protect an individual for at least

  4. NASA and USGS ASTER Expedited Satellite Data Services for Disaster Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    Significant international disasters related to storms, floods, volcanoes, wildfires and numerous other themes reoccur annually, often inflicting widespread human suffering and fatalities with substantial economic consequences. During and immediately after such events it can be difficult to access the affected areas and become aware of the overall impacts, but insight on the spatial extent and effects can be gleaned from above through satellite images. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on the Terra spacecraft has offered such views for over a decade. On short notice, ASTER continues to deliver analysts multispectral imagery at 15 m spatial resolution in near real-time to assist participating responders, emergency managers, and government officials in planning for such situations and in developing appropriate responses after they occur. The joint U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team has developed policies and procedures to ensure such ongoing support is accessible when needed. Processing and distribution of data products occurs at the NASA Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) located at the USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science Center in South Dakota. In addition to current imagery, the long-term ASTER mission has generated an extensive collection of nearly 2.5 million global 3,600 km2 scenes since the launch of Terra in late 1999. These are archived and distributed by LP DAAC and affiliates at Japan Space Systems in Tokyo. Advanced processing is performed to create higher level products of use to researchers. These include a global digital elevation model. Such pre-event imagery provides a comparative basis for use in detecting changes associated with disasters and to monitor land use trends to portray areas of increased risk. ASTER imagery acquired via the expedited collection and distribution process illustrates the utility and relevancy of such data in crisis situations.

  5. Lithological Discrimination of the Mafic-Ultramafic Complex, Huitongshan, Beishan, China:Using ASTER Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Liu; Jun Zhou; Dong Jiang; Dafang Zhuang; Lamin R Mansaray

    2014-01-01

    The Beishan area has more than seventy mafic-ultramafic complexes sparsely distributed in the area and is of a big potential in mineral resources related to mafic-ultramafic intrusions. Many mafic-ultramafic intrusions which are mostly in small sizes have been omitted by previous works. This research takes Huitongshan as the study area, which is a major district for mafic-ultramafic occur-rences in Beishan. Advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER) data have been processed and interpreted for mapping the mafic-ultramafic complex. ASTER data were processed by different techniques that were selected based on image reflectance and laboratory emis-sivity spectra. The visible near-infrared (VNIR) and short wave infrared (SWIR) data were trans-formed using band ratios and minimum noise fraction (MNF), while the thermal infrared (TIR) data were processed using mafic index (MI) and principal components analysis (PCA). ASTER band ratios (6/8, 5/4, 2/1) in RGB image and MNF (1, 2, 4) in RGB image were powerful in distinguishing the subtle differences between the various rock units. PCA applied to all five bands of ASTER TIR imagery high-lighted marked differences among the mafic rock units and was more effective than the MI in differen-tiating mafic-ultramafic rocks. Our results were consistent with information derived from local geolog-ical maps. Based on the remote sensing results and field inspection, eleven gabbroic intrusions and a pyroxenite occurrence were recognized for the first time. A new geologic map of the Huitongshan area was created by integrating the results of remote sensing, previous geological maps and field inspection. It is concluded that the workflow of ASTER image processing, interpretation and ground inspection has great potential for mafic-ultramafic rocks identifying and relevant mineral targeting in the sparsely vegetated arid region of northwestern China.

  6. The Red and the Yellow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QiuJianghong

    2004-01-01

    THE China film market is based on the so-called battle of the yellow, green and red.Yellow is American Kodak,green Japanese Fuji color, and red China's Lucky film, local counterweight to the two world-famous foreigners.

  7. Adubação nitrogenada e potássica do Aster ericoides cultivado em ambiente protegido Nitrogen and potassium fertilization of Aster ericoides cultivated in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Sartori de Camargo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O Aster ericoides é uma flor de corte recentemente introduzida no Brasil com grande potencial de produção e aceitação pelo mercado consumidor, mas são escassas as informações sobre o manejo da adubação, prática fundamental para desenvolvimento e qualidade da planta. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar adubações nitrogenadas e potássicas na produção e absorção de nutrientes pelo Aster ericoides (White Master cultivado em Latossolo Amarelo eutrófico em condições de estufa. O experimento foi instalado em delineamento de blocos completos em esquema fatorial (4x4 com 4 doses de N (0; 50; 75 e 100 kg ha-1 N, 4 doses de K (0; 52; 78; 104 kg ha-1 K2O e 4 repetições no segundo ciclo da planta. A população foi de 400 mil plantas por hectare. Após 105 dias, foram colhidas dez hastes de cada parcela. A produção de matéria seca de hastes e folhas, número de flores por haste, número de ramificações laterais por haste não foram influenciadas pelos tratamentos. A dose de 46 kg ha-1 de N proporcionou máxima produção de matéria seca de flores (19,40 g planta-1 e a adubação com potássio não influenciou as características avaliadas. Estes resultados mostraram que é preciso ser cauteloso com as altas adubações de N e K no solo estudado para não reduzir a produção de matéria seca de flores. Mais estudos sobre a fertilização nitrogenada e potássica devem ser realizados para definir a recomendação de doses adequadas para o cultivo de Aster ericoides em condições tropicais.The Aster ericoides is a cut flower crop recently introduced into Brazil. It has great production potential and acceptation by consumer market but exist little information about fertilization management, essential to its development and quality. In this work we evaluated the nitrogen and potassium fertilization on dry matter yield and nutrient absorption by Aster ericoides (White Master growing in a Typic Hapludox soil under greenhouse

  8. Monitoring and predicting eutrophication of Sri Lankan inland waters using ASTER satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahanayaka, D. D. G. L.; Wijeyaratne, M. J. S.; Tonooka, H.; Minato, A.; Ozawa, S.; Perera, B. D. C.

    2014-10-01

    This study focused on determining the past changes and predicting the future trends in eutrophication of the Bolgoda North lake, Sri Lanka using in situ Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) measurements and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER) satellite data. This Lake is located in a mixed land use area with industries, some agricultural lands, middle income and high income housing, tourist hotels and low income housing. From March to October 2013, water samples from five sampling sites were collected once a month parallel to ASTER overpass and Chl-a, nitrate and phosphate contents of each sample were measured using standard laboratory methods. Cloud-free ASTER scenes over the lake during the 2000-2013 periods were acquired for Chl-a estimation and trend analysis. All ASTER images were atmospherically corrected using FLAASH software and in-situ Chl-a data were regressed with atmospherically corrected three ASTER VNIR band ratios of the same date. The regression equation of the band ratio and Chl-a content with the highest correlation, which was the green/red band ratio was used to develop algorithm for generation of 15-m resolution Chl-a distribution maps. According to the ASTER based Chl-a distribution maps it was evident that eutrophication of this lake has gradually increased from 2008-2011. Results also indicated that there had been significantly high eutrophic conditions throughout the year 2013 in several regions, especially in water stagnant areas and adjacent to freshwater outlets. Field observations showed that this lake is receiving various discharges from factories. Unplanned urbanization and inadequacy of proper facilities in the nearby industries for waste management have resulted in the eutrophication of the water body. If the present trends of waste disposal and unplanned urbanization continue, enormous environmental problems would be resulted in future. Results of the present study showed that information from satellite remote

  9. Measurements of volcanic SO2 with ASTER. Comparison with automated scanning DOAS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, R. A.; Salerno, G. G.; Bernard, A. M.; Burton, M.; Coheur, P.; Caltabiano, T.

    2009-12-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emitted by volcanoes has an important impact on the environment and climate and is also a critical parameter for volcano monitoring. A number of satellites operating in the ultra violet and in the Thermal infrared can measure SO2. However a lot of work has still to be done towards a rigorous validation of SO2 measurements from space. ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Reflection radiometer) acquires images in the thermal infrared (TIR) with a resolution of 90m/pixel, which enables to quantify the SO2 fluxes emitted in small-scale tropospheric plumes. ASTER images are processed with radiative transfer simulations and a band ratio algorithm to produce maps of SO2 column amounts. The band ratios (B10+B12)/B11 and B14/B11 are used for their insensitivity to variations in ground altitude and atmospheric humidity, two variables that often complicate SO2 retrievals in the TIR. Their sensitivity to surface emissivity is also reduced. So far, the ground validation of satellite SO2 measurements has been complex due to logistics difficulties and the lack of strictly simultaneous measurements. Recently the development of permanent networks of scanning DOAS on several active volcanoes has provide a wealth of ground based SO2 measurements that can be exploited for validating satellite-based measurements. We will present the results of comparisons between SO2 Column Amount (CA) and fluxes measured by ASTER and by the FLAME network of Mt. Etna. The two independent measurements sets are in good agreement in magnitude. Fluxes range from 2000 to 5000 T/days and column amounts from 0 to 4 g/m2. CAs measured by ASTER present a 0.5g/m2 random dispersion and no systematic bias compared to DOAS measurements. However the CAs measured by DOAS are subject to increase at low-scanning angles. These results constitute a rigorous ground validation of ASTER SO2, and provides valuable insights into accuracy and precision on both methodologies. Figure 1: Comparison

  10. Recent variation of the Las Vacas Glacier Mt. Aconcagua region, Central Andes, Argentina, based on ASTER stereoscopic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzano, M. G.; Leiva, J. C.; Lenzano, L.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents the results of the ASTER stereoscopic image processing to calculate the volume changes of Las Vacas Glacier. The processing of medium resolution satellite images (ASTER level 1A - pixel 15 m) from February 2001 and 2007 was performed applying the satellite digital photogrammetry method (Kääb, 2005). The comparison of the two generated DTM returns results that are acceptable within the parameters and precisions that can be obtained with this kind of sensor and the processing methodology.

  11. Urban Heat Island Analysis Using the Landsat TM Data and ASTER Data: A Case Study in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Liu; Yuanzhi Zhang

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of urban heat island is analyzed using the Landsat TM data and ASTER data in 2005 as a case study in Hong Kong. Two algorithms were applied to retrieve the land surface temperature (LST) distribution from the Landsat TM and ASTER data. The spatial pattern of LST in the study area is retrieved to characterize their local effects on urban heat island. In addition, the correlation between LST and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), the normalized differen...

  12. Quinic acids from Aster caucasicus and from transgenic callus expressing a beta-amyrin synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecchia, Paola; Cammareri, Maria; Malafronte, Nicola; Consiglio, M Federica; Gualtieri, Maria Josefina; Conicella, Clara

    2011-11-01

    Several different classes of secondary metabolites, including flavonoids, triterpenoid saponins and quinic acid derivatives, are found in Aster spp. (Fam. Asteraceae). Several Aster compounds revealed biological as well as pharmacological activities. In this work, a phytochemical investigation of A. caucasicus evidenced the presence of quinic acid derivatives, as well as the absence of triterpene saponins. To combine in one species the production of different phytochemicals, including triterpenes, an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of A. caucasicus was set up to introduce A. sedifolius beta-amyrin synthase (AsOXA1)-encoding gene under the control of the constitutive promoter CaMV35S. The quali-quantitative analysis of transgenic calli with ectopic expression of AsOXA1 showed, in one sample, a negligible amount of triterpene saponins combined with higher amount of quinic acid derivatives as compared with the wild type callus. PMID:22224284

  13. Visual interpretation of ASTER satellite data, Part II: Land use mapping in Mpumalanga,South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elna van Niekerk

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the initiation in 1960 of the era of satellite remote sensing to detect the different characteristics of the earth, a powerful tool was created to aid researchers. Many land-use studies were undertaken using Landsat MSS, Landsat TM and ETM, as well as SPOT satellite data. The application of these data to the mapping of land use and land cover at smaller scales was constrained by the limited spectral and/or spatial resolution of the data provided by these satellite sensors. In view of the relatively high cost of SPOT data, and uncertainty regarding the future continuation of the Landsat series, alternative data sources need to be investigated. In the absence of published previous research on this issue in South Africa, the purpose of this article is to investigate the value of visual interpretation of ASTER satellite images for the identification and mapping of land-use in an area in South Africa. The study area is situated in Mpumalanga, in the area of Witbank, around the Witbank and Doorndraai dams. This area is characterised by a variety of urban, rural and industrial land uses. Digital image processing of one Landsat 5 TM, one Landsat 7 ETM and one ASTER satellite image was undertaken, including atmospheric correction and georeferencing, natural colour composites, photo infrared colour composites (or false colour satellite images, band ratios, Normalised Difference Indices, as well as the Brightness, Greenness and Wetness Indices. The efficacy with which land use could be identified through the visual interpretation of the processed Landsat 5 TM, Landsat 7 TM and ASTER satellite images was compared. The published 1:50 000 topographical maps of the area were used for the purpose of initial verification. Findings of the visual interpretation process were verified by field visits to the study area. The study found that the ASTER satellite data produced clearer results and therefore have a higher mapping ability and capacity than the

  14. Ankeny - Yellow Flag Iris Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project aims to inventory and map all existing stands of yellow flag iris within wetland habitats at Ankeny NWR, treat them with herbicide in late spring and...

  15. Estimating Evapotranspiration from an Improved Two-Source Energy Balance Model Using ASTER Satellite Imagery

    OpenAIRE

    Qifeng Zhuang; Bingfang Wu

    2015-01-01

    Reliably estimating the turbulent fluxes of latent and sensible heat at the Earth’s surface by remote sensing is important for research on the terrestrial hydrological cycle. This paper presents a practical approach for mapping surface energy fluxes using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) images from an improved two-source energy balance (TSEB) model. The original TSEB approach may overestimate latent heat flux under vegetative stress conditions, as has al...

  16. Digital Mapping of Soil Properties Using Multivariate Statistical Analysis and ASTER Data in an Arid Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Nawar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling and mapping of soil properties has been identified as key for effective land degradation management and mitigation. The ability to model and map soil properties at sufficient accuracy for a large agriculture area is demonstrated using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER imagery. Soil samples were collected in the El-Tina Plain, Sinai, Egypt, concurrently with the acquisition of ASTER imagery, and measured for soil electrical conductivity (ECe, clay content and soil organic matter (OM. An ASTER image covering the study area was preprocessed, and two predictive models, multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS and the partial least squares regression (PLSR, were constructed based on the ASTER spectra. For all three soil properties, the results of MARS models were better than those of the respective PLSR models, with cross-validation estimated R2 of 0.85 and 0.80 for ECe, 0.94 and 0.90 for clay content and 0.79 and 0.73 for OM. Independent validation of ECe, clay content and OM maps with 32 soil samples showed the better performance of the MARS models, with R2 = 0.81, 0.89 and 0.73, respectively, compared to R2 = 0.78, 0.87 and 0.71 for the PLSR models. The results indicated that MARS is a more suitable and superior modeling technique than PLSR for the estimation and mapping of soil salinity (ECe, clay content and OM. The method developed in this paper was found to be reliable and accurate for digital soil mapping in arid and semi-arid environments.

  17. Metabolic potential of microorganisms associated with the halophyte Aster tripolium L. in saline soils

    OpenAIRE

    Szymańska, Sonia; Piernik, Agnieszka; Hrynkiewicz, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Increased soil salinization may be caused by a natural (e.g. climate change) and anthropogenic (e.g. improper fertilization and irrigation of agricultural land) factors. The submitted work assumes that microorganisms associated with plant halophytes have a unique metabolic properties that can stimulate plant growth under salt stress. The aim of the study was to determine the abundance and metabolic biodiversity of endophytic and rhizosphere microorganisms co-existing with Aster tripolium L. a...

  18. Reducing the Discrepancy Between ASTER and MODIS Land Surface Temperature Products

    OpenAIRE

    Changqing Ke; Yasushi Yamaguchi; Yuanbo Liu

    2007-01-01

    Human-induced global warming has significantly increased the importance ofsatellite monitoring of land surface temperature (LST) on a global scale. The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) provides a 1-km resolution LST productwith almost daily coverage of the Earth, invaluable to both local and global change studies.The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) provides aLST product with a high spatial resolution of 90-m and a 16-day recurrent cycle,...

  19. Estimating Coastal Lagoon Tidal Flooding and Repletion with Multidate ASTER Thermal Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Allen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Coastal lagoons mix inflowing freshwater and tidal marine waters in complex spatial patterns. This project sought to detect and measure temperature and spatial variability of flood tides for a constricted coastal lagoon using multitemporal remote sensing. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Radiometer (ASTER thermal infrared data provided estimates of surface temperature for delineation of repletion zones in portions of Chincoteague Bay, Virginia. ASTER high spatial resolution sea-surface temperature imagery in conjunction with in situ observations and tidal predictions helped determine the optimal seasonal data for analyses. The selected time series ASTER satellite data sets were analyzed at different tidal phases and seasons in 2004–2006. Skin surface temperatures of ocean and estuarine waters were differentiated by flood tidal penetration and ebb flows. Spatially variable tidal flood penetration was evaluated using discrete seed-pixel area analysis and time series Principal Components Analysis. Results from these techniques provide spatial extent and variability dynamics of tidal repletion, flushing, and mixing, important factors in eutrophication assessment, water quality and resource monitoring, and application of hydrodynamic modeling for coastal estuary science and management.

  20. PEMETAAN SUHU PERMUKAAN LAUT (SPL MENGGUNAKAN CITRA SATELIT ASTER DI PERAIRAN LAUT JAWA BAGIAN BARAT MADURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Sulistyo Rini

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Oceanographical temperature in Java Sea is very important to be considered. This research was combines in-site observation technique, Geographical Information System (GLS and remote sensing in order to get accurate, present and updateable data. The aim of this research is to determine the distribution of sea-surface temperature and accuration-test value in Java Sea especially on western coast of Madura using ASTER satellite imagery. This research were used software of ENVI 4.5, ILWIS 3.3, and ArcGIS 9.3 and also changed the radian value until °C. Result showed that using ASTER satellite imagery within band 10 range between 32 "C-35 "C. Band 11,between 24.9"C 25,2"C. Band 12 between 16,7"C to 17"C. Band while band 13 abd 14 between 30.7, band 28. Band 11 is more accurate compared to Band 10, 12, 13. 14, the RMS Error on band 11 showed lower value compared to the other band.Keywords: Sea-surface Temperature. ASTER satellite imagery. Java Sea, Western coast of Madura

  1. Detection of Alteration Induced by Onshore Gas Seeps from ASTER and WorldView-2 Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Salati

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbon seeps cause chemical and mineralogical changes at the surface, which can be detected by remote sensing. This paper aims at the detection of mineral alteration induced by gas seeps in a marly limestone formation, SW Iran. For this purpose, the multispectral Advance Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER and the high spatial resolution WorldView-2 (WV-2 data were utilized for mapping surficial rock alteration. In addition, the potential of Visible Near Infrared (VNIR bands of the WV-2 and its high spatial resolution for mapping alterations was determined. Band ratioing, principal component analysis (PCA, data fusion and the boosted regression trees (BRT were applied to enhance and classify the altered and unaltered marly limestone formation. The alteration zones were identified and mapped by remote sensing analyses. Integrating the WV-2 into the ASTER data improved the spatial accuracy of the BRT classifications. The results showed that the BRT classification of the multiple band imagery (created from ASTER and WV-2 using regions of interest (ROIs around field data provides the best discrimination between altered and unaltered areas. It is suggested that the WV-2 dataset can provide a potential tool along higher spectral resolution data for mapping alteration minerals related to hydrocarbon seeps in arid and semi-arid areas.

  2. Estimating surface fluxes over the north Tibetan Plateau area with ASTER imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiqiang Ma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface fluxes are important boundary conditions for climatological modeling and Asian monsoon system. The recent availability of high-resolution, multi-band imagery from the ASTER (Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer sensor has enabled us to estimate surface fluxes to bridge the gap between local scale flux measurements using micrometeorological instruments and regional scale land-atmosphere exchanges of water and heat fluxes that are fundamental for the understanding of the water cycle in the Asian monsoon system. A parameterization method based on ASTER data and field observations has been proposed and tested for deriving surface albedo, surface temperature, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (MSAVI, vegetation coverage, Leaf Area Index (LAI, net radiation flux, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux over heterogeneous land surface in this paper. As a case study, the methodology was applied to the experimental area of the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP Asia-Australia Monsoon Project (CAMP on the Tibetan Plateau (CAMP/Tibet, located at the north Tibetan Plateau. The ASTER data of 24 July 2001, 29 November 2001 and 12 March 2002 was used in this paper for the case of summer, winter and spring. To validate the proposed methodology, the ground-measured surface variables (surface albedo and surface temperature and land surface heat fluxes (net radiation flux, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux were compared to the ASTER derived values. The results show that the derived surface variables and land surface heat fluxes in three different months over the study area are in good accordance with the land surface status. Also, the estimated land surface variables and land surface heat fluxes are in good accordance with ground measurements, and all their absolute percentage difference (APD is less than 10% in the validation sites

  3. Adjacent effect and cross talk of land surfaces on coastal water in the Aster VNIR and SWIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Tsutomu; Masuda, Kazuhiko; Sato, Isao; Tsuchida, Satoshi

    2002-12-01

    The adjacency effect is discussed at coastal areas of main land and peninsula using VNIR and SWIR on ASTER sensor, although the cross-talk phenomenon is apparently noted on some SWIR. The purpose of the analysis is to derive optical characteristics of atmospheric aerosol. The aerosol model is in accordance to the dust-like model. This model is adopted to ASTER and MISR on Terra satellite. Data is the Atsumi Peninsula near Nagoya (34° 40'N, 134° 00'E) GMT1.55 on July 10,2000. The ASTER SWIR(1.65μm-2.395μm) cross-talk phenomenon is noted in the data. This is known as a result of a structure of ASTER sensor. It is relatively large (5-6 DN counts and 100 lines or 3km length). On the other hands, when ASTER observe heterogeneous surface of coastal water, the adjacency effect due to the scattering by atmosphere might partly be contaminated to the above effect. In the SWIR region of spectrum, molecular scattering is practically neglected. However, some aerosol model indicates strong scattering effect at SWIR wavelengths. The main results are (1) The Japan Main land indicates 6~20 times more effect than the peninsula on adjacent radiance from ocean water. (2) SWIR & VNIR exhibit similar adjacent effect which might indicate aerosol or large particles.

  4. ASTER spectral analysis and lithologic mapping of the Khanneshin carbonatite volcano, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, J.C.; Rowan, L.C.

    2011-01-01

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data of the early Quaternary Khanneshin carbonatite volcano located in southern Afghanistan were used to identify carbonate rocks within the volcano and to distinguish them from Neogene ferruginous polymict sandstone and argillite. The carbonatitic rocks are characterized by diagnostic CO3 absorption near 11.2 ??m and 2.31-2.33 ??m, whereas the sandstone, argillite, and adjacent alluvial deposits exhibit intense Si-O absorption near 8.7 ??m caused mainly by quartz and Al-OH absorption near 2.20 ??m due to muscovite and illite. Calcitic carbonatite was distinguished from ankeritic carbonatite in the short wave infrared (SWIR) region of the ASTER data due to a slight shift of the CO3 absorption feature toward 2.26 ??m (ASTER band 7) in the ankeritic carbonatite spectra. Spectral assessment using ASTER SWIR data suggests that the area is covered by extensive carbonatite flows that contain calcite, ankerite, and muscovite, though some areas mapped as ankeritic carbonatite on a pre existing geologic map were not identified in the ASTER data. A contact aureole shown on the geologic map was defined using an ASTER false color composite image (R = 6, G = 3, B = 1) and a logical operator byte image. The contact aureole rocks exhibit Fe2+, Al-OH, and Fe, Mg-OH spectral absorption features at 1.65, 2.2, and 2.33 ??m, respectively, which suggest that the contact aureole rocks contain musco vite, epidote, and chlorite. The contact aureole rocks were mapped using an Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operator. A visible through short wave infrared (VNIR-SWIR) mineral and rock-type map based on matched filter, band ratio, and logical operator analysis illustrates: (1) laterally extensive calcitic carbonatite that covers most of the crater and areas northeast of the crater; (2) ankeritic carbonatite located southeast and north of the crater and some small deposits located within the crater; (3) agglomerate that

  5. According to Regression Combine with Interpolation to Mend ASTER GDEM Data%回归与内插法处理ASTER GDEM数据异常值的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    惠珊; 李远华

    2012-01-01

    How to solve the common no data or data abnormality problem in ASTER GDEM is mainly studied. At first, detecting the section which no data or data abnormality in ASTER GDEM slope analysis together with density divide method isused. Then SRTM DEM is used according to regression fusing combine with interpolation to simulate and mend the ASTER GDEM data . At Last, the results through using the mended ASTER GDEM data to set up 3D model and Hydrological Model are evaluated. The study results indicate that regression fusing and interpolation method can produce a less error margin and advanced precision data . The mended data is primly matched with remote sensing data and the hydrological model is reasonable. Above all, this method mendes no data and abnormality section in ASTER GDEM improving the data integrality and applicability.%为了解决ASTER GDEM数据中普遍存在的数据空洞及异常问题,在利用坡度分析与密度分割等方法,提取ASTERGDEM数据中存在的空洞及异常值后,借助SRTM DEM数据,利用回归与内插法对空洞及异常区域的高程进行模拟修复.并通过三维建模和实例应用评估其模拟质量.研究结果表明:回归与内插法误差较小、精度较高,所得DEM三维模型良好,能有效提高ASTER GDEM数据的完整性和可用性.

  6. Self-organizing feature map neural network classification of the ASTER data based on wavelet fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HASI Bagan; MA Jianwen; LI Qiqing; HAN Xiuzhen; LIU Zhili

    2004-01-01

    Most methods for classification of remote sensing data are based on the statistical parameter evaluation with the assumption that the samples obey the normal distribution. However, more accurate classification results can be obtained with the neural network method through getting knowledge from environments and adjusting the parameter (or weight) step by step by a specific measurement. This paper focuses on the double-layer structured Kohonen self-organizing feature map (SOFM), for which all neurons within the two layers are linked one another and those of the competition layers are linked as well along the sides. Therefore, the self-adapting learning ability is improved due to the effective competition and suppression in this method. The SOFM has become a hot topic in the research area of remote sensing data classification. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER) is a new satellite-borne remote sensing instrument with three 15-m resolution bands and three 30-m resolution bands at the near infrared. The ASTER data of Dagang district, Tianjin Municipality is used as the test data in this study. At first, the wavelet fusion is carried out to make the spatial resolutions of the ASTER data identical; then, the SOFM method is applied to classifying the land cover types. The classification results are compared with those of the maximum likelihood method (MLH). As a consequence, the classification accuracy of SOFM increases about by 7% in general and, in particular, it is almost as twice as that of the MLH method in the town.

  7. Comparative mineral mapping in the Colorado Mineral Belt using AVIRIS and ASTER remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents results of interpretation of spectral remote sensing data covering the eastern Colorado Mineral Belt in central Colorado, USA, acquired by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensors. This study was part of a multidisciplinary mapping and data integration project at the U.S. Geological Survey that focused on long-term resource planning by land-managing entities in Colorado. The map products were designed primarily for the regional mapping and characterization of exposed surface mineralogy, including that related to hydrothermal alteration and supergene weathering of pyritic rocks. Alteration type was modeled from identified minerals based on standard definitions of alteration mineral assemblages. Vegetation was identified using the ASTER data and subdivided based on per-pixel chlorophyll content (depth of 0.68 micrometer absorption band) and dryness (fit and depth of leaf biochemical absorptions in the shortwave infrared spectral region). The vegetation results can be used to estimate the abundance of fire fuels at the time of data acquisition (2002 and 2003). The AVIRIS- and ASTER-derived mineral mapping results can be readily compared using the toggleable layers in the GeoPDF file, and by using the provided GIS-ready raster datasets. The results relating to mineral occurrence and distribution were an important source of data for studies documenting the effects of mining and un-mined, altered rocks on aquatic ecosystems at the watershed level. These studies demonstrated a high correlation between metal concentrations in streams and the presence of hydrothermal alteration and (or) pyritic mine waste as determined by analysis of the map products presented herein. The mineral mapping results were also used to delineate permissive areas for various mineral deposit types.

  8. Analysis of ASTER data for mapping bauxite rich pockets within high altitude lateritic bauxite, Jharkhand, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Arindam; Singh, Vivek Kr.; Parveen, Reshma; Kumar, K. Vinod; Jeyaseelan, A. T.; Dhanamjaya Rao, E. N.

    2013-04-01

    Bauxite deposits of Jharkhand in India are resulted from the lateritization process and therefore are often associated with the laterites. In the present study, ASTER (Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) image is processed to delineate bauxite rich pockets within the laterites. In this regard, spectral signatures of lateritic bauxite samples are analyzed in the laboratory with reference to the spectral features of gibbsite (main mineral constituent of bauxite) and goethite (main mineral constituent of laterite) in VNIR-SWIR (visible-near infrared and short wave infrared) electromagnetic domain. The analysis of spectral signatures of lateritic bauxite samples helps in understanding the differences in the spectral features of bauxites and laterites. Based on these differences; ASTER data based relative band depth and simple ratio images are derived for spatial mapping of the bauxites developed within the lateritic province. In order to integrate the complementary information of different index image, an index based principal component (IPC) image is derived to incorporate the correlative information of these indices to delineate bauxite rich pockets. The occurrences of bauxite rich pockets derived from density sliced IPC image are further delimited by the topographic controls as it has been observed that the major bauxite occurrences of the area are controlled by slope and altitude. In addition to above, IPC image is draped over the digital elevation model (DEM) to illustrate how bauxite rich pockets are distributed with reference to the topographic variability of the terrain. Bauxite rich pockets delineated in the IPC image are also validated based on the known mine occurrences and existing geological map of the bauxite. It is also conceptually validated based on the spectral similarity of the bauxite pixels delineated in the IPC image with the ASTER convolved laboratory spectra of bauxite samples.

  9. Estimation of aboveground biomass in Mediterranean forests by statistical modelling of ASTER fraction images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Manso, O.; Fernández-Manso, A.; Quintano, C.

    2014-09-01

    Aboveground biomass (AGB) estimation from optical satellite data is usually based on regression models of original or synthetic bands. To overcome the poor relation between AGB and spectral bands due to mixed-pixels when a medium spatial resolution sensor is considered, we propose to base the AGB estimation on fraction images from Linear Spectral Mixture Analysis (LSMA). Our study area is a managed Mediterranean pine woodland (Pinus pinaster Ait.) in central Spain. A total of 1033 circular field plots were used to estimate AGB from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) optical data. We applied Pearson correlation statistics and stepwise multiple regression to identify suitable predictors from the set of variables of original bands, fraction imagery, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and Tasselled Cap components. Four linear models and one nonlinear model were tested. A linear combination of ASTER band 2 (red, 0.630-0.690 μm), band 8 (short wave infrared 5, 2.295-2.365 μm) and green vegetation fraction (from LSMA) was the best AGB predictor (Radj2=0.632, the root-mean-squared error of estimated AGB was 13.3 Mg ha-1 (or 37.7%), resulting from cross-validation), rather than other combinations of the above cited independent variables. Results indicated that using ASTER fraction images in regression models improves the AGB estimation in Mediterranean pine forests. The spatial distribution of the estimated AGB, based on a multiple linear regression model, may be used as baseline information for forest managers in future studies, such as quantifying the regional carbon budget, fuel accumulation or monitoring of management practices.

  10. SRTM DEM与ASTER DEM数据比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹤元; 孙亮

    2014-01-01

    SRTM DEM是利用航天飞机雷达地形测绘获取的全球中低纬度地区地表的高分辨率雷达影像生成的DEM,它具有较高的分辨率和现势性;ASTER DEM是利用高分辨率卫星成像设备ASTER获取的立体影像生成的DEM,全球覆盖范围更广、数据分辨率更高。由于两种DEM获取机理与生产工艺不同,因此存在较大的数据差异。为了利用两种数据进行DEM数据融合与更新,需要对不同地形DEM数据进行比较研究与分析。本文选取具有高山峡谷地貌特征的某山区为实验区,运用总体统计分析、检查点法和剖面法对SRTM DEM与ASTER DEM进行数据比较研究。结果表明,SRTM DEM与ASTER DEM中误差约为45m,误差值在-150m至150m的点数量呈正态分布,在山峰与山谷处高程值差异明显。

  11. An application of the Self Organizing Map Algorithm to computer aided classification of ASTER multispectral data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinando Giacco

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we employ the Kohonen’s Self Organizing Map (SOM as a strategy for an unsupervised analysis of ASTER multispectral (MS images. In order to obtain an accurate clusterization we introduce as input for the network, in addition to spectral data, some texture measures extracted from IKONOS images, which gives a contribution to the classification of manmade structures. After clustering of SOM outcomes, we associated each cluster with a major land cover and compared them with prior knowledge of the scene analyzed.

  12. Technoscientific Diplomacy: The Practice of International Politics in the ASTER Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plafcan, Dan

    Most chapters in this volume focus on the scientific and technical aspects of the design, performance, operations, and applications of the MODIS and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instruments. In contrast, this final chapter focuses on politics - specifically, the politics of technical decision making and scientific judgment. When scientific objectives, engineering design decisions, and familiar forms of scientific and technical authority are uncertain or otherwise unsettled, how do they become certain and settled? What facilitates collective judgment and the exercise of power in efforts to advance and achieve common scientific goals, especially in the international arena?

  13. Titanium, Sinusitis, and the Yellow Nail Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Berglund, Fredrik; Carlmark, Björn

    2010-01-01

    Yellow nail syndrome is characterized by nail changes, respiratory disorders, and lymphedema. In a yellow nail patient with a skeletal titanium implant and with gold in her teeth, we found high levels of titanium in nail clippings. This study aims to examine the possible role of titanium in the genesis of the yellow nail syndrome. Nail clippings from patients with one or more features of the yellow nail syndrome were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. Titanium was regularly fou...

  14. Regional Lithological Mapping Using ASTER-TIR Data: Case Study for the Tibetan Plateau and the Surrounding Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiki Ninomiya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The mineralogical indices the Quartz Index (QI, Carbonate Index (CI and Mafic Index (MI for ASTER multispectral thermal infrared (TIR data were applied to various geological materials for regional lithological mapping on the Tibetan Plateau. Many lithological and structural features are not currently well understood in the central Tibetan Plateau, including the distribution of mafic-ultramafic rocks related to the suture zones, the quartzose and carbonate sedimentary rocks accreted to the Eurasian continent, and sulfate layers related to the Tethys and neo-Tethys geological setting. These rock types can now be mapped with the interpretation of the processed ASTER TIR images described in this paper. A methodology is described for the processing of ASTER TIR data applied to a very wide region of the Tibetan Plateau. The geometrical and radiometric performance of the processed images is discussed, and the advantages of using ortho-rectified data are shown. The challenges of using ASTER data with a small footprint in addition to selecting an appropriate subset of scenes are also examined. ASTER scenes possess a narrow swath width when compared to LANDSAT data (60 km vs. 185 km, respectively. Furthermore, the ASTER data archive is vast, consisting of approximately three million images. These details can present an added level of complexity during an image processing workflow. Finally, geological interpretations made on the maps of the indices are compared with prior geological field studies. The results from the investigations suggest that the indices perform well in the classification of quartzose rocks based on the carbonate and mafic mineral content, in addition to the granitic rocks based on the feldspar content.

  15. Relations Between Albedos and Emissivities From MODIS and ASTER Data Over North African Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L.; Dickinson, R.; Ogawa, K.; Tian, Y.; Jin, M.; Schmugge, T.; Tsvetsinskaya, E.

    2003-12-01

    This paper analyzes relations among MODIS surface albedos, ASTER broadband (3-14 μ m) emissivities, and a soil taxonomy map over the arid areas of Algeria, Libya, and Tunisia in North Africa at 30 second (about 1 km) and 2 minute (about 4 km) spatial resolutions. The MODIS albedo data are from 7 spectral bands and 3 broadbands during dust-free seasons and the emissivity data are derived from a linear combination of the waveband emissivities of the ASTER five thermal infrared channels. Both albedo and emissivity data in the study region show similar considerable spatial variability, larger than assumed by most climate models, and such variability is related to the surface types (sands, rock, and soil orders). Emissivity over bare soils exhibits statistically significant correlations with albedos at both broadbands and most of spectral bands and decreases linearly with albedos. Albedo and emissivity are more strongly correlated with each other than either is to the surface types, apparently because of their higher resolution either spatially or in surface mineralogy. This paper provides guidance for the possible inclusion of such correlation to specify albedo and emissivity in climate models.

  16. A Forest Fire Risk Assessment Using ASTER Images in Peninsular Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Guang-xiong; LI Jing; CHEN Yun-hao; NORIZAN Abdul-patah

    2007-01-01

    Based on the physical concept of heat energy of pre-ignition, a new fire susceptibility index (FSI) is used to estimate forest fire risk. This physical basis allows calculation of ignition probabilities and comparisons of fire risk across eco-regions. The computation of the index requires inputs of fuel temperature and fuel moisture content (FMC), both of which can be estimated using remote sensing data. While ASTER data for land surface temperatures (LST) was used as proxys for fuel temperatures, fuel moisture content is estimated by regression technique utilizing the ratio NDVI/LST of ASTER data. FSIs are computed in peninsular Malaysia for nine days before the fires of 2004 and 2005 and validated with fire occurrence data. Results show that the FSI increases as the day approaches the fire day. This trend can be observed clearly about four days before the day of fire. It suggests that FSI can be a good estimator of fire risk. The physical basis provides a more meaningful FSI, allows calculation of ignition probabilities and facilitates the development of a future class of fire risk models. FSI can be used to compare fire risk across different eco-regions and time periods. FSI retains the flexibility to be localized to a vegetation type or eco-regions for improved performance.

  17. ASTER L1B satellite data applied to geothermal in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. González-Acosta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The 83 ASTER L1B thermal channels of Cuban territorial scenes, from 2000 to 2008 years, selected and processed with geothermal aims showed almost 50% of cloudy coverage. The vortex coordinated as well as other data from such metadata facilitated completing the designed database. From a preliminary mosaic with the images existent these were subsequently processed in order to obtain temperature images. Such images were then integrated into another mosaic with a suitable reclassification resulting in 11 classes with 3°C each. This allowed delimitating those anomalous zones where the greater distribution of pixels oscillated from 25°C to 37°C, and the cloudy coverage temperature aroused up to 20°C approximately. In the resulting temperature map, 69 polygons were a priori delimitated and categorized, as for their perspective and the temperature value above 40°C. These polygons were later overlapped to Google Earth images with the aim to identify those from anthropogenic origins. Finally it was obtained an estimation of the temperature value of the surface coverage of the national territory as well as the understanding of that the eastern zone is the most perspective. This is an experimental application, using satellite images ASTER L1B with geothermic purpose.

  18. Estimating Evapotranspiration from an Improved Two-Source Energy Balance Model Using ASTER Satellite Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qifeng Zhuang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Reliably estimating the turbulent fluxes of latent and sensible heat at the Earth’s surface by remote sensing is important for research on the terrestrial hydrological cycle. This paper presents a practical approach for mapping surface energy fluxes using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER images from an improved two-source energy balance (TSEB model. The original TSEB approach may overestimate latent heat flux under vegetative stress conditions, as has also been reported in recent research. We replaced the Priestley-Taylor equation used in the original TSEB model with one that uses plant moisture and temperature constraints based on the PT-JPL model to obtain a more accurate canopy latent heat flux for model solving. The collected ASTER data and field observations employed in this study are over corn fields in arid regions of the Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER area, China. The results were validated by measurements from eddy covariance (EC systems, and the surface energy flux estimates of the improved TSEB model are similar to the ground truth. A comparison of the results from the original and improved TSEB models indicates that the improved method more accurately estimates the sensible and latent heat fluxes, generating more precise daily evapotranspiration (ET estimate under vegetative stress conditions.

  19. Spectral properties and ASTER-based alteration mapping of Masahim volcano facies, SE Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayebi, Mohammad H.; Tangestani, Majid H.; Vincent, Robert K.; Neal, Devin

    2014-10-01

    This study applies Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and the Mixture Tuned Matched Filtering (MTMF) algorithm to map the sub-pixel distribution of alteration minerals associated with the Masahim volcano, SE Iran for understanding the spatial relationship between alteration minerals and volcano facies. Investigations of the alteration mineralogy were conducted using field-spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and ASTER Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) spectral data. In order to spectrally characterize the stratovolcano deposits, lithological units and alteration minerals, the volcano was divided into three facies: the Central, Proximal, and Medial-distal facies. The reflectance spectra of rock samples show absorption features of a number of minerals including white mica, kaolinite, montmorillonite, illite, goethite, hematite, jarosite, opal, and chlorite. The end-members of key alteration minerals including sericite (phyllic zone), kaolinite (argillic zone) and chlorite (propylitic zone) were extracted from imagery using the Pixel Purity Index (PPI) method and were used to map alteration minerals. Accuracy assessment through field observations was used to verify the fraction maps. The results showed that most prominent altered rocks situated at the central facies of volcano. The alteration minerals were discriminated with the coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.74, 0.81, and 0.68 for kaolinite, sericite, and chlorite, respectively. The results of this study have the potential to refine the map of alteration zones in the Masahim volcano.

  20. ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model Version 2 - summary of validation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachikawa, Tetushi; Kaku, Manabu; Iwasaki, Akira; Gesch, Dean B.; Oimoen, Michael J.; Zhang, Z.; Danielson, Jeffrey J.; Krieger, Tabatha; Curtis, Bill; Haase, Jeff; Abrams, Michael; Carabajal, C.; Meyer, Dave

    2011-01-01

    On June 29, 2009, NASA and the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) of Japan released a Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) to users worldwide at no charge as a contribution to the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS). This “version 1” ASTER GDEM (GDEM1) was compiled from over 1.2 million scenebased DEMs covering land surfaces between 83°N and 83°S latitudes. A joint U.S.-Japan validation team assessed the accuracy of the GDEM1, augmented by a team of 20 cooperators. The GDEM1 was found to have an overall accuracy of around 20 meters at the 95% confidence level. The team also noted several artifacts associated with poor stereo coverage at high latitudes, cloud contamination, water masking issues and the stacking process used to produce the GDEM1 from individual scene-based DEMs (ASTER GDEM Validation Team, 2009). Two independent horizontal resolution studies estimated the effective spatial resolution of the GDEM1 to be on the order of 120 meters.

  1. Hydrothermal alteration mapping using ASTER data in Baogutu porphyry deposit, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remote sensing plays an important role in mineral exploration. One of its proven applications is extracting host-rock lithology and alteration zones that are related to porphyry copper deposits. An Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) was used to map the Baogutu porphyry deposit alteration area. A circular alteration mineral zoning pattern was clearly observed in the classification result of potassic, phyllic, argillic, propylitic zones. The potassic is characterized by biotite and anhydrite with an absorption feature centered at 1.94 and 2.1um. The phyllic zone is characterized by illite and sericite that indicates an intense Al-OH absorption feature centered at 2.20um. The narrower argillic zone including kaolinite and alunite displays a secondary Al-OH absorption feature at 2.17 um. The mineral assemblages of the outer propylitic zone are epidote, chlorite and calcite that exhibit absorption features at 2.335um.The performance of Principal Component Analysis(PCA), Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF), band ratio(BR) and Constrained Energy Minimization(CEM) has been evaluated. These techniques identified new prospects of porphyry copper mineralization in the study areas. These results indicate that ASTER is a powerful tool in the initial steps of mineral exploration

  2. Tsunami Inundation, North of Phuket, Thailand ASTER Images and SRTM Elevation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 The Indian Ocean coastline north of Phuket, Thailand is a major tourist destination that was in the path of the tsunami produced by a giant offshore earthquake on December 26, 2004. This disaster resulted in a heavy loss of life. These simulated natural color ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) images show a 27 kilometer (17-mile) long stretch of coast 80 kilometers (50 miles) north of the Phuket airport in the Khao Lak area on December 31 (middle) and also two years earlier (left). The changes along the coast are obvious (changing from green to grey) where the vegetation was stripped away by the tsunami. The image on the right is a copy of the later ASTER scene but it includes highlighting in red for areas that have elevations within 10 meters (33 feet) of sea level. This elevation information was supplied by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The red areas appear to include most of the tsunami inundated areas. The geographic correspondence of the imaged damage and the highlighted elevation range is quite good in the middle and upper parts of the scene and is consistent with an early field report of about 10 meters of inundation. In the south, the elevation range corresponds to a much wider area than the actual damage, but this is to be expected for areas increasingly far from the coast. Offshore bathymetry (depth variations), coastal landforms, distance from the coast, and additional factors other than elevation range control the damage extent. But elevation measurements along the coast, as provided by SRTM, give a general indication of areas at risk, as now confirmed by ASTER. ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet with its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet). These data provide scientists in numerous disciplines

  3. Estimating surface fluxes over middle and upper streams of the Heihe River Basin with ASTER imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Ma

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Land surface heat fluxes are essential measures of the strengths of land-atmosphere interactions involving energy, heat and water. Correct parameterization of these fluxes in climate models is critical. Despite their importance, state-of-the-art observation techniques cannot provide representative areal averages of these fluxes comparable to the model grid. Alternative methods of estimation are thus required. These alternative approaches use (satellite observables of the land surface conditions. In this study, the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS algorithm was evaluated in a cold and arid environment, using land surface parameters derived from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER data. Field observations and estimates from SEBS were compared in terms of net radiation flux (Rn, soil heat flux (G0, sensible heat flux (H and latent heat flux (λE over a heterogeneous land surface. As a case study, this methodology was applied to the experimental area of the Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (WATER project, located on the mid-to-upstream sections of the Heihe River in northwest China. ASTER data acquired between 3 May and 4 June 2008, under clear-sky conditions were used to determine the surface fluxes. Ground-based measurements of land surface heat fluxes were compared with values derived from the ASTER data. The results show that the derived surface variables and the land surface heat fluxes furnished by SEBS in different months over the study area are in good agreement with the observed land surface status under the limited cases (some cases looks poor results. So SEBS can be used to estimate turbulent heat fluxes with acceptable accuracy in areas where there is partial vegetation cover in exceptive conditions. It is very important to perform calculations using ground-based observational data for parameterization in SEBS in the future

  4. Decadal region-wide and glacier-wide mass balances derived from multi-temporal ASTER satellite digital elevation models. Validation over the Mont-Blanc area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthier, Etienne; Cabot, Vincent; Vincent, Christian; Six, Delphine

    2016-06-01

    Since 2000, a vast archive of stereo-images has been built by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER) satellite. Several studies already extracted glacier mass balances from multi-temporal ASTER digital elevation models (DEMs) but they lacked accurate independent data for validation. Here, we apply a linear regression to a time series of 3D-coregistered ASTER DEMs to estimate the rate of surface elevation changes (dh/dtASTER) and geodetic mass balances of Mont-Blanc glaciers (155 km²) between 2000 and 2014. Validation using field and spaceborne geodetic measurements reveals large errors at the individual pixel level (> 1 m a-1) and an accuracy of 0.2-0.3 m a-1 for dh/dtASTER averaged over areas larger than 1 km². For all Mont-Blanc glaciers, the ASTER region-wide mass balance (-1.05±0.37 m water equivalent (w.e.) a-1) agrees remarkably with the one measured using Spot5 and Pléiades DEMs (-1.06±0.23 m w.e. a-1) over their common 2003-2012 period. This multi-temporal ASTER DEM strategy leads to smaller errors than the simple differencing of two ASTER DEMs. By extrapolating dh/dtASTER to mid-February 2000, we infer a mean penetration depth of about 9±3 m for the C-band Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) radar signal, with a strong altitudinal dependency (range 0-12 m). This methodology thus reveals the regional pattern of glacier surface elevation changes and improves our knowledge of the penetration of the radar signal into snow and ice.

  5. ASTER and USGS EROS emergency imaging for hurricane disasters: Chapter 4D in Science and the storms-the USGS response to the hurricanes of 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Kenneth A.; Abrams, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Satellite images have been extremely useful in a variety of emergency response activities, including hurricane disasters. This article discusses the collaborative efforts of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Joint United States-Japan Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Science Team, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in responding to crisis situations by tasking the ASTER instrument and rapidly providing information to initial responders. Insight is provided on the characteristics of the ASTER systems, and specific details are presented regarding Hurricane Katrina support.

  6. Aster albescens Rust Caused by Aecidium asterum and Its Hyperparasitic Fungus Tuberculina persicina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yun; YE Hua-zhi; CHEN Guang-yan; LIU Zi-ying; DONG Bao-chen

    2005-01-01

    Aster albescens is a medicinal plant. The rust caused by Aecidium asterum is a new record in China and an important disease of A. albescens in Feng Tong-zhai national reservation area. The percentages of diseased plant and the diseased leaf reach 100 and 28% respectively when the disease is serious. The disease results in leaf spot and leaf cast. Tuberculina persicina is a natural hyperparasite of A. asterum and is firstly reported in the world. The hyperparasite attacks aecium of A. asterum and hinderes the release of aeciospores. The symptom of the rust and the morphological characteristics of A.asterum is reported. The hyperparasitism of A. asterum and the morphological characteristics of the Tuberculina persicina are also reported.

  7. Mycorrhizal symbiosis and local adaptation in Aster amellus: a field transplant experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Pánková

    Full Text Available Many plant populations have adapted to local soil conditions. However, the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is often overlooked in this context. Only a few studies have used reciprocal transplant experiments to study the relationships between soil conditions, mycorrhizal colonisation and plant growth. Furthermore, most of the studies were conducted under controlled greenhouse conditions. However, long-term field experiments can provide more realistic insights into this issue. We conducted a five-year field reciprocal transplant experiment to study the relationships between soil conditions, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth in the obligate mycotrophic herb Aster amellus. We conducted this study in two regions in the Czech Republic that differ significantly in their soil nutrient content, namely Czech Karst (region K and Ceske Stredohori (region S. Plants that originated from region S had significantly higher mycorrhizal colonisation than plants from region K, indicating that the percentage of mycorrhizal colonisation has a genetic basis. We found no evidence of local adaptation in Aster amellus. Instead, plants from region S outperformed the plants from region K in both target regions. Similarly, plants from region S showed more mycorrhizal colonisation in all cases, which was likely driven by the lower nutrient content in the soil from that region. Thus, plant aboveground biomass and mycorrhizal colonisation exhibited corresponding differences between the two target regions and regions of origin. Higher mycorrhizal colonisation in the plants from region with lower soil nutrient content (region S in both target regions indicates that mycorrhizal colonisation is an adaptive trait. However, lower aboveground biomass in the plants with lower mycorrhizal colonisation suggests that the plants from region K are in fact maladapted by their low inherent mycorrhizal colonization. We conclude that including mycorrhizal symbiosis in local

  8. Aster spathulifolius Maxim extract reduces body weight and fat mass in obese humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, In-Jin; Choung, Se Young; Hwang, You-Cheol; Ahn, Kyu Jeung; Chung, Ho Yeon; Jeong, In-Kyung

    2016-07-01

    Aster spathulifolius Maxim (AS), a perennial herb of the genus Aster within the family Asteraceae, induced weight loss in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. We hypothesized that AS could also reduce body weight in obese humans. Therefore, we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in Korea to evaluate the effect of AS extract (ASE) on body weight and fat mass and its safety in obese humans. Forty-four obese participants (body mass index [BMI], 25-30 kg/m(2)) aged ≥20 years were randomly assigned to the placebo or ASE group (700 mg/d of ASE) and were instructed to take a once-daily pill for 12 weeks. Weight, BMI, waist circumference, fat mass (measured using bioimpedance, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and computed tomography), and laboratory tests were assessed at baseline and at 12 weeks. Body weight significantly decreased after 12 weeks of treatment in the ASE group (placebo vs ASE: -0.08 ± 2.11 kg vs -3.30 ± 3.15 kg, P bioimpedance method: -0.51 ± 1.89 kg vs -2.38 ± 2.30 kg, P < .05; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: 0.38 ± 1.59 kg vs -2.26 ± 2.37 kg, P < .05). Changes in lipid profiles, fasting plasma glucose, and hemoglobin A1c did not differ between the 2 groups. No drug-related adverse events were observed during the study. In conclusion, ASE significantly decreases body weight and fat mass in obese humans, suggesting that ASE may be a potential therapeutic candidate for reducing obesity. PMID:27333958

  9. The Scientific Challenges of Yellow River Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xiaoyan; Sun Yangbo

    2005-01-01

    @@ The Yellow River is famous for its complex and unique physical conditions which give great challenges to the river management. Based on the study and analysis of the existing problems and research progress, this paper indicated that the most significant challenges of Yellow River studies are: long term hydrological and morphological changes; the optimized hydrology and sediment conditions to maintain the healthy life of the River; and simulation of Yellow River through mathematical model and physical models.

  10. Tsunami Inundation, North of Phuket, Thailand ASTER Images and SRTM Elevation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 The Indian Ocean coastline north of Phuket, Thailand is a major tourist destination that was in the path of the tsunami produced by a giant offshore earthquake on December 26, 2004. This disaster resulted in a heavy loss of life. These simulated natural color ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) images show a 27 kilometer (17-mile) long stretch of coast 80 kilometers (50 miles) north of the Phuket airport in the Khao Lak area on December 31 (middle) and also two years earlier (left). The changes along the coast are obvious (changing from green to grey) where the vegetation was stripped away by the tsunami. The image on the right is a copy of the later ASTER scene but it includes highlighting in red for areas that have elevations within 10 meters (33 feet) of sea level. This elevation information was supplied by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The red areas appear to include most of the tsunami inundated areas. The geographic correspondence of the imaged damage and the highlighted elevation range is quite good in the middle and upper parts of the scene and is consistent with an early field report of about 10 meters of inundation. In the south, the elevation range corresponds to a much wider area than the actual damage, but this is to be expected for areas increasingly far from the coast. Offshore bathymetry (depth variations), coastal landforms, distance from the coast, and additional factors other than elevation range control the damage extent. But elevation measurements along the coast, as provided by SRTM, give a general indication of areas at risk, as now confirmed by ASTER. ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet with its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet). These data provide scientists in numerous disciplines

  11. Titanium exposure and yellow nail syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ataya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Yellow nail syndrome is a rare disease of unclear etiology. We describe a patient who develops yellow nail syndrome, with primary nail and sinus manifestations, shortly after amalgam dental implants. A study of the patient's nail shedding showed elevated nail titanium levels. The patient had her dental implants removed and had complete resolution of her sinus symptoms with no change in her nail findings. Since the patient's nail findings did not resolve we do not believe titanium exposure is a cause of her yellow nail syndrome but perhaps a possible relationship exists between titanium exposure and yellow nail syndrome that requires further studies.

  12. Visual interpretation of ASTER satellite data, Part 1: Geologic mapping in the Cradle of Humankind World Heritage Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elna van Niekerk

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the first earth observing satellite was launched in 1972, remote sensing has become a powerful tool in the arsenal of geoscientists. This satellite became known as Landsat 1 and carried the Multispectral Scanner (MSS delivering imagery at a spatial resolution of 80, and spectral resolution from blue to near infrared. Ongoing satellite and sensor development to the end of the century produced the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM with improved spatial and spectral resolution, as well as the SPOT series of satellites delivering the highest spatial but limited spectral resolution. These developments culminated in the SPOT 4 (1998 and Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (1999 sensors. While Landsat ETM in particular provided much improved spatial and spectral resolutions, on the basis of which a large amount of geoscientific remote sensing was conducted world wide, the data did not provide adequate spectral and spatial sensitivity to be optimally effective for geological mapping at the local scale. On 18 December 1999 the Terra platform was launched, carrying five remote sensing instruments, including ASTER (Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer. ASTER consists of three separate instrument subsystems, each operating in a different spectral region, and using separate optical systems. These are the Visible and Very Near Infrared (VNIR subsystem with a 15m-spatial resolution, the Short Wave Infrared (SWIR subsystem with a 30m-spatial resolution and the Thermal Infrared (TIR subsystem with a 90m-spatial resolution. ASTER effectively offers an improvement on Landsat MSS, Landsat TM, Landsat ETM+ and SPOT spectral and spatial resolutions. Given the paucity of published research on geological remote sensing at the local scale in South Africa, and particularly on the use of ASTER for geological mapping in South Africa, it is imperative that the value of ASTER be investigated. This article reports on the improved detail and scale

  13. The resolution-dependence of satellite-based cloud retrievals: First results from ASTER and MODIS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, F.; Wind, G.; Zhang, Z.; Platnick, S. E.; Di Girolamo, L.

    2015-12-01

    The spatial resolution dependence of retrieved optical and microphysical cloud properties of marine shallow convective water clouds is presented using data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), as well as the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the scientific research satellite Terra. Both instruments are characterized by vastly different spatial resolutions of 15m (ASTER) and 1000m (MODIS), respectively. Cloud optical thickness (τ) and effective droplet radius (reff) are derived by means of the Cross-platform HIgh resolution Multi-instrument AtmosphEric Retrieval Algorithms (CHIMAERA) system which yields MODIS-like cloud property retrievals via a shared-core architecture. The retrieval algorithm employs a standard bi-spectral retrieval scheme with two reflectances (ρ) in the visible to near-infrared spectral wavelength range (VNIR, 0.86μm) and shortwave infrared spectral wavelength range (SWIR, 2.1μm), respectively. For an exemplary granule the high-resolution ρ sampled by the ASTER instrument are aggregated from 15m to an increasingly coarse spatial resolution between (30-1000m). Subsequently, retrieved τ and reff from aggregated ρ are compared to the mean of the high-resolution cloud properties within the aggregated pixels. The differences in retrieved τ and reff are related to the sub-pixel covariance of ρ in the VNIR and SWIR band, as well as the inhomogeneity index (i.e., the ratio of standard deviation to mean value of ρ in the VNIR). This analysis highlights the impact of sub-pixel inhomogeneity and plane-parallel assumptions in the cloud property retrieval. CHIMAERA also allows for a comparison of ASTER and MODIS retrievals without introducing biases due to individual instrument algorithms. Retrieved τ and reff from the 1000m aggregated ρ sampled by ASTER are compared to the retrieved cloud properties provided by MODIS. The presented results highlight the different

  14. Hydrothermal Alteration Maps of the Central and Southern Basin and Range Province of the United States Compiled From Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operator algorithms were used to map...

  15. Analysis of Topographic Feature with SRTM DEM and ASTER GDEM Data and Railway Alignment%基于SRTM DEM,ASTER GDEM 地貌特征分析与铁路选线

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高山

    2012-01-01

    研究目的:SRTM DEM,ASTER GDEM 数据具有全球范围、免费获取、精度较高的优点,结合复杂山区铁路工程,评价其数据精度,研究线路地貌特征,辅助铁路选线.研究结论:SRTM DEM,ASTER GDEM 数据由于各自存在较大的系统误差,通过采用高程精度评价、DEM融合、高程基准偏移、DEM重采样方法提高数字高程精度,进而构建大范围、高精度、可视化的三维数字地貌模型,有助于分析构造地貌特征、岩溶水文地质条件、地质灾害发育规律,提高铁路选线质量和效率.%Research purposes: The SRTM DEM and ASTER GDEM data have the advantages of the global scope, free access and high precision. The data were appliied in building railways in mountain area with complex geological condition to evaluate the data accuracy and study the topographic feature for assisting the railway alignment. Research conclusions:As the SRTM DEM and ASTER GDEM data have its own system error, the measures, such as the digital elevation accuracy evaluation, DEM fusion, elevation datum offset and DEM re - sampling, should be taken for improving the DEM accuracy and building a large range, high accuracy and visual digital topographic feature model to assist the analysis of the structural topographic feature, the geological condition of karst hydrology and the development regulation of geological disaster in order to enhance the quality and efficiency of railway alignment.

  16. Mineral mapping on the Chilean-Bolivian Altiplano using co-orbital ALI, ASTER and Hyperion imagery: Data dimensionality issues and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, B.E.; Crowley, J.K.

    2005-01-01

    Hyperspectral data coverage from the EO-1 Hyperion sensor was useful for calibrating Advanced Land Imager (ALI) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) images of a volcanic terrane area of the Chilean-Bolivian Altiplano. Following calibration, the ALI and ASTER datasets were co-registered and joined to produce a 13-channel reflectance cube spanning the Visible to Short Wave Infrared (0.4-2.4 ??m). Eigen analysis and comparison of the Hyperion data with the ALI + ASTER reflectance data, as well as mapping results using various ALI+ASTER data subsets, provided insights into the information dimensionality of all the data. In particular, high spectral resolution, low signal-to-noise Hyperion data were only marginally better for mineral mapping than the merged 13-channel, low spectral resolution, high signal-to-noise ALI + ASTER dataset. Neither the Hyperion nor the combined ALI + ASTER datasets had sufficient information dimensionality for mapping the diverse range of surface materials exposed on the Altiplano. However, it is possible to optimize the use of the multispectral data for mineral-mapping purposes by careful data subsetting, and by employing other appropriate image-processing strategies.

  17. Topographic profile of a target with use of laser pulses. A survey directed to the Brazilian deep space mission ASTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is directly related to the development of the laser altimeter for the ASTER mission, named ALR. The Brazilian deep space mission ASTER plans to send a small spacecraft to encounter and investigate the triple asteroid 2001-SN263. The launch is scheduled to occur in 2017 and the ALR is now under development in partnership with UNICAMP, UFABC and aerospace companies. In this work, the environment and the operation of the instrument were modeled and simulations were carried out in order to better understand and define the instrument parameters. The creation of the simulation software to control the operation of the instrument was the main purpose of this work, and the software so far created is the main result of it. The software was successfully tested with respect to some common expected situations

  18. Mapping Hydrothermal Alterations in the Muteh Gold Mining Area in Iran by using ASTER satellite Imagery data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi Haroni, Hooshang; Hassan Tabatabaei, Seyed

    2016-04-01

    Muteh gold mining area is located in 160 km NW of Isfahan town. Gold mineralization is meso-thermal type and associated with silisic, seresitic and carbonate alterations as well as with hematite and goethite. Image processing and interpretation were applied on the ASTER satellite imagery data of about 400 km2 at the Muteh gold mining area to identify hydrothermal alterations and iron oxides associated with gold mineralization. After applying preprocessing methods such as radiometric and geometric corrections, image processing methods of Principal Components Analysis (PCA), Least Square Fit (Ls-Fit) and Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) were applied on the ASTER data to identify hydrothermal alterations and iron oxides. In this research reference spectra of minerals such as chlorite, hematite, clay minerals and phengite identified from laboratory spectral analysis of collected samples were used to map the hydrothermal alterations. Finally, identified hydrothermal alteration and iron oxides were validated by visiting and sampling some of the mapped hydrothermal alterations.

  19. Surface Heat Balance Analysis of Tainan City on March 6, 2001 Using ASTER and Formosat-2 Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yi Sun

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The urban heat island phenomenon occurs as a mixed result of anthropogenic heat discharge, decreased vegetation, and increased artificial impervious surfaces. To clarify the contribution of each factor to the urban heat island, it is necessary to evaluate the surface heat balance. Satellite remote sensing data of Tainan City, Taiwan, obtained from Terra ASTER and Formosat-2 were used to estimate surface heat balance in this study. ASTER data is suitable for analyzing heat balance because of the wide spectral range. We used Formosat-2 multispectral data to classify the land surface, which was used to interpolate some surface parameters for estimating heat fluxes. Because of the high spatial resolution of the Formosat-2 image, more roads, open spaces and small vegetation areas could be distinguished from buildings in urban areas; however, misclassifications of land cover in such areas using ASTER data would overestimate the sensible heat flux. On the other hand, the small vegetated areas detected from the Formosat-2 image slightly increased the estimation of latent heat flux. As a result, the storage heat flux derived from Formosat-2 is higher than that derived from ASTER data in most areas. From these results, we can conclude that the higher resolution land coverage map increases accuracy of the heat balance analysis. Storage heat flux occupies about 60 to 80% of the net radiation in most of the artificial surface areas in spite of their usages. Because of the homogeneity of the building roof materials, there is no contrast between the storage heat flux in business and residential areas. In sparsely vegetated urban areas, more heat is stored and latent heat is smaller than that in the forested suburbs. This result implies that density of vegetation has a significant influence in decreasing temperatures.

  20. Surface Heat Balance Analysis of Tainan City on March 6, 2001 Using ASTER and Formosat-2 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Soushi; Yamaguchi, Yasushi; Liu, Cheng-Chien; Sun, Chen-Yi

    2008-01-01

    The urban heat island phenomenon occurs as a mixed result of anthropogenic heat discharge, decreased vegetation, and increased artificial impervious surfaces. To clarify the contribution of each factor to the urban heat island, it is necessary to evaluate the surface heat balance. Satellite remote sensing data of Tainan City, Taiwan, obtained from Terra ASTER and Formosat-2 were used to estimate surface heat balance in this study. ASTER data is suitable for analyzing heat balance because of the wide spectral range. We used Formosat-2 multispectral data to classify the land surface, which was used to interpolate some surface parameters for estimating heat fluxes. Because of the high spatial resolution of the Formosat-2 image, more roads, open spaces and small vegetation areas could be distinguished from buildings in urban areas; however, misclassifications of land cover in such areas using ASTER data would overestimate the sensible heat flux. On the other hand, the small vegetated areas detected from the Formosat-2 image slightly increased the estimation of latent heat flux. As a result, the storage heat flux derived from Formosat-2 is higher than that derived from ASTER data in most areas. From these results, we can conclude that the higher resolution land coverage map increases accuracy of the heat balance analysis. Storage heat flux occupies about 60 to 80% of the net radiation in most of the artificial surface areas in spite of their usages. Because of the homogeneity of the building roof materials, there is no contrast between the storage heat flux in business and residential areas. In sparsely vegetated urban areas, more heat is stored and latent heat is smaller than that in the forested suburbs. This result implies that density of vegetation has a significant influence in decreasing temperatures.

  1. Untersuchungen zum Entwicklungsrhythmus und zur Kultursteuerung belaubt überwinternder Stauden am Beispiel von Aster alpinus 'Happy End'

    OpenAIRE

    Jende, Andreas

    2000-01-01

    Am Beispiel von Aster alpinus 'Happy End' wird der Entwicklungsverlauf vom Zeitpunkt der Vermehrung bis zur Ausbildung von Infloreszenzen beschrieben, um daraus Empfehlungen für die Kultur als blühende Topfstaude abzuleiten. Dazu wurden über einen Zeitraum von drei Jahren Versuche mit unterschiedlich vermehrten Pflanzen durchgeführt. Verwendet wurden hierbei Pflanzen aus generativer und vegetativer Vermehrung (Stecklinge, in vitro). Untersucht wurde der Verlauf der vegetativen und generativen...

  2. Using ASTER Imagery in Land Use/cover Classification of Eastern Mediterranean Landscapes According to CORINE Land Cover Project

    OpenAIRE

    Recep Gundogan; Abdullah E. Akay; Alaaddin Yüksel

    2008-01-01

    The satellite imagery has been effectively utilized for classifying land cover types and detecting land cover conditions. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor imagery has been widely used in classification process of land cover. However, atmospheric corrections have to be made by preprocessing satellite sensor imagery since the electromagnetic radiation signals received by the satellite sensors can be scattered and absorbed by the atmospheric gases...

  3. An approach of surface coal fire detection from ASTER and Landsat-8 thermal data: Jharia coal field, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Priyom; Guha, Arindam; Kumar, K. Vinod

    2015-07-01

    Radiant temperature images from thermal remote sensing sensors are used to delineate surface coal fires, by deriving a cut-off temperature to separate coal-fire from non-fire pixels. Temperature contrast of coal fire and background elements (rocks and vegetation etc.) controls this cut-off temperature. This contrast varies across the coal field, as it is influenced by variability of associated rock types, proportion of vegetation cover and intensity of coal fires etc. We have delineated coal fires from background, based on separation in data clusters in maximum v/s mean radiant temperature (13th band of ASTER and 10th band of Landsat-8) scatter-plot, derived using randomly distributed homogeneous pixel-blocks (9 × 9 pixels for ASTER and 27 × 27 pixels for Landsat-8), covering the entire coal bearing geological formation. It is seen that, for both the datasets, overall temperature variability of background and fires can be addressed using this regional cut-off. However, the summer time ASTER data could not delineate fire pixels for one specific mine (Bhulanbararee) as opposed to the winter time Landsat-8 data. The contrast of radiant temperature of fire and background terrain elements, specific to this mine, is different from the regional contrast of fire and background, during summer. This is due to the higher solar heating of background rocky outcrops, thus, reducing their temperature contrast with fire. The specific cut-off temperature determined for this mine, to extract this fire, differs from the regional cut-off. This is derived by reducing the pixel-block size of the temperature data. It is seen that, summer-time ASTER image is useful for fire detection but required additional processing to determine a local threshold, along with the regional threshold to capture all the fires. However, the winter Landsat-8 data was better for fire detection with a regional threshold.

  4. Google Earth's derived digital elevation model: A comparative assessment with Aster and SRTM data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a statistical analysis showing additional evidence that Digital Elevation Model (DEM) derived from Google Earth is commendable and has a good correlation with ASTER (Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) and SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) elevation data. The accuracy of DEM elevation points from Google Earth was compared against that of DEMs from ASTER and SRTM for flat, hilly and mountainous sections of a pre-selected rural watershed. For each section, a total of 5,000 DEM elevation points were extracted as samples from each type of DEM data. The DEM data from Google Earth and SRTM for flat and hilly sections are strongly correlated with the R2 of 0.791 and 0.891 respectively. Even stronger correlation is shown for the mountainous section where the R2 values between Google Earth's DEM and ASTER's and between Google Earth's DEM and SRTM's DEMs are respectively 0.917 and 0.865. Further accuracy testing was carried out by utilising the DEM dataset to delineate Muar River's watershed boundary using ArcSWAT2009, a hydrological modelling software. The result shows that the percentage differences of the watershed size delineated from Google Earth's DEM compared to those derived from Department of Irrigation and Drainage's data (using 20m-contour topographic map), ASTER and SRTM data are 9.6%, 10.6%, and 7.6% respectively. It is therefore justified to conclude that the DEM derived from Google Earth is relatively as acceptable as DEMs from other sources

  5. [Pleuritis in yellow nail syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossakowski, C A; Schmiegelow, P; Müller, K-M

    2012-03-01

    A 76-year-old man presented clinically with coughing and shortness of breath and was diagnosed radiologically to have massive pleural effusion as a combined feature of yellow nail syndrome. A lung biopsy was taken and revealed histologically: chronic non-specific inflammation in the pleuropulmonary border, intrapleural edema with eightfold pleural thickening in comparison to normal, angiogenesis in both the nutritive and functional intrapleural blood vessels, no abnormalities of lymphatic vessels with normal topographical distribution as detected by immunohistochemistry for antibody D2-40, granulomatous chronic foreign body reaction as a consequence of pleural effusion therapy by talcum pleurodesis.The histopathological findings of chronic non-specific pleuritis with angiogenesis and increased permeability of blood vessels led to massive intrapleural edema with pleural effusion. Abnormalities of lymphatic vessels could not be confirmed. Considering the features of this disease, they are probably secondary to chronic r infectious or immunological inflammation or paraneoplastic complications with angiogenesis (in about 19%). PMID:22048329

  6. [Pleuritis in yellow nail syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossakowski, C A; Schmiegelow, P; Müller, K-M

    2012-03-01

    A 76-year-old man presented clinically with coughing and shortness of breath and was diagnosed radiologically to have massive pleural effusion as a combined feature of yellow nail syndrome. A lung biopsy was taken and revealed histologically: chronic non-specific inflammation in the pleuropulmonary border, intrapleural edema with eightfold pleural thickening in comparison to normal, angiogenesis in both the nutritive and functional intrapleural blood vessels, no abnormalities of lymphatic vessels with normal topographical distribution as detected by immunohistochemistry for antibody D2-40, granulomatous chronic foreign body reaction as a consequence of pleural effusion therapy by talcum pleurodesis.The histopathological findings of chronic non-specific pleuritis with angiogenesis and increased permeability of blood vessels led to massive intrapleural edema with pleural effusion. Abnormalities of lymphatic vessels could not be confirmed. Considering the features of this disease, they are probably secondary to chronic r infectious or immunological inflammation or paraneoplastic complications with angiogenesis (in about 19%).

  7. Validation of the Aster Global Digital Elevation Model Version 3 Over the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesch, D.; Oimoen, M.; Danielson, J.; Meyer, D.

    2016-06-01

    The ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model Version 3 (GDEM v3) was evaluated over the conterminous United States in a manner similar to the validation conducted for the original GDEM Version 1 (v1) in 2009 and GDEM Version 2 (v2) in 2011. The absolute vertical accuracy of GDEM v3 was calculated by comparison with more than 23,000 independent reference geodetic ground control points from the U.S. National Geodetic Survey. The root mean square error (RMSE) measured for GDEM v3 is 8.52 meters. This compares with the RMSE of 8.68 meters for GDEM v2. Another important descriptor of vertical accuracy is the mean error, or bias, which indicates if a DEM has an overall vertical offset from true ground level. The GDEM v3 mean error of -1.20 meters reflects an overall negative bias in GDEM v3. The absolute vertical accuracy assessment results, both mean error and RMSE, were segmented by land cover type to provide insight into how GDEM v3 performs in various land surface conditions. While the RMSE varies little across cover types (6.92 to 9.25 meters), the mean error (bias) does appear to be affected by land cover type, ranging from -2.99 to +4.16 meters across 14 land cover classes. These results indicate that in areas where built or natural aboveground features are present, GDEM v3 is measuring elevations above the ground level, a condition noted in assessments of previous GDEM versions (v1 and v2) and an expected condition given the type of stereo-optical image data collected by ASTER. GDEM v3 was also evaluated by differencing with the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) dataset. In many forested areas, GDEM v3 has elevations that are higher in the canopy than SRTM. The overall validation effort also included an evaluation of the GDEM v3 water mask. In general, the number of distinct water polygons in GDEM v3 is much lower than the number in a reference land cover dataset, but the total areas compare much more closely.

  8. Validation of the ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model version 3 over the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesch, Dean B.; Oimoen, Michael J.; Danielson, Jeffrey J.; Meyer, David

    2016-01-01

    The ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model Version 3 (GDEM v3) was evaluated over the conterminous United States in a manner similar to the validation conducted for the original GDEM Version 1 (v1) in 2009 and GDEM Version 2 (v2) in 2011. The absolute vertical accuracy of GDEM v3 was calculated by comparison with more than 23,000 independent reference geodetic ground control points from the U.S. National Geodetic Survey. The root mean square error (RMSE) measured for GDEM v3 is 8.52 meters. This compares with the RMSE of 8.68 meters for GDEM v2. Another important descriptor of vertical accuracy is the mean error, or bias, which indicates if a DEM has an overall vertical offset from true ground level. The GDEM v3 mean error of −1.20 meters reflects an overall negative bias in GDEM v3. The absolute vertical accuracy assessment results, both mean error and RMSE, were segmented by land cover type to provide insight into how GDEM v3 performs in various land surface conditions. While the RMSE varies little across cover types (6.92 to 9.25 meters), the mean error (bias) does appear to be affected by land cover type, ranging from −2.99 to +4.16 meters across 14 land cover classes. These results indicate that in areas where built or natural aboveground features are present, GDEM v3 is measuring elevations above the ground level, a condition noted in assessments of previous GDEM versions (v1 and v2) and an expected condition given the type of stereo-optical image data collected by ASTER. GDEM v3 was also evaluated by differencing with the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) dataset. In many forested areas, GDEM v3 has elevations that are higher in the canopy than SRTM. The overall validation effort also included an evaluation of the GDEM v3 water mask. In general, the number of distinct water polygons in GDEM v3 is much lower than the number in a reference land cover dataset, but the total areas compare much more closely.

  9. Generating daily high spatial land surface temperatures by combining ASTER and MODIS land surface temperature products for environmental process monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mingquan; Li, Hua; Huang, Wenjiang; Niu, Zheng; Wang, Changyao

    2015-08-01

    There is a shortage of daily high spatial land surface temperature (LST) data for use in high spatial and temporal resolution environmental process monitoring. To address this shortage, this work used the Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM), Enhanced Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (ESTARFM), and the Spatial and Temporal Data Fusion Approach (STDFA) to estimate high spatial and temporal resolution LST by combining Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) LST and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LST products. The actual ASTER LST products were used to evaluate the precision of the combined LST images using the correlation analysis method. This method was tested and validated in study areas located in Gansu Province, China. The results show that all the models can generate daily synthetic LST image with a high correlation coefficient (r) of 0.92 between the synthetic image and the actual ASTER LST observations. The ESTARFM has the best performance, followed by the STDFA and the STARFM. Those models had better performance in desert areas than in cropland. The STDFA had better noise immunity than the other two models. PMID:26165141

  10. Using ASTER Imagery in Land Use/cover Classification of Eastern Mediterranean Landscapes According to CORINE Land Cover Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep Gundogan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The satellite imagery has been effectively utilized for classifying land covertypes and detecting land cover conditions. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emissionand Reflection Radiometer (ASTER sensor imagery has been widely used in classificationprocess of land cover. However, atmospheric corrections have to be made by preprocessingsatellite sensor imagery since the electromagnetic radiation signals received by the satellitesensors can be scattered and absorbed by the atmospheric gases and aerosols. In this study,an ASTER sensor imagery, which was converted into top-of-atmosphere reflectance(TOA, was used to classify the land use/cover types, according to COoRdination ofINformation on the Environment (CORINE land cover nomenclature, for an arearepresenting the heterogonous characteristics of eastern Mediterranean regions inKahramanmaras, Turkey. The results indicated that using the surface reflectance data ofASTER sensor imagery can provide accurate (i.e. overall accuracy and kappa values of83.2% and 0.79, respectively and low-cost cover mapping as a part of inventory forCORINE Land Cover Project.

  11. Long-Term Volcanic Activity at Shiveluch Volcano: Nine Years of ASTER Spaceborne Thermal Infrared Observations  

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Carter

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Shiveluch (Kamchatka, Russia is the most active andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc, typically exhibiting near-continual high-temperature fumarolic activity and periods of exogenous lava dome emplacement punctuated by discrete large explosive eruptions. These eruptions can produce large pyroclastic flow (PF deposits, which are common on the southern flank of the volcano. Since 2000, six explosive eruptions have occurred that generated ash fall and PF deposits. Over this same time period, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER instrument has been acquiring image-based visible/near infrared (VNIR, short wave infrared (SWIR and thermal infrared (TIR data globally, with a particular emphasis on active volcanoes. Shiveluch was selected as an ASTER target of interest early in the mission because of its frequent activity and potential impact to northern Pacific air transportation. The north Pacific ASTER archive was queried for Shiveluch data and we present results from 2000 to 2009 that documents three large PF deposits emplaced on 19 May 2001, 9 May 2004, and 28 February 2005. The long-term archive of infrared data provides an excellent record on the changing activity and eruption state of the volcano.

  12. Using aster multispectral imagery for mapping woody invasive species in pico da vara natural reserve (Azores Islands, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Gil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to assess the effectiveness of ASTER imagery to support the mapping of Pittosporum undulatum, an invasive woody species, in Pico da Vara Natural Reserve (S. Miguel Island, Archipelago of the Azores, Portugal. This assessment was done by applying K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN, Support Vector Machine (SVM and Maximum Likelihood (MLC pixel-based supervised classifications to 4 different geographic and remote sensing datasets constituted by the Visible, Near-Infrared (VNIR and Short Wave Infrared (SWIR of the ASTER sensor and by digital cartography associated to orography (altitude and "distance to water streams" of which the spatial distribution of Pittosporum undulatum directly depends. Overall, most performed classifications showed a strong agreement and high accuracy. At targeted species level, the two higher classification accuracies were obtained when applying MLC and KNN to the VNIR bands coupled with auxiliary geographic information use. Results improved significantly by including ecology and occurrence information of species (altitude and distance to water streams in the classification scheme. These results show that the use of ASTER sensor VNIR spectral bands, when coupled to relevant ancillary GIS data, can constitute an effective and low cost approach for the evaluation and continuous assessment of Pittosporum undulatum woodland propagation and distribution within Protected Areas of the Azores Islands.

  13. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radometer (ASTER) Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) Products from Global Earth Observation (GEO) Grid: An Assessment Using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for Synergistic Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Satoshi Tsuchida; Tomoaki Miura; Hirokazu Yamamoto

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the compatibility of three Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radometer (ASTER) based Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) products generated in the GEO Grid system to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) EVI. The three products were two forms of the two-band EVI with ASTER red and NIR bands but without a blue band and the original, three-band EVI computed with ASTER red and NIR, and MODIS blue reflectances. Our assessment results showed good compatibi...

  14. Assessment Of ASTER GDEM And SRTM Performance By Comparing With Survey Control Points And Icesat/GLAS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarihani, A. A.; Callow, J. N.

    2011-12-01

    Topographic data plays a critical role in water resources modeling with determining watershed hydrologic characteristics from raster-based digital elevation models (DEM). Raster-based DEMs have been widely used to derive topographic attributes used in hydraulic and hydrologic modeling such as slope, stream network, basins boundary and area. Accurate models of floodplain topography are essential for having accurate output of hydrologic models. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) provides near-global topographic coverage of the Earth's surface with unprecedented consistency and accuracy with the resolution of 1-3 arc sec. A new Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) from optical stereo data acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) was recently released with the resolution of 1 arc sec. This study the performance of the ASTER GDEM and SRTM DEMs is assessed by comparing with ground-based survey control points and point data from ICESat/GLAS (Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite/Geoscience Laser Altimeter System) for a 7x7degree area in Queensland Australia. This area contains large and remote river basins, where these datasets provide an invaluable resource from which river floodplain inundation can be measured and modelled. Our study focuses on both data and datum issues, which are required to provide a realistic assessment of the achievable relative and absolute ground topographic accuracies. We assessed ground-based survey control points' with ICESat satellite altimetry points and in turn assessed accuracy of the ASTER GDEM and SRTM DEMs over the study area. ICESat provides globally-distributed elevation data of high accuracy (2.47.3 m horizontal error and 0.040.13 m (per degree of incidence angle) vertical error)We applied the GLA14 elevation products (Land/Canopy elevations) for the Laser 3a observation period and Release 31 to compare with 5000 ground survey control points in study area.Our ICESat

  15. Per-Field Irrigated Crop Classification in Arid Central Asia Using SPOT and ASTER Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Conrad

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The overarching goal of this research was to explore accurate methods of mapping irrigated crops, where digital cadastre information is unavailable: (a Boundary separation by object-oriented image segmentation using very high spatial resolution (2.5–5 m data was followed by (b identification of crops and crop rotations by means of phenology, tasselled cap, and rule-based classification using high resolution (15–30 m bi-temporal data. The extensive irrigated cotton production system of the Khorezm province in Uzbekistan, Central Asia, was selected as a study region. Image segmentation was carried out on pan-sharpened SPOT data. Varying combinations of segmentation parameters (shape, compactness, and color were tested for optimized boundary separation. The resulting geometry was validated against polygons digitized from the data and cadastre maps, analysing similarity (size, shape and congruence. The parameters shape and compactness were decisive for segmentation accuracy. Differences between crop phenologies were analyzed at field level using bi-temporal ASTER data. A rule set based on the tasselled cap indices greenness and brightness allowed for classifying crop rotations of cotton, winter-wheat and rice, resulting in an overall accuracy of 80 %. The proposed field-based crop classification method can be an important tool for use in water demand estimations, crop yield simulations, or economic models in agricultural systems similar to Khorezm.

  16. Feature level fusion for enhanced geological mapping of ophiolile complex using ASTER and Landsat TM data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromite ore deposit occurrence is related to ophiolite complexes as a part of the oceanic crust and provides a good opportunity for lithological mapping using remote sensing data. The main contribution of this paper is a novel approaches to discriminate different rock units associated with ophiolite complex using the Feature Level Fusion technique on ASTER and Landsat TM satellite data at regional scale. In addition this study has applied spectral transform approaches, consisting of Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) to distinguish the concentration of high-potential areas of chromite and also for determining the boundary between different rock units. Results indicated both approaches show superior outputs compared to other methods and can produce a geological map for ophiolite complex rock units in the arid and the semi-arid region. The novel technique including feature level fusion and Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) discriminated ophiolitic rock units and produced detailed geological maps of the study area. As a case study, Sikhoran ophiolite complex located in SE, Iran has been selected for image processing techniques. In conclusion, a suitable approach for lithological mapping of ophiolite complexes is demonstrated, this technique contributes meaningfully towards economic geology in terms of identifying new prospects

  17. Spatial distributions of the leafminer Ophiomyia maura (Diptera: Agromyzidae) in host plant Aster ageratoides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshiko Ayabe; Ei'ichi Shibata

    2008-01-01

    The seasonal occurrence and among-plant and within-plant spatial distribution of the multivoltine leafminer Ophiomyia maura Meigen (Diptera: Agromyzidae) on the herbaceous plant Aster ageratoides Turcz. subsp, ovatus (Asteraceae) were investigated in the field. O. maura has at least four generations a year and mines per leaf fluctuate with a mean of 0.007 throughout the occurrence period. Seasonal occurrence is associated with abundance of new host leaves, suggesting O. maura females prefer to oviposit in newly emerged leaves. The among-plant distribution of O. maura is described by a Poisson distribution early in the season but tends to be weakly clumped later. The within-plant vertical distribution of larval mines increased from middle to upper leaves during plantdevelopment, because mined leaves in the middle position early in the season move downward with the emergence of new leaves, shifting mined leaves from the position where O. maura oviposits eggs. Later in the season, mined leaves remain where they are deposited because few new leaves emerge. The spatial distribution of O. rnaura, resource utilization patterns, and host plant characteristics are discussed.

  18. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Aster spathulifolius (Asteraceae); genomic features and relationship with Asteraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyoung Su; Park, SeonJoo

    2015-11-10

    Aster spathulifolius, a member of the Asteraceae family, is distributed along the coast of Japan and Korea. This plant is used for medicinal and ornamental purposes. The complete chloroplast (cp) genome of A. sphathulifolius consists of 149,473 bp that include a pair of inverted repeats of 24,751 bp separated by a large single copy region of 81,998 bp and a small single copy region of 17,973 bp. The chloroplast genome contains 78 coding genes, four rRNA genes and 29 tRNA genes. When compared to other cpDNA sequences of Asteraceae, A. spathulifolius showed the closest relationship with Jacobaea vulgaris, and its atpB gene was found to be a pseudogene, unlike J. vulgaris. Furthermore, evaluation of the gene compositions of J. vulgaris, Helianthus annuus, Guizotia abyssinica and A. spathulifolius revealed that 13.6-kb showed inversion from ndhF to rps15, unlike Lactuca of Asteraceae. Comparison of the synonymous (Ks) and nonsynonymous (Ka) substitution rates with J. vulgaris revealed that synonymous genes related to a small subunit of the ribosome showed the highest value (0.1558), while nonsynonymous rates of genes related to ATP synthase genes were highest (0.0118). These findings revealed that substitution has occurred at similar rates in most genes, and the substitution rates suggested that most genes is a purified selection. PMID:26164759

  19. Accuracy Improvement of ASTER Stereo Satellite Generated DEM Using Texture Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mandla V. Ravibabu; Kamal Jain; Surendra Pal Singh; Naga Jyothi Meeniga

    2010-01-01

    The grid DEM (digital elevation model) generation can be from any of a number of sources: for instance, analogue to digital conversion of contour maps followed by application of the TIN model, or direct elevation point modelling via digital photogrammetry applied to airborne images or satellite images. Currently, apart from the deployment of point-clouds from LiDAR data acquisition, the generally favoured approach refers to applications of digital photogrammetry. One of the most important steps in such deployment is the stereo matching process for conjugation point (pixel) establishment: very difficult in modelling any homogenous areas like water cover or forest canopied areas due to the lack of distinct spatial features. As a result, application of automated procedures is sure to generate erroneous elevation values. In this paper, we present and apply a method for improving the quality of stereo DEMs generated via utilization of an entropy texture filter. The filter was applied for extraction of homogenous areas before stereo matching so that a statistical texture filter could then be applied for removing anomalous evaluation values prior to interpolation and accuracy assessment via deployment of a spatial correlation technique. For exemplification, we used a stereo pair of ASTER 1B images.

  20. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead...

  1. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265...

  2. 7 CFR 28.442 - Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.442 Section 28.442... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Yellow Stained Cotton § 28.442 Middling Yellow Stained Color. Middling Yellow Stained Color is American Upland cotton which in color is deeper...

  3. 7 CFR 28.441 - Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.441 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Yellow Stained Cotton § 28.441 Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color is color which is deeper...

  4. Yellow River Delta Faces a Historic Opportunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's State Council has endorsed the Development Plan of an Efficient Eco-Economic Zone at Yellow River Delta. The plan is meant to create a more ecologically sustainable economic zone along the river delta.

  5. Yellow River Delta Faces a Historic Opportunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2011-01-01

    @@ China's State Council has endorsed the Development Plan of an Efficient Eco-Economic Zone at Yellow River Delta.The plan is meant to create a more ecologically sustainable economic zone along the river delta.

  6. 1999 Yellow River Aerial Photos, Central Wisconsin

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The 25-mile stretch of the Yellow River adjacent to the Necedah National Wildlife Refuge in Central Wisconsin provides valuable habitat to numerous species of...

  7. Extraction and purification of yellow cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation has reviewed current studies on production and purification of yellow cake from uranium ores by both acid and alkaline leaching processes. It comprises three chapters, the first one deal with uranium minerals, uranium deposits, geology of uranium and uranium isotopes. The second chapter covers mining and milling methods, uranium leaching chemistry, precipitation, and purification of uranium concentrate by solvent extraction and possible impurities that commonly interfered with yellow cake. The last chapter presented ongoing literature review.(Author)

  8. An Improved Method to Retrieve Surface Emissivity in a Canary Pine Forest Using Aster Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto-Velasco, Africa; Hernandez-Leal, Pedro A.; Arbelo, Manuel; Podesta, Guillermo P.

    2012-07-01

    The widely-used Temperature and Emissivity Separation (TES) algorithm has been shown to provide reliable temperature and emissivity estimates from land-leaving thermal data. Nevertheless, TES has some important limitations mainly related to its inability to correct important inaccuracies for gray bodies, such as vegetation. In this study, this problem is addressed through an improvement to the current NEM (Normalized Emissivity Method) module included in the TES algorithm. The proposed method, called Modified NEM (ModNEM), has been specifically designed to retrieve an accurate surface emissivity for bodies with a spectral behavior typical of gray-bodies, i. e., flat and near spectrally invariant. ModNEM selects two different approximations of surface temperature instead of the usual maximum temperature, with the aim of accounting for the peculiar spectral behavior of brightness temperature and emissivity for vegetation. The NEM and TES, as well as the ModNEM, have been used to recover surface emissivity in a pine forest located in Tenerife Island (Canary Islands, Spain) using data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). Results have been compared and validated using reference emissivity values obtained from the pines by means of the box method. This validation study showed that high uncertainties are associated with the standard techniques (up to 0.034), whereas ModNEM results in lower uncertainties in emissivity estimates (NEM module are not suitable for surfaces with a spectral behavior similar to a grey body. This work was supported by MICINN under Grant CGL2010-22189-C02.

  9. ALR - Laser altimeter for the ASTER deep space mission. Simulated operation above a surface with crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brum, A. G. V.; da Cruz, F. C.; Hetem, A., Jr.

    2015-10-01

    To assist in the investigation of the triple asteroid system 2001-SN263, the deep space mission ASTER will carry onboard a laser altimeter. The instrument was named ALR and its development is now in progress. In order to help in the instrument design, with a view to the creation of software to control the instrument, a package of computer programs was produced to simulate the operation of a pulsed laser altimeter with operating principle based on the measurement of the time of flight of the travelling pulse. This software Simulator was called ALR_Sim, and the results obtained with its use represent what should be expected as return signal when laser pulses are fired toward a target, reflect on it and return to be detected by the instrument. The program was successfully tested with regard to some of the most common situations expected. It constitutes now the main workbench dedicated to the creation and testing of control software to embark in the ALR. In addition, the Simulator constitutes also an important tool to assist the creation of software to be used on Earth, in the processing and analysis of the data received from the instrument. This work presents the results obtained in the special case which involves the modeling of a surface with crater, along with the simulation of the instrument operation above this type of terrain. This study points out that the comparison of the wave form obtained as return signal after reflection of the laser pulse on the surface of the crater with the expected return signal in the case of a flat and homogeneous surface is a useful method that can be applied for terrain details extraction.

  10. IMÁGENES ASTER EN LA DISCRIMINACIÓN DE ÁREAS DE USO AGRÍCOLA EN COLOMBIA ASTER IMAGES FOR DISCRIMINATION OF AGRICULTURAL USE AREAS IN COLOMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Nidia Esperanza Ortiz Lozano; Uriel Pérez Gómez

    2009-01-01

    El avance de las tecnologías de la información geográfica ha llevado a la puesta de nuevos sensores para observación de la tierra. ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Termal Emission and Reflection Radiometer), considerado como sensor de última generación, posee características especiales que lo colocan como una alternativa para estudios de la cobertura vegetal de la tierra. El presente trabajo se basó en sus características espaciales, espectrales y radiométricas con el fin de discriminar las áreas d...

  11. Clasificación de yeso mediante imágenes ASTER en la Cordillera Principal Mendocina Gypsum classification based on ASTER images in the Principal Cordillera of Mendoza

    OpenAIRE

    José F Mescua

    2010-01-01

    Se presenta una metodología para obtener el mapa de distribución de yeso con imágenes satelitales ASTER. Se utilizaron imágenes con nivel de procesamiento ASTERL3A correspondientes a dos áreas de la Cordillera Principal mendocina. La estratigrafía de las áreas de estudio se encuentra compuesta por una espesa sucesión sedimentaria mesozoica, volcanitas cenozoicas y depósitos cuaternarios. Dentro de los depósitos mesozoicos se encuentra la Formación Auquilco, integrada por yeso y anhidrita. El ...

  12. Avaliação de fluxos de calor e evapotranspiração pelo modelo SEBAL com uso de dados do sensor ASTER Evaluation of heat fluxes and evapotranspiration using SEBAL model with data from ASTER sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Veloso dos Santos

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência da aplicação do modelo SEBAL em estimar os fluxos de energia em superfície e a evapotranspiração diária, numa extensa área de cultivo de arroz irrigado, no município de Paraíso do Sul, RS, tendo como parâmetros dados do sensor ASTER. As variáveis estudadas constituem importantes parâmetros do tempo e do clima em estudos agrometeorológicos e de racionalização no uso da água. As metodologias convencionais de estimativa desses parâmetros são pontuais e geralmente apresentam incertezas, que aumentam quando o interesse é o comportamento espacial desses parâmetros. Aplicou-se o algoritmo "Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land" (SEBAL, em uma imagem do sensor "Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer" (ASTER. As estimativas obtidas foram comparadas com medições em campo, realizadas por uma estação micrometeorológica localizada no interior da área de estudo. As estimativas mais precisas foram as de fluxo de calor sensível e de evapotranspiração diária, e a estimativa que apresentou maior erro foi a do fluxo de calor no solo. A metodologia empregada foi capaz de reproduzir os fluxos de energia em superfície de maneira satisfatória para estudos agrometeorológicos e de rendimento de culturas.The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of SEBAL model in estimating soil surface energy fluxes and daily evapotranspiration for a large area of irrigated rice farms, near the municipality of Paraíso do Sul, RS, Brazil, using data from ASTER sensor. The evaluated variables are important weather and climatic parameters for agrometeorological studies and rationalization of water use. The conventional methodologies for estimating these parameters generally present uncertainties, which increase when concern is in the spatial behavior of such parameters. The Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL was applied in an Advanced Spaceborne

  13. Atividade antibacteriana e antifúngica de extratos etanólicos de Aster lanceolatus Willd., Asteraceae Antibacterial and antifungal activity of ethanolics extracts from Aster lanceolatus Willd., Asteraceae

    OpenAIRE

    Josiane F. Gaspari Dias; Suzane Virtuoso; Aline Davet; Miriam M. Cunico; Marilis D. Miguel; Obdúlio G. Miguel; Celso G. Auer; Albino Grigoletti-Júnior; Andressa B. Oliveira; Marlene L. Ferronato

    2006-01-01

    Conhecida popularmente como áster-arbustiva, margarida-de-são-miguel e monte-cassino, Aster lanceolatus é uma planta ornamental de corte. Sabendo-se que não existem estudos que atestem a atividade biológica desta espécie, procurou-se neste trabalho atividades antibacteriana e antifúngica. Para tanto se utilizaram extratos brutos etanólicos de duas porções distintas, das flores e dos caules com folhas. Para a atividade antibacteriana, oito bactérias patogênicas foram submetidas a ensaio de dif...

  14. Yellowing disease in zucchini squash produced by mixed infections of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus and Cucumber vein yellowing virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Salas, Francisco M; Peters, Jeff; Boonham, Neil; Cuadrado, Isabel M; Janssen, Dirk

    2011-11-01

    Zucchini squash is host to Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), a member of the genus Crinivirus, and Cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV), a member of the genus Ipomovirus, both transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. Field observations suggest the appearance of new symptoms observed on leaves of zucchini squash crops when both viruses were present. When infected during controlled experiments with CYSDV only, zucchini plants showed no obvious symptoms and the virus titer decreased between 15 and 45 days postinoculation (dpi), after which it was no longer detected. CVYV caused inconspicuous symptoms restricted to vein clearing on some of the apical leaves and the virus accumulated progressively between 15 and 60 dpi. Similar accumulations of virus followed single inoculations with the potyvirus Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) and plants showed severe stunting, leaf deformation, and mosaic yellowing. However, in mixed infections with CYSDV and CVYV, intermediate leaves showed chlorotic mottling which evolved later to rolling, brittleness, and complete yellowing of the leaf lamina, with exception of the veins. No consistent alteration of CVYV accumulation was detected but the amounts of CYSDV increased ≈100-fold and remained detectable at 60 dpi. Such synergistic effects on the titer of the crinivirus and symptom expression were not observed when co-infected with ZYMV.

  15. Yellow Nails, Lymphedema and Chronic Cough: Yellow Nail Syndrome in an Eight-Year-Old Girl

    OpenAIRE

    Ishita Siddiq; Daniel Hughes

    2012-01-01

    Yellow nail syndrome is a rare disease and reported mainly in adults. A case of yellow nail syndrome involving an eight-year-old girl with associated discoloured yellowish nails on the fingers and toes, lymphedema and chronic cough, and sputum production is reported.

  16. Yellow Nails, Lymphedema and Chronic Cough: Yellow Nail Syndrome in an Eight-Year-Old Girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishita Siddiq

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Yellow nail syndrome is a rare disease and reported mainly in adults. A case of yellow nail syndrome involving an eight-year-old girl with associated discoloured yellowish nails on the fingers and toes, lymphedema and chronic cough, and sputum production is reported.

  17. ASTER Observations of 2000-2007 Thermal Features at Pavlof Volcano and Mt. Hague (Emmons Lake Volcanic Center), Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, R. L.; Schneider, D.; Ramsey, M.; Mangan, M. T.

    2007-12-01

    Emmons Lake Volcanic Center (ELVC) is a 15 km by 30 km area of nested calderas, stratovolcanoes, lava domes, hyaloclastite rings, and cinder cones aligned along the arc axis. Pavlof Volcano is the most active volcano along the ELVC, with more than 40 historic eruptions since 1790. The most recent eruption of Pavlof Volcano began in August 2007 after almost 11 years of quiescence. Mount Hague is a prominent intracaldera vent with no known historical eruptions that lies approximately 7 kilometers to the southwest of Pavlof. The southern crater of Mount Hague commonly fluctuates between a crater-filling lake to a dry crater floor with vigorously steaming fumaroles. Mount Hague has another fumarole field on the southeast flank at nearly the same elevation as the crater floor. To better document the behavior of persistent thermal features at these remote volcanoes, we have compiled temperature and dimension data using a seven-year long time series of satellite data. Over 25 daytime and 40 nighttime clear thermal infrared (TIR) images (90 m resolution) from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) have recorded variations in the thermal activity at both volcanic vents since July 2000. All cloud-free ASTER TIR observations document persistent low- temperature features at both Pavlof Volcano and Mount Hague during this period. The size and temperature of each thermal feature varies throughout the study period. The data show that the 2518 m summit of Pavlof Volcano is occasionally snow-free in early summer whereas neighboring peaks at lower elevations are still snow-clad. FLIR data acquired near the summit of Pavlof in 2004 show that the majority of warm ground was at 20°C to 40°C. These warm areas commonly persist snow-free into the winter. Temperature variations observed at Mt Hague crater usually correlate to the size of the ephemeral crater lake. As the lake grows, the pixel-integrated ASTER TIR temperature increases. Measurements

  18. Clasificación de yeso mediante imágenes ASTER en la Cordillera Principal Mendocina

    OpenAIRE

    José F Mescua

    2010-01-01

    Se presenta una metodología para obtener el mapa de distribución de yeso con imágenes satelitales ASTER. Se utilizaron imágenes con nivel de procesamiento ASTERL3A correspondientes a dos áreas de la Cordillera Principal mendocina. La estratigrafía de las áreas de estudio se encuentra compuesta por una espesa sucesión sedimentaria mesozoica, volcanitas cenozoicas y depósitos cuaternarios. Dentro de los depósitos mesozoicos se encuentra la Formación Auquilco, integrada por yeso y anhidrita. El ...

  19. The Penetration Depth Derived from the Synthesis of ALOS/PALSAR InSAR Data and ASTER GDEM for the Mapping of Forest Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjian Ni

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Global Digital Elevation Model produced from stereo images of Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer data (ASTER GDEM covers land surfaces between latitudes of 83°N and 83°S. The Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR onboard Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS collected many SAR images since it was launched on 24 January 2006. The combination of ALOS/PALSAR interferometric data and ASTER GDEM should provide the penetration depth of SAR data assuming ASTER GDEM was the elevation of vegetation canopy top. It would be correlated with forest biomass because penetration depth could be affected by forest density and forest canopy height. Their combination held great promises for the forest biomass mapping over large area. The feasibility of forest biomass mapping through the data synthesis of ALOS/PALSAR InSAR data and ASTER GDEM was investigated in this study. A procedure for the extraction of penetration depth was firstly proposed. Then three models were built for biomass estimation: (I model only using backscattering coefficients of ALOS/PALSAR data; (II model only using penetration depth; (III model using both of them. The biomass estimated from Lidar data was taken as reference data to evaluate the three different models. The results showed that the combination of backscattering coefficients and penetration depth gave the best accuracy. The forest disturbance has to be considered in forest biomass estimation because of the long time span of ASTER data for generating ASTER GDEM. The spatial homogeneity could be used to improve estimation accuracy.

  20. 天睿子公司Aster Data的专利技术打开大数据商机大门

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    中国,北京—全球最大、专注于数据仓库,大数据分析和整合营销管理解决方案的厂商Teradata天睿公司(Teradata Corporation,美国纽约证券交易所交易代码:TDC)的子公司Aster Data日前宣布,其SQL—Map Reduce技术获得了美国第7966340号专利。Teradata天睿公司于今年四月收购了Aster Data公司。

  1. Clasificación de yeso mediante imágenes ASTER en la Cordillera Principal Mendocina Gypsum classification based on ASTER images in the Principal Cordillera of Mendoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F Mescua

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una metodología para obtener el mapa de distribución de yeso con imágenes satelitales ASTER. Se utilizaron imágenes con nivel de procesamiento ASTERL3A correspondientes a dos áreas de la Cordillera Principal mendocina. La estratigrafía de las áreas de estudio se encuentra compuesta por una espesa sucesión sedimentaria mesozoica, volcanitas cenozoicas y depósitos cuaternarios. Dentro de los depósitos mesozoicos se encuentra la Formación Auquilco, integrada por yeso y anhidrita. El reconocimiento y distribución areal de esta unidad es el objetivo de este trabajo. Se aplicaron dos métodos de procesamiento a las imágenes. Por un lado se utilizó el índice de cuarzo (Qi, uno de los índices de determinación de minerales definidos para el subsistema TIR de ASTER. Este índice puede usarse también para reconocer sulfatos, y en particular yeso, ya que estos minerales proporcionan una respuesta muy baja en el Qi. El segundo método consistió en la aplicación combinada de los cocientes de bandas 4/5 y 7/5. Este método permite identificar al yeso por su elevada respuesta en el cociente 4/5 y baja respuesta en el cociente 7/5. A fin de simplificar la metodología, se generó un nuevo cociente a partir de los dos mencionados: (4/5/(7/5, de manera de destacar el yeso con alta respuesta. A partir del relevamiento de campo se observó que en ambos métodos los errores por exceso fueron más importantes que los errores por defecto, y que los píxeles determinados como yeso erróneamente por cada método son diferentes. Este hecho permite la aplicación de la técnica de "Decision Tree" del programa ENVI 4.2 con el objetivo de eliminar estos errores. En cada una de las imágenes se determinaron los valores de umbral para los píxeles reconocidos como yeso. Luego se generó un "árbol de decisiones" combinando los umbrales de cada imagen, seleccionando en una nueva clase los píxeles determinados como yeso por ambos métodos y

  2. Yellow light dilemma zone researches: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaping Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The yellow light dilemma zone is widely known as an area on the high-speed intersection approach, where vehicles neither safely stop before the stop line nor proceed through the intersection during amber interval. Within such an area, a vehicle might be involved in a right-angle crash or rear-end collision. This issue has been extensively discussed over five decades in traffic engineering field, covering from theory to practice. However, few comprehensive review literatures on the amber signal dilemma zone problems can be found. The objective of this paper is to summarize the evolution of yellow light dilemma zone researches. Basic definition and boundary of dilemma zone followed by driver behavior and dilemma zone hazard measurement are depicted. At last, the future directions of yellow light dilemma zone research are discussed.

  3. Retrieval of a Temporal High-Resolution Leaf Area Index (LAI by Combining MODIS LAI and ASTER Reflectance Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghua Qu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to retrieve temporal high-resolution LAI derived by fusing MOD15 products (1 km resolution, field-measured LAI and ASTER reflectance (15-m resolution. Though the inversion of a physically based canopy reflectance model using high-resolution satellite data can produce high-resolution LAI products, the obstacle to producing temporal products is obvious due to the low temporal resolution of high resolution satellite data. A feasible method is to combine different source data, taking advantage of the spatial and temporal resolution of different sensors. In this paper, a high-resolution LAI retrieval method was implemented using a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN inversion framework. MODIS LAI data with higher temporal resolution were used to fit the temporal background information, which is then updated by new, higher resolution data, herein ASTER data. The interactions between the different resolution data were analyzed from a Bayesian perspective. The proposed method was evaluated using a dataset collected in the HiWater (Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research experiment. The determination coefficient and RMSE between the estimated and measured LAI are 0.80 and 0.43, respectively. The research results suggest that even though the coarse-resolution background information differs from the high-resolution satellite observations, a satisfactory estimation result for the temporal high-resolution LAI can be produced using the accumulated information from both the new observations and background information.

  4. Digital Mapping of Soil Drainage Classes Using Multitemporal RADARSAT-1 and ASTER Images and Soil Survey Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abou Niang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Discriminant analysis classification (DAC and decision tree classifiers (DTC were used for digital mapping of soil drainage in the Bras-d’Henri watershed (QC, Canada using earth observation data (RADARSAT-1 and ASTER and soil survey dataset. Firstly, a forward stepwise selection was applied to each land use type identified by ASTER image in order to derive an optimal subset of soil drainage class predictors. The classification models were then applied to these subsets for each land use and merged to obtain a digital soil drainage map for the whole watershed. The DTC method provided better classification accuracies (29 to 92% than the DAC method (33 to 79% according to the land use type. A similarity measure (S was used to compare the best digital soil drainage map (DTC to the conventional soil drainage map. Medium to high similarities (0.6≤S<0.9 were observed for 83% (187 km2 of the study area while 3% of the study area showed very good agreement (S≥0.9. Few soil polygons showed very weak similarities (S<0.3. This study demonstrates the efficiency of combining radar and optical remote sensing data with a representative soil dataset for producing digital maps of soil drainage.

  5. The microtubule aster formation and its role in nuclear envelope assembly around the sperm chromatin in Xenopus egg extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ning; CHEN Zhongcai; LU Ping; ZHANG Chuanmao; ZHAI Zhonghe; TANG Xiaowei

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear envelope is a dynamic structure in the cell cycle. At the beginning of mitosis, nuclear envelope breaks down and its components disperse into the cytoplasm. At the end of mitosis, nuclear envelope reassembles using the dispersed components. Searching for the mechanisms of the nuclear disassembly and reassembly has for a long time been one of the key projects for cell biologists. In this report we show that microtubules take a role in the nuclear envelope assembly around the sperm chromatin in Xenopus egg extracts. Microtubule cytoskeleton has been demonstrated to take roles in the transport of intracellular membranes such as Golgi and ER vesicles. We found that the nuclear envelope assembly needs functional microtubules. At the beginning of the nuclear assembly, microtubules nucleated to form a microtubule aster around the centrosome at the base of the sperm head. Using the microtubule drug colchicine to disrupt the microtubule nucleation, nuclear envelope reassembly was seriously inhibited. If the microtubules were stabilized by taxol, another microtubule drug, the nuclear envelope reassembly was also interfered, although a significantly large aster formed around the chromatin. Based on these observations, we propose that microtubules play an important role in the nuclear envelope reassembly maybe by transporting the nuclear envelope precursors to the chromatin surfaces.

  6. Yellow fever vaccination in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Outbreaks of yellow fever in recent years in the Americas have prompted concern about the possible urbanization of jungle fever. Vaccination, using the 17D strain of yellow fever virus, provides an effective, practical method of large scale protection against the disease. Because yellow fever can reappear in certain areas after a 2-year dormancy period, some countries maintain routine vaccination programs in areas where jungle yellow fever is endemic. The size of the endemic area (approximately half of South America), transportation and communication difficulties, and the inability to ensure a reliable cold chain are problems facing these programs. In addition, the problem of reaching dispersed and isolated populations has been addressed by the use of mobile teams, radio monitoring, and educational methods. During yellow fever outbreaks, many countries institute massive vaccination campaigns, targeted at temporary workers and migrants. Because epidemics in South America may involve extensive areas, these campaigns may not effectively address the problem. The ped-o-jet injector method, used in Brazil and Colombia, should be used in outbreak situations, as it is effective for large-scale vaccination. Vaccine by needle, suggested for maintenance programs, should be administered to those above 1 year of age. An efficient monitoring method to avoid revaccination, and to assess immunity, should be developed. The 17D strain produces seroconversion in 95% of recipients, and most is prepared in Brazil and Colombia. But, problems with storage methods, instability in seed lots, and difficulties in large-scale production were identified in 1981 by the Pan American Health Organization and WHO. The group recommended modernization of current production techniques and further research to develop a vaccine that could be produced in cell cultures. Brazil and Colombia have acted on these recommendations, modernizing vaccine production and researching thermostabilizing media for

  7. Yellow Nail Syndrome - a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paravina Mirjana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Yellow nail syndrome is a rare disease of unknown etiology. It is clinically characterized by a triad of yellow nails, lymphedema at one or more sites, and chronic respiratory disease (bronchitis, bronchiectasis and rhinosinusitis. All nails may be affected, but some may be spared. The nail plates are yellowish green, thickened, occasionally with transverse ridging and onycholysis, with increased longitudinal and transversal over-curvature, with partial or complete separation of the nail plate from the nail bed, without lunula and cuticle and slow nail growth rate. The lymphedema is usually peripheral, affecting the lower limbs, or in the form of pleural effusion.

  8. Vertical Accuracy Assessment of 30-M Resolution Alos, Aster, and Srtm Global Dems Over Northeastern Mindanao, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillan, J. R.; Makinano-Santillan, M.

    2016-06-01

    The ALOS World 3D - 30 m (AW3D30), ASTER Global DEM Version 2 (GDEM2), and SRTM-30 m are Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) that have been made available to the general public free of charge. An important feature of these DEMs is their unprecedented horizontal resolution of 30-m and almost global coverage. The very recent release of these DEMs, particularly AW3D30 and SRTM- 30 m, calls for opportunities for the conduct of localized assessment of the DEM's quality and accuracy to verify their suitability for a wide range of applications in hydrology, geomorphology, archaelogy, and many others. In this study, we conducted a vertical accuracy assessment of these DEMs by comparing the elevation of 274 control points scattered over various sites in northeastern Mindanao, Philippines. The elevations of these control points (referred to the Mean Sea Level, MSL) were obtained through 3rd order differential levelling using a high precision digital level, and their horizontal positions measured using a global positioning system (GPS) receiver. These control points are representative of five (5) land-cover classes namely brushland (45 points), built-up (32), cultivated areas (97), dense vegetation (74), and grassland (26). Results showed that AW3D30 has the lowest Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 5.68 m, followed by SRTM-30 m (RMSE = 8.28 m), and ASTER GDEM2 (RMSE = 11.98 m). While all the three DEMs overestimated the true ground elevations, the mean and standard deviations of the differences in elevations were found to be lower in AW3D30 compared to SRTM-30 m and ASTER GDEM2. The superiority of AW3D30 over the other two DEMS was also found to be consistent even under different landcover types, with AW3D30's RMSEs ranging from 4.29 m (built-up) to 6.75 m (dense vegetation). For SRTM-30 m, the RMSE ranges from 5.91 m (built-up) to 10.42 m (brushland); for ASTER GDEM2, the RMSE ranges from 9.27 m (brushland) to 14.88 m (dense vegetation). The

  9. Hornets yellow cuticle microstructure : A photovoltaic system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishay, JS; Goldstein, O; Rosenzweig, E; Kalicharan, D; Jongebloed, WL

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes cuticular structures on the abdomen of the Oriental hornet (Vespa orientalis, Vespinae, Hymenoptera) in the region of the yellow stripes. A cross section in this region reveals the cuticle to resemble a notebook with more than 30 pages, the topmost pages (analogous to layers) be

  10. Enzootic Transmission of Yellow Fever Virus, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Auguste, Albert J; Lemey, Philippe; Bergren, Nicholas A.; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Moncada, Maria; Morón, Dulce; Hernandez, Rosa; Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Weaver, Scott C.

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of yellow fever virus (YFV) strains isolated from Venezuela strongly supports YFV maintenance in situ in Venezuela, with evidence of regionally independent evolution within the country. However, there is considerable YFV movement from Brazil to Venezuela and between Trinidad and Venezuela.

  11. Collecting Water From the Yellow River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshe rang mtsho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Collecting water from the Rma chu (Yellow River near oM skor Village, Mang ra (Guìnán 贵南 County, Mtsho lho (Hǎinán 海南 Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Mtsho sgnon (Qīnghǎi 青海 Province is shown in eleven photographs.

  12. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER): Data Products for the High Spatial Resolution Imager on NASA's EOS-AMI Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is a high spatial resolution, multispectral imager with along-track stereo capabilities scheduled for launch on the first NASA spacecraft of the Earth Observing System (EOS AM-1) in mid-1999.

  13. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that...

  14. Unusual manifestation of the yellow nail syndrome - Case report *

    OpenAIRE

    Papaiordanou, Francine; Epstein, Marina Gabrielle; Miyaoka, Mariana Yumi; Yang, Jeane Jeong Hoon; Pires, Mario Cezar

    2014-01-01

    The yellow nail syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by the classic triad of yellow and dystrophic nails, lymphedema and pleural effusion. We report in this paper a case of yellow nail syndrome, presenting the classic triad of the disease, associated with an unusual lymph accumulation in the abdomen region.

  15. Comparisons of amplitude of pseudoaccommodation with aspheric yellow, spheric yellow, and spheric clear monofocal intraocular lenses

    OpenAIRE

    Nishi T.; Taketani F; Ueda T; Ogata N.

    2013-01-01

    Tomo Nishi, Futoshi Taketani, Tetsuo Ueda, Nahoko Ogata Department of Ophthalmology, Nara Medical University, Kashihara City, Nara, Japan Purpose: To determine the amplitude of pseudoaccommodation and higher-order aberrations with three types of implanted monofocal intraocular lenses (IOLs): aspheric yellow (IQ); spheric yellow (NT); and spheric clear (AT). Setting: Department of Ophthalmology, Nara Medical University, Nara, Japan. Methods: We studied 60 patients who underwent small incision...

  16. Use of ASTER and MODIS thermal infrared data to quantify heat flow and hydrothermal change at Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, R. Greg; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Jaworowski, Cheryl; Heasler, Henry

    2012-01-01

    The overarching aim of this study was to use satellite thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing to monitor geothermal activity within the Yellowstone geothermal area to meet the missions of both the U.S. Geological Survey and the Yellowstone National Park Geology Program. Specific goals were to: 1) address the challenges of monitoring the surface thermal characteristics of the > 10,000 spatially and temporally dynamic thermal features in the Park (including hot springs, pools, geysers, fumaroles, and mud pots) that are spread out over ~ 5000 km2, by using satellite TIR remote sensing tools (e.g., ASTER and MODIS), 2) to estimate the radiant geothermal heat flux (GHF) for Yellowstone's thermal areas, and 3) to identify normal, background thermal changes so that significant, abnormal changes can be recognized, should they ever occur (e.g., changes related to tectonic, hydrothermal, impending volcanic processes, or human activities, such as nearby geothermal development). ASTER TIR data (90-m pixels) were used to estimate the radiant GHF from all of Yellowstone's thermal features and update maps of thermal areas. MODIS TIR data (1-km pixels) were used to record background thermal radiance variations from March 2000 through December 2010 and establish thermal change detection limits. A lower limit for the radiant GHF estimated from ASTER TIR temperature data was established at ~ 2.0 GW, which is ~ 30–45% of the heat flux estimated through geochemical thermometry. Also, about 5 km2 of thermal areas was added to the geodatabase of mapped thermal areas. A decade-long time-series of MODIS TIR radiance data was dominated by seasonal cycles. A background subtraction technique was used in an attempt to isolate variations due to geothermal changes. Several statistically significant perturbations were noted in the time-series from Norris Geyser Basin, however many of these did not correspond to documented thermal disturbances. This study provides concrete examples of the

  17. Crescimento e absorção de nutrientes pelo Aster ericoides cultivado em solo sob estufa Growth and nutrients absorption by Aster ericoides cultivated in soil at greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica S. de Camargo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O Aster ericoides é flor de corte recente no Brasil com grande potencial de produção e aceitação pelo mercado consumidor, mas são escassas as informações sobre sua nutrição e adubação. O objetivo foi avaliar o crescimento, produção de matéria seca e a absorção de nutrientes pelo Aster ericodes (cv. White Master cultivado em estufa comercial. Plântulas dessa espécie foram transplantadas para canteiros após 30 dias da semeadura, em outubro de 1999. As avaliações do material vegetal foram feitas aos 15; 30; 45; 60; 75; 90 e 96 dias após o transplantio. O crescimento inicial foi lento, mas aos 60 dias as plantas já haviam atingido 69% do crescimento em altura e, respectivamente, 27 e 50% do peso final da matéria seca da parte aérea e das raízes. O aparecimento dos botões florais ocorreu no período de 75 a 90 dias. No final do ciclo, as plantas atingiram 137 cm e 24,21 g de matéria seca. A absorção de macronutrientes (kg ha-1 pela parte aérea aos 96 dias foi de: 316,32 de K > 230,52 de N > 35,30 de P > 18,54 de S > 16,14 de Mg > 8,58 de Ca e de micronutrientes (g ha-1 3464,89 de Mn > 1603,23 de Fe > 1104,12 de Zn > 308,40 de B > 61,02 de Cu.Aster ericoides is a cut flower crop with great market and production potential that was only recently introduced into Brazil. Thus, little information is available regarding fertilization and nutrition under tropical conditions. The growth, dry matter production and nutrient absorption of Aster ericoides (cv. White Master cultivated in an UDOX soil under greenhouse conditions was evaluated. Seedlings were transplanted 30 days after sowing date, in October 99. Plant samples were taken at 15; 30; 45; 60; 75; 90 and 96 days after transplanting. Plant growth and dry matter production were slow in the beginning but at 60 days (before flowering 69% of the height, 27% of the top and 50% of the roots dry matter was reached. Plants reached 137 cm in height and 24.21 g of dry weight at the

  18. A posteriori error analysis for hydro-mechanical couplings and implementation in Code-Aster; Analyse d'erreur a posteriori pour les couplages hydro-mecaniques et mise en oeuvre dans Code-Aster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meunier, S

    2007-11-15

    We analyse approximations by finite elements in space and finite differences in time of coupled Hydro-Mechanical (HM) problems related to the quasi-static linear poro-elasticity theory. The physical bases of this theory are briefly restated and an abstract setting is proposed to perform the mathematical study of the stationary and un-stationary versions of the HM problem. For the stationary version, the well-posedness of the continuous and discrete problems are established and the a priori error analysis is performed. Then, we propose the a posteriori error analysis by using two different techniques suited to estimate the displacement error and the pressure error, respectively, both in the H{sub x}{sup 1}-norm. The classical properties of reliability and optimality are proved for the associated error estimators. Some numerical experiments using Code-Aster illustrate the theoretical results. For the un-stationary version, we first establish a stability result for the continuous problem. Then, we present an optimal a priori error analysis using elliptic projection techniques. Finally, the a posteriori error analysis is performed by using two different approaches: a direct approach and an elliptic reconstruction approach. The first is suited to estimate the pressure error in the L{sub t}{sup 2}(H{sub x}{sup 1})-norm and the second is suited to estimate the displacement error in the L{sub t}{sup {infinity}}(H{sub x}{sup 1})-norm and the pressure error in the L{sub t}{sup {infinity}}(H{sub x}{sup 1})-norm. Numerical experiments using Code-Aster complete the theoretical results. (author)

  19. Spectro-radiometers ASTER and MODIS - character of data, their accessibility and exploitability in area of environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this presentation some basic information about spectro-radiometers ASTER and MODIS are presented. Relative wide opportunities of exploitation of these products in area of environment, their high spectral and in case of MODIS time resolution are discussed. These parameters create starting-point for building-up of regional monitoring systems of different biophysical characteristics of terrestrial ecosystems and monitoring of time and spatial variability. Next effort in this area should be aimed on development and optimisation of regional models based on monitoring of time and spatial changes of vegetable and foliar indexes (NDVI, EVI, LAI), photosynthetically active part of radiation absorbed by vegetation (FPAR) and likewise, as well as detail analyses of these data in context of global climatic changes. Perspectives of remote sensing earth in the Slovak republic are discussed

  20. Mapping temperature and radiant geothermal heat flux anomalies in the Yellowstone geothermal system using ASTER thermal infrared data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, R. Greg; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; Jaworowski, Cheryl; Heasler, Henry

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to use satellite-based thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing data to measure, map, and monitor geothermal activity within the Yellowstone geothermal area to help meet the missions of both the U.S. Geological Survey Yellowstone Volcano Observatory and the Yellowstone National Park Geology Program. Specifically, the goals were to: 1) address the challenges of remotely characterizing the spatially and temporally dynamic thermal features in Yellowstone by using nighttime TIR data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and 2) estimate the temperature, geothermal radiant emittance, and radiant geothermal heat flux (GHF) for Yellowstone’s thermal areas (both Park wide and for individual thermal areas). ASTER TIR data (90-m pixels) acquired at night during January and February, 2010, were used to estimate surface temperature, radiant emittance, and radiant GHF from all of Yellowstone’s thermal features, produce thermal anomaly maps, and update field-based maps of thermal areas. A background subtraction technique was used to isolate the geothermal component of TIR radiance from thermal radiance due to insolation. A lower limit for the Yellowstone’s total radiant GHF was established at ~2.0 GW, which is ~30-45% of the heat flux estimated through geochemical (Cl-flux) methods. Additionally, about 5 km2 was added to the geodatabase of mapped thermal areas. This work provides a framework for future satellite-based thermal monitoring at Yellowstone as well as exploration of other volcanic / geothermal systems on a global scale.

  1. High-efficiency 20 W yellow VECSEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantola, Emmi; Leinonen, Tomi; Ranta, Sanna; Tavast, Miki; Guina, Mircea

    2014-03-24

    A high-efficiency optically pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser emitting 20 W at a wavelength around 588 nm is demonstrated. The semiconductor gain chip emitted at a fundamental wavelength around 1170-1180 nm and the laser employed a V-shaped cavity. The yellow spectral range was achieved by intra-cavity frequency doubling using a LBO crystal. The laser could be tuned over a bandwidth of ~26 nm while exhibiting watt-level output powers. The maximum conversion efficiency from absorbed pump power to yellow output was 28% for continuous wave operation. The VECSEL's output could be modulated to generate optical pulses with duration down to 570 ns by directly modulating the pump laser. The high-power pulse operation is a key feature for astrophysics and medical applications while at the same time enables higher slope efficiency than continuous wave operation owing to decreased heating. PMID:24663985

  2. Assessing the freshwater distribution of yellow eel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasne É.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In the global context of the decline in wild species, modeling the distribution of populations is a crucial aspect of ecological management. This can be a major challenge, especially for species, such as the European eel, that have complex life cycles, exhibit cryptic behavior, or migrate over long distances. A review of the literature suggests that eel size data could be used to assess and analyze freshwater distribution of eel. We argue that analyses based on small yellow eels (≤ 300 mm along the longitudinal course of rivers could provide a valuable tool for population monitoring. We propose a standardized catchment recruitment index and a colonization index based on the probability of occurrence (presence/absence data using logistic models for different size classes. The model developed here provides a convenient guide for assessing yellow eel stages in freshwater areas, and should have concrete applications for management of the species.

  3. Yellow light dilemma zone researches: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Yaping Zhang; Chuanyun Fu; Liwei Hu

    2014-01-01

    The yellow light dilemma zone is widely known as an area on the high-speed intersection approach, where vehicles neither safely stop before the stop line nor proceed through the intersection during amber interval. Within such an area, a vehicle might be involved in a right-angle crash or rear-end collision. This issue has been extensively discussed over five decades in traffic engineering field, covering from theory to practice. However, few comprehensive review literatures on the amber signa...

  4. Coconut lethal yellowing phytoplasma disease in Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Bila, João

    2016-01-01

    The coconut palm (Cocos nucifera) is a major cash crop that is widely grown in coastal tropical regions of the world, including Mozambique. Outbreaks of coconut lethal yellowing disease (CLYD) are threatening the industry and the livelihood of a large part of the Mozambican population. The aim of this thesis was to study different epidemiological aspects of CLYD in Mozambique. Phylogenetic analyses of the 16S and secA genes were performed on plant and insect samples collected from different a...

  5. Multifractal analysis of the Yellow River flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zang Bao-Jiang; Shang Peng-Jian

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with time series of the Yellow River daily flows at Tongguan hydrological station,from the year 2000 to 2005.Power spectrum analysis and statistical moment scaling function on a range of scales revealed scaling qualities of the data.The partition function,which displayed a convex curvature,and the generalized dimension function showed that multifractality is presented.The singularity spectrum,which is single-humped,has shown strong multifractality degree.

  6. [Yellow fever: study of an outbreak].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Mirtes; Antunes, Carlos Maurício de Figueiredo

    2009-01-01

    This study had the aim of describing an outbreak of yellow fever that occurred in the municipalities under the jurisdiction of the Regional Healthcare Administration of Diamantina, Minas Gerais, between 2002 and 2003, in which 36 cases were notified. This was an autochthonous outbreak of wild-type yellow fever. Failure of vaccinal coverage and low levels of detection of mild cases were found. Among the cases, 33 (91.7%) were male and the age range was from 16 to 67 years. Nineteen (52.8%) of the cases were classified as severe and 12 men (33.3%) died of the disease. All of the cases came from rural areas and presented fever, headache, vomiting, jaundice, myalgia, oliguria and signs of hemorrhage. Surveillance through laboratory tests was the determining factor in diagnosing the outbreak. By describing the epidemiological and clinic findings, this study contributes towards diagnosing and classifying this disease. It was deduced that there is a relationship between deforestation, and outbreaks, and that there is a potential regional risk of yellow fever because of the local development of tourism. PMID:19967234

  7. Mapping hydrothermally altered rocks at Cuprite, Nevada, using the advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (Aster), a new satellite-imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, L.C.; Hook, S.J.; Abrams, M.J.; Mars, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is a 14-band multispectral instrument on board the Earth Observing System (EOS), TERRA. The three bands between 0.52 and 0.86 ??m and the six bands from 1.60 and 2.43 ??m, which have 15- and 30-m spatial resolution, respectively, were selected primarily for making remote mineralogical determinations. The Cuprite, Nevada, mining district comprises two hydrothermal alteration centers where Tertiary volcanic rocks have been hydrothermally altered mainly to bleached silicified rocks and opalized rocks, with a marginal zone of limonitic argilized rocks. Country rocks are mainly Cambrian phyllitic siltstone and limestone. Evaluation of an ASTER image of the Cuprite district shows that spectral reflectance differences in the nine bands in the 0.52 to 2.43 ??m region provide a basis for identifying and mapping mineralogical components which characterize the main hydrothermal alteration zones: opal is the spectrally dominant mineral in the silicified zone; whereas, alunite and kaolinite are dominant in the opalized zone. In addition, the distribution of unaltered country rocks was mapped because of the presence of spectrally dominant muscovite in the siltstone and calcite in limestone, and the tuffaceous rocks and playa deposits were distinguishable due to their relatively flat spectra and weak absorption features at 2.33 and 2.20 ??m, respectively. An Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) image of the study area was processed using a similar methodology used with the ASTER data. Comparison of the ASTER and AVIRIS results shows that the results are generally similar, but the higher spectral resolution of AVIRIS (224 bands) permits identification of more individual minerals, including certain polymorphs. However, ASTER has recorded images of more than 90 percent of the Earth's land surface with less than 20 percent cloud cover, and these data are available at nominal or no cost

  8. Cytotoxicity of yellow sand in lung epithelial cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Y H Kim; K S Kim; N J Kwak; K H Lee; S A Kweon; Y Lim

    2003-02-01

    The present study was carried out to observe the cytotoxicity of yellow sand in comparison with silica and titanium dioxide in a rat alveolar type II cell line (RLE-6TN). Yellow sand (China Loess) was obtained from the loess layer in the Gunsu Province of China. The mean particle diameter of yellow sand was about 0.003 ± 0.001 mm. Major elements of yellow sand were Si(27.7 ± 0.6%), Al(6.01 ± 0.17%), and Ca(5.83 ± 0.23%) in that order. Silica and yellow sand significantly decreased cell viability and increased [Ca2+]i. All three particles increased the generation of H2O2. TiO2 did not change Fenton activity, while silica induced a slight increase of Fenton activity. In contrast, yellow sand induced a significant increase of Fenton activity. Silica, yellow sand and TiO2 induced significant nitrite formations in RLE-6TN cells. Silica showed the highest increase in nitrite formation, while yellow sand induced the least formation of nitrite. Silica and yellow sand increased the release of TNF-. Based on these results, we suggest that yellow sand can induce cytotoxicity in RLE-6TN cells and reactive oxygen species, Fenton activity and reactive nitrogen species might be involved in this toxicity.

  9. IMÁGENES ASTER EN LA DISCRIMINACIÓN DE ÁREAS DE USO AGRÍCOLA EN COLOMBIA ASTER IMAGES FOR DISCRIMINATION OF AGRICULTURAL USE AREAS IN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidia Esperanza Ortiz Lozano

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El avance de las tecnologías de la información geográfica ha llevado a la puesta de nuevos sensores para observación de la tierra. ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Termal Emission and Reflection Radiometer, considerado como sensor de última generación, posee características especiales que lo colocan como una alternativa para estudios de la cobertura vegetal de la tierra. El presente trabajo se basó en sus características espaciales, espectrales y radiométricas con el fin de discriminar las áreas de cultivo agrícola en el distrito de riego Usocoello, en Colombia. Se utilizó una imagen ASTER de nivel 1B de 2006, corregida geométricamente, remuestreada y sus valores de radiancia fueron transformados a valores de reflectancia, permitiendo realizar dos composiciones: imágenes originales (VNIR-SWIR e imagen fusionada en transformación IHS. Se estableció una leyenda temática a partir del esquema de clasificación "CORINE Land Cover - Colombia", definiendo 10 categorías de cobertura representativas en la imagen. Para la fase de asignación se utilizó el clasificador de máxima probabilidad. En el proceso de verificación y cuantificación del nivel de exactitud se utilizó, como verdad terreno, la base de datos geográfica del área a nivel de predio de la misma fecha de la toma de la imagen, encontrándose una fiabilidad global estimada del 75% para la imagen VNIR-SWIR; si se tiene en cuenta la variabilidad de los estados fenológicos de los cultivos (arroz, maíz y sorgo en el área y un contraste espacial significativo en la imagen fusionada, el índice de Kappa obtenido fue de 0,75 con un grado de acuerdo sustancial.The advance of geographical information technology has led to the placement of new sensors for earth observation. ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer is considered as a latest generation sensor. It has special characteristics that places it as an alternative for studies of vegetation cover

  10. Atividade antibacteriana e antifúngica de extratos etanólicos de Aster lanceolatus Willd., Asteraceae Antibacterial and antifungal activity of ethanolics extracts from Aster lanceolatus Willd., Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane F. Gaspari Dias

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Conhecida popularmente como áster-arbustiva, margarida-de-são-miguel e monte-cassino, Aster lanceolatus é uma planta ornamental de corte. Sabendo-se que não existem estudos que atestem a atividade biológica desta espécie, procurou-se neste trabalho atividades antibacteriana e antifúngica. Para tanto se utilizaram extratos brutos etanólicos de duas porções distintas, das flores e dos caules com folhas. Para a atividade antibacteriana, oito bactérias patogênicas foram submetidas a ensaio de difusão em gel e concentração inibitória mínima. Demonstrou-se atividade do extrato bruto etanólico de flores contra Streptococcus pyogenes, em difusão em gel e atividade de extrato bruto etanólico de caules e folhas contra Salmonella typhimurium e Streptococcus pyogenes em concentração inibitória mínima. Para a atividade antifúngica, utilizaram-se três fungos patogênicos em ensaios de crescimento micelial em placas e bioautografia direta. No ensaio de crescimento micelial em placas verificou-se a inibição de Fusarium oxysporum e na bioautografia direta, inibição do Cylindrocladium spathulatum. Os resultados delinearam uma nova fonte de pesquisa, as plantas ornamentais. Estas podem ser fonte de constituintes químicos capazes de servirem como protótipos para novos agentes terapêuticos e para tratamento sanitário de plantas medicinais.Popularly known as aster-arbustiva, margarida-de-são-miguel and monte-cassino, Aster lanceolatus is an ornamental plant. Having the knowledge that there is no studies on the biological activity of this species, this work aimed to check the antibacterial and antifungal activities. The ethanol extracts of the flowers and of the stems with leaves were used. For the antibacterial activity eight pathogenic bacteria were submitted to the diffusion test in gel and minimal inhibitory concentration. The activity of the ethanolic extract of the flowers has been demonstrated against Streptococcus pyogenes in

  11. 紫菀的化学成分及其药理活性研究进展%Advances on chemical components and pharmacological actions of Aster tataricus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房慧勇; 单高威; 秦桂芳; 甄林娜; 李旻辉; 郝丽静

    2012-01-01

      紫菀具有良好的润肺、祛痰、止咳效果,通过查阅国内外相关文献,综述了其化学成分和化痰镇咳、抗肿瘤等方面的药理作用,为紫菀的综合开发利用提供参考。%  Aster tataricus L. f. has a good effect upon moistening lung, eliminating phlegm, and suppressing cough. The literature reviews its chemical compositions and pharmacological action of eliminating phlegm, anti-tumor and etc.. The literature could provide reference for development and utilization of Aster tataricus.

  12. Applying Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) spectral indices for geological mapping and mineral identification on the Tibetan Plateau

    CERN Document Server

    Corrie, Robert; Aitchison, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau holds clues to understanding the dynamics and mechanisms associated with continental growth. Part of the region is characterized by zones of ophiolitic melange believed to represent the remnants of ancient oceanic crust and underlying upper mantle emplaced during oceanic closures. However, due to the remoteness of the region and the inhospitable terrain many areas have not received detailed investigation. Increased spatial and spectral resolution of satellite sensors have made it possible to map in greater detail the mineralogy and lithology than in the past. Recent work by Yoshiki Ninomiya of the Geological Survey of Japan has pioneered the use of several spectral indices for the mapping of quartzose, carbonate, and silicate rocks using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) thermal infrared (TIR) data. In this study, ASTER TIR indices have been applied to a region in western-central Tibet for the purposes of assessing their effectiveness for differentiatin...

  13. The research on new production technique of yellow cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a new production technique of yellow cake, resorption with loaded resin-elution with acid ammonium nitrate-precipitation in two steps is studied. The results show that the produced yellow cake by the new production technique has better performance of settlement, filtration and dehydration. Each index of yellow cake accords with the first grade level issued by CNNC without washing, uranium and water content are 70% and 25%, respectively

  14. Yellow fever in China is still an imported disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Lu, Hongzhou

    2016-05-23

    Yellow fever is a vector-borne disease endemic to tropical regions of Africa and South America. A recent outbreak in Angola caused hundreds of deaths. Six cases of yellow fever imported from Angola were reported recently in China. This raised the question of whether it will spread in China and how it can be prevented. This article discusses the possibility of yellow fever transmission in China and the strategies to counter it.

  15. Spectroscopy of olivine basalts using FieldSpec and ASTER data: A case study from Wadi Natash volcanic field, south Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Ahmed

    2015-10-01

    This paper aims at revealing the spectral characteristics of the olivine basalts exposed at Wadi Natash area, Egypt, using FieldSpec spectroradiometer. It also evaluates band ratios and fusion techniques for mapping purposes using ASTER data. Several volcanic episodes occurred during Early- to Late-Cretaceous are recorded in the study area. Early-Cretaceous olivine basalts are highly carbonated. Late-Cretaceous eruptions took place throughout several volcanic cones aligned in NW direction. Based on FieldSpec measurements and petrographic data, two groups of olivine basalt namely `A' and `B' are recognized. Fresh olivine basalt (group A) is characterized by low flat spectral profile with overall low reflectance values (˜20%). Spectral profile of altered olivine basalt (group B) shows moderate reflectance values (˜37%) with four little absorption features around the 1.10, 1.40, 2.00 and 2.35 μm wavelength regions. These absorption features are attributed mainly to the presence of chlorite and carbonate alteration products as indicated by petrographic examination. ASTER false colour composite band ratio image (3/2:R, 8/1:G and 8/5:B) discriminates easily the fresh and altered basalts by deep blue and reddish blue colours respectively. Image fusion between previously mentioned FCC ratios image and high spatial resolution ASTER panchromatic image are carried out using brovey and HSV transformation methods. Visual and statistical assessment methods proved that HSV fusion image yields better image interpretability results compared to brovey image. It improves the spatial resolution of original FCC ratios image with acceptable spectral preservation. The present study proved the usefulness of FieldSpec spectral profiles and the processed ASTER data for discriminating different olivine basalt groups exposed at the study area.

  16. Preliminary development plan of the ALR, the laser rangefinder for the ASTER deep space mission to the 2001 SN263 asteroid

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Gil Vicente de Brum; Annibal Hetem Jr.; Israel da Silveira Rêgo; Cayo Prado Fernandes Francisco; Andre Fenili; Fernando Madeira; Flavio Caldas da Cruz; Marcelo Assafin

    2011-01-01

    The Brazilian deep space mission ASTER, as temporarily named, plans to send a small spacecraft to encounter and investigate the triple asteroid 2001-SN263. The launch is scheduled (initially) to occur in 2015, arriving in 2018. The main motivation of the mission is the development of technology and expertise to leverage the national space sector. Within the scientific goals, the investigation of the still unknown asteroid 2001-SN263. The main project guideline is to aggregate the widest possi...

  17. Yellow nail syndrome: does protein leakage play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, A; Muzi, G; Monaco, A; Filiberto, S; Barboni, A; Abbritti, G

    2001-01-01

    Yellow nail syndrome is characterized by primary lymphoedema, recurrent pleural effusion and yellow discoloration of the nails. Although mechanical lymphatic obstruction is assumed to be the underlying pathology, it cannot explain the common finding of high albumin concentration in the pleural space. This paper describes a case of yellow nail syndrome presenting with the classical triad of lymphoedema, recurrent pleural effusion and yellow discoloration of the nails, associated with persistent hypoalbuminaemia and increased enteric loss of albumin. Based on the findings in this case and those in the literature, it is speculated that increased microvascular permeability may contribute to the pathogenesis of this syndrome.

  18. Yellow nail syndrome following thoracic surgery: A new association?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banta D

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An 80-year-old man presented with the characteristic triad of yellow nail syndrome (chronic respiratory disorders, primary lymphedema and yellow nails in association with coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Treatment with mechanical pleurodesis and vitamin E resulted in near complete resolution of the yellow nails, pleural effusions, and lower extremity edema. The etiology of the yellow nail syndrome has been described as an anatomical or functional lymphatic abnormality. Several conditions have previously been described as associated with this disease. This is the first report of the association of this syndrome with thoracic surgery.

  19. A new 100-m Digital Elevation Model of the Antarctic Peninsula derived from ASTER Global DEM: methods and accuracy assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Cook

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A high resolution surface topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM is required to underpin studies of the complex glacier system on the Antarctic Peninsula. A complete DEM with better than 200 m pixel size and high positional and vertical accuracy would enable mapping of all significant glacial basins and provide a dataset for glacier morphology analyses. No currently available DEM meets these specifications. We present a new 100-m DEM of the Antarctic Peninsula (63–70° S, based on ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM data. The raw GDEM products are of high-quality on the rugged terrain and coastal-regions of the Antarctic Peninsula and have good geospatial accuracy, but they also contain large errors on ice-covered terrain and we seek to minimise these artefacts. Conventional data correction techniques do not work so we have developed a method that significantly improves the dataset, smoothing the erroneous regions and hence creating a DEM with a pixel size of 100 m that will be suitable for many glaciological applications. We evaluate the new DEM using ICESat-derived elevations, and perform horizontal and vertical accuracy assessments based on GPS positions, SPOT-5 DEMs and the Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA imagery. The new DEM has a mean elevation difference of −4 m (± 25 m RMSE from ICESat (compared to −13 m mean and ±97 m RMSE for the original ASTER GDEM, and a horizontal error of less than 2 pixels, although elevation accuracies are lower on mountain peaks and steep-sided slopes. The correction method significantly reduces errors on low relief slopes and therefore the DEM can be regarded as suitable for topographical studies such as measuring the geometry and ice flow properties of glaciers on the Antarctic Peninsula. The DEM is available for download from the NSIDC website: http://nsidc.org/data/nsidc-0516.html (Immunochromatographic purification of Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujarski, J J; Wiatroszak, I

    1981-01-01

    The method of immunoadsorptional purification of Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus has been worked out. Immunosorbents were obtained by coupling the antibody (IgG) fraction isolated from anti-BYMV and anti-pea leaf protein antisera with CNBr-activated 1% agarose beads. Conditions for preparation of immunosorbents, for BYMV adsorption and elution as well as the method of plant protein separation from BYMV were pointed out. The purity of BYMV was checked by double immunodiffusion as well as by SDS-acrylamide gel electrophoresis. Also biological activity was determined. TMV was used as the model virus for further BYMV studies. PMID:7025790

  1. The Yellow Fever Vaccine: A History

    OpenAIRE

    Frierson, J. Gordon

    2010-01-01

    After failed attempts at producing bacteria-based vaccines, the discovery of a viral agent causing yellow fever and its isolation in monkeys opened new avenues of research. Subsequent advances were the attenuation of the virus in mice and later in tissue culture; the creation of the seed lot system to avoid spontaneous mutations; the ability to produce the vaccine on a large scale in eggs; and the removal of dangerous contaminants. An important person in the story is Max Theiler, who was Prof...

  2. Study of Truck Driver Behavior at Onset of Yellow Traffic Signal Indication for the Design of Yellow Times

    OpenAIRE

    Bryant, Craig William

    2014-01-01

    Traffic signal violations by drivers are a leading contributor to crashes at signalized intersections. The yellow indication is used to inform drivers of an upcoming change in the status of the traffic signal. Yellow-interval durations are currently calculated to provide dilemma zone protection for passenger cars. Due to differences in vehicle characteristics and driver characteristics, heavy trucks such as tractor-trailers behave differently at the onset of a yellow-indication. The resea...

  3. The role of Aster amellus Linn. in the degradation of a sulfonated azo dye Remazol Red: a phytoremediation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandare, Rahul V; Kabra, Akhil N; Tamboli, Dhawal P; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2011-02-01

    Phytoremediation is a novel and promising approach for the treatment of pollutants. This study did explore the potential of Aster amellus Linn. to decolorize a sulfonated azo dye Remazol Red (RR), a mixture of dyes and a textile effluent. Induction in the activities of lignin peroxidase, tyrosinase, veratryl alcohol oxidase and riboflavin reductase was observed during RR decolorization, suggesting their involvement in the metabolism of RR. UV-Visible absorption spectrum, HPLC and FTIR analysis confirmed the degradation of RR. Four metabolites after the degradation of the dye were identified as 2-[(3-diazenylphenyl) sulfonyl] ethanesulfonate, 4-amino-5-hydroxynaphthalene-2,7-disulfonate, naphthalene-2-sulfonate and 3-(1,3,5-triazin-2-ylamino)benzenesulfonate by using GC/MS. Textile effluent and mixture of dyes showed 47% and 62% decrease respectively in American Dye Manufacturers Institute value. BOD of textile effluent and mixture of dyes were reduced by 75% and 48% respectively, COD of industrial effluent and mixture of dyes was reduced by 60% and 75% and TOC was reduced by 54% and 69% respectively after the treatment by A. amellus for 60 h; this indicated that the plant can be used for cleaning textile effluents. Toxicity study revealed the phytotransformation of RR into non-toxic products.

  4. Study of the structure changes caused by earthquakes in Chile applying the lineament analysis to the Aster (Terra) satellite data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-Baeza, A.; Zverev, A.; Malinnikov, V.

    Chile is one of the most seismically and volcanically active regions in the South America due to a constant subdiction of the South American plate, converging with the Nazca plate in the extreme North of Chile. Four events, namely: the Ovalle earthquake of Juny 18, 2003, M=6.3, with epicenter localized at (-30:49:33, -71:18:53), the Calama earthquake of Junly 19, 2001, M=5.2, (-30:29:38,-68:33:18), the Pica earthquake of April 10, 2003, M=5.1, (-21:03:20,-68:47:10) and the La Ligua earthquake of May 6, 2001, M=5.1, (-32:35:31,-71:07:58:) were analysed using the 15 m resolution satellite images, provided by the ASTER/VNIR instrument. The Lineament Extraction and Stripes Statistic Analysis (LESSA) software package was used to examine changes in the lineament features caused by sismic activity. Lack of vegetation facilitates the study of the changes in the topography common to all events and makes it possible to evaluate the sismic risk in this region for the future.

  5. Qualification of Aster-code for the simulation of two-phase flows in porous media. application to Mascilia experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the framework of the nuclear waste storage in deep geological layers, the behavior of the saturated grounds in contact with the heating waste package is studied to ensure the short, average and long-term safety of the installation. However, experiments in geological ground, including heterogeneities, difficult to characterize, take a long time and are expensive. Therefore, the numerical simulation, which is a powerful tool to study the storage behavior versus space and time, became impossible to circumvent in order to analyze the radioactive waste management in porous media. In that prospect, the Thermo-Hydro-Mechanics (THM) modules of Code Aster were complemented by a two-phase thermal-hydraulics model, devoted to porous media. Such new developments intended to simulate the physical phenomena of un-saturation and re-saturation that occur in porous, permeable and initially saturated media, representative of worked engineer barriers or rock host. The concerned application is related to the storage of long-lived nuclear waste in deep geological layers. (authors)

  6. Metabolic potential and community structure of endophytic and rhizosphere bacteria associated with the roots of the halophyte Aster tripolium L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymańska, Sonia; Płociniczak, Tomasz; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia; Złoch, Michał; Ruppel, Silke; Hrynkiewicz, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    The submitted work assumes that the abundance and diversity of endophytic and rhizosphere microorganisms co-existing with the halophytic plant Aster tripolium L. growing in a salty meadow in the vicinity of a soda factory (central Poland) represent unique populations of cultivable bacterial strains. Endophytic and rhizosphere bacteria were (i) isolated and identified based on 16S rDNA sequences; (ii) screened for nifH and acdS genes; and (iii) analyzed based on selected metabolic properties. Moreover, total microbial biomass and community structures of the roots (endophytes), rhizosphere and soil were evaluated using a cultivation-independent technique (PLFA) to characterize plant-microbial interactions under natural salt conditions. The identification of the isolated strains showed domination by Gram-positive bacteria (mostly Bacillus spp.) both in the rhizosphere (90.9%) and roots (72.7%) of A. tripolium. Rhizosphere bacterial strains exhibited broader metabolic capacities, while endophytes exhibited higher specificities for metabolic activity. The PLFA analysis showed that the total bacterial biomass decreased in the following order (rhizospherebacteria in the roots of the halophyte. The described strain collection provides a valuable basis for a subsequent applications of bacteria in improvement of site adaptation of plants in saline soils.

  7. Blackberry Yellow Vein Disease is Caused by Multiple Virus Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackberry yellow vein disease, with symptoms of vein clearing, yellow mottling, ringspots and plant decline has been observed in blackberry in the southeastern United States since about 2000. At least six viruses have been identified by cloning and sequencing of double-stranded RNA from diseased p...

  8. Ups and Downs of the Yellow Phosphorus Market in 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 Surplus capacity The rapid growth of the economy in China promoted drastic development of the yellow phosphorus sector from 1985 to 2004. The capacity of yellow phosphorus expanded rapidly from 100 000 t/a in 1985 to 1.2 million t/a in 2004 with an average annual growth of around 14.0%.

  9. Production of high purity uranium compounds from crude yellow cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High purity ammonium uranyl tricarbonate is produced from crude plant yellow cake by treatment of the yellow cake with a mineral acid, neutralization of the acidic solution with a conversion of the uranium therein to ammonium uranyl tricarbonate, precipitation of the ammonium uranyl tricarbonate with a nonsolvent, followed by separation. Optionally, the ammonium uranyl tricarbonate can be calcined to produce high purity uranium oxides

  10. Aspects of durable resistance in wheat to yellow rust.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danial, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    In Kenya, the number of virulence factors of the yellow rust populations showed a considerable increase and a wide variability. Selecting for complete to near complete resistance to yellow rust and other cereal rust diseases, was followed by a rapid erosion of resistance.Partial resistance in wheat

  11. Yellow Nutsedge Biology and Control in Potato Rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L.) is a native perennial weed common in irrigated row crop production throughout most of the U.S. Yellow nutsedge is particularly problematic in crops that do not provide adequate shading, such as onions. The weed competes strongly for water, nutrients, and light...

  12. Biofortified yellow cassava and Vitamin A status of Kenyan children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma, E.F.; Brouwer, I.D.; Verhoef, Hans; Mbera, G.N.K.; Mwangi, A.M.; Demir, A.Y.; Maziya-Dixon, B.; Boy, Erick; Zimmermann, M.B.; Melse-Boonstra, Alida

    2016-01-01

    Background: Whereas conventional white cassava roots are devoid of provitamin A, biofortified yellow varieties are naturally rich in b-carotene, the primary provitamin A carotenoid. Objective: We assessed the effect of consuming yellow cassava on serum retinol concentration in Kenyan schoolchildr

  13. First report of the cucurbit yellow vine disease caused by Serratia marcescens in watermelon and yellow squash in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms typical of cucurbit yellow vine disease (CYVD) were first observed in a 2 ha watermelon field in Crawford, Russell County, Alabama on 8 June 2010. Watermelon plants, cv. 'Jubilee,' exhibited a yellow or chlorotic appearance and some plants were completely wilted. On 24 June plant samples ...

  14. Ipomoviruses: Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucumber vein yellowing virus, Cassava brown streak virus, and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipomoviruses including Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucumber vein yellowing virus and Cassava brown streak virus are currently causing significant economic impact on crop production in several regions of the world. Only recently have results of detailed characterization of their whitefly transmissi...

  15. Biological pretreatment of Yellow River water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Shu-guang; TANG Xiao-yan; WU Wei-zhong; WEN Dong-hui; WANG Zhan-sheng

    2005-01-01

    Bio-ceramic filter(BF) and moving-bed biofilm reactor(MBBR) were used for biological pretreatment of Yellow River water in this study. The BF only had slight advantage over MBBR for TOC and ammonia removal. However, like UV254, the average removal rate of THMFP in the BF was much higher than that in the MBBR. UV254 removal did not show obvious correlation with trihalomethane formation potential(THMFP) removal. Hexachlorocyclohexane could be effectively removed in both BF and MBBR. As for diatom and cyanobateria removal the MBBR had better performance than the BF, which was contrary to the average chlorophyll-a (Chi-a) removal rate. The proposal was made in this study that biological flocculation and sedimentation of sloughed biofilm should play a more important role on algae removal in the MBBR than in the BF. The BF and MBBR could effectively remove microcystins. Moreover, MBBR could be a promising technology for biological pretreatment.

  16. Clasificación de yeso mediante imágenes ASTER en la Cordillera Principal Mendocina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F Mescua

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una metodología para obtener el mapa de distribución de yeso con imágenes satelitales ASTER. Se utilizaron imágenes con nivel de procesamiento ASTERL3A correspondientes a dos áreas de la Cordillera Principal mendocina. La estratigrafía de las áreas de estudio se encuentra compuesta por una espesa sucesión sedimentaria mesozoica, volcanitas cenozoicas y depósitos cuaternarios. Dentro de los depósitos mesozoicos se encuentra la Formación Auquilco, integrada por yeso y anhidrita. El reconocimiento y distribución areal de esta unidad es el objetivo de este trabajo. Se aplicaron dos métodos de procesamiento a las imágenes. Por un lado se utilizó el índice de cuarzo (Qi, uno de los índices de determinación de minerales definidos para el subsistema TIR de ASTER. Este índice puede usarse también para reconocer sulfatos, y en particular yeso, ya que estos minerales proporcionan una respuesta muy baja en el Qi. El segundo método consistió en la aplicación combinada de los cocientes de bandas 4/5 y 7/5. Este método permite identificar al yeso por su elevada respuesta en el cociente 4/5 y baja respuesta en el cociente 7/5. A fin de simplificar la metodología, se generó un nuevo cociente a partir de los dos mencionados: (4/5/(7/5, de manera de destacar el yeso con alta respuesta. A partir del relevamiento de campo se observó que en ambos métodos los errores por exceso fueron más importantes que los errores por defecto, y que los píxeles determinados como yeso erróneamente por cada método son diferentes. Este hecho permite la aplicación de la técnica de "Decision Tree" del programa ENVI 4.2 con el objetivo de eliminar estos errores. En cada una de las imágenes se determinaron los valores de umbral para los píxeles reconocidos como yeso. Luego se generó un "árbol de decisiones" combinando los umbrales de cada imagen, seleccionando en una nueva clase los píxeles determinados como yeso por ambos métodos y

  17. Exploration of gold occurrences in alteration zones at Dungash district, Southeastern Desert of Egypt using ASTER data and geochemical analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, S. M.; El Sharkawi, M.; El-Alfy, Z.; Soliman, N. M.; Ahmed, S. E.

    2016-05-01

    The present study aims at exploration of new gold occurrences in the alteration zones at Dungash district. Processed ASTER images band ratios 7/6 × 4/6 and (7 + 9/8), field geology and mineralogical and geochemical data help characterize three types of alterations in three areas 1 to 3 that may be targeted for Au exploration. Area1 confined to the metavolcanics located in the SE of Dungash gold mine and revealed silicified and sericitized type alterations, composed of quartz, epidote, chlorite, biotite and opaque minerals mainly pyrite and chalcopyrite. Area2 occurs in the gabbro-diorite rocks at Abu Meraiwa area NE of Dungash gold mine, which are rich in kaolinite, illite, sericite, pyrite, arsenopyrite and chalcopyrite that record kaolinitized alteration. Area3 is hosted in carbonaceous listwaenized serpentinite thus indicating the role of listwaenitization type alteration in ore genesis. It is composed of calcite, chromite, pyrite, arsenopyrite, chalcopyrite and Ni-bearing sulphides. Au contents in area 1 range between 0.12 and 14.91 ppm, and between 6.1 and 16.3 ppm in area 2, while gold values in area 3 vary from <0.01 to 0.03 ppm. Dungash district is comprised of Pan-African assemblages of ophiolitic ultramafics thrusted over the island arc metavolcanics of dacitic- andesite composition. Gabbro-diorite rocks are intruded in the ultramafics and the acidic metavolcanics as well as diorite-quartz diorite suite intruded in the intermediate metavolcanics. Several acidic dykes, granitic dykes and quartz veins cut through the different rocks types.

  18. Anti-Obesity Effects of Aster spathulifolius Extract in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sa-Jic; Bang, Chae-Young; Guo, Yuan-Ri; Choung, Se-Young

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-obesity and antihyperlipidemic efficacy and molecular mechanisms of Aster spathulifolius Maxim extract (ASE) in rats with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Rats were separately fed a normal diet or a HFD for 8 weeks, then they were treated with ASE (62.5, 125, or 250 mg/kg) for another 4.5 weeks. The ASE supplementation significantly lowered body weight gain, visceral fat pad weights, serum lipid levels, as well as hepatic lipid levels in HFD-induced obese rats. Histological analysis showed that the ASE-treated group showed lowered numbers of lipid droplets and smaller size of adipocytes compared to the HFD group. To understand the mechanism of action of ASE, the expression of genes and proteins involved in obesity were measured in liver and skeletal muscle. The expression of fatty acid oxidation and thermogenesis-related genes (e.g., PPAR-α, ACO, CPT1, UCP2, and UCP3) of HFD-induced obese rats were increased by ASE treatment. On the other hand, ASE treatment resulted in decreased expression of fat intake-related gene ACC2 and lipogenesis-related genes (e.g., SREBP-1c, ACC1, FAS, SCD1, GPATR, AGPAT, and DGAT). Furthermore, ASE treatment increased the level of phosphorylated AMPKα in obese rats. Similarly, the level of phosphorylated ACC, a target protein of AMPKα in ASE groups, was increased by ASE treatment compared with the HFD group. These results suggest that ASE attenuated visceral fat accumulation and improved hyperlipidemia in HFD-induced obese rats by increasing lipid metabolism through the regulation of AMPK activity and the expression of genes and proteins involved in lipolysis and lipogenesis. PMID:26908215

  19. Belgium's burning coal tips. Coupling thermographic ASTER imagery with topography to map debris slide susceptibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyssen, Jan; Diependaele, Stijn; Goossens, Rudi [Ghent Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Geography

    2012-03-15

    Burning coal tips and the debris slides induced by this combustion are a potential danger for local residents and visitors, and a method is required to identify areas of susceptibility. The relatively easy circulation of air, enhanced by the poor compaction of the spoil heaps, and the exothermic reaction of pyrite with oxygen may ignite coal tips. Rainwater infiltration and subsequent evaporation inside burning coal tips may create steam pressure, which, combined with humidity and slope steepness can then trigger landsliding. Based on mapping of debris slides and susceptibility factors such as burning (represented by positive surface temperature anomalies on thermographic imagery) and slope gradient, this study aims to define thresholds for debris slide susceptibility on coal tips and to map potential debris slide source areas on spoil heaps. The Belgian coal tips were used as study area. A DTM as well as ASTER Kinetic Surface Temperature products were used to measure slope gradients and temperature anomaly. Locations with typical characteristics of combustion (heat, red soil colour, steam and gases), and debris slides were recorded in the field, and were used to identify thresholds beyond which debris sliding is generally observed: a temperature anomaly of > 0.5 K, when comparing the debris slide areas to the average temperature of the coal tip, and a slope gradient {>=} 28 . The susceptibility zones for debris slide detachment were mapped by considering the imagery pixels that exceeded the thresholds for temperature and slope gradient; the results fitted well when compared with the observed debris slides. The method can be improved by using more coal tips for calibration, and by taking into account rain depth and slope aspect. (orig.)

  20. Post-classification comparison of land cover using multitemporal Landsat and ASTER imagery: the case of Kahramanmaraş, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphan, Hakan; Doygun, Hakan; Unlukaplan, Yüksel I

    2009-04-01

    This study assessed land cover (LC) changes in Kahramanmaraş (K.Maraş) and its environs by using multitemporal Landsat and ASTER imagery, respectively belong to 1989, 2000 and 2004. A priori defined nine land cover classes in the classification scheme were urban and built-up, forest, sparsely vegetated areas, grassland, vegetated stream beds, unvegetated stream beds, bare areas, crop fields, and water bodies. Individual classifications were employed using the combination of both unsupervised and supervised classification methods. Iterative Self Organizing Data Analysis (ISODATA) was used to reduce spectral variation in the scenes arising from complex pattern of crop fields. Maximum Likelihood classifier was used in the LC classification of the individual images. Image pairs of consecutive dates were compared by overlaying the thematic LC maps and cross-tabulating the LC statistics. Urbanization and expansion of agriculture were the major reasons for the dramatic LC conversions. The amount of conversion from crop fields to water occurred as large as 927.67 ha, accounting for 73% of the total land-to-water conversion. Conversions to agriculture have mainly been occurred from grasslands and sparsely vegetated areas as large as 1,314.95 and 1,325.84 ha, respectively. Urban coverage doubled in this period as a result of 1,443.45 ha of increase. Urban area increased in the second period from 2,920 to 3,526 ha. Conversions to agriculture occurred at high amounts. A total of 1,075.79 ha area changed from sparsely vegetated areas to crop fields. A landscape-level environmental monitoring scheme based on satellite remote sensing was proposed for effective environmental resource management.

  1. Using the British National Collection of Asters to Compare the Attractiveness of 228 Varieties to Flower-Visiting Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbuzov, Mihail; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2015-06-01

    Wildlife-friendly gardening practices can help conserve biodiversity in urban areas. These include growing ornamental plant varieties attractive to flower-visiting insects. Because varieties vary greatly in attractiveness, there is a need to quantify it in order to give objective advice to gardeners. Here, we used the British national collection of asters to compare the attractiveness of varieties to flower-visiting insects. We counted and identified insects as they foraged on flowers in 228 varieties growing in discrete patches that flowered during the survey period, 14 September-20 October 2012. In each variety, we also determined the overall capitulum size, the central disc floret area, and the ray floret color (blue, red, purple, or white). We also scored attributes relevant to gardening: attractiveness to humans, ease of cultivation, and availability in the United Kingdom. There was great variation among varieties in their attractiveness to insects, ranging from 0.0 to 15.2 per count per square meter, and highly skewed, with most being unattractive. A similar skew held for the two main insect categories, honey bees and hover flies, which comprised 28 and 64% of all insects, respectively. None of the floral traits or attributes relevant to gardening correlated significantly with attractiveness to insects. Our study shows the practicality of using a national collection for quantifying and comparing the attractiveness of ornamental varieties to flower-visiting insects. These results imply that choosing varieties carefully is likely to be of conservation benefit to flower-visiting insects, and that doing so is a no-cost option in terms of garden beauty and workload.

  2. Using the British National Collection of Asters to Compare the Attractiveness of 228 Varieties to Flower-Visiting Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbuzov, Mihail; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2015-06-01

    Wildlife-friendly gardening practices can help conserve biodiversity in urban areas. These include growing ornamental plant varieties attractive to flower-visiting insects. Because varieties vary greatly in attractiveness, there is a need to quantify it in order to give objective advice to gardeners. Here, we used the British national collection of asters to compare the attractiveness of varieties to flower-visiting insects. We counted and identified insects as they foraged on flowers in 228 varieties growing in discrete patches that flowered during the survey period, 14 September-20 October 2012. In each variety, we also determined the overall capitulum size, the central disc floret area, and the ray floret color (blue, red, purple, or white). We also scored attributes relevant to gardening: attractiveness to humans, ease of cultivation, and availability in the United Kingdom. There was great variation among varieties in their attractiveness to insects, ranging from 0.0 to 15.2 per count per square meter, and highly skewed, with most being unattractive. A similar skew held for the two main insect categories, honey bees and hover flies, which comprised 28 and 64% of all insects, respectively. None of the floral traits or attributes relevant to gardening correlated significantly with attractiveness to insects. Our study shows the practicality of using a national collection for quantifying and comparing the attractiveness of ornamental varieties to flower-visiting insects. These results imply that choosing varieties carefully is likely to be of conservation benefit to flower-visiting insects, and that doing so is a no-cost option in terms of garden beauty and workload. PMID:26313970

  3. Using the Surface Temperature-Albedo Space to Separate Regional Soil and Vegetation Temperatures from ASTER Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisheng Song

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil and vegetation component temperatures in non-isothermal pixels encapsulate more physical meaning and are more applicable than composite temperatures. The component temperatures however are difficult to be obtained from thermal infrared (TIR remote sensing data provided by single view angle observations. Here, we present a land surface temperature and albedo (T-α space approach combined with the mono-surface energy balance (SEB-1S model to derive soil and vegetation component temperatures. The T-α space can be established from visible and near infrared (VNIR and TIR data provided by single view angle observations. This approach separates the soil and vegetation component temperatures from the remotely sensed composite temperatures by incorporating soil wetness iso-lines for defining equivalent soil temperatures; this allows vegetation temperatures to be extracted from the T-α space. This temperature separation methodology was applied to advanced scanning thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER VNIR and high spatial resolution TIR image data in an artificial oasis area during the entire growing season. Comparisons with ground measurements showed that the T-α space approach produced reliable soil and vegetation component temperatures in the study area. Low root mean square error (RMSE values of 0.83 K for soil temperatures and 1.64 K for vegetation temperatures, respectively, were obtained, compared to component temperatures measurements from a ground-based thermal camera. These results support the use of soil wetness iso-lines to derive soil surface temperatures. It was also found that the estimated vegetation temperatures were extremely close to the near surface air temperature observations when the landscape is well watered under full vegetation cover. More robust soil and vegetation temperature estimates will improve estimates of soil evaporation and vegetation transpiration, leading to more reliable the monitoring of crop

  4. Yellow fever cases in Asia: primed for an epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Wasserman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There is currently an emerging outbreak of yellow fever in Angola. Cases in infected travellers have been reported in a number of other African countries, as well as in China, representing the first ever documented cases of yellow fever in Asia. There is a large Chinese workforce in Angola, many of whom may be unvaccinated, increasing the risk of ongoing importation of yellow fever into Asia via busy commercial airline routes. Large parts of the region are hyperendemic for the related Flavivirus dengue and are widely infested by Aedes aegypti, the primary mosquito vector of urban yellow fever transmission. The combination of sustained introduction of viraemic travellers, an ecology conducive to local transmission, and an unimmunized population raises the possibility of a yellow fever epidemic in Asia. This represents a major global health threat, particularly in the context of a depleted emergency vaccine stockpile and untested surveillance systems in the region. In this review, the potential for a yellow fever outbreak in Asia is discussed with reference to the ecological and historical forces that have shaped global yellow fever epidemiology. The limitations of surveillance and vector control in the region are highlighted, and priorities for outbreak preparedness and response are suggested.

  5. Yellow fever cases in Asia: primed for an epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Sean; Tambyah, Paul Anantharajah; Lim, Poh Lian

    2016-07-01

    There is currently an emerging outbreak of yellow fever in Angola. Cases in infected travellers have been reported in a number of other African countries, as well as in China, representing the first ever documented cases of yellow fever in Asia. There is a large Chinese workforce in Angola, many of whom may be unvaccinated, increasing the risk of ongoing importation of yellow fever into Asia via busy commercial airline routes. Large parts of the region are hyperendemic for the related Flavivirus dengue and are widely infested by Aedes aegypti, the primary mosquito vector of urban yellow fever transmission. The combination of sustained introduction of viraemic travellers, an ecology conducive to local transmission, and an unimmunized population raises the possibility of a yellow fever epidemic in Asia. This represents a major global health threat, particularly in the context of a depleted emergency vaccine stockpile and untested surveillance systems in the region. In this review, the potential for a yellow fever outbreak in Asia is discussed with reference to the ecological and historical forces that have shaped global yellow fever epidemiology. The limitations of surveillance and vector control in the region are highlighted, and priorities for outbreak preparedness and response are suggested. PMID:27156836

  6. NASA and U.S. Geological Survey Long-Term Archive for the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, M.; Meyer, D. F.

    2013-12-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is a 14-channel optical imaging instrument on NASA's Terra spacecraft. ASTER is a joint project between Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry; and U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Since its launch in December, 1999, ASTER has acquired over 2.4 million multispectral images. The Level 0 data are sent to Japan by NASA, where they are processed to Level 1A (reconstructed, unprocessed instrument data with geometric and radiometric parameters attached). A copy of the L1A data is sent to the U.S. to the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LPDAAC), operated for NASA by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at the EROS Center. The joint US/Japan ASTER Science Team (AST) has provided algorithms to produce 14 Level 1, Level 2, and Level 3 products. The duplicate data distribution systems in Japan and the U.S. create these products 'on-demand' as users submit data requests. Only the L0 and L1A data are archived. After the termination of the mission, the USGS has the responsibility for creating, managing and distributing ASTER data products from a Long-Term Archive (LTA). In cooperation with the LPDAAC, the U.S. AST discussed various scenarios on how the LTA should operate. The two leading plans considered were: (1) duplicating the 'on-demand' system, fulfilling user requests as they arrived; this would require a high level of technical support for algorithm/software maintenance, user services to answer questions, hardware maintenance, and in general, was quite labor-intensive; (2) creating a static archive of all of the data products for every one of the L1A image granules; the LPDAAC would produce each of the 14 higher level data products from every L1A image currently archived. Users would order data products from this greatly expanded archive, with little human intervention. In both cases, complete documentation would be available to users, detailing the

  7. Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paunović Dragana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste were investigated. The analyzed material consisted of a mild yellow mustard paste condiment and ground white mustard seeds which were originally used in the mustard paste production process. The samples were extracted in a Soxhlet extraction system and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS technique. The only sinalbin degradation product in ground mustard seeds was 2-(4-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile. The most abundant sinalbin degradation product in yellow mustard paste was 4-(hydroxymethylphenol. Other compounds identified in this sample were: 4-methyl phenol, 4-ethyl phenol, 4-(2-hydroxyethylphenol and 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl ethanoic acid.

  8. Imágenes aster en la discriminación de áreas de uso agrícola en colombia.

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz Lozano, Nidia Esperanza; Pérez Gómez, Uriel

    2011-01-01

    El avance de las tecnologías de la información geográfica ha llevado a la puesta de nuevos sensores para observación de la tierra. ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Termal Emission and Reflection Radiometer), considerado como sensor de última generación, posee características especiales que lo colocan como una alternativa para estudios de la cobertura vegetal de la tierra. El presente trabajo se basó en sus características espaciales, espectrales y radiométricas con el fin de discriminar las áreas d...

  9. Countrywide digital elevation models for the Islamic Republic of Mauritania—SRTM and ASTER (phase V, deliverable 65): Chapter F in Second projet de renforcement institutionnel du secteur minier de la République Islamique de Mauritanie (PRISM-II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gregory K.

    2015-01-01

    A digital elevation model (DEM) of the entire country of the Islamic Republic of Mauritania was produced using Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data as required for deliverable 65 of the contract. In addition, because of significant recent advancements of availability, seamlessness, and validity of Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) global elevation data, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) extended its efforts to include a higher resolution countrywide ASTER DEM as value added to the required Deliverable 63, which was limited to five areas within the country. Both SRTM and ASTER countrywide DEMs have been provided in ERDAS Imagine (.img) format that is also directly compatible with ESRI ArcMap, ArcGIS Explorer, and other GIS applications.

  10. Mid-Columbia - Yellow-flag Iris Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Yellow-flag iris is an escaped ornamental rhizomatous perennial herb that forms dense vegetative mats in riparian and wetland areas. These mats can displace most...

  11. Mid-Columbia - Yellow-flag Iris Eradication 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The project as described was to attempt to eradicate yellow-flag iris from Toppenish, McNary and Columbia National Wildlife Refuges using chemical and, where...

  12. Mid-Columbia - Eradication of Yellow-flag Iris 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The project as described was to attempt to eradicate yellow-flag iris from Toppenish, McNary and Columbia National Wildlife Refuges using chemical and, where...

  13. McNary - Burbank Slough Yellow Starthistle Eradication

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project is supported in the McNary CCP by Goal 7a: Improve Shrub-Steppe Condition. The strategy is to reduce competition of yellow starthistle to native...

  14. Distribution of dinoflagellate cysts in Yellow Sea sediments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIN Hyeon Ho; LIM Dhongil; PARK Soung-Yun; HEO Seung; KIM So-Young

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the distribution, abundance, and species composition of dinoflagellate cysts in the Yellow Sea, surface sediment samples were collected at 37 sites, including the Korean dump site. Twenty-one di-noflagellate cyst taxa were identified, with the assemblages dominated mainly by Spiniferites bulloideus, Operculodinium centrocarpum, and cyst of Alexandrium catenella/tamarense type. A high frequency of O. centrocarpum in the Yellow Sea was observed for the first time, and it is likely that this can be attributed to the dynamics of the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass and the Changjiang (Yangtze) River runoff. Total cyst concentrations ranged from 23 to 48 442 cysts/g dry weight, and high cyst concentrations were recorded adjacent to the dumping site. This result suggests that anthropogenic activities such as ocean dumping s-timulate the growth of dinoflagellates in the Yellow Sea, which in turn leads to high levels of dinoflagellate cyst production.

  15. Thermal expansion of Neapolitan Yellow Tuff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aversa, S.; Evangelista, A.

    1993-10-01

    In saturated rocks and soils it is possible to define different coefficients of thermal expansion depending on the drainage conditions. This topic is first examined from the theoretical point of view with regard to an ideal isotropic thermo-elastic porous medium. Some special features of the behaviour of natural soils and rocks during thermal expansion tests are subsequently discussed. An experimental evaluation of some of these coefficients is presented in the second part of the paper. The material investigated is a pyroclastic rock, the so-called Neapolitan Yellow Tuff. Thermal expansion coefficient in drairend conditions has been evaluated, when this material is saturated with water. The e pressure increase induced by heating has been measured in undrained tes temperatures investigated range between room temperature up to 225°C. Different types of apparatus have been used and, when possible, a comparison between the results has been proposed. The results obtained in undrained thermal expansion tests are in agreement with theoretical predictions. This research is part of an on-going study of the complex phenomena known as Bradyseism, which is occurring in a volcanic area a few kilometers from Naples (Italy). Some considerations on this phenomenon are drawn in the last paragraph of the paper.

  16. Advances and controversies in yellow fever vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Emile F F; Visser, Leonardus G; Roukens, Anna H

    2013-11-01

    Ever since its development in 1937, the live-attenuated 17D yellow fever (YF) vaccine has been one of the most effective vaccines available to man. In this review we highlight the major steps in the development of 17D YF vaccine. We discuss the use of neutralizing antibodies as a surrogate marker for protection, and explore the strengths and weaknesses of the current plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), a technique developed in the 1960s that continues to be superior to every modern test in both sensitivity and specificity. The neutralizing antibodies demonstrated by the PRNT can be detected for several decades after vaccination, possibly even for the remainder of the recipient's natural life. We review the available evidence on the duration of protection after primary vaccination, a topic that has been the subject of controversy over the last few months. For persons who are immunocompromised due to disease, medication or advancing age, the duration of protection may be shorter: they should always have their vaccine response checked by PRNT. Due to the higher risk of severe adverse events after vaccination with 17D YF in this group, the development of a new, inactivated vaccine will have substantial benefits in this population. PMID:24757521

  17. Global Warming May Trigger Water Crisis in Yellow River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The temperature of the upper reaches of the Yellow River, the second longest river in China,is clearly related to the worldwide warming trend, according to a study conducted by CAS researchers and their colleagues from Administration of Hydrology and Water Resources of the Upper Reaches of the Yellow River. They warn that, due to the possible temperature hike and drastic decline in local precipitation, the runoff in the reaches may face a trend of continued decrease over the next decade.

  18. Life-history strategies affect aphid preference for yellowing leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Holopainen, Jarmo K.; Semiz, Gürkan; Blande, James D

    2009-01-01

    According to the nutrient-translocation hypothesis, yellowing tree leaves are colonized by aphids at the end of the growing season owing to improved availability of nutrients in the phloem sap after chlorophyll degradation. We measured aphid densities on potted Betula pendula seedlings in a field site where a small proportion of foliage rapidly turned yellow before normal autumn coloration as a consequence of root anoxia. The number of adults and nymphs of the birch-feeding specialist aphids ...

  19. Pomological properties of promising raspberry seedlings with yellow fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolić Mihailo; Radović Aleksandar; Fotirić Milica; Milivojević Jasminka; Nikolić Dragan 2

    2009-01-01

    From over a 100 seedlings obtained by open pollination of Meeker's yellow raspberry clone, 10 seedlings with yellow fruit were selected at the Experimental Station 'Radmilovac' of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Belgrade. Phenological characteristics, as well as physical, chemical and sensorial fruit properties were investigated during the period 2007-2008 in selected seedlings and standard cultivar Meeker. Results showed that all examined seed...

  20. Research on Driver Behavior in Yellow Interval at Signalized Intersections

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaosheng Yang; Xiujuan Tian; Wei Wang; Xiyang Zhou; Hongmei Liang

    2014-01-01

    Vehicles are often caught in dilemma zone when they approach signalized intersections in yellow interval. The existence of dilemma zone which is significantly influenced by driver behavior seriously affects the efficiency and safety of intersections. This paper proposes the driver behavior models in yellow interval by logistic regression and fuzzy decision tree modeling, respectively, based on camera image data. Vehicle’s speed and distance to stop line are considered in logistic regression m...

  1. Space technique induced elite abiotic stress tolerant yellow tall fescue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cool season turfgrass Yellow Tall Fescue was treated by space technique. The results showed that space technique had slight physiological damage in SP1 generation, and no chlorophyll-deficient mutation was detected at the SP2 generation, however richer variations in plant morphology, leaf shape, the growth duration and hot temperature tolerance were observed in the study. The semidwarf, creeping plant type, slender leaf, late maturing, and hot-temperature tolerant mutants were isolated from the Yellow Tall Fescue

  2. Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste

    OpenAIRE

    Paunović Dragana; Šolević-Knudsen Tatjana; Krivokapić Mirjana; Zlatković Branislav; Antić Mališa

    2012-01-01

    Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste were investigated. The analyzed material consisted of a mild yellow mustard paste condiment and ground white mustard seeds which were originally used in the mustard paste production process. The samples were extracted in a Soxhlet extraction system and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. The only sinalbin degradation product in ground mustard seeds was 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetonitrile. The most a...

  3. Life-history strategies affect aphid preference for yellowing leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holopainen, Jarmo K; Semiz, Gürkan; Blande, James D

    2009-10-23

    According to the nutrient-translocation hypothesis, yellowing tree leaves are colonized by aphids at the end of the growing season owing to improved availability of nutrients in the phloem sap after chlorophyll degradation. We measured aphid densities on potted Betula pendula seedlings in a field site where a small proportion of foliage rapidly turned yellow before normal autumn coloration as a consequence of root anoxia. The number of adults and nymphs of the birch-feeding specialist aphids Euceraphis betulae, Betulaphis brevipilosa and Callipterinella tuberculata were counted from leaves on each of the 222 plants. Aphids were detected on 19 per cent of green leaves and on 41 per cent of yellow leaves. There was no indication of aphid avoidance of yellow leaves, and the number of winged (alate) viviparous E. betulae adults and their nymphs were significantly higher on yellow leaves than on green leaves, while the numbers of apterous B. brevipilosa and C. tuberculata did not differ between the leaf colour types. Our result suggests that only aphid species with alate generation during colour change can take advantage of yellowing leaves. This may explain the exceptional abundance of E. betulae compared with other aphid species on birches. PMID:19535364

  4. FLOOD AND FLOOD CONTROL OF THE YELLOW RIVER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenxue LI; Huirang WANG; Yunqi SU; Naiqian JIANG; Yuanfeng ZHANG

    2002-01-01

    The Yellow River is the cradle of China. It had long been the center of politics, economics and culture of China in history. Large coverage flood disaster occurred frequently in the Yellow River basin and the losses were often heavy. Thus, the Yellow River is also considered as the serious hidden danger of China. Since the founding of new China, structural and non-structural systems of flood control have been established basically. Tremendous successes have been made on flood control. Into the 21century, flood control standard of the Lower Yellow River has been increased significantly with the operation of the Xiaolangdi Reservoir. However, problems of the Yellow River are complicated and the tasks for solving these problems are arduous. Particularly, the sedimentation problem can't be solved completely in the near future. The situation of "suspended river" and threat of flood will long exist.Therefore, supported by rapid social and economical development of the nation and relied on advanced technology, the flood control system shall be perfected. Meantime, study of the Yellow River shall be enhanced in order to better understand the flood, get with it and use it thus to reduce flood disaster.

  5. Spectral reflectance pattern in soybean for assessing yellow mosaic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazala, I F Saad; Sahoo, R N; Pandey, Rakesh; Mandal, Bikash; Gupta, V K; Singh, Rajendra; Sinha, P

    2013-09-01

    Remote sensing technique is useful for monitoring large crop area at a single time point, which is otherwise not possible by visual observation alone. Yellow mosaic disease (YMD) is a serious constraint in soybean production in India. However, hardly any basic information is available for monitoring YMD by remote sensing. Present study examines spectral reflectance of soybean leaves due to Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) infection in order to identify YMD sensitive spectral ratio or reflectance. Spectral reflectance measurement indicated significant (p yellow leaves induced due to nitrogen deficiency, the sensitive wavelength was ~589 nm. Due to viral infection, a shift occurred in red and infra-red slope (called red edge) on the left in comparison to healthy one. Red edge shift was a good indicator to discriminate yellow mosaic as chlorophyll gets degraded due to MYMIV infection. Correlation of reflectance at 688 nm (R688) and spectral reflectance ratio at 750 and 445 nm (R750/R445) with the weighted mosaic index indicated that detection of yellow mosaic is possible based on these sensitive bands. Our study for the first time identifies the yellow mosaic sensitive band as R688 and R750/R445, which could be utilized to scan satellite data for monitoring YMD affected soybean cropping regions.

  6. Community structure changes of macrobenthos in the South Yellow Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Junlong; XU Fengshan; LIU Ruiyu

    2012-01-01

    The ecological environment in the Yellow Sea has changed greatly from the 1950s to 1990s and this has had significant impact on marine organisms.In this study,data on soft-sediment macrobenthos occurring in depths from 25 m to 81 m in the South Yellow Sea were used to compare changes in community structure.The agglomerative classification (CLUSTER) and multidimensional scaling (MDS) methods were applied.Five communities were recognized by cluster analysis:1.The Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass community dominated by cold water species,which changed slightly in species composition since the 1950s; 2.The mixed community with the coexistence of cold water species and warm water species,as had been reported previously; 3.The polychaete-dominated eurythermal community in which the composition changed considerably as some dominant species disappeared or decreased; 4.The Changjiang (Yangtze) River Estuarine community,with some typical estuarine species; 5.The community affected by the Yellow Sea Warm Current.The greatest change occurred in the coastal area,which indicated that the change may be caused by human activities.Macrobenthos in the central region remained almost unchanged,particularly the cold water species shielded by the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass.The depth,temperature and median grain size of sediments were important factors affecting the distributions of macrobenthos in the South Yellow Sea.

  7. Estimates of land surface heat fluxes of the Mt. Everest region over the Tibetan Plateau utilizing ASTER data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Cunbo; Ma, Yaoming; Chen, Xuelong; Su, Zhongbo

    2016-02-01

    Regional land surface albedo, land surface temperature, net radiation flux, ground heat flux, sensible heat flux, and latent heat flux were derived in the Mt. Everest area utilizing topographical enhanced surface energy balance system (TESEBS) model and nine scenes of ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) data under clear-sky and in-situ measurements at the QOMS station (the Qomolangma Station for Atmospheric Environmental Observation and Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences). The parameterization schemes for diffused and reflected downward shortwave radiation flux of the TESEBS model were improved by introducing the parameters sky-view factor (SVF) and terrain configuration factor (Ct). Then, a so-called C-correction method for land surface albedo was coupled into the TESEBS model to reduce the influences of topography. After topographical correction, the albedo of the dark tilted surface facing away from the Sun was compensated and albedo of the brightness surface facing the Sun was restrained. The downward shortwave radiation flux was broken down into three components including solar direct radiation flux, solar diffused radiation flux, and reflected solar radiation flux by surrounding terrain. The solar diffused radiation flux ranges from about 30 to 60 W/m2 at the satellite passing time on 6 January 2008. The reflected solar radiation flux changes from 0 to more than 100 W/m2 in the area covered by glaciers and snows. Thus, it is important to take the topographical effects into account in estimation of surface radiation balance in the mountainous area, especially in the glacier area. The retrieved land surface parameters, land surface radiation balance components, and the land surface energy balance components were evaluated by the field measurements in the QOMS station. The estimated results were very close to the in-situ observations with low mean bias errors, low root mean square errors and high correlation coefficients

  8. Preliminary development plan of the ALR, the laser rangefinder for the ASTER deep space mission to the 2001 SN263 asteroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gil Vicente de Brum

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian deep space mission ASTER, as temporarily named, plans to send a small spacecraft to encounter and investigate the triple asteroid 2001-SN263. The launch is scheduled (initially to occur in 2015, arriving in 2018. The main motivation of the mission is the development of technology and expertise to leverage the national space sector. Within the scientific goals, the investigation of the still unknown asteroid 2001-SN263. The main project guideline is to aggregate the widest possible Brazilian involvement in the platform, the development and operation of subsystems, integration, payload, as well as in the tracking, navigation, guidance and control of the probe. To meet this guideline, among others, the decision for the development of a laser altimeter in Brazil to fly in the mission was taken. This effort is currently coordinated by a group of researchers from the aerospace engineering personnel of UFABC. This article presents the preliminary development plan for the design of this instrument, which was called ALR (ASTER Laser Rangefinder.

  9. Identification and mapping of soil erosion areas in the Blue Nile-Eastern Sudan using multispectral ASTER and MODIS satellite data and the SRTM elevation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haj Tahir, M.; Kääb, A.; Xu, C.-Y.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is part of a set of studies to evaluate the spatial and temporal variability of soil water in terms of natural as well as land-use changes as fundamental factors for vegetation regeneration in arid ecosystems in the Blue Nile-Sudan. The specific aim is to indicate the spatial distribution of soil erosion caused by the rains of 2006. The current study is conducted to determine whether automatic classification of multispectral Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) imagery could accurately discriminate erosion gullies. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) is used to orthoproject ASTER data. A maximum likelihood classifier is trained with four classes, Gullies, Flat_Land, Mountains and Water and applied to images from March and December 2006. Validation is done with field data from December and January 2006/2007, and using drainage network analysis of SRTM digital elevation model. The results allow the identification of erosion gullies and subsequent estimation of eroded area. Consequently the results were up-scaled using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images of the same dates. Because the selected study site is representative of the wider Blue Nile province, it is expected that the approach presented could be applied to larger areas.

  10. Identification and mapping of soil erosion areas in the Blue Nile-Eastern Sudan using multispectral ASTER and MODIS satellite data and the SRTM elevation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. El Haj Tahir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is part of a set of studies to evaluate the spatial and temporal variability of soil water in terms of natural as well as land-use changes as fundamental factors for vegetation regeneration in arid ecosystems in the Blue Nile-Sudan. The specific aim is to indicate the spatial distribution of soil erosion caused by the rains of 2006. The current study is conducted to determine whether automatic classification of multispectral Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER imagery could accurately discriminate erosion gullies. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM is used to orthoproject ASTER data. A maximum likelihood classifier is trained with four classes, Gullies, Flat_Land, Mountains and Water and applied to images from March and December 2006. Validation is done with field data from December and January 2006/2007, and using drainage network analysis of SRTM digital elevation model. The results allow the identification of erosion gullies and subsequent estimation of eroded area. Consequently the results were up-scaled using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS images of the same dates. Because the selected study site is representative of the wider Blue Nile province, it is expected that the approach presented could be applied to larger areas.

  11. Landsat maps (phase V, deliverable 60), ASTER maps (phase V, deliverable 62), ASTER_DEM maps (phase V, deliverable 63), and spectral remote sensing in support of PRISM-II mineral resource assessment project, Islamic Republic of Mauritania (phase V, deliverables 61 and 64): Chapter E in Second projet de renforcement institutionnel du secteur minier de la République Islamique de Mauritanie (PRISM-II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.; Knepper, Daniel H.; Horton, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Multispectral satellite data acquired by the Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM), Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensors were processed and interpreted in support of the PRISM-II project (Second Projet de Renforcement Institutionnel du Secteur Minier de la Republique Islamique de Mauritanie). This report and accompanying maps constitute project deliverables 60–64. All digital data for use in Geographic Information System (GIS) and image processing software will be included in the GIS deliverable 92. Image maps in PDF format of the processed Landsat and ASTER scenes are referenced in the appendixes.

  12. Breeding for an ideal plant type in yellow sarson (Brassica rapa L. yellow sarson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Sinhamahapatra, Ram Babu Raman, Somnath Roy, Uday Sankar Roy, Narendra M. Raut and Kale Vinod Ashok

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Yield improvement has always been an important objective for plant breeders although seed yield is a complex trait influencedby several component characters. The present paper reports the efforts made to develop lines of yellow sarson with someestablished morpho-phisiological characters contributing to seed yield. A spontaneous erectophyle multilocular siliqua mutantwas first used to transfer this trait into improved breeding lines. Both multilocular and bilocular siliqua types were comparablein seed yield but bilocular types recorded significantly higher number of siliqua per plant while tetralocular types recordedsignificantly larger number of seeds per siliqua. Erectophyle siliqua orientation was then established to be more productive thanother posture like pendant or horizontal. A spontaneous basal branching mutant was then used to transfer this trait into thebreeding lines and incorporated lines produced more number of siliqua per plant through increase in number of branches. Aspontaneous apetalous mutant was isolated and this trait was transferred to the elite breeding lines. Among different groupswaxy multilocular apetalous groups recorded significantly higher seed yield per plant. Thus the long term research effortsestablished the concept of achieving a high yielding ideotype in yellow sarson through incorporation of some morpho-physicaltraits following classical breeding.

  13. Combining ASTER multispectral imagery analysis and support vector machines for rapid and cost-effective post-fire assessment: a case study from the Greek wildland fires of 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, G. P.; Knorr, W.; Scholze, M.; Boschetti, L.; Karantounias, G.

    2010-02-01

    Remote sensing is increasingly being used as a cost-effective and practical solution for the rapid evaluation of impacts from wildland fires. The present study investigates the use of the support vector machine (SVM) classification method with multispectral data from the Advanced Spectral Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) for obtaining a rapid and cost effective post-fire assessment in a Mediterranean setting. A further objective is to perform a detailed intercomparison of available burnt area datasets for one of the most catastrophic forest fire events that occurred near the Greek capital during the summer of 2007. For this purpose, two ASTER scenes were acquired, one before and one closely after the fire episode. Cartography of the burnt area was obtained by classifying each multi-band ASTER image into a number of discrete classes using the SVM classifier supported by land use/cover information from the CORINE 2000 land nomenclature. Overall verification of the derived thematic maps based on the classification statistics yielded results with a mean overall accuracy of 94.6% and a mean Kappa coefficient of 0.93. In addition, the burnt area estimate derived from the post-fire ASTER image was found to have an average difference of 9.63% from those reported by other operationally-offered burnt area datasets available for the test region.

  14. Combining ASTER multispectral imagery analysis and support vector machines for rapid and cost-effective post-fire assessment: a case study from the Greek wildland fires of 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Petropoulos

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing is increasingly being used as a cost-effective and practical solution for the rapid evaluation of impacts from wildland fires. The present study investigates the use of the support vector machine (SVM classification method with multispectral data from the Advanced Spectral Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER for obtaining a rapid and cost effective post-fire assessment in a Mediterranean setting. A further objective is to perform a detailed intercomparison of available burnt area datasets for one of the most catastrophic forest fire events that occurred near the Greek capital during the summer of 2007. For this purpose, two ASTER scenes were acquired, one before and one closely after the fire episode. Cartography of the burnt area was obtained by classifying each multi-band ASTER image into a number of discrete classes using the SVM classifier supported by land use/cover information from the CORINE 2000 land nomenclature. Overall verification of the derived thematic maps based on the classification statistics yielded results with a mean overall accuracy of 94.6% and a mean Kappa coefficient of 0.93. In addition, the burnt area estimate derived from the post-fire ASTER image was found to have an average difference of 9.63% from those reported by other operationally-offered burnt area datasets available for the test region.

  15. Time constraints for the Yellow River traversing the Sanmen Gorge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, P.; Jia, J.; Zheng, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The Yellow River is sourced to the northern piedmont of the Bayanhar Mountain Range in the Qinghai Province. It is the second longest river in China, traversing 5464 km. The Yellow River bends like a square in its middle course before traversing the Sanmen Gorge. The Sanmen Gorge is the last gorge in the main course of the Yellow River. After the Sanmen Gorge, the Yellow River flows into vast plains without any barrier, and finally emptys into the Bohai Bay. Thus, the timing of cut-through the Sanmen Gorge implies a true sense of formation and connection of the Yellow River. Drilling in the Weihe Basin, located west of the Sanmen Gorge, shows deposition of over 1000 m lacustrine/fluvial sediments and suggests existence of a paleolake in the basin before the Sanmen Gorge was cut through. The lacustrine/fluvial sequence outcrops at the west bank of the Youhe reservoir is composed of the Sanmen Formation and the Youhe Formation, typical of the sediments in the Weihe Basin. We studied five lacustrine/fluvial phase samples collected from the Youhe reservoir section and three fluvial sand samples relating to transition from lake to fluvial environments from Xihoudu. Our cosmogenic nuclide burial ages suggest that the paleolake formed 2 Ma ago, the transition of the Youhe Formation to the Sanmen Formation occurred 1.8 Ma ago, and the transition from lake to fluvial environment occurred 1.4-1.5 Ma ago. Thick fluvial sands, 90-120 m and 60 m higher than the current water level of the Yellow River, are preserved at Liujiahou and Mapo, respectively, located within the Sanmen Gorge. Dating of these fluvial sands suggests their deposition ages over 1.3 Ma. Zircon U-Pb age distributions of the sands further suggest that Weihe primarily flowed over the Sanmen Gorge 1.3-1.5 Ma ago, followed by the Yellow River cutting through the gorge 1.3-1.4 Ma ago. Previous studies show that the Yellow River appeared at Lanzhou 1.7 Ma ago and running through to the Bohai Bay in the Early

  16. COEXISTENCE YELLOW NAIL SYNDROME WITH SYSTEMIC SYMPTOMS - PRESENTATION OF CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brzeziński Piotr

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Nail changes can accompany many systemic diseases and very often indicate the ongoing systemic process of illness. The yellow nail syndrome (YNS is very rare clinical entity characterized by marked thickening and yellow to yellow-green discoloration of the nails. Congenitally hypoplastic lymphostasis plays a major role in the clinical manifestation of that disease. Syndrome includes pleural effusions, lymphedema and yellow dystrophic nails. The pathogenesis stays still unknown.Aim: Presentation the coexistence of YNS with the systemic symptoms by analyzing cases of 3 patients.Material and methods: The analysis involved 3 patients with YNS (2 women and 1 man aged from 43 to 48 years.Results: We confirmed 3 cases of YNS, with the characteristic nails changes (yellow-greenish discoloration, absence of lunula, etc.. None of the patients had a family history of YNS. All suffered from chronic diseases: the first patient suffered from lymphedema and diabetes mellitus, second - from rheumatoid arthritis and the third complained of a chronic caught and sinusitis. All YNS`s symptoms occurred in the patients` forties. We observed fingers and toes involvement on 7-8 nails in each patient.Conclusions: The YNS offen associated with systemic disease, most commonly lymphedema and bronchiectasis. However, the literature describes some connections with carcinoma and autoimmune diseases. Therefore, each patient with YNS should be examined for cancer detection and stay under periodic medical control.

  17. Yellow fever, Asia and the East African slave trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathey, John T; Marr, John S

    2014-05-01

    Yellow fever is endemic in parts of sub-Saharan Africa and South America, yet its principal vectors--species of mosquito of the genus Aedes--are found throughout tropical and subtropical latitudes. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that yellow fever originated in Africa and that its spread to the New World coincided with the slave trade, but why yellow fever has never appeared in Asia remains a mystery. None of several previously proposed explanations for its absence there is considered satisfactory. We contrast the trans-Atlantic slave trade, and trade across the Sahara and to the Arabian Peninsula and Mesopotamia, with that to Far East and Southeast Asian ports before abolition of the African slave trade, and before the scientific community understood the transmission vector of yellow fever and the viral life cycle, and the need for shipboard mosquito control. We propose that these differences in slave trading had a primary role in the avoidance of yellow fever transmission into Asia in the centuries before the 20(th) century. The relatively small volume of the Black African slave trade between Africa and East and Southeast Asia has heretofore been largely ignored. Although focal epidemics may have occurred, the volume was insufficient to reach the threshold for endemicity. PMID:24743951

  18. An asymmetric upwind flow, Yellow Sea Warm Current: 1. New observations in the western Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaopei; Yang, Jiayan; Guo, Jingsong; Zhang, Zhixin; Yin, Yuqi; Song, Xiangzhou; Zhang, Xiaohui

    2011-04-01

    The winter water mass along the Yellow Sea Trough (YST), especially on the western side of the trough, is considerably warmer and saltier than the ambient shelf water mass. This observed tongue-shape hydrographic feature implies the existence of a winter along-trough and onshore current, often referred to as the Yellow Sea Warm Current (YSWC). However, the YSWC has not been confirmed by direct current measurements and therefore skepticism remains regarding its existence. Some studies suggest that the presence of the warm water could be due to frontal instability, eddies, or synoptic scale wind bursts. It is noted that in situ observations used in most previous studies were from the central and eastern sides of the YST even though it is known that the warm water core is more pronounced along the western side. Data from the western side have been scarce. Here we present a set of newly available Chinese observations, including some from a coordinated effort involving three Chinese vessels in the western YST during the 2006-2007 winter. The data show unambiguously the existence of the warm current on the western side of YST. Both the current and hydrography observations indicate a dominant barotropic structure of YSWC. The westward deviation of YSWC axis is particularly obvious to the south of 35°N and is clearly associated with an onshore movement of warm water. To the north of 35°N, the YSWC flows along the bathymetry with slightly downslope movement. We conclude that the barotropic current is mainly responsible for the warm water intrusion, while the Ekman and baroclinic currents play an important but secondary role. These observations help fill an observational gap and establish a more complete view of the YSWC.

  19. A novel emaravirus is associated with redbud yellow ringspot disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bello, Patrick L; Laney, Alma G; Druciarek, Tobiasz; Ho, Thien; Gergerich, Rose C; Keller, Karen E; Martin, Robert R; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E

    2016-08-15

    Yellow ringspot is the only virus-like disease reported in redbud (Cercis spp.) with symptoms including vein clearing, chlorotic ringspots and oak-leaf pattern. A putative new emaravirus was present in all trees displaying typical yellow ringspot symptoms and the name redbud yellow ringspot associated virus is proposed. The virus genome is composed of at least five RNA segments. Two coding regions were studied to determine isolate diversity with results pointing to a homogeneous virus population. Host range was evaluated using graft transmission and by testing species found in close proximity to infected trees. Mite transmission with Aculops cercidis, the predominant species found in redbud trees in the epicenter of the disease, was evaluated but was not found to be a vector of the virus. Based on this study and the accumulated knowledge on emaravirus evolution we propose that speciation is allopatric, with vectors being a major component of the process.

  20. Chemicohydrographic characteristics of the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIN Ming; MA Deyi; WANG Baodong

    2015-01-01

    Based on the field data obtained during summer cruises in 2006, the overall perspective of chemical and hydrographic characteristics of the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass (YSCWM) are discussed through the cross-YSCWM transect profiles and horizontal distributions of hydrological and chemical variables, with emphasis on the differences between the northern Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass (NYSCWM) and the southern Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass (SYSCWM). The results show that YSCWM is characterized by low temperature (32.0) and nutrient concentrations. Compared to the SYSCWM, the NYSCWM possesses lower values of temperature, salinity and nutrient concentrations but higher values of DO. Also its smaller variation ranges of variables (except for temperature) demonstrate that NYSCWM is more uniform than that of SYSCWM. In addition, thermocline is more intensive in the SYSCWM than that of NYSCWM. Furthermore, DO and Chla maxima appear at the depth of 30 m in the SYSCWM, while these phenomena are not obvious in the NYSCWM.

  1. REGULATION OF FLOW AND SEDIMENT LOAD IN THE YELLOW RIVER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenxue LI; Jixiang LIU; Zhanwei WAN

    2007-01-01

    Small runoff, large sediment load, and incompatible relationship of flow and sediment load are very important characteristics of the Yellow River. They are also the crux of the most prominent problems of the Yellow River. To solve these problems, the regimes of flow and sediment load have to be improved by increasing water, reducing sediment load, and by using reservoirs to regulate flow and sediment load. The results of experiments for regulating the flow and sediment load in the last three years by the Xiaolangdi Reservoir have indicated that this measure is a realistic and effective way to mitigate the prominent problems in flood control of the Lower Yellow River at present and in the near future. However, the regulation system is still imperfect. It is advisable to speed up the pace of research and construction of the system for regulating flow and sediment load.

  2. Yellow fever vaccine: worthy friend or stealthy foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Stephen J; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2016-06-01

    Recognition that the live yellow fever vaccine may rarely be associated with viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) has diminished its safety status. However, the vaccine remains the principal tool for limiting the occurrence of yellow fever, making large portions of Africa and South America more habitable. The subject has previously been exhaustively reviewed. Novel concepts in the current report include the description of a systematic method for deciding whom to vaccinate, recommendations for obtaining data helpful in making that decision, and suggestions for additional study. The vaccine is indeed a worthy friend, but its adverse reactions need to be recognized. PMID:27087465

  3. Yellow fever vaccine: worthy friend or stealthy foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Stephen J; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2016-06-01

    Recognition that the live yellow fever vaccine may rarely be associated with viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) has diminished its safety status. However, the vaccine remains the principal tool for limiting the occurrence of yellow fever, making large portions of Africa and South America more habitable. The subject has previously been exhaustively reviewed. Novel concepts in the current report include the description of a systematic method for deciding whom to vaccinate, recommendations for obtaining data helpful in making that decision, and suggestions for additional study. The vaccine is indeed a worthy friend, but its adverse reactions need to be recognized.

  4. Yellow Nail Syndrome: Dystrophic Nails, Peripheral Lymphedema and Chronic Cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Dornia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A case involving a 41-year-old man with yellow nail syndrome (YNS is reported. YNS is a rare disorder characterized by yellow, dystrophic nails, peripheral lymphedema and bronchiectasis with recurrent lower respiratory tract infections. YNS is often misdiagnosed because the syndrome is not well known. An interdisciplinary approach is required to recognize and collate the components of the syndrome accurately. Correct diagnosis is of utmost clinical importance because YNS can occur secondary to malignancies and autoimmune disorders. Hence, the diagnosis of YNS must prompt further investigation.

  5. Study of the structural changes in the Popocatepetl volcano in Mexico related to microseismicity by applying the lineament analysis to the Aster (Terra) satellite data

    CERN Document Server

    Arellano-Baeza, A A; Trejo-Soto, M

    2007-01-01

    Mexico is one of the most volcanically active regions in North America. Volcanic activity in central Mexico is associated with the subduction of the Cocos and Rivera plates beneath the North American plate. Periods of enhanced microseismic activity, associated with the volcanic activity of the Popocatepetl volcano is compared with periods, during which the microseismic activity was low. We detected systematical changes in the number of lineaments, associated with the microseismic activity due to lineament analysis of a temporal sequence of high resolution satellite images of the Popocatepetl volcano, provided by the ASTER/VNIR instrument. The Lineament Extraction and Stripes Statistic Analysis (LESSA) software package was used for the lineament extraction. In the future it would allow develop a methodology for detection of possible elevation of pressure in volcano edifice.

  6. Primary study on seedings classification of Aster tataricus L.f%祁紫菀种苗质量分级标准的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田汝美; 孟义江; 葛淑俊

    2011-01-01

    The main problem in Aster tataricus L. F. Production is there is no rule registered to control the seedlings quality. Making a seedling classification criteria and distributing the good quality seedlings are the base to improve the yield and quality of Aster. In this paper quality classification standard was studied with 17 germplasms collected from Anguo, Hebei province. Taking stem hair number, stem diameter and shoot distance as the main factors, adopting the orthogonal experiment design L9(34) for seedlings treatments, multi-factors field trails, randomized block design,the Aster seedlings were divided into three grades by investigating the relationship between the graded seedling and agronomic traits such as seedling emergence,growth vigor, plant height, yield and quality etc, The stem hair of seedling grade 1st is above 4 and stem diameter is above 0. 3 cm. They had high germination percentage, the best vigorous growth and highest yield. The grade 2nd , the number of stem hair is no less than 2 and stem diameter is greater than or equal to 0. 25 cm. Grade 3rd :the sum of stem hair is less than 4 and the stem diameter is less than 0. 25 cm. The yield of former two grades is about 700 - 800 kg/ 667 m2 thus could be used as seedlings for production. The grading standards provided effective theoretical basis for the Aster seedings breeding.%针对紫菀生产中种苗来源混乱、质量参差不齐等主要问题,本研究搜集整理出河北安国紫菀种苗17份,以茎毛数、茎粗和芽距为主要因素,采取正交试验设计L9(34)进行种苗不同处理,田间种植采取多因素多点、随机区组设计,以出苗率、生长势、株高和产量等性状为依据,把紫菀种苗划分为3级.其中,1级种苗茎毛数>4,茎粗>0.3 cm,出苗率高,植株生长最旺盛,产量最高;2级种苗茎毛数为≥2个,茎粗为≥0.25 cm,3级种苗茎毛数<2个,茎粗<0.25 cm,1级、2级种苗产量在700~800 kg/667 m2,

  7. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of site-dependent uptake and distribution of trace elements in the saltmarsh plant Aster tripolium from marsh fields in the Schelde estuary, Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of an environmental chemical investigation the uptake of heavy metals by a saltmarsh plant Aster tripolium from two differently polluted salt marsh sites of the North Sea between 20 to 30 trace elements were determined in soil and plant organs. A sensitive gamma ray counting system was installed and tested for instrumental activation analyses (INAA). Installations to improve sensitivity as well as conditions necessary for reliable trace element analysis with the aid of Anticompton spectrometers (ACS) are described. The accuracy and reproducibility of the method was determined by the analysis of reference- and control materials of the german environmental specimen bank. In order to characterise the state of pollution of the salt marsh soils pollution-factors for single elements as well as interelemental correlations were evaluated. In addition, uptake and translocation factors of the biological samples were calculated. The many highly significant correlations between elements within the plant organs indicated that uptake appears to be physiologicaly controlled and not dependent on soil concentration. In order to detect further consequences of differing pollution influences within these plants biochemical separation techniques were applied and trace element levels in selected extracts were determined. For the specification of heavy metals gelpermeation chromatography of ethanolic extracts proved to be the most promising method. Furthermore, propositions for the use of trace elements as a fingerprint for pollution status and characterisation of species for referenz- and specimenbank materials have been developed. Aster tripolium as a cadmium accumulating plant can probably be used as an indicator in the monitoring of cadmium polluted salt marsh areas. (orig.)

  8. The suitability of using ASTER GDEM2 for terrain-based extraction of stream channel networks in a lowland Arctic permafrost catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Trofaier

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Seasonally inundated areas and water-saturated soils are common features of lowland Arctic and sub-Arctic permafrost environments. With the onset of snow melt, and water percolation down through the snowpack, a principal factor controlling stream channel flow, aside from active layer depth, is topography. This paper investigates stream channel networks derived from the advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER global digital elevation model (GDEM version 2 in a static terrain-based GIS-model. The suitability of using the ASTER GDEM2 for modelling the drainage network over a low-relief terrain is assessed. The aim is to use GDEM2 for the analysis of the stream channel network and to establish the network’s connectivity to previously observed spring flood patterns over the Yamal peninsula. As such, there are two parts to this study: 1 DEM validation and 2 stream channel network analysis. The results of the DEM validation study show that the root mean square error (RMSE of the GDEM2 and reference data is approx. 10 m when compared to both reference data sets (RMSE = 12.17 m, N = 86 and RMSE = 9.64, N = 506,877, implying that the GDEM2 is sufficiently accurate for terrain-based modelling. The low connectivity between the stream channel network and seasonal inundation suggests that topographic controls play a less important role compared to the possible overbanking of lakes and basin overflow. However, drainage densities for investigated drainage basins were significantly lower than those expected from typical Arctic basins. Both more sophisticated modelling techniques as well as higher spatial resolution DEMs are needed to extract the stream channel network more accurately and hence establish a more comprehensive link between the drainage network and seasonally inundated areas.

  9. Yellow-billed loon populations on the Colville River Delta, arctic Alaska: Supplemental project report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the yellow-billed loon populations on the Colville river delta in the Arctic Alaska. The estimates sizes of the 1982 and 1984 yellow-billed look...

  10. Research on the Geographical Indication and Cultural Heritage of China's Yellow Tea

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Min; Sun, Zhiguo; Liu, Zhiyang; Ding, Guangping

    2014-01-01

    The yellow tea falls within one of the six basic categories of tea, and it is a type of unique and ancient tea in China. Junshan Yinzhen is one of China's Top Ten Teas, and Yueyang City in Hunan Province is the hometown of yellow tea. The yellow tea now has 2 national geographical indication products, 4 national geographical indication trademarks, 1 national geographical indication of agricultural products, and 3 items of provincial intangible cultural heritage. The famous brand of yellow tea...

  11. 21 CFR 82.2707a - Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7. 82.2707a Section 82.2707a... Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7. The color additive Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7 shall conform in identity with specifications to the requirements of § 74.1707a(a)(1) and (b) of this chapter. Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7...

  12. The carbon footprint of exported Brazilian yellow melon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brito de Figueirêdo, M.C.; Kroeze, C.; Potting, J.; Silva Barros, da V.; Sousa de Aragão, A.; Sonsol Gondim, R.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The carbon footprint of food has become important for producers worldwide as consumers and retail companies increasingly base their purchase decisions on carbon footprint labels. In this context, our objectives is to assess the carbon footprint (CF) of Brazilian yellow melon exported from the Low Ja

  13. [A novel yellow organic light-emitting device].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chen; Wang, Hua; Hao, Yu-Ying; Gao, Zhi-Xiang; Zhou, He-Feng; Xu, Bing-She

    2008-07-01

    The fabrication of a novel organic yellow-light-emitting device using Rhodamine B as dopant with double quantum-well (DQW) structure was introduced in the present article. The structure and thickness of this device is ITO/CuPc (6 nm) /NPB (20 nm) /Alq3 (3 nm)/Alq3 : Rhodamine B (3 nm) /Alq3 (3 nm) /Al q3 : Rhodamine B(3 nm) /Alq3 (30 nm) /Liq (5 nm)/Al (30 nm). With the detailed investigation of electroluminescence of the novel organic yellow-light-emitting device, the authors found that the doping concentration of Rhodamine B (RhB) had a very big influence on luminance and efficiency of the organic yellow-light-emitting device. When doping concentration of Rhodamine B (RhB) was 1.5 wt%, the organic yellow-light-emitting device was obtained with the maximum current efficiency of 1.526 cd x A(-1) and the maximum luminance of 1 309 cd x m(-2). It can be seen from the EL spectra of the devices that there existed energy transferring from Alq3 to RhB in the organic light-emitting layers. When the doping concentration of RhB increased, lambda(max) of EL spectra redshifted obviously. The phenomenon was attributed to the Stokes effect of quantum wells and self-polarization of RhB dye molecules. PMID:18844143

  14. Yellow flowers generated by expression of the aurone biosynthetic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Eiichiro; Fukuchi-Mizutani, Masako; Nakamura, Noriko; Fukui, Yuko; Yonekura-Sakakibara, Keiko; Yamaguchi, Masaatsu; Nakayama, Toru; Tanaka, Takaharu; Kusumi, Takaaki; Tanaka, Yoshikazu

    2006-07-18

    Flower color is most often conferred by colored flavonoid pigments. Aurone flavonoids confer a bright yellow color on flowers such as snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) and dahlia (Dahlia variabilis). A. majus aureusidin synthase (AmAS1) was identified as the key enzyme that catalyzes aurone biosynthesis from chalcones, but transgenic flowers overexpressing AmAS1 gene failed to produce aurones. Here, we report that chalcone 4'-O-glucosyltransferase (4'CGT) is essential for aurone biosynthesis and yellow coloration in vivo. Coexpression of the Am4'CGT and AmAS1 genes was sufficient for the accumulation of aureusidin 6-O-glucoside in transgenic flowers (Torenia hybrida). Furthermore, their coexpression combined with down-regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis by RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in yellow flowers. An Am4'CGT-GFP chimeric protein localized in the cytoplasm, whereas the AmAS1(N1-60)-RFP chimeric protein was localized to the vacuole. We therefore conclude that chalcones are 4'-O-glucosylated in the cytoplasm, their 4'-O-glucosides transported to the vacuole, and therein enzymatically converted to aurone 6-O-glucosides. This metabolic pathway is unique among the known examples of flavonoid, including anthocyanin biosynthesis because, for all other compounds, the carbon backbone is completed before transport to the vacuole. Our findings herein not only demonstrate the biochemical basis of aurone biosynthesis but also open the way to engineering yellow flowers for major ornamental species lacking this color variant. PMID:16832053

  15. Yellow Fever Vaccine: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a risk of transmitting the vaccine virus through blood products during that period. 4 Wfevheorsvhaocuclidnen?ot get yellow • Anyone with a severe (life-threatening) allergy to any component of the vaccine, including eggs, chicken proteins, or gelatin, or who has had a ...

  16. There's More to Color than Red, Yellow, and Blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goobich, Joel

    2009-01-01

    From an early age, so much emphasis goes into teaching children the fundamentals of color theory, in particular the primary colors of red, yellow, and blue. Toys, building blocks, furniture, and so many other items used in a preschool environment are manufactured in these three colors. Yet, recent research has uncovered that babies as young as…

  17. Support for the sustainable development of the Yellow River Delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vrees, L.; Wang, Z.B.; Marchand, M.

    2011-01-01

    The environment in the Yellow River Delta (YRD) is under stress from large socio-economic pressures, leading to air, soil and water pollution. A Sino-Dutch project the Sustainable Development YRD project (1995 – 1997) was undertaken with the principle goal of contributing to the sustainable, long-te

  18. Preparation of pure uranyl chloride from crude yellow cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process is described for the preparation of pure uranyl chloride solution from crude yellow cake. The process involves dissolution of the latter in hydrochloric acid followed by uranium extraction using TBP-kerosene mixture. A series of experiments were carried out in order to determine the optimum conditions for both the dissolution and the extraction steps

  19. How Brazil joined the quest for a yellow fever vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Brazil recently announced an agreement between its Bio-Manguinhos vaccine unit and two US companies to research and develop a new yellow fever vaccine. Claudia Jurberg and Julia D’Aloisio talk to Jaime Benchimol about the controversial history of the development of the vaccine that benefits millions of people today.

  20. Yellow sticky, PHP software for an electronic brainstorming experiment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornburg, Courtney C.; Stevens, Susan Marie; Davidson, George S.; Forsythe, James Chris

    2007-09-01

    A web-based brainstorm was conducted in the summer of 2007 within the Sandia Restricted Network. This brainstorming experiment was modeled around the 'yellow sticky' brainstorms that are used in many face-to-face meetings at Sandia National Laboratories. This document discusses the implementation and makes suggestions for future implementations.

  1. Papaya Lethal Yellowing Virus (PLYV) Infects Vasconcellea cauliflora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaral, P.P.R.; Resende, de R.O.; Souza, M.T.

    2006-01-01

    Papaya lethal yellowing virus (PLYV) é um dos três vírus descritos infectando mamoeiros (Carica papaya L.) no Brasil. Vasconcellea cauliflora (Jacq.) A. DC., antes denominada de Carica cauliflora (Jacq.), é uma reconhecida fonte de resistência natural ao Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), causador da "Ma

  2. 78 FR 24471 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for the Sierra Nevada Yellow...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    ... History Mountain yellow-legged frogs currently exist in montane regions of the Sierra Nevada of California... by mountain yellow-legged frogs are frequently grassy or muddy. This differs from the sandy or rocky... Northern Distinct Population Segment of the Mountain Yellow-Legged Frog, and Threatened Status for...

  3. Ceres' Yellow Spots - Observations with Dawn Framing Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Michael; Schäfer, Tanja; Cloutis, Edward A.; Izawa, Matthew R. M.; Platz, Thomas; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.; Hoffmann, Martin; Thangjam, Guneshwar S.; Kneissl, Thomas; Nathues, Andreas; Mengel, Kurt; Williams, David A.; Kallisch, Jan; Ripken, Joachim; Russell, Christopher T.

    2016-04-01

    The Framing Camera (FC) onboard the Dawn spacecraft acquired several spectral data sets of (1) Ceres with increasing spatial resolution (up to 135 m/pixel with nearly global coverage). The FC is equipped with seven color filters (0.4-1.0 μm) plus one panchromatic ('clear') filter [1]. We produced spectral mosaics using photometrically corrected FC color filter images as described in [2]. Even early FC color mosaics obtained during Dawn's approach unexpectedly exhibited quite a diversity of surface materials on Ceres. Besides the ordinary cerean surface material, potentially composed of ammoniated phyllosilicates [3] or some other alteration product of carbonaceous chondrites [4], a large number of bright spots were found on Ceres [5]. These spots are substantially brighter than the average surface (exceeding its triple standard deviation), with the spots within Occator crater being the brightest and most prominent examples (reflectance more than 10 times the average of Ceres). We observed bright spots which are different by their obvious yellow color. This yellow color appears both in a 'true color' RGB display (R=0.65, G=0.55, B=0.44 μm) as well as in a false color display (R=0.97, G=0.75, B=0.44 μm) using a linear 2% stretch. Their spectra show a steep red slope between 0.44 and 0.55 μm (UV drop-off). On the contrary to these yellow spots, the vast majority of bright spots appears white in the aforementioned color displays and exhibit blue sloped spectra, except for a shallow UV drop-off. Thus, yellow spots are easily distinguishable from white spots and the remaining cerean surface by their high values in the ratio 0.55/0.44 μm. We found 8 occurrences of yellow spots on Ceres. Most of them (>70 individual spots) occur both inside and outside crater Dantu, where white spots are also found in the immediate vicinity. Besides Dantu, further occurrences with only a few yellow spots were found at craters Ikapati and Gaue. Less definite occurrences are found at 97

  4. Modeling urban heat islands in heterogeneous land surface and its correlation with impervious surface area by using night-time ASTER satellite data in highly urbanizing city, Delhi-India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Javed; Rahman, Atiqur; Singh, Chander Kumar

    2013-08-01

    The present study is an assessment and identification of urban heat island (UHI) in the environment of one of the fastest urbanizing city of India, Delhi Metropolis, employing satellite image of ASTER and Landsat 7 ETM+ in the thermal infrared region 3-14 μm. Temporal (2001 and 2005) ASTER datasets were used to analyze the spatial structure of the thermal urban environment subsequently urban heat island (UHI) in relation to the urban surface characteristics and land use/land cover (LULC). The study involves derivation of parameters governing the surface heat fluxes, constructing statistics of ASTER thermal infrared images along with validation through intensive in situ measurements. The average images reveal spatial and temporal variations of land surface temperature (LST) of night-time and distinct microclimatic patterns. Central Business District (CBD) of Delhi, (Connaught Place, a high density built up area), and commercial/industrial areas display heat islands condition with a temperature greater than 4 °C compared to the suburbs. The small increase in surface temperature at city level is mainly attributed to cumulative impact of human activities, changes in LULC pattern and vegetation density. In this study the methodology takes into account spatially-relative surface temperatures and impervious surface fraction value to measure surface UHI intensity between the urban land cover and rural surroundings. Both the spatial and temporal variation in surface temperature associated with impervious surface area (ISA) has been evaluated to assess the effect of urbanization on the local climate.

  5. Preliminary results on epidemiology of Coconut Lethal Yellowing in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnot François

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies are of major importance in understanding the determinants of plant diseases in order to control the risks of their spreading. A research programme on the epidemiology of coconut lethal yellowing, or Cape Saint Paul Wilt Disease (CSPWD, in Ghana was launched in March 2007. The objective was to characterize the distribution and spread of the disease in space and time at various scales, and their relation with the environment. This article presents the general strategy used to evaluate the incidence of CSPWD along with the environmental, ecological and agronomical variables at regional level. A survey was undertaken on 1,166 plots of Coconut Sector Development Project (CSDP planted with Malayan Yellow Dwarf (MYD × Vanuatu Tall (VTT hybrids in Western Region and Central Region. Preliminary results on the distribution of CSPWD and outside variables at regional scale, along with their relations, are given.

  6. Evaluation of homeopathy in seed germination of yellow ipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naira Maranhão Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies with homeopathie on seed germination of native forest species are scarce, regardless of its potential as low impact technology. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the use of homeopathic medications in different dynamizations in the seed germination of yellow ipe. The experimental design was completely randomized with three replications, in a factorial scheme with the three medicines in five dynamizations, totaling 16 treatments with the control consisting of distilled water. The medications used were Calcarea carbonica, Carbo vegetabilis and Silicea. The mediations were applied in of 6, 12, 30, 100 and 200 centesimals hahnemanianas (CH dynamizations. Regarding germination percentage and speed of germination index the medicament Silicea in 12CH dynamization was less efficient when compared to others medications and dynamizations. The use of homeopathic preparations does not benefit the pattern of yellow ipe seeds germination.

  7. Producing biodiesel from yellow greases with high free fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrani Mahacine

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a diesel replacement fuel that is manufactured from vegetable oils recycled cooking greases and oils or animal fats. Biodiesel offers many advantages because it is renewable, nontoxic, biodegradable, and suitable for sensitive environments. It can also be used in most diesel equipments with no or only minor modifications. These yellow greases contain great quantities of free fatty acids which form soaps in the presence of alkaline catalyst. Pretreatments of the raw material with acid catalysts are necessary to avoid the soap formation. The transesterification of yellow greases is supplemented in the presence of an alkaline catalyst. The greatest production of biodiesel corresponds to molar flows of 4.985 kmol.hr-1 of methyl oleate, and 4.658 kmol.hr-1 of methyl butyrate.

  8. Wheat Rust Toolbox Related to New Initiatives on Yellow Rust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Grønbech; Lassen, Poul

    of interactive maps; including information on surveillance (disease data over years and across countries for all three rusts) and graphs and maps indicating the distribution of UG99 and related pathotypes. Graphs and maps are integrated with, and disseminated, via the Rust SPORE web portal at FAO (http...... as several other Institutions and information platforms in the Durable Rust Resistance in Wheat project under the BGRI. From the outset the databases and information tools were developed to handle all three rust types. The EuroWheat platform already contains data on yellow rust pathotypes from Europe (1993...... – 2009), and as soon as possible this will be expanded to cover all global yellow rust data available via the GRRC. The presentation will focus on experiences from the previous work on global databases and web based information systems, as well as propose ideas how the toolbox can be helpful regarding...

  9. RANGE SURVEY OF DEPOSITION IN THE LOWER YELLOW RIVER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Yuqian; LIANG Guoting; ZHANG Yuanfeng; SHEN Guanqing; ZHANG Liuzhu; CHENG Longyuan

    2002-01-01

    A range survey database is established and used to study the deposition or erosion processes in the Lower Yellow River (LYR). The huge amount of data obtained through range surveys over nearly 50 years is managed by software (RGTOOLS) developed for this study. RGTOOLS is also used to evaluate the amount and distribution of deposition or erosion in LYR. Volumetric method is used for computation of the amount of deposition. Spatial and temporal variations of the deposition are studied and illustrated with drawings. It is found that a total of 6.44 billion m3 of sediment were deposited in the lower Yellow River over approximately 50 years. The pattern of deposition varies in response to the variation of oncoming flow, which is influenced by natural climatic variations and also by reservoir operation.

  10. Interannual variability of the southern Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡敦欣; 王庆业

    2004-01-01

    Temperature data collected in the sections of 34°N, 35°N and 36°N in August from 1975 through2003 were analyzed using Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) to investigate interannual variability of the southern Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass (YSCWM). The first mode (EOF1) reveals variations of basin-wide thermocline depth, which is mainly caused by surface heating. The second mode (EOF2) presents fluctuations of vertical circulation, resulting mainly from interannual variability of cold front intensity. In addition, it is found that the upward extent of upwelling in the cold front is basically determined by wind stress curl and the zonal position of the warm water center in the southern Yellow Sea is correlated with spatial difference of net heat flux.

  11. Yellow luminescence of co-doped gadolinium oxyhydroxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroaki Samata; Shungo Imanaka; Masashi Hanioka; Tadashi C Ozawa

    2015-01-01

    Crystals of co-doped gadolinium oxyhydroxide (GdOOH), Gd0.98Eu0.02−xTbxOOH and Gd1−y−zDyyBizOOH, were synthe-sized by a flux method. The color coordinates in the Commission Internationale de I’Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity diagram of Gd0.98Eu0.02−xTbxOOH, obtained under 254 nm irradiation, shifted along a straight line with the changing values ofxto include the yellow region. The CIE coordinates of Dy3+ doped in GdOOH were located in the yellow region, while the emission intensity of Dy3+ under 286 nm irradiation increased by more than 40 times when co-doped with Bi3+.

  12. Analytical Raman spectroscopic discrimination between yellow pigments of the Renaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Howell G M

    2011-10-01

    The Renaissance represented a major advance in painting techniques, subject matter, artistic style and the use of pigments and pigment mixtures. However, most pigments in general use were still mineral-based as most organic dyes were believed to be fugitive; the historical study of artists' palettes and recipes has assumed importance for the attribution of art works to the Renaissance period. Although the application of diagnostic elemental and molecular spectroscopic techniques play vital and complementary roles in the analysis of art works, elemental techniques alone cannot definitively provide the data needed for pigment identification. The advantages and limitations of Raman spectroscopy for the definitive diagnostic characterisation of yellow pigments that were in use during the Renaissance is demonstrated here in consideration of heavy metal oxides and sulphides; these data will be compared with those obtained from analyses of synthetic yellow pigments that were available during the eighteenth and nineteenth Centuries which could have been used in unrecorded restorations of Renaissance paintings.

  13. Synthesis of Iron Oxide Yellow from Spent Pickling Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Guangqin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates a simple environment-friendly synthesis route of iron oxide yellow (α-FeOOH using spent pickling solutions as raw material. After abundant laboratory experiments, we finally pinned down the best procedure. The research showed that α-FeOOH nanometer material with average diameter of 50nm and average length of 400 nm was prepared at the optimal technique. And the FeOOH content of the sample was as high as 90%, which is higher than the 86% of GB/T1863-2008. The structure, morphology and size distribution of the product was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Transmission electron microscope (TEM, Scanning electron microscope (SEM and Malvern lazer particle analyzer, respectively. The test results show that all the indices of as-prepared iron oxide yellow are completely in conformity with and even better than national primes standard.

  14. Research on Driver Behavior in Yellow Interval at Signalized Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaosheng Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicles are often caught in dilemma zone when they approach signalized intersections in yellow interval. The existence of dilemma zone which is significantly influenced by driver behavior seriously affects the efficiency and safety of intersections. This paper proposes the driver behavior models in yellow interval by logistic regression and fuzzy decision tree modeling, respectively, based on camera image data. Vehicle’s speed and distance to stop line are considered in logistic regression model, which also brings in a dummy variable to describe installation of countdown timer display. Fuzzy decision tree model is generated by FID3 algorithm whose heuristic information is fuzzy information entropy based on membership functions. This paper concludes that fuzzy decision tree is more accurate to describe driver behavior at signalized intersection than logistic regression model.

  15. Loss of function of the yellow-e gene causes dehydration-induced mortality of adult Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Mi Young; Kramer, Karl J; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Beeman, Richard W; Kanost, Michael R; Arakane, Yasuyuki

    2015-03-15

    Yellow protein (dopachrome conversion enzyme, DCE) is involved in the melanin biosynthetic pathway that significantly accelerates pigmentation reactions in insects. Recent studies have suggested that the insect yellow genes represent a rapidly evolving gene family generating functionally diverse paralogs, but the exact physiological functions of several yellow genes are still not understood. To study the function(s) of one of the yellow genes, yellow-e (TcY-e), in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, we performed real-time PCR to analyze its developmental and tissue-specific expression, and utilized immunohistochemistry to identify the localization of the TcY-e protein in adult cuticle. Injection of double-stranded RNA for TcY-e (dsTcY-e) into late instar larvae had no effect on larval-pupal molting or pupal development. The pupal cuticle, including that lining the setae, gin traps and urogomphi, underwent normal tanning. Adult cuticle tanning including that of the head, mandibles and legs viewed through the translucent pupal cuticle was initiated on schedule (pupal days 4-5), indicating that TcY-e is not required for pupal or pharate adult cuticle pigmentation in T. castaneum. The subsequent pupal-adult molt, however, was adversely affected. Although pupal cuticle apolysis and slippage were evident, some of the adults (~25%) were unable to shed their exuvium and died entrapped in their pupal cuticle. In addition, the resulting adults rapidly became highly desiccated. Interestingly, both the failure of the pupal-adult molt and desiccation-induced mortality were prevented by maintaining the dsTcY-e-treated insects at 100% relative humidity (rh). However, when the high humidity-rescued adults were removed from 100% rh and transferred to 50% rh, they rapidly dehydrated and died, whereas untreated beetles thrived throughout development at 50% rh. We also observed that the body color of the high humidity-rescued dsTcY-e-adults was slightly darker than that of

  16. Taxonomy Icon Data: yellow fever mosquito [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti Arthropoda Aedes_aegypti_L.png Aedes_aegypti_NL.png Aedes_aegypt...i_S.png Aedes_aegypti_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aedes+aegypti...&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aedes+aegypti&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aedes+aegyp...ti&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aedes+aegypti&t=NS ...

  17. Development of Rural Banks in Yellow River Delta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The status quo of new-type rural financial institutions in the Yellow River delta is summarized.It is pointed out that these financial institutions have improved the development of economy concerning agriculture,rural areas and peasants,but due to the shortage of capital,deficit and many other reasons,the outlets is fewer,which can not serve the agriculture,rural areas and peasants well.The necessity of developing rural banks in the Yellow River delta is introduced:firstly,rural banks can serve the agriculture,rural areas and peasants well with flexible system and management methods.Secondly,rural banks can serve and support the vulnerable groups of the three rural issues concerning agriculture,countryside and famers well.Thirdly,rural banks provide strong support for the all around development of rural business concerning the agriculture,rural areas and peasants.Fourthly,rural banks have significant advantages in serving the agriculture,rural areas and peasants.The probability of developing rural banks in the Yellow River delta is analyzed from the three advantages of policy,environment and economy.The challenges faced by the development of rural banks are studied as follows:firstly,the short-term profits are hard to take effect.Secondly,the capital quantity of rural banks is large.Thirdly,the pressure of competition and operation is great.Thus the countermeasures of developing rural banks in the Yellow River delta are put forward:for instance,clarifying the service object in a certain area;using the minority to bring along the majority;reducing the risk of asymmetric information by information technology.

  18. GEOMORPHIC THRESHOLDS FOR CHANNEL EVOLUTION IN THE LOWER YELLOW RIVER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongyan LI; Zhongchen LU

    2004-01-01

    Channel evolution refers to boundary changes of rivers affected by fluvial actions. This paper provides an analysis of the development and formation of stream patterns in the lower Yellow River and presents intensive studies of several critical problems relating to channel evolution, including thresholds of channel gradient and longitudinal profile adjustment, channel surface morphology, response of channel pattern to boundary conditions, critical discrimination of cross sections and the discrimination of channel pattern changes using hydrologic parameters.

  19. Evaluation of homeopathy in seed germination of yellow ipe

    OpenAIRE

    Naira Maranhão Silva; Bianca de Oliveira; Stefany Lorrayny Lima

    2014-01-01

    Studies with homeopathie on seed germination of native forest species are scarce, regardless of its potential as low impact technology. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the use of homeopathic medications in different dynamizations in the seed germination of yellow ipe. The experimental design was completely randomized with three replications, in a factorial scheme with the three medicines in five dynamizations, totaling 16 treatments with the control consisting of distil...

  20. Ocean renewable energy : Tidal power in the Yellow Sea

    OpenAIRE

    LEE, Han Soo

    2011-01-01

    Ocean renewable energy sources are briefly introduced in this review article. Special focus on tidal energy from ocean renewable energy in the Yellow Sea and its practical utilization in South Korea are illustrated with several examples. Among them, the Sihwa Lake tidal power plant, the Garolim Bay tidal power project, the Incheon tidal power project, and the Uldolmok tidal current power station were introduced with more details. A numerical modelling system, Regional Ocean Tide Simulator, is...

  1. Yellow Mealworm Protein for Food Purposes - Extraction and Functional Properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Zhao

    Full Text Available A protocol for extraction of yellow mealworm larvae proteins was established, conditions were evaluated and the resulting protein extract was characterised. The freeze-dried yellow mealworm larvae contained around 33% fat, 51% crude protein and 43% true protein on a dry matter basis. The true protein content of the protein extract was about 75%, with an extraction rate of 70% under optimised extraction conditions using 0.25 M NaOH, a NaOH solution:ethanol defatted worm ratio of 15:1 mL/g, 40°C for 1 h and extraction twice. The protein extract was a good source of essential amino acids. The lowest protein solubility in distilled water solution was found between pH 4 and 5, and increased with either increasing or decreasing pH. Lower solubility was observed in 0.5 M NaCl solution compared with distilled water. The rheological tests indicated that temperature, sample concentration, addition of salt and enzyme, incubation time and pH alterations influenced the elastic modulus of yellow mealworm protein extract (YMPE. These results demonstrate that the functional properties of YMPE can be modified for different food applications.

  2. Narcolepsy Following Yellow Fever Vaccination: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosch, Richard E.; Farquhar, Michael; Gringras, Paul; Pal, Deb K.

    2016-01-01

    Narcolepsy with cataplexy is a rare, but important differential diagnosis for daytime sleepiness and atonic paroxysms in an adolescent. A recent increase in incidence in the pediatric age group probably linked to the use of the Pandemrix influenza vaccine in 2009, has increased awareness that different environmental factors can “trigger” narcolepsy with cataplexy in a genetically susceptible population. Here, we describe the case of a 13-year-old boy with narcolepsy following yellow fever vaccination. He carries the HLA DQB1*0602 haplotype strongly associated with narcolepsy and cataplexy. Polysomnography showed rapid sleep onset with rapid eye movement (REM) latency of 47 min, significant sleep fragmentation and a mean sleep latency of 1.6 min with sleep onset REM in four out of four nap periods. Together with the clinical history, these findings are diagnostic of narcolepsy type 1. The envelope protein E of the yellow fever vaccine strain 17D has significant amino acid sequence overlap with both hypocretin and the hypocretin receptor 2 receptors in protein regions that are predicted to act as epitopes for antibody production. These findings raise the question whether the yellow fever vaccine strain may, through a potential molecular mimicry mechanism, be another infectious trigger for this neuro-immunological disorder.

  3. Narcolepsy Following Yellow Fever Vaccination: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosch, Richard E; Farquhar, Michael; Gringras, Paul; Pal, Deb K

    2016-01-01

    Narcolepsy with cataplexy is a rare, but important differential diagnosis for daytime sleepiness and atonic paroxysms in an adolescent. A recent increase in incidence in the pediatric age group probably linked to the use of the Pandemrix influenza vaccine in 2009, has increased awareness that different environmental factors can "trigger" narcolepsy with cataplexy in a genetically susceptible population. Here, we describe the case of a 13-year-old boy with narcolepsy following yellow fever vaccination. He carries the HLA DQB1*0602 haplotype strongly associated with narcolepsy and cataplexy. Polysomnography showed rapid sleep onset with rapid eye movement (REM) latency of 47 min, significant sleep fragmentation and a mean sleep latency of 1.6 min with sleep onset REM in four out of four nap periods. Together with the clinical history, these findings are diagnostic of narcolepsy type 1. The envelope protein E of the yellow fever vaccine strain 17D has significant amino acid sequence overlap with both hypocretin and the hypocretin receptor 2 receptors in protein regions that are predicted to act as epitopes for antibody production. These findings raise the question whether the yellow fever vaccine strain may, through a potential molecular mimicry mechanism, be another infectious trigger for this neuro-immunological disorder. PMID:27559330

  4. Removal of remazol yellow with modified clays with iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clays have the ability to absorb water and to retain in its structure both hydrophilic and hydrophobic substances, therefore, it is possible to use them in the sorption of dyes from waste water, in order to avoid affecting water bodies or storm drains when they are discharged. In this paper the montmorillonite KSF and a sodium bentonite from the Morelos State, Mexico were studied for the sorption of an azo dye used in textiles knows as remazol yellow. These clays were modified with iron, the dye sorption behaviors and their regeneration processes for their reuse were determined. It was difficult to separate the sodium bentonite after being in contact with aqueous solutions; therefore it was nor a candidate dor the removal of remazol yellow from aqueous solutions. The montmorillonite KSF was characterized before and after the iron modification, and after its regeneration by scanning electron microscopy (elemental analysis), infrared spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and the specific areas of the materials were determined by Bet analysis. The adsorption equilibrium time and the adsorption rate for remazol yellow were determined from the fitting of the experimental results to mathematical models for the unmodified and iron modified montmorillonite KSF. The adsorption capacity was determined from the adsorption isotherms and mathematical models. The influence of the ph in the sorption processes was determined as well, and it was found that, ph values between 2 and 12 do not have any influence on the adsorption processes for iron modified montmorillonite KSF. The montmorillonite KSF and the iron modified montmorillonite KSF are adequate adsorbents for the removal of remazol yellow from aqueous solutions. Although, the sorption capacity for the unmodified montmorillonite KSF is higher (about 10%) than the capacity for the iron modified montmorillonite KSF and the stability of the last one increased. The saturated clays with remazol yellow were treated with Fenton reactive

  5. 基于光学立体和 InSAR 的 Grove 山地区DEM 建立和分析%GENERATION AND COMPARISON OF ASTER DEM AND INSAR DEM OF THE GROVE MOUNTAINS AREA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万雷; 周春霞; 鄂栋臣

    2015-01-01

    本文分别利用光学立体和InSAR技术生成了东南极Grove山地区15 m分辨率的ASTER DEM和20 m分辨率的InSAR DEM。在利用ASTER立体像对生成DEM的过程中引入ICESat测高数据作为高程控制以减少错误匹配,提高DEM垂直精度;而在利用ERS tandem数据生成DEM后,选取ICESat测高数据对InSAR DEM进行倾斜面纠正,以消除基线不精确估计等带来的影响。通过与未作控制的ICESat测高数据进行比较,评价了两种DEM的精度并对误差进行了分析。同时,比较了两种DEM的差异,并分析了造成这些差异的原因,探讨了两种技术生成南极冰盖DEM的优势和不足。最后结合两DEM的优势,融合生成了Grove山地区高精度的DEM。%A 15-m ASTER Digital Elevation Model ( DEM) of the Grove Mountains area which is located at 72°45′S, 75°00′E was generated by optical stereo technique and an InSAR DEM with resolution of 20 m was derived.ICESat data were introduced in the process of the ASTER DEM construction, and utilized to correct the InSAR DEM.ICE-Sat footprints were used as elevation control points during the ASTER DEM generation to reduce mismatching points.Finally, the vertical accuracy of the DEM was improved.The InSAR DEM was corrected using the quadrat-ic polynomial with ICESat footprints as control points.And this correction has been designed to eliminate errors in-troduced by inaccurate estimations of the baseline.The accuracies of the ASTER and InSAR DEMs were evaluated using another set of ICESat data and the major error sources were discussed.Furthermore, the two DEMs were com-pared and analyzed.The specific advantages and disadvantages of these two techniques in DEM construction of the ice sheet in Antarctica were elaborated, and the advantages of both DEMs were combined to generate a high-accura-cy DEM of the Grove Mountains area.

  6. Application of fractal modeling and PCA method for hydrothermal alteration mapping in the Saveh area (Central Iran based on ASTER multispectral data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Ahmadfaraj

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is determination and separation of alteration zones using Concentration-Area (C-A fractal model based on remote sensing data which has been extracted from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER images. The studied area is on the SW part of Saveh, 1:250,000 geological map, which is located in Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic belt, Central Iran. The pixel values were computed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA method used to determine phyllic, argillic, and propylitic alteration zones. The C-A fractal model is utilized for separation of different parts of alteration zones due to their intensity. The log-log C-A plots reveal multifractal nature for phyllic, argillic, and propylitic alteration zones. The obtained results based on fractal model show that the main trend of the alteration zones is in NW-SE direction. Compared to the geological map of the study area and copper mineralizations, the alteration zones have been detected properly and correlate with the mineral occurrences, intrusive rock, and faults.

  7. Identification of mineral resources in Afghanistan-Detecting and mapping resource anomalies in prioritized areas using geophysical and remote sensing (ASTER and HyMap) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    : King, Trude V. V.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Hubbard, Bernard E.; Drenth, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations (TFBSO) natural resources revitalization activities in Afghanistan (Peters and others, 2011), three new datasets have been collected, compiled, and analyzed. These data have been used to more fully evaluate the areas of interest (AOIs; fig. 1 ) where, on the basis of previous U.S.S.R. and Afghanistan studies, the opportunity for early economic development of a number of different mineral, commodity, and deposit types had been identified (Peters and others, 2007; Peters and others, 2011). The new data compilations include (1) regional magnetic and gravity data for use in the characterization of subsurface composition and structure (Sweeney and others, 2006a,b; Ashan and others, 2007; Sweeney and others, 2007; Ashan and others, 2008; Shenwary and others, 2011), (2) Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data to identify and evaluate surficial alteration patterns related to industrial minerals and other selected targets, and (3) HyMap imaging spectrometer data for characterization and mapping of surficial mineralogy (Cocks and others, 1998; Kokaly and others, 2008; Peters and others, 2011). These datasets have served as fundamental building blocks for the resource evaluation by Peters and others (2011).

  8. Principle and geomorphological applicability of summit level and base level technique using Aster Gdem satellite-derived data and the original software Baz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihisa Motoki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents principle and geomorphological applicability of summit level technique using Aster Gdem satellite-derived topographicdata. Summit level corresponds to thevirtualtopographic surface constituted bylocalhighest points, such as peaks and plateau tops, and reconstitutes palaeo-geomorphology before the drainage erosion. Summit level map is efficient for reconstitution of palaeo-surfaces and detection of active tectonic movement. Base level is thevirtualsurface composed oflocallowest points, as valley bottoms. The difference between summit level and base level is called relief amount. Thesevirtualmapsareconstructed by theoriginalsoftwareBaz. Themacroconcavity index, MCI, is calculated from summit level and relief amount maps. The volume-normalised three-dimensional concavity index, TCI, is calculated from hypsometric diagram. The massifs with high erosive resistance tend to have convex general form and low MCI and TCI. Those with low resistance have concave form and high MCI and TCI. The diagram of TCI vs. MCI permits to distinguish erosive characteristics of massifs according to their constituent rocks. The base level map for ocean bottom detects the basement tectonic uplift which occurred before the formation of the volcanic seamounts.

  9. Recent changes in Imja Glacial Lake and its damming moraine in the Nepal Himalaya revealed by in situ surveys and multi-temporal ASTER imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Koji; Sakai, Akiko; Nuimura, Takayuki [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Satoru [Snow and Ice Research Center, National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention, Nagaoka 940-0821 (Japan); Sharma, Rishi R [Department of Hydrology and Meteorology, Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology, Babar Mahal, Kathmandu (Nepal)

    2009-10-15

    Changes in the area and bathymetry of Imja Glacial Lake and in the elevation of its damming moraine, Khumbu region, Nepal Himalaya are investigated. Previously reported changes in the lake area have been updated by multi-temporal ASTER images, which revealed a decreased expansion rate after 2000. A provisional expansion of the lake observed in 2004, from which some studies concluded an accelerated lake expansion due to global warming, has, from 2005, subsided to the glacier surface. Bathymetric changes for the period 1992-2002 that were first obtained for Himalayan glacial lakes suggest that the melting of debris-covered ice beneath the lake is insignificant in terms of the increase in lake volume, and that the retreat of a glacier in contact with the lake by calving is essential for the lake's expansion. Changes in the height of a damming moraine for the period 2001-2007 suggest a continuous surface lowering near the lake, though the lowering rates are smaller than those for the period 1989-1994.

  10. The Extract of Aster Koraiensis Prevents Retinal Pericyte Apoptosis in Diabetic Rats and Its Active Compound, Chlorogenic Acid Inhibits AGE Formation and AGE/RAGE Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghyun Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Retinal capillary cell loss is a hallmark of early diabetic retinal changes. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs are believed to contribute to retinal microvascular cell loss in diabetic retinopathy. In this study, the protective effects of Aster koraiensis extract (AKE against damage to retinal vascular cells were investigated in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. To examine this issue further, AGE accumulation, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS were investigated using retinal trypsin digests from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In the diabetic rats, TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling-positive retinal microvascular cells were markedly increased. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that AGEs were accumulated within the retinal microvascular cells, and this accumulation paralleled the activation of NF-κB and the expression of iNOS in the diabetic rats. However, AKE prevented retinal microvascular cell apoptosis through the inhibition of AGE accumulation and NF-κB activation. Moreover, to determine the active compounds of AKE, two major compounds, chlorogenic acid and 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, were tested in an in vitro assay. Among these compounds, chlorogenic acid significantly reduced AGE formation as well as AGE/RAGE (receptor for AGEs binding activity. These results suggest that AKE, particularly chlorogenic acid, is useful in inhibiting AGE accumulation in retinal vessels and exerts a preventive effect against the injuries of diabetic retinal vascular cells.

  11. Recent changes in Imja Glacial Lake and its damming moraine in the Nepal Himalaya revealed by in situ surveys and multi-temporal ASTER imagery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in the area and bathymetry of Imja Glacial Lake and in the elevation of its damming moraine, Khumbu region, Nepal Himalaya are investigated. Previously reported changes in the lake area have been updated by multi-temporal ASTER images, which revealed a decreased expansion rate after 2000. A provisional expansion of the lake observed in 2004, from which some studies concluded an accelerated lake expansion due to global warming, has, from 2005, subsided to the glacier surface. Bathymetric changes for the period 1992-2002 that were first obtained for Himalayan glacial lakes suggest that the melting of debris-covered ice beneath the lake is insignificant in terms of the increase in lake volume, and that the retreat of a glacier in contact with the lake by calving is essential for the lake's expansion. Changes in the height of a damming moraine for the period 2001-2007 suggest a continuous surface lowering near the lake, though the lowering rates are smaller than those for the period 1989-1994.

  12. Reconocimiento de alteración hidrotermal con el sensor ASTER, en el curso medio del Río Santa Cruz (31°40's, provincia de San Juan Reconnaissance of hydrothermal alteration with the ASTER sensor, in the middle course of Río Santa Cruz (31°40' S, province of San Juan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Pérez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La utilización del sensor ASTER (Advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer permitió la identificación de diversos depósitos de alteración hidrotermal, indicando que la aplicación de técnicas espectrales en regiones con buena exposición de afloramientos, permite la identificación de diversas litologías asociadas a dichos depósitos. En el presente trabajo se han probado diferentes métodos para identificar y generar un mapa de zonas con alteración hidrotermal mediante el uso de escenas ASTER. Estas áreas usualmente contienen grandes cantidades de minerales arcillosos susceptibles de ser detectados con imágenes multiespectrales. Diversos autores han desarrollado diferentes procedimientos para clasificar y generar un mapa de estos minerales de origen hidrotermal. Entre las más simples, las combinaciones y cocientes de bandas han probado ser herramientas muy efectivas para detectar blancos. Los índices litológicos buscan reforzar la respuesta espectral de este grupo de minerales mediante productos y cocientes de bandas. Estas técnicas no implican una corrección integral de la escena ASTER. Otras técnicas empleadas en este estudio requieren de un procesamiento más profundo, especialmente cuando se trabaja con datos espectrales. Las mismas incluyen la clasificación SAM (spectral angle mapper y la transformación MNF (minimun noise fraction para separar el ruido y reducir los requisitos posteriores para procesar la imagen. Los espectros utilizados en este trabajo fueron obtenidos con muestras de campo con un espectrómetro de reflectancia SWIR (short wave infrared y mediante la derivación de sus escenas. Los métodos de clasificación han sido probados enáreas de mineralización conocida, como Los Pelambres, El Pachón y Altar; y en otros sectores en la región del río Santa Cruz como Carnicerías y La Coipa; en el sector sudoccidental de la provincia de San Juan. Los resultados de este trabajo se presentan

  13. Study of Lemon Yellow and Sunset Yellow in Adulterated Rhizoma Belamcandae%射干伪品中柠檬黄与日落黄的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王祥红; 谢培山

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To identify and assay of watersoluble dyestuff-lemon yellow and sunset yellow in Adulterated Rhizoma Belamcandae. Method; Use TLC for iddentification and HPLC-DAD for iddentification and assay lemon yellow and sunset yellow. Result; Both TLC and HPLC-DAD can identify lemon yellow and sunset yellow in Adulterated Rhizoma Belamcandae, and HPLC detection indicate the content of lemon yellow between 0. 11-0. 37 g·kg-1, and sunset yellow between 0. 04-0. 11 g·kg-1. Conclusion; Staining Iridis kectori khizoma or other adulterants with lemon yellow and sunset yellow as Rhizoma Belamcandae for sales is not only unnecessary, but also increase unsafe factors in clinic. It is necessary to pay attention to about this by relative medicine researcher and manufactory.%目的:鉴别并测定伪品射干中水溶性色素柠檬黄与日落黄.方法:采用薄层色谱法和高效液相色谱法二极管陈列检测鉴别并定量测定样品中的柠檬黄与日落黄.结果:伪品射干中可检出柠檬黄与日落黄,HPLC法测定柠檬黄含量为0.11 ~0.37 g·kg-1,日落黄含量为0.04 ~0.11 g·kg-1.结论:以川射干或其他伪品用柠檬黄与日落黄染色作为射干销售,即无必要,又曾加临床使用不安全因素,值得相关药品研究与生产单位注意.

  14. Anamnestic Immune Response to Dengue and Decreased Severity of Yellow Fever

    OpenAIRE

    Izurieta, Ricardo O; Maurizio Macaluso; Douglas M Watts; Tesh, Robert B.; Bolivar Guerra; Ligia M Cruz; Sagar Galwankar; Vermund, Sten H.

    2009-01-01

    A protective immunity against yellow fever, from cross-reactive dengue antibodies, has been hypothesized as an explanation for the absence of yellow fever in Southern Asia where dengue immunity is almost universal. This study evaluates the association between protective immunity from cross-reactive dengue antibodies with yellow fever infection and severity of the disease. The study population consisted of military personnel of a jungle garrison and its detachments located in the Ecuadorian Am...

  15. 21 CFR 74.2707a - Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7. 74.2707a Section 74.2707a... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2707a Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  16. 21 CFR 74.1707a - Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7. 74.1707a Section 74.1707a... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1707a Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7 is principally the disodium salt of...

  17. 21 CFR 137.290 - Self-rising yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Self-rising yellow corn meal. 137.290 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.290 Self-rising yellow corn meal. Self-rising yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.270 for self-rising white corn...

  18. Toxic Algae and Early Warning Management in Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song; Lun; Song; Guangjun; Song; Yonggang; Xu; Xiaohong

    2014-01-01

    The research status of toxic algae in Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea are reviewed from the aspects of toxicity characteristics,toxic mechanism and early warning management,and the existing toxic algae and their toxicity in Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea are analyzed in the paper. The early warning level of toxic algae in Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea of China is put forward,and the research direction of shellfish poisoning in future is summarized.

  19. Fullerene-Benzene purple and yellow clusters: Theoretical and experimental studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Megan P.; Khan, Sakiba; Baytak, Aysegul K.; Khan, Arshad

    2016-11-01

    Fullerene (FR, C60) gives a purple colored solution almost instantly when benzene is added to it. Interestingly, this purple solution turns yellow in about 7 weeks and remains yellow afterwards. The concentration of the purple complex increases with temperature indicating its formation kinetically favored, which transforms into a more stable yellow complex very slowly with time. The geometry optimization by density functional theory (DFT) followed by spectra (TD-DFT method) calculations suggest that the purple and yellow complexes are due to clusters of six benzene molecules arranged vertically and horizontally respectively around the FR molecule.

  20. Research on the Geographical Indication and Cultural Heritage of China’s Yellow Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min; TIAN; Zhiguo; SUN; Zhiyang; LIU; Guangping; DING

    2014-01-01

    The yellow tea falls within one of the six basic categories of tea,and it is a type of unique and ancient tea in China. Junshan Yinzhen is one of China’s Top Ten Teas,and Yueyang City in Hunan Province is the hometown of yellow tea. The yellow tea now has 2 national geographical indication products,4 national geographical indication trademarks,1 national geographical indication of agricultural products,and 3 items of provincial intangible cultural heritage. The famous brand of yellow tea is just the brand cultural heritage. This article expounds the current situation of geographical indication and cultural heritage protection,and put forth the corresponding recommendations.

  1. Genetic Diversity of Testa Pigments and RAPD Marker of Yellow-Seeded Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xue-kun; CHEN Li; YIN Jia-ming; TANG Zhang-lin; LI Jia-na

    2003-01-01

    14 yellow-seeded rapeseed lines (Brassia napus L. ) from different genetic sources were used toanalyze diversity of testa pigments content, oil and protein content, and RAPD markers. The results showedthat the anthocyanin and melanin were the most important pigments in testa and their content were responsiblefor the variation in seed color ranging from orange to black yellow, 14 yellow-seeded lines could be classifiedinto 3 groups., high anthocyanin content group with anthocyanin content over 2.54 mg g-1 DW, the seed colorwas light yellow or orange; low pigments content group with low content of anthocyanin and melanin, the testawas transparent and the seed color was light yellow, greenish yellow or twany; high melanin content groupwith melanin content over 178.4U(A290nm), the testa was black, the seed color was black yellow. Oil eantentchanged from 36.2% to 45.5%, protein content from 21.1% to 27.7%, and the correlation analysis revealedthat the oil content is highly significantly negatively correlated with the protein content. The cluster analysisshowed that the extensive genetic variation existed among 14 yellow-seeded lines by using unweighted pairedgroup method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) based on RAPD markers which were amplified with decamerprimers, the genetic similarity among them ranged from 0.25 to 0. 909, and 14 yellow-seeded lines could putinto 2 clusters corresponding to genome difference.

  2. Assessing Wheat Yellow Rust Disease through Hyperspectral Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, G.; Sahoo, R. N.; Pargal, S.; Gupta, V. K.; Sinha, P.; Bhagat, S.; Saharan, M. S.; Singh, R.; Chattopadhyay, C.

    2014-12-01

    The potential of hyperspectral reflectance data was explored to assess severity of yellow rust disease (Biotroph Pucciniastriiformis) of winter wheat in the present study. The hyperspectral remote sensing data was collected for winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cropat different levels of disease infestation using field spectroradiometer over the spectral range of 350 to 2500 nm. The partial least squares (PLS) and multiple linear (MLR) regression techniques were used to identify suitable bands and develop spectral models for assessing severity of yellow rust disease in winter wheat crop. The PLS model based on the full spectral range and n = 36, yielded a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.96, a standard error of cross validation (SECV) of 12.74 and a root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) of 12.41. The validation analysis of this PLS model yielded r2 as 0.93 with a SEP (Standard Error of Prediction) of 7.80 and a RMSEP (Root Mean Square Error of prediction) of 7.46. The loading weights of latent variables from PLS model were used to identify sensitive wavelengths. To assess their suitability multiple linear regression (MLR) model was applied on these wavelengths which resulted in a MLR model with three identified wavelength bands (428 nm, 672 nm and 1399 nm). MLR model yielded acceptable results in the form of r2 as 0.89 for calibration and 0.90 for validation with SEP of 3.90 and RMSEP of 3.70. The result showed that the developed model had a great potential for precise delineation and detection of yellow rust disease in winter wheat crop.

  3. Species composition of aphid vectors (Hemiptera: Aphididae) of barley yellow dwarf virus and cereal yellow dwarf virus in Alabama and western Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Buyung A R; Flanders, Kathy L; Bowen, Kira I; Murphy, John F; Halbert, Susan E

    2011-08-01

    Yellow dwarf is a major disease problem of wheat, Triticum aestivum L., in Alabama and is estimated to cause yield loss of 21-42 bu/acre. The disease is caused by a complex of viruses comprising several virus species, including Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV and Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV. Several other strains have not yet been classified into a specific species. The viruses are transmitted exclusively by aphids (Hemiptera:Aphididae). Between the 2005 and 2008 winter wheat seasons, aphids were surveyed in the beginning of each planting season in several wheat plots in Alabama and western Florida Collected aphids were identified and bioassayed for their yellow dwarf virus infectivity. This survey program was designed to identify the aphid species that serve as fall vectors of yellow dwarf virus into winter wheat plantings. From 2005 to 2008, bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.); rice root aphid, Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale (Sasaki); and greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), were found consistently between October and December. The species of aphids and their timing of appearance in wheat plots were consistent with flight data collected in North Alabama between 1996 and 1999. Both R. padi and R. rufiabdominale were found to carry and transmit Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV and Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV. The number of collected aphids and proportion of viruliferous aphids were low. Although this study has shown that both aphids are involved with introduction of yellow dwarf virus to winter wheat in Alabama and western Florida, no conclusions can be made as to which species may be the most important vector of yellow dwarf virus in the region. PMID:21882679

  4. Tyrosinase gene mutations associated with type IB ("yellow") oculocutaneous albinism.

    OpenAIRE

    Giebel, L B; Tripathi, R. K.; Strunk, K M; Hanifin, J M; Jackson, C E; King, R A; Spritz, R A

    1991-01-01

    We have identified three different tyrosinase gene mutant alleles in four unrelated patients with type IB ("yellow") oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) and thus have demonstrated that type IB OCA is allelic to type IA (tyrosinase negative) OCA. In an inbred Amish kindred, type IB OCA results from homozygosity for a Pro----Leu substitution at codon 406. In the second family, type IB OCA results from compound heterozygosity for a type IA OCA allele (codon 81 Pro----Leu) and a novel type IB allele (c...

  5. Minions: Empathetic Lessons From Small Yellow Creatures Serving the Despicable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjerning, Halfdan; Vilsgaard, Dorte

    2015-01-01

    Reviews the film Minions (2015) directed by Kyle Balda and Pierre Coffin (2015). Minions are fictional computer-animated yellow pill-shaped creatures who speak their own language. They live to serve the most despicable master they can find. The film tells the evolutionary story of the minions and......, their facial expressions, their display of character strengths, and their need for a purpose in life, we identify reasons why we are able to understand the minions as we understand ourselves. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)...

  6. Minions: Empathetic Lessons From Small Yellow Creatures Serving the Despicable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjerning, Halfdan; Vilsgaard, Dorte

    2015-01-01

    Reviews the film Minions (2015) directed by Kyle Balda and Pierre Coffin (2015). Minions are fictional computer-animated yellow pill-shaped creatures who speak their own language. They live to serve the most despicable master they can find. The film tells the evolutionary story of the minions and...... children, their facial expressions, their display of character strengths, and their need for a purpose in life, we identify reasons why we are able to understand the minions as we understand ourselves. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)...

  7. Wave-induced mixing in the Yellow Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永增; 乔方利; 夏长水; 马建; 袁业立

    2004-01-01

    Vertical wave-induced mixing parameter Bv expressed in wave number spectrum was estimated in the Yellow Sea. The spatial distributions of Bv averaged over upper 20 m in 4 seasons were analyzed. It is the strongest in winter because of winter monsoon, and the weakest in spring. Since in summer it plays an important role for circulation of upper layers, its vertical structure was also discussed. Two simulations with and without wave-induced mixing in this season were performed to evaluate its effect on temperature distribution. Numerical results indicate that wave-induced mixing could increase the mixed layer thickness greatly.

  8. Hereditary dwarfism in yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Kazimierski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A dwarf plant was found in the F4 generation of a hybrid between two yellow lupin subspecies. Genetic analysis demonstrated that the dwarf grwoth is conditioned by one recessive factor which was named nanus. This factor acts pleiotroipically since it reduces the height, changes the morphological structure and some anatomical traits and reduces fertility in the dwarf plants. It is believed that in the chromosome with translocation a gene block arose in the F4, plant. These genes acting as a compact system cause dwarfism, changes in the anatomical structure and reduce fertility.

  9. Yellow Fever Remains a Potential Threat to Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Pedro F C; Monath, Thomas P

    2016-08-01

    Yellow fever (YF) remains a serious public health threat in endemic countries. The recent re-emergence in Africa, initiating in Angola and spreading to Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda, with imported cases in China and Kenya is of concern. There is such a shortage of YF vaccine in the world that the World Health Organization has proposed the use of reduced doses (1/5) during emergencies. In this short communication, we discuss these and other problems including the risk of spread of YF to areas free of YF for decades or never before affected by this arbovirus disease.

  10. Effect of Water and Sediment Regulation on Lower Yellow River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Guobin; SI Chundi

    2009-01-01

    According to the results of the water and sediment regulations of the Yellow River in year 2002-2007, the effect of erosion and deposition on the lower reaches, the amount and distribution of erosion and deposition in the river mouth area, the adjustment of river regime, the effect of river regulation projects and changes of flowing capacity of the channel are analyzed. It is revealed that the water and sediment regulation is efficient to reduce deposition and improve the flowing capacity and the conditions of sediment transport.

  11. Beet western yellows virus infects the carnivorous plant Nepenthes mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Sissi; Biteau, Flore; Mignard, Benoit; Marais, Armelle; Candresse, Thierry; Theil, Sébastien; Bourgaud, Frédéric; Hehn, Alain

    2016-08-01

    Although poleroviruses are known to infect a broad range of higher plants, carnivorous plants have not yet been reported as hosts. Here, we describe the first polerovirus naturally infecting the pitcher plant Nepenthes mirabilis. The virus was identified through bioinformatic analysis of NGS transcriptome data. The complete viral genome sequence was assembled from overlapping PCR fragments and shown to share 91.1 % nucleotide sequence identity with the US isolate of beet western yellows virus (BWYV). Further analysis of other N. mirabilis plants revealed the presence of additional BWYV isolates differing by several insertion/deletion mutations in ORF5. PMID:27180098

  12. Historical Earthquakes in the Yellow Sea and Its Adjacent Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Ge; Wang Andong; Wu Di

    2005-01-01

    As a result of sorting out, estimating and cataloging of historical earthquakes, from the year of 2 A.D. to Aug., 1949, we found that there were 2187 earthquakes with M≥3.0 in the area of the Yellow Sea and its adjacent area. Among the earthquakes, the number of earthquakes with M ≥ 5.0 is 209, and at least 43 of the earthquakes caused serious losses, 20 of the earthquakes caused human causalities. It is demonstrated that there were 3 areas of historical earthquake concentration and the earthquake activity was higher in the 16th century and the first half if the 20th century.

  13. Association of a distinct strain of hollyhock yellow vein mosaic virus and Ludwigia leaf distortion betasatellite with yellow vein mosaic disease of hollyhock (Alcea rosea) in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, A; Kumar, S; Raj, S K; Pande, S S

    2014-10-01

    A distinct strain of hollyhock yellow vein mosaic virus (HoYVMV) and Ludwigia leaf distortion betasatellite (LuLDB) were associated with yellow vein mosaic of hollyhock. The viral DNA genome (JQ911766) and betasatellite (JQ408216) shared highest nucleotide sequence identity (89.2 %) with HoYVMV (the only available sequence in GenBank) and 92 % identity with LuLDB. Agroinfiltration of HoYVMV and LuLDB induced yellow vein mosaic symptoms on hollyhock, thereby demonstrating causality of the disease.

  14. Preliminary results for a semi-automated quantification of site effects using geomorphometry and ASTER satellite data for Mozambique, Pakistan and Turkey

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alan Yong; Susan E Hough; Michael J Abrams; Christopher J Wills

    2008-11-01

    Estimation of the degree of local seismic wave amplification (site effects) requires precise information about the local site conditions. In many regions of the world, local geologic information is either sparse or is not readily available. Because of this, seismic hazard maps for countries such as Mozambique, Pakistan and Turkey are developed without consideration of site factors and, therefore, do not provide a complete assessment of future hazards. Where local geologic information is available, details on the traditional maps often lack the precision (better than 1:10,000 scale) or the level of information required for modern seismic microzonation requirements. We use high-resolution (1:50,000) satellite imagery and newly developed image analysis methods to begin addressing this problem. Our imagery, consisting of optical data and digital elevation models (DEMs), is recorded from the ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) sensor system. We apply a semi-automated, object-oriented, multi-resolution feature segmentation method to identify and extract local terrain features. Then we classify the terrain types into mountain, piedmont and basin units using geomorphometry (topographic slope) as our parameter. Next, on the basis of the site classification schemes from the Wills and Silva (1998) study and the Wills et al (2000) and Wills and Clahan (2006) maps of California, we assign the local terrain units with 30 (the average seismic shear-wave velocity through the upper 30m of the subsurface) ranges for selected regions in Mozambique, Pakistan and Turkey. We find that the applicability of our site class assignments in each region is a good first-approximation for quantifying local site conditions and that additional work, such as the verification of the terrain’s compositional rigidity, is needed.

  15. Mineral and Vegetation Maps of the Bodie Hills, Sweetwater Mountains, and Wassuk Range, California/Nevada, Generated from ASTER Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.

    2010-01-01

    Multispectral remote sensing data acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) were analyzed to identify and map minerals, vegetation groups, and volatiles (water and snow) in support of geologic studies of the Bodie Hills, Sweetwater Mountains, and Wassuk Range, California/Nevada. Digital mineral and vegetation mapping results are presented in both portable document format (PDF) and ERDAS Imagine format (.img). The ERDAS-format files are suitable for integration with other geospatial data in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) such as ArcGIS. The ERDAS files showing occurrence of 1) iron-bearing minerals, vegetation, and water, and 2) clay, sulfate, mica, carbonate, Mg-OH, and hydrous quartz minerals have been attributed according to identified material, so that the material detected in a pixel can be queried with the interactive attribute identification tools of GIS and image processing software packages (for example, the Identify Tool of ArcMap and the Inquire Cursor Tool of ERDAS Imagine). All raster data have been orthorectified to the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection using a projective transform with ground-control points selected from orthorectified Landsat Thematic Mapper data and a digital elevation model from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Elevation Dataset (1/3 arc second, 10 m resolution). Metadata compliant with Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) standards for all ERDAS-format files have been included, and contain important information regarding geographic coordinate systems, attributes, and cross-references. Documentation regarding spectral analysis methodologies employed to make the maps is included in these cross-references.

  16. Karst Depression Detection Using ASTER, ALOS/PRISM and SRTM-Derived Digital Elevation Models in the Bambuí Group, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar Abílio de Carvalho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing has been used in karst studies to identify limestone terrain, describe exokarst features, analyze karst depressions, and detect geological structures important to karst development. The aim of this work is to investigate the use of ASTER-, SRTM- and ALOS/PRISM-derived digital elevation models (DEMs to detect and quantify natural karst depressions along the São Francisco River near Barreiras city, northeast Brazil. The study area is a karst landscape characterized by karst depressions (dolines, closed depressions in limestone, many of which contain standing water connected with the ground-water table. The base of dolines is typically sealed with an impermeable clay layer covered by standing water or herbaceous vegetation. We identify dolines by combining the extraction of sink depth from DEMs, morphometric analysis using GIS, and visual interpretation. Our methodology is a semi-automatic approach involving several steps: (a DEM acquisition; (b sink-depth calculation using the difference between the raw DEM and the corresponding DEM with sinks filled; and (c elimination of falsely identified karst depressions using morphometric attributes. The advantages and limitations of the applied methodology using different DEMs are examined by comparison with a sinkhole map generated from traditional geomorphological investigations based on visual interpretation of the high-resolution remote sensing images and field surveys. The threshold values of the depth, area size and circularity index appropriate for distinguishing dolines were identified from the maximum overall accuracy obtained by comparison with a true doline map. Our results indicate that the best performance of the proposed methodology for meso-scale karst feature detection was using ALOS/PRISM data with a threshold depth > 2 m; areas > 13,125 m2 and circularity indexes > 0.3 (overall accuracy of 0.53. The overall correct identification of around half of the true dolines suggests

  17. Evaluation of ASTER GDEM2 in Comparison with GDEM1, SRTM DEM and Topographic-Map-Derived DEM Using Inundation Area Analysis and RTK-dGPS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beni Raharjo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the quality of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Radiometer-Global Digital Elevation Model version 2 (ASTER GDEM2 in comparison with the previous version (GDEM1 as well as the Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM DEM and topographic-map-derived DEM (Topo-DEM using inundation area analysis for the projected location of the Karian dam, Indonesia. In addition, the vertical accuracy of each DEM is evaluated using the Real-Time Kinematic differential Global Positioning Systems (RTK-dGPS data obtained from an intensive geodetic survey. The results of the inundation area analysis show that GDEM2 produced a higher maximum contour level (MCL (64 m than did GDEM1 (55 m, and thus, GDME2 has a better quality. In addition, the GDEM2-derived MCL is similar to those produced by SRTM DEM (69 m and Topo-DEM (62 m. The improvement in the contour level in GDEM2 is believed to be related to the successful removal of voids (artifacts and anomalies present in GDEM1. However, our RTK-dGPS results show that the vertical accuracy of GDEM2 is much lower than that of GDEM1 and the other DEMs, which is contradictory to the accuracy stated in the GDEM2 validation document. The vertical profiles of all DEMs show that GDEM2 contains a comparatively large number of undulation effects, thereby resulting in higher root mean square error (RMSE values. These undulation effects may have been introduced during the GDEM2 validation process. Although the results of this study may be site-specific, it is important that they be considered for the improvement of the next GDEM version.

  18. Exploiting Maximum Entropy method and ASTER data for assessing debris flow and debris slide susceptibility for the Giampilieri catchment (north-eastern Sicily, Italy).

    KAUST Repository

    Lombardo, L.

    2016-07-18

    This study aims at evaluating the performance of the Maximum Entropy method in assessing landslide susceptibility, exploiting topographic and multispectral remote sensing predictors. We selected the catchment of the Giampilieri stream, which is located in the north-eastern sector of Sicily (southern Italy), as test site. On 1/10/2009, a storm rainfall triggered in this area hundreds of debris flow/avalanche phenomena causing extensive economical damage and loss of life. Within this area a presence-only-based statistical method was applied to obtain susceptibility models capable of distinguish future activation sites of debris flow and debris slide, which where the main source failure mechanisms for flow or avalanche type propagation. The set of predictors used in this experiment comprised primary and secondary topographic attributes, derived by processing a high resolution digital elevation model, CORINE land cover data and a set of vegetation and mineral indices obtained by processing multispectral ASTER images. All the selected data sources are dated before the disaster. A spatially random partition technique was adopted for validation, generating fifty replicates for each of the two considered movement typologies in order to assess accuracy, precision and reliability of the models. The debris slide and debris flow susceptibility models produced high performances with the first type being the best fitted. The evaluation of the probability estimates around the mean value for each mapped pixel shows an inverted relation, with the most robust models corresponding to the debris flows. With respect to the role of each predictor within the modelling phase, debris flows appeared to be primarily controlled by topographic attributes whilst the debris slides were better explained by remotely sensed derived indices, particularly by the occurrence of previous wildfires across the slope. The overall excellent performances of the two models suggest promising perspectives for

  19. A Matter of Contrast: Yellow Flower Colour Constrains Style Length in Crocus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunau, Klaus; Konzmann, Sabine; Bossems, Jessica; Harpke, Doerte

    2016-01-01

    Most flowers display distinct colour patterns comprising two different areas. The peripheral large-area component of floral colour patterns attracts flower visitors from some distance and the central small-area component guides flower visitors towards landing sites. Whereas the peripheral colour is largely variable among species, the central colour, produced mostly by anthers and pollen or pollen mimicking floral guides, is predominantly yellow and UV-absorbing. This holds also for yellow flowers that regularly display a UV bull's eye pattern. Here we show that yellow-flowering Crocus species are a noticeable exception, since yellow-flowering Crocus species-being entirely UV-absorbing-exhibit low colour contrast between yellow reproductive organs and yellow tepals. The elongated yellow or orange-yellow style of Crocus flowers is a stamen-mimicking structure promoting cross-pollination by facilitating flower visitors' contact with the apical stigma before the flower visitors are touching the anthers. Since Crocus species possess either yellow, violet or white tepals, the colour contrast between the stamen-mimicking style and the tepals varies among species. In this study comprising 106 Crocus species, it was tested whether the style length of Crocus flowers is dependent on the corolla colour. The results show that members of the genus Crocus with yellow tepals have evolved independently up to twelve times in the genus Crocus and that yellow-flowering Crocus species possess shorter styles as compared to violet- and white-flowering ones. The manipulation of flower visitors by anther-mimicking elongated styles in Crocus flowers is discussed. PMID:27124278

  20. A Matter of Contrast: Yellow Flower Colour Constrains Style Length in Crocus species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Lunau

    Full Text Available Most flowers display distinct colour patterns comprising two different areas. The peripheral large-area component of floral colour patterns attracts flower visitors from some distance and the central small-area component guides flower visitors towards landing sites. Whereas the peripheral colour is largely variable among species, the central colour, produced mostly by anthers and pollen or pollen mimicking floral guides, is predominantly yellow and UV-absorbing. This holds also for yellow flowers that regularly display a UV bull's eye pattern. Here we show that yellow-flowering Crocus species are a noticeable exception, since yellow-flowering Crocus species-being entirely UV-absorbing-exhibit low colour contrast between yellow reproductive organs and yellow tepals. The elongated yellow or orange-yellow style of Crocus flowers is a stamen-mimicking structure promoting cross-pollination by facilitating flower visitors' contact with the apical stigma before the flower visitors are touching the anthers. Since Crocus species possess either yellow, violet or white tepals, the colour contrast between the stamen-mimicking style and the tepals varies among species. In this study comprising 106 Crocus species, it was tested whether the style length of Crocus flowers is dependent on the corolla colour. The results show that members of the genus Crocus with yellow tepals have evolved independently up to twelve times in the genus Crocus and that yellow-flowering Crocus species possess shorter styles as compared to violet- and white-flowering ones. The manipulation of flower visitors by anther-mimicking elongated styles in Crocus flowers is discussed.

  1. A Matter of Contrast: Yellow Flower Colour Constrains Style Length in Crocus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunau, Klaus; Konzmann, Sabine; Bossems, Jessica; Harpke, Doerte

    2016-01-01

    Most flowers display distinct colour patterns comprising two different areas. The peripheral large-area component of floral colour patterns attracts flower visitors from some distance and the central small-area component guides flower visitors towards landing sites. Whereas the peripheral colour is largely variable among species, the central colour, produced mostly by anthers and pollen or pollen mimicking floral guides, is predominantly yellow and UV-absorbing. This holds also for yellow flowers that regularly display a UV bull's eye pattern. Here we show that yellow-flowering Crocus species are a noticeable exception, since yellow-flowering Crocus species-being entirely UV-absorbing-exhibit low colour contrast between yellow reproductive organs and yellow tepals. The elongated yellow or orange-yellow style of Crocus flowers is a stamen-mimicking structure promoting cross-pollination by facilitating flower visitors' contact with the apical stigma before the flower visitors are touching the anthers. Since Crocus species possess either yellow, violet or white tepals, the colour contrast between the stamen-mimicking style and the tepals varies among species. In this study comprising 106 Crocus species, it was tested whether the style length of Crocus flowers is dependent on the corolla colour. The results show that members of the genus Crocus with yellow tepals have evolved independently up to twelve times in the genus Crocus and that yellow-flowering Crocus species possess shorter styles as compared to violet- and white-flowering ones. The manipulation of flower visitors by anther-mimicking elongated styles in Crocus flowers is discussed.

  2. Simulation of dike-break processes in the Yellow River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Although dike-break and dam-break processes have similar unsteady and discontinuous hydrodynamic characteristics, there are significant differences. In general, dam-break simulations focus on the flood discharge, whereas dike-break simulations are required to provide detailed information on the hydraulic and breach evolution processes, such as pit-scour and breach-expansion. In order to overcome the difficulties inherent in applying existing dam-break models to dike-breaks, this paper presents an integrated model that combines the shallow water, sediment transport, riverbed deformation and breach-expansion equations. A Godunov-type finite volume method is used for the flow simulation, based on a fixed quadtree grid system. The hydrodynamic aspects of the model are validated for an idealized rectangular dam break. A representative reach in the Yellow River is selected at a location where there is a significant risk of a dike-break, and full-scale topographic and hydrologic data are available. Typical dike-break processes are successfully simulated, with predicted hydraulic characteristics and terrain changes qualitatively in agreement with laboratory data. The modeling study is of practical importance for implementation of engineering countermeasures in the Yellow River, such as breach blocking and head wrapping.

  3. Pomological properties of promising raspberry seedlings with yellow fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Mihailo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available From over a 100 seedlings obtained by open pollination of Meeker's yellow raspberry clone, 10 seedlings with yellow fruit were selected at the Experimental Station 'Radmilovac' of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Belgrade. Phenological characteristics, as well as physical, chemical and sensorial fruit properties were investigated during the period 2007-2008 in selected seedlings and standard cultivar Meeker. Results showed that all examined seedlings expressed later flowering and maturing time than the standard cultivar. The best results of physical fruit properties had the standard cultivar, whereas for the majority of the chemical fruit characteristics selected seedlings showed much better results. Seedling 5 had the highest soluble solid content (15.3 %, while the highest vitamin C content was recorded in the fruits of seedlings 9 (51.04 mg/100g, 10 (51.92 mg/100g, and 17 (50.16 mg/100g. The highest values of the sensorial fruit quality achieved seedling 17 (18.9.

  4. 百部-紫菀药对不同配比组方的药效作用研究%Effect of Stemona Tuberosa and Aster Tataricus with Different Proportions on Antitussive, Antiasthmatic and Expectorant Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜登钊; 肖欣戈; 唐进波

    2016-01-01

    分别采用小鼠呼吸道酚红排泄法,小鼠浓氨水喷雾法,乙酰胆碱-组胺引喘豚鼠平喘实验考察百部、紫菀配伍前后及不同配比的止咳、化痰、平喘药效作用。结果表明配伍能够增强药物的止咳、化痰、平喘药效作用,其中百部-紫菀(1:2)组祛痰作用最强,百部-紫菀(1:1)组止咳、平喘作用最强,而配伍比例对于药对的药效作用也具有重要影响。%In this study, the effects of Stemona tuberosa and Aster tataricus with different proportions on antitussive, antiasthmatic and expectorant activities were observed.The expectorant effects were observed on phenol red expectorant experiment, the antitussive effects were observed on ammonia water-induced cough model of mice and the antiasthmatic effects was observed by prolonging the latent period of asthma induced by histamine and acetylcholine mixture in guinea pigs.The results showed that the antitussive, antiasthmatic and expectorant activities were enhanced when compatibility of Stemona tuberosa and Aster tataricus.The effect of expectorant activity was the strongest when the compatibility ratio of Stemona tuberosa and Aster tataricus was 1:2 while antitussive and antiasthmatic activities were 1:1 which suggested that proportion had an important role in the pharmacodynamic function.

  5. Biological activity assays of cell-free reassembled nuclei——Injecting cell-free reassembled nuclei into unfertilized eggs can induce the eggs to cleave and reconstitute asters,and the injected nuclei undergo cell cycle changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张传茂; 曲健; 梁金华; 翟中和

    1995-01-01

    Nucleus may reassemble spontaneously in cell-free mixture of HeLa metaphase chromosomes,Xenopus egg extracts and ATP-regenerating system,and the nucleus shows some biological activities.It isfound that,after being injected into unfertilized mature eggs,the cell-free reassembled nuclei can cause theeggs to cleave and reconstitute asters in their cytoplasm,and the injected nuclei undergo changes in response tocell cycle regulators stored in the eggs,and that reinjecting cytostatic factors(CSF)into the eggs can stabilizethe eggs in mitotic phase,cause the nuclei disassembly and chromatin condensation to chromosomes.

  6. A Case of Yellow Nail Syndrome with Dramatically Improved Nail Discoloration by Oral Clarithromycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Suzuki

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available An 80-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with pneumonia and exacerbation of sinobronchial syndrome (SBS. She presented with yellow discoloration of the nail beds of all fingers and toes, and her nails were recognized as growing slowly. Chest X-ray revealed bronchiectasis in the bilateral lower lobe and bilateral pleural effusion. We diagnosed her as having yellow nail syndrome (YNS, based on the triad of yellow nails, lymphedema, and lung disease. After treatment with antibiotics [ampicillin/sulbactam and clarithromycin (CAM] for pneumonia and SBS, her general condition improved, and the yellow nails disappeared in some fingers. When she was previously treated with 200 mg CAM for SBS, her yellow nails had not shown improvement. This time, her yellow nails improved after treatment with 400 mg CAM. The literature reports vitamin E, zinc, and topical corticosteroid plus active vitamin D3 to be effective in the treatment of yellow nails. Two studies have reported treatment for YNS using CAM, though they found a lack of efficacy. Thus, the present case is the first to report improved yellow nails using CAM alone. We conclude that not only SBS and lung disease but also YNS were improved by treatment with 400 mg CAM.

  7. [Functional interactions between promoters of neighboring yellow and CG3777 genes in Drosophila melanogaster].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, D V; Parshikov, A F; Georgiev, P G; Maksimenko, O G

    2012-12-01

    It was shown by us previously that the transcription of the yellow gene can be affected by the promoter of the neighboring gene CG3777, which has a similar expression profile. In the present work, we continued studying the functional interactions between the promoters of the yellow and CG3777 genes in transgenic Drosophila strains. In this work, we used the failure of the yeast activator GAL4 to stimulate transcription from the promoter of the yellow gene for the case when GAL4-binding sites are localized at the 3'-end of the gene. It has been found that, if the 983-bp CG3777 gene promoter is inserted in transgenic strains in the same orientation with the yellow gene promoter, downstream from the sites of the GAL4 activator, the CG3777 promoter provides a strong stimulation of the yellow gene by the GAL4 activator. When the promoters of the yellow and CG3777 genes are inserted in opposite orientations relative to one another, no stimulation of the yellow gene by GAL4 is observed. Additional results obtained in the work demonstrate that the functional interacton between the CG3777 and yellow promoters depends on their mutual orientation and position relative to the GAL4-binding sites.

  8. Anamnestic immune response to dengue and decreased severity of yellow fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo O Izurieta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A protective immunity against yellow fever, from cross-reactive dengue antibodies, has been hypothesized as an explanation for the absence of yellow fever in Southern Asia where dengue immunity is almost universal. This study evaluates the association between protective immunity from cross-reactive dengue antibodies with yellow fever infection and severity of the disease. The study population consisted of military personnel of a jungle garrison and its detachments located in the Ecuadorian Amazonian rainforest. The cross-sectional study employed interviews as well as seroepidemiological methods. Humoral immune response to yellow fever, Mayaro, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Oropouche, and dengue 2 infections was assessed by evaluating IgM and IgG specific antibodies. Log-linear regression analysis was used to evaluate age and presence of antibodies, against dengue type 2 virus, as predictors of yellow fever infection or severe disease. During the seroepidemiological survey, presence of dengue antibodies among yellow fever cases were observed in 77.3% cases from the coastal region, where dengue is endemic, 14.3% cases from the Amazon and 16.7 % cases from the Andean region. Dengue cross-reactive antibodies were not significantly associated with yellow fever infection but significantly associated with severity of the disease. The findings of this study suggest that previous exposure to dengue infection may have induced an anamnestic immune response that did not prevent yellow fever infection but greatly reduced the severity of the disease.

  9. Observations on white and yellow venoms from an individual southern Pacific rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis helleri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E K; Kardong, K V; Ownby, C L

    1987-01-01

    Biochemical differences in white and yellow venoms produced in the separate venom glands of an individual southern Pacific rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis helleri) were investigated. Compared to the yellow venom, the white venom contained fewer low molecular weight components and was considerably less toxic. Although the exact LD50 was not determined, the white venom did not produce toxic effects in mice when injected i.v. at concentrations up to 10 mg/kg. The i.v. LD50 of the yellow venom was approximately 1.6 mg/kg. Both white and yellow venoms had hemorrhagic activity, but the white venom caused less intradermal hemorrhage in mice. No L-amino acid oxidase activity was measured in the white venom and protease and phospholipase A2 activities of the white venom were much less than in the yellow venom. The white and yellow venoms both produced myonecrosis at 1, 3 and 24 hr after i.m. injection into mice, however, there were some qualitative differences in the myonecrosis produced. When the venom samples were reacted against Wyeth's polyvalent (Crotalidae) antivenom using immunodiffusion, three precipitin bands formed against the yellow venom, whereas only one formed against the white venom. When reacted against an antiserum to myotoxin alpha from C. viridis viridis venom, both the white and yellow venoms produced one precipitin band each.

  10. Modeling sediment transport in the lower Yellow River and dynamic equilibrium threshold value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU; Chunhong; GUO; Qingchao

    2004-01-01

    A major problem in the lower Yellow River is the insufficient incoming water and excessive sediment supply, which results in serious deposition, continuous rise of the river bed, and austere flood control situation. To understand the sediment transport regularity of the lower Yellow River and determine the relationship between sedimentation,incoming water and sediment, and zone water diversion, a mathematical model of the sediment suitable for the characteristics of the lower Yellow River has been developed.This model is first rated and verified by large quantity of observed data, and it is then used to analyze silting reduction for the lower Yellow River by Xiaolangdi Reservoir's operation,the relationship between zone water diversion and channel sedimentation, and critical equilibrium of sedimentation in the lower Yellow River. The threshold values of equilibrium of sedimentation in the lower Yellow River are estimated and they suggest that deposition in the lower Yellow River can be effectively reduced by the operation of regulating flow and sediment from Xiaolangdi Reservoir, water-soil conservation, and controlling water diversion along the lower Yellow River.

  11. First report of Sugarcane yellow leaf virus infecting Columbus Grass (Sorghum almum) in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) [genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae] is the causal agent of sugarcane yellow leaf disease. SCYLV is widespread in Florida where sugarcane was the only known natural host of this virus. During spring 2015, we collected (leaves or stalks) and tested several gras...

  12. Association of IDDM and attenuated response of 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase to yellow fever vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnevie-Nielsen, V; Larsen, M L; Frifelt, J J;

    1989-01-01

    Basal and yellow fever vaccination-induced 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (2',5'A) activity was determined in blood mononuclear cells (peripheral blood lymphocytes [PBLs]) from insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and matched control subjects. The live attenuated yellow fever vaccine repre...

  13. Sediment discharge of the Yellow River, China:past, present and future-A synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Meie

    2015-01-01

    The Yellow River cut through Sanmenxia Gorge and discharged into the sea via the North China Plain in 150 ka BP;since then, around 86 000 × 108 t sediment has been transported passing Sanmenxia Gorge. Based on land use and land cover changes in Loess Plateau and other available evidence, an estimate of the Yellow River sediment budget is presented here:about 72%of the sedimentary material was trapped in the North China Plain and the remainder (i.e., 26%) escaped to the sea. At the present stage,<0.2×108 t/a suspended sediment of the Yellow River enter the northern Yellow Sea. The transport pattern is determined mainly by the shelf current system. Annually 0.2×108–0.3×108 t of suspended particles are carried to the East China Sea;the materials are derived mainly from coastal and subaqueous delta erosion associated with the abandoned Yellow River on the Jiangsu coast. Since 1972, the lower Yellow River started to have a situation of continuous no-flow. During 1996–2000, the annual water flow and sediment discharge are only 19%, as compared with normal years (i.e., average for 1950–1979). In response to global warming and increase of water diversion from the Yellow River for industrial and urban use, the sediment flux of the Yellow River to the sea will most likely remain small in the next two to three decades.

  14. Determination of carotenoids in yellow maize, the effects of saponification and food preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzhingi, Tawanda; Yeum, Kyung-Jin; Russell, Robert M; Johnson, Elizabeth J; Qin, Jian; Tang, Guangwen

    2008-05-01

    Maize is an important staple food consumed by millions of people in many countries. Yellow maize naturally contains carotenoids which not only provide provitamin A carotenoids but also xanthophylls, which are known to be important for eye health. This study was aimed at 1) evaluating the effect of saponification during extraction of yellow maize carotenoids, 2) determining the major carotenoids in 36 genotypes of yellow maize by high-performance liquid chromatography with a C30 column, and 3) determining the effect of cooking on the carotenoid content of yellow maize. The major carotenoids in yellow maize were identified as all-trans lutein, cis-isomers of lutein, all-trans zeaxanthin, alpha- and beta-cryptoxanthin, all-trans beta-carotene, 9-cis beta-carotene, and 13-cis beta-carotene. Our results indicated that carotenoid extraction without saponification showed a significantly higher yield than that obtained using saponification. Results of the current study indicate that yellow maize is a good source of provitamin A carotenoids and xanthophylls. Cooking by boiling yellow maize at 100 degrees C for 30 minutes increased the carotenoid concentration, while baking at 450 degrees F for 25 minutes decreased the carotenoid concentrations by almost 70% as compared to the uncooked yellow maize flour.

  15. Photopic spectral sensitivities of the red and the yellow field of the pigeon retina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wortel, J.F.; Wubbels, R.J.; Nuboer, J.F.W.

    1984-01-01

    The spectral sensitivities of the red field and the yellow field in the retina of the homing pigeon (Columba Livia) were determined on the basis of ERG responses. Between 450 and 550 nm the relative spectral sensitivity of the yellow field turned out to be higher than that of the red field. The resu

  16. Preferences by Rhagoletis indifferens (Dipt., Tephritidae) and non-target flies for rectangles of various yellow colours and fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven sticky rectangle traps of various yellow colours and fluorescence made of cardboard were field tested against western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, in paired trap preference experiments in Washington state, USA. Alpha Scents (proprietary paint), Fluorescent Yellow (aerosol ...

  17. Sediment provenance and province of the southern Yellow Sea: Evidence from light mineral

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGKunshan; SHIXuefa; JIANGXiaoli

    2003-01-01

    The distribution for percent content of light mineral is divided in detail to emphasize distributional trends of higher and lower contents by using 222 samples of light mineral in the southern Yellow Sea. 5 mineral provinces are divided, and they are Ⅰ -north mineral province of the southern Yellow Sea, the sediment dominantly derived from the Yellow River; Ⅱ-mixed mineral province, the sediment derived from both the Yellow River and Yangtze River; Ⅲ-middle mineral province, the sediment derived mainly from the Yellow River and a part of sediment derived from Yangtze River; Ⅳ-province east of Yangtze River mouth, the sediment derived dominantly from Yangtze River; and Ⅴ-south mineral province, sediment was affected by relict sediment and modern sediment of Yangtze River. In this paper, the assemblage of dominant mineral and diagnostic mineral for the five provinces are discerned.

  18. First case of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Wai Shing; Chan, Man Chun; Chik, Shiu Hong; Tsang, Tak Yin

    2016-04-01

    Yellow fever is an important and potentially fatal infection in tropical regions of Africa, South America, eastern Panama in Central America and Trinidad in the Caribbean. Yellow fever vaccination is not only crucial to reduce the disease risk and mortality in individuals travelling to these areas, but also an important public health measure to prevent the spread of the disease. Despite generally considered as a safe vaccine, yellow fever vaccine can rarely be associated with severe adverse reactions including yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD). Here, we report the first case of YEL-AVD in Hong Kong. Clinicians should alert to the possibility of YEL-AVD in vaccinees presenting with compatible symptoms after yellow fever vaccination, particularly in people at higher risk of adverse events.

  19. Involvement of transcriptional enhancers in the regulation of developmental expression of yellow gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Upstream regulatory region and flanking DNA of yellow gene wereisolated and cloned from a Drosophila genomic library. A vector containing yellow gene and regulatory elements was constructed using the recombinant DNA technique. Then this vector was integrated into Drosophila genome by genetic transformation. Using both FLP/FRT and Cre/LoxP site-specific recombination systems, two new yellow alleles were created at the same position in the genome of transgenic flies. Results from genetic and molecular analysis indicated that transcriptional enhancers regulate the developmental expression of the transgene. Furthermore, interactions between new-created yellow alleles were observed. Such interactions can influence markedly the expression of yellow gene during development. This effect may also be a form of enhancer-mediated gene expression.

  20. Clay mineral distributions in the southern Yellow Sea and their significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    To better understand the characteristics of the clay minerals in the southern Yellow Sea, the X-ray quantitative determinations have been carried out for the surface samples obtained from the Yellow Sea. With newly compiled clay mineral synoptic maps, the depositional processes were described for four main clay minerals (illite, chlorite, kaolinite and smectite). The analysis shows that most clay minerals are of terrigenous source with the Huanghe River acting as the major sediment supplier. Besides, the source of muddy sediments in the Yellow Sea was also discussed. As for the central Yellow Sea mud (CYSM), the sediments in its northern part mainly come from the Huanghe River, and those in the rest are of multi-origin. Very similarly, a large amount of sediments in the northern part of the southeastern Yellow Sea Mud (SEYSM) derive from the Keum River and Yeongsan River, while those in the southern part are of multi-origin.

  1. Sediment provenance and province of the southern Yellow Sea: Evidence from light mineral

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The distribution for percent content of light mineral is divided in detail to emphasize distributional trends of higher and lower contents by using 222 samples of light mineral in the southern Yellow Sea. 5 mineral provinces are divided, and they are Ⅰ-north mineral province of the southern Yellow Sea, the sediment dominantly derived from the Yellow River; Ⅱ-mixed mineral province, the sediment derived from both the Yellow River and Yangtze River; Ⅲ- middle mineral province, the sediment derived mainly from the Yellow River and a part of sediment derived from Yangtze River; Ⅳ-province east of Yangtze River mouth, the sediment derived dominantly from Yangtze River; and Ⅴ- south mineral province, sediment was affected by relict sediment and modern sediment of Yangtze River. In this paper, the assemblage of dominant mineral and diagnostic mineral for the five provinces are discerned.

  2. First case of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Wai Shing; Chan, Man Chun; Chik, Shiu Hong; Tsang, Tak Yin

    2016-04-01

    Yellow fever is an important and potentially fatal infection in tropical regions of Africa, South America, eastern Panama in Central America and Trinidad in the Caribbean. Yellow fever vaccination is not only crucial to reduce the disease risk and mortality in individuals travelling to these areas, but also an important public health measure to prevent the spread of the disease. Despite generally considered as a safe vaccine, yellow fever vaccine can rarely be associated with severe adverse reactions including yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD). Here, we report the first case of YEL-AVD in Hong Kong. Clinicians should alert to the possibility of YEL-AVD in vaccinees presenting with compatible symptoms after yellow fever vaccination, particularly in people at higher risk of adverse events. PMID:27087559

  3. A Case of Rheumatoid Arthritis with Bucillamine-Induced Yellow Nail Syndrome Initially Manifesting as Pulmonary Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Takeo Isozaki; Nobuyuki Yajima; Michihito Sato; Ryo Takahashi; Kuninobu Wakabayashi; Yusuke Miwa; Masao Negishi; Hirotsugu Ide; Tsuyoshi Kasama

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of a 67-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis with yellow nail syndrome (YNS) that was caused by bucillamine. All three signs (yellow fingernails, lymphatic edema, and bronchiectasis) of YNS manifested, with characteristic timing, first with the nails turning yellow after when bronchiectasis was noticed. We reviewed 10 case reports from Japan and compared the periods until the appearance of yellow nails after starting bucillamine treatment, as well as those until lung dise...

  4. The combined use of reflectance, emissivity and elevation Aster/Terra data for tropical soil studies Uso combinado de dados de reflectância, emissividade e elevação do Aster/Terra para estudo de solos tropicais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Marcelo Breunig

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Reflectance, emissivity and elevation data of the sensor ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer/Terra were used to characterize soil composition variations according to the toposequence position. Normalized data of SWIR (shortwave infrared reflectance and TIR (thermal infrared emissivity, coupled to a soil-fraction image from a spectral mixture model, were evaluated to separate bare soils from nonphotosynthetic vegetation. Regression relationships of some soil properties with reflectance and emissivity data were then applied on the exposed soil pixels. The resulting estimated values were plotted on the ASTER-derived digital elevation model. Results showed that the SWIR bands 5 and 6 and the TIR bands 10 and 14 measured the clay mineral absorption band and the quartz emissivity feature, respectively. These bands improved also the discrimination between nonphotosynthetic vegetation and soils. Despite the differences in pixel size and field sampling size, some soil properties were correlated with reflectance (R² of 0.65 for Al2O3 in band 6; 0.61 for Fe2O3 in band 3 and emissivity (R² of 0.65 for total sand fraction in the 10/14 band ratio. The combined use of reflectance, emissivity and elevation data revealed variations in soil composition with topography in specific parts of the landscape. From higher to lower slope positions, a general decrease in Al2O3 and increase in total sand fraction was observed, due to the prevalence of Rhodic Acrustox at the top and its gradual transition to Typic Acrustox at the bottom.Dados de reflectância, emissividade e elevação do sensor ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer/Terra foram usados para caracterizar variações na composição dos solos com a posição em topossequências. Dados normalizados de reflectância do SWIR (shortwave infrared e de emissividade do TIR (thermal infrared, integrados com a imagem fração-solo de um modelo de

  5. Genes for resistance to zucchini yellow mosaic in tropical pumpkin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachner, Martin; Paris, Harry S; Lelley, Tamas

    2011-01-01

    Four cultigens of Cucurbita moschata resistant to zucchini yellow mosaic virus were crossed with the susceptible 'Waltham Butternut' and with each other in order to clarify the mode of inheritance of resistance and relationships among the genes involved. Five loci were segregating, with genes for resistance Zym-0 and Zym-4 carried by 'Nigerian Local' and one of them also carried by 'Nicklow's Delight,' Zym-1 carried by 'Menina,' and zym-6 carried by 'Soler.' A recessive gene carried by 'Waltham Butternut,' zym-5, is complementary with the dominant Zym-4 of 'Nigerian Local,' that is, the resistance conferred by Zym-4 is only expressed in zym-5/zym-5 individuals. Gene zym-6 appears to be linked to either Zym-0 or Zym-4, and it is also possible that Zym-1 is linked to one of them as well.

  6. A bacterial disease of yellow perch (Peres flavescens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, A.J.; Nordstrom, P.R.; Bailey, J.E.; Heaton, J.H.

    1960-01-01

    On May 26, 1959, two of the authors' investigated a fish kill at Dailey Lake, Park County, Montana. They observed about a half-dozen live, weakly swimming yellow perch (Perca flavescens), in addition to thousand of dead perch along the shoreline. It was learned from local residents that mortalities had begun to appear some 2 weeks earlier. At that time the time the authorities had diagnosed the condition as a winterkill, since ice had only recently disappeared from the lake. Although a number of other species inhabit Dailey Lake, including rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), brown trout (S. trutta), kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka), black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), longnose suckers (Catostomus catostomus), rainbow x cutthroat hybrids, only one other species was represented in the kill. This consisted of one black crappie.

  7. Rooting of yellow native Passionfruit by semi-hardwood cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Lopes de Albuquerque Junior

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this estudy was to evaluate the influence of cuttings related to their position in the branch (basal, middle and apical and presence of leaves on rooting native yellow passionfruit (Passiflora actinia. Cuttings with two nodes were prepared 80-10 cm long, and his was planted inplastic pots containing vermiculite, maintained in a greenhouse under intermittent mist for 90 days. We evaluated the percentage of rooted cuttings, number of roots, dry weight and length of roots. The statistical design was randomized blocks with 6 treatments, each treatment consisted of four replications with 12 cuttings each. We performed analysis of variance and Tukey’s test to the data interpretation. It was concluded that the presence of leaves on the basal cuttings showed the highest rooting percentage, the greater number of roots higher dry weight and greater length of roots.

  8. Genetic Divergence and Dispersal of Yellow Fever Virus, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Juliet E.; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P.A.; Tesh, Robert B.; Rodrigues, Sueli G.; Barrett, Alan D.T.

    2004-01-01

    An analysis of 79 yellow fever virus (YFV) isolates collected from 1935 to 2001 in Brazil showed a single genotype (South America I) circulating in the country, with the exception of a single strain from Rondônia, which represented South America genotype II. Brazilian YFV strains have diverged into two clades; an older clade appears to have become extinct and another has become the dominant lineage in recent years. Pairwise nucleotide diversity between strains ranged from 0% to 7.4%, while amino acid divergence ranged from 0% to 4.6%. Phylogenetic analysis indicated traffic of virus variants through large geographic areas and suggested that migration of infected people may be an important mechanism of virus dispersal. Isolation of vaccine virus from a patient with a fatal case suggests that vaccine-related illness may have been misdiagnosed in the past. PMID:15498159

  9. Measurements of complex refractive indices of photoactive yellow protein

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, KyeoReh; Jung, JaeHwang; Ihee, Hyotcherl; Park, YongKeun

    2015-01-01

    A novel optical technique for measuring the complex refractive index (CRI) of photoactive proteins over the wide range of visible wavelengths is presented. Employing quantitative phase microscopy equipped with a wavelength swept source, optical fields transmitted from a solution of photoactive proteins were precisely measured, from which the CRIs of the photoactive proteins were retrieved with the Fourier light scattering technique. Using the present method, both the real and imaginary RIs of a photoactive yellow protein (PYP) solution were precisely measured over a broad wavelength range (461 - 582 nm). The internal population of the ground and excited states were switched by blue light excitation (445 nm center wavelength), and the broadband refractive index increments of each state were measured. The significant CRI deviation between in the presence and absence of the blue excitation was quantified and explained based on the Kramers-Kronig relations.

  10. Kosa (yellow sand) components in precipitation collected at central Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chohji Tetsuji; Kitamura Moritsugu; Tabata Masahiro

    2002-01-01

    In east Asia, acidic gases derived from fossil fuel combustion have increased in the pastdecades. On the other hand, the Asian dust, also called Kosa (yellow sand) is transported follow-ing windstorms from arid lands in the Asian continent. Many researchers have been interested inthe reaction between acidic aerosols and Kosa aerosols as well as the long-range transport ofthese emissions. To investigate the characteristics of chemical components in precipitation on along-term basis over Japan, precipitation was sequentially collected from April 1984 to March 1997at Kanazawa located near the coast of the Sea of Japan. Precipitation samples were collected at 1mm intervals for the first 5 mm rainfall and all volume of rainwater after 6 mm for all precipitationevents with an automatic wet only precipitation collector. According to the analyses of precipitationincluding Kosa aerosols during Kosa periods, the reaction in the air between Kosa and acidiccomponents during the long-range transport was discussed.

  11. Production and biological activities of yellow pigments from Monascus fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gong; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2016-08-01

    Monascus yellow pigments (MYPs), are azaphilone compounds and one of the three main components of total Monascus pigments (MPs). Thirty-five hydrophilic or hydrophobic MYPs have been identified, with the majority being hydrophobic. Apart from screening special Monascus strains, some advanced approaches, such as extractive and high-cell-density fermentations, have been applied for developing or producing new MYPs, especially extracellular hydrophilic MYPs. The outstanding performance of MYPs in terms of resistance to photodegradation, as well as tolerance for temperature and pH, give natural MYPs reasonable prospects, compared with the orange and red MPs, for practical use in the present and future. Meanwhile, MYPs have shown promising potential for applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries based on their described bioactivities. This review briefly summarizes the reports to date on chemical structures, biological activities, biosynthetic pathways, production technologies, and physicochemical performances of MYPs. The existing problems for MYPs are discussed and research prospects proposed. PMID:27357404

  12. 76 FR 14897 - Boundary Establishment for the Yellow Dog National Wild and Scenic River, Ottawa National Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... Forest Service Boundary Establishment for the Yellow Dog National Wild and Scenic River, Ottawa National..., Washington Office, is transmitting the final boundary of the Yellow Dog National Wild and Scenic River to.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Yellow Dog Wild and Scenic River boundary is available for review at...

  13. The Yellow Mealworm as a Novel Source of Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel E. Ghaly

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Yellow mealworms of different sizes (4.8-182.7 mg were grown in a medium of wheat flour and brewers yeast (95:5 by weight to evaluate their potential as a protein source. Approach: There was an initial adjustment period (3-9 days observed during which the younger larvae (4.8-61.1 mg grew slowly while the older ones (80.3-182.7 mg lost weight. After this initial period, the younger larvae (4.8-122.1 mg increased in weight while the older ones (139.6-182.7 mg continued to lose weight as they entered the pupal stage. For efficient production of larvae, they should be harvested at a weight of 100-110 mg. The moisture issue in the medium presents an important management problem for commercial production. Results: A system in which eggs are separate from adults and hatched in separate chambers would alleviate the danger of losing the larval population due to microbial infection. The moisture, ash, protein and fat contents were 58.1-61.5, 1.8-2.2, 24.3-27.6 and 12.0-12.5%, respectively. Yellow mealworms seem to be a promising source of protein for human consumption with the required fat and essential amino acids. Further research into raising them on a variety of low quality substances/wastes such as saw dust, waste paper, corn starch and potato flour is recommended. Conclusion/Recommendations: The future research should also investigate the nutrition content of the medium (minerals, protein, fat, carbohydrates and vitamins and the effect of environmental parameters (temperature, humidity, production of CO2 and heat on protein yield and quality. This information will aid in the design of an economically viable large scale production system.

  14. A life history study of the yellow throat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R.E.

    1953-01-01

    Investigations concerning the life history of the Yellow-throat were made in southern Michigan during the spring and summer of 1938. Supplementary information was also obtained at Arlington, Virginia, in 1940 and at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Maryland, in 1947.....Resident males established territories almost immediately upon arrival in spring. In southern Michigan some resident males arrived at least as soon as, if not before, transient males. Most females appeared on their nesting ground about a week later. Adults were engaged in nesting activities from the time of their arrival in spring until the advent of the post-nuptial molt in late summer.....Typical Yellow-throat habitat consists of a mixture of a dense herbaceous vegetation and small woody plants in damp or wet situations. At Ann Arbor, the Yellow-throat was a common breeding species in its restricted suitable habitat. The population density in one area of suitable habitat was about 69 territorial males per 100 acres. Of 11 territorial males that were intensively studied, one was polygamous (with two mates), nine were monogamous, and one was probably monogamous (with at least one mate).....The song of the individual Yellow-throat was heard throughout the breeding season except for the courtship period. Two major types of song were the common song given while perched, and an occasional, more elaborate, flight song. Most males sing in spurts, singing at fairly regular intervals for a considerable period and then abruptly ceasing for another period. The vocabulary of both sexes included several types of call notes that appeared either to have special functions or to represent outward expressions of distinct emotional states of the bird.....Resident males were antagonistic toward each other throughout the breeding season. Most remained on well-established territories during this period. Territories of 10 monogamous males ranged in size from .8 to 1.8 acres but the territory of one polygamous male occupied

  15. Louisiana Air Quality - Using ASTER, Landsat 5, and MODIS to Assess the Impact of Sugar Cane and Marsh Burning Practices on Local Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Robert; Reahard, Ross; Robin, Chad; Zeringue, Jared

    2010-01-01

    Biomass burning is an event that occurs globally and encompasses both human-initiated and naturally-occurring fires. It is estimated that 3 billion metric tons of biomass are burned every year worldwide (Curtis 2002). Societies have used these burning techniques for cooking and heating, clearing land for agricultural use, and removing excess biomass from grazing and croplands (Levine 1991). Our study focuses on the state of Louisiana and its commonly occurring methods of sugarcane and marsh biomass burning (LSU Ag.Center 2000; Nyman and Chabreck 1995). Over the centuries, the sugarcane industry in this state has steadily grown to surpass all other agriculture commodities. To promote efficiency within this large industry, burning excess biomass takes place throughout the harvesting period (LSU Ag.Center 2000). In addition to sugarcane, Louisiana contains 30% of the total coastal marsh of the United States (LSU Ag.Center 2000). The periodic burning of such marshes is an ecologically important management tool that is practiced throughout the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts (Nyman and Chabreck 1995). In most biomass burning instances, the leading by-product is particulate matter that is less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10). Through past research, this fine material has been shown to have negative health effects on surrounding populations (Boopathy2001). While burning guidelines have been set into place by the Louisiana Department of Agriculture and Forestry (LDAF) to reduce health effects, the guidelines are voluntary (LDAF 2000). To help quantify emission estimates, we will focus on Iberia Parish for sugarcane burning and Cameron Parish for marsh burning. Through analysis of ASTER, Landsat 5 TM, and MODIS data, our goal is to determine the amount and location of land area burned for the years 2008 and 2009 due to these practices. With emissions algorithms from Seiler and Crutzen, 1980, total acreage burned can be used to estimate emissions. This information will help to

  16. Effects of Removing Flower Buds on Aster tataricus Medicinal Plants Roots Biomass and Yield%去除花蕾对紫菀药用器官根系生物量及产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁玥怡; 何淑婷; 朱志红

    2013-01-01

    [目的]研究去除花蕾对紫菀药用器官根系生物量及产量的影响.[方法]以药用植物紫菀为研究对象,以单因素随机区组设计试验,4组花蕾的去除数量分别为0、10、20和30个/株,比较其药用器官根系生长量的变化.[结果]随着去除花蕾数的增多,单株根系生物量和单位面积根系产量均明显增大.在试验的种植密度下,4种花蕾去除水平单位面积的根系产量分别为10 075.5、10 439.8、10 967.4和11 997.6 kg/km2.在去除数量达到30个/株(约为单株花蕾数的75%)时,单位面积根系产量有大幅增长,但去除20个/株和30个/株处理之间在根系产量上无显著差异(P>0.05).这说明紫菀的生殖生长对根系生长有很强的抑制性影响.在大田种植紫菀时,与不摘除花蕾相比,采用人工摘除50% ~ 75%的花蕾,可使根系产量提高9.0% ~ 18.6%.[结论]试验揭示了紫菀生殖器官耗损对其药用器官生长的影响,为田间种植紫菀获得较高的药用器官产量提供指导.%[ Objective] To study effects of removing flower buds on Aster talaricus medicinal plants roots biomass and yield. [ Method] With medicinal plant Aster talaricus as study object,by means of single factor randomized block design ,4 buds number removal levels were 0,10,20 and 30 per plant,the increment variation of its medicinal organ roots were compared. [ Result] The results shown that with the increase of the number of removed buds,single root biomass and root yield per unit area increased significantly. In the planting density condition of this experiment, the root yield per unit area of 4 kinds of bud removal level were 10 075.5,10 439.8,10 967.4 and 11 997.6 kg/km2, respectively. Root yield was growing substantially when the removal level reached 30 per plant(approximately 75% flower buds of per plant) ,and had significant differences (P 0.05) from the removing level of 20 buds per plant. This indicated that aster reproductive

  17. The relationship betwwen ENSO cycle and high and low—flow in the upper Yellow River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LANYongchao; DINGYongjiang; KANGErsi; MAQuanjie; ZHANGJishi

    2003-01-01

    Firstly,the hydrological and meteorological features of the upper reaches of the Yellow River above Tangnag are analyzed based on observation data,and effects of El Nino and La Nina events on the high and low flow in the upper Yellow River are discussed.The results show El Nino and La Nina events possess consanguineous relationship with runoff in the upper Yellow River.As a whole,the probability of low flow occurrence in the upper Yellow River is relatively great along with the occurrence of El Nino event.Moreover,the flood in the upper Yellow River occurs frequently with the occurrence of La Nina event.Besides,the results also show dissimilarity of El Nino event occurring time exerts greater impact on high flow and low flow in the upper Yellow River,that is,the probability of drought will be greater in the same year if El Nino event occurs in spring,the high-flow may happen in this year if El Nino occurs in summer or autumn;the longer the continuous period of El Nino is,the lower the runoff in the upper Yellow River is.

  18. Mineral compositions and sources of the riverbed sediment in the desert channel of Yellow River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaopeng; Wang, Haibing

    2011-02-01

    The Yellow River flows through an extensive, aeolian desert area and extends from Xiaheyan, Ningxia Province, to Toudaoguai, Inner Mongolia Province, with a total length of 1,000 km. Due to the construction and operation of large reservoirs in the upstream of the Yellow River, most water and sediment from upstream were stored in these reservoirs, which leads to the declining flow in the desert channel that has no capability to scour large amount of input of desert sands from the desert regions. By analyzing and comparing the spatial distribution of weight percent of mineral compositions between sediment sources and riverbed sediment of the main tributaries and the desert channel of the Yellow River, we concluded that the coarse sediment deposited in the desert channel of the Yellow River were mostly controlled by the local sediment sources. The analyzed results of the Quartz-Feldspar-Mica (QFM) triangular diagram and the R-factor models of the coarse sediment in the Gansu reach and the desert channel of the Yellow River further confirm that the Ningxia Hedong desert and the Inner Mongolian Wulanbuhe and Kubuqi deserts are the main provenances of the coarse sediment in the desert channel of the Yellow River. Due to the higher fluidity of the fine sediment, they are mainly contributed by the local sediment sources and the tributaries that originated from the loess area of the upper reach of the Yellow River. PMID:20354782

  19. Identification of Yellow Pigmentation Genes in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis Using Br300 Microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Jeong Jung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The yellow color of inner leaves in Chinese cabbage depends on its lutein and carotene content. To identify responsible genes for yellow pigmentation in leaves, the transcriptome profiles of white (Kenshin and yellow leaves (Wheessen were examined using the Br300K oligomeric chip in Chinese cabbage. In yellow leaves, genes involved in carotene synthesis (BrPSY, BrPDS, BrCRTISO, and BrLCYE, lutein, and zeaxanthin synthesis (BrCYP97A3 and BrHYDB were upregulated, while those associated with carotene degradation (BrNCED3, BrNCED4, and BrNCED6 were downregulated. These expression patterns might support that the content of both lutein and total carotenoid was much higher in the yellow leaves than that in the white leaves. These results indicate that the yellow leaves accumulate high levels of both lutein and β-carotene due to stimulation of synthesis and that the degradation rate is inhibited. A large number of responsible genes as novel genes were specifically expressed in yellow inner leaves, suggesting the possible involvement in pigment synthesis. Finally, we identified three transcription factors (BrA20/AN1-like, BrBIM1, and BrZFP8 that are specifically expressed and confirmed their relatedness in carotenoid synthesis from Arabidopsis plants.

  20. Yellow flag scores in a compensable New Zealand cohort suffering acute low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Grimmer-Somers

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Karen Grimmer-Somers1, Mathew Prior1, Jim Robertson21Centre for Allied Health Evidence, University of South Australia, City East Campus, North Tce, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia; 2New Zealand Accident Compensation Corporation, Auckland, New ZealandBackground: Despite its high prevalence, most acute low back pain (ALBP is nonspecific, self-limiting with no definable pathology. Recurrence is prevalent, as is resultant chronicity. Psychosocial factors (yellow flags comprising depression and anxiety, negative pain beliefs, job dissatisfaction are associated with the development of chronic LBP.Methods: A national insurer (Accident Compensation Corporation, New Zealand [NZ], in conjunction with a NZ primary health organization, piloted a strategy for more effective management of patients with ALBP, by following the NZ ALBP Guideline. The guidelines recommend the use of a psychosocial screening instrument (Yellow Flags Screening Instrument, a derivative of Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Questionnaire. This instrument was recommended for administration on the second visit to a general medical practitioner (GP. This paper tests whether published cut-points of yellow flag scores to predict LBP claims length and costs were valid in this cohort.Results: Data was available for 902 claimants appropriately enrolled into the pilot. 25% claimants consulted the GP once only, and thus were not requested to provide a yellow flag score. Yellow flag scores were provided by 48% claimants who consumed two or more GP services. Approximately 60% LBP presentations resolved within five GP visits. Yellow flag scores were significantly and positively associated with treatment costs and service use, although the association was nonlinear. Claimants with moderate yellow flag scores were similarly likely to incur lengthy claims as claimants with at-risk scores.Discussion: Capturing data on psychosocial factors for compensable patients with ALBP has merit in predicting

  1. Environmental evolution of the Rio Grande drainage basin and Nasca region (Peru) in 2003-2007 using ENVISAT ASAR and ASTER time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigna, Francesca; Tapete, Deodato; Lasaponara, Rosa; Masini, Nicola

    2013-04-01

    Recent palaeo-environmental studies and remote sensing investigations demonstrated that the Rio Grande drainage basin in Southern Peru is a still evolving landscape, and impacts due to its changes have implications for the preservation of both the natural and cultural features of the Nasca region, well-known for the evidences of the ancient Paracas and Nasca Civilizations, who flourished from the 4th century BC to the 6th century AD. To image the modifications occurred in the last decade, we exploited the entire 4year-long stack of ENVISAT ASAR C-band archive imagery available over the region, which was provided by the European Space Agency (ESA) via the Cat-1 project 11073. The latter supports the activities of the Italian mission of heritage Conservation and Archaeogeophysics (ITACA), which directly involve researchers from the Institute for Archaeological and Monumental Heritage (IBAM) and the Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis (IMAA), National Research Council (CNR) of Italy. With the aim of reconstructing the temporal evolution of the Rio Grande drainage basin and its effects and implications for the heritage of the region, we processed 8 ASAR Image Mode IS2 scenes acquired in descending mode between 04/02/2003 and 15/11/2005 and 5 images in ascending mode between 24/07/2005 and 11/11/2007, and focused on SAR backscattering information, amplitude change detection methods and extraction of ASAR-derived time series of the backscattering coefficient over target areas of interest. The ASAR 2003-2007 analysis was coupled and integrated with NDVI-based soil moisture and vegetation change assessment performed by using ASTER multi-spectral data acquired during the same time frame of the ASAR stacks, on 30/05/2003, 01/06/2004 and 10/06/2007. The research was performed both at the regional scale over the entire Rio Grande drainage basin, with particular focus on its tributaries Rio Ingenio, Rio Nazca and Rio Taruga, and at the local scale over the

  2. Efficient yellow beam generation by intracavity sum frequency mixing in DPSS Nd:YVO4 laser

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A J Singh; P K Gupta; S K Sharma; P K Mukhopadhyay; K S Bindra; S M Oak

    2014-02-01

    We present our studies on dual wavelength operation using a single Nd:YVO4 crystal and its intracavity sum frequency generation by considering the influence of the thermal lensing effect on the performance of the laser. A KTP crystal cut for type-II phase matching was used for intracavity sum frequency generation in the cavity at an appropriate location for efficient and stable yellow output power. More than 550 mW of stable CW yellow-orange beam at 593.5 nm with beam quality parameter (2) ∼ 4.3 was obtained. The total pump to yellow beam conversion efficiency was estimated to be 3.83%.

  3. Yellow nail syndrome, pincer nails, colon cancer and polyps in a 76 year-old-woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitorino Modesto dos Santos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The yellow nail syndrome is a scarcely described condition characterized by dystrophic yellowish nails, respiratory disturbances and lymphedema; while the pincer nail deformity is characterized by thickening and excessive transverse curvature of the nail plate. The objective of this case study is to report a 76-year-old Japanese descent woman with yellow nail syndrome and pincer nails, intestinal polyps, and sigmoid colon adenocarcinoma. Both the yellow nail syndrome and pincer nails may develop in association with malignancies, either by chance or by some etiopathogenic mechanism not well-known.

  4. Morphological evolution of prussian yellow Fe[Fe(CN)6] colloidal nanospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jianmin; Fu, Shaoyan; Jin, Cuihong; Liu, Xin; Gao, Yahui; Wu, Jingxiao; Bian, Zhenpan; Tian, Hua; Wang, Lin; Gao, Faming

    2016-07-01

    A simple hydrothermal system was developed for controllable morphologies of the Prussian yellow Fe[Fe(CN)6] nanostructures in the presence of organic additives. Hollow and solid nanospheres of the Prussian yellow materials were successfully synthesized with suitable experimental conditions. It is found that the amounts of organic additives CTAB could result in the formation of the spherical nanocrystals and the hydrolysis of phosphate in the solution could play a role in the final morphology of the products. A possible formation mechanism of the Prussian yellow nanostructures is proposed.

  5. Yellow fever disease : density equalizing mapping and gender analysis of international research output

    OpenAIRE

    Bundschuh, Matthias; Groneberg, Jan David Alexander; Klingelhoefer, Doris; Gerber, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Background: A number of scientific papers on yellow fever have been published but no broad scientometric analysis on the published research of yellow fever has been reported. The aim of the article based study was to provide an in-depth evaluation of the yellow fever field using large-scale data analysis and employment of bibliometric indicators of production and quantity. Methods: Data were retrieved from the Web of Science database (WoS) and analyzed as part of the NewQis platform. Then ...

  6. Yellow and purple nutsedges survey in the southeastern Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyherabide Juan José

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey of 79 fields was conducted between December 1993 and January 1994, to determine the distribution and relative importance of species of the genus Cyperus, to justify developing management strategies in the southeastern of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Yellow and purple nutsedge were found in 43% and 9% respectively of the surveyed fields. Thirty eight per cent of the surveyed area showed a heavy infestation of yellow nutsedge, and in 90% of cases yellow nutsedge was invading fields cultivated with summer crops and associated with one or more of other seven perennial weeds, mainly bermudagrass.

  7. Biological Control of Yellow Nutsedge with the Indigenous Rust Fungus Puccinia canaliculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phatak, S C; Sumner, D R; Wells, H D; Bell, D K; Glaze, N C

    1983-03-25

    Yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L.) is a serious weed problem in the United States and other countries. An indigenous rust fungus [Puccinia canaliculata (Schw.) Lagerh.], pathogenic on yellow nutsedge, was released in early spring as a potential biological control agent. The fungus inhibited nutsedge flowering and new tuber formation. The fungus also dehydrated and killed nutsedge plants. The successful control of yellow nutsedge by a rust epiphytotic under experimental conditions demonstrates the potential use of the rust in an integrated weed management system. PMID:17735196

  8. The complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of Barley yellow dwarf virus-RMV reveals it to be a new Polerovirus distantly related to other yellow dwarf viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Elizabeth N; Beckett, Randy J; Gray, Stewart M; Miller, W Allen

    2013-01-01

    The yellow dwarf viruses (YDVs) of the Luteoviridae family represent the most widespread group of cereal viruses worldwide. They include the Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDVs) of genus Luteovirus, the Cereal yellow dwarf viruses (CYDVs) and Wheat yellow dwarf virus (WYDV) of genus Polerovirus. All of these viruses are obligately aphid transmitted and phloem-limited. The first described YDVs (initially all called BYDV) were classified by their most efficient vector. One of these viruses, BYDV-RMV, is transmitted most efficiently by the corn leaf aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis. Here we report the complete 5612 nucleotide sequence of the genomic RNA of a Montana isolate of BYDV-RMV (isolate RMV MTFE87, Genbank accession no. KC921392). The sequence revealed that BYDV-RMV is a polerovirus, but it is quite distantly related to the CYDVs or WYDV, which are very closely related to each other. Nor is BYDV-RMV closely related to any other particular polerovirus. Depending on the gene that is compared, different poleroviruses (none of them a YDV) share the most sequence similarity to BYDV-RMV. Because of its distant relationship to other YDVs, and because it commonly infects maize via its vector, R. maidis, we propose that BYDV-RMV be renamed Maize yellow dwarf virus-RMV (MYDV-RMV). PMID:23888156

  9. The complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of Barley yellow dwarf virus-RMV reveals it to be a new Polerovirus distantly related to other yellow dwarf viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth N. Krueger

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The yellow dwarf viruses (YDVs of the Luteoviridae family represent the most widespread group of cereal viruses worldwide. They include the Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDVs of genus Luteovirus, the Cereal yellow dwarf viruses (CYDVs and Wheat yellow dwarf virus (WYDV of genus Polerovirus. All of these viruses are obligately aphid transmitted and phloem-limited. The first described YDVs (initially all called BYDV were classified by their most efficient vector. One of these viruses, BYDV-RMV, is transmitted most efficiently by the corn leaf aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis. Here we report the complete 5612 nucleotide sequence of the genomic RNA of a Montana isolate of BYDV-RMV (isolate RMV MTFE87, Genbank accession no. KC921392. The sequence revealed that BYDV-RMV is a polerovirus, but it is quite distantly related to the CYDVs or WYDV, which are very closely related to each other. Nor is BYDV-RMV closely related to any other particular polerovirus. Depending on the gene that is compared, different poleroviruses (none of them a YDV share the most sequence similarity to BYDV-RMV. Because of its distant relationship to other YDVs, and because it commonly infects maize via its vector, R. maidis, we propose that BYDV-RMV be renamed Maize yellow dwarf virus-RMV (MYDV-RMV.

  10. Effect of tempe-yellow maize porridge and milk-yellow maize porridge on growth rate, diarrhoea and duration of rehabilitation of malnourished children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalavi, F N; Muroki, N M; Omwega, A M; Mwadime, R K

    1996-07-01

    The diet for 117 protein-energy-malnourished children admitted into the Mbooni Family Life Training Centre between November 1992 and March 1993, was supplemented with either tempe-yellow maize porridge (TYMP) or milk-yellow maize porridge (MYMP). Fifty-six malnourished children had their diet supplemented with TYMP. Another group of 61 children had theirs supplemented with MYMP. The growth rate (weight gain), duration of diarrhoeal episodes and rehabilitation period for each child was recorded and a comparison made between the two dietary groups. The TYMP group achieved a significantly (p 0.05) lower than that for the MYMP group which was 20 days. Furthermore, the cost of supplementing the diet for each child with the tempe-yellow maize porridge (KSh. 1625) was approximately 25% lower than that of supplementing it with milk-yellow maize porridge which was KSh. 2060. These results suggest that it may be more beneficial in terms of duration of both diarrhoeal episodes and rehabilitation period and overall institutional cost if malnourished children's diets are supplemented with tempe-yellow maize porridge.

  11. Semantic Web Techniques for Yellow Page Service Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghu Anantharangachar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Applications providing “yellow pages information” for use over the web should ideally be based on structured information. Use of web pages providing unstructured information poses variety of problems to the user, such as use of arbitrary formats, unsuitability for machine processing and likely incompleteness of information. Structured data alleviates these problems but we require more. Capturing the semantics of a domain in the form of an ontology is necessary to ensure that unforeseen application can easily be created at a later date. Very often yellow page systems are implemented using a centralized database. In some cases, human intermediaries accessible over the phone network examine a centralized database and use their reasoning ability to deal with the user’s need for information. Centralized operation and considerable central administration make these systems expensive to operate. Scaling up such systems is difficult. They behave like isolated systems and it is common for such systems to be highly domain specific, for instance systems dealing with accommodation and travel. This paper explores an alternative – a highly distributed system design meeting a variety of needs – considerably reducing efforts required at a central organization, enabling large numbers of vendors to enter information about their own products and services, enablingend-users to contribute information such as their own ratings, using an ontology to describe each domain of application in a flexible manner for uses foreseen and unforeseen, enabling distributed search and mashups, use of vendor independent standards, using reasoning to find the best matches to a given query, geospatial reasoning and a simple, interactive, mobile application/interface. We view this design as one in which vendors and end-users do the bulk of the work in building large distributed collections of information in a Web 2.0 style. We give importance to geo-spatial information and

  12. Isolation and characterization of yellow pigment producing Exiguobacterium sps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Arulselvi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Thirteen yellow pigment producing bacterial strains were isolated by air and soil sampling method and screened for carotenoid production, as many of them exhibited a deep orange pigmentation when cultured on NA-plates. We found that most of them produced trace amount of carotenoids. The isolates RS7, RSS3, RS13 and RS14 had significant amounts of the yellow pigment producing ability (Degree of pigmentation 8.31, 2.72, 6.66 and 5.5. Free Radical Scavenging Activity of the extracts from the isolates were analyzed by DPPH (1, 1-Diphenly-2-picryl-hydrazil method. Isolate RS7 showed maximum free radical scavenging activity (72%. HPLC result revealed that the isolated strains are the natural producer of Astaxanthin. Based on the Biochemical characterization and 16S rDNA gene sequencing analysis, out of the four isolates two of them (RS7 and RS13, were identified as Exiguobacterium aurantiacum and the other two isolates (RSS3 and RS14 as Exiguobacterium profundum. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  13. Competitive Cycling and Doping: Proposing a Functional Analysis Based on the Color Yellow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantal, Yves; Bernache-Assollant, Iouri

    2015-10-01

    The authors demonstrate in three experiments (N = 241) that yellow impacts on social perceptions when associated with competitive cycling. In Experiment 1, the image of a syringe evocated competitive cycling and doping more strongly when presented on yellow as compared with gray. In Experiment 2, a performance improvement scenario yielded more discredit of a depicted racer and higher suspicions of doping when ending on a yellow frame, as opposed to a gray one. In Experiment 3, the image of a racer wearing a yellow jersey (instead of a gray or a white one) yielded the lowest scores on measures of suitability as a role model and attractiveness of sport participation. Moreover, no significant differences emerged for gender, thereby suggesting equivalent effects for female and male participants. Finally, the authors discuss conceptual and practical implications as well as limitations before proposing a number of avenues for future research. PMID:26524096

  14. Yellow-billed Loon Geodatabase, 2013 Update. Version 2.0.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — This database is intended to be a qualitative "first look" at where yellow-billed loons have been recorded and where surveys have been conducted. This spatial...

  15. Determination of sunset yellow in soft drinks based on fluorescence quenching of carbon dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yusheng; Zhao, Xin; Qiao, Man; Zhu, Jinghui; Liu, Shaopu; Yang, Jidong; Hu, Xiaoli

    2016-10-01

    Fluorescent carbon dots was prepared by heating N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylene diaminetriacetic acid in air. The carbon dots were not only highly soluble in water but also uniform in size, and possessed strong blue fluorescence and excitation wavelength-dependent emission properties with the maximum excitation and emission wavelength at 366nm and 423nm, respectively. Food colorant sunset yellow whose excitation and emission wavelength at 303nm and 430nm could selectively quench the fluorescence of carbon dots, efficient fluorescent resonance energy transfer between the carbon dots and sunset yellow is achieved. This was exploited to design a method for the determination of sunset yellow in the concentration range from 0.3 to 8.0μmolL(-1), with a limit of detection (3σ/k) of 79.6nmolL(-1). Furthermore the fluorimetric detection method was established and validated for sunset yellow in soft drinks samples with satisfactory results. PMID:27262658

  16. Parcels and Land Ownership, linkage by project only, Published in 2008, Yellow Medicine.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2008. It is described as 'linkage by project only'. The extent of these data is generally Yellow Medicine County, MN....

  17. Natural Communities of Yellow Bogs in Lewis, Bloomfield and Brunswick Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Yellow Bogs in Essex County, Vermont is a unique ecological area characterized by boreal, lowland forests and extensive bog systems. Within the area, black spruce...

  18. Damage and economical threshold of yellow stem borer (Tryporyza incertulas) on rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGHuadi; ZHANGZuosheng

    1997-01-01

    Systematic measurements to damage and yield loss due to yellow stem borer (YSB) were made in the single crop and double crop areas of Hangzhou, Jiaxing, and Huzhou cities,northern Zhejiang Province in 1987-1994.

  19. Identification of tartrazine and sunset yellow by fluorescence spectroscopy combined with radial basis function neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Wang; Guoqing Chen; Tuo Zhu; Shumei Gao; Bailin Wei; Linna Bi

    2009-01-01

    @@ The fluorescence spectra of synthetic food dyes of sunset yellow and tartrazine are analyzed.The fluorescence peak wavelengths of sunset yellow and tartrazine are 576 and 569 nm, respectively, while the fluorescence spectra widths are 480-750 and 500-750 nm induced by ultraviolet light between 310-400 nm.The fluorescence spectra of sunset yellow overlap heavily with those of tartrazine, so it is diffic ult to distinguish them.Based on the principle of radial basis function neural network, a neural network is obtained from the training of the 14 groups of experimental data.The results show that the species of sunset yellow and tartrazine could be recognized accurately.This method has potential applications in other synthetic food dyes detection and food safety inspection.

  20. Location of Grapevine Fardeaf and Yellow Mosaic Virus Particles in Xiphinema index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raski, D J; Maggenti, A R; Jones, N O

    1973-07-01

    Particles of fanleaf and yellow mosaic viruses are reported in the lumen of the esophagus of Xiphinerna index. Differences in cuticular morphology suggest differences in charged receptor sites which may offer an explanation for virus location and orderly arrangement.

  1. Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregion Assessment Conservation Elements - Terrestrial Species: Yellow-Breasted Chat

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This map shows the potential current distribution of yellow-breasted chat, in the context of current and near-term terrestrial intactness and long-term potential...

  2. Effect of Different Concentration of Whole Yellow Mustard on Color of Commercial Tomato Ketchup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morvarid Yousefi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ketchup is one of most important of tomato products. To increase the consistency, some hydrocolloid such as Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (CMC should be added into the final products. However, CMC is a chemical product and has been shown some defects in point of health view as well as functional properties. Therefore, some alternatives are introduced. In this study, the effect of different concentration whole Yellow mustard on color of ketchup has been considered. The control was modified with increasing the different concentration of yellow mustard. For each sample, the color parameters in CIELAB color space were determined. The results were compared with the control sample which includes nothing of mustard. Results have shown for a concentration of 1.5% of yellow mustard the color properties of the product didn’t differ very much from the standard color quality. This is an important point to replace CMC by yellow mustard.

  3. Resistance Potential of Bread Wheat Genotypes Against Yellow Rust Disease Under Egyptian Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Amer F; Hassan, Mohamed I; Amein, Karam A

    2015-12-01

    Yellow rust (stripe rust), caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most destructive foliar diseases of wheat in Egypt and worldwide. In order to identify wheat genotypes resistant to yellow rust and develop molecular markers associated with the resistance, fifty F8 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between resistant and susceptible bread wheat landraces were obtained. Artificial infection of Puccinia striiformis was performed under greenhouse conditions during two growing seasons and relative resistance index (RRI) was calculated. Two Egyptian bread wheat cultivars i.e. Giza-168 (resistant) and Sakha-69 (susceptible) were also evaluated. RRI values of two-year trial showed that 10 RILs responded with RRI value >6 2 yellow rust. However, further molecular analyses would be performed to confirm markers associated with the resistance and suitable for marker-assisted selection. Resistant RILs identified in the study could be efficiently used to improve the resistance to yellow rust in wheat.

  4. Yellow River vegetation and wildlife surveys: Report for Necedah National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The lower stretches of the Yellow River support some of Wisconsin's most diverse communities. The unique character of this community is evidenced by the number of...

  5. Effects of Lactic Acid Bacteria Fermentation on the Quality of Little Yellow Croaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Wu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This research was to study the effects of lactic acid bacteria fermentation on the quality of little yellow croaker. The effects of the LAB starter composed of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus acidophilus on the quality of little yellow croaker were studied through a 72 h fermentation process in this study. During 72 h fermentation at 30°C, little yellow croaker inoculated with the LAB starter not only resulted in a rapid pH decrease and suppression of spoilage bacteria, but also receded chemical changes such as total volatile base nitrogen and biogenic amines, its texture profile and whiteness also satisfying. Besides, Scanning Electron Micrograph (SEM images indicated some microstructure changes in LAB fermentation. The results demonstrated that the LAB starter could be developed as bio-preservatives to improve the quality of little yellow croaker in storage.

  6. Changes of Coastal Wetland Ecosystems in the Yellow River Delta and Protection Countermeasures to Them

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangzhou; CUI; Xuliang; ZHANG; Zhaohui; ZHANG; Zongjun; XU

    2013-01-01

    Coastal wetlands in the Yellow River Delta are typical new wetland ecosystems in warm temperate zone. In recent years, influenced by natural and human factors, these coastal wetlands in the Yellow River Delta have undergone changes of landscape fragmentation, vegetation degradation, pollution, species reduction, and harmful exotic species invasion. These changes have influenced sustainable and healthy development of marine economy of the Yellow River Delta. To protect natural ecological environment of the Yellow River Delta, the authors recommended that it should establish and improve policies, laws and regulations of wetland protection; carry out wetland resource investigation and assessment and monitoring; strengthen comprehensive protection and control of wetland; reduce wetland degradation and promote sustainable use of wetland.

  7. Multifocal choroiditis following simultaneous hepatitis A, typhoid, and yellow fever vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escott S

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sarah Escott, Ahmad B Tarabishy, Frederick H DavidorfHavener Eye Institute, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: The paper describes the first reported case of multifocal choroiditis following simultaneous hepatitis-A, typhoid, and yellow fever vaccinations. A 33-year-old male developed sudden onset of flashing lights and floaters in his right eye 3 weeks following hepatitis A, typhoid, and yellow fever vaccinations. Fundus examination and angiography confirmed the presence of multiple peripheral chorioretinal lesions. These lesions demonstrated characteristic morphologic changes over a period of 8 weeks which were consistent with a diagnosis of self-resolving multifocal choroiditis. Vaccine-induced intraocular inflammation has been described infrequently. We demonstrate the first case of self-resolving multifocal choroiditis following simultaneous administration of hepatitis A, yellow fever, and typhoid immunizations.Keywords: multifocal choroiditis, vaccination, hepatitis A, typhoid, yellow fever

  8. REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY OF YELLOW PERCH (PERCA FLAVESCENS): ENVIRONMENTAL AND ENDOCRINOLOGICAL CUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    An understanding of the mechanisms involved in the regulation of reproductive processes in yellow perch is fundamental for intensive culture of this commercially important, freshwater, perciform fish. This paper describes the annual reproductive cycle of female and male perch. It...

  9. Determination of sunset yellow in soft drinks based on fluorescence quenching of carbon dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yusheng; Zhao, Xin; Qiao, Man; Zhu, Jinghui; Liu, Shaopu; Yang, Jidong; Hu, Xiaoli

    2016-10-01

    Fluorescent carbon dots was prepared by heating N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylene diaminetriacetic acid in air. The carbon dots were not only highly soluble in water but also uniform in size, and possessed strong blue fluorescence and excitation wavelength-dependent emission properties with the maximum excitation and emission wavelength at 366 nm and 423 nm, respectively. Food colorant sunset yellow whose excitation and emission wavelength at 303 nm and 430 nm could selectively quench the fluorescence of carbon dots, efficient fluorescent resonance energy transfer between the carbon dots and sunset yellow is achieved. This was exploited to design a method for the determination of sunset yellow in the concentration range from 0.3 to 8.0 μmol L- 1, with a limit of detection (3 σ/k) of 79.6 nmol L- 1. Furthermore the fluorimetric detection method was established and validated for sunset yellow in soft drinks samples with satisfactory results.

  10. Study on Optical Properties of Unpigmented Suspended Particles, Yellow Substance and Phytoplankton Algae in Taihu Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞宏; 蔡启铭; 吴敬禄

    2004-01-01

    The optical properties of a waterbody are subjects of research on limnological hydrooptics. The optical properties of, and parameterization methods for, three impurities in Taihu Lake, namely unpigmented suspensions, yellow substance and phytoplankton algae, are analyzed in detail in this paper dealing with the optical types of Taihu Lake waters both in winter and in summer. The results showed that: 1) The optical parameters of suspended particles can be calculated by the application of Mie Theory; 2) The absorption of yellow substance decreases exponentially with increasing wavelength, with the mean value of decreasing rate being about 0.014 nm-1; 3) Taihu Lake waters appeared to be of type PY in winter, with suspended particles and yellow substance being the dominant light absorbers, and type CPY in summer, with suspended particles, yellow substance and phytoplankton algae being the dominant light absorbers; 4) In winter or summer, unpigmented suspension has the main effect on the scattering property of Taihu Lake waters.

  11. “Magic Portraits Drawn by the Sun”: New Orleans, Yellow Fever, and the sense(s) of death in Josh Russell’s Yellow Jack

    OpenAIRE

    Owen Robinson

    2012-01-01

    In ways comparable to the horrors of Hurricane Katrina and its aftermath in 2005, the series of yellow fever epidemics that devastated New Orleans through the nineteenth century were also the result, in part, of the city’s geographical position, its unforgiving climate, and the policies of interested parties; the fever’s awful death toll was likewise accompanied by a grotesque array of sights, sounds and smells. This article will focus upon Josh Russell’s 1999 novel Yellow Jack, which provide...

  12. Cross-protection among strains of barley yellow dwarf virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, F; Lister, R M; Fattouh, F A

    1991-04-01

    ELISA, cDNA dot blot hybridization and transmission by vector aphids were used to investigate the occurrence and degree of cross-protection produced in oat plants by virus isolates representing five strains or serotypes of barley yellow dwarf virus, namely PAV, MAV, SGV, RPV and RMV. Generally, the degree of cross-protection was positively correlated with the serological relatedness between the isolates. A high degree of cross-protection occurred between NY-MAV and MAV-PS1, two isolates of the MAV serotype; cross-protection was moderate between MAV-PS1 and either P-PAV (a Purdue isolate of the PAV serotype) or NY-SGV; cross-protection between P-PAV and NY-SGV was low. Cross-protection did not occur in other paired inoculations and did not persist in some plants, the challenge virus eventually becoming detectable. The persistence of cross-protection depended on the interval between inoculations with protecting and challenge viruses; longer inoculation intervals enhanced the persistence of cross-protection. Results obtained by ELISA and dot blot hybridization were usually consistent, indicating that cross-protection affected both viral capsid and RNA synthesis. PMID:2016594

  13. Evaluating Weeds as Hosts of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hugh A; Seijo, Teresa E; Vallad, Gary E; Peres, Natalia A; Druffel, Keri L

    2015-08-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B transmits Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), which affects tomato production globally. Prompt destruction of virus reservoirs is a key component of virus management. Identification of weed hosts of TYLCV will be useful for reducing such reservoirs. The status of weeds as alternate hosts of TYLCV in Florida remains unclear. In greenhouse studies, B. tabaci adults from a colony reared on TYLCV-infected tomato were established in cages containing one of four weeds common to horticultural fields in central and south Florida. Cages containing tomato and cotton were also infested with viruliferous whiteflies as a positive control and negative control, respectively. Whitefly adults and plant tissue were tested periodically over 10 wk for the presence of TYLCV using PCR. After 10 wk, virus-susceptible tomato plants were placed in each cage to determine if whiteflies descended from the original adults were still infective. Results indicate that Bidens alba, Emilia fosbergii, and Raphanus raphanistrum are not hosts of TYLCV, and that Amaranthus retroflexus is a host. PMID:26314055

  14. Bacillus as a potential diagnostic marker for yellow tongue coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Juan; Cai, Xueting; Yang, Jie; Sun, Xiaoyan; Hu, Chunping; Xia, Junquan; Shen, Jianping; Su, Kelei; Yan, Huaijiang; Xu, Yuehua; Zhang, Yiyan; Zhang, Sujie; Yang, Lijun; Zhi, Hao; Gao, Sizhi Paul; Yu, Qiang; Hu, Jingqing; Cao, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Observation of tongue coating, a foundation for clinical diagnosis and treatment in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is a major indicator of the occurrence, development, and prognosis of disease. The biological basis of tongue diagnosis and relationship between the types and microorganisms of tongue coating remain elusive. Thirteen chronic erosive gastritis (CEG) patients with typical yellow tongue coating (YTC) and ten healthy volunteers with thin white tongue coating (WTC) were included in this study. Patients were provided a 2-course targeted treatment of a herbal medicine Ban Xia Xie Xin decoction, traditionally prescribed for CEG patients with YTC, to evaluate the relationship between tongue coating microbiota and diagnosis of CEG with typical YTC. The tongue coating segregation structure was determined using Illumina Miseq sequencing of the V4-V5 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Bacillus was significantly observed only in CEG patients with YTC, but not in patients who received the decoction. YTC (n = 22) and WTC (n = 29) samples were collected for bacterial culturing to illustrate the relationship between Bacillus and YTC. The Bacillus positivity rate of YTC samples was 72.7%; Bacillus was not observed in WTC samples. In conclusion, Bacillus was strongly associated with YTC. PMID:27578261

  15. Diagnosis of iridovirus in large yellow croaker by PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xinhua; Wang Xiaowen; Wu Wenzhong

    2003-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive PCR-based method for the detection of the large yellow croaker iridovirus (LYCIV) is described, which involves the amplification of a 295 bp fragment of the LYCIV ATPase gene from DNA isolated from naturally infected fish spleen. Sequencing of LYCIV ATPase gene fragment showed it shared 100% nucleotide sequence homology with the corresponding region of the ATPase gene of red sea bream iridovirus (RSIV) and sea bass iridovirus (SBIV), suggesting that LYCIV was homologous with RSIV and SBIV at least in part of the gemone. The specificity and sensitivity of the PCR procedure were tested on the iridovirus-infected fishes, the expected fragment was detected from spleen DNA samples of infected fishes, whereas no fragments were amplified from healthy fish spleen DNA, white spot syndrome baculoviruses (WSBV) DNA and pseudorabies virus (PRV) DNA.Detection limit of this method was 10-7 ng positive plasmid DNA containing target sequence, equal to about 100 virions. In the infected experiment, first positive detection (1/4) appeared at Day 3 post-infection, all fish (4/4) tested positive at Day 7, however obvious symptoms were observed at Day 8, so LYCIV infection could be detected prior to the appearance of obvious symptoms. These results indicate that this PCR method could be used for early, rapid and specific detection of LYCIV infection.

  16. Protective and immunological behavior of chimeric yellow fever dengue vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Scott B; Russell, Philip K

    2016-03-29

    Clinical observations from the third year of the Sanofi Pasteur chimeric yellow fever dengue tetravalent vaccine (CYD) trials document both protection and vaccination-enhanced dengue disease among vaccine recipients. Children who were 5 years-old or younger when vaccinated experienced a DENV disease resulting in hospitalization at 5 times the rate of controls. On closer inspection, hospitalized cases among vaccinated seropositives, those at highest risk to hospitalized disease accompanying a dengue virus (DENV) infection, were greatly reduced by vaccination. But, seronegative individuals of all ages after being vaccinated were only modestly protected from mild to moderate disease throughout the entire observation period despite developing neutralizing antibodies at high rates. Applying a simple epidemiological model to the data, vaccinated seronegative individuals of all ages were at increased risk of developing hospitalized disease during a subsequent wild type DENV infection. The etiology of disease in placebo and vaccinated children resulting in hospitalization during a DENV infection, while clinically similar are of different origin. The implications of the observed mixture of DENV protection and enhanced disease in CYD vaccinees are discussed.

  17. Methyl Yellow: A Potential Drug Scaffold for Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldenhuys, Werner J; Kochi, Akiko; Lin, Li; Sutariya, Vijaykumar; Dluzen, Dean E; Van der Schyf, Cornelis J; Lim, Mi Hee

    2014-07-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disease affecting movement. To date, there are no currently available therapeutic agents which can prevent or slow disease progression. Here, we evaluated an azobenzene derivative, methyl yellow (MY), as a potential drug scaffold for PD; its inhibitory activity toward monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) as well as drug-like properties were investigated. The inhibitory effect of MY on MAO activity was determined by a MAO enzyme inhibition assay. In addition, the in vitro properties of MY as a drug candidate (e.g., blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, serum albumin binding, drug efflux through P-glycoprotein (P-gp), drug metabolism by P450, and mitochondrial toxicity) were examined. In vivo effectiveness of MY was also evaluated in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) Parkinsonian mouse model. MY selectively inhibited MAO-B in a dose-dependent and reversible manner. MY was BBB-permeable, bound relatively weakly to serum albumin, was an unlikely substrate for both systems of P-gp and P450, and did not cause mitochondrial toxicity. Results from the MPTP Parkinsonian mouse model indicated that, upon treatment with MY, neurotoxicity induced by MPTP was mitigated. Investigations of MY demonstrate its inhibitory activity toward MAO-B, compliant properties for drug consideration, and its neuroprotective capability in the MPTP Parkinsonian mouse model. These data provide insights into potential use, optimization, and new design of azobenzene derivatives for PD treatment.

  18. YELLOW AND RED SUPERGIANTS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to their transitionary nature, yellow supergiants (YSGs) provide a critical challenge for evolutionary modeling. Previous studies within M31 and the Small Magellanic Cloud show that the Geneva evolutionary models do a poor job at predicting the lifetimes of these short-lived stars. Here, we extend this study to the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) while also investigating the galaxy's red supergiant (RSG) content. This task is complicated by contamination by Galactic foreground stars that color and magnitude criteria alone cannot weed out. Therefore, we use proper-motions and the LMC's large systemic radial velocity (∼278 km s–1) to separate out these foreground dwarfs. After observing nearly 2000 stars, we identified 317 probable YSGs, 6 possible YSGs, and 505 probable RSGs. Foreground contamination of our YSG sample was ∼80%, while that of the RSG sample was only 3%. By placing the YSGs on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram and comparing them against the evolutionary tracks, we find that new Geneva evolutionary models do an exemplary job at predicting both the locations and the lifetimes of these transitory objects.

  19. Novel Synthetic Promoters from the Cestrum Yellow Leaf Curling Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Dipak Kumar; Sarkar, Shayan; Maiti, Indu B; Dey, Nrisingha

    2016-01-01

    Constitutive promoters direct gene expression uniformly in most tissues and cells at all stages of plant growth and development; they confer steady levels of transgene expression in plant cells and hence their demand is high in plant biology. The gene silencing due to promoter homology can be avoided by either using diverse promoters isolated from different plant and viral genomes or by designing synthetic promoters. The aim of this chapter was to describe the basic protocols needed to develop and analyze novel, synthetic, nearly constitutive promoters from Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus (CmYLCV) through promoter/leader deletion and activating cis-sequence analysis. We also describe the methods to evaluate the strength of the promoters efficiently in various transient expression systems like agroinfiltration assay, gene-gun method, and assay in tobacco protoplasts. Besides, the detailed methods for developing transgenic plants (tobacco and Arabidopsis) for evaluation of the promoter using the GUS reporter gene are also described. The detailed procedure for electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) coupled with super-shift EMSA analysis are also described for showing the binding of tobacco transcription factor, TGA1a to cis-elements in the CmYLCV distal promoter region. PMID:27557764

  20. Migration, mitochondria, and the yellow-rumped warbler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toews, David P L; Mandic, Milica; Richards, Jeffrey G; Irwin, Darren E

    2014-01-01

    Discordance between mitochondrial and nuclear DNA has been noted in many systems. Asymmetric introgression of mitochondria is a common cause of such discordances, although in most cases the drivers of introgression are unknown. In the yellow-rumped warbler, evidence suggests that mtDNA from the eastern, myrtle warbler, has introgressed across much of the range of the western form, the Audubon's warbler. Within the southwestern United States myrtle mtDNA comes into contact with another clade that occurs in the Mexican black-fronted warbler. Both northern forms exhibit seasonal migration, whereas black-fronted warblers are nonmigratory. We investigated the link between mitochondrial introgression, mitochondrial function, and migration using novel genetic, isotopic, biochemical, and phenotypic data obtained from populations in the transition zone. Isotopes suggest the zone is coincident with a shift in migration, with individuals in the south being resident and populations further north becoming increasingly more migratory. Mitochondrial respiration in flight muscles demonstrates that myrtle-type individuals have a significantly greater acceptor control ratio of mitochondria, suggesting it may be more metabolically efficient. To our knowledge this is the first time this type of intraspecific variation in mitochondrial respiration has been measured in wild birds and we discuss how such mitochondrial adaptations may have facilitated introgression.

  1. Síndrome da unha amarela Yellow nail syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Maciel

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome da unha amarela é uma entidade clínica rara caracterizada por três achados principais: alterações distróficas e de coloração das unhas, linfedema e derrame pleural. Bronquiectasias e rinossinusite crônica têm sido freqüentemente associadas. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente com os achados completos da síndrome, com derrame pleural bilateral e que estava em tratamento de tuberculose pulmonar havia nove meses. Na sua história familiar havia a descrição de dois casos semelhantes, em irmã e irmão.Yellow nail syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by three main features: discoloration of the nails, together with dystrophic alterations; lymphedema; and pleural effusion. It is often accompanied by bronchiectasis and chronic rhinosinusitis. Herein, we report a case of the complete syndrome with bilateral pleural effusion in a patient under treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis for nine months. There was a family history of two similar cases in siblings.

  2. Inhomogeneity observed in the photocycle of photoactive yellow protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to obtain insight into the hydrogen-bonding network surrounding the chromophore in biologically photo-functional proteins, photoactive yellow protein (PYP) has been modified by a combination of a site-directed mutagenesis and a substitution of the chromophore with an analogue. Fluorescence excitation and emission spectroscopies have been performed to evaluate the inhomogeneous nature of the spectra originated from the variation of conformational substates of the modified proteins. Noticeable inhomogeneity including contributions from two distinct substates has been observed for a PYP hybrid with the E46Q mutation and a substitution of the p-coumaric acid chromophore with caffeic acid. Transient absorption spectroscopy has been also conducted to clarify whether inhomogeneity affects the recovering kinetics or not. For the PYP hybrid, a remarkable difference of the recovery time from the signaling state has been observed, depending on the wavelength of the excitation light triggering the photocycle. Although this observation is preliminary, it indicates that kinetically inhomogeneous species likely exist in the PYP hybrid

  3. Protective and immunological behavior of chimeric yellow fever dengue vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Scott B; Russell, Philip K

    2016-03-29

    Clinical observations from the third year of the Sanofi Pasteur chimeric yellow fever dengue tetravalent vaccine (CYD) trials document both protection and vaccination-enhanced dengue disease among vaccine recipients. Children who were 5 years-old or younger when vaccinated experienced a DENV disease resulting in hospitalization at 5 times the rate of controls. On closer inspection, hospitalized cases among vaccinated seropositives, those at highest risk to hospitalized disease accompanying a dengue virus (DENV) infection, were greatly reduced by vaccination. But, seronegative individuals of all ages after being vaccinated were only modestly protected from mild to moderate disease throughout the entire observation period despite developing neutralizing antibodies at high rates. Applying a simple epidemiological model to the data, vaccinated seronegative individuals of all ages were at increased risk of developing hospitalized disease during a subsequent wild type DENV infection. The etiology of disease in placebo and vaccinated children resulting in hospitalization during a DENV infection, while clinically similar are of different origin. The implications of the observed mixture of DENV protection and enhanced disease in CYD vaccinees are discussed. PMID:26873054

  4. Plant community succession in modern Yellow River Delta, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Data were collected in different successional stages using a simultaneous sampling method and analyzed through quantitative classification method. Three large groups and 12 classes were made to represent the community patterns of three succession stages and 12 succession communities. The succession series of plant community in the study area was as follows:saline bare land→community Suaeda salsa→community Tamarix chinensis→grassland. Succession degree and succession process of 12 succession communities were calculated. Most of these communities were in the lower succession stage, however,community Phragmites communis+Glycine soja and community Imperata cylindrica+G. soja were close to the succession stage of grassland climax. Five species diversity indices were used to study the changes in species richness, species evenness and diversity during succession of community. Heterogeneity index and richness index increased gradually during the community succession process, but species evenness tended to decrease with succession development. The relation between succession and environment was studied by ordination technique, and the results showed that the soil salt content was an important factor to halarch succession of the modern Yellow River Delta. It affected community structure, species composition and succession process.

  5. Seasonal variability of thermocline in the Yellow Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔方利; 夏长水; 施建伟; 马建; 葛人峰; 袁业立

    2004-01-01

    Based on the MASNUM wave-tide-circulation coupled numerical model, seasonal variability of thermocline in the Yellow Sea was simulated and compared with in-situ observations. Both simulated mixed layer depth (MLD) and thermocline intensity have similar spatial patterns to the observations. The simulated maximum MLD are 8 m and 22 m, while the corresponding observed values are 13 m and 27 m in July and October, respectively. The simulated thermocline intensity are 1.2℃/m and 0.5℃/m in July and October,respectively, which are 0.6℃/m less than those of the observations. It may be the main reason why the simulated thermocline is weaker than the observations that the model vertical resolution is less precise than that of the CTD data which is 1 m. Contours of both simulated and observed thermocline intensity present a circle in general. The wave-induced mixing plays a key role in the formation of the upper mixed layer in spring and summer. Tidal mixing enhances the thermocline intensity. Buoyancy-driven mixing destroys the thermocline in autumn and keeps the vertical temperature uniform in winter.

  6. Intriguing olfactory proteins from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Yuko; Chen, Angela M.; Tsuruda, Jennifer M.; Cornel, Anthon J.; Debboun, Mustapha; Leal, Walter S.

    2004-09-01

    Four antennae-specific proteins (AaegOBP1, AaegOBP2, AaegOBP3, and AaegASP1) were isolated from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti and their full-length cDNAs were cloned. RT-PCR indicated that they are expressed in female and, to a lesser extent, in male antennae, but not in control tissues (legs). AaegOBP1 and AaegOBP3 showed significant similarity to previously identified mosquito odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) in cysteine spacing pattern and sequence. Two of the isolated proteins have a total of eight cysteine residues. The similarity of the spacing pattern of the cysteine residues and amino acid sequence to those of previously identified olfactory proteins suggests that one of the cysteine-rich proteins (AaegOBP2) is an OBP. The other (AaegASP1) did not belong to any group of known OBPs. Structural analyses indicate that six of the cysteine residues in AaegOBP2 are linked in a similar pattern to the previously known cysteine pairing in OBPs, i.e., Cys-24 Cys-55, Cys-51 Cys-104, Cys-95 Cys-113. The additional disulfide bridge, Cys-38 Cys-125, knits the extended C-terminal segment of the protein to a predicted α2-helix. As indicated by circular dichroism (CD) spectra, the extra rigidity seems to prevent the predicted formation of a C-terminal α-helix at low pH.

  7. Yellow Fever Virus in Haemagogus leucocelaenus and Aedes serratus Mosquitoes, Southern Brazil, 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, Jáder da C.; de Almeida, Marco A.B.; dos Santos, Edmilson; da Fonseca, Daltro F.; Sallum, Maria A.M.; Noll, Carlos A.; Monteiro, Hamilton A. de O.; Cruz, Ana C.R.; Carvalho, Valéria L.; Pinto, Eliana V.; Castro, Francisco C.; Neto, Joaquim P. Nunes; Segura, Maria N.O.; Vasconcelos, Pedro F.C.

    2010-01-01

    Yellow fever virus (YFV) was isolated from Haemagogus leucocelaenus mosquitoes during an epizootic in 2001 in the Rio Grande do Sul State in southern Brazil. In October 2008, a yellow fever outbreak was reported there, with nonhuman primate deaths and human cases. This latter outbreak led to intensification of surveillance measures for early detection of YFV and support for vaccination programs. We report entomologic surveillance in 2 municipalities that recorded nonhuman primate deaths. Mosq...

  8. Progressive eutrophication behind the world-largest super floating macroalgal blooms in the Yellow Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Q.; Gao, M; Gao, X; Tosi, L.; Schmitt, F G; Zhang, Y.; Shi, P.; Wei, J.; Luo, Y.

    2014-01-01

    World-largest super floating macroalgal blooms of Ulva prolifera have lasted 7 years by now in every summer in the Yellow Sea, the outer part of a semi-enclosed coastal sea. Evaluation of the inter-annual variability in the trophic status is one of fundamental tasks for prediction and management of the blooms. We show the new findings of a progressive eutrophication in the large Yellow Sea basin behind the super floating macroalgal blooms. The inter-annual...

  9. Investigation on Water Pollution of Four Rivers in Coastal Wetland of Yellow River Estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed at analysing water pollution of four rivers in coastal wetland of Yellow River estuary. [Method] Taking four seriously polluted rivers (Guangli River, Shenxian Ditch, Tiao River and Chao River) in coastal wetland of Yellow River estuary as study objects, water samples were collected from the four rivers in May (dry period), August (wet period) and November (normal period) in 2009 and 2010 respectively, then pollution indices like nutritive salts, COD, chlorophyll-a, petroleum, et...

  10. A BRIEF REVIEW ON "MOLECULAR DETECTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF YELLOW MOSAIC VIRUS (YMV) INFECTING BLACKGRAM"

    OpenAIRE

    S.Obaiah; Bhaskara Reddy, B. V.; N.P. Eswara Reddy; K. Vijay Krishna Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Blackgram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) is one of the major pulse crops of the tropics and sub tropics. It is the third major pulse crop cultivated in the Indian subcontinent. Pulses and grain legumes are major sources of dietary protein. These crops are subjected to yellow mosaic and golden mosaic diseases caused by white fly transmitted geminiviruses (WTG’s or begomovirus). Of these viruses, mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) is an important one, and it infects five major leguminous species...

  11. Entomological profile of yellow fever epidemics in the Central African Republic, 2006-2010.

    OpenAIRE

    Ngoagouni, Carine; Kamgang, Basile; Manirakiza, Alexandre; Nangouma, Auguste; Paupy, Christophe; Nakoune, Emmanuel; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2012-01-01

    UNLABELLED: ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The causative agent of yellow fever is an arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family transmitted by infected Aedes mosquitoes, particularly in Africa. In the Central African Republic since 2006, cases have been notified in the provinces of Ombella-Mpoko, Ouham-Pende, Basse-Kotto, Haute-Kotto and in Bangui the capital. As the presence of a vector of yellow fever virus (YFV) represents a risk for spread of the disease, we undertook entomological investigations at the...

  12. Entomological profile of yellow fever epidemics in the Central African Republic, 2006–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Ngoagouni Carine; Kamgang Basile; Manirakiza Alexandre; Nangouma Auguste; Paupy Christophe; Nakoune Emmanuel; Kazanji Mirdad

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The causative agent of yellow fever is an arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family transmitted by infected Aedes mosquitoes, particularly in Africa. In the Central African Republic since 2006, cases have been notified in the provinces of Ombella-Mpoko, Ouham-Pende, Basse-Kotto, Haute-Kotto and in Bangui the capital. As the presence of a vector of yellow fever virus (YFV) represents a risk for spread of the disease, we undertook entomological investigations at these sites to id...

  13. Entomological profile of yellow fever epidemics in the Central African Republic, 2006–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Ngoagouni, Carine; Kamgang, Basile; Manirakiza, Alexandre; Nangouma, Auguste; Paupy, Christophe; Nakoune, Emmanuel; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2012-01-01

    UNLABELLED: ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The causative agent of yellow fever is an arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family transmitted by infected Aedes mosquitoes, particularly in Africa. In the Central African Republic since 2006, cases have been notified in the provinces of Ombella-Mpoko, Ouham-Pende, Basse-Kotto, Haute-Kotto and in Bangui the capital. As the presence of a vector of yellow fever virus (YFV) represents a risk for spread of the disease, we undertook entomological investigations at the...

  14. Distribution and air-sea exchange of mercury (Hg) in the Yellow Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Z. J. Ci; X. S. Zhang; Wang, Z. W.; Niu, Z. C.; Diao, X. Y.; Wang, S. W.

    2011-01-01

    The Yellow Sea, surrounded by East China and the Korea Peninsula, is a potentially important receptor for anthropogenic mercury (Hg) emissions from East Asia. However, there is little documentation about the distribution and cycle of Hg in this marine system. During the cruise covering the Yellow Sea in July 2010, gaseous elemental mercury (GEM or Hg(0)) in the atmosphere, total Hg (THg), reactive Hg (RHg) and dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM, largely Hg(0)) in the waters were measured ...

  15. A Matter of Contrast: Yellow Flower Colour Constrains Style Length in Crocus species

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus Lunau; Sabine Konzmann; Jessica Bossems; Doerte Harpke

    2016-01-01

    Most flowers display distinct colour patterns comprising two different areas. The peripheral large-area component of floral colour patterns attracts flower visitors from some distance and the central small-area component guides flower visitors towards landing sites. Whereas the peripheral colour is largely variable among species, the central colour, produced mostly by anthers and pollen or pollen mimicking floral guides, is predominantly yellow and UV-absorbing. This holds also for yellow flo...

  16. Estimating the Agricultural Water Productivity of the Yellow River Basin Based on Remote Sensing Data

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Guoqiang; Xue, Baolin; Yu, Jingshan; Otsuki, Kyoichi

    2011-01-01

    Water shortage for agricultural water use is a major problem in the Yellow River basin. This research use NDVI value, meteorological data, supervised classification in remote sensing image and actual statistical data to estimate and verify the wheat and maize distribution and the relevant crop water productivity values in the Yellow River basin. The validation of the method is performed by comparing the results with the distribution of CIESIN statistic data for 1990. To obtain the accurate cr...

  17. Study of the behaviour of the yellow cake dissolution in simulated lung fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An in vitro study was performed to determine the solubility of the yellow cake produced in a Brazilian uranium mill to permit classification of the inhaled material and to aid bioassay interpretation. The powder was taken from 6 different lots of yellow cake produced during 10 weeks mill operation period. Dissolution fractions and half-times were obtained using simulated lung fluid in a shaker bath at 370 C for 30 days. Uranium concentration were determined by neutron activation analysis. (author)

  18. Studies on induced mutation and genetics of a yellow seedling mutant in rapeseed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A yellow seedling mutant Tt was derived from the progeny of the inbred 3529(B. napus L.) which seeds were jointly treated with fast neutro exposure and chemical inducer of DES. Genetics investigation showed that the yellow seedling character is controlled by one pair of recessive nuclear genes. The mutation character is easily to be introduced into the other rapeseed lines and could be used as a marker character to identify the authenticity of hybrid seeds

  19. Yellow flag scores in a compensable New Zealand cohort suffering acute low back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimmer-Somers, Karen; Prior, Mathew; Robertson, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Background Despite its high prevalence, most acute low back pain (ALBP) is nonspecific, self-limiting with no definable pathology. Recurrence is prevalent, as is resultant chronicity. Psychosocial factors (yellow flags comprising depression and anxiety, negative pain beliefs, job dissatisfaction) are associated with the development of chronic LBP. Methods A national insurer (Accident Compensation Corporation, New Zealand [NZ]), in conjunction with a NZ primary health organization, piloted a strategy for more effective management of patients with ALBP, by following the NZ ALBP Guideline. The guidelines recommend the use of a psychosocial screening instrument (Yellow Flags Screening Instrument, a derivative of Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Questionnaire). This instrument was recommended for administration on the second visit to a general medical practitioner (GP). This paper tests whether published cut-points of yellow flag scores to predict LBP claims length and costs were valid in this cohort. Results Data was available for 902 claimants appropriately enrolled into the pilot. 25% claimants consulted the GP once only, and thus were not requested to provide a yellow flag score. Yellow flag scores were provided by 48% claimants who consumed two or more GP services. Approximately 60% LBP presentations resolved within five GP visits. Yellow flag scores were significantly and positively associated with treatment costs and service use, although the association was nonlinear. Claimants with moderate yellow flag scores were similarly likely to incur lengthy claims as claimants with at-risk scores. Discussion Capturing data on psychosocial factors for compensable patients with ALBP has merit in predicting lengthy claims. The validity of the published yellow flag cut-points requires further testing. PMID:21197284

  20. Runoff of the upper Yellow River above Tangnag:characteristics, evolution and changing trends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Runoff and its evolution, based on hydrometeorological data fromsurface measurement stations, are analyzed for the upper reaches of the Yellow River above Tangnag. Some mathematical statistical models, for example, Period Extrapolation-Gradual Regression Model, Grey Topology Forecast Model and Box-Jinkins Model, are applied in predicting changing trends on the runoff The analysis indicates that the runoff volume in the upper Yellow River above Tangnag is ending a period of extended minimum flows. Increasing runoff is expected in the coming years.

  1. Detection of metanil yellow contamination in turmeric using FT-Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Sagar; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei; Kim, Moon; Schmidt, Walter; Chan, Dian

    2016-05-01

    Turmeric is well known for its medicinal value and is often used in Asian cuisine. Economically motivated contamination of turmeric by chemicals such as metanil yellow has been repeatedly reported. Although traditional technologies can detect such contaminants in food, high operational costs and operational complexities have limited their use to the laboratory. This study used Fourier Transform Raman Spectroscopy (FT-Raman) and Fourier Transform - Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) to identify metanil yellow contamination in turmeric powder. Mixtures of metanil yellow in turmeric were prepared at concentrations of 30%, 25%, 20%, 15%, 10%, 5%, 1% and 0.01% (w/w). The FT-Raman and FT-IR spectral signal of pure turmeric powder, pure metanil yellow powder and the 8 sample mixtures were obtained and analyzed independently to identify metanil yellow contamination in turmeric. The results show that FT-Raman spectroscopy and FT-IR spectroscopy can detect metanil yellow mixed with turmeric at concentrations as low as 1% and 5%, respectively, and may be useful for non-destructive detection of adulterated turmeric powder.

  2. Proteomic analysis of white and yellow seminal plasma in turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słowińska, M; Kozłowski, K; Jankowski, J; Ciereszko, A

    2015-06-01

    Yellow semen syndrome (YSS) is endemic within domestic turkey populations. Yellow semen is of lower quality and, when used for insemination, results in reduced fertility and hatchability. Little is known about the etiology of YSS. The aim of this study was to compare the proteome of white and yellow seminal plasma of turkeys using 1) 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) to quantify seminal plasma proteins and 2) matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry to identify the proteins that are differentially abundant in white and yellow seminal plasma. A total of 49 protein spots (30 upregulated and 19 downregulated) were differentially expressed in yellow seminal plasma compared with white seminal plasma. Transthyretin and serum albumin-like showed a 3-fold increase in seminal plasma from males with YSS, and the latter was validated using Western blot analysis. A 3-fold increase was observed for hemopexin-like and immunoglobulin light chain V-J-C region. Pantetheinase-like showed a 1.3-fold increase. Ovotransferrin, hepatocyte growth factor activator, cysteine-rich secretory protein 3-like, and ferritin heavy chain-like showed a significant decrease (at least a 1.3-fold decrease) in yellow semen. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the precise function of the above-mentioned proteins in YSS and to establish quality markers of turkey semen to predict the reproductive potential of individual turkeys.

  3. SEARCHING FOR NEW YELLOW SYMBIOTIC STARS: POSITIVE IDENTIFICATION OF StHα63

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baella, N. O. [Unidad de Astronomía, Instituto Geofísico del Perú, Lima, Per (Peru); Pereira, C. B.; Alvarez-Candal, A. [Observatório Nacional/MCTI, Rua Gen. José Cristino, 77, 20921-400, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Miranda, L. F., E-mail: nobar.baella@gmail.com, E-mail: claudio@on.br, E-mail: alvarez@on.br, E-mail: lfm@iaa.es [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía- CSIC, C/Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18008 Granada (Spain)

    2016-04-15

    Yellow symbiotic stars are useful targets for probing whether mass transfer has happened in their binary systems. However, the number of known yellow symbiotic stars is very scarce. We report spectroscopic observations of five candidate yellow symbiotic stars that were selected by their positions in the 2MASS (J − H) versus (H − K{sub s}) diagram and which were included in some emission-line catalogs. Among the five candidates, only StHα63 is identified as a new yellow symbiotic star because of its spectrum and its position in the [TiO]{sub 1}–[TiO]{sub 2} diagram, which indicates a K4–K6 spectral type. In addition, the derived electron density (∼10{sup 8.4} cm{sup −3}) and several emission-line intensity ratios provide further support for that classification. The other four candidates are rejected as symbiotic stars because three of them actually do not show emission lines and the fourth one only Balmer emission lines. We also found that the WISE W3–W4 index clearly separates normal K-giants from yellow symbiotic stars and therefore can be used as an additional tool for selecting candidate yellow symbiotic stars.

  4. Yellow pea fiber improves glycemia and reduces Clostridium leptum in diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslinger, Amanda J; Eller, Lindsay K; Reimer, Raylene A

    2014-08-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the impact of functional fibers on gut microbiota and metabolic health, but some less well-studied fibers and/or fractions of foods known to be high in fiber still warrant examination. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of yellow pea-derived fractions varying in fiber and protein content on metabolic parameters and gut microbiota in diet-induced obese rats. We hypothesized that the yellow pea fiber (PF) fraction would improve glycemia and alter gut microbiota. Rats were randomized to 1 of 5 isoenergetic dietary treatments for 6 weeks: (1) control; (2) oligofructose (OFS); (3) yellow PF; (4) yellow pea flour (PFL); or (5) yellow pea starch (PS). Glycemia, plasma gut hormones, body composition, hepatic triglyceride content, gut microbiota, and messenger RNA expression of genes related to hepatic fat metabolism were examined. Pea flour attenuated weight gain compared with control, PF, and PS (P Pea flour, PS, and OFS had significantly lower final percent body fat compared with control. Oligofructose but not the pea fraction diets reduced food intake compared with control (P Pea fiber resulted in lower fasting glucose and glucose area under the curve compared with control. Changes in gut microbiota were fraction specific and included a decrease in Firmicutes (percent) for OFS, PF, and PFL compared with control (P yellow pea-derived fractions are able to distinctly modulate metabolic parameters and gut microbiota in obese rats. PMID:25156790

  5. ETM+和ASTER数据在遥感信息提取中的对比研究%Comparison Between ETM+ and ASTER Data for Extraction of Alteration Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林腾; 高光明; 刘容秀; 肖娟

    2011-01-01

    Remote sensing extraction of alteration information technology is an important means of prospecting. This article selected CERCANA located in AREQUIPA province of southern Peru and Moarcona ore zone located in ICA Province of southern Peru as two study areas of this paper. And starting from the spectrum analysis of surface features,using ETM + and ASTER satellite image data to extract clay alteration information of CERCANA by principal component analysis method ,and extract iron staining alteration information of Marcona by band ratio method , besides making comparative analysis of the results of the two extractions. The final results show that ASTER data in the alteration information extraction has a greater advantage compared with ETM + data.%遥感蚀变信息提取是找矿的一个重要技术手段.本文选择位于秘鲁南部阿雷基帕(AREQUIPA)省境内的萨卡纳(CERCANA)和伊卡(ICA)省境内的Moarcona铁矿区作为本文的两个研究区,从分析地物光谱出发,利用ETM+和ASTER卫星影像数据,通过主成份分析法和比值分析法分别对两个研究区进行泥化蚀变信息提取和铁染蚀变信息提取,并对两者的提取结果进行对比分析.最后结果表明,相较于ETM+数据,ASTER数据在矿化蚀变信息的提取方面具有更大的优势.

  6. A DNA vaccine against yellow fever virus: development and evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Maciel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Attenuated yellow fever (YF virus 17D/17DD vaccines are the only available protection from YF infection, which remains a significant source of morbidity and mortality in the tropical areas of the world. The attenuated YF virus vaccine, which is used worldwide, generates both long-lasting neutralizing antibodies and strong T-cell responses. However, on rare occasions, this vaccine has toxic side effects that can be fatal. This study presents the design of two non-viral DNA-based antigen formulations and the characterization of their expression and immunological properties. The two antigen formulations consist of DNA encoding the full-length envelope protein (p/YFE or the full-length envelope protein fused to the lysosomal-associated membrane protein signal, LAMP-1 (pL/YFE, aimed at diverting antigen processing/presentation through the major histocompatibility complex II precursor compartments. The immune responses triggered by these formulations were evaluated in H2b and H2d backgrounds, corresponding to the C57Bl/6 and BALB/c mice strains, respectively. Both DNA constructs were able to induce very strong T-cell responses of similar magnitude against almost all epitopes that are also generated by the YF 17DD vaccine. The pL/YFE formulation performed best overall. In addition to the T-cell response, it was also able to stimulate high titers of anti-YF neutralizing antibodies comparable to the levels elicited by the 17DD vaccine. More importantly, the pL/YFE vaccine conferred 100% protection against the YF virus in intracerebrally challenged mice. These results indicate that pL/YFE DNA is an excellent vaccine candidate and should be considered for further developmental studies.

  7. A DNA vaccine against yellow fever virus: development and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Milton; Cruz, Fábia da Silva Pereira; Cordeiro, Marli Tenório; da Motta, Márcia Archer; Cassemiro, Klécia Marília Soares de Melo; Maia, Rita de Cássia Carvalho; de Figueiredo, Regina Célia Bressan Queiroz; Galler, Ricardo; Freire, Marcos da Silva; August, Joseph Thomas; Marques, Ernesto T A; Dhalia, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    Attenuated yellow fever (YF) virus 17D/17DD vaccines are the only available protection from YF infection, which remains a significant source of morbidity and mortality in the tropical areas of the world. The attenuated YF virus vaccine, which is used worldwide, generates both long-lasting neutralizing antibodies and strong T-cell responses. However, on rare occasions, this vaccine has toxic side effects that can be fatal. This study presents the design of two non-viral DNA-based antigen formulations and the characterization of their expression and immunological properties. The two antigen formulations consist of DNA encoding the full-length envelope protein (p/YFE) or the full-length envelope protein fused to the lysosomal-associated membrane protein signal, LAMP-1 (pL/YFE), aimed at diverting antigen processing/presentation through the major histocompatibility complex II precursor compartments. The immune responses triggered by these formulations were evaluated in H2b and H2d backgrounds, corresponding to the C57Bl/6 and BALB/c mice strains, respectively. Both DNA constructs were able to induce very strong T-cell responses of similar magnitude against almost all epitopes that are also generated by the YF 17DD vaccine. The pL/YFE formulation performed best overall. In addition to the T-cell response, it was also able to stimulate high titers of anti-YF neutralizing antibodies comparable to the levels elicited by the 17DD vaccine. More importantly, the pL/YFE vaccine conferred 100% protection against the YF virus in intracerebrally challenged mice. These results indicate that pL/YFE DNA is an excellent vaccine candidate and should be considered for further developmental studies. PMID:25875109

  8. Association of tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus DNA-B with bhendi yellow vein mosaic virus in okra showing yellow vein mosaic disease symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataravanappa, V; Lakshminarayana Reddy, C N; Jalali, S; Krishna Reddy, M

    2015-06-01

    Okra samples showing yellow vein mosaic, vein twisting and bushy appearance were collected from different locations of India during the surveys conducted between years 2005-2009. The dot blot and PCR detection revealed that 75.14% of the samples were associated with monopartite begomovirus and remaining samples with bipartite virus. Whitefly transmission was established for three samples representing widely separated geographical locations which are negative to betasatellites and associated with DNA-B. Genome components of these three representative isolates were cloned and sequenced. The analysis of DNA-A-like sequence revealed that three begomovirus isolates shared more than 93% nucleotide sequence identity with bhendi yellow vein mosaic virus from India (BYVMV), a monopartite begomovirus species that was reported previously as causative agent of bhendi yellow mosaic disease in association of bhendi yellow vein mosaic betasatellite. Further, the DNA-B-like sequences associated with the three virus isolates shared no more than 90% sequence identity with tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV). Analyses of putative iteron-binding sequence required for trans-replication suggests that begomovirus sequences shared compatible rep-binding iterons with DNA-B of ToLCNDV. Our data suggest that the monopartite begomovirus associated with okra yellow vein disease has captured DNA-B of ToLCNDV to infect okra. Widespread distribution of the complex shows the increasing trend of the capturing of DNA-B of ToLCNDV by monopartite begomoviruses in the Indian subcontinent. The recombination analysis showed that the DNA-A might have been derived from the inter-specific recombination of begomoviruses, while DNA-B was derived from the ToLCNDV infecting different hosts.

  9. Evaluating the safety and immunogenicity of yellow fever vaccines: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas RE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Roger E Thomas Department of Family Medicine, G012 Health Sciences Center, University of Calgary Medical School, Calgary, AB, Canada Purpose: To review the safety and immunogenicity of yellow fever vaccines. Literature search: The Cochrane Library (including the Cochrane CENTRAL Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the NHS Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects; MEDLINE; EMBASE; BIOSIS Previews; Global Health; CAB Abstracts; and the Lilacs Database of Latin American and Caribbean literature were searched for individual studies and systematic reviews through January 1, 2015. Results: Six yellow fever vaccines are currently produced, and they are effective against all seven yellow fever virus strains. There is a 99.2% homology of the genome sequences of the six current vaccines. Four systematic reviews identified very small numbers of serious adverse events. A systematic review (updated of all published cases identified 133 serious adverse events that met the Brighton Collaboration criteria: 32 anaphylactic, 42 neurologic (one death, 57 viscerotropic (25 deaths, and two of both neurologic and viscerotropic SAEs. The Sanofi Pasteur Global Pharmacovigilance database reported 276 million doses of Stamaril™ distributed worldwide and identified 12 reports of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD, 24 of yellow fever vaccine-associated neurologic disease (YEL-AND, and 33 reports of anaphylaxis (many already published. The Biomanguinhos manufacturer's database reported 110 million doses distributed worldwide between 1999 and 2009, and the rate of YEL-AND was estimated at 0.084/100,000 doses distributed and YEL-AVD at 0.02/100,000 doses distributed. Conclusion: Reports of serious adverse events are mostly from travelers from developed countries, and there is likely serious underreporting for developing countries. On the basis of the published reports, the yellow fever vaccines are

  10. Evidence of hypoxic foraging forays by yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and potential consequences for prey consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James J.; Grecay, Paul A.; Ludsin, Stuart A.; Pothoven, Steve A.; Vanderploeg, Henry A.; Höök, Tomas O.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies in a variety of ecosystems have shown that ecologically and economically important benthic and bentho-pelagic fishes avoid hypoxic (−1) habitats by moving vertically or horizontally to more oxygenated areas. While avoidance of hypoxic conditions generally leads to a complete shift away from preferred benthic prey, some individual fish continue to consume benthic prey items in spite of bottom hypoxia, suggesting complex habitat utilisation and foraging patterns. For example, Lake Erie yellow perch (Perca flavescens) continue to consume benthic prey, despite being displaced vertically and horizontally by hypolimnetic hypoxia. We hypothesised that hypolimnetic hypoxia can negatively affect yellow perch by altering their distribution and inducing energetically expensive foraging behaviour. To test this hypothesis, we used drifting hydroacoustics and trawl sampling to quantify water column distribution, sub-daily vertical movement and foraging behaviour of yellow perch within hypoxic and normoxic habitats of Lake Erie’s central basin during August-September 2007. We also investigated the effects of rapid changes in ambient oxygen conditions on yellow perch consumption potential by exposing yellow perch to various static and fluctuating oxygen conditions in a controlled laboratory experiment. Our results indicate that, while yellow perch in general avoid hypoxic conditions, some individuals undertake foraging forays into hypoxic habitats where they experience greater fluctuations in abiotic conditions (pressure, temperature and oxygen concentration) than at normoxic sites. However, laboratory results suggest short-term exposure to low oxygen conditions did not negatively impact consumption potential of yellow perch. Detailed understanding of sub-daily individual behaviours may be crucial for determining interactive individual- and ecosystem-level effects of stressors such as hypoxia.

  11. Production of yellow cake from rock phosphate deposits and its characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out mainly to produce uranium trioxide (UO3), with the standard of commercial specifications from rock phosphate deposits in eastern part of Nuba mountains, south Kurdufan state. A simplified hydrometallurgical procedure has been adopted for production of yellow cake from the ore. Elemental analysis has shown that the ore is rich in Ca and deficient in elements of potential interest such as Fe, Cu and Zn. Uranium content in ore, phosphoric acid and purified yellow cake (UO3) obtained with different precipitants was analyzed using alpha-spectrometry. On the average, the activity concentration of uranium in ore corresponds to 82 ± 24 ppm (0.10%). From the data of pregnant liquor, it was observed that the addition of KCIO3 as an oxidant improves the dissolution of uranium from the ore by almost 20%. Data has also indicated that the yellow cake purified by hydrogen peroxide has higher concentration of uranium by 44.5% over the one purified by TBP extraction. Undesirable impurities in yellow cake as dictated by the function to which it is intended for were analyzed and compared with international standard specifications set for commercial products. Uranium as U3O8 was found to be 53% in yellow cake initially obtained as ammonium diuranate and purified by hydrogen peroxide and 38% in one, which is purified by TBP extraction. With the exception of Cr concentration, the values of the other critical impurities ( V, Mn, Co, Cu, Sr, Zr, Pb, Fe, Cl, Br, I) in UO3 precipitated by hydrogen peroxide are either typical or lower than those internationally specified as standards for commercial products. Among the impurities considered Cd, Th and Mo were undetectable. The most salient point to be mentioned here regarding impurities is that Cd, which is most undesirable in yellow cake because of its high neutron absorption cross section, was undetectable in both types of yellow cakes ( i.e. purified by TBP extraction and by hydrogen peroxide). (Author)

  12. Comparison of worm development and host immune responses in natural hosts of schistosoma japonicum, yellow cattle and water buffalo

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Jianmei; Fu Zhiqiang; Feng Xingang; Shi Yaojun; Yuan Chunxiu; Liu Jinming; Hong Yang; Li Hao; Lu Ke; Lin Jiaojiao

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Yellow cattle and water buffalo are two of the most important natural hosts for Schistosoma japonicum in China. Previous observation has revealed that yellow cattle are more suited to the development of S. japonicum than water buffalo. Understanding more about the molecular mechanisms involved in worm development, as well as the pathological and immunological differences between yellow cattle and water buffalo post infection with S japonicum will provide useful information...

  13. Dynamics of the cross-shelf circulation in the Yellow and East China Seas in winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Dongliang; Hsueh, Ya

    2010-10-01

    A general ocean circulation model is used to study the dynamics of the cross-shelf circulation in the Yellow and East China Seas in winter. The model results show that the shelf circulation in winter is induced primarily by the northerly monsoonal winds. Compared with the wind-driven circulation, the Kuroshio-forced circulation over the shelf is very weak. The westward shift of the Yellow Sea Warm Current is produced by the northerly winds through the generation of a sea-level trough off the Subei coasts and a sea-level ridge along the center of the Yellow Sea topographic trough. The sea-level trough off the Subei coasts is produced because the sea level at the coast is tied to the depression in the northern Yellow Sea and is moderated by the surface Ekman transport of the northerly monsoon. The sea-level ridge along the center of the Yellow Sea topographic trough is produced because the sea level along both the east China and the west Korea coasts decreases. The structure of the sea level gives rise to a geostrophic intrusion against the wind along the western side of the Yellow Sea trough and southward movement of the Korean coastal currents along the eastern side of the trough. Under the northerly wind forcing, the currents over the East China Sea shelf flow southward in an opposite direction to the Yellow Sea Warm Current. The resulting divergence, therefore, forces the Yellow Sea Coastal Current to move offshore to form the East China Sea Current. At the head of the submarine canyon off the Changjiang mouth, a northward intrusion is produced by downwind pile-up of sea level and by the wind-curl forcing. The Yellow Sea Warm Current and the canyon intrusion then extend southward through the propagation of topographic Rossby waves to reverse the wind-driven currents over the East China Sea shelf, generating the offshore and inshore branches of the Taiwan Warm Current, both of which serve to raise the sea level over the East China Sea shelf. The final adjustment

  14. Dengue and the risk of urban yellow fever reintroduction in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massad Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To propose a mathematical method for the estimation of the Basic Reproduction Number, R0, of urban yellow fever in a dengue-infested area. METHODS: The method is based on the assumption that, as the same vector (Aedes aegypti causes both infections, all the quantities related to the mosquito, estimated from the initial phase of dengue epidemic, could be applied to yellow fever dynamics. It is demonstrated that R0 for yellow fever is, on average, 43% lower than that for dengue. This difference is due to the longer dengue viremia and its shorter extrinsic incubation period. RESULTS: In this study the analysis was expanded to the epidemiological situation of dengue in São Paulo in the year 2001. The total number of dengue cases increased from 3,582 in 2000 to 51,348 in 2001. It was then calculated R0 for yellow fever for every city which have shown R0 of dengue greater than 1. It was also estimated the total number of unprotected people living in highly risky areas for urban yellow fever. CONCLUSIONS: Currently there is a great number of non-vaccinated people living in Aedes aegypti infested area in the state of São Paulo.

  15. Dengue and the risk of urban yellow fever reintroduction in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Massad

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To propose a mathematical method for the estimation of the Basic Reproduction Number, R0, of urban yellow fever in a dengue-infested area. METHODS: The method is based on the assumption that, as the same vector (Aedes aegypti causes both infections, all the quantities related to the mosquito, estimated from the initial phase of dengue epidemic, could be applied to yellow fever dynamics. It is demonstrated that R0 for yellow fever is, on average, 43% lower than that for dengue. This difference is due to the longer dengue viremia and its shorter extrinsic incubation period. RESULTS: In this study the analysis was expanded to the epidemiological situation of dengue in São Paulo in the year 2001. The total number of dengue cases increased from 3,582 in 2000 to 51,348 in 2001. It was then calculated R0 for yellow fever for every city which have shown R0 of dengue greater than 1. It was also estimated the total number of unprotected people living in highly risky areas for urban yellow fever. CONCLUSIONS: Currently there is a great number of non-vaccinated people living in Aedes aegypti infested area in the state of São Paulo.

  16. Searching for new yellow symbiotic stars: positive identification of StHa63

    CERN Document Server

    Baella, N O; Miranda, L F; Alvarez-Candal, A

    2016-01-01

    Yellow symbiotic stars are useful targets to probe whether mass transfer has happened in these binary systems. However, the number of known yellow symbiotic stars is very scarce. We report spectroscopic observations of five candidate yellow symbiotic stars selected by their position in the 2MASS (J-H) vs. (H-Ks) diagram and included in some emission-line catalogs. Among the five candidates, only StHa63 is identified as a new yellow symbiotic star because of its spectrum and its position in the [TiO]1-[TiO]2 diagram that indicates a K4-K6 spectral type. In addition, the derived electron density (10E8.4 cm-3) and several emission line intensity ratios provide further support for that classification. The other four candidates are rejected as symbiotic stars because three of them actually do not show emission lines and the fourth one shows only Balmer emission lines. We also found that the WISE W3-W4 index clearly separates normal K-giants from yellow symbiotic stars and, therefore, can be used as an additional t...

  17. Variable growth and longevity of yellow bullhead (Ameiurus natalis) in the Everglades of south Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murie, D.J.; Parkyn, D.C.; Loftus, W.F.; Nico, L.G.

    2009-01-01

    Yellow bullhead (Ictaluridae: Ameiurus natalis) is the most abundant ictalurid catfish in the Everglades of southern Florida, USA, and, as both prey and predator, is one of many essential components in the ecological-simulation models used in assessing restoration success in the Everglades. Little is known of its biology and life history in this southernmost portion of its native range; the present study provides the first estimates of age and growth from the Everglades. In total, 144 yellow bullheads of 97-312 mm total length (TL) were collected from canals and marshes of the Everglades between April 2000 and January 2001, and from October 2003 to February 2005. Fish were aged using cross-sections of pectoral spines and ranged from 1-12 years, with the maximum age almost twice that of any yellow bullhead previously reported. Yellow bullheads from south Florida grew relatively rapidly during their first 3 years, but after age 5 growth slowed and fish approached an asymptote of ???214 mm TL. Compared to other populations in the United States, yellow bullhead in the Everglades grew relatively slowly, were smaller at age overall, but survived to older ages. ?? 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Differential cold tolerance, starch, sugar, protein, and lipid of yellow and purple nutsedge tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, E W; Weber, E J

    1975-05-01

    From measurements of viability after exposure of tubers to natural overwintering in the soil and 6 weeks exposure at 2 C, species cold tolerance of the tubers was ranked in decreasing order: yellow nutsedge ;I' (Cyperus esculentus L.), an ecotype originating in Illinois; yellow nutsedge ;G', an ecotype originating in Georgia; and purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.). The ratios of unsaturated-saturated fatty acids in tuber triglycerides, tuber polar lipids, and leaf polar lipids followed the same order as the cold tolerance rankings, with the most cold-hardy species having the highest ratios. Lipid content was less than 1% of dry weight in purple nutsedge tubers, but was from 5 to 7% in both yellow nutsedge tubers. Starch, sugar, and lipid contents increased significantly in the hardy yellow nutsedge ;I' tubers during a 6-week exposure to 2 C, but did not change in the susceptible purple nutsedge tubers; only sugar increased in yellow nutsedge ;G' tubers after this treatment. Protein content was not altered by the 2 C treatment in any of the tubers. Apparently, several factors involving starch, sugar, lipids, and fatty acids are related to the differences in tolerance to cold in these species. PMID:16659181

  19. Yellow River Icicle Hazard Dynamic Monitoring Using UAV Aerial Remote Sensing Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring the response of Yellow River icicle hazard change requires accurate and repeatable topographic surveys. A new method based on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) aerial remote sensing technology is proposed for real-time data processing in Yellow River icicle hazard dynamic monitoring. The monitoring area is located in the Yellow River ice intensive care area in southern BaoTou of Inner Mongolia autonomous region. Monitoring time is from the 20th February to 30th March in 2013. Using the proposed video data processing method, automatic extraction covering area of 7.8 km2 of video key frame image 1832 frames took 34.786 seconds. The stitching and correcting time was 122.34 seconds and the accuracy was better than 0.5 m. Through the comparison of precise processing of sequence video stitching image, the method determines the change of the Yellow River ice and locates accurate positioning of ice bar, improving the traditional visual method by more than 100 times. The results provide accurate aid decision information for the Yellow River ice prevention headquarters. Finally, the effect of dam break is repeatedly monitored and ice break five meter accuracy is calculated through accurate monitoring and evaluation analysis

  20. Yellow pea fiber improves glycemia and reduces Clostridium leptum in diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslinger, Amanda J; Eller, Lindsay K; Reimer, Raylene A

    2014-08-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the impact of functional fibers on gut microbiota and metabolic health, but some less well-studied fibers and/or fractions of foods known to be high in fiber still warrant examination. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of yellow pea-derived fractions varying in fiber and protein content on metabolic parameters and gut microbiota in diet-induced obese rats. We hypothesized that the yellow pea fiber (PF) fraction would improve glycemia and alter gut microbiota. Rats were randomized to 1 of 5 isoenergetic dietary treatments for 6 weeks: (1) control; (2) oligofructose (OFS); (3) yellow PF; (4) yellow pea flour (PFL); or (5) yellow pea starch (PS). Glycemia, plasma gut hormones, body composition, hepatic triglyceride content, gut microbiota, and messenger RNA expression of genes related to hepatic fat metabolism were examined. Pea flour attenuated weight gain compared with control, PF, and PS (P Pea flour, PS, and OFS had significantly lower final percent body fat compared with control. Oligofructose but not the pea fraction diets reduced food intake compared with control (P Pea fiber resulted in lower fasting glucose and glucose area under the curve compared with control. Changes in gut microbiota were fraction specific and included a decrease in Firmicutes (percent) for OFS, PF, and PFL compared with control (P pea-derived fractions are able to distinctly modulate metabolic parameters and gut microbiota in obese rats.

  1. Characterization of betasatellite associated with the yellow mosaic disease of grain legumes in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satya, V K; Malathi, V G; Velazhahan, R; Rabindran, R; Jayamani, P; Alice, D

    2013-01-01

    Yellow mosaic disease caused by mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) belonging to the genus Begomovirus (the family Geminiviridae) is a major constraint in cultivation of grain legumes in India. The urdbean (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) and mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek) samples affected with yellow mosaic disease exhibits yellow mosaic symptoms along with leaf puckering and leaf distortion in Tamil Nadu. Hence the study was performed to find out if there was any association and influence of betasatellite DNA on the symptom expression of MYMV. Full length viral clones of DNA A and DNA B were obtained through rolling circle amplification from YMD infected samples and identified as mungbean yellow mosaic virus. Interestingly, betasatellite was found to associate with MYMV, and its nucleotide sequence analysis showed its 95% identity with papaya leaf curl betasatellite (DQ118862) from cowpea. The present study represents the first report about the association of papaya leaf curl betasatellite with MYMV and represents a new member of the emerging group of bipartite begomovirus associated with betasatellite DNA. PMID:24294953

  2. Yellow River Icicle Hazard Dynamic Monitoring Using UAV Aerial Remote Sensing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H. B.; Wang, G. H.; Tang, X. M.; Li, C. H.

    2014-02-01

    Monitoring the response of Yellow River icicle hazard change requires accurate and repeatable topographic surveys. A new method based on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) aerial remote sensing technology is proposed for real-time data processing in Yellow River icicle hazard dynamic monitoring. The monitoring area is located in the Yellow River ice intensive care area in southern BaoTou of Inner Mongolia autonomous region. Monitoring time is from the 20th February to 30th March in 2013. Using the proposed video data processing method, automatic extraction covering area of 7.8 km2 of video key frame image 1832 frames took 34.786 seconds. The stitching and correcting time was 122.34 seconds and the accuracy was better than 0.5 m. Through the comparison of precise processing of sequence video stitching image, the method determines the change of the Yellow River ice and locates accurate positioning of ice bar, improving the traditional visual method by more than 100 times. The results provide accurate aid decision information for the Yellow River ice prevention headquarters. Finally, the effect of dam break is repeatedly monitored and ice break five meter accuracy is calculated through accurate monitoring and evaluation analysis.

  3. Electrochemical Impedance Study of Zinc Yellow Polypropylene-Coated Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-hua Sun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance of zinc yellow polypropylene-coated aluminum alloy 7B04 during accelerated degradation test is studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. It has been found that the zinc yellow polypropylene paint has few flaw and acts as a pure capacitance before accelerated test. After 336-hour exposure to the test, the impedance spectroscopy shows two time constants, and water has reached to the aluminum alloy/paint interface and forms corrosive microcell. For the scratched samples, the reaction of metal corrosion and the hydrolysis of zinc yellow ion can occur simultaneously. The impedance spectroscopy indicates inductance after 1008-hour exposure to the test, but the inductance disappears after 1344-hour exposure and the passivation film has pitting corrosion.

  4. Trend analysis of sediment grain size and sedimentary process in the central South Yellow Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    With the method of trend analysis of sediment grain size, the sediment transport trend of the fine-grained sediments area in the central South Yellow Sea was studied. The results demonstrated that there is a sedimentation center around the point of 123.4°E, 35.1°N, and the sediments outside the center are transported to it. The patterns of sediment transportation and deposition in the Yellow Sea should be controlled by cyclonic circulation (including the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass) and cold water gyre. The study also showed that the method of trend analysis of sediment grain size has prospective utilization in the fine-grained sediment deposited area on large-scale continental shelf.

  5. Petroleum Hydrocarbon Degradation Potential of Soil Bacteria Native to the Yellow River Delta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhen-Yu; GAO Dong-Mei; LI Feng-Min; ZHAO Jian; XIN Yuan-Zheng; S.SIMKINS; XING Bao-Shan

    2008-01-01

    The bioremediation potential of bacteria indigenous to soils of the Yellow River Delta in China was evaluated as a treatment option for soil remediation. Petroleum hydrocarbon degraders were isolated from contaminated soil samples from the Yellow River Delta. Four microbial communities and eight isolates were obtained. The optimal temperature, salinity, pH, and the ratios of C, N, and P (C:N:P) for the maximum biodegradation of diesel oil, crude oil, n-alkanes, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons by ndigenous bacteria were determined, and the kinetics changes in microbial communities were monitored. In general, the mixed microbial consortia demonstrated wider catabolic versatility and faster overall rate of hydrocarbon degradation than individual isolates. Our experimental results demonstrated the feasibility of biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon by indigenous bacteria for oil remediation in the Yellow River Delta.

  6. Isolation and gene expression of yellow grouper ferritin heavy chain subunit after lipopolysaccharide treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Wei, Yong

    2012-06-01

    Ferritin is a ubiquitous and conserved iron storage protein that plays a central role in iron metabolism. The ferritin heavy chain subunit (FerH) homolog was isolated from yellow grouper (Epinephelus awoara) spleen using suppression subtractive hybridization and RACE-PCR. The nucleotide sequence of FerH full-length cDNA was 1173 bp and contained an open reading frame of 534 bp, encoding a putative protein of 177 amino acids. The encoded protein shows 78-94% identity with homologs. Based on phylogenetic analysis, yellow grouper FerH is highly conserved throughout evolution and is closer to European seabass than to other species. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that FerH was widely expressed in various healthy tissues and significantly up-regulated in liver, spleen, and anterior kidney by lipopolysaccharide. The results suggest that yellow grouper FerH may play a role in immune response. PMID:22210544

  7. Investigation of yellow luminescence intensity of N-polar unintentionally doped GaN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Da-Chao; Zhang Jin-Cheng; Ou Xin-Xiu; Wang Hao; Chen Ke; Xue Jun-Shuai; Xu Sheng-Rui; Hao Yue

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports that the yellow luminescence intensity of N-polar GaN Epi-layers is much lower than that of Ga-polar ones due to the inverse polarity, and reduces drastically in the N-polar unintentionally-doped GaN after etching in KOH solution. The ratio of yellow luminescence intensity to band-edge emission intensity decreases sharply with the etching time. The full width at half maximum of x-ray diffraction of (10-12) plane falls sharply after etching, and the surface morphology characterized by scanning electron microscope shows a rough surface that changes with the etching time. The mechanism for the generation of the yellow luminescence are explained in details.

  8. Photoconversion from UV-to-yellow in Mn doped zinc silicate nanophosphor material

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mir, L.; Omri, K.

    2014-11-01

    A novel synthesis process of Mn doped β-Zn2SiO4 yellow nanophosphors based on sol-gel method is presented. These samples were prepared by a simple solid-phase reaction under natural atmosphere at 1500 °C after the incorporation of ZnO:Mn nanoparticles, in silica monolith. XRD showed the formation of zinc silicate β-phase, which shows yellow luminescence. In addition, the as-synthesized β-Zn2SiO4:Mn2+ nanophosphor exhibited intensive broad emission around 574 nm, which was attributed to the 4T1-6A1 transition in Mn2+ ions. An exponential fitting analysis has been employed to obtain the lifetime of this yellow emission (574 nm), the average lifetime was found to be 13 ms. The luminescence properties of our nanophosphors were characterized by excitation and emission spectra as well as luminescence decay.

  9. Functional no-flow events and their identification in the Lower Yellow River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI; Jinren; (倪晋仁); QIAN; Zhenghan; (钱征寒)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the understandings of the relationship between the river runoff and the pri-mary functions of the Yellow River, this paper advances the concept of functional no-flow event that is different from the zero-discharge event occurring in the river. Factors reflecting the charac-teristics of functional no-flow events were analyzed and the criteria describing severity levels of the events were given from the cluster analysis with the measured data from 1950 to 1999. The results show that the severity level is subject to the critical water demand for river ecosystem protection. Using two critical water use demand scenarios for the Yellow River proposed by the authors and the Yellow River Water Conservancy Commission, different severity levels of functional no-flow events are identified. In addition, the differences between the zero-discharge and the functional no-flow events are discussed.

  10. J. Gobineau, Wagner, China and the Emergence of the ‘Yellow Threat’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry E. Martynov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the views of J.Gobineau of China and the term of the ‘Yellow Threat’. Gobineau denied the progress and the social equality and considered China the most sociable community of the world and at the same time developed the concept of the ‘Yellow Threat’. Being the logical pessimist, he considered that the major conflict of the XX century will be the conflict between the white and the yellow races. After his death, the views of Gobineau were adopted by R.Wagner’s and spread across kaiser Germany. They were also adopted by the imperial Japan, followed by Konoe Atsumaro and Mori Ogai. Despite the attention of Gobineau to the problems of China, his views didn’t spread across China.

  11. Identification of candidate genes for Fusarium yellows resistance in Chinese cabbage by differential expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Motoki; Fujimoto, Ryo; Ying, Hua; Pu, Zi-jing; Ebe, Yusuke; Kawanabe, Takahiro; Saeki, Natsumi; Taylor, Jennifer M; Kaji, Makoto; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Okazaki, Keiichi

    2014-06-01

    Fusarium yellows caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans is an important disease of Brassica worldwide. To identify a resistance (R) gene against Fusarium yellows in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa var. pekinensis), we analyzed differential expression at the whole genome level between resistant and susceptible inbred lines using RNA sequencing. Four hundred and eighteen genes were significantly differentially expressed, and these were enriched for genes involved in response to stress or stimulus. Seven dominant DNA markers at putative R-genes were identified. Presence and absence of the sequence of the putative R-genes, Bra012688 and Bra012689, correlated with the resistance of six inbred lines and susceptibility of four inbred lines, respectively. In F(2) populations derived from crosses between resistant and susceptible inbred lines, presence of Bra012688 and Bra012689 cosegregated with resistance, suggesting that Bra012688 and Bra012689 are good candidates for fusarium yellows resistance in Chinese cabbage.

  12. Oral Susceptibility to Yellow Fever Virus of Aedes aegypti from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Lourenço-de-Oliveira

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The oral susceptibility to yellow fever virus was evaluated in 23 Aedes aegypti samples from Brazil. Six Ae. aegypti samples from Africa, America and Asia were also tested for comparison. Mosquito samples from Asia showed the highest infection rates. Infection rates for the Brazilian Ae. aegypti reached 48.6%, but were under 13% in 60% of sample tested. We concluded that although the low infection rates estimated for some Brazilian mosquito samples may not favor the establishment of urban cycle of yellow fever in some parts of the country, the founding of Ae. aegypti of noteworthy susceptibility to the virus in cities located in endemic and transition areas of sylvatic yellow fever, do pose a threat of the re-emergence of the urban transmission of the disease in Brazil.

  13. Representation and the Fluidity of Identity--David Henry Hwang’s Play Yellow Face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔静芳; 胡小红

    2013-01-01

    David Henry Hwang is the first and the only Asian American playwright ever to win Tony Award for Best Play. His latest play Yellow Face combines signs, representation and the issue of identity on the stage with those in the real life, vividly in⁃terpreting the fluidity of identity. Therefore, this essay attempts to concentrate on a semiotic study of Yellow Face from the per⁃spective of Stuart Hall’s Cultural Studies, especially the discursive approach. Through the analysis of various signs in the plays to be discussed and how these signs construct meaning to represent culture, this essay explores the relationships between symbolic representations and cultural identity, shedding a new light on Yellow Face.

  14. Magnetic and structural properties of yellow europium oxide compound and Eu(OH){sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dongwook, E-mail: dongwookleedl324@gmail.com [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J. J Thomson Av., Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Seo, Jiwon, E-mail: jiwonseo@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Physics and IPAP, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Valladares, Luis de los Santos [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J. J Thomson Av., Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Avalos Quispe, O. [Laboratorio de Cerámicos y Nanomateriales, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Ap. Postal 14-0149, Lima, Perú (Peru); Barnes, Crispin H.W. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J. J Thomson Av., Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-15

    A new material based on a yellow europium oxide compound was prepared from europium oxide in a high vacuum environment. The structural and magnetic properties of the material were investigated. Owing to the absence of a crystal structure, the material exhibited a disordered magnetic behavior. In a reaction with deionized (DI) water without applied heat, the compound assumed a white color as soon as the DI water reached the powder, and the structure became polycrystalline Eu(OH){sub 3}. The magnetic properties, such as the thermal hysteresis, disappeared after the reaction with DI water, and the magnetic susceptibility of the yellow oxide compound weakened. The magnetic properties of Eu(OH){sub 3} were also examined. Although Eu{sup 3+} is present in Eu(OH){sub 3}, a high magnetic moment due to the crystal field effect was observed. - Graphical abstract: (top left) Optical image of the yellow europium oxide compound. (top right) Optical image of the product of DI water and yellow europium oxide. (bottom) Magnetization curves as a function of temperature measured in various magnetic field. - Highlights: • We prepared a new material based on a yellow europium oxide compound from europium oxide. • We characterized the magnetic properties of the material which exhibits a disordered magnetic behavior such as thermal hysteresis. • The compound turned white (Eu(OH){sub 3}) as soon as the DI water reached the powder. • The thermal hysteresis disappeared after the reaction with DI water and the magnetic susceptibility of the yellow oxide compound weakened.

  15. Reconsideration of the temporary ADI and refined exposure assessment for Sunset Yellow FCF (E 110

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to food (ANS

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS Panel has previously provided a scientific opinion re-evaluating the safety of Sunset Yellow FCF (E 110 as a food additive in the EU and establishing a temporary acceptable daily intake (ADI of 1 mg/kg bw/day (EFSA ANS Panel, 2009. Following a request by the European Commission, the ANS Panel was asked to assess newly submitted data from a study conducted as a result of the recommendations contained in the 2009 opinion. In addition, EFSA was requested to carry out the refined exposure assessment of Sunset Yellow FCF. The new information assessed comprised an evaluation of the 28-day study report, the data considered by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA in its latest evaluation from 2011, and any additional toxicological information that had become available since the completion of the previous evaluation by the ANS Panel. The ANS Panel has considered that the newly submitted data from the 28-day study and the overall available toxicological database on Sunset Yellow FCF provides a basis to revise the established temporary ADI and concluded that, based on the NOAEL of 375 mg/kg bw/day from the long-term feeding study in rats and an uncertainty factor of 100, a new ADI for Sunset Yellow FCF of 4 mg/kg bw/day can be established, in agreement with the latest evaluation by JECFA. Exposure estimates for Sunset Yellow FCF based both on the currently authorised MPLs and reported use levels provided are well below the new ADI of 4 mg/kg bw/day for all population groups. Overall, the Panel concluded that, using data provided by the food industry and Member States, the reported uses and use levels of Sunset Yellow FCF (E 110 would not be of safety concern.

  16. Immunological studies on Amaranth, Sunset Yellow and Curcumin as food colouring agents in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Mohamed M; Atta, Attia H; Arbid, Mahmoud S; Nada, Somaia A; Asaad, Gihan Farag

    2010-06-01

    The use of food dyes is at least controversial because they are only of essential role. Moreover many of them have been related to health problems mainly in children that are considered a very vulnerable group. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of oral administration of Amaranth, Sunset Yellow and Curcumin for 4 weeks at doses of 47, 315 and 157.5 mg/kg b. wt. and after 2 weeks all animals were immunostimulated by intra peritoneal injection of sheep RBCs 10% (1 ml/rat). Body weight, relative body weight, total and differential leukocytes count, mononuclear cell count, delayed hypersensitivity, total protein and serum fractions were determined. Results revealed that oral administration of Amaranth, Sunset Yellow and Curcumin did not affect the body weight gain or the spleen weight. On the other hand Sunset Yellow and Curcumin significantly decreased the weight of thymus gland of the rats. Total leukocyte count were not affected while Amaranth and Curcumin-treated rats revealed a significant decrease in neutrophiles and monocytes and a compensatory increase in lymphocytes. Moreover, oral administration of Sunset Yellow revealed a significant decrease in monocyte percent. Amaranth, Sunset Yellow and Curcumin significantly decreased the delayed hyper sensitivity. Total serum protein, albumin, total globulin and albumin/globulin (A/G) ratio were not affected by administration of the colouring agents. Oral administration of Amaranth increases the density of albumin band. On the other hand oral administration of Curcumin decreases the density of the albumin band. Oral administration of any of the tested colouring agents did not change the density of globulin region as compared to control group. In conclusion we found that both synthetic (Amaranth and Sunset Yellow) and natural (Curcumin) colouring agents used at doses up to 10 times the acceptable daily intake exerted a depressing effect on the cellular but not humoral immune response.

  17. Searching for New Yellow Symbiotic Stars: Positive Identification of StHα63

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baella, N. O.; Pereira, C. B.; Miranda, L. F.; Alvarez-Candal, A.

    2016-04-01

    Yellow symbiotic stars are useful targets for probing whether mass transfer has happened in their binary systems. However, the number of known yellow symbiotic stars is very scarce. We report spectroscopic observations of five candidate yellow symbiotic stars that were selected by their positions in the 2MASS (J - H) versus (H - Ks) diagram and which were included in some emission-line catalogs. Among the five candidates, only StHα63 is identified as a new yellow symbiotic star because of its spectrum and its position in the [TiO]1-[TiO]2 diagram, which indicates a K4-K6 spectral type. In addition, the derived electron density (˜108.4 cm-3) and several emission-line intensity ratios provide further support for that classification. The other four candidates are rejected as symbiotic stars because three of them actually do not show emission lines and the fourth one only Balmer emission lines. We also found that the WISE W3-W4 index clearly separates normal K-giants from yellow symbiotic stars and therefore can be used as an additional tool for selecting candidate yellow symbiotic stars. Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán, Calar Alto, jointly operated by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (Heidelberg) and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), and at the 4.1 m telescope at Cerro Pachón Observatory, Chile.

  18. A“Yellow Cap” on Quaternary Red Clay in Jiujiang,Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    A thin layer of yellow-brown-colored earth was generally found on Quaternary red clay in Jiujing,Jiangxi Province,A typical profile was established.Both particle size distribution and REE(rare earth elements)characteristics of the yellow-brown-colored earth of the profile fully suggested its aeolian origin and close similarity of Nanjing Xiashu Loess.The study also implied aeolian origin of the underlying Quaternary red clay,Compared with the red clay,the yellow-brown-colored earth was less weathered because of its lower content of free iron and higher mole ratios of SiO2/Al2O3 and SiO2(Fe2O3+Al2O3) as well as its less developed chemical microtextures of quartz grains.In order to study the ages of the two deposits comparatively,the thermoluminescent dating method was used.As a result,the bottom of the yellow-brown-colored earth was dated to 60±5 ka B.P.and the upper part of the red clay 388±54 ka B.P.It was suggested that the yellow-brown-colored earth earth was formed in the Late Pleistocene and was probably the aeolian deposit of the Last Glacial,which corresponded with the Malan Loess in the Loess Plateau of the northwestern part of China,while the underlying red clay was formed in the Middle Pleistocene.A“yellow cap” on Quaternary red clay in Jiujiang implied a great climatic and environmental variation in the beginning of the Late Pleistocene in the southern part of China,especially in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River,The event not only halted the rubification,once dominating the region but also produced a widespread covering of aeolian deposit,as only occurred in the cold and dry environment.

  19. 21 CFR 201.20 - Declaration of presence of FD&C Yellow No. 5 and/or FD&C Yellow No. 6 in certain drugs for human...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Declaration of presence of FD&C Yellow No. 5 and/or FD&C Yellow No. 6 in certain drugs for human use. 201.20 Section 201.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND... are also cosmetics, such as antibacterial mouthwashes and fluoride toothpastes, need not comply...

  20. Simultaneous Determination of Potassium Sorbate, Sodium Benzoate, Quinoline Yellow and Sunset Yellow in Lemonades and Lemon Sauces by HPLC Using Experimental Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinç Zor, Şule; Aşçı, Bürge; Aksu Dönmez, Özlem; Yıldırım Küçükkaraca, Dilek

    2016-07-01

    In this study, development and validation of a HPLC method was described for simultaneous determination of potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, quinoline yellow and sunset yellow. A Box-Behnken design using three variables at three levels was employed to determine the optimum conditions of chromatographic separation: pH of mobile phase, 6.0-7.0; flow rate, 0.8-1.2 mL min(-1) and the ratio of mobile phase composed of a 0.025 M sodium acetate/acetic acid buffer, 80-90%. Resolution was chosen as a response. The optimized method was validated for linearity, the limits of detection and quantification, accuracy, precision and stability. All the validation parameters were within the acceptance range. The applicability of the developed method to the determination of these food additives in commercial lemonade and lemon sauce samples was successfully demonstrated. PMID:26951541