WorldWideScience

Sample records for aster para estimar

  1. Evaluación de los datos del sensor ASTER para estimar la superficie cultivada y los niveles de producción de caña de azúcar en Tucumán, Argentina An evaluation of ASTER data to estimate sugarcane planted area and production levels in Tucumán, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico J. Soria

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se evalúa la capacidad de los datos de las bandas espectrales 2 y 3 del subsistema VNIR (Visible Near Infrared y la banda espectral 4 del subsistema SWIR (Short Wave Infrared del sensor ASTER, para estimar la superficie cultivada y los niveles de producción de caña de azúcar en un área ubicada en el departamento Chicligasta de la provincia de Tucumán, Argentina. Se aplicó la metodología de clasificación multiespectral supervisada. Los resultados obtenidos fueron comparados con los generados con igual metodología utilizando los datos de las bandas 3, 4 y 5 del sensor TM del satélite Landsat 5. El análisis estadístico de la información disponible demostró que los datos del sensor ASTER, en sus bandas 2 y 3 del VNIR, poseen la capacidad de discriminar la superficie y los niveles de producción de caña de azúcar en el área de estudio. De la comparación estadística de estos resultados con los de la imagen Landsat, resulta que la banda 3 de ASTER y 4 de Landsat poseen una significancia mayor para discriminar niveles de producción, que las bandas 2 y 3 de los respectivos sensores. Ante estos resultados, el sensor ASTER se muestra como una alternativa viable para la discriminación y cuantificación de la caña de azúcar.In this work, data obtained by Visible Near Infrared (VNIR bands 2 and 3 and Short Wave Infrared (SWIR subsystem (band 4 of the ASTER sensor, were evaluated in terms of their potential use in estimating planted surface and production levels of a sugarcane growing area in Chicligasta, province of Tucumán, Argentina. The multiespectral supervised classification methodology was applied. The results were compared with the ones obtained by applying the same methodology to data provided by bands 3, 4 and 5 of Landsat 5 satellite TM sensor. Statistical analysis of the available information demonstrated that data supplied by VNIR bands 2 and 3 of the ASTER sensor allow discriminating sugarcane planted area

  2. Tithonia diversifolia: especie para ramoneo en sistemas silvopastoriles y métodos para estimar su consumo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefanía Mejía-Díaz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue recopilar avances investigativos sobre aspectos agronómicos, nutricionales y productivos de T. diversifolia Hemsl. A Gray en sistemas silvopastorils (SSP como estrategia de producción ganadera y conocer metodologías para estimar el consumo de forraje de vacas bajo SSP. La introducción de sistemas silvopastoriles proporciona una vegetación estrati cada, además de generar diversos bienes, servicios ambientales y bienestar animal, constituyéndose, desde el punto de vista productivo, ecológico, económico y social, en una de las modalidades más prometedoras de los sistemas agroforestales. En la presente revisión se realizó una descripción de la arbustiva T. diversifolia Hemsl. A Gray, como especie estratégica para ser introducida en los sistemas silvopastoriles sean estos de baja o alta densidad, la cual por su calidad composicional ha sido reportada como una arbustiva con potencial para ser utilizada en la nutrición de rumiantes, teniendo un posible efecto positivo sobre índices productivos y económicos. Se discutieron tres técnicas utilizadas para estimar el consumo de forraje por bovinos en pastoreo, las cuales pueden ser aplicadas tanto en sistemas tradicionales como en sistemas silvopastoriles.

  3. Uso de la herramienta Google Trends para estimar la incidencia de enfermedades tipo influenza en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Wenceslao Orellano

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue hallar un modelo para estimar la incidencia de enfermedades tipo influenza (ETI, a partir de los términos de búsqueda relacionados recolectados por el Google Trends (GT. Los datos de vigilancia de ETI para los años 2012 y 2013 se obtuvieron del Sistema Nacional de Vigilancia de la Salud de Argentina. Las búsquedas de Internet se obtuvieron de la base de datos del GT, usando 6 términos: gripe, fiebre, tos, dolor de garganta, paracetamol e ibuprofeno. Se desarrolló un modelo de regresión de Poisson a partir de datos del año 2012, y se validó con datos del 2013 y resultados de la herramienta Google Flu Trends (GFT. La incidencia de ETI del sistema de vigilancia presentó fuertes correlaciones con las estimaciones de ETI del GT (r = 0,927 y del GFT (r = 0,943. Sin embargo, el GFT sobreestimó el pico de incidencia por casi el doble, mientras que el modelo basado en el GT subestimó el pico de incidencia por un factor de 0,7. Estos resultados demuestran la utilidad del GT como un complemento para la vigilancia de la influenza

  4. Desarrollo de un cuestionario para estimar las habilidades digitales de estudiantes universitarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Organista-Sandoval

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del artículo es mostrar la ruta metodológica seguida para desarrollar un cuestionario para estimar las habilidades digitales con propósito educativo que tienen los estudiantes de una universidad pública mexicana. Se describe el desarrollo de un cuestionario basado en cuatro dimensiones: manejo de información, de comunicación, de organización y de tecnología portátil. Se recurre a la consulta de expertos para la delimitación de los factores, la elaboración de los reactivos y la estimación de un indicador de univocidad. Se aplica un análisis preliminar basado en modelado estructural de ecuaciones para obtener evidencias de validez de la escala desarrollada. El cuestionario se aplicó al azar a una muestra de 350 estudiantes. Se propuso un modelo conceptual para el constructo de habilidad digital, el cual tuvo la congruencia esperada entre las variables observadas y la estructura propuesta. Tras una primera aplicación se obtuvieron valores aceptables en tres de los índices de bondad de ajuste (RMSEA, GFI y AGFI, con excepción de Chi-cuadrada y se detectaron posibilidades de adecuar la escala con base en los índices de modificación derivados del programa AMOS. La información obtenida permitirá mejorar la escala propuesta. Determinar las habilidades digitales de los estudiantes es un punto de interés actual en la búsqueda de la innovación y eficiencia de las actividades educativas.

  5. Metodologia para estimar a linha de base de projeto MDL conectado a sistema elétrico: uma abordagem prospectiva.

    OpenAIRE

    Tereza Virginia Mousinho Reis

    2009-01-01

    Essa pesquisa tem como objetivo propor um novo referencial metodológico para estimar a linha de base para projetos de MDL a serem conectados ao sistema interligado nacional SIN, a partir de uma visão do mix futuro das fontes energéticas que serão responsáveis pelas gerações de energia, nos próximos dez anos. Objetiva também aplicar essa nova abordagem para calcular as emissões deslocadas pelas atividades de projetos de MDL, através do cálculo do fator de substituição, medido em tCO2/MWh. Est...

  6. Comparación de modelos para estimar la presión real de vapor de agua

    OpenAIRE

    Rocío Cervantes-Osornio; Ramón Arteaga-Ramírez; Mario Alberto Vázquez-Peña; Waldo Ojeda-Bustamante; Abel Quevedo-Nolasco

    2013-01-01

    La presión real de vapor de agua es una variable básica para estimar la evapotranspiración de los cultivos, uno de los componentes del ciclo hidrológico; sin embargo es difícil y cara de medir de forma directa, por lo que se recurre en la práctica a estimaciones basadas en la temperatura y relaciones sicrométricas. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue realizar una comparación de diferentes métodos convencionales para el cálculo de la presión real de vapor y compararlos con las estimaciones re...

  7. UNA PROPUESTA METODOLÓGICA PARA ESTIMAR RETORNOS SOCIALES DE LA EDUCACIÓN. EL CASO DE LOS RETORNOS AMBIENTALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Saidón

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo propone un marco metodológico para analizar, a través de una muestra de corte transversal, las repercusiones del nivel de educación formal de la población sobre diversas dimensiones de su vínculo con el medio ambiente: la comprensión, las valuaciones contingentes y las prioridades. Esto es útil para la toma de decisiones en el ámbito de las políticas públicas. Con este objetivo, se seleccionó un marco teórico definido y se propuso una adaptación específica para su aplicación y cuantificación. El modelo propuesto se basa en una variación del modelo estándar de Mincer (1974 y se configuró para estimar retornos sociales de la educación, específicamente retornos ambientales.

  8. ¡Nuevos aportes! para estimar el valor del impacto ambiental a nivel de cuenca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Pouey M

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Hoy en día, en el que el mundo continuamente sufre transformaciones, el hombre se ha preocupado por conocer y hacer de su entorno ambiental un lugar vivible, pero al mismo tiempo, él mismo se ha encargado de mantenerlo y llevarlo a situaciones que generan un verdadero caos. Ese caos, conocido como impacto ambiental es necesario medirlo, para lo cual se ha empleado la metodologia de la Evaluación del Impacto Ambiental EIA, sin contar hasta hoy con un modelo sistematico para hacerlo cuantitativamente a nivel de una cuenca hidrografica, generando así un problema en terminos de la evaluación para la gestión ambiental. La aplicación del modelo desarrollado en este trabajo denominado IVAFIC, Responde al problema presentado, evaluando a través de un modelo matematico y con la ayuda de herramientas computacionales de programación estructurada y de sistemas de información geografica, el impacto ambiental en una cuenca de forma cuantitativa definido como factor de impacto F1 y factor de impacto corregido FIC.

  9. COMPARACIÓN DE MÉTODOS PARA ESTIMAR DISPONIBILIDAD HÍDRICA EN CUENCAS FORESTALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rodrigo Martín Clemente

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available La cuenca de la Presa Calles se ubica dentro de la Sierra Fría, en el estado de Aguascalientes, México. Pese a ser la principal fuente de agua del acuífero interestatal “Ojocaliente-Aguascalientes-Encarnación” no existen estudios sobre la dinámica hídrica en este ecosistema. Este trabajo compara la disponibilidad hídrica de la cuenca de la Presa Calles, estimada a partir del modelo de balance hídrico de Thornthwaite y Mather (B.H., corregido en función de la latitud y ponderado mediante polígonos de Thiessen, asociado a las fórmulas para el cálculo de evapotranspiración potencial de Thornthwaite, Blaney–Criddle y Hargreaves-Samani. La comparación se realizó aplicando la prueba de diferencia significativa honesta de Tukey (Tukey DSH, con α = 0.05. Como referente se calculó la disponibilidad hídrica de la cuenca con el Método directo registros hidrométricos (MDRH propuesto por la NOM-011-CNA-2000. La disponibilidad hídrica se estimó en 28.52 Mm3 (B.H. + Thornthwaite, 51.30 Mm3 (B.H. + Hargreaves-Samani, 133.92Mm3 (B.H. + Blaney-Criddle y 50.66 Mm3 (MDRH. La prueba de Tukey DHS indicó que no existe una diferencia significativa entre los valores obtenidos mediante el MDHR y el B.H. + Hargreaves-Samani (P = 0.999031, en oposición a la diferencia significativa encontrada para los otros dos métodos (P = 0.000164, P = 0.000335. La mejor estimación de la disponibilidad hídrica de la cuenca se obtuvo usando el método B.H. + Hargreaves-Samani, por lo que este puede ser utilizado en sitios donde no puedan obtenerse mediciones directas, para recabar información base para el establecimiento de acciones primarias de manejo.

  10. MÉTODO SIMPLES PARA ESTIMAR ENCURTAMENTO PELO FRIO EM CARNE BOVINA

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    É bem conhecido o fato de que o encurtamento pelo frio pode influenciar negativamente a textura da carne. Por isso, a determinação do grau de contração do tecido muscular é um recurso analítico de grande importância quando se estuda a otimização dos procedimentos industriais. Neste trabalho, foram avaliadas comparativamente duas metodologias de microscopia. Para isso, os músculos Biceps femoris, Longissimus dorsi e Semimembranosus obtidos de nove carcaças bovinas com três diferentes graus de ...

  11. Dos algoritmos para estimar el periodo de una señal discreta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Danilo Rairán Antolines

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present two algorithms for approximating a period given a discrete data set. These algorithms superimpose two consecutive sections of the data for several candidate periods. The first algorithm counts the number of shuffling points per candidate period, whereas the second algorithm computes a distance between points when sorted by time. The best candidate period maxim-izes the number of shuffling points in the first algorithm, whereas the second algorithm minimizes the distance between points. The experimental validation with noiseless data demonstrates that the relative error for the estimations is less than half of the sampling period and shows that this error does not depend on the harmonic content, as normally occurs with algorithms that estimate a period. The application of the algorithms demonstrates that they properly track the frequency of a power grid and accurately estimate the period of a Van der Pol oscillator, which serves to confirm their applicability to real-time problems. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0mm 5.4pt 0mm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0mm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  12. Metodologia para estimar o número de dias trabalháveis com máquinas agrícolas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Solis Estrada

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available No atual modelo de agricultura, é indispensável que o produtor conheça a real disponibilidade de tempo para a execução das operações agrícolas ao longo do ciclo das culturas. Este é o primeiro passo para se planejar e se obter maior eficiência na execução dessas operações, que estão sujeitas às variações do clima. As variáveis meteorológicas de uma determinada região influenciam diretamente no número de dias disponíveis para trabalhar com máquinas agrícolas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar as probabilidades de ocorrência de dias favoráveis para o trabalho mecanizado, utilizando-se informações meteorológicas do município de Santa Maria, RS, Brasil. As condições para se considerar o dia como favorável para o trabalho com máquinas foram a precipitação < 5 mm e o armazenamento de água no solo (ARM entre 40 e 90% da capacidade de água disponível (CAD. O método da cadeia de Markov de primeira ordem foi utilizado para estimar as probabilidades condicionais de dias favoráveis ao trabalho com máquinas. Os resultados indicam que a metodologia aplicada para estimar as probabilidades de dias favoráveis ao uso de máquinas agrícolas foi viável, evidenciando as épocas mais apropriadas à execução de operações agrícolas mecanizadas no campo, para o município de Santa Maria, RS.

  13. Comparación de ecuaciones para estimar curvas de lactancia con diferentes estrategias de muestreo en bovinos Angus, Suizo y sus cruzas

    OpenAIRE

    Rodolfo Ramírez Valverde; José Guadalupe García Muñiz; Rafael Núñez Domínguez; Agustín Ruiz Flores; Ma. del Refugio Meraz Alvarado

    2004-01-01

    Los objetivos de este estudio fueron comparar cuatro ecuaciones para estimar curvas de lactancia en vacas Angus, Suizo Europeo y sus cruzas recíprocas, basado en cuatro frecuencias de medición de la producción de leche (PL), y determinar el número mínimo de muestreos para predecir adecuadamente las curvas de lactancia. Los datos de PL (297 lactancias) se colectaron semanalmente hasta 180 días posparto, utilizando la técnica de pesaje de becerros antes y después del amamantamiento. Para cada l...

  14. Modelo dinámico para estimar la estructura óptima de capital para una PYME minera

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Venegas Martínez; Salvador Cruz Aké; Juan Segovia Aldape

    2008-01-01

    Este trabajo replantea el concepto de estructura óptima de capital para las pequeñas y medianas empresas del sector minero (PYMES mineras) a través del uso de la optimización dinámica estocástica. Se encuentra, bajo los supuestos de una estructura plana de la tasa de interés, mercados perfectos y normalidad de la fuente de riesgo, que se cumple la «irrelevancia de la estructura de capital» propuesta por Modigliani y Miller. También se muestra en forma empírica el impacto sobre el empleo del u...

  15. Método UPD-L para estimar valores de una variable geominera medidos en un conjunto de puntos de Rn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arístides A. Legrá Lobaina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Se describió un algoritmo matemático para estimar en el punto P el valor de una variable dependiente U cuando se conocen valores puntuales de la misma medidos en m puntos Pi de Rn. La estimación se basó en una combinación lineal de los productos de cada Ui por una potencia de la distancia euclidiana de P a Pi. Se ilustra el uso de este estimador para la modelación de curvas, superficies e hiper-superficies geomineras.

  16. Métodos indirectos para estimar masa radical en caña de azúcar, variedad CC 8592

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejia M. S.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available En casas de malla (31°C, 58% HR se evaluaron tres metodologías no destructivas (capacitancia eléctrica, amperaje, resistencia eléctrica para estimar la masa radical en caña de azúcar variedad CC 8592. El material vegetal se sometió a diferentes niveles de humedad en el sustrato. Se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar, con 13 repeticiones; las plantas se sembraron en materos plásticos (3 kg con cachaza - carbonilla (3:1; 24 horas antes de las mediciones se saturó el sustrato con agua. Mediante regresión lineal se obtuvieron las siguientes ecuaciones que relacionaron capacitancia (X con masa radical fresca (Y: Y = 6.841X - 49.623 (R2 = 0.829, P < 0.001, y con la masa radical seca: Y = 0.9546X - 7.4649 (R2 = 0.545, P < 0.001. La relación del amperaje con la masa radical fresca fue: Y = 0.4138X - 48.194 (R2 = 0.850, P <0.001 y con la masa radical seca: Y = 0.0577X - 7.2575 (R2 = 0.559, P <0.001; este método presentó mayor confiabilidad que el del capacitómetro. El método de la resistencia eléctrica no presentó resultados confiables. ABSTRACT Indirect methods to estimate the root biomass in sugar cane, cultivar CC 8592. In greenhouses (31°C, 58% RH three nondestructive methods were evaluated (electrical capacitance, amperage electrical resistance to estimate the root biomass. There was used a completely randomized design, with 4 treatments and 13 replications, the plants were seeded in plastic pots (3 kg using a mix of cachaza and fine coal (3:1; 24 hours before the measurements the substrate was saturated with water. By means of linear regression were obtained the following equations that relate fresh root (Y and capacitance (X: Y = 6.841X - 49.623 (R2 = 0.829, P < 0.001; and dry root biomass to capacitance: Y = 0.9546X - 7.4649 (R2 = 0.545, P < 0.001. The relation of fresh root biomass and amperage was Y = 0.4138X - 48.194 (R2 = 0.850, P < 0.001 and dry root biomass with amperage, Y = 0.0577X - 7.2575 (R2 = 0.559, P

  17. Comportamiento poblacional de larvas de aedes egypti para estimar los casos de dengue en Yurimaguas, Perú, 2000-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werther Fernández R

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Estudiar el comportamiento poblacional de las larvas de Aedes aegypti (L. para explicar sus fluctuaciones a través de tres indicadores entomológicos (IE y estimar los casos de dengue en la ciudad de Yurimaguas, Loreto, Perú. Materiales y métodos: Se recogieron los datos de los censos larvales al 100% en el periodo de estudio a través de tres IEs [índice aédico (IA, índice de recipientes (IR e índice de Breteau (IB], así como los casos autóctonos de dengue mensuales de la Oficina de Epidemiología del Hospital de Apoyo de Yurimaguas. Se usó la correlación de Spearman para ver la relación entre los tres IE y los casos de dengue, finalmente se calcularon ecuaciones de regresión para estimar a partir del los IE los casos de dengue entre el año 2000 al 2004. Resultados: El promedio mensual del IA, IR e IB fue de 4,03±1,85, 1,31±1,07 y 4,88±2,31, respectivamente. Se encontró que los tres índices entomológicos presentaron diferencias entre las dieciocho evaluaciones realizadas del 2000 al 2004. En los tres IE se ha notado una tendencia a descender en los meses de abril-2000 a julio-2003, y un ligero incremento de diciembre-2003 a diciembre-2004. El promedio de casos de dengue mensuales durante todo el estudio fue 8,11±6,66. IA, IB e IR estuvieron todos altamente correlacionados lineal y positivamente durante el 2000 al 2004. Los tres IE y los casos de dengue total (CDT, se encuentran correlacionados lineal y positivamente. Se establecieron cuatro ecuaciones capaces de estimar los casos de dengue, sólo con el IA. Conclusiones: Teniendo como base a los datos obtenidos en cinco años de evaluación, se proponen cuatro modelos de regresión válidos para estimar CDT mensuales a partir del IA. La ecuación: log (CDT+1 = 0,50 + 0,44 (logIA+1 fue la más apropiada para la estimación de los CDT mensuales.

  18. Metodología para estimar cual es la fecha óptima de adquisición de imágenes Landsat para estimar el rendimiento en un lote de soja en el marco de la agricultura de precisión

    OpenAIRE

    Ovando,Gustavo; de la Casa, Antonio; Bressanini, Luciano; MARTÍNEZ,JORGE; Miranda, Crisitan; Miretti, Desirée; Melano, Franco; Moglia, Juan Pablo

    2016-01-01

    La predicción temprana del rendimiento permite que la agricultura de precisión (AP) pueda mejorar la producción. La teledetección se ha empleado para el pronóstico de rendimiento a partir de una sola observación o con una integral en el tiempo del NDVI durante el ciclo del cultivo. El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar el desempeño de diferentes índices de vegetación (IV) calculados a partir de imágenes Landsat, para estimar el rendimiento de soja en el marco de la AP. El cociente entre l...

  19. Modelos para estimar cambios brutos en encuestas rotativas con ausencia de respuesta en diseños de muestreo complejos

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Las encuestas rotativas tipo panel son usadas para calcular estimaciones de cambios brutos (o flujos agregados de individuos) entre los estados de clasificación de interés para dos periodos consecutivos de medición. En esta tesis se considera un procedimiento general para la estimación de cambios brutos cuando la encuesta rotativa ha sido generada con un dise~no de muestreo complejo y no ignorable para la cual se presentan distintos patrones de ausencia de respuesta que pueden ...

  20. Modelo actuarial para estimar la tasa de interés justa/óptima de un financiamiento automotriz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Hernández Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente modelo actuarial de tasa de interés justa, pondera de manera equilibrada el precio del dinero - tanto para un prestamista, como para el solicitante - en donde ninguna de las partes resulta más beneficiada en perjuicio de la otra. De este modo, sea cual sea la elección del enganche y plazo que el cliente decida, siempre obtendrá el precio óptimo del financiamiento solicitado. La función Z = f(x,y representa a la variable de tasa de interés justa, en donde ambas partes tendrían una relación del tipo “ganar - ganar”; es decir, que ambas partes resultan mutuamente beneficiadas de la operación crediticia y en la cual ninguna de ellas obtiene ventaja en perjuicio de su contraparte. El precio justo del crédito automotriz se encuentra sobre la superficie de una gráfica de tres dimensiones cuyos puntos óptimos convergen en el vector (x,y,z; que determina la tasa de interés i, para un crédito sano. El diseño de un modelo computacional permite que el usuario interactúe con las variables de enganche y plazo, para conocer cómo influyen en el comportamiento de su crédito; tanto en el pago mensual, como en los intereses, impuestos y seguros; ofreciéndole una corrida financiera a lo largo del plazo contratado. Así, el modelo actuarial es totalmente dinámico ya que se adapta a los escenarios que se propongan. Corolario de lo anterior, resulta que cualquier punto fuera de la superficie óptima de la gráfica implicaría una ventaja/desventaja para alguna de las partes; por lo que el presente modelo permite realizar análisis de sensibilidad para tomar decisiones ANTES de celebrar la operación, considerando diferentes escenarios para las variables (x,y; de este modo, el modelo representa una herramienta de PREVISIÓN e incluso de PREVENCIÓN para la toma de mejores decisiones financieras.

  1. Modelo para estimar la capacidad de aporte de nitrógeno del suelo Soil Nitrogen supply capacity: an estimation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Benintende

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Las incubaciones aeróbicas de largo plazo permiten estimar el potencial de mineralización de N del suelo (N0, pero requiere largos tiempos para su determinación. El N mineralizado en incubaciones anaeróbicas (N-IA es una alternativa de corto tiempo que también permite predecir la capacidad de mineralización del nutriente. Los objetivos fueron: a establecer el grado de asociación y la relación entre N0 y N-IA en algunos suelos de Entre Ríos, Argentina, y b realizar una comprobación del modelo generado sobre otro grupo de datos, con el fin de establecer la posibilidad de utilizarlo como estimador del potencial de mineralización en suelos. Se encontró una correlación positiva entre N0 y N-IA (r = 0,86* *. El modelo lineal ajustado para estimar N0 a partir del N mineralizado en incubaciones anaeróbicas (PMN-IA fue 1,131 N-IA + 55,28 (R²= 0,74. Las diferencias entre N0 y PMN-IA fueron de 10%. Para el N mineralizable en condiciones de temperatura y humedad a campo durante el ciclo de un cultivo, estas diferencias representaron entre 4 y 10 kg de N ha-1 Se concluye que el N-IA permitió apreciar diferencias entre suelos y manejos diferentes y su empleo es factible de utilizar como técnica rápida y sencilla para estimar N0.Long term aerobic incubations allow estimation of nitrogen mineralization potential of soils (N0, but is a time consuming technique. Anaerobic incubation (N-AI is a short time consumer alternative, which also allows predicting the nitrogen nutrient mineralization capacity. The objectives were: a to establish the association degree and the relationship between N0 and N-AI obtained from some soils of Entre Ríos, Argentina, and b to check the generated model using a different group of data to establish the possibility to use the model as an estimator of the potential mineralization capacity. We found a positive correlation between N0 and N-AI (r = 0.86 **. The lineal model adjusted to estimate N0 from N mineralized in

  2. DESARROLLO DE UN DISPOSITIVO MECÁNICO PARA ESTIMAR LA RESISTENCIA AL DESPRENDIMIENTO DE PLÁNTULAS DE ALFALFA

    OpenAIRE

    Montico, S.; B. Martín

    2011-01-01

    En la región pampeana húmeda de Argentina la agricultura es complementada, según la zona, con tambo o con engorde de ganado. La alfalfa es la especie dominante de las mezclas. La eficiencia de su implantación depende de la interacción de diversos factores que operan a lo largo del período del establecimiento y afecta en diferente grado a la especie. El estadio de la emergencia y establecimiento de las plántulas es la fase de la vida más crítica para esta especie, en especial este último event...

  3. Un modelo fractal para estimar la conductividad hídráulica no saturada de rocas fracturadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo B Monachesi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Durante las últimas dos décadas el estudio y la modelación del flujo de agua en rocas fracturadas no saturadas ha recibido considerable atención por parte de investigadores de distintas áreas como la geología, geofísica e ingeniería. Una de las razones principales para su estudio radica en la búsqueda de formaciones geológicas de baja permeabilidad para la construcción de repositorios de residuos nucleares. Para modelar el flujo de agua cuando se utiliza la aproximación del continuo es necesario contar con relaciones constitutivas del medio poroso considerado. Las relaciones constitutivas son curvas de saturación (S y conductividad hidráulica (K en función de la altura de presión (h. En general, la determinación en laboratorio de la curva de saturación no suele presentar mayores inconvenientes. En cambio, la determinación experimental de K(h resulta difícil y costosa, por lo que se suele recurrir a modelos teóricos para su estimación. Entre los modelos teóricos más utilizados se destacan los de Burdine (Burdine, 1953 y Mualem (Mualem, 1976, los cuales permiten predecir la conductividad hidráulica K a partir de la curva de saturación S. Estos modelos predictivos han sido desarrollados para medios porosos de tipo sedimentario, no existiendo en la literatura modelos específicos para rocas fracturadas. En este trabajo se presenta un modelo fractal simple para predecir la conductividad hidráulica no saturada de rocas fracturadas. La deducción del modelo se basa en la hipótesis de que la red de fracturas puede ser descrita mediante un objeto fractal clásico denominado carpeta de Sierpinski. La expresión propuesta de K es cerrada y depende únicamente de tres parámetros independientes: la dimensión fractal y las aperturas máxima y mínima de las fracturas. Una de las características que presenta el modelo propuesto, y que permite validarlo en forma teórica, es que la curva de conductividad hidráulica relativa es

  4. Un marco conceptual y analítico para estimar la integridad ecológica a escala de paisaje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Sal, A.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A conceptual and analytical framework to assess ecological integrity at a landscape level. A concep tual and methodological approach for the ecological integrity analysis at landscape level is presented. The aim is providing a tool for land planning and nature conservation. With this purpose the meaning of integrity and related concepts are discussed, and a model to evaluate landscape integrity by a comprehensive scheme is proposed. The first index is based in metrics of landscape ecology theory (connectivity, cover of both conservation areas and human managed land, etc. to evaluate the different ecosystem fragments pattern. The second one, an ecosystems integrity index, is focused to evaluate remnants with a structure close to maturity and evaluates the mathematical distance to a reference hypothetical composition. Finally, the agricultural area is evaluated by a coherence index, with emphasis in ecological processes but also including the natural structures with conservation functions. These indexes are combined in a model that facilitates the joint consideration of their values and the comparison with theoretical scenarios. The model allows us to develop a concurrent management of relevant variables that usually are associated to different environmental qualities. Because of its characteristics and the intermediate scale of application, the model constitutes an important tool for matching ecosystem integrity and land planning. Both are actions and concept and relevant for nature conservation and landscape management, but in general independently considered.El trabajo constituye una aproximación conceptual y metodológica para el análisis de la integridad ecológica, como instrumento aplicable a la planificación del territorio y la conservación de la naturaleza a escala de paisaje. Con dicho fin se discuten las acepciones de integridad y conceptos próximos y se presenta un modelo de evaluación que considera la integridad del paisaje como

  5. Propuesta y aplicación de una metodología para estimar la e-preparación de municipios colombianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Chavarro

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available La conformación y consolidación de municipios digitales requiere de construcciones metodológicas que respondan a las diferentes particularidades de los territorios y sus habitantes. La mayoría de municipios colombianos pequeños desconoce la capacidad de apropiación que tienen sus habitantes de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación - TIC. Nuestro trabajo consiste en construir una metodología para estimar la preparación electrónica (e-preparación, e-readiness de estos municipios, tanto en cuestiones técnicas como sociales. Presentamos la metodología y su aplicación en dos realidades socioculturales distintas: Castilla la Nueva (Meta y Guaduas (Cundinamarca./ The shaping and consolidation of digital municipalities require methodological constructs able to take into account the singularities of territories and their inhabitants. Many Colombian municipalities don't have an understanding of their capability to assimilate Information and telecommunication Technologies - ICT. Our work consists in constructing a methodology to estimate the e-readiness of Colombian municipalities concerning both technical and social issues. We present the methodology and its application in two different socio-cultural realities: Castilla la Nueva (Meta and Guaduas (Cundinamarca.

  6. UN MODELO POSIBILÍSTICO PARA ESTIMAR EL COSTO INTRÍNSECO DE LA ENERGÍA NO SUMINISTRADA EN SISTEMAS DE DISTRIBUCIÓN ELÉCTRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUSTAVO SCHWEICKARDT

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se desarrolla un novedoso modelo para estimar el costo de la energía no suministrada en sistemas de distribución de energía eléctrica. Se propone un enfoque multiobjetivo y flexible, sustentado en programación dinámica posibilística, reconociendo en cada criterio de optimización identificado, la existencia de incertidumbres no estocásticas de valor. El costo resultante, por no ser fijado externamente y depender de la estructura modelorepresentación del sistema, se designa como intrínseco. El modelo se centra en la ubicación óptima de equipos de seccionamiento y protección, aspecto de mayor impacto en el diseño confiable. Se comparan, sobre un mismo sistema real, sus resultados respecto de los obtenidos por un método basado en programación dinámica determinística, en la que el costo en cuestión es fijado regulatoriamente. Se evidencian las ventajas de la optimización posibilística respecto del enfoque clásico determinístico.

  7. Equações para estimar o estoque de carbono no fuste de árvores individuais e em plantios comerciais de eucalipto Equations to estimate carbon stock in stems of individual trees ans stands of eucalyptus

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Pedro Boechat Soares; Helio Garcia Leite; Eric Bastos Görgens

    2005-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi ajustar equações para estimar o carbono presente no fuste de árvores individuais de eucalipto e o estoque de carbono, por unidade de área, em diferentes condições de plantio. Para isso, foram utilizadas 532 árvores para ajustar a equação referente ao modelo alométrico de Schumacher e Hall (1933) e 95 parcelas permanentes para ajustar as equações referentes aos modelos de crescimento e produção, incluindo as seguintes variáveis independentes: idade (I), área basal...

  8. EGARCH: un modelo asimétrico para estimar la volatilidad de series financieras EGARCH: a model to estimate the asymmetric volatility of financial series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Fernández Castaño

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En la modelación de las volatilidades con cambios súbitos, es imperativo usar modelos que permitan describir y analizar el dinamismo de la volatilidad, ya que los inversionistas, entre otras cosas, pueden estar interesados en estimar la tasa de retorno y la volatilidad de un instrumento financiero u otros derivados, sólo durante el período de tenencia. En este artículo, que constituye la primera de dos entregas, se hace una evaluación del modelo asimétrico EGARCH que resulta ser muy útil para estudiar la dinámica del Índice General de la Bolsa de valores de Colombia (IGBC y de su volatilidad, pues inicia haciendo una breve revisión del modelo GARCH, resaltando su importancia en la modelación de series de tiempo financieras, e identificando sus debilidades en cuanto a su propiedad de simetría para las distribuciones de colas gruesas y que pueden generar errores de pronóstico. Luego se muestra la importancia del modelo EGARCH para la modelación de algunos hechos que no se logran capturar con los modelos GARCHIn the modeling of volatility with rapid changes, it is imperative to use models to describe and analyze the dynamics of volatility, as investors, among other things, may be interested in estimating the rate of return and volatility of an instrument financial or other derivatives, only during the holding period. This article contains an evaluation of asymmetric EGARCH model that proves to be very useful to study the dynamics of the General Index of the Stock Exchange of Colombia (IGBC and its volatility, since, as will be shown, the results suggest they could be more useful for capture the stylized facts of the Colombian market behavior. It is really significant to evidence the importance of asymmetric models to estimate the volatility of financial series is intended here as a model for identifying, in the best way to estimate the volatility of daily returns of the IGBC.

  9. Desarrollo de una metodología in vitro para estimar la tasa de fermentación de los forrajes en el intestino grueso del cerdo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leterme Pascal

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available La metodología para estimar la tasa de fermentación de los forrajes se desarrolló en dos etapas. La primera, de digestibilidad enzimática, simula la digestión ocurrida en el estómago e intestino delgado, mediante el empleo de pepsina y pancreatina; en esta se determina la digestibilidad de la materia seca. La segunda etapa de fermentación simula la fermentación que ocurre en el intestino grueso utilizando como inóculo heces de cerdo; en esta se determina la cantidad de gas producido durante la fermentación de los forrajes y la degradación de la fibra detergente neutra (FDN. Las dos etapas presentaron buena repetibilidad en el tiempo. Abstract Develop of an in vitro methodology to determine the forages fermentation in to the large intestine. The methodology was developing in two phases. The first phase (enzymatic digestibility simulates the digestion occurred in the stomach and small intestine, by means of the employment of pepsin and pancreatin; and the digestibility of the dry matter is determined. The second phase (in vitro fermentation simulates the fermentation that occurs in the large intestine utilizing pig faeces; the quantity of gas produced during the fermentation of the feedstuff is determined and determine the degradation of neutral detergent fiber (NDF. All the phases show a good repeatability throw the time. Key words: digestibility in vitro, pigs, fermentación, forages (Azolla filiculoides, Xanthosoma saggitifolium, Morus alba, Trichanthera gigantea y Salvinia molesta.

  10. Procedimiento para estimar la eficiencia de engranajes de tornillo sinfín//A procedure for estimating of cylindrical worm gear efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo González-Rey

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se propone un procedimiento general para estimar la eficiencia de engranajes de tornillo sinfín cilíndrico considerando pérdidas de potencia por fricción entre los flancos conjugados. El referido procedimiento tiene sus bases en dos modelos matemáticos desarrollados con relaciones teóricas y empíricas presentes en el Reporte Técnico ISO 14521. Los modelos matemáticos elaborados son orientados a evaluar la eficiencia de engranajes de tornillo sinfín cilíndrico en función de la geometría del engranaje, de condiciones de la aplicación y características de fabricación del tornillo y la rueda dentada. El procedimiento fue validado por comparación con valores de eficiencia reportados para unidades deengranajes fabricadas por una compañía especializada en engranajes. Finalmente, haciendo uso del referido procedimiento son establecidas soluciones al problema de mejorar la eficiencia de estos engranajes mediante la recomendación racional de parámetros geométricos y de explotación.Palabras claves: eficiencia, engranaje de tornillo sinfín, diseño racional, modelo matemático, ISO/TR 14521._______________________________________________________________________________AbstractIn this study, a general procedure is proposed for the prediction of cylindrical worm gear efficiency taking into account friction losses between worm and wheel gear. The procedure is based in two mathematical models developed with empiric relations and theoretical formulas presented on ISO/TR 14521. Mathematical models are oriented to evaluate the worm gear efficiency with interrelation of gear geometry, manufacturing and working parameters. The validation of procedure was achieved by comparing with values of efficiency for worm gear units referenced by a German gear manufacturer company. Finally, some important recommendations to increase worm gear efficiency by means of rational gear geometry and application parameters are presented.Key words

  11. UTILIZACIÓN DE TARJETAS INTELIGENTES PARA ESTIMAR MATRICES ORIGEN-DESTINO. APLICACIÓN AL SISTEMA MEGABÚS, PEREIRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvin Luis Jiménez Narváez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available E n la planificación operativa de los sistemas de transporte es fundamental contar con una caracterización de la demanda del servicio por medio de una matriz origen- destino (OD de viajes. Esta matriz es estimada frecuentemente mediante técnicas de muestreo estadístico que ofrecen resultados de gran calidad pero requieren diseño e implementación compleja y de alto costo. Así, se hace pertinente aprovechar la información de los registros de las tarjetas inteligentes usadas como medios de pago en los sistemas que tienen esta tecnología. Esta fuente de información permite obtener estimaciones de matrices OD de gran calidad con un costo bajo. En este trabajo se implementa una metodología para la estimación de una matriz origen-destino entre estaciones de buses en el sistema de transporte público de Megabús en la ciudad de Pereira. La metodología permite depurar la base de datos teniendo en cuenta las particularidades del sistema, como las formas de ingreso, tipo de tarjeta, reventa de pasajes, y además considera la posibilidad de que un usuario pueda decidir bajarse en una estación intermedia cercana a su estación destino mediante la parametrización de un factor de penalización que está asociado con el tiempo de viaje caminando en la función objetivo. La inclusión del factor no influye significativamente en el porcentaje total de viajes estimados pero sí ajusta algunos valores de la matriz origen-destino, al considerar los descensos en estaciones intermedias. El método posibilita estimar matrices OD para diferentes ventanas de tiempo de cualquier día de la semana y distintas épocas del año.

  12. Biomass equations for Brazilian semiarid caatinga plants Equações para estimar a biomassa de plantas da caatinga do semi-árido brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everardo V.S.B. Sampaio

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Allometric equations to estimate total aboveground alive biomass (B or crown projection area (C of ten caatinga species based on plant height (H and/or stem diameter at ground level (DGL or at breast height (DBH were developed. Thirty plants of each species, covering the common range of stem diameters (3 to 50 cm, were measured (C, H, DGL, DBH, cut at the base, separated into parts, weighted and subsampled to determine dry biomass. Wood density (p of the stem and the largest branches was determined. B, C, H and p ranged from 1 to 500 kg, 0.2 to 112 m², 1.3 to 11.8 m, and 0.45 to 1.03 g cm-3. Biomass of all 10 species, separately or together (excluding one cactus species, could be estimated with high coefficients of determination (R² using the power equation (B = aDGLb and DGL, DBH, H or combinations of diameter, height and density. Improvement by multiplying H and/or p to DGL or DBH was small. The mixed-species equation based only on DBH (valid up to 30 cm had a = 0.173 and b = 2.295, similar to averages of these parameters found in the literature but slightly lower than most of those for humid tropical vegetation. Crown area was significantly related to diameter, height and biomass.Equações alométricas foram desenvolvidas para estimar a biomassa aérea viva (B e a área de projeção da copa (C de dez espécies da caatinga, com base na altura da planta (H e/ou do diâmetro do caule ao nível do solo (DNS ou à altura do peito (DAP. Trinta plantas de cada espécie, cobrindo a faixa usual de diâmetros (3 a 50 cm, foram medidas (C, H, DNS, DAP, cortadas na base, separadas em partes, pesadas e subamostradas para determinação da biomassa seca. A densidade (p da madeira dos caules e galhos maiores foi determinada. B, C, H e p variaram de 1 a 500 kg, 0,2 a 112 m², 1,3 a 11,8 m e 0,45 a 1,03 g cm-3. A biomassa das 10 espécies, separadamente ou em conjunto (exceto pela espécie de Cactaceae, foi estimada com alto coeficiente de determina

  13. Models to estimate phytomass accumulation of hydroponic lettuce Modelos para estimar o acúmulo de fitomassa de alface em hidroponia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidinei José Lopes

    2004-01-01

    alface hidropônica, bem como determinar a época de florescimento e de máxima taxa de acúmulo de matéria seca em função do desenvolvimento relativo da cultura (graus-dia relativo, radiação solar e graus-dia efetivo, dois experimentos (primavera e outono foram conduzidos em ambiente protegido em Santa Maria, RS. Modelos de crescimento e desenvolvimento são úteis na obtenção de informações básicas das interações planta ´ ambiente, maximizando o uso de recursos em ambiente protegido, bem como, para definir a melhor forma de manejo da cultura. Foi utilizada a variedade Vera, por não florescer precocemente. Foram propostos modelos para estimar a variação temporal de massa seca, sendo o melhor ajuste quando o desenvolvimento relativo foi obtido por graus-dia efetivo, caracterizando a maior importância da temperatura do ar na fase vegetativa e da radiação solar na fase reprodutiva. A produção e a qualidade de sementes de alface indicam um alto potencial para sua produção sob hidroponia.

  14. ASTER Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This image of Saudi Arabia shows a great sea of linear dunes in part of the Rub' al Khali, or the Empty Quarter. Acquired on June 25, 2000, the image covers an area 37 kilometers (23 miles) wide and 28 kilometers (17 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. The dunes are yellow due to the presence of iron oxide minerals. The inter-dune area is made up of clays and silt and appears blue due to its high reflectance in band 1. The Rub' al Khali is the world's largest continuous sand desert. It covers about 650,000 square kilometers (250,966 square miles) and lies mainly in southern Saudi Arabia, though it does extend into the United Arab Emirates, Oman, and Yemen. One of the world's driest areas, it is uninhabited except for the Bedouin nomads who cross it. The first European to travel through the desert was Bertram Thomas in 1930.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Examples of

  15. The Aster code; Code Aster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbecq, J.M

    1999-07-01

    The Aster code is a 2D or 3D finite-element calculation code for structures developed by the R and D direction of Electricite de France (EdF). This dossier presents a complete overview of the characteristics and uses of the Aster code: introduction of version 4; the context of Aster (organisation of the code development, versions, systems and interfaces, development tools, quality assurance, independent validation); static mechanics (linear thermo-elasticity, Euler buckling, cables, Zarka-Casier method); non-linear mechanics (materials behaviour, big deformations, specific loads, unloading and loss of load proportionality indicators, global algorithm, contact and friction); rupture mechanics (G energy restitution level, restitution level in thermo-elasto-plasticity, 3D local energy restitution level, KI and KII stress intensity factors, calculation of limit loads for structures), specific treatments (fatigue, rupture, wear, error estimation); meshes and models (mesh generation, modeling, loads and boundary conditions, links between different modeling processes, resolution of linear systems, display of results etc..); vibration mechanics (modal and harmonic analysis, dynamics with shocks, direct transient dynamics, seismic analysis and aleatory dynamics, non-linear dynamics, dynamical sub-structuring); fluid-structure interactions (internal acoustics, mass, rigidity and damping); linear and non-linear thermal analysis; steels and metal industry (structure transformations); coupled problems (internal chaining, internal thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling, chaining with other codes); products and services. (J.S.)

  16. Validade do instrumento WHO VAW STUDY para estimar violência de gênero contra a mulher Validez de instrumento para estimar violencia de género contra la mujer Validity of the WHO VAW study instrument for estimating gender-based violence against women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Blima Schraiber

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Validar o instrumento do estudo World Health Organization Violence Against Women (WHO VAW sobre violência psicológica, física e sexual por parceiros íntimos contra mulheres. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado em vários países entre 2000 e 2003, inclusive Brasil. Selecionaram-se amostras aleatórias e representativas de mulheres de 15-49 anos com parceiros íntimos, residentes na cidade de São Paulo, SP, (n = 940 e na Zona da Mata de Pernambuco (n = 1.188. Realizou-se análise fatorial exploratória das perguntas sobre violências (quatro psicológicas, seis físicas e três sexuais, com rotação varimax e criação de três fatores. Calculou-se alfa de Cronbach para análise da consistência interna. Para a validação por grupos extremos, médias de escores (zero a 13 pontos de violência foram testadas em relação aos desfechos: auto-avaliação de saúde, atividades diárias, presença de dor ou desconforto, ideação e tentativa de suicídio, grande consumo de álcool e presença de transtorno mental comum. RESULTADOS: Foram definidos três fatores com variância acumulada semelhante (0,6092 em São Paulo e 0,6350 na Zona da Mata. Para São Paulo, o primeiro fator foi determinado pela violência física, o segundo pela sexual e o terceiro pela psicológica. Para a Zona da Mata, o primeiro fator foi composto pela violência psicológica, o segundo pela física e o terceiro pela sexual. Coeficientes de alfa de Cronbach foram 0,88 em São Paulo e 0,89 na Zona da Mata. As médias dos escores de violência foram significativamente maiores para desfechos menos favoráveis, exceto tentativa de suicídio em São Paulo. CONCLUSÕES: O instrumento mostrou-se adequado para estimar a violência de gênero contra a mulher perpetrada por seu parceiro íntimo e pode ser utilizado em estudos sobre o tema. Ele tem alta consistência interna e capacidade de discriminar as formas de violência psicológica, física e sexual, perpetrada

  17. Uso da regressão de Cox para estimar fatores associados a óbito neonatal em UTI privada Uso de la regresión de Cox para estimar factores asociados a óbito neonatal en UTI privada The use of Cox regression to estimate the risk factors of neonatal death in a private NICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Maria M. M. Lanfranchi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar os fatores de risco associados ao óbito até 28 dias após o nascimento de recém-nascidos internados entre os anos de 2005 a 2007 em uma Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal de hospital privado no Município de Taubaté, usando a análise de regressão de Cox. MÉTODOS: Estudo epidemiológico do tipo longitudinal. Os dados foram obtidos de prontuários de todos os recém-nascidos internados na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal, no período de janeiro de 2005 a dezembro de 2007. Foram obtidas variáveis maternas e relativas ao recém-nascido, sendo o desfecho primário a mortalidade neonatal. Foi feita a análise univariada, utilizando teste do qui-quadrado, risco relativo e gráfico de Kaplan-Meier para cada variável separadamente. A análise multivariada foi realizada por meio da regressão de Cox para verificar a associação de fatores maternos e neonatais ao desfecho primário. RESULTADOS: Foram estudados 185 neonatos, dos quais 10,5% foram a óbito antes do 28º dia de vida. As variáveis que se associaram de modo significante ao óbito no modelo de Cox foram: peso OBJETIVO: Estimar los factores de riesgo asociados al óbito hasta 28 días después del nacimiento de recién-nacidos inter-nados entre los años de 2005 y 2007 en una Unidad de Terapia Intensiva de un hospital privado en el Municipio de Taubaté (São Paulo, Brasil, usando el análisis de regresión de Cox. MÉTODOS: Estudio epidemiológico de tipo longitudinal. Los datos fueron obtenidos de prontuarios de todos los recién-nacidos internados en las UTI neonatal privadas en el periodo de enero/2005 a diciembre/2007. Se obtuvieron variables tanto maternas como relativas al recién-nacido y categorizadas, siendo el desfecho primario la mortalidad neonatal. Se realizó el análisis univariado utilizando la prueba de chi cuadrado, el riesgo relativo y la gráfica de Kaplan-Meier para cada variable en separado. El análisis multivariado fue realizado por

  18. Índices para estimar o tempo transcorrido entre o surto hemorrágico subaracnóideo e a colheita de líquido cefalorraqueano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Marlet

    1973-12-01

    Full Text Available O autor simulou, experimentalmente, acidente vascular cerebral hemorrágico em cães injetando sangue do próprio animal no espaço subaracnóideo, colhendo amostras diárias de LCR durante 14 dias, sendo estudada a evolução das concentrações de oxiemoglobina e de bilirrubina, empregando métodos espectrofotométricos. Define um coeficiente hemoglobínico como a relação entre a concentração de oxiemoglobina e o total de pigmentos do LCR e um índice hemoglobina-bilirrubina como a relação entre as concentrações de oxiemoglobina e bilirrubina. Depois do tratamento estatístico, chega à conclusão de que ambos permitem estimar o tempo transcorrido desde o surto hemorrágico subaracnóideo e a colheita de LCR. São apresentadas sugestões quanto à aplicabilidade prática destes indicadores em Neurologia e Medicina Preventiva.

  19. USO DO IRRIGÂMETRO PARA ESTIMAR A EVAPOTRANSPIRAÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIA COM BASE NO MÉTODO DO LISÍMETRO DE LENÇOL FREÁTICO CONSTANTE

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar o Irrigâmetro para estimar a evapotranspiração de referência (ET0) e comparar os métodos de FAO-Penman-Monteith, FAO-Penman Modificado, FAO-Radiação, Hargreaves-Samani e Tanque Classe A, em relação ao método do lisímetro de lençol freático constante. Os dados de evapotranspiração de referência (ET0), obtidos com o Irrigâmetro e com os demais métodos, foram comparados com os valores medidos no lisímetro de lençol freático constante, operando com Irrigâ...

  20. Sistema hospitalar como fonte de informações para estimar a mortalidade neonatal e a natimortalidade The Brazilian hospital system as a source of information to estimate stillbirth and neonatal mortality rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce MA Schramm

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apesar da reconhecida importância em acompanhar a evolução temporal da mortalidade infantil precoce, a deficiência das estatísticas vitais no Brasil ainda permanece na agenda atual dos problemas que impedem o seu acompanhamento espaço-temporal. Realizou-se estudo com o objetivo de investigar o Sistema de Informações Hospitalares (SIH/SUS como fonte de informações, para estimar a natimortalidade e a mortalidade neonatal. MÉTODOS: Propõe-se um método para estimar a natimortalidade e a mortalidade neonatal, o qual foi aplicado para todos os Estados das regiões Nordeste, Sul e Sudeste e para o Pará, no ano de 1995. Para fins comparativos, o Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade (SIM/MS foi utilizado para estimar as taxas sob estudo, após a correção do número de nascidos vivos por um método demográfico. RESULTADOS: O SIH/SUS forneceu mais óbitos fetais e neonatais precoces do que o SIM/MS em grande parte das unidades federadas da região Nordeste. Adicionalmente para os Estados localizados nas regiões Sul e Sudeste, que apresentam, em geral, boa cobertura do registro de óbitos, as taxas calculadas pelos dois sistemas de informação tiveram valores semelhantes. CONCLUSÕES: Considerando a cobertura incompleta das estatísticas vitais no Brasil e a agilidade do SIH/SUS em disponibilizar as informações em meio magnético, conclui-se que o uso do SIH/SUS poderá trazer inúmeras contribuições para análise do comportamento espaço-temporal do componente neonatal da mortalidade infantil no território brasileiro, em anos recentes.OBJECTIVE: Studies on the evolution of infant mortality rate are very relevant. Nevertheless, lack of vital statistics in Brazil limits the temporal and spatial analysis of this indicator. This study aims to investigate the possible use of the Brazilian Hospital Information System as an alternative information source for stillbirth and neonatal mortality rates by age group. METHODS: A

  1. Equações para estimar o estoque de carbono no fuste de árvores individuais e em plantios comerciais de eucalipto Equations to estimate carbon stock in stems of individual trees ans stands of eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Pedro Boechat Soares

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi ajustar equações para estimar o carbono presente no fuste de árvores individuais de eucalipto e o estoque de carbono, por unidade de área, em diferentes condições de plantio. Para isso, foram utilizadas 532 árvores para ajustar a equação referente ao modelo alométrico de Schumacher e Hall (1933 e 95 parcelas permanentes para ajustar as equações referentes aos modelos de crescimento e produção, incluindo as seguintes variáveis independentes: idade (I, área basal (B e índice de local (S. Após as análises, verificou-se que as equações se ajustaram bem aos dados observados, fornecendo estimativas precisas.The objective of this work was to adjust equations to estimate carbon in the stems of individual eucalyptus trees and carbon stock, by unit of area, in different planting conditions. For that, 532 trees were used to adjust the allometric model of Schumacher and Hall (1933 and 95 permanent plots to adjust equations related to growth and yield models, including the following independent variables: age (I, basal area (B and site index (S. The analyses showed that the equations adjusted well to the observed data, providing accurate estimates.

  2. Obtención de ecuaciones de correlación para estimar las velocidades de las ondas de corte en los suelos de la ciudad de Guayaquil

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez Calderon, Jenny; Tandazo Ortega, Eddie; Vera Grunauer, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    La presente tesis establece un aporte a los ingenieros consultores y diseñadores, proporcionándoles ecuaciones semiempíricas para la estimación de la velocidad de la onda de corte, adaptadas para los suelos de la ciudad de Guayaquil. Para la realización y obtención del perfil de velocidad de onda de corte se llevó a cabo una campaña de medición de las ondas de superficie generadas por una fuente activa (martillos, bulldozers) de vibraciones aleatorias de alta y baja frecuenc...

  3. Hyperspectral field reflectance measurements to estimate wheat grain yield and plant height Medidas de reflectância hiperespectral a campo para estimar produtividade de grãos e altura de plantas de trigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Cândido Xavier

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral crop reflectance data are useful for several remote sensing applications in agriculture, but there is still a need for studies to define optimal wavebands to estimate crop biophysical parameters. The objective of this work is to analyze the use of narrow and broad band vegetation indices (VI derived from hyperspectral field reflectance measurements to estimate wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grain yield and plant height. A field study was conducted during the winter growing season of 2003 in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. Field canopy reflectance measurements were acquired at six wheat growth stages over 80 plots with four wheat cultivars (IAC-362, IAC-364, IAC-370, and IAC-373, five levels of nitrogen fertilizer (0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 kg of N ha-1 and four replicates. The following VI were analyzed: a hyperspectral or narrow-band VI (1. optimum multiple narrow-band reflectance, OMNBR; 2. narrow-band normalized difference vegetation index, NB_NDVI; 3. first- and second-order derivative of reflectance; and 4. four derivative green vegetation index; and b broad band VI (simple ratio, SR; normalized difference vegetation index, NDVI; and soil-adjusted vegetation index, SAVI. Hyperspectral indices provided an overall better estimate of biophysical variables when compared to broad band VI. The OMNBR with four bands presented the highest R² values to estimate both grain yield (R² = 0.74; Booting and Heading stages and plant height (R² = 0.68; Heading stage. Best results to estimate biophysical variables were observed for spectral measurements acquired between Tillering II and Heading stages.Dados hiperespectrais de reflectância de culturas agrícolas são úteis para diversas aplicações e ainda existe a necessidade de estudos para definir as melhores bandas para estimar parâmetros biofísicos de culturas. O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar o uso de índices de vegetação (IV de bandas estreitas e largas obtidas de medidas de

  4. Tamaño de muestra requerido para estimar la media aritmética de una distribución lognormal

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Se presentan fórmulas cerradas para calcular el tamaño de la muestra requerido en la estimación de la media aritmética de una distribución lognormal para datos censurados y no censurados. Las fórmulas son el resultado del ajuste de modelos no lineales para los tamaños de la muestra exactos reportados por Pérez (1995) en función de la desviación geométrica estándar, el porcentaje de diferencia a la verdadera media aritmética y niveles de confianza del 90 %, 95% y 99 %. Las fórmulas presentadas...

  5. El muestreo de áreas: una alternativa para estimar características poblacionales ante la ausencia de datos censales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Chaves Esquivel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo discute el uso del muestreo de áreas en la obtención de estimaciones de características poblacionales de una determinada región. Para ello se utilizan los segmentos censales del último censo de población y vivienda. La técnica fue aplicada en el cantón de San Rafael de Heredia y los resultados demuestran que el método es una buena alternativa, para la estimación de ciertas características poblacionales ante la carencia de datos censales.

  6. Metodología para estimar el coeficiente de heterogeneidad del suelo, el número de repeticiones y el tamaño de parcela en investigaciones con frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blair Matthew

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Con el objeto de estimar el coeficiente de heterogeneidad del suelo (b, sin realizar ensayos de unifor- midad, se propuso una metodología en la cual se usan datos provenientes de ensayos de rendimiento, aislando el efecto de tratamiento de la variable de respuesta. Para definir aspectos metodológicos y mostrar algunos resultados obtenidos en el manejo estadístico de la información, se utilizaron los da- tos de un ensayo de rendimiento de frijol común realizado en el Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT por el Programa de Mejoramiento de Frijol Andino. El coeficiente de heterogeneidad del suelo se estimó a partir de la ley de varianza de Smith (+958 y la ecuación propuesta por Federer (1963 encontrando valores de 0.59 y 0.66, respectivamente. Teniendo como referencia el valor de b estimado a partir de la metodología de Federer (1963 se recurrió a la metodología de Hatheway (1961 para encontrar la mejor combinación de tamaño de parcela, número de repeticiones y diferencia a de- tectar como porcentaje de la media.

  7. Método para estimar el impacto económico de los accidentes de trabajo en los principales indicadores financieros

    OpenAIRE

    Vanegas Serna, Diego Alexander

    2014-01-01

    El interés de este trabajo es mostrar un método basado en instrumentos financieros que se aproxime a la cuantificación del impacto económico de los accidentes de trabajo en los principales indicadores financieros que frecuentemente la alta gerencia utiliza para el direccionamiento y evaluación de la salud económica de la organización -- Realizar la medición del impacto económico implica extraer las variables de los accidentes de trabajo que se pueden costear y que posiblemente puedan relacion...

  8. UTILIZACIÓN DE TÉCNICAS NUCLEARES PARA ESTIMAR LA EROSIÓN HÍDRICA EN PLANTACIONES DE TABACO EN CUBA

    OpenAIRE

    Reinaldo H. Gil; José L. Peralta; Jorge Carrazana; Mario Riverol; Yulaidis Aguilar; Yilian M. Morejón; Jorge Oliveira; Gema Fleitas

    2015-01-01

    La erosión del suelo es un elemento importante en la degradación de tierras, provocando impactos negativos a varios niveles (parcela, finca, cuenca, etc). El cultivo del tabaco en el occidente del país se ha visto negativamente afectado por la erosión hídrica asociado a factores naturales y antrópicos. Un elemento fundamental para implementar una estrategia de manejo sostenible de tierras es la cuantificación de las pérdidas de suelo, ya que permiten establecer políticas de conservaci...

  9. Procedimiento para estimar el extractable del níquel con una red neuronal artificial, en sustitución de los modelos estadísticos tradicionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Viada Aguilera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Las Redes Neuronales Artificiales se aplican en la estimación o predicción de los sistemas de detección de fallas de equipos, logrando con ellas las mismas funciones que el modelo estadístico tradicional. Se argumentó un método para sustituir los algoritmos de selección y el conjunto de modelos que normalmente se utilizan en sistemas de control predictivo de procesos complejos, los que están determinados por un conjunto de variables, con un amplio rango de variación de cada una de ellas, como es el caso del extractable del níquel obtenido en los hornos de reducción de la fábrica, por una Red Neuronal.

  10. Utilização de indicadores para estimar a digestibilidade aparente em gatos Use of markers to estimate the apparent digestibility in domestic cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Vasconcellos

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Compararam-se os métodos de coleta total (CT e dos indicadores óxido crômico (Cr2O3, cinzas insolúveis em ácido (CIA e lignina na determinação dos coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente (CDA dos nutrientes para gatos. Os CDA de quatro rações foram determinados pela CT e estimados pelos diferentes indicadores em teste. Foram utilizados 24 gatos adultos castrados, alojados em gaiolas metabólicas individuais, totalizando seis animais por ração. O experimento seguiu um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, em parcelas subdivididas, sendo as rações as parcelas, os métodos as subparcelas e cada gato uma unidade experimental. Os CDA foram significativamente menores pelo método da lignina em uma das rações estudadas (P0,05. As taxas de recuperação dos indicadores, médias±erro-padrão da média, foram, respectivamente, de 97,1±2,5%, 97,3±2,9% e 83,9±9,1% para o Cr2O3, CIA e lignina. A CIA e o Cr2O3 mostraram grande potencial para utilização como indicadores, enquanto a ampla variabilidade dos resultados obtidos com a utilização da lignina não justificou seu emprego como substância índice para felinos.The total collection (TC method was compared to chromium oxide (Cr2O3, acid-insoluble ash (AIA and lignin marker methods for determining the coefficients of apparent digestibility (CAD of nutrients in domestic cats. The CAD of four diets were determined by TC and estimated for the three markers through tests. Twenty-four adult neutered cats were housed in individual metabolic cages, totaling six animals per diet. The experiment was carried out using a completely randomized design in subdivided blocks where diets were blocks, methods were sub-blocks and each cat an experimental unit. CAD for the lignin method was significantly lower than TC method (P<0.05 in one of the studied diets. CAD for the Cr2O3, AIA and TC methods were similar in all diets. Recuperation rates of Cr2O3, AIA and lignin markers were 97.1±2.5%, 97.3±2

  11. EXPLORACIÓN CON REDES NEURONALES ARTIFICIALES PARA ESTIMAR LA RESISTENCIA A LA COMPRESIÓN, EN CONCRETOS FIBROREFORZADOS CON ACERO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Octavio González Salcedo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En diseño y construcción de estructuras de concreto, la resistencia a la compresión a 28 días de curado es la especificación de control de estabilidad de la obra. La inclusión de fibras como reforzamiento de la matriz cementicia permite una ganancia en sus propiedades, además de obtener un material de alto desempeño. En las normativas, se plantean formulaciones predictivas de la resistencia a la compresión basadas en unos pocos parámetros de composición del concreto, tales como la relación agua/cemento y el contenido de cemento Portland. Por otra parte, también se han planteado métodos de diseños de concreto para definir la ponderación de sus materiales componentes, teniendo como referencia la resistencia a la compresión del concreto simple. Además, las redes neuronales artificiales, como un símil de las neuronas biológicas, han sido utilizadas como herramientas de predicción de la resistencia a la compresión en el concreto, también con referencia al concreto simple, sin reforzamiento con fibras. Los antecedentes en este uso muestran que es interesante desarrollar aplicaciones en los concretos reforzados con fibras. En el presente trabajo se elaboraron redes neuronales artificiales para predecir la resistencia a la compresión en concretos reforzados con fibras de acero. Los resultados de los indicadores de desempeño mostraron que las redes neuronales artificiales elaboradas pueden realizar una aproximación adecuada al valor real de la propiedad mecánica.

  12. UTILIZACIÓN DE TÉCNICAS NUCLEARES PARA ESTIMAR LA EROSIÓN HÍDRICA EN PLANTACIONES DE TABACO EN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo H. Gil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La erosión del suelo es un elemento importante en la degradación de tierras, provocando impactos negativos a varios niveles (parcela, finca, cuenca, etc. El cultivo del tabaco en el occidente del país se ha visto negativamente afectado por la erosión hídrica asociado a factores naturales y antrópicos. Un elemento fundamental para implementar una estrategia de manejo sostenible de tierras es la cuantificación de las pérdidas de suelo, ya que permiten establecer políticas de conservación de suelos. Las técnicas nucleares en la evaluación de la erosión, poseen ventajas en comparación con los métodos tradicionales y han sido aplicadas en diferentes agrosistemas a nivel mundial. En la provincia Pinar del Río, los suelos dedicados al cultivo del tabaco, presentan elevados niveles erosivos, por lo que es importante utilizar técnicas que permitan la cuantificación de las tasas de erosión de suelos. El trabajo muestra el uso de la técnica del 137 Cs para caracterizar el estado de la erosión de suelos en dos sectores de una granja con plantaciones de tabaco, ubicadas en la Llanura Suroccidental de la provincia de Pinar del Río. La estrategia de muestreo incorporó la evaluación de transectas seleccionadas en dirección de la pendiente, siendo tomadas muestras de suelos que incluyeron todo el 137 Cs del perfil. Se emplearon varios modelos de conversión; el Modelo de Balance de Masa II proporcionó los mejores resultados, obteniéndose una tasa de redistribución de suelos con valores de -18,28 a 8,15 t ha -1 año -

  13. La importancia de medir la temperatura de sublimación para estimar parámetros efectivos de transporte en el proceso de fiolización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Javier Parra R.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analiza la estimaci n de par metros efectivos de transporte usando un modelo simple de liofilizaci n en estado cuasi-estacionario y minimizando las diferencias entre datos experimentales y valores calculados con las ecuaciones del modelo. Se hace nfasis en la necesidad de considerar simult neamente la cin tica de deshidrataci n y la evoluci n de la temperatura de sublimaci n en la regresi n no lineal, a fin de obtener el mejor conjunto de par metros que describan adecuadamente al proceso de liofilizaci n. La optimizaci n conjunta de ambas variables de respuesta (cin tica de deshidrataci n y temperatura de sublimaci n se realiza con el algoritmo de Levenberg-Marquardt ponderado con m xima verosimilitud. Como estrategia para salir de m nimos locales, el algoritmo se utiliza alternando los dos siguientes enfoques: 1 ajuste simult neo de ambas variables en el que la funci n objetivo a minimizar es la suma de cuadrados del error global ( s 2 ; 2 ajuste independiente de cada variable con funciones objetivos particulares ( w 2 y T 2 , pero atadas con la misma restricci n global ( s 2 0 , de modo que se hace la optimizaci n de una variable sin detrimento de la otra. Esta metodolog a de estimaci n de par metros se aplica a un caso de estimaci n de par metros reportado en la literatura1.

  14. MÉTODO SIMPLES PARA ESTIMAR ENCURTAMENTO PELO FRIO EM CARNE BOVINA A SIMPLE METHOD TO ESTIMATE COLD SHORTENING IN BEEF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riana Jordão Barrozo Heinemann

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available É bem conhecido o fato de que o encurtamento pelo frio pode influenciar negativamente a textura da carne. Por isso, a determinação do grau de contração do tecido muscular é um recurso analítico de grande importância quando se estuda a otimização dos procedimentos industriais. Neste trabalho, foram avaliadas comparativamente duas metodologias de microscopia. Para isso, os músculos Biceps femoris, Longissimus dorsi e Semimembranosus obtidos de nove carcaças bovinas com três diferentes graus de acabamento foram analisados de forma pareada por ambos os métodos. O músculo Longissimus dorsi apresentou menor comprimento de sarcômero e o m. Semimembranosus o maior (p0,05, revelando a possibilidade de emprego do método mais simples.The negative influence of cold shortening on meat texture is well known. Because of that, the determination of the muscle contraction extent represents an important analytical tool for the optimization of the industrial procedures. In this work, two methodologies to evaluate cold shortening were compared. Biceps femoris, Longissimus dorsi and Semimembranosus muscles from 9 cattle carcasses with three different fat thickness grades were paired analyzed by both methodologies. Longissimus dorsi muscle showed the shortest sarcomere length while Semimembranosus m. showed the longest one (p0.05, which suggests the possibility of using the simpler method for cold shortening evaluation.

  15. Métodos para estimar radiação solar na região noroeste de Minas Gerais Methods for estimating solar radiation in the northwest region of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdiney José da Silva

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A radiação solar é um dos elementos responsáveis pela manutenção da vida no planeta. Apesar da sua importância, o registro da radiação solar não é feito na maioria das estações meteorológicas convencionais, uma vez que nem todas dispõem de equipamentos para medi-la, tendo que recorrer a métodos de estimação empíricos. Com o intuito de testar e calibrar equações para estimar a radiação solar, foram coletados dados de quatro estações meteorológicas pertencentes ao Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia (INMET para representar a região climática noroeste de Minas Gerais, no período de 2008 a 2010. Com base nesses dados, foram testados e calibrados nove modelos para estimar a radiação solar global. Todos os modelos utilizam temperatura máxima e mínima do ar como preditores e dois deles utilizam também a precipitação pluviométrica. Os modelos mais precisos foram de De Jong e Stewart, Bristow e Campbell, Donatelli e Campbell e o modelo dois de Hunt, com raiz quadrada do quadrado médio do erro em torno de 3,1MJ m-2 d-1 e coeficiente de determinação em torno de 62%. No entanto, todos esses modelos apresentaram tendência de superestimação para valores de radiação inferiores à média e subestimação para valores superiores. Portanto, há necessidade de propor novos modelos que minimizem essa tendência.Solar radiation is a component responsible for maintaining the life on the planet. Despite its importance, solar radiation is not recorded in most conventional meteorological station since not all have equipments to measure it, and then, it is usual to use empirical solar radiation estimation methods. In order to test and calibrate models for estimating solar radiation data were collected from four meteorological stations belonging to the National Institute of Meteorology (INMET to represent the climatic region northwest of Minas Gerais for the period from 2008 to 2010. Based on these data, nine models to estimate

  16. COMPARACIÓN DE DIFERENTES APROXIMACIONES PARA ESTIMAR LÍMITES DE DETECCIÓN EN ANÁLISIS DE RESIDUOS DE PLAGUICIDAS EN ALIMENTOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Ahumada

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available El cálculo de los límites de detección (LDes una práctica que ha generado diversasdiscusiones en la comunidad científica,debido a las diferentes definiciones y losprocedimientos para realizar su estimación.En este estudio se aplicaron, confirmarony compararon seis de los métodosmás empleados en la estimación de LDen el análisis de residuos de plaguicidas.Los métodos evaluados correspondierona IUPAC (por sus siglas en ingles, InternationalUnion of Pure and AppliedChemistry, la EPA (por sus siglas en ingles,Enviroment Protection Agency, t99,raíz media cuadrática del error (RMSE,Hubaux-Vos y propagación de errores.Este estudio se realizó sobre cinco productosvegetales empleando el métodoQuEChERS en la determinación de 31plaguicidas, y el análisis de las muestrasse realizó mediante cromatografía líquidaacoplada a espectrometría de masas.Los resultados mostraron que los LDestimados con los diferentes métodos nopresentaron una variación significativacon la matriz de análisis, exceptuando elmétodo de la EPA. Por su parte, en lacomprobación de los LD se encontró quelos métodos t99, RMSE y Hubaux-Vosmostraron la menor relación señal ruido(S/RIUPAC y propagación de errores presentaronlas mejores relaciones S/R. Finalmente,ningún método estimó los LDpara todos los compuestos con relacionesS/R adecuadas.

  17. Evaluación de los modelos de predicción del ACI-08, Eurocódigo 2 y EHE-08, para estimar las propiedades mecánicas del hormigón autocompactante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agranati, G.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate the applicability of the ACI-08, EC-2, and EHE-08 models for the estimating of the mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete (SCC. The mechanical properties considered are the modulus of elasticity, tensile strength, and modulus of rupture. In order to statistically evaluate the applicability of the models it was necessary to compile an extensive database that included the experimental results for the various mechanical properties analyzed and the exact dosifications of the mixtures. The first part of the study includes an analysis of each one of the models, together with a regression analysis in order to evaluate the behavior and the adaptability to the different models. The specific characterization parameters for each concrete mixture were used to calculate the various mechanical properties applying the different estimation models. The second part of the analysis consisted in comparing the experimental results with the estimated results for all the mixtures in order to evaluate the applicability of these models to SCC.

    El presente trabajo de investigación tiene como finalidad estudiar la aplicabilidad de los modelos de cálculo del ACI-08, Eurocódigo 2 y de la EHE-08 utilizados para la estimar las propiedades mecánicas del hormigón convencional, en el hormigón autocompactante. Las propiedades mecánicas estudiadas han sido: el módulo de deformación, la resistencia a tracción y la resistencia a flexotracción. Para llevar a cabo la investigación fue necesario construir una extensa base de datos que permitiera albergar en ella una gran cantidad de dosificaciones de hormigón autocompactante y un amplio rango de valores de sus propiedades mecánicas para lograr una muestra lo más representativa posible. En primera instancia se comparó el comportamiento de cada uno de estos modelos normativos de cálculo, con la curva de regresión de los datos obtenidos para el hormig

  18. Opportunities within ASTERICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Rob; Cimò, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    ASTERICS, The Astronomy ESFRI and Research Infrastructure Cluster project, brings together astronomers and astroparticle physicists of 22 institutes in Europe to help Europe's world-leading observatories work together to find common solutions to their Big Data challenges, their interoperability and scheduling, and their data access, searching for cross-cutting solutions with mutual and wide-ranging benefit to all concerned. ASTERICS is a four year project, funded through the European Union's Horizon 2020 Framework Programme. The facilities supported by ASTERICS include SKA, CTA, KM3NeT, E-ELT. ASTERICS aims to open up multi messenger astronomy to all scientists and the public through the Virtual Observatory and the citizen science work. I will draw a picture of the landscape in which ASTERICS operates and the possible interaction with the Very Large Volume Neutrino Telescope community. Attention will be given to emerging opportunities for the Neutrino community and how these can be recognised or created.

  19. Uso de fluorescência em um método de dissector modificado para estimar o número de miócitos no tecido cardíaco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Dias Novaes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Métodos convencionais de dissector atualmente requerem consideráveis custos financeiros, técnicos e operacionais para estimar o número de células, incluindo cardiomiócitos, em uma área de 3D. OBJETIVO: Usar a microscopia de fluorescência em um método de dissector modificado para determinar o número de miócitos no tecido cardíaco em condições normais e patológicas. MÉTODOS: O estudo empregou camundongos Wistar machos com quatro meses de idade e peso de 366,25 ± 88,21 g randomizados em grupos controles (GC, n = 8 e infectados (GI, n = 8. Os animais do GI foram inoculados com cepa Y de T. cruzi (300.000 tripomastigotas/50 g. Após oito semanas, os animais foram pesados e sacrificados. Os Ventrículos Esquerdos (VE foram removidos para análise estereológica da densidade numérica de cardiomiócitos (Nv [c] e o número total dessas células no VE (N [c]. Esses parâmetros foram estimados usando um dissector fluorescente (DF e comparados com os métodos convencionais de dissector óptico (DO e dissector físico (DFi. RESULTADOS: Em ambos os métodos de dissector, os animais do GI apresentaram queda significativa de Nv[c] e N[c] em comparação com os animais do GC (P > 0,05. Uma correlação forte, igual ou superior a 96%, foi obtida entre DF, DO e DFi. CONCLUSÃO: O método DF parece ser igualmente confiável para determinar Nv[c] e N[c] em condições normais e patológicas, apresentando algumas vantagens em relação aos métodos convencionais de dissector: redução de cortes histológicos e imagens na análise estereológica, redução do tempo de análise das imagens, a construção de DF em microscópios simples, utilizando o modo de epifluorescência, distinção de planos de dissector em ampliações inferiores.

  20. Uso de modelos epidemiológicos para estimar la incidencia de caries dental y enfermedad periodontal en embarazadas chilenas Use of epidemiological models to estimate the incidence of dental caries and periodontal disease in Chilean pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Corsini Muñoz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la incidencia de caries y enfermedad periodontal en embarazadas chilenas mediante un modelo de incidencia, prevalencia y mortalidad (IPM. Material y Método: Se construyó un modelo IPM con la prevalencia estimada en la Encuesta Nacional de Salud del año 2003 y los datos del Estudio de Carga de Enfermedad en Chile en el año 2007. Para efectos de estimar la población de mujeres embarazadas, se utilizó como variable de aproximación, los partos por edad de las mujeres según la información de los nacimientos registrado por el Instituto de Nacional de Estadística (INE. Los datos fueron ingresados en el programa DisMod para determinar las incidencias y comprobar la consistencia interna del modelo. Resultados: La incidencia de caries estimada por el modelo fue de 86.870 nuevos casos y de 7.983 casos incidentes al año para la enfermedad periodontal, en un universo estimado de 230.831 mujeres embarazadas. Conclusión: Los modelos epidemiológicos son una herramienta útil para determinar la epidemiología de cualquier enfermedad, en donde la estimación de la incidencia constituye un problema y estudios de investigación en campo serían muy costoso, de larga duración y/o en donde la problemática ética del estudio sería inaceptable.Objectives: To determine the incidence of caries and periodontal disease in pregnant Chilean women through an incidence, prevalence and mortality model (IPM. Material and Methods: An IPM model was constructed with the prevalence estimated the National Health Survey 2003 and data from the Burden of Disease study in Chile in 2007. The childbirths by age of women, according to the information from the National Statistics Institute, were used to estimate the population of pregnant women. Data were entered into the DisMod program to determine the incidence and check the internal consistency of the model. Results: The estimated incidence of caries by the model was of 86.870 new cases and 7

  1. Comparison of Regression and Neural Networks Models to Estimate Solar Radiation Comparación de Regresión y Modelos de Redes Neuronales para Estimar la Radiación Solar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Bocco

    2010-09-01

    ón multicapa, para estimar la radiación solar global diaria y comparar la eficiencia de los mismos en su aplicación para una región de la Provincia de Salta, Argentina. Se utilizaron datos de heliofanía relativa, temperaturas máxima y mínima, precipitación, precipitación binaria y radiación solar astronómica provistos por la Estación Experimental Salta, Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA, Argentina, correspondientes al período 1996-2002. Tanto para los modelos de redes neuronales como para las regresiones lineales se consideraron tres alternativas de combinaciones de los parámetros meteorológicos, obteniéndose buenos resultados con ambas metodologías de predicción, con valores de la raíz del error cuadrático medio variando desde 1.99 a 1.66 MJ m-2 d-1 y coeficientes de correlación de 0.88 a 0.92. Se concluye que ambos, los modelos de redes neuronales y las regresiones lineales, pueden ser usados para predecir en forma adecuada la radiación solar global diaria; si bien las redes neuronales produjeron mejores resultados.

  2. Imagens do sensor MODIS associadas a um modelo agronômico para estimar a produtividade de soja MODIS sensor images associated with an agronomic model to estimate soybean grain yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Rizzi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a produtividade de soja no Rio Grande do Sul, nas safras de 2000/2001 a 2002/2003, por meio de um modelo agronômico implementado em um Sistema de Informação Geográfica (SIG. Duas abordagens foram utilizadas: o modelo agronômico (AGRO, com valores de índice de área foliar (IAF obtidos da literatura; e o modelo agronômico-espectral (AGROESPEC, com valores de IAF estimados a partir das imagens MODIS (moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer. As estimativas de produtividade obtidas pelo modelo foram comparadas àquelas fornecidas pelo Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE, com o uso do teste t para pares de observação. Nas safras 2000/2001 e 2001/2002, não foram observadas diferenças significativas. Para 2002/2003, o modelo subestimou o valor de produtividade em 7,87 e 7,04%, nas abordagens AGRO e AGROESPEC, respectivamente, em comparação à produtividade fornecida pelo IBGE. Ambas as abordagens do modelo permitiram avaliação objetiva e quantitativa do efeito das condições meteorológicas sobre a produtividade de soja. Entretanto, o AGROESPEC forneceu estimativas mais detalhadas, no que se refere à variação espacial da produtividade, em razão do emprego dos valores de IAF estimados a partir das imagens MODIS.The objective of this work was to estimate soybean yield in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, for crop years of 2000/2001 to 2002/2003 through an agronomic crop yield model implemented in a geographic information system (GIS. Two approaches were used: an agronomic model (AGRO, with leaf area index (LAI obtained from literature, and an agronomic-spectral model (AGROESPEC, with LAI estimated from MODIS (moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer images. Results were compared with the official estimates provided by Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE, using the t test for paired observations. For crop years 2000/2001 and 2001/2002, there were no

  3. Equation to estimate body weight in elderly Mexican women using anthropometric measurements Ecuación para estimar peso corporal en ancianas mexicanas a partir de medidas antropométricas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.ª F. Bernal-Orozco

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Body weight is useful for many medical and nutritional procedures. When it is difficult or impossible to measure body weight in hospitalized/institutionalized elderly, it can be estimated through equations based on anthropometry generated in other countries, although their validity in other contexts has been poorly studied. Objectives: To create and validate an equation for estimating body weight for both, hospitalized and nursing home residents Mexican elderly women (institutionalized using anthropometric measurements. Methods: A validation study was carried out in elderly women (≥ 60 years old, admitted to the Geriatrics Service of the Hospital Civil de Guadalajara "Fray Antonio Alcalde" during February-April 19th (n = 43 and April 20th-June 2005 (n = 29, and elderly women residing in three nursing homes in the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara evaluated during June 2003-June 2004 (n = 23. Subjects were weighed using a scale which was adapted to their clinical situation and were anthropometrically assessed. In the first sample, we generated a new equation using multiple regression analyses. Then, the equation was validated in the other two samples. We also estimated weight using Chumlea's equations: in all samples, estimated and actual weights were compared between each other through a paired t-test. A p Introducción: El peso corporal es útil para llevar a cabo diversos procedimientos médicos y nutrimentales. Cuando se dificulta o es imposible medir el peso corporal en ancianos hospitalizados/institucionalizados, se puede estimar a partir de ecuaciones basadas en antropometría, generadas en otros países, aunque su validez en otros contextos ha sido poco estudiada. Objetivos: Crear y validar una ecuación para estimar peso corporal, tanto en ancianas hospitalizadas, como institucionalizadas en asilos, usando medidas antropométricas. Métodos: Se llevó a cabo un estudio de validación en ancianas (≥ 60 años, admitidas al

  4. Equation for estimating tree biomass in tropical forests of Costa Rica Ecuación para estimar la biomasa arbórea en los bosques tropicales de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Wei-Chou

    2013-06-01

    variable densidad es importante, ya que dos árboles con la misma estructura pero distinta densidad van a mostrar diferente cantidad de biomasa. Para la estimación de este modelo se utilizó una regresión segmentada (por la relación que tienen el dap y la altura total con la variable biomasa transformada y cuadrados medios ponderados para resolver el problema de heterocedasticidad. El modelo final cumplió con los supuestos estadísticos de una regresión lineal general, evaluados por el comportamiento de los residuos y otras pruebas paramétricas, y obtiene un coeficiente de determinación de 0,992. Como conclusión, este estudio propone un enfoque metodológico para estimar la biomasa a nivel general en los bosques, lo cual se considera de utilidad para fundamentar la toma de decisiones sobre el almacenamiento a largo plazo del carbono en los bosques tropicales. Se espera que en estudios futuros se disponga de parcelas de otros bosques con mediciones de la biomasa real, para seguir calibrando el modelo propuesto para la estimación de la biomasa almacenada en los bosques tropicales.

  5. Uso de fluorescência em um método de dissector modificado para estimar o número de miócitos no tecido cardíaco Uso de fluorescencia en un método de disector modificado para estimar el número de miocitos en el tejido cardíaco Use of fluorescence in a modified disector method to estimate the number of myocytes in cardiac tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Dias Novaes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Métodos convencionais de dissector atualmente requerem consideráveis custos financeiros, técnicos e operacionais para estimar o número de células, incluindo cardiomiócitos, em uma área de 3D. OBJETIVO: Usar a microscopia de fluorescência em um método de dissector modificado para determinar o número de miócitos no tecido cardíaco em condições normais e patológicas. MÉTODOS: O estudo empregou camundongos Wistar machos com quatro meses de idade e peso de 366,25 ± 88,21 g randomizados em grupos controles (GC, n = 8 e infectados (GI, n = 8. Os animais do GI foram inoculados com cepa Y de T. cruzi (300.000 tripomastigotas/50 g. Após oito semanas, os animais foram pesados e sacrificados. Os Ventrículos Esquerdos (VE foram removidos para análise estereológica da densidade numérica de cardiomiócitos (Nv [c] e o número total dessas células no VE (N [c]. Esses parâmetros foram estimados usando um dissector fluorescente (DF e comparados com os métodos convencionais de dissector óptico (DO e dissector físico (DFi. RESULTADOS: Em ambos os métodos de dissector, os animais do GI apresentaram queda significativa de Nv[c] e N[c] em comparação com os animais do GC (P > 0,05. Uma correlação forte, igual ou superior a 96%, foi obtida entre DF, DO e DFi. CONCLUSÃO: O método DF parece ser igualmente confiável para determinar Nv[c] e N[c] em condições normais e patológicas, apresentando algumas vantagens em relação aos métodos convencionais de dissector: redução de cortes histológicos e imagens na análise estereológica, redução do tempo de análise das imagens, a construção de DF em microscópios simples, utilizando o modo de epifluorescência, distinção de planos de dissector em ampliações inferiores.FUNDAMENTO: Métodos convencionales de disector actualmente requieren considerables costos financieros, técnicos y operativos para estimar el número de células, incluyendo cardiomiocitos, en un

  6. Velocidade crítica como um método não invasivo para estimar a velocidade de lactato mínimo no ciclismo La velocidad crítica como un método no invasivo para estimar la velocidad de lactato mínimo en el ciclismo Critical velocity as a noninvasive method to estimate the lactate minimum velocity on cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolysson Carvalho Hiyane

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A velocidade de lactato mínimo (VLM representa o ponto de equilíbrio entre produção e remoção do lactato sanguíneo (lac. Com objetivo de analisar a validade da velocidade crítica (VC como método não invasivo de estimar a VLM no ciclismo outdoor, 15 ciclistas (67,9 ± 5,7kg; 1,70 ± 0,1m; 26,7 ± 4,2 anos percorreram as distâncias de 2, 4 e 6km em velódromo no menor tempo possível. A VC foi identificada pelo modelo distância-tempo a partir das combinações de séries preditivas de 2 e 4km (VC2/4, 2 e 6km (VC2/6, 4 e 6km (VC4/6 e 2, 4 e 6km (VC2/4/6. Para identificação da VLM foi realizada uma série de 2km à máxima velocidade, seguida de seis séries incrementais de 2km com 1 minuto de pausa para dosagem de lac. A VLM foi identificada visualmente (VLMv e aplicando-se função polinomial (VLMp. Não foram observadas diferenças entre VLMv (33,3 ± 2,5km.h¹ e VLMp (33,1 ± 2,6km.h¹. Com exceção da VC4/6 (34,6 ± 3,5km.h¹, os valores de VC2/4 (38,0 ± 2,2km.h¹, VC2/6 (36,1 ± 2,4km.h¹ e VC2/4/6 (36,1 ± 2,5km.h¹ diferiram da VLMp e VLMv. Os autores concluem que, apesar de ser ~1km/h acima da VLM, a VC identificada a partir de séries preditivas de maior duração (4 e 6km - aproximadamente 6 e 10 min não diferem estatisticamente e apresentam alta correlação e concordância com a VLM. No entanto, é necessário investigar se a VC representa um equilíbrio entre remoção e produção de lac durante exercícios de longa duração no ciclismo outdoor.La velocidad de lactato mínimo (VLM representa el punto de equilibrio entre la producción y la remoción de lactato sanguíneo (lac. Con el objetivo de analizar la validez de la velocidad crítica (VC como método no invasivo de estimar la VLM en el ciclismo "outdoor", 15 ciclistas (67,9 ± 5,7 kg; 1,70 ± 0,1 m; 26,7 ± 4,2 años percorrieron distancias de 2, 4 y 6 km en velódromo en el menor tiempo posible. La VC fue identificada por el modelo distancia-tiempo a partir de

  7. Avaliação de fluxos de calor e evapotranspiração pelo modelo SEBAL com uso de dados do sensor ASTER Evaluation of heat fluxes and evapotranspiration using SEBAL model with data from ASTER sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Veloso dos Santos

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência da aplicação do modelo SEBAL em estimar os fluxos de energia em superfície e a evapotranspiração diária, numa extensa área de cultivo de arroz irrigado, no município de Paraíso do Sul, RS, tendo como parâmetros dados do sensor ASTER. As variáveis estudadas constituem importantes parâmetros do tempo e do clima em estudos agrometeorológicos e de racionalização no uso da água. As metodologias convencionais de estimativa desses parâmetros são pontuais e geralmente apresentam incertezas, que aumentam quando o interesse é o comportamento espacial desses parâmetros. Aplicou-se o algoritmo "Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land" (SEBAL, em uma imagem do sensor "Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer" (ASTER. As estimativas obtidas foram comparadas com medições em campo, realizadas por uma estação micrometeorológica localizada no interior da área de estudo. As estimativas mais precisas foram as de fluxo de calor sensível e de evapotranspiração diária, e a estimativa que apresentou maior erro foi a do fluxo de calor no solo. A metodologia empregada foi capaz de reproduzir os fluxos de energia em superfície de maneira satisfatória para estudos agrometeorológicos e de rendimento de culturas.The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of SEBAL model in estimating soil surface energy fluxes and daily evapotranspiration for a large area of irrigated rice farms, near the municipality of Paraíso do Sul, RS, Brazil, using data from ASTER sensor. The evaluated variables are important weather and climatic parameters for agrometeorological studies and rationalization of water use. The conventional methodologies for estimating these parameters generally present uncertainties, which increase when concern is in the spatial behavior of such parameters. The Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL was applied in an Advanced Spaceborne

  8. Avaliação de modelo matemático para estimar a radiação solar incidente sobre superfícies com diferentes exposições e declividades Evaluation of a model used for estimating income solar radiation in surfaces with different expositions and declivities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E. P. Turco

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar modelo matemático para estimar a radiação solar global diária sobre superfícies com diferentes exposições e declividades, no período de março de 2002 a março de 2003. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida em uma estrutura denominada "Bacia Hidrográfica Experimental" do Departamento de Engenharia Rural da UNESP, Câmpus de Jaboticabal - SP. Nessa estrutura, foram utilizadas superfícies caracterizadas como H, 10N, 10S, 20N, 20S, 10E, 10W, 20E e 20W. O sensor utilizado para medir a radiação solar global incidente nas superfícies estudadas foi um piranômetro da marca Kipp & Zonnen, modelo CM3. Para calcular a radiação solar incidente nas superfícies estudadas, foi utilizado o modelo de Kondratyev. As análises dos resultados foram feitas para o período diário, utilizando-se de análise de regressão e considerando o modelo linear (y = ax + b, na qual a variável dependente foi a radiação global medida (K¯M e a radiação global calculada (K¯C foi a variável independente. Os resultados deste estudo mostram que o modelo apresentou bons resultados para estimar a radiação nas superfícies H, 10N, 10S, 10E, 10W, 20E e 20W. Utilizando-se de dados de dias com céu límpido, foram obtidos os seguintes resultados: no inverno, o modelo foi preciso para estimar a radiação solar na superfície 20N, e apresentou resultados aceitáveis para estimar a radiação solar na superfície 20S.This research evaluated a model used for estimating income solar radiation in surfaces with different expositions and declivities. The research was developed in one structure denominated "Experimental Hidrografic Basin" of the Rural Engineering Department - UNESP, Sao Paulo State University, Brazil. In this structure was utilized surfaces characterized as H, 10N, 10S, 20N, 20S, 10E, 10W, 20E and 20W. The sensor used for obtaining income solar radiation in surfaces was a Kipp & Zonnen Piranometer model CM3. The methodology

  9. The combined use of reflectance, emissivity and elevation Aster/Terra data for tropical soil studies Uso combinado de dados de reflectância, emissividade e elevação do Aster/Terra para estudo de solos tropicais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Marcelo Breunig

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Reflectance, emissivity and elevation data of the sensor ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer/Terra were used to characterize soil composition variations according to the toposequence position. Normalized data of SWIR (shortwave infrared reflectance and TIR (thermal infrared emissivity, coupled to a soil-fraction image from a spectral mixture model, were evaluated to separate bare soils from nonphotosynthetic vegetation. Regression relationships of some soil properties with reflectance and emissivity data were then applied on the exposed soil pixels. The resulting estimated values were plotted on the ASTER-derived digital elevation model. Results showed that the SWIR bands 5 and 6 and the TIR bands 10 and 14 measured the clay mineral absorption band and the quartz emissivity feature, respectively. These bands improved also the discrimination between nonphotosynthetic vegetation and soils. Despite the differences in pixel size and field sampling size, some soil properties were correlated with reflectance (R² of 0.65 for Al2O3 in band 6; 0.61 for Fe2O3 in band 3 and emissivity (R² of 0.65 for total sand fraction in the 10/14 band ratio. The combined use of reflectance, emissivity and elevation data revealed variations in soil composition with topography in specific parts of the landscape. From higher to lower slope positions, a general decrease in Al2O3 and increase in total sand fraction was observed, due to the prevalence of Rhodic Acrustox at the top and its gradual transition to Typic Acrustox at the bottom.Dados de reflectância, emissividade e elevação do sensor ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer/Terra foram usados para caracterizar variações na composição dos solos com a posição em topossequências. Dados normalizados de reflectância do SWIR (shortwave infrared e de emissividade do TIR (thermal infrared, integrados com a imagem fração-solo de um modelo de

  10. ASTER DEM performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisada, H.; Bailey, G.B.; Kelly, Glen G.; Hara, S.; Abrams, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument onboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Terra spacecraft has an along-track stereoscopic capability using its a near-infrared spectral band to acquire the stereo data. ASTER has two telescopes, one for nadir-viewing and another for backward-viewing, with a base-to-height ratio of 0.6. The spatial resolution is 15 m in the horizontal plane. Parameters such as the line-of-sight vectors and the pointing axis were adjusted during the initial operation period to generate Level-1 data products with a high-quality stereo system performance. The evaluation of the digital elevation model (DEM) data was carried out both by Japanese and U.S. science teams separately using different DEM generation software and reference databases. The vertical accuracy of the DEM data generated from the Level-1A data is 20 m with 95% confidence without ground control point (GCP) correction for individual scenes. Geolocation accuracy that is important for the DEM datasets is better than 50 m. This appears to be limited by the spacecraft position accuracy. In addition, a slight increase in accuracy is observed by using GCPs to generate the stereo data. ?? 2005 IEEE.

  11. Equações de predição para estimar os valores energéticos de alimentos concentrados de origem vegetal para aves utilizando a metanálise Prediction equations to estimate the energy values of plant origin concentrate feeds for poultry utilizing the meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Augusto Jerônimo do Nascimento

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado visando obter equações de predição para estimar os valores de energia metabolizável (EMAn de alimentos concentrados de origem vegetal comumente utilizados nas rações de aves utilizando-se o princípio da meta-análise. Dados com valores de EMAn e composição química dos alimentos (proteína bruta, PB; extrato etéreo, EE; matéria mineral, MM; fibra bruta, FB, fibra em detergente neutro, FDN e fibra em detergente ácido, FDA foram utilizados para estimar a EMAn considerando a composição química desses alimentos. Foram incluídos os efeitos de sexo em três níveis (macho, fêmea e mistos; idade em quatro níveis (1ª e 2ª semanas de vida; 3ª e 4ª semanas; 5ª e 6ª semanas; acima ou indefinido, e metodologia empregada no metabolismo em dois níveis (coleta total - CT; alimentação forçada + CT. O arranjo fatorial entre os efeitos (3 × 4 × 2, totalizando até 24 grupos, foi submetido à análise dos mínimos quadrados ponderados. Adotou-se o procedimento de Stepwise para estudar a associação entre as variáveis e, então, utilizou-se o Proc Reg do SAS para ajustar o modelo de regressão linear múltipla. Duas equações melhor se ajustaram para estimar a EMAn dos alimentos concentrados, EMAn = 4101,33 + 56,28EE 232,97MM 24,86FDN + 10,42FDA (R² = 0,84 e EMAn = 4095,41 + 56,84EE 225,26MM 22,24FDN (R² = 0,83. As variáveis FDN e FDA dos alimentos são importantes e não podem ser desconsideradas, pois sua retirada do modelo ocasionou redução do coeficiente de determinação de 84% e 83% para 70%.The present study was carried out to obtain prediction equations to estimate the metabolizable energy values (AMEn of concentrate feeds of plant origin commonly used in poultry diets, using the meta-analysis principle. A data collection review was made of the studies carried out in Brazil to catalogue information on the metabolizable energy values and chemical composition of the feeds (CP - crude protein

  12. NASA ASTER Level 1T

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is an advanced multispectral imager that was launched on board NASA's Terra spacecraft in...

  13. Meyer and schilz function to estimate common bean seed water content evaluated by radiofrequency Função de Meyer e Schilz para estimar o teor de água de sementes de feijão avaliado por radiofrequência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Amorim Berbert

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Derivation of density-independent dielectric functions for moisture determination in grains is important for the implementation of on-line sensors in automated driers. The object of this study was to investigate the Meyer and Schilz function [(epsilon'1/epsilon"] for indirect and non-destructive water content measurement of seeds of common bean by radiofrequency, where epsilon' and epsilon" are the relative permittivity and the dielectric loss factor, respectively. Samples consisted of common bean seeds variety Campeão-3 at moisture contents ranging from 11.5 to 20.6% w.b., and bulk densities from 756 to 854 kg m-3, performing dielectric measurements in a room at 20 ± 1ºC and 66 ± 2% relative humidity. The model could estimate common bean seed moisture content with a standard error of the estimate, and maximum error of 0.5 and 1.0 percentage point in moisture, w.b., respectively.A obtenção de funções dielétricas que sejam independentes da massa específica aparente para estimar o teor de água dos grãos é importante para o desenvolvimento de sensores para utilização em secadores automáticos. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a adequabilidade da função de Meyer e Schilz, [(épsilon'1/épsilon"], para determinação indireta, não destrutiva e em linha do teor de água de sementes de feijão em radiofreqüências, em que épsilon' e épsilon" representam a permissividade elétrica relativa e o fator de perda dielétrica, respectivamente. Foram utilizadas amostras da variedade Campeão-3 com teor de água entre 11,5 e 20,6% b.u. e massa específica aparente no intervalo entre 756 e 854 kg m-3. Todas as medições das propriedades dielétricas foram feitas em ambiente a 20 ± 1ºC e umidade relativa de 66 ± 2%. O modelo permitiu estimar o teor de água das sementes de feijão com erro padrão da estimativa e erro máximo de 0,5 e 1,0 ponto percentual, respectivamente.

  14. Comparación entre los métodos subjetivo y objetivo para estimar el consumo de sodio en hipertensos Comparison between subjective and objective methods for sodium intake estimate among hypertensive persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. B. Dallepiane

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El exceso de consumo de sodio contribuye a la aparición de hipertensión arterial; la relación entre el aumento de la tensión arterial y la edad avanzada es más alta en poblaciones cuya ingestión de sal es mayor. Objetivo: Este estudio tuvo como objetivo comparar el método subjetivo y el objetivo a fin de estimar el consumo del sodio. Metodología: El diseño es del tipo retrospectivo con datos secundarios de banco de datos brutos, utilizando como método subjetivo la aplicación de un cuestionario de consumo de sodio en el cual el relato de consumo ha sido convertido a mg de sodio consumido por día; como método objetivo el resultado de la excreción de sodio en la orina en 24 horas por hipertensos mayores de 50 años. Los datos han sido analizados mediante software SPSS, utilizando la correlación de Spearman. Resultados: Los principales resultados no han demostrado correlación lineal significativa entre los valores de consumo de sodio relatado en el cuestionario en relación a los valores de la recolección de sodio (Na 24 h. Conclusión: A pesar de sus ventajas, el método subjetivo no se ha correlacionado con la excreción urinaria de sodio. Se necesitan nuevos estudios que puedan elucidar los presentes resultados frente a la diferencia encontrada con otros estudios.Introduction: High sodium intake contributes to arterial hypertension; the relationship between high blood pressure and human aging is stronger among populations with high sodium intake. Objectives: The aim of this research is to compare subjective and objective methods on the estimate of the consumption of sodium. Methods: This is a retrospective investigation along with secondary topics from the raw data base. The subjective method used was result of the score of the application of a questionary about the sodium intake, where the sodium consumption report was converted into daily mg of sodium intake. The objective method was the result of the urine

  15. Equações de predição para estimar os valores da EMAn de alimentos proteicos para aves utilizando a meta-análise Prediction equations to estimate the AMEn values of protein feedstuffs for poultry utilizing meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Augusto Jerônimo do Nascimento

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado para se obter uma equação de predição para estimar os valores de energia metabolizável aparente corrigida (EMAn dos alimentos proteicos usualmente utilizados em rações para frangos de corte utilizando-se o princípio da meta-análise. Realizou-se uma revisão bibliográfica de estudos no Brasil para catalogar informações sobre valores de EMAn e composição química dos alimentos: proteína bruta (PB, extrato etéreo (EE, matéria mineral (MM, fibra bruta (FB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e fibra em detergente ácido (FDA. Foram considerados os efeitos de: sexo, em três níveis (macho, fêmea e mistos; idade, em quatro níveis (1ª e 2ª semana de vida, 3ª e 4ª semana, 5ª e 6ª semana e acima ou indefinido e metodologia empregada no metabolismo em dois níveis: coleta total (CT e alimentação forçada + (CT. Os dados foram analisados em um esquema fatorial 3 × 4 × 2, podendo totalizar até 24 grupos, adotando-se o procedimento Stepwise para a seleção de variáveis e o Proc Reg do (SAS para ajustar o modelo de regressão linear múltipla. A equação obtida que melhor se ajustou foi EMAn = 2707,71 + 58,63EE - 16,06FDN (R² = 0,81, sendo o EE a variável mais importante, em se tratando de possíveis variações nos teores energéticos dos alimentos proteicos.This study was accomplished aiming to obtain prediction equations to estimate the values of corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn of the protein feedstuffs usually used in broiler rations, through the meta-analysis principle. Literature review of the studies realized in Brazil was performed to catalog information about values of AMEn and chemical composition of the feedstuffs reported (CP = crude protein; EE = ether extract; CF = crude fiber; NDF = neutral detergent fiber; ADF = acid detergent fiber. Effects of sex at three levels (male; female and mixed; age at four levels (1st and 2nd weeks of life; 3rd and 4th weeks; 5th and 6th weeks

  16. Teledetección satelital cuantitativa para estimar el área basal del bosque de Nothofagus pumilio (Nothofagaceae: El rol del índice de área foliar como información auxiliar Quantitative remote sensing to estimate basal area in Nothofagus pumilio (Nothofagaceae forest: The role of leaf area index as ancillary information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GASTÓN M DÍAZ

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Los bosques de lenga (Nothofagus pumilio son el recurso forestal más importante de la región andino patagónica argentina, sin embargo, para implementar planes de manejo en pos de prevenir o revertir su degradación es necesario disponer de mayor información sobre su estructura. Una alternativa para obtener esa información es relacionar datos satelitales con las características del bosque a través de modelos físicos y estadísticos. Pero, ¿cuál es el método más eficaz? El índice de área foliar (IAF se encuentra relacionado con la reflectividad del dosel vegetal a través del modelo de transferencia radiativa PROSAIL, lo que permite desarrollar técnicas de teledetección satelital para estimar el IAF con bases físicas, en vez de con modelos estadísticos. De ese modo se puede aprovechar la relación empírico-biológica existente entre el IAF y la estructura del bosque para estimar el área basal. El objetivo principal fue comparar la exactitud de tres métodos para estimar el área basal de la lenga con datos SPOT-5. Los métodos comparados fueron: estadístico directo (ED, estadístico de dos pasos (E2P y físico-estadístico de dos pasos (FE2P. La exactitud fue evaluada con 24 parcelas no involucradas en el ajuste o calibración de los modelos. No se hallaron diferencias significativas en la exactitud de la alternativa físico-estadística en comparación con las netamente estadísticas. Sin embargo, en base al análisis conjunto de los resultados y lo reportado por otros investigadores, se concluye que la ventaja de utilizar modelos físicos radica en la mayor robustez de la estimación y no en la mayor exactitud.Lenga forests (Nothofagus pumilio are the most important forest resource of the Argentinean Andean Patagonia, however, more information about their structure is needed to implement forest management policies and practices in order to prevent their degradation and revert it. One option to obtain this kind of information

  17. Dynamic systems approach assess and manage water resources in river basins Aproximação usando dinâmicas de sistemas para estimar e manejar os recursos hídricos em bacias hidrográficas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Máximo Sánchez-Román

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The Piracicaba, Capivari and Jundiaí River Basins (RB-PCJ are located in the States of Minas Gerais and São Paulo, Brazil. By 2005, 5.8% of Brazil's General National Product-GNP was produced there. Such economic development has created a huge demand for water resources. The availability of water resources was assessed by running a dynamic systems simulation model to manage these resources in the RB-PCJ (WRM-PCJ, considering five 50-year simulations. WRM-PCJ was developed as a tool to aid the RB-PCJ Watershed Committee. The model computes water supply, demands, and contamination load from several consumers. When considering a Business-as-Usual scenario, by 2054, water demands will have increased up to 76%, 39% of the available water will come from wastewater reuse, and the contamination load will have increased by 91%. The Falkenmark Index started at 1403 m³ person-1 year-1 in 2004, ending at 734 m³ P-1 yr-1 in 2054; the Xu Sustainability Index started at 0.44 and ended at 0.20; and Keller's River Basin Development Phases started as Phase II, and ended at final Phase III, of Augmentation. The three criteria used to evaluate water resources showed that RB-PCJ is at a crucial management turning point. The WRM-PCJ performed well, and proved to be an excellent tool to assess water resources availability.As Bacias Hidrográficas dos Rios Piracicaba, Capivari e Jundiaí (BH-PCJ estão localizadas, nos Estados de Minas Gerais e São Paulo, Brasil. Em 2005 produziu 5.8% do PIB brasileiro. Este desenvolvimento econômico demanda grandes volumes de água. Com o Modelo para a Gestão dos Recursos Hídricos das BH-PCJ (MRH-PCJ, desenvolvido em dinâmica de sistemas, cinco cenários para 50 anos foram simulados. O MRH-PCJ foi desenvolvido para ser uma ferramenta de gestão do Comitê de Bacia Hidrográfica. O modelo estima a oferta e demandas de água, e a carga contaminante dos diversos consumidores. No cenário Business as Usual, para 2054, as demandas

  18. Análisis de medias generacionales para estimar parámetros genéticos de rendimiento en una cruza de pimentón y ají cayenne (Capsicum annuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Aguilar Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El peso de frutos por planta es una característica compleja y controlada por múltiples genes donde el ambiente interfiere en la manifestación fenotípica. La estimación de componentes génicos como los de interacción epistática es de gran importancia en el proceso de mejoramiento genético de una especie. El objetivo de este estudio fue la estimación de parámetros genéticos para el peso del fruto por planta, usando un análisis de medias generacionales (P1, P2, F1, F2, RCpara la variable objeto de análisis. Se estimó la presencia de epistasis recesiva o doble recesiva. Finalmente, para aumentar el rendimiento promedio de una población de ají cayene y pimentón, Capsicum annuum L., entendido como el peso de frutos por planta, se puede implementar un método de mejoramiento de selección recurrente, ya que las interacciones epistáticas pueden ser efectivamente explotadas a través de la hibridación entre líneas promisorias.

  19. Método basado en teledetección para estimar la emisión de gases efecto invernadero por quema de biomasa A remote sensing method to estimate greenhouse gas emissions from biomass burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Adolfo Anaya Acevedo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La quema de biomasa es una fuente importante de gases efecto invernadero en países en vías de desarrollo. En Colombia, el cambio de uso del suelo, la silvicultura y el sector agropecuario superan el 50% de las emisiones totales de efecto invernadero. El fuego se utiliza con frecuencia como un mecanismo para cambiar el uso del suelo. Los Llanos orientales y la Amazonía colombiana están sometidos todos los años a la quema de biomasa, especialmente entre enero y marzo. Los estudios en la distribución espacial y temporal de las emisiones son importantes de cara a los informes en el ámbito nacional. Este artículo de revisión describe el método para hacer estas estimaciones utilizando teledetección y algunos de los resultados disponibles para Colombia.Biomass burning is a major source of greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries. In Colombia, land use change, forestry and agriculture are responsible for more than 50% of the total greenhouse gas emissions. Fire is commonly used as a mechanism for land use change. In Colombia the Llanos Orientales and the Amazonia are subject to biomass burning every year during the dry season, especially from January to March. Studies of the spatial and temporal distribution of emissions are required for emissions report at a national level. The goal of this state of the art article is to describe a method to estimate emissions with a remote sensing approach and to present some of the variables already measured in Colombia.

  20. Variance sources and ratios to estimate energy and nutrient intakes in a sample of adolescents from public schools, Natal, Brazil Fontes e razões de variância para estimar a ingestão de energia e nutrientes de uma amostra de adolescentes de escolas públicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severina Carla Vieira Cunha Lima

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the sources of dietary variance, and determine the variance ratios and the number of days needed for estimating the habitual diet of adolescents. METHODS: Two 24 hour food recalls were used for estimating the energy, macronutrient, fatty acid, fiber and cholesterol intakes of 366 adolescents attending Public Schools in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. The variance ratio between the intrapersonal and interpersonal variances, determined by Analysis of Variance, was calculated. The number of days needed for estimating the habitual intake of each nutrient was given by the hypothetical correlation (r>0.9 between the actual and observed nutrient intakes. RESULTS: Sources of interpersonal variation were higher for all nutrients and in both genders. Variance ratios were OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever as fontes de variância da dieta, determinar as razões de variâncias e o número de dias necessários para estimar a dieta habitual em adolescentes. MÉTODOS: A ingestão de energia, macronutrientes, ácidos graxos, fibra e colesterol foram estimadas por meio de dois recordatórios de 24 horas, aplicados em 366 adolescentes de escolas públicas de Natal, Rio Grande do Norte. A razão de variância foi calculada entre o componente da variância intrapessoal e interpessoal, determinada pela Análise de Variância. A definição do número de dias para a estimativa da ingestão habitual de cada nutriente foi obtida considerando a correlação hipotética de (r>0,9, entre a verdadeira ingestão de nutrientes e a observada. RESULTADOS: As fontes de variância interpessoal foram maiores para todos os nutrientes e em ambos os sexos. As razões de variâncias foram <1 para todos os nutrientes, e mais elevadas no sexo feminino. Dois dias de recordatórios de 24 horas seriam suficientes para avaliar com precisão o consumo de energia, carboidratos, fibra, ácidos graxos saturados e monoinsaturados

  1. Physical Basis of Large Microtubule Aster Growth

    CERN Document Server

    Ishihara, Keisuke; Mitchison, Timothy J

    2016-01-01

    Microtubule asters - radial arrays of microtubules organized by centrosomes - play a fundamental role in the spatial coordination of animal cells. The standard model of aster growth assumes a fixed number of microtubules originating from the centrosomes. However, aster morphology in this model does not scale with cell size, and we recently found evidence for non-centrosomal microtubule nucleation. Here, we combine autocatalytic nucleation and polymerization dynamics to develop a biophysical model of aster growth. Our model predicts that asters expand as traveling waves and recapitulates all major aspects of aster growth. As the nucleation rate increases, the model predicts an explosive transition from stationary to growing asters with a discontinuous jump of the growth velocity to a nonzero value. Experiments in frog egg extract confirm the main theoretical predictions. Our results suggest that asters observed in large frog and amphibian eggs are a meshwork of short, unstable microtubules maintained by autoca...

  2. Tamaños de muestra para estimar la estructura de tallas de las capturas de langostino colorado en la zona centro-norte de Chile: una aproximación a través de remuestreo Sample sizes for estimating the catch size distribution of squat lobster in north-central Chile: a resampling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Montenegro Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó el desempeño de distintos tamaños de muestra para estimar la composición de tallas de las capturas del langostino colorado (Pleuroncodes monodon, a partir de un procedimiento de remuestreo computacional. Se seleccionaron datos recolectados en mayo de 2002 entre los 29°10'S y 32°10'S. A partir de éstos, se probaron siete escenarios de muestreo de viajes de pesca (1-7 viajes, 12 escenarios de número de ejemplares muestreados (25, 50,...300, cada 25 ejemplares y dos estrategias de muestreo de lances de pesca al interior de un viaje de pesca (censo de lances y muestreo sistemático. Se probó la combinación de todos estos escenarios, lo que permitió analizar el desempeño de 168 escenarios de tamaño de muestra para estimar la composición de tallas por sexo. Los resultados indicaron una disminución en el índice de error en la estimación de la distribución de frecuencia de tallas, conforme aumentó el número de viajes de pesca, con disminuciones progresivamente menores entre escenarios adyacentes. Del mismo modo, se verificó una disminución en el índice de error al aumentar el número de ejemplares muestreados, con mejoras marginales sobre los 175 ejemplares.The performances of different sample sizes for estimating the size distribution of squat lobster (Pleuroncodes monodon catches were analyzed using a computer resampling procedure. The data selected were gathered in May 2002 between 29°10'S and 32°10'S. These data were used to test seven sampling scenarios for fishing trips (1-7 trips, twelve scenarios of the number of individuals sampled per tow (25, 50,..., 300, and two within-trip sampling strategies (sampling all tows and systematic tow sampling. By testing the combination of all these scenarios, we were able to analyze the performance of 168 scenarios of sample size for estimating the composition of sizes by sex. The results indicate a lower error index for estimates of the size frequency distribution as the

  3. Uma proposta metodológica para estimar o custo da poluição do ar nas análises de viabilidade de sistemas de transportes urbanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Camilli Landmann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available

    O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar um novo método para valoração monetária da poluição do ar para ser utilizado nas análises de viabilidade de projetos de transportes. Os métodos tradicionalmente utilizados, com base nos custos de saúde, envolvem várias etapas de cálculo, muita imprecisão, e são considerados muito complexos e onerosos. Além disso, os dados necessários nem sempre estão disponíveis nos países em desenvolvimento, o que tem levado a adaptações precárias dos resultados dos estudos feitos nos países desenvolvidos, com base na renda per capita, por exemplo, desconsiderando assim a dispersão dos poluentes e outras especificidades das regiões de estudo, como o grau de exposição e a pré-disposição da população local às doenças. O método proposto tem como base os custos do controle das emissões veiculares. Através de pesquisa de preços de catalisadores e dos custos de manutenção e fiscalização das emissões veiculares, e aplicando-se as equações de consumo de combustíveis em redes urbanas, chegou-se a um modelo bastante simples e direto, que pode ser facilmente utilizado nos estudos de planejamento de transportes. Como dados de entrada são utilizados os valores de veículo*km, veículo*hora e velocidade média na rede, obtidos a partir de modelos de simulação de transportes. Finalmente, se assinala que o método proposto deriva de uma abordagem em que a conservação ambiental, mais do que mera questão de eficiência econômica, é uma condição necessária à própria reprodução da sociedade.

  4. Uso de Redes Neurais Artificiais para Estimar Parâmetros de Produção de Galinhas Reprodutoras Pesadas em Recria Use of Artificial Neural Networks to Estimate Production Parameters of Broiler Breeders in the Breeding Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CTP Salle

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Uma atividade com a magnitude da avicultura, que usa equipamentos de última geração e serviços atualizados, é levada, na maioria dos casos, a tomar decisões que envolvem todos aspectos de produção, apoiada em critérios subjetivos. O presente trabalho objetiva estudar a utilização das redes neurais artificiais para serem usadas na predição dos parâmetros de desempenho das aves em recria, pertencentes a uma integração avícola sul-brasileira. Foram utilizados os registros de 11 lotes de reprodutoras pesadas para a análise por redes neurais artificiais, no período compreendido entre 09/11/97 a 10/01/99. Os dados utilizados corresponderam a 273 linhas de registros semanais. Os modelos de redes neurais artificiais foram comparados e selecionados como melhores, baseados no coeficiente de determinação múltipla (R², Quadrado Médio do Erro (QME, bem como pela análise de gráficos, plotando a predição da rede versus a predição menos o real. Os autores concluem que é possível explicar os parâmetros de desempenho das aves em recria, através da utilização de redes neurais artificiais. A técnica permite a tomada de decisões por parte do corpo técnico, baseadas em critérios objetivos obtidos cientificamente. Além disso, esse método permite simulações das conseqüências de tais decisões e fornece a percentagem de contribuição de cada variável no fenômeno em estudo.An economic activity with the magnitude of the poultry industry, which uses top line equipment, generally is lead to make decisions involving all production parameters, based in subjective criteria. The aim of this paper is to study the use of artificial neural networks to predict performance parameters in breeding birds, belonging to a South Brazilian poultry farm. Data from 11 broiler breeder flocks was recorded between November, 11th 1997 and October, 1st 1999. These data were processed by artificial neural networks. They corresponded to 273 data

  5. Avaliação de métodos de correção do estande para estimar a produtividade em milho Evaluation of stand correction methods to estimate productivity in cornfields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilson Romais Schmildt

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou determinar o método de correção de estande mais adequado aos dados de produtividade na cultura do milho, na avaliação de 33 cultivares, em oito ambientes. Os métodos avaliados foram: sem correção, regra de três, método de Zuber, covariância de estande médio, covariância de estande ideal, o método proposto por Cruz, o método proposto por Vencovsky & Cruz, e o proposto neste trabalho, de correção estratificada com base no agrupamento de cultivares, para a característica estande, pelo teste de Scott & Knott. O método proposto neste trabalho, o de covariância de estande ideal e o de Vencovsky & Cruz foram mais adequados para essa correção, pois apresentaram baixos valores de coeficiente de variação e altos valores de F, confirmados pelos baixos valores de Pi e Pi multivariado na análise conjunta. Os métodos de regra de três e o proposto por Cruz apresentaram as maiores médias de produção, o que superestima o valor real da produção média. O método proposto neste trabalho foi eficiente em corrigir as cultivares, uma vez que as cultivares mais produtivas foram também as de maior potencial em deixar descendentes, medido pelo estande médio.The objective of this work was to determine the method of stand correction more adequate to estimate productivity in cornfields of 33 varieties in eight situations. The methods tested were: without correction, rules of three, method of Zuber, covariance of medium stand, covariance of ideal stand, proposed by Cruz, proposed by Vencovsky & Cruz, the method proposed in this work, which consisted of a stratified correction based on the combined productivity for the characteristic stand, by Scott Knott's test. The methods proposed in this work, covariance of ideal stand and that proposed by Vencovsky & Cruz were considered the most appropriate ones, because they presented lower values for the coefficient of variation and high value of F, which was confirmed by the

  6. Um novo clorofilômetro para estimar os teores de clorofila em folhas do capim Tifton 85 A new chlorophyll meter to estimate chlorophyll contents in leaves of Tifton 85 bermudagrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élio Barbieri Junior

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O propósito deste trabalho foi verificar o desempenho de um novo clorofilometro portátil, em parcelas experimentais vegetadas com o capim-Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp.. Para tal, foi utilizado um experimento de curta duração, em que três doses de N (0,75 e 150kg de N ha-1 foram combinadas com quatro datas de amostragem (8, 16, 24 e 28 dias após um corte de uniformização. As análises foram feitas em lâminas da folha mais nova totalmente expandida. Os teores das clorofilas a, b e a+b foram quantificados espectrofotometricamente após a extração com acetona 80%, enquanto que o clorofilômetro forneceu os correspondentes valores de Índice de Clorofila Falker (ICF. As leituras do aparelho foram sensíveis tanto às doses de N quanto às datas de amostragem. Foram obtidas correlações positivas entre ambos os métodos de quantificação (clorofila a: r=0,646; b: r=0,797; e total: r=0,721, que evidenciaram a utilidade desse novo clorofilometro na determinação indireta dos teores de clorofila foliar no capim-Tifton 85.The purpose of this research was to evaluate the performance of a new portable chlorophyll meter in the indirect determination of chlorophyll contents in Tifton 85 bermudagrass leaves. In a field trial of short duration, three N doses (0, 75 and 150kg ha-1 were combined with four sampling dates (8, 16, 24 e 28 days after a cut for sward uniformity in completely randomized blocks, with treatments arranged in a split-plot design. Analyses were performed in the youngest fully expanded leaf blade. Contents of chlorophylls a, b and total were quantified spectrophotometrically, after extraction with acetone 80%, while chlorophyll meter readings, expressed as Falker Chlorophyll Index (FCI units, provided the same information. Chlorophyll meter readings were sensitive to both N rates and sampling dates. It were obtained significant positive correlations between both methods (chlorophyll a: r=0.646, chlorophyll b: r=0.797 and for total

  7. Validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary intake of women living in Mexico City Validación y reproducibilidad de un cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo para estimar la ingesta alimentaria en mujeres de la Ciudad de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAURICIO HERNÁNDEZ-AVILA

    1998-03-01

    la reproducibilidad del cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo se comparó el resultado obtenido al aplicar la encuesta a 134 mujeres en dos tiempos separados por 12 meses. Para evaluar la validez del cuestionario, comparamos los resultados obtenidos a partir de su aplicación, con el promedio de 16 recordatorios de 24-horas, los cuales se obtuvieron en el transcurso de 12 meses. Para estimar la validez utilizamos modelos de regresión y correlación de Pearson. Para evaluar la reproducibilidad estimamos la correlacion intraclase entre los cuestionarios de frecuencia de consumo. Resultados. Las ingestas promedio diarias estimadas por los cuestionarios de frecuencia de consumo fueron similares. Sin embargo, las medias estimadas mediante los recordatorios de 24 horas fueron significativamente menores. Las correlaciones intraclase entre los cuestionarios de frecuencia de consumo aplicados 12 meses aparte, variaron entre 0.38 para colesterol y 0.54 para fibra cruda. Las correlaciones ajustadas por calorías entre el primer cuestionario y la media de los recordatorios variaron entre 0.12 para ácidos grasos polinsaturados y 0.67 para ácidos grasos saturados. En el análisis de regresión observamos asociaciones estadísticamente significativas para casi todos los nutrientes, excepto para grasas polinsaturadas, ácido folico, vitamina E y zinc. Conclusiones. Los resultados indican que el cuestionario es útil para evaluar la ingesta dietética. Sin embargo, su utilización en poblaciones con diferente estructura de edad y género o ubicación geográfica requerirá de acciones adicionales para garantizar su validez y reproducibilidad.

  8. Identificación de metabasaltos alterados mediante datos ASTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Castro Godoy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Los datos del sensor ASTER permitieron desarrollar una metodología sencilla, utilizando las bandas del infrarrojo de onda corta (subsistema SWIR, para prospectar cuerpos ígneos alterados que manifiestan diferencias espectrales con respecto a la roca de caja. A modo de ejemplo se detectó la alteración clorítica presente en metabasaltos intercalados en metasedimentitas de la Formación Puntilla de Uspallata en la Precordillera mendocina.

  9. Identificación de metabasaltos alterados mediante datos ASTER

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Castro Godoy; Mariela Etcheverría; Marta Godeas

    2010-01-01

    Los datos del sensor ASTER permitieron desarrollar una metodología sencilla, utilizando las bandas del infrarrojo de onda corta (subsistema SWIR), para prospectar cuerpos ígneos alterados que manifiestan diferencias espectrales con respecto a la roca de caja. A modo de ejemplo se detectó la alteración clorítica presente en metabasaltos intercalados en metasedimentitas de la Formación Puntilla de Uspallata en la Precordillera mendocina.

  10. Comparação de métodos alternativos para estimar a produção de leite de vacas da raça Gir Comparison of alternative methods to estimate the milk yield of cows from Gyr breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcísio de Moraes Gonçalves

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar métodos alternativos para estimar a produção de leite de vacas da raça Gir. Um total de 3632 lactações de vacas da raça Gir, no período de 1986 a 1996, foi analisado. Os métodos foram: A - controle na ordenha da manhã realizado nos meses ímpares e o da ordenha da tarde nos meses pares - a produção da ordenha da manhã foi multiplicada pelo fator multiplicativo da manhã (FM, e a da tarde pelo fator multiplicativo da tarde (FT, B e D - controle realizado na ordenha da manhã (em B a produção da manhã foi multiplicada pelo FM e em D produção foi duplicada; C e E - controle realizado na ordenha da tarde (em C produção da tarde foi multiplicada pelo FT e em E foi duplicada. Todos os métodos foram comparados com a produção real (R. O método A mostrou-se mais preciso, sendo a precisão do método C intermediária entre os métodos B e D. Correlações de Pearson entre as produções estimadas pelos diferentes métodos e R, pela produção até 305 dias e pela produção total foram, respectivamente, 0,98; 0,95; e 0,96 para A, 0,97; 0,93; e 0,95 para B, 0,93; 0,90; e 0,89 para C, 0,97; 0,94; e 0,95 para D e 0,93; 0,89; e 0,89 para E. O método A mostrou-se o mais viável para estimar a produção de leite no dia do controle leiteiro, por sua praticidade e precisão, enquanto os metodos C e E foram os piores entre os metodos de controle avaliados.The objective of this work was to compare the alternative methods to estimate the milk yield of cows from Gyr breed. A total of 3,632 lactations from of Gyr breed cows, from 1986 to 1996, were analyzed. The methods were: A - the morning milking control was performed in the odd months and the afternoon milking control in the even months - the yield of the morning milking control was multiplied by the multiplicative factor of the morning (MF and that of evening by the multiplicative factor of the afternoon (AF, B and D - the control was performed in

  11. Commercial Digital Camera to Estimate Postharvest Leaf Area Index in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon on a Vertical Trellis Uso de una Cámara Digital Comercial para Estimar el Índice de Área Foliar en Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon en Poscosecha Conducida en Espaldera Vertical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Espinosa L.

    2010-06-01

    calculó el área de la imagen y los metros cuadrados por metro lineal. Se seleccionaron los mejores modelos de tres ajustes de regresión lineal entre: i el LAI de las imágenes verticales del LAGB con el LAI del PLAQS, ii el LAI de las imágenes horizontales con el PLAQS, y iii el IAF de ambos tipos de imágenes con el PLAQS. En todos los modelos los parámetros son significativos. El ajuste entre la imagen vertical del LAGB y el PLAQS, presenta mayor simpleza y facilidad de cálculo, requiriendo sólo una imagen vertical para estimar el LAI. Las imágenes así obtenidas pueden estimar con precisión el LAI en este tipo de cultivar y de conducci��n de la parra.

  12. Utilização das recomendações de nutrientes para estimar prevalência de consumo insuficiente das vitaminas C e E em gestantes Using recommended intakes to estimate the prevalence of insufficient consumption of vitamin C and E by pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Barreto Malta

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Na gestação ocorrem adaptações que conduzem a um aumento da taxa metabólica basal, caracterizando um estado de alto nível de estresse oxidativo, tornando relevante a avaliação do consumo de nutrientes antioxidantes por mulheres grávidas. Este estudo teve como objetivo estimar a prevalência de consumo insuficiente das vitaminas C e E em gestantes assistidas em serviços públicos de saúde. Estudou-se amostra (n=107 representativa das mulheres no segundo trimestre gestacional atendidas durante o pré-natal nas unidades de atenção básica do município de Botucatu/SP. O consumo foi investigado mediante dois inquéritos recordatórios de 24 horas. Para estimar a prevalência de inadequação de consumo na população, foi utilizado o método EAR como ponto de corte. Diferenças de consumo (em tercis em relação a fatores socioeconômicos, obstétricos e hábitos de vida foram pesquisadas mediante análise estratificada, adotando-se pThe changes that occur during pregnancy lead to an increase in the basal metabolic rate, which characterizes a high oxidative-stress condition, thus making the evaluation of the intake of antioxidant nutrients by pregnant women a relevant issue. This study aimed at estimating the prevalence of insufficient intake of vitamin C and E by pregnant women assisted by public healthcare services. A representative sample (n=107 of women in the second gestational trimester was studied. Such women's prenatal care was provided by basic healthcare units in the city of Botucatu/SP. Intake was investigated by two 24-hour recalls. The EAR method was adopted as cutoff point in order to estimate the prevalence of intake inadequacy in the population. Intake differences (in terciles in relation to social, economic and obstetric factors as well as lifestyle were investigated by means of stratified analysis and by adopting a level of significance of p<0.05. The prevalence rates estimated for the insufficient intake of vitamins C

  13. Uso de equações para estimar carbono orgânico em plantações de Acacia mearnsii De Wild. no Rio Grande do Sul - Brasil Use of equations to estimate organic carbon in Acacia mearnsii De Wild plantations in Rio Grande do Sul - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Luiz Fleig Saidelles

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Para entender a importância das florestas e plantações florestais como sumidouros de carbono, é necessário desenvolver e aprimorar as metodologias de estimativa de biomassa e carbono. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar o estoque de carbono orgânico (CO em plantações de Acacia mearnsii com 4 anos de idade. A área de trabalho localiza-se na cidade de Arroio dos Ratos, RS, nas coordenadas 30º07'12"de latitude sul e 51º57'45" de longitude oeste, com altitude média de 90 m. Após a realização de inventário florestal, foram abatidas 21 árvores, distribuídas em sete classes diamétricas, para cobrir a heterogeneidade do povoamento. Em seguida, determinaram-se a biomassa e o teor de CO dos componentes: folha, galho vivo, galho morto, madeira, casca e raiz. A estimativa do estoque de CO em povoamentos de Acacia mearnssi e nos seus compartimentos das árvores pode ser realizada por meio de equações matemáticas. O total de CO estocado na biomassa é de 29,79 Mg ha-1, distribuídos da seguinte forma: 64% na madeira, 11% na raiz, 9% na casca, 7% nos galhos vivos e 4% nos galhos mortos e nas folhas.To understand the importance of the forests and forest plantations as carbon sink, it is necessary to develop and improve the methodologies to estimate biomass and carbon. The aim of this study was to estimate the organic carbon (OC stock in 4-year-old plantations of Acacia mearnsii . The work area is located in Arroio dos Ratos-RS, in a farm of the Agroseta S.A. corporation, with coordinates 30º07'12" latitude south and 51º57'45" longitude west, and average altitude of 90 m. After the performance of the forest inventory, 21 trees were felled, distributed in 7-diameter classes to cover stand heterogeneity. The biomass and organic carbon were determined for: leaves, live branch, dead branch, wood, bark and roots. The estimate of the OC stock in Acacia mearnssi plantations and in its tree compartments can be carried out using

  14. Equações para estimar a quantidade de carbono na parte aérea de árvores de eucalipto em Viçosa, Minas Gerais Equations for estimating the amount of carbon in the aerial parts of eucalypt trees in Viçosa, MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Pedro Boechat Soares

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de ajustar equações que permitem estimar com precisão a quantidade de carbono presente na parte aérea das árvores de eucalipto, na região de Viçosa, Minas Gerais. Após as análises constatou-se que: a o fuste é o componente da parte aérea da árvore com a maior quantidade de carbono estocado, seguido dos galhos, da casca e das folhas; b existe uma relação exponencial positiva entre a quantidade de carbono presente nas diferentes partes das árvores (Yi e as dimensões dos fustes das árvores, expressa pelo dap e altura total (Ht, que pode ser descrita pela seguinte relação alométrica: Yi = a.dap b.Ht c; e c a variável dap foi significativa, a 95% de probabilidade, nas equações que estimam a quantidade de carbono de todos os componentes da parte aérea das árvores de eucalipto. Contudo, a variável altura foi significativa apenas nas equações para o fuste e para os galhos.The objective of this work was to adjust equations that allow for an accurate estimation of the amount of carbon present in the aerial part of eucalypt trees in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. After the analyses, it was verified that: a the stem in the aerial part component of the trees with the largest amount of stored carbon, followed by the branches, bark and leaves; b there is a positive exponential relationship among the amounts of the carbon present in the different parts of the trees (Yi and the stem dimensions of the trees, expressed by diameter at breast height (dbh and total height (Ht, that can be described by the following allometric relationship: Yi = a.dap b.Ht c ; and c the variable d.b.h. was significant, at the aerial parts of 95% probability, in the equations estimating the amount of carbon of all the components of the trees, the variable height was significant only for the stem and branch equations.

  15. Identificación de metabasaltos alterados mediante datos ASTER Identification of altered metabasalts from ASTER data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Castro Godoy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Los datos del sensor ASTER permitieron desarrollar una metodología sencilla, utilizando las bandas del infrarrojo de onda corta (subsistema SWIR, para prospectar cuerpos ígneos alterados que manifiestan diferencias espectrales con respecto a la roca de caja. A modo de ejemplo se detectó la alteración clorítica presente en metabasaltos intercalados en metasedimentitas de la Formación Puntilla de Uspallata en la Precordillera mendocina.ASTER data allowed developing a simple methodology, using the Short Wave Infrared spectral bands (SWIR, in order to detect alteration minerals that affect igneous bodies and have spectral differences with the country rock. As an example chloritic alteration was detected in metabasalts interbedded in metasediments of Puntilla de Uspallata Formation, Precordillera Mendocina.

  16. Estudo de caso-controle para desenvolver e estimar a validade discriminante de um questionário de avaliação de abuso sexual em crianças Development of a questionnaire for the assessment of sexual abuse in children and estimation of its discriminant validity: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edila Pizzato Salvagni

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Desenvolver e estimar a validade discriminante de instrumento para determinar a probabilidade de ocorrência do abuso sexual em crianças. MÉTODOS: Estudo de caso-controle com 201 crianças que consultaram em ambulatórios de pediatria e locais de referência para vítimas de violência sexual, entre março e novembro de 2004. Casos eram crianças com suspeita ou revelação de abuso sexual e controles eram crianças sem suspeita de abuso sexual. Aplicamos, aos responsáveis, questionário com 18 itens e cinco opções de respostas segundo a escala Likert, abordando comportamento e sintomas físicos e emocionais apresentados pelas crianças. Excluímos nove crianças sem controle esfincteriano e um item com poucas respostas. Avaliamos a validade de constructo discriminante e a consistência interna dos itens com obtenção de coeficientes de correlação (Pearson, Spearman e Goodman-Kruskal, coeficiente alfa de Cronbach e cálculo da área da curva ROC (receiver operator characteristics. Calculamos a razão de verossimilhança e os valores preditivos positivos para os cinco itens do questionário com os melhores desempenhos. RESULTADOS: Questionário composto pelos cinco itens que melhor discriminaram crianças com e sem abuso sexual em dois contextos. A pontuação resultante da soma das respostas com pesos de 0 a 4 (amplitude de 0 a 20, através do teorema de Bayes (razão de verossimilhança, indica a probabilidade pós-teste de abuso sexual. CONCLUSÕES: O instrumento proposto é de fácil aplicação, auxiliando na identificação de crianças vítimas de abuso sexual. Definiu-se a pontuação que indica a probabilidade de abuso sexual, orientando na conduta de cuidado à criança.OBJECTIVES: To develop an instrument to determine the probability of child sexual abuse and to estimate the questionnaire's discriminant validity. METHODS: Case-control study of 201 children seen at pediatric clinics and referral centers for the

  17. Utilização de função dielétrica para estimar o teor de água em sementes de café Use of a dielectric function for determination of coffee seeds moisture content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Amorim Berbert

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O interesse na utilização das propriedades dielétricas de produtos agrícolas granulares tem aumentado devido ao seu potencial para aplicação em novas tecnologias, como a medição contínua do teor de água de grãos e sementes em operações que utilizam o controle automático de processos, como a colheita, secagem e aeração. O procedimento mais eficaz para diminuir os erros que as alterações no fluxo de massa do produto provocam na estimativa do seu teor de água é a derivação de modelos que empregam a permissividade elétrica relativa ε' e o fator de perda dielétrica ε" das sementes. Assim, este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver um modelo dielétrico a partir da função [(ε'-1/ε"] para determinação indireta e não-destrutiva do teor de água de sementes de café utilizando o método da capacitância no intervalo de radiofreqüências. Os testes experimentais foram realizados em 2005, no Laboratório de Engenharia Agrícola da Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense. Dentre os modelos obtidos, aquele que permitiu estimar o teor de água de sementes de café com melhor grau de acurácia apresentou erro-padrão da estimativa entre 0,2 e 1,2 pontos percentuais e erro máximo entre 0,4 e 2,6 pontos percentuais.The interest in dielectric properties of grains has been increasing over the years due to their potential utilization in new technologies such as the on-line estimation of moisture content in automatic control of harvest, drying and aeration. The most convenient way of reducing measurement errors caused by fluctuations in grain mass flow rate is the derivation of dielectric models based on the relative permittivity ε' and loss ε" of the product. The object of this research work is to develop a dielectric model derived from the function, [(ε'-1/ε"] for indirect and non-destructive on-line moisture content measurement of parchment coffee seeds at radiofrequencies. Experimental tests were conducted during the

  18. Comparison of the ActiGraph acceloremeter and Bouchard diary to estimate energy expenditure in Spanish adolescents Comparación del acelerómetro Actigraph y el diario de Bouchard para estimar el gasto energético en adolescentes españoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Martínez-Gómez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the agreement between the ActiGraph accelerometer and the Bouchard diary to estimate energy expenditure (EE in a Spanish adolescent population. Methods: Sixty-one Spanish adolescents, aged 12-16 years, were recruited for this study. The Bouchard diary and the ActiGraph were administered for 3 consecutive days. EE estimated by the Bouchard diary was calculated using 2 different MET category values (BD-Bouchard and BD-Bratteby. EE estimated by the ActiGraph was calculated using 3 predictive equations (AC-Trost, AC-Freedson, and AC-Ekelund. Participants with complete 24 h data were also analyzed to control the possible loss of accuracy. Agreement was examined by Pearson and concordance correlations, paired t-test, and Bland-Altman method. Results: Thirty-seven adolescents were included in the analyses with complete 72 h. Relationships between EE calculated by the Bouchard diary and the ActiGraph were high (ranged: r = 0.61-0.78. Concordance correlations were moderate (r c = 0.60 by BD-Bratteby and AC-Trost, and low using BD-Bratteby and AC-Ekelund (r c = 0.15. EE estimated by BD-Bratteby and AC-Trost also showed no significant differences (P> 0.05 and absolutely agree 0.0 ± 5.0 MJ/d (95% confidence interval: ± 0.90 MJ/d, but with wide limits of agreement (± 9.80 MJ/d. Relationships were higher and differences were smaller in the 72 h sample than in the 24 h sample. Conclusions: The Bouchard diary and the ActiGraph showed high relationships, moderate concordance, and large differences to estimate EE in Spanish adolescents. Advantages, disadvantages, and agreements between both instruments must be taking into consideration for health-related research.Introducción: el objetivo de este estudio ha sido evaluar el grado de acuerdo entre el acelerómetro ActiGraph y el diario de Bouchard para estimar el gasto energético (GE en una población de adolescentes españoles. Métodos: 61 adolescentes espa

  19. Terpenoid Glucosides from Aster Smithianus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Shou-jun; ZHAO Xin-hua; YANG Yong-li; CHENG Dong-liang

    2005-01-01

    A diterpenoid trisaccharide, smithoside A, and a saponin, smithoside B, as well as six known compounds, apigenin, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, daucosterol, shanzhiside methyl ester, 8-acetylshanzhiside methyl ester and acteoside, were isolated from Aster smithianus. On the basis of spectral evidence and chemical analytical results, smithosides A and B were identified as pimar-15(16)-β-ene-8β,11α-diol-3β-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→3)-[β-glucopyranosyl(1→2)]-β-D-glucopyranoside and 2β,3β,16β,21β,23-pentahydroxy-12-ene-28 oleanoic acid lactone-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→3)-β-D-glucopyranoside, respectively.

  20. Use of spectral data for estimating the relationship between iron oxides and 2:1 minerals with their respective reflectancesUso de dados espectrais para estimar a relação entre óxidos de ferro e minerais 2:1 com suas respectivas reflectâncias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everson Cezar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Iron oxides and 2:1 minerals have a strong influence on the spectral behavior of soils. However, studies that address more deeply the relationship between them and their reflectances are scarce. Thus, the objective of this study was to estimate the relationship between iron oxides and 2:1 minerals with their reflectance factors, and assess whether such a relationship presents a linear behavior. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replicates per treatment. The spectral readings of the samples of hematite, goethite, magnetite and bentonite were performed using the equipment FieldSpec jr 3, which covers the spectral range from 350 to 2500 nm. After the readings, were chosen the intervals that best represented the minerals and performed statistical analysis from the average reflectance factors found in these points. The results showed that the hematite, goethite and magnetite have nonlinear relationship with their reflectance factors, while bentonite has not only linear relationship in the range studied, but in the entire area covered by the equipment. Thus, we conclude that relatively small amounts of iron oxides are able to affect soil reflectance in the same way that amounts close to 100%. With respect to mineral 2:1 concludes that the increase in the proportion of them in a certain class of soil leads to a progressive decrease of the reflectance factor across the entire spectrum-optical, as described for other elements. Os óxidos de ferro e os minerais 2:1 possuem forte influência sobre o comportamento espectral dos solos. No entanto, estudos que abordem de maneira mais profunda a relação entre ambos e suas respectivas reflectâncias são escassos. Desta forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi de estimar a relação entre óxidos de ferro e minerais 2:1 com seus respectivos fatores de reflectância, e avaliar se tal relação apresenta comportamento linear. O delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado com 4

  1. Novas funções para estimar a produção de leite, em 305 dias de lactação, de vacas da raça Gir New functions to estimate 305-days milk production of Gir cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovanne Ferreira Rebouças

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos neste estudo foram, a partir da forma generalizada da função de Michaelis-Menten, derivar novas funções, acumulada e diária, para estimar a produção de leite, em 305 dias de lactação, de vacas da raça Gir, usando informações de produção de leite no dia do controle leiteiro. Foram utilizadas 7.412 lactações de 3.416 vacas da raça Gir com partos entre 1987 e 2004, distribuídos em 51 rebanhos participantes do Programa Nacional de Melhoramento Genético do Gir Leiteiro, coordenado pela Embrapa Gado de Leite e pela Associação Brasileira dos Criadores de Gir Leiteiro. Foram ajustados os modelos para as subclasses nível de produção (Alto > 2.628 kg de leite na lactação; Baixo 5. Os valores do desvio-padrão residual variaram de 0,131 a 0,984, os do Coeficiente de Determinação (R² foram próximos de 1 e de Durbin-Watsom foram próximos de 2. A estatística de Theil (U apresentou valores de U M e U V próximos de 0 e de U C próximos de 1, sugerindo acurácia das estimativas. Estes resultados indicam bom ajuste da função. A persistência da lactação relaciona-se ao parâmetro d e o tempo de ocorrência do pico da lactação se relaciona simultaneamente com os parâmetros d e n. Então, as novas funções ajustam-se bem a lactações de vacas da raça Gir e são caracterizadas pela simplicidade no procedimento de ajuste, pela facilidade de interpretação biológica dos parâmetros e pela flexibilidade, ou seja, é possível obter a função acumulada a partir da função diária. As novas funções apresentam-se como funções alternativas para projetar lactações não encerradas e podem ser utilizadas na avaliação genética de animais em programas de melhoramento genético.This study aimed to calculate new accumulated and daily functions based on the Michaelis-Menten equation to estimate the 305-days production of Gir cows using test day milk yields. Data consisted of 7,412 lactation records of 3,416 Gir

  2. Aplicación de modelos estructurales marginales para estimar los efectos de la terapia antirretroviral en 5 cohortes de seroconvertores al virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana Marginal structural models application to estimate the effects of antiretroviral therapy in 5 cohorts of HIV seroconverters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Pérez-Hoyos

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Los métodos convencionales tienen limitaciones para ajustar por factores de confusión dependientes del tiempo para evaluar la efectividad poblacional de tratamientos en estudios observacionales. En este trabajo se muestra un nuevo tipo de metodología, los modelos estructurales marginales (MEM, y se estima la efectividad de la terapia antirretroviral de gran actividad (TARGA sobre la incidencia de sida o muerte. Sujetos y métodos: Se identificaron los sujetos sin TARGA seguidos a partir de 1997 en las cohortes de seroconvertores al virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH del proyecto GEMES (Grupo de Estudio Multicéntrico Español de Seroconvertores. Para estimar el efecto sobre la incidencia de sida o muerte, se obtuvieron los parámetros de un MEM mediante una regresión logística ponderada por probabilidad inversa. La estimación de los pesos se basó en el recuento de CD4, el tiempo desde la seroconversión, el sexo, la edad, la categoría de trasmisión y el tratamiento previo. Resultados: Los 917 sujetos elegibles se siguieron durante una media de 3,4 años, durante los cuales se observaron 139 desenlaces de interés. El 42,1% de los participantes recibió TARGA durante el estudio. La tasa relativa fue de 1,01 (intervalo de confianza &(IC& del 95%, 0,68-1,49 mediante un modelo de Cox convencional sin covariables, y de 0,90 (IC del 95%, 0,61-1,32 mediante un modelo de Cox convencional con covariables cambiantes en el tiempo. La tasa relativa causal estimada por un MEM fue de 0,74 (IC del 95%, 0,49-1,12. Conclusiones: El efecto beneficioso del TARGA encontrado por los MEM está bien establecido, pero los modelos convencionales no pudieron detectarlo. El uso de un MEM permitió ajustar apropiadamente por la variable CD4, que es a la vez una variable de confusión dependiente del tiempo y está afectada por el uso previo de tratamiento.Objectives: Standard methods to evaluate population effectiveness of treatments in observational

  3. Digital elevation modelling using ASTER stereo imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkuo, Eric Kwabena

    2010-04-01

    Digital elevation model (DEM) in recent times has become an integral part of national spatial data infrastructure of many countries world-wide due to its invaluable importance. Although DEMs are mostly generated from contours maps, stereo aerial photographs and air-borne and terrestrial laser scanning, the stereo interpretation and auto-correlation from satellite image stereo-pairs such as with SPOT, IRS, and relatively new ASTER imagery is also an effective means of producing DEM data. In this study, terrain elevation data were derived by applying photogrammetric process to ASTER stereo imagery. Also, the quality ofDEMs produced from ASTER stereo imagery was analysed by comparing it with DEM produced from topographic map at a scale of 1:50,000. While analyzing the vertical accuracy of the generated ASTER DEM, fifty ground control points were extracted from the map and overlaid on the DEM. Results indicate that a root-mean-square error in elevation of +/- 14 m was achieved with ASTER stereo image data of good quality. The horizontal accuracy obtained from the ground control points was 14.77, which is within the acceptable range of +/- 7m to +/- 25 m. The generated (15 m) DEM was compared with a 20m, 25m, and a 30 m pixel DEM to the original map. In all, the results proved that, the 15 m DEM conform to the original map DEM than the others. Overall, this analysis proves that, the generated digital terrain model, DEM is acceptable.

  4. Equações para estimar a quantidade de carbono na parte aérea de árvores de eucalipto em Viçosa, Minas Gerais Equations for estimating the amount of carbon in the aerial parts of eucalypt trees in Viçosa, MG, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Pedro Boechat Soares; Marcio Leles Romarco de Oliveira

    2002-01-01

    Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de ajustar equações que permitem estimar com precisão a quantidade de carbono presente na parte aérea das árvores de eucalipto, na região de Viçosa, Minas Gerais. Após as análises constatou-se que: a) o fuste é o componente da parte aérea da árvore com a maior quantidade de carbono estocado, seguido dos galhos, da casca e das folhas; b) existe uma relação exponencial positiva entre a quantidade de carbono presente nas diferentes partes das árvores (Y...

  5. Equações de regressão para estimar valores energéticos do grão de trigo e seus subprodutos para frangos de corte, a partir de análises químicas Regression equations to evaluate the energy values of wheat grain and its by-products for broiler chickens from chemical analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M.O. Borges

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi realizado com frangos de corte para a obtenção de equações de predição da energia a partir de análises químicas e dados de energia metabolizável (EM utilizando como alimentos-teste o trigo e alguns de seus produtos, comparando quatro metodologias de estimação. Sete alimentos oriundos do trigo e uma ração-referência foram utilizados nos cinco tratamentos: trigo integral moído, gérmen de trigo, farinha de trigo clara, farinha de trigo escura, farelo de trigo para uso humano, farelo de trigo para uso animal e farelo de trigo grosso. Com base nas análises químicas de fibra bruta (FB, extrato etéreo (EE, proteína (PB, cinzas (Cz e amido (A dos alimentos e com os resultados observados de EM aparente (EMA, EM verdadeira (EMV, EM aparente corrigida (EMAn e EM verdadeira corrigida pelo balanço de nitrogênio (EMVn nos cinco tratamentos, desenvolveram-se equações de predição por stepwise. FB foi a variável que melhor se relacionou com os valores de energia metabolizável, entretanto esse valor isolado não foi suficiente para uma boa estimativa dos valores energéticos (R² abaixo de 0,80. Quando somada ao EE e à PB aumentou-se a precisão das equações, com valores de R² acima de 0,90 na maioria das equações. Estimativas a partir dos valores de todos tratamentos resultaram em equações menos precisas para EMA, com menores R². Quando se utilizaram somente dados dos tratamentos pela metodologia tradicional ou de alimentação forçada separadamente aumentou-se a precisão das equações, com R² acima de 0,85. Para EMV e EMVn, as equações lineares múltiplas, utilizando-se FB, EE e PB, apresentaram boa precisão (R²>0,90, independente da utilização de todos os dados experimentais ou seu agrupamento por metodologia. Para a EMVn, além da alta precisão, os valores do coeficiente linear (a das equações foram muito próximos quando se utilizaram todos os tratamentos ou agrupando-os por metodologia, o

  6. Uso de análise física para estimar a composição química em ingredientes para rações The use of physical analysis to estimate the chemical composition of feed ingredientes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.da S. Passos Jr

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Procurou-se verificar se a medida física "densidade aparente" poderia ser utilizada como parâmetro capaz de analizar a composição química bromatológica dos farelos de algodão 40% (FA, de soja (FS e de arroz cru (FAr, provenientes de diversas regiões do país. Os tratamentos consistiram na adição das respectivas cascas de farelo aos níveis de 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 e 100, simulando fraudes em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. As análises foram efetuadas no laboratório da Purina Nutrimentos Ltda, em Paulínea. Avaliou-se o efeito da adição crescente da casca sobre os valores de densidade, e desta sobre a composiç��o em umidade (U, proteína bruta (PB, extrato etéreo (EE, fibra bruta (FB e matéria mineral (MM. As amostras foram analisadas separadamente, pois apresentaram efeito de origem (P? 0,05 sobre a densidade de FA e FS, mas tendência positiva sobre a densidade do FAr. Verificou-se correlação alta da densidade com PB e FB de FS e FA (R² ? 80 a 70%, respectivamente. Com as demais determinações para o FAr não houve correlação sinificativa. Exceto para FAr, a medida da densidade, de determinação rápida, fácil e barata; permite avaliação prévia do nível proteico e de adição de cascas nos dois suplementos protéicos mais utilizados no país.The purpose of this experiment was to verify if feed "bulk density" would be a good indication of chemical components of feeds such as 40% crude protein cotton (C and soybean (S meals and rice bran (RB. The bromatological analysis as carried out at the central laboratory of Purina Nutrimentos Ltda., located at in Paulinia, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Samples of feed came from different locations of the country. Increasing proportions - zero, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 100% - of hulls were added to C, S and RB, as treatments, in a randomised experimental design. The addition of hulls influenced significantly (P 70 and 80% respectively, but there was no correlation to any

  7. Two New Diterpene Acetylxylosides From Aster Veitchianus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Er Wei LI; Kun GAO; Zhong Jian JIA

    2004-01-01

    Two new acetylxylosides, ent-manool-13-O-β-D-2'-acetylxylopyranoside(1)and ent-manool-13-O-β-D-2',4'-diacetylxylopyranoside(2)were isolated from Aster veitchianus.Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods.

  8. Thermal monitoring using an ASTER image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Domenica; Angelini, Maria Giuseppa

    2016-10-01

    The research is focused on the study of the applicability of remote sensing techniques (specifically using ASTER data) for marine environmental analysis, relative to the determination of the surface temperatures. Using a multitemporal approach, two images (classified as level-1B), acquired in August 2000 and in 2005, were considered. The thermal maps were realized by means of the emissivity spectral normalization method, defining the thermal gradients in the area under investigation. The spatial and temporal anomalies related to the temperature distribution were highlighted; these anomalies represent an important parameter for the identification of probable groundwater pollution and soil contamination. To define the map of the surface temperature using thermal infrared ASTER channels, a numerical model dedicated to ASTER data was implemented during the experimentation. This model is based on the principle of interpolation of the type "least square interpolation (linear)," and it implies a reduction in the number of unknowns to obtain an acceptable solution to the problem. This experimental model has provided good results in the phase of implementation and in the tests on a synthetic image that were simulated in the laboratory. However, further verifications and modifications are necessary for the processing of real ASTER images.

  9. INTEGRAÇÃO DE PARÂMETROS MORFOMÉTRICOS E IMAGEM ASTER PARA A DELIMITAÇÃO DAS FITOFISIONOMIAS DA SERRA DA CANASTRA, PARQUE NACIONAL DA SERRA DA CANASTRA, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Felipe Couto Júnior

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo delimitar as fitofisionomias utilizando parâmetros morfométricos e imagens do sensor ASTER na Serra da Canastra, Parque Nacional da Serra da Canastra, MG. Foram identificadas fitofisionomias através das observações de campo: ambientes rupestres (Campo Rupestre + Cerrado Rupestre, Campo Limpo, Campo Sujo, Cerrado Sentido Restrito, Mata de Galeria + áreas de drenagem. Os parâmetros morfométricos, obtidos do Modelo Digital de Terreno (MDT, foram dispostos em gráficos de dispersão tridimensional com o Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI e com o Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI. Estes gráficos evidenciaram cinco conjuntos de dados, representando as fitofisionomias encontradas em campo. Foi observada uma variação espectral correspondente aos membros finais: Vegetação Fotossintéticamente Ativa (VFA e Vegetação Não Fotossintéticamente Ativa (VNFA. Das fitofisionomias agrupadas o Campo Limpo foi a mais abrangente (60,45% e a única que faz limite com todas as demais, seguido por ambientes rupestres (21,02%, Campo Sujo (12,40%, Mata de Galeria e Campo Úmido (4%, e Cerrado Sentido Restrito (1,90%. Os perfis topográficos obtidos a partir da integração da classificação espectral e do MDT permitiram evidenciar a distribuição da vegetação em relação ao relevo.

  10. Comparación de métodos basados en los requerimientos nutricionales y disponibilidad de biomasa para estimar la capacidad de carga para venado cola blanca Comparison of methods based on the nutritional requirements and availability of biomass to estimate carrying capacity for white tailed deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FX Plata

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Debido a la importancia que tiene la metodología en la estimación de la capacidad de carga (K animales/ha en venado cola blanca, los objetivos de este trabajo fueron: 1 Comparar la estimación de la K por cinco métodos; tres basados en disponibilidad de compuestos nutritivos (materia seca (MS, energía digestible (ED y nitrógeno (N, otro basado en la presión de pastoreo y un último en el requerimiento de energía metabolizable (EM estimado con base al metabolismo ecológico del venado, y 2 Comparar la K estimada al usar la biomasa total o por los grupos de vegetales consumidos por el venado (gramíneas, herbáceas, arbustivas y arbóreas. Se utilizó la información de composición de la dieta y de biomasa de un rancho cinegético localizado en Aguascalientes, México. Los resultados fueron analizados de acuerdo a un modelo con arreglo factorial (5 x 5, donde los factores fueron el método de estimación y el grupo vegetal. Los valores de K estimados con biomasa total fueron los mayores (1,449, seguidos por los pastos (0,707, luego por las herbáceas (0,325, mientras que los estimados con arbóreas y arbustivas dieron los menores valores (0,228 y 0,03. La estimación de K por medio de plantas arbustivas (0,033 venados/ha proporciona un valor más similar al de la densidad poblacional (0,02-0,04 venados/ha que el estimado con otros grupos vegetativos, independientemente del método seleccionado (disponibilidad de MS, ED, N, metabolismo ecológico y la presión de pastoreo. Considerando la densidad poblacional (0,02-0,04 venados/ha como el indicador apropiado para evaluar la capacidad de carga, se concluye que debe estimarse con base a la disponibilidad de arbustivas.Due to the importance of the estimation of carrying capacity (K animals/ha in white tailed deer, the objectives of this study were: 1 To compare the estimation of K with five methods, three of them based on nutrient availability (dry matter (DM, digestible energy (DE and

  11. ASTERISMS IDENTIFICATION USING ASTROMETRIC DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Orellana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudian las regiones de los objetos Collinder 399, Upgren 1 y Melotte 227 clasi cados como asterismos en la literatura reciente. Se utilizan las posiciones y movimientos propios obtenidos del cat logo astrom trico UCAC2 y de su suplemento de estrellas brillantes, y se aplica el m todo de Vasilevskis-Sanders modi cado porla distribuci n espacial para con rmar la naturaleza de estos grupos de estrellas.

  12. Índices para estimar o tempo transcorrido entre o surto hemorrágico subaracnóideo e a colheita de líquido cefalorraqueano Appraisement of the time elapsed between cerebro-vascular accidents and cerebrospinal fluid examination. An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Marlet

    1973-12-01

    Full Text Available O autor simulou, experimentalmente, acidente vascular cerebral hemorrágico em cães injetando sangue do próprio animal no espaço subaracnóideo, colhendo amostras diárias de LCR durante 14 dias, sendo estudada a evolução das concentrações de oxiemoglobina e de bilirrubina, empregando métodos espectrofotométricos. Define um coeficiente hemoglobínico como a relação entre a concentração de oxiemoglobina e o total de pigmentos do LCR e um índice hemoglobina-bilirrubina como a relação entre as concentrações de oxiemoglobina e bilirrubina. Depois do tratamento estatístico, chega à conclusão de que ambos permitem estimar o tempo transcorrido desde o surto hemorrágico subaracnóideo e a colheita de LCR. São apresentadas sugestões quanto à aplicabilidade prática destes indicadores em Neurologia e Medicina Preventiva.Hemorrhagic cerebro-vascular accidents were simulated in dogs by injecting their own blood in the subarachnoidal space. Gathering daily samples of cerebrospinal fluid during 14 days the evolution of the concentrations of oxyhemoglobin and bilirubin using the spectrosphotometric method was studied. The author defines hemoglobin coefficient as being the relatinship between the oxyhemoglobin concentration and the sum of the cerebrospinal fluid pigments and the hemoglobin-bilirubin index as the relationship between the oxyhemoglobin and the bilirubin concentration. After statistical treatment the author concludes that both permit to calculate the time span between the subarachnoidal hemorrhage and the examination of the cerebrospinal fluid. Some suggestions on the practical applicability of these indexes in Clinical Neurology and Preventive Medicine are discussed.

  13. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset represents multiple products archived at the Land Processes DAAC for ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) aboard the...

  14. Magnetic manipulation of self-assembled colloidal asters.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snezhko, A.; Aranson, I. S. (Materials Science Division)

    2011-09-01

    Self-assembled materials must actively consume energy and remain out of equilibrium to support structural complexity and functional diversity. Here we show that a magnetic colloidal suspension confined at the interface between two immiscible liquids and energized by an alternating magnetic field dynamically self-assembles into localized asters and arrays of asters, which exhibit locomotion and shape change. By controlling a small external magnetic field applied parallel to the interface, we show that asters can capture, transport, and position target microparticles. The ability to manipulate colloidal structures is crucial for the further development of self-assembled microrobots

  15. Monitoring volcanic threats using ASTER satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, K.A.; Wessels, R.; Ramsey, M.; Dehn, J.

    2008-01-01

    This document summarizes ongoing activities associated with a research project funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) focusing on volcanic change detection through the use of satellite imagery. This work includes systems development as well as improvements in data analysis methods. Participating organizations include the NASA Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS), the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Science Team, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) at the USGS Alaska Science Center, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology (JPL/CalTech), the University of Pittsburgh, and the University of Alaska Fairbanks. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  16. Ajuste do modelo de Schumacher e Hall e aplicação de redes neurais artificiais para estimar volume de árvores de eucalipto Adjustment of the Schumacher and Hall model and application of artificial neural networks to estimate volume of eucalypt trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Luiza Marques da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar o ajuste do modelo volumétrico de Schumacher e Hall por diferentes algoritmos, bem como a aplicação de redes neurais artificiais para estimação do volume de madeira de eucalipto em função do diâmetro a 1,30 m do solo (DAP, da altura total (Ht e do clone. Foram utilizadas 21 cubagens de povoamentos de clones de eucalipto com DAP variando de 4,5 a 28,3 cm e altura total de 6,6 a 33,8 m, num total de 862 árvores. O modelo volumétrico de Schumacher e Hall foi ajustado nas formas linear e não linear, com os seguintes algoritmos: Gauss-Newton, Quasi-Newton, Levenberg-Marquardt, Simplex, Hooke-Jeeves Pattern, Rosenbrock Pattern, Simplex, Hooke-Jeeves e Rosenbrock, utilizado simultaneamente com o método Quasi-Newton e com o princípio da Máxima Verossimilhança. Diferentes arquiteturas e modelos (Multilayer Perceptron MLP e Radial Basis Function RBF de redes neurais artificiais foram testados, sendo selecionadas as redes que melhor representaram os dados. As estimativas dos volumes foram avaliadas por gráficos de volume estimado em função do volume observado e pelo teste estatístico L&O. Assim, conclui-se que o ajuste do modelo de Schumacher e Hall pode ser usado na sua forma linear, com boa representatividade e sem apresentar tendenciosidade; os algoritmos Gauss-Newton, Quasi-Newton e Levenberg-Marquardt mostraram-se eficientes para o ajuste do modelo volumétrico de Schumacher e Hall, e as redes neurais artificiais apresentaram boa adequação ao problema, sendo elas altamente recomendadas para realizar prognose da produção de florestas plantadas.This research aimed at evaluating the adjustment of Schumacher and Hall volumetric model by different algorithms and the application of artificial neural networks to estimate the volume of wood of eucalyptus according to the diameter at breast height (DBH, total height (Ht of the clone. For such, 21 scalings of stands of eucalyptus clones were used with

  17. Implantação de um programa de avaliação terminal do desempenho dos graduandos para estimar a eficácia do currículo na Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto Summative assessment of medical student clinical performance for evaluation of curriculum efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.E. de A. Troncon

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos cinco anos, um programa de avaliação final do desempenho dos graduandos vem sendo desenvolvido na Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, visando colher dados sobre a eficácia do currículo médico. OBJETIVO. Descrever as principais etapas de implantação deste programa, bem como as medidas tomadas para superar as dificuldades encontradas. MÉTODOS. A avaliação consiste em uma prova de conhecimentos e em exames práticos de habilidades clínicas nas cinco áreas terminais do curso médico. As provas são elaboradas e aplicadas por docentes das áreas envolvidas sob a supervisão de um grupo coordenador supra-departamental, que avalia todo o programa. Os graduandos participam como voluntários e os resultados são utilizados somente para os fins institucionais propostos. A adesão dos graduandos foi registrada e as impressões dos docentes e dos graduandos sobre o programa foram colhidas por meio de questionários específicos. RESULTADOS. Nos dois primeiros anos a adesão dos graduandos à prova de conhecimentos foi superior a 85%, mas o percentual de inscrições nas provas práticas foi de apenas 55%. Além disso, do primeiro para o segundo ano, houve diminuição considerável do grau de empenho dos docentes envolvidos, obrigando medidas corretivas voltadas ao recrutamento dos graduandos, à participação docente e aos métodos de avaliação prática. Em conseqüência, houve aumento notável da adesão dos estudantes que atingiu mais de 90% nos anos seguintes. Houve, também, acréscimo considerável do empenho docente, o que garantiu adequado nível de qualidade à avaliação. CONCLUSÃO. As medidas tomadas aumentaram a aceitação do programa e a qualidade das provas, permitindo que a avaliação do desempenho dos graduandos traga dados fidedignos sobre a eficácia do currículo.PURPOSE. To describe the main steps in the implementation of such assessment, as well as to present the measures taken in order to overcome

  18. Proposta de uma equação de regressão para estimar o pico da frequencia cardíaca ou a frequencia cardíaca máxima de esforço em indoor cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Abreu Pereira

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: uma das modalidades de academia que maior sucesso tem conquistado é o Indoor Cycle (IC, no entanto, o controlo da intensidade do esforço nem sempre é realizado e quando o é, recorre a uma fórmula universal que pode ter subjacente um erro grosseiro. Objectivos: (1 sugerir uma equação para determinar a frequência cardíaca máxima de esforço (FCmáxE ou Pico de FC passível de ser aplicada nas aulas de IC e (2 comparar a fórmula por nós sugerida com as propostas pelo ACSM (2006, Fox et al (1991 Tanaka (2001. Metodologia: a amostra é constituída por 135 adultos (33 ± 9 anos, praticantes de Indoor Cycling, há pelo menos 6 meses e aparentemente saudáveis segundo os critérios do ACSM (2002. Durante a aula foi sugerido um protocolo de avaliação da FCmáxE, apresentado por Garganta e Roig (2005. Os dados foram recolhidos com um Polar Team SystemTM,, nos ginásios “Stress Out”, “Paços Health Club”, “Bfree Fitness Club” e “Academia Impacto”. A equação de previsão foi elaborada com base na regressão linear simples, para um nível de significância de 0.05. Resultados: de acordo com a análise aos coeficientes de regressão, a fórmula que sugerimos é a seguinte: FCmáxE(IC=205-0,7*Idade, (r=0,61, r2=0,36, epe=7,5 bpm. Discussão: tal como vem referenciado na literatura, as equações de regressão devem ser entendidas como especificas e não universais, visto que há diferenças significativas entre a fórmula estimada durante as aulas de Indoor Cycle e as habitualmente sugeridas na literatura.

  19. ASTER Level 1B Registered Radiance at the Sensor

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is an advanced multispectral imager that was launched on board NASA's Terra spacecraft in...

  20. ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset 100-meter V003 - AG100

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer Global Emissivity Database (ASTER GED) was developed by the National Aeronautics and Space...

  1. Estudo de validação das equações de Tanaka e de Kawasaki para estimar a excreção diária de sódio através da coleta da urina casual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Geraldo Mill

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Objetivo: Validar as fórmulas de Tanaka e Kawasaki para cálculo do consumo de sal pela relação sódio/creatinina na urina casual. Métodos: Foram estudados 272 adultos (20 - 69 anos, 52,6% de mulheres com coleta urinária de 24 h e duas coletas casuais no mesmo dia (em jejum - casual 1 - e fora do jejum - casual 2. Antropometria, pressão arterial e coleta de sangue foram obtidos no mesmo dia. A concordância entre o consumo de sal estimado pela urina de 24 h e pela urina casual foi feita por Pearson (r e Bland & Altman. Resultados: O consumo médio de sal medido pela urina de 24 h foi de 10,4 ± 5,3 g/dia. A correlação entre a excreção de sódio na urina de 24 h e a estimada pela urina casual 1 ou 2, respectivamente, foi apenas moderada, tanto por Tanaka (r = 0,51 e r = 0,55; p < 0,001 como por Kawasaki (r = 0,52 e r = 0,54; p < 0,001. Observa-se subestimação crescente dos valores estimados em relação ao medido com o aumento do consumo de sal pela fórmula de Tanaka e, ao contrário, superestimação ao usar a fórmula de Kawasaki. As fórmulas estimam adequadamente o consumo diário de sal (diferença entre sal medido e estimado de, no máximo, 1 g/dia somente com consumo entre 9 - 12 g/dia (Tanaka e 12 - 18 g/dia (Kawasaki. Conclusão: A coleta de urina casual estima adequadamente o consumo de sal apenas nos indivíduos próximos à média populacional.

  2. Adaptação de métodos semi-empíricos para estimar capacidade de carga de estacas de pequeno diâmetro no solo de Londrina, Estado do Paraná = Adaptation of the semi-empiric methods to calculate small diameter piles bearing capacity in the soil of Londrina City, Paraná State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Gonçalves Miguel

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A cidade de Londrina, Estado do Paraná, possui um perfil geotécnicoconstituído de uma camada superficial de solo argilo-siltoso, poroso, laterítico e muitas vezes colapsível, que se estende até a profundidade máxima de 12 metros. As estacas utilizadas em obras de pequeno a médio porte se encontram totalmente embutidas nesta camada, sofrendo a influência de seu comportamento laterítico e colapsível. Os métodos clássicos brasileiros de estimativa de capacidade de carga de estacas tornam-se conservadores, frente aos resultados reais, quando aplicados em solos lateríticos e, contra a segurança, quando aplicados em solos colapsíveis, isto é, na condição crítica ao colapso. Este trabalho avalia os coeficientes de ajuste das resistências de ponta e ao atrito lateral para esses métodos, no caso de estacas apiloadas, sendo estes coeficientes obtidos pela retro-análise de resultados de provas de carga estática à compressão, realizadas no Campo Experimental de Engenharia Geotécnica da Universidade Estadual de Londrina.The city of Londrina, Paraná, has a typical geotechnical profile defined by a superficial layer of porous silty clay with maximum depth of about 12 meters, that shows lateritic characteristics, andmany times, collapsibility. Casts in place piles are often used for small buildings in the region and are fully embedded in this soil layer. Therefore, this type of foundation is subjected to the lateritic and occasionally collapsible influence of soil. Brazilian pile bearing capacity methods may yield conservative results when applied to tropical soils, as far as the lateritic origin in concerned. On the other hand, it can be unsafe if collapsibility prevails. This paper evaluates coefficients to adjust both point and lateral resistance of cast in place small diameter piles in the situation described. The work was carried out at the Londrina State University Geotechnical Experimental Site, and back analysis from static

  3. Fifteen Years of ASTER Data on NASA's Terra Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, M.; Tsu, H.

    2014-12-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five instruments operating on NASA's Terra platform. Launched in 1999, ASTER has been acquiring data for 15 years. ASTER is a joint project between Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry; and US NASA. Data processing and distribution are done by both organizations; a joint science team helps to define mission priorities. ASTER acquires ~550 images per day, with a 60 km swath width. A daytime acquisition is three visible bands and a backward-looking stereo band with 15 m resolution, six SWIR bands with 30 m resolution, and 5 TIR bands with 90 m resolution. Nighttime TIR-only data are routinely collected. The stereo capability has allowed the ASTER project to produce a global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) data set, covering the earth's land surfaces from 83 degrees north to 83 degrees south, with 30 m data postings. This is the only (near-) global DEM available to all users at no charge; to date, over 28 million 1-by-1 degree DEM tiles have been distributed. As a general-purpose imaging instrument, ASTER-acquired data are used in numerous scientific disciplines, including: land use/land cover, urban monitoring, urban heat island studies, wetlands studies, agriculture monitoring, forestry, etc. Of particular emphasis has been the acquisition and analysis of data for natural hazard and disaster applications. We have been systematically acquiring images for 15,000 valley glaciers through the USGS Global Land Ice Monitoring from Space Project. The recently published Randolph Glacier Inventory, and the GLIMS book, both relied heavily on ASTER data as the basis for glaciological and climatological studies. The ASTER Volcano Archive is a unique on-line archive of thousands of daytime and nighttime ASTER images of ~1500 active glaciers, along with a growing archive of Landsat images. ASTER was scheduled to target active volcanoes at least 4 times per year, and more frequently for

  4. Aster Global dem Version 3, and New Aster Water Body Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, M.

    2016-06-01

    In 2016, the US/Japan ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) project released Version 3 of the Global DEM (GDEM). This 30 m DEM covers the earth's surface from 82N to 82S, and improves on two earlier versions by correcting some artefacts and filling in areas of missing DEMs by the acquisition of additional data. The GDEM was produced by stereocorrelation of 2 million ASTER scenes and operation on a pixel-by-pixel basis: cloud screening; stacking data from overlapping scenes; removing outlier values, and averaging elevation values. As previously, the GDEM is packaged in ~ 23,000 1 x 1 degree tiles. Each tile has a DEM file, and a NUM file reporting the number of scenes used for each pixel, and identifying the source for fill-in data (where persistent clouds prevented computation of an elevation value). An additional data set was concurrently produced and released: the ASTER Water Body Dataset (AWBD). This is a 30 m raster product, which encodes every pixel as either lake, river, or ocean; thus providing a global inland and shore-line water body mask. Water was identified through spectral analysis algorithms and manual editing. This product was evaluated against the Shuttle Water Body Dataset (SWBD), and the Landsat-based Global Inland Water (GIW) product. The SWBD only covers the earth between about 60 degrees north and south, so it is not a global product. The GIW only delineates inland water bodies, and does not deal with ocean coastlines. All products are at 30 m postings.

  5. ASTER satellite observations for international disaster management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, K.A.; Abrams, M.

    2012-01-01

    When lives are threatened or lost due to catastrophic disasters, and when massive financial impacts are experienced, international emergency response teams rapidly mobilize to provide urgently required support. Satellite observations of affected areas often provide essential insight into the magnitude and details of the impacts. The large cost and high complexity of developing and operating satellite flight and ground systems encourages international collaboration in acquiring imagery for such significant global events in order to speed delivery of critical information to help those affected, and optimize spectral, spatial, and temporal coverage of the areas of interest. The International Charter-Space and Major Disasters was established to enable such collaboration in sensor tasking during times of crisis and is often activated in response to calls for assistance from authorized users. Insight is provided from a U.S. perspective into sensor support for Charter activations and other disaster events through a description of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), which has been used to support emergency situations for over a decade through its expedited tasking and near real-time data delivery capabilities. Examples of successes achieved and challenges encountered in international collaboration to develop related systems and fulfill tasking requests suggest operational considerations for new missions as well as areas for future enhancements.

  6. Aplicación para estimar costos en proyectos de software

    OpenAIRE

    Lencina, Berenice; Medina, Yanina; Dapozo, Gladys N.

    2016-01-01

    La estimación es un factor que influye directamente en la calidad del software porque afecta la planificación de tiempo, recursos y presupuestos económicos en la gestión de proyectos. Una encuesta sobre las prácticas de estimación en las empresas o áreas de sistemas en la ciudad de Corrientes determinó que las técnicas más utilizadas son las que están basadas en el juicio de expertos, sin embargo, surge también que se conocen pero se utilizan poco las técnicas paramétricas que garantizan mayo...

  7. Uso de una red inalámbrica de sensores para estimar riesgo de incendio

    OpenAIRE

    Campo Vos, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    Una red inalámbrica de sensores (Wireless Sensor Network, WSN) constituye un sistema de comunicación de datos flexible utilizado como alternativa a las redes cableadas o como extensión de éstas y está compuesta por elementos de cómputo, medición y comunicación, que permiten al administrador instrumentar, observar y reaccionar a eventos y fenómenos en un ambiente específico. Una de las aplicaciones de estas redes es su uso en sistemas de predicción y prevención de incendios en áreas n...

  8. COMPARACIÓN DE MÉTODOS PARA ESTIMAR DISPONIBILIDAD HÍDRICA EN CUENCAS FORESTALES

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Rodrigo Martín Clemente; Joaquín Sosa Ramírez; Manuel Maass Moreno; José de Jesús Luna Ruíz; Antonio de Jesús Meráz Jiménez; Ernesto Flores Ancira

    2015-01-01

    La cuenca de la Presa Calles se ubica dentro de la Sierra Fría, en el estado de Aguascalientes, México. Pese a ser la principal fuente de agua del acuífero interestatal “Ojocaliente-Aguascalientes-Encarnación” no existen estudios sobre la dinámica hídrica en este ecosistema. Este trabajo compara la disponibilidad hídrica de la cuenca de la Presa Calles, estimada a partir del modelo de balance hídrico de Thornthwaite y Mather (B.H.), corregido en función de la latitud y ponderado mediante polí...

  9. ASTER Imaging and Analysis of Glacier Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargel, Jeffrey; Furfaro, Roberto; Kaser, Georg; Leonard, Gregory; Fink, Wolfgang; Huggel, Christian; Kääb, Andreas; Raup, Bruce; Reynolds, John; Wolfe, David; Zapata, Marco

    Most scientific attention to glaciers, including ASTER and other satellite-derived applications in glacier science, pertains to their roles in the following seven functions: (1) as signposts of climate change (Kaser et al. 1990; Williams and Ferrigno 1999, 2002; Williams et al. 2008; Kargel et al. 2005; Oerlemans 2005), (2) as natural reservoirs of fresh water (Yamada and Motoyama 1988; Yang and Hu 1992; Shiyin et al. 2003; Juen et al. 2007), (3) as contributors to sea-level change (Arendt et al. 2002), (4) as sources of hydropower (Reynolds 1993); much work also relates to the basic science of glaciology, especially (5) the physical phenomeno­logy of glacier flow processes and glacier change (DeAngelis and Skvarca 2003; Berthier et al. 2007; Rivera et al. 2007), (6) glacial geomorphology (Bishop et al. 1999, 2003), and (7) the technology required to acquire and analyze satellite images of glaciers (Bishop et al. 1999, 2000, 2003, 2004; Quincey et al. 2005, 2007; Raup et al. 2000, 2006ab; Khalsa et al. 2004; Paul et al. 2004a, b). These seven functions define the important areas of glaciological science and technology, yet a more pressing issue in parts of the world is the direct danger to people and infrastructure posed by some glaciers (Trask 2005; Morales 1969; Lliboutry et al. 1977; Evans and Clague 1988; Xu and Feng 1989; Reynolds 1993, 1998, 1999; Yamada and Sharma 1993; Hastenrath and Ames 1995; Mool 1995; Ames 1998; Chikita et al. 1999; Williams and Ferrigno 1999; Richardson and Reynolds 2000a, b; Zapata 2002; Huggel et al. 2002, 2004; Xiangsong 1992; Kääb et al. 2003, 2005, 2005c; Salzmann et al. 2004; Noetzli et al. 2006).

  10. ASTER Global DEM contribution to GEOSS demonstrates open data sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohre, T.; Duda, K. A.; Meyer, D. J.; Behnke, J.; Nasa Esdis Lp Daac

    2010-12-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) remote sensing instrument on the Terra spacecraft has been acquiring images of Earth since launch in 1999. Throughout this time data products have been openly available to the general public through sites in the U.S. and Japan. As the ASTER mission matured, a spatially broad and temporally deep data archive was gradually established. With this extensive accumulation of Earth observations, it became possible to create a new global digital elevation product, the ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM), using multi-temporal data, resulting in over 22,000 static 10 X 10 tiles. The ASTER GDEM was contributed by Japan’s Ministry of Economy Trade and Industry (METI) and the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) for distribution at no cost to users. As such, both METI and NASA desired to understand the uses of the ASTER GDEM, expressed as one of the GEOSS applications themes: disasters, health, energy, climate, water, weather, ecosystems, agriculture or biodiversity. This required both the registration of users, and restrictions on redistribution, to capture the intended use in terms of the GEOSS themes. The ASTER GDEM was made available to users worldwide via electronic download from the Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center (ERSDAC) of Japan and from NASA’s Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC). During the first three months after product release, over 4 million GDEM tiles were distributed from the LP DAAC and ERSDAC. The ASTER GDEM release generated nearly 20,000 new user registrations in the NASA EOS ClearingHOuse (ECHO)/WIST and the ERSDAC systems. By the end of 2009, over 6.5 Million GDEM tiles were distributed by the LP DAAC and ERSDAC. Users have requested tiles over specific areas of interest as well as the entire dataset for global research. Intense global interest in the GDEM

  11. CHROMITITE PROSPECTING USING LANDSAT TM AND ASTER REMOTE SENSING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Beiranvand Pour

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Studying the ophiolite complexes using multispectral remote sensing satellite data are interesting because of high diversity of minerals and the source of podiform chromitites. This research developed an approach to discriminate lithological units and detecting host rock of chromitite bodies within ophiolitic complexes using the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER and Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM satellite data. Three main ophiolite complexes located in south of Iran have been selected for the study. Spectral transform techniques, including minimum noise fraction (MNF and specialized band ratio were employed to detect different rock units and the identification of high-potential areas of chromite ore deposits within ophiolitic complexes. A specialized band ratio (4/1, 4/5, 4/7 of ASTER, MNF components and Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM on ASTER and Landsat TM data were used to distinguish ophiolitic rock units. Results show that the specialized band ratio was able to identify different rock units and serpentinized dunite as host rock of chromitites within ophiolitic complexes, appropriately. MNF components of ASTER and Landsat TM data were suitable to distinguish ophiolitic rock complexes at a regional scale. The integration of SAM and Feature Level Fusion (FLF used in this investigation discriminated the ophiolitic rock units and prepared detailed geological map for the study area. Accordingly, high potential areas (serpentinite dunite were identified in the study area for chromite exploration targets.The approach used in this research offers the image processing techniques as a robust, reliable, fast and cost-effective method for detecting serpentinized dunite as host rock of chromitite bodies within vast ophiolite complexes using ASTER and Landsat TM satellite data.

  12. Recent developments in seismic analysis in the code Aster; Les developpements recents en analyse sismique dans le code aster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guihot, P.; Devesa, G.; Dumond, A.; Panet, M.; Waeckel, F.

    1996-12-31

    Progress in the field of seismic qualification and design methods made these last few years allows physical phenomena actually in play to be better considered, while cutting down the conservatism associated with some simplified design methods. So following the change in methods and developing the most advantageous ones among them contributes to the process of the seismic margins assessment and the preparation of new design tools for future series. In this paper, the main developments and improvements in methods which have been made these last two years in the Code Aster, in order to improve seismic calculation methods and seismic margin assessment are presented. The first development relates to making the MISS3D soil structure interaction code available, thanks to an interface made with the Code Aster. The second relates to the possibility of making modal basis time calculations on multi-supported structures by considering local non linearities like impact, friction or squeeze fluid forces. Recent developments in random dynamics and postprocessing devoted to earthquake designs are then mentioned. Three applications of these developments are then ut forward. The first application relates to a test case for soil structure interaction design using MISS3D-Aster coupling. The second is a test case for a multi-supported structure. The last application, more for manufacturing, refers to seismic qualification of Main Live Steam stop valves. First results of the independent validation of the Code Aster seismic design functionalities, which provide and improve the quality of software, are also recalled. (authors). 11 refs.

  13. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) after fifteen years: Review of global products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Michael; Tsu, Hiroji; Hulley, Glynn; Iwao, Koki; Pieri, David; Cudahy, Tom; Kargel, Jeffrey

    2015-06-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is a 15-channel imaging instrument operating on NASA's Terra satellite. A joint project between the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry, ASTER has been acquiring data for 15 years, since March 2000. The archive now contains over 2.8 million scenes; for the majority of them, a stereo pair was collected using nadir and backward telescopes imaging in the NIR wavelength. The majority of users require only a few to a few dozen scenes for their work. Studies have ranged over numerous scientific disciplines, and many practical applications have benefited from ASTER's unique data. A few researchers have been able to mine the entire ASTER archive, that is now global in extent due to the long duration of the mission. Six examples of global products are described in this contribution: the ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM), the most complete, highest resolution DEM available to all users; the ASTER Emissivity Database (ASTER GED), a global 5-band emissivity map of the land surface; the ASTER Global Urban Area Map (AGURAM), a 15-m resolution database of over 3500 cities; the ASTER Volcano Archive (AVA), an archive of over 1500 active volcanoes; ASTER Geoscience products of the continent of Australia; and the Global Ice Monitoring from Space (GLIMS) project.

  14. Prediction of winter wheat grain protein content by ASTER image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenjiang; Song, Xiaoyu; Wang, Jihua; Wang, Zhijie; Zhao, Chunjiang

    2008-10-01

    The Advanced technology in space-borne determination of grain crude protein content (CP) by remote sensing can help optimize the strategies for buyers in aiding purchasing decisions, and help farmers to maximize the grain output by adjusting field nitrogen (N) fertilizer inputs. We performed field experiments to study the relationship between grain quality indicators and foliar nitrogen concentration (FNC). FNC at anthesis stage was significantly correlated with CP, while spectral vegetation index was significantly correlated to FNC. Based on the relationships among nitrogen reflectance index (NRI), FNC and CP, a model for CP prediction was developed. NRI was able to evaluate FNC with a higher coefficient of determination of R2=0.7302. The method developed in this study could contribute towards developing optimal procedures for evaluating wheat grain quality by ASTER image at anthesis stage. The RMSE was 0.893 % for ASTER image model, and the R2 was 0.7194. It is thus feasible to forecast grain quality by NRI derived from ASTER image.

  15. Comparison of field emissivities with laboratory measurements and ASTER data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mira, M.; Schmugge, T.; Valor, E.; Caselles, V.; Coll, C.

    2008-10-01

    Surface emissivity in the thermal infrared (TIR) region is an important parameter for determining the land surface temperature from remote sensing measurements. This work compares the emissivities measured by different field methods (the Box method and the Temperature and Emissivity Separation, TES, algorithm) as well as emissivity data from ASTER scenes and the spectra obtained from the ASTER Spectral Library. The study was performed with a field radiometer having TIR bands with central wavelengths at 11.3 μm, 10.6 μm, 9.1 μm, 8.7 μm and 8.4 μm, similar to the ASTER TIR bands. The measurements were made at two sites in southern New Mexico. The first was in the White Sands National Monument, and the second was an open shrub land in the Jornada Experimental Range, in the northern Chihuahuan Desert, New Mexico, USA. The measurements show that, in general, emissivities derived with the Box method agree within 3% with those derived with the TES method for the spectral bands centered at 10.6 μm and 11.3 μm. However, the emissivities for the shorter wavelength bands are higher when derived with the Box method than those with the TES algorithm (differences range from 2% to 7%). The field emissivities agree within 2% with the laboratory spectrum for the 8-13 μm, 11.3 μm and 10.6 μm bands. However, the field and laboratory measurements in general differ from 3% to 16% for the shorter wavelength bands, i.e., 9.1 μm, 8.6 μm and 8.4 μm. A good agreement between the experimental measurements and the ASTER TIR emissivity data is observed for White Sands, especially over the 9 - 12 μm range (agreement within 4%). The study showed an emissivity increase up to 17% in the 8 to 9 μm range and an increase of 8% in emissivity ratio of average channels (8.4 μm, 8.6 μm, 9.1 μm):(10.6 μm, 11.3 μm) for two gypsum samples with different water content.

  16. Assessing the land cover situation in Surkhang, Upper Mustang, Nepal, using an ASTER image

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, B.D.; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Graaf, de N.R.; Chapagain, N.R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the remote sensing technique used to prepare a land cover map of Surkhang, Upper Mustang Nepal. The latest ASTER image (October 2002) and an ASTER DEM were used for the land cover classification. The study was carried out in Surkhang Village Development Committee (area 799 km2)

  17. The influence of Aster x salignus Willd. Invasion on the diversity of soil yeast communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushakova, A. M.; Kachalkin, A. V.; Chernov, I. Yu.

    2016-07-01

    The annual dynamics of yeast communities were studied in the soddy-podzolic soil under the thickets of Aster x salignus Willd., one of the widespread invasive plant species in central Russia. Yeast groups in the soils under continuous aster thickets were found to differ greatly from the yeast communities in the soils under the adjacent indigenous meadow vegetation. In both biotopes the same species ( Candida vartiovaarae, Candida sake, and Cryptococcus terreus) are dominants. However, in the soils under indigenous grasses, eurybiontic yeasts Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, which almost never occur in the soil under aster, are widespread. In the soil under aster, the shares of other typical epiphytic and pedobiontic yeast fungi (ascomycetic species Wickerhamomyces aniomalus, Barnettozyma californica and basidiomycetic species Cystofilobasidium macerans, Guehomyces pullulans) significantly increase. Thus, the invasion of Aster x salignus has a clear effect on soil yeast complexes reducing their taxonomic and ecological diversity.

  18. Mandible characteristics and allometric relations in copepods: a reliable method to estimate prey size and composition from mandible occurrence in predator guts Caracterización de mandíbulas y relación alométrica en copépodos: método adecuado para estimar tamaño y composición de presas usando mandíbulas encontradas en intestinos de depredadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Giesecke

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The size and shape of the cutting edge of the mandibles from the five most abundant copepod species found in Mejillones Bay are described with the aim to create a helpful tool for the identification of copepod prey and their size from predator gut contents. Good allometric relationships were found between the carapace length and the mandible width for the species Paracalanus parvus, Centropages brachiatus and Acartia tonsa. By contrast, the cyclopoids Oithona sp. and Corycaeus sp. did not present a good relationship between these two parameters, presumably due to the presence of more than a species in the study area. Applying the edge index (Itoh 1970 the copepods were classified as herbivores (e.g., P. parvus, omnivores (e.g., C. brachiatus and A. tonsa, and carnivores (e.g., Oithona sp.. In general, there was a tight relationship between the morphometric characters of the mandible blade and the trophic ecology of each species. The good relationship between the mandible width and the carapace length of the calanoid species will permit the estimation of the size of an ingested copepod by a predator, within a certain degree of accuracy, by measuring the width of the mandibles found in gut contents. This relationship and the supplementary characterization of the mandible blade will help improve the knowledge of the feeding ecology of the mesozooplankton in northern ChileEl tamaño y forma del extremo cortante de la mandíbula de las cinco especies de copépodos más abundantes en la bahía de Mejillones fueron descritas con el propósito de crear una herramienta útil para la identificación de contenidos intestinales de depredadores de copépodos. Aparte de esto, se analizó la relación alométrica entre la longitud cefalotoráxica y el diámetro mandibular para las especies Paracalanus parvus, Centropages brachiatus Acartia tonsa, Oithona sp. y Corycaeus sp. A diferencia de las especies calanoídeas, las especies ciclopoídeas no presentaron

  19. INTEGRATION OF PALSAR AND ASTER SATELLITE DATA FOR GEOLOGICAL MAPPING IN TROPICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Beiranvand Pour

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the integration of the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER satellite data for geological mapping applications in tropical environments. The eastern part of the central belt of peninsular Malaysia has been investigated to identify structural features and mineral mapping using PALSAR and ASTER data. Adaptive local sigma and directional filters were applied to PALSAR data for detecting geological structure elements in the study area. The vegetation, mineralogic and lithologic indices for ASTER bands were tested in tropical climate. Lineaments (fault and fractures and curvilinear (anticline or syncline were detected using PALSAR fused image of directional filters (N-S, NE-SW, and NW-SE.Vegetation index image map show vegetation cover by fusing ASTER VNIR bands. High concentration of clay minerals zone was detected using fused image map derived from ASTER SWIR bands. Fusion of ASTER TIR bands produced image map of the lithological units. Results indicate that data integration and data fusion from PALSAR and ASTER sources enhanced information extraction for geological mapping in tropical environments.

  20. Response of mycorrhizal periwinkle plants to aster yellows phytoplasma infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamińska, Maria; Klamkowski, Krzysztof; Berniak, Hanna; Sowik, Iwona

    2010-03-01

    The objective of our research was to assess if arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal colonization can modify the effect of infection by two aster yellows phytoplasma strains (AY1, AYSim) in Catharanthus roseus plants. Both phytoplasma strains had a negative effect on the root fresh weight, but they differed in symptoms appearance and in their influence on photosynthetic and transpiration rates of the periwinkle plants. AM plants showed significantly reduced shoot fresh weight, while the transpiration rate was significantly increased. AM fungal colonization significantly affected shoot height and fresh weight of the plants infected by each phytoplasma strains as well as the root system of plants infected with the more aggressive AYSim phytoplasma strain. Double inoculation did not reduce the negative effects induced with phytoplasma alone on the photosynthetic activity of phytoplasma-infected plants.

  1. Poly-Pattern Compressive Segmentation of ASTER Data for GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Wayne; Warner, Eric; Tutwiler, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Pattern-based segmentation of multi-band image data, such as ASTER, produces one-byte and two-byte approximate compressions. This is a dual segmentation consisting of nested coarser and finer level pattern mappings called poly-patterns. The coarser A-level version is structured for direct incorporation into geographic information systems in the manner of a raster map. GIs renderings of this A-level approximation are called pattern pictures which have the appearance of color enhanced images. The two-byte version consisting of thousands of B-level segments provides a capability for approximate restoration of the multi-band data in selected areas or entire scenes. Poly-patterns are especially useful for purposes of change detection and landscape analysis at multiple scales. The primary author has implemented the segmentation methodology in a public domain software suite.

  2. Thermal mapping of Hawaiian volcanoes with ASTER satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Matthew R.; Witzke, Coral-Nadine

    2011-01-01

    Thermal mapping of volcanoes is important to determine baseline thermal behavior in order to judge future thermal activity that may precede an eruption. We used cloud-free kinetic temperature images from the ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) sensor obtained between 2000 and 2010 to produce thermal maps for all five subaerial volcanoes in Hawai‘i that have had eruptions in the Holocene (Kīlauea, Mauna Loa, Hualālai, Mauna Kea, and Haleakalā). We stacked the images to provide time-averaged thermal maps, as well as to analyze temperature trends through time. Thermal areas are conspicuous at the summits and rift zones of Kīlauea and Mauna Loa, and the summit calderas of these volcanoes contain obvious arcuate, concentric linear thermal areas that probably result from channeling of rising gas along buried, historical intracaldera scarps. The only significant change in thermal activity noted in the study period is the opening of the Halema‘uma‘u vent at Kīlauea's summit in 2008. Several small thermal anomalies are coincident with pit craters on Hualālai. We suspect that these simply result from the sheltered nature of the depression, but closer inspection is warranted to determine if genuine thermal activity exists in the craters. Thermal areas were not detected on Haleakalā or Mauna Kea. The main limitation of the study is the large pixel size (90 m) of the ASTER images, which reduces our ability to detect subtle changes or to identify small, low-temperature thermal activity. This study, therefore, is meant to characterize the broad, large-scale thermal features on these volcanoes. Future work should study these thermal areas with thermal cameras and thermocouples, which have a greater ability to detect small, low-temperature thermal features.

  3. Evidence on Possible Mycoplasma Etiology of Aster Yellows Disease II. Suppression of Aster Yellows in Insect Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, R F; Davis, R E

    1970-08-01

    Chlortetracycline or chloramphenicol (but not kanamycin, penicillin, or erythromycin), when administered in hydroponic solution to diseased aster, reduced the availability of the aster yellows (AY) agent to nymphs of Macrosteles fascifrons (Stål). Insects exposed to healthy plants whose roots were immersed in chlortetracycline were able to acquire AY agent from diseased plants the day after removal from the antibiotic-treated plants, but the latent period of the ensuing disease in the insects was prolonged. Chlortetracycline or tylosin tartrate blocked AY infection in nymphs injected with a mixture of antibiotic and the AY agent, but polymyxin, neomycin, vancomycin, penicillin, carbomycin, or chloramphenicol did not. All tetracyclines tested, methacycline, oxytetracycline, and chlortetracycline, produced a dramatic reduction in the ability of infected vectors to transmit AY agent. Tylosin tartrate also reduced transmission when injected into AY-transmitting vectors, but carbomycin, spectinomycin, cycloserine, penicillin, erythromycin, or kanamycin had no such effect. During the first 10 days after injection of tylosin tartrate or oxytetracycline into transmitting vectors, ability of the insects to transmit AY decayed rapidly. Transmission by insects injected with buffer alone, after decreasing the first day after injection, gradually returned to its normal level in less than 1 week. By 2 to 3 weeks after injection with tylosin or oxytetracycline, ability to transmit AY was regained by vectors. The results suggest that tetracycline antibiotics and tylosin tartrate inhibit multiplication of AY agent in the insect. The spectrum of antibiotic activity in the insect is consistent with the hypothesis that AY and other plant yellows diseases are caused by mycoplasma-like organisms.

  4. ASTER Global Emissivity Data Set Monthly 0.05 degree V041 - AG5KMMOH

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Emissivity Dataset (GED) is a collection of monthly files (see known issues for gaps)...

  5. ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset Monthly 0.05 degree NetCDF4

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Emissivity Dataset (GED) is a collection of monthly files (see known issues for gaps)...

  6. ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset 1-kilometer Binary V003 - AG1KMB

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer Global Emissivity Database (ASTER GED) was developed by the National Aeronautics and Space...

  7. ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset 100-meter Binary V003 - AG100B

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer Global Emissivity Database (ASTER GED) was developed by the National Aeronautics and Space...

  8. ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset 1-kilometer V003 - AG1KM

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer Global Emissivity Database (ASTER GED) was developed by the National Aeronautics and Space...

  9. ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset Monthly 0.05 degree HDF5

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Emissivity Dataset (GED) is a collection of monthly files (see known issues for gaps)...

  10. COMPARACIÓN DE TRES MODELOS PARA ESTIMAR LA TRANSPIRACIÓN DE UN CULTIVO DE JITOMATE EN INVERNADERO

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    La transpiración es un proceso fisiológico que utiliza casi toda el agua absorbida por las plantas; conocer su comportamiento en periodos cortos permite optimizar el riego, sobre todo en cultivos establecidos en sustrato. En esta investigación se compararon los modelos teór icos de Penman- Monteith, Stanghellini y Boulard-Wang, con los que se estimó la tasa de transpiración del cultivo. La comparación se hizo con datos de dos experimentos en donde se cultivó jit omate (Solanum lycopersicum L....

  11. On-Orbit Spatial Characterization of MODIS with ASTER Aboard the Terra Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yong; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2011-01-01

    This letter presents a novel approach for on-orbit characterization of MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) band-to-band registration (BBR) using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) aboard the Terra spacecraft. The spatial resolution of ASTER spectral bands is much higher than that of MODIS, making it feasible to characterize MODIS on-orbit BBR using their simultaneous observations. The ground target selected for on-orbit MODIS BBR characterization in this letter is a water body, which is a uniform scene with high signal contrast relative to its neighbor areas. A key step of this approach is to accurately localize the measurements of each MODIS band in an ASTER measurement plane coordinate (AMPC). The ASTER measurements are first interpolated and aggregated to simulate the measurements of each MODIS band. The best measurement match between ASTER and each MODIS band is obtained when the measurement difference reaches its weighted minimum. The position of each MODIS band in the AMPC is then used to calculate the BBR. The results are compared with those derived from MODIS onboard Spectro-Radiometric Calibration Assembly. They are in good agreement, generally less than 0.1 MODIS pixel. This approach is useful for other sensors without onboard spatial characterization capability. Index Terms Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), band-to-band registration (BBR), MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), spatial characterization.

  12. EOS Contract Report: The ASTER and MODIS Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, P.; Thome, K. (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    Three major tasks occupied the group's efforts during this six months. The first was measuring the bidirectional reflectance properties of four reflectance samples provided by NIST. S. Biggar and P. Spyak made these measurements in both the VNIR and SWIR. The second major task was the group's move to a new facility in March. This required that our calibration laboratory and blacklab be disassembled and reassembled in addition to moving offices and other equipment. The third task was the joint vicarious calibration that took place the latter half of June. This campaign included two weeks of laboratory measurements by the RSG and nine days in the field. Other work during the past six months consisted of Science Team support activities including the attendance at meetings related to MODIS and ASTER. In addition, K. Scott continued work on the cross-calibration software package by developing a graphical interface to 6S, an uncertainty analysis code, and an image registration module. M. Sicard used a trip to Cimel in France to change the Cimel TIR radiometer's field of view and then characterized this new field of view. Z. Rouf and Z. Murshalin processed radiance-based data from last summer's Lunar Lake campaign.

  13. Thermal remote sensing of ice-debris landforms using ASTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenning, A.; Peña, M. A.; Long, S.; Soliman, A.

    2011-10-01

    Remote sensors face challenges in characterizing mountain permafrost and ground thermal conditions or mapping rock glaciers and debris-covered glaciers. We explore the potentials of thermal imaging and in particular thermal inertia mapping in mountain cryospheric research, focusing on the relationships between ground surface temperatures and the presence of ice-debris landforms on one side and land surface temperature (LST) and apparent thermal inertia (ATI) on the other. In our case study we utilize ASTER daytime and nighttime imagery and in-situ measurements of near-surface ground temperature (NSGT) in the Mediterranean Andes during a snow-free and dry observation period in late summer. Spatial patterns of LST and NSGT were mostly consistent with each other both at daytime and at nighttime. Daytime LST over ice-debris landforms was decreased and ATI consequently increased compared to other debris surfaces under otherwise equal conditions, but NSGT showed contradictory results, which underlines the complexity and possible scale dependence of ATI in heterogeneous substrates with the presence of a thermal mismatch and a heat sink at depth. While our results demonstrate the utility of thermal imaging and ATI mapping in a mountain cryospheric context, further research is needed for a better interpretation of ATI patterns in complex thermophysical conditions

  14. Atividade antibacteriana e antifúngica de extratos etanólicos de Aster lanceolatus Willd., Asteraceae Antibacterial and antifungal activity of ethanolics extracts from Aster lanceolatus Willd., Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane F. Gaspari Dias

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Conhecida popularmente como áster-arbustiva, margarida-de-são-miguel e monte-cassino, Aster lanceolatus é uma planta ornamental de corte. Sabendo-se que não existem estudos que atestem a atividade biológica desta espécie, procurou-se neste trabalho atividades antibacteriana e antifúngica. Para tanto se utilizaram extratos brutos etanólicos de duas porções distintas, das flores e dos caules com folhas. Para a atividade antibacteriana, oito bactérias patogênicas foram submetidas a ensaio de difusão em gel e concentração inibitória mínima. Demonstrou-se atividade do extrato bruto etanólico de flores contra Streptococcus pyogenes, em difusão em gel e atividade de extrato bruto etanólico de caules e folhas contra Salmonella typhimurium e Streptococcus pyogenes em concentração inibitória mínima. Para a atividade antifúngica, utilizaram-se três fungos patogênicos em ensaios de crescimento micelial em placas e bioautografia direta. No ensaio de crescimento micelial em placas verificou-se a inibição de Fusarium oxysporum e na bioautografia direta, inibição do Cylindrocladium spathulatum. Os resultados delinearam uma nova fonte de pesquisa, as plantas ornamentais. Estas podem ser fonte de constituintes químicos capazes de servirem como protótipos para novos agentes terapêuticos e para tratamento sanitário de plantas medicinais.Popularly known as aster-arbustiva, margarida-de-são-miguel and monte-cassino, Aster lanceolatus is an ornamental plant. Having the knowledge that there is no studies on the biological activity of this species, this work aimed to check the antibacterial and antifungal activities. The ethanol extracts of the flowers and of the stems with leaves were used. For the antibacterial activity eight pathogenic bacteria were submitted to the diffusion test in gel and minimal inhibitory concentration. The activity of the ethanolic extract of the flowers has been demonstrated against Streptococcus pyogenes in

  15. Evaluation of ASTER-Like Daily Land Surface Temperature by Fusing ASTER and MODIS Data during the HiWATER-MUSOEXE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guijun Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Land surface temperature (LST is an important parameter that is highly responsive to surface energy fluxes and has become valuable to many disciplines. However, it is difficult to acquire satellite LSTs with both high spatial and temporal resolutions due to tradeoffs between them. Thus, various algorithms/models have been developed to enhance the spatial or the temporal resolution of thermal infrared (TIR data or LST, but rarely both. The Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM is the widely-used data fusion algorithm for Landsat and MODIS imagery to produce Landsat-like surface reflectance. In order to extend the STARFM application over heterogeneous areas, an enhanced STARFM (ESTARFM approach was proposed by introducing a conversion coefficient and the spectral unmixing theory. The aim of this study is to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of the ESTARFM algorithm for generating ASTER-like daily LST by three approaches: simulated data, ground measurements and remote sensing products, respectively. The datasets of LST ground measurements, MODIS, and ASTER images were collected in an arid region of Northwest China during the first thematic HiWATER-Multi-Scale Observation Experiment on Evapotranspiration (MUSOEXE over heterogeneous land surfaces in 2012 from May to September. Firstly, the results of the simulation test indicated that ESTARFM could accurately predict background with temperature variations, even coordinating with small ground objects and linear ground objects. Secondly, four temporal ASTER and MODIS data fusion LSTs (i.e., predicted ASTER-like LST products were highly consistent with ASTER LST products. Here, the four correlation coefficients were greater than 0.92, root mean square error (RMSE reached about 2 K and mean absolute error (MAE ranged from 1.32 K to 1.73 K. Finally, the results of the ground measurement validation indicated that the overall accuracy was high (R2 = 0.92, RMSE = 0.77 K, and the

  16. IMÁGENES ASTER EN LA DISCRIMINACIÓN DE ÁREAS DE USO AGRÍCOLA EN COLOMBIA ASTER IMAGES FOR DISCRIMINATION OF AGRICULTURAL USE AREAS IN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidia Esperanza Ortiz Lozano

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El avance de las tecnologías de la información geográfica ha llevado a la puesta de nuevos sensores para observación de la tierra. ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Termal Emission and Reflection Radiometer, considerado como sensor de última generación, posee características especiales que lo colocan como una alternativa para estudios de la cobertura vegetal de la tierra. El presente trabajo se basó en sus características espaciales, espectrales y radiométricas con el fin de discriminar las áreas de cultivo agrícola en el distrito de riego Usocoello, en Colombia. Se utilizó una imagen ASTER de nivel 1B de 2006, corregida geométricamente, remuestreada y sus valores de radiancia fueron transformados a valores de reflectancia, permitiendo realizar dos composiciones: imágenes originales (VNIR-SWIR e imagen fusionada en transformación IHS. Se estableció una leyenda temática a partir del esquema de clasificación "CORINE Land Cover - Colombia", definiendo 10 categorías de cobertura representativas en la imagen. Para la fase de asignación se utilizó el clasificador de máxima probabilidad. En el proceso de verificación y cuantificación del nivel de exactitud se utilizó, como verdad terreno, la base de datos geográfica del área a nivel de predio de la misma fecha de la toma de la imagen, encontrándose una fiabilidad global estimada del 75% para la imagen VNIR-SWIR; si se tiene en cuenta la variabilidad de los estados fenológicos de los cultivos (arroz, maíz y sorgo en el área y un contraste espacial significativo en la imagen fusionada, el índice de Kappa obtenido fue de 0,75 con un grado de acuerdo sustancial.The advance of geographical information technology has led to the placement of new sensors for earth observation. ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer is considered as a latest generation sensor. It has special characteristics that places it as an alternative for studies of vegetation cover

  17. Estimation of broadband emissivity (8-12 um) from ASTER data by using RM-NN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, K B; Ma, Y; Shen, X Y; Li, B P; Li, C Y; Li, Z L

    2012-08-27

    Land surface window emissivity is a key parameter for estimating the longwave radiative budget. The combined radiative transfer model (RM) with neural network (NN) algorithm is utilized to directly estimate the window (8-12 um) emissivity from the brightness temperature of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) with 90 m spatial resolution. Although the estimation accuracy is very high when the broadband emissivity is estimated from AST05 (ASTER Standard Data Product) by using regression method, the accuracy of AST05 is about ± 0.015 for 86 spectra which is determined by the atmosphere correction for ASTER 1B data. The MODTRAN 4 is used to simulate the process of radiance transfer, and the broadband emissivity is directly estimated from the brightness temperature of ASTER 1B data at satellite. The comparison analysis indicates that the RM-NN is more competent to estimate broadband emissivity than other method when the brightness temperatures of band 11, 12, 13, 14 are made as input nodes of dynamic neural network. The estimation average accuracy is about 0.009, and the estimation results are not sensitive to instrument noise. The RM-NN is applied to extract broadband emissivity from an image of ASTER 1B data in China, and the comparison against a classification based multiple bands with 15 m spatial resolution shows that the estimation results from RM-NN are very good.

  18. Evapotranspiration Estimation Using Multispectral Thermal Infrared Data from ASTER and MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, A. N.; Schmugge, T. J.; Kustas, W. P.; Prueger, J. H.

    2009-12-01

    Estimating evapotranspiration (ET) from space is important for monitoring water use at local and regional scales. Terra platform sensors ASTER and MODIS have been valuable for this goal because of their multispectral capabilities and high (90 m with ASTER) to moderate ( 1 km with MODIS) spatial resolutions. These capabilities have allowed discrimination of land cover conditions unobtainable from more conventional satellite imagery. In particular the multiple thermal channels provided by ASTER and MODIS have helped collect accurate observations of land surface temperature and emissivity which can be used to detect water stress and to distinguish between living and senescent vegetation. Each of these characteristics is important for modeling water fluxes. The frequent coverage by MODIS is also very important for this endeavor. To demonstrate how this can be accomplished, ASTER and Terra/MODIS data were modeled using images collected over the Jornada Experimental Range, a semi-arid research site in southern New Mexico. By combining 27 ASTER clear sky scenes with several hundred 1-km scale MODIS scenes between 2001 and 2003, it was feasible to estimate ET at weekly time steps and to also assess longer-term changes in vegetation distributions.

  19. Coerência espectroscópica de famílias de asteróides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothé Diniz, T.; Roig, F. V.

    2003-08-01

    As Famílias de asteróides são caracterizadas como agrupamentos de objetos provenientes da quebra por colisão de corpos precursores. Desta forma, seus membros devem preservar relações genéticas que podem ser traduzidas sob a análise de suas características espectrais. Neste trabalho é apresentado o primeiro estudo espectroscópico de todas as famílias de asteróides do cinturão principal. Para tal, a divisão em famílias foi refeita utilizando-se o método HCM com uma base de elementos próprios analíticos (Knezevic e Milani, Jun 2001) e para o estudo espectroscópico foram utilizadas diversas campanhas de observação espectroscópica, tais o S3OS2 e o SMASSII, bem como outros dados disponíveis na literatura. A homogeneidade espectroscópica de cada família foi avaliada através da verificação das classes espectroscópicas presentes, bem como da comparação destes espectros com os de objetos de fundo, localizados na vizinhança da família. Vinte e duas famílias foram analisadas (as que possuíam mais do que 3 membros com espectro) e, dentre as principais conclusões pode-se citar a homogeneidade espectroscópica e, provavelmente mineralógica das famílias de Vesta, Eunomia, Hoffmeister, Dora, Merxia, Agnia, Koronis e Veritas. Esta última em particular, foi tida como uma família não homogênea espectroscopicamente em trabalho anterior (Di Martino et al. 1997). Outro resultado interessante é, por um lado, a aparente falta de homogeneidade dos membros da família de Eos, e por outro sua forte distinção dos objetos de fundo. O oposto ocorre na família de Themis, esta apresentando-se espectroscopicamente compatível com os objetos de fundo, mas com grande homogeneidade taxonômica entre seus membros. Algumas das famílias apresentam asteróides "intrusos" (objetos cujas características físicas não são compatíveis com aquelas dos membros da família) que, de modo geral desaparecem ao se considerarem níveis mais baixos de corte para a

  20. Recognition of a porphyry system using ASTER data in Bideghan - Qom province (central of Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizi, F.; Mansouri, E.

    2014-07-01

    The Bideghan area is located south of the Qom province (central of Iran). The most impressive geological features in the studied area are the Eocene sequences which are intruded by volcanic rocks with basic compositions. Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image processing have been used for hydrothermal alteration mapping and lineaments identification in the investigated area. In this research false color composite, band ratio, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Least Square Fit (LS-Fit) and Spectral Angel Mapping (SAM) techniques were applied on ASTER data and argillic, phyllic, Iron oxide and propylitic alteration zones were separated. Lineaments were identified by aid of false color composite, high pass filters and hill-shade DEM techniques. The results of this study demonstrate the usefulness of remote sensing method and ASTER multi-spectral data for alteration and lineament mapping. Finally, the results were confirmed by field investigation.

  1. Recognition of a porphyry system using ASTER data in Bideghan – Qom province (central of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Feizi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Bideghan area is located south of the Qom province (central of Iran. The most impressive geological features in the studied area are the Eocene sequences which are intruded by volcanic rocks with basic compositions. Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER image processing have been used for hydrothermal alteration mapping and lineaments identification in the investigated area. In this research false color composite, band ratio, Principal Component Analysis (PCA, Least Square Fit (LS-Fit and Spectral Angel Mapping (SAM techniques were applied on ASTER data and argillic, phyllic, Iron oxide and propylitic alteration zones were separated. Lineaments were identified by aid of false color composite, high pass filters and hill-shade DEM techniques. The results of this study demonstrate the usefulness of remote sensing method and ASTER multi-spectral data for alteration and lineament mapping. Finally, the results were confirmed by field investigation.

  2. Mapping advanced argillic alteration zones with ASTER and Hyperion data in the Andes Mountains of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Yuddy; Goïta, Kalifa; Péloquin, Stéphane

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluates Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Hyperion hyperspectral sensor datasets to detect advanced argillic minerals. The spectral signatures of some alteration clay minerals, such as dickite and alunite, have similar absorption features; thus separating them using multispectral satellite images is a complex challenge. However, Hyperion with its fine spectral bands has potential for good separability of features. The Spectral Angle Mapper algorithm was used in this study to map three advanced argillic alteration minerals (alunite, kaolinite, and dickite) in a known alteration zone in the Peruvian Andes. The results from ASTER and Hyperion were analyzed, compared, and validated using a Portable Infrared Mineral Analyzer field spectrometer. The alterations corresponding to kaolinite and alunite were detected with both ASTER and Hyperion (80% to 84% accuracy). However, the dickite mineral was identified only with Hyperion (82% accuracy).

  3. Using a deformable mirror to generate custom laser guidestar asterisms: simulation and laboratory results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Andrew P.; Srinath, Srikar; Gavel, Donald; Kupke, Renate; Dillon, Daren

    2014-08-01

    It is possible to create custom laser guidestar (LGS) asterisms from a single beam by using a deformable mirror to pattern the phase of the outgoing laser guidestar beam. This avoids the need for multiple laser launch assemblies, and in principle would allow one to position the multiple LGS spots in any desired arrangement around the science target, as well as dynamically rotate the LGS pattern on-sky and control the distribution of intensity in each spot. Simulations and laboratory experiments indicate that a PTT111 and PTT489 IrisAO MEMS deformable mirror and a Hamamatsu X8267 spatial light modulator may have applications for creating small LGS asterisms for biological imaging with adaptive optics. For astronomy applications, the phase values required to produce the "3+1" laser guidestar asterism of Keck's Next Generation AO system is also investigated.

  4. Reducing the Discrepancy Between ASTER and MODIS Land Surface Temperature Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changqing Ke

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Human-induced global warming has significantly increased the importance ofsatellite monitoring of land surface temperature (LST on a global scale. The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS provides a 1-km resolution LST productwith almost daily coverage of the Earth, invaluable to both local and global change studies.The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Reflection Radiometer (ASTER provides aLST product with a high spatial resolution of 90-m and a 16-day recurrent cycle,simultaneously acquired at the same height and nadir view as MODIS. ASTER andMODIS are complementary in resolution, offering a unique opportunity for scale-relatedstudies. ASTER and MODIS LST have been widely used but the errors in LST were mostlydisregarded. Correction of ASTER-to-MODIS LST discrepancies is essential for studiesreliant upon the joint use of these sensors. In this study, we compared three correctionapproaches: the Wan et al.’s approach, the refined Wan et al.’s approach, and thegeneralized split window (GSW algorithm based approach. The Wan et al.’s approachcorrects the MODIS 1-km LST using MODIS 5-km LST. The refined approach modifiesthe Wan et al.’s approach through incorporating ASTER emissivity and MODIS 5-km data.The GSW algorithm approach does not use MODIS 5-km but only ASTER emissivity data. We examined the case over a semi-arid terrain area for the part of the Loess Plateau of China. All the approaches reduced the ASTER-to-MODIS LST discrepancy effectively. With terrain correction, the original ASTER-to-MODIS LST difference reduced from 2.7±1.28 K to -0.1±1.87 K for the Wan et al.’s approach, 0.2±1.57 K for the refined approach, and 0.1±1.33 K for the GSW algorithm based approach. Among all the approaches, the GSW algorithm based approach performed best in terms of mean, standard deviation, root mean square root, and correlation coefficient.

  5. Application Analysis of Global Public Data Resources ASTER GDEM%全球公众数据资源ASTER GDEM的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛

    2015-01-01

    Based on the global public data resources ASTER GDEM (space borne thermal emission and reflection ra⁃diometer global digital elevation model) data publicly announced by the USA space agency (NASA),this paper con⁃ducted practical processing and research, and carried out statistical validation on its accuracy.%本文利用美国太空总署(NASA)对外公布的全球公众数据资源ASTER GDEM(星载热发射和反射辐射仪全球数字高程模型)数据进行了实践性处理和研究,并对其精度进行统计验证。

  6. First report of Alternaria alternata causing leaf spot on Ruth's golden aster (Pityopsis ruthii) in Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth’s golden aster, Pityopsis ruthii (Small), is an endangered, herbaceous perennial plant that is only endemic to small sections of the Hiwassee and Ocoee Rivers, in Polk County, Tennessee. In July 2015, a greenhouse grown plant exhibited symptoms of disease that included elongated brown lesions o...

  7. Spindle pole mechanics studied in mitotic asters: dynamic distribution of spindle forces through compliant linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlebois, Blake D; Kollu, Swapna; Schek, Henry T; Compton, Duane A; Hunt, Alan J

    2011-04-06

    During cell division, chromosomes must faithfully segregate to maintain genome integrity, and this dynamic mechanical process is driven by the macromolecular machinery of the mitotic spindle. However, little is known about spindle mechanics. For example, spindle microtubules are organized by numerous cross-linking proteins yet the mechanical properties of those cross-links remain unexplored. To examine the mechanical properties of microtubule cross-links we applied optical trapping to mitotic asters that form in mammalian mitotic extracts. These asters are foci of microtubules, motors, and microtubule-associated proteins that reflect many of the functional properties of spindle poles and represent centrosome-independent spindle-pole analogs. We observed bidirectional motor-driven microtubule movements, showing that microtubule linkages within asters are remarkably compliant (mean stiffness 0.025 pN/nm) and mediated by only a handful of cross-links. Depleting the motor Eg5 reduced this stiffness, indicating that Eg5 contributes to the mechanical properties of microtubule asters in a manner consistent with its localization to spindle poles in cells. We propose that compliant linkages among microtubules provide a mechanical architecture capable of accommodating microtubule movements and distributing force among microtubules without loss of pole integrity-a mechanical paradigm that may be important throughout the spindle.

  8. Improvement of dem Generation from Aster Images Using Satellite Jitter Estimation and Open Source Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girod, L.; Nuth, C.; Kääb, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) system embarked on the Terra (EOS AM-1) satellite has been a source of stereoscopic images covering the whole globe at a 15m resolution at a consistent quality for over 15 years. The potential of this data in terms of geomorphological analysis and change detection in three dimensions is unrivaled and needs to be exploited. However, the quality of the DEMs and ortho-images currently delivered by NASA (ASTER DMO products) is often of insufficient quality for a number of applications such as mountain glacier mass balance. For this study, the use of Ground Control Points (GCPs) or of other ground truth was rejected due to the global "big data" type of processing that we hope to perform on the ASTER archive. We have therefore developed a tool to compute Rational Polynomial Coefficient (RPC) models from the ASTER metadata and a method improving the quality of the matching by identifying and correcting jitter induced cross-track parallax errors. Our method outputs more accurate DEMs with less unmatched areas and reduced overall noise. The algorithms were implemented in the open source photogrammetric library and software suite MicMac.

  9. Cross-Calibration of Earth Observing System Terra Satellite Sensors MODIS and ASTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCorkel, J.

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emissive and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) are two of the five sensors onboard the Earth Observing System's Terra satellite. These sensors share many similar spectral channels while having much different spatial and operational parameters. ASTER is a tasked sensor and sometimes referred to a zoom camera of the MODIS that collects a full-earth image every one to two days. It is important that these sensors have a consistent characterization and calibration for continued development and use of their data products. This work uses a variety of test sites to retrieve and validate intercalibration results. The refined calibration of Collection 6 of the Terra MODIS data set is leveraged to provide the up-to-date reference for trending and validation of ASTER. Special attention is given to spatially matching radiance measurements using prelaunch spatial response characterization of MODIS. Despite differences in spectral band properties and spatial scales, ASTER-MODIS is an ideal case for intercomparison since the sensors have nearly identical views and acquisitions times and therefore can be used as a baseline of intercalibration performance of other satellite sensor pairs.

  10. Dynamics of microtubule asters in microfabricated chambers: The role of catastrophes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faivre-Moskalenko, Cendrine; Dogterom, Marileen

    2002-01-01

    Recent in vivo as well as in vitro experiments have indicated that microtubule pushing alone is sufficient to position a microtubule-organizing center within a cell. Here, we investigate the effect of catastrophes on the dynamics of microtubule asters within microfabricated chambers that mimic the confining geometry of living cells. The use of a glass bead as the microtubule-organizing center allows us to manipulate the aster by using optical tweezers. In the case in which microtubules preexist, we show that because of microtubule buckling, repositioning almost never occurs after relocation with the optical tweezers, although initial microtubule growth always leads the aster to the geometrical center of the chamber. When a catastrophe promoter is added, we find instead that the aster is able to efficiently explore the chamber geometry even after being relocated with the optical tweezers. As predicted by theoretical calculations, the results of our in vitro experiments clearly demonstrate the need for catastrophes for proper positioning in a confining geometry. These findings correlate with recent observations of nuclear positioning in fission yeast cells. PMID:12486218

  11. Bewaren van onbeworteld stek : bewaring van onbeworteld stek van aster en solidago

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eveleens, B.; Krijger, D.; Kouwenhoven, D.; Berg, van den T.; Telgen, van H.J.

    2002-01-01

    In de praktijk worden geoogste stekken van Aster ericoides en Solidago maximaal een week bewaard. Bij langere bewaring (of transport) treden vaak problemen op als uitval ten gevolge van rot en/of slechte beworteling. Een langere bewaarduur is gewenst, zowel voor planning van werkzaamheden als behoud

  12. Glacier Volume Change Estimation Using Time Series of Improved Aster Dems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girod, Luc; Nuth, Christopher; Kääb, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Volume change data is critical to the understanding of glacier response to climate change. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) system embarked on the Terra (EOS AM-1) satellite has been a unique source of systematic stereoscopic images covering the whole globe at 15m resolution and at a consistent quality for over 15 years. While satellite stereo sensors with significantly improved radiometric and spatial resolution are available to date, the potential of ASTER data lies in its long consistent time series that is unrivaled, though not fully exploited for change analysis due to lack of data accuracy and precision. Here, we developed an improved method for ASTER DEM generation and implemented it in the open source photogrammetric library and software suite MicMac. The method relies on the computation of a rational polynomial coefficients (RPC) model and the detection and correction of cross-track sensor jitter in order to compute DEMs. ASTER data are strongly affected by attitude jitter, mainly of approximately 4 km and 30 km wavelength, and improving the generation of ASTER DEMs requires removal of this effect. Our sensor modeling does not require ground control points and allows thus potentially for the automatic processing of large data volumes. As a proof of concept, we chose a set of glaciers with reference DEMs available to assess the quality of our measurements. We use time series of ASTER scenes from which we extracted DEMs with a ground sampling distance of 15m. Our method directly measures and accounts for the cross-track component of jitter so that the resulting DEMs are not contaminated by this process. Since the along-track component of jitter has the same direction as the stereo parallaxes, the two cannot be separated and the elevations extracted are thus contaminated by along-track jitter. Initial tests reveal no clear relation between the cross-track and along-track components so that the latter seems not to be

  13. Los indicadores de selección para el ingreso a la universidad y su valor para estimar el rendimiento académico en el primer semestre

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Alfonso Díaz-Martínez; Claudia Rocío Toloza-González

    2007-01-01

    Objetivo: establecer si los antecedentes académicos, la evaluación psicológica y los resultados de la entrevista de admisión son; indicadores del desempeño académico en el primer nivel de un programa de medicina. Diseño: cohorte prospectiva. Lugar:; Universidad Autónoma de Bucaramanga, Colombia. Participantes: estudiantes matriculados en el primer nivel de Medicina durante; 2001 y 2002. Intervenciones: se evaluaron distintas variables y se correlacionaron con haber aprobado o no ínte...

  14. ASTER, ALI and Hyperion sensors data for lithological mapping and ore minerals exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiranvand Pour, Amin; Hashim, Mazlan

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Advanced Land Imager (ALI), and Hyperion data and applications of the data as a tool for ore minerals exploration, lithological and structural mapping. Spectral information extraction from ASTER, ALI, and Hyperion data has great ability to assist geologists in all disciplines to map the distribution and detect the rock units exposed at the earth's surface. The near coincidence of Earth Observing System (EOS)/Terra and Earth Observing One (EO-1) platforms allows acquiring ASTER, ALI, and Hyperion imagery of the same ground areas, resulting accurate information for geological mapping applications especially in the reconnaissance stages of hydrothermal copper and gold exploration, chromite, magnetite, massive sulfide and uranium ore deposits, mineral components of soils and structural interpretation at both regional and district scales. Shortwave length infrared and thermal infrared bands of ASTER have sufficient spectral resolution to map fundamental absorptions of hydroxyl mineral groups and silica and carbonate minerals for regional mapping purposes. Ferric-iron bearing minerals can be discriminated using six unique wavelength bands of ALI spanning the visible and near infrared. Hyperion visible and near infrared bands (0.4 to 1.0 μm) and shortwave infrared bands (0.9 to 2.5 μm) allowed to produce image maps of iron oxide minerals, hydroxyl-bearing minerals, sulfates and carbonates in association with hydrothermal alteration assemblages, respectively. The techniques and achievements reviewed in the present paper can further introduce the efficacy of ASTER, ALI, and Hyperion data for future mineral and lithological mapping and exploration of the porphyry copper, epithermal gold, chromite, magnetite, massive sulfide and uranium ore deposits especially in arid and semi-arid territory.

  15. Inaccessible Biodiversity on Limestone Cliffs: Aster tianmenshanensis (Asteraceae, a New Critically Endangered Species from China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Jin Zhang

    Full Text Available Aster tianmenshanensis G. J. Zhang & T. G. Gao, a new species of Asteraceae from southern China is described and illustrated based on evidence from morphology, micromorphology and molecular phylogeny. The new species is superficially similar to Aster salwinensis Onno in having rosettes of spatulate leaves and a solitary, terminal capitulum, but it differs by its glabrous leaf margins, unequal disc floret lobes and 1-seriate pappus. The molecular phylogenetic analysis, based on nuclear sequences ITS, ETS and chloroplast sequence trnL-F, showed that the new species was nested within the genus Aster and formed a well supported clade with Aster verticillatus (Reinw. Brouillet et al. The new species differs from the latter in having unbranched stems, much larger capitula, unequal disc floret lobes, beakless achenes and persistent pappus. In particular, A. tianmenshanensis has very short stigmatic lines, only ca. 0.18 mm long and less than 1/3 of the length of sterile style tip appendages, remarkably different from its congeners. This type of stigmatic line, as far as we know, has not been found in any other species of Aster. The very short stigmatic lines plus the unequal disc floret lobes imply that the new species may have a very specialized pollination system, which may be a consequence of habitat specialization. The new species grows only on the limestone cliffs of Mt. Tianmen, Hunan Province, at the elevation of 1400 m. It could only be accessed when a plank walkway was built across the cliffs for tourists. As it is known only from an area estimated at less than 10 km2 and a walkway passes through this location, its habitat could be easily disturbed. This species should best be treated as Critically Endangered based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List Categories and Criteria B2a.

  16. Lithological Discrimination of the Mafic-Ultramafic Complex, Huitongshan, Beishan, China:Using ASTER Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Liu; Jun Zhou; Dong Jiang; Dafang Zhuang; Lamin R Mansaray

    2014-01-01

    The Beishan area has more than seventy mafic-ultramafic complexes sparsely distributed in the area and is of a big potential in mineral resources related to mafic-ultramafic intrusions. Many mafic-ultramafic intrusions which are mostly in small sizes have been omitted by previous works. This research takes Huitongshan as the study area, which is a major district for mafic-ultramafic occur-rences in Beishan. Advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER) data have been processed and interpreted for mapping the mafic-ultramafic complex. ASTER data were processed by different techniques that were selected based on image reflectance and laboratory emis-sivity spectra. The visible near-infrared (VNIR) and short wave infrared (SWIR) data were trans-formed using band ratios and minimum noise fraction (MNF), while the thermal infrared (TIR) data were processed using mafic index (MI) and principal components analysis (PCA). ASTER band ratios (6/8, 5/4, 2/1) in RGB image and MNF (1, 2, 4) in RGB image were powerful in distinguishing the subtle differences between the various rock units. PCA applied to all five bands of ASTER TIR imagery high-lighted marked differences among the mafic rock units and was more effective than the MI in differen-tiating mafic-ultramafic rocks. Our results were consistent with information derived from local geolog-ical maps. Based on the remote sensing results and field inspection, eleven gabbroic intrusions and a pyroxenite occurrence were recognized for the first time. A new geologic map of the Huitongshan area was created by integrating the results of remote sensing, previous geological maps and field inspection. It is concluded that the workflow of ASTER image processing, interpretation and ground inspection has great potential for mafic-ultramafic rocks identifying and relevant mineral targeting in the sparsely vegetated arid region of northwestern China.

  17. PLAN DE EMPRESA PARA UN RESTAURANTE DE COMIDA PARA LLEVAR EN EL MUNICIPIO DE NULES

    OpenAIRE

    VEDRI PEIRATS, MARTA

    2014-01-01

    El objeto del presente proyecto es la realización de un plan de empresa para un establecimiento de comidas para llevar, y estimar la viabilidad del proyecto. A pesar de que el panorama económico que sufre este país no es muy alentador, se pretende averiguar si puede ser rentable la apertura de un negocio de este tipo, con las condiciones de las que disponemos. Vedri Peirats, M. (2014). PLAN DE EMPRESA PARA UN RESTAURANTE DE COMIDA PARA LLEVAR EN EL MUNICIPIO DE NULES. http://hdl.handle.net...

  18. Monitoring and predicting eutrophication of Sri Lankan inland waters using ASTER satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahanayaka, D. D. G. L.; Wijeyaratne, M. J. S.; Tonooka, H.; Minato, A.; Ozawa, S.; Perera, B. D. C.

    2014-10-01

    This study focused on determining the past changes and predicting the future trends in eutrophication of the Bolgoda North lake, Sri Lanka using in situ Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) measurements and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER) satellite data. This Lake is located in a mixed land use area with industries, some agricultural lands, middle income and high income housing, tourist hotels and low income housing. From March to October 2013, water samples from five sampling sites were collected once a month parallel to ASTER overpass and Chl-a, nitrate and phosphate contents of each sample were measured using standard laboratory methods. Cloud-free ASTER scenes over the lake during the 2000-2013 periods were acquired for Chl-a estimation and trend analysis. All ASTER images were atmospherically corrected using FLAASH software and in-situ Chl-a data were regressed with atmospherically corrected three ASTER VNIR band ratios of the same date. The regression equation of the band ratio and Chl-a content with the highest correlation, which was the green/red band ratio was used to develop algorithm for generation of 15-m resolution Chl-a distribution maps. According to the ASTER based Chl-a distribution maps it was evident that eutrophication of this lake has gradually increased from 2008-2011. Results also indicated that there had been significantly high eutrophic conditions throughout the year 2013 in several regions, especially in water stagnant areas and adjacent to freshwater outlets. Field observations showed that this lake is receiving various discharges from factories. Unplanned urbanization and inadequacy of proper facilities in the nearby industries for waste management have resulted in the eutrophication of the water body. If the present trends of waste disposal and unplanned urbanization continue, enormous environmental problems would be resulted in future. Results of the present study showed that information from satellite remote

  19. Recent variation of the Las Vacas Glacier Mt. Aconcagua region, Central Andes, Argentina, based on ASTER stereoscopic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzano, M. G.; Leiva, J. C.; Lenzano, L.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents the results of the ASTER stereoscopic image processing to calculate the volume changes of Las Vacas Glacier. The processing of medium resolution satellite images (ASTER level 1A - pixel 15 m) from February 2001 and 2007 was performed applying the satellite digital photogrammetry method (Kääb, 2005). The comparison of the two generated DTM returns results that are acceptable within the parameters and precisions that can be obtained with this kind of sensor and the processing methodology.

  20. Marine boundary layer cloud property retrievals from high-resolution ASTER observations: case studies and comparison with Terra MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Frank; Wind, Galina; Zhang, Zhibo; Platnick, Steven; Di Girolamo, Larry; Zhao, Guangyu; Amarasinghe, Nandana; Meyer, Kerry

    2016-12-01

    A research-level retrieval algorithm for cloud optical and microphysical properties is developed for the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) aboard the Terra satellite. It is based on the operational MODIS algorithm. This paper documents the technical details of this algorithm and evaluates the retrievals for selected marine boundary layer cloud scenes through comparisons with the operational MODIS Data Collection 6 (C6) cloud product. The newly developed, ASTER-specific cloud masking algorithm is evaluated through comparison with an independent algorithm reported in [Zhao and Di Girolamo(2006)]. To validate and evaluate the cloud optical thickness (τ) and cloud effective radius (reff) from ASTER, the high-spatial-resolution ASTER observations are first aggregated to the same 1000 m resolution as MODIS. Subsequently, τaA and reff, aA retrieved from the aggregated ASTER radiances are compared with the collocated MODIS retrievals. For overcast pixels, the two data sets agree very well with Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficients of R > 0.970. However, for partially cloudy pixels there are significant differences between reff, aA and the MODIS results which can exceed 10 µm. Moreover, it is shown that the numerous delicate cloud structures in the example marine boundary layer scenes, resolved by the high-resolution ASTER retrievals, are smoothed by the MODIS observations. The overall good agreement between the research-level ASTER results and the operational MODIS C6 products proves the feasibility of MODIS-like retrievals from ASTER reflectance measurements and provides the basis for future studies concerning the scale dependency of satellite observations and three-dimensional radiative effects.

  1. Estudio experimental para la determinación de los coeficientes de cultivo de la vainilla (Vanilla spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    El coeficiente de desarrollo del cultivo y la evapotranspiración de referencia, son los dos factores indispensables para la estimación de los requerimientos hídricos de los cultivos. El objetivo de esta investigación fue estimar los coeficientes de cultivo ex situ de la Vanilla spp. para la etapa inicial, desarrollo, y mediados de temporada. Para estimar los coeficientes de cultivo (Kc), se midió la evapotranspiración real (ETr) y la evapotranspiración de referencia (ETo). La ETr se determinó...

  2. Visual interpretation of ASTER satellite data, Part II: Land use mapping in Mpumalanga,South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elna van Niekerk

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the initiation in 1960 of the era of satellite remote sensing to detect the different characteristics of the earth, a powerful tool was created to aid researchers. Many land-use studies were undertaken using Landsat MSS, Landsat TM and ETM, as well as SPOT satellite data. The application of these data to the mapping of land use and land cover at smaller scales was constrained by the limited spectral and/or spatial resolution of the data provided by these satellite sensors. In view of the relatively high cost of SPOT data, and uncertainty regarding the future continuation of the Landsat series, alternative data sources need to be investigated. In the absence of published previous research on this issue in South Africa, the purpose of this article is to investigate the value of visual interpretation of ASTER satellite images for the identification and mapping of land-use in an area in South Africa. The study area is situated in Mpumalanga, in the area of Witbank, around the Witbank and Doorndraai dams. This area is characterised by a variety of urban, rural and industrial land uses. Digital image processing of one Landsat 5 TM, one Landsat 7 ETM and one ASTER satellite image was undertaken, including atmospheric correction and georeferencing, natural colour composites, photo infrared colour composites (or false colour satellite images, band ratios, Normalised Difference Indices, as well as the Brightness, Greenness and Wetness Indices. The efficacy with which land use could be identified through the visual interpretation of the processed Landsat 5 TM, Landsat 7 TM and ASTER satellite images was compared. The published 1:50 000 topographical maps of the area were used for the purpose of initial verification. Findings of the visual interpretation process were verified by field visits to the study area. The study found that the ASTER satellite data produced clearer results and therefore have a higher mapping ability and capacity than the

  3. Effect of colour and size grading of China aster (Callistephus chinensis Nees seeds on their germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Rosińska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of 3 commercial China aster (Callistephus chinensis Nees lots were divided by hand into 3 grades with different colours: dark brown, brown and light brown, and 2 grades with a different size: length below 3.9 mm (small and above 3.9 mm (large. The colour grading was done based on the Royal Horticultural Society Colour Chart and size grading was done by hand for each seed. Then, seeds were routinely germinated based on the International Seed Testing Association (ISTA rules. The size of seeds had no effect on their germination. The dark brown seeds germinated better than the light brown ones. Removing light brown seeds from the China aster seed lot improved their germination.

  4. Estimation of Tree Size Diversity Using Object Oriented Texture Analysis and Aster Imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Ibrahim; Norton, David A; Ozkan, Ulas Yunus; Mert, Ahmet; Senturk, Ozdemir

    2008-08-11

    This study investigates the potential of object-based texture parameters extracted from 15m spatial resolution ASTER imagery for estimating tree size diversity in a Mediterranean forested landscape in Turkey. Tree size diversity based on tree basal area was determined using the Shannon index and Gini Coefficient at the sampling plot level. Image texture parameters were calculated based on the grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) for various image segmentation levels. Analyses of relationships between tree size diversity and texture parameters found that relationships between the Gini Coefficient and the GLCM values were the most statistically significant, with the highest correlation (r=0.69) being with GLCM Homogeneity values. In contrast, Shannon Index values were weakly correlated with image derived texture parameters. The results suggest that 15m resolution Aster imagery has considerable potential in estimating tree size diversity based on the Gini Coefficient for heterogeneous Mediterranean forests.

  5. Digital Mapping of Soil Properties Using Multivariate Statistical Analysis and ASTER Data in an Arid Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Nawar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling and mapping of soil properties has been identified as key for effective land degradation management and mitigation. The ability to model and map soil properties at sufficient accuracy for a large agriculture area is demonstrated using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER imagery. Soil samples were collected in the El-Tina Plain, Sinai, Egypt, concurrently with the acquisition of ASTER imagery, and measured for soil electrical conductivity (ECe, clay content and soil organic matter (OM. An ASTER image covering the study area was preprocessed, and two predictive models, multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS and the partial least squares regression (PLSR, were constructed based on the ASTER spectra. For all three soil properties, the results of MARS models were better than those of the respective PLSR models, with cross-validation estimated R2 of 0.85 and 0.80 for ECe, 0.94 and 0.90 for clay content and 0.79 and 0.73 for OM. Independent validation of ECe, clay content and OM maps with 32 soil samples showed the better performance of the MARS models, with R2 = 0.81, 0.89 and 0.73, respectively, compared to R2 = 0.78, 0.87 and 0.71 for the PLSR models. The results indicated that MARS is a more suitable and superior modeling technique than PLSR for the estimation and mapping of soil salinity (ECe, clay content and OM. The method developed in this paper was found to be reliable and accurate for digital soil mapping in arid and semi-arid environments.

  6. PEMETAAN SUHU PERMUKAAN LAUT (SPL MENGGUNAKAN CITRA SATELIT ASTER DI PERAIRAN LAUT JAWA BAGIAN BARAT MADURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Sulistyo Rini

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Oceanographical temperature in Java Sea is very important to be considered. This research was combines in-site observation technique, Geographical Information System (GLS and remote sensing in order to get accurate, present and updateable data. The aim of this research is to determine the distribution of sea-surface temperature and accuration-test value in Java Sea especially on western coast of Madura using ASTER satellite imagery. This research were used software of ENVI 4.5, ILWIS 3.3, and ArcGIS 9.3 and also changed the radian value until °C. Result showed that using ASTER satellite imagery within band 10 range between 32 "C-35 "C. Band 11,between 24.9"C 25,2"C. Band 12 between 16,7"C to 17"C. Band while band 13 abd 14 between 30.7, band 28. Band 11 is more accurate compared to Band 10, 12, 13. 14, the RMS Error on band 11 showed lower value compared to the other band.Keywords: Sea-surface Temperature. ASTER satellite imagery. Java Sea, Western coast of Madura

  7. Remote sensing of thermal state of volcanoes in Turkey and neighbouring countries using ASTER nighttime images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusoy, İnan; Diker, Caner

    2016-04-01

    Ongoing studies are increasingly revealing that Holocene and historical activity has been reported for many of the Anatolian volcanoes. So far, hydrothermal activity have been observed on Nemrut, Tendürek, Aǧrı (Ararat), Hasan daǧ and Kula. Fumaroles, steam vents, steam/gas emission and zones of hot grounds have been reported. Thermal state of Anatolian volcanoes have been investigated using ASTER nighttime satellite imagery. We have analyzed the nighttime thermal images of Aǧrı, Akça, Çandarlı, Erciyes, Gölcük, Göllüdaǧ, Hasandaǧ, Kula, Meydan, Nemrut, Süphan and Tendürek volcanoes in Turkey and Demavand and Nisyros volcanoes in the neighboring countries. In order to quantify the current thermal state of the volcanos studied, we have used ASTER Thermal Infrared spectra. Several ASTER nighttime images have been used to calculate land surface temperature, surface thermal anomaly and relative radiative heat flux on the volcanoes. Following the atmospheric correction of thermal images, temperature and emissivity have been separated and then land surface temperature have been calculated from 5 thermal bands. Surface temperature images have been topographically corrected. Relative radiative heat flux have been calculated using corrected surface temperature data, emissivity, vapor pressure and height-dependent air temperature values. These values have been correlated with ongoing activity observed on active Indonesian volcanoes Sinabung, Semeru and Bromo Tengger. (This study have been financially supported by TUBITAK project no: 113Y032).

  8. Detection of Alteration Induced by Onshore Gas Seeps from ASTER and WorldView-2 Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Salati

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbon seeps cause chemical and mineralogical changes at the surface, which can be detected by remote sensing. This paper aims at the detection of mineral alteration induced by gas seeps in a marly limestone formation, SW Iran. For this purpose, the multispectral Advance Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER and the high spatial resolution WorldView-2 (WV-2 data were utilized for mapping surficial rock alteration. In addition, the potential of Visible Near Infrared (VNIR bands of the WV-2 and its high spatial resolution for mapping alterations was determined. Band ratioing, principal component analysis (PCA, data fusion and the boosted regression trees (BRT were applied to enhance and classify the altered and unaltered marly limestone formation. The alteration zones were identified and mapped by remote sensing analyses. Integrating the WV-2 into the ASTER data improved the spatial accuracy of the BRT classifications. The results showed that the BRT classification of the multiple band imagery (created from ASTER and WV-2 using regions of interest (ROIs around field data provides the best discrimination between altered and unaltered areas. It is suggested that the WV-2 dataset can provide a potential tool along higher spectral resolution data for mapping alteration minerals related to hydrocarbon seeps in arid and semi-arid areas.

  9. Estimating Coastal Lagoon Tidal Flooding and Repletion with Multidate ASTER Thermal Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Allen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Coastal lagoons mix inflowing freshwater and tidal marine waters in complex spatial patterns. This project sought to detect and measure temperature and spatial variability of flood tides for a constricted coastal lagoon using multitemporal remote sensing. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Radiometer (ASTER thermal infrared data provided estimates of surface temperature for delineation of repletion zones in portions of Chincoteague Bay, Virginia. ASTER high spatial resolution sea-surface temperature imagery in conjunction with in situ observations and tidal predictions helped determine the optimal seasonal data for analyses. The selected time series ASTER satellite data sets were analyzed at different tidal phases and seasons in 2004–2006. Skin surface temperatures of ocean and estuarine waters were differentiated by flood tidal penetration and ebb flows. Spatially variable tidal flood penetration was evaluated using discrete seed-pixel area analysis and time series Principal Components Analysis. Results from these techniques provide spatial extent and variability dynamics of tidal repletion, flushing, and mixing, important factors in eutrophication assessment, water quality and resource monitoring, and application of hydrodynamic modeling for coastal estuary science and management.

  10. Estimating surface fluxes over the north Tibetan Plateau area with ASTER imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiqiang Ma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface fluxes are important boundary conditions for climatological modeling and Asian monsoon system. The recent availability of high-resolution, multi-band imagery from the ASTER (Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer sensor has enabled us to estimate surface fluxes to bridge the gap between local scale flux measurements using micrometeorological instruments and regional scale land-atmosphere exchanges of water and heat fluxes that are fundamental for the understanding of the water cycle in the Asian monsoon system. A parameterization method based on ASTER data and field observations has been proposed and tested for deriving surface albedo, surface temperature, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (MSAVI, vegetation coverage, Leaf Area Index (LAI, net radiation flux, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux over heterogeneous land surface in this paper. As a case study, the methodology was applied to the experimental area of the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP Asia-Australia Monsoon Project (CAMP on the Tibetan Plateau (CAMP/Tibet, located at the north Tibetan Plateau. The ASTER data of 24 July 2001, 29 November 2001 and 12 March 2002 was used in this paper for the case of summer, winter and spring. To validate the proposed methodology, the ground-measured surface variables (surface albedo and surface temperature and land surface heat fluxes (net radiation flux, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux were compared to the ASTER derived values. The results show that the derived surface variables and land surface heat fluxes in three different months over the study area are in good accordance with the land surface status. Also, the estimated land surface variables and land surface heat fluxes are in good accordance with ground measurements, and all their absolute percentage difference (APD is less than 10% in the validation sites

  11. Regional mapping methods using ASTER data to map minerals in the U.S. Basin and Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is currently mapping minerals associated with hydrothermal alteration in a study area that covers most of the U.S. Basin and Range. The study area was mapped using AST_L1B radiance data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). ASTER measures reflected radiation in three bands in the 0.52-0.86 μm wavelength region (VNIR); six bands in the 1.6-2.43 μm wavelength region (SWIR); and five bands of emitted radiation in the 8.125-11.65 μm wavelength region (TIR) with 15 m, 30 m, and 90 m resolution, respectively. ASTER VNIR and SWIR radiance data were calibrated to reflectance data using ACORN atmospheric correction software. TIR radiance data were calibrated to emissivity data using atmospheric removal and emissivity normalization algorithms in ENVI. Rocks containing hydrothermal silica, calcite-dolomite, epidote-chlorite, alunite-kaolinite, and sericite were mapped using Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operators. IDL logical operators string together band thresholds and band ratios to map spectral features of minerals. ASTER SWIR band ratios are used in IDL logical operators to map Al-O-H spectral absorption features of alunite, kaolinite and sericite. The ASTER SWIR 4/5 ratio maps the 2.165 μm spectral absorption feature in alunite and kaolinite, and the ASTER SWIR 4/6 and 7/6 ratios map the 2.2 μm spectral absorption feature exhibited in alunite, kaolinite and sericite. Hydrothermal silica was mapped using ASTER SWIR and ASTER TIR band ratios. The ASTER SWIR band ratio 4/7 is typically higher for hydrothermal silica-rich rocks which have lower overall SWIR reflectance in the 2.0 to 2.4 μm region than non-hydrothermal silica-rich rocks due to residual molecular water or an O-H absorption feature spanning 2.26 to 2.4 μm. The ASTER TIR band ratio 13/12 maps the 9.09 μm quartz restralen absorption feature. Thus, silica-rich rocks were mapped using the TIR emissivity data and hydrothermal

  12. Adjacent effect and cross talk of land surfaces on coastal water in the Aster VNIR and SWIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Tsutomu; Masuda, Kazuhiko; Sato, Isao; Tsuchida, Satoshi

    2002-12-01

    The adjacency effect is discussed at coastal areas of main land and peninsula using VNIR and SWIR on ASTER sensor, although the cross-talk phenomenon is apparently noted on some SWIR. The purpose of the analysis is to derive optical characteristics of atmospheric aerosol. The aerosol model is in accordance to the dust-like model. This model is adopted to ASTER and MISR on Terra satellite. Data is the Atsumi Peninsula near Nagoya (34° 40'N, 134° 00'E) GMT1.55 on July 10,2000. The ASTER SWIR(1.65μm-2.395μm) cross-talk phenomenon is noted in the data. This is known as a result of a structure of ASTER sensor. It is relatively large (5-6 DN counts and 100 lines or 3km length). On the other hands, when ASTER observe heterogeneous surface of coastal water, the adjacency effect due to the scattering by atmosphere might partly be contaminated to the above effect. In the SWIR region of spectrum, molecular scattering is practically neglected. However, some aerosol model indicates strong scattering effect at SWIR wavelengths. The main results are (1) The Japan Main land indicates 6~20 times more effect than the peninsula on adjacent radiance from ocean water. (2) SWIR & VNIR exhibit similar adjacent effect which might indicate aerosol or large particles.

  13. According to Regression Combine with Interpolation to Mend ASTER GDEM Data%回归与内插法处理ASTER GDEM数据异常值的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    惠珊; 李远华

    2012-01-01

    How to solve the common no data or data abnormality problem in ASTER GDEM is mainly studied. At first, detecting the section which no data or data abnormality in ASTER GDEM slope analysis together with density divide method isused. Then SRTM DEM is used according to regression fusing combine with interpolation to simulate and mend the ASTER GDEM data . At Last, the results through using the mended ASTER GDEM data to set up 3D model and Hydrological Model are evaluated. The study results indicate that regression fusing and interpolation method can produce a less error margin and advanced precision data . The mended data is primly matched with remote sensing data and the hydrological model is reasonable. Above all, this method mendes no data and abnormality section in ASTER GDEM improving the data integrality and applicability.%为了解决ASTER GDEM数据中普遍存在的数据空洞及异常问题,在利用坡度分析与密度分割等方法,提取ASTERGDEM数据中存在的空洞及异常值后,借助SRTM DEM数据,利用回归与内插法对空洞及异常区域的高程进行模拟修复.并通过三维建模和实例应用评估其模拟质量.研究结果表明:回归与内插法误差较小、精度较高,所得DEM三维模型良好,能有效提高ASTER GDEM数据的完整性和可用性.

  14. Comparative mineral mapping in the Colorado Mineral Belt using AVIRIS and ASTER remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents results of interpretation of spectral remote sensing data covering the eastern Colorado Mineral Belt in central Colorado, USA, acquired by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensors. This study was part of a multidisciplinary mapping and data integration project at the U.S. Geological Survey that focused on long-term resource planning by land-managing entities in Colorado. The map products were designed primarily for the regional mapping and characterization of exposed surface mineralogy, including that related to hydrothermal alteration and supergene weathering of pyritic rocks. Alteration type was modeled from identified minerals based on standard definitions of alteration mineral assemblages. Vegetation was identified using the ASTER data and subdivided based on per-pixel chlorophyll content (depth of 0.68 micrometer absorption band) and dryness (fit and depth of leaf biochemical absorptions in the shortwave infrared spectral region). The vegetation results can be used to estimate the abundance of fire fuels at the time of data acquisition (2002 and 2003). The AVIRIS- and ASTER-derived mineral mapping results can be readily compared using the toggleable layers in the GeoPDF file, and by using the provided GIS-ready raster datasets. The results relating to mineral occurrence and distribution were an important source of data for studies documenting the effects of mining and un-mined, altered rocks on aquatic ecosystems at the watershed level. These studies demonstrated a high correlation between metal concentrations in streams and the presence of hydrothermal alteration and (or) pyritic mine waste as determined by analysis of the map products presented herein. The mineral mapping results were also used to delineate permissive areas for various mineral deposit types.

  15. Self-organizing feature map neural network classification of the ASTER data based on wavelet fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HASI Bagan; MA Jianwen; LI Qiqing; HAN Xiuzhen; LIU Zhili

    2004-01-01

    Most methods for classification of remote sensing data are based on the statistical parameter evaluation with the assumption that the samples obey the normal distribution. However, more accurate classification results can be obtained with the neural network method through getting knowledge from environments and adjusting the parameter (or weight) step by step by a specific measurement. This paper focuses on the double-layer structured Kohonen self-organizing feature map (SOFM), for which all neurons within the two layers are linked one another and those of the competition layers are linked as well along the sides. Therefore, the self-adapting learning ability is improved due to the effective competition and suppression in this method. The SOFM has become a hot topic in the research area of remote sensing data classification. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER) is a new satellite-borne remote sensing instrument with three 15-m resolution bands and three 30-m resolution bands at the near infrared. The ASTER data of Dagang district, Tianjin Municipality is used as the test data in this study. At first, the wavelet fusion is carried out to make the spatial resolutions of the ASTER data identical; then, the SOFM method is applied to classifying the land cover types. The classification results are compared with those of the maximum likelihood method (MLH). As a consequence, the classification accuracy of SOFM increases about by 7% in general and, in particular, it is almost as twice as that of the MLH method in the town.

  16. EXTRACTION OF FOREST STANDS PARAMETERS FROM ASTER DATA IN OPEN FOREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abbasi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Tree crown size (CS and stem number per hectare (SN has become increasingly important for forest management and ecosystem monitoring. Tree crown size is also strongly related to other canopy structural parameters, such as diameter at breast height, tree height and biomass. For both issues, remote sensing data are attractive for their large-area and up-to-date mapping capacities. The QuickBird and ASTER imagery used in this study was acquired over Zagros Forests in southern Zagros region, Fars province of Iran on 1 August 2005 and 1 July 2005, respectively. For the forest site investigated in this study, we concentrated on stands of Quercus Persica which is the dominant species in Zagros region. This study was conducted to investigate the capabilities of ASTER-L1B data to estimate some of forest parameters at individual tree and stand level in dry area. The forest stand parameters are crown area, crown density, average crown area. Obtaining the accuracy of classification the ground truth map was prepared by tree crown delineation using the panchromatic band of QuickBird data. Individual tree crowns were automatically delineated by color segmentation of QuickBird imagery. Simple linear regression procedure was used to show the relationships between spectral variables and the individual trees and forest stand parameters. With decreasing the crown density the effects of background will increase. Our results indicated that crown size could be accurately extracted from panchromatic band of QuickBird images especially for open forest stands. This paper demonstrates that using high-resolution satellite imagery in the open forest offers a unique opportunity for deriving single tree attributes and allowing reliable ground truth map to estimate stand structure. ASTER data and its indices showed good capability to estimate crown area in this study.

  17. Reconocimiento de alteración hidrotermal con el sensor ASTER, en el curso medio del Río Santa Cruz (31°40's, provincia de San Juan Reconnaissance of hydrothermal alteration with the ASTER sensor, in the middle course of Río Santa Cruz (31°40' S, province of San Juan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Pérez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La utilización del sensor ASTER (Advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer permitió la identificación de diversos depósitos de alteración hidrotermal, indicando que la aplicación de técnicas espectrales en regiones con buena exposición de afloramientos, permite la identificación de diversas litologías asociadas a dichos depósitos. En el presente trabajo se han probado diferentes métodos para identificar y generar un mapa de zonas con alteración hidrotermal mediante el uso de escenas ASTER. Estas áreas usualmente contienen grandes cantidades de minerales arcillosos susceptibles de ser detectados con imágenes multiespectrales. Diversos autores han desarrollado diferentes procedimientos para clasificar y generar un mapa de estos minerales de origen hidrotermal. Entre las más simples, las combinaciones y cocientes de bandas han probado ser herramientas muy efectivas para detectar blancos. Los índices litológicos buscan reforzar la respuesta espectral de este grupo de minerales mediante productos y cocientes de bandas. Estas técnicas no implican una corrección integral de la escena ASTER. Otras técnicas empleadas en este estudio requieren de un procesamiento más profundo, especialmente cuando se trabaja con datos espectrales. Las mismas incluyen la clasificación SAM (spectral angle mapper y la transformación MNF (minimun noise fraction para separar el ruido y reducir los requisitos posteriores para procesar la imagen. Los espectros utilizados en este trabajo fueron obtenidos con muestras de campo con un espectrómetro de reflectancia SWIR (short wave infrared y mediante la derivación de sus escenas. Los métodos de clasificación han sido probados enáreas de mineralización conocida, como Los Pelambres, El Pachón y Altar; y en otros sectores en la región del río Santa Cruz como Carnicerías y La Coipa; en el sector sudoccidental de la provincia de San Juan. Los resultados de este trabajo se presentan

  18. ASTER GDEM validation using LiDAR data over coastal regions of Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidegaard, Sine Munk; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Forsberg, René

    2011-01-01

    Elevation data from airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) campaigns are used in an attempt to evaluate the accuracy of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) global digital elevation model (GDEM) in Greenland. The LiDAR elevation data set is characterized...... by a high spatial resolution of about 1 m and elevation accuracy of 20–30 cm root mean square error (RMSE). The LiDAR data sets used were acquired during ice-monitoring campaigns carried out from 2003 to 2008. The study areas include ice-free regions, local ice caps and the ice sheet margin. A linear error...

  19. An application of the Self Organizing Map Algorithm to computer aided classification of ASTER multispectral data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinando Giacco

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we employ the Kohonen’s Self Organizing Map (SOM as a strategy for an unsupervised analysis of ASTER multispectral (MS images. In order to obtain an accurate clusterization we introduce as input for the network, in addition to spectral data, some texture measures extracted from IKONOS images, which gives a contribution to the classification of manmade structures. After clustering of SOM outcomes, we associated each cluster with a major land cover and compared them with prior knowledge of the scene analyzed.

  20. Technoscientific Diplomacy: The Practice of International Politics in the ASTER Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plafcan, Dan

    Most chapters in this volume focus on the scientific and technical aspects of the design, performance, operations, and applications of the MODIS and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instruments. In contrast, this final chapter focuses on politics - specifically, the politics of technical decision making and scientific judgment. When scientific objectives, engineering design decisions, and familiar forms of scientific and technical authority are uncertain or otherwise unsettled, how do they become certain and settled? What facilitates collective judgment and the exercise of power in efforts to advance and achieve common scientific goals, especially in the international arena?

  1. Regional Lithological Mapping Using ASTER-TIR Data: Case Study for the Tibetan Plateau and the Surrounding Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiki Ninomiya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The mineralogical indices the Quartz Index (QI, Carbonate Index (CI and Mafic Index (MI for ASTER multispectral thermal infrared (TIR data were applied to various geological materials for regional lithological mapping on the Tibetan Plateau. Many lithological and structural features are not currently well understood in the central Tibetan Plateau, including the distribution of mafic-ultramafic rocks related to the suture zones, the quartzose and carbonate sedimentary rocks accreted to the Eurasian continent, and sulfate layers related to the Tethys and neo-Tethys geological setting. These rock types can now be mapped with the interpretation of the processed ASTER TIR images described in this paper. A methodology is described for the processing of ASTER TIR data applied to a very wide region of the Tibetan Plateau. The geometrical and radiometric performance of the processed images is discussed, and the advantages of using ortho-rectified data are shown. The challenges of using ASTER data with a small footprint in addition to selecting an appropriate subset of scenes are also examined. ASTER scenes possess a narrow swath width when compared to LANDSAT data (60 km vs. 185 km, respectively. Furthermore, the ASTER data archive is vast, consisting of approximately three million images. These details can present an added level of complexity during an image processing workflow. Finally, geological interpretations made on the maps of the indices are compared with prior geological field studies. The results from the investigations suggest that the indices perform well in the classification of quartzose rocks based on the carbonate and mafic mineral content, in addition to the granitic rocks based on the feldspar content.

  2. Nuevas citas de Asteraceae para la provincia de Catamarca (Argentina) New records of Asteraceae for the province of Catamarca (Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Susana E. Freire; Bayón, Néstor D.; Daniel A. Giuliano; Luis Ariza Espinar; Sáenz, Alcides A.; Claudia Monti; Gustavo Delucchi

    2011-01-01

    Se mencionan los siguientes nuevos registros de Asteráceas para la provincia de Catamarca, Argentina: Baccharis acaulis, B. boliviensis var. latifolia, B. flexuosa, B. glutinosa var. angustissima, B. stenophylla (Tribu Astereae), Eupatorium patens var. tomentosum (Tribu Eupatorieae), Cosmos bipinnatus, C. peucedanifolius var. peucedanifolius, Helianthus annuus (Tribu Heliantheae), Gamochaeta erythractis, G. longipedicellata, Gnaphalium lacteum, Tessaria integrifolia var. integrifolia (Tribu I...

  3. Inter-Band Radiometric Comparison and Calibration of ASTER Visible and Near-Infrared Bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Obata

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates inter-band radiometric consistency across the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER visible and near-infrared (VNIR bands and develops an inter-band calibration algorithm to improve radiometric consistency. Inter-band radiometric comparison of current ASTER data shows a root mean square error (RMSE of 3.8%–5.7% among radiance outputs of spectral bands due primarily to differences between calibration strategies of the NIR band for nadir-looking (Band 3N and the other two bands (green and red bands, corresponding to Bands 1 and 2. An algorithm for radiometric calibration of Bands 2 and 3N with reference to Band 1 is developed based on the band translation technique and is used to obtain new radiometric calibration coefficients (RCCs for sensor sensitivity degradation. The systematic errors between radiance outputs are decreased by applying the derived RCCs, which result in reducing the RMSE from 3.8%–5.7% to 2.2%–2.9%. The remaining errors are approximately equal to or smaller than the intrinsic uncertainties of inter-band calibration derived by sensitivity analysis. Improvement of the radiometric consistency would increase the accuracy of band algebra (e.g., vegetation indices and its application. The algorithm can be used to evaluate inter-band radiometric consistency, as well as for the calibration of other sensors.

  4. Morphometric analysis of sub-watershed in parts of Western Ghats, South India using ASTER DEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelin Ramani Sujatha

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Morphometric analysis is a key to understand the hydrological process and hence is a prerequisite for the assessment of hydrological characteristics of surface water basin. Morphometric analysis to determine the drainage characteristics of Palar sub-watershed, a part of Shanmukha watershed in the Amaravati sub-catchment is done using Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Global Digital Elevation Model (ASTER GDEM data, and is supplemented with topographical maps in geographical information systems platform. This study uses ASTER GDEM data to extract morphometric features of a mountain stream at micro-watershed level. The sub-watershed is divided into six micro-watersheds. The sub-watershed includes a sixth-order stream. Lower stream orders, in particular first-order streams, dominate the sub-watershed. Development of stream segments is controlled by slope and local relief. Drainage pattern of the sub-watershed and micro-watersheds is dendritic in general. The mean bifurcation ratio of the sub-watershed is 3.69 but its variation between the various stream orders suggests structural control in the development of stream network. The shape factors reveal the elongation of the sub-watershed and micro-watersheds.The relief ratio reveals the high discharge capability of the sub-watershed and meagre groundwater potential. This study is a useful tool for planning strategies in control of soil erosion and soil conservation.

  5. Estimating Evapotranspiration from an Improved Two-Source Energy Balance Model Using ASTER Satellite Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qifeng Zhuang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Reliably estimating the turbulent fluxes of latent and sensible heat at the Earth’s surface by remote sensing is important for research on the terrestrial hydrological cycle. This paper presents a practical approach for mapping surface energy fluxes using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER images from an improved two-source energy balance (TSEB model. The original TSEB approach may overestimate latent heat flux under vegetative stress conditions, as has also been reported in recent research. We replaced the Priestley-Taylor equation used in the original TSEB model with one that uses plant moisture and temperature constraints based on the PT-JPL model to obtain a more accurate canopy latent heat flux for model solving. The collected ASTER data and field observations employed in this study are over corn fields in arid regions of the Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER area, China. The results were validated by measurements from eddy covariance (EC systems, and the surface energy flux estimates of the improved TSEB model are similar to the ground truth. A comparison of the results from the original and improved TSEB models indicates that the improved method more accurately estimates the sensible and latent heat fluxes, generating more precise daily evapotranspiration (ET estimate under vegetative stress conditions.

  6. Surface energy balance and resolution effects using ASTER imagery over Jornada, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, A.; Schmugge, T.; Kustas, W.; Prueger, J.; Jacob, F.

    2003-04-01

    Knowledge of the relationship between the accuracy of surface energy balance estimates and remote sensing resolution is important for the integration of instantaneous satellite observations with regional and global scale hydrological models. Higher resolution thermal infrared imagery, such as from the ASTER sensor (90 m), provide the needed observations to distinguish between hydrological end-member conditions and are expected to be more accurate than imagery with resolutions >1 km. But higher resolution observations are instantaneous and usually not repeatable at time intervals less than 2 to 4 weeks. On the other hand, lower resolution imagery from sensors such as GOES, in combination with hydrological assimilation models, can estimate the diurnal variations in surface energy balance. To assess the relative merits of resolution vs. imaging frequency, we have collected a series of ASTER observations, between May and October 2002 over the Jornada Experimental Range in New Mexico, and modeled the surface energy balance. Estimates of the energy components are made from the original resolution (90 m) up to an aggregated resolution of 4 km. These estimates are compared with ground based flux observations, and then compared with each other. Loss in range of data and expected biases due to resolution effects will be discussed.

  7. A Forest Fire Risk Assessment Using ASTER Images in Peninsular Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Guang-xiong; LI Jing; CHEN Yun-hao; NORIZAN Abdul-patah

    2007-01-01

    Based on the physical concept of heat energy of pre-ignition, a new fire susceptibility index (FSI) is used to estimate forest fire risk. This physical basis allows calculation of ignition probabilities and comparisons of fire risk across eco-regions. The computation of the index requires inputs of fuel temperature and fuel moisture content (FMC), both of which can be estimated using remote sensing data. While ASTER data for land surface temperatures (LST) was used as proxys for fuel temperatures, fuel moisture content is estimated by regression technique utilizing the ratio NDVI/LST of ASTER data. FSIs are computed in peninsular Malaysia for nine days before the fires of 2004 and 2005 and validated with fire occurrence data. Results show that the FSI increases as the day approaches the fire day. This trend can be observed clearly about four days before the day of fire. It suggests that FSI can be a good estimator of fire risk. The physical basis provides a more meaningful FSI, allows calculation of ignition probabilities and facilitates the development of a future class of fire risk models. FSI can be used to compare fire risk across different eco-regions and time periods. FSI retains the flexibility to be localized to a vegetation type or eco-regions for improved performance.

  8. ASTER L1B satellite data applied to geothermal in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. González-Acosta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The 83 ASTER L1B thermal channels of Cuban territorial scenes, from 2000 to 2008 years, selected and processed with geothermal aims showed almost 50% of cloudy coverage. The vortex coordinated as well as other data from such metadata facilitated completing the designed database. From a preliminary mosaic with the images existent these were subsequently processed in order to obtain temperature images. Such images were then integrated into another mosaic with a suitable reclassification resulting in 11 classes with 3°C each. This allowed delimitating those anomalous zones where the greater distribution of pixels oscillated from 25°C to 37°C, and the cloudy coverage temperature aroused up to 20°C approximately. In the resulting temperature map, 69 polygons were a priori delimitated and categorized, as for their perspective and the temperature value above 40°C. These polygons were later overlapped to Google Earth images with the aim to identify those from anthropogenic origins. Finally it was obtained an estimation of the temperature value of the surface coverage of the national territory as well as the understanding of that the eastern zone is the most perspective. This is an experimental application, using satellite images ASTER L1B with geothermic purpose.

  9. AUTOMATED CONSTRUCTION OF COVERAGE CATALOGUES OF ASTER SATELLITE IMAGE FOR URBAN AREAS OF THE WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Miyazaki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We developed an algorithm to determine a combination of satellite images according to observation extent and image quality. The algorithm was for testing necessity for completing coverage of the search extent. The tests excluded unnecessary images with low quality and preserve necessary images with good quality. The search conditions of the satellite images could be extended, indicating the catalogue could be constructed with specified periods required for time series analysis. We applied the method to a database of metadata of ASTER satellite images archived in GEO Grid of National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST, Japan. As indexes of populated places with geographical coordinates, we used a database of 3372 populated place of more than 0.1 million populations retrieved from GRUMP Settlement Points, a global gazetteer of cities, which has geographical names of populated places associated with geographical coordinates and population data. From the coordinates of populated places, 3372 extents were generated with radiuses of 30 km, a half of swath of ASTER satellite images. By merging extents overlapping each other, they were assembled into 2214 extents. As a result, we acquired combinations of good quality for 1244 extents, those of low quality for 96 extents, incomplete combinations for 611 extents. Further improvements would be expected by introducing pixel-based cloud assessment and pixel value correction over seasonal variations.

  10. ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model Version 2 - summary of validation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachikawa, Tetushi; Kaku, Manabu; Iwasaki, Akira; Gesch, Dean B.; Oimoen, Michael J.; Zhang, Z.; Danielson, Jeffrey J.; Krieger, Tabatha; Curtis, Bill; Haase, Jeff; Abrams, Michael; Carabajal, C.; Meyer, Dave

    2011-01-01

    On June 29, 2009, NASA and the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) of Japan released a Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) to users worldwide at no charge as a contribution to the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS). This “version 1” ASTER GDEM (GDEM1) was compiled from over 1.2 million scenebased DEMs covering land surfaces between 83°N and 83°S latitudes. A joint U.S.-Japan validation team assessed the accuracy of the GDEM1, augmented by a team of 20 cooperators. The GDEM1 was found to have an overall accuracy of around 20 meters at the 95% confidence level. The team also noted several artifacts associated with poor stereo coverage at high latitudes, cloud contamination, water masking issues and the stacking process used to produce the GDEM1 from individual scene-based DEMs (ASTER GDEM Validation Team, 2009). Two independent horizontal resolution studies estimated the effective spatial resolution of the GDEM1 to be on the order of 120 meters.

  11. Planetary boundary layer model for estimating the radionuclides concentration in accidental liberations; Modelo de camada limite planetaria para estimar a concentracao de radionuclideos em liberacoes acidentais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molnary, Leslie de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: molnaryy@net.ipen.br

    2002-07-01

    A two layer bulk model is used to simulate numerically the time and spatial evolution of concentration of radionuclides in the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) for convective and stable conditions. In this model, the closure hypothesis are based on the integrated version of the Turbulent Kinetics Energy equation. This type of model was adopted here because it is numerically simple to be applied operationally in routine and emergency support systems of atmospheric releases at nuclear power plants, and the hypothesis of the efficiency of the vertical mixing seems to be physically reasonable to simulate PBL evolution for high wind conditions and stable conditions in subtropical latitudes regions. In order to validate the model, numerical simulations were carried out with initial and boundary conditions based on vertical profiles of temperatures and horizontal wind speed and direction obtained from tethered balloon soundings, synoptic charts at 850 hPa and surface observations. Comparisons between a 24 hour long numerical simulation and observations indicate that the model is capable of reproduce the diurnal evolution of temperature and horizontal wind during the convective regime. During stable conditions, the slab model was able to simulate the intensity of the surface inversion as a difference between the mixed layer and the surface temperature. The simulated mixed layer height matches with observations during the convective and stable regime. (author)

  12. Una propuesta para estimar la población indígena en México a partir de los datos censales

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Janssen; Regina Martínez Casas

    2006-01-01

    En México la definición de la población indígena a partir de los datos de las encuestas suele restringirse a dos preguntas de carácter individual, la primera sobre el reconocimiento del uso de una lengua indígena, y la segunda sobre la autoadscripción étnica. Resulta cuestionable la validez de tal metodología debido a los riesgos de subestimación que induce. En este trabajo se propone una corrección de dicho cálculo al introducir el factor familiar, que permite mostrar de manera más clara ...

  13. Regularización de Tikhonov para estimar los parámetros de un modelo de un horno de arco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesser James Marulanda Durango

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a methodology for estimating the parameters of a model for an electrical arc furnace by using Tikhonov regularization. Tikhonov regularization is one of the most widely employed methods for regularization. The model proposed for an electrical arc furnace takes into account the highly nonlinear and time varying characteristic of this type of load. We use Regularization Tools (an open-source Matlab toolbox to determine the value of an estimated-parameter vector with smaller norms. Results obtained through simulation of the model in PSCAD are compared to real measurements taken during the furnace’s most critical operating point. We present models for the electrical arc furnace with appropriate parameter tuning, capturing the real three-phase voltage at the secondary of a furnace transformer with great detail. Results show a maximum error of 2,8 % when line current’s root mean square error is applied.

  14. High-quality seamless DEM generation blending SRTM-1, ASTER GDEM v2 and ICESat/GLAS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Linwei; Shen, Huanfeng; Zhang, Liangpei; Zheng, Xianwei; Zhang, Fan; Yuan, Qiangqiang

    2017-01-01

    The absence of a high-quality seamless global digital elevation model (DEM) dataset has been a challenge for the Earth-related research fields. Recently, the 1-arc-second Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM-1) data have been released globally, covering over 80% of the Earth's land surface (60°N-56°S). However, voids and anomalies still exist in some tiles, which has prevented the SRTM-1 dataset from being directly used without further processing. In this paper, we propose a method to generate a seamless DEM dataset blending SRTM-1, ASTER GDEM v2, and ICESat laser altimetry data. The ASTER GDEM v2 data are used as the elevation source for the SRTM void filling. To get a reliable filling source, ICESat GLAS points are incorporated to enhance the accuracy of the ASTER data within the void regions, using an artificial neural network (ANN) model. After correction, the voids in the SRTM-1 data are filled with the corrected ASTER GDEM values. The triangular irregular network based delta surface fill (DSF) method is then employed to eliminate the vertical bias between them. Finally, an adaptive outlier filter is applied to all the data tiles. The final result is a seamless global DEM dataset. ICESat points collected from 2003 to 2009 were used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, and to assess the vertical accuracy of the global DEM products in China. Furthermore, channel networks in the Yangtze River Basin were also extracted for the data assessment.

  15. OBSERVADOR ADAPTABLE PARA TANQUES PRISMÁTICOS ABIERTOS

    OpenAIRE

    SA Rodríguez; J De-León; J Barajas-Fernández; F. RIVERA-TREJO

    2010-01-01

    En este trabajo se presenta el diseño de un observador adaptable, esto es un sensor computacional, el cual será utilizado para estimar el caudal de entrada y algunos parámetros difíciles de medir en un tanque abierto, entre estos el coeficiente de descarga. Por medio de un sistema no lineal, se propone un modelo matemático para un tanque abierto. Además, se presentan condiciones suficientes para garantizar la convergencia de dicho observador. Resultados de simulación muestran las posibles apl...

  16. Paleohydrologic Analysis of Debris-Flow Inundation at Mount Rainier, Washington Using ASTER and SRTM Derived Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, B. E.; Crowley, J. K.; Mars, J.

    2002-05-01

    Methods used in extracting digital topography from remote sensing data include photogrammetry, interferometry, altimetry, and photoclinometry. Two recent spaceborne missions: ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) and SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) use some of these methods for generating global DEM coverages at horizontal resolutions less than 100 m per pixel. This study evaluates the utility of such data for estimating inundation levels of past debris-flows based on the geomorphometric characteristics of terraces preserved along river valleys draining Mount Rainier. Deposits representing debris-flow volumes spanning several orders of magnitude are used as case examples. ASTER DEMs are derived photogrammetrically by measuring the parallax between a stereo pair of images acquired simultaneously by nadir- and aft-viewing instruments. The two channels used (3N and 3B) have a near-infrared bandwidth of 0.76-0.86 microns and a base/height ratio of 0.6 for the stereo pair. SRTM DEMs are generated interferometrically from C- (5.6 cm wavelength) and X-band (3 cm wavelength) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) by measuring the phase differences between SAR images acquired by two antennas spaced 60 m apart. Terrace deposits of the Osceola mudflow, Electron mudflow, National lahar, and Tahoma lahar were all resolved to varying degrees in cross-sectional profiles extracted from the ASTER and SRTM DEMs. Profiles from these two datasets were compared to profiles extracted from a level 2 USGS DEM. The latter dataset was derived by interpolation of USGS digital contour plots, which have been stereoscopically corrected for errors in elevation caused by canopy height variations. Both ASTER and SRTM DEMs were spatially registered to the USGS DEM, which has a spatial resolution of 30 m and vertical accuracy within +15 m. The vertical accuracies of ASTER and STRM DEMs vary within +30 m and +16 m, respectively. The extent of canopy cover throughout

  17. Estimating surface fluxes over middle and upper streams of the Heihe River Basin with ASTER imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Ma

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Land surface heat fluxes are essential measures of the strengths of land-atmosphere interactions involving energy, heat and water. Correct parameterization of these fluxes in climate models is critical. Despite their importance, state-of-the-art observation techniques cannot provide representative areal averages of these fluxes comparable to the model grid. Alternative methods of estimation are thus required. These alternative approaches use (satellite observables of the land surface conditions. In this study, the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS algorithm was evaluated in a cold and arid environment, using land surface parameters derived from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER data. Field observations and estimates from SEBS were compared in terms of net radiation flux (Rn, soil heat flux (G0, sensible heat flux (H and latent heat flux (λE over a heterogeneous land surface. As a case study, this methodology was applied to the experimental area of the Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (WATER project, located on the mid-to-upstream sections of the Heihe River in northwest China. ASTER data acquired between 3 May and 4 June 2008, under clear-sky conditions were used to determine the surface fluxes. Ground-based measurements of land surface heat fluxes were compared with values derived from the ASTER data. The results show that the derived surface variables and the land surface heat fluxes furnished by SEBS in different months over the study area are in good agreement with the observed land surface status under the limited cases (some cases looks poor results. So SEBS can be used to estimate turbulent heat fluxes with acceptable accuracy in areas where there is partial vegetation cover in exceptive conditions. It is very important to perform calculations using ground-based observational data for parameterization in SEBS in the future

  18. Assessment of Landscape Fragmentation Associated With Urban Centers Using ASTER Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, W. L.

    2002-12-01

    The role of humans as an integral part of the environment and ecosystem processes has only recently been accepted into mainstream ecological thought. The realization that virtually all ecosystems on Earth have experienced some degree of human alteration or impact has highlighted the need to incorporate humans (and their environmental effects) into ecosystem models. A logical starting point for investigation of human ecosystem dynamics is examination of the land cover characteristics of large urban centers. Land cover and land use changes associated with urbanization are important drivers of local geological, hydrological, ecological, and climatic change. Quantification and monitoring of urban land cover/land use change is part of the primary mission of the ASTER instrument on board the NASA Terra satellite, and comprises the fundamental research objective of the Urban Environmental Monitoring (UEM) Program at Arizona State University. The UEM program seeks to acquire day/night, visible through thermal infrared data twice per year for 100 global urban centers (with an emphasis on semi-arid cities) over the nominal six-year life of the Terra mission. Data have been acquired for the majority of the target urban centers and are used to compare landscape fragmentation patterns on the basis of land cover classifications. Land cover classifications of urban centers are obtained using visible through mid-infrared reflectance and emittance spectra together with calculated vegetation index and spatial variance texture information (all derived from raw ASTER data). This information is combined within a classification matrix, using an expert system framework, to obtain final pixel classifications. Landscape fragmentation is calculated using a pixel per unit area metric for comparison between 55 urban centers with varying geographic and climatic settings including North America, South America, Europe, central and eastern Asia, and Australia. Temporal variations in land cover

  19. Parámetros genéticos y fenotípicos para peso al año, circunferencia escrotal y talla en ganado Simmental y Simbrah en México

    OpenAIRE

    José Antonio Torres-Vázquez; Coralia Inés Valentina Manzanilla Pech; Aurelio Borrayo Zepeda; Ángel Ríos-Utrera; Vicente Eliezer Vega-Murillo; Guillermo Martínez-Velázquez; Juan José Baeza Rodríguez; Moisés Montaño-Bermúdez

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo fue estimar los componentes de (co)varianza, heredabilidades y correlaciones genéticas y fenotípicas para peso al año (YW), circunferencia escrotal (SC) y talla (FS) en toros jóvenes Simmental y Simbrah de México. Todas las características se ajustaron a 305 días acorde a los lineamientos descritos por la Federación para el Mejoramiento Genético de los Bovinos de Carne (BIF). El archivo final de datos incluyó 1,949 registros Simmental y 1,259 Simbrah. Para estimar los compones de ...

  20. Decadal region-wide and glacier-wide mass balances derived from multi-temporal ASTER satellite digital elevation models. Validation over the Mont-Blanc area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthier, Etienne; Cabot, Vincent; Vincent, Christian; Six, Delphine

    2016-06-01

    Since 2000, a vast archive of stereo-images has been built by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER) satellite. Several studies already extracted glacier mass balances from multi-temporal ASTER digital elevation models (DEMs) but they lacked accurate independent data for validation. Here, we apply a linear regression to a time series of 3D-coregistered ASTER DEMs to estimate the rate of surface elevation changes (dh/dtASTER) and geodetic mass balances of Mont-Blanc glaciers (155 km²) between 2000 and 2014. Validation using field and spaceborne geodetic measurements reveals large errors at the individual pixel level (> 1 m a-1) and an accuracy of 0.2-0.3 m a-1 for dh/dtASTER averaged over areas larger than 1 km². For all Mont-Blanc glaciers, the ASTER region-wide mass balance (-1.05±0.37 m water equivalent (w.e.) a-1) agrees remarkably with the one measured using Spot5 and Pléiades DEMs (-1.06±0.23 m w.e. a-1) over their common 2003-2012 period. This multi-temporal ASTER DEM strategy leads to smaller errors than the simple differencing of two ASTER DEMs. By extrapolating dh/dtASTER to mid-February 2000, we infer a mean penetration depth of about 9±3 m for the C-band Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) radar signal, with a strong altitudinal dependency (range 0-12 m). This methodology thus reveals the regional pattern of glacier surface elevation changes and improves our knowledge of the penetration of the radar signal into snow and ice.

  1. Análisis comparativo de técnicas (IMA) para determinar capitales mínimos regulados por Basilea, ante crisis en mercados emergentes

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez, Víctor Adrián; Rossignolo, Adrián Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Una alternativa sugerida por normas de Basilea para estimar el Valor en Riesgo (VaR) como medida del riesgo de mercado es el método de modelos internos (IMA), que permite a las instituciones reguladas calcularlo utilizando metodologías propias, resultando que desarrollar técnicas precisas para estimar el VaR adquiere especial relevancia. Un método de estimación de cuantiles extremos, que considera circunstancias extraordinarias e inusuales, utiliza la Teoría de Valores Extremos (EVT). Este tr...

  2. Critérios para a amostragem de lianas: comparação e estimativa da abundância e biomassa de lianas no Cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Guimarães Carvalho; Juliano van Melis

    2013-01-01

    Lianas (trepadeiras lenhosas) desempenham papel vital na dinâmica de florestas tropicais, contribuindo para abundância, diversidade e estrutura da comunidade. Técnicas para realizar o censo e estimar a biomassa de lianas têm sido usadas principalmente em florestas tropicais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a abundância e biomassa de lianas utilizando medidas de diâmetro tomadas em diferentes alturas do caule. O estudo foi realizado em um fragmento de Cerrado localizado em Itirapina (ca ...

  3. ASTERICS : Addressing Cross-Cutting Synergies and Common Challenges for the Next Decade Astronomy Facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Pasian, Fabio; Genova, Francoise; Lamanna, Giovanni; Serjeant, Stephen; Szomoru, Arpad; van der Meer, Rob

    2016-01-01

    The large infrastructure projects for the next decade will allow a new quantum leap in terms of new possible science. ESFRI, the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures, a strategic initiative to develop the scientific integration of Europe, has identified four facilities (SKA, CTA, KM3Net and E-ELT) deserving priority in support. The ASTERICS project aims to address the cross-cutting synergies and common challenges shared by the various Astronomy ESFRI and other world-class facilities. The project (22 partners across Europe) is funded by the EU Horizon 2020 programme with 15 MEuro in 4 years. It brings together for the first time the astronomy, astrophysics and particle astrophysics communities, in addition to other related research infrastructures.

  4. Aster albescens Rust Caused by Aecidium asterum and Its Hyperparasitic Fungus Tuberculina persicina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yun; YE Hua-zhi; CHEN Guang-yan; LIU Zi-ying; DONG Bao-chen

    2005-01-01

    Aster albescens is a medicinal plant. The rust caused by Aecidium asterum is a new record in China and an important disease of A. albescens in Feng Tong-zhai national reservation area. The percentages of diseased plant and the diseased leaf reach 100 and 28% respectively when the disease is serious. The disease results in leaf spot and leaf cast. Tuberculina persicina is a natural hyperparasite of A. asterum and is firstly reported in the world. The hyperparasite attacks aecium of A. asterum and hinderes the release of aeciospores. The symptom of the rust and the morphological characteristics of A.asterum is reported. The hyperparasitism of A. asterum and the morphological characteristics of the Tuberculina persicina are also reported.

  5. VALIDATION OF THE ASTER GLOBAL DIGITAL ELEVATION MODEL VERSION 2 OVER THE CONTERMINOUS UNITED STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gesch

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model Version 2 (GDEM v2 was evaluated over the conterminous United States in a manner similar to the validation conducted for the original GDEM Version 1 (v1 in 2009. The absolute vertical accuracy of GDEM v2 was calculated by comparison with more than 18,000 independent reference geodetic ground control points from the National Geodetic Survey. The root mean square error (RMSE measured for GDEM v2 is 8.68 meters. This compares with the RMSE of 9.34 meters for GDEM v1. Another important descriptor of vertical accuracy is the mean error, or bias, which indicates if a DEM has an overall vertical offset from true ground level. The GDEM v2 mean error of –0.20 meters is a significant improvement over the GDEM v1 mean error of –3.69 meters. The absolute vertical accuracy assessment results, both mean error and RMSE, were segmented by land cover to examine the effects of cover types on measured errors. The GDEM v2 mean errors by land cover class verify that the presence of aboveground features (tree canopies and built structures cause a positive elevation bias, as would be expected for an imaging system like ASTER. In open ground classes (little or no vegetation with significant aboveground height, GDEM v2 exhibits a negative bias on the order of 1 meter. GDEM v2 was also evaluated by differencing with the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM dataset. In many forested areas, GDEM v2 has elevations that are higher in the canopy than SRTM.

  6. Mycorrhizal symbiosis and local adaptation in Aster amellus: a field transplant experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Pánková

    Full Text Available Many plant populations have adapted to local soil conditions. However, the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is often overlooked in this context. Only a few studies have used reciprocal transplant experiments to study the relationships between soil conditions, mycorrhizal colonisation and plant growth. Furthermore, most of the studies were conducted under controlled greenhouse conditions. However, long-term field experiments can provide more realistic insights into this issue. We conducted a five-year field reciprocal transplant experiment to study the relationships between soil conditions, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth in the obligate mycotrophic herb Aster amellus. We conducted this study in two regions in the Czech Republic that differ significantly in their soil nutrient content, namely Czech Karst (region K and Ceske Stredohori (region S. Plants that originated from region S had significantly higher mycorrhizal colonisation than plants from region K, indicating that the percentage of mycorrhizal colonisation has a genetic basis. We found no evidence of local adaptation in Aster amellus. Instead, plants from region S outperformed the plants from region K in both target regions. Similarly, plants from region S showed more mycorrhizal colonisation in all cases, which was likely driven by the lower nutrient content in the soil from that region. Thus, plant aboveground biomass and mycorrhizal colonisation exhibited corresponding differences between the two target regions and regions of origin. Higher mycorrhizal colonisation in the plants from region with lower soil nutrient content (region S in both target regions indicates that mycorrhizal colonisation is an adaptive trait. However, lower aboveground biomass in the plants with lower mycorrhizal colonisation suggests that the plants from region K are in fact maladapted by their low inherent mycorrhizal colonization. We conclude that including mycorrhizal symbiosis in local

  7. Tsunami Inundation, North of Phuket, Thailand ASTER Images and SRTM Elevation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 The Indian Ocean coastline north of Phuket, Thailand is a major tourist destination that was in the path of the tsunami produced by a giant offshore earthquake on December 26, 2004. This disaster resulted in a heavy loss of life. These simulated natural color ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) images show a 27 kilometer (17-mile) long stretch of coast 80 kilometers (50 miles) north of the Phuket airport in the Khao Lak area on December 31 (middle) and also two years earlier (left). The changes along the coast are obvious (changing from green to grey) where the vegetation was stripped away by the tsunami. The image on the right is a copy of the later ASTER scene but it includes highlighting in red for areas that have elevations within 10 meters (33 feet) of sea level. This elevation information was supplied by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The red areas appear to include most of the tsunami inundated areas. The geographic correspondence of the imaged damage and the highlighted elevation range is quite good in the middle and upper parts of the scene and is consistent with an early field report of about 10 meters of inundation. In the south, the elevation range corresponds to a much wider area than the actual damage, but this is to be expected for areas increasingly far from the coast. Offshore bathymetry (depth variations), coastal landforms, distance from the coast, and additional factors other than elevation range control the damage extent. But elevation measurements along the coast, as provided by SRTM, give a general indication of areas at risk, as now confirmed by ASTER. ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet with its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet). These data provide scientists in numerous disciplines

  8. Energy efficiency and the use of renewable energies, how to estimate how much they mitigate the green house effect gases emissions; Eficiencia energetica y uso de energias renovables, como estimar cuanto mitigan las emisiones de gases efecto invernadoro?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asociacion de Tecnicos y Profesionistas en Aplicacion Energetica, A.C. [Mexico (Mexico)

    2002-06-01

    In the last years much attention has been given to the polluting gas discharges, in special of those that favor the green house effect (GHE), due to the negative sequels that its concentration causes to the atmosphere, particularly as the cause of the increase in the overall temperature of the planet, which has been denominated world-wide climatic change. There are many activities that allow to lessen or to elude the GHE gas emissions, and with the main ones the so-called projects of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE/RE) have been structured. In order to carry out a project within the frame of the MDL, it is necessary to evaluate with quality, precision and transparency, the amount of emissions of GHE gases that are reduced or suppressed thanks to their application. For that reason, in our country we tried different methodologies directed to estimate the CO{sub 2} emissions that are attenuated or eliminated by means of the application of EE/RE projects. [Spanish] En los ultimos anos se ha puesto mucha atencion a las emisiones de gases contaminantes, en especial de los que favorecen el efecto invernadero (GEI), debido a las secuelas negativas que su concentracion ocasiona a la atmosfera, particularmente como causante del aumento en la temperatura general del planeta, en lo que se ha denominado cambio climatico mundial. Existen muchas actividades que permiten aminorar o eludir las emisiones de GEI, y con las principales se han estructurado los llamados proyectos de eficiencia energetica y energia renovables (EE/ER). Para llevar a cabo un proyecto dentro del marco del MDL, es necesario evaluar con calidad, precision y transparencia, la cantidad de emisiones de GEI que se reducen o suprimen gracias a su aplicacion. Por ello, en nuestro pais ensayamos diferentes metodologias encaminadas a estimar las emisiones de CO{sub 2} que se atenuan o eliminan mediante la aplicacion de proyectos de EE/ER.

  9. Los ritmos como terapia para la impulsividad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Triviño

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigaciones recientes muestran que el uso de patrones rítmicos facilita la respuesta óptima en el tiempo, por lo que el entrenamiento mediante ritmos podría proponerse como terapia novedosa ante problemas como la impulsividad. Esto podría beneficiar a pacientes con daño prefrontal o personas con trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH, que suelen mostrar conductas impulsivas, así como dificultad para estimar el paso del tiempo.

  10. Hydrothermal Alteration Maps of the Central and Southern Basin and Range Province of the United States Compiled From Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operator algorithms were used to map...

  11. Analysis of Topographic Feature with SRTM DEM and ASTER GDEM Data and Railway Alignment%基于SRTM DEM,ASTER GDEM 地貌特征分析与铁路选线

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高山

    2012-01-01

    研究目的:SRTM DEM,ASTER GDEM 数据具有全球范围、免费获取、精度较高的优点,结合复杂山区铁路工程,评价其数据精度,研究线路地貌特征,辅助铁路选线.研究结论:SRTM DEM,ASTER GDEM 数据由于各自存在较大的系统误差,通过采用高程精度评价、DEM融合、高程基准偏移、DEM重采样方法提高数字高程精度,进而构建大范围、高精度、可视化的三维数字地貌模型,有助于分析构造地貌特征、岩溶水文地质条件、地质灾害发育规律,提高铁路选线质量和效率.%Research purposes: The SRTM DEM and ASTER GDEM data have the advantages of the global scope, free access and high precision. The data were appliied in building railways in mountain area with complex geological condition to evaluate the data accuracy and study the topographic feature for assisting the railway alignment. Research conclusions:As the SRTM DEM and ASTER GDEM data have its own system error, the measures, such as the digital elevation accuracy evaluation, DEM fusion, elevation datum offset and DEM re - sampling, should be taken for improving the DEM accuracy and building a large range, high accuracy and visual digital topographic feature model to assist the analysis of the structural topographic feature, the geological condition of karst hydrology and the development regulation of geological disaster in order to enhance the quality and efficiency of railway alignment.

  12. ¿Cómo estimar la concentración de azúcar en gaseosas? Una introducción a la refractometría

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbs, Horacio; Pérez, Gabriel; Szigety, Esteban; Viau, Javier E.; Tintori Ferreira, María Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    Con el propósito de promover prácticas cotidianas que faciliten la construcción de nuevas maneras de enseñar y aprender ciencias es que presentamos una propuesta didáctica inscripta en un marco de educación científica escolar; cuyo punto de partida es una pregunta disparadora: ¿Cómo podrían estimar la concentración de azúcar en una bebida gaseosa?, una vez desarrollados los conceptos asociados a la reflexión-refracción de la luz en el aula. Se abordan en el aula de física concepto...

  13. Mineral mapping on the Chilean-Bolivian Altiplano using co-orbital ALI, ASTER and Hyperion imagery: Data dimensionality issues and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, B.E.; Crowley, J.K.

    2005-01-01

    Hyperspectral data coverage from the EO-1 Hyperion sensor was useful for calibrating Advanced Land Imager (ALI) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) images of a volcanic terrane area of the Chilean-Bolivian Altiplano. Following calibration, the ALI and ASTER datasets were co-registered and joined to produce a 13-channel reflectance cube spanning the Visible to Short Wave Infrared (0.4-2.4 ??m). Eigen analysis and comparison of the Hyperion data with the ALI + ASTER reflectance data, as well as mapping results using various ALI+ASTER data subsets, provided insights into the information dimensionality of all the data. In particular, high spectral resolution, low signal-to-noise Hyperion data were only marginally better for mineral mapping than the merged 13-channel, low spectral resolution, high signal-to-noise ALI + ASTER dataset. Neither the Hyperion nor the combined ALI + ASTER datasets had sufficient information dimensionality for mapping the diverse range of surface materials exposed on the Altiplano. However, it is possible to optimize the use of the multispectral data for mineral-mapping purposes by careful data subsetting, and by employing other appropriate image-processing strategies.

  14. Surface Heat Balance Analysis of Tainan City on March 6, 2001 Using ASTER and Formosat-2 Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yi Sun

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The urban heat island phenomenon occurs as a mixed result of anthropogenic heat discharge, decreased vegetation, and increased artificial impervious surfaces. To clarify the contribution of each factor to the urban heat island, it is necessary to evaluate the surface heat balance. Satellite remote sensing data of Tainan City, Taiwan, obtained from Terra ASTER and Formosat-2 were used to estimate surface heat balance in this study. ASTER data is suitable for analyzing heat balance because of the wide spectral range. We used Formosat-2 multispectral data to classify the land surface, which was used to interpolate some surface parameters for estimating heat fluxes. Because of the high spatial resolution of the Formosat-2 image, more roads, open spaces and small vegetation areas could be distinguished from buildings in urban areas; however, misclassifications of land cover in such areas using ASTER data would overestimate the sensible heat flux. On the other hand, the small vegetated areas detected from the Formosat-2 image slightly increased the estimation of latent heat flux. As a result, the storage heat flux derived from Formosat-2 is higher than that derived from ASTER data in most areas. From these results, we can conclude that the higher resolution land coverage map increases accuracy of the heat balance analysis. Storage heat flux occupies about 60 to 80% of the net radiation in most of the artificial surface areas in spite of their usages. Because of the homogeneity of the building roof materials, there is no contrast between the storage heat flux in business and residential areas. In sparsely vegetated urban areas, more heat is stored and latent heat is smaller than that in the forested suburbs. This result implies that density of vegetation has a significant influence in decreasing temperatures.

  15. Using ASTER Imagery in Land Use/cover Classification of Eastern Mediterranean Landscapes According to CORINE Land Cover Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep Gundogan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The satellite imagery has been effectively utilized for classifying land covertypes and detecting land cover conditions. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emissionand Reflection Radiometer (ASTER sensor imagery has been widely used in classificationprocess of land cover. However, atmospheric corrections have to be made by preprocessingsatellite sensor imagery since the electromagnetic radiation signals received by the satellitesensors can be scattered and absorbed by the atmospheric gases and aerosols. In this study,an ASTER sensor imagery, which was converted into top-of-atmosphere reflectance(TOA, was used to classify the land use/cover types, according to COoRdination ofINformation on the Environment (CORINE land cover nomenclature, for an arearepresenting the heterogonous characteristics of eastern Mediterranean regions inKahramanmaras, Turkey. The results indicated that using the surface reflectance data ofASTER sensor imagery can provide accurate (i.e. overall accuracy and kappa values of83.2% and 0.79, respectively and low-cost cover mapping as a part of inventory forCORINE Land Cover Project.

  16. Long-Term Volcanic Activity at Shiveluch Volcano: Nine Years of ASTER Spaceborne Thermal Infrared Observations  

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Carter

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Shiveluch (Kamchatka, Russia is the most active andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc, typically exhibiting near-continual high-temperature fumarolic activity and periods of exogenous lava dome emplacement punctuated by discrete large explosive eruptions. These eruptions can produce large pyroclastic flow (PF deposits, which are common on the southern flank of the volcano. Since 2000, six explosive eruptions have occurred that generated ash fall and PF deposits. Over this same time period, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER instrument has been acquiring image-based visible/near infrared (VNIR, short wave infrared (SWIR and thermal infrared (TIR data globally, with a particular emphasis on active volcanoes. Shiveluch was selected as an ASTER target of interest early in the mission because of its frequent activity and potential impact to northern Pacific air transportation. The north Pacific ASTER archive was queried for Shiveluch data and we present results from 2000 to 2009 that documents three large PF deposits emplaced on 19 May 2001, 9 May 2004, and 28 February 2005. The long-term archive of infrared data provides an excellent record on the changing activity and eruption state of the volcano.

  17. Using aster multispectral imagery for mapping woody invasive species in pico da vara natural reserve (Azores Islands, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Gil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to assess the effectiveness of ASTER imagery to support the mapping of Pittosporum undulatum, an invasive woody species, in Pico da Vara Natural Reserve (S. Miguel Island, Archipelago of the Azores, Portugal. This assessment was done by applying K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN, Support Vector Machine (SVM and Maximum Likelihood (MLC pixel-based supervised classifications to 4 different geographic and remote sensing datasets constituted by the Visible, Near-Infrared (VNIR and Short Wave Infrared (SWIR of the ASTER sensor and by digital cartography associated to orography (altitude and "distance to water streams" of which the spatial distribution of Pittosporum undulatum directly depends. Overall, most performed classifications showed a strong agreement and high accuracy. At targeted species level, the two higher classification accuracies were obtained when applying MLC and KNN to the VNIR bands coupled with auxiliary geographic information use. Results improved significantly by including ecology and occurrence information of species (altitude and distance to water streams in the classification scheme. These results show that the use of ASTER sensor VNIR spectral bands, when coupled to relevant ancillary GIS data, can constitute an effective and low cost approach for the evaluation and continuous assessment of Pittosporum undulatum woodland propagation and distribution within Protected Areas of the Azores Islands.

  18. Cross-satellite comparison of operational land surface temperature products derived from MODIS and ASTER data over bare soil surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Si-Bo; Li, Zhao-Liang; Cheng, Jie; Leng, Pei

    2017-04-01

    The collection 6 (C6) MODIS land surface temperature (LST) product is publicly available for the user community. Compared to the collection 5 (C5) MODIS LST product, the C6 MODIS LST product has been refined over bare soil pixels. Assessing the accuracy of the C6 MODIS LST product will help to facilitate the use of the LST product in various applications. In this study, we present a cross-satellite comparison to evaluate the accuracy of the C6 MODIS LST product (MOD11_L2) over bare soil surfaces under various atmospheric and surface conditions using the ASTER LST product as a reference. For comparison, the C5 MODIS LST product was also used in the analysis. The absolute biases (0.2-1.5 K) of the differences between the C6 MODIS LST and ASTER LST over bare soil surfaces are approximately two times less than those (0.6-3.8 K) of the differences between the C5 MODIS LST and ASTER LST. Furthermore, the RMSEs (0.7-2.3 K) over bare soil surfaces for the C6 MODIS LST are significantly smaller than those (0.9-4.2 K) for the C5 MODIS LST. These results indicate that the accuracy of the C6 MODIS LST product is much better than that of the C5 MODIS LST product. We recommend that the user community employs the C6 MODIS LST product in their applications.

  19. Níveis vitamínicos para frangos de corte

    OpenAIRE

    Félix,Ananda Portella; Maiorka,Alex; Sorbara,José Otávio Berti

    2009-01-01

    As vitaminas são micronutrientes que participam de inúmeros processos metabólicos do organismo, sendo, portanto, essenciais para ótima saúde e desempenho do animal. Poucos trabalhos foram realizados nos últimos anos para estimar os melhores níveis de vitaminas para frangos, havendo grande variação entre os níveis empregados comercialmente. Sendo assim, o objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar os conceitos atuais na avaliação das exigências de vitaminas para frangos e os níveis sugeridos pela in...

  20. Validation of the ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model version 3 over the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesch, Dean B.; Oimoen, Michael J.; Danielson, Jeffrey J.; Meyer, David

    2016-01-01

    The ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model Version 3 (GDEM v3) was evaluated over the conterminous United States in a manner similar to the validation conducted for the original GDEM Version 1 (v1) in 2009 and GDEM Version 2 (v2) in 2011. The absolute vertical accuracy of GDEM v3 was calculated by comparison with more than 23,000 independent reference geodetic ground control points from the U.S. National Geodetic Survey. The root mean square error (RMSE) measured for GDEM v3 is 8.52 meters. This compares with the RMSE of 8.68 meters for GDEM v2. Another important descriptor of vertical accuracy is the mean error, or bias, which indicates if a DEM has an overall vertical offset from true ground level. The GDEM v3 mean error of −1.20 meters reflects an overall negative bias in GDEM v3. The absolute vertical accuracy assessment results, both mean error and RMSE, were segmented by land cover type to provide insight into how GDEM v3 performs in various land surface conditions. While the RMSE varies little across cover types (6.92 to 9.25 meters), the mean error (bias) does appear to be affected by land cover type, ranging from −2.99 to +4.16 meters across 14 land cover classes. These results indicate that in areas where built or natural aboveground features are present, GDEM v3 is measuring elevations above the ground level, a condition noted in assessments of previous GDEM versions (v1 and v2) and an expected condition given the type of stereo-optical image data collected by ASTER. GDEM v3 was also evaluated by differencing with the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) dataset. In many forested areas, GDEM v3 has elevations that are higher in the canopy than SRTM. The overall validation effort also included an evaluation of the GDEM v3 water mask. In general, the number of distinct water polygons in GDEM v3 is much lower than the number in a reference land cover dataset, but the total areas compare much more closely.

  1. ASTER/AVHRR Data Hybridization to determine Pyroclastic Flow cooling curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reath, K. A.; Wright, R.; Ramsey, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    Shiveluch Volcano (Kamchatka, Russia) has been in a consistent state of eruption for the past 15 years. During this period different eruption styles have been documented including: sub-plinian events, dome growth and collapse, and subsequent debris flow deposits. For example, on June 25-26, 2009 a pyroclastic debris flow was emplaced and the eruption onset that produced it was recorded by a series of seismic events spanning several hours. However, due to cloud cover, visual confirmation of the exact emplacement time was obscured. Orbital remote sensing was able to image the deposit repeatedly over the subsequent months. ASTER is a high spatial resolution (90m), low temporal resolution (2 - 4 days at the poles, 16 days at the equator) thermal infrared (TIR) sensor on the NASA Terra satellite. AVHRR is a high temporal resolution (minutes to several hours), low spatial resolution (1km) spaceborne TIR sensor on a series of NOAA satellites. Combined, these sensors provide a unique opportunity to fuse high-spatial and high-temporal resolution data to better observe changes on the surface of the deposit over time. For example, ASTER data were used to determine the flow area and to provide several data points for average temperature while AVHRR data were used to increase the amount of data points. Through this method an accurate average cooling rate over a three month period was determined. This cooling curve was then examined to derive several features about the deposit that were previously unknown. The time of emplacement and period of time needed for negligible thermal output were first determined by extrapolating the cooling curve in time. The total amount of heat output and total flow volume of the deposit were also calculated. This volume was then compared to the volume of the dome to calculate the percentage of collapse. This method can be repeated for other flow deposits to determine if there is a consistent correlation between the dome growth rate, the average

  2. Developing New Coastal Forest Restoration Products Based on Landsat, ASTER, and MODIS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Graham, William; Smoot, James

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses an ongoing effort to develop new geospatial information products for aiding coastal forest restoration and conservation efforts in coastal Louisiana and Mississippi. This project employs Landsat, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data in conjunction with airborne elevation data to compute coastal forest cover type maps and change detection products. Improved forest mapping products are needed to aid coastal forest restoration and management efforts of State and Federal agencies in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) region. In particular, such products may aid coastal forest land acquisition and conservation easement procurements. This region's forests are often disturbed and subjected to multiple biotic and abiotic threats, including subsidence, salt water intrusion, hurricanes, sea-level rise, insect-induced defoliation and mortality, altered hydrology, wildfire, and conversion to non-forest land use. In some cases, such forest disturbance has led to forest loss or loss of regeneration capacity. In response, a case study was conducted to assess and demonstrate the potential of satellite remote sensing products for improving forest type maps and for assessing forest change over the last 25 years. Change detection products are needed for assessing risks for specific priority coastal forest types, such as live oak and baldcypress-dominated forest. Preliminary results indicate Landsat time series data are capable of generating the needed forest type and change detection products. Useful classifications were obtained using 2 strategies: 1) general forest classification based on use of 3 seasons of Landsat data from the same year; and 2) classification of specific forest types of concern using a single date of Landsat data in which a given targeted type is spectrally distinct compared to adjacent forested cover. When available, ASTER data was

  3. Validation of the Aster Global Digital Elevation Model Version 3 Over the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesch, D.; Oimoen, M.; Danielson, J.; Meyer, D.

    2016-06-01

    The ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model Version 3 (GDEM v3) was evaluated over the conterminous United States in a manner similar to the validation conducted for the original GDEM Version 1 (v1) in 2009 and GDEM Version 2 (v2) in 2011. The absolute vertical accuracy of GDEM v3 was calculated by comparison with more than 23,000 independent reference geodetic ground control points from the U.S. National Geodetic Survey. The root mean square error (RMSE) measured for GDEM v3 is 8.52 meters. This compares with the RMSE of 8.68 meters for GDEM v2. Another important descriptor of vertical accuracy is the mean error, or bias, which indicates if a DEM has an overall vertical offset from true ground level. The GDEM v3 mean error of -1.20 meters reflects an overall negative bias in GDEM v3. The absolute vertical accuracy assessment results, both mean error and RMSE, were segmented by land cover type to provide insight into how GDEM v3 performs in various land surface conditions. While the RMSE varies little across cover types (6.92 to 9.25 meters), the mean error (bias) does appear to be affected by land cover type, ranging from -2.99 to +4.16 meters across 14 land cover classes. These results indicate that in areas where built or natural aboveground features are present, GDEM v3 is measuring elevations above the ground level, a condition noted in assessments of previous GDEM versions (v1 and v2) and an expected condition given the type of stereo-optical image data collected by ASTER. GDEM v3 was also evaluated by differencing with the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) dataset. In many forested areas, GDEM v3 has elevations that are higher in the canopy than SRTM. The overall validation effort also included an evaluation of the GDEM v3 water mask. In general, the number of distinct water polygons in GDEM v3 is much lower than the number in a reference land cover dataset, but the total areas compare much more closely.

  4. Glacial Ice Velocity Determination and Correlation from Different Mountain Ranges Using Aster Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleasants, M.; Haritashya, U. K.

    2013-12-01

    Mountain glaciers make good indicators of even slight changes in climatic conditions because of their sensitivity to temperature and other environmental changes. Due to the inaccessibility of most mountain glaciers, field based measurements of glacier dynamics, especially ice velocities, has proved to be difficult and unrealistic. Because of this, evaluation of satellite imagery has become useful in the determination of glacial ice velocities and production of ice flow models. The calculation and comparison of ice velocities from three glaciated regions (the Southern Alps of New Zealand, the North-east Nepali Himalaya, and the south-eastern Chugach Mountains of Alaska) is presented here. This study was completed to establish the accuracy and global applicability of the method of precise orthorectification, co-registration, and correlation using the software COSI-Corr and in-house filtering techniques. We chose glaciers from different mountain ranges that present different dynamics to establish a specific ice velocity method. Advanced Spacebourne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) L1A images were chosen as close to annual pairs as possible from the available data at the USGS Global Visualization Viewer (GloVis). This study focuses on the Tasman glacier in New Zealand, the Khumbu glacier in the Himalayas, the previously unstudied Scott glacier in Alaska, and the comparison of these ice velocities to climate data for each region compiled from numerous sources in an attempt to draw conclusions of the behavior of these glaciers in response to current climatic changes.

  5. 用Asterisk和AsterCRM部署心理咨询呼叫中心

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李正鹏; 王迪

    2010-01-01

    随着社会快速发展与变革,人们对心理咨询的需求日益增多,如何提高客户服务质量和效率是心理咨询机构成功的关键因素.由于呼叫中心(CallCenter)能提供便利、规范和高效的客户服务,因此在心理咨询客户诉聊中具有很好的应用价值,Asterisk是目前使用最广泛的开源IP-PBX系统软件,AsterCRM是一款基于web的针对asterisk开发的开源呼叫中心软件,文章详细介绍了Asterisk软交换平台和AstetCRM呼叫中心平台,并设计实现了心理咨询呼叫中心.

  6. Accuracy Improvement of ASTER Stereo Satellite Generated DEM Using Texture Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mandla V. Ravibabu; Kamal Jain; Surendra Pal Singh; Naga Jyothi Meeniga

    2010-01-01

    The grid DEM (digital elevation model) generation can be from any of a number of sources: for instance, analogue to digital conversion of contour maps followed by application of the TIN model, or direct elevation point modelling via digital photogrammetry applied to airborne images or satellite images. Currently, apart from the deployment of point-clouds from LiDAR data acquisition, the generally favoured approach refers to applications of digital photogrammetry. One of the most important steps in such deployment is the stereo matching process for conjugation point (pixel) establishment: very difficult in modelling any homogenous areas like water cover or forest canopied areas due to the lack of distinct spatial features. As a result, application of automated procedures is sure to generate erroneous elevation values. In this paper, we present and apply a method for improving the quality of stereo DEMs generated via utilization of an entropy texture filter. The filter was applied for extraction of homogenous areas before stereo matching so that a statistical texture filter could then be applied for removing anomalous evaluation values prior to interpolation and accuracy assessment via deployment of a spatial correlation technique. For exemplification, we used a stereo pair of ASTER 1B images.

  7. Inversion of Land Surface Temperature (LST Using Terra ASTER Data: A Comparison of Three Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Isaya Ndossi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Land Surface Temperature (LST is an important measurement in studies related to the Earth surface’s processes. The Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER instrument onboard the Terra spacecraft is the currently available Thermal Infrared (TIR imaging sensor with the highest spatial resolution. This study involves the comparison of LSTs inverted from the sensor using the Split Window Algorithm (SWA, the Single Channel Algorithm (SCA and the Planck function. This study has used the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA data to model and compare the results from the three algorithms. The data from the sensor have been processed by the Python programming language in a free and open source software package (QGIS to enable users to make use of the algorithms. The study revealed that the three algorithms are suitable for LST inversion, whereby the Planck function showed the highest level of accuracy, the SWA had moderate level of accuracy and the SCA had the least accuracy. The algorithms produced results with Root Mean Square Errors (RMSE of 2.29 K, 3.77 K and 2.88 K for the Planck function, the SCA and SWA respectively.

  8. Per-Field Irrigated Crop Classification in Arid Central Asia Using SPOT and ASTER Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Conrad

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The overarching goal of this research was to explore accurate methods of mapping irrigated crops, where digital cadastre information is unavailable: (a Boundary separation by object-oriented image segmentation using very high spatial resolution (2.5–5 m data was followed by (b identification of crops and crop rotations by means of phenology, tasselled cap, and rule-based classification using high resolution (15–30 m bi-temporal data. The extensive irrigated cotton production system of the Khorezm province in Uzbekistan, Central Asia, was selected as a study region. Image segmentation was carried out on pan-sharpened SPOT data. Varying combinations of segmentation parameters (shape, compactness, and color were tested for optimized boundary separation. The resulting geometry was validated against polygons digitized from the data and cadastre maps, analysing similarity (size, shape and congruence. The parameters shape and compactness were decisive for segmentation accuracy. Differences between crop phenologies were analyzed at field level using bi-temporal ASTER data. A rule set based on the tasselled cap indices greenness and brightness allowed for classifying crop rotations of cotton, winter-wheat and rice, resulting in an overall accuracy of 80 %. The proposed field-based crop classification method can be an important tool for use in water demand estimations, crop yield simulations, or economic models in agricultural systems similar to Khorezm.

  9. Spatial distributions of the leafminer Ophiomyia maura (Diptera: Agromyzidae) in host plant Aster ageratoides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshiko Ayabe; Ei'ichi Shibata

    2008-01-01

    The seasonal occurrence and among-plant and within-plant spatial distribution of the multivoltine leafminer Ophiomyia maura Meigen (Diptera: Agromyzidae) on the herbaceous plant Aster ageratoides Turcz. subsp, ovatus (Asteraceae) were investigated in the field. O. maura has at least four generations a year and mines per leaf fluctuate with a mean of 0.007 throughout the occurrence period. Seasonal occurrence is associated with abundance of new host leaves, suggesting O. maura females prefer to oviposit in newly emerged leaves. The among-plant distribution of O. maura is described by a Poisson distribution early in the season but tends to be weakly clumped later. The within-plant vertical distribution of larval mines increased from middle to upper leaves during plantdevelopment, because mined leaves in the middle position early in the season move downward with the emergence of new leaves, shifting mined leaves from the position where O. maura oviposits eggs. Later in the season, mined leaves remain where they are deposited because few new leaves emerge. The spatial distribution of O. rnaura, resource utilization patterns, and host plant characteristics are discussed.

  10. Thermal remote sensing of ice-debris landforms using ASTER: an example from the Chilean Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenning, A.; Peña, M. A.; Long, S.; Soliman, A.

    2012-03-01

    Remote sensors face challenges in characterizing mountain permafrost and ground thermal conditions or mapping rock glaciers and debris-covered glaciers. We explore the potential of thermal imaging and in particular thermal inertia mapping in mountain cryospheric research, focusing on the relationships between ground surface temperatures and the presence of ice-debris landforms on one side and land surface temperature (LST) and apparent thermal inertia (ATI) on the other. In our case study we utilize ASTER daytime and nighttime imagery and in-situ measurements of near-surface ground temperature (NSGT) in the Mediterranean Andes during a snow-free and dry observation period in late summer. Spatial patterns of LST and NSGT were mostly consistent with each other both at daytime and at nighttime. Daytime LST over ice-debris landforms was decreased and ATI consequently increased compared to other debris surfaces under otherwise equal conditions, but NSGT showed contradictory results, which underlines the complexity and possible scale dependence of ATI in heterogeneous substrates with the presence of a thermal mismatch and a heat sink at depth. While our results demonstrate the utility of thermal imaging and ATI mapping in a mountain cryospheric context, further research is needed for a better interpretation of ATI patterns in complex thermophysical conditions.

  11. Alteration, slope-classified alteration, and potential lahar inundation maps of volcanoes for the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Volcano Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, John C.; Hubbard, Bernard E.; Pieri, David; Linick, Justin

    2015-01-01

    This study identifies areas prone to lahars from hydrothermally altered volcanic edifices on a global scale, using visible and near infrared (VNIR) and short wavelength infrared (SWIR) reflectance data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and digital elevation data from the ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) dataset. This is the first study to create a global database of hydrothermally altered volcanoes showing quantitatively compiled alteration maps and potentially affected drainages, as well as drainage-specific maps illustrating modeled lahars and their potential inundation zones. We (1) identified and prioritized 720 volcanoes based on population density surrounding the volcanoes using the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program database (GVP) and LandScan™ digital population dataset; (2) validated ASTER hydrothermal alteration mapping techniques using Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and ASTER data for Mount Shasta, California, and Pico de Orizaba (Citlaltépetl), Mexico; (3) mapped and slope-classified hydrothermal alteration using ASTER VNIR-SWIR reflectance data on 100 of the most densely populated volcanoes; (4) delineated drainages using ASTER GDEM data that show potential flow paths of possible lahars for the 100 mapped volcanoes; (5) produced potential alteration-related lahar inundation maps using the LAHARZ GIS code for Iztaccíhuatl, Mexico, and Mount Hood and Mount Shasta in the United States that illustrate areas likely to be affected based on DEM-derived volume estimates of hydrothermally altered rocks and the ~2x uncertainty factor inherent within a statistically-based lahar model; and (6) saved all image and vector data for 3D and 2D display in Google Earth™, ArcGIS® and other graphics display programs. In addition, these data are available from the ASTER Volcano Archive (AVA) for distribution (available at http://ava.jpl.nasa.gov/recent_alteration_zones.php).

  12. Desenvolvimento de equação para estimativa da gordura corporal de mulheres idosas com osteoporose e osteopenia através da espessura de dobras cutâneas tendo como referência absorciometria por dupla emissão de raios X Desarrollo de una ecuación para estimar la grasa corporal de mujeres ancianas con osteoporosis y osteopenia a través de la espesura de dobleces cutáneas teniendo como referencia la absorciometría por doble emisión de rayos X Development of an equation for measurement of bodyfat mass of elderly women with osteoporosis or osteopenia through skin fold thickness using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry as a reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TM Aniteli

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO E OBJETIVO: A composição corporal vem sendo descrita como importante fator relacionado à densidade mineral óssea. Assim, o presente estudo teve como objetivo desenvolver equação preditiva para percentagem de gordura corporal através da espessura de dobras cutâneas tendo como referência a absorciometria por dupla emissão de raios X (DXA, em mulheres com osteoporose e osteopenia. METODOLOGIA: Foram analisadas 29 mulheres com idade entre 67 e 84 anos, atendidas no Ambulatório de Osteoporose da Disciplina de Reumatologia da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo. Foram mensuradas as espessuras de quatro dobras cutâneas (bíceps, tríceps, subescapular e supra-ilíaca e realizada a avaliação da composição corporal pela DXA. A análise estatística constou do teste de Kolmogorov-Smirnov, coeficiente de correlação de Pearson, análise de regressão linear simples, coeficiente de correlação intraclasse, teste t de Student, teste de Bland-Altman e cálculo do erro total da equação de acordo com Lohman (1992. RESULTADOS: O modelo de espessura de dobras cutâneas que melhor explicou o percentual de gordura corporal incluiu a soma das dobras supra-ilíaca, bicipital e tricipital, determinando em até 72% a percentagem de gordura corporal. Os valores médios da gordura corporal em quilograma, estimados pelas dobras e medidos pela DXA, não foram estatisticamente diferentes e estiveram altamente correlacionados (r = 0,82; p INTRODUCCIÓN Y OBJETIVO: La composición corporal viene siendo descrita como un importante factor relacionado a la densidad mineral ósea. De este modo el presente estudio ha tenido como objetivo desarrollar una ecuación predictiva para el porcentaje de grasa corporal a través de la espesura de los dobleces cutáneos con bases en la absorciometría por doble emisión de rayos X (DXA, en mujeres con osteoporosis y osteopenia. METODOLOGÍA: Fueron analizadas 29 mujeres con edades entre 67 y

  13. Obesidad como Factor de Riesgo para Trastornos Metabólicos en Adolescentes Mexicanos, 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Nydia J. Marcos-Daccarett; Georgina M. Núñez-Rocha; Ana M. Salinas-Martínez; Magaly Santos-Ayarzagoitia; Horacio Decanini-Arcaute

    2007-01-01

    Objetivo Determinar la prevalencia y estimar el riesgo de obesidad para dislipidemias e hiperinsulinemia en adolescentes. Asimismo, evaluar la asociación lineal de medidas antropométricas y lípidos con insulina. Material y Métodos Se realizó un estudio transversal comparativo entre adolescentes obesos (índice de masa corporal=IMCpercentil 95 para edad y sexo; n=120) y no obesos (IMCpercentil 85 para edad y sexo; n=120) de 10-19 años. Se aplicó una encuesta estructurada con datos sociodemográf...

  14. Opciones reales : una propuesta para valorar centros públicos de investigación agraria

    OpenAIRE

    Vedovoto, Graciela; Prior Jiménez, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Las decisiones de inversión en investigación y desarrollo (I+D) son importantes para el éxito de las organizaciones, sobre todo para los centros públicos de investigación. Este trabajo evalúa un proyecto de I+D (mejora genética de semillas) utilizando un método tradicional, el Valor Actual Neto, así como el uso de las opciones reales. Asimismo, se utiliza la Teoría del Excedente Económico y simulaciones de Monte Carlo para estimar los beneficios sociales. Los resultados indican que el enfoque...

  15. Comparative lahar hazard mapping at Volcan Citlaltépetl, Mexico using SRTM, ASTER and DTED-1 digital topographic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Bernard E.; Sheridan, Michael F.; Carrasco-Núñez, Gerardo; Díaz-Castellón, Rodolfo; Rodríguez, Sergio Raúl

    2007-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated and compared the utility of spaceborne SRTM and ASTER DEMs with baseline DTED-1 "bald-earth" topography for mapping lahar inundation hazards from volcan Citlaltépetl, Mexico, a volcano which has had a history of producing debris flows of various extents. In particular, we tested the utility of these topographic datasets for resolving ancient valley-filling deposits exposed around the flanks of the volcano, for determining their magnitude using paleohydrologic methods and for forecasting their inundation limits in the future. We also use the three datasets as inputs to a GIS stream inundation flow model, LAHARZ, and compare the results. In general all three datasets, with spatial resolution of 90 m or better, were capable of resolving debris flow and lahar deposits at least 3 × 10 6 m 3 in volume or larger. Canopy- and slope-related height errors in the ASTER and SRTM DEMs limit their utility for measuring valley-filling cross-sectional area and deriving flow magnitude for the smallest deposits using a cross-sectional area to volume scaling equation. Height errors in the ASTER and SRTM DEMs also causes problems in resolving stream valley hydrography which controls lahar flow paths and stream valley morphology which controls lahar filling capacity. However, both of the two spaceborne DEM datasets are better than DTED-1 at resolving fine details in stream hydrography and erosional morphologies of volcaniclastics preserved in the valleys around the more humid, eastern flanks of the volcanic range. The results of LAHARZ flow inundation modeling using all three DEMs as inputs are remarkably similar and co-validate one another. For example, at Citlaltépetl all lahar simulations show that the city of Orizaba is the most vulnerable to flows similar in magnitude to, or larger than, one that occurred in 1920. Many of the other cities and towns illustrated are built higher up on terrace deposits of older debris flows, and are safe from all but

  16. Parâmetros genéticos para características de prolificidade nas raças Landrace e Large White

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Anrain

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dados de suínos das raças Landrace (LD e Large White (LW foram utilizados para estimar componentes de variância para número total de leitões nascidos (NTN, nascidos vivos (NV e de leitões vivos ao quinto dia (LV5. Usou-se o método da máxima verossimilhança restrita (REML para estimar componentes de variância. O modelo misto incluiu os efeitos fixos de mês e ano de nascimento e da inseminação da porca e ordem de parto. Análises unicaracterísticas incluíram os efeitos genético direto, genético materno e de ambiente permanente. Análises multicaracterísticas foram feitas para estimar correlações genéticas. Os modelos unicaracterísticas foram comparados e o que continha apenas o efeito genético direto foi considerado o mais adequado. As estimativas de herdabilidade para NTN foram de 0,15 para LW e de 0,08 a 0,12 para LD, dependendo do modelo, para NV foram de 0,14 para LW e de 0,05 a 0,12 para LD, e para LV5, variaram de 0,11 a 0,12 para LW e de 0,03 a 0,08 para LD. As correlações fenotípicas e genéticas entre as três características foram altas e favoráveis. Conclui-se que a seleção para aumento do LV5 pode ser uma via interessante para o aumento do tamanho da leitegada, da sobrevivência de leitões e da habilidade materna em suínos.

  17. The Penetration Depth Derived from the Synthesis of ALOS/PALSAR InSAR Data and ASTER GDEM for the Mapping of Forest Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjian Ni

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Global Digital Elevation Model produced from stereo images of Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer data (ASTER GDEM covers land surfaces between latitudes of 83°N and 83°S. The Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR onboard Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS collected many SAR images since it was launched on 24 January 2006. The combination of ALOS/PALSAR interferometric data and ASTER GDEM should provide the penetration depth of SAR data assuming ASTER GDEM was the elevation of vegetation canopy top. It would be correlated with forest biomass because penetration depth could be affected by forest density and forest canopy height. Their combination held great promises for the forest biomass mapping over large area. The feasibility of forest biomass mapping through the data synthesis of ALOS/PALSAR InSAR data and ASTER GDEM was investigated in this study. A procedure for the extraction of penetration depth was firstly proposed. Then three models were built for biomass estimation: (I model only using backscattering coefficients of ALOS/PALSAR data; (II model only using penetration depth; (III model using both of them. The biomass estimated from Lidar data was taken as reference data to evaluate the three different models. The results showed that the combination of backscattering coefficients and penetration depth gave the best accuracy. The forest disturbance has to be considered in forest biomass estimation because of the long time span of ASTER data for generating ASTER GDEM. The spatial homogeneity could be used to improve estimation accuracy.

  18. Determinação de elementos próprios dos asteróides troianos: comparação entre as teorias semi-analítica e sintética

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, F.; Beaugé, C.

    2003-08-01

    Além do cálculo semi-analítico de elementos próprios dos asteróides Troianos (Beaugé & Roig 2001, Icarus 153, 391), recentemente foi apresentado um novo conjunto destes elementos próprios determinado através de uma teoria sintética (Knenezevic & Milani 2003, comunicação pessoal). As bases de dados contendo estas determinações estão disponiveis na pagina web do Asteroid Dynamical Site (http://hamilton.dm.unipi.it/cgi-bin/astdys/astibo). Nesta comunicação apresentamos os primeiros resultados de um estudo comparativo entre ambos conjuntos de elementos próprios, analisando suas vantagens e desvantagens, assim como os limites de precisão de cada conjunto. Mostramos que os elementos próprios sintéticos são mais precisos que os smi-analíticos para grandes amplitudes de libração do ângulo s = l-lJup, embora acontece o contrario para os corpos cuja amplitude de libração é muito pequena. Finalmente discutimos a influencia destes erros na determinação de familias de asteroides e da estrutura resonante em torno dos pontos Lagrangeanos L4 e L5.

  19. Temporal radiative heat flux estimation and alteration mapping of Tendürek volcano (eastern Turkey) using ASTER imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusoy, İnan

    2016-11-01

    Tendürek volcano is a polygenetic, basaltic shield volcano formed by successive alkaline basalt flows. It is one of the youngest volcanoes of Turkey; both historical and Holocene activities have been reported for the volcano. Continuous hydrothermal and fumarole activity has been observed on the twin summit craters located 4.5 km apart. ASTER daytime and nighttime satellite imagery acquired between 2001 and 2014 are used to calculate surface temperature, surface temperature anomaly and relative radiative heat flux from the craters to determine a base value for the current thermal emission. Surface temperature and surface temperature anomaly calculations yield a heat flux between 14.4 and 35.5 W/m2 at the western crater and between 7.72 and 28.3 W/m2 at the eastern crater. These values are well-correlated with other known low-level activity volcanoes. The annual and long term consistency of the thermal pattern is investigated. The location and extent of surficial hydrothermal alteration within and surrounding the Tendürek craters is identified by band ratioing and indexing using ASTER visible through shortwave infrared bands. Spectral identification of gypsum, hydroxides, sulfates, hydrated sulfates and clay mineralisation indicates pervasive acid-sulfate alteration due to the activity of fumarole vents around Tendürek craters.

  20. Digital Mapping of Soil Drainage Classes Using Multitemporal RADARSAT-1 and ASTER Images and Soil Survey Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abou Niang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Discriminant analysis classification (DAC and decision tree classifiers (DTC were used for digital mapping of soil drainage in the Bras-d’Henri watershed (QC, Canada using earth observation data (RADARSAT-1 and ASTER and soil survey dataset. Firstly, a forward stepwise selection was applied to each land use type identified by ASTER image in order to derive an optimal subset of soil drainage class predictors. The classification models were then applied to these subsets for each land use and merged to obtain a digital soil drainage map for the whole watershed. The DTC method provided better classification accuracies (29 to 92% than the DAC method (33 to 79% according to the land use type. A similarity measure (S was used to compare the best digital soil drainage map (DTC to the conventional soil drainage map. Medium to high similarities (0.6≤S<0.9 were observed for 83% (187 km2 of the study area while 3% of the study area showed very good agreement (S≥0.9. Few soil polygons showed very weak similarities (S<0.3. This study demonstrates the efficiency of combining radar and optical remote sensing data with a representative soil dataset for producing digital maps of soil drainage.

  1. Seismic zonation of Port-Au-Prince using pixel- and object-based imaging analysis methods on ASTER GDEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Alan; Hough, Susan E.; Cox, Brady R.; Rathje, Ellen M.; Bachhuber, Jeff; Dulberg, Ranon; Hulslander, David; Christiansen, Lisa; and Abrams, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    We report about a preliminary study to evaluate the use of semi-automated imaging analysis of remotely-sensed DEM and field geophysical measurements to develop a seismic-zonation map of Port-au-Prince, Haiti. For in situ data, VS30 values are derived from the MASW technique deployed in and around the city. For satellite imagery, we use an ASTER GDEM of Hispaniola. We apply both pixel- and object-based imaging methods on the ASTER GDEM to explore local topography (absolute elevation values) and classify terrain types such as mountains, alluvial fans and basins/near-shore regions. We assign NEHRP seismic site class ranges based on available VS30 values. A comparison of results from imagery-based methods to results from traditional geologic-based approaches reveals good overall correspondence. We conclude that image analysis of RS data provides reliable first-order site characterization results in the absence of local data and can be useful to refine detailed site maps with sparse local data.

  2. Seismic-zonation of Port-au-Prince using pixel- and object-based imaging analysis methods on ASTER GDEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, A.; Hough, S.E.; Cox, B.R.; Rathje, E.M.; Bachhuber, J.; Dulberg, R.; Hulslander, D.; Christiansen, L.; Abrams, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    We report about a preliminary study to evaluate the use of semi-automated imaging analysis of remotely-sensed DEM and field geophysical measurements to develop a seismic-zonation map of Port-au-Prince, Haiti. For in situ data, Vs30 values are derived from the MASW technique deployed in and around the city. For satellite imagery, we use an ASTER GDEM of Hispaniola. We apply both pixel- and object-based imaging methods on the ASTER GDEM to explore local topography (absolute elevation values) and classify terrain types such as mountains, alluvial fans and basins/near-shore regions. We assign NEHRP seismic site class ranges based on available Vs30 values. A comparison of results from imagery-based methods to results from traditional geologic-based approaches reveals good overall correspondence. We conclude that image analysis of RS data provides reliable first-order site characterization results in the absence of local data and can be useful to refine detailed site maps with sparse local data. ?? 2011 American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.

  3. The microtubule aster formation and its role in nuclear envelope assembly around the sperm chromatin in Xenopus egg extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ning; CHEN Zhongcai; LU Ping; ZHANG Chuanmao; ZHAI Zhonghe; TANG Xiaowei

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear envelope is a dynamic structure in the cell cycle. At the beginning of mitosis, nuclear envelope breaks down and its components disperse into the cytoplasm. At the end of mitosis, nuclear envelope reassembles using the dispersed components. Searching for the mechanisms of the nuclear disassembly and reassembly has for a long time been one of the key projects for cell biologists. In this report we show that microtubules take a role in the nuclear envelope assembly around the sperm chromatin in Xenopus egg extracts. Microtubule cytoskeleton has been demonstrated to take roles in the transport of intracellular membranes such as Golgi and ER vesicles. We found that the nuclear envelope assembly needs functional microtubules. At the beginning of the nuclear assembly, microtubules nucleated to form a microtubule aster around the centrosome at the base of the sperm head. Using the microtubule drug colchicine to disrupt the microtubule nucleation, nuclear envelope reassembly was seriously inhibited. If the microtubules were stabilized by taxol, another microtubule drug, the nuclear envelope reassembly was also interfered, although a significantly large aster formed around the chromatin. Based on these observations, we propose that microtubules play an important role in the nuclear envelope reassembly maybe by transporting the nuclear envelope precursors to the chromatin surfaces.

  4. Planimetric and volumetric glacier changes in the Khumbu Himal, Nepal, since 1962 using Corona, Landsat TM and ASTER data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolch, Tobias; Buchroithner, Manfred; Pieczonka, Tino; Kunert, Andreé

    Multitemporal space imagery from 1962 (Corona KH-4), 1992 (Landsat TM), 2001 and 2005 (Terra ASTER) was used to investigate the glacier changes in the Khumbu Himal, Nepal. The ice coverage in the investigation area decreased by about 5% between 1962 and 2005, with the highest retreat rates occurring between 1992 and 2001. The debris coverage increased concomitantly with the decrease in total glacier area. The clean-ice area decreased by >10%. Digital terrain model (DTM) generation from the early Corona KH-4 stereo data in this high-relief terrain is time-consuming, and the results still contain some elevation errors. However, these are minor in the snow-free areas with gentle slopes. Thus comparison of the surfaces of the debris-covered glacier tongues based on the Corona DTM and an ASTER DTM is feasible and shows the downwasting of the debris-covered glaciers. The highest downwasting rates, more than 20m (>0.5ma-1), can be found near the transition zone between the active and the stagnant glacier parts of the debris-covered glacier tongues. The downwasting is lower, but still evident, in the active ice areas and at the snout with thick debris cover. All investigated debriscovered glaciers in the study area show similar behaviour. The estimated volume loss for the investigated debris-covered glacier tongues is 0.19km3.

  5. Vertical Accuracy Assessment of 30-M Resolution Alos, Aster, and Srtm Global Dems Over Northeastern Mindanao, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillan, J. R.; Makinano-Santillan, M.

    2016-06-01

    The ALOS World 3D - 30 m (AW3D30), ASTER Global DEM Version 2 (GDEM2), and SRTM-30 m are Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) that have been made available to the general public free of charge. An important feature of these DEMs is their unprecedented horizontal resolution of 30-m and almost global coverage. The very recent release of these DEMs, particularly AW3D30 and SRTM- 30 m, calls for opportunities for the conduct of localized assessment of the DEM's quality and accuracy to verify their suitability for a wide range of applications in hydrology, geomorphology, archaelogy, and many others. In this study, we conducted a vertical accuracy assessment of these DEMs by comparing the elevation of 274 control points scattered over various sites in northeastern Mindanao, Philippines. The elevations of these control points (referred to the Mean Sea Level, MSL) were obtained through 3rd order differential levelling using a high precision digital level, and their horizontal positions measured using a global positioning system (GPS) receiver. These control points are representative of five (5) land-cover classes namely brushland (45 points), built-up (32), cultivated areas (97), dense vegetation (74), and grassland (26). Results showed that AW3D30 has the lowest Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 5.68 m, followed by SRTM-30 m (RMSE = 8.28 m), and ASTER GDEM2 (RMSE = 11.98 m). While all the three DEMs overestimated the true ground elevations, the mean and standard deviations of the differences in elevations were found to be lower in AW3D30 compared to SRTM-30 m and ASTER GDEM2. The superiority of AW3D30 over the other two DEMS was also found to be consistent even under different landcover types, with AW3D30's RMSEs ranging from 4.29 m (built-up) to 6.75 m (dense vegetation). For SRTM-30 m, the RMSE ranges from 5.91 m (built-up) to 10.42 m (brushland); for ASTER GDEM2, the RMSE ranges from 9.27 m (brushland) to 14.88 m (dense vegetation). The

  6. Evaluation of ASTER and SRTM DEM data for lahar modeling: A case study on lahars from Popocatépetl Volcano, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggel, C.; Schneider, D.; Miranda, P. Julio; Delgado Granados, H.; Kääb, A.

    2008-02-01

    Lahars are among the most serious and far-reaching volcanic hazards. In regions with potential interactions of lahars with populated areas and human structures the assessment of the related hazards is crucial for undertaking appropriate mitigating actions and reduce the associated risks. Modeling of lahars has become an important tool in such assessments, in particular where the geologic record of past events is insufficient. Mass-flow modeling strongly relies on digital terrain data. Availability of digital elevation models (DEMs), however, is often limited and thus an obstacle to lahar modeling. Remote-sensing technology has now opened new perspectives in generating DEMs. In this study, we evaluate the feasibility of DEMs derived from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) for lahar modeling on Popocatépetl Volcano, Mexico. Two GIS-based models are used for lahar modeling, LAHARZ and a flow-routing-based debris-flow model (modified single-flow direction model, MSF), both predicting areas potentially affected by lahars. Results of the lahar modeling show that both the ASTER and SRTM DEMs are basically suitable for use with LAHARZ and MSF. Flow-path prediction is found to be more reliable with SRTM data, though with a coarser spatial resolution. Errors of the ASTER DEM affecting the prediction of flow paths due to the sensor geometry are associated with deeply incised gorges with north-facing slopes. LAHARZ is more sensitive to errors of the ASTER DEM than the MSF model. Lahar modeling with the ASTER DEM results in a more finely spaced predicted inundation area but does not add any significant information in comparison with the SRTM DEM. Lahars at Popocatépetl are modeled with volumes of 1 × 10 5 to 8 × 10 6 m 3 based on ice-melt scenarios of the glaciers on top of the volcano and data on recent and historical lahar events. As regards recently observed lahars, the travel

  7. ASTER Urgent Response to the 2006 Eruption of Augustine Volcano, Alaska: Science and Decision Support Gained From Frequent High-resolution, Satellite Thermal Infrared Imaging of Volcanic Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, R. L.; Ramsey, M. S.; Schneider, D. S.; Coombs, M.; Dehn, J.; Realmuto, V. J.

    2006-12-01

    Augustine Volcano, Alaska explosively erupted on January 11, 2006 after nearly eight months of increasing seismicity, deformation, gas emission, and small phreatic explosions. The volcano produced a total of 13 explosive eruptions during the last three weeks of January 2006. A new summit lava dome and two short, blocky lava flows grew during February and March 2006. A series of 7 daytime and 15 nighttime Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) scenes were acquired in response to this new activity. This response was facilitated by a new ASTER Urgent Request Protocol system. The ASTER data provided several significant observations as a part of a much larger suite of real-time or near-real-time data from other satellite (AVHRR, MODIS), airborne (FLIR, visual, gas), and ground-based (seismometers, radiometers) sensors used at the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO). ASTER is well-suited to volcanic observations because of its 15-m to 90-m spatial resolution, its ability to be scheduled and point off-nadir, and its ability to collect visible-near infrared (VNIR) to thermal infrared (TIR) data during both the day and night. Aided by the volcano's high latitude (59.4°N) ASTER was able to provide frequent repeat imaging as short as one day between scenes with an average 6-day repeat during the height of activity. These data provided a time series of high-resolution VNIR, shortwave infrared (SWIR - detects temperatures from about 200°C to > 600°C averaged over a 30-m pixel), and TIR (detects temperatures up to about 100°C averaged over a 90-m pixel) data of the volcano and its eruptive products. Frequent satellite imaging of volcanoes is necessary to record rapid changes in activity and to avoid recurring cloud cover. Of the 22 ASTER scenes acquired between October 30, 2005 and May 30, 2006, the volcano was clear to partly cloudy in 13 scenes. The most useful pre-eruption ASTER Urgent Request image was acquired on December 20. These data

  8. Estimación de las funciones de costo marginal de abatimiento de material particulado para fuentes fijas en el valle de aburrá.

    OpenAIRE

    Mejía Giraldo, Milena Eveyde; Oviedo Restrepo, Iván David

    2011-01-01

    Este artículo tiene como objetivo principal estimar las funciones de costo marginal de abatimiento de material particulado para fuentes fijas en el Valle de Aburrá. Esta información es necesaria si se desea establecer un Sistema de Permisos de Emisión Transables para el Área Metropolitana, como política ambiental para el control de la contaminación atmosférica por material particulado. Para la estimación de tales funciones se utilizó el manual EPA (2002), Handbook, "Air Pollution Control Cost...

  9. CCD CBERS and ASTER data in dasometric characterization of Pinus radiata D. Don (north-western Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Sevillano-Marco

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A Chinese-Brazilian Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS and an Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER scenes coupled with ancillary georeferenced data and field survey were employed to examine the potential of the remote sensing data in stand basal area, volume and aboveground biomass assessment over large areas of Pinus radiata D. Don plantations in Northwestern Spain. Statistical analysis proved that the near infrared band and the shade fraction image showed significant correlation coefficients with all stand variables considered. Predictive models were accordingly selected and utilized to undertake the spatial distribution of stand variables in radiata stands delimited by the National Forestry Map. The study reinforces the potentiality of remote sensing techniques in a cost-effective assessment of forest systems.

  10. The Extraction of Altered Minerals by use of Hyperspectral and Aster Data and Their Comparison Research in Beketan, Altyn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, H.; Li, J. Q.; Ren, G. L.; Yang, M.; Han, H. H.; Gao, T.; Yang, J. L.

    2016-11-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing technology has played an important role in the field of geological application in recent years. Based on the reflectance of typical altered minerals and the spectral characteristics of rocks, we tried to identify and extract the altered minerals such as calcite, dolomite, epidote, chlorite, moscovite, limonite, hematite, etc. by using of CASI/SASI data in Beketan, Altyn. Moreover, we extracted Mg-OH/CO32-/Al-OH/Fe3+/Ferric oxide from Aster data by the ratio method. Combined with known geological background and the field investigation, we found that the extracted altered mineral information was consistent with the actual distribution of the field. The altered mineral information extracted by Hyperspectral data dispalyed more mineral distribution in details. It showed that the hyperspectral remote sensing technology could provide accurate hydrothermal altered mineral information which is helpful for geological mapping work.

  11. Usando Kinect como sensor para una pulverización inteligente.

    OpenAIRE

    Correa Farias, Christian; Valero Ubierna, Constantino; Barreiro Elorza, Pilar; Ortiz-Cañavate Puig-Mauri, Jaime; Gil Sierra, Jacinto

    2013-01-01

    Este trabajo esta orientado a resolver el problema de la caracterización de la copa de arboles frutales para la aplicacion localizada de fitosanitarios. Esta propuesta utiliza un mapa de profundidad (Depth image) y una imagen RGB combinadas (RGB-D), proporcionados por el sensor Kinect de Microsoft, para aplicar pesticidas de forma localizada. A través del mapa de profundidad se puede estimar la densidad de la copa y a partir de esta información determinar qué boquillas se deben abrir en ca...

  12. Utilización de fitonutrientes para la prevención de osteoporosis

    OpenAIRE

    Achatz, Baiana Jimena

    2012-01-01

    El presente estudio tiene como objetivo identificar las especies vegetales que aportan el mayor porcentaje de Calcio en la dieta y estimar la ingesta diaria que tienen los alumnos de la Universidad FASTA que cursan carreras de Ciencias Médicas de la Ciudad de Mar del Plata a través de una frecuencia de consumo de alimentos fuentes, e indagar el nivel de información que poseen acerca de la osteoporosis y los alimentos beneficiosos para prevenirla. Para esto último se realizaron ...

  13. Determinación de correlaciones para tasa global de transferencia de

    OpenAIRE

    Villa Jadan, Santiago Francisco

    2009-01-01

    La ausencia de rellenos comerciales y económicos para torres de enfriamiento hace que aumente el costo de la construcción y mantenimiento de estos elementos, por este motivo, el objetivo principal de la tesis fue obtener correlaciones experimentales que logren estimar con el menor error posible valores característicos de un determinado tipo relleno económico para torres de enfriamiento. Se efectuó una investigación transferencia de masa y de energía, con lo que se seleccionó el modelo matemá...

  14. Mapping temperature and radiant geothermal heat flux anomalies in the Yellowstone geothermal system using ASTER thermal infrared data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, R. Greg; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; Jaworowski, Cheryl; Heasler, Henry

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to use satellite-based thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing data to measure, map, and monitor geothermal activity within the Yellowstone geothermal area to help meet the missions of both the U.S. Geological Survey Yellowstone Volcano Observatory and the Yellowstone National Park Geology Program. Specifically, the goals were to: 1) address the challenges of remotely characterizing the spatially and temporally dynamic thermal features in Yellowstone by using nighttime TIR data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and 2) estimate the temperature, geothermal radiant emittance, and radiant geothermal heat flux (GHF) for Yellowstone’s thermal areas (both Park wide and for individual thermal areas). ASTER TIR data (90-m pixels) acquired at night during January and February, 2010, were used to estimate surface temperature, radiant emittance, and radiant GHF from all of Yellowstone’s thermal features, produce thermal anomaly maps, and update field-based maps of thermal areas. A background subtraction technique was used to isolate the geothermal component of TIR radiance from thermal radiance due to insolation. A lower limit for the Yellowstone’s total radiant GHF was established at ~2.0 GW, which is ~30-45% of the heat flux estimated through geochemical (Cl-flux) methods. Additionally, about 5 km2 was added to the geodatabase of mapped thermal areas. This work provides a framework for future satellite-based thermal monitoring at Yellowstone as well as exploration of other volcanic / geothermal systems on a global scale.

  15. Modelling Vegetation Cover Dynamics of the Niger Floodplain in Mali, Westafrica, Using Multitemporal MERIS Full Resolution and TERRA -ASTER Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Ralf

    This presentation aims at showing the potential of a combined use of multi-temporal data from two different sensors (MERIS and TERRA ASTER) for an analysis of vegetation cover changes in semi-arid environments. While MERIS data mainly provide information about the vegetation cover density, ASTER data were used to analyse soil properties -especially soil brightness and soil wetness. An algorithm is proposed that uses atmospherically corrected surface reflectance values from MERIS and ASTER measurements. These values are subsequently splitted into a signal component that is caused by the vegetation cover and the background component (triggered by soil properties) using a linear spectral unmixing approach. Vegetation cover then is described by Vegetation Indices (MGVI, NDVI / SAVI) that were calculated from the vegetation signal component. Finally, these vegetation parameter were classified for all multi-temporal MERIS data using the EM algorithm to derive the temporal behaviour of vegetation pattern at the Inland Delta. The algorithm provides, as results, a fractional vegetation cover, a vegetation density value and information on the soil type. A detailed mapping of the spatio-temporal vegetation cover patterns for the Niger Inland Delta during the period of 2002 -2005 is another outcome of this study in addition to an in-depth evaluation of the applicability of the used VIs for environments with sparse vegetation covers. Located in the western Sahel of Africa, (1330' N -17 N and 230' W -530' W), the Niger Inland Delta is one of the largest floodplains in the world. The geographic term "Niger Inland Delta" represents a vast, extremely flat area of around 40.000 km extend, which is annually inundated by water of the Niger -Bani riversystem. In contrast to its semi -arid surrounding, the delta's ecology can be described as a mosaic of permanent, periodical and episodically flooded areas. Their extend varies both in scale and time due to irregularities of amount as

  16. Personas que se inyectan drogas en Hermosillo, Sonora. Metodología para su registro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Ospina-Escobar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conocer el tamaño de las poblaciones es fundamental para estimar universos de necesidad, planear intervenciones y evaluarlas. La estigmatización y criminalización del uso de drogas en México hace que las personas que se las inyectan sean difíciles de alcanzar, sin embargo tienen derecho a la salud, y el Estado está obligado a garantizarla, lo que incluye diseñar acciones efectivas para prevenir el sida. En Hermosillo, Sonora, el peso de la trasmisión del virus de inmunodeficiencia humana por drogas inyectadas ha ganado relevancia en la última década, no obstante, se desconoce el tamaño de la población que se inyecta drogas. En este artículo se describe detalladamente cómo se construye una aproximación mixta de metodologías cualitativas y cuantitativas para estimar el tamaño de dicha población en Hermosillo, y se ofrecen recomendaciones para mejorar los sistemas para registrarla en los servicios de tratamiento de adicciones, y cómo potenciar las intervenciones comunitarias de reducción de daños en la ciudad.

  17. Civil engineering: calculations of pre-stressed concrete structures using Code{sub A}ster; Genie civil: calcul des ouvrages en beton precontraint avec le Code{sub A}ster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerard, B.; Ulm, F. [Service Ensembles de Production, Departement Surveillance Diagnostic Maintenance, Direction des Etudes et Recherches, Electricite de France (EDF), 92 - Clamart (France)

    1997-11-01

    This document presents an analysis of the different calculation methods for pre-stressed concrete structure which can be performed by using finite element methods. Two methods of calculating the pre-stressing of concrete structures with finite elements have been determined. The equivalent method which consists of replacing the action of pre-stressing the concrete by equivalent forces. These method is well suited to dimensioning and studying the overall stability of a structure. It is not an easy matter to take into account the coupled or time-varying phenomena. This approach ignores the evolution of the interaction between the pre-stressing and the concrete. The explicit method which consists of including the mechanical resolution of the pre-stressed cables in that of a concrete structure. Not only does this allow a local study of the pre-stressed to be made, it also allows the coupling which developed over time to be determined, e.g. slip, deferred deformation and coupling between the steel and concrete behaviours. This method enables non-linear phenomena with varying degrees of complexity, such as fracture or yielding of the steels, drying out of the concrete, creep, etc to be described. The two methods are complementary. This document presents the mathematical and computer developments relating to each of this method. In the case of the explicit method, certain of the Code-Aster functions already make it possible to meet several EDF application requirements. Several couplings can be taken into account, such as thermomechanical, shrinkage in drying, creep, relaxation and injection of the cables. Three immediate developments of Code-Aster are proposed for the following applications: - a procedure for calculating the pre-stress losses along the pre-stressing cables; - a command to allocate these forces in the form of an initial force field in the bar elements associated with the cables; - a procedure for linking elements whose nodes do not coincide with each other

  18. Estimation of Lake Water Temperature with ASTER and Landsat 8 OLI-TIRS Thermal Infrared Bands: A Case Study Beysehir Lake (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, Sehnaz; Sener, Erhan

    2016-08-01

    Beyşehir Lake is the largest fresh water lake in our country with the 653 km2 surface area. Lake water have used for drinking water of several settlements in the basin. Beyşehir Lake is a shallow lake and, especially in recent years its water level was dropped due to unplanned usage and effects of climate change.In this study, determination of the water temperature in Lake Beyşehir is aimed using 90m resolution thermal infrared bands of ASTER (Advance Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) satellite and 30m resolution thermal infrared bands of Landsat 8 OLI-TIRS satellite. The Normalized Water Different Index (NWDI) has been applied to ASTER and Landsat 8 OLI-TIRS satellite images to determine lake surface area. Accordingly, the lake water temperature is generally proportional to the depth and it relatively higher in the shallow area.

  19. Frequency fraction and spatial distribution of clay minerals detection by sub-pixel classification of ASTER data, case study, Esteghlal mine of Abadeh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Hashemi Tangestani

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Esteghlal fireclay mine, northern Abadeh, with dominant composition of kaolinite and pyrophyllite, and annual production of over a million tons, is one of the largest sedimentary deposits in Iran. Linear Spectral Unmixing (LSU and Mixture Tuned Matched Filtering (MTMF processes were applied on the VNIR + SWIR dataset of ASTER for identifying the frequency fraction and distribution of clay minerals in this mine. Sub-pixel frequency assessment of ASTER data showed that distribution of pixels with higher fractions belong to the kaolinite and pyrophyllite, outcropped in two different parts of the mine. Comparison of LSU and MTMF output results showed that MTMF is more reliable to determining the relative fraction of clay minerals at the study area.

  20. Applying Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) spectral indices for geological mapping and mineral identification on the Tibetan Plateau

    CERN Document Server

    Corrie, Robert; Aitchison, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau holds clues to understanding the dynamics and mechanisms associated with continental growth. Part of the region is characterized by zones of ophiolitic melange believed to represent the remnants of ancient oceanic crust and underlying upper mantle emplaced during oceanic closures. However, due to the remoteness of the region and the inhospitable terrain many areas have not received detailed investigation. Increased spatial and spectral resolution of satellite sensors have made it possible to map in greater detail the mineralogy and lithology than in the past. Recent work by Yoshiki Ninomiya of the Geological Survey of Japan has pioneered the use of several spectral indices for the mapping of quartzose, carbonate, and silicate rocks using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) thermal infrared (TIR) data. In this study, ASTER TIR indices have been applied to a region in western-central Tibet for the purposes of assessing their effectiveness for differentiatin...

  1. Principle and geomorphological applicability of summit level and base level technique using Aster Gdem satellite-derived data and the original software Baz

    OpenAIRE

    Akihisa Motoki; Kenji Freire Motoki; Susanna Eleonora Sichel; Samuel da Silva; José Ribeiro Aires

    2015-01-01

    This article presents principle and geomorphological applicability of summit level technique using Aster Gdem satellite-derived topographicdata. Summit level corresponds to thevirtualtopographic surface constituted bylocalhighest points, such as peaks and plateau tops, and reconstitutes palaeo-geomorphology before the drainage erosion. Summit level map is efficient for reconstitution of palaeo-surfaces and detection of active tectonic movement. Base level is thevirtualsurface composed oflocal...

  2. Spectroscopy of olivine basalts using FieldSpec and ASTER data: A case study from Wadi Natash volcanic field, south Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ahmed Madani

    2015-10-01

    This paper aims at revealing the spectral characteristics of the olivine basalts exposed at Wadi Natash area, Egypt, using FieldSpec spectroradiometer. It also evaluates band ratios and fusion techniques for mapping purposes using ASTER data. Several volcanic episodes occurred during Early- to Late-Cretaceous are recorded in the study area. Early-Cretaceous olivine basalts are highly carbonated. Late-Cretaceous eruptions took place throughout several volcanic cones aligned in NW direction. Based on FieldSpec measurements and petrographic data, two groups of olivine basalt namely `A' and `B' are recognized. Fresh olivine basalt (group A) is characterized by low flat spectral profile with overall low reflectance values (~20%). Spectral profile of altered olivine basalt (group B) shows moderate reflectance values (~37%) with four little absorption features around the 1.10, 1.40, 2.00 and 2.35 μm wavelength regions. These absorption features are attributed mainly to the presence of chlorite and carbonate alteration products as indicated by petrographic examination. ASTER false colour composite band ratio image (3/2:R, 8/1:G and 8/5:B) discriminates easily the fresh and altered basalts by deep blue and red-dish blue colours respectively. Image fusion between previously mentioned FCC ratios image and high spatial resolution ASTER panchromatic image are carried out using brovey and HSV transformation methods. Visual and statistical assessment methods proved that HSV fusion image yields better image interpretability results compared to brovey image. It improves the spatial resolution of original FCC ratios image with acceptable spectral preservation. The present study proved the usefulness of Field-Spec spectral profiles and the processed ASTER data for discriminating different olivine basalt groups exposed at the study area.

  3. ESTUDIO DE LA IDONEIDAD DEL ENSAYO MINIATURA DE PUNZONADO PARA LA CARACTERIZACION MECANICA DE LOS ACEROS Y DE SUS UNIONES SOLDADAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. RODRÍGUEZ C.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Los ensayos small punch (SPT permiten estimar propiedades mecánicas de los aceros, empleando una cantidad de material muy pequeña, lo que los hace especialmente interesantes en el análisis de componentes en servicio o zonas demasiado pequeñas para extraer probetas normalizadas. Existen diversas propuestas para estimar propiedades tales como el límite elástico, la resistencia a la tracción, el alargamiento a rotura o la tenacidad a fractura, si bien es cierto que existe una gran controversia sobre las mismas. El presente trabajo analiza varias de estas propuestas, aplicándolas a una amplia gama de aceros, con diferentes microestructuras y características mecánicas.

  4. The French accelerator mass spectrometry facility ASTER after 4 years: Status and recent developments on 36Cl and 129I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Maurice; Aumaître, Georges; Bourlès, Didier L.; Keddadouche, Karim; Braucher, Régis; Finkel, Robert C.; Nottoli, Emmanuelle; Benedetti, Lucilla; Merchel, Silke

    2013-01-01

    Since the acceptance tests of the French 5 MV accelerator mass spectrometry facility ASTER in 2007, routine measurement conditions for the long-lived radionuclides 10Be and 26Al have been established. Yearly sample throughput as high as over 3300 unknowns has been reached for 10Be in 2010. Cross-contamination for volatile elements has been largely solved by an ion source upgrade allowing 36Cl measurements at ASTER. However, recent long-term tests using 35Cl/37Cl samples with strongly varying ratios have shown that identical targets lead to different 35Cl/37Cl results at the 2-4% level when being measured after a time gap of 24 h while the source is running other samples. Besides time dependent mass fractionation, another likely reason for this effect might be source memory, thus, asking for sophisticated measurement strategies and improved data evaluation and eventually further ion source improvement. Finally, after establishing quality assurance by cross-calibration of secondary in-house 26Al and 41Ca standards and taking part in round-robin exercises of 10Be and 36Cl, a two-step cross-calibration of secondary in-house 129I standards has been performed. The NIST 3231 standard containing 129I/127I at (0.981 ± 0.012) × 10-6 has been used for step-wise dilution with NaI to produce gram-quantities of lower-level standards for every-day use. The resulting material SM-I-9 (129I/127I: ∼1 × 10-9) has been measured vs. AgI produced using minimum chemistry from the two NIST ampoules containing a solution with a nominal ratio 129I/127I of (0.982 ± 0.012) × 10-8. In a second stage, SM-I-10 and SM-I-11 with ratios of ∼1 × 10-10 and ∼1 × 10-11, respectively, have been cross-calibrated against SM-I-9. Individual uncertainties of the traceable secondary standards are 1.3-1.4% (2σ), mainly originating from the given uncertainty of the primary NIST 3231 at the 10-8 level. The cross-contamination for iodine is in the range of 0.4-0.6% within the first 20 h of running

  5. A new 100-m Digital Elevation Model of the Antarctic Peninsula derived from ASTER Global DEM: methods and accuracy assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Cook

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A high resolution surface topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM is required to underpin studies of the complex glacier system on the Antarctic Peninsula. A complete DEM with better than 200 m pixel size and high positional and vertical accuracy would enable mapping of all significant glacial basins and provide a dataset for glacier morphology analyses. No currently available DEM meets these specifications. We present a new 100-m DEM of the Antarctic Peninsula (63–70° S, based on ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM data. The raw GDEM products are of high-quality on the rugged terrain and coastal-regions of the Antarctic Peninsula and have good geospatial accuracy, but they also contain large errors on ice-covered terrain and we seek to minimise these artefacts. Conventional data correction techniques do not work so we have developed a method that significantly improves the dataset, smoothing the erroneous regions and hence creating a DEM with a pixel size of 100 m that will be suitable for many glaciological applications. We evaluate the new DEM using ICESat-derived elevations, and perform horizontal and vertical accuracy assessments based on GPS positions, SPOT-5 DEMs and the Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA imagery. The new DEM has a mean elevation difference of −4 m (± 25 m RMSE from ICESat (compared to −13 m mean and ±97 m RMSE for the original ASTER GDEM, and a horizontal error of less than 2 pixels, although elevation accuracies are lower on mountain peaks and steep-sided slopes. The correction method significantly reduces errors on low relief slopes and therefore the DEM can be regarded as suitable for topographical studies such as measuring the geometry and ice flow properties of glaciers on the Antarctic Peninsula. The DEM is available for download from the NSIDC website: http://nsidc.org/data/nsidc-0516.html (PREVISIÓN DE NECESIDADES FORMATIVAS PARA UN ENVEJECIMIENTO ACTIVO

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Matas-Terrón; Juan José Leiva Olivencia; Pablo Daniel Franco Caballero

    2016-01-01

    Las nuevas tecnologías (NT) cada vez se usan más para tener una vida saludable. El objetivo del estudio es analizar el grado de penetración de las NT en la población española de 45 a 54 años para estimar su utilización en un envejecimiento saludable. Se han utilizado los datos de la encuesta sobre equipamientos en los hogares españoles del 2006 al 2013 (Instituto Nacional de Estadística). La previsión se ha llevado a cabo mediante una metodología Delphi. Los datos se han analizado descriptiva...

  6. Evaluación del impacto del cobro de la tasa retributiva para el sector cafetero ubicado en la cuenca del río san juan.

    OpenAIRE

    Benítez de Mejía, Nora Adriana

    2011-01-01

    La valoración económica constituye una herramienta imprescindible para el diseño e implementación de políticas ambientales, ya que para el cálculo de un impuesto, subsidio o cualquier otro instrumento económico utilizado para el control de la contaminación, la entidad ambiental reguladora debe conocer y cuantificar, en términos monetarios, la magnitud del daño causado. En este trabajo se presentan dos desarrollos mediante los cuales se busca, primero, estimar una aproximación al valor del imp...

  7. Determinación de la curva de destilación flash para cortes de petróleo utilizando simuladores comerciales

    OpenAIRE

    Erdmann, Eleonora; Humana, Demetrio; Franco Domínguez, Samuel; Mercado Fuentes, Lorgio

    2010-01-01

    El presente trabajo describe un nuevo método para estimar la curva de destilación flash EFV (equilibrium flash vapo-rization) para cortes de petróleo utilizando simuladores comerciales. Para ello se implementa un modelo estaciona-rio de la destilación flash en un simulador comercial, y se ajusta el modelo utilizando una curva de destilación obte-nida con procedimientos estándares de laboratorio. Dicha curva puede ser del tipo TBP, ASTM D86, D1160 o D2887, entre otras; e involucra un procedimi...

  8. Opciones reales: una propuesta para valorar proyectos de I+D en centros públicos de investigación agraria

    OpenAIRE

    Graciela Luzia Vedovoto; Diego Prior

    2015-01-01

    Las decisiones de inversión en investigación y desarrollo (I+D) son importantes para el éxito de las organizaciones, sobre todo para los centros públicos de investigación. Este trabajo evalúa un proyecto de I+D (mejora genética de semillas) utilizando un método tradicional, el Valor Actual Neto, así como el uso de las opciones reales. Asimismo, se utiliza la Teoría del Excedente Económico y simulaciones de Monte Carlo para estimar los beneficios sociales. Los resultados indican que el enfoque...

  9. Diseño de la arquitectura funcional de control para un robot móvil de exploración espacial

    OpenAIRE

    Escudero Sánchez, Naiara

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo principal de este estudio es desarrollar un sistema de navegación listo para ser integrado en un robot de exploración de exteriores. Para ello, será necesario implementar un mecanismo capaz de estimar la posición en tiempo real del robot explorador en un entorno de tres dimensiones (3D), que simulará una superficie como podría ser la de cualquier cuerpo del Sistema Solar. Para ello se van a combinar los datos proporcionados por varios dispositivos capaces de recoger información so...

  10. Enfoque metodológico para un modelo de pronósticos de alta frecuencia para la economía mexicana

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence R. Klein; Alfredo Coutiño

    2004-01-01

    En este estudio se presenta un método para estimar el producto interno bruto (PIB) trimestral real y sus principales componentes, en anticipación a su publicación oficial. La técnica combina información de alta frecuencia, ecuaciones de series de tiempo y análisis de regresión. La metodología propuesta se basa en la estimación del PIB trimestral a través de tres enfoques independientes: producción, gasto, y componentes principales. Es decir, utiliza un enfoque similar al de las...

  11. Índice de sitio para bosques naturales de Pinus teocote Schlecht. & Cham. en el oriente del estado de Hidalgo

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Hernández-Ramos; J. Jesús García-Magaña; Xavier García-Cuevas; Adrián Hernández-Ramos; H. Jesús Muñoz-Flores; Manuel Samperio-Jiménez

    2015-01-01

    La estimación de la productividad de los sitios forestales es indispensable para el manejo sostenible de los bosques y el índice de sitio constituye la metodología más utilizada en el mundo para este fin. Sin embargo, uno de los problemas más graves en el manejo forestal es la falta de ordenamiento de los rodales en función a su productividad, lo que propicia sobreexplotación de los recursos en algunos casos y la subexplotación en otros. Por ello, el objetivo del presente estudio fue estimar ...

  12. Aportes para la estimación de la huella de carbono en los grandes asentamientos urbanos de Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Rosana Ferraro; María Cecilia Gareis; Laura Zulaica

    2013-01-01

    El cambio climático y su efecto más inmediato, el calentamiento global, plantean desafíos para la gestión ambiental de las ciudades. Uno de ellos es estimar su huella de carbono con la finalidad de morigerar los potenciales impactos. El presente trabajo propone calcular las emisiones de CO2 producidas por las actividades antrópicas de los 15 asentamientos urbanos de Argentina de más de 300.000 habitantes. Para ello se analizaron por localidad los consumos de energía eléctrica y se calcularon ...

  13. Changes of ultrastructure and cytoplasmic free calcium in Gladiolus x hybridus Van Houtte roots infected by aster yellows phytoplasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rudzińska-Langwald

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Roots of Gladiolus x hybridus Van Houtte plants infected with aster yellows phytoplasma were examined. The infected plants had a reduced root system in comparison to control plants. Their roots were thinner and the stele organisation was changed. Phytoplasmas were present in sieve tubes, companion cells and phloem parenchyma cells of the infected plant roots. Free calcium ions were localized in the cells of infected plants. Cells of the stele of infected roots, especially these infected with phytoplasmas, showed an increase of calcium antimonite deposits in theirs protoplasts. Also the number of calcium antimonite deposits increased in sieve tubes of infected roots. The deposits were present on plasma membrane, around the sieve tube plate and also in the lumen of the sieve tube. The increase of free calcium ions in sieve tubes did not cause the occlusion of sieve tube pores. Companion cells and some parenchyma cells with phytoplasmas did not react to phytoplasma infection with an increase of Ca2+ ions in protoplast. The parenchyma cells showing signs of degeneration reacted with high increase of calcium ions. The Ca2+ ions were present mainly in cytoplasm of infected parenchyma cells. There were calcium antimonite deposits in infected plant roots xylem elements and in intracellular spaces of cortex parenchyma. Such deposits were not present in control plants.

  14. Metabolic potential and community structure of endophytic and rhizosphere bacteria associated with the roots of the halophyte Aster tripolium L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymańska, Sonia; Płociniczak, Tomasz; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia; Złoch, Michał; Ruppel, Silke; Hrynkiewicz, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    The submitted work assumes that the abundance and diversity of endophytic and rhizosphere microorganisms co-existing with the halophytic plant Aster tripolium L. growing in a salty meadow in the vicinity of a soda factory (central Poland) represent unique populations of cultivable bacterial strains. Endophytic and rhizosphere bacteria were (i) isolated and identified based on 16S rDNA sequences; (ii) screened for nifH and acdS genes; and (iii) analyzed based on selected metabolic properties. Moreover, total microbial biomass and community structures of the roots (endophytes), rhizosphere and soil were evaluated using a cultivation-independent technique (PLFA) to characterize plant-microbial interactions under natural salt conditions. The identification of the isolated strains showed domination by Gram-positive bacteria (mostly Bacillus spp.) both in the rhizosphere (90.9%) and roots (72.7%) of A. tripolium. Rhizosphere bacterial strains exhibited broader metabolic capacities, while endophytes exhibited higher specificities for metabolic activity. The PLFA analysis showed that the total bacterial biomass decreased in the following order (rhizospherebacteria in the roots of the halophyte. The described strain collection provides a valuable basis for a subsequent applications of bacteria in improvement of site adaptation of plants in saline soils.

  15. The role of Aster amellus Linn. in the degradation of a sulfonated azo dye Remazol Red: a phytoremediation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandare, Rahul V; Kabra, Akhil N; Tamboli, Dhawal P; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2011-02-01

    Phytoremediation is a novel and promising approach for the treatment of pollutants. This study did explore the potential of Aster amellus Linn. to decolorize a sulfonated azo dye Remazol Red (RR), a mixture of dyes and a textile effluent. Induction in the activities of lignin peroxidase, tyrosinase, veratryl alcohol oxidase and riboflavin reductase was observed during RR decolorization, suggesting their involvement in the metabolism of RR. UV-Visible absorption spectrum, HPLC and FTIR analysis confirmed the degradation of RR. Four metabolites after the degradation of the dye were identified as 2-[(3-diazenylphenyl) sulfonyl] ethanesulfonate, 4-amino-5-hydroxynaphthalene-2,7-disulfonate, naphthalene-2-sulfonate and 3-(1,3,5-triazin-2-ylamino)benzenesulfonate by using GC/MS. Textile effluent and mixture of dyes showed 47% and 62% decrease respectively in American Dye Manufacturers Institute value. BOD of textile effluent and mixture of dyes were reduced by 75% and 48% respectively, COD of industrial effluent and mixture of dyes was reduced by 60% and 75% and TOC was reduced by 54% and 69% respectively after the treatment by A. amellus for 60 h; this indicated that the plant can be used for cleaning textile effluents. Toxicity study revealed the phytotransformation of RR into non-toxic products.

  16. Lithologic mapping in the Mountain Pass, California area using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, L.C.; Mars, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluation of an Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image of the Mountain Pass, California area indicates that several important lithologic groups can be mapped in areas with good exposure by using spectral-matching techniques. The three visible and six near-infrared bands, which have 15-m and 30-m resolution, respectively, were calibrated by using in situ measurements of spectral reflectance. Calcitic rocks were distinguished from dolomitic rocks by using matched-filter processing in which image spectra were used as references for selected spectral categories. Skarn deposits and associated bright coarse marble were mapped in contact metamorphic zones related to intrusion of Mesozoic and Tertiary granodioritic rocks. Fe-muscovite, which is common in these intrusive rocks, was distinguished from Al-muscovite present in granitic gneisses and Mesozoic granite. Quartzose rocks were readily discriminated, and carbonate rocks were mapped as a single broad unit through analysis of the 90-m resolution, five-band surface emissivity data, which is produced as a standard product at the EROS Data Center. Three additional classes resulting from spectral-angle mapper processing ranged from (1) a broad granitic rock class (2) to predominately granodioritic rocks and (3) a more mafic class consisting mainly of mafic gneiss, amphibolite and variable mixtures of carbonate rocks and silicate rocks. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of saltwater intrusion on pinewood vegetation using satellite ASTER data: the case study of Ravenna (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarella, M; De Giglio, M; Greggio, N

    2015-04-01

    The San Vitale pinewood (Ravenna, Italy) is part of the remaining wooded areas within the southeastern Po Valley. Several studies demonstrated a widespread saltwater intrusion in the phreatic aquifer caused by natural and human factors in this area as the whole complex coastal system. Groundwater salinization affects soils and vegetation, which takes up water from the shallow aquifer. Changes in groundwater salinity induce variations of the leaf properties and vegetation cover, recognizable by satellite sensors as a response to different spectral bands. A procedure to identify stressed areas from satellite remote sensing data, reducing the expensive and time-consuming ground monitoring campaign, was developed. Multispectral Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data, acquired between May 2005 and August 2005, were used to calculate Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Within the same vegetation type (thermophilic deciduous forest), the areas with the higher vegetation index were taken as reference to identify the most stressed areas using a statistical approach. To confirm the findings, a comparison was conducted using contemporary groundwater salinity data. The results were coherent in the areas with highest and lowest average NDVI values. Instead, to better understand the behavior of the intermediate areas, other parameters influencing vegetation (meteorological data, water table depth, and tree density) were added for the interpretation of the results.

  18. Ultrastructural changes in aster yellows phytoplasma affected Limonium sinuatum Mill. plants II. Pathology of cortex parenchyma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rudzińska-Langwald

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Limonium sinuatum Mill, plants with severe symptoms of aster yellows infection phytoplasmas were present not only in the phloem but also in some cortex parenchymas cells. These parenchyma cells were situated at some distance from the conducting bundles. The phytoplasmas were observed directly in parenchyma cells cytoplasm. The number of phytoplasmas present in each selected cell varies. The cells with a small number of phytoplasmas show little pathological changes compared with the unaffected cells of the same zone of the stem as well with the cells of healthy plants. The cells filled with a number of phytoplasmas had their protoplast very much changed. The vacuole was reduced and in the cytoplasm a reduction of the number of ribosomes was noted and regions of homogenous structure appeared. Mitochondria were moved in the direction of the tonoplast and plasma membrane. Compared to the cells unaffected by phytoplasma, the mitochondria were smaller and had an enlarged cristae internal space. The chloroplasts from affected cells had a very significant reduction in size and the tylacoids system had disappeared. The role of these changes for creating phytoplasma friendly enviroment is discused.

  19. Study of the structure changes caused by earthquakes in Chile applying the lineament analysis to the Aster (Terra) satellite data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-Baeza, A.; Zverev, A.; Malinnikov, V.

    Chile is one of the most seismically and volcanically active regions in the South America due to a constant subdiction of the South American plate, converging with the Nazca plate in the extreme North of Chile. Four events, namely: the Ovalle earthquake of Juny 18, 2003, M=6.3, with epicenter localized at (-30:49:33, -71:18:53), the Calama earthquake of Junly 19, 2001, M=5.2, (-30:29:38,-68:33:18), the Pica earthquake of April 10, 2003, M=5.1, (-21:03:20,-68:47:10) and the La Ligua earthquake of May 6, 2001, M=5.1, (-32:35:31,-71:07:58:) were analysed using the 15 m resolution satellite images, provided by the ASTER/VNIR instrument. The Lineament Extraction and Stripes Statistic Analysis (LESSA) software package was used to examine changes in the lineament features caused by sismic activity. Lack of vegetation facilitates the study of the changes in the topography common to all events and makes it possible to evaluate the sismic risk in this region for the future.

  1. Procedimiento para estimar la vida útil de engranajes cilíndricos de acero en base a la resistencia a la fatiga del material y norma AGMA 2101-D047

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. González Rey

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se presenta un procedimiento, fórmulas y relaciones necesarias que permiten determinar un valor de vida útil de referencia previendo la rotura por fatiga de los dientes de acero en ruedas de engranajes cilíndricos de ejes paralelos y contacto exterior. El procedimiento está fundamentado en considerar la resistencia a la picadura y a flexión de los dientes en engranajes cilíndricos. La base de las fórmulas y relaciones corresponden a la norma AGMA 2101-D04 dirigida al cálculo de la capacidad de carga de engranajes cilíndricos.A procedure, formulas and information to estimate a value of expected fatigue life in case of steel cylindrical. The procedure is fixed taking into account the pitting resistance (surface fatigue failure and bending strength capacity (volumetric fatigue failure of spur and helical gears. Formulas are based in the AGMA Standard 2105-D04 for calculation of the load capacity of cylindrical gears.

  2. Relationship among the Voigt integral and the dispersion function of plasma. Additional methods for estimating the Voigt integral; Relacion entre la integral de Voigt y la funcion de dispersion del plasma. Metodos adicionales para estimar la integral de Voigt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez D, H.; Flores L, H.; Cabral P, A.; Bravo O, A

    1990-05-15

    A relationship among the Lorentzian-Gaussian profile convolution and the Plasma Dispersion Function is presented; thus, the methods available to calculate the latter serve also to calculate the Voigt profile. (Author)

  3. Metodología para estimar el bienestar animal en perros y gatos como principales animales de compañía (Methodology for animal welfare assessment in dogs and cats how principals companion animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo Cuenca. Julio César

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENEl presente trabajo se realizó con el objetivo de determinar el comportamiento epizootiológico de la Parvovirosis canina en el consejo popular Buenavista.SUMMARYThe present work was carried out with the objective of determining the epizootic behavior of the Canine Parvovirus Disease in Consejo Popular Buenavista, located in the municipality of Remedios belonging to the province of Villa Clara in the period 2004 - 2009.

  4. Utilización de modelos de simulación para estimar el riesgo de epidemias inducidas por la presencia europea durante el contacto indirecto en Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fugassa, Martín H.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El Contacto Indirecto en el archipiélago de Tierra del Fuego fue un proceso extenso iniciado probablemente con el viaje de Magallanes en 1520 y que acaba en forma difusa hacia principios del siglo XIX, con los primeros establecimientos y actividad económica permanente. Mediante un trabajo anterior, Fugassa y Guichón establecen un listado de posibles enfermedades infecciosas que habrían actuado durante este período. En el presente trabajo analizamos aquellas enfermedades infecciosas de dispersión aerógena, y utilizando un modelo de simulación generamos expectativas sobre la probable contaminación del archipiélago, con dichos microorganismos, desde los barcos que navegaron las costas fueguinas. Finalmente, mediante el uso de una ecuación sencilla y de información demográfica, ofrecemos un escenario virtual sobre la infección y endemicidad en las poblaciones humanas nativas durante el Contacto Indirecto. Este trabajo es parte de un proyecto orientado a analizar la dispersión de las enfermedades en Patagonia Austral

  5. Calibração de modelos agrometeorológicos para estimar a produtividade da cultura do trigo, considerando sistemas de manejo do solo, em Ponta Grossa-PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luiz Moretti de Souza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar as relações hídricas e o desempenho de modelos simplificados e agrometeorológicos na estimativa da produtividade da cultura do trigo, em quatro sistemas de manejo do solo, na região de Ponta Grossa, Estado do Paraná. O local estudado possui um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico típico e clima Cfb, segundo a classificação de Köppen. Os dados de produtividade da cultura do trigo (cinco safras e meteorológicos foram disponibilizados pela Fundação ABC e SIMEPAR, respectivamente. Os modelos agrometeorológicos utilizados têm como variáveis de entrada a produtividade potencial e as relações ER/ETc (evapotranspiração real e cultura, que foram determinadas em balanços hídricos diários sequenciais, durante os estádios fenológicos da cultura. A evapotranspiração de referência (ETo foi estimada com o método de Penman-Monteith. Considerando as inúmeras análises realizadas, o modelo que permitiu as melhores estimativas de produtividade foi o de Jensen, utilizando coeficientes hídricos de penalização obtidos por regressão múltipla.

  6. Computer tool to calculate the daily energy produced by a grid-connected photovoltaic system; Aplicacion informatica para estimar la energia diaria producida por sistemas fotovoltaicos conectados a red

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidrach-de-Cardona, M.; Carretero, J.; Martin, B.; Mora-Lopez, L.; Ramirez, L.; Varela, M.

    2004-07-01

    We present a computer tool to calculate the daily energy produced by a grid-connected photovoltaic system. The main novelty of this tool is that it uses radiation and ambient temperature as input data; these maps allow us to obtain 365 values of these parameters in any point of the image. The radiation map has been obtained by using images of the satellite Meteosat. For the temperature map a system of geographical information has been used by using data of terrestrial meteorological stations. For the calculation of the daily energy an empiric model obtained from the study of the behavior of different photovoltaic systems is used. The program allows to design the photovoltaic generator, includes a database of photovoltaic products and allows to carry out a complete economic analysis. (Author)

  7. Proposed methodology for estimating the in HDR brachytherapy facilities Ir-192; Propuesta de metodologia para estimar la dosis absorbida en la entrada del laberinto en instalaciones de braquiterapia HDR con Ir-192

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pujades-Clamarchirant, M. C.; Perez-Calatayud, J.; Ballester, F.; Gimeno, J.; Granero, D.; Camacho, C.; Lliso, F.; Carmona, V.; Vijande, J.

    2011-07-01

    In the absence of procedures for assessing the design of a room brachytherapy (BT) with maze, usually adopting the formalism of external irradiation with different variations, The purpose of this study is to adapt the methodology of NCRP151 [1] to estimate the absorbed dose at the entrance to a room of ET and compare with the corresponding dosimetry data obtained with Monte Carlo (MC) in a previous work.

  8. Análisis y comparación de alternativas para cuantificar el riesgo operacional

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Aunque ha sido una preocupación histórica, la cuantificación del riesgo operacional se ha convertido en una actividad obligada en las instituciones financieras, desde el surgimiento de la Convergencia Internacional de Medidas y Estándares de Capital, o Nuevo Acuerdo de Basilea, emitido por el Banco de Pagos Internacionales (Bank for International Settlements-BIS) en el año 2004, que incorporó ese riesgo en el cálculo de la relación de solvencia, para estimar los requerimientos de capital. Se ...

  9. El modelo de Merton para la estimación del riesgo de incumplimiento en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez Torres, Nilia Yizel

    2012-01-01

    En este documento se aplica el modelo de Merton para estimar la probabilidad de default de tres empresas que cotizan en la Bolsa de Valores de Colombia: Cementos Argos, Bancolomnia y Éxito. El modelo de Merton relaciona el riesgo de default con la teoría de evaluación de opciones financieras y la estructura de capital de las empresas; analiza las acciones como una opción call sobre el valor de los activos de la empresa y establece que el default tendrá lugar cuando los activos de la empresa s...

  10. Anti-Obesity Effects of Aster spathulifolius Extract in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sa-Jic; Bang, Chae-Young; Guo, Yuan-Ri; Choung, Se-Young

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-obesity and antihyperlipidemic efficacy and molecular mechanisms of Aster spathulifolius Maxim extract (ASE) in rats with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Rats were separately fed a normal diet or a HFD for 8 weeks, then they were treated with ASE (62.5, 125, or 250 mg/kg) for another 4.5 weeks. The ASE supplementation significantly lowered body weight gain, visceral fat pad weights, serum lipid levels, as well as hepatic lipid levels in HFD-induced obese rats. Histological analysis showed that the ASE-treated group showed lowered numbers of lipid droplets and smaller size of adipocytes compared to the HFD group. To understand the mechanism of action of ASE, the expression of genes and proteins involved in obesity were measured in liver and skeletal muscle. The expression of fatty acid oxidation and thermogenesis-related genes (e.g., PPAR-α, ACO, CPT1, UCP2, and UCP3) of HFD-induced obese rats were increased by ASE treatment. On the other hand, ASE treatment resulted in decreased expression of fat intake-related gene ACC2 and lipogenesis-related genes (e.g., SREBP-1c, ACC1, FAS, SCD1, GPATR, AGPAT, and DGAT). Furthermore, ASE treatment increased the level of phosphorylated AMPKα in obese rats. Similarly, the level of phosphorylated ACC, a target protein of AMPKα in ASE groups, was increased by ASE treatment compared with the HFD group. These results suggest that ASE attenuated visceral fat accumulation and improved hyperlipidemia in HFD-induced obese rats by increasing lipid metabolism through the regulation of AMPK activity and the expression of genes and proteins involved in lipolysis and lipogenesis.

  11. Growth and nitrogen uptake by Salicornia europaea and Aster tripolium in nutrient conditions typical of aquaculture wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintã, R; Santos, R; Thomas, D N; Le Vay, L

    2015-02-01

    The increasing need for environmentally sound aquaculture development can, in part, be addressed by using halophytic plants in integrated multitrophic aquaculture systems (IMTA) to remove waste dissolved nitrogen (N). However, knowledge of plant ability to take up nitrogen is of foremost importance to predict plants performance in such systems. Two species, Salicornia europaea and Aster tripolium, have been identified as potential candidates for IMTA due to their salt tolerance, potential N removal capabilities and their high commercial value as an additional crop. This study investigated the growth and N uptake rates of these two species under different N supply (NH4(+), NO3(-), NH4NO3). S. europaea plants produced a lower biomass when grown in NH4(+) compared to NO3(-) or NH4NO3, while A. tripolium biomass was not affected by the form in which N was supplied. N uptake in plants incubated at different concentrations of (15)N enriched solution (up to 2 mmol l(-1)) fitted the Michaelis-Menten model. While S. europaea NH4-N maximum uptake did not differ between starved and non-starved plants, A. tripolium NH4-N uptake was higher in starved plants when supplied alone. When NO3(-) was supplied alone, NO3-N maximum uptake was lower, for both species, when the plants were not starved. Comparison of starved and non-starved plants N uptake demonstrates the need for cautious interpretation of N uptake rates across different conditions. According to the observed results, both S. europaea and A. tripolium are capable of significantly high biomass production and N removal making them potential species for inclusion in efficient IMTA.

  12. Post-classification comparison of land cover using multitemporal Landsat and ASTER imagery: the case of Kahramanmaraş, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphan, Hakan; Doygun, Hakan; Unlukaplan, Yüksel I

    2009-04-01

    This study assessed land cover (LC) changes in Kahramanmaraş (K.Maraş) and its environs by using multitemporal Landsat and ASTER imagery, respectively belong to 1989, 2000 and 2004. A priori defined nine land cover classes in the classification scheme were urban and built-up, forest, sparsely vegetated areas, grassland, vegetated stream beds, unvegetated stream beds, bare areas, crop fields, and water bodies. Individual classifications were employed using the combination of both unsupervised and supervised classification methods. Iterative Self Organizing Data Analysis (ISODATA) was used to reduce spectral variation in the scenes arising from complex pattern of crop fields. Maximum Likelihood classifier was used in the LC classification of the individual images. Image pairs of consecutive dates were compared by overlaying the thematic LC maps and cross-tabulating the LC statistics. Urbanization and expansion of agriculture were the major reasons for the dramatic LC conversions. The amount of conversion from crop fields to water occurred as large as 927.67 ha, accounting for 73% of the total land-to-water conversion. Conversions to agriculture have mainly been occurred from grasslands and sparsely vegetated areas as large as 1,314.95 and 1,325.84 ha, respectively. Urban coverage doubled in this period as a result of 1,443.45 ha of increase. Urban area increased in the second period from 2,920 to 3,526 ha. Conversions to agriculture occurred at high amounts. A total of 1,075.79 ha area changed from sparsely vegetated areas to crop fields. A landscape-level environmental monitoring scheme based on satellite remote sensing was proposed for effective environmental resource management.

  13. Using the British National Collection of Asters to Compare the Attractiveness of 228 Varieties to Flower-Visiting Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbuzov, Mihail; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2015-06-01

    Wildlife-friendly gardening practices can help conserve biodiversity in urban areas. These include growing ornamental plant varieties attractive to flower-visiting insects. Because varieties vary greatly in attractiveness, there is a need to quantify it in order to give objective advice to gardeners. Here, we used the British national collection of asters to compare the attractiveness of varieties to flower-visiting insects. We counted and identified insects as they foraged on flowers in 228 varieties growing in discrete patches that flowered during the survey period, 14 September-20 October 2012. In each variety, we also determined the overall capitulum size, the central disc floret area, and the ray floret color (blue, red, purple, or white). We also scored attributes relevant to gardening: attractiveness to humans, ease of cultivation, and availability in the United Kingdom. There was great variation among varieties in their attractiveness to insects, ranging from 0.0 to 15.2 per count per square meter, and highly skewed, with most being unattractive. A similar skew held for the two main insect categories, honey bees and hover flies, which comprised 28 and 64% of all insects, respectively. None of the floral traits or attributes relevant to gardening correlated significantly with attractiveness to insects. Our study shows the practicality of using a national collection for quantifying and comparing the attractiveness of ornamental varieties to flower-visiting insects. These results imply that choosing varieties carefully is likely to be of conservation benefit to flower-visiting insects, and that doing so is a no-cost option in terms of garden beauty and workload.

  14. Application of MODIS-ASTER (MASTER) simulator data to geological mapping of young volcanic regions in Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmochowski, Jane Ellen

    Visible, near infrared, short-wave infrared, and thermal infrared multi-channel remote sensing data, MODIS-ASTER (MASTER), are used to extract geologic information from two volcanic regions in Baja California, Mexico: Tres Virgenes-La Reforma Volcanic Region and the volcanic island of Isla San Luis. The visible and near infrared and short-wave infrared data were atmospherically corrected and classified. The resulting classification roughly delineates surfaces that vary in their secondary minerals. Attempts to identify these minerals using ENVI's Spectral Analyst(TM) were moderately successful. The analysis of the thermal infrared data utilizes the shift to longer wavelengths in the Reststrahlen band as the mineralogy changes from felsic to mafic to translate the data into values of weight percent SiO2. The results indicate that the general approach tends to underestimate the weight percent SiO2 in the image. This discrepancy is removed with a "site calibration," which provides good results in the calculated weight percent SiO2 with errors of a few percent. However, errors become larger with rugged topography or low solar angle at the time of image acquisition. Analysis of bathymetric data around Isla San Luis, and consideration of the island's alignment with the Ballenas transform fault zone to the south and volcanic seamounts nearby, suggest Isla San Luis is potentially volcanically active and could be the product of a "leaky" transform fault. The results from the image analysis in the Tres Virgenes-La Reforma Volcanic Region show the La Reforma and El Aguajito volcanic centers to be bimodal in composition and verify the most recent volcanism in the Tres Virgenes region to be basaltic-andesite. The results of fieldwork and image analysis indicate that the volcanic products of the central dome of La Reforma are likely a sequence of welded ash flow tuffs and lavas of varied composition, evidence of its origin as a caldera.

  15. A comparative evaluation of MODIS/ASTER airborne simulator (MASTER) data and burn indices for mapping southern California fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, S. L.; Hook, S. J.

    2009-12-01

    Large fires occur annually in southern California, producing impacts at a number of scales, from local impacts on vegetation, hydrology and microclimates, to global impacts such as emissions, affecting atmospheric chemistry, air quality, radiation balance and biogeochemical cycling. As a consequence fires are routinely mapped using various sensors and burn indices. However, the indices employed for mapping these fires have not been developed and optimized for mapping southern California burned surfaces. Therefore, this study utilizes the high spatial and spectral resolution imagery from the MODIS/ASTER airborne simulator (MASTER) to identify the most effective bands and indices specifically for burned area mapping of the southern California region. The fire perimeter is based on the Burned Area Reflectance Classification (BARC) map created by the United States Forest Service (USFS), Remote Sensing Applications Center (RSAC) and a supervised classification which defines the burned and unburned regions. A separability index is employed to identify the bands and indices that can best distinguish between classes. The results identify a range of well performing indices, such as the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) and the Vegetation Index based on mid-infrared spectral region (VI3), and some poor performing indices, such as the Global Environment Monitoring Index (GEMI) and the Burned Area Index (BAI). Additionally this study highlights the indices that perform better over certain vegetation types. These results are useful for understanding the application of remotely sensed data for mapping burned surfaces. Improved burned area mapping capabilities are essential for informing land managers when identifying regions susceptible to hazards (such as debris and flood flows) and for deciding where to allocate time and resources in recovery efforts. Additionally, these results can be used to validate other sensors that are used to map burned surfaces on greater spatial and

  16. NASA and U.S. Geological Survey Long-Term Archive for the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, M.; Meyer, D. F.

    2013-12-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is a 14-channel optical imaging instrument on NASA's Terra spacecraft. ASTER is a joint project between Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry; and U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Since its launch in December, 1999, ASTER has acquired over 2.4 million multispectral images. The Level 0 data are sent to Japan by NASA, where they are processed to Level 1A (reconstructed, unprocessed instrument data with geometric and radiometric parameters attached). A copy of the L1A data is sent to the U.S. to the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LPDAAC), operated for NASA by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at the EROS Center. The joint US/Japan ASTER Science Team (AST) has provided algorithms to produce 14 Level 1, Level 2, and Level 3 products. The duplicate data distribution systems in Japan and the U.S. create these products 'on-demand' as users submit data requests. Only the L0 and L1A data are archived. After the termination of the mission, the USGS has the responsibility for creating, managing and distributing ASTER data products from a Long-Term Archive (LTA). In cooperation with the LPDAAC, the U.S. AST discussed various scenarios on how the LTA should operate. The two leading plans considered were: (1) duplicating the 'on-demand' system, fulfilling user requests as they arrived; this would require a high level of technical support for algorithm/software maintenance, user services to answer questions, hardware maintenance, and in general, was quite labor-intensive; (2) creating a static archive of all of the data products for every one of the L1A image granules; the LPDAAC would produce each of the 14 higher level data products from every L1A image currently archived. Users would order data products from this greatly expanded archive, with little human intervention. In both cases, complete documentation would be available to users, detailing the

  17. Description and validation of an automated methodology for mapping mineralogy, vegetation, and hydrothermal alteration type from ASTER satellite imagery with examples from the San Juan Mountains, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of airborne spectroscopic, or "hyperspectral," remote sensing for geoenvironmental watershed evaluations and deposit-scale mapping of exposed mineral deposits has been demonstrated. However, the acquisition, processing, and analysis of such airborne data at regional and national scales can be time and cost prohibitive. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor carried by the NASA Earth Observing System Terra satellite was designed for mineral mapping and the acquired data can be efficiently used to generate uniform mineral maps over very large areas. Multispectral remote sensing data acquired by the ASTER sensor were analyzed to identify and map minerals, mineral groups, hydrothermal alteration types, and vegetation groups in the western San Juan Mountains, Colorado, including the Silverton and Lake City calderas. This mapping was performed in support of multidisciplinary studies involving the predictive modeling of surface water geochemistry at watershed and regional scales. Detailed maps of minerals, vegetation groups, and water were produced from an ASTER scene using spectroscopic, expert system-based analysis techniques which have been previously described. New methodologies are presented for the modeling of hydrothermal alteration type based on the Boolean combination of the detailed mineral maps, and for the entirely automated mapping of alteration types, mineral groups, and green vegetation. Results of these methodologies are compared with the more detailed maps and with previously published mineral mapping results derived from analysis of high-resolution spectroscopic data acquired by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) sensor. Such comparisons are also presented for other mineralized and (or) altered areas including the Goldfield and Cuprite mining districts, Nevada and the central Marysvale volcanic field, Wah Wah Mountains, and San Francisco Mountains, Utah. The automated

  18. High-accuracy topographical information extraction based on fusion of ASTER stereo-data and ICESat/GLAS data in Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang DongChen; SHEN Qiang; XU Ying; CHEN Gang

    2009-01-01

    In order to better support Antarctic Inland ice sheet expedition from Zhongshan Station to Dome A, the topographic data are necessary. At present, although the entire Antarctic DEM provided by RAMP (Ra-daraat Antarctic Mapping Project) was estimated at the highest horizontal (spatial) resolution of about 200 m, the real horizontal resolution of the DEM varies from place to place depending on the density and scale of the original source data. For ice shelves and the inland ice sheet, the horizontal resolution is about 5 km; the vertical accuracy is estimated to be ±50 m in interior East Antarctic ice sheet and away from the mountain ranges. Therefore, more accurate topographic data are unavailable in Antarc-tica. In order to meet the requirements of high-accuracy topographic information for further researches, this paper mainly addresses a fusion study of ASTER stereo pairs and ICESat/GLAS altimetry data for extraction of high-accuracy DEM in East Antarctica, based on the high horizontal resolution (15 m) of ASTER and vertical accuracy (13.8 cm) of ICESat/GLAS. First, some altimetry data were selected as vertical control points to reduce errors of image correlation matching during the extraction of ASTER-based DEM. Second, ice sheet altimetry data derived from ICESat were used to generate DEM ranging from 75° to 81°S because existing ASTER data do not cover this area and high density of the coverage of ICESat altimetry data. Finally, the DEM in coverage of the expedition route was produced. The analysis of result reveals that the DEM accuracy is improved significantly. The absolute vertical accuracy of DEM is higher than 15 m in some cases and higher than 30 m for all the areas along the expedition route except from the 009-001 scene; the interior accuracy is higher than 15 m and higher than 7 m in some cases. It can meet the requirements of topographic map at 1 : 50000 scale, which is an economic and advantageous method to produce the topographic products.

  19. 湖南菊科紫菀属一新种——吉首紫菀%Aster jishouensis (Asteraceae), a new species from Hunan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎维平; 刘胜祥

    2002-01-01

    吉首紫菀新种图1 Aster jishouensis W. P. Li et S. X. Liu, sp. nov. Fig. 1 Species A. baccharoidi (Benth.) Steetz. affinis, sed caule simplici, caulor um fol iorum laminis linearilanceolatis usque oblongolanceolatis apice longe acumi nat is, nervis lateralibus inconspicuis, capitulis 1~4 in racemum dispositis, invol ucri phyllariis purpureorubris vel apice purpureorubris, pedunculis tenuibus 4~17 mm longis, tubo flosculi disci c. 5 mm longo bene differt.

  20. Countrywide digital elevation models for the Islamic Republic of Mauritania—SRTM and ASTER (phase V, deliverable 65): Chapter F in Second projet de renforcement institutionnel du secteur minier de la République Islamique de Mauritanie (PRISM-II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gregory K.

    2015-01-01

    A digital elevation model (DEM) of the entire country of the Islamic Republic of Mauritania was produced using Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data as required for deliverable 65 of the contract. In addition, because of significant recent advancements of availability, seamlessness, and validity of Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) global elevation data, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) extended its efforts to include a higher resolution countrywide ASTER DEM as value added to the required Deliverable 63, which was limited to five areas within the country. Both SRTM and ASTER countrywide DEMs have been provided in ERDAS Imagine (.img) format that is also directly compatible with ESRI ArcMap, ArcGIS Explorer, and other GIS applications.

  1. Como os livros didáticos de biologia abordam as diferentes formas de estimar a biodiversidade? How do biology textbooks discuss the different ways of assessing biodiversity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Benício Cardoso-Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O rápido avanço das pesquisas científicas tem possibilitado que novos conhecimentos sejam assimilados, e que antigas teorias e hipóteses reformuladas. É inquestionável a importância dos livros didáticos enquanto objeto pedagógico na formação do cidadão. Por conta disso, torna-se imprescindível que estes sejam constantemente reavaliados, no que tange a seu conteúdo. No presente estudo, foram avaliadas as diferentes formas pelas quais os livros didáticos de Biologia abordam o tema biodiversidade. Para realizar esta pesquisa, foram utilizados livros didáticos, os quais fazem parte do catálogo do Programa Nacional do Livro do Ensino Médio (PNLEM. Observamos que alguns tópicos relacionados ao estudo da biodiversidade são apresentados de maneira superficial e, por vezes, equivocada. Também ficou evidente que os livros didáticos analisados neste estudo tratam de um mesmo assunto com abordagem e profundidade diferentes. Isto sugere que adoção de um único livro didático nas escolas pode comprometer o processo de aprendizado do aluno.The rapid advancement of scientific research has been enabled by new knowledge being assimilated and by the reformulation of old theories and hypotheses. The importance of textbooks is unquestionable as a teaching aid in the formation of the citizen. For this reason, it is essential that they be constantly reevaluated, regarding their contents. In the present study we evaluated the different ways that biology textbooks address the biodiversity issue. To conduct this research were used textbooks, which are part of the High School Didactic Textbooks Brazilian National Evaluation Program (PNLEM. From the results obtained in this study, we observed that some topics related to biodiversity studies are presented in a superficial way, and are sometimes wrong. It was also evident that the textbooks examined in this study were dealing the same subject with different approaches and at different depth. This

  2. Auto-classification of Landform in Karst Region Based on ASTER GDEM%基于ASTER GDEM数据喀斯特区域地貌类型划分与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马士彬; 安裕伦

    2012-01-01

    Geomorphology is one of the most important parts which constitute the elements of physical geography.Based on the GDEM of 1∶100000 ASTER,the optimum analysis window was verified and topographic factors were extracted in the unit of drainage area.With GIS spatial analysis and unsupervised classification,the general geomorphologic types in Karst Region were auto-classified.The study results indicate:(1) DEM at the scale of 1∶100000 can fill the requirements to express the configuration of earth surface on meso-scale.(2) It confirms the basic regulation to select the analysis window and extract topographic factors taking the drainage area as a unit.Topographic factors extracted can reflect the actual configuration of earth surface more impersonally.(3) Multi-spectral image is combined with topographic factors.With the method of ISODATA unsupervised classification,it can implement the quantification of the general geomorphologic types and automatic classification effectively on meso-scale.The precision of the data extracted can meet the demands of computer automatic classification.These experimental results improve the application of ISODATA unsupervised classification in the automatic classification of geomorphology.%以30m分辨率ASTERGDEM数据为基础,通过GIS空间分析和非监督分类的方法进行地貌基本类型的自动划分。研究结果表明:①ASTERGDEM数据能够满足1:10万比例尺下喀斯特区域的地表形态表达;②以流域为单位提取地形因子符合地貌发育的基本规律,提取的地形因子能客观的反应地表真实形态;③采用非监督分类法能够有效的实现1:10万比例尺下地貌基本形态的定量化、自动化分类。

  3. Procedimiento optimizado para el cálculo de armónicas en la inclusión de bancos de compensación de reactivo en sistemas de potencia de AT

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Se describe un procedimiento considerado óptimo para el cálculo de armónicas en un sistema de EAT de interconexión de agentes de un mercado único, en el que se incluye una nueva instalación. Se ilustran los pasos a seguir para calcular en el nodo modificado la solicitación armónica de los elementos y prever el cumplimiento de la normativa de calidad de onda vigente en la Republica Argentina. Se innova aplicando un método de cálculo incremental para estimar el efecto marginal armónico en el re...

  4. Redes neuronales artificiales y regresión múltiple para la predicción de la edad y el sexo utilizando mediciones en radiografías de caninos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Luis Alvarez Montoya

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available

    La estimación de la edad y el sexo es un problema forense tanto en
    cadáveres como en vivos. Las radiografías periapicales son un método simple, no destructivo ni invasivo. Se realizó un estudio para estimar la edad y el sexo a partir de medidas de radiografías de caninos.

  5. Estimación de las funciones de costo marginal de abatimiento de material particulado para fuentes fijas en el Valle de Aburrá / Estimated marginal cost functions particulate abatement for stationary sources in the Valley of Aburrá

    OpenAIRE

    Mejía Giraldo, Milena Eveyde; Oviedo Restrepo, Iván David

    2006-01-01

    Este artículo tiene como objetivo principal estimar las funciones de costo marginal de abatimiento de material particulado para fuentes fijas en el Valle de Aburrá. Esta información es necesaria si se desea establecer un Sistema de Permisos de Emisión Transables para el Área Metropolitana, como política ambiental para el control de la contaminación atmosférica por material particulado. Para la estimación de tales funciones se utilizó el manual EPA (2002), Handbook, "Air Pollution Control Cost...

  6. Estimación del traspaso de la tasa de cambio nominal a los precios de la economía colombiana para el periodo 1994-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Javier López Fuentes

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo busca hacer una revisión de la literatura económica sobre la relación del tipo de cambio y de los precios, mediante lo que se ha denominado el Pass-Trough de la tasa de cambio a los precios, para ello se ha querido tomar como referencia la economía colombiana durante el periodo 1994-2008 y estimar dos modelos, un modelo SUR y un modelo VAR que permitan hacer un análisis complementario mediante la estimación del traspaso para el periodo considerado.

  7. Prevalência de defeitos de fechamento de tubo neural no Vale do Paraíba, São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência de defeitos de fechamento do tubo neural no Vale do Paraíba paulista e identificar possíveis fatores maternos e neonatais associados a tais defeitos. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se um estudo transversal com dados secundários obtidos na Secretaria Estadual da Saúde referentes aos nascimentos ocorridos em 2004 no Vale do Paraíba paulista, que compreende 35 municípios e conta com população de 2 milhões de habitantes. Anencefalia, encefalocele e espina bífida (mielocele e mi...

  8. Estrategias para la estimación automática de direcciones de drenaje a partir de modelos digitales de terreno.

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez Osorio, Jorge Mario; Vélez Upegui, Jaime Ignacio

    2002-01-01

    Se presenta una descripción de metodologías que permiten estimar automáticamente las direcciones de flujo a partir de modelos digitales de terreno y realizar cálculos de parámetros y mapas de variables geomorfológicas derivadas. Se usa el modelo D8 y se describen nuevas metodologías para la asignación de direcciones en celdas de dirección indeterminada. Se propone un algoritmo para la corrección de sumideros que combina el corte y el llenado de celdas mediante criterios globales.

  9. ¿Es la media simple la mejor combinación de predicciones individuales para la economía española?

    OpenAIRE

    Nieto Ballester, Rebeca

    2015-01-01

    Una de las finalidades de estimar un modelo econométrico es su utilización para predecir magnitudes económicas. De hecho, son muchos los organismos tanto públicos como privados, españoles como europeos, que elaboran sus modelos econométricos y realizan predicciones sobre distintos indicadores económicos tales como el producto interior bruto (PIB), la inflación, el desempleo… Estas predicciones se utilizan para la toma de decisiones de política económica. Habitualmente, además d...

  10. Landsat maps (phase V, deliverable 60), ASTER maps (phase V, deliverable 62), ASTER_DEM maps (phase V, deliverable 63), and spectral remote sensing in support of PRISM-II mineral resource assessment project, Islamic Republic of Mauritania (phase V, deliverables 61 and 64): Chapter E in Second projet de renforcement institutionnel du secteur minier de la République Islamique de Mauritanie (PRISM-II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.; Knepper, Daniel H.; Horton, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Multispectral satellite data acquired by the Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM), Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensors were processed and interpreted in support of the PRISM-II project (Second Projet de Renforcement Institutionnel du Secteur Minier de la Republique Islamique de Mauritanie). This report and accompanying maps constitute project deliverables 60–64. All digital data for use in Geographic Information System (GIS) and image processing software will be included in the GIS deliverable 92. Image maps in PDF format of the processed Landsat and ASTER scenes are referenced in the appendixes.

  11. Vegetation mapping in the Parque Nacional, Brasilia (Brazil) area using advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER) data and spectral identification method (SIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abílio de Carvalho Júnior, Osmar; Guimarães, Renato Fontes; Ferreira de Carvalho, Ana Paula; Correia da Silva, Nilton; de Souza Martins, Eder; Trancoso Gomes, Roberto Arnaldo

    2005-10-01

    The spectral classifiers allow a good estimate for the mapping of the materials from the similarity between the reference curve and the image. Initially the spectral classifiers had been developed for hyperspectral images analysis. However, some works demonstrate good results for the application of these techniques in multispectral images. The present work aims to evaluate the spectral classifier Spectral Identification Method (SIM) in ASTER image. The Spectral Identification Method (SIM) is proposed to establish a new similarity index and three estimates according to the significance of regression (5%, 10% and 15%) of the materials. This method is based on two statistical procedures: ANOVA and Spectral Correlation Mapper (SCM) coefficient. This information can be used to evaluate the degree of correlation among the materials in analysis. The advantage of this method is to validate according to significance of regression most probable areas of the sought material. The method was applied to ASTER image at the Parque Nacional (DF - Brazil). The images were acquired with atmosphere correction. The pixels size from the SWIR image was duplicated in order to join the VNIR and SWIR images. Endmembers were detected in three steps: a) spectral reduction by the Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF), b) spatial reduction by the Pixel Purity Index (PPI) and c) manual identification of the endmembers using the N-dimensional visualizer. The classification was made from the endmembers of nonphotosynthetic vegetation (NPV), photosynthetic vegetation (PV) and soil. These procedures allowed identifying the main scenarios in the study area.

  12. Identification and mapping of soil erosion areas in the Blue Nile-Eastern Sudan using multispectral ASTER and MODIS satellite data and the SRTM elevation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. El Haj Tahir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is part of a set of studies to evaluate the spatial and temporal variability of soil water in terms of natural as well as land-use changes as fundamental factors for vegetation regeneration in arid ecosystems in the Blue Nile-Sudan. The specific aim is to indicate the spatial distribution of soil erosion caused by the rains of 2006. The current study is conducted to determine whether automatic classification of multispectral Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER imagery could accurately discriminate erosion gullies. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM is used to orthoproject ASTER data. A maximum likelihood classifier is trained with four classes, Gullies, Flat_Land, Mountains and Water and applied to images from March and December 2006. Validation is done with field data from December and January 2006/2007, and using drainage network analysis of SRTM digital elevation model. The results allow the identification of erosion gullies and subsequent estimation of eroded area. Consequently the results were up-scaled using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS images of the same dates. Because the selected study site is representative of the wider Blue Nile province, it is expected that the approach presented could be applied to larger areas.

  13. Identification and mapping of soil erosion areas in the Blue Nile-Eastern Sudan using multispectral ASTER and MODIS satellite data and the SRTM elevation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haj Tahir, M.; Kääb, A.; Xu, C.-Y.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is part of a set of studies to evaluate the spatial and temporal variability of soil water in terms of natural as well as land-use changes as fundamental factors for vegetation regeneration in arid ecosystems in the Blue Nile-Sudan. The specific aim is to indicate the spatial distribution of soil erosion caused by the rains of 2006. The current study is conducted to determine whether automatic classification of multispectral Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) imagery could accurately discriminate erosion gullies. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) is used to orthoproject ASTER data. A maximum likelihood classifier is trained with four classes, Gullies, Flat_Land, Mountains and Water and applied to images from March and December 2006. Validation is done with field data from December and January 2006/2007, and using drainage network analysis of SRTM digital elevation model. The results allow the identification of erosion gullies and subsequent estimation of eroded area. Consequently the results were up-scaled using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images of the same dates. Because the selected study site is representative of the wider Blue Nile province, it is expected that the approach presented could be applied to larger areas.

  14. Preliminary development plan of the ALR, the laser rangefinder for the ASTER deep space mission to the 2001 SN263 asteroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gil Vicente de Brum

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian deep space mission ASTER, as temporarily named, plans to send a small spacecraft to encounter and investigate the triple asteroid 2001-SN263. The launch is scheduled (initially to occur in 2015, arriving in 2018. The main motivation of the mission is the development of technology and expertise to leverage the national space sector. Within the scientific goals, the investigation of the still unknown asteroid 2001-SN263. The main project guideline is to aggregate the widest possible Brazilian involvement in the platform, the development and operation of subsystems, integration, payload, as well as in the tracking, navigation, guidance and control of the probe. To meet this guideline, among others, the decision for the development of a laser altimeter in Brazil to fly in the mission was taken. This effort is currently coordinated by a group of researchers from the aerospace engineering personnel of UFABC. This article presents the preliminary development plan for the design of this instrument, which was called ALR (ASTER Laser Rangefinder.

  15. Development of a Model for Estimation of Acacia Senegal Tree Biomass Using Allometry and Aster Satellite Imagery at Ennuhud, West Kordofan State, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elamin, Hatim; Elnour Adam, Hassan; Csaplovics, Elmar

    The current paper deals with the development of a biomass model for Acacia senegal trees by applying allometric equations for ground data combined with ASTER satellite data sets. The current study is conducted around Ennuhud area which is located in Ennuhud locality in West Kordofan State, Sudan. Primary data are obtained by application of random sampling around Ennuhud town where Acacia senegal tree species is abundant. Ten sample units are taken. Each unit contains five sample plots (15x15 m), one in the centre and the others in the four directions 100 m away from the centre forming a total of 50 sample plots. The tree coordinates, diameter/diameters (diameter at breast height ≥ 5 cm), height and crown diameters will be recorded. Sensor data were acquired from ASTER remote sensing satellite (29.03.2007 & 26.01.2011) and integrated with the in-situ data. The expected findings allow for the calculation of the mean diameter of trees. The tree above ground biomass (TAGB), tree below ground biomass (TBGB) and the tree total biomass (TTB) of Acacia senegal are computed consequently. Remotely sensed data are integrated with the ground data for creating the data base for calculating the correlation of the relationship between the two methods of data collection. The application of allometric equations is useful as a non-destructive method for biomass estimation by the application of remote sensing is recommended for biomass modelling over large areas. Keywords: Biomass model, Acacia senegal tree, remote sensing, Ennuhud, North Kordofan

  16. Estimativas de biomassa para plantas de bambu do gênero Guadua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francelo Mognon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou ajustar equações para estimar a biomassa total de plantas de bambu, do gênero Guadua, bem como comparar o ajuste de equações por regressão linear com a técnica de mineração de dados. Foram utilizados 38 colmos de bambu, nos quais foram mensuradas as variáveis diâmetro à altura do peito (dap, diâmetro do colo do colmo e altura do colmo, seguido da determinação de massa total por método destrutivo. A biomassa determinada em 25 colmos foi utilizada para ajuste de equações pelo método dos mínimos quadrados e 13 colmos serviram para a validação da melhor equação. As frações de biomassa por compartimento diferem significativamente (p < 0,05 entre si. A maior fração da biomassa corresponde ao colmo, representando 69,2% do total, seguida pela dos rizomas, dos galhos e da folhagem, com 15,7; 10,8 e 4,2%, respectivamente. A melhor equação ajustada para estimar a biomassa total apresentou coeficiente de determinação de 0,93 e erro padrão da estimativa de 15%. Já a técnica de mineração de dados apresentou coeficiente de determinação de 0,81, com erro padrão de 23,8%. Pode-se estimar acuradamente a biomassa de Guadua por regressão linear e por mineração dos dados. Neste trabalho, o método de regressão apresentou melhor desempenho. A limitação de dados pode ser o fator determinante para o pior desempenho da técnica de mineração de dados, pois requer uma massa de dados mais ampla para funcionar satisfatoriamente.

  17. Comparación entre dos métodos para medir el consumo de alimentos en un área rural costarricense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Chinnock

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue comparar, mediante dos métodos, el consumo de alimentos en un grupo de treinta familias de una zona rural costarricense. Los métodos comparados fueron el Consumo Aparente de Alimentos y el Registro con Pesos. Para el primero se realizaron tres entrevistas a cada familia los días cero, ocho y veintidós del estudio. El Registro con Pesos se aplicó durante un periodo de siete días (desde el día uno hasta el día siete. Los resultados señalaron que no hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre ambos métodos para la mayoría de los alimentos y nutrientes. Sin embargo, el método de Consumo Aparente de Alimentos sobreestimó significativamente el consumo de 7 alimentos, incluyendo el arroz y el azúcar y algunos alimentos de producción casera. Debido a estas diferencias, el método de Consumo Aparente de Alimentos sobreestimó la cantidad promedia de energía, carbohidratos, calcio, fósforo y tiamina. Se concluye que el método de Consumo Aparente de Alimentos no debe ser utilizado para estimar el consumo de alimentos e ingesta de nutrientes a nivel de cada familia. Sin embargo, al mejorar la capacidad del método de Consumo Aparente de Alimentos para estimar cantidades consumidas de arroz, azúcar y alimentos de autoconsumo, puede utilizarse para estimar el consumo promedio de alimentos, energía y nutrientes de grupos de familias de características similares a las del presente estudio.

  18. Deslocamento para o trabalho e fatores associados em industriários do sul do Brasil Desplazamiento para el trabajo y factores asociados en industriales del sur de Brasil Commuting to and from work and factors associated among industrial workers from Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shana Ginar da Silva

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudo transversal visando estimar a prevalência das formas de deslocamento para o trabalho e identificar fatores associados em trabalhadores do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Um total de 2.265 trabalhadores responderam questionário sobre a forma de deslocamento utilizado para ir ao trabalho: caminhada/bicicleta, ônibus ou de carro/moto. Para estimar a associação entre o desfecho e variáveis sociodemográficas, ocupacionais e comportamental foi utilizada a regressão logística multinomial. O principal meio de deslocamento para o trabalho foi o ônibus (45,7%. Trabalhadores com maior condição socioeconômica tiveram maior probabilidade de deslocamento passivo.Estudio transversal buscando estimar la prevalencia de las formas de desplazamiento para el trabajo e identificar factores asociados en trabajadores del Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (sur de Brasil. Un total de 2.265 trabajadores respondieron cuestionario sobre la forma de desplazamiento utilizado para ir al trabajo: caminata/bicicleta, autobús o en carro/moto. Para estimar la asociación entre el resultado y variables sociodemográficas, ocupacionales y conductual se utilizó la regresión logística multinomial. El principal medio de desplazamiento para el trabajo fue el autobús (45,7%. Trabajadores con mayor condición socioeconómica tuvieron mayor probabilidad de desplazarse de forma pasiva.Cross-sectional study that aimed to estimate the prevalence of forms of commuting to and from work and to identify factors associated among industrial workers in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. A total of 2,265 workers completed a questionnaire on the forms of commuting to and from work (walking/biking, bus or car/motorcycle. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the association between the outcome and sociodemographic, occupational and behavioral variables. The main form of commuting to and from work was by bus (45.7%. Workers with higher socioeconomic

  19. Efectos raciales y heterosis materna Criollo-Guzerat para crecimiento posdestete y características de la canal

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Martínez Velázquez; José de Jesús Bustamante Guerrero; José Antonio Palacios Fránquez; Moisés Montaño Bermúdez

    2006-01-01

    Para estimar efectos raciales de abuelas y abuelos Criollo y Guzerat, así como heterosis materna (HM) Criollo-Guzerat sobre el comportamiento en engorda y características de la canal, se usaron crías de vacas Criollo (C, n=8), Guzerat (G, n=20), Criollo-Guzerat (CG, n=18) y Guzerat-Criollo (GC, n=6). Se evaluó peso al inicio de engorda (PIP), peso al año de edad (PAE), peso al final de engorda (PEFIP), ganancia diaria (GADIP), eficiencia alimenticia (EFALI), área del ojo de la costilla (AOC),...

  20. Study of the structural changes in the Popocatepetl volcano in Mexico related to microseismicity by applying the lineament analysis to the Aster (Terra) satellite data

    CERN Document Server

    Arellano-Baeza, A A; Trejo-Soto, M

    2007-01-01

    Mexico is one of the most volcanically active regions in North America. Volcanic activity in central Mexico is associated with the subduction of the Cocos and Rivera plates beneath the North American plate. Periods of enhanced microseismic activity, associated with the volcanic activity of the Popocatepetl volcano is compared with periods, during which the microseismic activity was low. We detected systematical changes in the number of lineaments, associated with the microseismic activity due to lineament analysis of a temporal sequence of high resolution satellite images of the Popocatepetl volcano, provided by the ASTER/VNIR instrument. The Lineament Extraction and Stripes Statistic Analysis (LESSA) software package was used for the lineament extraction. In the future it would allow develop a methodology for detection of possible elevation of pressure in volcano edifice.

  1. Previsión de necesidades formativas para un envejecimiento activo

    OpenAIRE

    Matas Terrón, Antonio; Leiva Olivencia, Juan José; Franco Caballero, Pablo Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Las nuevas tecnologías (NT) cada vez se usan más para tener una vida saludable. El objetivo del estudio es analizar el grado de penetración de las NT en la población española de 45 a 54 años para estimar su utilización en un envejecimiento saludable. Se han utilizado los datos de la encuesta sobre equipamientos en los hogares españoles del 2006 al 2013 (Instituto Nacional de Estadística). La previsión se ha llevado a cabo mediante una metodología Delphi. Los datos se han analizado descriptiva...

  2. Una técnica para medir la comprensión lectora: el test Cloze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natividad LÓPEZ RODRÍGUEZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available El «test doze» descrito por Taylor en 1953 ha venido siendo profusamente utilizado en los últimos años tanto como prueba de comprensión lectora como criterio para la elaboración de fórmulas de lecturabilidad.En cuanto al primer apartado, han sido numerosos los estudios dedicados a estimar la validez concurrente del test cloze con respecto a otras pruebas tradicionales de comprensión lectora, fundamentalmente en lengua inglesa. Sin embargo, no conocíamos la existencia de trabajos en los que se demostrase su validez para textos escritos en castellano. Por todo cUo, nuestro objetivo será dar a conocer esta prueba así como los estudios de validez que sobre la misma se han realizado y demostrar su aplicabilidad a nuestra lengua.

  3. Detecting Forest Degradation in Kouchi, Japan Using Visible, Near-IR, Mid-IR, and Thermal-IR Data from ASTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, B.; Onda, Y.; Xu, M.; Otsuki, Y.; Toyota, M.

    2006-12-01

    Forest degradation, mainly due to poor management, is of increasing concern in Japan because some major ecosystem functions, such as biodiversity, productivity, and soil and water retention, are losing or weakening in the forests, especially in the Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis Obtusa Sieb.) plantations. The lack of timely thinning in the plantation has resulted in very dense canopy, which has completely excluded the understory species, such as shrubs and herbs. Litter layer is also absent in this plantation due to the frequent litter removal from heavy rain storms as well as the absence of shrub/herb layers in the understory. Therefore, soil erosion and soil compaction/crust have severely changed the soil hydrology, resulting in the decreased soil infiltration, and increased flooding and sedimentation in downstreams, and furthermore, reduced the ecosystem productivity. Therefore, it is a critical issue to detect the degraded forest for effective forest management and protection of downstream ecosystems. This paper describes a method for mapping forest degradation based on remote sensing techniques. Field survey was firstly carried out to record the locations and conditions of the devastated Japanese cypress plantation. Investigation sites were then divided into four groups based the values of relative illuminance (threshold: 5 percent) and the status of understory vegetation (threshold: 8 percent). Several vegetation indices (Land Surface Water Index: LSWI, Water Index: WI, Normalized Difference Water Index: NDWI, Photochemical Reflectance Index: PRI, and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index: NDVI) and the values of the digital number in the ASTER thermal band were calculated/extracted and tested for the four groups, respectively. Results showed that the ASTER thermal band was the most effective for mapping the degraded forest.

  4. The suitability of using ASTER GDEM2 for terrain-based extraction of stream channel networks in a lowland Arctic permafrost catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Trofaier

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Seasonally inundated areas and water-saturated soils are common features of lowland Arctic and sub-Arctic permafrost environments. With the onset of snow melt, and water percolation down through the snowpack, a principal factor controlling stream channel flow, aside from active layer depth, is topography. This paper investigates stream channel networks derived from the advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER global digital elevation model (GDEM version 2 in a static terrain-based GIS-model. The suitability of using the ASTER GDEM2 for modelling the drainage network over a low-relief terrain is assessed. The aim is to use GDEM2 for the analysis of the stream channel network and to establish the network’s connectivity to previously observed spring flood patterns over the Yamal peninsula. As such, there are two parts to this study: 1 DEM validation and 2 stream channel network analysis. The results of the DEM validation study show that the root mean square error (RMSE of the GDEM2 and reference data is approx. 10 m when compared to both reference data sets (RMSE = 12.17 m, N = 86 and RMSE = 9.64, N = 506,877, implying that the GDEM2 is sufficiently accurate for terrain-based modelling. The low connectivity between the stream channel network and seasonal inundation suggests that topographic controls play a less important role compared to the possible overbanking of lakes and basin overflow. However, drainage densities for investigated drainage basins were significantly lower than those expected from typical Arctic basins. Both more sophisticated modelling techniques as well as higher spatial resolution DEMs are needed to extract the stream channel network more accurately and hence establish a more comprehensive link between the drainage network and seasonally inundated areas.

  5. Endeudamiento: ¿una estrategia empresarial para establecer barreras a la entrada en Colombia durante 1995-2003?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamboa Luis Fernando

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es una extensión del trabajo de Martin (2003 que
    intenta estimar si las empresas emplean, estratégicamente, la
    deuda para limitar la entrada de potenciales rivales. Usando el
    Método Generalizado de Momentos (GMM, se evalúa el efecto que
    tienen los activos específicos, la cuota de mercado, el tamaño
    (como proxies de las rentas del mercado, y las barreras a la
    entrada sobre los niveles de endeudamiento. Se emplean datos a
    nivel de empresa para Colombia, entre 1995 y 2003. Se concluye
    que las empresas utilizan los activos específicos para limitar
    la entrada al mercado y que el endeudamiento decrece a medida
    que las firmas aumentan su cuota en el mercado.

  6. Validez del test de salto para la valoración del rendimiento anaeróbico y la asimetría en el ciclismo de alto nivel

    OpenAIRE

    Muriel Otegui, Xavier; Cámara Tobalina, Jesús; Fernández López, Juan Ramón; Pallarés, Jesús G.

    2012-01-01

    Este estudio tuvo como objetivos validar el test de salto con contramovimiento (CMJ) para estimar el rendimiento anaeróbico, así como para estudiar la asimetría en la aplicación de fuerzas entre la pierna izquierda y derecha en ciclistas de alto nivel. Todos los participantes realizaron un test Wingate (WAnT) de 30s en un cicloergómetro y un test CMJ con registros de fuerza y potencia en cada pierna. Los resultados del estudio indican que el tiempo de vuelo del CMJ correlaciona signi...

  7. Dos pruebas para diagnóstico clínico: uso de funciones copula en la estimación de la prevalencia y los parámetros de desempeño de las pruebas

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    En este articulo introducimos un análisis Bayesiano para estimar la prevalencia y los parámetros de desempeño de pruebas para diagnóstico clínico, con datos obtenidos bajo estudios de tamizaje que incluyen el uso de dos pruebas diagnósticas en los cuales, los individuos con resultado negativo en las dos pruebas no son confirmados con una prueba patrón de oro. Dado que las pruebas de tamizaje son aplicadas al mismo indivíduo, nosotros asumimos dependencia entre los resultados...

  8. Eficacia de los tratamientos de fisioterapia para el dolor lumbar en niños y adolescentes: Revisión sistemática Efficacy of physiotherapy treatments for low back pain in children and adolescents: Systemac review

    OpenAIRE

    I. Calvo-Muñoz; A. Gómez-Conesa; J. Sánchez-Meca

    2012-01-01

    El dolor lumbar es uno de los principales motivos para la utilización de la asistencia sanitaria, y es un problema de salud frecuente en niños y adolescentes. Varios autores han evidenciado que tener dolor lumbar en la infancia aumenta el riesgo de sufrirlo de adulto. El objetivo de este trabajo es revisar la evidencia empírica de los tratamientos de fisioterapia para el dolor lumbar en niños y adolescentes, estimar su eficacia y analizar la calidad metodológica de los estudios. Se consultaro...

  9. Evaluación preliminar de la estrategia de información, comunicación y educación para el control del aedes aegypti, en la dorada, colombia

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Objetivo Estimar el impacto de la estrategia de Información, Educación y Comunicación sobre la infestación de Aedes aegypti en viviendas de La Dorada. Métodos Estudio transversal adelantado entre junio y julio de 2008 en La Dorada, Colombia. Se seleccionaron 228 viviendas donde se midió presencia del vector a través del método rapid sweeping para formas inmaduras en tanques y de captura activa para adultos. Simultáneamente, una encuesta midió la exposición a la estrategia. La base de datos ...

  10. Estudio de la consistencia interna y estructura factorial de tres versiones de la escala de Zung para ansiedad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana De La Ossa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: La escala de Zung para ansiedad se ha usado en varias investigaciones en Colombia. Sin embargo, no se ha informado la consistencia interna y la estructura de factores en estudiantes universitarios.Objetivo: Estimar la consistencia interna y la estructura factorial de tres versiones de la escala de Zung para ansiedad en estudiantes de una universidad privada de Cartagena, Colombia.Método: Doscientos veintiún estudiantes de medicina y psicología completaron la versión de 20 puntos de la escala de Zung para ansiedad. La media para la edad fue 20.5 (DE=2.6, 64.4% eran mujeres y 55.3% estudiaban medicina. Se calculó el alfa de Cronbach y se realizó un análisis de factores exploratorio para las tres versiones.Resultados: La escala de 20 puntos mostró un coeficiente de alfa de Cronbach de 0.77 y tres factores principales responsables de 40.1% de la varianza total. La versión de 10 puntos mostró una consistencia interna de 0.83 y una estructura bidimensional que explicaba 54% de la varianza. La versión de cinco puntos mostró una consistencia interna de 0.74 y una estructura unidimensional que daba cuenta de 49.5% de la varianza.Conclusiones: Las versiones de diez y cinco puntos de la escala de Zung para ansiedad presentan mejor comportamiento psicométrico que la versión original de 20 puntos. Se necesita estimar el comportamiento psicométrico de estas versiones frente a un criterio de referencia.

  11. para Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Eloy García de la Figal Costales

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sobre la base del análisis de la aplicación del plan de estudio «C Perfeccionado» (cuarta versión de Mecanización Agropecuaria, desde 1999 se determina como objetivo el diseño del plan de estudio de la nueva carrera de Ingeniería Agrícola para Cuba, mediante la precisión del encargo social en las nuevas condiciones, la preparación profesional existente en el ámbito mundial y nacional y las tendencias mundiales en el desarrollo de la ciencia y la técnica, empleando la metodología del diseño curricular por objetivos. Se determinaron: el objeto de estudio y de la profesión; principales problemas a resolver; campos de acción; modo de actuación; esferas de actuación y el Modelo del Profesional, siendo su objetivo más general: explotar los sistemas de ingeniería agrícola para los procesos tecnológicos y biotecnológicos de la producción agropecuaria sostenible. El plan posee como currículo básico el 79,62 % y el 40,04 % de práctica laboral e investigativa, ambos respecto al total de horas de 5 594.

  12. Opciones reales: una propuesta para valorar proyectos de I+D en centros públicos de investigación agraria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Luzia Vedovoto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Las decisiones de inversión en investigación y desarrollo (I+D son importantes para el éxito de las organizaciones, sobre todo para los centros públicos de investigación. Este trabajo evalúa un proyecto de I+D (mejora genética de semillas utilizando un método tradicional, el Valor Actual Neto, así como el uso de las opciones reales. Asimismo, se utiliza la Teoría del Excedente Económico y simulaciones de Monte Carlo para estimar los beneficios sociales. Los resultados indican que el enfoque de las opciones reales es muy adecuado para el análisis de proyectos en centros públicos de I+D.

  13. Therapeutic intervention scoring system-28 (TISS-28: diretrizes para aplicação Therapeutic intervention scoring system-28 (tiss-28: directrices para su aplicación Therapeutic intervention scoring system-28 (tiss-28: directions for application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Grillo Padilha

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System-28 (TISS-28 é um instrumento que permite dimensionar carga de trabalho de enfermagem em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva e estimar gravidade da doença. Apresenta-se nesta publicação as definições operacionais para sua aplicação, proposta por um grupo de especialistas na área, com vistas a uniformizar o significado de cada um dos itens e evitar vieses de interpretação.El Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System-28 (TISS-28 es un instrumento que permite dimensionar carga de trabajo de enfermería en una Unidad de Terapia Intensiva y estimar la gravedad de la enfermedad. Se presenta en esta publicación las definiciones operacionales para su aplicación, propuesta por un grupo de especialistas en el área, con vistas a uniformizar el significado de cada uno de los items y evitar sesgos de interpretación.Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System-28 (TISS-28 is a tool that enables the measurement of the nursing work load in Intensive Care Units and the estimate of how grave the disease is. In this study are presented the operational definitions for its application, proposed by a group of specialists in the area, with the aim of rendering uniform the meaning of each of the items and preventing interpretation biases.

  14. Metodología para el Escalamiento de Agitadores Mecánicos Utilizados en Procesos con Fluidos No-Newtonianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveros T. Carlos E.

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó experimentalmente la tasa promedia de cortante (TCP generada por dos rotores utilizados para el desmucilaginado mecánico del café en Colombia: El CENICAFE III y El COLMECANO. Los valores experimentales de TCP fueron comparados con datos estimados con un modelo teórico obtenido asumiendo que el campo de flujo generado por el rotor se asemeja al flujo tipo Couette (TCP y un modelo propuesto por Oliveros (1993,1995. Se utilizó la prueba de X^2 (con 5% de significancia para comparar los valores experimentales y teóricos y se observó que hay diferencias entre ellos. A partir del modelo TCP se obtuvo una expresión semiteórica para estimar la TCP generada por el rotor COLMECANO con alta con fiabilidad (r^2 = 0.982. A una misma velocidad de rotación el agitador COLMECANO genera mayores valores de TCP que el rotor CENICAFE 1/1. luego debe generar mayores tasas de desmucilaginado. La potencia requerida para agitar suspensiones de café en baba-mucílago+agua adicionada (1 L/kg de cps. en el rango de 300 a l. 200 rpm, utilizando los rotores CENICAFE III y COLMECANO, fué medida experimentalmente y estimada teóricamente con dos modelos: el modelo propuesto por Oliveros (1993.1995 Y un modelo obtenido asumiendo que el campo de flujo generado por los rotores es del tipo Couette (modelo pc. Los valores experimentales y estimados fueron comparados por medio de la prueba de X^2 (al 5% de significancia observándose diferencias entre ellos. Mediante un análisis de regresión lineal simple aplicado a los valores obtenidos con el modelo pe se obtuvo una expresión semi-teórica la cual permite estimar con alta confiabilidad la potencia para agitar las suspensiones de café en baba-mucílago+agua (r^2 = 0,982 con el rotor COLMECANO. A una misma velocidad de rotación, el rotor COLMECANO requiere menos potencia que el CENICAFE III para agitar suspensiones de café en baba-mucílago+agua (1 litro de agua/kg de cps. Se utilizó el concepto

  15. Modelo para determinar as exigências de proteína para poedeiras Modelling protein utilization in laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilva Kazue Sakomura

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi elaborar um modelo para estimar as exigências de proteína bruta (PB para poedeiras leves, usando o método fatorial. Para determinar as exigências de proteína bruta (PB para manutenção foi utilizada a técnica do balanço de nitrogênio. A exigência de proteína bruta para o ganho de peso foi determinada em função do conteúdo de nitrogênio na carcaça e a eficiência de utilização do nitrogênio da dieta. A exigência de PB, para produção de ovos, foi determinada considerando o teor de PB determinado nos ovos e a eficiência de deposição do nitrogênio no ovo. A partir dos valores das exigências para manutenção, para o ganho e produção foi elaborada uma equação para predizer as exigências diárias de PB (g/ ave/ dia para poedeiras: PB = 1,94. P0,75 + 0,48.G + 0,301.O, em que P = peso corporal (kg, G = ganho de peso diário (g/dia e O = massa de ovos produzida (g/ave/dia.The objective of this study was to determine a model for crude protein requirements (CP for laying hen by the factorial method. The protein maintenance requirement was determine by the nitrogen balance technique . The crude protein requirement for weight gain was determined based on body nitrogen content and nitrogen efficiency for body deposition. The crude protein requirement for egg production was determined based on the nitrogen content of eggs and nitrogen efficiency for egg deposition. Considering the requirements for maintenance, egg production and weight gain, it was elaborated a protein requirement model for laying hen: PB = 1.94xW.75 + 0.480xG + 0,301x E, where PB = requirement (g/bird/day, W = body weight (kg, G = daily weight gain (g/day and E = egg mass (g/bird/day.

  16. Confiabilidade de um formulário para diagnóstico da severidade da disfunção temporomandibular

    OpenAIRE

    Campos,JADB; GONÇALVES, DAG; CAMPARIS, CM; SPECIALI, JG

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Disfunção temporomandibular (DTM) é um termo coletivo que engloba vários problemas clínicos envolvendo a musculatura da mastigação, as articulações temporomandibulares (ATM) e suas estruturas associadas, com alta prevalência nas populações. OBJETIVOS: Sabendo-se que estudos brasileiros vêm utilizando o instrumento proposto por Da Fonseca et al. (1994) para diagnóstico da severidade desta disfunção, realizou-se este estudo com o objetivo de verificar e estimar a consistência ...

  17. Desarrollo de un algoritmo de aprendizaje de máquina para gravimetría, nivelación geométrica y alturas elipsoidales

    OpenAIRE

    Arias Patiño, Miguel Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Esta investigación tiene por objetivo el modelamiento de la interacción de datos gravimétricos, nivelación geométrica y posicionamiento GPS, a través de un modelo de aprendizaje de máquina, para estimar con cierto grado de precisión alturas niveladas mediante la implementación de algoritmos que relacionan datos de entrada, por medio de un proceso de transformación, donde se obtiene una variable dependiente en función de las relaciones intrínsecas entre las variables explicativa...

  18. Métodos de estimación y análisis de la curva Cupón Cero para el Euro

    OpenAIRE

    Escobedo de Pelsmaeker, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Este proyecto se basa en el análisis y el estudio de diferentes técnicas de aproximación de Curvas Cupón Cero, así como en metodologías de predicción de Renta Fija que sean capaces de estimar el valor futuro de estos activos. El estudio se centra en la zona Euro, construyendo curvas que permitan valorar activos denominados en esta moneda. El objetivo es el de poder evaluar el rendimiento de las Redes Neuronales Artificiales de MATLAB como método de aproximación y predicción, para así poder...

  19. Modelos testlet logísticos y logísticos de exponente positivo para pruebas de compresión de textos

    OpenAIRE

    Flores Ari, Sandra Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Los modelos de Teoría de Respuesta al Item (TRI) para datos binarios multivariados, permiten estimar una medida latente (de habilidad) a partir de información observada, que puede ser respuestas dicotómicas (de éxito y fracaso) a un conjunto de ítems de una determinada prueba. Uno de los supuestos críticos en los modelos TRI es la independencia condicional de los ítems, que permite el cálculo directo de la verosimilitud del modelo. En muchas situaciones de evaluación este supuesto no se cu...

  20. Situación de los sistemas de aprovechamiento de los residuos forestales para su utilización energética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Velázquez Martí

    2006-01-01

    forestal, se describen los sistemas de extracción de biomasa forestal residual derivadas de las operaciones convencionales realizadas en la gestión del monte y se plantea la metodología empleada para su valoración. Se expone cómo se pueden estimar parámetros que permiten predecir la biomasa potencial que se puede obtener de un determinado monte en las operaciones habituales de su gestión: aprovechamiento maderero, limpieza de monte bajo, creación de cortafuegos, construcción caminos o pistas forestales.

  1. para palmito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Paulo Chaimsohn

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Densidades de siembra, arreglos espaciales y fertilización en pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes cv Diamantes-10 para palmito. La investigación se llevó a cabo en la Estación Experimental Los Diamantes (Guápiles, Costa Rica, el 3 de octubre del 2003, cuyo objetivo fue la evaluación del efecto de diferentes densidades de siembra (3.333, 5.000 y 6.666 plantas/ha, arreglos espaciales, y diversos métodos de fertilización (química, orgánica, sobre el crecimiento de las plantas de pejibaye para producción de palmito. Se consideraron las variables diámetro y altura del tallo primario y el número de hojas y rebrotes como indicadores de producción. El período de evolución abarcó sólo los primeros 25 meses de crecimiento en el campo. El número de hojas, la altura y el diámetro del tallo no mostraron diferencias de respuesta relevantes. Sólo el número de rebrotes disminuyó al aumentar la densidad de la población, cuando se midió a los 15 meses de edad. El efecto de la fertilización se hizo evidente después de la primera cosecha, realizada a los 20 meses, debido al aumento de la competencia entre plantas, ahora más desarrolladas. Fue entonces cuando la fertilización química indujo la producción de un mayor número y vigor de los rebrotes. Sin embargo, las prácticas evaluadas 25 meses después de la siembra, no habían infl uido hasta ese momento en el número de palmitos cosechados, ni tampoco había afectado las características físicas de los sectores foliar y caulinar del palmito.

  2. Como reescribir funciones aleatorias multivariadas como univariadas para hacer cokrigeage. La teoría

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Martínez-Vargas

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available En el año 2005 Martínez-Vargas formuló un sistema de cokrigeage puro heterotópico para estimar una función aleatoria regionalizada (RF Z*(x definida como la combinación lineal de n RF's univariadas Zi(x, cuyos coeficientes 1i(x son indicatrices de un set disyuntivo de categorías i. Aparentemente este modelo se contradice pues asume que las covarianzas cruzadas existen en un mismo punto, a pesar de su carácter puramente heterotópico. Para evadir dicha contradicción se redefinió el set de RF Zi(x como una única RF Z(x,i, siendo los puntos (x,i y (x,j no coincidentes si i y j no son iguales. La heterotopía fue simplemente considerada como una omisión de la RF Z(x,. en los datos y en los puntos a estimar, no impuesta por el modelo; entonces el resultado es simplemente un caso particular del cokrigeage clásico. Con esta notación se reescribió el sistema de cokrigeage clásico como el sistema de krigeage de la RF univariada Z(x,i, asumiendo que esta posee un drift definido como m(x,i,j, donde los miembros fl(x,i,j de m(x,i,j pueden ser linealmente dependientes o independientes. Bajo esta notación el sistema de krigeage se reduce a un sistema univariado, la existencia de más de una variable o la presencia de heterotropía no impone la necesidad de manipulaciones extras para definir el sistema de ecuaciones de krigeage, incrementándose la eficiencia computacional.

  3. Para Leer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Sanz Cañibano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Jorge L. Tizón, Ramón Ciurana, M del Carmen Fernández (Comps. Libro de casos. Promoción de la salud mental desde la atención primaria. (Adela Sanz Cañibano Grupo de Expertos en Competencia Intercultural. Instrumento para la valoración de la Competencia Intercultural en la Atención en salud mental. Hacia la equidad en salud. (María Goretti Morón Nozaleda Mariano Hernández Monsalve y Pilar Nieto Degregori (Coords.. Psicoterapia y Rehabilitación de pacientes con psicosis. (Francisco Chicharro Lezcano André du Laurens. De las enfermedades melancólicas. Jourdain Guibelet. Del humor melancólico. (Iñaki Markez Julio José? Segarra Valls. Léxico psico(patológico en la obra de Carlos Castilla del Pino. (Eudoxia Gay Pamos Giorgio Nardone y Alessandro Salvini. El diálogo estratégico. (Fernando Mansilla Izquierdo Michel Foucault. Leçons sur la volonté de savoir, suivi de Le savoir d'Edipe. (Mauricio Jalón Camilo Castelo Branco. La novela de un hombre rico. (Alicia Merisi Kenzaburo Oé. Cuadernos de Hiroshima. (Mauricio Jalón Pascal Quignard. Les solidarités mystérieuses. (Beatriz A. Rubín Documentos en la red (Juan Medrano

  4. Estimación de la Ley de Okun para la economía venezolana. Período 1999-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leobaldo Enrique Molero Oliva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La Ley de Okun es una relación estadística que plantea una correspondencia negativa entre cambios en la tasa de desempleo y cambios porcentuales en el producto real. En los últimos años el producto interno bruto real de Venezuela ha experimentado variaciones significativas, a la par que los datos revelan una disminución progresiva en la tasa de desempleo. Bajo este contexto se plantea el objetivo de este trabajo, estimar la Ley de Okun para la economía venezolana durante el período 1999-2009, con datos trimestrales, y en base a la evidencia empírica disponible. Este artículo plantea varias ecuaciones lineales para estimar los parámetros que relacionan los cambios en la tasa de desempleo ante cambios porcentuales en el producto, siguiendo la propuesta original de Arthur Okun. Las ecuaciones son estimadas por medio del método de Mínimos Cuadrados Ordinarios (MCO. Se encuentra evidencia, para el período de estudio, de una relación inversa entre ambas variables tal como lo plantea la teoría, más no obstante los coeficientes encontrados son bajos, lo que podría sugerir que la dinámica del desempleo en Venezuela se encuentra condicionada por factores adicionales a las fluctuaciones del producto

  5. MODELOS DE AFILAMENTO PARA Pinus taeda L. BASEADOS EM PONTOS DE MUDANÇA DE FORMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Martinelli de Souza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi concebido com os objetivos de determinar matematicamente os pontos de mudança da forma do fuste ( pmf , o número de mudanças na forma geométrica, ajustar e comparar modelos matemáticos para estimar os diâmetros ao longo do fuste de Pinus taeda L . Os dados foram amostrados em árvores que cresceram em povoamento implantado em espaçamento de 2,50 x 2,50 m e manejado com dois desbastes, aos 9 e 14 anos, e corte final aos 30 anos pertencentes à Klabin S.A., em Telêmaco Borba, estado do Paraná. Quarenta árvores das classes médias e dominantes foram abatidas e cubadas pelo Método de Smalian, nas posições fixas de 0,10 m; 0,30 m; 0,80 m; 1,30 m; e após em comprimentos de 1 em 1 m, até a altura total. Na parte relativa à copa, os pontos de medição foram deslocados para os entrenós e a seguir foram retiradas fatias para análise de tronco, resultando, quando considerada a idade, em conjunto de dados relativos a 649 árvores com idades entre 8 a 30 anos, das quais foram selecionadas aleatoriamente, 50 árvores em cada classe de pmf para modelagem. As árvores foram agrupadas segundo os pmf de acordo com as quantidades de pontos definidos pela segunda derivada do polinômio do 5° ajustado para cada árvore. Com base nas estatísticas de ajuste e precisão na análise gráfica dos resíduos, nas estatísticas viés ( v , média das diferenças ( md e desvio padrão das diferenças ( dpd foi selecionado o Polinômio de quinto grau para estimar os diâmetros em alturas relativas do tronco e, alternativamente, o modelo de Garay, seguido do modelo de Max e Burkhart com dois ou modificado para um segmento conforme o número de pmf definidos na derivada.

  6. Aportes para la estimación de la huella de carbono en los grandes asentamientos urbanos de Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Ferraro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El cambio climático y su efecto más inmediato, el calentamiento global, plantean desafíos para la gestión ambiental de las ciudades. Uno de ellos es estimar su huella de carbono con la finalidad de morigerar los potenciales impactos. El presente trabajo propone calcular las emisiones de CO2 producidas por las actividades antrópicas de los 15 asentamientos urbanos de Argentina de más de 300.000 habitantes. Para ello se analizaron por localidad los consumos de energía eléctrica y se calcularon las emisiones de CO2 por sector de demanda eléctrica. Los resultados muestran que Argentina, en general, y los grandes asentamientos, en particular, tienen una baja contribución de emisiones de CO2, que se asocian en orden decreciente con la actividad industrial, residencial y comercial.

  7. Aportes para la estimación de la huella de carbono en los grandes asentamientos urbanos de Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Ferraro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available El cambio climático y su efecto más inmediato, el calentamiento global, plantean desafíos para la gestión ambiental de las ciudades. Uno de ellos es estimar su huella de carbono con la finalidad de morigerar los potenciales impactos. El presente trabajo propone calcular las emisiones de CO2 producidas por las actividades antrópicas de los 15 asentamientos urbanos de Argentina de más de 300.000 habitantes. Para ello se analizaron por localidad los consumos de energía eléctrica y se calcularon las emisiones de CO2 por sector de demanda eléctrica. Los resultados muestran que Argentina, en general, y los grandes asentamientos, en particular, tienen una baja contribución de emisiones de CO2, que se asocian en orden decreciente con la actividad industrial, residencial y comercial.

  8. Contribuciones metodológicas para valorar la multifuncionalidad de la agricultura campesina en la Meseta Purépecha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANTE ARIEL AYALA-ORTIZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se ofrece un análisis de la multifuncionalidad de la agricultura (MFA campesina en la Meseta Purépecha de Michoacán (México, con el objetivo de identificar algunos de sus componentes y contribuir al desarrollo de una metodología adecuada para su valoración. Entre las innovaciones metodológicas propuestas destacan los métodos desarrollados para: 1 estimar oferta de bienes sin mercados a partir de esquemas de valoración contingente; 2 aproximarse a evaluar la calidad de vida, y 3 medir la diversificación del riesgo en el ingreso de hogares rurales.

  9. Identification of mineral resources in Afghanistan-Detecting and mapping resource anomalies in prioritized areas using geophysical and remote sensing (ASTER and HyMap) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    : King, Trude V. V.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Hubbard, Bernard E.; Drenth, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations (TFBSO) natural resources revitalization activities in Afghanistan (Peters and others, 2011), three new datasets have been collected, compiled, and analyzed. These data have been used to more fully evaluate the areas of interest (AOIs; fig. 1 ) where, on the basis of previous U.S.S.R. and Afghanistan studies, the opportunity for early economic development of a number of different mineral, commodity, and deposit types had been identified (Peters and others, 2007; Peters and others, 2011). The new data compilations include (1) regional magnetic and gravity data for use in the characterization of subsurface composition and structure (Sweeney and others, 2006a,b; Ashan and others, 2007; Sweeney and others, 2007; Ashan and others, 2008; Shenwary and others, 2011), (2) Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data to identify and evaluate surficial alteration patterns related to industrial minerals and other selected targets, and (3) HyMap imaging spectrometer data for characterization and mapping of surficial mineralogy (Cocks and others, 1998; Kokaly and others, 2008; Peters and others, 2011). These datasets have served as fundamental building blocks for the resource evaluation by Peters and others (2011).

  10. Effect of Aster tataricus on production of inflammatory mediators in LPS stimulated rat astrocytoma cell line (C6) and THP-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Tao; Tian, Miao; He, Qiao-Wei; Chi, Nan; Xiu, Chun-Ming; Wang, Yun-Bo

    2017-03-01

    Neuroinflammation is the commonest cause of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Present investigation evaluates the inhibitory effect of ethanolic root extract of Aster tataricus (AS) on inflammatory mediators production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated C6 cells. C6 cells were treated with AS (20 and 40 mg/kg) and nimesulide (NSL, 1.5 μg/ml) for 1 day. Thereafter various parameters such as production of ROS, release of nitrite, MDA, glutathione level and NF-κB translocation were estimated in C6 cell lines. Effect of AS was estimated on the expressions of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) of human monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1). It was observed that AS (20 and 40 mg/ml) treated group shows significant (p < 0.01) decrease in production of ROS, Nitrite release and MDA level in LPS activated C6 cell lines compared to negative control group. Moreover, treatment with it decreases glutathione level and inhibits the translocation of NF-κB in LPS activated C6 cell lines compared to negative control group. There were significant (p < 0.01) decreases in expression of TNF-α in AS treated group compared to negative control group in THP-1 cell lines. Present investigation concludes the anti neuroinflammatory effect of ethanolic extract of AS root by decreasing oxidative stress and attenuates the cytokine.

  11. The Extract of Aster Koraiensis Prevents Retinal Pericyte Apoptosis in Diabetic Rats and Its Active Compound, Chlorogenic Acid Inhibits AGE Formation and AGE/RAGE Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghyun Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Retinal capillary cell loss is a hallmark of early diabetic retinal changes. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs are believed to contribute to retinal microvascular cell loss in diabetic retinopathy. In this study, the protective effects of Aster koraiensis extract (AKE against damage to retinal vascular cells were investigated in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. To examine this issue further, AGE accumulation, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS were investigated using retinal trypsin digests from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In the diabetic rats, TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling-positive retinal microvascular cells were markedly increased. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that AGEs were accumulated within the retinal microvascular cells, and this accumulation paralleled the activation of NF-κB and the expression of iNOS in the diabetic rats. However, AKE prevented retinal microvascular cell apoptosis through the inhibition of AGE accumulation and NF-κB activation. Moreover, to determine the active compounds of AKE, two major compounds, chlorogenic acid and 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, were tested in an in vitro assay. Among these compounds, chlorogenic acid significantly reduced AGE formation as well as AGE/RAGE (receptor for AGEs binding activity. These results suggest that AKE, particularly chlorogenic acid, is useful in inhibiting AGE accumulation in retinal vessels and exerts a preventive effect against the injuries of diabetic retinal vascular cells.

  12. Principle and geomorphological applicability of summit level and base level technique using Aster Gdem satellite-derived data and the original software Baz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihisa Motoki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents principle and geomorphological applicability of summit level technique using Aster Gdem satellite-derived topographicdata. Summit level corresponds to thevirtualtopographic surface constituted bylocalhighest points, such as peaks and plateau tops, and reconstitutes palaeo-geomorphology before the drainage erosion. Summit level map is efficient for reconstitution of palaeo-surfaces and detection of active tectonic movement. Base level is thevirtualsurface composed oflocallowest points, as valley bottoms. The difference between summit level and base level is called relief amount. Thesevirtualmapsareconstructed by theoriginalsoftwareBaz. Themacroconcavity index, MCI, is calculated from summit level and relief amount maps. The volume-normalised three-dimensional concavity index, TCI, is calculated from hypsometric diagram. The massifs with high erosive resistance tend to have convex general form and low MCI and TCI. Those with low resistance have concave form and high MCI and TCI. The diagram of TCI vs. MCI permits to distinguish erosive characteristics of massifs according to their constituent rocks. The base level map for ocean bottom detects the basement tectonic uplift which occurred before the formation of the volcanic seamounts.

  13. Potential flood hazard assessment by integration of ALOS PALSAR and ASTER GDEM: a case study for the Hoa Chau commune, Hoa Vang district, in central Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Do Thi Viet; Nagasawa, Ryota

    2014-01-01

    The potential flood hazard was assessed for the Hoa Chau commune in central Vietnam in order to identify the high flood hazard zones for the decision makers who will execute future rural planning. A new approach for deriving the potential flood hazard based on integration of inundation and flow direction maps is described. Areas inundated in the historical flood event of 2007 were extracted from Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) phased array L-band synthetic aperture data radar (PALSAR) images, while flow direction characteristics were derived from the ASTER GDEM to extract the depressed surfaces. Past flood experience and the flow direction were then integrated to analyze and rank the potential flood hazard zones. The land use/cover map extracted from LANDSAT TM and flood depth point records from field surveys were utilized to check the possibility of susceptible inundated areas, extracting data from ALOS PALSAR and ranking the potential flood hazard. The estimation of potential flood hazard areas revealed that 17.43% and 17.36% of Hoa Chau had high and medium potential flood hazards, respectively. The flow direction and ALOS PALSAR data were effectively integrated for determining the potential flood hazard when hydrological and meteorological data were inadequate and remote sensing images taken during flood times were not available or were insufficient.

  14. Modelo binomial para la valoración de empresas y los efectos de la deuda: escudo fiscal y liquidación de la firma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gastón Silverio Milanesi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En este documento se propone un modelo binomial para valorar empresas, proyectando y condicionando escenarios de continuidad o liquidación de la firma. El modelo se basa en la Teoría de Opciones Reales para estimar el valor de la firma, que resulta de un balance explícito de las ventajas y riesgos de tomar deuda. El trabajo se estructura de la siguiente manera: Primeramente, la introducción y desarrollo del modelo teórico; luego se ilustra mediante un caso de aplicación, comparando los resultados obtenidos con el modelo de descuento de flujos de fondos. Se sensibilizan variables como: endeudamiento, tasa de impuesto y volatilidad para analizar el impacto en el valor de la empresa. Finalmente, se describen las ventajas del modelo propuesto.

  15. Uso de puntos de referencia y de representaciones gráficas para resolver tareas numéricas en secundaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rut Almeida

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se reflexiona sobre dos componentes del sentido numérico: el uso de puntos de referencia y de representaciones gráficas para estimar cantidades y operaciones (con números naturales, decimales y fracciones. Se presentan los resultados de una prueba escrita contestada por 47 estudiantes de educación secundaria. Los resultados indican dificultades de los estudiantes para hacer uso de puntos de referencia numéricos y para construir sus propias representaciones gráficas, prefiriendo métodos basados en reglas. Mejores resultados se obtuvieron en la estimación numérica a partir de gráficas ya dadas. Los resultados más bajos se corresponden con tareas en las que están implicadas las fracciones.

  16. Exigências de lisina digestível para codornas japonesas na fase de postura

    OpenAIRE

    Costa,Fernando Guilherme Perazzo; Rodrigues,Valéria Pereira; Goulart,Cláudia de Castro; Lima Neto,Raul da Cunha; Souza,Janete Gouveia; Silva,José Humberto Vilar da

    2008-01-01

    Objetivou-se estimar as exigências nutricionais de lisina digestível para codornas japonesas em postura. Foram utilizadas 240 codornas distribuídas em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com cinco tratamentos, cada um com seis repetições de oito aves. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma ração basal deficiente em lisina e suplementada com L-lisina.HCL, de modo a apresentar 0,88; 0,96; 1,04; 1,12 ou 1,20% de lisina digestível. Avaliaram-se o consumo de ração (CR), a produção de ovos (PR), o peso...

  17. Diabetes mellitus tipo 2 y frecuencia de acciones para su prevención y control

    OpenAIRE

    Aída Jiménez-Corona; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Rosalba Rojas-Martínez; Mauricio Hernández-Ávila

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo. Estimar la frecuencia de medidas de prevención y control para diabetes tipo 2 en población mexicana. Material y métodos. La ENSANUT 2012 es una encuesta con representatividad nacional, con diseño de muestreo probabilístico, multietápico, estratificado y por conglomerados. En este análisis se utilizó la información de 46 277 adultos mayores de 20 años. El análisis se efectuó utilizando Stata 12. Resultados. La prevalencia de diabetes por diagnóstico previo fue de 9.2% (6.4 millones)...

  18. Um novo modelo de previsão de demanda para inovações radicais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Neumann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta um novo modelo para a previsão de demanda de inovações radicais baseada em simulação de Dinâmica de Sistemas que combina conceitos do modelo de difusão de Bass e do modelo de escolha discreta. Diferentemente de outras abordagens existentes, esta proposta permite estimar não somente a fatia de mercado do produto, mas também seu comportamento no tempo (timing, a partir das preferências individuais do consumidor e das forças que as influenciam. O modelo proposto pode ser facilmente parametrizado através da Conjoint Analysis e foi testado em escala real no mercado alemão de carros elétricos. Os resultados obtidos colocam em evidência o potencial da abordagem proposta, auxiliando na compreensão dos principais fatores na escolha desse produto.

  19. Tuberculose em Salvador: custos para o sistema de saúde e para as famílias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa João G

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A tuberculose é uma das maiores causas de mortalidade no mundo, porém seus efeitos econômicos são pouco conhecidos. O objetivo do estudo foi o de estimar os custos do tratamento e prevenção da tuberculose para o sistema de saúde (público e privado e para as famílias. MÉTODOS: O estudo foi realizado no município de Salvador, BA, em 1999. Os dados para estimação dos custos para o sistema de saúde foram coletados nas secretarias de saúde, centros de saúde e em uma entidade filantrópica. Os custos públicos e privados foram estimados pela metodologia da contabilidade de custos. Os dados de custos para as famílias foram coletados por meio de questionários e incluem despesas com transporte, alimentação e outros, bem como as perdas de renda associadas à doença. RESULTADOS: O custo médio para tratamento de um caso novo de tuberculose foi de aproximadamente R$186,00 (US$103; para o tratamento de um paciente multiresistente o custo foi 27 vezes mais alto. Os custos para o serviço público corresponderam a 65% em internações, 32% em tratamento e apenas 3% em prevenção. As famílias comprometeram cerca de 33% da sua renda com despesas relacionadas a tuberculose. CONCLUSÕES: Apesar do fato das famílias não terem que pagar por medicamentos e tratamento, dado que este serviço é oferecido pelo Estado, os custos familiares ligados a perda de rendimentos devido a doença foram muito elevados. A proporção utilizada em prevenção pelo serviço público é pequena. Um maior investimento em campanhas de prevenção poderia não somente diminuir o número de casos, mas também, levar a um diagnósticos precoce, diminuindo os custos associados à hospitalização. A falta de um sistema integrado de custos não permite a visualização dos custos nos diversos setores.

  20. Selección de un Modelo Primario para Describir la Curva de Crecimiento de Bacterias Lácticas y Brochothrix thermosphacta sobre Emulsiones Cárnicas Cocidas Selection of a Primary Model for to Describe the Growth Curve of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Brochothrix thermosphacta on Cooked Meat Emulsions

    OpenAIRE

    María E. Cayré; Vignolo, Graciela M.; Oscar A Garro

    2007-01-01

    Se han comparado tres modelos primarios para describir la curva de crecimiento de bacterias lácticas y Brochothrix thermosphacta sobre emulsiones cárnicas cocidas y para estimar los parámetros cinéticos de crecimiento: tiempo de latencia (l), máxima velocidad específica de crecimiento (µmax) y máxima densidad bacteriana (y ma x). Se usaron los modelos Logístico, Gompertz y Baranyi y se comparó la bondad de ajuste de los modelos, la incertidumbre y precisión de las estimaciones. Los modelos de...

  1. Construção de instrumento para avaliar a acurácia diagnóstica Construcción de instrumento para evaluar la exactitud diagnóstica Development of an instrument to evaluate diagnosis accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Gonçalves de Oliveira Azevedo Matos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Diagnósticos acurados são importantes para a escolha adequada de intervenções. Neste artigo relata-se pesquisa metodológica de desenvolvimento de instrumento para estimar a acurácia de diagnósticos de enfermagem a partir de dados escritos da avaliação de paciente. Elaborou-se a definição de acurácia e a construção dos itens que compõem o instrumento, submetendo-os a validação de conteúdo e teste piloto. O instrumento foi denominado Escala de Acurácia de Diagnóstico de Enfermagem - EADE e foi composto por 4 itens: Presença de pistas; Relevância da pista; Especificidade da pista e Coerência da pista. As respostas de 12 enfermeiros especialistas à aplicação da EADE aos diagnósticos de 5 casos escritos permitiram identificar valores para cada item e estimar a validade e confiabilidade da EADE.Diagnósticos precisos son importantes para la elección adecuada de las intervenciones. Este artículo se refiere al desarrollo de herramienta metodológica de investigación para estimar la precisión de los diagnósticos de enfermería apartir de datos escritos de la evaluación de paciente. Se elaboró la definición de la precisión y la construcción de los elementos que componen el instrumento, sometiéndolos a prueba del contenido y el test piloto. El instrumento fue llamado Exactitud Diagnóstica de Enfermería - EADE y estaba compuesto por 4 elementos: Presencia de pistas; Pertinencia de la pista; especificidad de la pista y la coherencia de la pista. Las respuestas de 12 enfermeros especialistas a la aplicación de EADE a los diagnósticos de 5 casos por escrito permitiran identificar los valores para cada tema y estimar la validez y la fiabilidad de EADE.Accurate diagnoses are important for choosing adequate interventions. This study reports on a methodological research that developed an instrument to estimate nursing diagnosis accuracy, based on written data from patients' assessment. A definition of accuracy was

  2. Metodología para la estimación del peligro sísmico con base en la teoría de vibraciones aleatorias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Valdés González

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se pretende mostrar la metodología a seguir para estimar el peligro sísmico en un sitio que cuenta con escasa información al respecto. Para ello se formulan y aplican dos planteamientos deterministas diferentes (teoría de vibraciones aleatorias y simulación de acelerogramas usando registros pequeños como funciones de Green empíricas por medio de los cuales es posible estimar el peligro sísmico que enfrenta el sitio que se estudia. En particular se analiza el caso de la ciudad de Toluca y se estudian dos grandes temblores, el primero corresponde al temblor del 19 de septiembre de 1985 (Ms= 8.1 cuya intensidad se considera la máxima registrada en dicha ciudad, el segundo evento se refiere a un temblor hipotético de magnitud Ms= 8.3 en la brecha de Guerrero. Adicionalmente se analizan otros dos tipos de temblores (falla normal y Acambay que pudiesen afectar el sitio en estudio. El peligro sísmico se valora en términos de los espectros de respuesta elásticos de los sismos analizados.

  3. MÉTODO SIMPLIFICADO PARA LA ESTIMACIÓN DE LA CARGA ÚLTIMA DE PILOTES SOMETIDOS A CARGA VERTICAL AXIAL EN ARENAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Giovanny Dias Segura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La respuesta de diferentes pilotes sometidos a carga vertical axial fue estudiada empleando una serie de análisis mediante elementos finitos, considerando como suelo de fundación diez tipos de arenas en condición seca y saturada. A partir de los resultados obtenidos, se propone un método simplificado para estimar la carga última en pilotes preexcavados sobre arenas, en términos del diámetro y enterramiento del pilote, peso unitario del suelo, condiciones de saturación, y mediciones indirectas de la resistencia al corte del suelo, obtenidas a partir de la densidad relativa y el índice de penetración SPT. El método propuesto, basado en 180 casos analizados, ofrece una precisión de 92%, y constituye una herramienta complementaría de diseño para estimar la carga última de pilotes preexcavados en arenas.

  4. Radial Turgor and Osmotic Pressure Profiles in Intact and Excised Roots of Aster tripolium: Pressure Probe Measurements and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Imaging Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, U; Rygol, J; Balling, A; Klöck, G; Metzler, A; Haase, A

    1992-05-01

    High-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance images (using very short spin-echo times of 3.8 milliseconds) of cross-sections of excised roots of the halophyte Aster tripolium showed radial cell strands separated by air-filled spaces. Radial insertion of the pressure probe (along the cell strands) into roots of intact plants revealed a marked increase of the turgor pressure from the outermost to the sixth cortical layer (from about 0.1-0.6 megapascals). Corresponding measurements of intracellular osmotic pressure in individual cortical cells (by means of a nanoliter osmometer) showed an osmotic pressure gradient of equal magnitude to the turgor pressure. Neither gradient changed significantly when the plants were grown in, or exposed for 1 hour to, media of high salinity. Differences were recorded in the ability of salts and nonelectrolytes to penetrate the apoplast in the root. The reflection coefficients of the cortical cells were approximately 1 for all the solutes tested. Excision of the root from the stem resulted in a collapse of the turgor and osmotic pressure gradients. After about 15 to 30 minutes, the turgor pressure throughout the cortex attained an intermediate (quasistationary) level of about 0.3 megapascals. This value agreed well with the osmotic value deduced from plasmolysis experiments on excised root segments. These and other data provided conclusions about the driving forces for water and solute transport in the roots and about the function of the air-filled radial spaces in water transport. They also showed that excised roots may be artifactual systems.

  5. Evaluation of ASTER GDEM2 in Comparison with GDEM1, SRTM DEM and Topographic-Map-Derived DEM Using Inundation Area Analysis and RTK-dGPS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beni Raharjo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the quality of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Radiometer-Global Digital Elevation Model version 2 (ASTER GDEM2 in comparison with the previous version (GDEM1 as well as the Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM DEM and topographic-map-derived DEM (Topo-DEM using inundation area analysis for the projected location of the Karian dam, Indonesia. In addition, the vertical accuracy of each DEM is evaluated using the Real-Time Kinematic differential Global Positioning Systems (RTK-dGPS data obtained from an intensive geodetic survey. The results of the inundation area analysis show that GDEM2 produced a higher maximum contour level (MCL (64 m than did GDEM1 (55 m, and thus, GDME2 has a better quality. In addition, the GDEM2-derived MCL is similar to those produced by SRTM DEM (69 m and Topo-DEM (62 m. The improvement in the contour level in GDEM2 is believed to be related to the successful removal of voids (artifacts and anomalies present in GDEM1. However, our RTK-dGPS results show that the vertical accuracy of GDEM2 is much lower than that of GDEM1 and the other DEMs, which is contradictory to the accuracy stated in the GDEM2 validation document. The vertical profiles of all DEMs show that GDEM2 contains a comparatively large number of undulation effects, thereby resulting in higher root mean square error (RMSE values. These undulation effects may have been introduced during the GDEM2 validation process. Although the results of this study may be site-specific, it is important that they be considered for the improvement of the next GDEM version.

  6. Exploiting Maximum Entropy method and ASTER data for assessing debris flow and debris slide susceptibility for the Giampilieri catchment (north-eastern Sicily, Italy).

    KAUST Repository

    Lombardo, L.

    2016-07-18

    This study aims at evaluating the performance of the Maximum Entropy method in assessing landslide susceptibility, exploiting topographic and multispectral remote sensing predictors. We selected the catchment of the Giampilieri stream, which is located in the north-eastern sector of Sicily (southern Italy), as test site. On 1/10/2009, a storm rainfall triggered in this area hundreds of debris flow/avalanche phenomena causing extensive economical damage and loss of life. Within this area a presence-only-based statistical method was applied to obtain susceptibility models capable of distinguish future activation sites of debris flow and debris slide, which where the main source failure mechanisms for flow or avalanche type propagation. The set of predictors used in this experiment comprised primary and secondary topographic attributes, derived by processing a high resolution digital elevation model, CORINE land cover data and a set of vegetation and mineral indices obtained by processing multispectral ASTER images. All the selected data sources are dated before the disaster. A spatially random partition technique was adopted for validation, generating fifty replicates for each of the two considered movement typologies in order to assess accuracy, precision and reliability of the models. The debris slide and debris flow susceptibility models produced high performances with the first type being the best fitted. The evaluation of the probability estimates around the mean value for each mapped pixel shows an inverted relation, with the most robust models corresponding to the debris flows. With respect to the role of each predictor within the modelling phase, debris flows appeared to be primarily controlled by topographic attributes whilst the debris slides were better explained by remotely sensed derived indices, particularly by the occurrence of previous wildfires across the slope. The overall excellent performances of the two models suggest promising perspectives for

  7. Protective effect of Aster tataricus extract on retinal damage on the virtue of its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect in diabetic rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hao; Zhang, Meng; Yao, Kejun; Hu, Zhitao

    2017-03-02

    Effect of Aster tataricus (AT) was estimated on the retinal injury in diabetic rats by its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Streptozotocin (STZ) was used to induce diabetes at a dose of 60mg/kg, i.p. and blood glucose was estimated to confirm the diabetic rats. All the animals were separated in to 5 different groups (n=10) such as control, diabetic retinopathy (DR) receives saline solution, and AT treated group receives AT (100, 200 and 400mg/kg) for the duration of 8 week. After treatment protocol period blood glucose and HbA1c% was estimated in the blood sample of diabetic rats. Retinal tissue was isolated for the fundus photography and retinal vessel diameter, retinal vascular permeability and leukocytosis were estimated. Moreover in the retinal tissue homogenate oxidative stress parameters such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH) and catalase (CAT) and concentration of cytokines (TNFα, IL10) was estimated. Result of the study suggested that root extract of AT contain rich amount of polyphenol in it which significantly reduces the body weight and concentration of glucose in blood in diabetic rats. Fundus photography suggested that AT extract attenuates the structure and functional abnormalities that develops due to diabetes. Retinal leukocytosis and vascular permeability was significantly decreases in AT treated group than DR group. There was significant increase in the activity of GSH, CAT and SOD in AT treated group than DR group. Moreover AT also attenuates the altered concentration of TNFα, IL10 and NF-κB in the retina of STZ induced diabetic rat. Thus present study concludes that root extract of AT effectively manages the diabetic retinopathy by controlling the blood glucose and also by attenuating the altered oxidative stresss and inflammatory mediators such as TNFα, IL10 and NF-κB in the retina of STZ induced diabetic rat.

  8. Investigation of the fluid-structure interaction of a high head Francis turbine using OpenFOAM and Code_Aster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, M.; Doujak, E.; Waldner, L.

    2016-11-01

    The increasing energy consumption and highly stressed power grids influence the operating conditions of turbines and pump turbines in the present situation. To provide or use energy as quick as possible, hydraulic turbines are operated more frequent and over longer periods of time in lower part load at off-design conditions. This leads to a more turbulent behavior and to higher requirements of the strength of stressed components (e.g. runner, guide or stay vanes). The modern advantages of computational capabilities regarding numerical investigations allow a precise prediction of appearing flow conditions and thereby induced strains in hydraulic machines. This paper focuses on the calculation of the unsteady pressure field of a high head Francis turbine with a specific speed of nq ≈ 24 min-1 and its impact on the structure at different operating conditions. In the first step, unsteady numerical flow simulations are performed with the open-source CFD software OpenFOAM. To obtain the appearing dynamic flow phenomena, the entire machine, consisting of the spiral casing, the stay vanes, the wicket gate, the runner and the draft tube, is taken into account. Additionally, a reduced model without the spiral casing and with a simplified inlet boundary is used. To evaluate the accuracy of the CFD simulations, operating parameters such as head and torque are compared with the results of site measurements carried out on the corresponding prototype machine. In the second part, the obtained pressure fields are used for a fluid-structure analysis with the open-source Finite Element software Code_Aster, to predict the static loads on the runner.

  9. Preliminary results for a semi-automated quantification of site effects using geomorphometry and ASTER satellite data for Mozambique, Pakistan and Turkey

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alan Yong; Susan E Hough; Michael J Abrams; Christopher J Wills

    2008-11-01

    Estimation of the degree of local seismic wave amplification (site effects) requires precise information about the local site conditions. In many regions of the world, local geologic information is either sparse or is not readily available. Because of this, seismic hazard maps for countries such as Mozambique, Pakistan and Turkey are developed without consideration of site factors and, therefore, do not provide a complete assessment of future hazards. Where local geologic information is available, details on the traditional maps often lack the precision (better than 1:10,000 scale) or the level of information required for modern seismic microzonation requirements. We use high-resolution (1:50,000) satellite imagery and newly developed image analysis methods to begin addressing this problem. Our imagery, consisting of optical data and digital elevation models (DEMs), is recorded from the ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) sensor system. We apply a semi-automated, object-oriented, multi-resolution feature segmentation method to identify and extract local terrain features. Then we classify the terrain types into mountain, piedmont and basin units using geomorphometry (topographic slope) as our parameter. Next, on the basis of the site classification schemes from the Wills and Silva (1998) study and the Wills et al (2000) and Wills and Clahan (2006) maps of California, we assign the local terrain units with 30 (the average seismic shear-wave velocity through the upper 30m of the subsurface) ranges for selected regions in Mozambique, Pakistan and Turkey. We find that the applicability of our site class assignments in each region is a good first-approximation for quantifying local site conditions and that additional work, such as the verification of the terrain’s compositional rigidity, is needed.

  10. Mineral and Vegetation Maps of the Bodie Hills, Sweetwater Mountains, and Wassuk Range, California/Nevada, Generated from ASTER Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.

    2010-01-01

    Multispectral remote sensing data acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) were analyzed to identify and map minerals, vegetation groups, and volatiles (water and snow) in support of geologic studies of the Bodie Hills, Sweetwater Mountains, and Wassuk Range, California/Nevada. Digital mineral and vegetation mapping results are presented in both portable document format (PDF) and ERDAS Imagine format (.img). The ERDAS-format files are suitable for integration with other geospatial data in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) such as ArcGIS. The ERDAS files showing occurrence of 1) iron-bearing minerals, vegetation, and water, and 2) clay, sulfate, mica, carbonate, Mg-OH, and hydrous quartz minerals have been attributed according to identified material, so that the material detected in a pixel can be queried with the interactive attribute identification tools of GIS and image processing software packages (for example, the Identify Tool of ArcMap and the Inquire Cursor Tool of ERDAS Imagine). All raster data have been orthorectified to the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection using a projective transform with ground-control points selected from orthorectified Landsat Thematic Mapper data and a digital elevation model from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Elevation Dataset (1/3 arc second, 10 m resolution). Metadata compliant with Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) standards for all ERDAS-format files have been included, and contain important information regarding geographic coordinate systems, attributes, and cross-references. Documentation regarding spectral analysis methodologies employed to make the maps is included in these cross-references.

  11. Karst Depression Detection Using ASTER, ALOS/PRISM and SRTM-Derived Digital Elevation Models in the Bambuí Group, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar Abílio de Carvalho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing has been used in karst studies to identify limestone terrain, describe exokarst features, analyze karst depressions, and detect geological structures important to karst development. The aim of this work is to investigate the use of ASTER-, SRTM- and ALOS/PRISM-derived digital elevation models (DEMs to detect and quantify natural karst depressions along the São Francisco River near Barreiras city, northeast Brazil. The study area is a karst landscape characterized by karst depressions (dolines, closed depressions in limestone, many of which contain standing water connected with the ground-water table. The base of dolines is typically sealed with an impermeable clay layer covered by standing water or herbaceous vegetation. We identify dolines by combining the extraction of sink depth from DEMs, morphometric analysis using GIS, and visual interpretation. Our methodology is a semi-automatic approach involving several steps: (a DEM acquisition; (b sink-depth calculation using the difference between the raw DEM and the corresponding DEM with sinks filled; and (c elimination of falsely identified karst depressions using morphometric attributes. The advantages and limitations of the applied methodology using different DEMs are examined by comparison with a sinkhole map generated from traditional geomorphological investigations based on visual interpretation of the high-resolution remote sensing images and field surveys. The threshold values of the depth, area size and circularity index appropriate for distinguishing dolines were identified from the maximum overall accuracy obtained by comparison with a true doline map. Our results indicate that the best performance of the proposed methodology for meso-scale karst feature detection was using ALOS/PRISM data with a threshold depth > 2 m; areas > 13,125 m2 and circularity indexes > 0.3 (overall accuracy of 0.53. The overall correct identification of around half of the true dolines suggests

  12. Temperatura base para aparecimento de folhas e filocrono da variedade de milho BRS Missões Base temperature for leaf appearance and phyllochron of the BRS Missões maize variety

    OpenAIRE

    Nereu Augusto Streck; Isabel Lago; Flávia Kaufmann Samboranha; Luana Fernandes Gabriel; Ana Paula Schwantes; Alfredo Schons

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a temperatura base para aparecimento de folhas e o filocrono em uma variedade de milho em várias datas de semeadura e dois anos de cultivo. Um experimento de campo foi realizado em Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul (RS), com sete datas de semeadura. Foi utilizada a variedade BRS Missões em dois anos agrícolas consecutivos (2005-06 e 2006-07). O delineamento experimental foi blocos ao acaso com seis repetições. A parcela foi composta por três linhas de 5m de ...

  13. Fatores de risco comportamentais acumulados para doenças cardiovasculares no sul do Brasil Factores de riesgo conductuales acumulados en enfermedades cardiovasculares en el sur de Brasil Accumulated behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ludmila Correa Muniz; Bruna Celestino Schneider; Inácio Crochemore Mohnsam da Silva; Alicia Matijasevich; Iná Silva Santos

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência e identificar fatores associados ao acúmulo de comportamentos de risco para doenças cardiovasculares entre adultos. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal de base populacional com amostra representativa de 2.732 adultos de ambos os sexos de Pelotas, RS, em 2010. Os fatores de risco comportamentais investigados foram: tabagismo; inatividade física no lazer; consumo habitual de gordura aparente da carne; e consumo diário de embutidos, carne vermelha e leite integral. O desf...

  14. Modelo empírico para la determinación de clorofila-a en aguas continentales a partir de los futuros Sentinel-2 y 3. Validación con imágenes HICO

    OpenAIRE

    Delegido, J.; Tenjo, C.; A. Ruiz-Verdú; Peña, R.; Moreno, J.

    2014-01-01

    Revista oficial de la Asociación Española de Teledetección [ES] El uso de sensores de alta resolución espacial y espectral, como es el caso de CHRIS/PROBA, permite una mejor estimación de aquellos constituyentes que modifican las propiedades ópticas de las masas de agua. Uno de los principales indicadores de la calidad de las aguas continentales es la biomasa del fitoplancton. La concentración de clorofila se utiliza para estimar en forma indirecta la biomasa de las comunidades fitoplanctó...

  15. Desarrollo de una interfaz gráfica en MatLab para la aplicación de modelos de regresión local polinómica

    OpenAIRE

    Escribano Molina, José Francisco

    2009-01-01

    EL objetivo principal de este Proyecto Fin Carrera es desarrollar una interfaz gráfica en Matlab, que se ha denominado "MathNonParametrics", que permita encontrar el mejor modelo de Regresión Local Polinómica(RLP) para un conjunto de datos determinado. Asimismo, la interfaz debe permitir predecir nuevos valores, utilizando el modelo óptimo estimado. La interfaz permitirá a cualquier usuario, incluso aquéllos con pocos conocimientos de RLP, estimar un modelo de RLP de manera rápida y sencilla....

  16. PREVALENCIA DE ANSIEDAD Y DEPRESIÓN EN ALCOHÓLICOS HOSPITALIZADOS PARA DESINTOXICACIÓN EN BOGOTÁ Prevalence of anxiety and depression in bed alcoholics for deintoxication in Bogota

    OpenAIRE

    Juan David Ávila Cadavid; Franklin Escobar Córdoba; Heydy Luz Chica Úrzola

    2005-01-01

    Antecedentes: los diagnósticos psiquiátricos que con mayor frecuencia se asocian a los trastornos relacionados con el alcohol son: con uso de sustancias y sus relativos, trastorno antisocial de la personalidad, trastornos afectivos, de ansiedad y del sueño. Objetivo: estimar la prevalencia de síntomas depresivos y ansiosos en una población de pacientes hospitalizados con dependencia al alcohol en servicios para desintoxicación en Bogotá. Material y métodos: pacientes hospitalizados en centros...

  17. Ciclo de vida, ciclos de estudo, autoconceito e perceção de avaliação de desempenho: contributo para um modelo de avaliação do desempenho docente.

    OpenAIRE

    Jesus, Maria do Céu Silva Nunes de

    2013-01-01

    O estudo apresentado neste documento pretende perceber a relação entre a perceção dos docentes, quando posicionados em diferentes fases da carreira, ou a lecionar a dis-tintos ciclos de estudo, acerca do modelo de avaliação do seu desempenho e do auto-conceito profissional. Assim, este estudo visa estimar o impacto do modelo de avaliação de desempenho para o desenvolvimento de expetativas de realização pessoal e profis-sional nos docentes. Numa fase inicial, a investigação enquadra-se na t...

  18. Metodologia para estudo do volume e densidade absoluta da placenta humana de termo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Nero Ulisses

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar duas metodologias para o cálculo do volume placentário em gestações normais de termo: a do princípio de Arquimedes e a do volume do cilindro, para estimar a densidade absoluta da placenta. Definir a metodologia mais adequada para o cálculo do volume e densidade placentários, que se relacione com o peso e classificação do recém-nascido. MÉTODOS: foram estudadas 50 placentas provenientes de gestações de termo sem complicações e calculados o volume e a densidade absoluta placentários: a pelo princípio de Arquimedes e b na suposição de que a placenta seria uma secção de cilindro com duas alturas diferentes do bolo placentário: com a altura média e com a altura da média aritmética do centro e extremidades. As densidades absolutas placentárias foram calculadas pelo quociente entre o peso ao ar da placenta e os diferentes volumes. RESULTADOS: a maioria das gestantes eram multíparas, idade média de 25,4 anos, volume placentário médio entre 547,8 e 610 cmsuperscript three e densidade média entre 0,94 e 1,14 g/cmsuperscript three, dependendo da metodologia empregada. CONCLUSÕES: a metodologia mais adequada para estimar o volume placentário no termo foi a do princípio de Arquimedes, pela melhor correlação com o peso dos recém-nascidos, o índice placentário e a classificação do peso dos recém-nascidos em relação à idade gestacional.

  19. Biological activity assays of cell-free reassembled nuclei——Injecting cell-free reassembled nuclei into unfertilized eggs can induce the eggs to cleave and reconstitute asters,and the injected nuclei undergo cell cycle changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张传茂; 曲健; 梁金华; 翟中和

    1995-01-01

    Nucleus may reassemble spontaneously in cell-free mixture of HeLa metaphase chromosomes,Xenopus egg extracts and ATP-regenerating system,and the nucleus shows some biological activities.It isfound that,after being injected into unfertilized mature eggs,the cell-free reassembled nuclei can cause theeggs to cleave and reconstitute asters in their cytoplasm,and the injected nuclei undergo changes in response tocell cycle regulators stored in the eggs,and that reinjecting cytostatic factors(CSF)into the eggs can stabilizethe eggs in mitotic phase,cause the nuclei disassembly and chromatin condensation to chromosomes.

  20. A Study on Morphology and Cytology of Aster moupinensis (Asteraceae) from the Three Gorge Reservior Area%三峡库区川鄂紫菀(菊科)的形态学和细胞学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎维平

    2003-01-01

    对川鄂紫菀(Aster moupinensis (Franch.) Hand.-Mazz.)秭归居群进行了形态学和细胞学研究.形态学研究表明,川鄂紫菀存在居群间分化,但不足以划分变种.发现了一些被以前研究者忽视的重要性状,首次报道了川鄂紫菀的染色体数目和核型.其核型公式为2n=2x=18m.

  1. Educación para la vida: el gran reto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Torroella González Mora

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available La educación para la vida es el gran reto de la sociedad a comienzos del siglo XXI. Se presenta una nueva pedagogía, basada en varios postulados: aprender a vivir es el tema más importante de estudio; las potencialidades humanas son la principal riqueza de un país; el desarrollo de las potencialidades de la persona es la tarea principal a realizar, tanto a nivel individual como social. Se analizan una serie de preguntas básicas relacionadas con quién soy yo, cómo enfrentar los problemas, cómo transformarme a mí mismo y al mundo a mi alrededor, etc. es preciso tomar en consideración tanto las necesidades superiores (espirituales o metanecesidades como las necesidades de déficit. Lo primero que el ser humano hace en el mundo es estimar, apreciar los valores (valencias o la importancia de las cosas, o sea, valorar; en este sentido los valores son el fundamento de la cognición y el motor primordial de la conducta. Se presenta y analiza la jerarquía de valores, su papel en la educación y el lugar que tiene en la construcción de la vida humana.

  2. CALIBRACIÓN DE UN MODELO HIDRODINÁMICO 2D PARA LA BAHÍA DE CARTAGENA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS PALACIO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo descrito en este artículo presenta la implementación de un modelo hidrodinámico, bidimensional para la Bahía de Cartagena (Colombia y su calibración mediante series de tiempo de marea. El modelo hidrodinámico es un modulo del modelo RMA construido para modelar el transporte hidrodinámico en cuerpos de aguas naturales no estratificadas. Los resultados del modelo hidrodinámico fueron comparados con mediciones de mareas. La comparación mostró un buen acercamiento entre los datos, particularmente mejor en marea alta frente a la marea baja. Igualmente, se muestra un procedimiento para asegurar una adecuada resolución y calidad de la malla. Las condiciones de frontera se definen a partir de un modelo global de marea, dada la falta de información para estas. El modelo es aplicado para estimar la cantidad de agua que entra y sale de la bahía en marea viva y muerta.

  3. Propuesta de Métricas para Proyectos de Explotación de Información

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Basso

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Los Proyectos de Explotación de Información requieren de un proceso de planificación para estimar el esfuerzo, el tiempo y medir diferentes aspectos del producto para garantizar la calidad del mismo. Los procesos de desarrollo tradicionales y las métricas usuales de la Ingeniería de Software y la Ingeniería del Conocimiento no son adecuados para estos proyectos, ya que las etapas de desarrollo y los parámetros utilizados son de naturaleza y características diferentes. En ese contexto, se ha definido un Modelo de Proceso de Desarrollo para Proyectos Explotación de Información. No obstante, existe la necesidad de abordar métricas específicas aplicables a este proceso. En esta investigación se propone un conjunto de métricas aplicables al desarrollo de un proyecto de Explotación de Información para PyMEs, centrado en el Modelo de Proceso de Desarrollo mencionado.

  4. Should ascitis volume and anthropometric measurements be estimated in hospitalized alcoholic cirrotics? ¿Es conveniente estimar el volumen ascítico y las medidas antropométricas en pacientes hospitalizados cirróticos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Silva

    2012-12-01

    para la evaluación del pronóstico. En un coorte homogéneo de pacientes acompañados por dos años estas variables fueron escrutinadas, con el objetivo de determinar su releváncia para los resultados clínicos de largo plazo. Métodos: La población (N = 25, todos hombres con cirrosis alcohólica fue recrutada entre pacientes hospitalizados por ascitis no complicada. Los critérios de exclusión fueron ascitis tensa o refractária, peritonitis bacteriana espontánea, varices sangrantes y enfermedad crítica. Los métodos involucraron volumen ascítico estimado ultrasonograficamente, el índice seco de masa corporal/IMC seco, antropometria del brazo, recuentos hematológicos y pruebas de función hepática. Resultados: La población (edad 48,3 ± 11,3 años, IMC 21,1 ± 3,5 kg/m², albumina sérica 2,5 ± 0,8 g/dL encontrabase predominantemente en la categoria Child-Pugh C (77,8% , pero clinicamente estable. En el período de seguimiente de 22,6 ± 3,8 meses hubo 1,7 ± 1,0 hospitalizaciones adicionales por paciente, y mas de una cuarta parte sucumbió. El volumen ascítico de admisión fue de 7,1 ± 3,6 L y el IMC seco de 18,3 ± 3,5 kg/m². El indice de Child-Pugh fue relevante tanto para mortalidad como para rehospitalización. Asociaciones similares para mortalidad fueron demonstradas para volumen ascítico y para IMC seco, y la circunferencia del brazo abajo del 5º percentil fue un indicador muy significativo para rehospitalización. Conclusiones: Una asociación mas importante que lo hasta ahora publicado ocurrió entre volumen ascítico y antropometria de una parte, y mortalidad asimismo rehospitalización de otra parte, en pacientes masculinos cirróticos alcohólicos estables. Estúdios adicionales con cirrosis alcohólica y de otras modalidades incluyendo mujeres son recomendados.

  5. Parâmetros genéticos para desempenho em corridas de cavalos puro sangue inglês utilizando procedimentos Bayesiano e Thurstoniano

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    O objetivo desse trabalho foi estimar parâmetros genéticos para o caráter tempo e colocação final em corridas de cavalos Puro Sangue Inglês (PSI) com procedimentos Bayesiano e Thurstoniano, a fim de fornecer subsídios para a seleção de reprodutores e consequente melhoramento genético da raça no Brasil. A partir de dados fornecidos pela empresa Turf Total Ltda foram consideradas 251.754 informações de tempo e 272.277 informações de colocações finais em 34.316 corridas de cavalos PSI ocorridas ...

  6. Desenvolvimento de um Monitor Portátil para detecção de Radiação Gama e Raios-X

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Neto, Paulo Jacinto da

    2011-01-01

    Existem vários recursos para evitar que os indivíduos recebam doses equivalentes de radiação, excessivas ou desnecessárias e a proteção radiológica avalia se esses recursos são realmente eficientes, através da monitoração de área. A monitoração de área é utilizada para dar uma indicação dos níveis de radiação existentes em determinados locais. Utilizando-se deste método, pode-se estimar a dose recebida pelo pessoal que ocupa uma área específica, por um determinado tempo. O obje...

  7. Diseño y construcción de un prototipo digital para diagnósticar fallas en motores de inducción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERNANDO VILLADA DUQUE

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta el desarrollo de un prototipo digital utilizando un procesador de señales digitales DSP, al cual se le han incorporado dos algoritmos para diagnosticar fallas en el estator de motores de inducción. El primer algoritmo utiliza las redes neuronales artificiales para estimar la corriente de secuencia negativa, la cual es utilizada como indicador de falla. El segundo algoritmo utiliza la impedancia de secuencia inversa como indicador de falla. Se presenta la estructura general del prototipo y su implementación. Se incluyen los resultados obtenidos experimentalmente en un motor de 3 HP utilizando medida en línea a través del prototipo digital

  8. Método de captura e recaptura: nova metodologia para pesquisas epidemiológicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunn John

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available O método de captura e recaptura, embora não seja novo, tem sido pouco usado em estudos epidemiológicos. Trata-se de método bem adaptável e adequado para estudar populações incomuns ou esquivas, como usuários de drogas endovenosas. Tem sido usado para estudar populações diversas como prostitutas que trabalham na rua ou volume de células vermelhas no homem. Permite ainda estimar a incidência e a prevalência de doenças de forma mais precisa do que os métodos tradicionais e com uma melhor relação custo-benefício. Devido à sua relevância dentro do campo da epidemiologia, decidiu-se realizar uma revisão sobre esse método, enfocando a história, as principais aplicações e apontando as suposições teóricas que o fundamentam. Seu potencial para futuras pesquisas epidemiológicas é promissor.

  9. Método de captura e recaptura: nova metodologia para pesquisas epidemiológicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Dunn

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available O método de captura e recaptura, embora não seja novo, tem sido pouco usado em estudos epidemiológicos. Trata-se de método bem adaptável e adequado para estudar populações incomuns ou esquivas, como usuários de drogas endovenosas. Tem sido usado para estudar populações diversas como prostitutas que trabalham na rua ou volume de células vermelhas no homem. Permite ainda estimar a incidência e a prevalência de doenças de forma mais precisa do que os métodos tradicionais e com uma melhor relação custo-benefício. Devido à sua relevância dentro do campo da epidemiologia, decidiu-se realizar uma revisão sobre esse método, enfocando a história, as principais aplicações e apontando as suposições teóricas que o fundamentam. Seu potencial para futuras pesquisas epidemiológicas é promissor.

  10. A New Disease of Cherry Plum Tree with Yellow Leaf Symptoms Associated with a Novel Phytoplasma in the Aster Yellows Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zheng-nan; ZHANG Lei; TAO Ye; CHI Ming; XIANG Yu; WU Yun-feng

    2014-01-01

    A novel phytoplasma was detected in a cherry plum (Prunus cerasifera Ehrh) tree that mainly showed yellow leaf symptom. The tree was growing in an orchard located in Yangling District, Shaanxi Province, China. The leaves started as chlorotic and yellowing along leaf minor veins and leaf tips. Chlorosis rapidly developed to inter-veinal areas with the whole leaf becoming pale yellow in about 1-4 wk. Large numbers of phytoplasma-like bodies (PLBs) were seen under transmission electron microscopy. The majority of the PLBs was spherical or elliptical vesicles, with diameters in range of 0.1-0.6 µm, and distributed in the phloem cells of the infected tissues. A 1 246-bp 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene fragment was ampliifed from DNA samples extracted from the yellow leaf tissues using two phytoplasma universal primer pairs R16mF2/R16mR1 and R16F2n/R16R2. Phylogenetic analysis using the 16S rRNA gene sequence suggested that the phytoplasma associated with the yellow leaf symptoms belongs to a novel subclade in the aster yellows (AY) group (16SrI group). Virtual and actual restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the 16S rRNA gene fragment revealed that the phytoplasma was distinguishable from all existing 19 subgroups in the AY group (16SrI) by four restriction sites, Hinf I, Mse I, Sau3A I and Taq I. The similarity coefifcients of comparing the RFLP pattern of the 16S rRNA gene fragment of this phytoplasma to each of the 19 reported subgroups ranged from 0.73 to 0.87, which indicates the phytoplasma associated with the cherry plum yellow leaf (CPYL) symptoms is probably a distinct and novel subgroup lineage in the AY group (16SrI). In addition, the novel phytoplasma was experimentally transmitted to periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) plants from the tree with CPYL symptoms and then back to a healthy 1-yr-old cherry plum tree via dodder (Cuscuta odorata) connections.

  11. Louisiana Air Quality - Using ASTER, Landsat 5, and MODIS to Assess the Impact of Sugar Cane and Marsh Burning Practices on Local Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Robert; Reahard, Ross; Robin, Chad; Zeringue, Jared

    2010-01-01

    Biomass burning is an event that occurs globally and encompasses both human-initiated and naturally-occurring fires. It is estimated that 3 billion metric tons of biomass are burned every year worldwide (Curtis 2002). Societies have used these burning techniques for cooking and heating, clearing land for agricultural use, and removing excess biomass from grazing and croplands (Levine 1991). Our study focuses on the state of Louisiana and its commonly occurring methods of sugarcane and marsh biomass burning (LSU Ag.Center 2000; Nyman and Chabreck 1995). Over the centuries, the sugarcane industry in this state has steadily grown to surpass all other agriculture commodities. To promote efficiency within this large industry, burning excess biomass takes place throughout the harvesting period (LSU Ag.Center 2000). In addition to sugarcane, Louisiana contains 30% of the total coastal marsh of the United States (LSU Ag.Center 2000). The periodic burning of such marshes is an ecologically important management tool that is practiced throughout the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts (Nyman and Chabreck 1995). In most biomass burning instances, the leading by-product is particulate matter that is less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10). Through past research, this fine material has been shown to have negative health effects on surrounding populations (Boopathy2001). While burning guidelines have been set into place by the Louisiana Department of Agriculture and Forestry (LDAF) to reduce health effects, the guidelines are voluntary (LDAF 2000). To help quantify emission estimates, we will focus on Iberia Parish for sugarcane burning and Cameron Parish for marsh burning. Through analysis of ASTER, Landsat 5 TM, and MODIS data, our goal is to determine the amount and location of land area burned for the years 2008 and 2009 due to these practices. With emissions algorithms from Seiler and Crutzen, 1980, total acreage burned can be used to estimate emissions. This information will help to

  12. Herramienta para hacer cuestionarios para Moodle

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Garcia, jesus

    2010-01-01

    Herramienta de creación de cuestionarios remotos de cuestiones SQL para Moodle. Permite también, el Aprendizaje colaborativo, para que los estudiantes puedan hacer cuestionarios de forma conjunta y desarrollar habilidades de trabajo en equipo. / Tool for Moodle to create remote quiz with SQL question. It also allows collaborative learning, so students can do together remote quiz and develop teamwork and social skills.

  13. Estimativa dos componentes de variância e herdabilidade para formato de fruto em porongo: Lagenaria siceraria (Mol. Standl Variance components and heritability estimation for fruit shape in bottlegourd: Lagenaria siceraria (Mol. Standl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilson António Bisognin

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento das estimativas dos componentes de variância e da herdabilidade de importantes características agronómicas, como é o caso do formato de fruto em porongo, é fundamental para definir as estratégias de seleção e estimar o ganho genético. Progênies de meio-irmãos de porongo foram avaliadas com os objetivos de: (i estimar os componentes de variância e de covariância; (ii estimar a herdabilidade do caráter formato de fruto e; (iii delinear algumas inferências em relação ao ganho genético obtido com seleçâo de frutos individuais em porongo. Componentes de variância genética significativos foram obtidos para diâmetro maior e do pescoço da cuia e, ambiental, para formato de fruto. A estimativa de herdabilidade para o caráter formato de fruto, para seleçâo em nível de frutos individuais, foi intermediária (0,36, e moderadamente alta para médias de famílias (0,53. Seleçâo massal entre médias ou dentro de famílias de meio-irmãos é o método de melhoramento mais apropriado para seleçâo do caráter formato de fruto em porongo.Variance components and heritability estimation of agronomic traits, such as fruit shape in bottlegourd are very importam to define selection strategies and to estimate selection gain. Nine progénies of half-sib families were evaluated aiming to estimate variance and covariance components, the heritability of fruit shape and to understand the origin of the genetic gain with mass selection in bottlegourd fruits. Significative estimates were found for genetic variance of large diameter and neck diameter o f the "cuia" (commercial part of the bottlegourd and for environmental variance of fruit shape. Heritability estimate for fruit shape selection based on fruit was moderately (0.36 and moderately high for family mean (0.53. Mass selection based upon mean population performance or within populations is the breeding method more appropriate for improvement of fruit shape in bottlegourd.

  14. Tamaño óptimo de muestra para evaluar el patrón de crecimiento de frutos de naranjo 'Valencia late'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Mercedes Avanza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Los modelos de crecimiento de frutos describen la evolución de su tamaño a lo largo del período de desarrollo. Con fines de pronóstico, estos modelos permiten estimar en forma anticipada el tamaño que alcanzarán los frutos al momento de la cosecha. Para lograr estimaciones insesgadas del tamaño de frutos a cosecha es necesario un diseño adecuado de muestreo en la etapa de recolección de datos. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar el tamaño óptimo de muestra, compuesta por árboles (n y frutos (m, para establecer modelos de crecimiento de frutos de naranjo 'Valencia late', que permitan estimar la distribución de tamaño a la cosecha. Se trabajó con el diámetro ecuatorial de frutos previo a la cosecha, proveniente de dos huertos comerciales ubicados en la provincia de Corrientes, Argentina, durante tres temporadas. Mediante modelos mixtos se estimaron las componentes de varianzas entre árboles y frutos, y posteriormente a partir de dos tipos de metodologías se determinó el tamaño de muestra óptimo. La variabilidad entre frutos fue superior a la variabilidad entre árboles. Para la determinación del patrón de crecimiento de frutos de naranjo 'Valencia late' mediante un muestreo bietápico, se sugiere seleccionar 7 árboles y 30 frutos de cada árbol, para lograr estimaciones del diámetro ecuatorial de frutos con una precisión entre el 2 y 3%.

  15. Quantitative comparison of Landsat 7 and ASTER multispectral measurements for the NDBI and IBI%Landsat-7 ETM+与ASTER建筑指数的定量比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐涵秋; 张铁军; 黄绍霖

    2013-01-01

    Accompanying with accelerated urbanization processes,urban built-up lands have expanded dramatically and caused negative impacts on environments and natural resources of the world.Thus,there is an increasing need to monitor the dynamics of the urban built-up lands.Of the medium-scale earth observation systems,Landsat and ASTER systems are most suitable for this monitoring task.Nevertheless,the relationship between the built-up indices of the two sensors has not yet been revealed so far.To quantitatively investigate this relationship,this study crossly compares the NDBI and IBI built-up indices of Landsat-7 ETM+ and ASTER sensors based on three tandem image pairs.Regression analysis was used to examine the quantitative relationship through the scatter plots of the built-up index values of the two sensors.This yielded the models for the conversion between two sensors' built-up indices.Results indicate that there are differences in the compared built-up indices between two sensors in spite of a high degree of correlation between them.The values of the built-up indices of ASTER are greater than those of ETM+ by 48.6% in NDBI or 37.5% in IBI.Accordingly,the built-up index information derived from ASTER data cannot be compared directly with those derived from ETM+ data in the applications.A conversion between them using the conversion models obtained in this study is recommended.Detailed spectral analysis reveals that the differences in band wavelengths and spectral response functions of the near infrared and shortwave infrared bands between the ETM + and ASTER sensors contribute to the built-up index difference between the two sensors.This is because the NDBI and IBI are composed merely or mostly by these two bands.%城市化进程导致的城市建筑用地急剧扩张已对全球的环境资源产生了负面影响,因此亟需对其进行监测.在中尺度卫星对地观测系统中,Landsat和ASTER数据最适合于监测城市建筑用地变化.但是迄今为

  16. Effects of Removing Flower Buds on Aster tataricus Medicinal Plants Roots Biomass and Yield%去除花蕾对紫菀药用器官根系生物量及产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁玥怡; 何淑婷; 朱志红

    2013-01-01

    [目的]研究去除花蕾对紫菀药用器官根系生物量及产量的影响.[方法]以药用植物紫菀为研究对象,以单因素随机区组设计试验,4组花蕾的去除数量分别为0、10、20和30个/株,比较其药用器官根系生长量的变化.[结果]随着去除花蕾数的增多,单株根系生物量和单位面积根系产量均明显增大.在试验的种植密度下,4种花蕾去除水平单位面积的根系产量分别为10 075.5、10 439.8、10 967.4和11 997.6 kg/km2.在去除数量达到30个/株(约为单株花蕾数的75%)时,单位面积根系产量有大幅增长,但去除20个/株和30个/株处理之间在根系产量上无显著差异(P>0.05).这说明紫菀的生殖生长对根系生长有很强的抑制性影响.在大田种植紫菀时,与不摘除花蕾相比,采用人工摘除50% ~ 75%的花蕾,可使根系产量提高9.0% ~ 18.6%.[结论]试验揭示了紫菀生殖器官耗损对其药用器官生长的影响,为田间种植紫菀获得较高的药用器官产量提供指导.%[ Objective] To study effects of removing flower buds on Aster talaricus medicinal plants roots biomass and yield. [ Method] With medicinal plant Aster talaricus as study object,by means of single factor randomized block design ,4 buds number removal levels were 0,10,20 and 30 per plant,the increment variation of its medicinal organ roots were compared. [ Result] The results shown that with the increase of the number of removed buds,single root biomass and root yield per unit area increased significantly. In the planting density condition of this experiment, the root yield per unit area of 4 kinds of bud removal level were 10 075.5,10 439.8,10 967.4 and 11 997.6 kg/km2, respectively. Root yield was growing substantially when the removal level reached 30 per plant(approximately 75% flower buds of per plant) ,and had significant differences (P 0.05) from the removing level of 20 buds per plant. This indicated that aster reproductive

  17. Exigência de lisina e estimativa dos aminoácidos essenciais para tambaqui, colossoma macropomum (cuvier, 1818)

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Edimar Lopes da

    2014-01-01

    A lisina é um dos aminoácidos mais limitantes na dieta, e, devido sua importância na deposição de proteína corporal em peixes, é de grande interesse para a aquicultura, principalmente de espécies como o tambaqui. Com objetivo em determinar a exigência desse aminoácido, pelo método dose-resposta e estimar a exigência dos aminoácidos essenciais, com base no conceito de proteína ideal, juvenis de tambaqui (7,7±0,06 g) foram distribuídos em tanques de 500 L, em delineamento inteira...

  18. Environmental evolution of the Rio Grande drainage basin and Nasca region (Peru) in 2003-2007 using ENVISAT ASAR and ASTER time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigna, Francesca; Tapete, Deodato; Lasaponara, Rosa; Masini, Nicola

    2013-04-01

    Recent palaeo-environmental studies and remote sensing investigations demonstrated that the Rio Grande drainage basin in Southern Peru is a still evolving landscape, and impacts due to its changes have implications for the preservation of both the natural and cultural features of the Nasca region, well-known for the evidences of the ancient Paracas and Nasca Civilizations, who flourished from the 4th century BC to the 6th century AD. To image the modifications occurred in the last decade, we exploited the entire 4year-long stack of ENVISAT ASAR C-band archive imagery available over the region, which was provided by the European Space Agency (ESA) via the Cat-1 project 11073. The latter supports the activities of the Italian mission of heritage Conservation and Archaeogeophysics (ITACA), which directly involve researchers from the Institute for Archaeological and Monumental Heritage (IBAM) and the Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis (IMAA), National Research Council (CNR) of Italy. With the aim of reconstructing the temporal evolution of the Rio Grande drainage basin and its effects and implications for the heritage of the region, we processed 8 ASAR Image Mode IS2 scenes acquired in descending mode between 04/02/2003 and 15/11/2005 and 5 images in ascending mode between 24/07/2005 and 11/11/2007, and focused on SAR backscattering information, amplitude change detection methods and extraction of ASAR-derived time series of the backscattering coefficient over target areas of interest. The ASAR 2003-2007 analysis was coupled and integrated with NDVI-based soil moisture and vegetation change assessment performed by using ASTER multi-spectral data acquired during the same time frame of the ASAR stacks, on 30/05/2003, 01/06/2004 and 10/06/2007. The research was performed both at the regional scale over the entire Rio Grande drainage basin, with particular focus on its tributaries Rio Ingenio, Rio Nazca and Rio Taruga, and at the local scale over the

  19. Enfoque metodológico para un modelo de pronósticos de alta frecuencia para la economía mexicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence R. Klein

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se presenta un método para estimar el producto interno bruto (PIB trimestral real y sus principales componentes, en anticipación a su publicación oficial. La técnica combina información de alta frecuencia, ecuaciones de series de tiempo y análisis de regresión. La metodología propuesta se basa en la estimación del PIB trimestral a través de tres enfoques independientes: producción, gasto, y componentes principales. Es decir, utiliza un enfoque similar al de las cuentas nacionales para la determinación de la producción de bienes y servicios de demanda final en una economía abierta. El modelo resultante constituye un sistema de relaciones puramente econométrico y que funciona sin la intervención subjetiva del economista en la determinación de supuestos arbitrarios o condiciones iniciales. Esta metodología permite anticipar el PIB del trimestre corriente utilizando información mensual de indicadores económicos.

  20. PARA DISTANCIAS MODELOS PARA PREDECIR LAS DISTANCIAS DE DISPERSIÓN DE SEMILLAS POR MICOS CHURUCOS (Lagothrix lagothricha: APORTES CAUTIVERIO APORTES DE ESTUDIOS EN CAMPO Y EN CAUTIVERIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo R. Stevenson

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Es difícil medir las sombras de semillas generadas por animales, especialmente si éstos se mueven mucho, pero el conocimiento de la distribución de las semillas dispersadas es esencial para entender los procesos demográficos de las plantas. Por esta razón, varios autores han usado métodos indirectos para cuantificar estas distribuciones, basados en parámetros como las tasas de retención y aproximaciones a los patrones de movimiento. En algunos casos los datos de tiempo de retención se han obtenido de animales en cautiverio. En este artículo combinamos información de churucos en cautiverio y en el campo (CIEM, Parque Tinigua, Meta, para generar modelos que predicen las distancias de dispersión, y para determinar la influencia del tipo de dieta y el tamaño de semilla en los tiempos de retención. Añadimos marcadores plásticos y semillas grandes a la comida de cuatro individuos en el zoológico del parque “Jaime Duque”, cerca de Bogotá, que luego fueron recuperadas para estimar los tiempos de retención. Encontramos mayores tiempos de retención para “semillas” pequeñas que para semillas grandes, y en general menores tiempos para una dieta basada en frutos en contraste con una dieta más fibrosa. Los tiempos de retención fueron cerca del doble en cautiverio que en el campo. Los modelos que más se acercaron a la distribución empírica de distancias de dispersión fueron los basados en los patrones de movimiento en el campo. El tiempo de retención resultó ser un parámetro de menor importancia para predecir distancias de dispersión.

  1. Modelo dinámico para la estimación temprana de esfuerzo en proyectos de desarrollo de software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lucía Pérez

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Existen modelos para estimación del esfuerzo requerido en proyectos software que presentan limitaciones cuando se utilizan en etapas tempranas del ciclo de vida de desarrollo. En este artículo se presenta una revisión de los modelos existentes y se describe un nuevo modelo capaz de estimar esfuerzo en las primeras etapas del desarrollo, cuyas entradas dependen de históricos de proyectos realizados y de la experiencia de proyectos similares. El modelo expuesto en este artículo fue resultado de un proyecto de investigación aplicada realizado entre la Universidad de Antioquia y Orbitel S. A., con el objetivo de estimar el esfuerzo requerido por los analistas de la Gerencia de Informática para la creación y operación de soluciones. Considerando los históricos disponibles en Orbitel, nuestro modelo entrega estimaciones precisas desde el punto de vista estadístico. Adicionalmente, el modelo propuesto puede ser simulado con una herramienta orientada a la Web.There are models for estimation of the effort required in software projects that present limitations when they are used in early stages of the service life of development. In this article a revision of the existing models is presented and a new model able of estimating effort in the first stages of the development is described, whose entrances depend on both historical of projects made and on the experience of similar projects. The model exposed in this article was the result of an applied research project done between Universidad de Antioquia and Orbitel S.A., with the objective of considering the effort required by the analysts of the Management of Computer science for the creation and operation of solutions. Considering the historical available in Orbitel, our model gives precise estimations from the statistical point of view. Additionally, the proposed model can be simulated with a tool oriented to the Web.

  2. Programas de aplicación de agrometeorología para docencia e investigación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bombelli, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Para el estudio de las Ciencias Meteorológicas y Climáticas aplicadas al agro, es necesario estimar procesos matemáticos y físicos para interpretar la interacción de los procesos atmosféricos y biológicos, los cuales se pueden automatizar haciendo énfasis en el análisis de los mismos. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo mostrar las características de un software de aplicación utilizado para en la enseñanza de la Climatología Agrícola, que estima parámetros tales como: Radiación Astronómica y Global, diferentes metodologías de cálculo de la Evapotranspiración Potencial y el Balance Hidrológico Climático entre otros. El software Programas de aplicación de Agroclimatología, realizado en la Facultad de Agronomía de la Universidad de Buenos Aires, brinda al alumno un rápido manejo de resultados, con la posibilidad de realizar interpretaciones de distintas variables para diferentes localidades, de manera de poder visualizar y analizar los resultados que surgen de las distintas corridas.

  3. Funciones de costos translogarítmicas. Una aplicación para el sector manufacturero mexicano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Salgado Banda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se utiliza funciones de costos translogarítmicas para estimar elasticidades precio y de sustitución de las demandas por insumos, economías de escala y costos medios en las manufacturas mexicanas. Se analiza datos de la Encuesta Industrial Anual para 1996, 2000 y 2003. Se muestra que un modelo que no permite homoteticidad ni elasticidades unitarias en la función de costos parece ser el más adecuado para representar la estructura de producción. Elasticidades de Allen-Uzawa indican la existencia de posibilidades de sustitución entre los insumos. La demanda por electricidad es de elasticidad unitaria. Todas las elasticidades cruzadas son menores a 1. Tanto las economías de escala como los costos medios disminuyen conforme el tamaño de las clases de actividad aumenta. Las economías de escala aumentan para cualquier nivel de producción. Las diferencias en costos medios entre pequeñas y grandes clases de actividad se han reducido mientras que algunas disparidades se mantienen en ciertos grupos manufactureros.

  4. Calibração regional e local da equação de Hargreaves para estimativa da evapotranspiração de referência Regional and local calibration of Hargreaves equation for estimating reference evapotranspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Simões Fernandes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A equação de Penman-Monteith FAO-56 (EToPM tem sido recomendada pela FAO, Organização para a Alimentação e Agricultura das Nações Unidas (ONU, como padrão para estimar a evapotranspiração de referência (ETo. Essa equação requer muitas variáveis que não estão disponíveis na maioria das estações meteorológicas no Brasil central. Por outro lado, a equação de Hargreaves é considerada simples e demanda somente dados de temperatura máxima e mínima para estimar a ETo. Entretanto, essa equação requer um ajuste local. Esse estudo analisa a possibilidade de utilizar a equação de Hargreaves ajustada para estimar a ETo no estado de Goiás. Para isso, os parâmetros empíricos, HC (coeficiente empírico de Hargreaves e HE (expoente empírico de Hargreaves, da equação de Hargreaves foram ajustados considerando dois processos, ajuste local (HGR - Hargreaves ajuste local e ajuste regional (HGL - Hargreaves ajuste regional. Para o HGL, os parâmetros empíricos foram ajustados para cada estação meteorológica. Já, para o HGR, os parâmetros empíricos foram ajustados considerando conjuntamente os dados de todas as estações meteorológicas. A equação de Hargreaves ajustada para ambos os processos, local e regional, apresentou valores de ERQM de 17,95 e 21,93%, respectivamente, considerando o conjunto total de dados climáticos. A equação de Hargreaves ajustada localmente ou regionalmente é uma opção para estimar os valores diários de ETo no Estado de Goiás em locais em que a disponibilidade de dados climáticos é limitada.The FAO-56 Penman-Monteith equation (EToPM has been recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO of the United Nations as the standard equation for estimating reference evapotranspiration (ETo. The FAO-56 PM equation requires numerous weather data that are not available in most of the stations of Brazil central. On the other hand, the Hargreaves equation is a more simple equation for

  5. An easy way to estimate energy expenditure from hemodynamic data in septic patients Um modo simples de estimar o consumo de energia a partir de dados hemodinâmicos em pacientes sépticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anibal Basile-Filho

    2008-01-01

    foram, respectivamente, 1699±271, 1815±355 e 1361±277 kcal.day-1 Não se observaram diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre os dois métodos com as duas médias mostrando uma diferenças de 8.7%. Os valores de COR Também foram próximo dos valores de CI x BRANDI (r=0.80, mas a correlação com CI x LIGGETT apenas 0.58. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados sugerem que o COR pode ser facilmente calculado para obter-se o VO2 com o cateter de Swan-Ganz e pelo uso da equação de Brandi para pacientes sépticos em ventilação mecânica.

  6. Land Surface Component Temperature Retrieval for Urban Scale Based on ASTER Image%城市尺度组分温度的ASTER数据遥感反演

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑文武; 曾永年

    2012-01-01

    Land surface component temperature has mote significant physical meaning, and it reflects the actual distribution of temperature more significantly. Meanwhile, its retrieval algorithms have no need for hypothesis that components in pixels have the same temperature. Although the multi-angle retrieval algorithm of component temperature has become mature gradually, its application in the studies on urban thermal environment is restricted due to the difficulty in acquiring urban-scale multi-angle thermal infrared data. Therefore, based on the existing multi-band remote sensing data, access to appropriate urban-scale component temperature is an urgent issue to be solved in current studies on urban thermal infrared remote sensing. In this paper, a new algorithm to retrieve land surface component temperature for urban area had been proposed. It took advantage of ASTER data, and evaluated mean emissivity of pixels based on linear spectral unmixing, retrieved atmospheric water vapor content from MODIS NIR bands, and used Newton 's iterative method to obtain atmosphere average temperature. Finally, an experimental study of this algorithm had been conducted and the retrieval result had been validated using some measured data. The results showed that; (1) the results of component temperature retrieval algorithm and split window algorithm of pure pixels have high correlation coefficient and the correlation coefficient of vegetation is the highest; (2) compared with the measured data, biases of the retrieval result ranged between 0. 2 and 1. 4℃, and the vegetation component temperature among different components had the smallest bias value.%为了获取城市尺度组分温度,实现城市水热平衡的高精度反演,探索了一种多波段热红外遥感影像的城市尺度组分温度反演算法.算法选取了植被、土壤和不透水表面等3种组分,并且针对ASTER数据,利用线性混合像元分解方法获取像元平均比辐射率,以MODIS近红外数据

  7. Normas para vivienda

    OpenAIRE

    Coupé, Françoise

    1990-01-01

    El Seminario Taller Normas para Vivienda, analiza los efectos de las normas vigentes en el país, sobre el desarrollo urbano, la vivienda y la calidad de vida, para participar en la discusión del Estatuto Metropolitano de Usos del Suelo, Urbanismo y Construcción. Se presenta en este Boletín algunos resultados del trabajo realizado.

  8. Amostragem seqüencial com base na lei de Taylor para levantamento de Spodoptera frugiperda na cultura do milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farias Paulo Roberto Silva

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A lagarta do cartucho do milho é uma das principais pragas do milho nas Américas, podendo ocorrer durante todos os estágios de crescimento da cultura, causando perdas de 15 a 37% na produção. Neste trabalho estudou-se a distribuição espacial dessa praga no campo, com a finalidade de desenvolver um sistema de amostragem para estimar sua densidade populacional. Na área cultivada com milho foram selecionados 3 campos experimentais de 40 m x 250 m cada, divididos em 100 parcelas cada. Foram contados o número de lagartas pequenas e grandes de S. frugiperda nas folhas e no cartucho das plantas, em 10 plantas ao acaso por parcela, num total de 1000 plantas por campo, em 5, 5 e 4 datas de amostragem, respectivamente. Lagartas menores que 1 cm eram consideradas pequenas e lagartas maiores que 1 cm, grandes. Foram estimados os parâmetros da lei de Taylor, sendo as estimativas dos parâmetros das regressões altamente significativas para todas as categorias larvais. O parâmetro b da lei de Taylor para lagarta pequena foi igual a 1,57, indicando que a forma de distribuição dessa categoria larval é agregada. Para lagartas grandes o parâmetro b foi igual a 0,79, o que conduz a um tipo de distribuição tendendo para aleatoriedade. Para o número total de lagartas os resultados são equivalentes aos obtidos para lagartas pequenas. Foi desenvolvido um plano de amostragem seqüencial com base nos parâmetros da lei de Taylor.

  9. ELEMENTOS PARA OBTENER EL MÓDULO DE REACCIÓN DE SUBRASANTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVÁN FERNANDO OTÁLVARO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad el análisis tensión deformación del conjunto estructura-geomaterial se suele abordar apartir de modelos discretos, en algunas ocasiones mediante métodos numéricos tales como los elementos finitos. Sin embargo, sigue siendo bastante común representar los geomateriales a partir de la hipótesis de Winkler, ya que ofrece una mayor simplicidad para efectos de cálculo y es posible modelar simultáneamente el suelo y la estructura de cimentación. En este documento se describen los métodos más comunes empleados para determinar o estimar el coeficiente de reacción de la subrasante, o coeficiente de balasto, conocido también como kS de Winkler. Adicionalmente se muestra el efecto en el kS de algunos factores composicionales y ambientales que afectan el comportamiento del suelo, incluyendo algunos ejemplos en suelos residuales tropicales.

  10. ETM+和ASTER数据在遥感信息提取中的对比研究%Comparison Between ETM+ and ASTER Data for Extraction of Alteration Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林腾; 高光明; 刘容秀; 肖娟

    2011-01-01

    Remote sensing extraction of alteration information technology is an important means of prospecting. This article selected CERCANA located in AREQUIPA province of southern Peru and Moarcona ore zone located in ICA Province of southern Peru as two study areas of this paper. And starting from the spectrum analysis of surface features,using ETM + and ASTER satellite image data to extract clay alteration information of CERCANA by principal component analysis method ,and extract iron staining alteration information of Marcona by band ratio method , besides making comparative analysis of the results of the two extractions. The final results show that ASTER data in the alteration information extraction has a greater advantage compared with ETM + data.%遥感蚀变信息提取是找矿的一个重要技术手段.本文选择位于秘鲁南部阿雷基帕(AREQUIPA)省境内的萨卡纳(CERCANA)和伊卡(ICA)省境内的Moarcona铁矿区作为本文的两个研究区,从分析地物光谱出发,利用ETM+和ASTER卫星影像数据,通过主成份分析法和比值分析法分别对两个研究区进行泥化蚀变信息提取和铁染蚀变信息提取,并对两者的提取结果进行对比分析.最后结果表明,相较于ETM+数据,ASTER数据在矿化蚀变信息的提取方面具有更大的优势.

  11. 不同软件在ASTER数据中提取DEM的精度对比%Comparative Analysis of the DEM Extracting Accuracy form ASTER Data by Different Software

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何兆培; 杨斌

    2013-01-01

    利用3个不同的软件对四川省龙门山中段ASTER 15m分辨率的立体像对进行了DEM提取,并对其精度进行了初步评价.分别使用立体测量法和干涉测量法提取DEM,并通过检验点法和剖面线法对比分析.结果表明,利用ERDAS的干涉测量法提取出的DEM效果较好,高程精度可达30m,对后续数据深挖掘和高层次地形分析具有应用价值.%This paper used three different software to extract the DEM form the stereo images which the ASTER 15 m resolution of the middle Longmen Mountain in Sichuan province, and evaluated its accuracy preliminarily. DEM's accuracy depends on accuracy, distribution and quantity of the control point of ground.lt is also influenced by the control precision of software in the production process. In this thesis, three-dimensional measurements and interferometer measurements were taken to extract the DEM respectively, and a comparative analysis was made by test point method and the section line method. The results show that using the interferometer method of ERDAS to extract the DEM is better, with the height accuracy up to 30 m. It will provide the practice value for getting more detail data in future and analysis of the high-level terrain.

  12. Fatores ambientais associados ao tempo de decisão para procura de atendimento no infarto do miocárdio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Carneiro Mussi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estimar o tempo de decisão para procura de atendimento (TD para homens e mulheres com infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM; analisar a influência de variáveis ambientais no TD e a interação entre gênero e variáveis ambientais para o desfecho TD. Estudo transversal, envolvendo cem pacientes, entrevistados em hospitais de Salvador. Na análise dos dados empregou-se o Qui-quadrado ou Exato de Fisher e o Modelo de Regressão Linear Robusto. Predominou o IAM ocorrido no domicílio, familiares no entorno, e os pacientes sendo alvo de ações equivocadas. Observou-se TD elevado para mulheres (0,9h e homens (1,4h. Aqueles em casa no início dos sintomas tiveram maior TD, comparados aos no trabalho e menor em relação aos em via pública (p=0,047. Houve interação estatisticamente significante entre gênero e viver acompanhado; e entre gênero e ter companheiro e filhos no entorno, para o desfecho TD. O cuidar em enfermagem focalizado nas especificidades de fatores ambientais e de gênero pode otimizar o atendimento precoce.

  13. Cálculo del flujo ambiental como sustento para la reserva de agua al ambiente del río Piaxtla, Sinaloa, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe de la Lanza Espino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El cálculo del caudal fluvial necesario para mantener los servicios ambientales de los diferentes tipos de cuenca en los ríos de México, ha sido un elemento a cum - plir en la Norma Mexicana, lo que permite una adecuada administración del recurso hídrico. Para dicho cálculo se han propuesto diferentes metodologías, una de las cuales por su sencillez es la hidrológica, requiriendo para ello una base de datos de escurrimientos que permitan determinar el volumen de agua necesario para las funciones de los ecosiste - mas. Con base en lo anterior, el objetivo de este estudio fue estimar dicho caudal en el río Piaxtla, Sinaloa. Para ello se compararon bases de datos de escurrimientos de 36 y nueve años que mostraron diferencias fundamentalmente entre la frecuencia de las máximas avenidas y sus orígenes, lo que recomienda contar con base de datos mayores a veinte años; sin embargo, en el cálculo final del caudal ambiental los resultados fueron semejantes, es decir, reservar del volumen total del escurrimiento el 62.1% considerando un lapso de 36 años de estudio y 57.7% tomando en cuenta nueve años de información.

  14. ESTIMACIÓN DEL EXPONENTE DE HURST Y DIMENSIÓN FRACTAL PARA EL ANÁLISIS DE SERIES DE TIEMPO DE ABSORBANCIA UV-VIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Plazas Nossa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es estimar el exponente o parámetro de Hurst y la dimensión fractal para el análisis de series de tiempo de espectrometría UV-Vis, utilizando el análisis de componentes principales PCA (Principal Component Analysis. El análisis se realiza para comprender si las series de tiempo de absorbancia UV-Vis son persistentes, anti-persistentes, determinísticas o si son ruido blanco. Se utilizaron tres diferentes series de tiempo de absorbancia UV-Vis para tres diferentes sitios de estudio: (i Planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales Salitre (PTAR en Bogotá; (ii Estación elevadora de Gibraltar en Bogotá (EEG; y (iii Planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales San Fernando (PTAR en Itagüí (sur de Medellín. Cada una de las series de tiempo tiene igual número de muestras (5705. Se redujo la dimensionalidad de los espectros de absorbancia, dada su alta correlación, con PCA y se utilizó para cada sitio de estudio la primera componente principal. Esta componente principal explicó entre el 82% al 94% de la variabilidad para los tres sitios de estudio. Se determinaron los exponentes de Hurst: (i 0.8 para PTAR Salitre; (ii 0.85 para EEG; y (iii 0.89 para PTAR San Fernando. A partir de los valores de los exponentes de Hurst se determinan las dimensiones fractales para las tres series de tiempo de absorbancia UV-Vis en los tres sitios de estudio y se obtiene en promedio una dimensión fractal de 1153. Las tres series de tiempo de absorbancia UV-Vis son persistentes y con alta auto-similitud, dado que el exponente de Hurst es mayor a 0.5.

  15. Algoritmo de um teste adaptativo informatizado com base na teoria da resposta ao item para a estimação da usabilidade de sites de e-commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando de Jesus Moreira Junior

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo propõe um algoritmo de um teste adaptativo informatizado baseado na teoria da resposta ao item, desenvolvido para estimar o grau de usabilidade de sites de e-commerce. Cinco algoritmos baseados no critério da máxima informação foram desenvolvidos e testados via simulação. O algoritmo com o melhor desempenho foi aplicado nos dados reais de 361 sites de e-commerce. Os resultados mostraram que o algoritmo desenvolvido consegue obter uma boa estimativa para o grau de usabilidade de sites de e-commerce com a aplicação de 13 itens.

  16. ESTIMACIÓN DE COEFICIENTES DE ORSHANSKY A PARTIR DE UN SISTEMA COMPLETO DE ECUACIONES DE DEMANDA: UNA NUEVAMETODOLOGÍA PARA LA ELABORACIÓN DE UMBRALES DE POBREZA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Enrique Muñoz Ayala

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Basado en la teoría microeconómica del consumidor, este artículo propone una metodología para la construcción de umbrales de pobreza. Su objetivo principal es mostrar la composición de una canasta de bienes no alimenticios y su relación con la canasta de alimentos. Los coeficientes de Orshansky son estimados usando una vía no tradicional. Con este propósito se emplea un sistema de ecuaciones de demanda para estimar las canastas de subsistencia. Después de algunas dificultades econométricas, se analizan los parámetros estructurales del sistema y se obtiene la canasta de subsistencia mínima. Los resultados se refieren a la población de Bogotá y sus localidades.

  17. Estimación de coeficientes de Orshansky a partir de un sistema completo de ecuaciones de demanda: una nueva metodología para la elaboración de umbrales de pobreza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Ayala Jorge Enrique

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Basado en la teoría microeconómica del consumidor, este artículo propone una metodología para la construcción de umbrales de pobreza. Su objetivo principal es mostrar la composición de una canasta de bienes no alimenticios y su relación con la canasta de alimentos. Los coeficientes de Orshansky son estimados usando una vía no tradicional. Con este propósito se emplea un sistema de ecuaciones de demanda para estimar las canastas de subsistencia. Después de algunas dificultades econométricas, se analizan los parámetros estructurales del sistema y se obtiene la canasta de subsistencia mínima. Los resultados se refieren a la población de Bogotá y sus localidades.

  18. Aviso para las viudas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Sales

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available San Pablo instruye todos los prelados en la persona de su Timoteo, diciendo: «Honra las viudas que son verdaderamente viudas». Para ser, pues, verdaderamente viuda, son necesarias estas cosas

  19. Mathematical modeling for digestible energy in animal feeds for tilapia=Modelagem matemática para energia digestivel de ingredientes de origem animal para tilápias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Michelato

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to formulate a mathematical model to estimate digestible energy in animal feeds for tilapia. Literature results were used of the proximate composition of crude protein, ether extract, mineral matter and gross energy, as well as digestible energy obtained in biological assays. The data were subjected to stepwise backward multiple linear regression. Path analysis was performed to measure the direct and indirect effects of each independent variable on the dependent one. To validate the model, data from independent studies and values obtained from a digestibility trial with juvenile Nile tilapia testing five meat and bone meals (MBM were used, using the Guelph feces collecting system and chromium oxide (III as an indicator. The obtained model is described below and cannot estimate digestible energy (DE of animal origin: . The path coefficients were medium or low, the highest direct effect was from gross energy (0.529, while the highest indirect effect was from crude protein, through gross energy (0.439. O objetivo deste estudo foi a formulação de equações para estimar a energia digestível em alimentos para a tilápia. Foram utilizados valores obtidos na literatura da composição centesimal em proteína bruta, extrato etéreo, matéria mineral e energia bruta (variáveis independentes, bem como a energia digestível (variável dependente obtidos em ensaios biológicos. Os dados foram submetidos à regressão linear múltipla “stepwise backward”. Foi realizada análise de trilha para medir os efeitos diretos e indiretos de cada variável independente sobre a dependente. Para validar o modelo foram utilizados dados de estudos independentes, e os valores obtidos em um ensaio de digestibilidade com juvenis de tilápia do Nilo, testando-se cinco farinhas de carne e ossos (FCO, utilizando o sistema de coleta de fezes de Guelph e óxido de cromo (III como indicador. A equação obtida não pode estimar os valores de

  20. AlphaCI: un programa de cálculo de intervalos de confianza para el coeficiente alfa de Cronbach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Ledesma

    Full Text Available El coeficiente alfa de Cronbach es el modo más habitual de estimar la fiabilidad de pruebas basadas en Teoría Clásica de los Test. En dicha estimación, los investigadores usualmente omiten informar intervalos de confianza para el coeficiente, un aspecto no solo recomendado por los especialistas, sino también requerido explícitamente en las normas editoriales de algunas revistas especializadas. Esta situación puede atribuirse a que los métodos de estimación de intervalos de confianza son poco conocidos, además de no estar disponibles al usuario en los programas estadísticos más populares. Así, en este trabajo se presenta un programa desarrollado dentro del sistema estadístico ViSta que permite calcular intervalos de confianza basados en el enfoque clásico y mediante la técnica bootstrap. Se espera promover la inclusión de intervalos de confianza para medidas de fiabilidad, facilitando el acceso a las herramientas necesarias para su aplicación. El programa es gratuito y puede obtenerse enviando un mail de solicitud al autor del trabajo.

  1. Avaliação de um sistema de cavaqueamento de ponteiras de eucalipto para aproveitamento energético

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Lorensi do Canto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar o desempenho e estimar os custos de um sistema de cavaqueamento de ponteiras de eucalipto, resultantes de colheita florestal, para aproveitamento energético em uma empresa de base florestal localizada no Estado do Pará, na Região Norte do Brasil. O sistema era composto por um picador florestal, dois tratores florestais transportadores autocarregáveis (com grua e uma carregadora frontal. A coleta de dados baseou-se em estudo de tempos e movimentos, determinação do consumo de combustível e pesagem dos cavacos produzidos. A produtividade média do sistema foi de 17,51 toneladas por hora efetiva. A eficiência operacional foi de 51,9%, devido a diversas demoras operacionais, principalmente para conserto e manutenção do picador. O transporte de cavacos foi considerado o ponto de estrangulamento do sistema, devido a ocorrências de falta de caminhão disponível no local para o carregamento. O sistema pode produzir entre 94 e 162 vezes mais energia do que consome. O custo do sistema por hora efetiva foi de R$376,56, o que representa R$21,51/t de cavacos ou R$2,70/GJ.

  2. Estrategias para negociaciones exitosas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José B. Parra V

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Las estrategias de negociación son herramientas para disminuir conflictos o para intercambiar bienes y servicios. Una negociación exitosa crea relaciones de solidaridad y propicia reciprocidad, cooperación y confianza para quienes tendrán relaciones permanentes de negociación con beneficios para ambas partes. Una estrategia de negociación exitosa requiere manejar el desarrollo del ambiente social del grupo de personas, con la finalidad de tener presente las fronteras que no pueden irrumpirse. Otro aspecto importante, es el lenguaje corporal utilizado por las personas y las tácticas que se practican. El manejo de esta información permite diseñar diferentes modelos de negociaciones para cada caso específico. Este documento propone la utilización de la herramienta MONACO, diseñada por los autores, que es un software útil para encontrar los mejores tácticas posibles dentro de una negociación; basándose en el lenguaje corporal que muestra el negociante oponente durante cada oferta monetaria. El uso de este software da al negociador la oportunidad de manejar las negociaciones con mayor control, el negociador que usa el software puede elegir una estrategia de acuerdo a las relaciones que espera mantener con el negociador oponente.

  3. PARÁMETROS GENÉTICOS PARA CRECIMIENTO COMERCIAL SOBREVIVENCIA Y MANCHADO EN TILAPIA ROJA (Oreochromis sp. EN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Pulgarin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue estimar los efectos genéticos para peso al momento de sexaje, crecimiento y sobrevivencia hasta cosecha, y proporción de mancha (área de mancha y presencia/ausencia de mancha durante la fase comercial en un grupo de 86 familias de hermanos enteros y 31 familias de hermanos medios de tilapia roja ( Oreochromis sp.. La media de peso durante la fase de crecimiento comercial fue de 181,4 g (184 g para machos y 178 g para hembras, los machos significativamente más grandes que las hembras (P < 0,001. Las variables de sobrevivencia, área de mancha y ausencia de mancha no presentaron diferencias entre los sexos. Las heredabilidades estimadas ( h 2 ± e . s para crecimiento comercial y sobrevivencia fueron 0,23±0,02 y 0,05±0,03, respectivamente. e l porcentaje de mancha y la ausencia y presencia de la misma mostraron heredabilidades cercanas a cero, lo cual indica que estos dos caracteres están relacionados más con efectos ambientales que con efectos genéticos aditivos. s e encontró una correlación favorable y significativa entre sobrevivencia y crecimiento comercial (0,24; P < 0,05. Los resultados de este trabajo indican que mediante la explotación de la genética aditiva es posible mejorar el desempeño de los animales para crecimiento comercial y sobrevivencia en la tilapia roja, mientras que poco progreso se puede esperar por medio de la selección para variables relacionadas con el manchado corporal en la población evaluada.

  4. Relações metionina + cistina: lisina digestíveis para codornas de corte machos em fase de terminação

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    RESUMO Com o objetivo de estimar as melhores relações metionina + cistina: lisina digestíveis para codornas de corte machos durante os períodos de 22 a 28 e 29 a 35 dias de idade foram desenvolvidos dois experimentos. As aves foram submetidas a uma ração basal deficiente em metionina + cistina digestível, sendo esta suplementada com cinco níveis de DL-Metionina, em substituição ao ácido glutâmico e amido, resultando nas seguintes relações metionina + cistina: lisina digestíveis: 0,68; 0,73; 0...

  5. ¿CUÁL ES EL CRECIMIENTO DE LARGO PLAZO DE LA ECONOMÍA CHILENA? UNA RESPUESTA FORMAL PARA UNA ANTIGUA PREGUNTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron Idrovo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio es estimar la tasa de crecimiento de la economía en un contexto de plena utilización de los recursos productivos. Se emplean para el análisis modelos univariados de series de tiempo, incluyendo una tendencia determinística (con quiebres de medias, y un modelo de estado-espacio que considera una tendencia estocástica y un componente cíclico, estimado por Filtro de Kalman. El componente cíclico es calculado con y sin cambios de régimen (Markov-switching models, de acuerdo con la idea de Friedman (1993 -plucking model. Los resultados indican que la tasa de crecimiento potencial de la economía chilena sería superior al 4% anual, acompañada de ciclos económicos asimétricos.

  6. ¿Cuál es el crecimiento de largo plazo de la economía chilena? Una respuesta formal para una antigua pregunta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idrovo A. Byron

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio es estimar la tasa de crecimiento de la economía en un contexto de plena utilización de los recursos productivos. Se emplean para el análisis modelos univariados de series de tiempo, incluyendo una tendencia determinística (con quiebres de medias, y un modelo de estado-espacio que considera una tendencia estocástica y un componente cíclico, estimado por Filtro de Kalman. El componente cíclico es calculado con y sin cambios de régimen (Markov-switching models, de acuerdo con la idea de Friedman (1993 –plucking model. Los resultados indican que la tasa de crecimiento potencial de la economía chilena sería superior al 4% anual, acompañada de ciclos económicos asimétricos.

  7. Estudo econométrico da demanda e oferta de madeira em tora para o processamento mecânico no Estado do Paraná

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Alexandre Nascimento de

    2013-01-01

    Este trabalho analisa o mercado interno de madeira em tora para o processamento mecânico no período de 1988 a 2004. O objetivo principal foi identificar e estimar as elasticidades das principais variáveis que afetam o referido mercado. As estimativas foram obtidas através do método de mínimos quadrados de dois estágios. Além do preço pago pelo processamento mecânico, as principais variáveis ajustadas foram: renda e taxa de câmbio na demanda; e o preço pago pelo mercado de celulose e a produti...

  8. Dosimetric contribution of organs of biokinetics of {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 123}I to estimate radiation doses in thyroids of children of 1 and 5 years; Contribucion dosimetrica de organos de la biocinetica del {sup 99m}Tc y {sup 123}I para estimar dosis en tiroides de ninos de 1 y 5 anos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasquez, M.V.; Castillo, C.E.; Abanto, D.M.; Rocha, D.; Garcia, W.H.; Marin, K., E-mail: marvva@hotmail.com [Universidad Nacional de Trujillo (UNT), Trujillo (Peru); Quispe, R. [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnologico, UNAM, Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-07-01

    The absorbed doses by thyroids during uptake studies through biokinetics of radiopharmaceuticals containing {sup 123}I (iodine) or {sup 99m}Tc (pertechnetate) are estimated. Using the MIRD scheme and the representation of Cristy-Eckerman for thyroids in children of 1 and 5 years, the objective of the study was to determine whether the dosimetric biokinetic contributions of the organs of {sup 123}I (iodide) and {sup 99m}Tc (pertechnetate) biokinetic are significant in the estimated of the absorbed dose for thyroid uptake studies.

  9. Dosimetric evaluation in organs of the Tc{sup 99m}, I{sup 123} bio-kinetics to estimate dose in thyroid children 1 and 5 years; Evaluacion dosimetrica en organos de la biocinetica del Tc{sup 99m}, I{sup 123} para estimar dosis en tiroides ninos 1 y 5 anos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasquez, A. M.; Quispe, R.; Vasquez, D. J.; Rocha, M. D.; Morales, N. R.; Marin, R. K. [Universidad Nacional de Trujillo, Av. Juan Pablo II s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Trujillo (Peru); Zelada, A. L., E-mail: marvva@hotmail.com [Universidad Cesar Vallejo, Grupo de Fisica Medica, Av. Larco s/n, Trujillo (Peru)

    2012-10-15

    Using the formalism MIRD and the representation of Cristy-Eckerman for the thyroid in children of 1 and 5 years, is demonstrated that the dosimetric contribution of the organs of I{sup 123} (iodure) bio-kinetics is not significant in the dose estimate. The total dose absorbed by the gland is its auto dose. The dosimetric contribution of the organs source of the Tc{sup 99m} (pertechnetate) bio-kinetics in the gland is significant in the dose estimate like to be ignored. The reported results for the iodure are not significantly different to the found for the Marinelli scheme (auto-dose) for thyroid represented by a sphere of 1,78 and 3,45 grams. (Author)

  10. Procedimiento para estimar la vida útil de engranajes cilíndricos de acero en base a la resistencia a la fatiga del material y norma AGMA 2101-D04. // A procedure for estimating expected fatigue life on steel cylindrical gears using strength-life theory a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. González Rey

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se presenta un procedimiento, fórmulas y relaciones necesarias que permiten determinar un valor de vida útilde referencia previendo la rotura por fatiga de los dientes de acero en ruedas de engranajes cilíndricos de ejes paralelos ycontacto exterior. El procedimiento está fundamentado en considerar la resistencia a la picadura y a flexión de los dientesen engranajes cilíndricos. La base de las fórmulas y relaciones corresponden a la norma AGMA 2101-D04 dirigida alcálculo de la capacidad de carga de engranajes cilíndricos.Palabras claves: Engranaje cilíndrico, duración, fatiga, acero, AGMA 2101._______________________________________________________________________________Abstract.A procedure, formulas and information to estimate a value of expected fatigue life in case of steel cylindrical. Theprocedure is fixed taking into account the pitting resistance (surface fatigue failure and bending strength capacity(volumetric fatigue failure of spur and helical gears. Formulas are based in the AGMA Standard 2105-D04 forcalculation of the load capacity of cylindrical gears.Key words: cylindrical involute gears, lifetime, fatigue resistance, AGMA Standard 2105-D04.

  11. Dos métodos para estimar las propiedades hidráulicas del suelo a partir de: un proceso de (I) humectación por capilaridad más evaporación, y (II) humectación por capilaridad con multitensión: análisis teórico

    OpenAIRE

    Peña-Sancho, Carolina; Teamrat A Ghezzehei; Latorre Garcés, Borja; Moret-Fernández, David

    2015-01-01

    6 Pags.- 1 Tabl.- 7 Figs. Trabajo originalmente presentado en las XII Jornadas de Investigación en la Zona No Saturada del Suelo (Alcalá de Henares, 18-20 de nov. de 2015). © de los textos: sus autores

  12. New functions to estimate 305-days milk production of Gir cows : Novas Funções para Estimar a Produção de Leite, em 305 Dias de Lactação, de Vacas da Raça Gir

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reboucas, G.F.; Moraes Goncalves, de T.; Martines, M.L.; Azevedo Junior, J.; Koops, W.J.

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to calculate new accumulated and daily functions based on the Michaelis-Menten equation to estimate the 305-days production of Gir cows using test day milk yields. Data consisted of 7,412 lactation records of 3,416 Gir cows (Bos indicus) collected from 1987 to 2004 in 51 herds assis

  13. Equações alométricas para estimativa de carbono em árvores de uma área urbana em Viçosa-MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Brianezi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este estudo gerar equações para estimar o carbono presente na arborização do campus-sede da Universidade Federal de Viçosa, contribuindo para o conhecimento sobre a capacidade das áreas verdes urbanas no sequestro e estocagem de carbono. Assim, inventariaram-se todas as árvores com DAP igual ou superior a 5 cm presentes na Universidade. Para as árvores não palmeiras, selecionaram-se 721 árvores-amostra, que foram cubadas rigorosamente em pé através da aplicação sucessiva da expressão de Smalian até o diâmetro-limite de 5 cm, tanto para o fuste quanto para os galhos. No caso das palmeiras, cubaram-se 100% dos indivíduos utilizando a expressão de Huber. A densidade básica da madeira com casca e o teor de carbono foram obtidos, nas palmeiras, com a retirada de um disco na porção do DAP, dada a dificuldade de tradagem. Já nas demais árvores, utilizou-se um trado mecânico. Com base no volume, na densidade básica e no teor de carbono, calcularam-se o carbono total e o carbono dos galhos. Ademais, avaliaram-se os modelos de Schumacher e Hall (1933 e Spurr (1952, modificado para estimar o carbono fixado nesses indivíduos. Nas árvores não palmeiras do campus-sede da Universidade Federal de Viçosa, o carbono total e o carbono dos galhos podem ser estimados, em kg, em razão do Diâmetro à Altura do Peito (DAP, em cm e da Altura Total (Ht, em m, por -0,906586+1,60421*LnDAP+0,37162*LnHt e por -2,052673+1,89903*LnDAP+0,24156*LnHt, respectivamente. Nas palmeiras, o carbono total pode ser estimado por -4,46988+199082*LnDAP+1,06420*LnHt.

  14. Modelo para estimativa do fluxo de saturação desenvolvido a partir das condições do tráfego de Brasília

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela N. Fernandes de Queiroz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Dadas as dificuldades de obtenção do valor do fluxo de saturação in loco para diversas situações, ele é freqüentemente estimado a partir de modelos. Assim, esses modelos precisam refletir, da melhor forma possível, as condições locais de operação do tráfego. Este trabalho apresenta o desenvolvimento de um modelo matemático para estimativa do fluxo de saturação, por faixa de trânsito, para as condições do tráfego da cidade de Brasília. A técnica de modelagem utilizada foi à análise de regressão, e os dados para o desenvolvimento do modelo foram coletados em 20 interseções, perfazendo um total de 50 faixas de trânsito observadas. Os resultados das análises estatísticas efetuadas revelaram que o modelo é adequado para estimar o fluxo de saturação por faixa de trânsito para a cidade de Brasília. A sua utilização em outras cidades brasileiras é possível, desde que seja devidamente calibrado.

  15. Regional mapping of hydrothermally altered igneous rocks along the Urumieh-Dokhtar, Chagai, and Alborz Belts of western Asia using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operators: a tool for porphyry copper exploration and assessment: Chapter O in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, John L.; Zientek, M.L.; Hammarstrom, J.M.; Johnson, K.M.; Pierce, F.W.

    2014-01-01

    Regional maps of phyllic and argillic hydrothermal alteration were compiled using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and logical operator algorithms. The area mapped extends from northwestern Iran to southeastern Pakistan and includes volcanic and magmatic arcs that make up the Urumieh-Dokhtar volcanic belt (UDVB), the Chagai volcanic belt (CVB), and the central part of the Alborz magmatic belt (AMB). The volcanic belts span the Zagros-Makran transform zone and the present day Baluchistan (Makran) volcanic arc. ASTER visible near infrared (VNIR) data contain three bands between 0.52 and 0.86 micrometers (μm) and the short-wave infrared (SWIR) data consist of six bands spanning 1.6 to 2.43 μm with 15-meter (m), and 30-m resolution, respectively.

  16. Tiempo para un cambio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woltjer, L.

    1987-06-01

    En la reunion celebrada en diciembre dei ano pasado informe al Consejo de mi deseo de terminar mi contrato como Director General de la ESO una vez que fuera aprobado el proyecto dei VLT, que se espera sucedera hacia fines de este aAo. Cuando fue renovada mi designacion hace tres aAos, el Consejo conocia mi intencion de no completar los cinco aAos dei contrato debido a mi deseo de disponer de mas tiempo para otras actividades. Ahora, una vez terminada la fase preparatoria para el VLT, Y habiendose presentado el proyecto formalmente al Consejo el dia 31 de marzo, y esperando su muy probable aprobacion antes dei termino de este ano, me parece que el 10 de enero de 1988 presenta una excelente fecha para que se produzca un cambio en la administracion de la ESO.

  17. Aplicación del modelo de Weibull para la inactivación por calor de la Pseudomonas aeruginosa a diferentes temperaturas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Bueno-García

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se demuestra bajo las condiciones experimentales establecidas que las curvas de sobrevivencia de la Pseudomonas aeruginosa siguió una cinética no lineal mostrando una caída inicial rápida en el conteo celular seguida por una cola causada por una disminución de la velocidad de inactivación, El modelo de Weibull describió con precisión la cinética de inactivación. Se estimaron los parámetros estadísticos que mejor explican la frecuencia observada: media, varianza y coeficiente de asimetría. Para la Pseudomonas aeruginosa el valor b depende de la temperatura y el valor n es independiente. El modelo de distribución de Weibull fue capaz de predecir el tiempo de calentamiento para inactivar ocho ciclos log10 y para estimar el tiempo de calentamiento equivalente para la misma proporción de P. aeruginosa sobreviviente a otras temperaturas.

  18. Tamanho de amostra para a estimação da média de caracteres morfológicos e produtivos de nabo forrageiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Cargnelutti Filho

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o tamanho de amostra (número de plantas para a estimação da média de caracteres morfológicos e produtivos de nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus L.. Em um experimento a campo, foram selecionadas, aleatoriamente, 300 plantas e mensurados os caracteres morfológicos (estatura de planta e número de folhas aos 21, 35, 48, 55, 62, 70, 77 e 91 dias após a semeadura e os produtivos (massas verde e seca, de raízes, de caule, de folhas e total aos 91 dias após a semeadura. Foram calculadas medidas de tendência central e de variabilidade, verificada a normalidade e calculado o tamanho de amostra. Para estimar a média, com mesma precisão, o tamanho de amostra dos caracteres produtivos é maior que dos morfológicos. Para os caracteres morfológicos e produtivos estudados, 231 plantas são suficientes para um erro de estimação máximo de 10% da média estimada, com grau de confiança de 95%.

  19. Ecuaciones alométricas para árboles tropicales: aplicación al inventario forestal de Sinaloa, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos\\u00E9 N\\u00E1var-Ch\\u00E1idez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El obje- tivo del presente trabajo fue desarrollar una ecuación alomé- trica actualizada para la biomasa aérea total (M de árboles medidos en campo y de sitios inventariados en los bosques secos de Sinaloa, México. Los resultados mostraron que: (a la ecuación alométrica desarrollada incrementó la precisión en contraste con las ecuaciones convencionales de biomasa, (b la alometría desarrollada ex situ proyecta valores de M que pueden desviarse por cerca del doble de las mediciones de M y (c las evaluaciones al nivel del sitio también pue-den desviarse por más del doble cuando se usan ecuaciones desarrolladas ex situ. Se probaron dos procedimientos para aumentar la precisión en la evaluación de M para árboles y sitios, cuando se ajustan ecuaciones desarrolladas ex situ: (i con el teorema del límite central usar las ecuaciones alomé- tricas disponibles para estimar un promedio y (ii calibrar las ecuaciones por el ajuste de parámetros a nivel local, los cuales pueden ser calculados con el uso de programas estadís- ticos. Estas opciones pueden incrementar la precisión de las evaluaciones de M de árboles y sitios, y eventualmente de las selvas tropicales secas del norte de México.

  20. Instalaciones para hotel rural

    OpenAIRE

    Roig Riera, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    El presente proyecto cuenta con la información necesaria para el desarrollo de las instalaciones de un hotel rural. Dichas instalaciones son; la eléctrica, la de agua caliente sanitaria, las telecomunicaciones y la climatización. En el apartado de la instalación eléctrica, se han calculado todos los cables necesarios para el correcto funcionamiento del hotel, partiendo de las potencias demandadas en cada punto de consumo. Se ha calculado la línea general de alimentación, acomet...

  1. Instrucciones para autores

    OpenAIRE

    Cramer, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Instrucciones para autoresNota preliminar: ¡Es de suma importancia que antesde enviar cualquier documento a la Revista GeologíaColombiana, lea y cumpla cuidadosamente cada uno delos subíndices de las Normas para autores!A partir del Volumen 35 (2010) recibimos artículosprincipalmente a través del sistema digital enhttp://www.revistas.unal.edu.co/index.php/geocol/index.Si quiere enviar un artículo, por favor regístrese comoAutor en el menú INGRESAR (aquí pueden registrarsetambién evaluadores u...

  2. Mapping argillic and advanced argillic alteration in volcanic rocks, quartzites, and quartz arenites in the western Richfield 1° x 2 ° quadrangle, southwestern Utah, using ASTER satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.; Hofstra, Albert H.

    2012-01-01

    The Richfield quadrangle in southwestern Utah is known to contain a variety of porphyry Mo, skarn, polymetallic replacement and vein, alunite, and kaolin resources associated with 27-32 Ma calc-alkaline or 12-23 Ma bimodal volcano-plutonic centers in Neoproterozoic to Mesozoic carbonate and siliciclastic rocks. Four scenes of visible to shortwave-infrared image data acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor were analyzed to generate maps of exposed clay, sulfate, mica, and carbonate minerals, and ASTER thermal infrared data were analyzed to identify quartz and carbonate minerals. Argillic and advanced argillic alteration minerals including alunite, pyrophyllite, dickite, and kaolinite were identified in both undocumented (U) and known (K) areas, including in the southern Paradise Mtns. (U); in calc-alkaline volcanic rocks in the Wah Wah Mtns. between Broken Ridge and the NG area (U/K); at Wah Wah Summit in a small zone adjacent to 33.1 Ma diorite and marble (U); in fractures cutting quartzites surrounding the 20-22 Ma Pine Grove Mo deposit (U); in volcanic rocks in the Shauntie Hills (U/K); in quartzites in the west-central San Francisco Mtns. (U); in volcanic rocks in the Black Mtns. (K); and in mainly 12-13 Ma rhyolitic rocks along a 20 km E-W belt that includes the Bible Spring fault zone west of Broken Ridge, with several small centers in the Escalante Desert to the south (U/K). Argillized Navajo Sandstone with kaolinite and (or) dickite ± alunite was mapped adjacent to calc-alkaline intrusions in the Star Range (U). Intense quartz-sericite alteration (K) with local kaolinite was identified in andesite adjacent to calc-alkaline intrusions in the Beaver Lake Mountains. Mo-bearing phyllic alteration was identified in 22.2 Ma rhyolite plugs at the center of the NG alunite area. Limestones, dolomites, and marbles were differentiated, and quartz and sericite were identified in most unaltered quartzites. Halos of

  3. Metodología para la estimación del Valor Agregado del mantenimiento predictivo en la Industria Cubana. // Methodology for the estimate of Added Value of the predictive maintenance in Cuban Industry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Inastrilla Armayor

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se expone una metodología general para la determinación de ciertos coeficientes que permiten estimar el valoragregado por concepto de la aplicación del mantenimiento predictivo en un grupo de máquinas agrupadas según su función.A partir de aquí el usuario será capaz de estimar los beneficios a corto plazo por la aplicación de este tipo demantenimiento.Palabras claves: Metodología valor agregado, mantenimiento predictivo, diagnóstico por vibraciones.______________________________________________________________________________Abstract.In the work a general methodology is exposed for the determination of certain coefficients that allow toestimate the value added by concept of the application of the predictive maintenance in a group of machinescontained according to its function. Starting from here the user will be able to estimate the short termbenefits for the application of this type of maintenance.Key words: Dumbwaiter, structures, stress analysis, finite elements.

  4. Análises Geomorfológicas do Platô de Teresópolis e da Serra do Mar, RJ, com o Auxílio de Seppômen e ASTER GDEM e sua Relação aos Tectonismos Cenozoicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ribeiro Aires

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available com o auxílio da técnica de seppômen e os dados topográficos de satélite ASTER GDEM e, sua relação ao tectonismo cenozoico. De acordo com o mapa de seppômen da grade de 4 km, a área estudada é dividida em três domínios geomorfológicos, a Baixada Fluminense (RJL, a escarpa da Serra do Mar (SMS e o Platô de Teresópolis (TRH. A Baixada Fluminense, que corresponde à área do Graben de Guanabara, é constituída pelas planícies de depósitos aluvionares e as áreas de morros baixos que expõem o embasamento metamórfico. Os limites entre essas são bruscos e lineares, sugerindo existência de falhas e grabens pequenos. Os topos destes morros estão quase na mesma altitude, constituindo uma superfície de seppômen com altitude aproximada de 100 m. Os mapas de seppômen das grades de 4 km e 2 km apresentam que o topo da escarpa da Serra do Mar tem altitude aproximada de 1300 m e, portanto esta falha norma tem desnível de 1200 m. A escarpa tem direção de N75°E e é dividida em segmentos de 15 km a 30 km de comprimento. Em certas localidades da escarpa, observa-se a morfologia de megadeslizamento. O Platô de Teresópolis é inclinado à N30°W com a declividade média de 0.9°. Os sistemas de drenagens no platô apresentam três orientações, N60°E, N10°E e N75°W. Ao longo do Rio Paraíba do Sul, ocorre uma depressão morfológica linear com 20 km de largura e profundidade relativa de 300 m, sugerindo presença de um graben raso. Sobre o Platô de Teresópolis, ocorrem três alinhamentos de saliências morfológicas orientados em N50°E, com altura relativa máxima de 900 m. Os histogramas de distribuição altimétrica para as superfícies de seppômen sugerem que essas são inselbergs remanescentes antes do movimento da falha da escarpa do Serra do Mar. As falhas normais e os sistemas de fraturas do Cenozoico desta área são frequentemente discordantes com a estrutura do embasamento. Este fenômeno é explicado pelo modelo

  5. Parâmetros genéticos para características produtivas e biométricas em abelha Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides LEPELETIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.N. Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram estimar componentes de variância genética aditiva, fenotípica e residual e a herdabilidade para características relacionadas com a produção de mel e com a estrutura do ninho de abelhas Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides. Sessenta colônias de diferentes regiões da Bahia foram transladadas para caixas padronizadas modelo INPA e divididas, originando as gerações parentais G1 e G2. Foram medidas as características: estimativa da produção de mel; número, largura, volume e altura dos potes de mel; número, altura e diâmetro dos potes de pólen; peso; número, largura e diâmetro dos discos de cria e estimativa da população da colônia. As medidas foram corrigidas para o efeito fixo de mês de mensuração. Os componentes de variância e herdabilidade foram estimados por meio do método de semelhança entre parentes, utilizando-se abordagem Bayesiana. As médias e os desvios padrão variaram de 2,01±0,70cm para diâmetro de potes de pólen a 2.333,0±384,1kg para o peso das caixas. Houve indicação de convergência para todas as cadeias obtidas. As estimativas de variância genética aditiva variaram de 0,02cm para as características largura dos potes de mel a 38.587,72kg para o peso. Para as estimativas de variâncias fenotípicas, os valores variaram de 0,05 para a altura dos potes de pólen a 95.136,43kg para o peso; e para as variâncias residuais, os valores encontrados variaram de 0,02 para a variável largura dos potes de mel a 56.548,71kg para o peso. As estimativas de herdabilidade variaram de 0,35 a 0,53. Os resultados demonstraram que as características avaliadas possuem variação genética aditiva que garante boa resposta à seleção.

  6. Propuesta de una versión abreviada de la escala de Zung para depresión.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alfonso Díaz

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: Los criterios para episodio depresivo mayor (EDM han cambiado desde la introducción de la escala de Zung para depresión (EZ-D; sin embargo, su uso continúa como instrumento de tamización. Objetivo: Validar la EZ-D de 20 preguntas y diseñar una versión abreviada de ella. Método: Diligenciaron la EZ-D 138 estudiantes universitarios entre 16 y 33 años (promedio 22.8, DE 3.3, 79.7% mujeres, y se entrevistaron para identificar un episodio depresivo mayor con la entrevista estructurada para trastornos del eje I (SCID-I. Se determinó alfa de Cronbach, validez de criterio, análisis de factores y curva ROC para estimar el mejor punto de corte para la versión original y las subsecuentes escalas abreviadas. Resultados: De total de estudiantes, 26 (18.8% presentaban un EDM según la SCID-I. Se encontró que 10 de las 20 preguntas de la versión original de EZ-D tamizaban con igual certidumbre a los pacientes que la versión completa. Para la versión original, el alfa de Cronbach fue 0.875, la sensibilidad 0.96, la especificidad 0.71, la kappa 0.441 y el área bajo de la curva ROC 0.86 para un punto de corte de 53. Dos factores principales explicaban cerca de 38% de la varianza. Para la versión abreviada, el alfa de Cronbach fue 0.845, la sensibilidad 0.92, la especificidad 0.71, la kappa 0.383 y el área bajo de la curva ROC 0.84 para el punto de corte de 22. Un factor principal que daba cuenta de aproximadamente 40% de la varianza. Conclusiones: La EZ-D de 20 preguntas es un instrumento válido en la identificación de EDM en estudiantes universitarios lo mismo que la versión abreviada de 10 preguntas.

  7. Inflação versus desemprego: novas evidências para o Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Jorge Cardoso de Mendonça

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é estimar a curva de Phillips novo-Keynesiana para o Brasil. Usamos diferentes proxies para variáveis e com amostras de diferentes períodos para checar a robustez do modelo. Os seguintes resultados merecem destaque. Primeiro, a expectativa inflação e a inflação passada têm relevância na dinâmica da inflação e sua importância das expectativas aumenta a partir de 2002. Segundo, o efeito do desemprego sobre a inflação parece estar localizado apenas no curto prazo. Por fim, parece haver uma quebra estrutural no efeito de uma mudança do câmbio sobre a inflação. Com dados a partir de 2002, o efeito de um choque cambial é negativo. Contudo, com a amostra desde 1995, o efeito de uma desvalorização cambial é positivo sobre a inflação.The goal of this article is to estimate the New Keynesian Phillips Curve for Brazil economy. The robustness was checking using not only different proxies but also samples with distinct temporal dimension. The main achievements are the following. Firstly, the inflationary inertia and expectation of inflation are important variables for the dynamic of inflation although the relevance of expectation rise from 2002 onwards. Secondly, the effect of unemployment on inflation seems to be located in the short term. Finally, the relationship between the exchange rate and inflation is marked by a structural break. With data from 2002, the effect of exchange rate shock is negative. But, when one uses data from 1995, the effect on inflation is positive impact.

  8. Alternativas para conocer el comportamiento de la calidad del agua en un tramo del arroyo guachinango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeny Pérez P.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En el mundo actual ha evolucionado la tecnología para tratamiento y reutilización de aguas residuales, pero la obtención y aplicación de las mismas conlleva grandes inversiones, por lo que un país como el nuestro no está al alcance de la misma. Esto conlleva a la búsqueda de alternativas que se ajusten a nuestro presupuesto y nuestras condiciones, siempre que las mismas cumplan con las medidas de protección e higiene que existen para la utilización de estas aguas. En un tramo de arroyo con vertimientos fundamentalmente urbanos se realizan estudios preliminares con la intención de predecir la calidad de las aguas superficiales contaminadas a partir del seguimiento de indicadores físico químicos. El presente trabajo pretende estimar la calidad del agua a partir de la determinación de los parámetros: pH, conductividad eléctrica, sólidos totales, contenido de nitratos. El estudio se llevó a cabo en el arroyo Guachinango, uno de los afluentes del río Luyanó que atraviesa el municipio San Miguel del Padrón en el sureste de Ciudad de la Habana. Para ello se parte del seguimiento de estos indicadores en puntos escogidos a partir del levantamiento de las fuentes contaminantes. Con los datos obtenidos se realizaron análisis estadísticos y se determinó la calidad del agua.

  9. Fundamentos conceituais para uma teoria do planejamento urbano baseada em decisões

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato T. de Saboya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de as decisões serem essenciais ao planejamento, esse conceito não tem recebido a devida atenção na literatura, especialmente se considerarmos os avanços obtidos em outros campos do conhecimento, com especial destaque para as abordagens do apoio à decisão construtivista e da psicologia comportamental. Este artigo faz um breve apanhado de alguns desses avanços e, a partir deles, explora as repercussões de sua incorporação e reenquadramento em uma teoria do planejamento urbano. Para isso, inicialmente define o conceito de decisão adotado e propõe uma classificação das decisões em três tipos: executivas, substantivas e processuais. Em seguida, explora quatro aspectos essenciais do planejamento cujo entendimento pode ser aprofundado sob a ótica da decisão: a a construção de convicção sobre o problema; b o caráter dinâmico da formulação do problema; c a dificuldade e a necessidade de estimar desdobramentos futuros; d as relações entre meios, fins e os conflitos de interesses envolvidos; e e a necessidade de abrangência e exaustividade. Por fim, esses aspectos são utilizados como base para a identificação de fragilidades nos atuais esforços de elaboração de planos de desenvolvimento urbano e de oportunidades de aperfeiçoamento na direção processos mais justos, democráticos e eficazes.

  10. Simultaneidade dos fatores de risco para doenças crônicas não transmissíveis em adolescentes: prevalência e fatores associados Simultaneidad de los factores de riesgo para enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles en adolescentes: prevalencia y factores asociados Clustering of risk factors for chronic noncommunicable diseases among adolescents: prevalence and associated factors

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly Samara da Silva; Adair da Silva Lopes; Daniel Giordani Vasques; Filipe Ferreira da Costa; Rosane Carla R. da Silva

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência e os padrões dos fatores de risco para doenças crônicas não transmissíveis segundo o nível socioeconômico e a idade dos adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal de base escolar envolvendo 1.675 adolescentes (53% do sexo feminino), com idades de 11 a 17 anos, de escolas públicas e privadas. O consumo de tabaco e álcool, o alto consumo de gordura na dieta e o baixo nível de atividade física constituíram as variáveis comportamentais. Circunferência da cintura e p...

  11. Aprendizaje cooperativo para ELE

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Presentación sucinta para docentes de español como lengua extranjera del conjunto de propuestas metodológicas conocidas bajo la denominación aprendizaje cooperativo : origen, fundamentación, principales principios psicopedagógicos y algunas propuestas prácticas.

  12. Radial Velocities with PARAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arpita; Mahadevan, S.; Chakraborty, A.; Pathan, F. M.; Anandarao, B. G.

    2010-01-01

    The Physical Research Laboratory Advanced Radial-velocity All-sky Search (PARAS) is an efficient fiber-fed cross-dispersed high-resolution echelle spectrograph that will see first light in early 2010. This instrument is being built at the Physical Research laboratory (PRL) and will be attached to the 1.2m telescope at Gurushikhar Observatory at Mt. Abu, India. PARAS has a single-shot wavelength coverage of 370nm to 850nm at a spectral resolution of R 70000 and will be housed in a vacuum chamber (at 1x10-2 mbar pressure) in a highly temperature controlled environment. This renders the spectrograph extremely suitable for exoplanet searches with high velocity precision using the simultaneous Thorium-Argon wavelength calibration method. We are in the process of developing an automated data analysis pipeline for echelle data reduction and precise radial velocity extraction based on the REDUCE package of Piskunov & Valenti (2002), which is especially careful in dealing with CCD defects, extraneous noise, and cosmic ray spikes. Here we discuss the current status of the PARAS project and details and tests of the data analysis procedure, as well as results from ongoing PARAS commissioning activities.

  13. Epidemiological changes and financial consequences of hypertension in Latin America: implications for the health system and patients in Mexico Cambios epidemiológicos y consecuencias financieras de la hipertensión en América Latina: implicaciones para el sistema de salud y los pacientes en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Arredondo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the costs and financial consequences of epidemiological changes in hypertension in México. The cost evaluation method to estimate costs was based on instrumentation techniques. To estimate the epidemiological changes and expected cases of hypertension in 2010-2012, three probabilistic models were constructed according to the Box-Jenkins technique. Comparing the economic impact, from 2010 to 2012 there will be a 24% increase in financial requirements (p El objetivo fue identificar los costos y las consecuencias financieras de cambios epidemiológicos referentes a la hipertensión en México. El método de evaluación de los costos, para estimar los costos directos e indirectos, se basó en técnicas de instrumentación y de consenso. Para estimar los cambios epidemiológicos y de casos esperados para el período 2010-2012, tres modelos probabilísticos se construyeron de acuerdo a la técnica de Box-Jenkins. Al comparar el impacto económico en el 2010 frente a 2012 (p < 0.05, hay un incremento del 24% de las necesidades financieras. El importe total para la hipertensión en 2011 será de US$ 5.733.350.291. Se incluyen US$ 2.718.280.941 en costos directos y US$ 3.015.069.350 en costos indirectos. Si los factores de riesgo y los modelos de atención a la salud permanecen sin cambios, las consecuencias financieras serían de mayor impacto para los bolsillos de los usuarios, siguiendo en orden de importancia, los proveedores de seguridad social y los proveedores de asistencia pública.

  14. Modelos para estimativa da área foliar de Curcuma alismatifolia e Vurcuma zedoaria Leaf area prediction models for Curcuma alismatifolia and Curcuma zedoaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Christina Rossini Pinto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo determina modelos para estimativa da área foliar de Curcuma alismatifolia e de Curcuma zedoaria. Para utilização destas espécies como ornamentais, é necessário o estabelecimento de técnicas de produção adequadas. Assim, a determinação da área foliar é importante, pois é usada para avaliar a resposta da planta a fatores ambientais e técnicas culturais. O uso de modelos para estimar a área foliar é um método simples, de boa precisão e não destrutivo. No estádio de floração foram coletadas cem folhas de C.alismatifolia ('Pink' e 'White' e de C.zedoaria. Determinaram-se o comprimento (C e a largura (L máximos e a área foliar real (AFR, com auxílio de integrador de área foliar (LI-3100. Estudaram-se as relações entre a AFR e o C, L e CL (produto do comprimento pela largura da folha, por meio de modelos de regressão linear. Os modelos AFR = 0,59048 CL (C.alismatifolia 'Pink', AFR = 6,08410 + 0,52162 CL (C.alismatifolia 'White' e AFR = 0,70233 CL (C.zedoaria são estatisticamente adequados para estimar a área foliar real.The present work establishes regression models to estimate leaf area of Curcuma alismatifolia and Curcuma zedoaria. To use these of species as ornamental plants is necessary to establish adequate cultivation techniques. Thus, the determination of leaf area is very important, once it is used to evaluate plant response to environmental factors and crop techniques. The use of prediction models to estimate leaf area is a simple, accurate and nondestructive method. At the stage of flowering, a hundred leaves of C.alismatifolia ('Pink' and 'White' and C.zedoaria were collected for each species and cultivar. Maximum length (L, maximum width (W and real leaf area (RLA were measured with a leaf area meter (LI-3100. The relation between RLA and the L, W and the product of length by width (LW, was studied through linear regression models. The models RLA = 0.59048 LW (C.alismatifolia 'Pink', RLA = 6

  15. Modelo hidrológico para estimativa do escoamento superficial em áreas agrícolas A hydrologic model to estimate the surface runoff in agricultural lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando F. Pruski

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Desenvolveu-se um modelo hidrológico para estimar o escoamento superficial em áreas sob condições agrícolas. O modelo é baseado na análise dos diversos processos associados ao balanço hídrico e nele se usa a equação de intensidade, duração e freqüência da precipitação para estimar a intensidade de precipitação e a equação de Green-Ampt modificada por Mein-Larson, para estimar a velocidade de infiltração permitindo, também, a consideração da interceptação pela cobertura vegetal e do armazenamento de água sobre a superfície do solo por meio de diferentes metodologias. O escoamento superficial começa após a capacidade de armazenamento sobre a superfície do solo ter sido preenchida, e é calculado subtraindo-se a velocidade de infiltração da água no solo da intensidade de precipitação durante o intervalo de tempo em que a intensidade da chuva é maior que a velocidade de infiltração. Resultados de um experimento de validação do modelo e duas aplicações práticas são apresentados, sendo que os resultados obtidos com o modelo foram muito próximos daqueles observados no campo.A hydrologic model was developed to estimate the surface runoff under agricultural conditions. The model is process-based and uses the intensity-duration-frequency equation to calculate the rainfall intensity and the Green-Ampt-Mein-Larson equation to estimate the infiltration rate. The runoff begins after the maximum surface storage on the soil surface has been reached. It is calculated by subtracting the infiltration rate from the rainfall intensity during the interval of time that the rainfall intensity is greater than the infiltration rate. The model also allows the calculation of the deep percolation and the actual soil-water content. Results from a validation experiment and two practical applications of the model are also presented. The results obtained with the model were approximately the same as those observed in the field.

  16. Um modelo espacial de demanda habitacional para a cidade do Recife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Alves Dantas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho mostra a importância da utilização da econometria espacial nos estudos dos fenômenos relacionados à economia urbana, em particular, no comportamento do mercado habitacional. Nas análises realizadas, com o objetivo de estimar uma Função de Demanda por Habitação para a cidade do Recife, com base em informações do Censo Demográfico (2000 e dados de imóveis financiados pela Caixa Econômica Federal, verificaram-se fortes indícios de dependência espacial em todas as variáveis econômicas exploradas. Verifica-se que a maneira de considerar a questão espacial, em função de distâncias da habitação a polos de influência ou dividindo o espaço em regiões, como vem ocorrendo corriqueiramente na literatura, não é capaz de explicar completamente o comportamento da demanda por habitação. Os resultados indicam que as equações de demanda tradicionalmente estimadas, sem levar em conta os efeitos de dependência espacial, podem gerar resultados tendenciosos, com a elasticidade-preço representando menos de 50% da estimativa do modelo espacial.

  17. Acercamiento teórico al desarrollo local sostenible y su repercusión para el turismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neily Sánchez Silvera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se hace una valoración teórica de la repercusión de los impactos del turismo en el desarrollo local de Cuba en las últimas décadas del siglo XX, tomando en cuenta la necesidad de establecer los elementos que implican los impactos del turismo en función de la gestión integral de un destino turístico que contribuya al desarrollo local sostenible de un municipio. Por ello, resulta determinante estimar la actividad turística como un instrumento de notable utilidad para favorecer los procesos de desarrollo a diferentes escalas, entre éstas, el nivel local ha sido, posiblemente, en el que se ha apreciado mayor desempeño, al constatarse en las últimas décadas intensos procesos de crecimiento turísticos en espacios locales; donde la comunidad constituye un elemento básico para la conformación del territorio como producto turístico y como instancia de mediación entre los agentes sociales locales y las administraciones superiores.

  18. Forma de tronco e sortimentos de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis Maiden para o estado do Rio Grande do Sul.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Renato Schneider

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 No presente trabalho foi estudada a forma de tronco do Eucalyptus grandis Maiden para a determinação de volume e formação de sortimentos de madeira em duas classes: serraria, compreendendo toras com diâmetro na ponta fina superior a 30 cm com casca e com comprimentos de 4,20 m, 3,40 m e 2,60 m, priorizando a formação de sortimentos com o maior comprimento; indústria, para troncos ou porções deste com diâmetros entre 7 e 30 cm com casca. A forma de tronco foi ajustada por um polinômio do 5 grau, tendo como variável dependente os diâmetros relativos (di /d e independente as alturas relativas (hi/h, apresentando bom ajuste e boa precisão estatística, permitindo estimar o volume absoluto e relativo dos sortimentos por integração da função de forma.

  19. Logistic rice model for dry matter and nutrient uptake Modelo logístico para fitomassa e extração de nutrientes para a cultura de arroz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel García y García

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The temporal variation of cumulative dry matter can be represented by a sigmoidal curve and the temporal variation of nutrient uptake follows this characteristic shape. Therefore, modeling the temporal variation of cumulative dry matter allows estimating nutrient uptake along the crop cycle. The objective of this study was to propose a sine model to estimate dry matter and macronutrient uptake, and to estimate the moments of maximum N and K uptake rates for the rice crop. The field experiment was carried out on a wetland area of Piracicaba, SP, Brazil, consisting of an Humic Haplaquept. The chosen rice variety was IAC 103, a middle season cycle and high yield. Observed variables were dry matter of different plant parts (root, leaf and stem, and panicle and macronutrient contents per unit dry matter. A sine model was proposed for the cumulative variation of these variables, based on biological events that occurred during the crop cycle. The temporal variation of nutrient uptake was estimated and a lower accuracy was observed for K uptake. The maximum absorption rate for N and K was found at 56% of the relative development of the crop, corresponding to 60 days after emergence in this experiment. The proposed model presented a satisfactory behavior to define the order of magnitude of estimated dry matter and macronutrient uptake by the rice crop and maximum N and K uptake rates.A variação temporal do acúmulo de fitomassa seca pode ser representada por curva de tipo sigmoidal e a variação temporal do acúmulo de nutrientes acompanha essa forma característica. Conseqüentemente, a modelagem da variação temporal do acúmulo de fitomassa seca permite estimar a extração de nutrientes ao longo do ciclo da cultura. O objetivo do trabalho foi propor um modelo senoidal para estimar a fitomassa seca e extração de macronutrientes pela cultura de arroz, bem como determinar a época de máxima taxa de extração de N e K. O experimento foi conduzido

  20. Instrucciones para autores y autoras

    OpenAIRE

    Casa de la Mujer, Revista

    2015-01-01

    Le recomendamos leer este documento a profundidad para queconozca las políticas y normas para postular a consideración su escrito.Estas instrucciones se organizan en tres apartados: I. Datos básicos,II. Políticas y III. Lineamientos para presentar el escrito; para la citacióny referenciación con APA se ofrece el documento titulado Guía dereferenciación y citación con APA.

  1. Consejos para pacientes

    OpenAIRE

    M. Eulalia Lucio-Villegas Menéndez; Laura López González; M. Isabel Gutiérrez Pérez; Natalia Aresté Lluch; M. Luisa Morató Agustí; Santiago Pérez Cachafeiro

    2014-01-01

    En el cuidado de las heridas es tan importante saber qué hacer como saber qué no hacer. Lo primero es valorar la gravedad de la lesión y saber si es necesario acudir a un centro sanitario o no. Si la herida es simple, lo más recomendable es hacer una buena limpieza con suero o agua tras lavado de manos, realizando la desinfección de esta con el antiséptico más adecuado. Los antisépticos no deben usarse para la limpieza de las heridas (usar suero fisiológico o agua del grifo) ni para la cur...

  2. Aplicaciones web para celulares

    OpenAIRE

    Riva, Diego Germán de la

    2007-01-01

    Las tecnologías inalámbricas -y en particular la telefonía celular- han tenido mucho auge y desarrollo en estos últimos años. El teléfono celular hoy día no es solo una herramienta indispensable para la gente de negocios, sino también un elemento primordial para la comunicación entre las personas. El rápido desarrollo tecnológico, la reducción de costos y el incremento de las expectativas de la gente, han provocado una invasión de teléfonos celulares en toda la sociedad, a nivel de llegar a r...

  3. Índices de erosividade da chuva, perdas de solo e fator erodibilidade para dois solos da região dos cerrados - primeira aproximação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J.G.S.M. Marques

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: testar a adequação de diferentes índices de erosividade das chuvas, comparar duas equações propostas para cálculo da energia cinética das chuvas e estimar o fator K (erodibilidade da equação universal de perdas de solo (EUPS para um latossolo vermelho-escuro (LE álico muito argiloso e um podzólico vermelho-amarelo (PV álico muito argiloso da região de Sete Lagoas (MG. Não houve diferença significativa entre as duas equações testadas para cálculo da energia cinética das chuvas. O índice EI30 mostrou ser um bom estimador da erosividade da chuva e pode continuar sendo utilizado como fator R (erosividade da EUPS para a região estudada. Os valores do fator K, para o LE e o PV da região de Sete Lagoas, foram, respectivamente, 0,002 e 0,033 t h (MJ mm-1.

  4. Libertad para volar

    OpenAIRE

    Loureiro, Olalla

    2008-01-01

    La formación, el empleo y la arquitectura sin barreras son aspectos esenciales para la integración del colectivo de personas con discapacidad. Sin embargo, la independencia y la normalización son un grado más en la lucha por la igualdad de trato y es ahí donde entran en juego factores como el ocio y el tiempo libre.

  5. Universidades accesibles para todos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Stupp Kupiec

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo pretende hacer conciencia sobrelos factores que inciden en la construcción colectiva deuniversidades dispuestas a innovar y transformar suideología, sus políticas, el currículum, los servicios estu-diantiles, la infraestructura física y administrativa y lasestrategias de comunicación e información, bajo el para-digma de la accesibilidad en el entorno. Se hace referen-cia al marco legal internacional y nacional que orientalas acciones que deben planificarse e implementarse enlas instituciones de Educación Superior.En la construcción de universidades accesibles para to-dos se requiere de un cambio en la concepción curricu-lar. Se analizan conceptos como la flexibilidad en la for-mación y el acceso a los planes de estudio para respondera las necesidades educativas de todos los estudiantes. Para promover estas transformaciones se proponen prin-cipios y prácticas tales como la interdisciplinareidad y lainclusión del tema de la discapacidad en todas las carre-ras. Además, se presentan ejemplos de aplicación en dife-rentes áreas del perfil profesional, en la formación deldocente universitario y en actividades de proyección so-cial, vida estudiantil e investigación. En el ámbito estu-diantil, se describen algunos servicios y procesos que sehan desarrollado en la Universidad de Costa Rica

  6. Educando para la ignorancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Durán

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Más que describir una situación particular, los autores buscan con este escrito motivar al estudiante para que asuma posiciones críticas; así como dar un campanazo de alerta a los profesores, en relación a los conocimientos que transmiten a sus alumnos y la forma en que lo hacen; todo con el ánimo de generar verdaderos espacios de reflexión en la universidad.

  7. INICIATIVAS PARA EL CAMBIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Alfonso Defrancisco-Larrañaga

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available El planeta no atraviesa por su mejor momento en materia de conservación y renovación de sus recursos naturales. Claramente en los últimos tiempos los recursos hídricos han venido haciéndose cada vez menores; el hombre ha notado con preocupación y vivido en carne propia este fenómeno, que de no ser tratado a tiempo, podría atentar contra la existencia misma. Esto lo ha alentado a buscar métodos que sirvan como solución para contrarrestar éste mal y crear conciencia entre sus iguales, para así poder garantizar su permanencia y la de su entorno durante muchas generaciones. En países desarrollados del continente europeo y en algunos lugares de América del norte, el uso de sistemas de reutilización y tratamiento de aguas grises y aprovechamiento de las aguas lluvias se ha convertido en una constante y nos están dando las pautas para poder seguir el ejemplo y así de esta manera poder aportar a la causa ambiental y a su vez crear un ahorro en nuestros gastos mensuales de consumo.

  8. Tiempo de latencia para semen colectado de Colossoma macropomum “Gamitana” en solución sacarosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehrlich Llasaca-Calizaya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue estimar el tiempo de latencia (almacenamiento, para el semen de Colossoma macropomum, “gamitana” en solución de 400 mM de Sacarosa. Se consideró aceptable los niveles de motilidad superiores al 40%, lo cual garantiza eficientes tasas de fertilización. Para el desarrollo del experimento se colectó 2 lotes de semen inmótiles de gamitana (inducidos con Conceptal®, los cuales posteriormente fueron activados con agua destilada. El primer lote estuvo constituido por semen en sacarosa 400 mM, puro, a temperatura ambiente y refrigerado (4°C. La motilidad fue evaluada, cada hora, hasta la 7ma hora post colecta. El segundo lote con un semen en sacarosa 400mM a temperatura refrigerada y evaluada cada 12 horas. Los resultados del primer lote de semen demuestran que a partir de la 7ma hora hacia delante los índices de motilidad caen significativamente por debajo del 40%. Los resultados del segundo lote demuestran la viabilidad de utilizar solución de sacarosa, como medio de conservación, para mantener semen refrigerado por 2 días y activarlos con agua destilada. El proceso de extraer y colocar repetidas veces la misma muestra en refrigeración, limita el tiempo de viabilidad de semen con sacarosa en 8 horas aproximadamente. La utilización de sacarosa como medio para almacenar semen inmotil viable de gamitana, ayuda a conservar los espermatozoides por tiempos relativamente cortos.

  9. Tiempo de latencia para semen colectado de Colossoma macropomum “Gamitana” en solución sacarosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehrlich Llasaca-Calizaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue estimar el tiempo de latencia (almacenamiento, para el semen de Colossoma macropomum, “gamitana” en solución de 400 mM de Sacarosa. Se consideró aceptable los niveles de motilidad superiores al 40%, lo cual garantiza eficientes tasas de fertilización. Para el desarrollo del experimento se colectó 2 lotes de semen inmótiles de gamitana (inducidos con Conceptal®, los cuales posteriormente fueron activad