WorldWideScience

Sample records for aster frikartii

  1. ASTER Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This image of Saudi Arabia shows a great sea of linear dunes in part of the Rub' al Khali, or the Empty Quarter. Acquired on June 25, 2000, the image covers an area 37 kilometers (23 miles) wide and 28 kilometers (17 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. The dunes are yellow due to the presence of iron oxide minerals. The inter-dune area is made up of clays and silt and appears blue due to its high reflectance in band 1. The Rub' al Khali is the world's largest continuous sand desert. It covers about 650,000 square kilometers (250,966 square miles) and lies mainly in southern Saudi Arabia, though it does extend into the United Arab Emirates, Oman, and Yemen. One of the world's driest areas, it is uninhabited except for the Bedouin nomads who cross it. The first European to travel through the desert was Bertram Thomas in 1930.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Examples of

  2. The Aster code; Code Aster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbecq, J.M

    1999-07-01

    The Aster code is a 2D or 3D finite-element calculation code for structures developed by the R and D direction of Electricite de France (EdF). This dossier presents a complete overview of the characteristics and uses of the Aster code: introduction of version 4; the context of Aster (organisation of the code development, versions, systems and interfaces, development tools, quality assurance, independent validation); static mechanics (linear thermo-elasticity, Euler buckling, cables, Zarka-Casier method); non-linear mechanics (materials behaviour, big deformations, specific loads, unloading and loss of load proportionality indicators, global algorithm, contact and friction); rupture mechanics (G energy restitution level, restitution level in thermo-elasto-plasticity, 3D local energy restitution level, KI and KII stress intensity factors, calculation of limit loads for structures), specific treatments (fatigue, rupture, wear, error estimation); meshes and models (mesh generation, modeling, loads and boundary conditions, links between different modeling processes, resolution of linear systems, display of results etc..); vibration mechanics (modal and harmonic analysis, dynamics with shocks, direct transient dynamics, seismic analysis and aleatory dynamics, non-linear dynamics, dynamical sub-structuring); fluid-structure interactions (internal acoustics, mass, rigidity and damping); linear and non-linear thermal analysis; steels and metal industry (structure transformations); coupled problems (internal chaining, internal thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling, chaining with other codes); products and services. (J.S.)

  3. Opportunities within ASTERICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Rob; Cimò, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    ASTERICS, The Astronomy ESFRI and Research Infrastructure Cluster project, brings together astronomers and astroparticle physicists of 22 institutes in Europe to help Europe's world-leading observatories work together to find common solutions to their Big Data challenges, their interoperability and scheduling, and their data access, searching for cross-cutting solutions with mutual and wide-ranging benefit to all concerned. ASTERICS is a four year project, funded through the European Union's Horizon 2020 Framework Programme. The facilities supported by ASTERICS include SKA, CTA, KM3NeT, E-ELT. ASTERICS aims to open up multi messenger astronomy to all scientists and the public through the Virtual Observatory and the citizen science work. I will draw a picture of the landscape in which ASTERICS operates and the possible interaction with the Very Large Volume Neutrino Telescope community. Attention will be given to emerging opportunities for the Neutrino community and how these can be recognised or created.

  4. ASTER DEM performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisada, H.; Bailey, G.B.; Kelly, Glen G.; Hara, S.; Abrams, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument onboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Terra spacecraft has an along-track stereoscopic capability using its a near-infrared spectral band to acquire the stereo data. ASTER has two telescopes, one for nadir-viewing and another for backward-viewing, with a base-to-height ratio of 0.6. The spatial resolution is 15 m in the horizontal plane. Parameters such as the line-of-sight vectors and the pointing axis were adjusted during the initial operation period to generate Level-1 data products with a high-quality stereo system performance. The evaluation of the digital elevation model (DEM) data was carried out both by Japanese and U.S. science teams separately using different DEM generation software and reference databases. The vertical accuracy of the DEM data generated from the Level-1A data is 20 m with 95% confidence without ground control point (GCP) correction for individual scenes. Geolocation accuracy that is important for the DEM datasets is better than 50 m. This appears to be limited by the spacecraft position accuracy. In addition, a slight increase in accuracy is observed by using GCPs to generate the stereo data. ?? 2005 IEEE.

  5. NASA ASTER Level 1T

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is an advanced multispectral imager that was launched on board NASA's Terra spacecraft in...

  6. Physical Basis of Large Microtubule Aster Growth

    CERN Document Server

    Ishihara, Keisuke; Mitchison, Timothy J

    2016-01-01

    Microtubule asters - radial arrays of microtubules organized by centrosomes - play a fundamental role in the spatial coordination of animal cells. The standard model of aster growth assumes a fixed number of microtubules originating from the centrosomes. However, aster morphology in this model does not scale with cell size, and we recently found evidence for non-centrosomal microtubule nucleation. Here, we combine autocatalytic nucleation and polymerization dynamics to develop a biophysical model of aster growth. Our model predicts that asters expand as traveling waves and recapitulates all major aspects of aster growth. As the nucleation rate increases, the model predicts an explosive transition from stationary to growing asters with a discontinuous jump of the growth velocity to a nonzero value. Experiments in frog egg extract confirm the main theoretical predictions. Our results suggest that asters observed in large frog and amphibian eggs are a meshwork of short, unstable microtubules maintained by autoca...

  7. Terpenoid Glucosides from Aster Smithianus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Shou-jun; ZHAO Xin-hua; YANG Yong-li; CHENG Dong-liang

    2005-01-01

    A diterpenoid trisaccharide, smithoside A, and a saponin, smithoside B, as well as six known compounds, apigenin, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, daucosterol, shanzhiside methyl ester, 8-acetylshanzhiside methyl ester and acteoside, were isolated from Aster smithianus. On the basis of spectral evidence and chemical analytical results, smithosides A and B were identified as pimar-15(16)-β-ene-8β,11α-diol-3β-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→3)-[β-glucopyranosyl(1→2)]-β-D-glucopyranoside and 2β,3β,16β,21β,23-pentahydroxy-12-ene-28 oleanoic acid lactone-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→3)-β-D-glucopyranoside, respectively.

  8. Digital elevation modelling using ASTER stereo imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkuo, Eric Kwabena

    2010-04-01

    Digital elevation model (DEM) in recent times has become an integral part of national spatial data infrastructure of many countries world-wide due to its invaluable importance. Although DEMs are mostly generated from contours maps, stereo aerial photographs and air-borne and terrestrial laser scanning, the stereo interpretation and auto-correlation from satellite image stereo-pairs such as with SPOT, IRS, and relatively new ASTER imagery is also an effective means of producing DEM data. In this study, terrain elevation data were derived by applying photogrammetric process to ASTER stereo imagery. Also, the quality ofDEMs produced from ASTER stereo imagery was analysed by comparing it with DEM produced from topographic map at a scale of 1:50,000. While analyzing the vertical accuracy of the generated ASTER DEM, fifty ground control points were extracted from the map and overlaid on the DEM. Results indicate that a root-mean-square error in elevation of +/- 14 m was achieved with ASTER stereo image data of good quality. The horizontal accuracy obtained from the ground control points was 14.77, which is within the acceptable range of +/- 7m to +/- 25 m. The generated (15 m) DEM was compared with a 20m, 25m, and a 30 m pixel DEM to the original map. In all, the results proved that, the 15 m DEM conform to the original map DEM than the others. Overall, this analysis proves that, the generated digital terrain model, DEM is acceptable.

  9. Two New Diterpene Acetylxylosides From Aster Veitchianus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Er Wei LI; Kun GAO; Zhong Jian JIA

    2004-01-01

    Two new acetylxylosides, ent-manool-13-O-β-D-2'-acetylxylopyranoside(1)and ent-manool-13-O-β-D-2',4'-diacetylxylopyranoside(2)were isolated from Aster veitchianus.Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods.

  10. Thermal monitoring using an ASTER image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Domenica; Angelini, Maria Giuseppa

    2016-10-01

    The research is focused on the study of the applicability of remote sensing techniques (specifically using ASTER data) for marine environmental analysis, relative to the determination of the surface temperatures. Using a multitemporal approach, two images (classified as level-1B), acquired in August 2000 and in 2005, were considered. The thermal maps were realized by means of the emissivity spectral normalization method, defining the thermal gradients in the area under investigation. The spatial and temporal anomalies related to the temperature distribution were highlighted; these anomalies represent an important parameter for the identification of probable groundwater pollution and soil contamination. To define the map of the surface temperature using thermal infrared ASTER channels, a numerical model dedicated to ASTER data was implemented during the experimentation. This model is based on the principle of interpolation of the type "least square interpolation (linear)," and it implies a reduction in the number of unknowns to obtain an acceptable solution to the problem. This experimental model has provided good results in the phase of implementation and in the tests on a synthetic image that were simulated in the laboratory. However, further verifications and modifications are necessary for the processing of real ASTER images.

  11. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset represents multiple products archived at the Land Processes DAAC for ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) aboard the...

  12. Magnetic manipulation of self-assembled colloidal asters.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snezhko, A.; Aranson, I. S. (Materials Science Division)

    2011-09-01

    Self-assembled materials must actively consume energy and remain out of equilibrium to support structural complexity and functional diversity. Here we show that a magnetic colloidal suspension confined at the interface between two immiscible liquids and energized by an alternating magnetic field dynamically self-assembles into localized asters and arrays of asters, which exhibit locomotion and shape change. By controlling a small external magnetic field applied parallel to the interface, we show that asters can capture, transport, and position target microparticles. The ability to manipulate colloidal structures is crucial for the further development of self-assembled microrobots

  13. Monitoring volcanic threats using ASTER satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, K.A.; Wessels, R.; Ramsey, M.; Dehn, J.

    2008-01-01

    This document summarizes ongoing activities associated with a research project funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) focusing on volcanic change detection through the use of satellite imagery. This work includes systems development as well as improvements in data analysis methods. Participating organizations include the NASA Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS), the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Science Team, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) at the USGS Alaska Science Center, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology (JPL/CalTech), the University of Pittsburgh, and the University of Alaska Fairbanks. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  14. ASTER Level 1B Registered Radiance at the Sensor

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is an advanced multispectral imager that was launched on board NASA's Terra spacecraft in...

  15. ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset 100-meter V003 - AG100

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer Global Emissivity Database (ASTER GED) was developed by the National Aeronautics and Space...

  16. Fifteen Years of ASTER Data on NASA's Terra Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, M.; Tsu, H.

    2014-12-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five instruments operating on NASA's Terra platform. Launched in 1999, ASTER has been acquiring data for 15 years. ASTER is a joint project between Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry; and US NASA. Data processing and distribution are done by both organizations; a joint science team helps to define mission priorities. ASTER acquires ~550 images per day, with a 60 km swath width. A daytime acquisition is three visible bands and a backward-looking stereo band with 15 m resolution, six SWIR bands with 30 m resolution, and 5 TIR bands with 90 m resolution. Nighttime TIR-only data are routinely collected. The stereo capability has allowed the ASTER project to produce a global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) data set, covering the earth's land surfaces from 83 degrees north to 83 degrees south, with 30 m data postings. This is the only (near-) global DEM available to all users at no charge; to date, over 28 million 1-by-1 degree DEM tiles have been distributed. As a general-purpose imaging instrument, ASTER-acquired data are used in numerous scientific disciplines, including: land use/land cover, urban monitoring, urban heat island studies, wetlands studies, agriculture monitoring, forestry, etc. Of particular emphasis has been the acquisition and analysis of data for natural hazard and disaster applications. We have been systematically acquiring images for 15,000 valley glaciers through the USGS Global Land Ice Monitoring from Space Project. The recently published Randolph Glacier Inventory, and the GLIMS book, both relied heavily on ASTER data as the basis for glaciological and climatological studies. The ASTER Volcano Archive is a unique on-line archive of thousands of daytime and nighttime ASTER images of ~1500 active glaciers, along with a growing archive of Landsat images. ASTER was scheduled to target active volcanoes at least 4 times per year, and more frequently for

  17. Aster Global dem Version 3, and New Aster Water Body Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, M.

    2016-06-01

    In 2016, the US/Japan ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) project released Version 3 of the Global DEM (GDEM). This 30 m DEM covers the earth's surface from 82N to 82S, and improves on two earlier versions by correcting some artefacts and filling in areas of missing DEMs by the acquisition of additional data. The GDEM was produced by stereocorrelation of 2 million ASTER scenes and operation on a pixel-by-pixel basis: cloud screening; stacking data from overlapping scenes; removing outlier values, and averaging elevation values. As previously, the GDEM is packaged in ~ 23,000 1 x 1 degree tiles. Each tile has a DEM file, and a NUM file reporting the number of scenes used for each pixel, and identifying the source for fill-in data (where persistent clouds prevented computation of an elevation value). An additional data set was concurrently produced and released: the ASTER Water Body Dataset (AWBD). This is a 30 m raster product, which encodes every pixel as either lake, river, or ocean; thus providing a global inland and shore-line water body mask. Water was identified through spectral analysis algorithms and manual editing. This product was evaluated against the Shuttle Water Body Dataset (SWBD), and the Landsat-based Global Inland Water (GIW) product. The SWBD only covers the earth between about 60 degrees north and south, so it is not a global product. The GIW only delineates inland water bodies, and does not deal with ocean coastlines. All products are at 30 m postings.

  18. ASTER satellite observations for international disaster management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, K.A.; Abrams, M.

    2012-01-01

    When lives are threatened or lost due to catastrophic disasters, and when massive financial impacts are experienced, international emergency response teams rapidly mobilize to provide urgently required support. Satellite observations of affected areas often provide essential insight into the magnitude and details of the impacts. The large cost and high complexity of developing and operating satellite flight and ground systems encourages international collaboration in acquiring imagery for such significant global events in order to speed delivery of critical information to help those affected, and optimize spectral, spatial, and temporal coverage of the areas of interest. The International Charter-Space and Major Disasters was established to enable such collaboration in sensor tasking during times of crisis and is often activated in response to calls for assistance from authorized users. Insight is provided from a U.S. perspective into sensor support for Charter activations and other disaster events through a description of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), which has been used to support emergency situations for over a decade through its expedited tasking and near real-time data delivery capabilities. Examples of successes achieved and challenges encountered in international collaboration to develop related systems and fulfill tasking requests suggest operational considerations for new missions as well as areas for future enhancements.

  19. ASTER Imaging and Analysis of Glacier Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargel, Jeffrey; Furfaro, Roberto; Kaser, Georg; Leonard, Gregory; Fink, Wolfgang; Huggel, Christian; Kääb, Andreas; Raup, Bruce; Reynolds, John; Wolfe, David; Zapata, Marco

    Most scientific attention to glaciers, including ASTER and other satellite-derived applications in glacier science, pertains to their roles in the following seven functions: (1) as signposts of climate change (Kaser et al. 1990; Williams and Ferrigno 1999, 2002; Williams et al. 2008; Kargel et al. 2005; Oerlemans 2005), (2) as natural reservoirs of fresh water (Yamada and Motoyama 1988; Yang and Hu 1992; Shiyin et al. 2003; Juen et al. 2007), (3) as contributors to sea-level change (Arendt et al. 2002), (4) as sources of hydropower (Reynolds 1993); much work also relates to the basic science of glaciology, especially (5) the physical phenomeno­logy of glacier flow processes and glacier change (DeAngelis and Skvarca 2003; Berthier et al. 2007; Rivera et al. 2007), (6) glacial geomorphology (Bishop et al. 1999, 2003), and (7) the technology required to acquire and analyze satellite images of glaciers (Bishop et al. 1999, 2000, 2003, 2004; Quincey et al. 2005, 2007; Raup et al. 2000, 2006ab; Khalsa et al. 2004; Paul et al. 2004a, b). These seven functions define the important areas of glaciological science and technology, yet a more pressing issue in parts of the world is the direct danger to people and infrastructure posed by some glaciers (Trask 2005; Morales 1969; Lliboutry et al. 1977; Evans and Clague 1988; Xu and Feng 1989; Reynolds 1993, 1998, 1999; Yamada and Sharma 1993; Hastenrath and Ames 1995; Mool 1995; Ames 1998; Chikita et al. 1999; Williams and Ferrigno 1999; Richardson and Reynolds 2000a, b; Zapata 2002; Huggel et al. 2002, 2004; Xiangsong 1992; Kääb et al. 2003, 2005, 2005c; Salzmann et al. 2004; Noetzli et al. 2006).

  20. ASTER Global DEM contribution to GEOSS demonstrates open data sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohre, T.; Duda, K. A.; Meyer, D. J.; Behnke, J.; Nasa Esdis Lp Daac

    2010-12-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) remote sensing instrument on the Terra spacecraft has been acquiring images of Earth since launch in 1999. Throughout this time data products have been openly available to the general public through sites in the U.S. and Japan. As the ASTER mission matured, a spatially broad and temporally deep data archive was gradually established. With this extensive accumulation of Earth observations, it became possible to create a new global digital elevation product, the ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM), using multi-temporal data, resulting in over 22,000 static 10 X 10 tiles. The ASTER GDEM was contributed by Japan’s Ministry of Economy Trade and Industry (METI) and the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) for distribution at no cost to users. As such, both METI and NASA desired to understand the uses of the ASTER GDEM, expressed as one of the GEOSS applications themes: disasters, health, energy, climate, water, weather, ecosystems, agriculture or biodiversity. This required both the registration of users, and restrictions on redistribution, to capture the intended use in terms of the GEOSS themes. The ASTER GDEM was made available to users worldwide via electronic download from the Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center (ERSDAC) of Japan and from NASA’s Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC). During the first three months after product release, over 4 million GDEM tiles were distributed from the LP DAAC and ERSDAC. The ASTER GDEM release generated nearly 20,000 new user registrations in the NASA EOS ClearingHOuse (ECHO)/WIST and the ERSDAC systems. By the end of 2009, over 6.5 Million GDEM tiles were distributed by the LP DAAC and ERSDAC. Users have requested tiles over specific areas of interest as well as the entire dataset for global research. Intense global interest in the GDEM

  1. CHROMITITE PROSPECTING USING LANDSAT TM AND ASTER REMOTE SENSING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Beiranvand Pour

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Studying the ophiolite complexes using multispectral remote sensing satellite data are interesting because of high diversity of minerals and the source of podiform chromitites. This research developed an approach to discriminate lithological units and detecting host rock of chromitite bodies within ophiolitic complexes using the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER and Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM satellite data. Three main ophiolite complexes located in south of Iran have been selected for the study. Spectral transform techniques, including minimum noise fraction (MNF and specialized band ratio were employed to detect different rock units and the identification of high-potential areas of chromite ore deposits within ophiolitic complexes. A specialized band ratio (4/1, 4/5, 4/7 of ASTER, MNF components and Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM on ASTER and Landsat TM data were used to distinguish ophiolitic rock units. Results show that the specialized band ratio was able to identify different rock units and serpentinized dunite as host rock of chromitites within ophiolitic complexes, appropriately. MNF components of ASTER and Landsat TM data were suitable to distinguish ophiolitic rock complexes at a regional scale. The integration of SAM and Feature Level Fusion (FLF used in this investigation discriminated the ophiolitic rock units and prepared detailed geological map for the study area. Accordingly, high potential areas (serpentinite dunite were identified in the study area for chromite exploration targets.The approach used in this research offers the image processing techniques as a robust, reliable, fast and cost-effective method for detecting serpentinized dunite as host rock of chromitite bodies within vast ophiolite complexes using ASTER and Landsat TM satellite data.

  2. Recent developments in seismic analysis in the code Aster; Les developpements recents en analyse sismique dans le code aster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guihot, P.; Devesa, G.; Dumond, A.; Panet, M.; Waeckel, F.

    1996-12-31

    Progress in the field of seismic qualification and design methods made these last few years allows physical phenomena actually in play to be better considered, while cutting down the conservatism associated with some simplified design methods. So following the change in methods and developing the most advantageous ones among them contributes to the process of the seismic margins assessment and the preparation of new design tools for future series. In this paper, the main developments and improvements in methods which have been made these last two years in the Code Aster, in order to improve seismic calculation methods and seismic margin assessment are presented. The first development relates to making the MISS3D soil structure interaction code available, thanks to an interface made with the Code Aster. The second relates to the possibility of making modal basis time calculations on multi-supported structures by considering local non linearities like impact, friction or squeeze fluid forces. Recent developments in random dynamics and postprocessing devoted to earthquake designs are then mentioned. Three applications of these developments are then ut forward. The first application relates to a test case for soil structure interaction design using MISS3D-Aster coupling. The second is a test case for a multi-supported structure. The last application, more for manufacturing, refers to seismic qualification of Main Live Steam stop valves. First results of the independent validation of the Code Aster seismic design functionalities, which provide and improve the quality of software, are also recalled. (authors). 11 refs.

  3. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) after fifteen years: Review of global products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Michael; Tsu, Hiroji; Hulley, Glynn; Iwao, Koki; Pieri, David; Cudahy, Tom; Kargel, Jeffrey

    2015-06-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is a 15-channel imaging instrument operating on NASA's Terra satellite. A joint project between the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry, ASTER has been acquiring data for 15 years, since March 2000. The archive now contains over 2.8 million scenes; for the majority of them, a stereo pair was collected using nadir and backward telescopes imaging in the NIR wavelength. The majority of users require only a few to a few dozen scenes for their work. Studies have ranged over numerous scientific disciplines, and many practical applications have benefited from ASTER's unique data. A few researchers have been able to mine the entire ASTER archive, that is now global in extent due to the long duration of the mission. Six examples of global products are described in this contribution: the ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM), the most complete, highest resolution DEM available to all users; the ASTER Emissivity Database (ASTER GED), a global 5-band emissivity map of the land surface; the ASTER Global Urban Area Map (AGURAM), a 15-m resolution database of over 3500 cities; the ASTER Volcano Archive (AVA), an archive of over 1500 active volcanoes; ASTER Geoscience products of the continent of Australia; and the Global Ice Monitoring from Space (GLIMS) project.

  4. Identificación de metabasaltos alterados mediante datos ASTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Castro Godoy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Los datos del sensor ASTER permitieron desarrollar una metodología sencilla, utilizando las bandas del infrarrojo de onda corta (subsistema SWIR, para prospectar cuerpos ígneos alterados que manifiestan diferencias espectrales con respecto a la roca de caja. A modo de ejemplo se detectó la alteración clorítica presente en metabasaltos intercalados en metasedimentitas de la Formación Puntilla de Uspallata en la Precordillera mendocina.

  5. Identificación de metabasaltos alterados mediante datos ASTER

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Castro Godoy; Mariela Etcheverría; Marta Godeas

    2010-01-01

    Los datos del sensor ASTER permitieron desarrollar una metodología sencilla, utilizando las bandas del infrarrojo de onda corta (subsistema SWIR), para prospectar cuerpos ígneos alterados que manifiestan diferencias espectrales con respecto a la roca de caja. A modo de ejemplo se detectó la alteración clorítica presente en metabasaltos intercalados en metasedimentitas de la Formación Puntilla de Uspallata en la Precordillera mendocina.

  6. Prediction of winter wheat grain protein content by ASTER image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenjiang; Song, Xiaoyu; Wang, Jihua; Wang, Zhijie; Zhao, Chunjiang

    2008-10-01

    The Advanced technology in space-borne determination of grain crude protein content (CP) by remote sensing can help optimize the strategies for buyers in aiding purchasing decisions, and help farmers to maximize the grain output by adjusting field nitrogen (N) fertilizer inputs. We performed field experiments to study the relationship between grain quality indicators and foliar nitrogen concentration (FNC). FNC at anthesis stage was significantly correlated with CP, while spectral vegetation index was significantly correlated to FNC. Based on the relationships among nitrogen reflectance index (NRI), FNC and CP, a model for CP prediction was developed. NRI was able to evaluate FNC with a higher coefficient of determination of R2=0.7302. The method developed in this study could contribute towards developing optimal procedures for evaluating wheat grain quality by ASTER image at anthesis stage. The RMSE was 0.893 % for ASTER image model, and the R2 was 0.7194. It is thus feasible to forecast grain quality by NRI derived from ASTER image.

  7. Identificación de metabasaltos alterados mediante datos ASTER Identification of altered metabasalts from ASTER data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Castro Godoy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Los datos del sensor ASTER permitieron desarrollar una metodología sencilla, utilizando las bandas del infrarrojo de onda corta (subsistema SWIR, para prospectar cuerpos ígneos alterados que manifiestan diferencias espectrales con respecto a la roca de caja. A modo de ejemplo se detectó la alteración clorítica presente en metabasaltos intercalados en metasedimentitas de la Formación Puntilla de Uspallata en la Precordillera mendocina.ASTER data allowed developing a simple methodology, using the Short Wave Infrared spectral bands (SWIR, in order to detect alteration minerals that affect igneous bodies and have spectral differences with the country rock. As an example chloritic alteration was detected in metabasalts interbedded in metasediments of Puntilla de Uspallata Formation, Precordillera Mendocina.

  8. Comparison of field emissivities with laboratory measurements and ASTER data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mira, M.; Schmugge, T.; Valor, E.; Caselles, V.; Coll, C.

    2008-10-01

    Surface emissivity in the thermal infrared (TIR) region is an important parameter for determining the land surface temperature from remote sensing measurements. This work compares the emissivities measured by different field methods (the Box method and the Temperature and Emissivity Separation, TES, algorithm) as well as emissivity data from ASTER scenes and the spectra obtained from the ASTER Spectral Library. The study was performed with a field radiometer having TIR bands with central wavelengths at 11.3 μm, 10.6 μm, 9.1 μm, 8.7 μm and 8.4 μm, similar to the ASTER TIR bands. The measurements were made at two sites in southern New Mexico. The first was in the White Sands National Monument, and the second was an open shrub land in the Jornada Experimental Range, in the northern Chihuahuan Desert, New Mexico, USA. The measurements show that, in general, emissivities derived with the Box method agree within 3% with those derived with the TES method for the spectral bands centered at 10.6 μm and 11.3 μm. However, the emissivities for the shorter wavelength bands are higher when derived with the Box method than those with the TES algorithm (differences range from 2% to 7%). The field emissivities agree within 2% with the laboratory spectrum for the 8-13 μm, 11.3 μm and 10.6 μm bands. However, the field and laboratory measurements in general differ from 3% to 16% for the shorter wavelength bands, i.e., 9.1 μm, 8.6 μm and 8.4 μm. A good agreement between the experimental measurements and the ASTER TIR emissivity data is observed for White Sands, especially over the 9 - 12 μm range (agreement within 4%). The study showed an emissivity increase up to 17% in the 8 to 9 μm range and an increase of 8% in emissivity ratio of average channels (8.4 μm, 8.6 μm, 9.1 μm):(10.6 μm, 11.3 μm) for two gypsum samples with different water content.

  9. Assessing the land cover situation in Surkhang, Upper Mustang, Nepal, using an ASTER image

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, B.D.; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Graaf, de N.R.; Chapagain, N.R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the remote sensing technique used to prepare a land cover map of Surkhang, Upper Mustang Nepal. The latest ASTER image (October 2002) and an ASTER DEM were used for the land cover classification. The study was carried out in Surkhang Village Development Committee (area 799 km2)

  10. The influence of Aster x salignus Willd. Invasion on the diversity of soil yeast communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushakova, A. M.; Kachalkin, A. V.; Chernov, I. Yu.

    2016-07-01

    The annual dynamics of yeast communities were studied in the soddy-podzolic soil under the thickets of Aster x salignus Willd., one of the widespread invasive plant species in central Russia. Yeast groups in the soils under continuous aster thickets were found to differ greatly from the yeast communities in the soils under the adjacent indigenous meadow vegetation. In both biotopes the same species ( Candida vartiovaarae, Candida sake, and Cryptococcus terreus) are dominants. However, in the soils under indigenous grasses, eurybiontic yeasts Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, which almost never occur in the soil under aster, are widespread. In the soil under aster, the shares of other typical epiphytic and pedobiontic yeast fungi (ascomycetic species Wickerhamomyces aniomalus, Barnettozyma californica and basidiomycetic species Cystofilobasidium macerans, Guehomyces pullulans) significantly increase. Thus, the invasion of Aster x salignus has a clear effect on soil yeast complexes reducing their taxonomic and ecological diversity.

  11. INTEGRATION OF PALSAR AND ASTER SATELLITE DATA FOR GEOLOGICAL MAPPING IN TROPICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Beiranvand Pour

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the integration of the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER satellite data for geological mapping applications in tropical environments. The eastern part of the central belt of peninsular Malaysia has been investigated to identify structural features and mineral mapping using PALSAR and ASTER data. Adaptive local sigma and directional filters were applied to PALSAR data for detecting geological structure elements in the study area. The vegetation, mineralogic and lithologic indices for ASTER bands were tested in tropical climate. Lineaments (fault and fractures and curvilinear (anticline or syncline were detected using PALSAR fused image of directional filters (N-S, NE-SW, and NW-SE.Vegetation index image map show vegetation cover by fusing ASTER VNIR bands. High concentration of clay minerals zone was detected using fused image map derived from ASTER SWIR bands. Fusion of ASTER TIR bands produced image map of the lithological units. Results indicate that data integration and data fusion from PALSAR and ASTER sources enhanced information extraction for geological mapping in tropical environments.

  12. Response of mycorrhizal periwinkle plants to aster yellows phytoplasma infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamińska, Maria; Klamkowski, Krzysztof; Berniak, Hanna; Sowik, Iwona

    2010-03-01

    The objective of our research was to assess if arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal colonization can modify the effect of infection by two aster yellows phytoplasma strains (AY1, AYSim) in Catharanthus roseus plants. Both phytoplasma strains had a negative effect on the root fresh weight, but they differed in symptoms appearance and in their influence on photosynthetic and transpiration rates of the periwinkle plants. AM plants showed significantly reduced shoot fresh weight, while the transpiration rate was significantly increased. AM fungal colonization significantly affected shoot height and fresh weight of the plants infected by each phytoplasma strains as well as the root system of plants infected with the more aggressive AYSim phytoplasma strain. Double inoculation did not reduce the negative effects induced with phytoplasma alone on the photosynthetic activity of phytoplasma-infected plants.

  13. Poly-Pattern Compressive Segmentation of ASTER Data for GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Wayne; Warner, Eric; Tutwiler, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Pattern-based segmentation of multi-band image data, such as ASTER, produces one-byte and two-byte approximate compressions. This is a dual segmentation consisting of nested coarser and finer level pattern mappings called poly-patterns. The coarser A-level version is structured for direct incorporation into geographic information systems in the manner of a raster map. GIs renderings of this A-level approximation are called pattern pictures which have the appearance of color enhanced images. The two-byte version consisting of thousands of B-level segments provides a capability for approximate restoration of the multi-band data in selected areas or entire scenes. Poly-patterns are especially useful for purposes of change detection and landscape analysis at multiple scales. The primary author has implemented the segmentation methodology in a public domain software suite.

  14. Thermal mapping of Hawaiian volcanoes with ASTER satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Matthew R.; Witzke, Coral-Nadine

    2011-01-01

    Thermal mapping of volcanoes is important to determine baseline thermal behavior in order to judge future thermal activity that may precede an eruption. We used cloud-free kinetic temperature images from the ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) sensor obtained between 2000 and 2010 to produce thermal maps for all five subaerial volcanoes in Hawai‘i that have had eruptions in the Holocene (Kīlauea, Mauna Loa, Hualālai, Mauna Kea, and Haleakalā). We stacked the images to provide time-averaged thermal maps, as well as to analyze temperature trends through time. Thermal areas are conspicuous at the summits and rift zones of Kīlauea and Mauna Loa, and the summit calderas of these volcanoes contain obvious arcuate, concentric linear thermal areas that probably result from channeling of rising gas along buried, historical intracaldera scarps. The only significant change in thermal activity noted in the study period is the opening of the Halema‘uma‘u vent at Kīlauea's summit in 2008. Several small thermal anomalies are coincident with pit craters on Hualālai. We suspect that these simply result from the sheltered nature of the depression, but closer inspection is warranted to determine if genuine thermal activity exists in the craters. Thermal areas were not detected on Haleakalā or Mauna Kea. The main limitation of the study is the large pixel size (90 m) of the ASTER images, which reduces our ability to detect subtle changes or to identify small, low-temperature thermal activity. This study, therefore, is meant to characterize the broad, large-scale thermal features on these volcanoes. Future work should study these thermal areas with thermal cameras and thermocouples, which have a greater ability to detect small, low-temperature thermal features.

  15. Evidence on Possible Mycoplasma Etiology of Aster Yellows Disease II. Suppression of Aster Yellows in Insect Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, R F; Davis, R E

    1970-08-01

    Chlortetracycline or chloramphenicol (but not kanamycin, penicillin, or erythromycin), when administered in hydroponic solution to diseased aster, reduced the availability of the aster yellows (AY) agent to nymphs of Macrosteles fascifrons (Stål). Insects exposed to healthy plants whose roots were immersed in chlortetracycline were able to acquire AY agent from diseased plants the day after removal from the antibiotic-treated plants, but the latent period of the ensuing disease in the insects was prolonged. Chlortetracycline or tylosin tartrate blocked AY infection in nymphs injected with a mixture of antibiotic and the AY agent, but polymyxin, neomycin, vancomycin, penicillin, carbomycin, or chloramphenicol did not. All tetracyclines tested, methacycline, oxytetracycline, and chlortetracycline, produced a dramatic reduction in the ability of infected vectors to transmit AY agent. Tylosin tartrate also reduced transmission when injected into AY-transmitting vectors, but carbomycin, spectinomycin, cycloserine, penicillin, erythromycin, or kanamycin had no such effect. During the first 10 days after injection of tylosin tartrate or oxytetracycline into transmitting vectors, ability of the insects to transmit AY decayed rapidly. Transmission by insects injected with buffer alone, after decreasing the first day after injection, gradually returned to its normal level in less than 1 week. By 2 to 3 weeks after injection with tylosin or oxytetracycline, ability to transmit AY was regained by vectors. The results suggest that tetracycline antibiotics and tylosin tartrate inhibit multiplication of AY agent in the insect. The spectrum of antibiotic activity in the insect is consistent with the hypothesis that AY and other plant yellows diseases are caused by mycoplasma-like organisms.

  16. ASTER Global Emissivity Data Set Monthly 0.05 degree V041 - AG5KMMOH

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Emissivity Dataset (GED) is a collection of monthly files (see known issues for gaps)...

  17. ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset Monthly 0.05 degree NetCDF4

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Emissivity Dataset (GED) is a collection of monthly files (see known issues for gaps)...

  18. ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset 1-kilometer Binary V003 - AG1KMB

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer Global Emissivity Database (ASTER GED) was developed by the National Aeronautics and Space...

  19. ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset 100-meter Binary V003 - AG100B

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer Global Emissivity Database (ASTER GED) was developed by the National Aeronautics and Space...

  20. ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset 1-kilometer V003 - AG1KM

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer Global Emissivity Database (ASTER GED) was developed by the National Aeronautics and Space...

  1. ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset Monthly 0.05 degree HDF5

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Emissivity Dataset (GED) is a collection of monthly files (see known issues for gaps)...

  2. On-Orbit Spatial Characterization of MODIS with ASTER Aboard the Terra Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yong; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2011-01-01

    This letter presents a novel approach for on-orbit characterization of MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) band-to-band registration (BBR) using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) aboard the Terra spacecraft. The spatial resolution of ASTER spectral bands is much higher than that of MODIS, making it feasible to characterize MODIS on-orbit BBR using their simultaneous observations. The ground target selected for on-orbit MODIS BBR characterization in this letter is a water body, which is a uniform scene with high signal contrast relative to its neighbor areas. A key step of this approach is to accurately localize the measurements of each MODIS band in an ASTER measurement plane coordinate (AMPC). The ASTER measurements are first interpolated and aggregated to simulate the measurements of each MODIS band. The best measurement match between ASTER and each MODIS band is obtained when the measurement difference reaches its weighted minimum. The position of each MODIS band in the AMPC is then used to calculate the BBR. The results are compared with those derived from MODIS onboard Spectro-Radiometric Calibration Assembly. They are in good agreement, generally less than 0.1 MODIS pixel. This approach is useful for other sensors without onboard spatial characterization capability. Index Terms Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), band-to-band registration (BBR), MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), spatial characterization.

  3. EOS Contract Report: The ASTER and MODIS Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, P.; Thome, K. (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    Three major tasks occupied the group's efforts during this six months. The first was measuring the bidirectional reflectance properties of four reflectance samples provided by NIST. S. Biggar and P. Spyak made these measurements in both the VNIR and SWIR. The second major task was the group's move to a new facility in March. This required that our calibration laboratory and blacklab be disassembled and reassembled in addition to moving offices and other equipment. The third task was the joint vicarious calibration that took place the latter half of June. This campaign included two weeks of laboratory measurements by the RSG and nine days in the field. Other work during the past six months consisted of Science Team support activities including the attendance at meetings related to MODIS and ASTER. In addition, K. Scott continued work on the cross-calibration software package by developing a graphical interface to 6S, an uncertainty analysis code, and an image registration module. M. Sicard used a trip to Cimel in France to change the Cimel TIR radiometer's field of view and then characterized this new field of view. Z. Rouf and Z. Murshalin processed radiance-based data from last summer's Lunar Lake campaign.

  4. Thermal remote sensing of ice-debris landforms using ASTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenning, A.; Peña, M. A.; Long, S.; Soliman, A.

    2011-10-01

    Remote sensors face challenges in characterizing mountain permafrost and ground thermal conditions or mapping rock glaciers and debris-covered glaciers. We explore the potentials of thermal imaging and in particular thermal inertia mapping in mountain cryospheric research, focusing on the relationships between ground surface temperatures and the presence of ice-debris landforms on one side and land surface temperature (LST) and apparent thermal inertia (ATI) on the other. In our case study we utilize ASTER daytime and nighttime imagery and in-situ measurements of near-surface ground temperature (NSGT) in the Mediterranean Andes during a snow-free and dry observation period in late summer. Spatial patterns of LST and NSGT were mostly consistent with each other both at daytime and at nighttime. Daytime LST over ice-debris landforms was decreased and ATI consequently increased compared to other debris surfaces under otherwise equal conditions, but NSGT showed contradictory results, which underlines the complexity and possible scale dependence of ATI in heterogeneous substrates with the presence of a thermal mismatch and a heat sink at depth. While our results demonstrate the utility of thermal imaging and ATI mapping in a mountain cryospheric context, further research is needed for a better interpretation of ATI patterns in complex thermophysical conditions

  5. Evaluation of ASTER-Like Daily Land Surface Temperature by Fusing ASTER and MODIS Data during the HiWATER-MUSOEXE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guijun Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Land surface temperature (LST is an important parameter that is highly responsive to surface energy fluxes and has become valuable to many disciplines. However, it is difficult to acquire satellite LSTs with both high spatial and temporal resolutions due to tradeoffs between them. Thus, various algorithms/models have been developed to enhance the spatial or the temporal resolution of thermal infrared (TIR data or LST, but rarely both. The Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM is the widely-used data fusion algorithm for Landsat and MODIS imagery to produce Landsat-like surface reflectance. In order to extend the STARFM application over heterogeneous areas, an enhanced STARFM (ESTARFM approach was proposed by introducing a conversion coefficient and the spectral unmixing theory. The aim of this study is to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of the ESTARFM algorithm for generating ASTER-like daily LST by three approaches: simulated data, ground measurements and remote sensing products, respectively. The datasets of LST ground measurements, MODIS, and ASTER images were collected in an arid region of Northwest China during the first thematic HiWATER-Multi-Scale Observation Experiment on Evapotranspiration (MUSOEXE over heterogeneous land surfaces in 2012 from May to September. Firstly, the results of the simulation test indicated that ESTARFM could accurately predict background with temperature variations, even coordinating with small ground objects and linear ground objects. Secondly, four temporal ASTER and MODIS data fusion LSTs (i.e., predicted ASTER-like LST products were highly consistent with ASTER LST products. Here, the four correlation coefficients were greater than 0.92, root mean square error (RMSE reached about 2 K and mean absolute error (MAE ranged from 1.32 K to 1.73 K. Finally, the results of the ground measurement validation indicated that the overall accuracy was high (R2 = 0.92, RMSE = 0.77 K, and the

  6. Estimation of broadband emissivity (8-12 um) from ASTER data by using RM-NN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, K B; Ma, Y; Shen, X Y; Li, B P; Li, C Y; Li, Z L

    2012-08-27

    Land surface window emissivity is a key parameter for estimating the longwave radiative budget. The combined radiative transfer model (RM) with neural network (NN) algorithm is utilized to directly estimate the window (8-12 um) emissivity from the brightness temperature of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) with 90 m spatial resolution. Although the estimation accuracy is very high when the broadband emissivity is estimated from AST05 (ASTER Standard Data Product) by using regression method, the accuracy of AST05 is about ± 0.015 for 86 spectra which is determined by the atmosphere correction for ASTER 1B data. The MODTRAN 4 is used to simulate the process of radiance transfer, and the broadband emissivity is directly estimated from the brightness temperature of ASTER 1B data at satellite. The comparison analysis indicates that the RM-NN is more competent to estimate broadband emissivity than other method when the brightness temperatures of band 11, 12, 13, 14 are made as input nodes of dynamic neural network. The estimation average accuracy is about 0.009, and the estimation results are not sensitive to instrument noise. The RM-NN is applied to extract broadband emissivity from an image of ASTER 1B data in China, and the comparison against a classification based multiple bands with 15 m spatial resolution shows that the estimation results from RM-NN are very good.

  7. Evapotranspiration Estimation Using Multispectral Thermal Infrared Data from ASTER and MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, A. N.; Schmugge, T. J.; Kustas, W. P.; Prueger, J. H.

    2009-12-01

    Estimating evapotranspiration (ET) from space is important for monitoring water use at local and regional scales. Terra platform sensors ASTER and MODIS have been valuable for this goal because of their multispectral capabilities and high (90 m with ASTER) to moderate ( 1 km with MODIS) spatial resolutions. These capabilities have allowed discrimination of land cover conditions unobtainable from more conventional satellite imagery. In particular the multiple thermal channels provided by ASTER and MODIS have helped collect accurate observations of land surface temperature and emissivity which can be used to detect water stress and to distinguish between living and senescent vegetation. Each of these characteristics is important for modeling water fluxes. The frequent coverage by MODIS is also very important for this endeavor. To demonstrate how this can be accomplished, ASTER and Terra/MODIS data were modeled using images collected over the Jornada Experimental Range, a semi-arid research site in southern New Mexico. By combining 27 ASTER clear sky scenes with several hundred 1-km scale MODIS scenes between 2001 and 2003, it was feasible to estimate ET at weekly time steps and to also assess longer-term changes in vegetation distributions.

  8. Recognition of a porphyry system using ASTER data in Bideghan - Qom province (central of Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizi, F.; Mansouri, E.

    2014-07-01

    The Bideghan area is located south of the Qom province (central of Iran). The most impressive geological features in the studied area are the Eocene sequences which are intruded by volcanic rocks with basic compositions. Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image processing have been used for hydrothermal alteration mapping and lineaments identification in the investigated area. In this research false color composite, band ratio, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Least Square Fit (LS-Fit) and Spectral Angel Mapping (SAM) techniques were applied on ASTER data and argillic, phyllic, Iron oxide and propylitic alteration zones were separated. Lineaments were identified by aid of false color composite, high pass filters and hill-shade DEM techniques. The results of this study demonstrate the usefulness of remote sensing method and ASTER multi-spectral data for alteration and lineament mapping. Finally, the results were confirmed by field investigation.

  9. Recognition of a porphyry system using ASTER data in Bideghan – Qom province (central of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Feizi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Bideghan area is located south of the Qom province (central of Iran. The most impressive geological features in the studied area are the Eocene sequences which are intruded by volcanic rocks with basic compositions. Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER image processing have been used for hydrothermal alteration mapping and lineaments identification in the investigated area. In this research false color composite, band ratio, Principal Component Analysis (PCA, Least Square Fit (LS-Fit and Spectral Angel Mapping (SAM techniques were applied on ASTER data and argillic, phyllic, Iron oxide and propylitic alteration zones were separated. Lineaments were identified by aid of false color composite, high pass filters and hill-shade DEM techniques. The results of this study demonstrate the usefulness of remote sensing method and ASTER multi-spectral data for alteration and lineament mapping. Finally, the results were confirmed by field investigation.

  10. Mapping advanced argillic alteration zones with ASTER and Hyperion data in the Andes Mountains of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Yuddy; Goïta, Kalifa; Péloquin, Stéphane

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluates Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Hyperion hyperspectral sensor datasets to detect advanced argillic minerals. The spectral signatures of some alteration clay minerals, such as dickite and alunite, have similar absorption features; thus separating them using multispectral satellite images is a complex challenge. However, Hyperion with its fine spectral bands has potential for good separability of features. The Spectral Angle Mapper algorithm was used in this study to map three advanced argillic alteration minerals (alunite, kaolinite, and dickite) in a known alteration zone in the Peruvian Andes. The results from ASTER and Hyperion were analyzed, compared, and validated using a Portable Infrared Mineral Analyzer field spectrometer. The alterations corresponding to kaolinite and alunite were detected with both ASTER and Hyperion (80% to 84% accuracy). However, the dickite mineral was identified only with Hyperion (82% accuracy).

  11. Using a deformable mirror to generate custom laser guidestar asterisms: simulation and laboratory results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Andrew P.; Srinath, Srikar; Gavel, Donald; Kupke, Renate; Dillon, Daren

    2014-08-01

    It is possible to create custom laser guidestar (LGS) asterisms from a single beam by using a deformable mirror to pattern the phase of the outgoing laser guidestar beam. This avoids the need for multiple laser launch assemblies, and in principle would allow one to position the multiple LGS spots in any desired arrangement around the science target, as well as dynamically rotate the LGS pattern on-sky and control the distribution of intensity in each spot. Simulations and laboratory experiments indicate that a PTT111 and PTT489 IrisAO MEMS deformable mirror and a Hamamatsu X8267 spatial light modulator may have applications for creating small LGS asterisms for biological imaging with adaptive optics. For astronomy applications, the phase values required to produce the "3+1" laser guidestar asterism of Keck's Next Generation AO system is also investigated.

  12. Reducing the Discrepancy Between ASTER and MODIS Land Surface Temperature Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changqing Ke

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Human-induced global warming has significantly increased the importance ofsatellite monitoring of land surface temperature (LST on a global scale. The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS provides a 1-km resolution LST productwith almost daily coverage of the Earth, invaluable to both local and global change studies.The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Reflection Radiometer (ASTER provides aLST product with a high spatial resolution of 90-m and a 16-day recurrent cycle,simultaneously acquired at the same height and nadir view as MODIS. ASTER andMODIS are complementary in resolution, offering a unique opportunity for scale-relatedstudies. ASTER and MODIS LST have been widely used but the errors in LST were mostlydisregarded. Correction of ASTER-to-MODIS LST discrepancies is essential for studiesreliant upon the joint use of these sensors. In this study, we compared three correctionapproaches: the Wan et al.’s approach, the refined Wan et al.’s approach, and thegeneralized split window (GSW algorithm based approach. The Wan et al.’s approachcorrects the MODIS 1-km LST using MODIS 5-km LST. The refined approach modifiesthe Wan et al.’s approach through incorporating ASTER emissivity and MODIS 5-km data.The GSW algorithm approach does not use MODIS 5-km but only ASTER emissivity data. We examined the case over a semi-arid terrain area for the part of the Loess Plateau of China. All the approaches reduced the ASTER-to-MODIS LST discrepancy effectively. With terrain correction, the original ASTER-to-MODIS LST difference reduced from 2.7±1.28 K to -0.1±1.87 K for the Wan et al.’s approach, 0.2±1.57 K for the refined approach, and 0.1±1.33 K for the GSW algorithm based approach. Among all the approaches, the GSW algorithm based approach performed best in terms of mean, standard deviation, root mean square root, and correlation coefficient.

  13. Application Analysis of Global Public Data Resources ASTER GDEM%全球公众数据资源ASTER GDEM的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛

    2015-01-01

    Based on the global public data resources ASTER GDEM (space borne thermal emission and reflection ra⁃diometer global digital elevation model) data publicly announced by the USA space agency (NASA),this paper con⁃ducted practical processing and research, and carried out statistical validation on its accuracy.%本文利用美国太空总署(NASA)对外公布的全球公众数据资源ASTER GDEM(星载热发射和反射辐射仪全球数字高程模型)数据进行了实践性处理和研究,并对其精度进行统计验证。

  14. First report of Alternaria alternata causing leaf spot on Ruth's golden aster (Pityopsis ruthii) in Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth’s golden aster, Pityopsis ruthii (Small), is an endangered, herbaceous perennial plant that is only endemic to small sections of the Hiwassee and Ocoee Rivers, in Polk County, Tennessee. In July 2015, a greenhouse grown plant exhibited symptoms of disease that included elongated brown lesions o...

  15. Spindle pole mechanics studied in mitotic asters: dynamic distribution of spindle forces through compliant linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlebois, Blake D; Kollu, Swapna; Schek, Henry T; Compton, Duane A; Hunt, Alan J

    2011-04-06

    During cell division, chromosomes must faithfully segregate to maintain genome integrity, and this dynamic mechanical process is driven by the macromolecular machinery of the mitotic spindle. However, little is known about spindle mechanics. For example, spindle microtubules are organized by numerous cross-linking proteins yet the mechanical properties of those cross-links remain unexplored. To examine the mechanical properties of microtubule cross-links we applied optical trapping to mitotic asters that form in mammalian mitotic extracts. These asters are foci of microtubules, motors, and microtubule-associated proteins that reflect many of the functional properties of spindle poles and represent centrosome-independent spindle-pole analogs. We observed bidirectional motor-driven microtubule movements, showing that microtubule linkages within asters are remarkably compliant (mean stiffness 0.025 pN/nm) and mediated by only a handful of cross-links. Depleting the motor Eg5 reduced this stiffness, indicating that Eg5 contributes to the mechanical properties of microtubule asters in a manner consistent with its localization to spindle poles in cells. We propose that compliant linkages among microtubules provide a mechanical architecture capable of accommodating microtubule movements and distributing force among microtubules without loss of pole integrity-a mechanical paradigm that may be important throughout the spindle.

  16. Improvement of dem Generation from Aster Images Using Satellite Jitter Estimation and Open Source Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girod, L.; Nuth, C.; Kääb, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) system embarked on the Terra (EOS AM-1) satellite has been a source of stereoscopic images covering the whole globe at a 15m resolution at a consistent quality for over 15 years. The potential of this data in terms of geomorphological analysis and change detection in three dimensions is unrivaled and needs to be exploited. However, the quality of the DEMs and ortho-images currently delivered by NASA (ASTER DMO products) is often of insufficient quality for a number of applications such as mountain glacier mass balance. For this study, the use of Ground Control Points (GCPs) or of other ground truth was rejected due to the global "big data" type of processing that we hope to perform on the ASTER archive. We have therefore developed a tool to compute Rational Polynomial Coefficient (RPC) models from the ASTER metadata and a method improving the quality of the matching by identifying and correcting jitter induced cross-track parallax errors. Our method outputs more accurate DEMs with less unmatched areas and reduced overall noise. The algorithms were implemented in the open source photogrammetric library and software suite MicMac.

  17. Cross-Calibration of Earth Observing System Terra Satellite Sensors MODIS and ASTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCorkel, J.

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emissive and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) are two of the five sensors onboard the Earth Observing System's Terra satellite. These sensors share many similar spectral channels while having much different spatial and operational parameters. ASTER is a tasked sensor and sometimes referred to a zoom camera of the MODIS that collects a full-earth image every one to two days. It is important that these sensors have a consistent characterization and calibration for continued development and use of their data products. This work uses a variety of test sites to retrieve and validate intercalibration results. The refined calibration of Collection 6 of the Terra MODIS data set is leveraged to provide the up-to-date reference for trending and validation of ASTER. Special attention is given to spatially matching radiance measurements using prelaunch spatial response characterization of MODIS. Despite differences in spectral band properties and spatial scales, ASTER-MODIS is an ideal case for intercomparison since the sensors have nearly identical views and acquisitions times and therefore can be used as a baseline of intercalibration performance of other satellite sensor pairs.

  18. Dynamics of microtubule asters in microfabricated chambers: The role of catastrophes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faivre-Moskalenko, Cendrine; Dogterom, Marileen

    2002-01-01

    Recent in vivo as well as in vitro experiments have indicated that microtubule pushing alone is sufficient to position a microtubule-organizing center within a cell. Here, we investigate the effect of catastrophes on the dynamics of microtubule asters within microfabricated chambers that mimic the confining geometry of living cells. The use of a glass bead as the microtubule-organizing center allows us to manipulate the aster by using optical tweezers. In the case in which microtubules preexist, we show that because of microtubule buckling, repositioning almost never occurs after relocation with the optical tweezers, although initial microtubule growth always leads the aster to the geometrical center of the chamber. When a catastrophe promoter is added, we find instead that the aster is able to efficiently explore the chamber geometry even after being relocated with the optical tweezers. As predicted by theoretical calculations, the results of our in vitro experiments clearly demonstrate the need for catastrophes for proper positioning in a confining geometry. These findings correlate with recent observations of nuclear positioning in fission yeast cells. PMID:12486218

  19. Bewaren van onbeworteld stek : bewaring van onbeworteld stek van aster en solidago

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eveleens, B.; Krijger, D.; Kouwenhoven, D.; Berg, van den T.; Telgen, van H.J.

    2002-01-01

    In de praktijk worden geoogste stekken van Aster ericoides en Solidago maximaal een week bewaard. Bij langere bewaring (of transport) treden vaak problemen op als uitval ten gevolge van rot en/of slechte beworteling. Een langere bewaarduur is gewenst, zowel voor planning van werkzaamheden als behoud

  20. Glacier Volume Change Estimation Using Time Series of Improved Aster Dems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girod, Luc; Nuth, Christopher; Kääb, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Volume change data is critical to the understanding of glacier response to climate change. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) system embarked on the Terra (EOS AM-1) satellite has been a unique source of systematic stereoscopic images covering the whole globe at 15m resolution and at a consistent quality for over 15 years. While satellite stereo sensors with significantly improved radiometric and spatial resolution are available to date, the potential of ASTER data lies in its long consistent time series that is unrivaled, though not fully exploited for change analysis due to lack of data accuracy and precision. Here, we developed an improved method for ASTER DEM generation and implemented it in the open source photogrammetric library and software suite MicMac. The method relies on the computation of a rational polynomial coefficients (RPC) model and the detection and correction of cross-track sensor jitter in order to compute DEMs. ASTER data are strongly affected by attitude jitter, mainly of approximately 4 km and 30 km wavelength, and improving the generation of ASTER DEMs requires removal of this effect. Our sensor modeling does not require ground control points and allows thus potentially for the automatic processing of large data volumes. As a proof of concept, we chose a set of glaciers with reference DEMs available to assess the quality of our measurements. We use time series of ASTER scenes from which we extracted DEMs with a ground sampling distance of 15m. Our method directly measures and accounts for the cross-track component of jitter so that the resulting DEMs are not contaminated by this process. Since the along-track component of jitter has the same direction as the stereo parallaxes, the two cannot be separated and the elevations extracted are thus contaminated by along-track jitter. Initial tests reveal no clear relation between the cross-track and along-track components so that the latter seems not to be

  1. ASTER, ALI and Hyperion sensors data for lithological mapping and ore minerals exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiranvand Pour, Amin; Hashim, Mazlan

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Advanced Land Imager (ALI), and Hyperion data and applications of the data as a tool for ore minerals exploration, lithological and structural mapping. Spectral information extraction from ASTER, ALI, and Hyperion data has great ability to assist geologists in all disciplines to map the distribution and detect the rock units exposed at the earth's surface. The near coincidence of Earth Observing System (EOS)/Terra and Earth Observing One (EO-1) platforms allows acquiring ASTER, ALI, and Hyperion imagery of the same ground areas, resulting accurate information for geological mapping applications especially in the reconnaissance stages of hydrothermal copper and gold exploration, chromite, magnetite, massive sulfide and uranium ore deposits, mineral components of soils and structural interpretation at both regional and district scales. Shortwave length infrared and thermal infrared bands of ASTER have sufficient spectral resolution to map fundamental absorptions of hydroxyl mineral groups and silica and carbonate minerals for regional mapping purposes. Ferric-iron bearing minerals can be discriminated using six unique wavelength bands of ALI spanning the visible and near infrared. Hyperion visible and near infrared bands (0.4 to 1.0 μm) and shortwave infrared bands (0.9 to 2.5 μm) allowed to produce image maps of iron oxide minerals, hydroxyl-bearing minerals, sulfates and carbonates in association with hydrothermal alteration assemblages, respectively. The techniques and achievements reviewed in the present paper can further introduce the efficacy of ASTER, ALI, and Hyperion data for future mineral and lithological mapping and exploration of the porphyry copper, epithermal gold, chromite, magnetite, massive sulfide and uranium ore deposits especially in arid and semi-arid territory.

  2. Inaccessible Biodiversity on Limestone Cliffs: Aster tianmenshanensis (Asteraceae, a New Critically Endangered Species from China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Jin Zhang

    Full Text Available Aster tianmenshanensis G. J. Zhang & T. G. Gao, a new species of Asteraceae from southern China is described and illustrated based on evidence from morphology, micromorphology and molecular phylogeny. The new species is superficially similar to Aster salwinensis Onno in having rosettes of spatulate leaves and a solitary, terminal capitulum, but it differs by its glabrous leaf margins, unequal disc floret lobes and 1-seriate pappus. The molecular phylogenetic analysis, based on nuclear sequences ITS, ETS and chloroplast sequence trnL-F, showed that the new species was nested within the genus Aster and formed a well supported clade with Aster verticillatus (Reinw. Brouillet et al. The new species differs from the latter in having unbranched stems, much larger capitula, unequal disc floret lobes, beakless achenes and persistent pappus. In particular, A. tianmenshanensis has very short stigmatic lines, only ca. 0.18 mm long and less than 1/3 of the length of sterile style tip appendages, remarkably different from its congeners. This type of stigmatic line, as far as we know, has not been found in any other species of Aster. The very short stigmatic lines plus the unequal disc floret lobes imply that the new species may have a very specialized pollination system, which may be a consequence of habitat specialization. The new species grows only on the limestone cliffs of Mt. Tianmen, Hunan Province, at the elevation of 1400 m. It could only be accessed when a plank walkway was built across the cliffs for tourists. As it is known only from an area estimated at less than 10 km2 and a walkway passes through this location, its habitat could be easily disturbed. This species should best be treated as Critically Endangered based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List Categories and Criteria B2a.

  3. Lithological Discrimination of the Mafic-Ultramafic Complex, Huitongshan, Beishan, China:Using ASTER Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Liu; Jun Zhou; Dong Jiang; Dafang Zhuang; Lamin R Mansaray

    2014-01-01

    The Beishan area has more than seventy mafic-ultramafic complexes sparsely distributed in the area and is of a big potential in mineral resources related to mafic-ultramafic intrusions. Many mafic-ultramafic intrusions which are mostly in small sizes have been omitted by previous works. This research takes Huitongshan as the study area, which is a major district for mafic-ultramafic occur-rences in Beishan. Advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER) data have been processed and interpreted for mapping the mafic-ultramafic complex. ASTER data were processed by different techniques that were selected based on image reflectance and laboratory emis-sivity spectra. The visible near-infrared (VNIR) and short wave infrared (SWIR) data were trans-formed using band ratios and minimum noise fraction (MNF), while the thermal infrared (TIR) data were processed using mafic index (MI) and principal components analysis (PCA). ASTER band ratios (6/8, 5/4, 2/1) in RGB image and MNF (1, 2, 4) in RGB image were powerful in distinguishing the subtle differences between the various rock units. PCA applied to all five bands of ASTER TIR imagery high-lighted marked differences among the mafic rock units and was more effective than the MI in differen-tiating mafic-ultramafic rocks. Our results were consistent with information derived from local geolog-ical maps. Based on the remote sensing results and field inspection, eleven gabbroic intrusions and a pyroxenite occurrence were recognized for the first time. A new geologic map of the Huitongshan area was created by integrating the results of remote sensing, previous geological maps and field inspection. It is concluded that the workflow of ASTER image processing, interpretation and ground inspection has great potential for mafic-ultramafic rocks identifying and relevant mineral targeting in the sparsely vegetated arid region of northwestern China.

  4. Monitoring and predicting eutrophication of Sri Lankan inland waters using ASTER satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahanayaka, D. D. G. L.; Wijeyaratne, M. J. S.; Tonooka, H.; Minato, A.; Ozawa, S.; Perera, B. D. C.

    2014-10-01

    This study focused on determining the past changes and predicting the future trends in eutrophication of the Bolgoda North lake, Sri Lanka using in situ Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) measurements and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER) satellite data. This Lake is located in a mixed land use area with industries, some agricultural lands, middle income and high income housing, tourist hotels and low income housing. From March to October 2013, water samples from five sampling sites were collected once a month parallel to ASTER overpass and Chl-a, nitrate and phosphate contents of each sample were measured using standard laboratory methods. Cloud-free ASTER scenes over the lake during the 2000-2013 periods were acquired for Chl-a estimation and trend analysis. All ASTER images were atmospherically corrected using FLAASH software and in-situ Chl-a data were regressed with atmospherically corrected three ASTER VNIR band ratios of the same date. The regression equation of the band ratio and Chl-a content with the highest correlation, which was the green/red band ratio was used to develop algorithm for generation of 15-m resolution Chl-a distribution maps. According to the ASTER based Chl-a distribution maps it was evident that eutrophication of this lake has gradually increased from 2008-2011. Results also indicated that there had been significantly high eutrophic conditions throughout the year 2013 in several regions, especially in water stagnant areas and adjacent to freshwater outlets. Field observations showed that this lake is receiving various discharges from factories. Unplanned urbanization and inadequacy of proper facilities in the nearby industries for waste management have resulted in the eutrophication of the water body. If the present trends of waste disposal and unplanned urbanization continue, enormous environmental problems would be resulted in future. Results of the present study showed that information from satellite remote

  5. Recent variation of the Las Vacas Glacier Mt. Aconcagua region, Central Andes, Argentina, based on ASTER stereoscopic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzano, M. G.; Leiva, J. C.; Lenzano, L.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents the results of the ASTER stereoscopic image processing to calculate the volume changes of Las Vacas Glacier. The processing of medium resolution satellite images (ASTER level 1A - pixel 15 m) from February 2001 and 2007 was performed applying the satellite digital photogrammetry method (Kääb, 2005). The comparison of the two generated DTM returns results that are acceptable within the parameters and precisions that can be obtained with this kind of sensor and the processing methodology.

  6. Marine boundary layer cloud property retrievals from high-resolution ASTER observations: case studies and comparison with Terra MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Frank; Wind, Galina; Zhang, Zhibo; Platnick, Steven; Di Girolamo, Larry; Zhao, Guangyu; Amarasinghe, Nandana; Meyer, Kerry

    2016-12-01

    A research-level retrieval algorithm for cloud optical and microphysical properties is developed for the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) aboard the Terra satellite. It is based on the operational MODIS algorithm. This paper documents the technical details of this algorithm and evaluates the retrievals for selected marine boundary layer cloud scenes through comparisons with the operational MODIS Data Collection 6 (C6) cloud product. The newly developed, ASTER-specific cloud masking algorithm is evaluated through comparison with an independent algorithm reported in [Zhao and Di Girolamo(2006)]. To validate and evaluate the cloud optical thickness (τ) and cloud effective radius (reff) from ASTER, the high-spatial-resolution ASTER observations are first aggregated to the same 1000 m resolution as MODIS. Subsequently, τaA and reff, aA retrieved from the aggregated ASTER radiances are compared with the collocated MODIS retrievals. For overcast pixels, the two data sets agree very well with Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficients of R > 0.970. However, for partially cloudy pixels there are significant differences between reff, aA and the MODIS results which can exceed 10 µm. Moreover, it is shown that the numerous delicate cloud structures in the example marine boundary layer scenes, resolved by the high-resolution ASTER retrievals, are smoothed by the MODIS observations. The overall good agreement between the research-level ASTER results and the operational MODIS C6 products proves the feasibility of MODIS-like retrievals from ASTER reflectance measurements and provides the basis for future studies concerning the scale dependency of satellite observations and three-dimensional radiative effects.

  7. Visual interpretation of ASTER satellite data, Part II: Land use mapping in Mpumalanga,South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elna van Niekerk

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the initiation in 1960 of the era of satellite remote sensing to detect the different characteristics of the earth, a powerful tool was created to aid researchers. Many land-use studies were undertaken using Landsat MSS, Landsat TM and ETM, as well as SPOT satellite data. The application of these data to the mapping of land use and land cover at smaller scales was constrained by the limited spectral and/or spatial resolution of the data provided by these satellite sensors. In view of the relatively high cost of SPOT data, and uncertainty regarding the future continuation of the Landsat series, alternative data sources need to be investigated. In the absence of published previous research on this issue in South Africa, the purpose of this article is to investigate the value of visual interpretation of ASTER satellite images for the identification and mapping of land-use in an area in South Africa. The study area is situated in Mpumalanga, in the area of Witbank, around the Witbank and Doorndraai dams. This area is characterised by a variety of urban, rural and industrial land uses. Digital image processing of one Landsat 5 TM, one Landsat 7 ETM and one ASTER satellite image was undertaken, including atmospheric correction and georeferencing, natural colour composites, photo infrared colour composites (or false colour satellite images, band ratios, Normalised Difference Indices, as well as the Brightness, Greenness and Wetness Indices. The efficacy with which land use could be identified through the visual interpretation of the processed Landsat 5 TM, Landsat 7 TM and ASTER satellite images was compared. The published 1:50 000 topographical maps of the area were used for the purpose of initial verification. Findings of the visual interpretation process were verified by field visits to the study area. The study found that the ASTER satellite data produced clearer results and therefore have a higher mapping ability and capacity than the

  8. Effect of colour and size grading of China aster (Callistephus chinensis Nees seeds on their germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Rosińska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of 3 commercial China aster (Callistephus chinensis Nees lots were divided by hand into 3 grades with different colours: dark brown, brown and light brown, and 2 grades with a different size: length below 3.9 mm (small and above 3.9 mm (large. The colour grading was done based on the Royal Horticultural Society Colour Chart and size grading was done by hand for each seed. Then, seeds were routinely germinated based on the International Seed Testing Association (ISTA rules. The size of seeds had no effect on their germination. The dark brown seeds germinated better than the light brown ones. Removing light brown seeds from the China aster seed lot improved their germination.

  9. Estimation of Tree Size Diversity Using Object Oriented Texture Analysis and Aster Imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Ibrahim; Norton, David A; Ozkan, Ulas Yunus; Mert, Ahmet; Senturk, Ozdemir

    2008-08-11

    This study investigates the potential of object-based texture parameters extracted from 15m spatial resolution ASTER imagery for estimating tree size diversity in a Mediterranean forested landscape in Turkey. Tree size diversity based on tree basal area was determined using the Shannon index and Gini Coefficient at the sampling plot level. Image texture parameters were calculated based on the grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) for various image segmentation levels. Analyses of relationships between tree size diversity and texture parameters found that relationships between the Gini Coefficient and the GLCM values were the most statistically significant, with the highest correlation (r=0.69) being with GLCM Homogeneity values. In contrast, Shannon Index values were weakly correlated with image derived texture parameters. The results suggest that 15m resolution Aster imagery has considerable potential in estimating tree size diversity based on the Gini Coefficient for heterogeneous Mediterranean forests.

  10. Digital Mapping of Soil Properties Using Multivariate Statistical Analysis and ASTER Data in an Arid Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Nawar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling and mapping of soil properties has been identified as key for effective land degradation management and mitigation. The ability to model and map soil properties at sufficient accuracy for a large agriculture area is demonstrated using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER imagery. Soil samples were collected in the El-Tina Plain, Sinai, Egypt, concurrently with the acquisition of ASTER imagery, and measured for soil electrical conductivity (ECe, clay content and soil organic matter (OM. An ASTER image covering the study area was preprocessed, and two predictive models, multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS and the partial least squares regression (PLSR, were constructed based on the ASTER spectra. For all three soil properties, the results of MARS models were better than those of the respective PLSR models, with cross-validation estimated R2 of 0.85 and 0.80 for ECe, 0.94 and 0.90 for clay content and 0.79 and 0.73 for OM. Independent validation of ECe, clay content and OM maps with 32 soil samples showed the better performance of the MARS models, with R2 = 0.81, 0.89 and 0.73, respectively, compared to R2 = 0.78, 0.87 and 0.71 for the PLSR models. The results indicated that MARS is a more suitable and superior modeling technique than PLSR for the estimation and mapping of soil salinity (ECe, clay content and OM. The method developed in this paper was found to be reliable and accurate for digital soil mapping in arid and semi-arid environments.

  11. PEMETAAN SUHU PERMUKAAN LAUT (SPL MENGGUNAKAN CITRA SATELIT ASTER DI PERAIRAN LAUT JAWA BAGIAN BARAT MADURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Sulistyo Rini

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Oceanographical temperature in Java Sea is very important to be considered. This research was combines in-site observation technique, Geographical Information System (GLS and remote sensing in order to get accurate, present and updateable data. The aim of this research is to determine the distribution of sea-surface temperature and accuration-test value in Java Sea especially on western coast of Madura using ASTER satellite imagery. This research were used software of ENVI 4.5, ILWIS 3.3, and ArcGIS 9.3 and also changed the radian value until °C. Result showed that using ASTER satellite imagery within band 10 range between 32 "C-35 "C. Band 11,between 24.9"C 25,2"C. Band 12 between 16,7"C to 17"C. Band while band 13 abd 14 between 30.7, band 28. Band 11 is more accurate compared to Band 10, 12, 13. 14, the RMS Error on band 11 showed lower value compared to the other band.Keywords: Sea-surface Temperature. ASTER satellite imagery. Java Sea, Western coast of Madura

  12. Remote sensing of thermal state of volcanoes in Turkey and neighbouring countries using ASTER nighttime images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusoy, İnan; Diker, Caner

    2016-04-01

    Ongoing studies are increasingly revealing that Holocene and historical activity has been reported for many of the Anatolian volcanoes. So far, hydrothermal activity have been observed on Nemrut, Tendürek, Aǧrı (Ararat), Hasan daǧ and Kula. Fumaroles, steam vents, steam/gas emission and zones of hot grounds have been reported. Thermal state of Anatolian volcanoes have been investigated using ASTER nighttime satellite imagery. We have analyzed the nighttime thermal images of Aǧrı, Akça, Çandarlı, Erciyes, Gölcük, Göllüdaǧ, Hasandaǧ, Kula, Meydan, Nemrut, Süphan and Tendürek volcanoes in Turkey and Demavand and Nisyros volcanoes in the neighboring countries. In order to quantify the current thermal state of the volcanos studied, we have used ASTER Thermal Infrared spectra. Several ASTER nighttime images have been used to calculate land surface temperature, surface thermal anomaly and relative radiative heat flux on the volcanoes. Following the atmospheric correction of thermal images, temperature and emissivity have been separated and then land surface temperature have been calculated from 5 thermal bands. Surface temperature images have been topographically corrected. Relative radiative heat flux have been calculated using corrected surface temperature data, emissivity, vapor pressure and height-dependent air temperature values. These values have been correlated with ongoing activity observed on active Indonesian volcanoes Sinabung, Semeru and Bromo Tengger. (This study have been financially supported by TUBITAK project no: 113Y032).

  13. Detection of Alteration Induced by Onshore Gas Seeps from ASTER and WorldView-2 Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Salati

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbon seeps cause chemical and mineralogical changes at the surface, which can be detected by remote sensing. This paper aims at the detection of mineral alteration induced by gas seeps in a marly limestone formation, SW Iran. For this purpose, the multispectral Advance Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER and the high spatial resolution WorldView-2 (WV-2 data were utilized for mapping surficial rock alteration. In addition, the potential of Visible Near Infrared (VNIR bands of the WV-2 and its high spatial resolution for mapping alterations was determined. Band ratioing, principal component analysis (PCA, data fusion and the boosted regression trees (BRT were applied to enhance and classify the altered and unaltered marly limestone formation. The alteration zones were identified and mapped by remote sensing analyses. Integrating the WV-2 into the ASTER data improved the spatial accuracy of the BRT classifications. The results showed that the BRT classification of the multiple band imagery (created from ASTER and WV-2 using regions of interest (ROIs around field data provides the best discrimination between altered and unaltered areas. It is suggested that the WV-2 dataset can provide a potential tool along higher spectral resolution data for mapping alteration minerals related to hydrocarbon seeps in arid and semi-arid areas.

  14. Estimating Coastal Lagoon Tidal Flooding and Repletion with Multidate ASTER Thermal Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Allen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Coastal lagoons mix inflowing freshwater and tidal marine waters in complex spatial patterns. This project sought to detect and measure temperature and spatial variability of flood tides for a constricted coastal lagoon using multitemporal remote sensing. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Radiometer (ASTER thermal infrared data provided estimates of surface temperature for delineation of repletion zones in portions of Chincoteague Bay, Virginia. ASTER high spatial resolution sea-surface temperature imagery in conjunction with in situ observations and tidal predictions helped determine the optimal seasonal data for analyses. The selected time series ASTER satellite data sets were analyzed at different tidal phases and seasons in 2004–2006. Skin surface temperatures of ocean and estuarine waters were differentiated by flood tidal penetration and ebb flows. Spatially variable tidal flood penetration was evaluated using discrete seed-pixel area analysis and time series Principal Components Analysis. Results from these techniques provide spatial extent and variability dynamics of tidal repletion, flushing, and mixing, important factors in eutrophication assessment, water quality and resource monitoring, and application of hydrodynamic modeling for coastal estuary science and management.

  15. Estimating surface fluxes over the north Tibetan Plateau area with ASTER imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiqiang Ma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface fluxes are important boundary conditions for climatological modeling and Asian monsoon system. The recent availability of high-resolution, multi-band imagery from the ASTER (Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer sensor has enabled us to estimate surface fluxes to bridge the gap between local scale flux measurements using micrometeorological instruments and regional scale land-atmosphere exchanges of water and heat fluxes that are fundamental for the understanding of the water cycle in the Asian monsoon system. A parameterization method based on ASTER data and field observations has been proposed and tested for deriving surface albedo, surface temperature, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (MSAVI, vegetation coverage, Leaf Area Index (LAI, net radiation flux, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux over heterogeneous land surface in this paper. As a case study, the methodology was applied to the experimental area of the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP Asia-Australia Monsoon Project (CAMP on the Tibetan Plateau (CAMP/Tibet, located at the north Tibetan Plateau. The ASTER data of 24 July 2001, 29 November 2001 and 12 March 2002 was used in this paper for the case of summer, winter and spring. To validate the proposed methodology, the ground-measured surface variables (surface albedo and surface temperature and land surface heat fluxes (net radiation flux, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux were compared to the ASTER derived values. The results show that the derived surface variables and land surface heat fluxes in three different months over the study area are in good accordance with the land surface status. Also, the estimated land surface variables and land surface heat fluxes are in good accordance with ground measurements, and all their absolute percentage difference (APD is less than 10% in the validation sites

  16. Regional mapping methods using ASTER data to map minerals in the U.S. Basin and Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is currently mapping minerals associated with hydrothermal alteration in a study area that covers most of the U.S. Basin and Range. The study area was mapped using AST_L1B radiance data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). ASTER measures reflected radiation in three bands in the 0.52-0.86 μm wavelength region (VNIR); six bands in the 1.6-2.43 μm wavelength region (SWIR); and five bands of emitted radiation in the 8.125-11.65 μm wavelength region (TIR) with 15 m, 30 m, and 90 m resolution, respectively. ASTER VNIR and SWIR radiance data were calibrated to reflectance data using ACORN atmospheric correction software. TIR radiance data were calibrated to emissivity data using atmospheric removal and emissivity normalization algorithms in ENVI. Rocks containing hydrothermal silica, calcite-dolomite, epidote-chlorite, alunite-kaolinite, and sericite were mapped using Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operators. IDL logical operators string together band thresholds and band ratios to map spectral features of minerals. ASTER SWIR band ratios are used in IDL logical operators to map Al-O-H spectral absorption features of alunite, kaolinite and sericite. The ASTER SWIR 4/5 ratio maps the 2.165 μm spectral absorption feature in alunite and kaolinite, and the ASTER SWIR 4/6 and 7/6 ratios map the 2.2 μm spectral absorption feature exhibited in alunite, kaolinite and sericite. Hydrothermal silica was mapped using ASTER SWIR and ASTER TIR band ratios. The ASTER SWIR band ratio 4/7 is typically higher for hydrothermal silica-rich rocks which have lower overall SWIR reflectance in the 2.0 to 2.4 μm region than non-hydrothermal silica-rich rocks due to residual molecular water or an O-H absorption feature spanning 2.26 to 2.4 μm. The ASTER TIR band ratio 13/12 maps the 9.09 μm quartz restralen absorption feature. Thus, silica-rich rocks were mapped using the TIR emissivity data and hydrothermal

  17. Adjacent effect and cross talk of land surfaces on coastal water in the Aster VNIR and SWIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Tsutomu; Masuda, Kazuhiko; Sato, Isao; Tsuchida, Satoshi

    2002-12-01

    The adjacency effect is discussed at coastal areas of main land and peninsula using VNIR and SWIR on ASTER sensor, although the cross-talk phenomenon is apparently noted on some SWIR. The purpose of the analysis is to derive optical characteristics of atmospheric aerosol. The aerosol model is in accordance to the dust-like model. This model is adopted to ASTER and MISR on Terra satellite. Data is the Atsumi Peninsula near Nagoya (34° 40'N, 134° 00'E) GMT1.55 on July 10,2000. The ASTER SWIR(1.65μm-2.395μm) cross-talk phenomenon is noted in the data. This is known as a result of a structure of ASTER sensor. It is relatively large (5-6 DN counts and 100 lines or 3km length). On the other hands, when ASTER observe heterogeneous surface of coastal water, the adjacency effect due to the scattering by atmosphere might partly be contaminated to the above effect. In the SWIR region of spectrum, molecular scattering is practically neglected. However, some aerosol model indicates strong scattering effect at SWIR wavelengths. The main results are (1) The Japan Main land indicates 6~20 times more effect than the peninsula on adjacent radiance from ocean water. (2) SWIR & VNIR exhibit similar adjacent effect which might indicate aerosol or large particles.

  18. According to Regression Combine with Interpolation to Mend ASTER GDEM Data%回归与内插法处理ASTER GDEM数据异常值的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    惠珊; 李远华

    2012-01-01

    How to solve the common no data or data abnormality problem in ASTER GDEM is mainly studied. At first, detecting the section which no data or data abnormality in ASTER GDEM slope analysis together with density divide method isused. Then SRTM DEM is used according to regression fusing combine with interpolation to simulate and mend the ASTER GDEM data . At Last, the results through using the mended ASTER GDEM data to set up 3D model and Hydrological Model are evaluated. The study results indicate that regression fusing and interpolation method can produce a less error margin and advanced precision data . The mended data is primly matched with remote sensing data and the hydrological model is reasonable. Above all, this method mendes no data and abnormality section in ASTER GDEM improving the data integrality and applicability.%为了解决ASTER GDEM数据中普遍存在的数据空洞及异常问题,在利用坡度分析与密度分割等方法,提取ASTERGDEM数据中存在的空洞及异常值后,借助SRTM DEM数据,利用回归与内插法对空洞及异常区域的高程进行模拟修复.并通过三维建模和实例应用评估其模拟质量.研究结果表明:回归与内插法误差较小、精度较高,所得DEM三维模型良好,能有效提高ASTER GDEM数据的完整性和可用性.

  19. Comparative mineral mapping in the Colorado Mineral Belt using AVIRIS and ASTER remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents results of interpretation of spectral remote sensing data covering the eastern Colorado Mineral Belt in central Colorado, USA, acquired by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensors. This study was part of a multidisciplinary mapping and data integration project at the U.S. Geological Survey that focused on long-term resource planning by land-managing entities in Colorado. The map products were designed primarily for the regional mapping and characterization of exposed surface mineralogy, including that related to hydrothermal alteration and supergene weathering of pyritic rocks. Alteration type was modeled from identified minerals based on standard definitions of alteration mineral assemblages. Vegetation was identified using the ASTER data and subdivided based on per-pixel chlorophyll content (depth of 0.68 micrometer absorption band) and dryness (fit and depth of leaf biochemical absorptions in the shortwave infrared spectral region). The vegetation results can be used to estimate the abundance of fire fuels at the time of data acquisition (2002 and 2003). The AVIRIS- and ASTER-derived mineral mapping results can be readily compared using the toggleable layers in the GeoPDF file, and by using the provided GIS-ready raster datasets. The results relating to mineral occurrence and distribution were an important source of data for studies documenting the effects of mining and un-mined, altered rocks on aquatic ecosystems at the watershed level. These studies demonstrated a high correlation between metal concentrations in streams and the presence of hydrothermal alteration and (or) pyritic mine waste as determined by analysis of the map products presented herein. The mineral mapping results were also used to delineate permissive areas for various mineral deposit types.

  20. Self-organizing feature map neural network classification of the ASTER data based on wavelet fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HASI Bagan; MA Jianwen; LI Qiqing; HAN Xiuzhen; LIU Zhili

    2004-01-01

    Most methods for classification of remote sensing data are based on the statistical parameter evaluation with the assumption that the samples obey the normal distribution. However, more accurate classification results can be obtained with the neural network method through getting knowledge from environments and adjusting the parameter (or weight) step by step by a specific measurement. This paper focuses on the double-layer structured Kohonen self-organizing feature map (SOFM), for which all neurons within the two layers are linked one another and those of the competition layers are linked as well along the sides. Therefore, the self-adapting learning ability is improved due to the effective competition and suppression in this method. The SOFM has become a hot topic in the research area of remote sensing data classification. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER) is a new satellite-borne remote sensing instrument with three 15-m resolution bands and three 30-m resolution bands at the near infrared. The ASTER data of Dagang district, Tianjin Municipality is used as the test data in this study. At first, the wavelet fusion is carried out to make the spatial resolutions of the ASTER data identical; then, the SOFM method is applied to classifying the land cover types. The classification results are compared with those of the maximum likelihood method (MLH). As a consequence, the classification accuracy of SOFM increases about by 7% in general and, in particular, it is almost as twice as that of the MLH method in the town.

  1. EXTRACTION OF FOREST STANDS PARAMETERS FROM ASTER DATA IN OPEN FOREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abbasi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Tree crown size (CS and stem number per hectare (SN has become increasingly important for forest management and ecosystem monitoring. Tree crown size is also strongly related to other canopy structural parameters, such as diameter at breast height, tree height and biomass. For both issues, remote sensing data are attractive for their large-area and up-to-date mapping capacities. The QuickBird and ASTER imagery used in this study was acquired over Zagros Forests in southern Zagros region, Fars province of Iran on 1 August 2005 and 1 July 2005, respectively. For the forest site investigated in this study, we concentrated on stands of Quercus Persica which is the dominant species in Zagros region. This study was conducted to investigate the capabilities of ASTER-L1B data to estimate some of forest parameters at individual tree and stand level in dry area. The forest stand parameters are crown area, crown density, average crown area. Obtaining the accuracy of classification the ground truth map was prepared by tree crown delineation using the panchromatic band of QuickBird data. Individual tree crowns were automatically delineated by color segmentation of QuickBird imagery. Simple linear regression procedure was used to show the relationships between spectral variables and the individual trees and forest stand parameters. With decreasing the crown density the effects of background will increase. Our results indicated that crown size could be accurately extracted from panchromatic band of QuickBird images especially for open forest stands. This paper demonstrates that using high-resolution satellite imagery in the open forest offers a unique opportunity for deriving single tree attributes and allowing reliable ground truth map to estimate stand structure. ASTER data and its indices showed good capability to estimate crown area in this study.

  2. ASTER GDEM validation using LiDAR data over coastal regions of Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidegaard, Sine Munk; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Forsberg, René

    2011-01-01

    Elevation data from airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) campaigns are used in an attempt to evaluate the accuracy of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) global digital elevation model (GDEM) in Greenland. The LiDAR elevation data set is characterized...... by a high spatial resolution of about 1 m and elevation accuracy of 20–30 cm root mean square error (RMSE). The LiDAR data sets used were acquired during ice-monitoring campaigns carried out from 2003 to 2008. The study areas include ice-free regions, local ice caps and the ice sheet margin. A linear error...

  3. An application of the Self Organizing Map Algorithm to computer aided classification of ASTER multispectral data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinando Giacco

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we employ the Kohonen’s Self Organizing Map (SOM as a strategy for an unsupervised analysis of ASTER multispectral (MS images. In order to obtain an accurate clusterization we introduce as input for the network, in addition to spectral data, some texture measures extracted from IKONOS images, which gives a contribution to the classification of manmade structures. After clustering of SOM outcomes, we associated each cluster with a major land cover and compared them with prior knowledge of the scene analyzed.

  4. Technoscientific Diplomacy: The Practice of International Politics in the ASTER Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plafcan, Dan

    Most chapters in this volume focus on the scientific and technical aspects of the design, performance, operations, and applications of the MODIS and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instruments. In contrast, this final chapter focuses on politics - specifically, the politics of technical decision making and scientific judgment. When scientific objectives, engineering design decisions, and familiar forms of scientific and technical authority are uncertain or otherwise unsettled, how do they become certain and settled? What facilitates collective judgment and the exercise of power in efforts to advance and achieve common scientific goals, especially in the international arena?

  5. Regional Lithological Mapping Using ASTER-TIR Data: Case Study for the Tibetan Plateau and the Surrounding Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiki Ninomiya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The mineralogical indices the Quartz Index (QI, Carbonate Index (CI and Mafic Index (MI for ASTER multispectral thermal infrared (TIR data were applied to various geological materials for regional lithological mapping on the Tibetan Plateau. Many lithological and structural features are not currently well understood in the central Tibetan Plateau, including the distribution of mafic-ultramafic rocks related to the suture zones, the quartzose and carbonate sedimentary rocks accreted to the Eurasian continent, and sulfate layers related to the Tethys and neo-Tethys geological setting. These rock types can now be mapped with the interpretation of the processed ASTER TIR images described in this paper. A methodology is described for the processing of ASTER TIR data applied to a very wide region of the Tibetan Plateau. The geometrical and radiometric performance of the processed images is discussed, and the advantages of using ortho-rectified data are shown. The challenges of using ASTER data with a small footprint in addition to selecting an appropriate subset of scenes are also examined. ASTER scenes possess a narrow swath width when compared to LANDSAT data (60 km vs. 185 km, respectively. Furthermore, the ASTER data archive is vast, consisting of approximately three million images. These details can present an added level of complexity during an image processing workflow. Finally, geological interpretations made on the maps of the indices are compared with prior geological field studies. The results from the investigations suggest that the indices perform well in the classification of quartzose rocks based on the carbonate and mafic mineral content, in addition to the granitic rocks based on the feldspar content.

  6. Inter-Band Radiometric Comparison and Calibration of ASTER Visible and Near-Infrared Bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Obata

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates inter-band radiometric consistency across the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER visible and near-infrared (VNIR bands and develops an inter-band calibration algorithm to improve radiometric consistency. Inter-band radiometric comparison of current ASTER data shows a root mean square error (RMSE of 3.8%–5.7% among radiance outputs of spectral bands due primarily to differences between calibration strategies of the NIR band for nadir-looking (Band 3N and the other two bands (green and red bands, corresponding to Bands 1 and 2. An algorithm for radiometric calibration of Bands 2 and 3N with reference to Band 1 is developed based on the band translation technique and is used to obtain new radiometric calibration coefficients (RCCs for sensor sensitivity degradation. The systematic errors between radiance outputs are decreased by applying the derived RCCs, which result in reducing the RMSE from 3.8%–5.7% to 2.2%–2.9%. The remaining errors are approximately equal to or smaller than the intrinsic uncertainties of inter-band calibration derived by sensitivity analysis. Improvement of the radiometric consistency would increase the accuracy of band algebra (e.g., vegetation indices and its application. The algorithm can be used to evaluate inter-band radiometric consistency, as well as for the calibration of other sensors.

  7. Morphometric analysis of sub-watershed in parts of Western Ghats, South India using ASTER DEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelin Ramani Sujatha

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Morphometric analysis is a key to understand the hydrological process and hence is a prerequisite for the assessment of hydrological characteristics of surface water basin. Morphometric analysis to determine the drainage characteristics of Palar sub-watershed, a part of Shanmukha watershed in the Amaravati sub-catchment is done using Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Global Digital Elevation Model (ASTER GDEM data, and is supplemented with topographical maps in geographical information systems platform. This study uses ASTER GDEM data to extract morphometric features of a mountain stream at micro-watershed level. The sub-watershed is divided into six micro-watersheds. The sub-watershed includes a sixth-order stream. Lower stream orders, in particular first-order streams, dominate the sub-watershed. Development of stream segments is controlled by slope and local relief. Drainage pattern of the sub-watershed and micro-watersheds is dendritic in general. The mean bifurcation ratio of the sub-watershed is 3.69 but its variation between the various stream orders suggests structural control in the development of stream network. The shape factors reveal the elongation of the sub-watershed and micro-watersheds.The relief ratio reveals the high discharge capability of the sub-watershed and meagre groundwater potential. This study is a useful tool for planning strategies in control of soil erosion and soil conservation.

  8. Estimating Evapotranspiration from an Improved Two-Source Energy Balance Model Using ASTER Satellite Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qifeng Zhuang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Reliably estimating the turbulent fluxes of latent and sensible heat at the Earth’s surface by remote sensing is important for research on the terrestrial hydrological cycle. This paper presents a practical approach for mapping surface energy fluxes using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER images from an improved two-source energy balance (TSEB model. The original TSEB approach may overestimate latent heat flux under vegetative stress conditions, as has also been reported in recent research. We replaced the Priestley-Taylor equation used in the original TSEB model with one that uses plant moisture and temperature constraints based on the PT-JPL model to obtain a more accurate canopy latent heat flux for model solving. The collected ASTER data and field observations employed in this study are over corn fields in arid regions of the Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER area, China. The results were validated by measurements from eddy covariance (EC systems, and the surface energy flux estimates of the improved TSEB model are similar to the ground truth. A comparison of the results from the original and improved TSEB models indicates that the improved method more accurately estimates the sensible and latent heat fluxes, generating more precise daily evapotranspiration (ET estimate under vegetative stress conditions.

  9. Surface energy balance and resolution effects using ASTER imagery over Jornada, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, A.; Schmugge, T.; Kustas, W.; Prueger, J.; Jacob, F.

    2003-04-01

    Knowledge of the relationship between the accuracy of surface energy balance estimates and remote sensing resolution is important for the integration of instantaneous satellite observations with regional and global scale hydrological models. Higher resolution thermal infrared imagery, such as from the ASTER sensor (90 m), provide the needed observations to distinguish between hydrological end-member conditions and are expected to be more accurate than imagery with resolutions >1 km. But higher resolution observations are instantaneous and usually not repeatable at time intervals less than 2 to 4 weeks. On the other hand, lower resolution imagery from sensors such as GOES, in combination with hydrological assimilation models, can estimate the diurnal variations in surface energy balance. To assess the relative merits of resolution vs. imaging frequency, we have collected a series of ASTER observations, between May and October 2002 over the Jornada Experimental Range in New Mexico, and modeled the surface energy balance. Estimates of the energy components are made from the original resolution (90 m) up to an aggregated resolution of 4 km. These estimates are compared with ground based flux observations, and then compared with each other. Loss in range of data and expected biases due to resolution effects will be discussed.

  10. A Forest Fire Risk Assessment Using ASTER Images in Peninsular Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Guang-xiong; LI Jing; CHEN Yun-hao; NORIZAN Abdul-patah

    2007-01-01

    Based on the physical concept of heat energy of pre-ignition, a new fire susceptibility index (FSI) is used to estimate forest fire risk. This physical basis allows calculation of ignition probabilities and comparisons of fire risk across eco-regions. The computation of the index requires inputs of fuel temperature and fuel moisture content (FMC), both of which can be estimated using remote sensing data. While ASTER data for land surface temperatures (LST) was used as proxys for fuel temperatures, fuel moisture content is estimated by regression technique utilizing the ratio NDVI/LST of ASTER data. FSIs are computed in peninsular Malaysia for nine days before the fires of 2004 and 2005 and validated with fire occurrence data. Results show that the FSI increases as the day approaches the fire day. This trend can be observed clearly about four days before the day of fire. It suggests that FSI can be a good estimator of fire risk. The physical basis provides a more meaningful FSI, allows calculation of ignition probabilities and facilitates the development of a future class of fire risk models. FSI can be used to compare fire risk across different eco-regions and time periods. FSI retains the flexibility to be localized to a vegetation type or eco-regions for improved performance.

  11. ASTER L1B satellite data applied to geothermal in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. González-Acosta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The 83 ASTER L1B thermal channels of Cuban territorial scenes, from 2000 to 2008 years, selected and processed with geothermal aims showed almost 50% of cloudy coverage. The vortex coordinated as well as other data from such metadata facilitated completing the designed database. From a preliminary mosaic with the images existent these were subsequently processed in order to obtain temperature images. Such images were then integrated into another mosaic with a suitable reclassification resulting in 11 classes with 3°C each. This allowed delimitating those anomalous zones where the greater distribution of pixels oscillated from 25°C to 37°C, and the cloudy coverage temperature aroused up to 20°C approximately. In the resulting temperature map, 69 polygons were a priori delimitated and categorized, as for their perspective and the temperature value above 40°C. These polygons were later overlapped to Google Earth images with the aim to identify those from anthropogenic origins. Finally it was obtained an estimation of the temperature value of the surface coverage of the national territory as well as the understanding of that the eastern zone is the most perspective. This is an experimental application, using satellite images ASTER L1B with geothermic purpose.

  12. AUTOMATED CONSTRUCTION OF COVERAGE CATALOGUES OF ASTER SATELLITE IMAGE FOR URBAN AREAS OF THE WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Miyazaki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We developed an algorithm to determine a combination of satellite images according to observation extent and image quality. The algorithm was for testing necessity for completing coverage of the search extent. The tests excluded unnecessary images with low quality and preserve necessary images with good quality. The search conditions of the satellite images could be extended, indicating the catalogue could be constructed with specified periods required for time series analysis. We applied the method to a database of metadata of ASTER satellite images archived in GEO Grid of National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST, Japan. As indexes of populated places with geographical coordinates, we used a database of 3372 populated place of more than 0.1 million populations retrieved from GRUMP Settlement Points, a global gazetteer of cities, which has geographical names of populated places associated with geographical coordinates and population data. From the coordinates of populated places, 3372 extents were generated with radiuses of 30 km, a half of swath of ASTER satellite images. By merging extents overlapping each other, they were assembled into 2214 extents. As a result, we acquired combinations of good quality for 1244 extents, those of low quality for 96 extents, incomplete combinations for 611 extents. Further improvements would be expected by introducing pixel-based cloud assessment and pixel value correction over seasonal variations.

  13. ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model Version 2 - summary of validation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachikawa, Tetushi; Kaku, Manabu; Iwasaki, Akira; Gesch, Dean B.; Oimoen, Michael J.; Zhang, Z.; Danielson, Jeffrey J.; Krieger, Tabatha; Curtis, Bill; Haase, Jeff; Abrams, Michael; Carabajal, C.; Meyer, Dave

    2011-01-01

    On June 29, 2009, NASA and the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) of Japan released a Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) to users worldwide at no charge as a contribution to the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS). This “version 1” ASTER GDEM (GDEM1) was compiled from over 1.2 million scenebased DEMs covering land surfaces between 83°N and 83°S latitudes. A joint U.S.-Japan validation team assessed the accuracy of the GDEM1, augmented by a team of 20 cooperators. The GDEM1 was found to have an overall accuracy of around 20 meters at the 95% confidence level. The team also noted several artifacts associated with poor stereo coverage at high latitudes, cloud contamination, water masking issues and the stacking process used to produce the GDEM1 from individual scene-based DEMs (ASTER GDEM Validation Team, 2009). Two independent horizontal resolution studies estimated the effective spatial resolution of the GDEM1 to be on the order of 120 meters.

  14. High-quality seamless DEM generation blending SRTM-1, ASTER GDEM v2 and ICESat/GLAS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Linwei; Shen, Huanfeng; Zhang, Liangpei; Zheng, Xianwei; Zhang, Fan; Yuan, Qiangqiang

    2017-01-01

    The absence of a high-quality seamless global digital elevation model (DEM) dataset has been a challenge for the Earth-related research fields. Recently, the 1-arc-second Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM-1) data have been released globally, covering over 80% of the Earth's land surface (60°N-56°S). However, voids and anomalies still exist in some tiles, which has prevented the SRTM-1 dataset from being directly used without further processing. In this paper, we propose a method to generate a seamless DEM dataset blending SRTM-1, ASTER GDEM v2, and ICESat laser altimetry data. The ASTER GDEM v2 data are used as the elevation source for the SRTM void filling. To get a reliable filling source, ICESat GLAS points are incorporated to enhance the accuracy of the ASTER data within the void regions, using an artificial neural network (ANN) model. After correction, the voids in the SRTM-1 data are filled with the corrected ASTER GDEM values. The triangular irregular network based delta surface fill (DSF) method is then employed to eliminate the vertical bias between them. Finally, an adaptive outlier filter is applied to all the data tiles. The final result is a seamless global DEM dataset. ICESat points collected from 2003 to 2009 were used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, and to assess the vertical accuracy of the global DEM products in China. Furthermore, channel networks in the Yangtze River Basin were also extracted for the data assessment.

  15. Paleohydrologic Analysis of Debris-Flow Inundation at Mount Rainier, Washington Using ASTER and SRTM Derived Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, B. E.; Crowley, J. K.; Mars, J.

    2002-05-01

    Methods used in extracting digital topography from remote sensing data include photogrammetry, interferometry, altimetry, and photoclinometry. Two recent spaceborne missions: ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) and SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) use some of these methods for generating global DEM coverages at horizontal resolutions less than 100 m per pixel. This study evaluates the utility of such data for estimating inundation levels of past debris-flows based on the geomorphometric characteristics of terraces preserved along river valleys draining Mount Rainier. Deposits representing debris-flow volumes spanning several orders of magnitude are used as case examples. ASTER DEMs are derived photogrammetrically by measuring the parallax between a stereo pair of images acquired simultaneously by nadir- and aft-viewing instruments. The two channels used (3N and 3B) have a near-infrared bandwidth of 0.76-0.86 microns and a base/height ratio of 0.6 for the stereo pair. SRTM DEMs are generated interferometrically from C- (5.6 cm wavelength) and X-band (3 cm wavelength) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) by measuring the phase differences between SAR images acquired by two antennas spaced 60 m apart. Terrace deposits of the Osceola mudflow, Electron mudflow, National lahar, and Tahoma lahar were all resolved to varying degrees in cross-sectional profiles extracted from the ASTER and SRTM DEMs. Profiles from these two datasets were compared to profiles extracted from a level 2 USGS DEM. The latter dataset was derived by interpolation of USGS digital contour plots, which have been stereoscopically corrected for errors in elevation caused by canopy height variations. Both ASTER and SRTM DEMs were spatially registered to the USGS DEM, which has a spatial resolution of 30 m and vertical accuracy within +15 m. The vertical accuracies of ASTER and STRM DEMs vary within +30 m and +16 m, respectively. The extent of canopy cover throughout

  16. Estimating surface fluxes over middle and upper streams of the Heihe River Basin with ASTER imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Ma

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Land surface heat fluxes are essential measures of the strengths of land-atmosphere interactions involving energy, heat and water. Correct parameterization of these fluxes in climate models is critical. Despite their importance, state-of-the-art observation techniques cannot provide representative areal averages of these fluxes comparable to the model grid. Alternative methods of estimation are thus required. These alternative approaches use (satellite observables of the land surface conditions. In this study, the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS algorithm was evaluated in a cold and arid environment, using land surface parameters derived from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER data. Field observations and estimates from SEBS were compared in terms of net radiation flux (Rn, soil heat flux (G0, sensible heat flux (H and latent heat flux (λE over a heterogeneous land surface. As a case study, this methodology was applied to the experimental area of the Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (WATER project, located on the mid-to-upstream sections of the Heihe River in northwest China. ASTER data acquired between 3 May and 4 June 2008, under clear-sky conditions were used to determine the surface fluxes. Ground-based measurements of land surface heat fluxes were compared with values derived from the ASTER data. The results show that the derived surface variables and the land surface heat fluxes furnished by SEBS in different months over the study area are in good agreement with the observed land surface status under the limited cases (some cases looks poor results. So SEBS can be used to estimate turbulent heat fluxes with acceptable accuracy in areas where there is partial vegetation cover in exceptive conditions. It is very important to perform calculations using ground-based observational data for parameterization in SEBS in the future

  17. Assessment of Landscape Fragmentation Associated With Urban Centers Using ASTER Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, W. L.

    2002-12-01

    The role of humans as an integral part of the environment and ecosystem processes has only recently been accepted into mainstream ecological thought. The realization that virtually all ecosystems on Earth have experienced some degree of human alteration or impact has highlighted the need to incorporate humans (and their environmental effects) into ecosystem models. A logical starting point for investigation of human ecosystem dynamics is examination of the land cover characteristics of large urban centers. Land cover and land use changes associated with urbanization are important drivers of local geological, hydrological, ecological, and climatic change. Quantification and monitoring of urban land cover/land use change is part of the primary mission of the ASTER instrument on board the NASA Terra satellite, and comprises the fundamental research objective of the Urban Environmental Monitoring (UEM) Program at Arizona State University. The UEM program seeks to acquire day/night, visible through thermal infrared data twice per year for 100 global urban centers (with an emphasis on semi-arid cities) over the nominal six-year life of the Terra mission. Data have been acquired for the majority of the target urban centers and are used to compare landscape fragmentation patterns on the basis of land cover classifications. Land cover classifications of urban centers are obtained using visible through mid-infrared reflectance and emittance spectra together with calculated vegetation index and spatial variance texture information (all derived from raw ASTER data). This information is combined within a classification matrix, using an expert system framework, to obtain final pixel classifications. Landscape fragmentation is calculated using a pixel per unit area metric for comparison between 55 urban centers with varying geographic and climatic settings including North America, South America, Europe, central and eastern Asia, and Australia. Temporal variations in land cover

  18. Decadal region-wide and glacier-wide mass balances derived from multi-temporal ASTER satellite digital elevation models. Validation over the Mont-Blanc area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthier, Etienne; Cabot, Vincent; Vincent, Christian; Six, Delphine

    2016-06-01

    Since 2000, a vast archive of stereo-images has been built by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER) satellite. Several studies already extracted glacier mass balances from multi-temporal ASTER digital elevation models (DEMs) but they lacked accurate independent data for validation. Here, we apply a linear regression to a time series of 3D-coregistered ASTER DEMs to estimate the rate of surface elevation changes (dh/dtASTER) and geodetic mass balances of Mont-Blanc glaciers (155 km²) between 2000 and 2014. Validation using field and spaceborne geodetic measurements reveals large errors at the individual pixel level (> 1 m a-1) and an accuracy of 0.2-0.3 m a-1 for dh/dtASTER averaged over areas larger than 1 km². For all Mont-Blanc glaciers, the ASTER region-wide mass balance (-1.05±0.37 m water equivalent (w.e.) a-1) agrees remarkably with the one measured using Spot5 and Pléiades DEMs (-1.06±0.23 m w.e. a-1) over their common 2003-2012 period. This multi-temporal ASTER DEM strategy leads to smaller errors than the simple differencing of two ASTER DEMs. By extrapolating dh/dtASTER to mid-February 2000, we infer a mean penetration depth of about 9±3 m for the C-band Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) radar signal, with a strong altitudinal dependency (range 0-12 m). This methodology thus reveals the regional pattern of glacier surface elevation changes and improves our knowledge of the penetration of the radar signal into snow and ice.

  19. ASTERICS : Addressing Cross-Cutting Synergies and Common Challenges for the Next Decade Astronomy Facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Pasian, Fabio; Genova, Francoise; Lamanna, Giovanni; Serjeant, Stephen; Szomoru, Arpad; van der Meer, Rob

    2016-01-01

    The large infrastructure projects for the next decade will allow a new quantum leap in terms of new possible science. ESFRI, the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures, a strategic initiative to develop the scientific integration of Europe, has identified four facilities (SKA, CTA, KM3Net and E-ELT) deserving priority in support. The ASTERICS project aims to address the cross-cutting synergies and common challenges shared by the various Astronomy ESFRI and other world-class facilities. The project (22 partners across Europe) is funded by the EU Horizon 2020 programme with 15 MEuro in 4 years. It brings together for the first time the astronomy, astrophysics and particle astrophysics communities, in addition to other related research infrastructures.

  20. Aster albescens Rust Caused by Aecidium asterum and Its Hyperparasitic Fungus Tuberculina persicina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yun; YE Hua-zhi; CHEN Guang-yan; LIU Zi-ying; DONG Bao-chen

    2005-01-01

    Aster albescens is a medicinal plant. The rust caused by Aecidium asterum is a new record in China and an important disease of A. albescens in Feng Tong-zhai national reservation area. The percentages of diseased plant and the diseased leaf reach 100 and 28% respectively when the disease is serious. The disease results in leaf spot and leaf cast. Tuberculina persicina is a natural hyperparasite of A. asterum and is firstly reported in the world. The hyperparasite attacks aecium of A. asterum and hinderes the release of aeciospores. The symptom of the rust and the morphological characteristics of A.asterum is reported. The hyperparasitism of A. asterum and the morphological characteristics of the Tuberculina persicina are also reported.

  1. VALIDATION OF THE ASTER GLOBAL DIGITAL ELEVATION MODEL VERSION 2 OVER THE CONTERMINOUS UNITED STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gesch

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model Version 2 (GDEM v2 was evaluated over the conterminous United States in a manner similar to the validation conducted for the original GDEM Version 1 (v1 in 2009. The absolute vertical accuracy of GDEM v2 was calculated by comparison with more than 18,000 independent reference geodetic ground control points from the National Geodetic Survey. The root mean square error (RMSE measured for GDEM v2 is 8.68 meters. This compares with the RMSE of 9.34 meters for GDEM v1. Another important descriptor of vertical accuracy is the mean error, or bias, which indicates if a DEM has an overall vertical offset from true ground level. The GDEM v2 mean error of –0.20 meters is a significant improvement over the GDEM v1 mean error of –3.69 meters. The absolute vertical accuracy assessment results, both mean error and RMSE, were segmented by land cover to examine the effects of cover types on measured errors. The GDEM v2 mean errors by land cover class verify that the presence of aboveground features (tree canopies and built structures cause a positive elevation bias, as would be expected for an imaging system like ASTER. In open ground classes (little or no vegetation with significant aboveground height, GDEM v2 exhibits a negative bias on the order of 1 meter. GDEM v2 was also evaluated by differencing with the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM dataset. In many forested areas, GDEM v2 has elevations that are higher in the canopy than SRTM.

  2. Mycorrhizal symbiosis and local adaptation in Aster amellus: a field transplant experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Pánková

    Full Text Available Many plant populations have adapted to local soil conditions. However, the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is often overlooked in this context. Only a few studies have used reciprocal transplant experiments to study the relationships between soil conditions, mycorrhizal colonisation and plant growth. Furthermore, most of the studies were conducted under controlled greenhouse conditions. However, long-term field experiments can provide more realistic insights into this issue. We conducted a five-year field reciprocal transplant experiment to study the relationships between soil conditions, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth in the obligate mycotrophic herb Aster amellus. We conducted this study in two regions in the Czech Republic that differ significantly in their soil nutrient content, namely Czech Karst (region K and Ceske Stredohori (region S. Plants that originated from region S had significantly higher mycorrhizal colonisation than plants from region K, indicating that the percentage of mycorrhizal colonisation has a genetic basis. We found no evidence of local adaptation in Aster amellus. Instead, plants from region S outperformed the plants from region K in both target regions. Similarly, plants from region S showed more mycorrhizal colonisation in all cases, which was likely driven by the lower nutrient content in the soil from that region. Thus, plant aboveground biomass and mycorrhizal colonisation exhibited corresponding differences between the two target regions and regions of origin. Higher mycorrhizal colonisation in the plants from region with lower soil nutrient content (region S in both target regions indicates that mycorrhizal colonisation is an adaptive trait. However, lower aboveground biomass in the plants with lower mycorrhizal colonisation suggests that the plants from region K are in fact maladapted by their low inherent mycorrhizal colonization. We conclude that including mycorrhizal symbiosis in local

  3. Tsunami Inundation, North of Phuket, Thailand ASTER Images and SRTM Elevation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 The Indian Ocean coastline north of Phuket, Thailand is a major tourist destination that was in the path of the tsunami produced by a giant offshore earthquake on December 26, 2004. This disaster resulted in a heavy loss of life. These simulated natural color ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) images show a 27 kilometer (17-mile) long stretch of coast 80 kilometers (50 miles) north of the Phuket airport in the Khao Lak area on December 31 (middle) and also two years earlier (left). The changes along the coast are obvious (changing from green to grey) where the vegetation was stripped away by the tsunami. The image on the right is a copy of the later ASTER scene but it includes highlighting in red for areas that have elevations within 10 meters (33 feet) of sea level. This elevation information was supplied by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The red areas appear to include most of the tsunami inundated areas. The geographic correspondence of the imaged damage and the highlighted elevation range is quite good in the middle and upper parts of the scene and is consistent with an early field report of about 10 meters of inundation. In the south, the elevation range corresponds to a much wider area than the actual damage, but this is to be expected for areas increasingly far from the coast. Offshore bathymetry (depth variations), coastal landforms, distance from the coast, and additional factors other than elevation range control the damage extent. But elevation measurements along the coast, as provided by SRTM, give a general indication of areas at risk, as now confirmed by ASTER. ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet with its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet). These data provide scientists in numerous disciplines

  4. Hydrothermal Alteration Maps of the Central and Southern Basin and Range Province of the United States Compiled From Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operator algorithms were used to map...

  5. Analysis of Topographic Feature with SRTM DEM and ASTER GDEM Data and Railway Alignment%基于SRTM DEM,ASTER GDEM 地貌特征分析与铁路选线

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高山

    2012-01-01

    研究目的:SRTM DEM,ASTER GDEM 数据具有全球范围、免费获取、精度较高的优点,结合复杂山区铁路工程,评价其数据精度,研究线路地貌特征,辅助铁路选线.研究结论:SRTM DEM,ASTER GDEM 数据由于各自存在较大的系统误差,通过采用高程精度评价、DEM融合、高程基准偏移、DEM重采样方法提高数字高程精度,进而构建大范围、高精度、可视化的三维数字地貌模型,有助于分析构造地貌特征、岩溶水文地质条件、地质灾害发育规律,提高铁路选线质量和效率.%Research purposes: The SRTM DEM and ASTER GDEM data have the advantages of the global scope, free access and high precision. The data were appliied in building railways in mountain area with complex geological condition to evaluate the data accuracy and study the topographic feature for assisting the railway alignment. Research conclusions:As the SRTM DEM and ASTER GDEM data have its own system error, the measures, such as the digital elevation accuracy evaluation, DEM fusion, elevation datum offset and DEM re - sampling, should be taken for improving the DEM accuracy and building a large range, high accuracy and visual digital topographic feature model to assist the analysis of the structural topographic feature, the geological condition of karst hydrology and the development regulation of geological disaster in order to enhance the quality and efficiency of railway alignment.

  6. Mineral mapping on the Chilean-Bolivian Altiplano using co-orbital ALI, ASTER and Hyperion imagery: Data dimensionality issues and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, B.E.; Crowley, J.K.

    2005-01-01

    Hyperspectral data coverage from the EO-1 Hyperion sensor was useful for calibrating Advanced Land Imager (ALI) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) images of a volcanic terrane area of the Chilean-Bolivian Altiplano. Following calibration, the ALI and ASTER datasets were co-registered and joined to produce a 13-channel reflectance cube spanning the Visible to Short Wave Infrared (0.4-2.4 ??m). Eigen analysis and comparison of the Hyperion data with the ALI + ASTER reflectance data, as well as mapping results using various ALI+ASTER data subsets, provided insights into the information dimensionality of all the data. In particular, high spectral resolution, low signal-to-noise Hyperion data were only marginally better for mineral mapping than the merged 13-channel, low spectral resolution, high signal-to-noise ALI + ASTER dataset. Neither the Hyperion nor the combined ALI + ASTER datasets had sufficient information dimensionality for mapping the diverse range of surface materials exposed on the Altiplano. However, it is possible to optimize the use of the multispectral data for mineral-mapping purposes by careful data subsetting, and by employing other appropriate image-processing strategies.

  7. Surface Heat Balance Analysis of Tainan City on March 6, 2001 Using ASTER and Formosat-2 Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yi Sun

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The urban heat island phenomenon occurs as a mixed result of anthropogenic heat discharge, decreased vegetation, and increased artificial impervious surfaces. To clarify the contribution of each factor to the urban heat island, it is necessary to evaluate the surface heat balance. Satellite remote sensing data of Tainan City, Taiwan, obtained from Terra ASTER and Formosat-2 were used to estimate surface heat balance in this study. ASTER data is suitable for analyzing heat balance because of the wide spectral range. We used Formosat-2 multispectral data to classify the land surface, which was used to interpolate some surface parameters for estimating heat fluxes. Because of the high spatial resolution of the Formosat-2 image, more roads, open spaces and small vegetation areas could be distinguished from buildings in urban areas; however, misclassifications of land cover in such areas using ASTER data would overestimate the sensible heat flux. On the other hand, the small vegetated areas detected from the Formosat-2 image slightly increased the estimation of latent heat flux. As a result, the storage heat flux derived from Formosat-2 is higher than that derived from ASTER data in most areas. From these results, we can conclude that the higher resolution land coverage map increases accuracy of the heat balance analysis. Storage heat flux occupies about 60 to 80% of the net radiation in most of the artificial surface areas in spite of their usages. Because of the homogeneity of the building roof materials, there is no contrast between the storage heat flux in business and residential areas. In sparsely vegetated urban areas, more heat is stored and latent heat is smaller than that in the forested suburbs. This result implies that density of vegetation has a significant influence in decreasing temperatures.

  8. Using ASTER Imagery in Land Use/cover Classification of Eastern Mediterranean Landscapes According to CORINE Land Cover Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep Gundogan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The satellite imagery has been effectively utilized for classifying land covertypes and detecting land cover conditions. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emissionand Reflection Radiometer (ASTER sensor imagery has been widely used in classificationprocess of land cover. However, atmospheric corrections have to be made by preprocessingsatellite sensor imagery since the electromagnetic radiation signals received by the satellitesensors can be scattered and absorbed by the atmospheric gases and aerosols. In this study,an ASTER sensor imagery, which was converted into top-of-atmosphere reflectance(TOA, was used to classify the land use/cover types, according to COoRdination ofINformation on the Environment (CORINE land cover nomenclature, for an arearepresenting the heterogonous characteristics of eastern Mediterranean regions inKahramanmaras, Turkey. The results indicated that using the surface reflectance data ofASTER sensor imagery can provide accurate (i.e. overall accuracy and kappa values of83.2% and 0.79, respectively and low-cost cover mapping as a part of inventory forCORINE Land Cover Project.

  9. Long-Term Volcanic Activity at Shiveluch Volcano: Nine Years of ASTER Spaceborne Thermal Infrared Observations  

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Carter

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Shiveluch (Kamchatka, Russia is the most active andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc, typically exhibiting near-continual high-temperature fumarolic activity and periods of exogenous lava dome emplacement punctuated by discrete large explosive eruptions. These eruptions can produce large pyroclastic flow (PF deposits, which are common on the southern flank of the volcano. Since 2000, six explosive eruptions have occurred that generated ash fall and PF deposits. Over this same time period, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER instrument has been acquiring image-based visible/near infrared (VNIR, short wave infrared (SWIR and thermal infrared (TIR data globally, with a particular emphasis on active volcanoes. Shiveluch was selected as an ASTER target of interest early in the mission because of its frequent activity and potential impact to northern Pacific air transportation. The north Pacific ASTER archive was queried for Shiveluch data and we present results from 2000 to 2009 that documents three large PF deposits emplaced on 19 May 2001, 9 May 2004, and 28 February 2005. The long-term archive of infrared data provides an excellent record on the changing activity and eruption state of the volcano.

  10. Using aster multispectral imagery for mapping woody invasive species in pico da vara natural reserve (Azores Islands, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Gil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to assess the effectiveness of ASTER imagery to support the mapping of Pittosporum undulatum, an invasive woody species, in Pico da Vara Natural Reserve (S. Miguel Island, Archipelago of the Azores, Portugal. This assessment was done by applying K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN, Support Vector Machine (SVM and Maximum Likelihood (MLC pixel-based supervised classifications to 4 different geographic and remote sensing datasets constituted by the Visible, Near-Infrared (VNIR and Short Wave Infrared (SWIR of the ASTER sensor and by digital cartography associated to orography (altitude and "distance to water streams" of which the spatial distribution of Pittosporum undulatum directly depends. Overall, most performed classifications showed a strong agreement and high accuracy. At targeted species level, the two higher classification accuracies were obtained when applying MLC and KNN to the VNIR bands coupled with auxiliary geographic information use. Results improved significantly by including ecology and occurrence information of species (altitude and distance to water streams in the classification scheme. These results show that the use of ASTER sensor VNIR spectral bands, when coupled to relevant ancillary GIS data, can constitute an effective and low cost approach for the evaluation and continuous assessment of Pittosporum undulatum woodland propagation and distribution within Protected Areas of the Azores Islands.

  11. Cross-satellite comparison of operational land surface temperature products derived from MODIS and ASTER data over bare soil surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Si-Bo; Li, Zhao-Liang; Cheng, Jie; Leng, Pei

    2017-04-01

    The collection 6 (C6) MODIS land surface temperature (LST) product is publicly available for the user community. Compared to the collection 5 (C5) MODIS LST product, the C6 MODIS LST product has been refined over bare soil pixels. Assessing the accuracy of the C6 MODIS LST product will help to facilitate the use of the LST product in various applications. In this study, we present a cross-satellite comparison to evaluate the accuracy of the C6 MODIS LST product (MOD11_L2) over bare soil surfaces under various atmospheric and surface conditions using the ASTER LST product as a reference. For comparison, the C5 MODIS LST product was also used in the analysis. The absolute biases (0.2-1.5 K) of the differences between the C6 MODIS LST and ASTER LST over bare soil surfaces are approximately two times less than those (0.6-3.8 K) of the differences between the C5 MODIS LST and ASTER LST. Furthermore, the RMSEs (0.7-2.3 K) over bare soil surfaces for the C6 MODIS LST are significantly smaller than those (0.9-4.2 K) for the C5 MODIS LST. These results indicate that the accuracy of the C6 MODIS LST product is much better than that of the C5 MODIS LST product. We recommend that the user community employs the C6 MODIS LST product in their applications.

  12. Validation of the ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model version 3 over the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesch, Dean B.; Oimoen, Michael J.; Danielson, Jeffrey J.; Meyer, David

    2016-01-01

    The ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model Version 3 (GDEM v3) was evaluated over the conterminous United States in a manner similar to the validation conducted for the original GDEM Version 1 (v1) in 2009 and GDEM Version 2 (v2) in 2011. The absolute vertical accuracy of GDEM v3 was calculated by comparison with more than 23,000 independent reference geodetic ground control points from the U.S. National Geodetic Survey. The root mean square error (RMSE) measured for GDEM v3 is 8.52 meters. This compares with the RMSE of 8.68 meters for GDEM v2. Another important descriptor of vertical accuracy is the mean error, or bias, which indicates if a DEM has an overall vertical offset from true ground level. The GDEM v3 mean error of −1.20 meters reflects an overall negative bias in GDEM v3. The absolute vertical accuracy assessment results, both mean error and RMSE, were segmented by land cover type to provide insight into how GDEM v3 performs in various land surface conditions. While the RMSE varies little across cover types (6.92 to 9.25 meters), the mean error (bias) does appear to be affected by land cover type, ranging from −2.99 to +4.16 meters across 14 land cover classes. These results indicate that in areas where built or natural aboveground features are present, GDEM v3 is measuring elevations above the ground level, a condition noted in assessments of previous GDEM versions (v1 and v2) and an expected condition given the type of stereo-optical image data collected by ASTER. GDEM v3 was also evaluated by differencing with the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) dataset. In many forested areas, GDEM v3 has elevations that are higher in the canopy than SRTM. The overall validation effort also included an evaluation of the GDEM v3 water mask. In general, the number of distinct water polygons in GDEM v3 is much lower than the number in a reference land cover dataset, but the total areas compare much more closely.

  13. ASTER/AVHRR Data Hybridization to determine Pyroclastic Flow cooling curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reath, K. A.; Wright, R.; Ramsey, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    Shiveluch Volcano (Kamchatka, Russia) has been in a consistent state of eruption for the past 15 years. During this period different eruption styles have been documented including: sub-plinian events, dome growth and collapse, and subsequent debris flow deposits. For example, on June 25-26, 2009 a pyroclastic debris flow was emplaced and the eruption onset that produced it was recorded by a series of seismic events spanning several hours. However, due to cloud cover, visual confirmation of the exact emplacement time was obscured. Orbital remote sensing was able to image the deposit repeatedly over the subsequent months. ASTER is a high spatial resolution (90m), low temporal resolution (2 - 4 days at the poles, 16 days at the equator) thermal infrared (TIR) sensor on the NASA Terra satellite. AVHRR is a high temporal resolution (minutes to several hours), low spatial resolution (1km) spaceborne TIR sensor on a series of NOAA satellites. Combined, these sensors provide a unique opportunity to fuse high-spatial and high-temporal resolution data to better observe changes on the surface of the deposit over time. For example, ASTER data were used to determine the flow area and to provide several data points for average temperature while AVHRR data were used to increase the amount of data points. Through this method an accurate average cooling rate over a three month period was determined. This cooling curve was then examined to derive several features about the deposit that were previously unknown. The time of emplacement and period of time needed for negligible thermal output were first determined by extrapolating the cooling curve in time. The total amount of heat output and total flow volume of the deposit were also calculated. This volume was then compared to the volume of the dome to calculate the percentage of collapse. This method can be repeated for other flow deposits to determine if there is a consistent correlation between the dome growth rate, the average

  14. Developing New Coastal Forest Restoration Products Based on Landsat, ASTER, and MODIS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Graham, William; Smoot, James

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses an ongoing effort to develop new geospatial information products for aiding coastal forest restoration and conservation efforts in coastal Louisiana and Mississippi. This project employs Landsat, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data in conjunction with airborne elevation data to compute coastal forest cover type maps and change detection products. Improved forest mapping products are needed to aid coastal forest restoration and management efforts of State and Federal agencies in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) region. In particular, such products may aid coastal forest land acquisition and conservation easement procurements. This region's forests are often disturbed and subjected to multiple biotic and abiotic threats, including subsidence, salt water intrusion, hurricanes, sea-level rise, insect-induced defoliation and mortality, altered hydrology, wildfire, and conversion to non-forest land use. In some cases, such forest disturbance has led to forest loss or loss of regeneration capacity. In response, a case study was conducted to assess and demonstrate the potential of satellite remote sensing products for improving forest type maps and for assessing forest change over the last 25 years. Change detection products are needed for assessing risks for specific priority coastal forest types, such as live oak and baldcypress-dominated forest. Preliminary results indicate Landsat time series data are capable of generating the needed forest type and change detection products. Useful classifications were obtained using 2 strategies: 1) general forest classification based on use of 3 seasons of Landsat data from the same year; and 2) classification of specific forest types of concern using a single date of Landsat data in which a given targeted type is spectrally distinct compared to adjacent forested cover. When available, ASTER data was

  15. Validation of the Aster Global Digital Elevation Model Version 3 Over the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesch, D.; Oimoen, M.; Danielson, J.; Meyer, D.

    2016-06-01

    The ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model Version 3 (GDEM v3) was evaluated over the conterminous United States in a manner similar to the validation conducted for the original GDEM Version 1 (v1) in 2009 and GDEM Version 2 (v2) in 2011. The absolute vertical accuracy of GDEM v3 was calculated by comparison with more than 23,000 independent reference geodetic ground control points from the U.S. National Geodetic Survey. The root mean square error (RMSE) measured for GDEM v3 is 8.52 meters. This compares with the RMSE of 8.68 meters for GDEM v2. Another important descriptor of vertical accuracy is the mean error, or bias, which indicates if a DEM has an overall vertical offset from true ground level. The GDEM v3 mean error of -1.20 meters reflects an overall negative bias in GDEM v3. The absolute vertical accuracy assessment results, both mean error and RMSE, were segmented by land cover type to provide insight into how GDEM v3 performs in various land surface conditions. While the RMSE varies little across cover types (6.92 to 9.25 meters), the mean error (bias) does appear to be affected by land cover type, ranging from -2.99 to +4.16 meters across 14 land cover classes. These results indicate that in areas where built or natural aboveground features are present, GDEM v3 is measuring elevations above the ground level, a condition noted in assessments of previous GDEM versions (v1 and v2) and an expected condition given the type of stereo-optical image data collected by ASTER. GDEM v3 was also evaluated by differencing with the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) dataset. In many forested areas, GDEM v3 has elevations that are higher in the canopy than SRTM. The overall validation effort also included an evaluation of the GDEM v3 water mask. In general, the number of distinct water polygons in GDEM v3 is much lower than the number in a reference land cover dataset, but the total areas compare much more closely.

  16. Glacial Ice Velocity Determination and Correlation from Different Mountain Ranges Using Aster Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleasants, M.; Haritashya, U. K.

    2013-12-01

    Mountain glaciers make good indicators of even slight changes in climatic conditions because of their sensitivity to temperature and other environmental changes. Due to the inaccessibility of most mountain glaciers, field based measurements of glacier dynamics, especially ice velocities, has proved to be difficult and unrealistic. Because of this, evaluation of satellite imagery has become useful in the determination of glacial ice velocities and production of ice flow models. The calculation and comparison of ice velocities from three glaciated regions (the Southern Alps of New Zealand, the North-east Nepali Himalaya, and the south-eastern Chugach Mountains of Alaska) is presented here. This study was completed to establish the accuracy and global applicability of the method of precise orthorectification, co-registration, and correlation using the software COSI-Corr and in-house filtering techniques. We chose glaciers from different mountain ranges that present different dynamics to establish a specific ice velocity method. Advanced Spacebourne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) L1A images were chosen as close to annual pairs as possible from the available data at the USGS Global Visualization Viewer (GloVis). This study focuses on the Tasman glacier in New Zealand, the Khumbu glacier in the Himalayas, the previously unstudied Scott glacier in Alaska, and the comparison of these ice velocities to climate data for each region compiled from numerous sources in an attempt to draw conclusions of the behavior of these glaciers in response to current climatic changes.

  17. 用Asterisk和AsterCRM部署心理咨询呼叫中心

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李正鹏; 王迪

    2010-01-01

    随着社会快速发展与变革,人们对心理咨询的需求日益增多,如何提高客户服务质量和效率是心理咨询机构成功的关键因素.由于呼叫中心(CallCenter)能提供便利、规范和高效的客户服务,因此在心理咨询客户诉聊中具有很好的应用价值,Asterisk是目前使用最广泛的开源IP-PBX系统软件,AsterCRM是一款基于web的针对asterisk开发的开源呼叫中心软件,文章详细介绍了Asterisk软交换平台和AstetCRM呼叫中心平台,并设计实现了心理咨询呼叫中心.

  18. Accuracy Improvement of ASTER Stereo Satellite Generated DEM Using Texture Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mandla V. Ravibabu; Kamal Jain; Surendra Pal Singh; Naga Jyothi Meeniga

    2010-01-01

    The grid DEM (digital elevation model) generation can be from any of a number of sources: for instance, analogue to digital conversion of contour maps followed by application of the TIN model, or direct elevation point modelling via digital photogrammetry applied to airborne images or satellite images. Currently, apart from the deployment of point-clouds from LiDAR data acquisition, the generally favoured approach refers to applications of digital photogrammetry. One of the most important steps in such deployment is the stereo matching process for conjugation point (pixel) establishment: very difficult in modelling any homogenous areas like water cover or forest canopied areas due to the lack of distinct spatial features. As a result, application of automated procedures is sure to generate erroneous elevation values. In this paper, we present and apply a method for improving the quality of stereo DEMs generated via utilization of an entropy texture filter. The filter was applied for extraction of homogenous areas before stereo matching so that a statistical texture filter could then be applied for removing anomalous evaluation values prior to interpolation and accuracy assessment via deployment of a spatial correlation technique. For exemplification, we used a stereo pair of ASTER 1B images.

  19. Inversion of Land Surface Temperature (LST Using Terra ASTER Data: A Comparison of Three Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Isaya Ndossi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Land Surface Temperature (LST is an important measurement in studies related to the Earth surface’s processes. The Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER instrument onboard the Terra spacecraft is the currently available Thermal Infrared (TIR imaging sensor with the highest spatial resolution. This study involves the comparison of LSTs inverted from the sensor using the Split Window Algorithm (SWA, the Single Channel Algorithm (SCA and the Planck function. This study has used the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA data to model and compare the results from the three algorithms. The data from the sensor have been processed by the Python programming language in a free and open source software package (QGIS to enable users to make use of the algorithms. The study revealed that the three algorithms are suitable for LST inversion, whereby the Planck function showed the highest level of accuracy, the SWA had moderate level of accuracy and the SCA had the least accuracy. The algorithms produced results with Root Mean Square Errors (RMSE of 2.29 K, 3.77 K and 2.88 K for the Planck function, the SCA and SWA respectively.

  20. Per-Field Irrigated Crop Classification in Arid Central Asia Using SPOT and ASTER Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Conrad

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The overarching goal of this research was to explore accurate methods of mapping irrigated crops, where digital cadastre information is unavailable: (a Boundary separation by object-oriented image segmentation using very high spatial resolution (2.5–5 m data was followed by (b identification of crops and crop rotations by means of phenology, tasselled cap, and rule-based classification using high resolution (15–30 m bi-temporal data. The extensive irrigated cotton production system of the Khorezm province in Uzbekistan, Central Asia, was selected as a study region. Image segmentation was carried out on pan-sharpened SPOT data. Varying combinations of segmentation parameters (shape, compactness, and color were tested for optimized boundary separation. The resulting geometry was validated against polygons digitized from the data and cadastre maps, analysing similarity (size, shape and congruence. The parameters shape and compactness were decisive for segmentation accuracy. Differences between crop phenologies were analyzed at field level using bi-temporal ASTER data. A rule set based on the tasselled cap indices greenness and brightness allowed for classifying crop rotations of cotton, winter-wheat and rice, resulting in an overall accuracy of 80 %. The proposed field-based crop classification method can be an important tool for use in water demand estimations, crop yield simulations, or economic models in agricultural systems similar to Khorezm.

  1. Spatial distributions of the leafminer Ophiomyia maura (Diptera: Agromyzidae) in host plant Aster ageratoides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshiko Ayabe; Ei'ichi Shibata

    2008-01-01

    The seasonal occurrence and among-plant and within-plant spatial distribution of the multivoltine leafminer Ophiomyia maura Meigen (Diptera: Agromyzidae) on the herbaceous plant Aster ageratoides Turcz. subsp, ovatus (Asteraceae) were investigated in the field. O. maura has at least four generations a year and mines per leaf fluctuate with a mean of 0.007 throughout the occurrence period. Seasonal occurrence is associated with abundance of new host leaves, suggesting O. maura females prefer to oviposit in newly emerged leaves. The among-plant distribution of O. maura is described by a Poisson distribution early in the season but tends to be weakly clumped later. The within-plant vertical distribution of larval mines increased from middle to upper leaves during plantdevelopment, because mined leaves in the middle position early in the season move downward with the emergence of new leaves, shifting mined leaves from the position where O. maura oviposits eggs. Later in the season, mined leaves remain where they are deposited because few new leaves emerge. The spatial distribution of O. rnaura, resource utilization patterns, and host plant characteristics are discussed.

  2. Thermal remote sensing of ice-debris landforms using ASTER: an example from the Chilean Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenning, A.; Peña, M. A.; Long, S.; Soliman, A.

    2012-03-01

    Remote sensors face challenges in characterizing mountain permafrost and ground thermal conditions or mapping rock glaciers and debris-covered glaciers. We explore the potential of thermal imaging and in particular thermal inertia mapping in mountain cryospheric research, focusing on the relationships between ground surface temperatures and the presence of ice-debris landforms on one side and land surface temperature (LST) and apparent thermal inertia (ATI) on the other. In our case study we utilize ASTER daytime and nighttime imagery and in-situ measurements of near-surface ground temperature (NSGT) in the Mediterranean Andes during a snow-free and dry observation period in late summer. Spatial patterns of LST and NSGT were mostly consistent with each other both at daytime and at nighttime. Daytime LST over ice-debris landforms was decreased and ATI consequently increased compared to other debris surfaces under otherwise equal conditions, but NSGT showed contradictory results, which underlines the complexity and possible scale dependence of ATI in heterogeneous substrates with the presence of a thermal mismatch and a heat sink at depth. While our results demonstrate the utility of thermal imaging and ATI mapping in a mountain cryospheric context, further research is needed for a better interpretation of ATI patterns in complex thermophysical conditions.

  3. Alteration, slope-classified alteration, and potential lahar inundation maps of volcanoes for the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Volcano Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, John C.; Hubbard, Bernard E.; Pieri, David; Linick, Justin

    2015-01-01

    This study identifies areas prone to lahars from hydrothermally altered volcanic edifices on a global scale, using visible and near infrared (VNIR) and short wavelength infrared (SWIR) reflectance data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and digital elevation data from the ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) dataset. This is the first study to create a global database of hydrothermally altered volcanoes showing quantitatively compiled alteration maps and potentially affected drainages, as well as drainage-specific maps illustrating modeled lahars and their potential inundation zones. We (1) identified and prioritized 720 volcanoes based on population density surrounding the volcanoes using the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program database (GVP) and LandScan™ digital population dataset; (2) validated ASTER hydrothermal alteration mapping techniques using Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and ASTER data for Mount Shasta, California, and Pico de Orizaba (Citlaltépetl), Mexico; (3) mapped and slope-classified hydrothermal alteration using ASTER VNIR-SWIR reflectance data on 100 of the most densely populated volcanoes; (4) delineated drainages using ASTER GDEM data that show potential flow paths of possible lahars for the 100 mapped volcanoes; (5) produced potential alteration-related lahar inundation maps using the LAHARZ GIS code for Iztaccíhuatl, Mexico, and Mount Hood and Mount Shasta in the United States that illustrate areas likely to be affected based on DEM-derived volume estimates of hydrothermally altered rocks and the ~2x uncertainty factor inherent within a statistically-based lahar model; and (6) saved all image and vector data for 3D and 2D display in Google Earth™, ArcGIS® and other graphics display programs. In addition, these data are available from the ASTER Volcano Archive (AVA) for distribution (available at http://ava.jpl.nasa.gov/recent_alteration_zones.php).

  4. Avaliação de fluxos de calor e evapotranspiração pelo modelo SEBAL com uso de dados do sensor ASTER Evaluation of heat fluxes and evapotranspiration using SEBAL model with data from ASTER sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Veloso dos Santos

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência da aplicação do modelo SEBAL em estimar os fluxos de energia em superfície e a evapotranspiração diária, numa extensa área de cultivo de arroz irrigado, no município de Paraíso do Sul, RS, tendo como parâmetros dados do sensor ASTER. As variáveis estudadas constituem importantes parâmetros do tempo e do clima em estudos agrometeorológicos e de racionalização no uso da água. As metodologias convencionais de estimativa desses parâmetros são pontuais e geralmente apresentam incertezas, que aumentam quando o interesse é o comportamento espacial desses parâmetros. Aplicou-se o algoritmo "Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land" (SEBAL, em uma imagem do sensor "Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer" (ASTER. As estimativas obtidas foram comparadas com medições em campo, realizadas por uma estação micrometeorológica localizada no interior da área de estudo. As estimativas mais precisas foram as de fluxo de calor sensível e de evapotranspiração diária, e a estimativa que apresentou maior erro foi a do fluxo de calor no solo. A metodologia empregada foi capaz de reproduzir os fluxos de energia em superfície de maneira satisfatória para estudos agrometeorológicos e de rendimento de culturas.The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of SEBAL model in estimating soil surface energy fluxes and daily evapotranspiration for a large area of irrigated rice farms, near the municipality of Paraíso do Sul, RS, Brazil, using data from ASTER sensor. The evaluated variables are important weather and climatic parameters for agrometeorological studies and rationalization of water use. The conventional methodologies for estimating these parameters generally present uncertainties, which increase when concern is in the spatial behavior of such parameters. The Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL was applied in an Advanced Spaceborne

  5. Comparative lahar hazard mapping at Volcan Citlaltépetl, Mexico using SRTM, ASTER and DTED-1 digital topographic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Bernard E.; Sheridan, Michael F.; Carrasco-Núñez, Gerardo; Díaz-Castellón, Rodolfo; Rodríguez, Sergio Raúl

    2007-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated and compared the utility of spaceborne SRTM and ASTER DEMs with baseline DTED-1 "bald-earth" topography for mapping lahar inundation hazards from volcan Citlaltépetl, Mexico, a volcano which has had a history of producing debris flows of various extents. In particular, we tested the utility of these topographic datasets for resolving ancient valley-filling deposits exposed around the flanks of the volcano, for determining their magnitude using paleohydrologic methods and for forecasting their inundation limits in the future. We also use the three datasets as inputs to a GIS stream inundation flow model, LAHARZ, and compare the results. In general all three datasets, with spatial resolution of 90 m or better, were capable of resolving debris flow and lahar deposits at least 3 × 10 6 m 3 in volume or larger. Canopy- and slope-related height errors in the ASTER and SRTM DEMs limit their utility for measuring valley-filling cross-sectional area and deriving flow magnitude for the smallest deposits using a cross-sectional area to volume scaling equation. Height errors in the ASTER and SRTM DEMs also causes problems in resolving stream valley hydrography which controls lahar flow paths and stream valley morphology which controls lahar filling capacity. However, both of the two spaceborne DEM datasets are better than DTED-1 at resolving fine details in stream hydrography and erosional morphologies of volcaniclastics preserved in the valleys around the more humid, eastern flanks of the volcanic range. The results of LAHARZ flow inundation modeling using all three DEMs as inputs are remarkably similar and co-validate one another. For example, at Citlaltépetl all lahar simulations show that the city of Orizaba is the most vulnerable to flows similar in magnitude to, or larger than, one that occurred in 1920. Many of the other cities and towns illustrated are built higher up on terrace deposits of older debris flows, and are safe from all but

  6. The Penetration Depth Derived from the Synthesis of ALOS/PALSAR InSAR Data and ASTER GDEM for the Mapping of Forest Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjian Ni

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Global Digital Elevation Model produced from stereo images of Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer data (ASTER GDEM covers land surfaces between latitudes of 83°N and 83°S. The Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR onboard Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS collected many SAR images since it was launched on 24 January 2006. The combination of ALOS/PALSAR interferometric data and ASTER GDEM should provide the penetration depth of SAR data assuming ASTER GDEM was the elevation of vegetation canopy top. It would be correlated with forest biomass because penetration depth could be affected by forest density and forest canopy height. Their combination held great promises for the forest biomass mapping over large area. The feasibility of forest biomass mapping through the data synthesis of ALOS/PALSAR InSAR data and ASTER GDEM was investigated in this study. A procedure for the extraction of penetration depth was firstly proposed. Then three models were built for biomass estimation: (I model only using backscattering coefficients of ALOS/PALSAR data; (II model only using penetration depth; (III model using both of them. The biomass estimated from Lidar data was taken as reference data to evaluate the three different models. The results showed that the combination of backscattering coefficients and penetration depth gave the best accuracy. The forest disturbance has to be considered in forest biomass estimation because of the long time span of ASTER data for generating ASTER GDEM. The spatial homogeneity could be used to improve estimation accuracy.

  7. Temporal radiative heat flux estimation and alteration mapping of Tendürek volcano (eastern Turkey) using ASTER imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusoy, İnan

    2016-11-01

    Tendürek volcano is a polygenetic, basaltic shield volcano formed by successive alkaline basalt flows. It is one of the youngest volcanoes of Turkey; both historical and Holocene activities have been reported for the volcano. Continuous hydrothermal and fumarole activity has been observed on the twin summit craters located 4.5 km apart. ASTER daytime and nighttime satellite imagery acquired between 2001 and 2014 are used to calculate surface temperature, surface temperature anomaly and relative radiative heat flux from the craters to determine a base value for the current thermal emission. Surface temperature and surface temperature anomaly calculations yield a heat flux between 14.4 and 35.5 W/m2 at the western crater and between 7.72 and 28.3 W/m2 at the eastern crater. These values are well-correlated with other known low-level activity volcanoes. The annual and long term consistency of the thermal pattern is investigated. The location and extent of surficial hydrothermal alteration within and surrounding the Tendürek craters is identified by band ratioing and indexing using ASTER visible through shortwave infrared bands. Spectral identification of gypsum, hydroxides, sulfates, hydrated sulfates and clay mineralisation indicates pervasive acid-sulfate alteration due to the activity of fumarole vents around Tendürek craters.

  8. Digital Mapping of Soil Drainage Classes Using Multitemporal RADARSAT-1 and ASTER Images and Soil Survey Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abou Niang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Discriminant analysis classification (DAC and decision tree classifiers (DTC were used for digital mapping of soil drainage in the Bras-d’Henri watershed (QC, Canada using earth observation data (RADARSAT-1 and ASTER and soil survey dataset. Firstly, a forward stepwise selection was applied to each land use type identified by ASTER image in order to derive an optimal subset of soil drainage class predictors. The classification models were then applied to these subsets for each land use and merged to obtain a digital soil drainage map for the whole watershed. The DTC method provided better classification accuracies (29 to 92% than the DAC method (33 to 79% according to the land use type. A similarity measure (S was used to compare the best digital soil drainage map (DTC to the conventional soil drainage map. Medium to high similarities (0.6≤S<0.9 were observed for 83% (187 km2 of the study area while 3% of the study area showed very good agreement (S≥0.9. Few soil polygons showed very weak similarities (S<0.3. This study demonstrates the efficiency of combining radar and optical remote sensing data with a representative soil dataset for producing digital maps of soil drainage.

  9. Seismic zonation of Port-Au-Prince using pixel- and object-based imaging analysis methods on ASTER GDEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Alan; Hough, Susan E.; Cox, Brady R.; Rathje, Ellen M.; Bachhuber, Jeff; Dulberg, Ranon; Hulslander, David; Christiansen, Lisa; and Abrams, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    We report about a preliminary study to evaluate the use of semi-automated imaging analysis of remotely-sensed DEM and field geophysical measurements to develop a seismic-zonation map of Port-au-Prince, Haiti. For in situ data, VS30 values are derived from the MASW technique deployed in and around the city. For satellite imagery, we use an ASTER GDEM of Hispaniola. We apply both pixel- and object-based imaging methods on the ASTER GDEM to explore local topography (absolute elevation values) and classify terrain types such as mountains, alluvial fans and basins/near-shore regions. We assign NEHRP seismic site class ranges based on available VS30 values. A comparison of results from imagery-based methods to results from traditional geologic-based approaches reveals good overall correspondence. We conclude that image analysis of RS data provides reliable first-order site characterization results in the absence of local data and can be useful to refine detailed site maps with sparse local data.

  10. Seismic-zonation of Port-au-Prince using pixel- and object-based imaging analysis methods on ASTER GDEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, A.; Hough, S.E.; Cox, B.R.; Rathje, E.M.; Bachhuber, J.; Dulberg, R.; Hulslander, D.; Christiansen, L.; Abrams, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    We report about a preliminary study to evaluate the use of semi-automated imaging analysis of remotely-sensed DEM and field geophysical measurements to develop a seismic-zonation map of Port-au-Prince, Haiti. For in situ data, Vs30 values are derived from the MASW technique deployed in and around the city. For satellite imagery, we use an ASTER GDEM of Hispaniola. We apply both pixel- and object-based imaging methods on the ASTER GDEM to explore local topography (absolute elevation values) and classify terrain types such as mountains, alluvial fans and basins/near-shore regions. We assign NEHRP seismic site class ranges based on available Vs30 values. A comparison of results from imagery-based methods to results from traditional geologic-based approaches reveals good overall correspondence. We conclude that image analysis of RS data provides reliable first-order site characterization results in the absence of local data and can be useful to refine detailed site maps with sparse local data. ?? 2011 American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.

  11. The microtubule aster formation and its role in nuclear envelope assembly around the sperm chromatin in Xenopus egg extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ning; CHEN Zhongcai; LU Ping; ZHANG Chuanmao; ZHAI Zhonghe; TANG Xiaowei

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear envelope is a dynamic structure in the cell cycle. At the beginning of mitosis, nuclear envelope breaks down and its components disperse into the cytoplasm. At the end of mitosis, nuclear envelope reassembles using the dispersed components. Searching for the mechanisms of the nuclear disassembly and reassembly has for a long time been one of the key projects for cell biologists. In this report we show that microtubules take a role in the nuclear envelope assembly around the sperm chromatin in Xenopus egg extracts. Microtubule cytoskeleton has been demonstrated to take roles in the transport of intracellular membranes such as Golgi and ER vesicles. We found that the nuclear envelope assembly needs functional microtubules. At the beginning of the nuclear assembly, microtubules nucleated to form a microtubule aster around the centrosome at the base of the sperm head. Using the microtubule drug colchicine to disrupt the microtubule nucleation, nuclear envelope reassembly was seriously inhibited. If the microtubules were stabilized by taxol, another microtubule drug, the nuclear envelope reassembly was also interfered, although a significantly large aster formed around the chromatin. Based on these observations, we propose that microtubules play an important role in the nuclear envelope reassembly maybe by transporting the nuclear envelope precursors to the chromatin surfaces.

  12. Planimetric and volumetric glacier changes in the Khumbu Himal, Nepal, since 1962 using Corona, Landsat TM and ASTER data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolch, Tobias; Buchroithner, Manfred; Pieczonka, Tino; Kunert, Andreé

    Multitemporal space imagery from 1962 (Corona KH-4), 1992 (Landsat TM), 2001 and 2005 (Terra ASTER) was used to investigate the glacier changes in the Khumbu Himal, Nepal. The ice coverage in the investigation area decreased by about 5% between 1962 and 2005, with the highest retreat rates occurring between 1992 and 2001. The debris coverage increased concomitantly with the decrease in total glacier area. The clean-ice area decreased by >10%. Digital terrain model (DTM) generation from the early Corona KH-4 stereo data in this high-relief terrain is time-consuming, and the results still contain some elevation errors. However, these are minor in the snow-free areas with gentle slopes. Thus comparison of the surfaces of the debris-covered glacier tongues based on the Corona DTM and an ASTER DTM is feasible and shows the downwasting of the debris-covered glaciers. The highest downwasting rates, more than 20m (>0.5ma-1), can be found near the transition zone between the active and the stagnant glacier parts of the debris-covered glacier tongues. The downwasting is lower, but still evident, in the active ice areas and at the snout with thick debris cover. All investigated debriscovered glaciers in the study area show similar behaviour. The estimated volume loss for the investigated debris-covered glacier tongues is 0.19km3.

  13. Vertical Accuracy Assessment of 30-M Resolution Alos, Aster, and Srtm Global Dems Over Northeastern Mindanao, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillan, J. R.; Makinano-Santillan, M.

    2016-06-01

    The ALOS World 3D - 30 m (AW3D30), ASTER Global DEM Version 2 (GDEM2), and SRTM-30 m are Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) that have been made available to the general public free of charge. An important feature of these DEMs is their unprecedented horizontal resolution of 30-m and almost global coverage. The very recent release of these DEMs, particularly AW3D30 and SRTM- 30 m, calls for opportunities for the conduct of localized assessment of the DEM's quality and accuracy to verify their suitability for a wide range of applications in hydrology, geomorphology, archaelogy, and many others. In this study, we conducted a vertical accuracy assessment of these DEMs by comparing the elevation of 274 control points scattered over various sites in northeastern Mindanao, Philippines. The elevations of these control points (referred to the Mean Sea Level, MSL) were obtained through 3rd order differential levelling using a high precision digital level, and their horizontal positions measured using a global positioning system (GPS) receiver. These control points are representative of five (5) land-cover classes namely brushland (45 points), built-up (32), cultivated areas (97), dense vegetation (74), and grassland (26). Results showed that AW3D30 has the lowest Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 5.68 m, followed by SRTM-30 m (RMSE = 8.28 m), and ASTER GDEM2 (RMSE = 11.98 m). While all the three DEMs overestimated the true ground elevations, the mean and standard deviations of the differences in elevations were found to be lower in AW3D30 compared to SRTM-30 m and ASTER GDEM2. The superiority of AW3D30 over the other two DEMS was also found to be consistent even under different landcover types, with AW3D30's RMSEs ranging from 4.29 m (built-up) to 6.75 m (dense vegetation). For SRTM-30 m, the RMSE ranges from 5.91 m (built-up) to 10.42 m (brushland); for ASTER GDEM2, the RMSE ranges from 9.27 m (brushland) to 14.88 m (dense vegetation). The

  14. Evaluation of ASTER and SRTM DEM data for lahar modeling: A case study on lahars from Popocatépetl Volcano, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggel, C.; Schneider, D.; Miranda, P. Julio; Delgado Granados, H.; Kääb, A.

    2008-02-01

    Lahars are among the most serious and far-reaching volcanic hazards. In regions with potential interactions of lahars with populated areas and human structures the assessment of the related hazards is crucial for undertaking appropriate mitigating actions and reduce the associated risks. Modeling of lahars has become an important tool in such assessments, in particular where the geologic record of past events is insufficient. Mass-flow modeling strongly relies on digital terrain data. Availability of digital elevation models (DEMs), however, is often limited and thus an obstacle to lahar modeling. Remote-sensing technology has now opened new perspectives in generating DEMs. In this study, we evaluate the feasibility of DEMs derived from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) for lahar modeling on Popocatépetl Volcano, Mexico. Two GIS-based models are used for lahar modeling, LAHARZ and a flow-routing-based debris-flow model (modified single-flow direction model, MSF), both predicting areas potentially affected by lahars. Results of the lahar modeling show that both the ASTER and SRTM DEMs are basically suitable for use with LAHARZ and MSF. Flow-path prediction is found to be more reliable with SRTM data, though with a coarser spatial resolution. Errors of the ASTER DEM affecting the prediction of flow paths due to the sensor geometry are associated with deeply incised gorges with north-facing slopes. LAHARZ is more sensitive to errors of the ASTER DEM than the MSF model. Lahar modeling with the ASTER DEM results in a more finely spaced predicted inundation area but does not add any significant information in comparison with the SRTM DEM. Lahars at Popocatépetl are modeled with volumes of 1 × 10 5 to 8 × 10 6 m 3 based on ice-melt scenarios of the glaciers on top of the volcano and data on recent and historical lahar events. As regards recently observed lahars, the travel

  15. ASTER Urgent Response to the 2006 Eruption of Augustine Volcano, Alaska: Science and Decision Support Gained From Frequent High-resolution, Satellite Thermal Infrared Imaging of Volcanic Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, R. L.; Ramsey, M. S.; Schneider, D. S.; Coombs, M.; Dehn, J.; Realmuto, V. J.

    2006-12-01

    Augustine Volcano, Alaska explosively erupted on January 11, 2006 after nearly eight months of increasing seismicity, deformation, gas emission, and small phreatic explosions. The volcano produced a total of 13 explosive eruptions during the last three weeks of January 2006. A new summit lava dome and two short, blocky lava flows grew during February and March 2006. A series of 7 daytime and 15 nighttime Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) scenes were acquired in response to this new activity. This response was facilitated by a new ASTER Urgent Request Protocol system. The ASTER data provided several significant observations as a part of a much larger suite of real-time or near-real-time data from other satellite (AVHRR, MODIS), airborne (FLIR, visual, gas), and ground-based (seismometers, radiometers) sensors used at the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO). ASTER is well-suited to volcanic observations because of its 15-m to 90-m spatial resolution, its ability to be scheduled and point off-nadir, and its ability to collect visible-near infrared (VNIR) to thermal infrared (TIR) data during both the day and night. Aided by the volcano's high latitude (59.4°N) ASTER was able to provide frequent repeat imaging as short as one day between scenes with an average 6-day repeat during the height of activity. These data provided a time series of high-resolution VNIR, shortwave infrared (SWIR - detects temperatures from about 200°C to > 600°C averaged over a 30-m pixel), and TIR (detects temperatures up to about 100°C averaged over a 90-m pixel) data of the volcano and its eruptive products. Frequent satellite imaging of volcanoes is necessary to record rapid changes in activity and to avoid recurring cloud cover. Of the 22 ASTER scenes acquired between October 30, 2005 and May 30, 2006, the volcano was clear to partly cloudy in 13 scenes. The most useful pre-eruption ASTER Urgent Request image was acquired on December 20. These data

  16. CCD CBERS and ASTER data in dasometric characterization of Pinus radiata D. Don (north-western Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Sevillano-Marco

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A Chinese-Brazilian Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS and an Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER scenes coupled with ancillary georeferenced data and field survey were employed to examine the potential of the remote sensing data in stand basal area, volume and aboveground biomass assessment over large areas of Pinus radiata D. Don plantations in Northwestern Spain. Statistical analysis proved that the near infrared band and the shade fraction image showed significant correlation coefficients with all stand variables considered. Predictive models were accordingly selected and utilized to undertake the spatial distribution of stand variables in radiata stands delimited by the National Forestry Map. The study reinforces the potentiality of remote sensing techniques in a cost-effective assessment of forest systems.

  17. The Extraction of Altered Minerals by use of Hyperspectral and Aster Data and Their Comparison Research in Beketan, Altyn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, H.; Li, J. Q.; Ren, G. L.; Yang, M.; Han, H. H.; Gao, T.; Yang, J. L.

    2016-11-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing technology has played an important role in the field of geological application in recent years. Based on the reflectance of typical altered minerals and the spectral characteristics of rocks, we tried to identify and extract the altered minerals such as calcite, dolomite, epidote, chlorite, moscovite, limonite, hematite, etc. by using of CASI/SASI data in Beketan, Altyn. Moreover, we extracted Mg-OH/CO32-/Al-OH/Fe3+/Ferric oxide from Aster data by the ratio method. Combined with known geological background and the field investigation, we found that the extracted altered mineral information was consistent with the actual distribution of the field. The altered mineral information extracted by Hyperspectral data dispalyed more mineral distribution in details. It showed that the hyperspectral remote sensing technology could provide accurate hydrothermal altered mineral information which is helpful for geological mapping work.

  18. Mapping temperature and radiant geothermal heat flux anomalies in the Yellowstone geothermal system using ASTER thermal infrared data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, R. Greg; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; Jaworowski, Cheryl; Heasler, Henry

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to use satellite-based thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing data to measure, map, and monitor geothermal activity within the Yellowstone geothermal area to help meet the missions of both the U.S. Geological Survey Yellowstone Volcano Observatory and the Yellowstone National Park Geology Program. Specifically, the goals were to: 1) address the challenges of remotely characterizing the spatially and temporally dynamic thermal features in Yellowstone by using nighttime TIR data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and 2) estimate the temperature, geothermal radiant emittance, and radiant geothermal heat flux (GHF) for Yellowstone’s thermal areas (both Park wide and for individual thermal areas). ASTER TIR data (90-m pixels) acquired at night during January and February, 2010, were used to estimate surface temperature, radiant emittance, and radiant GHF from all of Yellowstone’s thermal features, produce thermal anomaly maps, and update field-based maps of thermal areas. A background subtraction technique was used to isolate the geothermal component of TIR radiance from thermal radiance due to insolation. A lower limit for the Yellowstone’s total radiant GHF was established at ~2.0 GW, which is ~30-45% of the heat flux estimated through geochemical (Cl-flux) methods. Additionally, about 5 km2 was added to the geodatabase of mapped thermal areas. This work provides a framework for future satellite-based thermal monitoring at Yellowstone as well as exploration of other volcanic / geothermal systems on a global scale.

  19. Modelling Vegetation Cover Dynamics of the Niger Floodplain in Mali, Westafrica, Using Multitemporal MERIS Full Resolution and TERRA -ASTER Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Ralf

    This presentation aims at showing the potential of a combined use of multi-temporal data from two different sensors (MERIS and TERRA ASTER) for an analysis of vegetation cover changes in semi-arid environments. While MERIS data mainly provide information about the vegetation cover density, ASTER data were used to analyse soil properties -especially soil brightness and soil wetness. An algorithm is proposed that uses atmospherically corrected surface reflectance values from MERIS and ASTER measurements. These values are subsequently splitted into a signal component that is caused by the vegetation cover and the background component (triggered by soil properties) using a linear spectral unmixing approach. Vegetation cover then is described by Vegetation Indices (MGVI, NDVI / SAVI) that were calculated from the vegetation signal component. Finally, these vegetation parameter were classified for all multi-temporal MERIS data using the EM algorithm to derive the temporal behaviour of vegetation pattern at the Inland Delta. The algorithm provides, as results, a fractional vegetation cover, a vegetation density value and information on the soil type. A detailed mapping of the spatio-temporal vegetation cover patterns for the Niger Inland Delta during the period of 2002 -2005 is another outcome of this study in addition to an in-depth evaluation of the applicability of the used VIs for environments with sparse vegetation covers. Located in the western Sahel of Africa, (1330' N -17 N and 230' W -530' W), the Niger Inland Delta is one of the largest floodplains in the world. The geographic term "Niger Inland Delta" represents a vast, extremely flat area of around 40.000 km extend, which is annually inundated by water of the Niger -Bani riversystem. In contrast to its semi -arid surrounding, the delta's ecology can be described as a mosaic of permanent, periodical and episodically flooded areas. Their extend varies both in scale and time due to irregularities of amount as

  20. Atividade antibacteriana e antifúngica de extratos etanólicos de Aster lanceolatus Willd., Asteraceae Antibacterial and antifungal activity of ethanolics extracts from Aster lanceolatus Willd., Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane F. Gaspari Dias

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Conhecida popularmente como áster-arbustiva, margarida-de-são-miguel e monte-cassino, Aster lanceolatus é uma planta ornamental de corte. Sabendo-se que não existem estudos que atestem a atividade biológica desta espécie, procurou-se neste trabalho atividades antibacteriana e antifúngica. Para tanto se utilizaram extratos brutos etanólicos de duas porções distintas, das flores e dos caules com folhas. Para a atividade antibacteriana, oito bactérias patogênicas foram submetidas a ensaio de difusão em gel e concentração inibitória mínima. Demonstrou-se atividade do extrato bruto etanólico de flores contra Streptococcus pyogenes, em difusão em gel e atividade de extrato bruto etanólico de caules e folhas contra Salmonella typhimurium e Streptococcus pyogenes em concentração inibitória mínima. Para a atividade antifúngica, utilizaram-se três fungos patogênicos em ensaios de crescimento micelial em placas e bioautografia direta. No ensaio de crescimento micelial em placas verificou-se a inibição de Fusarium oxysporum e na bioautografia direta, inibição do Cylindrocladium spathulatum. Os resultados delinearam uma nova fonte de pesquisa, as plantas ornamentais. Estas podem ser fonte de constituintes químicos capazes de servirem como protótipos para novos agentes terapêuticos e para tratamento sanitário de plantas medicinais.Popularly known as aster-arbustiva, margarida-de-são-miguel and monte-cassino, Aster lanceolatus is an ornamental plant. Having the knowledge that there is no studies on the biological activity of this species, this work aimed to check the antibacterial and antifungal activities. The ethanol extracts of the flowers and of the stems with leaves were used. For the antibacterial activity eight pathogenic bacteria were submitted to the diffusion test in gel and minimal inhibitory concentration. The activity of the ethanolic extract of the flowers has been demonstrated against Streptococcus pyogenes in

  1. IMÁGENES ASTER EN LA DISCRIMINACIÓN DE ÁREAS DE USO AGRÍCOLA EN COLOMBIA ASTER IMAGES FOR DISCRIMINATION OF AGRICULTURAL USE AREAS IN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidia Esperanza Ortiz Lozano

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El avance de las tecnologías de la información geográfica ha llevado a la puesta de nuevos sensores para observación de la tierra. ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Termal Emission and Reflection Radiometer, considerado como sensor de última generación, posee características especiales que lo colocan como una alternativa para estudios de la cobertura vegetal de la tierra. El presente trabajo se basó en sus características espaciales, espectrales y radiométricas con el fin de discriminar las áreas de cultivo agrícola en el distrito de riego Usocoello, en Colombia. Se utilizó una imagen ASTER de nivel 1B de 2006, corregida geométricamente, remuestreada y sus valores de radiancia fueron transformados a valores de reflectancia, permitiendo realizar dos composiciones: imágenes originales (VNIR-SWIR e imagen fusionada en transformación IHS. Se estableció una leyenda temática a partir del esquema de clasificación "CORINE Land Cover - Colombia", definiendo 10 categorías de cobertura representativas en la imagen. Para la fase de asignación se utilizó el clasificador de máxima probabilidad. En el proceso de verificación y cuantificación del nivel de exactitud se utilizó, como verdad terreno, la base de datos geográfica del área a nivel de predio de la misma fecha de la toma de la imagen, encontrándose una fiabilidad global estimada del 75% para la imagen VNIR-SWIR; si se tiene en cuenta la variabilidad de los estados fenológicos de los cultivos (arroz, maíz y sorgo en el área y un contraste espacial significativo en la imagen fusionada, el índice de Kappa obtenido fue de 0,75 con un grado de acuerdo sustancial.The advance of geographical information technology has led to the placement of new sensors for earth observation. ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer is considered as a latest generation sensor. It has special characteristics that places it as an alternative for studies of vegetation cover

  2. Civil engineering: calculations of pre-stressed concrete structures using Code{sub A}ster; Genie civil: calcul des ouvrages en beton precontraint avec le Code{sub A}ster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerard, B.; Ulm, F. [Service Ensembles de Production, Departement Surveillance Diagnostic Maintenance, Direction des Etudes et Recherches, Electricite de France (EDF), 92 - Clamart (France)

    1997-11-01

    This document presents an analysis of the different calculation methods for pre-stressed concrete structure which can be performed by using finite element methods. Two methods of calculating the pre-stressing of concrete structures with finite elements have been determined. The equivalent method which consists of replacing the action of pre-stressing the concrete by equivalent forces. These method is well suited to dimensioning and studying the overall stability of a structure. It is not an easy matter to take into account the coupled or time-varying phenomena. This approach ignores the evolution of the interaction between the pre-stressing and the concrete. The explicit method which consists of including the mechanical resolution of the pre-stressed cables in that of a concrete structure. Not only does this allow a local study of the pre-stressed to be made, it also allows the coupling which developed over time to be determined, e.g. slip, deferred deformation and coupling between the steel and concrete behaviours. This method enables non-linear phenomena with varying degrees of complexity, such as fracture or yielding of the steels, drying out of the concrete, creep, etc to be described. The two methods are complementary. This document presents the mathematical and computer developments relating to each of this method. In the case of the explicit method, certain of the Code-Aster functions already make it possible to meet several EDF application requirements. Several couplings can be taken into account, such as thermomechanical, shrinkage in drying, creep, relaxation and injection of the cables. Three immediate developments of Code-Aster are proposed for the following applications: - a procedure for calculating the pre-stress losses along the pre-stressing cables; - a command to allocate these forces in the form of an initial force field in the bar elements associated with the cables; - a procedure for linking elements whose nodes do not coincide with each other

  3. Estimation of Lake Water Temperature with ASTER and Landsat 8 OLI-TIRS Thermal Infrared Bands: A Case Study Beysehir Lake (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, Sehnaz; Sener, Erhan

    2016-08-01

    Beyşehir Lake is the largest fresh water lake in our country with the 653 km2 surface area. Lake water have used for drinking water of several settlements in the basin. Beyşehir Lake is a shallow lake and, especially in recent years its water level was dropped due to unplanned usage and effects of climate change.In this study, determination of the water temperature in Lake Beyşehir is aimed using 90m resolution thermal infrared bands of ASTER (Advance Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) satellite and 30m resolution thermal infrared bands of Landsat 8 OLI-TIRS satellite. The Normalized Water Different Index (NWDI) has been applied to ASTER and Landsat 8 OLI-TIRS satellite images to determine lake surface area. Accordingly, the lake water temperature is generally proportional to the depth and it relatively higher in the shallow area.

  4. Frequency fraction and spatial distribution of clay minerals detection by sub-pixel classification of ASTER data, case study, Esteghlal mine of Abadeh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Hashemi Tangestani

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Esteghlal fireclay mine, northern Abadeh, with dominant composition of kaolinite and pyrophyllite, and annual production of over a million tons, is one of the largest sedimentary deposits in Iran. Linear Spectral Unmixing (LSU and Mixture Tuned Matched Filtering (MTMF processes were applied on the VNIR + SWIR dataset of ASTER for identifying the frequency fraction and distribution of clay minerals in this mine. Sub-pixel frequency assessment of ASTER data showed that distribution of pixels with higher fractions belong to the kaolinite and pyrophyllite, outcropped in two different parts of the mine. Comparison of LSU and MTMF output results showed that MTMF is more reliable to determining the relative fraction of clay minerals at the study area.

  5. Applying Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) spectral indices for geological mapping and mineral identification on the Tibetan Plateau

    CERN Document Server

    Corrie, Robert; Aitchison, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau holds clues to understanding the dynamics and mechanisms associated with continental growth. Part of the region is characterized by zones of ophiolitic melange believed to represent the remnants of ancient oceanic crust and underlying upper mantle emplaced during oceanic closures. However, due to the remoteness of the region and the inhospitable terrain many areas have not received detailed investigation. Increased spatial and spectral resolution of satellite sensors have made it possible to map in greater detail the mineralogy and lithology than in the past. Recent work by Yoshiki Ninomiya of the Geological Survey of Japan has pioneered the use of several spectral indices for the mapping of quartzose, carbonate, and silicate rocks using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) thermal infrared (TIR) data. In this study, ASTER TIR indices have been applied to a region in western-central Tibet for the purposes of assessing their effectiveness for differentiatin...

  6. Coerência espectroscópica de famílias de asteróides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothé Diniz, T.; Roig, F. V.

    2003-08-01

    As Famílias de asteróides são caracterizadas como agrupamentos de objetos provenientes da quebra por colisão de corpos precursores. Desta forma, seus membros devem preservar relações genéticas que podem ser traduzidas sob a análise de suas características espectrais. Neste trabalho é apresentado o primeiro estudo espectroscópico de todas as famílias de asteróides do cinturão principal. Para tal, a divisão em famílias foi refeita utilizando-se o método HCM com uma base de elementos próprios analíticos (Knezevic e Milani, Jun 2001) e para o estudo espectroscópico foram utilizadas diversas campanhas de observação espectroscópica, tais o S3OS2 e o SMASSII, bem como outros dados disponíveis na literatura. A homogeneidade espectroscópica de cada família foi avaliada através da verificação das classes espectroscópicas presentes, bem como da comparação destes espectros com os de objetos de fundo, localizados na vizinhança da família. Vinte e duas famílias foram analisadas (as que possuíam mais do que 3 membros com espectro) e, dentre as principais conclusões pode-se citar a homogeneidade espectroscópica e, provavelmente mineralógica das famílias de Vesta, Eunomia, Hoffmeister, Dora, Merxia, Agnia, Koronis e Veritas. Esta última em particular, foi tida como uma família não homogênea espectroscopicamente em trabalho anterior (Di Martino et al. 1997). Outro resultado interessante é, por um lado, a aparente falta de homogeneidade dos membros da família de Eos, e por outro sua forte distinção dos objetos de fundo. O oposto ocorre na família de Themis, esta apresentando-se espectroscopicamente compatível com os objetos de fundo, mas com grande homogeneidade taxonômica entre seus membros. Algumas das famílias apresentam asteróides "intrusos" (objetos cujas características físicas não são compatíveis com aquelas dos membros da família) que, de modo geral desaparecem ao se considerarem níveis mais baixos de corte para a

  7. Principle and geomorphological applicability of summit level and base level technique using Aster Gdem satellite-derived data and the original software Baz

    OpenAIRE

    Akihisa Motoki; Kenji Freire Motoki; Susanna Eleonora Sichel; Samuel da Silva; José Ribeiro Aires

    2015-01-01

    This article presents principle and geomorphological applicability of summit level technique using Aster Gdem satellite-derived topographicdata. Summit level corresponds to thevirtualtopographic surface constituted bylocalhighest points, such as peaks and plateau tops, and reconstitutes palaeo-geomorphology before the drainage erosion. Summit level map is efficient for reconstitution of palaeo-surfaces and detection of active tectonic movement. Base level is thevirtualsurface composed oflocal...

  8. Spectroscopy of olivine basalts using FieldSpec and ASTER data: A case study from Wadi Natash volcanic field, south Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ahmed Madani

    2015-10-01

    This paper aims at revealing the spectral characteristics of the olivine basalts exposed at Wadi Natash area, Egypt, using FieldSpec spectroradiometer. It also evaluates band ratios and fusion techniques for mapping purposes using ASTER data. Several volcanic episodes occurred during Early- to Late-Cretaceous are recorded in the study area. Early-Cretaceous olivine basalts are highly carbonated. Late-Cretaceous eruptions took place throughout several volcanic cones aligned in NW direction. Based on FieldSpec measurements and petrographic data, two groups of olivine basalt namely `A' and `B' are recognized. Fresh olivine basalt (group A) is characterized by low flat spectral profile with overall low reflectance values (~20%). Spectral profile of altered olivine basalt (group B) shows moderate reflectance values (~37%) with four little absorption features around the 1.10, 1.40, 2.00 and 2.35 μm wavelength regions. These absorption features are attributed mainly to the presence of chlorite and carbonate alteration products as indicated by petrographic examination. ASTER false colour composite band ratio image (3/2:R, 8/1:G and 8/5:B) discriminates easily the fresh and altered basalts by deep blue and red-dish blue colours respectively. Image fusion between previously mentioned FCC ratios image and high spatial resolution ASTER panchromatic image are carried out using brovey and HSV transformation methods. Visual and statistical assessment methods proved that HSV fusion image yields better image interpretability results compared to brovey image. It improves the spatial resolution of original FCC ratios image with acceptable spectral preservation. The present study proved the usefulness of Field-Spec spectral profiles and the processed ASTER data for discriminating different olivine basalt groups exposed at the study area.

  9. The French accelerator mass spectrometry facility ASTER after 4 years: Status and recent developments on 36Cl and 129I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Maurice; Aumaître, Georges; Bourlès, Didier L.; Keddadouche, Karim; Braucher, Régis; Finkel, Robert C.; Nottoli, Emmanuelle; Benedetti, Lucilla; Merchel, Silke

    2013-01-01

    Since the acceptance tests of the French 5 MV accelerator mass spectrometry facility ASTER in 2007, routine measurement conditions for the long-lived radionuclides 10Be and 26Al have been established. Yearly sample throughput as high as over 3300 unknowns has been reached for 10Be in 2010. Cross-contamination for volatile elements has been largely solved by an ion source upgrade allowing 36Cl measurements at ASTER. However, recent long-term tests using 35Cl/37Cl samples with strongly varying ratios have shown that identical targets lead to different 35Cl/37Cl results at the 2-4% level when being measured after a time gap of 24 h while the source is running other samples. Besides time dependent mass fractionation, another likely reason for this effect might be source memory, thus, asking for sophisticated measurement strategies and improved data evaluation and eventually further ion source improvement. Finally, after establishing quality assurance by cross-calibration of secondary in-house 26Al and 41Ca standards and taking part in round-robin exercises of 10Be and 36Cl, a two-step cross-calibration of secondary in-house 129I standards has been performed. The NIST 3231 standard containing 129I/127I at (0.981 ± 0.012) × 10-6 has been used for step-wise dilution with NaI to produce gram-quantities of lower-level standards for every-day use. The resulting material SM-I-9 (129I/127I: ∼1 × 10-9) has been measured vs. AgI produced using minimum chemistry from the two NIST ampoules containing a solution with a nominal ratio 129I/127I of (0.982 ± 0.012) × 10-8. In a second stage, SM-I-10 and SM-I-11 with ratios of ∼1 × 10-10 and ∼1 × 10-11, respectively, have been cross-calibrated against SM-I-9. Individual uncertainties of the traceable secondary standards are 1.3-1.4% (2σ), mainly originating from the given uncertainty of the primary NIST 3231 at the 10-8 level. The cross-contamination for iodine is in the range of 0.4-0.6% within the first 20 h of running

  10. A new 100-m Digital Elevation Model of the Antarctic Peninsula derived from ASTER Global DEM: methods and accuracy assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Cook

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A high resolution surface topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM is required to underpin studies of the complex glacier system on the Antarctic Peninsula. A complete DEM with better than 200 m pixel size and high positional and vertical accuracy would enable mapping of all significant glacial basins and provide a dataset for glacier morphology analyses. No currently available DEM meets these specifications. We present a new 100-m DEM of the Antarctic Peninsula (63–70° S, based on ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM data. The raw GDEM products are of high-quality on the rugged terrain and coastal-regions of the Antarctic Peninsula and have good geospatial accuracy, but they also contain large errors on ice-covered terrain and we seek to minimise these artefacts. Conventional data correction techniques do not work so we have developed a method that significantly improves the dataset, smoothing the erroneous regions and hence creating a DEM with a pixel size of 100 m that will be suitable for many glaciological applications. We evaluate the new DEM using ICESat-derived elevations, and perform horizontal and vertical accuracy assessments based on GPS positions, SPOT-5 DEMs and the Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA imagery. The new DEM has a mean elevation difference of −4 m (± 25 m RMSE from ICESat (compared to −13 m mean and ±97 m RMSE for the original ASTER GDEM, and a horizontal error of less than 2 pixels, although elevation accuracies are lower on mountain peaks and steep-sided slopes. The correction method significantly reduces errors on low relief slopes and therefore the DEM can be regarded as suitable for topographical studies such as measuring the geometry and ice flow properties of glaciers on the Antarctic Peninsula. The DEM is available for download from the NSIDC website: http://nsidc.org/data/nsidc-0516.html (Changes of ultrastructure and cytoplasmic free calcium in Gladiolus x hybridus Van Houtte roots infected by aster yellows phytoplasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rudzińska-Langwald

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Roots of Gladiolus x hybridus Van Houtte plants infected with aster yellows phytoplasma were examined. The infected plants had a reduced root system in comparison to control plants. Their roots were thinner and the stele organisation was changed. Phytoplasmas were present in sieve tubes, companion cells and phloem parenchyma cells of the infected plant roots. Free calcium ions were localized in the cells of infected plants. Cells of the stele of infected roots, especially these infected with phytoplasmas, showed an increase of calcium antimonite deposits in theirs protoplasts. Also the number of calcium antimonite deposits increased in sieve tubes of infected roots. The deposits were present on plasma membrane, around the sieve tube plate and also in the lumen of the sieve tube. The increase of free calcium ions in sieve tubes did not cause the occlusion of sieve tube pores. Companion cells and some parenchyma cells with phytoplasmas did not react to phytoplasma infection with an increase of Ca2+ ions in protoplast. The parenchyma cells showing signs of degeneration reacted with high increase of calcium ions. The Ca2+ ions were present mainly in cytoplasm of infected parenchyma cells. There were calcium antimonite deposits in infected plant roots xylem elements and in intracellular spaces of cortex parenchyma. Such deposits were not present in control plants.

  11. Metabolic potential and community structure of endophytic and rhizosphere bacteria associated with the roots of the halophyte Aster tripolium L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymańska, Sonia; Płociniczak, Tomasz; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia; Złoch, Michał; Ruppel, Silke; Hrynkiewicz, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    The submitted work assumes that the abundance and diversity of endophytic and rhizosphere microorganisms co-existing with the halophytic plant Aster tripolium L. growing in a salty meadow in the vicinity of a soda factory (central Poland) represent unique populations of cultivable bacterial strains. Endophytic and rhizosphere bacteria were (i) isolated and identified based on 16S rDNA sequences; (ii) screened for nifH and acdS genes; and (iii) analyzed based on selected metabolic properties. Moreover, total microbial biomass and community structures of the roots (endophytes), rhizosphere and soil were evaluated using a cultivation-independent technique (PLFA) to characterize plant-microbial interactions under natural salt conditions. The identification of the isolated strains showed domination by Gram-positive bacteria (mostly Bacillus spp.) both in the rhizosphere (90.9%) and roots (72.7%) of A. tripolium. Rhizosphere bacterial strains exhibited broader metabolic capacities, while endophytes exhibited higher specificities for metabolic activity. The PLFA analysis showed that the total bacterial biomass decreased in the following order (rhizospherebacteria in the roots of the halophyte. The described strain collection provides a valuable basis for a subsequent applications of bacteria in improvement of site adaptation of plants in saline soils.

  12. The role of Aster amellus Linn. in the degradation of a sulfonated azo dye Remazol Red: a phytoremediation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandare, Rahul V; Kabra, Akhil N; Tamboli, Dhawal P; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2011-02-01

    Phytoremediation is a novel and promising approach for the treatment of pollutants. This study did explore the potential of Aster amellus Linn. to decolorize a sulfonated azo dye Remazol Red (RR), a mixture of dyes and a textile effluent. Induction in the activities of lignin peroxidase, tyrosinase, veratryl alcohol oxidase and riboflavin reductase was observed during RR decolorization, suggesting their involvement in the metabolism of RR. UV-Visible absorption spectrum, HPLC and FTIR analysis confirmed the degradation of RR. Four metabolites after the degradation of the dye were identified as 2-[(3-diazenylphenyl) sulfonyl] ethanesulfonate, 4-amino-5-hydroxynaphthalene-2,7-disulfonate, naphthalene-2-sulfonate and 3-(1,3,5-triazin-2-ylamino)benzenesulfonate by using GC/MS. Textile effluent and mixture of dyes showed 47% and 62% decrease respectively in American Dye Manufacturers Institute value. BOD of textile effluent and mixture of dyes were reduced by 75% and 48% respectively, COD of industrial effluent and mixture of dyes was reduced by 60% and 75% and TOC was reduced by 54% and 69% respectively after the treatment by A. amellus for 60 h; this indicated that the plant can be used for cleaning textile effluents. Toxicity study revealed the phytotransformation of RR into non-toxic products.

  13. Lithologic mapping in the Mountain Pass, California area using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, L.C.; Mars, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluation of an Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image of the Mountain Pass, California area indicates that several important lithologic groups can be mapped in areas with good exposure by using spectral-matching techniques. The three visible and six near-infrared bands, which have 15-m and 30-m resolution, respectively, were calibrated by using in situ measurements of spectral reflectance. Calcitic rocks were distinguished from dolomitic rocks by using matched-filter processing in which image spectra were used as references for selected spectral categories. Skarn deposits and associated bright coarse marble were mapped in contact metamorphic zones related to intrusion of Mesozoic and Tertiary granodioritic rocks. Fe-muscovite, which is common in these intrusive rocks, was distinguished from Al-muscovite present in granitic gneisses and Mesozoic granite. Quartzose rocks were readily discriminated, and carbonate rocks were mapped as a single broad unit through analysis of the 90-m resolution, five-band surface emissivity data, which is produced as a standard product at the EROS Data Center. Three additional classes resulting from spectral-angle mapper processing ranged from (1) a broad granitic rock class (2) to predominately granodioritic rocks and (3) a more mafic class consisting mainly of mafic gneiss, amphibolite and variable mixtures of carbonate rocks and silicate rocks. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of saltwater intrusion on pinewood vegetation using satellite ASTER data: the case study of Ravenna (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarella, M; De Giglio, M; Greggio, N

    2015-04-01

    The San Vitale pinewood (Ravenna, Italy) is part of the remaining wooded areas within the southeastern Po Valley. Several studies demonstrated a widespread saltwater intrusion in the phreatic aquifer caused by natural and human factors in this area as the whole complex coastal system. Groundwater salinization affects soils and vegetation, which takes up water from the shallow aquifer. Changes in groundwater salinity induce variations of the leaf properties and vegetation cover, recognizable by satellite sensors as a response to different spectral bands. A procedure to identify stressed areas from satellite remote sensing data, reducing the expensive and time-consuming ground monitoring campaign, was developed. Multispectral Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data, acquired between May 2005 and August 2005, were used to calculate Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Within the same vegetation type (thermophilic deciduous forest), the areas with the higher vegetation index were taken as reference to identify the most stressed areas using a statistical approach. To confirm the findings, a comparison was conducted using contemporary groundwater salinity data. The results were coherent in the areas with highest and lowest average NDVI values. Instead, to better understand the behavior of the intermediate areas, other parameters influencing vegetation (meteorological data, water table depth, and tree density) were added for the interpretation of the results.

  15. Ultrastructural changes in aster yellows phytoplasma affected Limonium sinuatum Mill. plants II. Pathology of cortex parenchyma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rudzińska-Langwald

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Limonium sinuatum Mill, plants with severe symptoms of aster yellows infection phytoplasmas were present not only in the phloem but also in some cortex parenchymas cells. These parenchyma cells were situated at some distance from the conducting bundles. The phytoplasmas were observed directly in parenchyma cells cytoplasm. The number of phytoplasmas present in each selected cell varies. The cells with a small number of phytoplasmas show little pathological changes compared with the unaffected cells of the same zone of the stem as well with the cells of healthy plants. The cells filled with a number of phytoplasmas had their protoplast very much changed. The vacuole was reduced and in the cytoplasm a reduction of the number of ribosomes was noted and regions of homogenous structure appeared. Mitochondria were moved in the direction of the tonoplast and plasma membrane. Compared to the cells unaffected by phytoplasma, the mitochondria were smaller and had an enlarged cristae internal space. The chloroplasts from affected cells had a very significant reduction in size and the tylacoids system had disappeared. The role of these changes for creating phytoplasma friendly enviroment is discused.

  16. Study of the structure changes caused by earthquakes in Chile applying the lineament analysis to the Aster (Terra) satellite data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-Baeza, A.; Zverev, A.; Malinnikov, V.

    Chile is one of the most seismically and volcanically active regions in the South America due to a constant subdiction of the South American plate, converging with the Nazca plate in the extreme North of Chile. Four events, namely: the Ovalle earthquake of Juny 18, 2003, M=6.3, with epicenter localized at (-30:49:33, -71:18:53), the Calama earthquake of Junly 19, 2001, M=5.2, (-30:29:38,-68:33:18), the Pica earthquake of April 10, 2003, M=5.1, (-21:03:20,-68:47:10) and the La Ligua earthquake of May 6, 2001, M=5.1, (-32:35:31,-71:07:58:) were analysed using the 15 m resolution satellite images, provided by the ASTER/VNIR instrument. The Lineament Extraction and Stripes Statistic Analysis (LESSA) software package was used to examine changes in the lineament features caused by sismic activity. Lack of vegetation facilitates the study of the changes in the topography common to all events and makes it possible to evaluate the sismic risk in this region for the future.

  17. Evaluación de los datos del sensor ASTER para estimar la superficie cultivada y los niveles de producción de caña de azúcar en Tucumán, Argentina An evaluation of ASTER data to estimate sugarcane planted area and production levels in Tucumán, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico J. Soria

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se evalúa la capacidad de los datos de las bandas espectrales 2 y 3 del subsistema VNIR (Visible Near Infrared y la banda espectral 4 del subsistema SWIR (Short Wave Infrared del sensor ASTER, para estimar la superficie cultivada y los niveles de producción de caña de azúcar en un área ubicada en el departamento Chicligasta de la provincia de Tucumán, Argentina. Se aplicó la metodología de clasificación multiespectral supervisada. Los resultados obtenidos fueron comparados con los generados con igual metodología utilizando los datos de las bandas 3, 4 y 5 del sensor TM del satélite Landsat 5. El análisis estadístico de la información disponible demostró que los datos del sensor ASTER, en sus bandas 2 y 3 del VNIR, poseen la capacidad de discriminar la superficie y los niveles de producción de caña de azúcar en el área de estudio. De la comparación estadística de estos resultados con los de la imagen Landsat, resulta que la banda 3 de ASTER y 4 de Landsat poseen una significancia mayor para discriminar niveles de producción, que las bandas 2 y 3 de los respectivos sensores. Ante estos resultados, el sensor ASTER se muestra como una alternativa viable para la discriminación y cuantificación de la caña de azúcar.In this work, data obtained by Visible Near Infrared (VNIR bands 2 and 3 and Short Wave Infrared (SWIR subsystem (band 4 of the ASTER sensor, were evaluated in terms of their potential use in estimating planted surface and production levels of a sugarcane growing area in Chicligasta, province of Tucumán, Argentina. The multiespectral supervised classification methodology was applied. The results were compared with the ones obtained by applying the same methodology to data provided by bands 3, 4 and 5 of Landsat 5 satellite TM sensor. Statistical analysis of the available information demonstrated that data supplied by VNIR bands 2 and 3 of the ASTER sensor allow discriminating sugarcane planted area

  18. Anti-Obesity Effects of Aster spathulifolius Extract in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sa-Jic; Bang, Chae-Young; Guo, Yuan-Ri; Choung, Se-Young

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-obesity and antihyperlipidemic efficacy and molecular mechanisms of Aster spathulifolius Maxim extract (ASE) in rats with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Rats were separately fed a normal diet or a HFD for 8 weeks, then they were treated with ASE (62.5, 125, or 250 mg/kg) for another 4.5 weeks. The ASE supplementation significantly lowered body weight gain, visceral fat pad weights, serum lipid levels, as well as hepatic lipid levels in HFD-induced obese rats. Histological analysis showed that the ASE-treated group showed lowered numbers of lipid droplets and smaller size of adipocytes compared to the HFD group. To understand the mechanism of action of ASE, the expression of genes and proteins involved in obesity were measured in liver and skeletal muscle. The expression of fatty acid oxidation and thermogenesis-related genes (e.g., PPAR-α, ACO, CPT1, UCP2, and UCP3) of HFD-induced obese rats were increased by ASE treatment. On the other hand, ASE treatment resulted in decreased expression of fat intake-related gene ACC2 and lipogenesis-related genes (e.g., SREBP-1c, ACC1, FAS, SCD1, GPATR, AGPAT, and DGAT). Furthermore, ASE treatment increased the level of phosphorylated AMPKα in obese rats. Similarly, the level of phosphorylated ACC, a target protein of AMPKα in ASE groups, was increased by ASE treatment compared with the HFD group. These results suggest that ASE attenuated visceral fat accumulation and improved hyperlipidemia in HFD-induced obese rats by increasing lipid metabolism through the regulation of AMPK activity and the expression of genes and proteins involved in lipolysis and lipogenesis.

  19. Growth and nitrogen uptake by Salicornia europaea and Aster tripolium in nutrient conditions typical of aquaculture wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintã, R; Santos, R; Thomas, D N; Le Vay, L

    2015-02-01

    The increasing need for environmentally sound aquaculture development can, in part, be addressed by using halophytic plants in integrated multitrophic aquaculture systems (IMTA) to remove waste dissolved nitrogen (N). However, knowledge of plant ability to take up nitrogen is of foremost importance to predict plants performance in such systems. Two species, Salicornia europaea and Aster tripolium, have been identified as potential candidates for IMTA due to their salt tolerance, potential N removal capabilities and their high commercial value as an additional crop. This study investigated the growth and N uptake rates of these two species under different N supply (NH4(+), NO3(-), NH4NO3). S. europaea plants produced a lower biomass when grown in NH4(+) compared to NO3(-) or NH4NO3, while A. tripolium biomass was not affected by the form in which N was supplied. N uptake in plants incubated at different concentrations of (15)N enriched solution (up to 2 mmol l(-1)) fitted the Michaelis-Menten model. While S. europaea NH4-N maximum uptake did not differ between starved and non-starved plants, A. tripolium NH4-N uptake was higher in starved plants when supplied alone. When NO3(-) was supplied alone, NO3-N maximum uptake was lower, for both species, when the plants were not starved. Comparison of starved and non-starved plants N uptake demonstrates the need for cautious interpretation of N uptake rates across different conditions. According to the observed results, both S. europaea and A. tripolium are capable of significantly high biomass production and N removal making them potential species for inclusion in efficient IMTA.

  1. Post-classification comparison of land cover using multitemporal Landsat and ASTER imagery: the case of Kahramanmaraş, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphan, Hakan; Doygun, Hakan; Unlukaplan, Yüksel I

    2009-04-01

    This study assessed land cover (LC) changes in Kahramanmaraş (K.Maraş) and its environs by using multitemporal Landsat and ASTER imagery, respectively belong to 1989, 2000 and 2004. A priori defined nine land cover classes in the classification scheme were urban and built-up, forest, sparsely vegetated areas, grassland, vegetated stream beds, unvegetated stream beds, bare areas, crop fields, and water bodies. Individual classifications were employed using the combination of both unsupervised and supervised classification methods. Iterative Self Organizing Data Analysis (ISODATA) was used to reduce spectral variation in the scenes arising from complex pattern of crop fields. Maximum Likelihood classifier was used in the LC classification of the individual images. Image pairs of consecutive dates were compared by overlaying the thematic LC maps and cross-tabulating the LC statistics. Urbanization and expansion of agriculture were the major reasons for the dramatic LC conversions. The amount of conversion from crop fields to water occurred as large as 927.67 ha, accounting for 73% of the total land-to-water conversion. Conversions to agriculture have mainly been occurred from grasslands and sparsely vegetated areas as large as 1,314.95 and 1,325.84 ha, respectively. Urban coverage doubled in this period as a result of 1,443.45 ha of increase. Urban area increased in the second period from 2,920 to 3,526 ha. Conversions to agriculture occurred at high amounts. A total of 1,075.79 ha area changed from sparsely vegetated areas to crop fields. A landscape-level environmental monitoring scheme based on satellite remote sensing was proposed for effective environmental resource management.

  2. Using the British National Collection of Asters to Compare the Attractiveness of 228 Varieties to Flower-Visiting Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbuzov, Mihail; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2015-06-01

    Wildlife-friendly gardening practices can help conserve biodiversity in urban areas. These include growing ornamental plant varieties attractive to flower-visiting insects. Because varieties vary greatly in attractiveness, there is a need to quantify it in order to give objective advice to gardeners. Here, we used the British national collection of asters to compare the attractiveness of varieties to flower-visiting insects. We counted and identified insects as they foraged on flowers in 228 varieties growing in discrete patches that flowered during the survey period, 14 September-20 October 2012. In each variety, we also determined the overall capitulum size, the central disc floret area, and the ray floret color (blue, red, purple, or white). We also scored attributes relevant to gardening: attractiveness to humans, ease of cultivation, and availability in the United Kingdom. There was great variation among varieties in their attractiveness to insects, ranging from 0.0 to 15.2 per count per square meter, and highly skewed, with most being unattractive. A similar skew held for the two main insect categories, honey bees and hover flies, which comprised 28 and 64% of all insects, respectively. None of the floral traits or attributes relevant to gardening correlated significantly with attractiveness to insects. Our study shows the practicality of using a national collection for quantifying and comparing the attractiveness of ornamental varieties to flower-visiting insects. These results imply that choosing varieties carefully is likely to be of conservation benefit to flower-visiting insects, and that doing so is a no-cost option in terms of garden beauty and workload.

  3. Application of MODIS-ASTER (MASTER) simulator data to geological mapping of young volcanic regions in Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmochowski, Jane Ellen

    Visible, near infrared, short-wave infrared, and thermal infrared multi-channel remote sensing data, MODIS-ASTER (MASTER), are used to extract geologic information from two volcanic regions in Baja California, Mexico: Tres Virgenes-La Reforma Volcanic Region and the volcanic island of Isla San Luis. The visible and near infrared and short-wave infrared data were atmospherically corrected and classified. The resulting classification roughly delineates surfaces that vary in their secondary minerals. Attempts to identify these minerals using ENVI's Spectral Analyst(TM) were moderately successful. The analysis of the thermal infrared data utilizes the shift to longer wavelengths in the Reststrahlen band as the mineralogy changes from felsic to mafic to translate the data into values of weight percent SiO2. The results indicate that the general approach tends to underestimate the weight percent SiO2 in the image. This discrepancy is removed with a "site calibration," which provides good results in the calculated weight percent SiO2 with errors of a few percent. However, errors become larger with rugged topography or low solar angle at the time of image acquisition. Analysis of bathymetric data around Isla San Luis, and consideration of the island's alignment with the Ballenas transform fault zone to the south and volcanic seamounts nearby, suggest Isla San Luis is potentially volcanically active and could be the product of a "leaky" transform fault. The results from the image analysis in the Tres Virgenes-La Reforma Volcanic Region show the La Reforma and El Aguajito volcanic centers to be bimodal in composition and verify the most recent volcanism in the Tres Virgenes region to be basaltic-andesite. The results of fieldwork and image analysis indicate that the volcanic products of the central dome of La Reforma are likely a sequence of welded ash flow tuffs and lavas of varied composition, evidence of its origin as a caldera.

  4. A comparative evaluation of MODIS/ASTER airborne simulator (MASTER) data and burn indices for mapping southern California fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, S. L.; Hook, S. J.

    2009-12-01

    Large fires occur annually in southern California, producing impacts at a number of scales, from local impacts on vegetation, hydrology and microclimates, to global impacts such as emissions, affecting atmospheric chemistry, air quality, radiation balance and biogeochemical cycling. As a consequence fires are routinely mapped using various sensors and burn indices. However, the indices employed for mapping these fires have not been developed and optimized for mapping southern California burned surfaces. Therefore, this study utilizes the high spatial and spectral resolution imagery from the MODIS/ASTER airborne simulator (MASTER) to identify the most effective bands and indices specifically for burned area mapping of the southern California region. The fire perimeter is based on the Burned Area Reflectance Classification (BARC) map created by the United States Forest Service (USFS), Remote Sensing Applications Center (RSAC) and a supervised classification which defines the burned and unburned regions. A separability index is employed to identify the bands and indices that can best distinguish between classes. The results identify a range of well performing indices, such as the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) and the Vegetation Index based on mid-infrared spectral region (VI3), and some poor performing indices, such as the Global Environment Monitoring Index (GEMI) and the Burned Area Index (BAI). Additionally this study highlights the indices that perform better over certain vegetation types. These results are useful for understanding the application of remotely sensed data for mapping burned surfaces. Improved burned area mapping capabilities are essential for informing land managers when identifying regions susceptible to hazards (such as debris and flood flows) and for deciding where to allocate time and resources in recovery efforts. Additionally, these results can be used to validate other sensors that are used to map burned surfaces on greater spatial and

  5. NASA and U.S. Geological Survey Long-Term Archive for the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, M.; Meyer, D. F.

    2013-12-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is a 14-channel optical imaging instrument on NASA's Terra spacecraft. ASTER is a joint project between Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry; and U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Since its launch in December, 1999, ASTER has acquired over 2.4 million multispectral images. The Level 0 data are sent to Japan by NASA, where they are processed to Level 1A (reconstructed, unprocessed instrument data with geometric and radiometric parameters attached). A copy of the L1A data is sent to the U.S. to the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LPDAAC), operated for NASA by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at the EROS Center. The joint US/Japan ASTER Science Team (AST) has provided algorithms to produce 14 Level 1, Level 2, and Level 3 products. The duplicate data distribution systems in Japan and the U.S. create these products 'on-demand' as users submit data requests. Only the L0 and L1A data are archived. After the termination of the mission, the USGS has the responsibility for creating, managing and distributing ASTER data products from a Long-Term Archive (LTA). In cooperation with the LPDAAC, the U.S. AST discussed various scenarios on how the LTA should operate. The two leading plans considered were: (1) duplicating the 'on-demand' system, fulfilling user requests as they arrived; this would require a high level of technical support for algorithm/software maintenance, user services to answer questions, hardware maintenance, and in general, was quite labor-intensive; (2) creating a static archive of all of the data products for every one of the L1A image granules; the LPDAAC would produce each of the 14 higher level data products from every L1A image currently archived. Users would order data products from this greatly expanded archive, with little human intervention. In both cases, complete documentation would be available to users, detailing the

  6. Description and validation of an automated methodology for mapping mineralogy, vegetation, and hydrothermal alteration type from ASTER satellite imagery with examples from the San Juan Mountains, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of airborne spectroscopic, or "hyperspectral," remote sensing for geoenvironmental watershed evaluations and deposit-scale mapping of exposed mineral deposits has been demonstrated. However, the acquisition, processing, and analysis of such airborne data at regional and national scales can be time and cost prohibitive. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor carried by the NASA Earth Observing System Terra satellite was designed for mineral mapping and the acquired data can be efficiently used to generate uniform mineral maps over very large areas. Multispectral remote sensing data acquired by the ASTER sensor were analyzed to identify and map minerals, mineral groups, hydrothermal alteration types, and vegetation groups in the western San Juan Mountains, Colorado, including the Silverton and Lake City calderas. This mapping was performed in support of multidisciplinary studies involving the predictive modeling of surface water geochemistry at watershed and regional scales. Detailed maps of minerals, vegetation groups, and water were produced from an ASTER scene using spectroscopic, expert system-based analysis techniques which have been previously described. New methodologies are presented for the modeling of hydrothermal alteration type based on the Boolean combination of the detailed mineral maps, and for the entirely automated mapping of alteration types, mineral groups, and green vegetation. Results of these methodologies are compared with the more detailed maps and with previously published mineral mapping results derived from analysis of high-resolution spectroscopic data acquired by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) sensor. Such comparisons are also presented for other mineralized and (or) altered areas including the Goldfield and Cuprite mining districts, Nevada and the central Marysvale volcanic field, Wah Wah Mountains, and San Francisco Mountains, Utah. The automated

  7. High-accuracy topographical information extraction based on fusion of ASTER stereo-data and ICESat/GLAS data in Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang DongChen; SHEN Qiang; XU Ying; CHEN Gang

    2009-01-01

    In order to better support Antarctic Inland ice sheet expedition from Zhongshan Station to Dome A, the topographic data are necessary. At present, although the entire Antarctic DEM provided by RAMP (Ra-daraat Antarctic Mapping Project) was estimated at the highest horizontal (spatial) resolution of about 200 m, the real horizontal resolution of the DEM varies from place to place depending on the density and scale of the original source data. For ice shelves and the inland ice sheet, the horizontal resolution is about 5 km; the vertical accuracy is estimated to be ±50 m in interior East Antarctic ice sheet and away from the mountain ranges. Therefore, more accurate topographic data are unavailable in Antarc-tica. In order to meet the requirements of high-accuracy topographic information for further researches, this paper mainly addresses a fusion study of ASTER stereo pairs and ICESat/GLAS altimetry data for extraction of high-accuracy DEM in East Antarctica, based on the high horizontal resolution (15 m) of ASTER and vertical accuracy (13.8 cm) of ICESat/GLAS. First, some altimetry data were selected as vertical control points to reduce errors of image correlation matching during the extraction of ASTER-based DEM. Second, ice sheet altimetry data derived from ICESat were used to generate DEM ranging from 75° to 81°S because existing ASTER data do not cover this area and high density of the coverage of ICESat altimetry data. Finally, the DEM in coverage of the expedition route was produced. The analysis of result reveals that the DEM accuracy is improved significantly. The absolute vertical accuracy of DEM is higher than 15 m in some cases and higher than 30 m for all the areas along the expedition route except from the 009-001 scene; the interior accuracy is higher than 15 m and higher than 7 m in some cases. It can meet the requirements of topographic map at 1 : 50000 scale, which is an economic and advantageous method to produce the topographic products.

  8. 湖南菊科紫菀属一新种——吉首紫菀%Aster jishouensis (Asteraceae), a new species from Hunan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎维平; 刘胜祥

    2002-01-01

    吉首紫菀新种图1 Aster jishouensis W. P. Li et S. X. Liu, sp. nov. Fig. 1 Species A. baccharoidi (Benth.) Steetz. affinis, sed caule simplici, caulor um fol iorum laminis linearilanceolatis usque oblongolanceolatis apice longe acumi nat is, nervis lateralibus inconspicuis, capitulis 1~4 in racemum dispositis, invol ucri phyllariis purpureorubris vel apice purpureorubris, pedunculis tenuibus 4~17 mm longis, tubo flosculi disci c. 5 mm longo bene differt.

  9. Countrywide digital elevation models for the Islamic Republic of Mauritania—SRTM and ASTER (phase V, deliverable 65): Chapter F in Second projet de renforcement institutionnel du secteur minier de la République Islamique de Mauritanie (PRISM-II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gregory K.

    2015-01-01

    A digital elevation model (DEM) of the entire country of the Islamic Republic of Mauritania was produced using Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data as required for deliverable 65 of the contract. In addition, because of significant recent advancements of availability, seamlessness, and validity of Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) global elevation data, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) extended its efforts to include a higher resolution countrywide ASTER DEM as value added to the required Deliverable 63, which was limited to five areas within the country. Both SRTM and ASTER countrywide DEMs have been provided in ERDAS Imagine (.img) format that is also directly compatible with ESRI ArcMap, ArcGIS Explorer, and other GIS applications.

  10. Auto-classification of Landform in Karst Region Based on ASTER GDEM%基于ASTER GDEM数据喀斯特区域地貌类型划分与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马士彬; 安裕伦

    2012-01-01

    Geomorphology is one of the most important parts which constitute the elements of physical geography.Based on the GDEM of 1∶100000 ASTER,the optimum analysis window was verified and topographic factors were extracted in the unit of drainage area.With GIS spatial analysis and unsupervised classification,the general geomorphologic types in Karst Region were auto-classified.The study results indicate:(1) DEM at the scale of 1∶100000 can fill the requirements to express the configuration of earth surface on meso-scale.(2) It confirms the basic regulation to select the analysis window and extract topographic factors taking the drainage area as a unit.Topographic factors extracted can reflect the actual configuration of earth surface more impersonally.(3) Multi-spectral image is combined with topographic factors.With the method of ISODATA unsupervised classification,it can implement the quantification of the general geomorphologic types and automatic classification effectively on meso-scale.The precision of the data extracted can meet the demands of computer automatic classification.These experimental results improve the application of ISODATA unsupervised classification in the automatic classification of geomorphology.%以30m分辨率ASTERGDEM数据为基础,通过GIS空间分析和非监督分类的方法进行地貌基本类型的自动划分。研究结果表明:①ASTERGDEM数据能够满足1:10万比例尺下喀斯特区域的地表形态表达;②以流域为单位提取地形因子符合地貌发育的基本规律,提取的地形因子能客观的反应地表真实形态;③采用非监督分类法能够有效的实现1:10万比例尺下地貌基本形态的定量化、自动化分类。

  11. Landsat maps (phase V, deliverable 60), ASTER maps (phase V, deliverable 62), ASTER_DEM maps (phase V, deliverable 63), and spectral remote sensing in support of PRISM-II mineral resource assessment project, Islamic Republic of Mauritania (phase V, deliverables 61 and 64): Chapter E in Second projet de renforcement institutionnel du secteur minier de la République Islamique de Mauritanie (PRISM-II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.; Knepper, Daniel H.; Horton, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Multispectral satellite data acquired by the Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM), Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensors were processed and interpreted in support of the PRISM-II project (Second Projet de Renforcement Institutionnel du Secteur Minier de la Republique Islamique de Mauritanie). This report and accompanying maps constitute project deliverables 60–64. All digital data for use in Geographic Information System (GIS) and image processing software will be included in the GIS deliverable 92. Image maps in PDF format of the processed Landsat and ASTER scenes are referenced in the appendixes.

  12. Vegetation mapping in the Parque Nacional, Brasilia (Brazil) area using advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER) data and spectral identification method (SIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abílio de Carvalho Júnior, Osmar; Guimarães, Renato Fontes; Ferreira de Carvalho, Ana Paula; Correia da Silva, Nilton; de Souza Martins, Eder; Trancoso Gomes, Roberto Arnaldo

    2005-10-01

    The spectral classifiers allow a good estimate for the mapping of the materials from the similarity between the reference curve and the image. Initially the spectral classifiers had been developed for hyperspectral images analysis. However, some works demonstrate good results for the application of these techniques in multispectral images. The present work aims to evaluate the spectral classifier Spectral Identification Method (SIM) in ASTER image. The Spectral Identification Method (SIM) is proposed to establish a new similarity index and three estimates according to the significance of regression (5%, 10% and 15%) of the materials. This method is based on two statistical procedures: ANOVA and Spectral Correlation Mapper (SCM) coefficient. This information can be used to evaluate the degree of correlation among the materials in analysis. The advantage of this method is to validate according to significance of regression most probable areas of the sought material. The method was applied to ASTER image at the Parque Nacional (DF - Brazil). The images were acquired with atmosphere correction. The pixels size from the SWIR image was duplicated in order to join the VNIR and SWIR images. Endmembers were detected in three steps: a) spectral reduction by the Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF), b) spatial reduction by the Pixel Purity Index (PPI) and c) manual identification of the endmembers using the N-dimensional visualizer. The classification was made from the endmembers of nonphotosynthetic vegetation (NPV), photosynthetic vegetation (PV) and soil. These procedures allowed identifying the main scenarios in the study area.

  13. Identification and mapping of soil erosion areas in the Blue Nile-Eastern Sudan using multispectral ASTER and MODIS satellite data and the SRTM elevation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. El Haj Tahir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is part of a set of studies to evaluate the spatial and temporal variability of soil water in terms of natural as well as land-use changes as fundamental factors for vegetation regeneration in arid ecosystems in the Blue Nile-Sudan. The specific aim is to indicate the spatial distribution of soil erosion caused by the rains of 2006. The current study is conducted to determine whether automatic classification of multispectral Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER imagery could accurately discriminate erosion gullies. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM is used to orthoproject ASTER data. A maximum likelihood classifier is trained with four classes, Gullies, Flat_Land, Mountains and Water and applied to images from March and December 2006. Validation is done with field data from December and January 2006/2007, and using drainage network analysis of SRTM digital elevation model. The results allow the identification of erosion gullies and subsequent estimation of eroded area. Consequently the results were up-scaled using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS images of the same dates. Because the selected study site is representative of the wider Blue Nile province, it is expected that the approach presented could be applied to larger areas.

  14. Identification and mapping of soil erosion areas in the Blue Nile-Eastern Sudan using multispectral ASTER and MODIS satellite data and the SRTM elevation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haj Tahir, M.; Kääb, A.; Xu, C.-Y.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is part of a set of studies to evaluate the spatial and temporal variability of soil water in terms of natural as well as land-use changes as fundamental factors for vegetation regeneration in arid ecosystems in the Blue Nile-Sudan. The specific aim is to indicate the spatial distribution of soil erosion caused by the rains of 2006. The current study is conducted to determine whether automatic classification of multispectral Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) imagery could accurately discriminate erosion gullies. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) is used to orthoproject ASTER data. A maximum likelihood classifier is trained with four classes, Gullies, Flat_Land, Mountains and Water and applied to images from March and December 2006. Validation is done with field data from December and January 2006/2007, and using drainage network analysis of SRTM digital elevation model. The results allow the identification of erosion gullies and subsequent estimation of eroded area. Consequently the results were up-scaled using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images of the same dates. Because the selected study site is representative of the wider Blue Nile province, it is expected that the approach presented could be applied to larger areas.

  15. Preliminary development plan of the ALR, the laser rangefinder for the ASTER deep space mission to the 2001 SN263 asteroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gil Vicente de Brum

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian deep space mission ASTER, as temporarily named, plans to send a small spacecraft to encounter and investigate the triple asteroid 2001-SN263. The launch is scheduled (initially to occur in 2015, arriving in 2018. The main motivation of the mission is the development of technology and expertise to leverage the national space sector. Within the scientific goals, the investigation of the still unknown asteroid 2001-SN263. The main project guideline is to aggregate the widest possible Brazilian involvement in the platform, the development and operation of subsystems, integration, payload, as well as in the tracking, navigation, guidance and control of the probe. To meet this guideline, among others, the decision for the development of a laser altimeter in Brazil to fly in the mission was taken. This effort is currently coordinated by a group of researchers from the aerospace engineering personnel of UFABC. This article presents the preliminary development plan for the design of this instrument, which was called ALR (ASTER Laser Rangefinder.

  16. Development of a Model for Estimation of Acacia Senegal Tree Biomass Using Allometry and Aster Satellite Imagery at Ennuhud, West Kordofan State, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elamin, Hatim; Elnour Adam, Hassan; Csaplovics, Elmar

    The current paper deals with the development of a biomass model for Acacia senegal trees by applying allometric equations for ground data combined with ASTER satellite data sets. The current study is conducted around Ennuhud area which is located in Ennuhud locality in West Kordofan State, Sudan. Primary data are obtained by application of random sampling around Ennuhud town where Acacia senegal tree species is abundant. Ten sample units are taken. Each unit contains five sample plots (15x15 m), one in the centre and the others in the four directions 100 m away from the centre forming a total of 50 sample plots. The tree coordinates, diameter/diameters (diameter at breast height ≥ 5 cm), height and crown diameters will be recorded. Sensor data were acquired from ASTER remote sensing satellite (29.03.2007 & 26.01.2011) and integrated with the in-situ data. The expected findings allow for the calculation of the mean diameter of trees. The tree above ground biomass (TAGB), tree below ground biomass (TBGB) and the tree total biomass (TTB) of Acacia senegal are computed consequently. Remotely sensed data are integrated with the ground data for creating the data base for calculating the correlation of the relationship between the two methods of data collection. The application of allometric equations is useful as a non-destructive method for biomass estimation by the application of remote sensing is recommended for biomass modelling over large areas. Keywords: Biomass model, Acacia senegal tree, remote sensing, Ennuhud, North Kordofan

  17. Study of the structural changes in the Popocatepetl volcano in Mexico related to microseismicity by applying the lineament analysis to the Aster (Terra) satellite data

    CERN Document Server

    Arellano-Baeza, A A; Trejo-Soto, M

    2007-01-01

    Mexico is one of the most volcanically active regions in North America. Volcanic activity in central Mexico is associated with the subduction of the Cocos and Rivera plates beneath the North American plate. Periods of enhanced microseismic activity, associated with the volcanic activity of the Popocatepetl volcano is compared with periods, during which the microseismic activity was low. We detected systematical changes in the number of lineaments, associated with the microseismic activity due to lineament analysis of a temporal sequence of high resolution satellite images of the Popocatepetl volcano, provided by the ASTER/VNIR instrument. The Lineament Extraction and Stripes Statistic Analysis (LESSA) software package was used for the lineament extraction. In the future it would allow develop a methodology for detection of possible elevation of pressure in volcano edifice.

  18. Detecting Forest Degradation in Kouchi, Japan Using Visible, Near-IR, Mid-IR, and Thermal-IR Data from ASTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, B.; Onda, Y.; Xu, M.; Otsuki, Y.; Toyota, M.

    2006-12-01

    Forest degradation, mainly due to poor management, is of increasing concern in Japan because some major ecosystem functions, such as biodiversity, productivity, and soil and water retention, are losing or weakening in the forests, especially in the Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis Obtusa Sieb.) plantations. The lack of timely thinning in the plantation has resulted in very dense canopy, which has completely excluded the understory species, such as shrubs and herbs. Litter layer is also absent in this plantation due to the frequent litter removal from heavy rain storms as well as the absence of shrub/herb layers in the understory. Therefore, soil erosion and soil compaction/crust have severely changed the soil hydrology, resulting in the decreased soil infiltration, and increased flooding and sedimentation in downstreams, and furthermore, reduced the ecosystem productivity. Therefore, it is a critical issue to detect the degraded forest for effective forest management and protection of downstream ecosystems. This paper describes a method for mapping forest degradation based on remote sensing techniques. Field survey was firstly carried out to record the locations and conditions of the devastated Japanese cypress plantation. Investigation sites were then divided into four groups based the values of relative illuminance (threshold: 5 percent) and the status of understory vegetation (threshold: 8 percent). Several vegetation indices (Land Surface Water Index: LSWI, Water Index: WI, Normalized Difference Water Index: NDWI, Photochemical Reflectance Index: PRI, and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index: NDVI) and the values of the digital number in the ASTER thermal band were calculated/extracted and tested for the four groups, respectively. Results showed that the ASTER thermal band was the most effective for mapping the degraded forest.

  19. The suitability of using ASTER GDEM2 for terrain-based extraction of stream channel networks in a lowland Arctic permafrost catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Trofaier

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Seasonally inundated areas and water-saturated soils are common features of lowland Arctic and sub-Arctic permafrost environments. With the onset of snow melt, and water percolation down through the snowpack, a principal factor controlling stream channel flow, aside from active layer depth, is topography. This paper investigates stream channel networks derived from the advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER global digital elevation model (GDEM version 2 in a static terrain-based GIS-model. The suitability of using the ASTER GDEM2 for modelling the drainage network over a low-relief terrain is assessed. The aim is to use GDEM2 for the analysis of the stream channel network and to establish the network’s connectivity to previously observed spring flood patterns over the Yamal peninsula. As such, there are two parts to this study: 1 DEM validation and 2 stream channel network analysis. The results of the DEM validation study show that the root mean square error (RMSE of the GDEM2 and reference data is approx. 10 m when compared to both reference data sets (RMSE = 12.17 m, N = 86 and RMSE = 9.64, N = 506,877, implying that the GDEM2 is sufficiently accurate for terrain-based modelling. The low connectivity between the stream channel network and seasonal inundation suggests that topographic controls play a less important role compared to the possible overbanking of lakes and basin overflow. However, drainage densities for investigated drainage basins were significantly lower than those expected from typical Arctic basins. Both more sophisticated modelling techniques as well as higher spatial resolution DEMs are needed to extract the stream channel network more accurately and hence establish a more comprehensive link between the drainage network and seasonally inundated areas.

  20. Identification of mineral resources in Afghanistan-Detecting and mapping resource anomalies in prioritized areas using geophysical and remote sensing (ASTER and HyMap) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    : King, Trude V. V.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Hubbard, Bernard E.; Drenth, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations (TFBSO) natural resources revitalization activities in Afghanistan (Peters and others, 2011), three new datasets have been collected, compiled, and analyzed. These data have been used to more fully evaluate the areas of interest (AOIs; fig. 1 ) where, on the basis of previous U.S.S.R. and Afghanistan studies, the opportunity for early economic development of a number of different mineral, commodity, and deposit types had been identified (Peters and others, 2007; Peters and others, 2011). The new data compilations include (1) regional magnetic and gravity data for use in the characterization of subsurface composition and structure (Sweeney and others, 2006a,b; Ashan and others, 2007; Sweeney and others, 2007; Ashan and others, 2008; Shenwary and others, 2011), (2) Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data to identify and evaluate surficial alteration patterns related to industrial minerals and other selected targets, and (3) HyMap imaging spectrometer data for characterization and mapping of surficial mineralogy (Cocks and others, 1998; Kokaly and others, 2008; Peters and others, 2011). These datasets have served as fundamental building blocks for the resource evaluation by Peters and others (2011).

  1. Effect of Aster tataricus on production of inflammatory mediators in LPS stimulated rat astrocytoma cell line (C6) and THP-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Tao; Tian, Miao; He, Qiao-Wei; Chi, Nan; Xiu, Chun-Ming; Wang, Yun-Bo

    2017-03-01

    Neuroinflammation is the commonest cause of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Present investigation evaluates the inhibitory effect of ethanolic root extract of Aster tataricus (AS) on inflammatory mediators production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated C6 cells. C6 cells were treated with AS (20 and 40 mg/kg) and nimesulide (NSL, 1.5 μg/ml) for 1 day. Thereafter various parameters such as production of ROS, release of nitrite, MDA, glutathione level and NF-κB translocation were estimated in C6 cell lines. Effect of AS was estimated on the expressions of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) of human monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1). It was observed that AS (20 and 40 mg/ml) treated group shows significant (p < 0.01) decrease in production of ROS, Nitrite release and MDA level in LPS activated C6 cell lines compared to negative control group. Moreover, treatment with it decreases glutathione level and inhibits the translocation of NF-κB in LPS activated C6 cell lines compared to negative control group. There were significant (p < 0.01) decreases in expression of TNF-α in AS treated group compared to negative control group in THP-1 cell lines. Present investigation concludes the anti neuroinflammatory effect of ethanolic extract of AS root by decreasing oxidative stress and attenuates the cytokine.

  2. The Extract of Aster Koraiensis Prevents Retinal Pericyte Apoptosis in Diabetic Rats and Its Active Compound, Chlorogenic Acid Inhibits AGE Formation and AGE/RAGE Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghyun Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Retinal capillary cell loss is a hallmark of early diabetic retinal changes. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs are believed to contribute to retinal microvascular cell loss in diabetic retinopathy. In this study, the protective effects of Aster koraiensis extract (AKE against damage to retinal vascular cells were investigated in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. To examine this issue further, AGE accumulation, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS were investigated using retinal trypsin digests from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In the diabetic rats, TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling-positive retinal microvascular cells were markedly increased. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that AGEs were accumulated within the retinal microvascular cells, and this accumulation paralleled the activation of NF-κB and the expression of iNOS in the diabetic rats. However, AKE prevented retinal microvascular cell apoptosis through the inhibition of AGE accumulation and NF-κB activation. Moreover, to determine the active compounds of AKE, two major compounds, chlorogenic acid and 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, were tested in an in vitro assay. Among these compounds, chlorogenic acid significantly reduced AGE formation as well as AGE/RAGE (receptor for AGEs binding activity. These results suggest that AKE, particularly chlorogenic acid, is useful in inhibiting AGE accumulation in retinal vessels and exerts a preventive effect against the injuries of diabetic retinal vascular cells.

  3. Principle and geomorphological applicability of summit level and base level technique using Aster Gdem satellite-derived data and the original software Baz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihisa Motoki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents principle and geomorphological applicability of summit level technique using Aster Gdem satellite-derived topographicdata. Summit level corresponds to thevirtualtopographic surface constituted bylocalhighest points, such as peaks and plateau tops, and reconstitutes palaeo-geomorphology before the drainage erosion. Summit level map is efficient for reconstitution of palaeo-surfaces and detection of active tectonic movement. Base level is thevirtualsurface composed oflocallowest points, as valley bottoms. The difference between summit level and base level is called relief amount. Thesevirtualmapsareconstructed by theoriginalsoftwareBaz. Themacroconcavity index, MCI, is calculated from summit level and relief amount maps. The volume-normalised three-dimensional concavity index, TCI, is calculated from hypsometric diagram. The massifs with high erosive resistance tend to have convex general form and low MCI and TCI. Those with low resistance have concave form and high MCI and TCI. The diagram of TCI vs. MCI permits to distinguish erosive characteristics of massifs according to their constituent rocks. The base level map for ocean bottom detects the basement tectonic uplift which occurred before the formation of the volcanic seamounts.

  4. Potential flood hazard assessment by integration of ALOS PALSAR and ASTER GDEM: a case study for the Hoa Chau commune, Hoa Vang district, in central Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Do Thi Viet; Nagasawa, Ryota

    2014-01-01

    The potential flood hazard was assessed for the Hoa Chau commune in central Vietnam in order to identify the high flood hazard zones for the decision makers who will execute future rural planning. A new approach for deriving the potential flood hazard based on integration of inundation and flow direction maps is described. Areas inundated in the historical flood event of 2007 were extracted from Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) phased array L-band synthetic aperture data radar (PALSAR) images, while flow direction characteristics were derived from the ASTER GDEM to extract the depressed surfaces. Past flood experience and the flow direction were then integrated to analyze and rank the potential flood hazard zones. The land use/cover map extracted from LANDSAT TM and flood depth point records from field surveys were utilized to check the possibility of susceptible inundated areas, extracting data from ALOS PALSAR and ranking the potential flood hazard. The estimation of potential flood hazard areas revealed that 17.43% and 17.36% of Hoa Chau had high and medium potential flood hazards, respectively. The flow direction and ALOS PALSAR data were effectively integrated for determining the potential flood hazard when hydrological and meteorological data were inadequate and remote sensing images taken during flood times were not available or were insufficient.

  5. Reconocimiento de alteración hidrotermal con el sensor ASTER, en el curso medio del Río Santa Cruz (31°40's, provincia de San Juan Reconnaissance of hydrothermal alteration with the ASTER sensor, in the middle course of Río Santa Cruz (31°40' S, province of San Juan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Pérez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La utilización del sensor ASTER (Advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer permitió la identificación de diversos depósitos de alteración hidrotermal, indicando que la aplicación de técnicas espectrales en regiones con buena exposición de afloramientos, permite la identificación de diversas litologías asociadas a dichos depósitos. En el presente trabajo se han probado diferentes métodos para identificar y generar un mapa de zonas con alteración hidrotermal mediante el uso de escenas ASTER. Estas áreas usualmente contienen grandes cantidades de minerales arcillosos susceptibles de ser detectados con imágenes multiespectrales. Diversos autores han desarrollado diferentes procedimientos para clasificar y generar un mapa de estos minerales de origen hidrotermal. Entre las más simples, las combinaciones y cocientes de bandas han probado ser herramientas muy efectivas para detectar blancos. Los índices litológicos buscan reforzar la respuesta espectral de este grupo de minerales mediante productos y cocientes de bandas. Estas técnicas no implican una corrección integral de la escena ASTER. Otras técnicas empleadas en este estudio requieren de un procesamiento más profundo, especialmente cuando se trabaja con datos espectrales. Las mismas incluyen la clasificación SAM (spectral angle mapper y la transformación MNF (minimun noise fraction para separar el ruido y reducir los requisitos posteriores para procesar la imagen. Los espectros utilizados en este trabajo fueron obtenidos con muestras de campo con un espectrómetro de reflectancia SWIR (short wave infrared y mediante la derivación de sus escenas. Los métodos de clasificación han sido probados enáreas de mineralización conocida, como Los Pelambres, El Pachón y Altar; y en otros sectores en la región del río Santa Cruz como Carnicerías y La Coipa; en el sector sudoccidental de la provincia de San Juan. Los resultados de este trabajo se presentan

  6. Radial Turgor and Osmotic Pressure Profiles in Intact and Excised Roots of Aster tripolium: Pressure Probe Measurements and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Imaging Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, U; Rygol, J; Balling, A; Klöck, G; Metzler, A; Haase, A

    1992-05-01

    High-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance images (using very short spin-echo times of 3.8 milliseconds) of cross-sections of excised roots of the halophyte Aster tripolium showed radial cell strands separated by air-filled spaces. Radial insertion of the pressure probe (along the cell strands) into roots of intact plants revealed a marked increase of the turgor pressure from the outermost to the sixth cortical layer (from about 0.1-0.6 megapascals). Corresponding measurements of intracellular osmotic pressure in individual cortical cells (by means of a nanoliter osmometer) showed an osmotic pressure gradient of equal magnitude to the turgor pressure. Neither gradient changed significantly when the plants were grown in, or exposed for 1 hour to, media of high salinity. Differences were recorded in the ability of salts and nonelectrolytes to penetrate the apoplast in the root. The reflection coefficients of the cortical cells were approximately 1 for all the solutes tested. Excision of the root from the stem resulted in a collapse of the turgor and osmotic pressure gradients. After about 15 to 30 minutes, the turgor pressure throughout the cortex attained an intermediate (quasistationary) level of about 0.3 megapascals. This value agreed well with the osmotic value deduced from plasmolysis experiments on excised root segments. These and other data provided conclusions about the driving forces for water and solute transport in the roots and about the function of the air-filled radial spaces in water transport. They also showed that excised roots may be artifactual systems.

  7. Evaluation of ASTER GDEM2 in Comparison with GDEM1, SRTM DEM and Topographic-Map-Derived DEM Using Inundation Area Analysis and RTK-dGPS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beni Raharjo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the quality of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Radiometer-Global Digital Elevation Model version 2 (ASTER GDEM2 in comparison with the previous version (GDEM1 as well as the Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM DEM and topographic-map-derived DEM (Topo-DEM using inundation area analysis for the projected location of the Karian dam, Indonesia. In addition, the vertical accuracy of each DEM is evaluated using the Real-Time Kinematic differential Global Positioning Systems (RTK-dGPS data obtained from an intensive geodetic survey. The results of the inundation area analysis show that GDEM2 produced a higher maximum contour level (MCL (64 m than did GDEM1 (55 m, and thus, GDME2 has a better quality. In addition, the GDEM2-derived MCL is similar to those produced by SRTM DEM (69 m and Topo-DEM (62 m. The improvement in the contour level in GDEM2 is believed to be related to the successful removal of voids (artifacts and anomalies present in GDEM1. However, our RTK-dGPS results show that the vertical accuracy of GDEM2 is much lower than that of GDEM1 and the other DEMs, which is contradictory to the accuracy stated in the GDEM2 validation document. The vertical profiles of all DEMs show that GDEM2 contains a comparatively large number of undulation effects, thereby resulting in higher root mean square error (RMSE values. These undulation effects may have been introduced during the GDEM2 validation process. Although the results of this study may be site-specific, it is important that they be considered for the improvement of the next GDEM version.

  8. Exploiting Maximum Entropy method and ASTER data for assessing debris flow and debris slide susceptibility for the Giampilieri catchment (north-eastern Sicily, Italy).

    KAUST Repository

    Lombardo, L.

    2016-07-18

    This study aims at evaluating the performance of the Maximum Entropy method in assessing landslide susceptibility, exploiting topographic and multispectral remote sensing predictors. We selected the catchment of the Giampilieri stream, which is located in the north-eastern sector of Sicily (southern Italy), as test site. On 1/10/2009, a storm rainfall triggered in this area hundreds of debris flow/avalanche phenomena causing extensive economical damage and loss of life. Within this area a presence-only-based statistical method was applied to obtain susceptibility models capable of distinguish future activation sites of debris flow and debris slide, which where the main source failure mechanisms for flow or avalanche type propagation. The set of predictors used in this experiment comprised primary and secondary topographic attributes, derived by processing a high resolution digital elevation model, CORINE land cover data and a set of vegetation and mineral indices obtained by processing multispectral ASTER images. All the selected data sources are dated before the disaster. A spatially random partition technique was adopted for validation, generating fifty replicates for each of the two considered movement typologies in order to assess accuracy, precision and reliability of the models. The debris slide and debris flow susceptibility models produced high performances with the first type being the best fitted. The evaluation of the probability estimates around the mean value for each mapped pixel shows an inverted relation, with the most robust models corresponding to the debris flows. With respect to the role of each predictor within the modelling phase, debris flows appeared to be primarily controlled by topographic attributes whilst the debris slides were better explained by remotely sensed derived indices, particularly by the occurrence of previous wildfires across the slope. The overall excellent performances of the two models suggest promising perspectives for

  9. Protective effect of Aster tataricus extract on retinal damage on the virtue of its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect in diabetic rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hao; Zhang, Meng; Yao, Kejun; Hu, Zhitao

    2017-03-02

    Effect of Aster tataricus (AT) was estimated on the retinal injury in diabetic rats by its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Streptozotocin (STZ) was used to induce diabetes at a dose of 60mg/kg, i.p. and blood glucose was estimated to confirm the diabetic rats. All the animals were separated in to 5 different groups (n=10) such as control, diabetic retinopathy (DR) receives saline solution, and AT treated group receives AT (100, 200 and 400mg/kg) for the duration of 8 week. After treatment protocol period blood glucose and HbA1c% was estimated in the blood sample of diabetic rats. Retinal tissue was isolated for the fundus photography and retinal vessel diameter, retinal vascular permeability and leukocytosis were estimated. Moreover in the retinal tissue homogenate oxidative stress parameters such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH) and catalase (CAT) and concentration of cytokines (TNFα, IL10) was estimated. Result of the study suggested that root extract of AT contain rich amount of polyphenol in it which significantly reduces the body weight and concentration of glucose in blood in diabetic rats. Fundus photography suggested that AT extract attenuates the structure and functional abnormalities that develops due to diabetes. Retinal leukocytosis and vascular permeability was significantly decreases in AT treated group than DR group. There was significant increase in the activity of GSH, CAT and SOD in AT treated group than DR group. Moreover AT also attenuates the altered concentration of TNFα, IL10 and NF-κB in the retina of STZ induced diabetic rat. Thus present study concludes that root extract of AT effectively manages the diabetic retinopathy by controlling the blood glucose and also by attenuating the altered oxidative stresss and inflammatory mediators such as TNFα, IL10 and NF-κB in the retina of STZ induced diabetic rat.

  10. Investigation of the fluid-structure interaction of a high head Francis turbine using OpenFOAM and Code_Aster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, M.; Doujak, E.; Waldner, L.

    2016-11-01

    The increasing energy consumption and highly stressed power grids influence the operating conditions of turbines and pump turbines in the present situation. To provide or use energy as quick as possible, hydraulic turbines are operated more frequent and over longer periods of time in lower part load at off-design conditions. This leads to a more turbulent behavior and to higher requirements of the strength of stressed components (e.g. runner, guide or stay vanes). The modern advantages of computational capabilities regarding numerical investigations allow a precise prediction of appearing flow conditions and thereby induced strains in hydraulic machines. This paper focuses on the calculation of the unsteady pressure field of a high head Francis turbine with a specific speed of nq ≈ 24 min-1 and its impact on the structure at different operating conditions. In the first step, unsteady numerical flow simulations are performed with the open-source CFD software OpenFOAM. To obtain the appearing dynamic flow phenomena, the entire machine, consisting of the spiral casing, the stay vanes, the wicket gate, the runner and the draft tube, is taken into account. Additionally, a reduced model without the spiral casing and with a simplified inlet boundary is used. To evaluate the accuracy of the CFD simulations, operating parameters such as head and torque are compared with the results of site measurements carried out on the corresponding prototype machine. In the second part, the obtained pressure fields are used for a fluid-structure analysis with the open-source Finite Element software Code_Aster, to predict the static loads on the runner.

  11. Preliminary results for a semi-automated quantification of site effects using geomorphometry and ASTER satellite data for Mozambique, Pakistan and Turkey

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alan Yong; Susan E Hough; Michael J Abrams; Christopher J Wills

    2008-11-01

    Estimation of the degree of local seismic wave amplification (site effects) requires precise information about the local site conditions. In many regions of the world, local geologic information is either sparse or is not readily available. Because of this, seismic hazard maps for countries such as Mozambique, Pakistan and Turkey are developed without consideration of site factors and, therefore, do not provide a complete assessment of future hazards. Where local geologic information is available, details on the traditional maps often lack the precision (better than 1:10,000 scale) or the level of information required for modern seismic microzonation requirements. We use high-resolution (1:50,000) satellite imagery and newly developed image analysis methods to begin addressing this problem. Our imagery, consisting of optical data and digital elevation models (DEMs), is recorded from the ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) sensor system. We apply a semi-automated, object-oriented, multi-resolution feature segmentation method to identify and extract local terrain features. Then we classify the terrain types into mountain, piedmont and basin units using geomorphometry (topographic slope) as our parameter. Next, on the basis of the site classification schemes from the Wills and Silva (1998) study and the Wills et al (2000) and Wills and Clahan (2006) maps of California, we assign the local terrain units with 30 (the average seismic shear-wave velocity through the upper 30m of the subsurface) ranges for selected regions in Mozambique, Pakistan and Turkey. We find that the applicability of our site class assignments in each region is a good first-approximation for quantifying local site conditions and that additional work, such as the verification of the terrain’s compositional rigidity, is needed.

  12. Mineral and Vegetation Maps of the Bodie Hills, Sweetwater Mountains, and Wassuk Range, California/Nevada, Generated from ASTER Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.

    2010-01-01

    Multispectral remote sensing data acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) were analyzed to identify and map minerals, vegetation groups, and volatiles (water and snow) in support of geologic studies of the Bodie Hills, Sweetwater Mountains, and Wassuk Range, California/Nevada. Digital mineral and vegetation mapping results are presented in both portable document format (PDF) and ERDAS Imagine format (.img). The ERDAS-format files are suitable for integration with other geospatial data in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) such as ArcGIS. The ERDAS files showing occurrence of 1) iron-bearing minerals, vegetation, and water, and 2) clay, sulfate, mica, carbonate, Mg-OH, and hydrous quartz minerals have been attributed according to identified material, so that the material detected in a pixel can be queried with the interactive attribute identification tools of GIS and image processing software packages (for example, the Identify Tool of ArcMap and the Inquire Cursor Tool of ERDAS Imagine). All raster data have been orthorectified to the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection using a projective transform with ground-control points selected from orthorectified Landsat Thematic Mapper data and a digital elevation model from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Elevation Dataset (1/3 arc second, 10 m resolution). Metadata compliant with Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) standards for all ERDAS-format files have been included, and contain important information regarding geographic coordinate systems, attributes, and cross-references. Documentation regarding spectral analysis methodologies employed to make the maps is included in these cross-references.

  13. Karst Depression Detection Using ASTER, ALOS/PRISM and SRTM-Derived Digital Elevation Models in the Bambuí Group, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar Abílio de Carvalho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing has been used in karst studies to identify limestone terrain, describe exokarst features, analyze karst depressions, and detect geological structures important to karst development. The aim of this work is to investigate the use of ASTER-, SRTM- and ALOS/PRISM-derived digital elevation models (DEMs to detect and quantify natural karst depressions along the São Francisco River near Barreiras city, northeast Brazil. The study area is a karst landscape characterized by karst depressions (dolines, closed depressions in limestone, many of which contain standing water connected with the ground-water table. The base of dolines is typically sealed with an impermeable clay layer covered by standing water or herbaceous vegetation. We identify dolines by combining the extraction of sink depth from DEMs, morphometric analysis using GIS, and visual interpretation. Our methodology is a semi-automatic approach involving several steps: (a DEM acquisition; (b sink-depth calculation using the difference between the raw DEM and the corresponding DEM with sinks filled; and (c elimination of falsely identified karst depressions using morphometric attributes. The advantages and limitations of the applied methodology using different DEMs are examined by comparison with a sinkhole map generated from traditional geomorphological investigations based on visual interpretation of the high-resolution remote sensing images and field surveys. The threshold values of the depth, area size and circularity index appropriate for distinguishing dolines were identified from the maximum overall accuracy obtained by comparison with a true doline map. Our results indicate that the best performance of the proposed methodology for meso-scale karst feature detection was using ALOS/PRISM data with a threshold depth > 2 m; areas > 13,125 m2 and circularity indexes > 0.3 (overall accuracy of 0.53. The overall correct identification of around half of the true dolines suggests

  14. Biological activity assays of cell-free reassembled nuclei——Injecting cell-free reassembled nuclei into unfertilized eggs can induce the eggs to cleave and reconstitute asters,and the injected nuclei undergo cell cycle changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张传茂; 曲健; 梁金华; 翟中和

    1995-01-01

    Nucleus may reassemble spontaneously in cell-free mixture of HeLa metaphase chromosomes,Xenopus egg extracts and ATP-regenerating system,and the nucleus shows some biological activities.It isfound that,after being injected into unfertilized mature eggs,the cell-free reassembled nuclei can cause theeggs to cleave and reconstitute asters in their cytoplasm,and the injected nuclei undergo changes in response tocell cycle regulators stored in the eggs,and that reinjecting cytostatic factors(CSF)into the eggs can stabilizethe eggs in mitotic phase,cause the nuclei disassembly and chromatin condensation to chromosomes.

  15. A Study on Morphology and Cytology of Aster moupinensis (Asteraceae) from the Three Gorge Reservior Area%三峡库区川鄂紫菀(菊科)的形态学和细胞学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎维平

    2003-01-01

    对川鄂紫菀(Aster moupinensis (Franch.) Hand.-Mazz.)秭归居群进行了形态学和细胞学研究.形态学研究表明,川鄂紫菀存在居群间分化,但不足以划分变种.发现了一些被以前研究者忽视的重要性状,首次报道了川鄂紫菀的染色体数目和核型.其核型公式为2n=2x=18m.

  16. The combined use of reflectance, emissivity and elevation Aster/Terra data for tropical soil studies Uso combinado de dados de reflectância, emissividade e elevação do Aster/Terra para estudo de solos tropicais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Marcelo Breunig

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Reflectance, emissivity and elevation data of the sensor ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer/Terra were used to characterize soil composition variations according to the toposequence position. Normalized data of SWIR (shortwave infrared reflectance and TIR (thermal infrared emissivity, coupled to a soil-fraction image from a spectral mixture model, were evaluated to separate bare soils from nonphotosynthetic vegetation. Regression relationships of some soil properties with reflectance and emissivity data were then applied on the exposed soil pixels. The resulting estimated values were plotted on the ASTER-derived digital elevation model. Results showed that the SWIR bands 5 and 6 and the TIR bands 10 and 14 measured the clay mineral absorption band and the quartz emissivity feature, respectively. These bands improved also the discrimination between nonphotosynthetic vegetation and soils. Despite the differences in pixel size and field sampling size, some soil properties were correlated with reflectance (R² of 0.65 for Al2O3 in band 6; 0.61 for Fe2O3 in band 3 and emissivity (R² of 0.65 for total sand fraction in the 10/14 band ratio. The combined use of reflectance, emissivity and elevation data revealed variations in soil composition with topography in specific parts of the landscape. From higher to lower slope positions, a general decrease in Al2O3 and increase in total sand fraction was observed, due to the prevalence of Rhodic Acrustox at the top and its gradual transition to Typic Acrustox at the bottom.Dados de reflectância, emissividade e elevação do sensor ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer/Terra foram usados para caracterizar variações na composição dos solos com a posição em topossequências. Dados normalizados de reflectância do SWIR (shortwave infrared e de emissividade do TIR (thermal infrared, integrados com a imagem fração-solo de um modelo de

  17. A New Disease of Cherry Plum Tree with Yellow Leaf Symptoms Associated with a Novel Phytoplasma in the Aster Yellows Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zheng-nan; ZHANG Lei; TAO Ye; CHI Ming; XIANG Yu; WU Yun-feng

    2014-01-01

    A novel phytoplasma was detected in a cherry plum (Prunus cerasifera Ehrh) tree that mainly showed yellow leaf symptom. The tree was growing in an orchard located in Yangling District, Shaanxi Province, China. The leaves started as chlorotic and yellowing along leaf minor veins and leaf tips. Chlorosis rapidly developed to inter-veinal areas with the whole leaf becoming pale yellow in about 1-4 wk. Large numbers of phytoplasma-like bodies (PLBs) were seen under transmission electron microscopy. The majority of the PLBs was spherical or elliptical vesicles, with diameters in range of 0.1-0.6 µm, and distributed in the phloem cells of the infected tissues. A 1 246-bp 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene fragment was ampliifed from DNA samples extracted from the yellow leaf tissues using two phytoplasma universal primer pairs R16mF2/R16mR1 and R16F2n/R16R2. Phylogenetic analysis using the 16S rRNA gene sequence suggested that the phytoplasma associated with the yellow leaf symptoms belongs to a novel subclade in the aster yellows (AY) group (16SrI group). Virtual and actual restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the 16S rRNA gene fragment revealed that the phytoplasma was distinguishable from all existing 19 subgroups in the AY group (16SrI) by four restriction sites, Hinf I, Mse I, Sau3A I and Taq I. The similarity coefifcients of comparing the RFLP pattern of the 16S rRNA gene fragment of this phytoplasma to each of the 19 reported subgroups ranged from 0.73 to 0.87, which indicates the phytoplasma associated with the cherry plum yellow leaf (CPYL) symptoms is probably a distinct and novel subgroup lineage in the AY group (16SrI). In addition, the novel phytoplasma was experimentally transmitted to periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) plants from the tree with CPYL symptoms and then back to a healthy 1-yr-old cherry plum tree via dodder (Cuscuta odorata) connections.

  18. Louisiana Air Quality - Using ASTER, Landsat 5, and MODIS to Assess the Impact of Sugar Cane and Marsh Burning Practices on Local Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Robert; Reahard, Ross; Robin, Chad; Zeringue, Jared

    2010-01-01

    Biomass burning is an event that occurs globally and encompasses both human-initiated and naturally-occurring fires. It is estimated that 3 billion metric tons of biomass are burned every year worldwide (Curtis 2002). Societies have used these burning techniques for cooking and heating, clearing land for agricultural use, and removing excess biomass from grazing and croplands (Levine 1991). Our study focuses on the state of Louisiana and its commonly occurring methods of sugarcane and marsh biomass burning (LSU Ag.Center 2000; Nyman and Chabreck 1995). Over the centuries, the sugarcane industry in this state has steadily grown to surpass all other agriculture commodities. To promote efficiency within this large industry, burning excess biomass takes place throughout the harvesting period (LSU Ag.Center 2000). In addition to sugarcane, Louisiana contains 30% of the total coastal marsh of the United States (LSU Ag.Center 2000). The periodic burning of such marshes is an ecologically important management tool that is practiced throughout the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts (Nyman and Chabreck 1995). In most biomass burning instances, the leading by-product is particulate matter that is less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10). Through past research, this fine material has been shown to have negative health effects on surrounding populations (Boopathy2001). While burning guidelines have been set into place by the Louisiana Department of Agriculture and Forestry (LDAF) to reduce health effects, the guidelines are voluntary (LDAF 2000). To help quantify emission estimates, we will focus on Iberia Parish for sugarcane burning and Cameron Parish for marsh burning. Through analysis of ASTER, Landsat 5 TM, and MODIS data, our goal is to determine the amount and location of land area burned for the years 2008 and 2009 due to these practices. With emissions algorithms from Seiler and Crutzen, 1980, total acreage burned can be used to estimate emissions. This information will help to

  19. Quantitative comparison of Landsat 7 and ASTER multispectral measurements for the NDBI and IBI%Landsat-7 ETM+与ASTER建筑指数的定量比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐涵秋; 张铁军; 黄绍霖

    2013-01-01

    Accompanying with accelerated urbanization processes,urban built-up lands have expanded dramatically and caused negative impacts on environments and natural resources of the world.Thus,there is an increasing need to monitor the dynamics of the urban built-up lands.Of the medium-scale earth observation systems,Landsat and ASTER systems are most suitable for this monitoring task.Nevertheless,the relationship between the built-up indices of the two sensors has not yet been revealed so far.To quantitatively investigate this relationship,this study crossly compares the NDBI and IBI built-up indices of Landsat-7 ETM+ and ASTER sensors based on three tandem image pairs.Regression analysis was used to examine the quantitative relationship through the scatter plots of the built-up index values of the two sensors.This yielded the models for the conversion between two sensors' built-up indices.Results indicate that there are differences in the compared built-up indices between two sensors in spite of a high degree of correlation between them.The values of the built-up indices of ASTER are greater than those of ETM+ by 48.6% in NDBI or 37.5% in IBI.Accordingly,the built-up index information derived from ASTER data cannot be compared directly with those derived from ETM+ data in the applications.A conversion between them using the conversion models obtained in this study is recommended.Detailed spectral analysis reveals that the differences in band wavelengths and spectral response functions of the near infrared and shortwave infrared bands between the ETM + and ASTER sensors contribute to the built-up index difference between the two sensors.This is because the NDBI and IBI are composed merely or mostly by these two bands.%城市化进程导致的城市建筑用地急剧扩张已对全球的环境资源产生了负面影响,因此亟需对其进行监测.在中尺度卫星对地观测系统中,Landsat和ASTER数据最适合于监测城市建筑用地变化.但是迄今为

  20. Effects of Removing Flower Buds on Aster tataricus Medicinal Plants Roots Biomass and Yield%去除花蕾对紫菀药用器官根系生物量及产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁玥怡; 何淑婷; 朱志红

    2013-01-01

    [目的]研究去除花蕾对紫菀药用器官根系生物量及产量的影响.[方法]以药用植物紫菀为研究对象,以单因素随机区组设计试验,4组花蕾的去除数量分别为0、10、20和30个/株,比较其药用器官根系生长量的变化.[结果]随着去除花蕾数的增多,单株根系生物量和单位面积根系产量均明显增大.在试验的种植密度下,4种花蕾去除水平单位面积的根系产量分别为10 075.5、10 439.8、10 967.4和11 997.6 kg/km2.在去除数量达到30个/株(约为单株花蕾数的75%)时,单位面积根系产量有大幅增长,但去除20个/株和30个/株处理之间在根系产量上无显著差异(P>0.05).这说明紫菀的生殖生长对根系生长有很强的抑制性影响.在大田种植紫菀时,与不摘除花蕾相比,采用人工摘除50% ~ 75%的花蕾,可使根系产量提高9.0% ~ 18.6%.[结论]试验揭示了紫菀生殖器官耗损对其药用器官生长的影响,为田间种植紫菀获得较高的药用器官产量提供指导.%[ Objective] To study effects of removing flower buds on Aster talaricus medicinal plants roots biomass and yield. [ Method] With medicinal plant Aster talaricus as study object,by means of single factor randomized block design ,4 buds number removal levels were 0,10,20 and 30 per plant,the increment variation of its medicinal organ roots were compared. [ Result] The results shown that with the increase of the number of removed buds,single root biomass and root yield per unit area increased significantly. In the planting density condition of this experiment, the root yield per unit area of 4 kinds of bud removal level were 10 075.5,10 439.8,10 967.4 and 11 997.6 kg/km2, respectively. Root yield was growing substantially when the removal level reached 30 per plant(approximately 75% flower buds of per plant) ,and had significant differences (P 0.05) from the removing level of 20 buds per plant. This indicated that aster reproductive

  1. Environmental evolution of the Rio Grande drainage basin and Nasca region (Peru) in 2003-2007 using ENVISAT ASAR and ASTER time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigna, Francesca; Tapete, Deodato; Lasaponara, Rosa; Masini, Nicola

    2013-04-01

    Recent palaeo-environmental studies and remote sensing investigations demonstrated that the Rio Grande drainage basin in Southern Peru is a still evolving landscape, and impacts due to its changes have implications for the preservation of both the natural and cultural features of the Nasca region, well-known for the evidences of the ancient Paracas and Nasca Civilizations, who flourished from the 4th century BC to the 6th century AD. To image the modifications occurred in the last decade, we exploited the entire 4year-long stack of ENVISAT ASAR C-band archive imagery available over the region, which was provided by the European Space Agency (ESA) via the Cat-1 project 11073. The latter supports the activities of the Italian mission of heritage Conservation and Archaeogeophysics (ITACA), which directly involve researchers from the Institute for Archaeological and Monumental Heritage (IBAM) and the Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis (IMAA), National Research Council (CNR) of Italy. With the aim of reconstructing the temporal evolution of the Rio Grande drainage basin and its effects and implications for the heritage of the region, we processed 8 ASAR Image Mode IS2 scenes acquired in descending mode between 04/02/2003 and 15/11/2005 and 5 images in ascending mode between 24/07/2005 and 11/11/2007, and focused on SAR backscattering information, amplitude change detection methods and extraction of ASAR-derived time series of the backscattering coefficient over target areas of interest. The ASAR 2003-2007 analysis was coupled and integrated with NDVI-based soil moisture and vegetation change assessment performed by using ASTER multi-spectral data acquired during the same time frame of the ASAR stacks, on 30/05/2003, 01/06/2004 and 10/06/2007. The research was performed both at the regional scale over the entire Rio Grande drainage basin, with particular focus on its tributaries Rio Ingenio, Rio Nazca and Rio Taruga, and at the local scale over the

  2. ASTERISMS IDENTIFICATION USING ASTROMETRIC DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Orellana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudian las regiones de los objetos Collinder 399, Upgren 1 y Melotte 227 clasi cados como asterismos en la literatura reciente. Se utilizan las posiciones y movimientos propios obtenidos del cat logo astrom trico UCAC2 y de su suplemento de estrellas brillantes, y se aplica el m todo de Vasilevskis-Sanders modi cado porla distribuci n espacial para con rmar la naturaleza de estos grupos de estrellas.

  3. Land Surface Component Temperature Retrieval for Urban Scale Based on ASTER Image%城市尺度组分温度的ASTER数据遥感反演

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑文武; 曾永年

    2012-01-01

    Land surface component temperature has mote significant physical meaning, and it reflects the actual distribution of temperature more significantly. Meanwhile, its retrieval algorithms have no need for hypothesis that components in pixels have the same temperature. Although the multi-angle retrieval algorithm of component temperature has become mature gradually, its application in the studies on urban thermal environment is restricted due to the difficulty in acquiring urban-scale multi-angle thermal infrared data. Therefore, based on the existing multi-band remote sensing data, access to appropriate urban-scale component temperature is an urgent issue to be solved in current studies on urban thermal infrared remote sensing. In this paper, a new algorithm to retrieve land surface component temperature for urban area had been proposed. It took advantage of ASTER data, and evaluated mean emissivity of pixels based on linear spectral unmixing, retrieved atmospheric water vapor content from MODIS NIR bands, and used Newton 's iterative method to obtain atmosphere average temperature. Finally, an experimental study of this algorithm had been conducted and the retrieval result had been validated using some measured data. The results showed that; (1) the results of component temperature retrieval algorithm and split window algorithm of pure pixels have high correlation coefficient and the correlation coefficient of vegetation is the highest; (2) compared with the measured data, biases of the retrieval result ranged between 0. 2 and 1. 4℃, and the vegetation component temperature among different components had the smallest bias value.%为了获取城市尺度组分温度,实现城市水热平衡的高精度反演,探索了一种多波段热红外遥感影像的城市尺度组分温度反演算法.算法选取了植被、土壤和不透水表面等3种组分,并且针对ASTER数据,利用线性混合像元分解方法获取像元平均比辐射率,以MODIS近红外数据

  4. ETM+和ASTER数据在遥感信息提取中的对比研究%Comparison Between ETM+ and ASTER Data for Extraction of Alteration Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林腾; 高光明; 刘容秀; 肖娟

    2011-01-01

    Remote sensing extraction of alteration information technology is an important means of prospecting. This article selected CERCANA located in AREQUIPA province of southern Peru and Moarcona ore zone located in ICA Province of southern Peru as two study areas of this paper. And starting from the spectrum analysis of surface features,using ETM + and ASTER satellite image data to extract clay alteration information of CERCANA by principal component analysis method ,and extract iron staining alteration information of Marcona by band ratio method , besides making comparative analysis of the results of the two extractions. The final results show that ASTER data in the alteration information extraction has a greater advantage compared with ETM + data.%遥感蚀变信息提取是找矿的一个重要技术手段.本文选择位于秘鲁南部阿雷基帕(AREQUIPA)省境内的萨卡纳(CERCANA)和伊卡(ICA)省境内的Moarcona铁矿区作为本文的两个研究区,从分析地物光谱出发,利用ETM+和ASTER卫星影像数据,通过主成份分析法和比值分析法分别对两个研究区进行泥化蚀变信息提取和铁染蚀变信息提取,并对两者的提取结果进行对比分析.最后结果表明,相较于ETM+数据,ASTER数据在矿化蚀变信息的提取方面具有更大的优势.

  5. 不同软件在ASTER数据中提取DEM的精度对比%Comparative Analysis of the DEM Extracting Accuracy form ASTER Data by Different Software

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何兆培; 杨斌

    2013-01-01

    利用3个不同的软件对四川省龙门山中段ASTER 15m分辨率的立体像对进行了DEM提取,并对其精度进行了初步评价.分别使用立体测量法和干涉测量法提取DEM,并通过检验点法和剖面线法对比分析.结果表明,利用ERDAS的干涉测量法提取出的DEM效果较好,高程精度可达30m,对后续数据深挖掘和高层次地形分析具有应用价值.%This paper used three different software to extract the DEM form the stereo images which the ASTER 15 m resolution of the middle Longmen Mountain in Sichuan province, and evaluated its accuracy preliminarily. DEM's accuracy depends on accuracy, distribution and quantity of the control point of ground.lt is also influenced by the control precision of software in the production process. In this thesis, three-dimensional measurements and interferometer measurements were taken to extract the DEM respectively, and a comparative analysis was made by test point method and the section line method. The results show that using the interferometer method of ERDAS to extract the DEM is better, with the height accuracy up to 30 m. It will provide the practice value for getting more detail data in future and analysis of the high-level terrain.

  6. Regional mapping of hydrothermally altered igneous rocks along the Urumieh-Dokhtar, Chagai, and Alborz Belts of western Asia using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operators: a tool for porphyry copper exploration and assessment: Chapter O in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, John L.; Zientek, M.L.; Hammarstrom, J.M.; Johnson, K.M.; Pierce, F.W.

    2014-01-01

    Regional maps of phyllic and argillic hydrothermal alteration were compiled using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and logical operator algorithms. The area mapped extends from northwestern Iran to southeastern Pakistan and includes volcanic and magmatic arcs that make up the Urumieh-Dokhtar volcanic belt (UDVB), the Chagai volcanic belt (CVB), and the central part of the Alborz magmatic belt (AMB). The volcanic belts span the Zagros-Makran transform zone and the present day Baluchistan (Makran) volcanic arc. ASTER visible near infrared (VNIR) data contain three bands between 0.52 and 0.86 micrometers (μm) and the short-wave infrared (SWIR) data consist of six bands spanning 1.6 to 2.43 μm with 15-meter (m), and 30-m resolution, respectively.

  7. Mapping argillic and advanced argillic alteration in volcanic rocks, quartzites, and quartz arenites in the western Richfield 1° x 2 ° quadrangle, southwestern Utah, using ASTER satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.; Hofstra, Albert H.

    2012-01-01

    The Richfield quadrangle in southwestern Utah is known to contain a variety of porphyry Mo, skarn, polymetallic replacement and vein, alunite, and kaolin resources associated with 27-32 Ma calc-alkaline or 12-23 Ma bimodal volcano-plutonic centers in Neoproterozoic to Mesozoic carbonate and siliciclastic rocks. Four scenes of visible to shortwave-infrared image data acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor were analyzed to generate maps of exposed clay, sulfate, mica, and carbonate minerals, and ASTER thermal infrared data were analyzed to identify quartz and carbonate minerals. Argillic and advanced argillic alteration minerals including alunite, pyrophyllite, dickite, and kaolinite were identified in both undocumented (U) and known (K) areas, including in the southern Paradise Mtns. (U); in calc-alkaline volcanic rocks in the Wah Wah Mtns. between Broken Ridge and the NG area (U/K); at Wah Wah Summit in a small zone adjacent to 33.1 Ma diorite and marble (U); in fractures cutting quartzites surrounding the 20-22 Ma Pine Grove Mo deposit (U); in volcanic rocks in the Shauntie Hills (U/K); in quartzites in the west-central San Francisco Mtns. (U); in volcanic rocks in the Black Mtns. (K); and in mainly 12-13 Ma rhyolitic rocks along a 20 km E-W belt that includes the Bible Spring fault zone west of Broken Ridge, with several small centers in the Escalante Desert to the south (U/K). Argillized Navajo Sandstone with kaolinite and (or) dickite ± alunite was mapped adjacent to calc-alkaline intrusions in the Star Range (U). Intense quartz-sericite alteration (K) with local kaolinite was identified in andesite adjacent to calc-alkaline intrusions in the Beaver Lake Mountains. Mo-bearing phyllic alteration was identified in 22.2 Ma rhyolite plugs at the center of the NG alunite area. Limestones, dolomites, and marbles were differentiated, and quartz and sericite were identified in most unaltered quartzites. Halos of

  8. Determinação de elementos próprios dos asteróides troianos: comparação entre as teorias semi-analítica e sintética

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, F.; Beaugé, C.

    2003-08-01

    Além do cálculo semi-analítico de elementos próprios dos asteróides Troianos (Beaugé & Roig 2001, Icarus 153, 391), recentemente foi apresentado um novo conjunto destes elementos próprios determinado através de uma teoria sintética (Knenezevic & Milani 2003, comunicação pessoal). As bases de dados contendo estas determinações estão disponiveis na pagina web do Asteroid Dynamical Site (http://hamilton.dm.unipi.it/cgi-bin/astdys/astibo). Nesta comunicação apresentamos os primeiros resultados de um estudo comparativo entre ambos conjuntos de elementos próprios, analisando suas vantagens e desvantagens, assim como os limites de precisão de cada conjunto. Mostramos que os elementos próprios sintéticos são mais precisos que os smi-analíticos para grandes amplitudes de libração do ângulo s = l-lJup, embora acontece o contrario para os corpos cuja amplitude de libração é muito pequena. Finalmente discutimos a influencia destes erros na determinação de familias de asteroides e da estrutura resonante em torno dos pontos Lagrangeanos L4 e L5.

  9. Distribution,Morphology of Aster sinianus Hand .-Mazz . (Asteraceae:Astereae)and Its Karyotypic Study%岳麓紫菀(菊科)的分布及其形态学与核型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志; 刘雷; 谢驰; 熊一唱; 黎维平

    2016-01-01

    岳麓紫菀(Aster sinianus Hand .-Mazz .,菊科紫菀族)为多年生草本,特产于中国湘赣毗邻地区。在对其整个分布区进行野外采集和生境观察时,发现了2个新的分布地点,同时确认其已在模式产地湖南省长沙市岳麓山灭绝。该研究将岳麓紫菀从浏阳市沙市镇回迁至岳麓山,以期恢复模式产地的居群。形态学研究表明,现有文献对该种的描述多处不准确,如对基生叶、株高、茎下部叶、托片和海拔等的记载。基于形态性状,讨论了岳麓紫菀的系统学地位,并首次报道了该种的核型特征:岳麓紫菀为二倍体,核型为2n=2x=16m+2m(SAT),属于1A型。该研究结果为岳麓紫菀的分类地位的修订和物种保护提供了重要的资料。%Aster sinianus Hand .-Mazz .( Asteraceae:Astereae ) is a perennial endemic herb in the adjacent areas of Hunan and Jiangxi Provinces ,where two new distributions of A .sinianus Hand .-Mazz were found through the field acquisition and habitat observation .And this species has been confirmed further to have become extinct in its type-locality ,the Yuelu Mountain of Changsha ,capital of Hunan Province . Hence ,to recover the populations in the type-locality ,several A .sinianus plants were transplanted back to the Yuelu Mountain from Shashi Town of Liuyang City .The morphological studies show that in previ-ous literatures there are some inaccurate descriptions of this species ,such as the descriptions of its basilar leaves ,plant height ,stem leaves ,paleates and altitude ,etc .Based on the observation of its morphological traits ,this paper studied the systematic status of A .sinianus ,and its karyotype was reported for the first time as well .The research results show that A .sinianus is diploids with a karyotype formula 2n=2x=16m+2m(SAT) ,belonged to 1A type .The paper provides some valuable information for the revision of its taxonomic status and the species

  10. The Information Enhancement and Interpretation of Hydrocarbon Microseepage Induced Minerals Based on ASTER Data%基于ASTER数据的烃蚀变信息增强与提取

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章桂芳; 王远华; 郑卓

    2014-01-01

    烃类微渗漏蚀变信息是地下深部油气藏储层在地表和近地表的直观证据,通过遥感图像进行烃蚀变解译是遥感油气勘探中的一项高效、快速和安全的新技术。该研究采用ASTER近红外数据,以烃渗漏蚀变产生的碳酸盐矿物为目标,采用主成分分析、密度分割和假彩色合成等信息增强和提取方法,获得了1589-PC3、1689-PC3、1348-PC3和5689-PC2等四个对碳酸盐具有较好增强效果的主成分因子,以X+2σ为阈值,从4幅主成分因子图像上提取了碳酸盐区域,并根据叠合结果划分为一级富集区和二级富集区。结果显示碳酸盐富集与展布结果与该区的地层分布紧密相关,与已有研究的解译结果较为一致。%Hydrocarbon microseepage induced anomaly of surface and near surface is the direct evidence for oil &gas deposit.The detection of hydrocarbon-induced anomaly by remote sensing image interpreta-tion is fast,efficient and safe.ASTER Near Infrared data were used to interpret hydrocarbon-induced car-bonate minerals.Principal component analysis (PCA),density slicing and false color composition were adopted to distinguish the goal area of clay and carbonate minerals.Four principal components showed outstanding spectral response of hydrocarbon-induced clay and carbonate minerals:5689-PC2 (the sec-ond principal component of input bands 5689),1589-PC3,1689-PC3 and 1348-PC3.Then,density sli-cing (X+2σ)was used to highlight the pixels with the largest DN (digital number)of PC images as the area of carbonate minerals.The distinguished area was categorized into the first and second classes due to the frequencies of overlay.The result suggests that hydrocarbon microseepage induced mineral assemblage is related closely to the surface sediments.Compared with the anomalous area of ETM+data,the distin-guished area from ASTER data has almost the same distribution.

  11. Development and validation of an LC/MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of shionone and epi-friedelinol in rat plasma for pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of Aster tataricus extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, De-Feng; Zhou, Kai; Liu, Ji-Tao; Hu, Li; Liu, Ying; Deng, Jun; Wang, Song-Ping; Xiong, Ying; Zhong, Wu

    2016-07-01

    A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method was developed and validated using spinasterol as the internal standard (IS) for the simultaneous determination of shionone and epi-friedelinol in rat plasma. Plasma samples were pretreated using liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl ether. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column (100 × 2.1 mm, 5 μm) with an isocratic elution consisting of acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid water (75:25, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.30 mL/min. Detection was performed under the selected reaction monitoring scan using an electrospray ionization in the positive ion mode. The mass transitions were as follows: m/z 427.4 → 95.1 for shionone, m/z 411.4 → 205.2 for epi-friedelinol and m/z 395.3 → 105.2 for IS. All calibration curves exhibited good linearity (r > 0.995) over the concentration range for both components. The intra- and inter-day precisions at three QC and lower limit of quantitation levels were both extraction recoveries of the compounds ranged from 82.07 to 89.81%. The developed method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of shionone and epi-friedelinol after oral administration of Aster tataricus extract to rats. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. INTEGRAÇÃO DE PARÂMETROS MORFOMÉTRICOS E IMAGEM ASTER PARA A DELIMITAÇÃO DAS FITOFISIONOMIAS DA SERRA DA CANASTRA, PARQUE NACIONAL DA SERRA DA CANASTRA, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Felipe Couto Júnior

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo delimitar as fitofisionomias utilizando parâmetros morfométricos e imagens do sensor ASTER na Serra da Canastra, Parque Nacional da Serra da Canastra, MG. Foram identificadas fitofisionomias através das observações de campo: ambientes rupestres (Campo Rupestre + Cerrado Rupestre, Campo Limpo, Campo Sujo, Cerrado Sentido Restrito, Mata de Galeria + áreas de drenagem. Os parâmetros morfométricos, obtidos do Modelo Digital de Terreno (MDT, foram dispostos em gráficos de dispersão tridimensional com o Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI e com o Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI. Estes gráficos evidenciaram cinco conjuntos de dados, representando as fitofisionomias encontradas em campo. Foi observada uma variação espectral correspondente aos membros finais: Vegetação Fotossintéticamente Ativa (VFA e Vegetação Não Fotossintéticamente Ativa (VNFA. Das fitofisionomias agrupadas o Campo Limpo foi a mais abrangente (60,45% e a única que faz limite com todas as demais, seguido por ambientes rupestres (21,02%, Campo Sujo (12,40%, Mata de Galeria e Campo Úmido (4%, e Cerrado Sentido Restrito (1,90%. Os perfis topográficos obtidos a partir da integração da classificação espectral e do MDT permitiram evidenciar a distribuição da vegetação em relação ao relevo.

  13. ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The first Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite called Terra (previously AM-1) was launched on December 18, 1999. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and...

  14. ASTER GLOBAL Digital Elevation Model V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The first Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite called Terra (previously AM-1) was launched on December 18, 1999. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and...

  15. Vocastim吞咽语言治疗仪联合风池穴针刺治疗急性脑卒中后假性延髓麻痹的临床研究%Effect o fVocastim M aster and Acupuncture at Fengchi on Pseudobulbar Paralysis AfterAcute S troke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈涛; 徐鹏; 董军立; 陈光辉; 赵斌

    2014-01-01

    O bjective To explore the clinical therapeutic effect of Vocastim M aster and acupuncture at GB20( Fengchi) on pseudobulbar paralysis after acute stroke .M ethods O ne hundred and tw enty e ight patients w ere divided in tw o groups at random , the contro l group treated w ith Vocastim M aster,the com bination group treated w ith Vocastim M aster and acupuncture .Before and after treatm ent the clinical therapeutic effectw ere observed.Results Before trea tm ent the sw alow ing function score in bo th group w ere no t different.After treatm ent the scores were different significantly betw eencombination group and controlgroup ( P < 0.05 orP < 0.01) . C om pared w ith contro lgroup ,the clinical efficacy in com bination g roup on dysarthria and dysphagia w ere significantdifferent( P < 0.01) . C onclusion Vocastim M aster and acupuncture in treatm ent of dysarthria and dysphag ia after acute stroke is confirm ed efficacy , should be introduced.%目的:观察 Vocastim 吞咽语言治疗仪联合风池穴针刺治疗急性脑卒中后假性延髓麻痹的疗效。方法将128例急性脑卒中后假性延髓麻痹患者随机分为对照组(63例)和联合组(65例),对照组给予常规 Vocastim 吞咽治疗仪进行治疗,联合组给予Vocastim 吞咽语言治疗仪联合风池穴针刺进行治疗,观察两组的临床治疗效果。结果两组治疗1个疗程、2个疗程后吞咽 X线透视检查(VFSS)评分均较治疗前明显升高,差异有统计学意义( P <0.05或 P <0.01),且两组治疗1个疗程、2个疗程后 VFSS 评分差异有统计学意义( P <0.05)。联合组改善吞咽障碍总有效率可达92.3%,改善构音障碍有效率可达90.8%,与对照组相比差异有统计学意义( P <0.01)。结论 Vocastim 吞咽语言治疗仪联合风池穴针刺治疗急性脑卒中患者假性延髓麻痹疗效显著,能够有效改善患者吞咽、构音障碍。

  16. ASTER数据的斑岩铜矿典型蚀变矿物组合信息提取方法——以秘鲁南部阿雷基帕省斑岩铜矿区为例%Information Extraction of Typical Alteration Mineral Assemblage in Porphyry Copper Using ASTER Satellite Data, Arequipa Province of South Peru

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨日红; 李志忠; 陈秀法

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we studied the information extraction technology of alteration mineral assemblages. Using the standard laboratory spectral database of U. S. Geological Survey, we rebuilt the reflectivity curve of key alteration minerals in porphyry copper alteration zones with ASTER data. After comparative analysis of these key alteration minerals spectral curves, we found the characteristic of absorption valley at the spectral 2. 2μm (which is corresponding to the B6 of ASTER data) of the argillic- and phyllic-altered mineral assemblage (which include muscovite, kaolinite, montmorillonite, alunite, illite, etc. ) , and with the characteristic of high reflection peaks at B4 and B7. The characteristic of absorption valley at the spectral 2. 3 μm (which is corresponding to the B8 of ASTER data) of the propylitization altered mineral assemblage (which include chlorite, epidote, calcite, etc. ,), and with the characteristic of a high reflection peaks at B4, while the B9 has a higher reflectivity than the B8. Accordingly, the principal component analysis model was developed. This model can make component analysis based on ASTER Bl, B4, B6 and B7 to extract the argillic- and phyllic-altered mineral assemblage; component analysis based on ASTER Bl, B3, B4 and B8 to extract propylitization altered mineral assemblage. At the same time, the process was established for the alteration mineral assemblage information extraction. Taking porphyry copper region in Arequipa Province of south Peru as an example, based on comprehensive analysis of the geological background of the study area, especially its typical alteration zoning and alteration mineral assemblages in the area, we found a typical porphyry alteration zonation in Arequipa Province. So we can take advantage of the technical processes and methods, and after ASTER data preprocessing, interfering surface features removal, principal component analysis and threshold setting, to extract argillic- and phyllic-altered mineral

  17. ASTErIsM: application of topometric clustering algorithms in automatic galaxy detection and classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramacere, A.; Paraficz, D.; Dubath, P.; Kneib, J.-P.; Courbin, F.

    2016-12-01

    We present a study on galaxy detection and shape classification using topometric clustering algorithms. We first use the DBSCAN algorithm to extract, from CCD frames, groups of adjacent pixels with significant fluxes and we then apply the DENCLUE algorithm to separate the contributions of overlapping sources. The DENCLUE separation is based on the localization of pattern of local maxima, through an iterative algorithm, which associates each pixel to the closest local maximum. Our main classification goal is to take apart elliptical from spiral galaxies. We introduce new sets of features derived from the computation of geometrical invariant moments of the pixel group shape and from the statistics of the spatial distribution of the DENCLUE local maxima patterns. Ellipticals are characterized by a single group of local maxima, related to the galaxy core, while spiral galaxies have additional groups related to segments of spiral arms. We use two different supervised ensemble classification algorithms: Random Forest and Gradient Boosting. Using a sample of ≃24 000 galaxies taken from the Galaxy Zoo 2 main sample with spectroscopic redshifts, and we test our classification against the Galaxy Zoo 2 catalogue. We find that features extracted from our pipeline give, on average, an accuracy of ≃93 per cent, when testing on a test set with a size of 20 per cent of our full data set, with features deriving from the angular distribution of density attractor ranking at the top of the discrimination power.

  18. ASTErIsM - Application of topometric clustering algorithms in automatic galaxy detection and classification

    CERN Document Server

    Tramacere, A; Dubath, P; Kneib, J -P; Courbin, F

    2016-01-01

    We present a study on galaxy detection and shape classification using topometric clustering algorithms. We first use the DBSCAN algorithm to extract, from CCD frames, groups of adjacent pixels with significant fluxes and we then apply the DENCLUE algorithm to separate the contributions of overlapping sources. The DENCLUE separation is based on the localization of pattern of local maxima, through an iterative algorithm which associates each pixel to the closest local maximum. Our main classification goal is to take apart elliptical from spiral galaxies. We introduce new sets of features derived from the computation of geometrical invariant moments of the pixel group shape and from the statistics of the spatial distribution of the DENCLUE local maxima patterns. Ellipticals are characterized by a single group of local maxima, related to the galaxy core, while spiral galaxies have additional ones related to segments of spiral arms. We use two different supervised ensemble classification algorithms, Random Forest,...

  19. ASTER 2002-2003 Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID):2002-2003 consists of image data gathered by three sensors. The first image data are terrain-corrected, precision...

  20. Uncharted constellations asterisms, single-source and rebrands

    CERN Document Server

    Barentine, John C

    2016-01-01

    This book compiles an array of interesting constellations that fell by the wayside before the IAU established the modern canon of constellations. That decision left out lesser known ones whose history is nevertheless interesting, but at last author John Barentine is giving them their due. This book is a companion to "The Alternate Constellations", highlighting the more obscure configurations.  The 16 constellations found in this volume fall into one or more of three broad categories: asterims, such as the Big Dipper in Ursa Major; single-sourced constellations introduced on surviving charts by a cartographer perhaps currying the favor of sponsors; and re-brands, new figures meant to displace existing constellations, often for an ideological reason. All of them reveal something unique about the development of humanity's map of the sky. .

  1. Análises Geomorfológicas do Platô de Teresópolis e da Serra do Mar, RJ, com o Auxílio de Seppômen e ASTER GDEM e sua Relação aos Tectonismos Cenozoicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ribeiro Aires

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available com o auxílio da técnica de seppômen e os dados topográficos de satélite ASTER GDEM e, sua relação ao tectonismo cenozoico. De acordo com o mapa de seppômen da grade de 4 km, a área estudada é dividida em três domínios geomorfológicos, a Baixada Fluminense (RJL, a escarpa da Serra do Mar (SMS e o Platô de Teresópolis (TRH. A Baixada Fluminense, que corresponde à área do Graben de Guanabara, é constituída pelas planícies de depósitos aluvionares e as áreas de morros baixos que expõem o embasamento metamórfico. Os limites entre essas são bruscos e lineares, sugerindo existência de falhas e grabens pequenos. Os topos destes morros estão quase na mesma altitude, constituindo uma superfície de seppômen com altitude aproximada de 100 m. Os mapas de seppômen das grades de 4 km e 2 km apresentam que o topo da escarpa da Serra do Mar tem altitude aproximada de 1300 m e, portanto esta falha norma tem desnível de 1200 m. A escarpa tem direção de N75°E e é dividida em segmentos de 15 km a 30 km de comprimento. Em certas localidades da escarpa, observa-se a morfologia de megadeslizamento. O Platô de Teresópolis é inclinado à N30°W com a declividade média de 0.9°. Os sistemas de drenagens no platô apresentam três orientações, N60°E, N10°E e N75°W. Ao longo do Rio Paraíba do Sul, ocorre uma depressão morfológica linear com 20 km de largura e profundidade relativa de 300 m, sugerindo presença de um graben raso. Sobre o Platô de Teresópolis, ocorrem três alinhamentos de saliências morfológicas orientados em N50°E, com altura relativa máxima de 900 m. Os histogramas de distribuição altimétrica para as superfícies de seppômen sugerem que essas são inselbergs remanescentes antes do movimento da falha da escarpa do Serra do Mar. As falhas normais e os sistemas de fraturas do Cenozoico desta área são frequentemente discordantes com a estrutura do embasamento. Este fenômeno é explicado pelo modelo

  2. Practical split-window algorithm for retrieving land surface temperature over agricultural areas from ASTER data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Songhan; He, Longhua

    2014-01-01

    A practical split-window algorithm which involves two parameters (transmittance and emissivity) utilized to retrieve land-surface temperature over agricultural areas from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer data is presented. First, by calculating the relationship between thermal radiation intensity and temperature, the Planck function is simplified using exponential function which is applied to deduce the split-window algorithm. Second, how to obtain transmittance from water vapor content and the method for estimating emissivity using normalized difference vegetation index are discussed in detail. Sensitivity analysis demonstrates that the algorithm is not sensitive to these two parameters. Finally, a standard atmospheric simulation method has been used to validate the proposed algorithm, and comparison between the algorithm and the prior study has been carried out. The results indicate that the average accuracy is 0.32 K for the case without error in both transmittance and emissivity, which is better than the prior algorithm. The accuracy is also 0.32 K when the transmittance is computed from the water content by piecewise cubic polynomial fit. The accuracy is about 0.30 K˜0.33 K corresponding to different Pv (Pv is the proportion of vegetation) values, which indicates that this algorithm is suitable for different land surface types over agricultural areas.

  3. A surge of Perseibreen, Svalbard, examined using aerial photography and ASTER high resolution satellite imagery

    OpenAIRE

    Dowdeswell, Julian A.; Benham, Toby J.

    2003-01-01

    The identification of surge activity is important in assessing the duration of the active and quiescent phases of the surge cycle of Svalbard glaciers. Satellite and aerial photographic images are used to identify and describe the form and flow of Perseibreen, a valley glacier of 59 km2 on the east coast of Spitsbergen. Heavy surface crevassing and a steep ice front, indicative of surge activity, were first observed on Perseibreen in April 2002. Examination of high resolution (15 m) Advanced ...

  4. Rapid ASTER imaging facilitates timely assessment of glacier hazards and disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kääb, Andy; Wessels, Rick; Haeberli, Wilfried; Huggel, Christian; Kargel, Jeffrey S.; Khalsa, Siri Jodha Singh

    Glacier- and permafrost-related hazards increasingly threaten human lives, settlements, and infrastructure in high-mountain regions. Present atmospheric warming particularly affects terrestrial systems where surface and sub-surface ice are involved. Changes in glacier and permafrost equilibrium are shifting beyond historical knowledge. Human settlement and activities are extending toward danger zones in the cryospheric system. A number of recent glacier hazards and disasters underscore these trends. Difficult site access and the need for fast data acquisition make satellite remote sensing of crucial importance in high-mountain hazard management and disaster mapping.

  5. ABILITY OF ECOSAR, TOPKAT, NEURAL NETWORKS, AND ASTER TO PREDICT TOXICITY OF CHEMICALS TO AQUATIC BIOTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) which provides the basis for assessing and managing toxic substances in Canada, is being revised. Several new mandates have been introduced in the Act...

  6. DETECTING LAND COVER CHANGE AT THE JORNADA EXPERIMENTAL RANGE, NEW MEXICO WITH ASTER EMISSIVITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detecting land cover change over semi-arid rangeland is important for monitoring vegetation responses to drought, population expansion, and changing agricultural practices. Such change can be detected using vegetation indices, but these do not represent non-green vegetation and are dominated by seas...

  7. Developing New Coastal Forest Restoration Products Based on Landsat, ASTER, and MODIS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    common associates tend to senesce and lose their leaves. Later in the winter, live oak forests also senesce and lose leaves, although generally not...levees, cheniers, and beach ridges. Surveys were performed to check preliminary products. At each surveyed location, GPS points, digital photography

  8. Using electronic resources to support dialogue in undergraduate small-group teaching: the ASTER project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Condron

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Of all the learning experiences to which students are exposed in British universities, some of the most intensely demanding and rewarding are those where students and tutor engage in lengthy discussion. For many disciplines, tutorials, seminars and workshops have a special role in developing expertise in applying complex and abstract theories to rich, diverse bodies of material. The ability to present convincing arguments, both written and verbal, is a skill that undergraduates need to acquire.

  9. Automatic identification of erosion gullies with ASTER imagery in the Brazilian Cerrados

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, A.; Rodrigues, S.C.; Bartholomeus, H.; Sterk, G.

    2007-01-01

    Gully erosion is a serious problem at many locations worldwide, but little is known about its importance at large spatial scales. The remote sensing contribution for the spatial assessment of gullies has thus far been confined to visual image interpretation. The current study was conducted to determ

  10. Not an open cluster after all: the NGC 6863 asterism in Aquila

    CERN Document Server

    Bidin, Christian Moni; Marcos, Carlos de la Fuente; Carraro, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    Shortly after birth, open clusters start dissolving; gradually losing stars into the surrounding star field. The time scale for complete disintegration depends both on their initial membership and location within the Galaxy. Open clusters undergoing the terminal phase of cluster disruption or open cluster remnants (OCRs) are notoriously difficult to identify. From an observational point, a combination of low number statistics and minimal contrast against the general stellar field conspire to turn them into very challenging objects. To make the situation even worst, random samples of field stars often display features that may induce to classify them erroneously as extremely evolved open clusters. In this paper, we provide a detailed study of the stellar content and kinematics of NGC 6863, a compact group of a few stars located in Aquila and described by the POSS as a non existent cluster. Nonetheless, this object has been recently classified as OCR. The aim of the present work is to either confirm or disprove...

  11. Modelling uncertainties in the climate of the last millennium: the ASTER project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loutre, M. F.; Mouchet, A.; Fichefet, T.; Goosse, H.; Goelzer, H.; Huybrechts, P.

    2009-04-01

    The LOVECLIM model (Driesschaert et al., 2007; Goosse et al., 2007) is used to simulate the climate of the last millennium with several ‘climate' parameter sets yielding different sensitivities of the climate and the carbon cycle model. The purpose of these simulations is twofold. We intend to assess first the role of the carbon cycle on the climate, and second, the ability of the different selected parameter sets to drive the model within the range of the observed climate, and further to assess the uncertainty related to these parameters. The high frequency variability of the forcings is taken into account. For each set of parameters, LOVECLIM is driven by the natural evolution of insolation, solar irradiance and stratospheric aerosol concentrations due to volcanic activity as well as by changes caused by human activities such as deforestation, CO2 emission or concentration changes, changes in concentrations of greenhouse gases other than CO2 (including ozone) and in sulphate aerosol load. Several transient experiments are conducted for each parameter set. A first transient simulation (Conc) is forced with reconstructed atmospheric CO2 concentration. In the next two simulations, the emissions of carbon were taken into account, the model computing the corresponding atmospheric CO2 concentration. First (EMIS), the emissions due both to the land use changes and the fossil fuel burning are provided. Second (Efor), only the emissions from fossil fuel burning are provided in addition to the vegetation change related to deforestation. The Northern Hemisphere annual mean temperatures simulated by the model according to the different parameter sets and carbon cycle sensitivities and the different experimental setups do not show striking differences compared to the NH temperature recontructions (IPCC, 2007). However, the simulated values are generally in the lower range of the reconstructions in the interval 900-1200 AD. Moreover some experiments are displaying a too large warming during the last century as well as a large variability occasionally out of the range of observation. The increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration over the last century is strongly depending on how the anthropogenic emission and the land-use scenario are taken into account. Difference in atmospheric CO2 concentration can reach up to 50 ppmv. All the parameter sets are not able to reproduce the decreasing trend of the Arctic summer sea ice as recorded over the last decades. Parameter sets corresponding to the largest climate sensitivity lead to a strong reduction of the summer sea ice. However, different scenarios for deforestation lead to significantly different time evolution of the NH Summer sea ice area for the same parameter set. The ocean C storage remains within the range of estimates when CO2 is prescribed. However, values are much larger when both fossil fuel and land cover change emission are prescribed. The deforestation emissions as computed by the model lead to intermediate cumulative CO2 fluxes to the atmosphere. Driesschaert E., Fichefet T., Goosse H., Huybrechts P., Janssens I., Mouchet A., Munhoven G., Brovkin V., and Weber S. L., 2007. Modelling the influence of Greenland ice sheet melting on the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during the next millennia. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34:L1070, 2007. Goosse H., Driesschaert E., Fichefet T., and Loutre M.F., 2007. Information on the early Holocene climate constrains the summer sea ice projections for the 21st century Clim. Past 3, 683-692. IPCC (2007). Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 996 pp.

  12. Comparison of Three Operative Models for Estimating the Surface Water Deficit Using ASTER Reflective and Thermal Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Puigdefábregas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Three operative models with minimum input data requirements for estimatingthe partition of available surface energy into sensible and latent heat flux using ASTERdata have been evaluated in a semiarid area in SE Spain. The non-evaporative fraction(NEF is proposed as an indicator of the surface water deficit. The best results wereachieved with NEF estimated using the “Simplified relationship” for unstable conditions(NEFSeguin and with the S-SEBI (Simplified Surface Energy Balance Index modelcorrected for atmospheric conditions (NEFS-SEBIt, which both produced equivalent results.However, results with a third model, NEFCarlson, that estimates the exchange coefficient forsensible heat transfer from NDVI, were unrealistic for sites with scarce vegetation cover.These results are very promising for an operative monitoring of the surface water deficit,as validation with field data shows reasonable errors, within those reported in the literature(RMSE were 0.18 and 0.11 for the NEF, and 29.12 Wm-2 and 25.97 Wm-2 for sensible heatflux, with the Seguin and S-SEBIt models, respectively.

  13. Aster yellows group (16SrI), subgroups 16SrI-A and 16SrI-B, phytoplasmas associated with lettuce yellows in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2013, an epidemic of lettuce yellows occurred in the Winter Garden region of Texas. The infected plants were stunted with blanching and chlorosis in young heart leaves. A total of thirteen samples, including three apparently asymptomatic, from Romaine and leaf lettuce cultivars, on two different...

  14. Molecular detection of aster yellows phytoplasma and 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' in carrots affected by the psyllid Trioza apicalis (Hemiptera: triozidae) in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrot psyllid (Trioza apicalis Förster) causes considerable damage to carrot (Daucus carota L.) in many parts of Europe. It was recently established that the new bacterium “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” is associated with carrot psyllid and plants affected by this insect pest. No other path...

  15. Annual Change Detection by ASTER TIR Data and an Estimation of the Annual Coal Loss and CO2 Emission from Coal Seams Spontaneous Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Du

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Coal fires, including both underground and coal waste pile fires, result in large losses of coal resources and emit considerable amounts of greenhouse gases. To estimate the annual intensity of greenhouse gas emissions and the loss of coal resources, estimating the annual loss from fire-influenced coal seams is a feasible approach. This study assumes that the primary cause of coal volume loss is subsurface coal seam fires. The main calculation process is divided into three modules: (1 Coal fire quantity calculations, which use change detection to determine the areas of the different coal fire stages (increase/growth, maintenance/stability and decrease/shrinkage. During every change detections, the amount of coal influenced by fires for these three stages was calculated by multiplying the coal mining residual rate, combustion efficiency, average thickness and average coal intensity. (2 The life cycle estimate is based on remote sensing long-term coal fires monitoring. The life cycles for the three coal fire stages and the corresponding life cycle proportions were calculated; (3 The diurnal burnt rates for different coal fire stages were calculated using the CO2 emission rates from spontaneous combustion experiments, the coal fire life cycle, life cycle proportions. Then, using the fire-influenced quantity aggregated across the different stages, the diurnal burn rates for the different stages and the time spans between the multi-temporal image pairs used for change detection, we estimated the annual coal loss to be 44.3 × 103 tons. After correction using a CH4 emission factor, the CO2 equivalent emissions resulting from these fires was on the order of 92.7 × 103 tons. We also discovered that the centers of these coal fires migrated from deeper to shallower parts of the coal seams or traveled in the direction of the coal seam strike. This trend also agrees with the cause of the majority coal fires: spontaneous combustion of coalmine goafs.

  16. Research on loose deposits based on ASTER images in Wudu, Gansu%基于ASTER遥感影像武都区松散堆积物研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔志杰; 郭鹏; 熊木齐; 庆丰; 张毅; 曾宇桐; 孟兴民

    2014-01-01

    以甘肃南部白龙江流域武都区段为例,判识孕育松散堆积物的特殊地层岩性,遴选出对地层岩性敏感的波段,并采用最大似然分类方法,解译、提取松散堆积物.结果显示:风化基岩、黄土的面积分别为657.48,1180.95 km2,两者占武都区总面积的39.68%;在松散堆积物密集分布区,已发生灾害272处,灾害点占武都区总灾害点的54%,在强降雨条件下,灾害易发性较大.%Wudu, which is located in Bailong River catchment, was selected as the study area to identify the lithology that can produce loose material sediments, select better wavelengths that are sensitive to lithology and interpret loose materials by using maximum likelihood classification. The results indicated that the area of weathered bedrock and loess is 657.48 and 1 180.95 km2, occupying about 39.68% of the total Wudu area. In regions with rich loose material sources, 272 debris flow events had occurred before, accounting for 54% of the total number of debris flow events in Wudu District, and such regions are much more prone to debris flows when three is a heavy rainfall.

  17. Evaluation of ESTARFM based algorithm for generating land surface temperature products by fusing ASTER and MODIS data during the HiWATER-MUSOEXE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land surface temperature (LST) is an important parameter that is highly responsive to surface energy fluxes and has become valuable to many disciplines. However, it is difficult to acquire satellite LSTs with both high spatial and temporal resolutions due to tradeoffs between them. Thus, various alg...

  18. Some notes on China aster (Callistephus chinensis (L. Nees with particular attention paid to the changeability of florets and inflorescences in view of the so far used descriptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Wosińska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is mostly devoted to the variability of florets and heads in Callistephus sp.- in its wild form and cultivated varieties. Describing the variability of heads more attention was paid to florets and specially ray florets including rare and often incorrectly described florets with tubular corollas. Attention was called to the necessity of using univocal and generally accepted basic vocabulary for heterogamic heads.

  19. Assessing lahars from ice-capped volcanoes using ASTER satellite data, the SRTM DTM and two different flow models: case study on Iztaccíhuatl (Central Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, D.; Delgado Granados, H.; Huggel, C.; Kääb, A.

    2008-06-01

    Lahars frequently affect the slopes of ice-capped volcanoes. They can be triggered by volcano-ice interactions during eruptions but also by processes such as intense precipitation or by outbursts of glacial water bodies not directly related to eruptive activity. We use remote sensing, GIS and lahar models in combination with ground observations for an initial lahar hazard assessment on Iztaccíhuatl volcano (5230 m a.s.l.), considering also possible future developments of the glaciers on the volcano. Observations of the glacial extent are important for estimations of future hazard scenarios, especially in a rapidly changing tropical glacial environment. In this study, analysis of the glaciers on Iztaccíhuatl shows a dramatic retreat during the last 150 years: the glaciated area in 2007 corresponds to only 4% of the one in 1850 AD and the glaciers are expected to survive no later than the year 2020. Most of the glacial retreat is considered to be related to climate change but in-situ observations suggest also that geo- and hydrothermal heat flow at the summit-crater area can not be ruled out, as emphasized by fumarolic activity documented in a former study. However, development of crater lakes and englacial water reservoirs are supposed to be a more realistic scenario for lahar generation than sudden ice melting by rigorous volcano-ice interaction. Model calculations show that possible outburst floods have to be larger than ~5×105 m3 or to achieve an H/L ratio (Height/runout Length) of 0.2 and lower in order to reach the populated lower flanks. This threshold volume equals 2.4% melted ice of Iztaccíhuatl's total ice volume in 2007, assuming 40% water and 60% volumetric debris content of a potential lahar. The model sensitivity analysis reveals important effects of the generic type of the Digital Terrain Model (DTM) used on the results. As a consequence, the predicted affected areas can vary significantly. For such hazard zonation, we therefore suggest the use of different types of DTMs and flow models, followed by a careful comparison and interpretation of the results.

  20. Characters and Counter-measures of Drought Dis-asters in Liling City%醴陵市干旱灾害特点分析及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周伟; 谢傲

    2013-01-01

    Based on the data from me-teorological stations and regional auto-matic weather stations in Liling City from 1956 to 2012, temporal-spatial occur-rence laws of drought in Liling City were analyzed according to the standards specified in Hunan Local Meteorological Disaster Terms and Classification. Drought disasters in Liling City show the following characteristics: less in winter and spring, more in summer and autumn;more in west than in north; causing seri-ous agricultural losses. Considering crop layouts and water conservancy facilities, this paper proposed that drought disas-ters in the local area were related to cli-mate, geographical location, water system characteristics and water quality, struc-ture of agriculture and farming, existing water conservancy projects and facilities, human activities. According to the drought causes, corresponding measures were given, such as enhancing construc-tion and management of drought-resistant infrastructure, applying “biological water control”, adjusting structure of agricul-ture and planting industry, developing water-saving agriculture, enhancing drought forecast and warning etc..%利用醴陵市1956—2012年气象站及近年来区域自动站降水资料,采用《湖南省地方气象灾害术语与分级》中的干旱标准,分析了醴陵干旱发生时空规律,发现醴陵干旱灾害呈现冬春干旱出现几率少,夏秋干旱发生频率高;西部干旱重于北部,农业灾损严重的特点。并结合作物布局和水利设施实际情况,认为醴陵干旱主要与气候、地理位置、水系特征与土质状况、农业种植业结构、现有水利工程及设施、人类活动等因素有关。根据干旱形成的原因,提出了加强现有抗旱基础设施建设和管理、实施“生物治水工程”、科学调整农业种植业结构、发展节水农业、加强旱情测报和预报等应对措施。

  1. Assessing lahars from ice-capped volcanoes using ASTER satellite data, the SRTM DTM and two different flow models: case study on Iztaccíhuatl (Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Schneider

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Lahars frequently affect the slopes of ice-capped volcanoes. They can be triggered by volcano-ice interactions during eruptions but also by processes such as intense precipitation or by outbursts of glacial water bodies not directly related to eruptive activity. We use remote sensing, GIS and lahar models in combination with ground observations for an initial lahar hazard assessment on Iztaccíhuatl volcano (5230 m a.s.l., considering also possible future developments of the glaciers on the volcano. Observations of the glacial extent are important for estimations of future hazard scenarios, especially in a rapidly changing tropical glacial environment. In this study, analysis of the glaciers on Iztaccíhuatl shows a dramatic retreat during the last 150 years: the glaciated area in 2007 corresponds to only 4% of the one in 1850 AD and the glaciers are expected to survive no later than the year 2020. Most of the glacial retreat is considered to be related to climate change but in-situ observations suggest also that geo- and hydrothermal heat flow at the summit-crater area can not be ruled out, as emphasized by fumarolic activity documented in a former study. However, development of crater lakes and englacial water reservoirs are supposed to be a more realistic scenario for lahar generation than sudden ice melting by rigorous volcano-ice interaction. Model calculations show that possible outburst floods have to be larger than ~5×105 m3 or to achieve an H/L ratio (Height/runout Length of 0.2 and lower in order to reach the populated lower flanks. This threshold volume equals 2.4% melted ice of Iztaccíhuatl's total ice volume in 2007, assuming 40% water and 60% volumetric debris content of a potential lahar. The model sensitivity analysis reveals important effects of the generic type of the Digital Terrain Model (DTM used on the results. As a consequence, the predicted affected areas can vary significantly. For such hazard zonation, we therefore suggest the use of different types of DTMs and flow models, followed by a careful comparison and interpretation of the results.

  2. Evaluation of ASTER and SRTM DEM data for lahar modeling: A case study on lahars from Popocatépetl Volcano, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Lahars are among themost serious and far-reaching volcanic hazards. In regions with potential interactions of lahars with populated areas and human structures the assessment of the related hazards is crucial for undertaking appropriate mitigating actions and reduce the associated risks. Modeling of lahars has become an important tool in such assessments, in particular where the geologic record of past events is insufficient. Mass-flow modeling strongly relies on digital terrain data. Availabi...

  3. Assessing lahars from ice-capped volcanoes using ASTER satellite data, the SRTM DTM and two different flow models: case study on Iztaccíhuatl (Central Mexico)

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Lahars frequently affect the slopes of ice-capped volcanoes. They can be triggered by volcano-ice interactions during eruptions but also by processes such as intense precipitation or by outbursts of glacial water bodies not directly related to eruptive activity. We use remote sensing, GIS and lahar models in combination with ground observations for an initial lahar hazard assessment on Iztaccíhuatl volcano (5230 m a.s.l.), considering also possible future developments of the glaciers on the v...

  4. Environmental Assessment: West Coast Basing of C-17 Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    below 500 feet. Found scattered in vernal pools, northwest corner of the Base. Amphibians California tiger salamander Ambystoma ...Polites mardon Candidate Endangered Taylor (Whulge) checkerspot Euphydryas editha taylori Candidate Candidate Plants White-top aster Aster curtus

  5. Calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In: Kumar V, Abbas AK, Aster JC, eds. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease . 9th ed. ... V, Abbas AK, Fausto N, Aster JC, eds. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease . 9th ed. ...

  6. Metabolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar V, Abbas AK, Aster JC. Cellular responses to stress and toxic insults: Adaptation, injury, and death. In: Kumar V, Abbas AK, Aster JC, eds. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  7. Lipofuscin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar V, Abbas AK, Aster JC. Cellular responses to stress and toxic insults: Adaptation, injury, and death. In: Kumar V, Abbas AK, Aster JC, eds. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  8. 4种荷兰菊品种耐热性生理指标初探%Preliminary study on the physiological indices of heat tolerance of Aster nori-belgii leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈娅琼; 蒋文伟; 黄建荣; 蔡红艳; 孙磊

    2009-01-01

    选用从比利时引进的4个荷兰菊品种,进行耐热力鉴定,测定不同热处理下叶片的细胞膜透性、丙二醛含量、过氧化物酶活性和超氧化物歧化酶活性的变化.结果表明: 叶片的细胞膜透性、丙二醛含量、过氧化物酶活性的变化指标可用于荷兰菊叶片耐热力测定.该试验所测定的4个荷兰菊品种中,以安德较耐热,紫球次之,粉花、香叶较不耐热.

  9. Preliminary Report on Sucrose-aster Affecting on Upper Leaf of Flue-cured Tobacco%烤前喷洒蔗糖酯对烤烟上部叶烘烤效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王能如; 程新胜; 徐增汉; 李章海

    2005-01-01

    烘烤前用浓度1:1 000倍蔗糖酯溶液喷洒鲜烟叶,能显著提高上部叶烤后质量.具体表现为:烤后烟叶色泽鲜亮,等级结构有所改善,总氮、烟碱、蛋白质含量显著降低,糖含量显著升高,化学成分协调性明显改善.

  10. Estudo quÃmico de asterÃceas do CearÃ: Baccharis trinervis, Eupatorium ballotaefolium, Eupatorium betonicaeforme, Eupatorium pauciflorum, Pectis apodocephala, Pectis oligocephala, Verbesina diversifolia, Vernonia chalybaea e Vernonia scorpioides

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Rose Jane Ribeiro Albuquerque

    2006-01-01

    Este trabalho descreve a investigaÃÃo quÃmica de plantas da famÃlia Asteraceae nativas da flora cearense, pertencentes aos gÃneros Baccharis, Eupatorium, Pectis, Verbesina e Vernonia. Eupatorium ballotaefolium H.B.K. e E. betonicaeforme Baker foram selecionados para o estudo da composiÃÃo quÃmica volÃtil e nÃo-volÃtil, enquanto Baccharis trinervis (Lam.) Pers., E. pauciflorum Kunth, Pectis apodocephala Baker, P. oligocephala Baker, Verbesina diversifolia D.C., Vernonia chalybaea Mart. e V. sc...

  11. 一种基于投票法融合的ASTER遥感影像水体提取方法%A Method of Water Extraction Based on Voting Method Fusion for ASTER Remote Sensing Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴春花; 杜培军; 夏俊士

    2012-01-01

    Remote sensing imagery plays an important role in water resources surveying and floods monitoring. Extracting water from remote sensing images are often faced with some problems,such as the perturbation of shadow,the leakage of narrow water et al. According to the limitations of single approach,a thought of classifier integration was introduced and a novel water extraction algorithm is proposed based on voting. Firstly,Bagging,Random Forests and Neural Net classifiers were used to classify remote sensing images. Then,the majority voting was adapted to fuse the above three classification results. Finally, the final map of water was obtained from the decisive fusion result. The experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively remove the shadows and identify the small water well.%遥感影像在水资源调查和洪涝灾害监测中发挥着重要作用,但从遥感影像中提取水体通常面临着阴影和狭小水体漏提等难题.针对单一方法在水体提取中的局限性,引入分类器集成的思想,提出一种基于投票法融 合的水体提取方法,首先利用Bagging、Random Forests和神经网络(NN)分类器对遥感影像进行分类,然后采用多数投票法从决策层融合3个分类结果,得到研究区水体提取结果.试验结果表明,该方法能够有效去除阴影且能较好地识别狭小水体,具有良好的应用效果.

  12. Effects of cadmium stress on physiological and biochemical characteristics in Tagetespatula L. [ Asterales:Aster-aceae]%镉胁迫对一年生黑麦草生理生化特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凯凯; 孙圆圆; 徐玲玲; 冯旭东; 关萍

    2016-01-01

    通过盆栽试验,研究不同浓度镉(0、50、100、200、300 mg/kg)胁迫对一年生黑麦草(Tagetes patula L.)成年植株叶绿素和丙二醛(MDA)含量及抗氧化酶(SOD、CAT、POD)活性的影响。结果表明:低浓度镉(50mg/kg)胁迫叶绿素含量略有减少,但随着胁迫浓度的升高,叶绿素含量与对照显著减少;MDA含量随着镉胁迫浓度增加呈现先降后升的变化趋势,300mg/kg时达到最高值;SOD、CAT、POD活性随镉浓度升高,均表现出先升后降的变化趋势。可见,一年生黑麦草对重金属镉具有一定的耐受性,为植物重金属修复方面提供参考。%The effect of different concentrations of cadmium ( Cd) ( 0, 50, 100, 200, 300 mg/kg) on the contents of chlorophyll and MDA and the activity of the antioxidant enzymes ( SOD, CAT and POD ) of the mature plant of Tagetespatula was studied through pot experiment. The results showed that the content of chlorophyll only slightly de﹣creased at low concentration ( 50mg/kg) of Cd, however, with the concentration of Cd increasing, the content of chloro﹣phyll significantly decreased.The content of MDA first decreased then increased to the maximum of 300mg/kg.With the concentration of Cd increasing, the contents of SOD, CAT and POD first increased then decreased. It is concluded that Tagetespatula has certain tolerance to Cd stress. The study provides the basis to explain plant recovery from heavy metal pollution.

  13. Formation and function of the polar body contractile ring in Spisula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pielak, Rafal M; Gaysinskaya, Valeriya A; Cohen, William D

    2004-05-15

    Initial studies suggested that spatial organization of the putative polar body contractile ring was determined by the peripheral aster in Spisula [Biol. Bull. 205 (2003) 192]. Here we report detailed supporting observations, including testing of aster and ring function with inhibitors. The metaphase peripheral aster was confirmed to spread cortically in an umbrella-like pattern, with microtubule-poor center. The aster disassembled during anaphase, leaving the spindle docked at the F-actin-poor center of a newly generated cortical F-actin ring that closely approximated the aster in location, measured diameter range, and pattern. Cytochalasin D and latrunculin-B permitted all events except ring and polar body formation. Nocodazole disassembly or taxol stabilization of the peripheral aster produced poorly defined rings or bulging anaphase asters within the ring center, respectively, inhibiting polar body formation. Polar body extrusion occurred at the ring center, the diameter of which diminished. Ring contractility-previously assumed-was verified using blebbistatin, a myosin-II ATPase inhibitor that permitted ring assembly but blocked polar body extrusion. The data support the hypothesis that peripheral aster spreading, perhaps dynein-driven, is causally related to polar body contractile ring formation, with anaphase entry and aster disassembly also required for polar body biogenesis. Previously reported astral spreading during embryonic micromere formation suggests that related mechanisms are involved in asymmetric somatic cytokinesis.

  14. 77 FR 66832 - Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications To Register New Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ..., milkweed, mustard seed, Niger seed, oil radish, poppy seed, rose hip, sesame, Stokes aster, sweet rocket... mustard, jojoba, lesquerella, lunaria, meadowfoam, milkweed, mustard seed, Niger seed, oil radish,...

  15. Effect of lead contamination of soils and air on its accumulation in pollen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, W.H.O.; Bast-Cramer, W.B.

    1980-01-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals in the honey, derived from Aster tripolium was investigated. The lead content of pollen in Aster tripolium and Taraxacum officinale is mainly due to airborne lead. The accumulation of other heavy metals, such as zinc and copper, in pollen occurs mainly via a translocation process from roots to flowers. 14 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  16. Biological Survey, Buffalo River and Outer Harbor of Buffalo, New York. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    Goldenrod Solidago spp. Plantain Plantago sp. Common dandelion Taraxacum officinale Cinquefoil Potetilla sp. Aster Aster sp. Clover Trifolium sp. Wild...bursa-pastoris Coumon imllein Verbascwn Comm~on dandelion Taraxacum off icinale thapsus Common evening-primurose Oanothera bennis Sow thistle Soncus

  17. Dredging Operations Technical Support Program. Long-Term Monitoring of Habitat Development at Upland and Wetland Dredged Material Disposal Sites 1974-1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-01

    Asparagus officinale Asters Aster spp. Bagpod Sesbania vesicaria Bahia grass Paspalum notatum Bald cypress Taxodium distichum Barberry Berberis sp...Barley Hordeum vulgare Barnyard grass Bchniochloa crusgalli Barren bromegrass Bromus sterilis Bayberry Nyrica pensgivanica Beach morning glory Ipomoea...Rumex crispus Cypress bulrush Scizrpus cyperiznus Dallis grass Paspalum , dilatatuu Dandelion Taraxacum off icinal. Dayf lover Cowaelina sp. Deer pea

  18. City of Freeport, Florida, State Road 20 Water Main Installation, Final Environmental Assessment, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Calamovilfa curtissii Curtiss’ Sand Grass LT - Calycanthus floridus var floridus Sweet Shrub LE - Carex baltzelli Baltzell’s Sedge LT - Carex tenax...Sandhill Sedge - - Chrysopsis godfreyi Godfrey’s Golden Aster LE - Chrysopsis gossypina ssp cruiseana Cruise’s Golden Aster LE - Cladium mariscoides

  19. Environmental Assessment for Type III Fuel Hydrant System at Grissom Air Reserve Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Armoracia aquatica Aster furcatus Carex sparganioides var. cephaloidea Carex straminea Coeloglossum vir ide var. virescens Cypripedium calceolus var...American Badger Michaux’s Stitchwort Lake Cress forked Aster Thinleaf Sedge Straw Sedge Long-bract Green Orchis Small Yellow Ladys-slipper Tufted

  20. Candidate Herbaceous Plants for Phytoremediation of Energetics on Ranges. Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Big sagebrush P very large large W AK 1 Asclepias syriaca Common milkweed yes P tap medium N IL JAAP 12 Aster sibiricus Siberian aster yes P...many large C4 N&S Asclepias syriaca Common milkweed Asclepiadaceae P tap medium considerable large C4 N Datura stramonium4 Jimson weed Solanaceae

  1. Spatial Vegetation Data Version 2.0a for Shenandoah National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This map depicts 35 USNVC vegetation association classes for Shenandoah National Park developed from AVIRIS hyperspectral imagery, ASTER multispectral imagery and...

  2. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U02501-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ) Aster yellows witches'-broom phytoplasma AYWB, co... 38 0.006 12 ( FG289263 ) 1108793295629 New World Scre...FG290297 ) 1108793315558 New World Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 44 9.4 1 ( FE7256

  3. Millisecond X-ray Star Tracker Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CrossTrac Engineering, in cooperation with its subcontractors Dr Suneel Sheikh of ASTER Labs, Inc, and Mr Paul Graven of Cateni, Inc, proposes to develop a next...

  4. Generation of a new Greenland Ice Sheet Digital Elevation Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagarajan, Sudhagar; Csatho, Beata M; Schenk, Anton F

    and spaceborne laser altimetry (airborne: Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) (1993-present), Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor(LVIS) (2007,2009 and 2011); spaceborne: Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) (2003-2009)) and DEMs have been derived from stereo satellite imagery (e.g., SPOT (40 m), ASTER (15...... conditions, by fusing a photoclinometry DEM, SPOT and ASTER DEMs as well as elevations from ICESat, ATM and LVIS laser altimetry. The new multi-resolution DEM has a resolution of 40 m x 40 m in the marginal ice sheet regions and 250 m elsewhere. The ice sheet margin is mapped from SPOT and Landsat imagery...... and SPOT DEMs are used to cover the complex topography of ice sheet marginal regions. The accuracy of SPOT DEMs is approximately $\\pm 6$ m except in the areas covered by clouds regions, where the SPOT elevations were replaced by ASTER DEMs. The ASTER DEMs were checked and improved by the DEM derived from...

  5. Characterizing regional soil mineral composition using spectroscopyand geostatistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, V.L.; de Bruin, S.; Weyermann, J.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Schaepman, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    This work aims at improving the mapping of major mineral variability at regional scale using scale-dependent spatial variability observed in remote sensing data. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and statistical methods were combined with laboratory-based mineral characterization of field samples to create maps of the distributions of clay, mica and carbonate minerals and their abundances. The Material Identification and Characterization Algorithm (MICA) was used to identify the spectrally-dominant minerals in field samples; these results were combined with ASTER data using multinomial logistic regression to map mineral distributions. X-ray diffraction (XRD)was used to quantify mineral composition in field samples. XRD results were combined with ASTER data using multiple linear regression to map mineral abundances. We testedwhether smoothing of the ASTER data to match the scale of variability of the target sample would improve model correlations. Smoothing was donewith Fixed Rank Kriging (FRK) to represent the mediumand long-range spatial variability in the ASTER data. Stronger correlations resulted using the smoothed data compared to results obtained with the original data. Highest model accuracies came from using both medium and long-range scaled ASTER data as input to the statistical models. High correlation coefficients were obtained for the abundances of calcite and mica (R2 = 0.71 and 0.70, respectively). Moderately-high correlation coefficients were found for smectite and kaolinite (R2 = 0.57 and 0.45, respectively). Maps of mineral distributions, obtained by relating ASTER data to MICA analysis of field samples, were found to characterize major soil mineral variability (overall accuracies for mica, smectite and kaolinite were 76%, 89% and 86% respectively). The results of this study suggest that the distributions of minerals and their abundances derived using FRK-smoothed ASTER data more closely match the spatial

  6. Ballistic Missile Defense in the European Theater: Political, Military and Technical Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-15

    in a ground-based system, called the Sol-Air Moyen Portee/ Terrestre (SAMP/T) that uses the Aster 15 and the Aster 30 missiles with a range of up to...development processes “ via a spiral pathway culminating in an operator-in-the- 107 COL Tim Polaske Chief...Reentry Vehicle SAMP/T Sol-Air Moyen Portee/ Terrestre SBI Space Based Interceptor SBIRS Space Based Infrared Satellite SHAPE

  7. Fort George G. Meade Active Sanitary Landfill and Clean Fill Dump, Remedial Investigation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    acceptable. However, the RME exposure yielded an unacceptable cancer risk. Clean Fill Dump A two-phase study was conducted at this site concurrently with...Indian hemp FACU Asclepias syriaca Pink milkweed UP* Aster spp. Asters UNK Cardamine hirsuta Hairy bitter cress FACU Centaurea maculata Batchelor’s...bound excess cancer risk associated with lifetime exposure to 1 mg/kg.day of a compound. There is a 95 percent chance that the actual risk value is

  8. Provisional maps of thermal areas in Yellowstone National Park, based on satellite thermal infrared imaging and field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, R. Greg; Heasler, Henry; Jaworowski, Cheryl; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.

    2014-01-01

    Maps that define the current distribution of geothermally heated ground are useful toward setting a baseline for thermal activity to better detect and understand future anomalous hydrothermal and (or) volcanic activity. Monitoring changes in the dynamic thermal areas also supports decisions regarding the development of Yellowstone National Park infrastructure, preservation and protection of park resources, and ensuring visitor safety. Because of the challenges associated with field-based monitoring of a large, complex geothermal system that is spread out over a large and remote area, satellite-based thermal infrared images from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) were used to map the location and spatial extent of active thermal areas, to generate thermal anomaly maps, and to quantify the radiative component of the total geothermal heat flux. ASTER thermal infrared data acquired during winter nights were used to minimize the contribution of solar heating of the surface. The ASTER thermal infrared mapping results were compared to maps of thermal areas based on field investigations and high-resolution aerial photos. Field validation of the ASTER thermal mapping is an ongoing task. The purpose of this report is to make available ASTER-based maps of Yellowstone’s thermal areas. We include an appendix containing the names and characteristics of Yellowstone’s thermal areas, georeferenced TIFF files containing ASTER thermal imagery, and several spatial data sets in Esri shapefile format.

  9. Optimization of the concrete delayed deformations by Kalman filter; Optimisation des deformations differees du beton par filtre de Kalman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastien Massart [CERFACS / URA 1875, 42 Avenue Gaspard Coriolis, 31057 Toulouse Cedex 01, (France)

    2005-07-01

    Imperviousness of French nuclear power plants containments has to secure radioactive products confinement during incident or accident. Temporal evolution of containments is obtained through the numerical model Code Aster that purpose is to detect if some fissure could appear and as a consequence, imperviousness lost. In parallel, sensors are placed all around the containments to follow real time deformations. In this paper, Kalman filter analysis of an extensometer data is used to optimize eight parameters of the numerical model Code Aster. This method allows us to improve the concrete delayed behaviors modelization and supplies uncertainties to the forecast of the containment evolution. (author)

  10. Introducing Au Potential Areas, Using Remote Sensing and Geochemical Data Processing Using Fractal Methods in Chartagh, Western Azerbijan - Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Edris; Feizi, Faranak

    2016-06-01

    The studied area - Chartagh - is located in the East of Azerbaijan gharbi Province, Iran. In this paper, geology map, ASTER satellite images were used and after processing these images with ENVI softwares, geochemical data analysis consisting of lithogeochemical samples, within geological field observations. On ASTER data; using a number of selected methods including band ratio, Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) and Spectral Angle Maper (SAM) distinguished alternation zones. Geochemical anomalies were separated by number - size (N-S) fractal method. (N-S) fractal method was utilized for High intensive Au, As and Ag anomalies.

  11. Mineral classification map using MF and SAM techniques: A case study in the Nohwa Island, Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Young-Sun; Yoon, Wang-Jung [Department of Energy and Resources Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-10

    The purpose of this study is to map pyprophyllite distribution at surface of the Nohwa deposit, Korea by using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER) data. For this, combined Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM), and Matched Filtering (MF) technique based on mathematical algorithm was applied. The regional distribution of high-grade and low-grade pyrophyllite in the Nohwa deposit area could be differentiated by this method. The results of this study show that ASTER data analysis using combination of SAM and MF techniques will assist in exploration of pyrophyllite at the exposed surface.

  12. Protomyces Unger (1833)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter describes the ascomycetous fungal genus Protomyces and is to be published in "The Yeasts, A Taxonomic Study, 5th edition." Species of the genus Protomyces are plant pathogens that attack asters, wild celery, coriander and certain other plants. Symptoms include disruption of stems, lea...

  13. Cultural Resources Inventory of Lands Adjacent to Big Sandy Lake. Volume 1,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-18

    Bush honeysuckle JuneberryI Downy arrowwood q erbs: Wild sarsaparilla Pennsylvania sedge Columbine Early meadow-rue Large-leaved aster Star-flowered...valley Canada anemone Snakeroot Wild sarsaparilla " Northern bedstraw Br.-leaved goldenrod False Solomon’s seal Carrion flower Small-flowered Large

  14. Evaluation of digital elevation models for delineation of hydrological response units in a Himalayan watershed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saran, S.; Sterk, G.; Peters, P.D.; Dadhwal, V.K.

    2010-01-01

    This study reports results from evaluation of the quality of digital elevation model (DEM) from four sources viz. topographic map (1: 50,000), Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) (90 m), optical stereo pair from ASTER (15 m) and CARTOSAT (2.5 m) and their use in derivation of hydrological respo

  15. Evaluation of digital elevation models for delineation of hydrological response units in a Himalayan watershed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saran, S.; Sterk, G.; Peters, P.; Dadhwal, V.K.

    2010-01-01

    This study reports results from evaluation of the quality of digital elevation model (DEM) from four sources viz. topographic map (1:50,000), Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) (90 m), optical stereo pair from ASTER (15 m) and CARTOSAT (2.5 m) and their use in derivation of hydrological respon

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-AGAM-04-0125 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-AGAM-04-0125 ref|NP_525103.2| bunched CG5461-PA, isoform A [Drosophila melanog...aster] sp|Q24523|BUN2_DROME Protein bunched, class 2 isoform (Protein shortsighted) gb|AAF53201.2| CG5461-PA, isoform A [Drosophila melanogaster] NP_525103.2 6e-62 37% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-AGAM-01-0058 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-AGAM-01-0058 ref|NP_525103.2| bunched CG5461-PA, isoform A [Drosophila melanog...aster] sp|Q24523|BUN2_DROME Protein bunched, class 2 isoform (Protein shortsighted) gb|AAF53201.2| CG5461-PA, isoform A [Drosophila melanogaster] NP_525103.2 2e-14 32% ...

  18. Description of the North Jamaican Timea micraster n. sp. (Porifera: Demospongiae: Hadromerida: Timeidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehnert, Helmut; Heimler, Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    A new West-Indian species of Timea is described and compared with all other Caribbean, Atlantic and Mediterranean members of the genus. Timea micraster n.sp. has a surface system of furrows with elevated sides, not known from other congeneric species and has the tiniest asters known in the family. T

  19. Hydropower-induced land use change in Fincha's watershed, werstern Ethiopia: analysis and impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezuayehu, T.O.; Sterk, G.

    2008-01-01

    The present article analyzes the land use dynamics caused by hydropower dam construction in 1973 in the Fincha'a watershed (1318 km2), a tributary of the Blue Nile. Aerial photos (1957 and 1980) and an ASTER satellite image of 2001 were used to make 3 land use maps of the watershed using a geographi

  20. Use of quantitative real time PCR for a genome-wide study of AYWB phytoplasma gene expression in plant and insect hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarova, Olga; MacLean, Allyson M.; Hogenhout, Saskia A.;

    2011-01-01

    this technique for reliable gene expression quantification of phytoplasmas on a large scale. In our experimental setup, 242 genes of aster yellows phytoplasma strain witches' broom (AY-WB) were tested for differences in expression in plant and insect host environments, and were shown to be predominantly...

  1. Phytoplasma adapt to the diverse environments of their plant and insect hosts by altering gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarova, Olga; MacLean, Allyson M.; Nicolaisen, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    Phytoplasmas are intracellular insect-transmitted phytopathogenic bacteria with small genomes. To understand how Aster Yellows phytoplasma strain witches' broom (AY-WB) adapts to their hosts, we performed qRT-PCR analysis of 179 in silico functionally annotated AY-WB genes that are likely to have...

  2. A regional view of fluctuations in glacier length in southern South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez, P.; Chevallier, P.; Favier, V.; Pouyaud, B.; Ordenes, F.; Oerlemans, J.

    2010-01-01

    Fluctuations in the length of 72 glaciers in the Northern and Southern Patagonia Icefield (NPI and SPI, respectively) and the Cordillera Darwin Icefield (CDI) were estimated between 1945 and 2005. The information obtained from historical maps based on 1945 aerial photographs was compared to ASTER an

  3. Mapping Equus kiang (Tibetan Wild Ass) Habitat in Surkhang, Upper Mustang, Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, B.D.; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Graaf, de N.R.; Chapagain, N.R.

    2004-01-01

    The present paper describes land cover classification and habitat mapping for the Tibetan wild ass (Equus kiang), also commonly known as kiang, in the Surkhang VDC, Upper Mustang, Nepal. Remote sensing techniques were applied for this classification, employing an ASTER satellite image from October 2

  4. Update on Ifremer technological developments and operational feedbacks with underwater systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rigaud, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the status of Ifremer Underwater systems. It will focus on recent innovations, improvements and operational references of the remotely operated vehicle "Victor 6000", of the autonomous underwater vehicles "AsterX" and “IdefX”, of the new “Sysif” seismic tool and some hints about RanD in the domain of Advanced Intervention AUVs.

  5. Field Surveys, IOC Valleys. Biological Resources Survey, Dry Lake Valley, Nevada. Volume II, Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    members of the cactaceae family: Coryphantha vivipara, Echinocereus engelmannii, Sclerocactus pubispinus, Opuntia erinacea, Opuntia polycantha, and...Streptantnus cordatus ArFtemisia tr-identata Arem s p. Cactaceae Aster sp. Corypnantha vivipara* Baiy pleniradiata Ectinocereus engelmannii* c W -acis sp

  6. Significance of Landcover Biophysical Parameters Derived from Remote Sensing Data for Environmental Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, M.; Stefan, S.

    2007-04-01

    Remote sensing is a key application in global-change science, being very useful for local and regional climatology and landuse/landcover dynamics analysis. Based on satellite images (LANDSAT TM, ETM and ASTER) of Romanian Black Sea coastal zone, centered on Constantza urban area were derived surface biophysical parameters for 1975 - 2003 period.

  7. Experiment list: SRX201892 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available aster; ChIP-Seq source_name=DNA input_Mael-KD || genotype/variation=RNAi mael || Stage=96h after transfectio...mental Stage=adult stage 32007439,97.3,17.6,2250 GSM1027420: DNA input from Mael-KD rep2; Drosophila melanog

  8. Washington, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Citizens of the United States vote today (November 7, 2000) to determine who will be the next president and vice president of the country, as well as who will fill a number of congressional and senate seats that are up for election. This image of the U.S. capital city-Washington, D.C.-was acquired on June 1 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), a Japanese sensor flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The scene encompasses an area 14 km wide by 13.7 km tall, and was made using a combination of ASTER's visible and near-infrared channels. In this image, vegetation appears red, buildings and paved areas appear light blue, and the waters of the Anacostia and Potomac Rivers are dark grey. ASTER's 15-meter spatial resolution allows us to see individual buildings, including the White House, the Jefferson Memorial, and the Washington Monument with its shadow. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  9. Nuevas citas de Asteraceae para la provincia de Catamarca (Argentina) New records of Asteraceae for the province of Catamarca (Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Susana E. Freire; Bayón, Néstor D.; Daniel A. Giuliano; Luis Ariza Espinar; Sáenz, Alcides A.; Claudia Monti; Gustavo Delucchi

    2011-01-01

    Se mencionan los siguientes nuevos registros de Asteráceas para la provincia de Catamarca, Argentina: Baccharis acaulis, B. boliviensis var. latifolia, B. flexuosa, B. glutinosa var. angustissima, B. stenophylla (Tribu Astereae), Eupatorium patens var. tomentosum (Tribu Eupatorieae), Cosmos bipinnatus, C. peucedanifolius var. peucedanifolius, Helianthus annuus (Tribu Heliantheae), Gamochaeta erythractis, G. longipedicellata, Gnaphalium lacteum, Tessaria integrifolia var. integrifolia (Tribu I...

  10. Hazards mitigation and natural resources evaluation around Sohag – Safaga highway, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salwa F. Elbeih

    2011-06-01

    This research mainly depends on using recent satellite images of Misrsat-1, Landsat TM5, and ASTER with the aid of Geographic Information Systems (GIS. Different soil types that were delineated are mostly suitable for agricultural landuse. The suitability of this agriculture depends on the availability and quality of the irrigation water.

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-AGAM-02-0179 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-AGAM-02-0179 ref|NP_542440.1| bride of sevenless CG8285-PA [Drosophila melanog...aster] sp|P22815|BOSS_DROME Protein bride of sevenless precursor emb|CAA39373.1| bride of sevenless protein

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DSIM-04-0078 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DSIM-04-0078 ref|NP_542440.1| bride of sevenless CG8285-PA [Drosophila melanog...aster] sp|P22815|BOSS_DROME Protein bride of sevenless precursor emb|CAA39373.1| bride of sevenless protein

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DYAK-04-0104 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DYAK-04-0104 ref|NP_542440.1| bride of sevenless CG8285-PA [Drosophila melanog...aster] sp|P22815|BOSS_DROME Protein bride of sevenless precursor emb|CAA39373.1| bride of sevenless protein

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DMEL-04-0082 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DMEL-04-0082 ref|NP_542440.1| bride of sevenless CG8285-PA [Drosophila melanog...aster] sp|P22815|BOSS_DROME Protein bride of sevenless precursor emb|CAA39373.1| bride of sevenless protein

  15. Design Analysis, Basin F Liquid Waste Disposal Facility, Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, Colorado, FY81.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    proposed will probably destroy or reduce the integrity of the existing asphalt liner. If this integrity needs to be maintained then alternate construction...1robnzee u.4STrchlorophenoxypropionic acid (2.4.-5 lodomethanei Pentachloroethane TPI (Silvex) Isocyanic acid, methyl aster Peafchlortmiftobenzene W=CN) ’T

  16. New NRO Eastern Processing Facility at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Florida. Environmental Assessment:

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-31

    the edges of scrub and in open clearings. Such areas frequently contain herbs such as silky golden aster (Pityopsis graminifolia), October- flower ...centimeter (12-inch), bluish -colored, crestless jay totally lacking the white-tipped wings and tail feathers of the more common and widespread blue jay

  17. La Farge Lake, Kickapoo River, Vernon County, Wisconsin, Final Environmental Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-02-18

    alternifolia (Wingstem), Asimina. triloba (Paw Paw), Aster vimineus, Buchloe dactylodes (Buffalo Grass), Carya glabra (Sweet Pg-ut), illinoensis (Pecan...black oak (Quercus velutina), white oak (Quercus alba), and hickory ( Carya cordiformes) generally occupy the drier uplands and slopes with south and

  18. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 60, Number 2, February 1924

    Science.gov (United States)

    1924-02-01

    8217 put in a state of defense. In the absence of the remaining consul, Q. Fabius Maximus was elected pro-dictator with 1\\1. 1\\1inucius Rufus as ~-1aster...beginning with History, Science, and Philosophy, through Travel, Archreo,logy, and Imaginative Literature together with Poetry and World Politics. Each list

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-AGAM-02-0033 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-AGAM-02-0033 ref|NP_788686.1| tincar CG31247-PA, isoform A [Drosophila melanog...aster] ref|NP_788687.1| tincar CG31247-PD, isoform D [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAO41572.1| CG31247-PA, is

  20. Potential of thermal emissivity for mapping of greenstone rocks and associated granitoids of Hutti Maski Schist belt, Karnataka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, A.; Vinod Kumar, K.

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, different temperature-emissivity separation algorithms were used to derive emissivity images based on processing of ASTER( Advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer) thermal bands. These emissivity images have been compared with each other in terms of geological information for mapping of major rock types in Hutti Maski schist Belt and its associated granitoids. Thermal emissivity images are analyzed conjugately with thermal radiance image, radiant temperature image and albedo image of ASTER bands to understand the potential of thermal emissivity in delineating different rock types of Archaean Greenstone belt. The emissivity images derived using different emissivity extraction algorithms are characterised with poor data dimensionality and signal to noise ratio. Therefore, Inverse MNF false-colour composites(FCC) are derived using bands having better signal to noise(SNR)ratio to enhance the contrast in emissivity. It has been observed that inverse-MNF of emissivity image; which is derived using emissivity-normalisation method is suitable for delineating silica variations in granite and granodioritic gneiss in comparison to other inverse- MNF-emissivity composites derived using other emissivity extraction algorithms(reference channel and alpha residual method). Based on the analysis of ASTER derived emissivity spectra of each rocks, band ratios are derived(band 14/12,band 10/12) and these ratios are used to delineate the rock types based on index based FCC image. This FCC image can be used to delineate granitoids with different silica content. The geological information derived based on processing of ASTER thermal images are further compared with the image analysis products derived using ASTER visible-near-infrared(VNIR) and shortwave infrared(SWIR) bands. It has been observed that delineation of different mafic rocks or greenstone rocks(i.e. separation between chlorite schist and metabasalt) are better in SWIR composites

  1. Evaluation of Land Surface Temperature Retrieval from FY-3B/VIRR Data in an Arid Area of Northwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxiong Jiang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the refined Generalized Split-Window (GSW algorithm to derive the land surface temperature (LST from the data acquired by the Visible and Infrared Radiometer on FengYun 3B (FY-3B/VIRR. The coefficients in the GSW algorithm corresponding to a series of overlapping ranges for the mean emissivity, the atmospheric Water Vapor Content (WVC, and the LST are derived using a statistical regression method from the numerical values simulated with an accurate atmospheric radiative transfer model MODTRAN 4 over a wide range of atmospheric and surface conditions. The GSW algorithm is applied to retrieve LST from FY-3B/VIRR data in an arid area in northwestern China. Three emissivity databases are used to evaluate the accuracy of different emissivity databases for LST retrieval, including the ASTER Global Emissivity Database (ASTER_GED at a 1-km spatial resolution (AG1km, an average of twelve ASTER emissivity data in the 2012 summer and emissivity spectra extracted from spectral libraries. The LSTs retrieved from the three emissivity databases are evaluated with ground-measured LST at four barren surface sites from June 2012 to December 2013 collected during the HiWATER field campaign. The results indicate that using emissivity extracted from ASTER_GED can achieve the highest accuracy with an average bias of 1.26 and −0.04 K and an average root mean square error (RMSE of 2.69 and 1.38 K for the four sites during daytime and nighttime, respectively. This result indicates that ASTER_GED is a useful emissivity database for generating global LST products from different thermal infrared data and that using FY-3B/VIRR data can produce reliable LST products for other research areas.

  2. Augustine Volcano, Cook Inlet, Alaska (January 12, 2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Since last spring, the U.S. Geological Survey's Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) has detected increasing volcanic unrest at Augustine Volcano in Cook Inlet, Alaska near Anchorage. Based on all available monitoring data, AVO regards that an eruption similar to 1976 and 1986 is the most probable outcome. During January, activity has been episodic, and characterized by emission of steam and ash plumes, rising to altitudes in excess of 9,000 m (30,000 ft), and posing hazards to aircraft in the vicinity. An ASTER image was acquired at 12:42 AST on January 12, 2006, during an eruptive phase of Augustine. The perspective rendition shows the eruption plume derived from the ASTER image data. ASTER's stereo viewing capability was used to calculate the 3-dimensional topography of the eruption cloud as it was blown to the south by prevailing winds. From a maximum height of 3060 m (9950 ft), the plume cooled and its top descended to 1900 m (6175 ft). The perspective view shows the ASTER data draped over the plume top topography, combined with a base image acquired in 2000 by the Landsat satellite, that is itself draped over ground elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The topographic relief has been increased 1.5 times for this illustration. Comparison of the ASTER plume topography data with ash dispersal models and weather radar data will allow the National Weather Service to validate and improve such models. These models are used to forecast volcanic ash plume trajectories and provide hazard alerts and warnings to aircraft in the Alaska region. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with

  3. Change Detection Research Based on Multi-Temporal and Multi-Polarization PALSAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wangfei; Chen, Erxue; Li, Zengyuan; Feng, Qi; Zhao, Lei

    2016-08-01

    DEM Differential Method is an effective and efficient way for forest tree height assessment with Polarimetric and interferometric technology, however, the assessment accuracy of it is based on the accuracy of interferometric results and DEM. Terra-SAR/TanDEM-X, which established the first spaceborne bistatic interferometer, can provide highly accurate cross-track interferometric images in the whole global without inherent accuracy limitations like temporal decorrelation and atmospheric disturbance. These characters of Terra-SAR/TandDEM-X give great potential for global or regional tree height assessment, which have been constraint by the temporal decorrelation in traditional repeat-pass interferometry. Currently, in China, it will be costly to collect high accurate DEM with Lidar. At the same time, it is also difficult to get truly representative ground survey samples to test and verify the assessment results. In this paper, we analyzed the feasibility of using TerraSAR/TanDEM-X data to assess forest tree height with current free DEM data like ASTER-GDEM and archived ground in-suit data like forest management inventory data (FMI). At first, the accuracy and of ASTER-GDEM and forest management inventory data had been assessment according to the DEM and canopy height model (CHM) extracted from Lidar data. The results show the average elevation RMSE between ASTER-GEDM and Lidar-DEM is about 13 meters, but they have high correlation with the correlation coefficient of 0.96. With a linear regression model, we can compensate ASTER-GDEM and improve its accuracy nearly to the Lidar-DEM with same scale. The correlation coefficient between FMI and CHM is 0.40. its accuracy is able to be improved by a linear regression model withinconfidence intervals of 95%. After compensation of ASTER-GDEM and FMI, we calculated the tree height in Mengla test site with DEM Differential Method. The results showed that the corrected ASTER-GDEM can effectively improve the assessment accuracy

  4. Lava Flow at Kilauea, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    On July 21, 2007, the world's most active volcano, Kilauea on Hawaii's Big Island, produced a new fissure eruption from the Pu'u O'o vent, which fed an open lava channel and lava flows toward the east. Access to the Kahauale'a Natural Area Reserve was closed due to fire and gas hazards. The two Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) nighttime thermal infrared images were acquired on August 21 and August 30, 2007. The brightest areas are the hottest lava flows from the recent fissure eruption. The large lava field extending down to the ocean is part of the Kupaianaha field. The most recent activity there ceased on June 20, but the lava is still hot and appears bright on the images. Magenta areas are cold lava flows from eruptions that occurred between 1969 and 2006. Clouds are cold (black) and the ocean is a uniform warm temperature, and light gray in color. These images are being used by volcanologists at the U.S. Geological Survey Hawaii Volcano Observatory to help monitor the progress of the lava flows. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties

  5. 3D View of Grand Canyon, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Grand Canyon is one of North America's most spectacular geologic features. Carved primarily by the Colorado River over the past six million years, the canyon sports vertical drops of 5,000 feet and spans a 445-kilometer-long stretch of Arizona desert. The strata along the steep walls of the canyon form a record of geologic time from the Paleozoic Era (250 million years ago) to the Precambrian (1.7 billion years ago).The above view was acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument aboard the Terra spacecraft. Visible and near infrared data were combined to form an image that simulates the natural colors of water and vegetation. Rock colors, however, are not accurate. The image data were combined with elevation data to produce this perspective view, with no vertical exaggeration, looking from above the South Rim up Bright Angel Canyon towards the North Rim. The light lines on the plateau at lower right are the roads around the Canyon View Information Plaza. The Bright Angel Trail, which reaches the Colorado in 11.3 kilometers, can be seen dropping into the canyon over Plateau Point at bottom center. The blue and black areas on the North Rim indicate a forest fire that was smoldering as the data were acquired on May 12, 2000.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as

  6. Study of land surface temperature and spectral emissivity using multi-sensor satellite data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P K Srivastava; T J Majumdar; Amit K Bhattacharya

    2010-02-01

    In this study, an attempt has been made to estimate land surface temperatures (LST) and spectral emissivities over a hard rock terrain using multi-sensor satellite data. The study area, of about 6000 km2, is a part of Singhbhum–Orissa craton situated in the eastern part of India. TIR data from ASTER, MODIS and Landsat ETM+ have been used in the present study. Telatemp Model AG-42D Portable Infrared Thermometer was used for ground measurements to validate the results derived from satellite (MODIS/ASTER) data. LSTs derived using Landsat ETM+ data of two different dates have been compared with the satellite data (ASTER and MODIS) of those two dates. Various techniques, viz., temperature and emissivity separation (TES) algorithm, gray body adjustment approach in TES algorithm, Split-Window algorithms and Single Channel algorithm along with NDVI based emissivity approach have been used. LSTs derived from bands 31 and 32 of MODIS data using Split-Window algorithms with higher viewing angle (50°) (LST1 and LST2) are found to have closer agreement with ground temperature measurements (ground LST) over waterbody, Dalma forest and Simlipal forest, than that derived from ASTER data (TES with AST 13). However, over agriculture land, there is some uncertainty and difference between the measured and the estimated LSTs for both validation dates for all the derived LSTs. LST obtained using Single Channel algorithm with NDVI based emissivity method in channel 13 of ASTER data has yielded closer agreement with ground measurements recorded over vegetation and mixed lands of low spectral contrast. LST results obtained with TIR band 6 of Landsat ETM+ using Single Channel algorithm show close agreement over Dalma forest, Simlipal forest and waterbody with LSTs obtained using MODIS and ASTER data for a different date. Comparison of LSTs shows good agreement with ground measurements in thermally homogeneous area. However, results in agriculture area with less homogeneity show

  7. Soufriere Hills Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    In this ASTER image of Soufriere Hills Volcano on Montserrat in the Caribbean, continued eruptive activity is evident by the extensive smoke and ash plume streaming towards the west-southwest. Significant eruptive activity began in 1995, forcing the authorities to evacuate more than 7,000 of the island's original population of 11,000. The primary risk now is to the northern part of the island and to the airport. Small rockfalls and pyroclastic flows (ash, rock and hot gases) are common at this time due to continued growth of the dome at the volcano's summit.This image was acquired on October 29, 2002 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA

  8. Manaus, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The junctions of the Amazon and the Rio Negro Rivers at Manaus, Brazil. The Rio Negro flows 2300 km from Columbia, and is the dark current forming the north side of the river. It gets its color from the high tannin content in the water. The Amazon is sediment laden, appearing brown in this simulated natural color image. Manaus is the capital of Amazonas state, and has a population in excess of one million. The ASTER image covers an area of 60 x 45 km. This image was acquired on July 16, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface

  9. Oahu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This 60 by 55 km ASTER scene shows almost the entire island of Oahu, Hawaii on June 3, 2000. The data were processed to produce a simulated natural color presentation. Oahu is the commercial center of Hawaii and is important to United States defense in the Pacific. Pearl Harbor naval base is situated here. The chief agricultural industries are the growing and processing of pineapples and sugarcane. Tourism also is important to the economy. Among the many popular beaches is the renowned Waikiki Beach, backed by the famous Diamond Head, an extinct volcano. The largest community, Honolulu, is the state capital.The image is located at 21.5 degrees north latitude and 158 degrees west longitude. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud morphology and physical properties, wetlands Evaluation

  10. Meiotic analysis of the germoplasm of three medicinal species from Asteraceae family Análise meiótica do germoplasma de três espécies medicinais da família Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Olkoski

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic characterization was carried out on 12 accessions from Aster squamatus (Spreng. Hieron., Pterocaulon polystachyum DC, and Solidago microglossa DC by studying their meiotic behavior and pollen viability. These species are from the Asteraceae family, native to Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, and are important for medicinal use. Young inflorescences with four accessions of each species were collected, fixed in ethanol-acetic acid (3:1, and conserved in ethanol 70% until use. The method used was that of squashing the anthers and coloring with acetic orcein 2%. Meiosis was regular in all accessions, presenting chromosomal associations preferentially bivalent, where n=10 was found for Aster squamatus and n=9 for Pterocaulon polystachyum, and Solidago microglossa. The studied accessions presented a Meiotic Index (MI that varied from 65% to 87% in Aster squamatus, 85% to 92% in Pterocaulon polystachyum, and 64% to 92% in Solidago microglossa, indicating meiotic stability, although irregularities appeared during the cellular division. The pollen viability estimative was high in all studied accessions. These results indicate that the studied species can be included in future studies of genetic breeding.Foi realizada a caracterização citogenética de doze acessos de Aster squamatus, Pterocaulon polystachyum e Solidago microglossa, espécies da família Asteraceae, nativas do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, por meio do estudo do comportamento meiótico e da viabilidade polínica, que possuem grande importância para uso medicinal. Inflorescências jovens de quatro acessos de cada espécie foram fixadas em álcool-ácido acético (3:1 e conservadas em álcool 70% até o uso. O método utilizado foi o de esmagamento de anteras e a coloração com orceína acética 2%. A meiose foi regular em todos os acessos, apresentando associações cromossômicas preferencialmente em bivalentes, encontrando-se n=10 para Aster squamatus e n=9 para Pterocaulon

  11. Effect of DEM resolution on SWAT outputs of runoff, sediment and nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Digital Elevation Models (DEMs have been successfully used in a large range of environmental issues. Several methods such as digital contour interpolation and remote sensing have allowed the generation of DEMs, some of which are now freely available for almost the entire globe. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT is a widely used semi-distributed model operating at the watershed level and has previously been shown to be very sensitive to the quality of the input topographic information. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of DEMs generated from different data sources, respectively DLG5m (local Digital Line Graph, 5 m interval, ASTER30m (1 arc-s ASTER Global DEM Version 1, approximately 30 m resolution, and SRTM90m (3 arc-s SRTM Version 4, approximately 90 m resolution, on SWAT predictions for runoff, sediment, total phosphor (TP and total nitrogen (TN. Eleven resolutions, from 5 m to 140 m, were considered in this study. Results indicate that the predictions of TPs and TNs decreased substantially with coarser resampled resolution. Slightly decreased trends could be found in the predicted sediments when DEMs were resampled to coarser resolutions. Predicted runoffs were not sensitive to resampled resolutions. The predicted outputs based on DLG5m were more sensitive to resampled resolutions than those based on ASTER30m and SRTM90m. At original resolutions, the predicted outputs based on ASTER30m and SRTM90m were similar, but the predicted TNs and TPs based on ASTER30m and SRTM90m were much lower than the one based on DLG5m. For the predicted TNs and TPs, which were substantially sensitive to DEM resolutions, the output accuracies of SWAT derived from ASTER30m and SRTM90m could be improved by down-scaled resampling, but they could not improve on finer DEM (DLG5m at the same resolution. This study helps GIS environmental model users to understand the sensitivities of SWAT to DEM resolution, and choose feasible DEM data for

  12. Data Access, Discovery and Interoperability in the European Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Francoise

    2015-12-01

    European Virtual Observatory (VO) activities have been coordinated by a series of projects funded by the European Commission. Three pillar were identified: support to the data providers for implementation of their data in the VO framework; support to the astronomical community for their usage of VO-enabled data and tools; technological work for updating the VO framework of interoperability standards and tools. A new phase is beginning with the ASTERICS cluster project. ASTERICS Work Package "Data Access, Discovery and Interoperability" aims at making the data from the ESFRI projects and their pathfinders available for discovery and usage, interoperable in the VO framework and accessible with VO-enabled common tools. VO teams and representatives of ESFRI and pathfinder projects and of EGO/VIRGO are engaged together in the Work Package. ESO is associated to the project which is also working closely with ESA. The three pillars identified for coordinating Europaen VO activities are tackled.

  13. The difference between laboratory and in-situ pixel-averaged emissivity: The effects on temperature-emissivity separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Tsuneo

    1993-01-01

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is a Japanese future imaging sensor which has five channels in thermal infrared (TIR) region. To extract spectral emissivity information from ASTER and/or TIMS data, various temperature-emissivity (T-E) separation methods have been developed to date. Most of them require assumptions on surface emissivity, in which emissivity measured in a laboratory is often used instead of in-situ pixel-averaged emissivity. But if these two emissivities are different, accuracies of separated emissivity and surface temperature are reduced. In this study, the difference between laboratory and in-situ pixel-averaged emissivity and its effect on T-E separation are discussed. TIMS data of an area containing both rocks and vegetation were also processed to retrieve emissivity spectra using two T-E separation methods.

  14. JPL Mission Bibliometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppin, Ann

    2013-01-01

    For a number of years ongoing bibliographies of various JPL missions (AIRS, ASTER, Cassini, GRACE, Earth Science, Mars Exploration Rovers (Spirit & Opportunity)) have been compiled by the JPL Library. Mission specific bibliographies are compiled by the Library and sent to mission scientists and managers in the form of regular (usually quarterly) updates. Charts showing publications by years are periodically provided to the ASTER, Cassini, and GRACE missions for supporting Senior Review/ongoing funding requests, and upon other occasions as a measure of the impact of the missions. Basically the Web of Science, Compendex, sometimes Inspec, GeoRef and Aerospace databases are searched for the mission name in the title, abstract, and assigned keywords. All get coded for journal publications that are refereed publications.

  15. Pembuatan Digital Elevation Model Resolusi 10m dari Peta RBI dan Survei GPS dengan Algoritma Anudem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indarto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes the generation of Digital Elevation Model (DEM with spatial resolution of 10m x 10m by re-interpolation of elevation data. Data input for this study includes: (1 digitized datum coordinate from RBI map, (2 sample points surveyed by GPS, (3 digitized contour data fromSRTM DEM and ASTER GDEM2, and (4 digitized stream-network layer from RBI. All collected data were converted to mass point coordinats. On the top of Topogrid-ArcGIS, all points data were interpolated to produce DEM. After that the produced DEM were compared and evaluated to the SRTM and ASTER DEMvisually. The result shows that produced DEM are more accurate to represent the detailed topography of the study areas.

  16. Soil emissivity and reflectance spectra measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrino, José A; Mattar, Cristian; Pardo, Pablo; Jiménez-Muñoz, Juan C; Hook, Simon J; Baldridge, Alice; Ibañez, Rafael

    2009-07-01

    We present an analysis of the laboratory reflectance and emissivity spectra of 11 soil samples collected on different field campaigns carried out over a diverse suite of test sites in Europe, North Africa, and South America from 2002 to 2008. Hemispherical reflectance spectra were measured from 2.0 to 14 microm with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, and x-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) was used to determine the mineralogical phases of the soil samples. Emissivity spectra were obtained from the hemispherical reflectance measurements using Kirchhoff's law and compared with in situ radiance measurements obtained with a CIMEL Electronique CE312-2 thermal radiometer and converted to emissivity using the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) temperature and emissivity separation algorithm. The CIMEL has five narrow bands at approximately the same positions as the ASTER. Results show a root mean square error typically below 0.015 between laboratory emissivity measurements and emissivity measurements derived from the field radiometer.

  17. Observation and simulation of net primary productivity in Qilian Mountain, western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y; Zhu, Q; Chen, J M; Wang, Y Q; Liu, J; Sun, R; Tang, S

    2007-11-01

    We modeled net primary productivity (NPP) at high spatial resolution using an advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER) image of a Qilian Mountain study area using the boreal ecosystem productivity simulator (BEPS). Two key driving variables of the model, leaf area index (LAI) and land cover type, were derived from ASTER and moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. Other spatially explicit inputs included daily meteorological data (radiation, precipitation, temperature, humidity), available soil water holding capacity (AWC), and forest biomass. NPP was estimated for coniferous forests and other land cover types in the study area. The result showed that NPP of coniferous forests in the study area was about 4.4 tCha(-1)y(-1). The correlation coefficient between the modeled NPP and ground measurements was 0.84, with a mean relative error of about 13.9%.

  18. Aerial Magnetic, Electromagnetic, and Gamma-ray Survey, Berrien County, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Joseph S.; Pierce, Herbert A.; Daniels, David L.; Mars, John L.; Webring, Michael W.; Hildenbrand, Thomas G.

    2002-01-01

    This publication includes maps, grids, and flightline databases of a detailed aerial survey and maps and grids of satellite data in Berrien County, Michigan. The purpose of the survey was to map aquifers in glacial terrains. This was accomplished by using a DIGHEMVRES mufti-coil, mufti-frequency electromagnetic system supplemented by a high sensitivity cesium magnetometer and 256-channel spectrometer. The information from these sensors was processed to produce maps, which display the conductive, magnetic and radioactive properties of the survey area. A GPS electronic navigation system ensured accurate positioning of the geophysical data. This report also includes data from the advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection (ASTER) radiometer. ASTER measures thermal emission and reflection data for 14 bands of the spectrum.

  19. Mount Vesuvius, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image of Mt. Vesuvius, Italy was acquired September 26, 2000. The full-size false-color image covers an area of 36 by 45 km. Vesuvius overlooks the city of Naples and the Bay of Naples in central Italy. (Popocatepetl and Mount Fuji are other volcanos surrounded by dense urban areas.) In 79 AD, Vesuvius erupted cataclysmically, burying all of the surrounding cites with up to 30 m of ash. The towns of Pompeii and Herculanaeum were rediscovered in the 18th century, and excavated in the 20th century. They provide a snapshot of Roman life from 2000 years ago: perfectly preserved are wooden objects, food items, and the casts of hundreds of victims. Vesuvius is intensively monitored for potential signs of unrest that could signal the beginning of another eruption. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  20. Determination for regional differences of agriculture using satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, G.

    2006-12-01

    Remote Sensing Laboratory, Field Science Center, Graduate School of Agriculture Science, Tohoku University starts at April 2004. For studies and education at the laboratory we are now developing the system of remote sensing and GIS. Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center (ERSDAC) made the Home Pages of Terra/ASTER Image Web Library 3 "The Major Airport of the World." http://www.Ersdac.or.jp/ASTERimage3/library_E.html. First, we check the Airport Data to use agricultural understanding for the world. Almost major airport is located in rural area and surrounded with agriculture field. To survey the agriculture field adjacent to the major airport has almost the same condition of human activities. The images are same size and display about 18km X 14km. We can easily understand field size and surrounding conditions. We study seven airports as follows, 1. Tokyo Narita Airport (NRT), Japan, 2. Taipei Chiang kai Shek International Airport (TPE), Taiwan, 3. Bangkok International Airport (BKK), Thailand, 4. Riyadh King Khalid International Airport (RUH), Saudi Arabia, 5. Charles de Gaulle Airport (CDG), Paris, France, 6. Vienna International Airport (VIE), Austria, 7. Denver International Airport (DEN), CO, USA. At the area of Tokyo Narita Airport, there are many golf courses, big urban area and small size of agricultural fields. At Taipei Airport area are almost same as Tokyo Narita Airport area and there are many ponds for irrigations. Bangkok Airport area also has golf courses and many ponds for irrigation water. Riyadh Airport area is quite different from others, and there are large bare soils and small agriculture fields with irrigation and circle shape. Paris Airport area and Vienna Airport area are almost agricultural fields and there are vegetated field and bare soil fields because of crop rotation. Denver Airport area consists of almost agriculture fields and each field size is very large. The advantages of ASTER data are as follows, 1. High-resolution and large

  1. Effects of Tracked Vehicle Activity on Terrestrial Mammals, Birds, and Vegetation at Fort Knox, KY

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-07-01

    stem (A. scoparious), and danthonia ( Danthonia spicata). Collectively, these grasses were more important than the lespedeza or the camphor. Other...species in this cleared site. Several grasses were well established, including panic grass ( Panicum spp.), Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratense), and foxtail...of soils is abandoned, perennial herbs become established, in- cluding asters, goldenrods, poverty grass , and dozens of associated spe- cies. If soil

  2. Role of NuSAP in Prostate Tumor Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    of NuSAP in promoting proliferation and invasion in Prostate Cancer and identify genes that upregulate NuSAP expression. Nucleolar and spindle ...extensive bundling and stabilization of spindle microtubules against depolymerization and cross-link large numbers of microtubules into aster-like...mitotic stage observed in cells where NuSAP was knocked down compared to over expressed cells which were found similar to control. Error bars: SD

  3. Potential of thermal emissivity for mapping of greenstone rocks and associated granitoids of Hutti Maski Schist belt, Karnataka

    OpenAIRE

    Guha, A.; K.Vinod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, different temperature-emissivity separation algorithms were used to derive emissivity images based on processing of ASTER( Advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer) thermal bands. These emissivity images have been compared with each other in terms of geological information for mapping of major rock types in Hutti Maski schist Belt and its associated granitoids. Thermal emissivity images are analyzed conjugately with thermal radiance image, ...

  4. 2008 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Protein-protein interaction analysis by C-terminally specific fluorescence labeling and fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy . Nucleic Acids...metabolic complexes in bacteria that are capable of efficient metabolic conversions via fermentation of renewable resources. We have chosen as a...steric bulk. These protein-based switches will be useful for direct monitoring of intracellular 1,2-PD titers in living cells and are expected to open

  5. Ghana Watershed Prototype Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2007-01-01

    Introduction/Background A number of satellite data sets are available through the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for monitoring land surface features. Representative data sets include Landsat, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The Ghana Watershed Prototype Products cover an area within southern Ghana, Africa, and include examples of the aforementioned data sets along with sample SRTM derivative data sets.

  6. The Effect of Designated Pollutants on Plant Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Tobacco Nicotiana tobacum L. Bell W-3 10 Zinnia Zinnia elegans Jacq. Cherry Gem 3 MODERATELY [50-100% injury at 50 mg m- 3 ] TOLERANT Aster...Ace 8 TOLERANT (50-100% injury at 75 mg m- 3 ] Avocado Persea americana Mill. Hass; Bacon 60 Coreopsis Coreopsis grandiflora Nutt. Sunburst 3 Salvia ... Salvia splendens Ker-Gawl Patens 3 Wallflower Cheirianthus allioni L. Golden bedder 4 Barley 2 Hordeum vulgare L. CM 67 4 VERY TOLERANT [50-100

  7. Scientific Visualization of Landscapes and Landforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    ically changed the level of detail captured in digital elevation models (DEMs,) including public statewide data at 3 m–10 m resolutions (Gesch et al., 2009...resolutions in the case of LiDAR data or the vastly expanded, almost global coverage of the SRTM-based elevation models and the ASTER Global Digital Elevation...active tectonic fault maps and earthquake hypocenters and creates a graphical output that can be visualized in Google Earth on desktop computers or in

  8. The contribution of vegetation cover and bare soil to pixel reflectance in an arid ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, C. M.; Smith, A.; Campanella, A.; Rango, A.

    2008-12-01

    The heterogeneity of vegetation and soils in arid and semi-arid environments complicates the analysis of medium spatial resolution remotely sensed imagery. A single pixel may contain several different types of vegetation, as well as a sizeable proportion of bare soil. We have used linear mixture modeling to explore the contribution of vegetation cover and bare soil to pixel reflectance. In October, 2006, aerial imagery (0.25 m spatial resolution) was acquired for our study sites in the Jornada Experimental Range, southern New Mexico. Imagery was also acquired from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) for June and November, 2006. These data corresponded with pre- and post monsoon conditions. Object-based feature extraction was used to classify the aerial imagery to shrub, grass and bare ground cover classes. Percent cover was then calculated for each cover class. Visible-near-infrared and shortwave infrared ASTER reflectance data from both dates were combined into a single 18-band dataset (30 m spatial resolution). A vector overlay from the classification results of the aerial imagery was used to define pure endmember pixels in the ASTER imagery. Estimates of the proportions of shrub, grass and bare ground cover from the linear mixture modeling approach were compared with cover calculated using feature extraction from the aerial imagery. The results indicate that reflectance in ASTER pixels is likely to be a linear combination of the cover proportions of the three main cover types (shrubs, grass, bare ground). However, noticeable outliers in the relationship between cover calculated from each method, indicate there may be other variables that affect the accuracy with which we can estimate cover using linear mixture modeling.

  9. Pathogenicity of eight formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. in relation to different plants species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Wagner

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Eight formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum were isolated from plants of aster, flax, bean, pea, tomato, carnation, yellow lupine and pine, showing visible symptoms of wilting. Plants of the eight species were inoculated with each of the studied formae speciales of F. oxysporum, F. oxysporum f. sp. lupini could be reisolated only from lupine, while the others were pathogenic for the hosts and showed ability to colonize another plants.

  10. Environmental Impact Study of the Northern Section of the Upper Mississippi River, Upper and Lower St. Anthony Falls Pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-11-01

    Icress Rorippa obtusa Obtuse yellow cress Unidentified sp. P I CUCURBITACEAE Sicyos angulatus Bur-cucumber1 CYPERACEAE Carex aenca Sedge Carex annectens...Bitter- White oak Little bluestem Reed-canary- Sedges flackbcrry nut White pine Nodding grama grass Milkweed Green ash hickory Sugar maple Northern Rice...Aster Cottonwood Hackbcrry Paper birch dropseed cutgrass Blue-joint Silver maple Ironwood Ironwood Hairy grama River sedge grass Slippery Bur oak Red

  11. Yolla Bolly Complex Wildland Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Yolla Bolly Complex Wildland Fire was started on June 21 by a lightning strike. As of July 11, it had burned 8,000 acres and was 65% contained. This is one of the numerous lightning-triggered blazes burning in northern California this summer. This false-color image was made from visible and infrared data collected by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite on July 6. The image centers on the largest of the fires. The burned area is charcoal-colored, while surrounding forest and other vegetation is red. Smoke is light blue-gray. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Size: 22.5 by 33.2 kilometers (14 by 20.6 miles) Location: 40.1 degrees North latitude, 122.9 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 3, 2, and 1 Original Data Resolution: 15 meters (49 feet) Dates Acquired: July 6, 2008

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DMEL-01-0061 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DMEL-01-0061 ref|NP_476702.1| rickets CG8930-PA, isoform A [Drosophila melanog...aster] ref|NP_599102.1| rickets CG8930-PB, isoform B [Drosophila melanogaster] ref|NP_599103.1| rickets CG89...30-PC, isoform C [Drosophila melanogaster] ref|NP_599104.1| rickets CG8930-PD, isoform D [Drosophila melanog

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DSIM-01-0057 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DSIM-01-0057 ref|NP_476702.1| rickets CG8930-PA, isoform A [Drosophila melanog...aster] ref|NP_599102.1| rickets CG8930-PB, isoform B [Drosophila melanogaster] ref|NP_599103.1| rickets CG89...30-PC, isoform C [Drosophila melanogaster] ref|NP_599104.1| rickets CG8930-PD, isoform D [Drosophila melanog

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DYAK-01-0060 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DYAK-01-0060 ref|NP_476702.1| rickets CG8930-PA, isoform A [Drosophila melanog...aster] ref|NP_599102.1| rickets CG8930-PB, isoform B [Drosophila melanogaster] ref|NP_599103.1| rickets CG89...30-PC, isoform C [Drosophila melanogaster] ref|NP_599104.1| rickets CG8930-PD, isoform D [Drosophila melanog

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-AGAM-04-0014 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-AGAM-04-0014 ref|NP_476702.1| rickets CG8930-PA, isoform A [Drosophila melanog...aster] ref|NP_599102.1| rickets CG8930-PB, isoform B [Drosophila melanogaster] ref|NP_599103.1| rickets CG89...30-PC, isoform C [Drosophila melanogaster] ref|NP_599104.1| rickets CG8930-PD, isoform D [Drosophila melanog

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DSIM-01-0056 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DSIM-01-0056 ref|NP_476702.1| rickets CG8930-PA, isoform A [Drosophila melanog...aster] ref|NP_599102.1| rickets CG8930-PB, isoform B [Drosophila melanogaster] ref|NP_599103.1| rickets CG89...30-PC, isoform C [Drosophila melanogaster] ref|NP_599104.1| rickets CG8930-PD, isoform D [Drosophila melanog

  17. Understanding the Soviet Threat: The Necessity of Analyzing Soviet Military Thought and Actions from a Soviet Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    the system for personal failures, suspiciousness, and so on, are symptoms of schizoid disorders and criteria which we associate with a loser. From... PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Tittle, Matthew D. 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 113b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT (Year, Month, Day) IS. PAGE COUNT ..aster’s Thesis F ROM...positive connotation and sense of respect because leadership is often considered an intrinsic element of one’s personality , not a quality which ,AJn be

  18. THE APPLICATION OF REMOTE SENSING AND AERO-GEOPHYSICS DATA FUSION ON METALLOGENIC PROGNOSIS IN QIMANTAGE OF EAST KUNLUN MONTAIN AREA

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Based on west of Qimantage of East Kunlun mountain area, takes advantage of ASTER data, according to the altered mineral spectral characteristics, remote sensing alteration information is extracted. Incorporation the anomaly extraction results with high-precision aero geophysical data processing results, a multiple resource information fusion model is proposed. The fusion model of two totally different type of data which is a special attention in geospatial academia now, which can im...

  19. Estimation of flash flood using surface water model and GIS technique in Wadi El Azariq, East Sinai, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Osta, Maged M.; Sabri, Mohamed Sh.; Masoud, Milad H.

    2016-01-01

    The study of flash flood hazard phenomenon and runoff potentialities are the major task of a hydrologists especially in arid and semi-arid regions. This paper presents a new approach to modeling flash floods in dryland catchments by the integration between physiographic features of the study basin, Geographic Information System (GIS) and Watershed Modelling System (WMS). Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data was used to prepare a digit...

  20. Progress in Understanding the Impacts of 3-D Cloud Structure on MODIS Cloud Property Retrievals for Marine Boundary Layer Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhibo; Werner, Frank; Miller, Daniel; Platnick, Steven; Ackerman, Andrew; DiGirolamo, Larry; Meyer, Kerry; Marshak, Alexander; Wind, Galina; Zhao, Guangyu

    2016-01-01

    Theory: A novel framework based on 2-D Tayler expansion for quantifying the uncertainty in MODIS retrievals caused by sub-pixel reflectance inhomogeneity. (Zhang et al. 2016). How cloud vertical structure influences MODIS LWP retrievals. (Miller et al. 2016). Observation: Analysis of failed MODIS cloud property retrievals. (Cho et al. 2015). Cloud property retrievals from 15m resolution ASTER observations. (Werner et al. 2016). Modeling: LES-Satellite observation simulator (Zhang et al. 2012, Miller et al. 2016).

  1. Proceedings of the Antiproton Technology Workshop Held in Upton, New York on 10 May 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    Edwards Air Force Base, California 93523-5000 mm~mmmmmmmml mmIl.• ml l iJ m NOTICE When U.S. Government drawings, specifications, or other data are...before at these meetings, ASTER, named after the wildflower . Since I am limited to about ten minutes, I will keep my talk simple. Here is the outline...CALLAS JET PROPULSION LABORATORY CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY PASADENA, CA PRESENTED AT THE ANTIPROTON TECHNOLOGY WORKSHOP HELD AT BROOKHAVEN

  2. The use of BMWP and ASPT indices for evaluation of water quality according to macroinvertebrates in Değirmendere Stream (Isparta, Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Zeybek, Melek; Hasan KALYONCU; KARAKAŞ, Büşra; ÖZGÜL, Seda

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out between March 2011 and February 2012 on Değirmendere Stream in order to determine the water quality of the stream, and to investigate the environmental quality and the applicability of both the Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP; Original, Spanish, Hungarian, Czech, and Polish versions) and Average Score Per Taxon (ASPT; Original, Hungarian, and Czech versions) indices. The biotic and diversity indices were applied using the ASTERICS software program. As a re...

  3. AcEST: DK955456 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available aster GN=sls PE... 31 4.2 sp|Q8R368|DYXC1_MOUSE Dyslexia susceptibility 1 candida... >sp|Q8R368|DYXC1_MOUSE Dyslexia susceptibility 1 candidate gene 1 protein homolog OS=Mus musculus GN=Dyx1c1...KPRLQP 164 F E +M +S R ++LE+QR Q + W+ + +P+LQP Sbjct: 5137 FITTEDVNIMHVSER-EKLEAQRLIREQQAVNWRQQQQRPQLQP 5179

  4. Numerical analysis of temperature field during hardfacing process and comparison with experimental results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić Vukić N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional transient nonlinear thermal analysis of the hard facing process is performed by using the finite element method. The simulations were executed on the open source Salome platform using the open source finite element solver Code_Aster. The Gaussian double ellipsoid was selected in order to enable greater possibilities for the calculation of the moving heat source. The numerical results were compared with available experimental results.

  5. What's in an elevation difference? Accuracy and corrections of satellite elevation data sets for quantification of glacier changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Nuth

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing number of DEMs available worldwide for deriving elevation differences over time, including vertical changes on glaciers. Most of these DEMs are heavily post-processed or merged, so that physical error modelling becomes impossible and statistical error modelling is required instead. We propose a three-step methodological framework for assessing and correcting DEMs to quantify glacier elevation changes: remove DEM shifts, check for elevation-dependent biases, and check for higher-order, sensor-specific biases. An analytic, simple and robust method to co-register elevation data is presented in regions where stable terrain is either plentiful (case study New Zealand or limited (case study Svalbard. The method is exemplified using the three global elevation data sets available, SRTM, ICESat and the ASTER GDEM, and with automatically generated DEMs from satellite stereo instruments of ASTER and SPOT5-HRS. After three-dimensional co-registration, significant biases related to elevation were found in some of the stereoscopic DEMs. Biases related to the satellite acquisition geometry (along/cross track were detected at two frequencies in the automatically generated ASTER DEMs. The higher frequency bias seems to be related to satellite emph{jitter}, most effective in the back-looking pass of the satellite. The origins of the more significant lower frequency bias is uncertain. ICESat-derived elevations are found to be the most consistent globally available elevation data set available so far. Before performing regional-scale glacier elevation change studies or mosaicking DEMs from multiple individual tiles (e.g. ASTER GDEM, we recommend to co-register all elevation data to ICESat as a global vertical reference system. The proposed methodological framework is exemplified for elevation changes on the Fox, Franz Joseph, Tasman and Murchison glaciers of New Zealand and the glaciers of central Spitsbergen, Svalbard.

  6. Remote sensing of phytoplankton functional types in the coastal ocean from the HyspIRI Preparatory Flight Campaign

    OpenAIRE

    Palacios, SL; Kudela, RM; Guild, LS; Negrey, KH; Torres-Perez, J; Broughton, J

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Inc. The 2013-2015 Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) Preparatory Flight Campaign, using the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and MODIS/ASTER Airborne Simulator (MASTER), seeks to demonstrate appropriate sensor signal, spatial and spectral resolution, and orbital pass geometry for a global mission to reveal ecological and climatic gradients expressed in the selected California, USA study area. One of the awarded projects focused on the flight transe...

  7. Evaluating digital elevation models for glaciologic applications: An example from Nevado Coropuna, Peruvian Andes

    OpenAIRE

    A. E. Racoviteanu; Manley, W.F; Arnaud, Yves; Williams, M.W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluates the suitability of readily available elevation data derived from recent sensors - the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) - for glaciological applications. The study area is Nevado Coropuna (6426 m), situated in Cordillera Ampato of Southern Peru. The glaciated area was 82.6 km(2) in 1962, based on aerial photography. We estimate the glacier area to be ca. 60.8 km(2) in 2000, based on analy...

  8. Asymmetry features for classification of thermograms in breast cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Robert M.; Okuniewski, Rafał; Oleszkiewicz, Witold; Cichosz, Paweł; Jagodziński, Dariusz; Matysiewicz, Mateusz; Neumann, Łukasz

    2016-09-01

    The computer system for an automatic interpretation of thermographic pictures created by the Br-aster devices uses image processing and machine learning algorithms. The huge set of attributes analyzed by this software includes the asymmetry measurements between corresponding images, and these features are analyzed in presented paper. The system was tested on real data and achieves accuracy comparable to other popular techniques used for breast tumour detection.

  9. El Misti Volcano and the City of Arequipa, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This three-dimensional perspective view was created from an Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Digital Elevation Model combined with a simulated natural color ASTER image, acquired July 13, 2001. It shows El Misti volcano towering 5822 meters high above the second city of Peru, Arequipa, with a population of more than one million. Geologic studies indicate that El Misti has had five minor eruptions this century, and a major eruption in the 15th century when residents were forced to flee the city. Despite the obvious hazard, civil defense authorities see it as a remote danger, and city planners are not avoiding development on the volcano side of the city. This view shows human development extending up the flanks of the volcano along gullies which would form natural channels for flows of lava, superheated ash and gas, or melted ice, snow, and mud from the summit snowfield in the event of an eruption. Image by Mike Abrams, NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  10. Sensitivity of digital elevation models:The scenario from two tropical mountain river basins of the Western Ghats, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jobin Thomas; Sabu Joseph; K.P. Thrivikramji; K.S. Arunkumar

    2014-01-01

    The paper evaluates sensitivity of various spaceborne digital elevation models (DEMs), viz., Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Shuttle Radar Topography Mapping Mission (SRTM) and Global Multi-resolution Terrain Elevation Data 2010 (GMTED), in comparison with the DEM (TOPO) derived from contour data of 20 m interval of Survey of India topographic sheets of 1:50,000 scale. Several topographic attributes, such as elevation (above mean sea level), relative relief, slope, aspect, curvature, slope-length and -steepness (LS) factor, terrain ruggedness index (TRI), topo-graphic wetness index (TWI), hypsometric integral (Ihyp) and drainage network attributes (stream number and stream length) of two tropical mountain river basins, viz., Muthirapuzha River Basin and Pambar River Basin are compared to evaluate the variations. Though the basins are comparable in extent, they differ in respect of terrain characteristics and climate. The results suggest that ASTER and SRTM provide equally reliable representation of topography portrayed by TOPO and the topographic attributes extracted from the spaceborne DEMs are in agreement with those derived from TOPO. Despite the coarser resolution, SRTM shows relatively higher vertical accuracy (RMSE ¼ 23 and 20 m respectively in MRB and PRB) compared to ASTER (RMSE ¼ 33 and 24 m) and GMTED (RMSE ¼ 59 and 48 m). Vertical accuracy of all the spaceborne DEMs is influenced by relief of the terrain as well as type of vegetation. Further, GMTED shows significant deviation for most of the attributes, indicating its inability for mountain-river-basin-scale studies.

  11. Spatial Analysis of Environmental Factors Related to Lyme Disease in Alabama by Means of NASA Earth Observation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renneboog, Nathan; Capilouto, Emily G.; Firsing, Stephen L., III; Levy, Kyle; McAllister, Marilyn; Roa, Kathryn; Setia,Shveta; Xie, Lili; Burnett, Donna; Luvall, Jeffrey C.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the epidemiology of Lyme Disease that accounts for more than 95% or vector borne diseases in the United States. The history, symptoms and the life cycle of the tick, the transmitting agent of Lyme Disease, a map that shows the cases reported to the CDC between1990 and 2006 and the number of cases in Alabama by year from 1986 to 2007. A NASA project is described, the goals of which are to (1) Demonstrate the presence of the chain of infection of Lyme disease in Alabama (2) Identify areas with environmental factors that support tick population using NASA Earth Observation Systems data in selected areas of Alabama and (3) Increase community awareness of Lyme disease and recommend primary and secondary prevention strategies. The remote sensing methods included: Analyzed Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and DigitalGlobe Quickbird satellite imagery from summer months and Performed image analyses in ER Mapper 7.1. Views from the ASTER and Quickbird land cover are shown, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) algorithm was applied to all ASTER and Quickbird imagery. The use of the images to obtain the level of soil moisture is reviewed, and this analysis was used along with the NDVI, was used to identify the areas that support the tick population.

  12. Decision Tree and Texture Analysis for Mapping Debris-Covered Glaciers in the Kangchenjunga Area, Eastern Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Racoviteanu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study we use visible, short-wave infrared and thermal Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER data validated with high-resolution Quickbird (QB and Worldview2 (WV2 for mapping debris cover in the eastern Himalaya using two independent approaches: (a a decision tree algorithm, and (b texture analysis. The decision tree algorithm was based on multi-spectral and topographic variables, such as band ratios, surface reflectance, kinetic temperature from ASTER bands 10 and 12, slope angle, and elevation. The decision tree algorithm resulted in 64 km2 classified as debris-covered ice, which represents 11% of the glacierized area. Overall, for ten glacier tongues in the Kangchenjunga area, there was an area difference of 16.2 km2 (25% between the ASTER and the QB areas, with mapping errors mainly due to clouds and shadows. Texture analysis techniques included co-occurrence measures, geostatistics and filtering in spatial/frequency domain. Debris cover had the highest variance of all terrain classes, highest entropy and lowest homogeneity compared to the other classes, for example a mean variance of 15.27 compared to 0 for clouds and 0.06 for clean ice. Results of the texture image for debris-covered areas were comparable with those from the decision tree algorithm, with 8% area difference between the two techniques.

  13. The class inclusion question: a case study in applying pragmatics to the experimental study of cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politzer, Guy

    2016-01-01

    For more than 70 years, Piaget's class-inclusion task (given, e.g., five asters and three tulips, the child is asked whether "there are more asters or more flowers") has been the object of experimental investigation. Inclusion is of considerable importance for cognitive science as it is a key concept for logical operations and knowledge representation. It is shown that the question can be characterised by a kind of privative ambiguity which is at the source of the younger children's answer, "more asters". A relevance-theoretic explanation of children's interpretation of the question and of the subsequent responses is expounded. This account can explain the effect of all the factors that are known to influence performance (e.g., role of collections, counting, typicality, qualification, syntax, etc.), a review of which is presented. It is further tested experimentally. The development of performance is explained on the basis of the way children disambiguate the question. This study exemplifies the two ways in which pragmatic analysis is pertinent to the study of children's (as well as adults') reasoning and judgement, namely in explaining and predicting participants' comprehension of the statements and questions, and in taking into account attribution processes that occur in the experimental setting.

  14. Optical satellite data volcano monitoring: a multi-sensor rapid response system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Kenneth A.; Ramsey, Michael; Wessels, Rick L.; Dehn, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter, the use of satellite remote sensing to monitor active geological processes is described. Specifically, threats posed by volcanic eruptions are briefly outlined, and essential monitoring requirements are discussed. As an application example, a collaborative, multi-agency operational volcano monitoring system in the north Pacific is highlighted with a focus on the 2007 eruption of Kliuchevskoi volcano, Russia. The data from this system have been used since 2004 to detect the onset of volcanic activity, support the emergency response to large eruptions, and assess the volcanic products produced following the eruption. The overall utility of such integrative assessments is also summarized. The work described in this chapter was originally funded through two National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth System Science research grants that focused on the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument. A skilled team of volcanologists, geologists, satellite tasking experts, satellite ground system experts, system engineers and software developers collaborated to accomplish the objectives. The first project, Automation of the ASTER Emergency Data Acquisition Protocol for Scientific Analysis, Disaster Monitoring, and Preparedness, established the original collaborative research and monitoring program between the University of Pittsburgh (UP), the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), the NASA Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center, and affiliates on the ASTER Science Team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) as well as associates at the Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center (ERSDAC) in Japan. This grant, completed in 2008, also allowed for detailed volcanic analyses and data validation during three separate summer field campaigns to Kamchatka Russia. The second project, Expansion and synergistic use

  15. Full Physical Optics Sky Coverage Simulation for MCAO Systems on ELT's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lianqi; Ellerbroek, Brent; Veran, Jean Pierre

    For multi-conjugate and multi-object AO (MCAO and MOAO) systems, the evaluation of sky coverage is challenging because asterisms of three or more natural guide stars (NGS's) must be considered. In this paper, we described a full rank, physical optics sky coverage simulation tool for modeling both the NGS and LGS AO control loops of MCAO systems on ELT's. Sufficient computational efficiency to enable practical Monte Carlo simulations over a large number of natural guide star asterisms can be obtained using the so-called “split tomography” control architecture, in which the higher-order wavefront correction computed from the LGS WFS measurements is not affected by the lower-order NGS control loop. We first compute and store time histories of 1) the atmospheric modes that are blind to LGS WFS and 2) natural guide star point spread functions for a full ensemble of many NGS over the course of a single high order AO simulation run. The behavior of the NGS loop may then be evaluated separately for each NGS asterism in a post-processing step to derive sky coverage statistics. This post-processing analysis also helps us find the best approach to WFS centroiding to maximize skycoverage.

  16. Taxol crystals can masquerade as stabilized microtubules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margit Foss

    Full Text Available Taxol is a potent anti-mitotic drug used in chemotherapy, angioplastic stents, and cell biology research. By binding and stabilizing microtubules, Taxol inhibits their dynamics, crucial for cell division, motility, and survival. The drug has also been reported to induce formation of asters and bundles composed of stabilized microtubules. Surprisingly, at commonly used concentrations, Taxol forms crystals that rapidly bind fluorescent tubulin subunits, generating structures with an uncanny resemblance to microtubule asters and bundles. Kinetic and topological considerations suggest that tubulin subunits, rather than microtubules, bind the crystals. This sequestration of tubulin from the subunit pool would be expected to shift the equilibrium of free to polymerized tubulin to disfavor assembly. Our results imply that some previously reported Taxol-induced asters or bundles could include or be composed of tubulin-decorated Taxol crystals. Thus, reevaluation of certain morphological, chemical, and physical properties of Taxol-treated microtubules may be necessary. Moreover, our findings suggest a novel mechanism for chemotherapy-induced cytotoxicity in non-dividing cells, with far-reaching medical implications.

  17. Remote sensing and GIS prospectivity mapping for magmatic-hydrothermal base- and precious-metal deposits in the Honghai district, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gongwen; Du, Wenhui; Carranza, Emmanuel John M.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we constructed an exploration target model for volcanogenic massive sulfide and hydrothermal deposits in Honghai district (China) using moderate resolution ETM+, ASTER, and hyperspectral Hyperion images and high resolution ZY-3 images, and weights-of-evidence (WofE) analysis and concentration-area (C-A) fractal modeling. The methodology and mapping steps were: (1) ETM + images were used to extract hydroxyl and iron-oxide alterations for identification of linear and ring fault structures and prospective zones in regional scale; (2) ASTER images were used to extract SiO2 index, kaolinite, chlorite, propylite, potassium, carbonate, and limonite alterations for identification of mineralization zones in district scale; (3) hyperspectral Hyperion images were analyzed to identify mineral components for identification of Cusbnd Au deposit zones in district scale; (4) high resolution ZY-3 images were used to extract geological objects (e.g., volcanic rocks, integration, and linear and ring fault structures) and cross-validate multiple type alterations and their associations with lithological strata based on interpretation of ETM+ and ASTER images; (5) alteration/structural factors and geological objects were integrated for mineral prospectivity mapping by WofE analysis, and mineral prospectivity was classified by (C-A) fractal modeling. Ring faults, iron-oxide alteration, chlorite alteration and silicification are important exploration factors, whereas carbonate alteration, potassic alteration, and linear faults are secondary exploration factors. Ten exploration targets were recognized in the Honghai district.

  18. Aurora A phosphorylates MCAK to control ran-dependent spindle bipolarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Ems-McClung, Stephanie C; Walczak, Claire E

    2008-07-01

    During mitosis, mitotic centromere-associated kinesin (MCAK) localizes to chromatin/kinetochores, a cytoplasmic pool, and spindle poles. Its localization and activity in the chromatin region are regulated by Aurora B kinase; however, how the cytoplasmic- and pole-localized MCAK are regulated is currently not clear. In this study, we used Xenopus egg extracts to form spindles in the absence of chromatin and centrosomes and found that MCAK localization and activity are tightly regulated by Aurora A. This regulation is important to focus microtubules at aster centers and to facilitate the transition from asters to bipolar spindles. In particular, we found that MCAK colocalized with NuMA and XMAP215 at the center of Ran asters where its activity is regulated by Aurora A-dependent phosphorylation of S196, which contributes to proper pole focusing. In addition, we found that MCAK localization at spindle poles was regulated through another Aurora A phosphorylation site (S719), which positively enhances bipolar spindle formation. This is the first study that clearly defines a role for MCAK at the spindle poles as well as identifies another key Aurora A substrate that contributes to spindle bipolarity.

  19. Isle of Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The Isle of Jersey (officially called the Bailiwick of Jersey) is the largest Channel Island, positioned in the Bay of Mont St Michel off the north-west coast of France. The island has a population of about 90,000, and covers about 90 square kilometers. The economy is based largely on international financial services, agriculture, and tourism. Called Caesaria in Roman times, Jersey became part of the Duchy of Normandy in 912. When William the Conqueror invaded and took the throne of England in 1066, the fortunes of Jersey then became linked to those in England, although the island manages its internal affairs through its own parliament, the States of Jersey. This image was acquired on September 23, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the

  20. Validation of the TES algorithm for emissivity determination using field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmugge, T.; Ogawa, K.; French, A.; Ritchie, J.; Rango, A.

    2009-04-01

    Knowledge of the surface emissivity is important for determining the radiation balance at the land surface. This is especially true for arid regions with sparse vegetation, where the emissivity of the exposed soils and rocks is highly variable. The multispectral thermal infrared data obtained from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER) radiometer on NASA's Terra satellite have been shown to be of good quality and provide a unique new tool for studying the emissivity of the land surface. ASTER has 5 channels in the 8 to 12 micrometer waveband with 90 m spatial resolution, when the data are combined with the Temperature Emissivity Separation (TES) algorithm the surface emissivity over this wavelength region can be determined along with surface temperature. To overcome the problem of having too many unknowns, i.e. 5 emissivities and the surface temperature, TES makes use of an empirical relation between the minimum emissivity and the range of values for the 5 ASTER channels. The TES algorithm was validated using measurements with a multispectral thermal infrared field radiometer (CIMEL 312) which has essentially the same 5 bands as ASTER. The measurements were made on several soils in the Jornada Experimental Range (JER) and the White Sands National Monument in southern New Mexico, USA. The JER is a long-term ecological reserve (LTER) site located at the northern end of the Chihuahuan desert. The site is typical of desert grassland where the main vegetation components are grass and shrubs. At the White Sands National Monument dunes of gypsum sand cover about 700 km2 (275 square miles). Since gypsum has a unique emissivity spectra with a pronounced minimum at the 8.6 micrometer wavelength it is a good target for satellite observations of emissivity. The observed emissivity spectra for these sites in New Mexico show good agreement ( <0.02) with values calculated from the laboratory spectra for the soil samples when the difference of physical

  1. Predicting eruptions from precursory activity using remote sensing data hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reath, K. A.; Ramsey, M. S.; Dehn, J.; Webley, P. W.

    2016-07-01

    Many volcanoes produce some level of precursory activity prior to an eruption. This activity may or may not be detected depending on the available monitoring technology. In certain cases, precursors such as thermal output can be interpreted to make forecasts about the time and magnitude of the impending eruption. Kamchatka (Russia) provides an ideal natural laboratory to study a wide variety of eruption styles and precursory activity prior to an eruption. At Bezymianny volcano for example, a clear increase in thermal activity commonly occurs before an eruption, which has allowed predictions to be made months ahead of time. Conversely, the eruption of Tolbachik volcano in 2012 produced no discernable thermal precursors before the large scale effusive eruption. However, most volcanoes fall between the extremes of consistently behaved and completely undetectable, which is the case with neighboring Kliuchevskoi volcano. This study tests the effectiveness of using thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing to track volcanic thermal precursors using data from both the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensors. It focuses on three large eruptions that produced different levels and durations of effusive and explosive behavior at Kliuchevskoi. Before each of these eruptions, TIR spaceborne sensors detected thermal anomalies (i.e., pixels with brightness temperatures > 2 °C above the background temperature). High-temporal, low-spatial resolution (i.e., ~ hours and 1 km) AVHRR data are ideal for detecting large thermal events occurring over shorter time scales, such as the hot material ejected following strombolian eruptions. In contrast, high-spatial, low-temporal resolution (i.e., days to weeks and 90 m) ASTER data enables the detection of much lower thermal activity; however, activity with a shorter duration will commonly be missed. ASTER and AVHRR data are combined to track low

  2. Willow Fire Near Payson, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    On July 3, 2004, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite acquired this image of the Willow fire near Payson, Arizona. The image is being used by the United States Department of Agriculture's Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Center (RSAC). The image combines data from the visible and infrared wavelength regions to highlight: the burned areas in dark red; the active fires in red-orange; vegetation in green; and smoke in blue. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The U.S. Science Team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long- term research effort dedicated to understanding the Earth as an integrated system and applying Earth System Science to improve prediction of climate, weather, and natural hazards using the unique vantage point of space. Size: 34 by 41

  3. Anti-Atlas Mountains, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Anti-Atlas Mountains of Morocco formed as a result of the collision of the African and Eurasian tectonic plates about 80 million years ago. This collision destroyed the Tethys Ocean; the limestone, sandstone, claystone, and gypsum layers that formed the ocean bed were folded and crumpled to create the Atlas and Anti-Atlas Mountains. In this ASTER image, short wavelength infrared bands are combined to dramatically highlight the different rock types, and illustrate the complex folding. The yellowish, orange and green areas are limestones, sandstones and gypsum; the dark blue and green areas are underlying granitic rocks. The ability to map geology using ASTER data is enhanced by the multiple short wavelength infrared bands, that are sensitive to differences in rock mineralogy. This image was acquired on June 13, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and

  4. Preliminary results on the comparison between satellite derived ground temperature and in-situ measurement of soil CO2 flux and soil temperature at Solfatara of Pozzuoli (Naples, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardellini, Carlo; Silvestri, Malvina; Chiodini, Giovanni; Fabrizia Buongiorno, Maria

    2014-05-01

    In this work we want to analyze the comparison between the ground temperature acquired with in-situ campaigns and the ground temperature obtained by processing remote sensing data with particular attention to ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) data. Moreover we have studied the possible correlation between the CO2 measurements and the ground temperature. Test site area has been the Solfatara volcano, situated to the west of Naples, Italy. The Solfatara crater has a persistent volcanic-hydrothermal activity as demonstrate by ground deformation, seismicity and variations of the chemical-physical characteristics of the fluids emitted from fumaroles. Solfatara crater is characterized by a large soil diffuse degassing structure (Solfatara DDS, abot 0.8 km2), from where a CO2 flux in the order of 1000-1500 t/d is released by the soil. Solfatara DDS is also characterized by anomalous soil temperature. The correspondence between high CO2 fluxes and soil temperature has been interpreted as the results of the condensation of CO2-rich steam, rising from the hydrothermal system, in the uppermost part of the soil (Chiodini et al., 2001; 2005). The energy dissipated daily by the degassing at Solfatara DDS is the main source of energy release in the entire Campi Flegrei caldera in the current period (Chiodini et al., 2001; 2005). Concerning the satellite data, to monitor the thermal state of volcanic areas it is necessary to use TIR sensors with high spatial resolution in order to obtain detailed information on the areas where there are significant changes. Thanks to ASTER thermal infrared (TIR, 5 bands, 90 m spatial resolution) regions of the electromagnetic spectrum we have obtained the temperature ground map on the volcano area. For this study we have considered the ASTER's night observations that show well defined episodes of increasing thermal emission of crater thanks to a more uniform background temperature. CO2 fluxes and soil

  5. London, England

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    For almost 2,000 years, the River Thames has served as the life force of London, capital of the United Kingdom and one of the world's most famous cities. In AD 43 the Romans established the trading settlement of Londinium at a favorable crossing point on the river. The Romans remained until the 5th century, when the city came under Saxon control. The early 17th century saw enormous growth, but the deadly plague of 1664 and 1665 ravaged the population, and in the following year the Great Fire, which burned for four days, destroyed most of the city. A public transportation system and other city services in the early 19th century eased many of the increasing urban problems of the burgeoning capital of the wealthy British Empire. After coping with the devastating effects of bombing during World War II and the gradual dismantling of the empire, London today thrives as a vital modern metropolis. London is one of 100 cities being studied using ASTER data to map and monitor urban use patterns and growth.This image was acquired on October 12, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring

  6. Remotely-sensed land use patterns and the presence of Anopheles larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) in Sukabumi, West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoops, Craig A; Gionar, Yoyo R; Shinta; Sismadi, Priyanto; Rachmat, Agus; Elyazar, Iqbal F; Sukowati, Supratman

    2008-06-01

    Land use patterns and the occurrence of Anopheles species larvae were studied in Sukabumi District, West Java, Indonesia, from October 2004 to September 2005. Two land use maps derived using remote sensing were used. One map derived from Quickbird satellite images of 150 km2 of the Simpenan and Ciemas subdistricts (106 degrees 27' 53"-106 degrees 38' 38" E and 6 degrees 59' 59"-7 degrees 8' 46" S) in Sukabumi and one using ASTER images covering 4,000 km2 of Sukabumi District from 106 degrees 22' 15"-107 degrees 4' 1" E and 6 degrees 42' 50" - 7 degrees 26' 13" S. There was a total of 11 Anopheles spp. collected from 209 sampling locations in the area covered by the Quickbird image and a total of 15 Anopheles spp. collected from 1,600 sampling locations in the area covered by the ASTER map. For the area covered by the land use maps, ten species were found to have statistically positive relationships between land use class and species presence: Anopheles aconitus, An. annularis, An. barbirostris. An. flavirostris, An. insulaeflorum, An. kochi, An. maculatus, An. subpictus, An. sundaicus, and An. vagus. Quickbird and ASTER satellite images both produced land maps that were adequate for predicting species presence in an area. The land use classes associated with malaria vector breeding were rice paddy (An. aconitus, An. subpictus), plantation located near or adjacent to human settlements (An. maculatus), bush/shrub (An. aconitus, An. maculatus, An. sundaicus), bare land, and water body land use on the coast located < or = 250 m of the beach (An. sundaicus). Understanding the associations of habitat and species in one area, predictions of species presence or absence can be made prior to a ground survey allowing for accurate vector survey and control planning.

  7. Remotely sensed latent heat fluxes for improving model predictions of soil moisture: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Schuurmans

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates whether the use of remotely sensed latent heat fluxes improves the accuracy of spatially-distributed soil moisture predictions by a hydrological model. By using real data we aim to show the potential and limitations in practice. We use (i satellite data of both ASTER and MODIS for the same two days in the summer of 2006 that, in association with the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL, provides us the spatial distribution of daily ETact and (ii an operational physically based distributed (25 m×25 m hydrological model of a small catchment (70 km2 in The Netherlands that simulates the water flow in both the unsaturated and saturated zone. Firstly, model outcomes of ETact are compared to the processed satellite data. Secondly, we perform data assimilation that updates the modelled soil moisture. We show that remotely sensed ETact is useful in hydrological modelling for two reasons. Firstly, in the procedure of model calibration: comparison of modeled and remotely sensed ETact together with the outcomes of our data assimilation procedure points out potential model errors (both conceptual and flux-related. Secondly, assimilation of remotely sensed ETact results in a realistic spatial adjustment of soil moisture, except for the area with forest and deep groundwater levels. As both ASTER and MODIS images were available for the same days, this study provides also an excellent opportunity to compare the worth of these two satellite sources. It is shown that, although ASTER provides much better insight in the spatial distribution of ETact due to its higher spatial resolution than MODIS, they appeared in this study just as useful.

  8. First Record of the European Rusted Flea Beetle, Neocrepidodera ferruginea (Scopoli, 1763, in North America (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent LeSage

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The European rusted flea beetle Neocrepidodera ferruginea (Scopoli, 1763 is reported for the first time from Québec and Ontario, Canada. It was likely introduced into southern Ontario at an international port on the Great Lakes in early 1970s, or possibly earlier in the 1960s. However, the exact location and date of introduction could not be precisely determined. The flea beetle has since dispersed northeastwards and reached Aylmer, north of Ottawa River, in Québec, by 2003. This is about 375 km from Niagara Falls, where the oldest known specimens were collected in 1977. In 2009, various wild habitats and cultivated areas of Aylmer were surveyed. The host plants of the larvae could not be determined, but adults were swept from many plant species including various weeds and cultivated grasses: Alopecurus pratense (meadow foxtail, Dactylis glomerata (orchard-grass, Festuca rubra (red fescue-grass, and Poa pratensis (Kentucky blue-grass. Adults were also collected from flowers of several weeds: Aster sp. (undetermined species, Aster novae-angliae (New England aster, Ambrosia artemisiifolia (small ragweed, Echium vulgare (viper’s bugloss, Nasturtium officinale (water cress, Melilotus alba (white sweet-clover, Hypericum perforatum (common St. John’s-wort, Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife, Ranunculus acris (buttercup, and Solidago spp. (goldenrods. Since larvae are known to develop inside the roots and central stems of cereals, this new alien species represents a threat to Canadian agriculture, particularly if it reaches the Prairies in western Canada, where cereals represent a considerable part of their economy. European rusted flea beetle and Altise ferrugineuse européenne are suggested for the English and French common names of this flea beetle, respectively.

  9. Comparison of Satellite-Derived and In-Situ Observations of Ice and Snow Surface Temperatures over Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Box, Jason E.; Casey, Kimberly A.; Hook, Simon J.; Shuman, Christopher A.; Steffen, Konrad

    2008-01-01

    The most practical way to get a spatially broad and continuous measurements of the surface temperature in the data-sparse cryosphere is by satellite remote sensing. The uncertainties in satellite-derived LSTs must be understood to develop internally-consistent decade-scale land-surface temperature (LST) records needed for climate studies. In this work we assess satellite-derived "clear-sky" LST products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), and LSTs derived from the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) over snow and ice on Greenland. When possible, we compare satellite-derived LSTs with in-situ air-temperature observations from Greenland Climate Network (GC-Net) automatic-weather stations (AWS). We find that MODIS, ASTER and ETM+ provide reliable and consistent LSTs under clear-sky conditions and relatively-flat terrain over snow and ice targets over a range of temperatures from -40 to 0 C. The satellite-derived LSTs agree within a relative RMS uncertainty of approx.0.5 C. The good agreement among the LSTs derived from the various satellite instruments is especially notable since different spectral channels and different retrieval algorithms are used to calculate LST from the raw satellite data. The AWS record in-situ data at a "point" while the satellite instruments record data over an area varying in size from: 57 X 57 m (ETM+), 90 X 90 m (ASTER), or to 1 X 1 km (MODIS). Surface topography and other factors contribute to variability of LST within a pixel, thus the AWS measurements may not be representative of the LST of the pixel. Without more information on the local spatial patterns of LST, the AWS LST cannot be considered valid ground truth for the satellite measurements, with RMS uncertainty approx.2 C. Despite the relatively large AWS-derived uncertainty, we find LST data are characterized by high accuracy but have uncertain absolute precision.

  10. The Diary of Frances Jacobs: Astronomical Observations by a 19th-century Oregon Woman

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGown, R. D.

    2002-12-01

    This abstract summarizes my research, transcription and editing of Francis Jacob's 170-page handwritten astronomical diary. This diary is a unique example of a time in early Portland history, illustrating the mind of a young woman who was interested in science and astronomy. Reflected in her diary are the discoveries and mention of leading astronomers of the day like Emerson Bernard and Edward Pickering. Francis Jacobs lived in an era of the great refractors For example, ``The Leviathan," built by Lord Rosse in Ireland was completed in 1847. In this 72-inch telescope, stars of 18th magnitude could be seen. The first spiral nebulae to be revealed was M51 - known today as the Whirlpool Galaxy. The Earl was the first to suggest that these spirals could actually be rotating masses of stars. At the turn of the century, study of observational astronomy was rooted in naked eye observing, study of binary stars and nebula. This was a time when women were becoming interested in the sciences and had begun to play an important role in science and astronomy. It was an incredible inspiration for other women across the country to hear what was happening on the astronomical frontiers at Harvard. Some constellation asterisms used in Francis Jacob's diary were different than they are today. One asterism in particular, the Egyptian Cross, is relatively unknown now. The summer triangle and winter circle asterisms were used in her notes and obviously popular in her era, as today. Her written comments included some Messier catalogue numbers and in some case written on her sketches and diagrams nicknames, such as the 'Dumbbell' nebula. She also referred to M99 as `St. Katherine's Wheel', a nickname that is not in common use today.

  11. Remote sensing detection of gold related alteration zones in Um Rus area, Central Eastern Desert of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Reda; Kusky, Timothy; El Mezayen, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) images covering the Um Rus area in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt were evaluated for mapping geologic structure, lithology, and gold-related alteration zones. The study area is covered by Pan-African basement rocks including gabbro and granodiorite intruded into a variable mixture of metavolcanics and metasediments. The first three principal component analyses (PCA1, PCA2, PCA3) in a Red-Green-Blue (RGB) of the visible through shortwave-infrared (VNIR + SWIR) ASTER bands enabled the discrimination between lithological units. The results show that ASTER band ratios ((2 + 4)/3, (5 + 7)/6, (7 + 9)/8) in RGB identifies the lithological units and discriminates the granodiorite very well from the adjacent rock units.The granodiorites are dissected by gold-bearing quartz veins surrounded by alteration zones. The microscopic examination of samples collected from the alteration zones shows sericitic and argillic alteration zones. The Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Spectral Information Divergence (SID) supervised classification methods were applied using the reference spectra of the USGS spectral library. The results show that these classification methods are capable of mapping the alteration zones as indicated by field verification work. The PALSAR image was enhanced for fracture mapping using the second moment co-occurrence filter. Overlying extracted faults and alteration zone classification images show that the N30E and N-S fractures represent potential zones for gold exploration. It is concluded that the proposed methods can be used as a powerful tool for ore deposit exploration.

  12. Plume Tracker: Interactive mapping of volcanic sulfur dioxide emissions with high-performance radiative transfer modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realmuto, Vincent J.; Berk, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    We describe the development of Plume Tracker, an interactive toolkit for the analysis of multispectral thermal infrared observations of volcanic plumes and clouds. Plume Tracker is the successor to MAP_SO2, and together these flexible and comprehensive tools have enabled investigators to map sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from a number of volcanoes with TIR data from a variety of airborne and satellite instruments. Our objective for the development of Plume Tracker was to improve the computational performance of the retrieval procedures while retaining the accuracy of the retrievals. We have achieved a 300 × improvement in the benchmark performance of the retrieval procedures through the introduction of innovative data binning and signal reconstruction strategies, and improved the accuracy of the retrievals with a new method for evaluating the misfit between model and observed radiance spectra. We evaluated the accuracy of Plume Tracker retrievals with case studies based on MODIS and AIRS data acquired over Sarychev Peak Volcano, and ASTER data acquired over Kilauea and Turrialba Volcanoes. In the Sarychev Peak study, the AIRS-based estimate of total SO2 mass was 40% lower than the MODIS-based estimate. This result was consistent with a 45% reduction in the AIRS-based estimate of plume area relative to the corresponding MODIS-based estimate. In addition, we found that our AIRS-based estimate agreed with an independent estimate, based on a competing retrieval technique, within a margin of ± 20%. In the Kilauea study, the ASTER-based concentration estimates from 21 May 2012 were within ± 50% of concurrent ground-level concentration measurements. In the Turrialba study, the ASTER-based concentration estimates on 21 January 2012 were in exact agreement with SO2 concentrations measured at plume altitude on 1 February 2012.

  13. Research on remote sensing assessment technology for porphyry copper in south of Arequipa province of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rihong; Li, Zhizhong; Cheng, Xiufa; Zhao, Yuling

    2014-05-01

    The study area is located in the middle section of Andean metallogenic zone. Excellent mineralization geological conditions make it the most principal Porphyry Copper Deposits (PCDs) distribution area in southern Peru and there are several super-large PCDs for hundreds of kilometers in every direction. The regional metallogenic regularity of this area is controlled by the NNW fault parallel to the trench on the west of the South American continent. Small porphyry rocks are very common in this area (circular structure pattern in remote sensing image) with typical zoned alteration of PCD - potassic alteration, argillic alteration, phyllic alteration and propylitization (most exposed) from inside to the outside on the surface. These geologic features can be recognized and extracted by using remote sensing image data. Accordingly, the reflectivity curve of main altered minerals of the typical alteration zones of PCD was rebuilt which was corresponded to B1-B9 of ASTER satellite data, based on the altered mineral assemblages and their spectral characteristics of the typical alteration zones of PCD, and ASTER data's ability of identifying minerals with argillic alteration and carbonatite alteration. Based on the standard spectral data of USGS, We found that the information of argillic-and phyllic- altered minerals assemblages in the typical alteration zones can be extracted in the principal components analysis pattern based on ASTER B1467 while the information of propylitization altered minerals in the principal components analysis pattern based on ASTER B1348 with larger reflectivity of B9 than B8, after comparing and analyzing comprehensively the spectral curve characteristics of main altered minerals. In this method, altered minerals assemblages of argillic-and phyllic- altered zone and propylitization altered zone in this study area was extracted, and the results agree well with the distribution of known PCD. Meanwhile, remote sensing geological interpretation has

  14. Coast Guard Proceedings. Volume 68, Number 1, Spring 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    bathymetry, seismic refrac- tion, magnetic and gravity data, and seafloor cores and supporting physical samples may all prove necessary in a nation’s...vessel went over the dam. Crewmembers later testified they be- lieved he was going below to get a life jacket . At 2:50 a.m., the U.S. Coast Guard...Although it might be easy to criticize certain crewmem- bers’ failure to don life jackets prior to the time that dis- aster struck, it is worth noting

  15. 基于软交换平台Asterisk的电力呼叫中心的设计与实现%Design and Realization of Electricity Call Center Based on Asterisk Soft-Switch Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建涛; 郑永静

    2007-01-01

    软交换是网络演进以及下一代分组网络的核心技术之一,将呼叫控制与呼叫传输分离,通过软件实现呼叫控制.IP-PBX是软交换技术的典型应用,Asterisk是目前使用最广泛的开源IP-PBX软件.详细介绍了Asterisk平台,并设计实现了电力呼叫中心.

  16. Investigation of potential sea level rise impact on the Nile Delta, Egypt using digital elevation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Emad; Khan, Sadiq Ibrahim; Hong, Yang

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the future impact of Sea Level Rise (SLR) on the Nile Delta region in Egypt is assessed by evaluating the elevations of two freely available Digital Elevation Models (DEMs): the SRTM and the ASTER-GDEM-V2. The SLR is a significant worldwide dilemma that has been triggered by recent climatic changes. In Egypt, the Nile Delta is projected to face SLR of 1 m by the end of the 21th century. In order to provide a more accurate assessment of the future SLR impact on Nile Delta's land and population, this study corrected the DEM's elevations by using linear regression model with ground elevations from GPS survey. The information for the land cover types and future population numbers were derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land cover and the Gridded Population of the Worlds (GPWv3) datasets respectively. The DEM's vertical accuracies were assessed using GPS measurements and the uncertainty analysis revealed that the SRTM-DEM has positive bias of 2.5 m, while the ASTER-GDEM-V2 showed a positive bias of 0.8 m. The future inundated land cover areas and the affected population were illustrated based on two SLR scenarios of 0.5 m and 1 m. The SRTM DEM data indicated that 1 m SLR will affect about 3900 km(2) of cropland, 1280 km(2) of vegetation, 205 km(2) of wetland, 146 km(2) of urban areas and cause more than 6 million people to lose their houses. The overall vulnerability assessment using ASTER-GDEM-V2 indicated that the influence of SLR will be intense and confined along the coastal areas. For instance, the data indicated that 1 m SLR will inundate about 580 Km(2) (6%) of the total land cover areas and approximately 887 thousand people will be relocated. Accordingly, the uncertainty analysis of the DEM's elevations revealed that the ASTER-GDEM-V2 dataset product was considered the best to determine the future impact of SLR on the Nile Delta region.

  17. The methods of geomorphometry and digital soil mapping for assessing spatial variability in the properties of agrogray soils on a slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopp, N. V.; Nechaeva, T. V.; Savenkov, O. A.; Smirnova, N. V.; Smirnov, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    The relationships between the morphometric parameters (MPs) of topography calculated on the basis of digital elevation model (ASTER GDEM, 30 m) and the properties of the plow layer of agrogray soils on a slope were analyzed. The contribution of MPs to the spatial variability of the soil moisture reached 42%; to the content of physical clay (digital soil mapping. The regression analysis showed statistically significant correlations between the properties of the plow layer and the MPs describing surface runoff, geometric forms of surface, and the soil temperature regime.

  18. Big Data Quality Case Study Preliminary Findings, U.S. Army MEDCOM MODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Key Benefits B-5 B.3.2 Broadening Access to Hadoop B-6 Appendix C Project Description C-1 C.1 Background C-1 C.2 System Goals and Objectives C-1 C.3...relational technology in concert with their newer intermediate Aster products and the standard Hadoop map-reduce Big Data technologies. While the single...The document and records data as well as the text data will be processed through a separate Hadoop -based Big Data Analytics environment using the

  19. Clasificación de asterismos utilizando datos astrométricos

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Biasi, M. S.; Orellana, R. B.

    Based on accurate positions and proper motion data up to faint magnitudes, we have studied the regions of twenty three objects known in the literature as asterisms. A parametric method was applied to confirm the nature of these objects. The following objects have been classified: Alessi 11, Alessi 17, Brosch 1, Collinder 21, Dol-Dzim 1, Dolidze 31, Dolidze 43, Dolidze 50, Dolidze 51, NGC 272, NGC2063, NGC 2413, NGC 2664, NGC 5155, NGC 5284, NGC 6222, NGC 6360, NGC 6447, NGC 6476, NGC 6480, NGC 6605, NGC 6659, NGC 6728. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  20. Studies of High-Frequency Seismic Wave Propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-29

    00).00 39󈧇𔃿 1~ 117𔃿 8󈧵" USSR stations Kararalinsk (KKL) 49󈧘’ 75O23’ Bayan"a (BAY) 50󈧵’ 75033’ Karas (K.SU) 49󈧽’ 81905’ U S stations Derep...1985; Peacock et al., 1988; Sax age et al., 1989; Savage et al., 1990; Aster et al., 1990; Gledhill, 1990). Malin et al. (1988) examined shear-wave...other networks (e.g., Savage et al., 1989, 1990; Gledhill, 1990). The Sfast direction at KNW-AZ and KNW-BH is approximately consistent with the

  1. EST Table: FY007508 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FY007508 bmov22a23 11/11/04 96 %/147 aa ref|NP_731941.1| effete [Drosophila melanog...aster] ref|NP_001119686.1| effete [Acyrthosiphon pisum] ref|XP_310998.2| AGAP000145-PA [Anopheles gambiae st...gase) (Ubiquitin carrier protein) (Protein effete) [Tribolium castaneum] ref|XP_0...ull=Ubiquitin-protein ligase; AltName: Full=Ubiquitin carrier protein; AltName: Full=Protein effete emb|CAA4...4453.1| ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAF55093.1| effet

  2. EST Table: FY031713 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FY031713 bmte29g06 11/11/04 96 %/147 aa ref|NP_731941.1| effete [Drosophila melanog...aster] ref|NP_001119686.1| effete [Acyrthosiphon pisum] ref|XP_310998.2| AGAP000145-PA [Anopheles gambiae st...gase) (Ubiquitin carrier protein) (Protein effete) [Tribolium castaneum] ref|XP_0...ull=Ubiquitin-protein ligase; AltName: Full=Ubiquitin carrier protein; AltName: Full=Protein effete emb|CAA4...4453.1| ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAF55093.1| effet

  3. EST Table: FY003211 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FY003211 bmov10a13 11/11/04 96 %/130 aa ref|NP_731941.1| effete [Drosophila melanog...aster] ref|NP_001119686.1| effete [Acyrthosiphon pisum] ref|XP_310998.2| AGAP000145-PA [Anopheles gambiae st...gase) (Ubiquitin carrier protein) (Protein effete) [Tribolium castaneum] ref|XP_0...ull=Ubiquitin-protein ligase; AltName: Full=Ubiquitin carrier protein; AltName: Full=Protein effete emb|CAA4...4453.1| ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAF55093.1| effet

  4. EST Table: FY026679 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FY026679 bmte15e13 11/11/04 95 %/140 aa ref|NP_731941.1| effete [Drosophila melanog...aster] ref|NP_001119686.1| effete [Acyrthosiphon pisum] ref|XP_310998.2| AGAP000145-PA [Anopheles gambiae st...gase) (Ubiquitin carrier protein) (Protein effete) [Tribolium castaneum] ref|XP_0...ull=Ubiquitin-protein ligase; AltName: Full=Ubiquitin carrier protein; AltName: Full=Protein effete emb|CAA4...4453.1| ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAF55093.1| effet

  5. EST Table: FY025849 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FY025849 bmte12p03 11/11/04 96 %/147 aa ref|NP_731941.1| effete [Drosophila melanog...aster] ref|NP_001119686.1| effete [Acyrthosiphon pisum] ref|XP_310998.2| AGAP000145-PA [Anopheles gambiae st...gase) (Ubiquitin carrier protein) (Protein effete) [Tribolium castaneum] ref|XP_0...ull=Ubiquitin-protein ligase; AltName: Full=Ubiquitin carrier protein; AltName: Full=Protein effete emb|CAA4...4453.1| ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAF55093.1| effet

  6. NATO and U.S. Ballistic Missile Defense Programs: Divergent or Convergent Paths?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    making framework. It is common for TMD systems to be developed and deployed via bilateral negotiations. The only TMD project that has been subject to...sol-air moyenne portée- terrestre , that is, a ground based surface- to-air medium-range missile. 52 “Aster 30 SAMP/T – Surface-to-Air Missile Platform...alone rather than via a joint development with Alliance members that have expressed interest. Additionally, some European members of the Alliance

  7. Towards automatic lithological classification from remote sensing data using support vector machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Le; Porwal, Alok; Holden, Eun-Jung; Dentith, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Remote sensing data can be effectively used as a mean to build geological knowledge for poorly mapped terrains. Spectral remote sensing data from space- and air-borne sensors have been widely used to geological mapping, especially in areas of high outcrop density in arid regions. However, spectral remote sensing information by itself cannot be efficiently used for a comprehensive lithological classification of an area due to (1) diagnostic spectral response of a rock within an image pixel is conditioned by several factors including the atmospheric effects, spectral and spatial resolution of the image, sub-pixel level heterogeneity in chemical and mineralogical composition of the rock, presence of soil and vegetation cover; (2) only surface information and is therefore highly sensitive to the noise due to weathering, soil cover, and vegetation. Consequently, for efficient lithological classification, spectral remote sensing data needs to be supplemented with other remote sensing datasets that provide geomorphological and subsurface geological information, such as digital topographic model (DEM) and aeromagnetic data. Each of the datasets contain significant information about geology that, in conjunction, can potentially be used for automated lithological classification using supervised machine learning algorithms. In this study, support vector machine (SVM), which is a kernel-based supervised learning method, was applied to automated lithological classification of a study area in northwestern India using remote sensing data, namely, ASTER, DEM and aeromagnetic data. Several digital image processing techniques were used to produce derivative datasets that contained enhanced information relevant to lithological discrimination. A series of SVMs (trained using k-folder cross-validation with grid search) were tested using various combinations of input datasets selected from among 50 datasets including the original 14 ASTER bands and 36 derivative datasets (including 14

  8. Mapping Mineralogical Alteration Using MNF Transfrom and Mineral in Vegetated Areas%基于最大噪声分量变换(MNF)和矿物标识的植被区蚀变信息提取

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱云; 王安建; 李丽辉

    2011-01-01

    Mapping of altered rocks in areas with heavy vegetation is difficult by using principal component analysis and band ratios to remote sensing data, which have been commonly applied to locate hydmthermal alteration zones related to metallic deposits. We propose a method to effectively map al- tered recks, which is based on that the reflectance of green vegetation is low in the shortwave infrared portion and maximum signal to noise ratio (MNF) transform can reduce the effect caused by the vetetation. This technique turns target mineral spectra into pixels of ASTER images as mineral indicators that provide a potential approach for fast and effective extracting mineral alteration from ASTER muhispectral data. In this study, the method was applied to ASTER bands converiong the SWIR with the objective of mapping phyllic and argillic hydrothermally altered rocks in the Prong-Hongshan copper belt in Yunnan Province. The mineral abundance images produced using this method are less affected by inerference compared with other methods such as the PCA and band ratio method. The result shows that this method can suppress well the influence of vegetation and highlight target ores, and extract alteration information of ores from ASTER remote sensing images fastly and efficiently.%以往常规的遥感找矿的方法是主成分分析和比值方法,在植被发育的区域,利用这些常规方法难以识别矿物蚀变信息。本文提出了一种方法,将已知目标矿物转换为图像像元作为标识谱,利用植被在短波红外是暗目标和最大信噪比MNF变换可以有效的突出信息的前提,可以快速比对提取蚀变信息。以云南中句地区的普朗一红山斑岩成矿带为例,进行绢英岩化和泥化蚀变信息提取。结果表明,该方法与主成分分析法和比值法结果具有一致性,但具有更好的降噪效果。该方法能很好的抑制植被影响,突出目标矿物,是一种快速有效的提

  9. Ascouf: an industrial software for the engineering of nuclear facilities in operation; Ascouf: un outil numerique industriel pour l`ingenierie nucleaire du parc en exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genette, P.; Martelet, B. [Electricite de France (EDF), 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Div. Mecanique des Structures du Septen; Debost-Eymart, I. [Electricite de France (EDF), 92 - Clamart (France). Dept. Mecanique et Modeles Numeriques

    1998-10-01

    The ASCOUF software has been developed par EDF to facilitate the quick analysis of defects contained in pipes or elbows of the primary loop. This preprocessing tool of Code Aster, the structural analysis finite element code of EDF, has been used to carry out, with an increase of productivity a series of numerical studies proving the mechanical strength of these components. Its validation, taking into account the feed-back from previous studies, leads us to rely on the results. ASCOUF has afterwards been extended to solve the problems of lack of thickness of pipes of the secondary loop. (authors)

  10. Generation of a new Greenland Ice Sheet Digital Elevation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, S.; Csatho, B. M.; Schenk, A. F.; Babonis, G. S.; Scambos, T. A.; Haran, T. M.; Kjaer, K. H.; Korsgaard, N. J.

    2011-12-01

    Currently available Digital Elevation Models(DEMs) of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) were originally derived from radar altimetry data, e.g. Bamber (Bamber et al., 2001) and later improved by photoclinometry to fill the regions between orbits (Scambos and Haran, 2002). The elevation error of these DEMs is a few meters in the higher part (above 2000 m) of the ice sheet, but it can be as much as 50-100 meters in marginal regions. The relatively low resolution and accuracy poses a problem, especially for ice sheet modeling. Although accurate elevation data have been collected by airborne and spaceborne laser altimetry (airborne: Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) (1993-present), Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor(LVIS) (2007,2009 and 2011); spaceborne: Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) (2003-2009)) and DEMs have been derived from stereo satellite imagery (e.g., SPOT (40 m), ASTER (15 m)), a high resolution, consistent DEM of GrIS is not yet available. This is due to various problems, such as different error sources in the data and different dates of data acquisition. In order to overcome these difficulties, we generated a multi-resolution DEM of GrIS, reflecting June 2008 conditions, by fusing a photoclinometry DEM, SPOT and ASTER DEMs as well as elevations from ICESat, ATM and LVIS laser altimetry. The new multi-resolution DEM has a resolution of 40 m x 40 m in the marginal ice sheet regions and 250 m elsewhere. The ice sheet margin is mapped from SPOT and Landsat imagery and SPOT DEMs are used to cover the complex topography of ice sheet marginal regions. The accuracy of SPOT DEMs is approximately ± 6 m except in the areas covered by clouds regions, where the SPOT elevations were replaced by ASTER DEMs. The ASTER DEMs were checked and improved by the DEM derived from aerial photography from the 1980s. A new photoclinometry DEM, derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery

  11. Espectroscopia de imageamento e gamaespectrometria aerea e terrestre de pegmaticos e granitos da porção sul da Provincia Pegmatitica da Borborema (PPB), Nordeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastião Milton Pinheiro da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Resumo: Neste estudo foram utilizados dados de espectroscopia de reflectância (ER), imagens dos sensores Terra/ASTER e EO-1/Hyperion e dados de gamaespectrometria aérea e terrestre para caracterização espectromineralógica e gamaespectrométrica de pegmatitos e granitos pegmatíticos da porção sul da PPB. Por meio da ER foi possível caracterizar fases e misturas de fases minerais que compõem essas rochas, incluindo caulinita, muscovita, illita/sericita e turmalina em pegmatitos do tipo homogêneo...

  12. Study on the Optimal Scale for Calculating the Relief Amplitude in China Based on DEM%基于DEM的中国地形起伏度适宜计算尺度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 李爱农

    2012-01-01

    基于SRTM和ASTER DEM数据,在全国范围内选取13个实验区,在渐变尺度下计算平均起伏度变化曲线的“突变点”,据此确定中国地形起伏度的适宜计算尺度;结合山地界定标准计算各实验区山地面积,并采用人工解译的山地范围对计算结果进行检验.研究结果表明:1)地形起伏度适宜计算尺度与所采用的DEM数据有关,DEM分辨率越小,地形起伏度适宜计算尺度越大;2)针对同一分辨率DEM数据,中国境内的地形起伏度适宜计算尺度随地貌特征变化而变化,但总体变化幅度不大;3)针对SRTM和ASTER DEM两种常用数据源,分别选择4.72 km2和3.20 km2作为地形起伏度适宜计算尺度是合理的,山地界定精度达90%以上.%On the base of SRTM and ASTER DEM data, 13 experimental areas across China are selected. Through computing the "change point" of average relief amplitude curve with the gradient scale, the optimal calculation scale of relief amplitude in China is acquired. Based on the previous work, the mountain area of every experimental area can be calculated with mountain definition standard. Then, the calculation results are tested by the way of manual interpretation mountain range. The result show that,firstly,relationship exits between the optimal calculation scale of relief amplitude and DEM data,the DEM data scale greater, the optimal calculation scale of relief amplitude greater; secondly, relationship exits between the optimal calculation scale of relief amplitude and landscape; thirdly, for the SRTM and ASTER DEM,selecting 4. 72 km2 and 3. 20 km2 as the optimal calculation scale of relief amplitude is reasonable and testing accuracy is greater than 90%. The study provides a feasible method and reference for calculating the optimal calculation scale of relief amplitude and determining the range of mountain in China.

  13. ICSI choreography: fate of sperm structures after monospermic rhesus ICSI and first cell cycle implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho-Santos, J; Sutovsky, P; Simerly, C; Oko, R; Wessel, G M; Hewitson, L; Schatten, G

    2000-12-01

    We have dissected the initial stages of fertilization by intracytoplasmic sperm injection of single spermatozoa into prime oocytes from fertile rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). DNA decondensation was delayed at the apical portion of the sperm head. It is possible that this asynchronous male DNA decondensation could be related to the persistence of the sperm acrosome and perinuclear theca after injection. However, incomplete male pronuclear formation did not prevent sperm aster formation, microtubule nucleation and pronuclear apposition. In contrast, DNA synthesis was delayed in both pronuclei until the sperm chromatin fully decondensed, indicating that male pronuclear formation constitutes an important checkpoint during the first embryonic cell cycle.

  14. Aftermath of Hurricane Ike along Texas Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Three weeks after Hurricane Ike came ashore near Galveston, TX, residents returned to find their houses in ruins. From the coast to over 15 km inland, salt water saturated the soil as a result of the 7m storm surge pushed ashore by the force of the hurricane. The right image was acquired on September 28; the left image was acquired August 15, 2006. Vegetation is displayed in red, and inundated areas are in blue-green. Within the inundated area are several small 'red islands' of high ground where salt domes raised the level of the land, and protected the vegetation. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Size: 37 by 49.5 kilometers (22.8 by 30.6 miles) Location: 29.8 degrees North latitude, 94.4 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER Bands 3, 2, and

  15. First AUV and ROV investigation of seismogenic faults in the Alboran Sea (Western Meditarranean)

    OpenAIRE

    Gràcia, Eulàlia; Perea, Hector; Bartolomé, Rafael; Lo Iacono, Claudio; Costa, Sergio; Díez Tagarró, Susana; Rodríguez, Pablo; Sánchez, Héctor; Dañobeitia, Juan José; SHAKE cruise team

    2016-01-01

    In May-June 2015 we carried out the SHAKE cruise on board the RV “Sarmiento de Gamboa” the first in situ investigation using state-of-the-art underwater vehicles, the AUVs “AsterX” and “IdefX” (IFREMER, France) and the ROV “Max Rover” (HCMR, Greece). Here we present how these vehicles helped us to achieve our main goals to survey active seismogenic faults and associated structures of the Eastern Alboran Sea (Western Mediterranean). Peer Reviewed

  16. Rapid matching algorithm for hyperspectral image based on norm sifting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Li; Yong Ma; Kun Liang; Yin Yu

    2012-01-01

    We propose a rapid spectral matching method by lowering number of comparisons,processing time can be saved.Firstly,1-norm is chosen as length measure of spectrum,and with this criterion,a 1-norm database is built.Secondly,a subspace is constructed from the whole reference library by retaining the references with the most similar 1-norm values.Finally,matching operations are performed in the subspace to obtain the match result.Simulations of geological mapping with ASTER spectral library show that the proposed method can significantly reduce processing time and enhance accuracy compared with traditional and dimension reduction methods.

  17. Jagged-1 Signaling Pathway in Prostate Cancer Cell Growth and Angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    cervical intraepithelial neoplastic lesions , J.Gen.Virol., 78 ( Pt 5): 1095-1101, 1997. 3 Pear,W.S., Aster,J.C., Scott,M.L., Hasserjian,R.P., Soffer,B...1 or indirectly due to inactivation of Akt/NF-κB, will not only be a novel approach for the treatment of HRPC and metastases but will also sensitize...Notch-1 could be useful strategy for treatment of prostate cancer. Based on above hypothesis, this proposal seems highly relevant to the mission of

  18. Climate change and extreme events in weather

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.

    % of the global tropical cyclones form in the north Indian Ocean. Further, more number of cyclones form in the Bay of Bengal (about three to four times higher) than in the Arabian Sea. In the north Indian Ocean, there are two important seasons..., their effective and timely dissemination and dis- aster management strategies put in place. Owing to the im- proved weather forecasting ability there has been a gradual decline in the number of human causalities. E.g. the human toll during the Chirala cyclone...

  19. Perspective View, Mt. Etna, Italy & the Aeolian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Italy's Mount Etna and the Aeolian Islands are the focus of this perspective view made from an Advanced Spaceborne Thermal and Emission Radiometer (ASTER) image from NASA's Terra spacecraft overlaid on Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) topography. The image is looking south with the islands of Lipari and Vulcano in the foreground and Etna with its dark lava flows on the skyline. Vulcano also hosts an active volcano, the cone of which is prominent. In late October 2002, Etna erupted again, sending lava flows down the north and south sides of the volcano. The north flows are near the center of this view, but the ASTER image is from before the eruption.In addition to the terrestrial applications of these data for understanding active volcanoes and hazards associated with them such as lava flows and explosive eruptions, geologists studying Mars find these data useful as an analog to martian landforms and geologic processes. In late September 2002, a field conference with the theme of Terrestrial Analogs to Mars focused on Mount Etna allowing Mars geologists to see in person the types of features they can only sample remotely.Elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D

  20. Augustine Volcano, Cook Inlet, Alaska (January 31, 2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Since last spring, the U.S. Geological Survey's Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) has detected increasing volcanic unrest at Augustine Volcano in Cook Inlet, Alaska near Anchorage. Based on all available monitoring data, AVO regards that an eruption similar to 1976 and 1986 is the most probable outcome. During January, activity has been episodic, and characterized by emission of steam and ash plumes, rising to altitudes in excess of 9,000 m (30,000 ft), and posing hazards to aircraft in the vicinity. In the last week, volcanic flows have been seen on the volcano's flanks. An ASTER thermal image was acquired at night at 22:50 AST on January 31, 2006, during an eruptive phase of Augustine. The image shows three volcanic flows down the north flank of Augustine as white (hot) areas. The eruption plume spreads out to the east in a cone shape: it appears dark blue over the summit because it is cold and water ice dominates the composition; further downwind a change to orange color indicates that the plume is thinning and the signal is dominated by the presence of ash. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion

  1. The Dead Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The Dead Sea is the lowest point on Earth at 418 meters below sea level, and also one of the saltiest bodies of water on Earth with a salinity of about 300 parts-per-thousand (nine times greater than ocean salinity). It is located on the border between Jordan and Israel, and is fed by the Jordan River. The Dead Sea is located in the Dead Sea Rift, formed as a result of the Arabian tectonic plate moving northward away from the African Plate. The mineral content of the Dead Sea is significantly different from that of ocean water, consisting of approximately 53% magnesium chloride, 37% potassium chloride and 8% sodium chloride. In the early part of the 20th century, the Dead Sea began to attract interest from chemists who deduced that the Sea was a natural deposit of potash and bromine. From the Dead Sea brine, Israel and Jordan produce 3.8 million tons potash, 200,000 tons elemental bromine, 45,000 tons caustic soda, 25, 000 tons magnesium metal, and sodium chloride. Both countries use extensive salt evaporation pans that have essentially diked the entire southern end of the Dead Sea. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining

  2. Corinth Canal, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The Isthmus of Corinth has played a very important role in the history of Greece. It is the only land bridge between the country's north (Attica) and south (Peloponnese). It is a 6 km wide tongue of land separating the Gulf of Corinth from the Saronic Sea. Populations, armies and commodities have got to move through it. In the 6th century BCE, the Greeks built the Diolkos, a 10 meter-wide stone roadway to pull ships across the Isthmus on wooden cylinders and wheeled vehicles. In 1882, a canal was started and completed 11 years later. It is 6343 meters long, 25 meters wide, and 8 meters deep. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Size: 25.3 by 37.7 kilometers (15.7 by 23.4 miles) Location: 37.9 degrees North latitude, 23 degrees East longitude Orientation: North at top Image

  3. EST Table: FY008691 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FY008691 bmov25g06 11/11/04 95 %/143 aa ref|NP_731941.1| effete [Drosophila melanog...aster] ref|NP_001119686.1| effete [Acyrthosiphon pisum] ref|XP_310998.2| AGAP000145-PA [Anopheles gambiae st...gase) (Ubiquitin carrier protein) (Protein effete) [Tribolium castaneum] ref|XP_0...ull=Ubiquitin-protein ligase; AltName: Full=Ubiquitin carrier protein; AltName: Full=Protein effete emb|CAA4...4453.1| ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAF55093.1| effet

  4. Effect of motor vehicle emission on assimilative apparatus of decorative ornamental plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Pryimak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of motor vehicle emission ingredients on the state of assimilative apparatus of decorative ornamental plants is studied in Dnepropetrovsk. The morphometric indices of leaves of studied species are discussed. The changes of the leaves area and their amount on a plant are shown. The damages of assimilative organs and its structure abnormalities are revealed. The negative influence of motor transport emission on forming and growth of leaves was determined. The Aster novі-belgii L. and Tagetes patula L. are resistant, but Begonia×semperflorens hort, Salvia splendens L. and Zinnia elegans Jacq. are sensitive to the influence of emissions.

  5. Stevia rebaudiana (Bert.) Bertoni. UNA REVISIÓN

    OpenAIRE

    Michel Martínez Cruz

    2015-01-01

    Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana(Bert.)Bertoni) esunaespeciedel géneroSteviade la familia de lasAsteráceasnativa de la regióntropicaldeSudamérica.Es una plantaconsiderada medicinal, pues varios estudios demuestran quepuede tener efectos beneficiosos sobre la diabetes tipo II,ya que posee glicósidos con propiedades edulcorantes sincalorías. Muchas de las actividades de investigación sobre suspropiedades químicas y biológicas se han hecho en el pasadoreciente. El objetivo de este trabajo fue compilar ...

  6. 3D Cloud Radiative Effects on Aerosol Optical Thickness Retrievals in Cumulus Cloud Fields in the Biomass Burning Region in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Guo-Yong; Marshak, Alexander; Cahalan, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    Aerosol amount in clear regions of a cloudy atmosphere is a critical parameter in studying the interaction between aerosols and clouds. Since the global cloud cover is about 50%, cloudy scenes are often encountered in any satellite images. Aerosols are more or less transparent, while clouds are extremely reflective in the visible spectrum of solar radiation. The radiative transfer in clear-cloudy condition is highly three- dimensional (3D). This paper focuses on estimating the 3D effects on aerosol optical thickness retrievals using Monte Carlo simulations. An ASTER image of cumulus cloud fields in the biomass burning region in Brazil is simulated in this study. The MODIS products (i-e., cloud optical thickness, particle effective radius, cloud top pressure, surface reflectance, etc.) are used to construct the cloud property and surface reflectance fields. To estimate the cloud 3-D effects, we assume a plane-parallel stratification of aerosol properties in the 60 km x 60 km ASTER image. The simulated solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere is compared with plane-parallel calculations. Furthermore, the 3D cloud radiative effects on aerosol optical thickness retrieval are estimated.

  7. Molecular identification of the phytoplasma associated with kerria witches'-broom%棣棠丛枝病相关植原体的分子鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常文程; 李向东; 邵云华; 徐加利; 竺晓平

    2012-01-01

    By using universal primers for phytoplasmal 16S rRNA and tuf genes, two specific fragments of 1 243 bp and 842 bp in length were amplified with nested-PCR from the DNA of kerria showing witches' -broom symptom. The fragments were sequenced and subjected to identity and phylogenetic analysis. The results indicated that the 16S rRNA and tuf gene of phytoplasma isolate from kerria witches' -broom (KWB) shared the highest identities of 99. 4% and 99. 5% , respectively, with paulownia witches' -broom phytoplasma (PaWB) belonged to subgroup D of aster yellows group (16SrI-D). In the phylogenetic trees constructed with 16S rRNA and tuf genes, KWB was clustered with phytoplasmas of 16SrI-D. The 16S rRNA gene of KWB had identical patterns with a 16SrI-D phytoplasma for Alu I , Hha I , Mse I and Taq I in the virtual RFLP analysis. All these results indicated that the phytoplsama associated with kerria witches' -broom was belonged to the subgroup D of aster yellows group (16SrI-D).

  8. Efficiency of organelle capture by microtubules as a function of centrosome nucleation capacity: general theory and the special case of polyspermia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan V Maly

    Full Text Available Transport of organelles along microtubules is essential for the cell metabolism and morphogenesis. The presented analysis derives the probability that an organelle of a given size comes in contact with the microtubule aster. The question is asked how this measure of functionality of the microtubule aster is controlled by the centrosome. A quantitative model is developed to address this question. It is shown that for the given set of cellular parameters, such as size and total tubulin content, a centrosome nucleation capacity exists that maximizes the probability of the organelle capture. The developed general model is then applied to the capture of the female pronucleus by microtubules assembled on the sperm centrosome, following physiologically polyspermic fertilization. This application highlights an unintuitive reflection of nonlinearity of the nucleated polymerization of the cellular pool of tubulin. The prediction that the sperm centrosome should lower its nucleation capacity in the face of the competition from the other sperm is a stark illustration of the new optimality principle. Overall, the model calls attention to the capabilities of the centrosomal pathway of regulation of the transport-related functionality of the microtubule cytoskeleton. It establishes a quantitative and conceptual framework that can guide experiment design and interpretation.

  9. DEM Resolution Impact on the Estimation of the Physical Characteristics of Watersheds by Using SWAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waranyu Buakhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A digital elevation model (DEM is an important spatial input for automatic extraction of topographic parameters for the soil and water assessment tool (SWAT. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of DEM resolution (from 5 to 90 m on the delineation process of a SWAT model with two types of watershed characteristics (flat area and mountain area and three sizes of watershed area (about 20,000, 200,000, and 1,500,000 hectares. The results showed that the total lengths of the streamline, main channel slope, watershed area, and area slope were significantly different when using the DEM datasets to delineate. Delineation using the SRTM DEM (90 m, ASTER DEM (30 m, and LDD DEM (5 m for all watershed characteristics showed that the watershed sizes and shapes obtained were only slightly different, whereas the area slopes obtained were significantly different. The total lengths of the generated streams increased when the resolution of the DEM used was higher. The stream slopes obtained using the small area sizes were insignificant, whereas the slopes obtained using the large area sizes were significantly different. This suggests that water resource model users should use the ASTER DEM as opposed to a finer resolution DEM for model input to save time for the model calibration and validation.

  10. Multispectral remote sensing for site-specific nitrogen fertilizer management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikrooz Bagheri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the use of multispectral remote sensing for site-specific nitrogen fertilizer management. Satellite imagery from the advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (Aster was acquired in a 23 ha corn-planted area in Iran. For the collection of field samples, a total of 53 pixels were selected by systematic randomized sampling. The total nitrogen content in corn leaf tissues in these pixels was evaluated. To predict corn canopy nitrogen content, different vegetation indices, such as normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, soil-adjusted vegetation index (Savi, optimized soil-adjusted vegetation index (Osavi, modified chlorophyll absorption ratio index 2 (MCARI2, and modified triangle vegetation index 2 (MTVI2, were investigated. The supervised classification technique using the spectral angle mapper classifier (SAM was performed to generate a nitrogen fertilization map. The MTVI2 presented the highest correlation (R²=0.87 and is a good predictor of corn canopy nitrogen content in the V13 stage, at 60 days after cultivating. Aster imagery can be used to predict nitrogen status in corn canopy. Classification results indicate three levels of required nitrogen per pixel: low (0-2.5 kg, medium (2.5-3 kg, and high (3-3.3 kg.

  11. Mapping and evaluation of snow avalanche risk using GIS technique in Rodnei National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covǎsnianu, Adrian; Grigoraş, Ioan-Rǎducu; Covǎsnianu, Liliana-Elena; Iordache, Iulian; Balin, Daniela

    2010-05-01

    The study consisted in a precise mapping project (GPS field campaign, on-screen digitization of the topographic maps at 1:25.000 scale and updated with ASTER mission) of the Rodnei National Park area (Romanian Carpathians) with a focus on snow avalanche risk survey. Parameters taken into account were slope, aspect, altitude, landforms and roughness resulted from a high resolute numerical terrain model obtained by ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) mission. The resulted digital surface model with a spatial resolution of 10 m covered a total area of 187 square kilometers and was improved by the help of Topo to Raster tool. All these parameters were calibrated after a model applied onto Tatra Massive and also Ceahlău Mountain. The results were adapted and interpreted in accordance with European avalanche hazard scale. This work was made in the context of the elaboration of Risk Map and is directly concerning both the security of tourism activities but also the management of the Rodnei Natural Park. The extension of this method to similar mountain areas is ongoing.

  12. Fusion of Laser Altimetry Data with Dems Derived from Stereo Imaging Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, T.; Csatho, B. M.; Duncan, K.

    2016-06-01

    During the last two decades surface elevation data have been gathered over the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) from a variety of different sensors including spaceborne and airborne laser altimetry, such as NASA's Ice Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat), Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) and Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS), as well as from stereo satellite imaging systems, most notably from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Worldview. The spatio-temporal resolution, the accuracy, and the spatial coverage of all these data differ widely. For example, laser altimetry systems are much more accurate than DEMs derived by correlation from imaging systems. On the other hand, DEMs usually have a superior spatial resolution and extended spatial coverage. We present in this paper an overview of the SERAC (Surface Elevation Reconstruction And Change detection) system, designed to cope with the data complexity and the computation of elevation change histories. SERAC simultaneously determines the ice sheet surface shape and the time-series of elevation changes for surface patches whose size depends on the ruggedness of the surface and the point distribution of the sensors involved. By incorporating different sensors, SERAC is a true fusion system that generates the best plausible result (time series of elevation changes) a result that is better than the sum of its individual parts. We follow this up with an example of the Helmheim gacier, involving ICESat, ATM and LVIS laser altimetry data, together with ASTER DEMs.

  13. Active Tectonics Revealed by River Profiles along the Puqu Fault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Lu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Puqu Fault is situated in Southern Tibet. It is influenced by the eastward extrusion of Northern Tibet and carries the clockwise rotation followed by the southward extrusion. Thus, the Puqu Fault is bounded by the principal dynamic zones and the tectonic evolution remains active alongside. This study intends to understand the tectonic activity in the Puqu Fault Region from the river profiles obtained from the remotely sensed satellite imagery. A medium resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM, 20 m was generated from an Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER stereo pair of images and the stream network in this region was extracted from this DEM. The indices of slope and drainage area were subsequently calculated from this ASTER DEM. Based on the stream power law, the area-slope plots of the streams were delineated to derive the indices of channel concavity and steepness, which are closely related to tectonic activity. The results show the active tectonics varying significantly along the Puqu Fault, although the potential influence of glaciations may exist. These results are expected to be useful for a better understanding of tectonic evolution in Southeastern Tibet.

  14. Readiness of the Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) Database at NSIDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troisi, V.; Scharfen, G.; Raup, B.; Khalsa, S. S.; Swick, R.; Wang, I.; Barry, R.; Dyurgerov, M.

    2002-12-01

    GLIMS (Global Land Ice Measurements from Space) is an international project to survey a majority of the world's 160,000 glaciers with data collected by the ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and reflection Radiometer) instrument aboard the EOS Terra spacecraft, and Landsat ETM+ (Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus). Approximately 1,500 ASTER images suitable for GLIMS analyses have been acquired as of Fall 2002. A group of internationally distributed glaciologists at Regional Centers of expertise have begun to analyze the satellite data, derive glacier measurements (glacier geometry, surface velocity, and snowline elevation), and provide them in a consistent format for archival and use by the research community via the World Wide Web. The National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA) and the United States Geological Survey (USGS) are supporting the GLIMS coordination and data management effort and providing the satellite data. With NASA funding, the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) is developing the information management system for GLIMS. The database design, data transfer specification, ingest module were completed this year. User interfaces are being tested. The database is being populated with the initial results from Regional Centers. Contents include measurements (over time) of glacier length, area, boundaries, topography, surface velocity vectors, and snowline elevation. We are also adding historic glacier data from Central Asia. As contributions from the network of Regional Centers increase, the GLIMS information management system will provide an easy to use and widely accessible service for the glaciological community and other users needing information about the world's glaciers.

  15. Using geoinformatics and geomorphometrics to quantify the geodiversity of Crete, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyriou, Athanasios V.; Sarris, Apostolos; Teeuw, Richard M.

    2016-09-01

    The geodiversity of Crete is quantified in this study, based on the classification of geomorphometric, geological and climatic factors. A number of geomorphometric variables, extracted from the ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (ASTER G-DEM) in conjunction with geological and climatic information, are evaluated through various algorithms incorporated into Geographical Information System (GIS) software's. The derived geoinformatic data sets are then analyzed to produce the geodiversity of Crete. The geodiversity map is used to quantify the geodiversity, by calculating landscape diversity and other spatial pattern indices. Those indices are evaluating the richness, evenness, fragmentation and shape of the landscape patch types. The outcome of this study has highlighted that western Crete is characterized by complex geodiversity with more irregular, elongated and fragmented landscape patterns relative to the eastern part of the island. The geodiversity indices provide insights into the processes shaping landscapes, particularly the "battle" between neotectonic landscape deformation and erosion/deposition. The methodology presented can be useful for decision makers when evaluating a regions geological heritage, planning the management of natural resources, or designating areas for conservation.

  16. Sequence analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA of phytoplasma associated with periwinkle yellows disease in Hainan%海南长春花黄化病植原体的16S rDNA序列分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车海彦; 罗大全; 符瑞益; 叶莎冰; 吴云锋

    2009-01-01

    长春花(Catharanthus roseus)又名五瓣梅,为夹竹桃科长春花属多年生草本植物。不仅是一种可供观赏的多年生花卉,也是一种重要的南药植物。在自然条件下,长春花很容易感染不同种类的植原体株系,国内外已报道的自然感病长春花上的植原体,如长春花黄化植原体(Periwinkle yellows phytoplasma,PY),长春花小叶植原体(Periwinkle little leaf phytoplasma,CN1),美洲翠菊黄化植原体(American aster yellows phytoplasma,AAY)和马里兰翠菊黄化植原体(Maryland aster yellow phytoplasma,AY1),

  17. Molecular characterisation of phytoplasmas infecting roses in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Śliwa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Symptoms of shoot dieback and leaf yellowing followed by leaf chlorosis were observed in naturally infected roses 'Frisco' and 'Suela', cultivated in a commercial greenhouse in Poland. The presence of phytoplasma was demonstrated in affected plants by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR with R16Fl/RO and Pl/P7 primer pairs in the first round followed by a second one with R16F2n/R2, fA/rA, Pc399/P1694, R16(IFl/Rl and Pl/fArev primer pairs. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analysis of PCR products (primed with primers R16F2n/R2 was done using enzymes AluI, MseI, RsaI and HpaII. Restriction profiles obtained with these enzymes were identical to those of reference strain AY1 belonging to aster yellows phytoplasma group, subgroup I-B (16SrI-B. Nested PCR products from roses 'Frisco' and 'Suela' were sequenced. Analysis of sequences confirmed that the phytoplasma infecting those roses could be classified to aster yellows phytoplasma group, subgroup B.

  18. Improving Nocturnal Fire Detection with the VIIRS Day-Night Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Polivka, T. N.; Ellison, L.; Ichoku, C. M.; Hyer, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    Using the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), this study investigates the adjustment of fire pixel selection criteria to include visible light signatures at night, creating the Firelight Detection Algorithm (FILDA). This allows for greatly improved detection of smaller and cooler fires from satellite observations. VIIRS scenes with coincident Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER) overpasses are examined after applying the operational VIIRS fire product algorithm and including a modified "candidate fire pixel selection" approach, which lowers the 4 micron brightness temperature threshold from 305 K but includes a minimum day-night band (DNB) radiance. FILDA is tested by applying it to scenes in different environments, including large forest fires like the Rim Fire in California and High Park fire in Colorado, in addition to gas flares. A large increase in the number of detected fire pixels is observed with small non-agricultural wildfires, as verified with the finer-resolution ASTER data (90 m). Quantitative use of the DNB to improve detection of these smaller fires could lead to reduced warning and response times as well as provide more accurate quantification of biomass burning emissions at night.

  19. Automated mapping of mineral groups and green vegetation from Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery with an example from the San Juan Mountains, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.

    2013-01-01

    Multispectral satellite data acquired by the ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (TM) sensors are being used to populate an online Geographic Information System (GIS) of the spatial occurrence of mineral groups and green vegetation across the western conterminous United States and Alaska. These geospatial data are supporting U.S. Geological Survey national-scale mineral deposit database development and other mineral resource and geoenvironmental research as a means of characterizing mineral exposures related to mined and unmined hydrothermally altered rocks and mine waste. This report introduces a new methodology for the automated analysis of Landsat TM data that has been applied to more than 180 scenes covering the western United States. A map of mineral groups and green vegetation produced using this new methodology that covers the western San Juan Mountains, Colorado, and the Four Corners Region is presented. The map is provided as a layered GeoPDF and in GIS-ready digital format. TM data analysis results from other well-studied and mineralogically characterized areas with strong hydrothermal alteration and (or) supergene weathering of near-surface sulfide minerals are also shown and compared with results derived from ASTER data analysis.

  20. Application of Multispectral Satellite Data for Geological Mapping in Antarctic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour, A. B.; Hashim, M.; Hong, J. K.

    2016-09-01

    Remote sensing imagery is capable to provide a solution to overcome the difficulties associated with geological field mapping in the Antarctic. Advanced optical and radar satellite imagery is the most applicable tool for mapping and identification of inaccessible regions in Antarctic. Consequently, an improved scientific research using remote sensing technology would be essential to provide new and more complete lithological and structural data to fill the numerous knowledge gaps on Antarctica's geology. In this investigation, Oscar coast area in Graham Land, Antarctic Peninsula (AP) was selected to conduct a remote sensing study using Landsat-7 Thematic Mapper (TM), Landsat-8 and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data. Contrast-enhanced Red-Green-Blue (RGB) composites, band ratios and Relative Band Depth (RBD) image processing techniques were applied to Landsat-8 and ASTER dataset for establishing the spectral separation of the main lithologic groups exposed in the study area. The outcomes of this investigation demonstrated the applications of SWIR and TIR bands of the multispectral remote sensing datasets to identify lithological units and producing geological maps with suitable accuracy of ice-free rock regions in the Antarctic Peninsula. The results could be extended to map coverage of non-investigated regions further east and validated previously inferred geological observations concerning other rocks and mineral deposits throughout the Antarctica.

  1. Improvement of the spatial resolution of MODIS coastal waters thermal mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teggi, S.; Despini, F.; Ghermandi, G.; Serafini, M.

    2011-11-01

    Thermal mapping is an highly relevant tool for the assessment of the quality of coastal waters. Remote sensing is an useful technique for monitoring large surfaces in near real time, nevertheless, spatial resolution represents an important limiting factor. In this work it the spatial improvement, from 1km to 250m, of MODIS thermal imagery on coastal water obtained with the SWTI (SharpeningWater Thermal Imagery) is shown. This algorithm is applied, for the first time, to MODIS images acquired on the lagoon of Venice and on the delta of the Po River. The performances of SWTI are evaluated taking as a reference a couple of ASTER images acquired simultaneously to the MODIS images and on the same areas. Moreover, the water temperatures obtained with a simple bilinear interpolation of the MODIS images is also considered. Several statistical parameters, as bias and root mean square difference, are used to quantify the the difference between ASTER and MODIS/SWTI water temperatures along coastlines. In all the the cases these differences are lower than 1K.

  2. Thermal infrared spectra of surface rocks. Comparison of in the laboratory, in situ, and remote sensing data; Chihyo ganseki no netsusekigaiiki bunko tokusei. Chijo sokutei data to remote sensing data no hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ninomiya, Y.; Matsunaga, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    An ASTER (advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer) is one of the image sensors. It is to be installed in an earth survey polar orbit platform satellite, EOS-AM1, which is to be launched in 1998, and it is going to start its operation. Data observed by the thermal infrared remote sensing of ASTER include the spectral emissivity, and the spectral emission reflectivity which is expressed by the function of temperature. It is required to overcome technical problems how to extract the spectral emissivity from the observed data. The spectral emissivity extracted from the remote sensing data by the MMD method, measured for samples collected in Cuprite area, Nevada, and/or measured at sampled points were compared to each other and discussed. The hemisphere spectral reflectivity, which is indirect spectral emissivity, agreed well with the direct spectral emissivity. Data suggesting the establishment of Kirchhoff`s law were obtained even for the weathered samples. The spectral emissivity derived from the remote sensing data by the MMD method was in harmony with the spectral characteristics measured strictly on the ground. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  3. On-sky MOAO performance evaluation of RAVEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Y. H.; Correia, Carlos M.; Lardière, O.; Andersen, D. R.; Oya, S.; Akiyama, M.; Gamroth, D.; Jackson, K.; Martin, O.; Bradley, C.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the AO performance we got on-sky with RAVEN, a Multi-Object Adaptive Optics (MOAO) technical and science demonstrator installed and tested at the Subaru telescope. We report Ensquared-Energy (EE) and Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) measured from science images on Subaru's IRCS taken during all of the on-sky observing runs. We show these metrics as function of different AO modes and atmospheric conditions for two asterisms of natural guide stars. The performances of the MOAO and Ground-Layer AO (GLAO) modes are between the classical Single-Conjugate AO (SCAO) and seeing-limited modes. We achieve the EE of 30% in H-band with the MOAO correction, which is a science requirement for RAVEN. The MOAO provides sightly better performance than the GLAO mode in both asterisms. One of the reasons which cause this small difference between the MOAO and GLAO modes may be the strong GL contribution. Also, the performance of the MOAO modes is affected by the accuracy of the on-sky turbulence profiling by the SLOpe Detection And Ranging (SLODAR) method.

  4. New Products for Near Real-Time Enhanced Landslide Identification and Precipitation Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Pierel, J.; Ahamed, A.; Fayne, J.; Rumsey, A.

    2015-12-01

    Nepal and the Himalayan region are hotspots for landslide activity due to mountainous topography, complex terrain, and monsoon rains. Current research in landslide modeling and detection generally requires high resolution imagery with software aided classification or manual digitization by analysts. These methods are plagued by low spatial and temporal accuracy. Addressing issues in conventional measurement, this study combined optical data from Landsat 8, a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) generated from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), and precipitation data from the Global Precipitation Measurement Mission (GPM) to create two products. The Sudden Landslide Identification Product (SLIP) uses Landsat 8 and the ASTER DEM to identify landslides in near real-time, and provides damage assessments by mapping landslides triggered by precipitation. Detecting Real-time Increased Precipitation (DRIP) monitors precipitation levels extracted from the GPM-IMERG 30-minute product to create alerts in near real-time when current rainfall levels exceed regional threshold values. After a landslide detection is made by SLIP, historical rainfall data from DRIP is analyzed to estimate a date for the detected landslide. Together, DRIP and SLIP will be used by local and regional organizations in Nepal such as the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), as well as the international scientific community to protect lives, preserve infrastructure, and manage local ecosystems.

  5. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma lycopersici', a phytoplasma associated with 'hoja de perejil' disease in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arocha, Yaima; Antesana, Olivia; Montellano, Ernesto; Franco, Pablo; Plata, G; Jones, Phil

    2007-08-01

    New diseases known locally as 'hoja de perejil' of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) and 'brotes grandes' of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) were first recognized in surveys of production fields in Bolivia during 2000-2003. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) witches' broom and little leaf diseases of native weeds Morrenia variegata and mora-mora (Serjania perulacea) were also identified near to production fields. Phytoplasma aetiology was attributed to each of these diseases following detection and initial identification of aster yellows group (16SrI) phytoplasmas in all five diseased plant species. While potato, alfalfa and mora-mora plants contained indistinguishable 16SrI-B strains, 'hoja de perejil' (THP) and morrenia little leaf (MVLL)-associated phytoplasma strains shared 97.5 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with 'Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris' and related strains and <95 % similarity with all other 'Candidatus Phytoplasma' species. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the THP and MVLL phytoplasmas represent a novel lineage within the aster yellows (16SrI) group and, on the basis of unique 16S rRNA gene sequences, we propose that THP and MVLL phytoplasmas represent 'Candidatus Phytoplasma lycopersici', with THP as the reference strain.

  6. Stato evolutivo delle stelle della Cintura di Orione ed implicazioni archeoastronomiche

    CERN Document Server

    Orofino, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    In the present work it is evaluated the evolutionary state of the Orion Belt stars, an asterism very important for the ancient Egyptians, finding that, when the pyramids were built, the brightness of the three stars of the Belt was practically the same as today. This not trivial result has important implications in the framework of the so-called Orion Correlation Theory, a controversial theory proposed by Bauval and Gilbert (1994), according to which a perfect coincidence would exist between the disposition of the three stars of the Orion Belt and that of the main Giza pyramids, so that the latter would represent the monumental reproduction on the ground of that important asterism. ----------- Nel presente lavoro viene determinato lo stato evolutivo delle stelle della Cintura di Orione, ricavando che, all'epoca della costruzione delle piramidi, la luminosita' delle tre stelle della Cintura era di fatto uguale a quella odierna. Tale non banale risultato riveste una importanza fondamentale nell'ambito della ver...

  7. Estuarine Sediment Deposition during Wetland Restoration: A GIS and Remote Sensing Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomer, Michelle; Kuss, Amber; Kentron, Tyler; Remar, Alex; Choksi, Vivek; Skiles, J. W.

    2011-01-01

    Restoration of the industrial salt flats in the San Francisco Bay, California is an ongoing wetland rehabilitation project. Remote sensing maps of suspended sediment concentration, and other GIS predictor variables were used to model sediment deposition within these recently restored ponds. Suspended sediment concentrations were calibrated to reflectance values from Landsat TM 5 and ASTER using three statistical techniques -- linear regression, multivariate regression, and an Artificial Neural Network (ANN), to map suspended sediment concentrations. Multivariate and ANN regressions using ASTER proved to be the most accurate methods, yielding r2 values of 0.88 and 0.87, respectively. Predictor variables such as sediment grain size and tidal frequency were used in the Marsh Sedimentation (MARSED) model for predicting deposition rates for three years. MARSED results for a fully restored pond show a root mean square deviation (RMSD) of 66.8 mm (<1) between modeled and field observations. This model was further applied to a pond breached in November 2010 and indicated that the recently breached pond will reach equilibrium levels after 60 months of tidal inundation.

  8. Effectiveness of Asteraceae extracts on Trichostrongylidae eggs development in sheep Eficácia de extratos da família Asteraceae no desenvolvimento dos ovos de Trichostrongilídeos de ovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Krychak-Furtado

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Data on in vitro evaluation of extracts of three species of the Asteraceae family on the development of Trichostrongylidae eggs in sheep are presented. Egg hatchability was tested using herbal extracts prepared in a Soxhlet extractor, and using hydrolate prepared by means of hydrodistillation. The laboratory tests showed that the ethanol extract from flowers of the species Aster lanceolatus presented high activity against Trichostrongylidae eggs development in sheep, inhibiting larva formation by 91% within 48 hours, and maintaining similar rates after 72 hours.Apresentam-se dados da avaliação in vitro de três espécies vegetais da família Asteraceae sobre o desenvolvimento dos ovos de Trichostrongilídeos de ovinos. Realizou-se o teste de eclodibilidade com extratos vegetais preparados por aparelho de Soxhlet e hidrolato preparado por hidrodestilação. Os testes laboratoriais evidenciaram que o extrato etanólico das flores da espécie Aster lanceolatus apresenta alta atividade sobre o desenvolvimento dos ovos de Trichostrongilídeos de ovinos, inibindo em 91% a formação da larva em 48 horas, mantendo-se índices próximos em 72 horas.

  9. CSE1L/CAS, a microtubule-associated protein, inhibits taxol (paclitaxel)-induced apoptosis but enhances cancer cell apoptosis induced by various chemotherapeutic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ching-Fong; Luo, Shue-Fen; Shen, Tzu-Yun; Lin, Chin-Huang; Chien, Jung-Tsun; Du, Shin-Yi; Jiang, Ming-Chung

    2008-03-31

    CSE1L/CAS, a microtubule-associated, cellular apoptosis susceptibility protein, is highly expressed in various cancers. Microtubules are the target of paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. We studied the effects of increased or reduced CAS expression on cancer cell apoptosis induced by chemotherapeutic drugs including paclitaxel. Our results showed that CAS overexpression enhanced apoptosis induced by doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin, and tamoxifen, but inhibited paclitaxel-induced apoptosis of cancer cells. Reductions in CAS produced opposite results. CAS overexpression enhanced p53 accumulation induced by doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin, tamoxifen, and etoposide. CAS was associated with alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin and enhanced the association between alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin. Paclitaxel can induce G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and microtubule aster formation during apoptosis induction, but CAS overexpression reduced paclitaxel-induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and microtubule aster formation. Our results indicate that CAS may play an important role in regulating the cytotoxicities of chemotherapeutic drugs used in cancer chemotherapy against cancer cells.

  10. Glacier Retreat in the Cordillera Quimza Cruz (Tres Cruces), Bolivia from 1975 to present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, A. G.; Kincaid, J. L.; Brooks, R. M.

    2008-12-01

    The glaciers in the Cordillera Quimza Cruz (Tres Cruces) and two smaller Bolivian massifs represent the southernmost tropical glaciers found along the eastern margin of the Andes. Their marginal location makes them of particular interest. The extent of glaciers in the mid 1970s was determined though digitization of the published glacier inventory of Bolivia. In 1975, extent of glaciers in the Tres Cruces region was approximately 55.4 square kilometers. More recent extents were determined from Landsat and ASTER satellite images. Cloud-free Landsat images from 1986, 1992 and 2000 were georegistered and surface reflectances were computed. Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI) images were then computed and thresholded to create binary maps of snow- and glacier-covered pixels. From 1975 through 2000, the Tres Cruces Region lost a significant amount of its glacier area. Of the area identified as being glacier covered in 1975 only 27.4 square kilometers (49%) were identified as containing snow and ice in Landsat images from 2000. The glacier retreat time series is being updated as part of an ongoing undergraduate research program. More recent retreat mapped from multiple ASTER images from 2000-2006 indicates that glacier recession is continuing. Changes in glacier hypsometries indicate that much of the areal loss has occurred at lower altitudes. The influence of aspect on glacier retreat is the next area of investigation.

  11. APPLICATION OF MULTISPECTRAL SATELLITE DATA FOR GEOLOGICAL MAPPING IN ANTARCTIC ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Pour

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing imagery is capable to provide a solution to overcome the difficulties associated with geological field mapping in the Antarctic. Advanced optical and radar satellite imagery is the most applicable tool for mapping and identification of inaccessible regions in Antarctic. Consequently, an improved scientific research using remote sensing technology would be essential to provide new and more complete lithological and structural data to fill the numerous knowledge gaps on Antarctica’s geology. In this investigation, Oscar coast area in Graham Land, Antarctic Peninsula (AP was selected to conduct a remote sensing study using Landsat-7 Thematic Mapper (TM, Landsat-8 and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER data. Contrast-enhanced Red-Green-Blue (RGB composites, band ratios and Relative Band Depth (RBD image processing techniques were applied to Landsat-8 and ASTER dataset for establishing the spectral separation of the main lithologic groups exposed in the study area. The outcomes of this investigation demonstrated the applications of SWIR and TIR bands of the multispectral remote sensing datasets to identify lithological units and producing geological maps with suitable accuracy of ice-free rock regions in the Antarctic Peninsula. The results could be extended to map coverage of non-investigated regions further east and validated previously inferred geological observations concerning other rocks and mineral deposits throughout the Antarctica.

  12. Observation (Geomorphology) of the largest mega sand of central Iran Desert, Lut, Using Remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollhai, A.; Yamani, M.

    2009-04-01

    It is believed that the Lut desert features, in elevation and volume, are unique (even in the world) in central Iran. These huge morphological features will be an excellent Sedimentary Archive in quaternary explaining the climate condition and distribution of desert surface features on the earth, meanwhile the attention less has gone on the Aeolian features in the area of interest because it is hard to access. This papers aims to present these unique features by remote sensing data. Remote sensing data including, Irs Aster, Srtm and Arial photograph data were used to measure the dune migration and other aspects of desert environment. Sand dune morphology encompasses almost all typical desert features including single, linear, pyramid, star sand and others. compressing remote sensing data between 1955 and 2000 approves the single Barkhan is being migrated at the rate of 22.65 M per year and accelerate at the last period between 2000 and 2008. A large part of scarce vegetation represents active and rapid migration creating huge morphological features. Linear dune elevation reaches more than 430 M and shows the highest elevation of dune activity on Earth. To evaluate surface temperature Aster 08 production were used. The surface temperature on the sand is probably the highest temperature received by solar energy around 84 Celsius degrees resulting High thermal cell in central Iran. This causes to create huge morphological features in central Iran reaching more than 400 m high due to repetition and reactivation under closed circumstance system.

  13. Erosion Relevant Topographical Parameters Derived from Different DEMs—A Comparative Study from the Indian Lesser Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawanjeet S. Datta

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Topography is a crucial surface characteristic in soil erosion modeling. Soil erosion studies use a digital elevation model (DEM to derive the topographical characteristics of a study area. Majority of the times, a DEM is incorporated into erosion models as a given parameter and it is not tested as extensively as are the parameters related to soil, land-use and climate. This study compares erosion relevant topographical parameters—elevation, slope, aspect, LS factor—derived from 3 DEMs at original and 20 m interpolated resolution with field measurements for a 13 km2 watershed located in the Indian Lesser Himalaya. The DEMs are: a TOPO DEM generated from digitized contour lines on a 1:50,000 topographical map; a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM DEM at 90-m resolution; and an Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER DEM at 15-m resolution. Significant differences across the DEMs were observed for all the parameters. The highest resolution ASTER DEM was found to be the poorest of all the tested DEMs as the topographical parameters derived from it differed significantly from those derived from other DEMs and field measurements. TOPO DEM, which is, theoretically more detailed, produced similar results to the coarser SRTM DEM, but failed to produce an improved representation of the watershed topography. Comparison with field measurements and mixed regression modeling proved SRTM DEM to be the most reliable among the tested DEMs for the studied watershed.

  14. Soil emissivity and reflectance spectra measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobrino, Jose A.; Mattar, Cristian; Pardo, Pablo; Jimenez-Munoz, Juan C.; Hook, Simon J.; Baldridge, Alice; Ibanez, Rafael

    2009-07-01

    We present an analysis of the laboratory reflectance and emissivity spectra of 11 soil samples collected on different field campaigns carried out over a diverse suite of test sites in Europe, North Africa, and South America from 2002 to 2008. Hemispherical reflectance spectra were measured from 2.0 to 14 {mu}m with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, and x-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) was used to determine the mineralogical phases of the soil samples. Emissivity spectra were obtained from the hemispherical reflectance measurements using Kirchhoff's law and compared with in situ radiance measurements obtained with a CIMEL Electronique CE312-2 thermal radiometer and converted to emissivity using the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) temperature and emissivity separation algorithm. The CIMEL has five narrow bands at approximately the same positions as the ASTER. Results show a root mean square error typically below 0.015 between laboratory emissivity measurements and emissivity measurements derived from the field radiometer.

  15. Impact of Three-Dimensional Radiative Effects on Satellite Retrievals of Cloud Droplet Sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshak, Alexander; Platnick, Steven; Varnai, Tamas; Wen, Guoyong; Cahalan, Robert F.

    2006-01-01

    There are several dozen papers that study the effects of cloud horizontal inhomogeneity on the retrievals of cloud optical thickness, but only a few of them deal with cloud droplet sizes. This paper is one of the first comprehensive attempts to fill this gap: It takes a close theoretical look at the radiative effects of cloud 3-D structure in retrievals of droplet effective radii. Under some general assumptions, it was found that ignoring subpixel (unresolved) variability produces a negative bias in the retrieved effective radius, while ignoring cloud inhomogeneity at scales larger than a pixel scale (resolved variability), on the contrary, leads to overestimation of the domain average droplet size. The theoretical results are illustrated with examples from Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of cumulus (Cu) and stratocumulus (Sc) cloud fields. The analysis of cloud drop size distributions retrieved from both LES fields confirms that ignoring shadowing in 1-D retrievals results in substantial overestimation of effective radii which is more pronounced for broken Cu than for Sc clouds. Collocated measurements of broken Cu clouds by Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) are used to check simulations and theory with observations. The analysis of ASTER and MODIS data and associated derived products recommends against blindly using retrieved effective radii for broken cloud fields, especially if one wants to relate aerosol amounts to cloud droplet sizes.

  16. Positioning of microtubule organizing centers by cortical pushing and pulling forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavin, Nenad; Laan, Liedewij; Ma, Rui; Dogterom, Marileen; Jülicher, Frank

    2012-10-01

    Positioning of microtubule (MT) organizing centers with respect to the confining geometry of cells depends on pushing and/or pulling forces generated by MTs that interact with the cell cortex (Dogterom et al 2005 Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 17 67-74). How, in living cells, these forces lead to proper positioning is still largely an open question. Recently, it was shown by in vitro experiments using artificial microchambers that in a square geometry, MT asters center more reliably by a combination of pulling and pushing forces than by pushing forces alone (Laan et al 2012a Cell 148 502-14). These findings were explained by a physical description of aster mechanics that includes slipping of pushing MT ends along chamber boundaries. In this paper, we extend that theoretical work by studying the influence of the shape of the confining geometry on the positioning process. We find that pushing and pulling forces can have centering or off-centering behavior in different geometries. Pushing forces center in a one-dimensional and a square geometry, but lead to off-centering in a circle if slipping is sufficiently pronounced. Pulling forces, however, do not center in a one-dimensional geometry, but improve centering in a circle and a square. In an elongated stadium geometry, positioning along the short axis depends mainly on pulling forces, while positioning along the long axis depends mainly on pushing forces. Our theoretical results suggest that different positioning strategies could be used by different cell types.

  17. Colombia Mi Pronostico Flood Application: Updating and Improving the Mi Pronostico Flood Web Application to Include an Assessment of Flood Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushley, Stephanie; Carter, Matthew; Chiou, Charles; Farmer, Richard; Haywood, Kevin; Pototzky, Anthony, Jr.; White, Adam; Winker, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Colombia is a country with highly variable terrain, from the Andes Mountains to plains and coastal areas, many of these areas are prone to flooding disasters. To identify these risk areas NASA's Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) was used to construct a digital elevation model (DEM) for the study region. The preliminary risk assessment was applied to a pilot study area, the La Mosca River basin. Precipitation data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)'s near-real-time rainfall products as well as precipitation data from the Instituto de Hidrologia, Meteorologia y Estudios Ambientales (the Institute of Hydrology, Meteorology and Environmental Studies, IDEAM) and stations in the La Mosca River Basin were used to create rainfall distribution maps for the region. Using the precipitation data and the ASTER DEM, the web application, Mi Pronóstico, run by IDEAM, was updated to include an interactive map which currently allows users to search for a location and view the vulnerability and current weather and flooding conditions. The geospatial information was linked to an early warning system in Mi Pronóstico that can alert the public of flood warnings and identify locations of nearby shelters.

  18. Mapping of Muslim Bagh ophiolite complex (Pakistan) using new remote sensing, and field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shuhab D.; Mahmood, Khalid; Casey, John F.

    2007-04-01

    TETHYS is a relational GIS database that combines geophysical, remote sensing, geochemical, and geochronological data, developed as a flexible resource for studying magmatic and geodynamic responses to continental collisions. In this paper, we demonstrate utility of our database by integrating field, remote sensing, and structural data, for detailed mapping and tectonic emplacement of Muslim Bagh ophiolite of western Pakistan. This ophiolite forms the uppermost part of a nappe pile which accreted onto the Indian continental margin during the closure of the Neo-Tethys during a pre-terminal collision that predated the final closure of Tethys during the major collision between India and Eurasia. Utilizing the TETHYS, Landsat, ASTER imagery, and a digital elevation model developed from the ASTER data are used to characterize the lithology and structure of the area. Use of image processing techniques improved the geologic map of the area, for a better understanding of the tectonic emplacement of the Muslim Bagh ophiolite. For the first time we report that the dikes in the Muslim Bagh ophiolite are cutting the metamorphic sole. Our preliminary geochemical data for sheeted dike complex suggest chemical affinities with arc-related rocks. This observation suggests that dikes were intruded in an island arc environment soon after the ophiolite was formed.

  19. Relationships between vegetation indices and different burn and vegetation ratios: a multi-scale approach applied in a fire affected area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleniou, M.; Koutsias, N.

    2013-08-01

    Vegetation indices have been widely used in remote sensing literature for burned land mapping and monitoring. In the present study we used satellite data (IKONOS, LANDSAT, ASTER, MODIS) of multiple spectral (visible, near, shortwave infrared) and spatial (1-500 meters) resolutions, acquired shortly after a very destructive fire occurred in the mountain of Parnitha in Attica, Greece the summer of 2007. The aim of our study is to examine and evaluate the performance of some vegetation indices for burned land mapping and also to characterize the relationships between vegetation indices and the percent of fire-scorched (burned) and non fire-scorched (vegetated) areas. The available satellite images were processed geometrically, radiometrically and atmospherically. The very high resolution IKONOS imagery was served as a base to estimate the percent of cover of burned areas, bare soil and vegetation by applying the maximum likelihood classification algorithm. The percent of cover for each type was then correlated to vegetation indices for all the satellite images, and regression models were fit to characterize those relationships. In total 57 versions of some classical vegetation indices were computed using LANDSAT, ASTER and MODIS data. Most of them were modified by replacing Red with SWIR channel, as the latter has been proved sensitive to burned area discrimination. IPVI and NDVI showed a better performance among the indices tested to estimate the percent of vegetation, while most of the modified versions of the indices showed highest performance to estimate the percent of burned areas.

  20. Native Michigan plants stimulate soil microbial species changes and PAH remediation at a legacy steel mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, John C; Cable, Edward; Dabkowski, Robert T; Gargala, Stephanie; McCall, Daniel; Pangrazzi, Garett; Pierson, Adam; Ripper, Mark; Russell, Donald K; Rugh, Clayton L

    2013-01-01

    A 1.3-acre phytoremediation site was constructed to mitigate polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination from a former steel mill in Michigan. Soil was amended with 10% (v/v) compost and 5% (v/v) poultry litter. The site was divided into twelve 11.89 m X 27.13 m plots, planted with approximately 35,000 native Michigan perennials, and soils sampled for three seasons. Soil microbial density generally increased in subplots of Eupatorium perfoliatum (boneset), Aster novae-angliae (New England aster), Andropogon gerardii (big bluestem), and Scirpus atrovirens (green bulrush) versus unplanted subplots. Using enumeration assays with root exudates, PAH degrading bacteria were greatest in soils beneath plants. Initially predominant, Arthrobacter were found capable of degrading a PAH cocktail in vitro, especially upon the addition of root exudate. Growth of some Arthrobacter isolates was stimulated by root exudate. The frequency of Arthrobacter declined in planted subplots with a concurrent increase in other species, including secondary PAH degraders Bacillus and Nocardioides. In subplots supporting only weeds, an increase in Pseudomonas density and little PAH removal were observed. This study supports the notion that a dynamic interplay between the soil, bacteria, and native plant root secretions likely contributes to in situ PAH phytoremediation.

  1. Chronological Reorganization of Microtubules, Actin Microfilaments, and Chromatin during the First Cell Cycle in Swamp Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibuntita Chankitisakul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to study the dynamics of early embryonic development, in terms of redistribution of cytoskeleton (microtubules, actin microfilaments and chromatin configurations during the first cell cycle in swamp buffalo embryos. Oocytes were matured and fertilized in vitro, and they were fixed at various time points after IVF. At 6 h after IVF, 44.4% matured oocytes were penetrated by spermatozoa. Partial ZP digestion, however, did not improve fertilization rate compared to control (P>.05. At 12 h after IVF, the fertilized oocytes progressed to the second meiotic division and formed the female pronucleus simultaneously with the paternal chromatin continued to decondense. A sperm aster was observed radiating from the base of the decondensing sperm head. At 18 h after IVF, most presumptive zygotes had reached the pronuclear stage. The sperm aster was concurrently enlarged to assist the migration and apposition of pronuclei. Cell cleavage was facilitated by microfilaments and firstly observed by 30 h after IVF. In conclusion, the cytoskeleton actively involves with the process of fertilization and cleavage in swamp buffalo oocytes. The centrosomal material is paternally inherited. Fertilization failure is predominantly caused by poor sperm penetration. However, partial digestion of ZP did not improve fertilization rate.

  2. A surge of the glaciers Skobreen–Paulabreen, Svalbard, observed by time-lapse photographs and remote sensing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lene Kristensen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We present observations of a surge of the glaciers Skobreen–Paulabreen, Svalbard, during 2003–05, including a time-lapse movie of the frontal advance during 2005, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission (ASTER imagery and oblique aerial photographs. The surge initiated in Skobreen, and then propagated downglacier into the lower parts of Paulabreen. ASTER satellite images from different stages of the surge are used to evaluate the surge progression. Features on the glacier surface advanced 2800 m over 2.4 yr, averaging 3.2 m/day, while the front advanced less (ca. 1300 m due to contemporaneous calving. The surge resulted in a lateral displacement of the medial moraines of Paulabreen of ca. 600 m at the glacier front. The time-lapse movie captured the advance of the frontal part of the glacier, and dramatically illustrates glacier dynamic processes in an accessible way. The movie documents a range of processes such as a plug-like flow of the glacier, proglacial thrusting, incorporation of old, dead ice at the margin, and calving into the fjord. The movie provides a useful resource for researchers, educators seeking to teach and inspire students, and those wishing to communicate the fascination of glacier science to a wider public.

  3. Glacier Area and Mass Changes in the Eastern Pamir Plateau, China, Since the Early 1960s as Derived from Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiyin; Zhang, Zhen; Jiang, Zongli; Wei, Junfeng; Shangguan, Donghui; Xu, Junli; Guo, Wanqin; Bao, Weijia

    2016-08-01

    The assessment of glacier area and mass change is crucial for assessing water reserves stored in glaciers. By comparing both the first (1963) and second Chinese glacier inventories (2009), our results indicated that glaciers in the region have been retreating by 10.8±1.1%. Glaciers in the eastern Pamir Plateau have experienced spatially heterogeneous change: slight shrinkage of glaciers was found in Muztag Ata and Kongur Tagh. However, the glaciers in Muztag Ata and Kongur Tagh have seen an overall loss of -6.99 ± 0.80 km3 in ice volume or -0.15±0.12 m water equivalent (w.e.) a-1 from 1971/76 to 2013/14 based on DEMs from ASTER, Cartosat-1, SRTM and topographic maps. In addition, the western tributary of Karayaylak Glacier surged in May 2015 was monitored with the changes of surface elevation and velocity by ASTER and Landsat images. The surge may be controlled by thermal condition.

  4. The kinesin-13 KLP10A motor regulates oocyte spindle length and affects EB1 binding without altering microtubule growth rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin K. Do

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Kinesin-13 motors are unusual in that they do not walk along microtubules, but instead diffuse to the ends, where they remove tubulin dimers, regulating microtubule dynamics. Here we show that Drosophila kinesin-13 klp10A regulates oocyte meiosis I spindle length and is haplo-insufficient – KLP10A, reduced by RNAi or a loss-of-function P element insertion mutant, results in elongated and mispositioned oocyte spindles, and abnormal cortical microtubule asters and aggregates. KLP10A knockdown by RNAi does not significantly affect microtubule growth rates in oocyte spindles, but, unexpectedly, EB1 binding and unbinding are slowed, suggesting a previously unobserved role for kinesin-13 in mediating EB1 binding interactions with microtubules. Kinesin-13 may regulate spindle length both by disassembling subunits from microtubule ends and facilitating EB1 binding to plus ends. We also observe an increased number of paused microtubules in klp10A RNAi knockdown spindles, consistent with a reduced frequency of microtubule catastrophes. Overall, our findings indicate that reduced kinesin-13 decreases microtubule disassembly rates and affects EB1 interactions with microtubules, rather than altering microtubule growth rates, causing spindles to elongate and abnormal cortical microtubule asters and aggregates to form.

  5. Molecular phylogenies support homoplasy of multiple morphological characters used in the taxonomy of Heteroscleromorpha (Porifera: Demospongiae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Christine C; Redmond, Niamh E; Picton, Bernard E; Thacker, Robert W; Collins, Allen G; Maggs, Christine A; Sigwart, Julia D; Allcock, A Louise

    2013-09-01

    Sponge classification has long been based mainly on morphocladistic analyses but is now being greatly challenged by more than 12 years of accumulated analyses of molecular data analyses. The current study used phylogenetic hypotheses based on sequence data from 18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, and the CO1 barcoding fragment, combined with morphology to justify the resurrection of the order Axinellida Lévi, 1953. Axinellida occupies a key position in different morphologically derived topologies. The abandonment of Axinellida and the establishment of Halichondrida Vosmaer, 1887 sensu lato to contain Halichondriidae Gray, 1867, Axinellidae Carter, 1875, Bubaridae Topsent, 1894, Heteroxyidae Dendy, 1905, and a new family Dictyonellidae van Soest et al., 1990 was based on the conclusion that an axially condensed skeleton evolved independently in separate lineages in preference to the less parsimonious assumption that asters (star-shaped spicules), acanthostyles (club-shaped spicules with spines), and sigmata (C-shaped spicules) each evolved more than once. Our new molecular trees are congruent and contrast with the earlier, morphologically based, trees. The results show that axially condensed skeletons, asters, acanthostyles, and sigmata are all homoplasious characters. The unrecognized homoplasious nature of these characters explains much of the incongruence between molecular-based and morphology-based phylogenies. We use the molecular trees presented here as a basis for re-interpreting the morphological characters within Heteroscleromorpha. The implications for the classification of Heteroscleromorpha are discussed and a new order Biemnida ord. nov. is erected.

  6. 银川市区两种广植园林植物种子萌发期抗旱性比较%Drought-resistance Comparison of Two Widely Planting Garden Plants During Seed Germination of Yinchuan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏鹏; 张树杰; 王敏; 张存智; 强国雄

    2015-01-01

    In order to compare the drought‐resistance of Aster novi‐belgii with Dianthus chinensis cv .American during seed germinating period ,two experimental materials were studied under drought stress simulated by 1/2Hoagland solution having different concentration of PEG‐6000 .The results showed that :The total germina‐ting rate of Aster novi‐belgii and Dianthus chinensis cv .American reached maximum point 84% and 83 .3%corresponding to 5% treatment ,and the total germinating rate of Aster novi‐belgii and Dianthus chinensis cv . American decreased with the increasing content of PEG‐6000 .Three characteristic values including the embryo bud length ,the fresh weight and vigor index of two plants all decreased with the increasing of PEG‐6000 con‐tent ,the embryo root length reached maximum when the concentration of PEG‐6000 equaled to 10% ,then de‐creased gradually .The drought resistance index of Aster novi‐belgii reached highest point 1 .214 corresponding to 5% treatment ,while the drought resistance index of Dianthus chinensis cv .American descended from 1 .000 to 0 .048 .The membership function was used to calculate the membership values of the total germinating rate , the embryo bud length ,the embryo root length ,the fresh weight ,vigor index and drought resistance index for assessing drought‐resistent ability of two plants comprehensively ,the total average membership value was 0 .379 and 0 .398 ,therefore ,the the drought‐resistance of Dianthus chinensis cv .American was higher than As‐ter novi‐belgii .%为使旱区绿化植物科学配置及优化管理,利用不同浓度PEG‐6000的1/2Hoagland溶液模拟干旱胁迫,对美国石竹与荷兰菊种子萌发期的抗旱性进行比较。结果表明:当PEG‐6000浓度为5%时,荷兰菊(Aster novi‐belgii)与美国石竹(Dianthus chinensis cv .American)总萌发率最高,分别为84%与83.3%,然后随着PEG‐6000浓度的升高,2种

  7. Comparison between hydrographically conditioned digital elevation models in the morphometric charaterization of watersheds Comparação de modelos digitais de elevação hidrograficamente condicionados na caracterização morfométrica de bacias hidrográficas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo A. S. Guedes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the hydrographically conditioned digital elevation models (HCDEMs generated from data of VNIR (Visible Near Infrared sensor of ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer, of SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission and topographical maps from IBGE in a scale of 1:50,000, processed in the Geographical Information System (GIS, aiming the morphometric characterization of watersheds. It was taken as basis the Sub-basin of São Bartolomeu River, obtaining morphometric characteristics from HCDEMs. Root Mean Square Error (RMSE and cross validation were the statistics indexes used to evaluate the quality of HCDEMs. The percentage differences in the morphometric parameters obtained from these three different data sets were less than 10%, except for the mean slope (21%. In general, it was observed a good agreement between HCDEMs generated from remote sensing data and IBGE maps. The result of HCDEM ASTER was slightly higher than that from HCDEM SRTM. The HCDEM ASTER was more accurate than the HCDEM SRTM in basins with high altitudes and rugged terrain, by presenting frequency altimetry nearest to HCDEM IBGE, considered standard in this study.O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar modelos digitais de elevação hidrograficamente condicionados (MDEHCs, gerados a partir de dados do sensor VNIR (Visible Near Infrared do ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer, da SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission e de cartas topográficas do IBGE na escala 1:50.000, processados em Sistema de Informações Geográficas (SIG, visando à caracterização morfométrica de bacias hidrográficas. A área de estudo selecionada foi a sub-bacia hidrográfica do Ribeirão São Bartolomeu, sendo obtidas as características morfométricas a partir dos MDEHCs. Aplicaram-se o índice estatístico Raiz do Erro Médio Quadrático (REMQ e a validação cruzada para avaliar a qualidade dos MDEHCs. A

  8. Surface Elevation Changes and Velocities from Remote-Sensing Data at Vil'kitskogo, Inostranzeva and Bunge Glaciers on the Novaya Zemlya Icefield in the Russian High Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkonian, A. K.; Willis, M. J.; Pritchard, M. E.; Stewart, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Northern Ice Cap of Novaya Zemlya is the largest (22,000 km2) and most rapidly changing ice cap in the Russian High Arctic, accounting for 80% of the region's estimated 0.025 mm/yr contribution to sea level rise between 2003-2009 (Moholdt et al., 2012). We use several remote sensing instruments to extend this time series forward and instead of computing a regional average, we seek a detailed glacier-by-glacier inventory of elevation and velocity changes. Here, we focus on three glaciers along the Barents Sea coast of the ice cap: Vil'kitskogo, Inostranzeva and Bunge, all of which experienced area reduction at an average rate of roughly 1 sq. km/yr from 1990 to 2000 (Kouraev, Legrésy and Remy, 2006). Our estimates of the current surface elevation change rates (dh/dt) and velocities at these glaciers will allow us to determine the connections between thinning, dynamics and the documented climatic changes -- 2004-2009 mean summer temperatures in Novaya Zemlya were anomalously high, +0.50×0.28C greater than mean summer temperatures from 1980-2009 (Moholdt et al., 2012), while Meng (2013) found that melt duration increased by 1.3 days/yr from 1996 to 2011. Based on warming and increased melt in the region, we expect to find a seasonally-related increase in velocity. Comparing acceleration (or the lack thereof) with thinning rates and combining both with existing bathymetry to calculate flux will enable us to estimate the contribution of dynamics to mass change at these glaciers relative to melt. We estimate dh/dt by applying a weighted linear regression to time series of ASTER DEMs acquired between 2003/07/29 to 2013/07/27 and Russian cartographic DEMs issued in 1970/71. Glacier velocities are calculated using automated normalized cross correlation, or 'pixel-tracking', applied to ASTER image pairs from 2003 to 2013. We supplement our ASTER time series with velocities and DEMs from very high-resolution (0.5-2 m/pixel) imagery acquired by QuickBird, WorldView and

  9. Performances evaluation of different open source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Patel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Open sources DEMs such as SRTM, ASTER and Cartosat-1, various factors affecting the accuracy of satellite based DEM such as errors during data collection, systematic errors and unknown errors that are geographically dependent on terrain conditions cannot be avoided. For these reasons it is very necessary to check and compare the performances and validation of the above mentioned different satellite based DEMs. Accuracy assessment of these DEM has been done using DGPS points. For these points proper interpolation of the surface was developed using different interpolation techniques. For the generation of the surface the first step was converting the satellite based DEMs height into linear interpolation contour maps of 1 m interval. Then came selecting random sample points on the contour line and generating the interpolated surface using different interpolation techniques such as IDW, GPI, RBF, OK and UK, LPI, TR and BI, which are commonly used in geomorphology research. This interpolated surface helps in proper representation of the terrain and was checked under different terrain surfaces. For validation of DGPS points the height was taken for ground control points and standard statistical tests such as ME and RMSE were applied. From above investigation, it is reveals that above mention DEMs which are used for study. Cartosat-1 (30 m data product is better than SRTM (90 m and ASTER (30 m because it had produced low RMSE of 3.49 m without applying the interpolation method. Investigation also reveals after applying the interpolation techniques on this data error can be reduced. In the case of Cartosat-1 and SRTM, low RMSE and ME were produced by the BI method, where Cartosat-1 DEM had an RMSE of 3.36 m with ME of −2.74 m, respectively. But in this case, RMSE and ME of SRTM is 2.73 m and −0.36 m, respectively. BI is designed for image processing and can be used for imagery were a maximum height variation in satellite DEM and terrain

  10. Processing, validating, and comparing DEMs for geomorphic application on the Puna de Atacama Plateau, northwest Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purinton, Benjamin; Bookhagen, Bodo

    2016-04-01

    This study analyzes multiple topographic datasets derived from various remote-sensing methods from the Pocitos Basin of the central Puna Plateau in northwest Argentina at the border to Chile. Here, the arid climate and clear atmospheric conditions and lack of vegetation provide ideal conditions for remote sensing and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) comparison. We compare the following freely available DEMs: SRTM-X (spatial resolution of ~30 m), SRTM-C v4.1 (90 m), and ASTER GDEM2 (30 m). Additional DEMs for comparison are generated from optical and radar datasets acquired freely (ASTER Level 1B stereo pairs and Sentinal-1A radar), through research agreements (RapidEye Level 1B scenes, ALOS radar, and ENVISAT radar), and through commercial sources (TerraSAR-X / TanDEM-X radar). DEMs from ASTER (spatial resolution of 15 m) and RapidEye (~5-10 m) optical datasets are produced by standard photogrammetric techniques and have been post-processed for validation and alignment purposes. Because RapidEye scenes are captured at a low incidence angle (validated against over 400,000 differential GPS (dGPS) measurements gathered during four field campaigns in 2012 and 2014 to 2016. Of these points, more than 250,000 lie within the Pocitos Basin with average vertical and horizontal accuracies of 0.95 m and 0.69 m, respectively. Dataset accuracy is judged by the lowest standard deviations of elevation compared with the dGPS data and with the SRTM-X control DEM. Of particular interest in the field of quantitative geomorphology are topometrics (e.g., relief, channel steepness, and hillslope concavity) derived from the DEMs. The accuracy of these metrics is partly dependent on the overall DEM accuracy, but also on the accuracy of the depiction of the river network (a small areal fraction of the DEM). In addition, several topometrics depend on the first and second derivative of elevation (slope and curvature), which are affected by DEM accuracy and noise. In light of these issues

  11. Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing of the Yellowstone Geothermal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, R. G.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; Heasler, H.; Jaworowski, C.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Schneider, D. J.

    2009-12-01

    The Yellowstone National Park (YNP) geothermal system is one of the largest in the world, with thousands of individual thermal features ranging in size from a few centimeters to tens of meters across, (e.g., fumaroles, geysers, mud pots and hot spring pools). Together, large concentrations of these thermal features make up dozens of distinct thermal areas, characterized by sparse vegetation, hydrothermally altered rocks, and usually either sinter, travertine, or acid sulfate alteration. The temperature of these thermal features generally ranges from ~30 to ~93 oC, which is the boiling temperature of water at the elevation of Yellowstone. In-situ temperature measurements of various thermal features are sparse in both space and time, but they show a dynamic time-temperature relationship. For example, as geysers erupt and send pulses of warm water down slope, the warm water cools rapidly and is then followed by another pulse of warm water, on time scales of minutes. The total heat flux from the Park’s thermal features has been indirectly estimated from chemical analysis of Cl- flux in water flowing from Yellowstone’s rivers. We are working to provide a more direct measurement, as well as estimates of time variability, of the total heat flux using satellite multispectral thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing data. Over the last 10 years, NASA’s orbiting ASTER and MODIS instruments have acquired hundreds and thousands of multispectral TIR images, respectively, over the YNP area. Compared with some volcanoes, Yellowstone is a relatively low-temperature geothermal system, with low thermal contrast to the non-geothermal surrounding areas; therefore we are refining existing techniques to extract surface temperature and thermal flux information. This task is complicated by issues such as, during the day, solar heated surfaces may be warmer than nearby geothermal features; and there is some topographic (elevation) influence on surface temperatures, even at night. Still

  12. Remote Sensing Assessment of Soil Moisture, Soil Mineralogy and other Environmental Factors Influencing Mosquito-borne Infection Risks in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, U.S. - Mexico Border (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, B. E.; Folger, H. W.; Page, W. R.

    2010-12-01

    A dengue fever outbreak occurred near Matamoros, Mexico along the Lower Rio Grande Valley during the summer of 2005 following heavy rainfall from Tropical Storm Gert and Hurricane Emily. This outbreak exemplifies the need for monitoring soil moisture and mapping soil permeability factors affecting the breeding and distribution of mosquito species capable of spreading disease. For example, the Rio Grande delta of South Texas and North Tamaulipas Mexico is inhabited by over 50 native and invasive species of mosquitoes capable of hosting Malaria, West Nile Virus and other types of human and livestock infecting Encephalitis. They range in ecological habitats from coastal salt marshes to freshwater riparian wetlands, tree holes and/or urban containers, flooded agricultural fields, and the many irrigation canals and ditches present throughout our study area. For this study, water-saturated and flooded soils were mapped using a “soil moisture availability” index (Mo) based on normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) images and surface radiant and/or kinetic temperature images derived from multi-temporal Landsat-7 ETM+ and ASTER imagery. In particular, the Landsat-7 imagery covers ten cloud-free or minimal cloud cover acquisition dates during drought and wet periods of 2002, prior to the scan-line corrector failure in 2003. This includes one date (August 18, 2002) of co-orbital swath coverage between Landsat and ASTER, acquired after the land fall and dissipation of Tropical Storm Bertha (August 09, 2002). ASTER image dates used include those before and after the land fall of Hurricane Emily on July 20, 2005. The resulting maps show the distribution of relatively permeable (i.e. sandier) and impermeable soil types, the latter of which are dominated by clay-rich soils deposited in remnant interdistributary channels as channel-fill, and overbank flood deposits along the modern Rio Grande delta and portions of the (remapped) Pleistocene Beaumont coastal deltaic plain

  13. An evaluation of onshore digital elevation models for tsunami inundation modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, J.; Latief, H.; Kongko, W.; Harig, S.; Horspool, N.; Hanung, R.; Rojali, A.; Maher, N.; Fountain, L.; Fuchs, A.; Hossen, J.; Upi, S.; Dewanto, S. E.; Cummins, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    Tsunami inundation models provide fundamental information about coastal areas that may be inundated in the event of a tsunami along with additional parameters such as flow depth and velocity. This can inform disaster management activities including evacuation planning, impact and risk assessment and coastal engineering. A fundamental input to tsunami inundation models is adigital elevation model (DEM). Onshore DEMs vary widely in resolution, accuracy, availability and cost. A proper assessment of how the accuracy and resolution of DEMs translates into uncertainties in modelled inundation is needed to ensure results are appropriately interpreted and used. This assessment can in turn informdata acquisition strategies depending on the purpose of the inundation model. For example, lower accuracy elevation data may give inundation results that are sufficiently accurate to plan a community's evacuation route but not sufficient to inform engineering of a vertical evacuation shelters. A sensitivity study is undertaken to assess the utility of different available onshore digital elevation models for tsunami inundation modelling. We compare airborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR), ASTER and SRTM against high resolution (historical tsunami run-up data. Large vertical errors (> 10 m) and poor resolution of the coastline in the ASTER and SRTM elevation models cause modelled inundation to be much less compared with models using better data and with observations. Therefore we recommend that ASTER and SRTM should not be used for modelling tsunami inundation in order to determine tsunami extent or any other measure of onshore tsunami hazard. We suggest that for certain disaster management applications where the important factor is the extent of inundation, such as evacuation planning, airborne IFSAR provides a good compromise between cost and accuracy; however the representation of flow parameters such as depth and velocity is not sufficient to inform detailed

  14. Characterizing englacial and subglacial weathering processes in a silicate-carbonate system at Robertson Glacier, Canada: Combining field measurements and remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, A. M.; Christensen, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    Geologic weathering processes in cold environments, especially processes acting on subglacial and englacial sediments and rocks, are not well characterized due to the difficulty of accessing these environments. However, subglacial and englacial weathering of geologic materials contributes to the solute flux in meltwater and provides a potential source of energy to chemotrophic microbes, and is thus an important component to understand. In this study, we characterize the weathering products present in a glaciated silicate-carbonate system using infrared spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and geochemical analyses. We use Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data to determine whether glacial weathering products can be detected from remotely detected infrared spectra. The major goals of the project are to quantify weathering inputs to the glacial energy budget, and to link in situ sampling with remote sensing capabilities. Robertson Glacier, Alberta, Canada (115°20'W, 50°44'N) provides an excellent field site for this technique as it is accessible, and its retreating stage allows sampling of fresh subglacial and englacial sediments. This site is also of great significance to microbiology studies due to the recent detection of methanogens in the local subglacial till. Samples of glacially altered rock and sediments were collected on a downstream transect of the glacier in September 2011. Infrared laboratory spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction were used to determine the composition and abundance of minerals present. Infrared imagery of the region was collected at the time of sampling with the ASTER satellite instrument. Geochemical data were also collected at each location, and ice and water samples were analyzed for major and minor elements. pH values decreased in the downstream direction, and Ca+2 and SO4-2 in solution increased downstream. This is initially consistent with earlier studies of similar systems; however, the majority of

  15. Establishment of the mechanism of cytokinesis in animal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, R

    1986-01-01

    The division mechanism is fixed in the surface during anaphase or about 4 minutes before furrowing begins in cylindrical cells. Under experimental conditions, the minimum time that the mitotic apparatus must act upon the surface is about 1 minute. The stimulus period is followed by a latent period of 2-3 minutes. The time of furrow formation can be advanced or delayed by manipulating the surface and the mitotic apparatus. Since furrows can be elicited long after normal division would have been completed, it is suggested that the brevity of the normal interaction period is not a consequence of the constitution of the interactants. The component of the mitotic apparatus that establishes the furrow moves from the region of the mitotic axis to the surface at 6-8 microns/minute, The components of the mitotic apparatus that are essential for furrow establishment are confined to the achromatic regions. In spherical cells with large asters, the spindles are not required, although the spindle's ability to establish furrows in spherical cells can be demonstrated by changing the cell's geometry. In nonspherical cells with small asters, the spindle is probably the normal active agent. Although the ability of the mitotic apparatus to establish furrows can be diminished or abolished by measures that reduce its overall size, there are no decisive data concerning which of its ultrastructural components play essential roles in cytokinesis. The effect of changing the geometrical relation between the mitotic apparatus and the surface differs according to the region affected. Division can be blocked or impeded only by changing the relation between the equatorial surface and the mitotic apparatus. The ability of the mitotic apparatus to establish furrows is diminished by increasing the distance between the astral centers and also by increasing the distance between the mitotic axis and the equatorial surface. The cleavage block that results from reduction in size of the mitotic

  16. Study on IAX Communication Protocol%IAX通信协议的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建伟; 章建军

    2010-01-01

    Asterisk是一种支持软交换的开源软件PBX系统,该系统既支持传统的电话技术,也支持现有的各种VoIP协议,并实现了各种VoIP协议之间,以及VoIP协议和PSTN信令协议(如SS7)之间的透明桥接.本文着重介绍Asterisk内部协议IAX2的特点、工作流程及其与SIP之间的区别,并给出基于IAX2的VoIP应用方案.

  17. Prospection for Copper Mineralization with Contribution of Remote Sensing, Geochemical and Mineralographical Data in Abhar 1:100,000 Sheet, NW Iran / Poszukiwania ZASOBÓW Rud Miedzi Z Zastosowaniem Zdalnych Technik WYKORZYSTUJĄCYCH Dane Geochemiczne i Mineralogiczne W POKŁADZIE Geologicznym Abhar 1:100,000 W PÓŁNOCNO-ZACHODNIM Iranie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Reza; Jafari, Mohammadreza; Arian, Mehran; Feizi, Faranak; Afzal, Peyman

    2013-12-01

    Abhar 1:100,000 sheet is located within the Cenozoic Tarom volcano-plutonic belt, NW Iran. The present study is based on the integration of remote sensing techniques on Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), geochemical data analysis consisting of stream sediment and lithogeochemical samples, within geological field observations and mineralographical studies to identify Cu prospect. On ASTER data; using a number of selected methods including band ratio, Least Square Fit (LS-Fit) and Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) distinguished alternation zones. These methods revealed that three types of alterations: argillic, phyllic, and iron oxide zones occurring at the NE and SE of Abhar sheet, while the propylitic and silica zones are developed in NW and SW of the studied area. Lineaments were identified by aid of false color composite, high pass filters and hill-shade DEM techniques that two NW-SE and NE-SW major trends were determined. Geochemical anomalies were separated by number-size (N-S) method. Interpretation of N-S log-log plots of Cu in the area may be a result of the three steps of enrichment, i.e., mineralization and later dispersions. Field checks and Mineralgraphical studies also confirm the existence of suitable copper mineralization. Pokład geologiczny Abhar 1:100,100 zlokalizowany jest w obrębie kenozoicznego pasa skał magmowych pochodzenia wulkanicznego Tarom w północno-zachodnim Iranie. W pracy przedstawiono połączenie zastosowań metod zdalnych wykorzystujących technologię ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Refelection Radiometer), analizę danych geochemicznych zebranych na podstawie osadów dennych ze strumieni oraz próbek skał w obrębie pola obserwacji a także danych mineralogicznych w celu rozpoznania skupisk rud miedzi. Na podstawie danych uzyskanych przy użyciu technologiiASTER i poddanych obróbce przy użyciu różnorodnych technik: badanie układu pasm, dopasowanie metodę najmniejszych

  18. Informações espectroeletromagnéticas e topográficas na determinação de teores de componentes do solo Spectraleletromagnetic and topographic informations on the determination of soil compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Marques Genú

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A obtenção de informações quantitativas do solo por técnicas não destrutivas, como o sensoriamento remoto e os modelos digitais do terreno (MDT, abre a possibilidade de avaliações mais rápidas e menos onerosas no estudo de solos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a possibilidade de quantificar atributos do solo utilizando informações extraídas de sensor orbital ASTER conjugados com parâmetros topográficos. A área de estudo com 184 ha, localizada em Rafard (SP, foi amostrada em forma de grid sendo coletada uma amostra por hectare. A reflectância foi obtida da imagem ASTER e os dados topográficos a partir do MDT. Em seguida, utilizando os dados orbitais e de relevo foram gerados os modelos de regressão para os atributos do solo. As variáveis dependentes foram selecionadas a partir do método stepwise. Posteriormente, os modelos com R² > 0,50 foram testados em amostras desconhecidas de terra e os valores estimados pelas equações (VE e os valores determinados em laboratório (VD foram avaliados através de gráficos de dispersão. Os componentes SiO2, Fe2O3, TiO2 e argila foram os atributos testados, e Fe2O3 e argila obtiveram os melhores coeficientes de determinação. Conclui-se que os modelos gerados pelos dados espectrais e de relevo permitem quantificar os referidos componentes do solo.The obtention of soil quantitative information by non destructive techniques, like remote sensing and digital elevation model (DEM open a possibility of faster and cheaper evaluation on soil studies. This study aims at verifying the possibility of quantifying soil atributtes through ASTER orbital sensor data and topographic features. The study area, with 184 ha, located in Rafard County, São Paulo State, Brazil, was sampled in a grid way collecting 1 sample/ha. Reflectance data was obtained from ASTER image and topographic features from DEM. Then, using orbital an topographic data were generated a multiple regression equation for soil

  19. Analyzing landscape changes in the Bafa Lake Nature Park of Turkey using remote sensing and landscape structure metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbah, Hayriye; Deniz, Bulent; Kara, Baris; Kesgin, Birsen

    2010-06-01

    Bafa Lake Nature Park is one of Turkey's most important legally protected areas. This study aimed at analyzing spatial change in the park environment by using object-based classification technique and landscape structure metrics. SPOT 2X (1994) and ASTER (2005) images are the primary research materials. Results show that artificial surfaces, low maqui, garrigue, and moderately high maqui covers have increased and coniferous forests, arable lands, permanent crop, and high maqui covers have decreased; coniferous forest, high maqui, grassland, and saline areas are in a disappearance stage of the land transformation; and the landscape pattern is more fragmented outside the park boundaries. The management actions should support ongoing vegetation regeneration, mitigate transformation of vegetation structure to less dense and discontinuous cover, control the dynamics at the agricultural-natural landscape interface, and concentrate on relatively low but steady increase of artificial surfaces.

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DYAK-02-0049 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DYAK-02-0049 gb|AAS74384.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74386.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74388.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74390.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74392.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74394.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanog...aster] gb|AAS74395.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74396.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74404.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74408.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila mela

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DSIM-02-0056 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DSIM-02-0056 gb|AAS74384.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74386.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74388.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74390.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74392.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74394.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanog...aster] gb|AAS74395.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74396.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74404.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74408.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila mela

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DYAK-02-0049 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DYAK-02-0049 gb|AAS74383.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74385.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74397.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74398.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74401.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74414.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanog...aster] gb|AAS74416.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74418.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74419.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74424.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila mela

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DMEL-02-0053 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DMEL-02-0053 gb|AAS74380.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74382.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74389.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74402.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74403.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74405.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanog...aster] gb|AAS74406.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74411.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74412.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74413.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila mela

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DSIM-02-0057 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DSIM-02-0057 gb|AAS74185.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74209.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74210.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74211.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74224.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74234.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanog...aster] gb|AAS74254.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74258.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74262.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74278.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila mela

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DMEL-02-0053 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DMEL-02-0053 gb|AAS74384.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74386.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74388.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74390.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74392.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74394.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanog...aster] gb|AAS74395.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74396.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74404.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74408.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila mela

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DSIM-02-0057 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DSIM-02-0057 gb|AAS74195.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74276.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74292.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74298.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74303.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74304.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanog...aster] gb|AAS74321.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74359.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] AAS74195.1 1e-176 97% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DSIM-02-0056 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DSIM-02-0056 gb|AAS74383.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74385.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74397.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74398.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74401.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74414.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanog...aster] gb|AAS74416.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74418.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74419.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74424.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila mela

  8. Hierarchical self-organization of cytoskeletal active networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gordon, Daniel; Keasar, Chen; Farago, Oded

    2012-01-01

    The structural reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton is facilitated through the action of motor proteins that crosslink the actin filaments and transport them relative to each other. Here, we present a combined experimental-computational study that probes the dynamic evolution of mixtures of actin filaments and clusters of myosin motors. While on small spatial and temporal scales the system behaves in a very noisy manner, on larger scales it evolves into several well distinct patterns such as bundles, asters, and networks. These patterns are characterized by junctions with high connectivity, whose formation is possible due to the organization of the motors in "oligoclusters" (intermediate-size aggregates). The simulations reveal that the self-organization process proceeds through a series of hierarchical steps, starting from local microscopic moves and ranging up to the macroscopic large scales where the steady-state structures are formed. Our results shed light into the mechanisms involved in processes li...

  9. Non-equilibrium structure and dynamics in a microscopic model of thin film active gels

    CERN Document Server

    Head, D A; Gompper, G

    2013-01-01

    In the presence of ATP, molecular motors generate active force dipoles that drive suspensions of protein filaments far from thermodynamic equilibrium, leading to exotic dynamics and pattern formation. Microscopic modelling can help to quantify the relationship between individual motors plus filaments to the large-wavelength properties represented by "hydrodynamic" models. Here we present results of extensive numerical simulations of active gels where the motors and filaments are confined between two infinite parallel plates. Thermal fluctuations and excluded-volume interactions between filaments are included. A systematic variation of rates for motor motion, attachment and detachment, including a differential detachment rate from filament ends, reveals a range of non-equilibrium behaviour. Strong motor binding produces structured filament aggregates that we refer to as asters, bundles or layers, whose stability depends on motor speed and differential end-detachment. The gross features of the dependence of the...

  10. High resolution remote sensing information identification for characterizing uranium mineralization setting in Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie-Lin; Wang, Jun-hu; Zhou, Mi; Huang, Yan-ju; Xuan, Yan-xiu; Wu, Ding

    2011-11-01

    The modern Earth Observation System (EOS) technology takes important role in the uranium geological exploration, and high resolution remote sensing as one of key parts of EOS is vital to characterize spectral and spatial information of uranium mineralization factors. Utilizing satellite high spatial resolution and hyperspectral remote sensing data (QuickBird, Radarsat2, ASTER), field spectral measurement (ASD data) and geological survey, this paper established the spectral identification characteristics of uranium mineralization factors including six different types of alaskite, lower and upper marble of Rössing formation, dolerite, alkali metasomatism, hematization and chloritization in the central zone of Damara Orogen, Namibia. Moreover, adopted the texture information identification technology, the geographical distribution zones of ore-controlling faults and boundaries between the different strata were delineated. Based on above approaches, the remote sensing geological anomaly information and image interpretation signs of uranium mineralization factors were extracted, the metallogenic conditions were evaluated, and the prospective areas have been predicted.

  11. MAPPING GLAUCONITE UNITES WITH USING REMOTE SENSING TECHNIQUES IN NORTH EAST OF IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ahmadirouhani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Glauconite is a greenish ferric-iron silicate mineral with micaceous structure, characteristically formed in shallow marine environments. Glauconite has been used as a pigmentation agent for oil paint, contaminants remover in environmental studies and a source of potassium in plant fertilizers, and other industries. Koppeh-dagh basin is extended in Iran, Afghanistan and Turkmenistan countries and Glauconite units exist in this basin. In this research for enhancing and mapping glauconitic units in Koppeh-dagh structural zone in north east of Iran, remote sensing techniques such as Spectral Angle Mapper classification (SAM, band ratio and band composition methods on SPOT, ASTER and Landsat data in 3 steps were applied.

  12. Effect of saline soil parameters on endo mycorrhizal colonisation of dominant halophytes in four Hungarian sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuzy, A.; Biro, B.; Toth, T.

    2010-07-01

    Soil and root samples were collected from the rhizosphere of dominant halophytes (Artemisia santonicum, Aster tripolium, Festuca pseudovina, Lepidium crassifolium, Plantago maritima and Puccinellia limosa) at four locations with saline soils in Hungary. The correlations- between arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungal colonisation parameters (% colonisation, % arbuscules) and soil physical, chemical and biological parameters were determined Endomycorrhiza colonisation was found to be negatively correlated with the electric conductivity of the soil paste, the salt-specific ion concentrations and the cation exchange capacity, showing the sensitivity of AM fungi at increasing salt concentrations, independently of the types of salt-specific anions. A positive correlation was detected between the mycorrhiza colonisation and the abundance of oligotroph bacteria known to be the less variable and more stable (k-strategist) group. This fact and the negative correlation found with the humus content underlines the importance of nutrient availability and the limitations of the symbiotic interactions in stressed saline or sodic soils. (Author) 29 refs.

  13. Clinostat exposure and symmetrization of frog eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nace, G. W.; Tremor, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    Since the orientation of unfertilized eggs and the righting of eggs after grey crescent formation do not affect the axes, attention here is directed toward a comparative study of the initial rotation of the fertilized egg, the so-called rotation of orientation (R-of-O). The goal of the investigation is to determine the timing and dynamics of the R-of-O (as distinct from inversion rotations), to confirm prior observations, and to examine the influence of gravity compensation at periods that might be crucial. Gravity compensation for 1 hr during the R-of-O is found to yield fewer abnormalities. It is hypothesized that it changes the axes and that return to normal conditions permits regulation. Longer exposure is found to yield more abnormalities, perhaps by perturbing both the action of the aster and regulation.

  14. Quality Test Various Existing dem in Indonesia Toward 10 Meter National dem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amhar, Fahmi

    2016-06-01

    Indonesia has various DEM from many sources and various acquisition date spreaded in the past two decades. There are DEM from spaceborne system (Radarsat, TerraSAR-X, ALOS, ASTER-GDEM, SRTM), airborne system (IFSAR, Lidar, aerial photos) and also terrestrial one. The research objective is the quality test and how to extract best DEM in particular area. The method is using differential GPS levelling using geodetic GPS equipment on places which is ensured not changed during past 20 years. The result has shown that DEM from TerraSAR-X and SRTM30 have the best quality (rmse 3.1 m and 3.5 m respectively). Based on this research, it was inferred that these parameters are still positively correlated with the basic concept, namely that the lower and the higher the spatial resolution of a DEM data, the more imprecise the resulting vertical height.

  15. Determining the Suitability of Different Digital Elevation Models and Satellite Images for Fancy Maps. An Example of Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drachal, J.; Kawel, A. K.

    2016-06-01

    The article describes the possibility of developing an overall map of the selected area on the basis of publicly available data. Such a map would take the form designed by the author with the colors that meets his expectations and a content, which he considers to be appropriate. Among the data available it was considered the use of satellite images of the terrain in real colors and, in the form of shaded relief, digital terrain models with different resolutions of the terrain mesh. Specifically the considered data were: MODIS, Landsat 8, GTOPO-30, SRTM-30, SRTM-1, SRTM-3, ASTER. For the test area the island of Cyprus was chosen because of the importance in tourism, a relatively small area and a clearly defined boundary. In the paper there are shown and discussed various options of the Cyprus terrain image obtained synthetically from variants of Modis, Landsat and digital elevation models of different resolutions.

  16. United States Army, Seventh Army Field Order No. 1 (ANVIL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1944-07-29

    orden (0.) ROO-BY Force. (b) ROMEO, Force. (c) SITKA Force. (d) C~bo.t Cm~mo.nd SUORE (lot Fr Armd Div) g. I FRENCH CORPS: (1) Be prepared to or bark...Ships 1 coaster Dry I 1 FOL c~aster( CO’""T:=.LL or COcv:’T]1:--,)_ll.’_:J ..u~ ...J,..~ l Dt20 :’)115 -n/15 IELT ":... I C ’ 1I’-" L I-.>4’".... I...dcscroy submarino pens and sink prepared block ships in TOULON hcrbor , e. To provide o.ir cover over the assault ar-ea and shipping rri.t.h in L!O

  17. Contribution to the study of gas and liquid transfers inside damaged concrete walls under thermo-hydric stress: application to confinement buildings in test and accidental conditions; Contribution a l'etude des transferts gazeux et liquide au sein des parois en beton endommagees sous sollicitation thermo-hydrique: application au cas des enceintes de confinement en conditions d'epreuve et accidentelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laghcha, A

    2006-07-15

    The aim of this work is the study of fluid transfers induced by two types of stresses (test of tightness and LOCA-type accident), inside a concrete wall integrating the inhomogeneities and singularities susceptible to be present inside the confinement building of a nuclear reactor. After the study of several types of concretes, based on the permeabilities and types of gas flows involved, the experimental phase has permitted to test at scale 1 (1.3 m thickness) and in test and accidental conditions, a concrete composition which fulfills a representativeness criterion. The modeling part has been carried out using the thermo-hydro-mechanical model of non-saturated porous media, recently embedded inside the Code-Aster of EDF. The synthesis of physical observations and of numerical simulations has permitted to better constrain the different roles of the porous structure, in particular about the transposition between a air flow and a air + steam flow. (J.S.)

  18. Brief communication: Glaciers in the Hunza catchment (Karakoram) have been nearly in balance since the 1970s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolch, Tobias; Pieczonka, Tino; Mukherjee, Kriti; Shea, Joseph

    2017-02-01

    Previous geodetic estimates of mass changes in the Karakoram revealed balanced budgets or a possible slight mass gain since ˜ 2000. Indications of longer-term stability exist but only very few mass budget analyses are available before 2000. Here, based on 1973 Hexagon KH-9, ˜ 2009 ASTER and the SRTM DTM, we show that glaciers in the Hunza River basin (central Karakoram) were on average in balance or showed slight insignificant mass loss within the period ˜ 1973-2009. Heterogeneous behaviour and frequent surge activities were also characteristic of the period before 2000. Surge-type and non-surge-type glaciers showed on average no significantly different mass change values. However, some individual glacier mass change rates differed significantly for the periods before and after ˜ 2000.

  19. Xenopus egg cytoplasm with intact actin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Christine M; Nguyen, Phuong A; Ishihara, Keisuke; Groen, Aaron C; Mitchison, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    We report optimized methods for preparing Xenopus egg extracts without cytochalasin D, that we term "actin-intact egg extract." These are undiluted egg cytoplasm that contains abundant organelles, and glycogen which supplies energy, and represents the least perturbed cell-free cytoplasm preparation we know of. We used this system to probe cell cycle regulation of actin and myosin-II dynamics (Field et al., 2011), and to reconstitute the large, interphase asters that organize early Xenopus embryos (Mitchison et al., 2012; Wühr, Tan, Parker, Detrich, & Mitchison, 2010). Actin-intact Xenopus egg extracts are useful for analysis of actin dynamics, and interaction of actin with other cytoplasmic systems, in a cell-free system that closely mimics egg physiology, and more generally for probing the biochemistry and biophysics of the egg, zygote, and early embryo. Detailed protocols are provided along with assays used to check cell cycle state and tips for handling and storing undiluted egg extracts.

  20. Mineral mapping in the western Kunlun Mountains using Tiangong-1 hyperspectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, W.; Cheng, Q.; Jing, L.; Chen, Y.; Guo, X.; Ding, H.; Liu, Q.

    2016-04-01

    The unmanned Chinese space module Tiangong-1 was launched in September 2011 with a hyperspectral sensor on board. The sensor combines high spatial and spectral resolution suitable for mineral mapping. In this study, Tiangong-1 hyperspectral data were employed for mineral mapping in the western Kunlun Mountains, an important metallogenic belt in China. A Spectral Hourglass Wizard method was applied to detect common minerals from the Tiangong- 1 shortwave infrared data with reference to a set of spectral libraries. Spectral information on minerals, such as zoisite, mica, quartz, sodalite, dolomite, and actinolite, was extracted from the data. The resulting mineral interpretation maps were highly correlated with the reference geological maps and information from ASTER satellite imagery, suggesting that the hyperspectral data are suitable for mineral mapping.

  1. Physics Models of Pronuclear Movements in Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Cheng

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on published experimental data, Newton's laws, and Coulomb's law, we investigate natural and normal pronuclear movements in wild types of eggs and develop physics models to fit the experimental data quantitatively. The difference between our modeling calculated results and the experimental data is less than 20%. Our models explain why and how pronuclei move in even or in variant velocities. We hypothesize: During the migration, positively charged asters (or self assembled microtubules drive two negatively charged sperm and egg pronuclei to move towards each other. The driving force comes from a spontaneous and strong Electromagnetic Field (EMF. Hamilton's principle determines the path of these movements. A natural and normal EMF inside or around the pronuclei can be alternated environmentally. An abnormal EMF could induce aberrant embryos that cause life disease. We believe our models are helpful to further understand the mechanism of fertilization and have potential clinical value to prevent aberrant embryos that induce human life disease.

  2. Urban Change Detection of Pingtan City based on Bi-temporal Remote Sensing Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degang, JIANG; Jinyan, XU; Yikang, GAO

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, a pair of SPOT 5-6 images with the resolution of 0.5m is selected. An object-oriented classification method is used to the two images and five classes of ground features were identified as man-made objects, farmland, forest, waterbody and unutilized land. An auxiliary ASTER GDEM was used to improve the classification accuracy. And the change detection based on the classification results was performed. Accuracy assessment was carried out finally. Consequently, satisfactory results were obtained. The results show that great changes of the Pingtan city have been detected as the expansion of the city area and the intensity increase of man-made buildings, roads and other infrastructures with the establishment of Pingtan comprehensive experimental zone. Wide range of open sea area along the island coast zones has been reclaimed for port and CBDs construction.

  3. Recognition of shallow karst water resources and cave potentials using thermal infrared image and terrain characteristics in semi-arid regions of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Nader; Saghafian, Bahram; Imanov, Farda; Museyyibov, Museyyib

    2009-12-01

    Shallow karst water resources and caves may influence land surface temperatures due to cold transfer property of rocks and evaporation from buried karst. The objective of this research was to develop a method for recognition of karst areas based on evaluating the surface characteristics that manifest itself by low land surface temperature in the satellite images. Investigation of thermal ETM + image of the study region in Iran showed that parts of carbonate rocks that bear karst water are relatively cooler compared to areas with similar terrain conditions. Relational modeling provided useful information on spatial distribution of areas that have the potential to hold karst water resources and/or caves. Further inspection of ASTER images, along with geotechnical, geophysical and geological field surveys verified the approach. Significant correlation was found between electrical resistivity and thermal band values. The method may be used as a primary exploratory tool for shallow karst water explorations in similar areas.

  4. Physics of Cellular Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackmann, Erich; Keber, Felix; Heinrich, Doris

    2010-04-01

    The survival of cells depends on perpetual active motions, including (a) bending excitations of the soft cell envelopes, (b) the bidirectional transport of materials and organelles between the cell center and the periphery, and (c) the ongoing restructuring of the intracellular macromolecular scaffolds mediating global cell changes associated with cell adhesion locomotion and phagocytosis. Central questions addressed are the following: How can this bustling motion of extremely complex soft structures be characterized and measured? What are the major driving forces? Further topics include (a) the active dynamic control of global shape changes by the interactive coupling of the aster-like soft scaffold of microtubules and the network of actin filaments associated with the cell envelope (the actin cortex) and (b) the generation of propulsion forces by solitary actin gelation waves propagating within the actin cortex.

  5. Les activités de gestion d’alerte épidémiologique : les transformations induites par l’utilisation d’un système de surveillance en temps réel Alert Management Activity: Cognitive and team activity modifications due to the use of an early warning system Las actividades de gestión de alerta epidemiológica : las transformaciones inducidas por la utilización de un sistema de vigilancia en tiempo real

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Gaudin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente une recherche en psychologie cognitive et ergonomique visant à analyser l’activité de gestion d’une alerte épidémiologique. Gérer une alerte épidémiologique est une activité médicale distribuée et complexe consistant en la gestion d’un environnement dynamique puisque l’épidémie évolue et se propage rapidement si aucune action n’est entreprise pour la contrôler. Plus précisément, deux types de situation sont analysées : (1 l’activité traditionnelle de gestion d’alerte et (2 cette même activité lorsqu’elle est assistée par un système informatique, en l’occurrence le système ASTER (ou Alerte et Surveillance en TEmps Réel. Les résultats obtenus sont ensuite discutés au niveau cognitif et au niveau des activités collectives consécutivement à l’introduction et à l’utilisation d’un système technique.This paper presents a study that investigated the management of epidemiological alerts. Alert management is a complex, distributed medical activity. It can be compared to the largest category of dynamic environment management. Two activities were examined. First, we analyzed traditional alert management activity with the MAD method (observations and interviews. Second, we analyzed and characterized alert management activities when supported by the computerized ASTER system (Alerte et Surveillance en TEmps Réel, alert and monitoring in real time. The second analysis was conducted with EORCA method, which is used to describe collective and complex activities. The results highlight various modifications to both the cognitive activity and team activities which were due to the use of the ASTER system.Este artículo presenta una investigación en psicología cognitiva y ergonómica cuyo objetivo es analizar la actividad de gestión de una alerta epidemiológica. Manejar una alerta epidemiológica es una actividad médica distribuida y compleja que consiste en la gestión de un ambiente

  6. Spatial pattern of mass loss processes across the Greenland Ice Sheet from the Little Ice Age to 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, K. H.; Korsgaard, N. J.; Kjeldsen, K. K.;

    The Greenland Ice Sheet loses mass through surface meltwater runoff and discharge from marine terminating outlet glaciers. The spatial variability and magnitude of these processes have been studied and described in detail for the past decades. Here, we combine the mass loss between the LIA to 2010...... (ICESat) from 2003-2009, NASA's Land, Vegetation, and Ice Sensor (LVIS) from 2010, and ASTER (Silcast AST14DMO) co-registered to ICESat, to estimate mass loss throughout the 20th and early 21st Century. The mass balance estimates of the GrIS since retreat from maximum LIA is combined with a SMB model...... correspond to those that experienced considerable thinning throughout the 20th century. Consequently, comparing the 20th century thinning pattern to that of the last decade, and assuming a similar warming pattern, we argue that the present sensitivity distribution will hold also for future ice sheet mass...

  7. THE PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF MONITORING IN TERMS RAINWATER IN 2013–2014 IN THE CITY OF BYDGOSZCZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Pasela

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the results of analysis distribution of the amount and rainfall intensity in Bydgoszcz based on network measurements of rain, which is operated by the Municipal Water Supply and sewers in Bydgoszcz. The system consists of six rain-gauges type TPG-036-H24 by A-STER, which are equipped with electronic data recording system with GPRS transmission to a central server. A record of the amount of rainfall measurement results is carried out in 2-minute intervals with an accuracy of 0.1 millimeters. The extreme highs and the intensity of rainfall registered in the audited period was analyzed. The results were presented in a form of tables and graphs. The intensity measurements and the amount of rainfall were used by a dense network of rainwater, which allows you to get valuable results, essential in the analysis of the functioning of municipal sewer system.

  8. Spherulitic crystallization of aspartame from aqueous solution in a two-dimensional cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Tetsushi; Kubota, Noriaki; Abe, Sou; Kishimoto, Shin'ichi; Kumon, Satoshi; Naruse, Masayoshi

    1993-10-01

    An artificial sweetener, aspartame (α-L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl aster) was crystallized as spherulites in the order of magnitude of centimeters in radius. With increasing relative supersaturation σ, the number of nucleation sites increased, but the radius of the largest spherulite in the cell decreased. The growth rate G of the spherulite was 1-2 mm/min and is given as a function of σ by the experimental equation: G= 8.45 x 10 -2 σ 1.95. Individual fiber crystals of the spherulite grew slowly in the diameter direction until a critical diameter (10 μm or so) was attained. Longitudinally, however, they grew fast. They repeatedly split and branched during growth, spreading radially to form spherulites.

  9. Aplicaciones de la teledetección en degradación de suelos

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez González, Mª Eugenia; García Rodríguez, Mª Pilar

    2013-01-01

    El procesado de datos e imágenes de satélite es una herramienta útil para el estudio de la degradación de suelos. En este trabajo se han seleccionado imágenes de diferentes sensores para analizar algunos casos de erosión y pérdida de calidad del suelo: contaminación, pérdida de materia orgánica (incendios, deforestación), salinización, sellado, erosión e hidromorfismo. Los satélites más utilizados para este tipo de estudio son los de resolución espacial y espectral media (Landsat, Spot, Aster...

  10. Revisão taxonômica de Termitococcinae (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Margarodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele C. da Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available As espécies de Termitococcinae são revisadas. Esta subfamília, restrita à Região Neotropical, é composta de cinco espécies válidas, incluídas em dois gêneros: Termitococcus aster Silvestri, 1901, Termitococcus carratoi Silvestri, 1936, Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Wille, 1922, Eurhizococcus brevicornis (Silvestri, 1901 e Eurhizococcus colombianus Jakubski, 1965. O estudo traz a redescrição das espécies da subfamília, incluindo a caracterização morfológica dos três estágios de desenvolvimento (ninfa ambulatória, cisto e fêmea adulta. Chaves de identificação e ilustrações são também incluídas. São designados lectótipos e paralectótipos para duas espécies.

  11. Principles of evolution from the Planck epoch to complex multicellular life

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer-Ortmanns, Hildegard

    2011-01-01

    With contributions from a team of leading experts, this volume provides a comprehensive survey of recent achievements in our scientific understanding of evolution. The questions it asks concern the beginnings of the universe, the origin of life and the chances of its arising at all, the role of contingency, and the search for universal features in the plethora of evolutionary phenomena. Rather than oversimplified or premature answers, the chapters provide a clear picture of how these essential problems are being tackled, enabling the reader to understand current thinking and open questions.  The tools employed stem from a range of disciplines including mathematics, physics, biochemistry and cell biology. Self-organization as an overarching concept is demonstrated in the most diverse areas: from galaxy formation in the universe to spindle and aster formation in the cell. Chemical master equations, population dynamics, and evolutionary game theory are presented as suitable frameworks for understanding the univ...

  12. An Urban Open Space Extraction Method:Combining Spectral and Geometric Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Guobin; Dan G. Blumberg

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces an advanced method based on remote sensing and Geographic Information System for urban open space extraction combining spectral and geometric characteristics. From both semantic and remote sensing perspectives, a hybrid hierarchy structure and class organization of open space are issues and mapped from one to another. Based on per-pixel and segmentation mechanism separately, two classification approaches are performed. Owing to prior of spatial aggregation and spectral contribution, the segmentation-based classification exhibits its superiority over a pixel-based classification. Finally a GIS-based post procedure is hired to eliminate some unsuitable open space components in both spatial and numerical constraints on the one hand, and separate open space some fabrics from fused remote sensing classes by defining their Shape Index on the other hand. The case study of Beer Sheva based on ASTER data proves this method is a feasible way for open space extraction.

  13. Thermal Shock Effects Modeling On A Globe Valve Body-Bonnet Bolted Flange Joint

    CERN Document Server

    Mathieu, Jean-Philippe; Ferrari, Jerome; Hersant, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper attends to show efforts made at EDF R&D to improve comprehension of valve parts loadings during operation. Thermal shock in a globe valve is represented and modeled using EDF R&D Finite Element Analysis code (Code_Aster). Choices of modeling are discussed and balanced on the basis of "what an engineer can obtain without becoming a researcher". First simulation results are presented. Attention is focused on the evolution of Body-Bonnet Bolted Flange Joint (BBBFJ) tightening forces which are simulated during the thermal shock. An experimental setup is also presented for the studied valve, which implies thermocouple implementation for comparison of the simulated thermal field and strain measurement on each threaded rod to validate the mechanical modeling.

  14. Change Detection for Remote Monitoring of Underground Nuclear Testing: Comparison with Seismic and Associated Explosion Source Phenomenological Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canty, M.; Jahnke, G.; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2005-01-01

    The analysis of open-source satellite imagery is in process of establishing itself as an important tool for monitoring nuclear activities throughout the world which are relevant to disarmament treaties, like e. g. the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). However, the detection...... of conventional multispectral satellite platforms with moderate ground resolution (Landsat TM, ASTER) to detect changes over wide areas.We chose the Nevada Test Site (NTS), USA, for a case study because of the large amount of available ground truth information. The analysis is based on the multivariate alteration...... for the satellite image data sets in terms of explosion size and at deriving possible scaling relations between change signals and the visible explosion effects. This work has been carried out in part within the framework of the Global Monitoring for Security and Stability Network of Excellence (GMOSS) initiated...

  15. NEW CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF ALIEN FLORA IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SÎRBU CULIŢĂ

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a number of seventeen alien plant species are presented, one of them being now for the first time reported in Romania (Sedum sarmentosum Bunge. Some species are mentioned for the first time in the flora of Moldavia (Aster novae-angliae L., Cenchrus incertus M. A. Curtis, Chenopodium pumilio R. Br., Fraxinus americana L., Lindernia dubia (L. Pennell, Petunia × atkinsiana D. Don, Solidago gigantea Aiton, Tagetes erecta L. or Transylvania (Kochia sieversiana (Pallas C. A. Mey., and some are reported from new localities (seven species. For each species, there are presented general data on the geographical origin, its distribution in Europe and worldwide, as well as its invasion history and current distribution in Romania. Some of these species manifest a remarkable spreading tendency, expanding their invasion area in Romania. Voucher specimens were deposited in the Herbarium of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Iaşi (IASI.

  16. Patterns of species discovery in the Western Ghats, a megadiversity hot spot in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N A Aravind; B Tambat; G Ravikanth; K N Ganeshaiah; R Uma Shaanker

    2007-06-01

    Even since Linnaeus, naturalists and taxonomists have been systematically describing species new to science. Besides indicating gaps in taxonomic effort, understanding the temporal patterns of species discovery could help in identifying drivers that determine discovery. In this study we report the patterns of discovery of eight taxa – birds, butterflies, frogs, tiger beetles, grasses, asters, ferns and orchids – in the Western Ghats, a megadiversity centre in India. Our results indicate that the discovery curves for birds and butterflies have been saturated while those for frogs and grasses continue to increase. Within each taxon, the major drivers of discovery were commonness of the species and their size. The average years taken for discovery across taxa were directly related to the per cent endemicity and species richness of the taxa. We discuss the trajectories of discovery with respect to rarity or endemicity of the species and life history features, and the implications these might have for strategizing the discovery process in India.

  17. USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS-TECHNIQUES IN SOUTH EAST CASPIAN COASTAL CHANGES DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Mousavi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing and GIS techniques have been used to detect the shoreline changes along Miankaleh peninsula promontory of the Gorgan Bay entrance over the last three decades (1975-2002. For this purpose satellite data including LANDSAT ETM+, TM, SPOT, ASTER L1A and RADARSAT have been analyzed. SPOT-Pan data were georeferenced with respect to 1 : 50 000 topographic maps using a Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM projection, then all the needed data sets were registered to the SPOT-Pan image. The hydrological data showed a rapid rise of the Caspian Sea level by 2.6 m between “1975-1996”.

  18. Sensitive change detection for remote sensing monitoring of nuclear treaties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canty, Morton J.; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Schlittenhardt, Jörg

    2005-01-01

    or uninteresting changes, see e.g. (Canty and Schlittenhardt 2001). In our contribution we focus attention on the use of conventional multispectral earth observation satellite platforms with moderate ground resolution (Landsat TM, ASTER, SPOT) to detect changes over wide areas which are relevant to nuclear non......Triggered in part by the advent of high resolution commercial optical satellites, the analysis of open-source satellite imagery has now established itself as an important tool for monitoring nuclear activities throughout the world (Chitumbo et al 2001). Whereas detection of land cover and land use...... the framework of the Global Monitoring for Security and Stability Network of Excellence (GMOSS) initiated by the European Commission. Chitumbo, K., Robb, S., Bunney, J. and Lev\\$\\backslash\\$'e, G., IAEA Satellite imagery and the Department of Safeguards, Proceedings of the Symposium on International Safeguards...

  19. Plant response to polluted air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendrick, J.B. Jr.; Darley, E.F.; Middleton, J.T.; Paulus, A.O.

    1956-08-01

    Field observations and controlled fumigation experiments have shown that plants differ in their response to atmospheric contamination by ethylene, herbicides, fluorides, sulfur dioxide, and smog, or oxidized hydrocarbons. Controlled experiments have also shown that plant response to air pollution varies with species and variety of plant, age of plant tissue, soil fertility levels, soil moisture, air temperatures during the prefumigation growth period, and presence of certain agricultural chemicals on leaves. The leaves of many plants; such as tomato, African marigold, fuchsia, pepper, and potato, become curved and malformed in the presence of ethylene, while those of cantaloupe, China aster, gardenia, Cattleya orchid, and snapdragon do not. Ethylene may cause serious damage to the sepals of orchids without injury to the petals or leaves.

  20. Building a Massive Volcano Archive and the Development of a Tool for the Science Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linick, Justin

    2012-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has traditionally housed one of the world's largest databases of volcanic satellite imagery, the ASTER Volcano Archive (10Tb), making these data accessible online for public and scientific use. However, a series of changes in how satellite imagery is housed by the Earth Observing System (EOS) Data Information System has meant that JPL has been unable to systematically maintain its database for the last several years. We have provided a fast, transparent, machine-to-machine client that has updated JPL's database and will keep it current in near real-time. The development of this client has also given us the capability to retrieve any data provided by NASA's Earth Observing System Clearinghouse (ECHO) that covers a volcanic event reported by U.S. Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA). We will also provide a publicly available tool that interfaces with ECHO that can provide functionality not available in any of ECHO's Earth science discovery tools.