WorldWideScience

Sample records for aster frikartii

  1. ASTER Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Kunlun fault is one of the gigantic strike-slip faults that bound the north side of Tibet. Left-lateral motion along the 1,500-kilometer (932-mile) length of the Kunlun has occurred uniformly for the last 40,000 years at a rate of 1.1 centimeter per year, creating a cumulative offset of more than 400 meters (1300 feet). In this image, two splays of the fault are clearly seen crossing from east to west. The northern fault juxtaposes sedimentary rocks of the mountains against alluvial fans. Its trace is also marked by lines of vegetation, which appear red in the image. The southern, younger fault cuts through the alluvium. A dark linear area in the center of the image is wet ground where groundwater has pounded against the fault. Measurements from the image of displacements of young streams that cross the fault show 15 to 75 meters (16 to 82 yards) of left-lateral offset. This image of Tibet covers an area 40 kilometers (25 miles) wide and 15 kilometers (10 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. ASTER acquired the scene on July 20, 2000.The image is located at 35.8 degrees north latitude and 93.6 degrees east longitude. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the

  2. ASTER Mexicali

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Dramatic differences in land use patterns are highlighted in this image of the U.S.-Mexico border. Lush, regularly gridded agricultural fields on the U.S. side contrast with the more barren fields of Mexico This June 12, 2000, sub-scene combines visible and near infrared bands, displaying vegetation in red. The town of Mexicali-Calexico spans the border in the middle of the image; El Centro, California, is in the upper left. Watered by canals fed from the Colorado River, California's Imperial Valley is one of the country's major fruit and vegetable producers. This image covers an area 24 kilometers (15 miles) wide and 30 kilometers (19 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA

  3. ASTER Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This image of Saudi Arabia shows a great sea of linear dunes in part of the Rub' al Khali, or the Empty Quarter. Acquired on June 25, 2000, the image covers an area 37 kilometers (23 miles) wide and 28 kilometers (17 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. The dunes are yellow due to the presence of iron oxide minerals. The inter-dune area is made up of clays and silt and appears blue due to its high reflectance in band 1. The Rub' al Khali is the world's largest continuous sand desert. It covers about 650,000 square kilometers (250,966 square miles) and lies mainly in southern Saudi Arabia, though it does extend into the United Arab Emirates, Oman, and Yemen. One of the world's driest areas, it is uninhabited except for the Bedouin nomads who cross it. The first European to travel through the desert was Bertram Thomas in 1930.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Examples of

  4. ASTER Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    In this image of the Andes along the Chile-Bolivia border, the visible and infrared data have been computer enhanced to exaggerate the color differences of the different materials. The scene is dominated by the Pampa Luxsar lava complex, occupying the upper right two-thirds of the scene. Lava flows are distributed around remnants of large dissected cones, the largest of which is Cerro Luxsar. On the middle left edge of the image are the Olca and Parumastrato volcanoes, which appear in blue due to a lack of vegetation (colored red in this composite). This image covers an area 60 kilometers (37 miles) wide and 60 kilometers (37 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. It was acquired on April 7, 2000.The image is located at 21 degrees south latitude, 68.3 degrees west longitude. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Examples of applications include monitoring glacial advances and retreats

  5. The Aster code; Code Aster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbecq, J.M

    1999-07-01

    The Aster code is a 2D or 3D finite-element calculation code for structures developed by the R and D direction of Electricite de France (EdF). This dossier presents a complete overview of the characteristics and uses of the Aster code: introduction of version 4; the context of Aster (organisation of the code development, versions, systems and interfaces, development tools, quality assurance, independent validation); static mechanics (linear thermo-elasticity, Euler buckling, cables, Zarka-Casier method); non-linear mechanics (materials behaviour, big deformations, specific loads, unloading and loss of load proportionality indicators, global algorithm, contact and friction); rupture mechanics (G energy restitution level, restitution level in thermo-elasto-plasticity, 3D local energy restitution level, KI and KII stress intensity factors, calculation of limit loads for structures), specific treatments (fatigue, rupture, wear, error estimation); meshes and models (mesh generation, modeling, loads and boundary conditions, links between different modeling processes, resolution of linear systems, display of results etc..); vibration mechanics (modal and harmonic analysis, dynamics with shocks, direct transient dynamics, seismic analysis and aleatory dynamics, non-linear dynamics, dynamical sub-structuring); fluid-structure interactions (internal acoustics, mass, rigidity and damping); linear and non-linear thermal analysis; steels and metal industry (structure transformations); coupled problems (internal chaining, internal thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling, chaining with other codes); products and services. (J.S.)

  6. AsTeRICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drajsajtl, Tomáš; Struk, Petr; Bednárová, Alice

    2013-01-01

    AsTeRICS - "The Assistive Technology Rapid Integration & Construction Set" is a construction set for assistive technologies which can be adapted to the motor abilities of end-users. AsTeRICS allows access to different devices such as PCs, cell phones and smart home devices, with all of them integrated in a platform adapted as much as possible to each user. People with motor disabilities in the upper limbs, with no cognitive impairment, no perceptual limitations (neither visual nor auditory) and with basic skills in using technologies such as PCs, cell phones, electronic agendas, etc. have available a flexible and adaptable technology which enables them to access the Human-Machine-Interfaces (HMI) on the standard desktop and beyond. AsTeRICS provides graphical model design tools, a middleware and hardware support for the creation of tailored AT-solutions involving bioelectric signal acquisition, Brain-/Neural Computer Interfaces, Computer-Vision techniques and standardized actuator and device controls and allows combining several off-the-shelf AT-devices in every desired combination. Novel, end-user ready solutions can be created and adapted via a graphical editor without additional programming efforts. The AsTeRICS open-source framework provides resources for utilization and extension of the system to developers and researches. AsTeRICS was developed by the AsTeRICS project and was partially funded by EC.

  7. ASTER Digital Elevation Model V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ASTER Digital Elevation Model (DEM) product is generated using bands 3N (nadir-viewing) and 3B (backward-viewing) of an ASTER Level-1A image acquired by the...

  8. ASTER Flyby of San Francisco

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer, ASTER, is an international project: the instrument was supplied by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint US/Japan science team developed algorithms for science data products, and is validating instrument performance. With its 14 spectral bands, extremely high spatial resolution, and 15 meter along-track stereo capability, ASTER is the zoom lens of the Terra satellite. The primary mission goals are to characterize the Earth's surface; and to monitor dynamic events and processes that influence habitability at human scales. ASTER's monitoring and mapping capabilities are illustrated by this series of images of the San Francisco area. The visible and near infrared image reveals suspended sediment in the bays, vegetation health, and details of the urban environment. Flying over San Francisco (3.2MB) (high-res (18.3MB)), we see the downtown, and shadows of the large buildings. Past the Golden Gate Bridge and Alcatraz Island, we cross San Pablo Bay and enter Suisun Bay. Turning south, we fly over the Berkeley and Oakland Hills. Large salt evaporation ponds come into view at the south end of San Francisco Bay. We turn northward, and approach San Francisco Airport. Rather than landing and ending our flight, we see this is as only the beginning of a 6 year mission to better understand the habitability of the world on which we live. For more information: ASTER images through Visible Earth ASTER Web Site Image courtesy of MITI, ERSDAC, JAROS, and the U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  9. ASTER Images Mt. Usu Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    On April 3, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra Satellite captured this image of the erupting Mt. Usu volcano in Hokkaido, Japan. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image the Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.This false color infrared image of Mt Usu volcano is dominated by Lake Toya, an ancient volcanic caldera. On the south shore is the active Usu volcano. On Friday, March 31, more than 11,000 people were evacuated by helicopter, truck and boat from the foot of Usu, that began erupting from the northwest flank, shooting debris and plumes of smoke streaked with blue lightning thousands of feet in the air. Although no lava gushed from the mountain, rocks and ash continued to fall after the eruption. The region was shaken by thousands of tremors before the eruption. People said they could taste grit from the ash that was spewed as high as 2,700 meters (8,850 ft) into the sky and fell to coat surrounding towns with ash. 'Mount Usu has had seven significant eruptions that we know of, and at no time has it ended quickly with only a small scale eruption,' said Yoshio Katsui, a professor at Hokkaido University. This was the seventh major eruption of Mount Usu in the past 300 years. Fifty people died when the volcano erupted in 1822, its worst known eruption.In the image, most of the land is covered by snow. Vegetation, appearing red in the false color composite, can be seen in the agricultural fields, and forests in the mountains. Mt. Usu is crossed by three dark streaks. These are the paths of ash deposits that rained out from eruption plumes two days earlier. The prevailing wind was from the northwest, carrying the ash away from the main city of Date. Ash deposited can be traced on the image as far away as 10 kilometers (16 miles

  10. ASTER L2 Surface Emissivity V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ASTER L2 Surface Emissivity is an on-demand product generated using the five thermal infrared (TIR) bands (acquired either during the day or night time) between...

  11. ASTER L2 Surface Temperature V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ASTER L2 Surface Kinetic Temperature is an on-demand product generated using the five thermal infrared (TIR) bands (acquired either during the day or night time)...

  12. ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) was developed jointly by the U.S. National...

  13. ASTER L2 Surface Reflectance SWIR and ASTER L2 Surface Reflectance VNIR V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ASTER L2 Surface Reflectance is a multi-file product that contains atmospherically corrected data for both the Visible Near-Infrared (VNIR) and Shortwave...

  14. Molecular characterization of an aster yellows phytoplasma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-04-12

    Apr 12, 2010 ... restriction endonulease enzymes revealed identical patterns to phytoplasmas members of Aster yellows phytoplasma subgroup B. A phylogenetic tree based on 16S rDNA sequences, secA gene sequences and virtual RFLP revealed that the periwinkle proliferation phytoplasma is closely related to.

  15. Molecular characterization of an aster yellows phytoplasma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biotechnology ... The virtual restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis with 10 restriction endonulease enzymes revealed identical patterns to phytoplasmas members of Aster yellows phytoplasma subgroup B. A phylogenetic tree based on 16S rDNA sequences, secA gene sequences and ...

  16. Assessing Mesoscale Volcanic Aviation Hazards using ASTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieri, D.; Gubbels, T.; Hufford, G.; Olsson, P.; Realmuto, V.

    2006-12-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER) imager onboard the NASA Terra Spacecraft is a joint project of the Japanese Ministry for Economy, Trade, and Industry (METI) and NASA. ASTER has acquired over one million multi-spectral 60km by 60 km images of the earth over the last six years. It consists of three sub-instruments: (a) a four channel VNIR (0.52-0.86um) imager with a spatial resolution of 15m/pixel, including three nadir-viewing bands (1N, 2N, 3N) and one repeated rear-viewing band (3B) for stereo-photogrammetric terrain reconstruction (8-12m vertical resolution); (b) a SWIR (1.6-2.43um) imager with six bands at 30m/pixel; and (c) a TIR (8.125-11.65um) instrument with five bands at 90m/pixel. Returned data are processed in Japan at the Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center (ERSDAC) and at the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC), located at the USGS Center for Earth Resource Observation and Science (EROS) in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. Within the ASTER Project, the JPL Volcano Data Acquisition and Analyses System (VDAAS) houses over 60,000 ASTER volcano images of 1542 volcanoes worldwide and will be accessible for downloads by the general public and on-line image analyses by researchers in early 2007. VDAAS multi-spectral thermal infrared (TIR) de-correlation stretch products are optimized for volcanic ash detection and have a spatial resolution of 90m/pixel. Digital elevation models (DEM) stereo-photogrammetrically derived from ASTER Band 3B/3N data are also available within VDAAS at 15 and 30m/pixel horizontal resolution. Thus, ASTER visible, IR, and DEM data at 15-100m/pixel resolution within VDAAS can be combined to provide useful boundary conditions on local volcanic eruption plume location, composition, and altitude, as well as on topography of underlying terrain. During and after eruptions, low- altitude winds and ash transport can be affected by topography, and other orographic thermal and water vapor

  17. The pLISA project in ASTERICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Bonis Giulia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of Horizon 2020, the European Commission approved the ASTERICS initiative (ASTronomy ESFRI and Research Infrastructure CluSter to collect knowledge and experiences from astronomy, astrophysics and particle physics and foster synergies among existing research infrastructures and scientific communities, hence paving the way for future ones. ASTERICS aims at producing a common set of tools and strategies to be applied in Astronomy ESFRI facilities. In particular, it will target the so-called multi-messenger approach to combine information from optical and radio telescopes, photon counters and neutrino telescopes. pLISA is a software tool under development in ASTERICS to help and promote machine learning as a unified approach to multivariate analysis of astrophysical data and signals. The library will offer a collection of classification parameters, estimators, classes and methods to be linked and used in reconstruction programs (and possibly also extended, to characterize events in terms of particle identification and energy. The pLISA library aims at offering the software infras tructure for applications developed inside different experiments and has been designed with an effort to extrapolate general, physics-related estimators from the specific features of the data model related to each particular experiment. pLISA is oriented towards parallel computing architectures, with awareness of the opportunity of using GPUs as accelerators demanding specifically optimized algorithms and to reduce the costs of pro cessing hardware requested for the reconstruction tasks. Indeed, a fast (ideally, real-time reconstruction can open the way for the development or improvement of alert systems, typically required by multi-messenger search programmes among the different experi mental facilities involved in ASTERICS.

  18. The pLISA project in ASTERICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bonis, Giulia; Bozza, Cristiano

    2017-03-01

    In the framework of Horizon 2020, the European Commission approved the ASTERICS initiative (ASTronomy ESFRI and Research Infrastructure CluSter) to collect knowledge and experiences from astronomy, astrophysics and particle physics and foster synergies among existing research infrastructures and scientific communities, hence paving the way for future ones. ASTERICS aims at producing a common set of tools and strategies to be applied in Astronomy ESFRI facilities. In particular, it will target the so-called multi-messenger approach to combine information from optical and radio telescopes, photon counters and neutrino telescopes. pLISA is a software tool under development in ASTERICS to help and promote machine learning as a unified approach to multivariate analysis of astrophysical data and signals. The library will offer a collection of classification parameters, estimators, classes and methods to be linked and used in reconstruction programs (and possibly also extended), to characterize events in terms of particle identification and energy. The pLISA library aims at offering the software infras tructure for applications developed inside different experiments and has been designed with an effort to extrapolate general, physics-related estimators from the specific features of the data model related to each particular experiment. pLISA is oriented towards parallel computing architectures, with awareness of the opportunity of using GPUs as accelerators demanding specifically optimized algorithms and to reduce the costs of pro cessing hardware requested for the reconstruction tasks. Indeed, a fast (ideally, real-time) reconstruction can open the way for the development or improvement of alert systems, typically required by multi-messenger search programmes among the different experi mental facilities involved in ASTERICS.

  19. ASTER Images the Island of Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    These images of the Island of Hawaii were acquired on March 19, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. Data are shown from the short wavelength and thermal infrared spectral regions, illustrating how different and complementary information is contained in different parts of the spectrum.Left image: This false-color image covers an area 60 kilometers (37 miles) wide and 120 kilometers (75 miles) long in three bands of the short wavelength infrared region. While, much of the island was covered in clouds, the dominant central Mauna Loa volcano, rising to an altitude of 4115 meters (13,500 feet), is cloud-free. Lava flows can be seen radiating from the central crater in green and black tones. As they reach lower elevations, the flows become covered with vegetation, and their image color changes to yellow and orange. Mauna Kea volcano to the north of Mauna Loa has a thin cloud-cover, producing a bluish tone on the image. The ocean in the lower right appears brown due to the color processing.Right image: This image is a false-color composite of three thermal infrared bands. The brightness of the colors is proportional to the temperature, and the hues display differences in rock composition. Clouds are black, because they are the coldest objects in the scene. The ocean and thick vegetation appear dark green because they are colder than bare rock surfaces, and have no thermal spectral features. Lava flows are shades of magenta, green, pink and yellow, reflecting chemical changes due to weathering and relative age differences.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched

  20. ASTER Images San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    These images of the San Francisco Bay region were acquired on March 3, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. Each covers an area 60 kilometers (37 miles) wide and 75 kilometers (47 miles) long. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image the Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.Upper Left: The color infrared composite uses bands in the visible and reflected infrared. Vegetation is red, urban areas are gray; sediment in the bays shows up as lighter shades of blue. Thanks to the 15 meter (50-foot) spatial resolution, shadows of the towers along the Bay Bridge can be seen.Upper right: A composite of bands in the short wave infrared displays differences in soils and rocks in the mountainous areas. Even though these regions appear entirely vegetated in the visible, enough surface shows through openings in the vegetation to allow the ground to be imaged.Lower left: This composite of multispectral thermal bands shows differences in urban materials in varying colors. Separation of materials is due to differences in thermal emission properties, analogous to colors in the visible.Lower right: This is a color coded temperature image of water temperature, derived from the thermal bands. Warm waters are in white and yellow, colder waters are blue. Suisun Bay in the upper right is fed directly from the cold Sacramento River. As the water flows through San Pablo and San Francisco Bays on the way to the Pacific, the waters warm up.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for

  1. ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset, 1 kilometer, HDF5 V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Emissivity Dataset (GED) land surface temperature and emissivity (LST&E) data...

  2. ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset, 100 meter, HDF5 V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Emissivity Dataset (GED) land surface temperature and emissivity (LST&E) data...

  3. Image-based reflectance conversion of ASTER and IKONOS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... for ASTER and IKONOS imagery in this study area and for the purpose of forest structural assessment. This has important implications for the operational use of similar imagery types for forest inventory approaches. Keywords: ASTER; IKONOS; image-based atmospheric correction; plantation forests; surface reflectance

  4. Magnetic manipulation of self-assembled colloidal asters.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snezhko, A.; Aranson, I. S. (Materials Science Division)

    2011-09-01

    Self-assembled materials must actively consume energy and remain out of equilibrium to support structural complexity and functional diversity. Here we show that a magnetic colloidal suspension confined at the interface between two immiscible liquids and energized by an alternating magnetic field dynamically self-assembles into localized asters and arrays of asters, which exhibit locomotion and shape change. By controlling a small external magnetic field applied parallel to the interface, we show that asters can capture, transport, and position target microparticles. The ability to manipulate colloidal structures is crucial for the further development of self-assembled microrobots

  5. Comparison of ASTER Global Emissivity Database (ASTER-GED) With In-Situ Measurement In Italian Vulcanic Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, M.; Musacchio, M.; Buongiorno, M. F.; Amici, S.; Piscini, A.

    2015-12-01

    LP DAAC released the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Emissivity Database (GED) datasets on April 2, 2014. The database was developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology. The database includes land surface emissivities derived from ASTER data acquired over the contiguous United States, Africa, Arabian Peninsula, Australia, Europe, and China. In this work we compare ground measurements of emissivity acquired by means of Micro-FTIR (Fourier Thermal Infrared spectrometer) instrument with the ASTER emissivity map extract from ASTER-GED and the emissivity obtained by using single ASTER data. Through this analysis we want to investigate differences existing between the ASTER-GED dataset (average from 2000 to 2008 seasoning independent) and fall in-situ emissivity measurement. Moreover the role of different spatial resolution characterizing ASTER and MODIS, 90mt and 1km respectively, by comparing them with in situ measurements. Possible differences can be due also to the different algorithms used for the emissivity estimation, Temperature and Emissivity Separation algorithm for ASTER TIR band( Gillespie et al, 1998) and the classification-based emissivity method (Snyder and al, 1998) for MODIS. In-situ emissivity measurements have been collected during dedicated fields campaign on Mt. Etna vulcano and Solfatara of Pozzuoli. Gillespie, A. R., Matsunaga, T., Rokugawa, S., & Hook, S. J. (1998). Temperature and emissivity separation from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) images. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 36, 1113-1125. Snyder, W.C., Wan, Z., Zhang, Y., & Feng, Y.-Z. (1998). Classification-based emissivity for land surface temperature measurement from space. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 19, 2753-2574.

  6. [A zanhic acid based bisglycoside from Aster poliothamnus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-min; Wang, Ming-kui; Li, Bo-gang

    2002-05-01

    To study the chemical constituents from the whole plant of Aster poliothamnus. Separating the chemical constituents by means of chromatography and identifying ther structures on basis of chemical and spectral tecnology. A new triterpene saponin was isolated and identified.

  7. ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset, 1 kilometer, Binary V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AG1kmB.003 dataset was decommissioned as of December 14, 2016. Users are encouraged to use the ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset 1-kilometer (AG1km.003 -...

  8. ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset, 100 meter, Binary V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AG100B.003 dataset was decommissioned as of December 14, 2016. Users are encouraged to use the ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset 100-meter (AG100.003 -...

  9. ASTER L2 Surface Radiance TIR V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ASTER L2 Surface Radiance TIR is an on-demand product generated using the five thermal infra-red (TIR) Bands (acquired either during the day or night time)...

  10. Fifteen Years of ASTER Data on NASA's Terra Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, M.; Tsu, H.

    2014-12-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five instruments operating on NASA's Terra platform. Launched in 1999, ASTER has been acquiring data for 15 years. ASTER is a joint project between Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry; and US NASA. Data processing and distribution are done by both organizations; a joint science team helps to define mission priorities. ASTER acquires ~550 images per day, with a 60 km swath width. A daytime acquisition is three visible bands and a backward-looking stereo band with 15 m resolution, six SWIR bands with 30 m resolution, and 5 TIR bands with 90 m resolution. Nighttime TIR-only data are routinely collected. The stereo capability has allowed the ASTER project to produce a global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) data set, covering the earth's land surfaces from 83 degrees north to 83 degrees south, with 30 m data postings. This is the only (near-) global DEM available to all users at no charge; to date, over 28 million 1-by-1 degree DEM tiles have been distributed. As a general-purpose imaging instrument, ASTER-acquired data are used in numerous scientific disciplines, including: land use/land cover, urban monitoring, urban heat island studies, wetlands studies, agriculture monitoring, forestry, etc. Of particular emphasis has been the acquisition and analysis of data for natural hazard and disaster applications. We have been systematically acquiring images for 15,000 valley glaciers through the USGS Global Land Ice Monitoring from Space Project. The recently published Randolph Glacier Inventory, and the GLIMS book, both relied heavily on ASTER data as the basis for glaciological and climatological studies. The ASTER Volcano Archive is a unique on-line archive of thousands of daytime and nighttime ASTER images of ~1500 active glaciers, along with a growing archive of Landsat images. ASTER was scheduled to target active volcanoes at least 4 times per year, and more frequently for

  11. AVAL - The ASTER Volcanic Ash Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D.; Ramsey, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    Volcanic ash is a rich data source for understanding the causal mechanisms behind volcanic eruptions. Petrologic and morphometric information can provide direct information on the characteristics of the parent magma. Understanding how erupted ash interacts with the atmosphere can help quantify the effect that explosive volcanism has on the local to regional climate, whereas a measure of the particle size distribution enables more accurate modeling of plume propagation. Remote sensing is regularly employed to monitor volcanic plumes using a suite of high temporal/low spatial resolution sensors. These methods employ radiative transfer modeling with assumptions of the transmissive properties of infrared energy through the plume to determine ash density, particle size and sulfur dioxide content. However, such approaches are limited to the optically-transparent regions, and the low spatial resolution data are only useful for large-scale trends. In a new approach, we are treating the infrared-opaque regions of the plume in a similar way to a solid emitting surface. This allows high spatial resolution orbital thermal infrared data from the dense proximal plume to be modeled using a linear deconvolution approach coupled with a spectral library to extract the particle size and petrology. The newly created ASTER Volcanic Ash Library (AVAL) provides the end member spectral suite, and is comprised of laboratory emission measurements of volcanic ash taken from a variety of different volcanic settings, to obtain a wide range of petrologies. These samples have been further subdivided into particle size fractions to account for spectral changes due to diffraction effects. Once mapped to the ASTER sensor's spectral resolution, this library is applied to image data and the plume deconvolved to estimate composition and particle size. We have analyzed eruptions at the Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat, Chaitén and Puyehue-Cordón Caulle, both Chile, and Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland

  12. ASTER GLOBAL DEM VERSION 3, AND NEW ASTER WATER BODY DATASET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abrams

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2016, the US/Japan ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer project released Version 3 of the Global DEM (GDEM. This 30 m DEM covers the earth’s surface from 82N to 82S, and improves on two earlier versions by correcting some artefacts and filling in areas of missing DEMs by the acquisition of additional data. The GDEM was produced by stereocorrelation of 2 million ASTER scenes and operation on a pixel-by-pixel basis: cloud screening; stacking data from overlapping scenes; removing outlier values, and averaging elevation values. As previously, the GDEM is packaged in ~ 23,000 1 x 1 degree tiles. Each tile has a DEM file, and a NUM file reporting the number of scenes used for each pixel, and identifying the source for fill-in data (where persistent clouds prevented computation of an elevation value. An additional data set was concurrently produced and released: the ASTER Water Body Dataset (AWBD. This is a 30 m raster product, which encodes every pixel as either lake, river, or ocean; thus providing a global inland and shore-line water body mask. Water was identified through spectral analysis algorithms and manual editing. This product was evaluated against the Shuttle Water Body Dataset (SWBD, and the Landsat-based Global Inland Water (GIW product. The SWBD only covers the earth between about 60 degrees north and south, so it is not a global product. The GIW only delineates inland water bodies, and does not deal with ocean coastlines. All products are at 30 m postings.

  13. ASTER satellite observations for international disaster management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, K.A.; Abrams, M.

    2012-01-01

    When lives are threatened or lost due to catastrophic disasters, and when massive financial impacts are experienced, international emergency response teams rapidly mobilize to provide urgently required support. Satellite observations of affected areas often provide essential insight into the magnitude and details of the impacts. The large cost and high complexity of developing and operating satellite flight and ground systems encourages international collaboration in acquiring imagery for such significant global events in order to speed delivery of critical information to help those affected, and optimize spectral, spatial, and temporal coverage of the areas of interest. The International Charter-Space and Major Disasters was established to enable such collaboration in sensor tasking during times of crisis and is often activated in response to calls for assistance from authorized users. Insight is provided from a U.S. perspective into sensor support for Charter activations and other disaster events through a description of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), which has been used to support emergency situations for over a decade through its expedited tasking and near real-time data delivery capabilities. Examples of successes achieved and challenges encountered in international collaboration to develop related systems and fulfill tasking requests suggest operational considerations for new missions as well as areas for future enhancements.

  14. ASTER Expedited L1A Reconstructed Unprocessed Instrument Data V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ASTER Expedited L1A Reconstructed Unprocessed Instrument Data is produced with the express purpose of providing the ASTER Science Team members and others, data...

  15. ASTER Expedited L1B Registered Radiance at the Sensor V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Expedited ASTER Level-1B Registered Radiance at the Sensor data set is produced with the express purpose of providing ASTER Science Team members data of their...

  16. Validation of the ASTER instrument level 1A scene geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, H.H.; Mullins, K.F.; MacKinnon, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    An independent assessment of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument geometry was undertaken by the U.S. ASTER Team, to confirm the geometric correction parameters developed and applied to Level 1A (radiometrically and geometrically raw with correction parameters appended) ASTER data. The goal was to evaluate the geometric quality of the ASTER system and the stability of the Terra spacecraft. ASTER is a 15-band system containing optical instruments with resolutions from 15- to 90-meters; all geometrically registered products are ultimately tied to the 15-meter Visible and Near Infrared (VNIR) sub-system. Our evaluation process first involved establishing a large database of Ground Control Points (GCP) in the mid-western United States; an area with features of an appropriate size for spacecraft instrument resolutions. We used standard U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Digital Orthophoto Quads (DOQS) of areas in the mid-west to locate accurate GCPs by systematically identifying road intersections and recording their coordinates. Elevations for these points were derived from USGS Digital Elevation Models (DEMS). Road intersections in a swath of nine contiguous ASTER scenes were then matched to the GCPs, including terrain correction. We found no significant distortion in the images; after a simple image offset to absolute position, the RMS residual of about 200 points per scene was less than one-half a VNIR pixel. Absolute locations were within 80 meters, with a slow drift of about 10 meters over the entire 530-kilometer swath. Using strictly simultaneous observations of scenes 370 kilometers apart, we determined a stereo angle correction of 0.00134 degree with an accuracy of one microradian. The mid-west GCP field and the techniques used here should be widely applicable in assessing other spacecraft instruments having resolutions from 5 to 50-meters. ?? 2008 American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.

  17. CHROMITITE PROSPECTING USING LANDSAT TM AND ASTER REMOTE SENSING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Beiranvand Pour

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Studying the ophiolite complexes using multispectral remote sensing satellite data are interesting because of high diversity of minerals and the source of podiform chromitites. This research developed an approach to discriminate lithological units and detecting host rock of chromitite bodies within ophiolitic complexes using the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER and Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM satellite data. Three main ophiolite complexes located in south of Iran have been selected for the study. Spectral transform techniques, including minimum noise fraction (MNF and specialized band ratio were employed to detect different rock units and the identification of high-potential areas of chromite ore deposits within ophiolitic complexes. A specialized band ratio (4/1, 4/5, 4/7 of ASTER, MNF components and Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM on ASTER and Landsat TM data were used to distinguish ophiolitic rock units. Results show that the specialized band ratio was able to identify different rock units and serpentinized dunite as host rock of chromitites within ophiolitic complexes, appropriately. MNF components of ASTER and Landsat TM data were suitable to distinguish ophiolitic rock complexes at a regional scale. The integration of SAM and Feature Level Fusion (FLF used in this investigation discriminated the ophiolitic rock units and prepared detailed geological map for the study area. Accordingly, high potential areas (serpentinite dunite were identified in the study area for chromite exploration targets.The approach used in this research offers the image processing techniques as a robust, reliable, fast and cost-effective method for detecting serpentinized dunite as host rock of chromitite bodies within vast ophiolite complexes using ASTER and Landsat TM satellite data.

  18. Recent developments in seismic analysis in the code Aster; Les developpements recents en analyse sismique dans le code aster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guihot, P.; Devesa, G.; Dumond, A.; Panet, M.; Waeckel, F.

    1996-12-31

    Progress in the field of seismic qualification and design methods made these last few years allows physical phenomena actually in play to be better considered, while cutting down the conservatism associated with some simplified design methods. So following the change in methods and developing the most advantageous ones among them contributes to the process of the seismic margins assessment and the preparation of new design tools for future series. In this paper, the main developments and improvements in methods which have been made these last two years in the Code Aster, in order to improve seismic calculation methods and seismic margin assessment are presented. The first development relates to making the MISS3D soil structure interaction code available, thanks to an interface made with the Code Aster. The second relates to the possibility of making modal basis time calculations on multi-supported structures by considering local non linearities like impact, friction or squeeze fluid forces. Recent developments in random dynamics and postprocessing devoted to earthquake designs are then mentioned. Three applications of these developments are then ut forward. The first application relates to a test case for soil structure interaction design using MISS3D-Aster coupling. The second is a test case for a multi-supported structure. The last application, more for manufacturing, refers to seismic qualification of Main Live Steam stop valves. First results of the independent validation of the Code Aster seismic design functionalities, which provide and improve the quality of software, are also recalled. (authors). 11 refs.

  19. Collective behavior of minus-ended motors in mitotic microtubule asters gliding toward DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athale, Chaitanya A.; Dinarina, Ana; Nedelec, Francois; Karsenti, Eric

    2014-02-01

    Microtubules (MTs) nucleated by centrosomes form star-shaped structures referred to as asters. Aster motility and dynamics is vital for genome stability, cell division, polarization and differentiation. Asters move either toward the cell center or away from it. Here, we focus on the centering mechanism in a membrane independent system of Xenopus cytoplasmic egg extracts. Using live microscopy and single particle tracking, we find that asters move toward chromatinized DNA structures. The velocity and directionality profiles suggest a random-walk with drift directed toward DNA. We have developed a theoretical model that can explain this movement as a result of a gradient of MT length dynamics and MT gliding on immobilized dynein motors. In simulations, the antagonistic action of the motor species on the radial array of MTs leads to a tug-of-war purely due to geometric considerations and aster motility resembles a directed random-walk. Additionally, our model predicts that aster velocities do not change greatly with varying initial distance from DNA. The movement of asymmetric asters becomes increasingly super-diffusive with increasing motor density, but for symmetric asters it becomes less super-diffusive. The transition of symmetric asters from superdiffusive to diffusive mobility is the result of number fluctuations in bound motors in the tug-of-war. Overall, our model is in good agreement with experimental data in Xenopus cytoplasmic extracts and predicts novel features of the collective effects of motor-MT interactions.

  20. Validation of MODIS Active Fire Products With Coincident ASTER Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csiszar, I. A.; Morisette, J. T.; Giglio, L.; Justice, C. O.

    2002-12-01

    Satellites provide valuable information for the large-scale monitoring of biomass burning over the globe. However, the accuracy of the satellite-derived fire products needs to be determined. An active fire product from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument on board the polar orbiter Terra satellite has been available since 2000. A unique feature of the Terra satellite is the availability of coincident high resolution data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). In this study we used the elevated signal in the 30 m resolution ASTER channel 9 at 2.4 micron to characterize fires within the 1-km MODIS pixels. The probability of MODIS detection was determined by logistic regression as a function of sub-pixel fractional fire coverage and spatial heterogeneity. Examples of individual fires and summarized statistics will be presented for various regions of the globe. The effects of algorithm changes on product accuracy will also be discussed. This work is being undertaken in the framework of the international GOFC/GOLD-Fire program. Involvement of regional scientists in validation of satellite data products is encouraged and will help build a user community informed on the capabilities and limitations of a given product for subsequent application.

  1. INTEGRATION OF PALSAR AND ASTER SATELLITE DATA FOR GEOLOGICAL MAPPING IN TROPICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Beiranvand Pour

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the integration of the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER satellite data for geological mapping applications in tropical environments. The eastern part of the central belt of peninsular Malaysia has been investigated to identify structural features and mineral mapping using PALSAR and ASTER data. Adaptive local sigma and directional filters were applied to PALSAR data for detecting geological structure elements in the study area. The vegetation, mineralogic and lithologic indices for ASTER bands were tested in tropical climate. Lineaments (fault and fractures and curvilinear (anticline or syncline were detected using PALSAR fused image of directional filters (N-S, NE-SW, and NW-SE.Vegetation index image map show vegetation cover by fusing ASTER VNIR bands. High concentration of clay minerals zone was detected using fused image map derived from ASTER SWIR bands. Fusion of ASTER TIR bands produced image map of the lithological units. Results indicate that data integration and data fusion from PALSAR and ASTER sources enhanced information extraction for geological mapping in tropical environments.

  2. Comparing Landsat-7 ETM+ and ASTER Imageries to Estimate Daily Evapotranspiration Within a Mediterranean Vineyard Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Carlo; Jacob, Frederic

    2017-01-01

    We compared the capabilities of Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) imageries for mapping daily evapotranspiration (ET) within a Mediterranean vineyard watershed. We used Landsat and ASTER data simultaneously collected on four dates in 2007 and 2008, along with the simplified surface energy balance index (S-SEBI) model. We used previously ground-validated good quality ASTER estimates as reference, and we analyzed the differences with Landsat retrievals in light of the instrumental factors and methodology. Although Landsat and ASTER retrievals of S-SEBI inputs were different, estimates of daily ET from the two imageries were similar. This is ascribed to the S-SEBI spatial differencing in temperature, and opens the path for using historical Landsat time series over vineyards.

  3. ASTER L2 Surface Reflectance VNIR and Crosstalk Corrected SWIR V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ASTER L2 Surface Reflectance is a multi-file product that contains atmospherically corrected data for both the Visible Near-Infrared (VNIR) and Shortwave...

  4. LBA-ECO LC-23 ASTER and MODIS Fire Data Comparison for Brazil: 2003-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains data associated with MODIS fire maps generated using two different algorithms and compared against fire maps produced by ASTER....

  5. SAFARI 2000 ASTER and MODIS Fire Data Comparison, Dry Season 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data relate to a paper (Morisette et al., 2005) that describes the use of high spatial resolution ASTER data to determine the accuracy of the moderate...

  6. LBA-ECO LC-23 ASTER and MODIS Fire Data Comparison for Brazil: 2003-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains data associated with MODIS fire maps generated using two different algorithms and compared against fire maps produced by ASTER. These data...

  7. ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset 1-kilometer Binary V003 - AG1KMB

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer Global Emissivity Database (ASTER GED) was developed by the National Aeronautics and Space...

  8. ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset 100-meter Binary V003 - AG100B

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer Global Emissivity Database (ASTER GED) was developed by the National Aeronautics and Space...

  9. ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset Monthly 0.05 degree NetCDF4

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Emissivity Dataset (GED) is a collection of monthly files (see known issues for gaps)...

  10. ASTER L1B Registered Radiance at the Sensor V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ASTER Level-1B Registered Radiance at the Sensor product contains radiometrically calibrated and geometrically co-registered data for the acquired channels of...

  11. High-resolution gulf water skin temperature estimation using TIR/ASTER

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; ManiMurali, R.; Mahender, K.

    Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is the highest-resolution multi-spectral thermal infrared (TIR) sensor currently available on a polar-orbiting spacecraft which allows surface temperature estimation, at a...

  12. ASTER Global Emissivity Data Set Monthly 0.05 degree V041 - AG5KMMOH

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Emissivity Dataset (GED) is a collection of monthly files (see known issues for gaps)...

  13. ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset, Monthly, 0.05 deg, HDF5 V041

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Emissivity Dataset (GED) is a collection of monthly files (see known issues for gaps)...

  14. ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset, Monthly, 0.05 deg, netCDF4 V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AG5KMMOH.004 dataset was decommissioned as of December 14, 2016. Users are encouraged to use Version 4.1 of ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset, Monthly, 0.05...

  15. ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset, Monthly, 0.05 deg, HDF5 V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AG5KMMOH.004 dataset was decommissioned as of December 14, 2016. Users are encouraged to use Version 4.1 of ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset, Monthly, 0.05...

  16. On-Orbit Spatial Characterization of MODIS with ASTER Aboard the Terra Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yong; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2011-01-01

    This letter presents a novel approach for on-orbit characterization of MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) band-to-band registration (BBR) using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) aboard the Terra spacecraft. The spatial resolution of ASTER spectral bands is much higher than that of MODIS, making it feasible to characterize MODIS on-orbit BBR using their simultaneous observations. The ground target selected for on-orbit MODIS BBR characterization in this letter is a water body, which is a uniform scene with high signal contrast relative to its neighbor areas. A key step of this approach is to accurately localize the measurements of each MODIS band in an ASTER measurement plane coordinate (AMPC). The ASTER measurements are first interpolated and aggregated to simulate the measurements of each MODIS band. The best measurement match between ASTER and each MODIS band is obtained when the measurement difference reaches its weighted minimum. The position of each MODIS band in the AMPC is then used to calculate the BBR. The results are compared with those derived from MODIS onboard Spectro-Radiometric Calibration Assembly. They are in good agreement, generally less than 0.1 MODIS pixel. This approach is useful for other sensors without onboard spatial characterization capability. Index Terms Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), band-to-band registration (BBR), MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), spatial characterization.

  17. Thermal remote sensing of ice-debris landforms using ASTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenning, A.; Peña, M. A.; Long, S.; Soliman, A.

    2011-10-01

    Remote sensors face challenges in characterizing mountain permafrost and ground thermal conditions or mapping rock glaciers and debris-covered glaciers. We explore the potentials of thermal imaging and in particular thermal inertia mapping in mountain cryospheric research, focusing on the relationships between ground surface temperatures and the presence of ice-debris landforms on one side and land surface temperature (LST) and apparent thermal inertia (ATI) on the other. In our case study we utilize ASTER daytime and nighttime imagery and in-situ measurements of near-surface ground temperature (NSGT) in the Mediterranean Andes during a snow-free and dry observation period in late summer. Spatial patterns of LST and NSGT were mostly consistent with each other both at daytime and at nighttime. Daytime LST over ice-debris landforms was decreased and ATI consequently increased compared to other debris surfaces under otherwise equal conditions, but NSGT showed contradictory results, which underlines the complexity and possible scale dependence of ATI in heterogeneous substrates with the presence of a thermal mismatch and a heat sink at depth. While our results demonstrate the utility of thermal imaging and ATI mapping in a mountain cryospheric context, further research is needed for a better interpretation of ATI patterns in complex thermophysical conditions

  18. Neuroprotective effects of butterbur and rough aster against kainic Acid-induced oxidative stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sang Hee; Sok, Dai-Eun; Kim, Mee Ree

    2005-01-01

    The separate and combined neuroprotective effects of rough aster (Aster scaber) and butterbur (Petasite japonicus) extracts against oxidative damage in the brain of mice challenged with kainic acid were examined by comparing behavioral changes and biochemical parameters of oxidative stress. Rough aster butanol extract (400 mg/kg) and/or butterbur butanol extract (150 or 400 mg/kg) were administered to male ICR mice, 6-8 weeks old, through a gavage for 4 days consecutively, and on day 4, kainic acid (50 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally. Compared with the vehicle-treated control, no significant changes in body and brain weight were observed in mice administered rough aster or butterbur butanol extract. Administration of kainic acid only, causing a lethality of approximately 54%, resulted in a significant decrease of total glutathione level and increase of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) value in brain tissue. The administration of butterbur or rough aster extract (400 mg/kg) decreased the lethality (50%) of kainic acid to 25%, alleviated the behavioral signs of neurotoxicity, restored the cytosolic glutathione level of brain homogenate to approximately 80% (P butterbur extract at a low dose (150 mg/kg), the combination of rough aster extract and butterbur extract reduced the lethality to 12.5%. Moreover, the combination delayed the onset time of behavioral signs by twofold, and significantly preserved the level of cytosolic glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities. However, the other biochemical parameters were not altered significantly by the combination. Thus, the combination of two vegetable extracts significantly increased the neuroprotective action against kainic acid-induced neurotoxicity. Based on these findings, the combination of butterbur extract and rough aster extract contains a functional agent or agents that protect against oxidative stress in the brain of mice.

  19. Reducing the Discrepancy Between ASTER and MODIS Land Surface Temperature Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changqing Ke

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Human-induced global warming has significantly increased the importance ofsatellite monitoring of land surface temperature (LST on a global scale. The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS provides a 1-km resolution LST productwith almost daily coverage of the Earth, invaluable to both local and global change studies.The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Reflection Radiometer (ASTER provides aLST product with a high spatial resolution of 90-m and a 16-day recurrent cycle,simultaneously acquired at the same height and nadir view as MODIS. ASTER andMODIS are complementary in resolution, offering a unique opportunity for scale-relatedstudies. ASTER and MODIS LST have been widely used but the errors in LST were mostlydisregarded. Correction of ASTER-to-MODIS LST discrepancies is essential for studiesreliant upon the joint use of these sensors. In this study, we compared three correctionapproaches: the Wan et al.’s approach, the refined Wan et al.’s approach, and thegeneralized split window (GSW algorithm based approach. The Wan et al.’s approachcorrects the MODIS 1-km LST using MODIS 5-km LST. The refined approach modifiesthe Wan et al.’s approach through incorporating ASTER emissivity and MODIS 5-km data.The GSW algorithm approach does not use MODIS 5-km but only ASTER emissivity data. We examined the case over a semi-arid terrain area for the part of the Loess Plateau of China. All the approaches reduced the ASTER-to-MODIS LST discrepancy effectively. With terrain correction, the original ASTER-to-MODIS LST difference reduced from 2.7±1.28 K to -0.1±1.87 K for the Wan et al.’s approach, 0.2±1.57 K for the refined approach, and 0.1±1.33 K for the GSW algorithm based approach. Among all the approaches, the GSW algorithm based approach performed best in terms of mean, standard deviation, root mean square root, and correlation coefficient.

  20. Anti-cancer activity of Aster tataricus on SCC-9 human oral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Oral squamous carcinoma is a head and neck cancer, which is one of the types of malignant cancers. Present study evaluates the anticancer activity of Aster tataricus (AT) on SCC-9 human oral squamous carcinoma. Materials and Methods: Ethanol extract of AT was prepared by a standard procedure of ...

  1. Exploring the limits of identifying sub-pixel thermal features using ASTER TIR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, R.G.; Keszthelyi, L.P.; Davies, A.G.; Schneider, D.J.; Jaworowski, C.; Heasler, H.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the characteristics of volcanic thermal emissions and how they change with time is important for forecasting and monitoring volcanic activity and potential hazards. Satellite instruments view volcanic thermal features across the globe at various temporal and spatial resolutions. Thermal features that may be a precursor to a major eruption, or indicative of important changes in an on-going eruption can be subtle, making them challenging to reliably identify with satellite instruments. The goal of this study was to explore the limits of the types and magnitudes of thermal anomalies that could be detected using satellite thermal infrared (TIR) data. Specifically, the characterization of sub-pixel thermal features with a wide range of temperatures is considered using ASTER multispectral TIR data. First, theoretical calculations were made to define a "thermal mixing detection threshold" for ASTER, which quantifies the limits of ASTER's ability to resolve sub-pixel thermal mixing over a range of hot target temperatures and % pixel areas. Then, ASTER TIR data were used to model sub-pixel thermal features at the Yellowstone National Park geothermal area (hot spring pools with temperatures from 40 to 90 ??C) and at Mount Erebus Volcano, Antarctica (an active lava lake with temperatures from 200 to 800 ??C). Finally, various sources of uncertainty in sub-pixel thermal calculations were quantified for these empirical measurements, including pixel resampling, atmospheric correction, and background temperature and emissivity assumptions.

  2. First detection of Aster Yellows caused by phytoplasma on Camelina sativa L. in South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelina is an oilseed crop that has been introduced to South Dakota primarily for biofuel production. Camelina plants (cv. ‘S0-40’) exhibiting symptoms typical of aster yellows infection were observed in a 10-acre demonstration plot at the Dakota Lakes Research Farm in Hughes County, South Dakota ...

  3. Cyanodermella asteris sp. nov. (Ostropales) from the inflorescence axis of Aster tataricus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Linda; Schafhauser, Thomas; Pan, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    An endophytic fungus isolated from the inflorescence axis of Aster tataricus is proposed as a new species. Phylogenetic analyses based on sequences from the ribosomal DNA cluster (the ITS1+5.8S+ITS2, 18S, and 28S regions) and the RPB2 gene revealed a relationship between the unknown fungus...

  4. Improvement of dem Generation from Aster Images Using Satellite Jitter Estimation and Open Source Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girod, L.; Nuth, C.; Kääb, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) system embarked on the Terra (EOS AM-1) satellite has been a source of stereoscopic images covering the whole globe at a 15m resolution at a consistent quality for over 15 years. The potential of this data in terms of geomorphological analysis and change detection in three dimensions is unrivaled and needs to be exploited. However, the quality of the DEMs and ortho-images currently delivered by NASA (ASTER DMO products) is often of insufficient quality for a number of applications such as mountain glacier mass balance. For this study, the use of Ground Control Points (GCPs) or of other ground truth was rejected due to the global "big data" type of processing that we hope to perform on the ASTER archive. We have therefore developed a tool to compute Rational Polynomial Coefficient (RPC) models from the ASTER metadata and a method improving the quality of the matching by identifying and correcting jitter induced cross-track parallax errors. Our method outputs more accurate DEMs with less unmatched areas and reduced overall noise. The algorithms were implemented in the open source photogrammetric library and software suite MicMac.

  5. Ecosystem engineering effects of Aster tripolium and Salicornia procumbens saltmarsh on macrofaunal community structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wal, D.; Herman, P.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines how perennial Aster tripolium and annual Salicornia procumbens salt marshes alter the biomass, density, taxon diversity, and community structure of benthic macrofauna, and also examines the role of elevation, sediment grain size, plant cover, and marsh age. Core samples were

  6. Cross-Calibration of Earth Observing System Terra Satellite Sensors MODIS and ASTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCorkel, J.

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emissive and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) are two of the five sensors onboard the Earth Observing System's Terra satellite. These sensors share many similar spectral channels while having much different spatial and operational parameters. ASTER is a tasked sensor and sometimes referred to a zoom camera of the MODIS that collects a full-earth image every one to two days. It is important that these sensors have a consistent characterization and calibration for continued development and use of their data products. This work uses a variety of test sites to retrieve and validate intercalibration results. The refined calibration of Collection 6 of the Terra MODIS data set is leveraged to provide the up-to-date reference for trending and validation of ASTER. Special attention is given to spatially matching radiance measurements using prelaunch spatial response characterization of MODIS. Despite differences in spectral band properties and spatial scales, ASTER-MODIS is an ideal case for intercomparison since the sensors have nearly identical views and acquisitions times and therefore can be used as a baseline of intercalibration performance of other satellite sensor pairs.

  7. The ecotope influence on anatomo-morphological features of Aster amellus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A. Leonova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article regarded to Aster amellus– rare species within floristic complex of the Penza region. It is listed in the Red Book of the Penza region. The correlation was revealed between the anatomical and morphological plant structure and the environmental conditions of its habitat.

  8. GLACIER VOLUME CHANGE ESTIMATION USING TIME SERIES OF IMPROVED ASTER DEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Girod

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Volume change data is critical to the understanding of glacier response to climate change. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER system embarked on the Terra (EOS AM-1 satellite has been a unique source of systematic stereoscopic images covering the whole globe at 15m resolution and at a consistent quality for over 15 years. While satellite stereo sensors with significantly improved radiometric and spatial resolution are available to date, the potential of ASTER data lies in its long consistent time series that is unrivaled, though not fully exploited for change analysis due to lack of data accuracy and precision. Here, we developed an improved method for ASTER DEM generation and implemented it in the open source photogrammetric library and software suite MicMac. The method relies on the computation of a rational polynomial coefficients (RPC model and the detection and correction of cross-track sensor jitter in order to compute DEMs. ASTER data are strongly affected by attitude jitter, mainly of approximately 4 km and 30 km wavelength, and improving the generation of ASTER DEMs requires removal of this effect. Our sensor modeling does not require ground control points and allows thus potentially for the automatic processing of large data volumes. As a proof of concept, we chose a set of glaciers with reference DEMs available to assess the quality of our measurements. We use time series of ASTER scenes from which we extracted DEMs with a ground sampling distance of 15m. Our method directly measures and accounts for the cross-track component of jitter so that the resulting DEMs are not contaminated by this process. Since the along-track component of jitter has the same direction as the stereo parallaxes, the two cannot be separated and the elevations extracted are thus contaminated by along-track jitter. Initial tests reveal no clear relation between the cross-track and along-track components so that the latter

  9. [Cross comparison of ASTER and Landsat ETM+ multispectral measurements for NDVI and SAVI vegetation indices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Han-qiu; Zhang, Tie-jun

    2011-07-01

    The present paper investigates the quantitative relationship between the NDVI and SAVI vegetation indices of Landsat and ASTER sensors based on three tandem image pairs. The study examines how well ASTER sensor vegetation observations replicate ETM+ vegetation observations, and more importantly, the difference in the vegetation observations between the two sensors. The DN values of the three image pairs were first converted to at-sensor reflectance to reduce radiometric differences between two sensors, images. The NDVI and SAVI vegetation indices of the two sensors were then calculated using the converted reflectance. The quantitative relationship was revealed through regression analysis on the scatter plots of the vegetation index values of the two sensors. The models for the conversion between the two sensors, vegetation indices were also obtained from the regression. The results show that the difference does exist between the two sensors, vegetation indices though they have a very strong positive linear relationship. The study found that the red and near infrared measurements differ between the two sensors, with ASTER generally producing higher reflectance in the red band and lower reflectance in the near infrared band than the ETM+ sensor. This results in the ASTER sensor producing lower spectral vegetation index measurements, for the same target, than ETM+. The relative spectral response function differences in the red and near infrared bands between the two sensors are believed to be the main factor contributing to their differences in vegetation index measurements, because the red and near infrared relative spectral response features of the ASTER sensor overlap the vegetation "red edge" spectral region. The obtained conversion models have high accuracy with a RMSE less than 0.04 for both sensors' inter-conversion between corresponding vegetation indices.

  10. Composition of essential oil and allelopathic activity of aromatic water of Aster lanceolatus Willd: (Asteraceae

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    Josiane de Fátima Gaspari Dias

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil obtained from flowers of Aster lanceolatus was submitted the CG-MS and presented as result thirteen substances with largest concentration; among them, the caryophyllene oxide with the larger one. The aromatic water obtained during the extraction process of this essential oil was forwarded to allelopathic test, and demonstrated to be capable to inhibit the germination and growth of Lactuca sativa.O óleo essencial obtido das flores de Aster lanceolatus foi submetido a CG-EM e apresentou como resultado treze substâncias, entre elas o óxido de cariofileno com a maior concentração. A água aromática obtida durante o processo de extração do óleo essencial foi encaminhada para teste alelopático, a qual demonstrou ser capaz de inibir a germinação e crescimento de Lactuca sativa.

  11. Visual interpretation of ASTER satellite data, Part II: Land use mapping in Mpumalanga,South Africa

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    Elna van Niekerk

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the initiation in 1960 of the era of satellite remote sensing to detect the different characteristics of the earth, a powerful tool was created to aid researchers. Many land-use studies were undertaken using Landsat MSS, Landsat TM and ETM, as well as SPOT satellite data. The application of these data to the mapping of land use and land cover at smaller scales was constrained by the limited spectral and/or spatial resolution of the data provided by these satellite sensors. In view of the relatively high cost of SPOT data, and uncertainty regarding the future continuation of the Landsat series, alternative data sources need to be investigated. In the absence of published previous research on this issue in South Africa, the purpose of this article is to investigate the value of visual interpretation of ASTER satellite images for the identification and mapping of land-use in an area in South Africa. The study area is situated in Mpumalanga, in the area of Witbank, around the Witbank and Doorndraai dams. This area is characterised by a variety of urban, rural and industrial land uses. Digital image processing of one Landsat 5 TM, one Landsat 7 ETM and one ASTER satellite image was undertaken, including atmospheric correction and georeferencing, natural colour composites, photo infrared colour composites (or false colour satellite images, band ratios, Normalised Difference Indices, as well as the Brightness, Greenness and Wetness Indices. The efficacy with which land use could be identified through the visual interpretation of the processed Landsat 5 TM, Landsat 7 TM and ASTER satellite images was compared. The published 1:50 000 topographical maps of the area were used for the purpose of initial verification. Findings of the visual interpretation process were verified by field visits to the study area. The study found that the ASTER satellite data produced clearer results and therefore have a higher mapping ability and capacity than the

  12. Estimation of Tree Size Diversity Using Object Oriented Texture Analysis and Aster Imagery

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    Ozdemir Senturk

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the potential of object-based texture parameters extracted from 15m spatial resolution ASTER imagery for estimating tree size diversity in a Mediterranean forested landscape in Turkey. Tree size diversity based on tree basal area was determined using the Shannon index and Gini Coefficient at the sampling plot level. Image texture parameters were calculated based on the grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM for various image segmentation levels. Analyses of relationships between tree size diversity and texture parameters found that relationships between the Gini Coefficient and the GLCM values were the most statistically significant, with the highest correlation (r=0.69 being with GLCM Homogeneity values. In contrast, Shannon Index values were weakly correlated with image derived texture parameters. The results suggest that 15m resolution Aster imagery has considerable potential in estimating tree size diversity based on the Gini Coefficient for heterogeneous Mediterranean forests.

  13. Normalizing Landsat and ASTER Data Using MODIS Data Products for Forest Change Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Wolfe, Robert E.; Tan, Bin

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring forest cover and its changes are a major application for optical remote sensing. In this paper, we present an approach to integrate Landsat, ASTER and MODIS data for forest change detection. Moderate resolution (10-100m) images (e.g. Landsat and ASTER) acquired from different seasons and times are normalized to one "standard" date using MODIS data products as reference. The normalized data are then used to compute forest disturbance index for forest change detection. Comparing to the results from original data, forest disturbance index from the normalized images is more consistent spatially and temporally. This work demonstrates an effective approach for mapping forest change over a large area from multiple moderate resolution sensors on various acquisition dates.

  14. Evaluation of the acute and subchronic toxicity of Aster tataricus L.F. ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... on the liver; much less on the heart. The LD50 was 15.74 g/kg BW in mice, and the subchronic toxicity study, used a dosage of 0.34 g/kg/d.BW, showed that the toxic components of Aster tataricus L. f. were mainly concentrated in the petroleum ether fraction, followed by the ethyl acetate fraction, the n-butyl alcohol fraction, ...

  15. Google Earth's derived digital elevation model: A comparative assessment with Aster and SRTM data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusli, N.; Majid, M. R.; Din, A. H. M.

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a statistical analysis showing additional evidence that Digital Elevation Model (DEM) derived from Google Earth is commendable and has a good correlation with ASTER (Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) and SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) elevation data. The accuracy of DEM elevation points from Google Earth was compared against that of DEMs from ASTER and SRTM for flat, hilly and mountainous sections of a pre-selected rural watershed. For each section, a total of 5,000 DEM elevation points were extracted as samples from each type of DEM data. The DEM data from Google Earth and SRTM for flat and hilly sections are strongly correlated with the R2 of 0.791 and 0.891 respectively. Even stronger correlation is shown for the mountainous section where the R2 values between Google Earth's DEM and ASTER's and between Google Earth's DEM and SRTM's DEMs are respectively 0.917 and 0.865. Further accuracy testing was carried out by utilising the DEM dataset to delineate Muar River's watershed boundary using ArcSWAT2009, a hydrological modelling software. The result shows that the percentage differences of the watershed size delineated from Google Earth's DEM compared to those derived from Department of Irrigation and Drainage's data (using 20m-contour topographic map), ASTER and SRTM data are 9.6%, 10.6%, and 7.6% respectively. It is therefore justified to conclude that the DEM derived from Google Earth is relatively as acceptable as DEMs from other sources.

  16. EXTRACTION OF FOREST STANDS PARAMETERS FROM ASTER DATA IN OPEN FOREST

    OpenAIRE

    Abbasi, M.; Riyahi Bakhtyarib, H. R.

    2012-01-01

    Tree crown size (CS) and stem number per hectare (SN) has become increasingly important for forest management and ecosystem monitoring. Tree crown size is also strongly related to other canopy structural parameters, such as diameter at breast height, tree height and biomass. For both issues, remote sensing data are attractive for their large-area and up-to-date mapping capacities. The QuickBird and ASTER imagery used in this study was acquired over Zagros Forests in southern Zagros region, Fa...

  17. Accuracy Enhancement of ASTER Global Digital Elevation Models Using ICESat Data

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    Peter Reinartz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Global Digital Elevation Models (GDEM are considered very attractive for current research and application areas due to their free and wide range accessibility. The ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model exhibits the highest spatial resolution data of all global DEMs and it is generated for almost the whole globe. Unfortunately, ASTERGDEM data include many artifacts and height errors that decrease the quality and elevation accuracy significantly. This study provides a method for quality improvement of the ASTER GDEM data by correcting systematic height errors using ICESat laser altimetry data and removing artifacts and anomalies based on a segment-based outlier detection and elimination algorithm. Additionally, elevation errors within water bodies are corrected using a water mask produced from a high-resolution shoreline data set. Results indicate that the accuracy of the corrected ASTER GDEM is significantly improved and most artifacts are appropriately eliminated. Nevertheless, artifacts containing lower height values with respect to the neighboring ground pixels are not entirely eliminated due to confusion with some real non-terrain 3D objects. The proposed method is particularly useful for areas where other high quality DEMs such as SRTM are not available.

  18. Detection of Alteration Induced by Onshore Gas Seeps from ASTER and WorldView-2 Data

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    Sanaz Salati

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbon seeps cause chemical and mineralogical changes at the surface, which can be detected by remote sensing. This paper aims at the detection of mineral alteration induced by gas seeps in a marly limestone formation, SW Iran. For this purpose, the multispectral Advance Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER and the high spatial resolution WorldView-2 (WV-2 data were utilized for mapping surficial rock alteration. In addition, the potential of Visible Near Infrared (VNIR bands of the WV-2 and its high spatial resolution for mapping alterations was determined. Band ratioing, principal component analysis (PCA, data fusion and the boosted regression trees (BRT were applied to enhance and classify the altered and unaltered marly limestone formation. The alteration zones were identified and mapped by remote sensing analyses. Integrating the WV-2 into the ASTER data improved the spatial accuracy of the BRT classifications. The results showed that the BRT classification of the multiple band imagery (created from ASTER and WV-2 using regions of interest (ROIs around field data provides the best discrimination between altered and unaltered areas. It is suggested that the WV-2 dataset can provide a potential tool along higher spectral resolution data for mapping alteration minerals related to hydrocarbon seeps in arid and semi-arid areas.

  19. Estimating Coastal Lagoon Tidal Flooding and Repletion with Multidate ASTER Thermal Imagery

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    Thomas R. Allen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Coastal lagoons mix inflowing freshwater and tidal marine waters in complex spatial patterns. This project sought to detect and measure temperature and spatial variability of flood tides for a constricted coastal lagoon using multitemporal remote sensing. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Radiometer (ASTER thermal infrared data provided estimates of surface temperature for delineation of repletion zones in portions of Chincoteague Bay, Virginia. ASTER high spatial resolution sea-surface temperature imagery in conjunction with in situ observations and tidal predictions helped determine the optimal seasonal data for analyses. The selected time series ASTER satellite data sets were analyzed at different tidal phases and seasons in 2004–2006. Skin surface temperatures of ocean and estuarine waters were differentiated by flood tidal penetration and ebb flows. Spatially variable tidal flood penetration was evaluated using discrete seed-pixel area analysis and time series Principal Components Analysis. Results from these techniques provide spatial extent and variability dynamics of tidal repletion, flushing, and mixing, important factors in eutrophication assessment, water quality and resource monitoring, and application of hydrodynamic modeling for coastal estuary science and management.

  20. Detection of High Local Groundwater Inflow to Rock Tunnels using ASTER Satellite Images

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    M. Sharafi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available High local groundwater flow into rock tunnels may lead to a potential hazard and is an important factor influencing construction time and costs. Geological features such as fault zones and open fractures can be the source of very high local groundwater inflows. Having a reliable estimation of location groundwater inflows is essential before excavation of tunnels. To reduce the costs and time of field works, remote sensing investigations can be a good solution. The main aim of the present study is to propose a methodology for detecting the geomorphic markers of cuesta in the high local groundwater inflow to Nosoud tunnel using the satellite imagery data. For this purpose, a reflectance image from the ASTER satellite sensor was used. Our Experiments show that cuesta springs, caused by hydraulic fracturing, can be detected using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI map, computed on the ASTER image, and analyzing the topographic and morphometric features of the area. Moreover, observations in tunnel excavation stage showed that crossing through open fractures in hard and thick layers is the major cause of water inflow into the tunnel, which corresponds to the surface hydrogeological evidences obtained from the ASTER image.

  1. PEMETAAN SUHU PERMUKAAN LAUT (SPL MENGGUNAKAN CITRA SATELIT ASTER DI PERAIRAN LAUT JAWA BAGIAN BARAT MADURA

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    Dyah Ayu Sulistyo Rini

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Oceanographical temperature in Java Sea is very important to be considered. This research was combines in-site observation technique, Geographical Information System (GLS and remote sensing in order to get accurate, present and updateable data. The aim of this research is to determine the distribution of sea-surface temperature and accuration-test value in Java Sea especially on western coast of Madura using ASTER satellite imagery. This research were used software of ENVI 4.5, ILWIS 3.3, and ArcGIS 9.3 and also changed the radian value until °C. Result showed that using ASTER satellite imagery within band 10 range between 32 "C-35 "C. Band 11,between 24.9"C 25,2"C. Band 12 between 16,7"C to 17"C. Band while band 13 abd 14 between 30.7, band 28. Band 11 is more accurate compared to Band 10, 12, 13. 14, the RMS Error on band 11 showed lower value compared to the other band.Keywords: Sea-surface Temperature. ASTER satellite imagery. Java Sea, Western coast of Madura

  2. Estimating surface fluxes over the north Tibetan Plateau area with ASTER imagery

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    Weiqiang Ma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface fluxes are important boundary conditions for climatological modeling and Asian monsoon system. The recent availability of high-resolution, multi-band imagery from the ASTER (Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer sensor has enabled us to estimate surface fluxes to bridge the gap between local scale flux measurements using micrometeorological instruments and regional scale land-atmosphere exchanges of water and heat fluxes that are fundamental for the understanding of the water cycle in the Asian monsoon system. A parameterization method based on ASTER data and field observations has been proposed and tested for deriving surface albedo, surface temperature, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (MSAVI, vegetation coverage, Leaf Area Index (LAI, net radiation flux, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux over heterogeneous land surface in this paper. As a case study, the methodology was applied to the experimental area of the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP Asia-Australia Monsoon Project (CAMP on the Tibetan Plateau (CAMP/Tibet, located at the north Tibetan Plateau. The ASTER data of 24 July 2001, 29 November 2001 and 12 March 2002 was used in this paper for the case of summer, winter and spring. To validate the proposed methodology, the ground-measured surface variables (surface albedo and surface temperature and land surface heat fluxes (net radiation flux, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux were compared to the ASTER derived values. The results show that the derived surface variables and land surface heat fluxes in three different months over the study area are in good accordance with the land surface status. Also, the estimated land surface variables and land surface heat fluxes are in good accordance with ground measurements, and all their absolute percentage difference (APD is less than 10% in the validation sites

  3. Marine Boundary Layer Cloud Property Retrievals from High-Resolution ASTER Observations: Case Studies and Comparison with Terra MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Frank; Wind, Galina; Zhang, Zhibo; Platnick, Steven; Di Girolamo, Larry; Zhao, Guangyu; Amarasinghe, Nandana; Meyer, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    A research-level retrieval algorithm for cloud optical and microphysical properties is developed for the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) aboard the Terra satellite. It is based on the operational MODIS algorithm. This paper documents the technical details of this algorithm and evaluates the retrievals for selected marine boundary layer cloud scenes through comparisons with the operational MODIS Data Collection 6 (C6) cloud product. The newly developed, ASTERspecific cloud masking algorithm is evaluated through comparison with an independent algorithm reported in Zhao and Di Girolamo (2006). To validate and evaluate the cloud optical thickness (tau) and cloud effective radius (r(sub eff)) from ASTER, the high-spatial-resolution ASTER observations are first aggregated to the same 1000m resolution as MODIS. Subsequently, tau(sub aA) and r(sub eff, aA) retrieved from the aggregated ASTER radiances are compared with the collocated MODIS retrievals. For overcast pixels, the two data sets agree very well with Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficients of R greater than 0.970. However, for partially cloudy pixels there are significant differences between r(sub eff, aA) and the MODIS results which can exceed 10 micrometers. Moreover, it is shown that the numerous delicate cloud structures in the example marine boundary layer scenes, resolved by the high-resolution ASTER retrievals, are smoothed by the MODIS observations. The overall good agreement between the research-level ASTER results and the operational MODIS C6 products proves the feasibility of MODIS-like retrievals from ASTER reflectance measurements and provides the basis for future studies concerning the scale dependency of satellite observations and three-dimensional radiative effects.

  4. ASTER spectral analysis and lithologic mapping of the Khanneshin carbonatite volcano, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, John C.; Rowan, Lawrence C.

    2011-01-01

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data of the early Quaternary Khanneshin carbonatite volcano located in southern Afghanistan were used to identify carbonate rocks within the volcano and to distinguish them from Neogene ferruginous polymict sandstone and argillite. The carbonatitic rocks are characterized by diagnostic CO3 absorption near 11.2 μm and 2.31–2.33 μm, whereas the sandstone, argillite, and adjacent alluvial deposits exhibit intense Si-O absorption near 8.7 μm caused mainly by quartz and Al-OH absorption near 2.20 μm due to muscovite and illite.Calcitic carbonatite was distinguished from ankeritic carbonatite in the short wave infrared (SWIR) region of the ASTER data due to a slight shift of the CO3 absorption feature toward 2.26 μm (ASTER band 7) in the ankeritic carbonatite spectra. Spectral assessment using ASTER SWIR data suggests that the area is covered by extensive carbonatite flows that contain calcite, ankerite, and muscovite, though some areas mapped as ankeritic carbonatite on a preexisting geologic map were not identified in the ASTER data. A contact aureole shown on the geologic map was defined using an ASTER false color composite image (R = 6, G = 3, B = 1) and a logical operator byte image. The contact aureole rocks exhibit Fe2+, Al-OH, and Fe, Mg-OH spectral absorption features at 1.65, 2.2, and 2.33 μm, respectively, which suggest that the contact aureole rocks contain muscovite, epidote, and chlorite. The contact aureole rocks were mapped using an Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operator.A visible through short wave infrared (VNIR-SWIR) mineral and rock-type map based on matched filter, band ratio, and logical operator analysis illustrates: (1) laterally extensive calcitic carbonatite that covers most of the crater and areas northeast of the crater; (2) ankeritic carbonatite located southeast and north of the crater and some small deposits located within the crater; (3) agglomerate that

  5. Estimation of aboveground biomass in Mediterranean forests by statistical modelling of ASTER fraction images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Manso, O.; Fernández-Manso, A.; Quintano, C.

    2014-09-01

    Aboveground biomass (AGB) estimation from optical satellite data is usually based on regression models of original or synthetic bands. To overcome the poor relation between AGB and spectral bands due to mixed-pixels when a medium spatial resolution sensor is considered, we propose to base the AGB estimation on fraction images from Linear Spectral Mixture Analysis (LSMA). Our study area is a managed Mediterranean pine woodland (Pinus pinaster Ait.) in central Spain. A total of 1033 circular field plots were used to estimate AGB from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) optical data. We applied Pearson correlation statistics and stepwise multiple regression to identify suitable predictors from the set of variables of original bands, fraction imagery, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and Tasselled Cap components. Four linear models and one nonlinear model were tested. A linear combination of ASTER band 2 (red, 0.630-0.690 μm), band 8 (short wave infrared 5, 2.295-2.365 μm) and green vegetation fraction (from LSMA) was the best AGB predictor (Radj2=0.632, the root-mean-squared error of estimated AGB was 13.3 Mg ha-1 (or 37.7%), resulting from cross-validation), rather than other combinations of the above cited independent variables. Results indicated that using ASTER fraction images in regression models improves the AGB estimation in Mediterranean pine forests. The spatial distribution of the estimated AGB, based on a multiple linear regression model, may be used as baseline information for forest managers in future studies, such as quantifying the regional carbon budget, fuel accumulation or monitoring of management practices.

  6. Extraction of Forest Stands Parameters from Aster Data in Open Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, M.; Riyahi Bakhtyarib, H. R.

    2012-07-01

    Tree crown size (CS) and stem number per hectare (SN) has become increasingly important for forest management and ecosystem monitoring. Tree crown size is also strongly related to other canopy structural parameters, such as diameter at breast height, tree height and biomass. For both issues, remote sensing data are attractive for their large-area and up-to-date mapping capacities. The QuickBird and ASTER imagery used in this study was acquired over Zagros Forests in southern Zagros region, Fars province of Iran on 1 August 2005 and 1 July 2005, respectively. For the forest site investigated in this study, we concentrated on stands of Quercus Persica which is the dominant species in Zagros region. This study was conducted to investigate the capabilities of ASTER-L1B data to estimate some of forest parameters at individual tree and stand level in dry area. The forest stand parameters are crown area, crown density, average crown area. Obtaining the accuracy of classification the ground truth map was prepared by tree crown delineation using the panchromatic band of QuickBird data. Individual tree crowns were automatically delineated by color segmentation of QuickBird imagery. Simple linear regression procedure was used to show the relationships between spectral variables and the individual trees and forest stand parameters. With decreasing the crown density the effects of background will increase. Our results indicated that crown size could be accurately extracted from panchromatic band of QuickBird images especially for open forest stands. This paper demonstrates that using high-resolution satellite imagery in the open forest offers a unique opportunity for deriving single tree attributes and allowing reliable ground truth map to estimate stand structure. ASTER data and its indices showed good capability to estimate crown area in this study.

  7. EXTRACTION OF FOREST STANDS PARAMETERS FROM ASTER DATA IN OPEN FOREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abbasi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Tree crown size (CS and stem number per hectare (SN has become increasingly important for forest management and ecosystem monitoring. Tree crown size is also strongly related to other canopy structural parameters, such as diameter at breast height, tree height and biomass. For both issues, remote sensing data are attractive for their large-area and up-to-date mapping capacities. The QuickBird and ASTER imagery used in this study was acquired over Zagros Forests in southern Zagros region, Fars province of Iran on 1 August 2005 and 1 July 2005, respectively. For the forest site investigated in this study, we concentrated on stands of Quercus Persica which is the dominant species in Zagros region. This study was conducted to investigate the capabilities of ASTER-L1B data to estimate some of forest parameters at individual tree and stand level in dry area. The forest stand parameters are crown area, crown density, average crown area. Obtaining the accuracy of classification the ground truth map was prepared by tree crown delineation using the panchromatic band of QuickBird data. Individual tree crowns were automatically delineated by color segmentation of QuickBird imagery. Simple linear regression procedure was used to show the relationships between spectral variables and the individual trees and forest stand parameters. With decreasing the crown density the effects of background will increase. Our results indicated that crown size could be accurately extracted from panchromatic band of QuickBird images especially for open forest stands. This paper demonstrates that using high-resolution satellite imagery in the open forest offers a unique opportunity for deriving single tree attributes and allowing reliable ground truth map to estimate stand structure. ASTER data and its indices showed good capability to estimate crown area in this study.

  8. Mapping of crop calendar events by object-based analysis of MODIS and ASTER images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. De Castro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A method to generate crop calendar and phenology-related maps at a parcel level of four major irrigated crops (rice, maize, sunflower and tomato is shown. The method combines images from the ASTER and MODIS sensors in an object-based image analysis framework, as well as testing of three different fitting curves by using the TIMESAT software. Averaged estimation of calendar dates were 85%, from 92% in the estimation of emergence and harvest dates in rice to 69% in the case of harvest date in tomato.

  9. An application of the Self Organizing Map Algorithm to computer aided classification of ASTER multispectral data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinando Giacco

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we employ the Kohonen’s Self Organizing Map (SOM as a strategy for an unsupervised analysis of ASTER multispectral (MS images. In order to obtain an accurate clusterization we introduce as input for the network, in addition to spectral data, some texture measures extracted from IKONOS images, which gives a contribution to the classification of manmade structures. After clustering of SOM outcomes, we associated each cluster with a major land cover and compared them with prior knowledge of the scene analyzed.

  10. Technoscientific Diplomacy: The Practice of International Politics in the ASTER Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plafcan, Dan

    Most chapters in this volume focus on the scientific and technical aspects of the design, performance, operations, and applications of the MODIS and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instruments. In contrast, this final chapter focuses on politics - specifically, the politics of technical decision making and scientific judgment. When scientific objectives, engineering design decisions, and familiar forms of scientific and technical authority are uncertain or otherwise unsettled, how do they become certain and settled? What facilitates collective judgment and the exercise of power in efforts to advance and achieve common scientific goals, especially in the international arena?

  11. Regional Lithological Mapping Using ASTER-TIR Data: Case Study for the Tibetan Plateau and the Surrounding Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiki Ninomiya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The mineralogical indices the Quartz Index (QI, Carbonate Index (CI and Mafic Index (MI for ASTER multispectral thermal infrared (TIR data were applied to various geological materials for regional lithological mapping on the Tibetan Plateau. Many lithological and structural features are not currently well understood in the central Tibetan Plateau, including the distribution of mafic-ultramafic rocks related to the suture zones, the quartzose and carbonate sedimentary rocks accreted to the Eurasian continent, and sulfate layers related to the Tethys and neo-Tethys geological setting. These rock types can now be mapped with the interpretation of the processed ASTER TIR images described in this paper. A methodology is described for the processing of ASTER TIR data applied to a very wide region of the Tibetan Plateau. The geometrical and radiometric performance of the processed images is discussed, and the advantages of using ortho-rectified data are shown. The challenges of using ASTER data with a small footprint in addition to selecting an appropriate subset of scenes are also examined. ASTER scenes possess a narrow swath width when compared to LANDSAT data (60 km vs. 185 km, respectively. Furthermore, the ASTER data archive is vast, consisting of approximately three million images. These details can present an added level of complexity during an image processing workflow. Finally, geological interpretations made on the maps of the indices are compared with prior geological field studies. The results from the investigations suggest that the indices perform well in the classification of quartzose rocks based on the carbonate and mafic mineral content, in addition to the granitic rocks based on the feldspar content.

  12. Utility of ASTER and Landsat for quantifying hydrochemical concentrations in abandoned gold mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfamichael, Solomon G; Ndlovu, Aros

    2017-10-21

    The effect of mining on water resources is severe and requires careful monitoring and management. Remote sensing has been used to characterize water quality indicators in efforts to fight mine-induced contamination. Much focus has however been placed on producing a qualitative classification of water qualities. Moreover, the number of variables considered in most studies is relatively small for a large number of hydrochemical constituents common in water bodies associated with gold mining activities. This study is aimed at quantifying a comprehensive list of field- and laboratory-measured chemical constituents of water samples from abandoned mines using remotely-sensed data. Akaike's Information Criterion was used to estimate each of the constituents using statistical values derived from individual bands of ASTER and Landsat data as predictors. Fairly good accuracies were obtained for constituents such as redox potential (Eh), major anions and cations. In contrast, trace elements correlated poorly with ASTER and Landsat bands, due mainly to a sampling anomaly. The performances of the two images in estimating the constituents were comparable. These findings suggest the potential of multispectral, moderate spatial resolution remote sensing for quantifying different hydrochemical properties of water bodies in mining environments. Further studies are however encouraged to enhance accuracies and reliability using a greater number of samples than was used in this study to capture the variability present in the population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Estimating Evapotranspiration from an Improved Two-Source Energy Balance Model Using ASTER Satellite Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qifeng Zhuang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Reliably estimating the turbulent fluxes of latent and sensible heat at the Earth’s surface by remote sensing is important for research on the terrestrial hydrological cycle. This paper presents a practical approach for mapping surface energy fluxes using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER images from an improved two-source energy balance (TSEB model. The original TSEB approach may overestimate latent heat flux under vegetative stress conditions, as has also been reported in recent research. We replaced the Priestley-Taylor equation used in the original TSEB model with one that uses plant moisture and temperature constraints based on the PT-JPL model to obtain a more accurate canopy latent heat flux for model solving. The collected ASTER data and field observations employed in this study are over corn fields in arid regions of the Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER area, China. The results were validated by measurements from eddy covariance (EC systems, and the surface energy flux estimates of the improved TSEB model are similar to the ground truth. A comparison of the results from the original and improved TSEB models indicates that the improved method more accurately estimates the sensible and latent heat fluxes, generating more precise daily evapotranspiration (ET estimate under vegetative stress conditions.

  14. Morphometric analysis of sub-watershed in parts of Western Ghats, South India using ASTER DEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelin Ramani Sujatha

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Morphometric analysis is a key to understand the hydrological process and hence is a prerequisite for the assessment of hydrological characteristics of surface water basin. Morphometric analysis to determine the drainage characteristics of Palar sub-watershed, a part of Shanmukha watershed in the Amaravati sub-catchment is done using Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Global Digital Elevation Model (ASTER GDEM data, and is supplemented with topographical maps in geographical information systems platform. This study uses ASTER GDEM data to extract morphometric features of a mountain stream at micro-watershed level. The sub-watershed is divided into six micro-watersheds. The sub-watershed includes a sixth-order stream. Lower stream orders, in particular first-order streams, dominate the sub-watershed. Development of stream segments is controlled by slope and local relief. Drainage pattern of the sub-watershed and micro-watersheds is dendritic in general. The mean bifurcation ratio of the sub-watershed is 3.69 but its variation between the various stream orders suggests structural control in the development of stream network. The shape factors reveal the elongation of the sub-watershed and micro-watersheds.The relief ratio reveals the high discharge capability of the sub-watershed and meagre groundwater potential. This study is a useful tool for planning strategies in control of soil erosion and soil conservation.

  15. Air pollution monitoring through the application of atmospheric correction for ASTER imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Diofantos, Hadjimitsis G.

    2009-09-01

    This paper presents the results obtained through the application of atmospheric correction on ASTER images for deriving the aerosol optical thickness (AOT). The literature shows that there is a gap in correlating the determined or measured AOT through the visible and near-infrared spectrum with the air-pollutants such as PM10, PM2.5, CO2, etc. This research investigates such aspects by acquiring sun-photometer measurements, image data, and air-pollutants measurements during the satellite overpass of the urban areas in Paphos and Limassol District in Cyprus. AOT values delivered from MODIS satellite images are regressed against the sun-photometer ground-based measurements. The determined AOT values from both sources are compared with the AOT values retrieved from ASTER and/or LANDSAT TM /ETM+ images. Preliminary results show that the AOT retrieved after applying an atmospheric correction from the images was very near to those found from the sun-photometers acquired simultaneous during the satellite overpass.

  16. ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model Version 2 - summary of validation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachikawa, Tetushi; Kaku, Manabu; Iwasaki, Akira; Gesch, Dean B.; Oimoen, Michael J.; Zhang, Z.; Danielson, Jeffrey J.; Krieger, Tabatha; Curtis, Bill; Haase, Jeff; Abrams, Michael; Carabajal, C.; Meyer, Dave

    2011-01-01

    On June 29, 2009, NASA and the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) of Japan released a Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) to users worldwide at no charge as a contribution to the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS). This “version 1” ASTER GDEM (GDEM1) was compiled from over 1.2 million scenebased DEMs covering land surfaces between 83°N and 83°S latitudes. A joint U.S.-Japan validation team assessed the accuracy of the GDEM1, augmented by a team of 20 cooperators. The GDEM1 was found to have an overall accuracy of around 20 meters at the 95% confidence level. The team also noted several artifacts associated with poor stereo coverage at high latitudes, cloud contamination, water masking issues and the stacking process used to produce the GDEM1 from individual scene-based DEMs (ASTER GDEM Validation Team, 2009). Two independent horizontal resolution studies estimated the effective spatial resolution of the GDEM1 to be on the order of 120 meters.

  17. Aster spathulifolius Maxim extract reduces body weight and fat mass in obese humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, In-Jin; Choung, Se Young; Hwang, You-Cheol; Ahn, Kyu Jeung; Chung, Ho Yeon; Jeong, In-Kyung

    2016-07-01

    Aster spathulifolius Maxim (AS), a perennial herb of the genus Aster within the family Asteraceae, induced weight loss in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. We hypothesized that AS could also reduce body weight in obese humans. Therefore, we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in Korea to evaluate the effect of AS extract (ASE) on body weight and fat mass and its safety in obese humans. Forty-four obese participants (body mass index [BMI], 25-30 kg/m(2)) aged ≥20 years were randomly assigned to the placebo or ASE group (700 mg/d of ASE) and were instructed to take a once-daily pill for 12 weeks. Weight, BMI, waist circumference, fat mass (measured using bioimpedance, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and computed tomography), and laboratory tests were assessed at baseline and at 12 weeks. Body weight significantly decreased after 12 weeks of treatment in the ASE group (placebo vs ASE: -0.08 ± 2.11 kg vs -3.30 ± 3.15 kg, P weight and fat mass in obese humans, suggesting that ASE may be a potential therapeutic candidate for reducing obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. ASTER L1B satellite data applied to geothermal in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. González-Acosta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The 83 ASTER L1B thermal channels of Cuban territorial scenes, from 2000 to 2008 years, selected and processed with geothermal aims showed almost 50% of cloudy coverage. The vortex coordinated as well as other data from such metadata facilitated completing the designed database. From a preliminary mosaic with the images existent these were subsequently processed in order to obtain temperature images. Such images were then integrated into another mosaic with a suitable reclassification resulting in 11 classes with 3°C each. This allowed delimitating those anomalous zones where the greater distribution of pixels oscillated from 25°C to 37°C, and the cloudy coverage temperature aroused up to 20°C approximately. In the resulting temperature map, 69 polygons were a priori delimitated and categorized, as for their perspective and the temperature value above 40°C. These polygons were later overlapped to Google Earth images with the aim to identify those from anthropogenic origins. Finally it was obtained an estimation of the temperature value of the surface coverage of the national territory as well as the understanding of that the eastern zone is the most perspective. This is an experimental application, using satellite images ASTER L1B with geothermic purpose.

  19. Estimating surface fluxes over middle and upper streams of the Heihe River Basin with ASTER imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Ma

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Land surface heat fluxes are essential measures of the strengths of land-atmosphere interactions involving energy, heat and water. Correct parameterization of these fluxes in climate models is critical. Despite their importance, state-of-the-art observation techniques cannot provide representative areal averages of these fluxes comparable to the model grid. Alternative methods of estimation are thus required. These alternative approaches use (satellite observables of the land surface conditions. In this study, the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS algorithm was evaluated in a cold and arid environment, using land surface parameters derived from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER data. Field observations and estimates from SEBS were compared in terms of net radiation flux (Rn, soil heat flux (G0, sensible heat flux (H and latent heat flux (λE over a heterogeneous land surface. As a case study, this methodology was applied to the experimental area of the Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (WATER project, located on the mid-to-upstream sections of the Heihe River in northwest China. ASTER data acquired between 3 May and 4 June 2008, under clear-sky conditions were used to determine the surface fluxes. Ground-based measurements of land surface heat fluxes were compared with values derived from the ASTER data. The results show that the derived surface variables and the land surface heat fluxes furnished by SEBS in different months over the study area are in good agreement with the observed land surface status under the limited cases (some cases looks poor results. So SEBS can be used to estimate turbulent heat fluxes with acceptable accuracy in areas where there is partial vegetation cover in exceptive conditions. It is very important to perform calculations using ground-based observational data for parameterization in SEBS in the future

  20. Assessment of Landscape Fragmentation Associated With Urban Centers Using ASTER Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, W. L.

    2002-12-01

    The role of humans as an integral part of the environment and ecosystem processes has only recently been accepted into mainstream ecological thought. The realization that virtually all ecosystems on Earth have experienced some degree of human alteration or impact has highlighted the need to incorporate humans (and their environmental effects) into ecosystem models. A logical starting point for investigation of human ecosystem dynamics is examination of the land cover characteristics of large urban centers. Land cover and land use changes associated with urbanization are important drivers of local geological, hydrological, ecological, and climatic change. Quantification and monitoring of urban land cover/land use change is part of the primary mission of the ASTER instrument on board the NASA Terra satellite, and comprises the fundamental research objective of the Urban Environmental Monitoring (UEM) Program at Arizona State University. The UEM program seeks to acquire day/night, visible through thermal infrared data twice per year for 100 global urban centers (with an emphasis on semi-arid cities) over the nominal six-year life of the Terra mission. Data have been acquired for the majority of the target urban centers and are used to compare landscape fragmentation patterns on the basis of land cover classifications. Land cover classifications of urban centers are obtained using visible through mid-infrared reflectance and emittance spectra together with calculated vegetation index and spatial variance texture information (all derived from raw ASTER data). This information is combined within a classification matrix, using an expert system framework, to obtain final pixel classifications. Landscape fragmentation is calculated using a pixel per unit area metric for comparison between 55 urban centers with varying geographic and climatic settings including North America, South America, Europe, central and eastern Asia, and Australia. Temporal variations in land cover

  1. Integration of spectral, thermal, and textural features of ASTER data using Random Forests classification for lithological mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumi, Feizollah; Eslamkish, Taymour; Abkar, Ali Akbar; Honarmand, Mehdi; Harris, Jeff R.

    2017-05-01

    The ensemble classifier, Random Forests (RF), is assessed for mapping lithology using the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) imagery over an area in southern Iran. The study area in the northern part of Rabor in the Kerman's Cenozoic magmatic arc (KCMA) is well exposed and contains some copper mineralization occurrences. In this research, the following six groups of ASTER datasets were used for RF classification: nine spectral bands in the VNIR and SWIR, five thermal bands in TIR, all 14 bands (including VNIR, SWIR, and TIR), band ratios, texture features, and principal components (PCs). The results showed that band ratios and all ASTER bands were able to more efficiently discriminate rock units than PC and texture images. The overall classification accuracies achieved were 62.58%, 55.40%, 65.04%, 67.12%, 54.54%, and 53.99% for the nine VNIR/SWIR bands, five TIR bands, all ASTER bands, band ratios, textural, and PCs datasets, respectively. Four datasets including all ASTER bands, band ratios, textural, and PCs datasets (37 bands) were combined as one group and applied in second RF classification which led to increase overall accuracy (up to 81.52%). Based on the four classified maps, an uncertainty map was produced to identify areas of variable (uncertain) classification results, which revealed that approximately 21.43% of all pixels on the classified map were highly uncertain. The RF algorithm found that 12 of the predictors were more important in the classification process. These predictors were used in a third RF classification, which resulted in an overall classification accuracy of 77.21%. Thus, the third RF classification decreases the accuracy. Field observations were used to validate our classification results.

  2. ASTER GDEM validation using LiDAR data over coastal regions of Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidegaard, Sine Munk; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Forsberg, René

    2011-01-01

    by a high spatial resolution of about 1 m and elevation accuracy of 20–30 cm root mean square error (RMSE). The LiDAR data sets used were acquired during ice-monitoring campaigns carried out from 2003 to 2008. The study areas include ice-free regions, local ice caps and the ice sheet margin. A linear error...... of 15–65 m was derived, which is far greater than the 20-m product specification. This estimation is biased by both the seasonal and the climatic changes in local ice caps because the ASTER GDEM was computed from imagery acquired in the period 2000–2009. High sloping areas along the coastal regions...

  3. VALIDATION OF THE ASTER GLOBAL DIGITAL ELEVATION MODEL VERSION 2 OVER THE CONTERMINOUS UNITED STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gesch

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model Version 2 (GDEM v2 was evaluated over the conterminous United States in a manner similar to the validation conducted for the original GDEM Version 1 (v1 in 2009. The absolute vertical accuracy of GDEM v2 was calculated by comparison with more than 18,000 independent reference geodetic ground control points from the National Geodetic Survey. The root mean square error (RMSE measured for GDEM v2 is 8.68 meters. This compares with the RMSE of 9.34 meters for GDEM v1. Another important descriptor of vertical accuracy is the mean error, or bias, which indicates if a DEM has an overall vertical offset from true ground level. The GDEM v2 mean error of –0.20 meters is a significant improvement over the GDEM v1 mean error of –3.69 meters. The absolute vertical accuracy assessment results, both mean error and RMSE, were segmented by land cover to examine the effects of cover types on measured errors. The GDEM v2 mean errors by land cover class verify that the presence of aboveground features (tree canopies and built structures cause a positive elevation bias, as would be expected for an imaging system like ASTER. In open ground classes (little or no vegetation with significant aboveground height, GDEM v2 exhibits a negative bias on the order of 1 meter. GDEM v2 was also evaluated by differencing with the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM dataset. In many forested areas, GDEM v2 has elevations that are higher in the canopy than SRTM.

  4. Mycorrhizal symbiosis and local adaptation in Aster amellus: a field transplant experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pánková, Hana; Raabová, Jana; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    Many plant populations have adapted to local soil conditions. However, the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is often overlooked in this context. Only a few studies have used reciprocal transplant experiments to study the relationships between soil conditions, mycorrhizal colonisation and plant growth. Furthermore, most of the studies were conducted under controlled greenhouse conditions. However, long-term field experiments can provide more realistic insights into this issue. We conducted a five-year field reciprocal transplant experiment to study the relationships between soil conditions, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth in the obligate mycotrophic herb Aster amellus. We conducted this study in two regions in the Czech Republic that differ significantly in their soil nutrient content, namely Czech Karst (region K) and Ceske Stredohori (region S). Plants that originated from region S had significantly higher mycorrhizal colonisation than plants from region K, indicating that the percentage of mycorrhizal colonisation has a genetic basis. We found no evidence of local adaptation in Aster amellus. Instead, plants from region S outperformed the plants from region K in both target regions. Similarly, plants from region S showed more mycorrhizal colonisation in all cases, which was likely driven by the lower nutrient content in the soil from that region. Thus, plant aboveground biomass and mycorrhizal colonisation exhibited corresponding differences between the two target regions and regions of origin. Higher mycorrhizal colonisation in the plants from region with lower soil nutrient content (region S) in both target regions indicates that mycorrhizal colonisation is an adaptive trait. However, lower aboveground biomass in the plants with lower mycorrhizal colonisation suggests that the plants from region K are in fact maladapted by their low inherent mycorrhizal colonization. We conclude that including mycorrhizal symbiosis in local adaptation studies

  5. Mycorrhizal symbiosis and local adaptation in Aster amellus: a field transplant experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Pánková

    Full Text Available Many plant populations have adapted to local soil conditions. However, the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is often overlooked in this context. Only a few studies have used reciprocal transplant experiments to study the relationships between soil conditions, mycorrhizal colonisation and plant growth. Furthermore, most of the studies were conducted under controlled greenhouse conditions. However, long-term field experiments can provide more realistic insights into this issue. We conducted a five-year field reciprocal transplant experiment to study the relationships between soil conditions, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth in the obligate mycotrophic herb Aster amellus. We conducted this study in two regions in the Czech Republic that differ significantly in their soil nutrient content, namely Czech Karst (region K and Ceske Stredohori (region S. Plants that originated from region S had significantly higher mycorrhizal colonisation than plants from region K, indicating that the percentage of mycorrhizal colonisation has a genetic basis. We found no evidence of local adaptation in Aster amellus. Instead, plants from region S outperformed the plants from region K in both target regions. Similarly, plants from region S showed more mycorrhizal colonisation in all cases, which was likely driven by the lower nutrient content in the soil from that region. Thus, plant aboveground biomass and mycorrhizal colonisation exhibited corresponding differences between the two target regions and regions of origin. Higher mycorrhizal colonisation in the plants from region with lower soil nutrient content (region S in both target regions indicates that mycorrhizal colonisation is an adaptive trait. However, lower aboveground biomass in the plants with lower mycorrhizal colonisation suggests that the plants from region K are in fact maladapted by their low inherent mycorrhizal colonization. We conclude that including mycorrhizal symbiosis in local

  6. Hydrothermal Alteration Maps of the Central and Southern Basin and Range Province of the United States Compiled From Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operator algorithms were used to map...

  7. AsTeRICS: a new flexible solution for people with motor disabilities in upper limbs and its implication for rehabilitation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Blanca; Diaz-Orueta, Unai; García-Soler, Álvaro; Pecyna, Karol; Ossmann, Roland; Nussbaum, Gerhard; Veigl, Christoph; Weiss, Christoph; Acedo, Javier; Soria-Frisch, Aureli

    2013-11-01

    To present the AsTeRICS construction set, and examine different combinations of sensors installed in the platform and how users interact with them. Nearly 50 participants from Austria, Poland and Spain were included in the study. They had a heterogeneous range of diagnoses, but as a common feature all of them experienced motor limitations in their upper limbs. The study included a 1 h session with each participant where the user interacted with a personalized combination of sensors, based on a previous assessment on their motor capabilities performed by healthcare professionals. The sensors worked as substitutes for a standard QWERTY keyboard and a standard mouse. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to obtain participants' opinions. All collected data were analyzed based on the qualitative methodology. The findings illustrated that AsTeRICS is a flexible platform whose sensors can adapt to different degrees of users' motor capabilities, thus facilitating in most cases the interaction of the participants with a common computer. AsTeRICS platform can improve the interaction between people with mobility limitations and computers. It can provide access to new technologies and become a promising tool that can be integrated in physical rehabilitation programs for people with motor disabilities in their upper limbs. The AsTeRICS platform offers an interesting tool to interface and support the computerized rehabilitation program of the patients. Due to AsTeRICS platform high usability features, family and rehabilitation professionals can learn how to use the AsTeRICS platform quickly fostering the key role of their involvement on patients' rehabilitation. AsTeRICS is a flexible, extendable, adaptable and affordable technology adapted for using computer, environmental control, mobile phone, rehabilitation programs and mechatronic systems. AsTeRICS makes possible an easy reconfiguration and integration of new functionalities, such as biofeedback rehabilitation

  8. Evaluating the quality of the Digital Elevation Models produced from ASTER stereoscopy for topographic mapping in the Brazilian Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber G. de Oliveira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian Amazon is a vast territory rich in natural renewable and non-renewable resources. Due to the adverse environmental condition (rain, cloud, dense vegetation and difficult access, topographic information is still poor, and when available needs to be up-dated or remapped. In this paper, the feasibility of using elevation generated from orbital ASTER- stereo-pairs images for topographic mapping was investigated for the mountainous relief in the Serra dos Carajás, Pará. The quality of information derived from these optical images was evaluated regarding field altimetric measurements. Precise topographic field information acquired from Global Positioning System (GPS was used as Ground Control Points (GCPs for the modeling of the stereoscopic Digital Elevation Models (DEMs and as Independent Check Points (ICPs for the calculation of elevation accuracies. The analysis was performed following two approaches: (1 the use of Root Mean Square Error (RMSE and (2 calculations of trend analysis and accuracy. The investigation has shown that the altimetric accuracy from ASTER fulfilled the Brazilian Map Accuracy Standards elevation requirements for 1:100,000 A Class. In addition, ASTER can provide up-dated planimetric information that is also necessary for cartographic production. Thus, when the environment condition allows the acquisition of stereo-pairs, the use of ASTER can be considered an alternative for semi-detailed topographic mapping in similar environments of the Brazilian Amazon.A Amazônia Brasileira é um rico e vasto território em recursos naturais renováveis e nãorenováveis. Devido às condições ambientais adversas (chuvas, nuvens, vegetação densa e difícil acesso, a informação topográfica ainda é escassa, e quando disponível necessita ser atualizada ou remapeada. Neste trabalho, a viabilidade de usar elevação para mapeamento topográfico por meio de imagens estereoscópicas orbitais ASTER foi investigada para relevo

  9. Estimation of Polder Retention Capacity Based on ASTER, SRTM and LIDAR DEMs: The Case of Majdany Polder (West Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Walczak

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study compares four digital elevation models (DEMs, based on various data sources, to define polder retention capacities. Two commercial and two publically available, free of charge data sources were used. Commercial sources are DEMs based on aerial images and LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging data. Free data source DEMs generated are based on: SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission and ASTER GDEM (ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model. In addition, the impact of the spatial resolution of the numerical terrain model on the calculated polder volume was evaluated. A DEM based on LIDAR data was used as the reference model and was supplemented with our own geodetic GPS (Global Positioning System measurements. In flood modeling and management, including retention of river valleys and polders, it is necessary to properly estimate their capacity and the relation between capacity and water level. The study showed the impact of quantitative and qualitative data sources in determining the retention capacity of a polder.

  10. Penentuan Tingkat Kekeringan Lahan Berbasis Analisa Citra Aster Dan Sistem Informasi Geografi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfian Pujian Hadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Kekeringan lahan yang melanda suatu daerah menimbulkan dampak yang besar terhadap produktivitas lahan pertanian. Terjadinya kekeringan ini disebabkan oleh defisit air akibat kurangnya hujan yang jatuh, laju infiltrasi air yang tinggi serta jenis tanaman yang tidak sesuai dengan ketersediaan air. Untuk meminimalkan dampak yang terjadi akibat kekeringan lahan maka perlu dilakukan antisipasi dengan mengetahui defisit dan surflus air lahan melalui data curah hujan serta kemampuan tanah menahan air (water holding capasity. Untuk keperluan analisis kekeringan lahan dapat menggunakan citra penginderaan jauh dan neraca air lahan sebagai pengetahuan awal guna perencanaan antisipasi kekeringan lahan sehingga kebutuhan air bagi tanaman dapat terpenuhi setiap saat. Penelitian ini dilakukan di sebagian wilayah Kabupaten Gunung Kidul. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah : (1 Mengkaji akurasi berbagai saluran TIR Citra Aster untuk mendapatkan informasi sebaran suhu permukaan, (2 Mengkaji sebaran kekeringan melalui indeks TVDI (Temperature Vegetation Dryness Indeks yang diekstrak dari suhu permukaan (Land Surface Temperature dan indeks NDVI. (3 Mengkaji tingkat kekeringan lahan dengan menggunakan metode Thornthwaite-Mather, (4 Mengkaji pola tanam yang sesuai diterapkan di wilayah penelitian. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa saluran 13 Citra Aster memiliki akurasi paling tinggi jika dibandingkan dengan saluran 10,11,12, serta 14 Citra Aster karena memiliki selisih paling kecil dengan suhu permukaan lapangan. Berdasarkan analisis RMS difference diperoleh nilai 1,140. Luas sebaran kekeringan berdasarkan indeks TVDI pada seluruh penggunaan lahan dengan tingkat kekeringan tinggi, sedang dan rendah masingmasing melanda daerah seluas 2.922,8 Ha (4,6%, 20.286,16 Ha (32,11% serta 39.962,72 Ha (63,26%. Dari total luas 2.922,8 Ha lahan yang dilanda kekeringan dengan tingkat kekeringan tinggi (kering/kurang air seluas 2.069,47 Ha merupakan sawah tadah hujan. Analisis hubungan

  11. PENENTUAN TINGKAT KEKERINGAN LAHAN BERBASIS ANALISA CITRA ASTER DAN SISTEM INFORMASI GEOGRAFIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfian Pujian Hadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Kekeringan lahan yang melanda suatu daerah menimbulkan dampak yang besar terhadap produktivitas lahan pertanian. Terjadinya kekeringan ini disebabkan oleh defisit air akibat kurangnya hujan yang jatuh, laju infiltrasi air yang tinggi serta jenis tanaman yang tidak sesuai dengan ketersediaan air. Untuk meminimalkan dampak yang terjadi akibat kekeringan lahan maka perlu dilakukan antisipasi dengan mengetahui defisit dan surflus air lahan melalui data curah hujan serta kemampuan tanah menahan air (water holding capasity. Untuk keperluan analisis kekeringan lahan dapat menggunakan citra penginderaan jauh dan neraca air lahan sebagai pengetahuan awal guna perencanaan antisipasi kekeringan lahan sehingga kebutuhan air bagi tanaman dapat terpenuhi setiap saat. Penelitian ini dilakukan di sebagian wilayah Kabupaten Gunung Kidul. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah : (1 Mengkaji akurasi berbagai saluran TIR Citra Aster untuk mendapatkan informasi sebaran suhu permukaan, (2 Mengkaji sebaran kekeringan melalui indeks TVDI (Temperature Vegetation Dryness Indeks yang diekstrak dari suhu permukaan (Land Surface Temperature dan indeks NDVI. (3 Mengkaji tingkat kekeringan lahan dengan menggunakan metode Thornthwaite-Mather,  (4 Mengkaji pola tanam yang sesuai diterapkan di wilayah penelitian. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa saluran 13 Citra Aster memiliki akurasi paling tinggi jika dibandingkan dengan saluran 10,11,12, serta 14 Citra Aster karena memiliki selisih paling kecil dengan suhu permukaan lapangan. Berdasarkan analisis RMS difference diperoleh nilai 1,140. Luas sebaran kekeringan berdasarkan indeks TVDI pada seluruh penggunaan lahan dengan tingkat kekeringan tinggi, sedang dan rendah masingmasing melanda daerah seluas 2.922,8 Ha (4,6%, 20.286,16 Ha (32,11% serta 39.962,72 Ha (63,26%. Dari total luas 2.922,8 Ha lahan yang dilanda kekeringan dengan tingkat kekeringan tinggi (kering/kurang air seluas 2.069,47 Ha merupakan sawah tadah hujan. Analisis

  12. Surface Heat Balance Analysis of Tainan City on March 6, 2001 Using ASTER and Formosat-2 Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yi Sun

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The urban heat island phenomenon occurs as a mixed result of anthropogenic heat discharge, decreased vegetation, and increased artificial impervious surfaces. To clarify the contribution of each factor to the urban heat island, it is necessary to evaluate the surface heat balance. Satellite remote sensing data of Tainan City, Taiwan, obtained from Terra ASTER and Formosat-2 were used to estimate surface heat balance in this study. ASTER data is suitable for analyzing heat balance because of the wide spectral range. We used Formosat-2 multispectral data to classify the land surface, which was used to interpolate some surface parameters for estimating heat fluxes. Because of the high spatial resolution of the Formosat-2 image, more roads, open spaces and small vegetation areas could be distinguished from buildings in urban areas; however, misclassifications of land cover in such areas using ASTER data would overestimate the sensible heat flux. On the other hand, the small vegetated areas detected from the Formosat-2 image slightly increased the estimation of latent heat flux. As a result, the storage heat flux derived from Formosat-2 is higher than that derived from ASTER data in most areas. From these results, we can conclude that the higher resolution land coverage map increases accuracy of the heat balance analysis. Storage heat flux occupies about 60 to 80% of the net radiation in most of the artificial surface areas in spite of their usages. Because of the homogeneity of the building roof materials, there is no contrast between the storage heat flux in business and residential areas. In sparsely vegetated urban areas, more heat is stored and latent heat is smaller than that in the forested suburbs. This result implies that density of vegetation has a significant influence in decreasing temperatures.

  13. Developing New Coastal Forest Restoration Products Based on Landsat, ASTER, and MODIS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Graham, William; Smoot, James

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses an ongoing effort to develop new geospatial information products for aiding coastal forest restoration and conservation efforts in coastal Louisiana and Mississippi. This project employs Landsat, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data in conjunction with airborne elevation data to compute coastal forest cover type maps and change detection products. Improved forest mapping products are needed to aid coastal forest restoration and management efforts of State and Federal agencies in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) region. In particular, such products may aid coastal forest land acquisition and conservation easement procurements. This region's forests are often disturbed and subjected to multiple biotic and abiotic threats, including subsidence, salt water intrusion, hurricanes, sea-level rise, insect-induced defoliation and mortality, altered hydrology, wildfire, and conversion to non-forest land use. In some cases, such forest disturbance has led to forest loss or loss of regeneration capacity. In response, a case study was conducted to assess and demonstrate the potential of satellite remote sensing products for improving forest type maps and for assessing forest change over the last 25 years. Change detection products are needed for assessing risks for specific priority coastal forest types, such as live oak and baldcypress-dominated forest. Preliminary results indicate Landsat time series data are capable of generating the needed forest type and change detection products. Useful classifications were obtained using 2 strategies: 1) general forest classification based on use of 3 seasons of Landsat data from the same year; and 2) classification of specific forest types of concern using a single date of Landsat data in which a given targeted type is spectrally distinct compared to adjacent forested cover. When available, ASTER data was

  14. VALIDATION OF THE ASTER GLOBAL DIGITAL ELEVATION MODEL VERSION 3 OVER THE CONTERMINOUS UNITED STATES

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    D. Gesch

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model Version 3 (GDEM v3 was evaluated over the conterminous United States in a manner similar to the validation conducted for the original GDEM Version 1 (v1 in 2009 and GDEM Version 2 (v2 in 2011. The absolute vertical accuracy of GDEM v3 was calculated by comparison with more than 23,000 independent reference geodetic ground control points from the U.S. National Geodetic Survey. The root mean square error (RMSE measured for GDEM v3 is 8.52 meters. This compares with the RMSE of 8.68 meters for GDEM v2. Another important descriptor of vertical accuracy is the mean error, or bias, which indicates if a DEM has an overall vertical offset from true ground level. The GDEM v3 mean error of −1.20 meters reflects an overall negative bias in GDEM v3. The absolute vertical accuracy assessment results, both mean error and RMSE, were segmented by land cover type to provide insight into how GDEM v3 performs in various land surface conditions. While the RMSE varies little across cover types (6.92 to 9.25 meters, the mean error (bias does appear to be affected by land cover type, ranging from −2.99 to +4.16 meters across 14 land cover classes. These results indicate that in areas where built or natural aboveground features are present, GDEM v3 is measuring elevations above the ground level, a condition noted in assessments of previous GDEM versions (v1 and v2 and an expected condition given the type of stereo-optical image data collected by ASTER. GDEM v3 was also evaluated by differencing with the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM dataset. In many forested areas, GDEM v3 has elevations that are higher in the canopy than SRTM. The overall validation effort also included an evaluation of the GDEM v3 water mask. In general, the number of distinct water polygons in GDEM v3 is much lower than the number in a reference land cover dataset, but the total areas compare much more closely.

  15. Using ASTER Imagery in Land Use/cover Classification of Eastern Mediterranean Landscapes According to CORINE Land Cover Project

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    Recep Gundogan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The satellite imagery has been effectively utilized for classifying land covertypes and detecting land cover conditions. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emissionand Reflection Radiometer (ASTER sensor imagery has been widely used in classificationprocess of land cover. However, atmospheric corrections have to be made by preprocessingsatellite sensor imagery since the electromagnetic radiation signals received by the satellitesensors can be scattered and absorbed by the atmospheric gases and aerosols. In this study,an ASTER sensor imagery, which was converted into top-of-atmosphere reflectance(TOA, was used to classify the land use/cover types, according to COoRdination ofINformation on the Environment (CORINE land cover nomenclature, for an arearepresenting the heterogonous characteristics of eastern Mediterranean regions inKahramanmaras, Turkey. The results indicated that using the surface reflectance data ofASTER sensor imagery can provide accurate (i.e. overall accuracy and kappa values of83.2% and 0.79, respectively and low-cost cover mapping as a part of inventory forCORINE Land Cover Project.

  16. Using ASTER Imagery in Land Use/cover Classification of Eastern Mediterranean Landscapes According to CORINE Land Cover Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Alaaddin; Akay, Abdullah E; Gundogan, Recep

    2008-02-21

    The satellite imagery has been effectively utilized for classifying land covertypes and detecting land cover conditions. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emissionand Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor imagery has been widely used in classificationprocess of land cover. However, atmospheric corrections have to be made by preprocessingsatellite sensor imagery since the electromagnetic radiation signals received by the satellitesensors can be scattered and absorbed by the atmospheric gases and aerosols. In this study,an ASTER sensor imagery, which was converted into top-of-atmosphere reflectance(TOA), was used to classify the land use/cover types, according to COoRdination ofINformation on the Environment (CORINE) land cover nomenclature, for an arearepresenting the heterogonous characteristics of eastern Mediterranean regions inKahramanmaras, Turkey. The results indicated that using the surface reflectance data ofASTER sensor imagery can provide accurate (i.e. overall accuracy and kappa values of83.2% and 0.79, respectively) and low-cost cover mapping as a part of inventory forCORINE Land Cover Project.

  17. Long-Term Volcanic Activity at Shiveluch Volcano: Nine Years of ASTER Spaceborne Thermal Infrared Observations  

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    Adam Carter

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Shiveluch (Kamchatka, Russia is the most active andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc, typically exhibiting near-continual high-temperature fumarolic activity and periods of exogenous lava dome emplacement punctuated by discrete large explosive eruptions. These eruptions can produce large pyroclastic flow (PF deposits, which are common on the southern flank of the volcano. Since 2000, six explosive eruptions have occurred that generated ash fall and PF deposits. Over this same time period, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER instrument has been acquiring image-based visible/near infrared (VNIR, short wave infrared (SWIR and thermal infrared (TIR data globally, with a particular emphasis on active volcanoes. Shiveluch was selected as an ASTER target of interest early in the mission because of its frequent activity and potential impact to northern Pacific air transportation. The north Pacific ASTER archive was queried for Shiveluch data and we present results from 2000 to 2009 that documents three large PF deposits emplaced on 19 May 2001, 9 May 2004, and 28 February 2005. The long-term archive of infrared data provides an excellent record on the changing activity and eruption state of the volcano.

  18. Monitoring coastal water quality in a municipal beach in Paphos-Cyprus using ASTER image data and spectral signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diofantos, Hadjimitsis G.; Marinos, Hadjimitsis G.; Athos, Agapiou; Kyriacos, Themistocleous

    2009-09-01

    Using remote sensing data to assess the quality of water bodies has proven to be successful not only in inland waters but to coastal water areas as shown by several others conducted studies. The main objective of this study is to use ASTER data to evaluate the potential of using such remotely sensed digital data, to extract information that help in the monitoring system for Cyprus coastal water quality, especially in municipal beaches that are included in the Blue Flag Programme. Reflectance signature of municipal coastal water is monitored using a GER 1500 field spectroradiometer. Simultaneous measurements of turbidity, temperature have been acquired. E-coli values have been retrieved through the sampling procedure. Such coastal water quality assessment can assist the Blue-Flag Programme in the area under investigation. ASTER images can be programmed for summer acquisitions in which Blue-Flag Programme is active so this can be considered an advantage and can be used by the local authorities as a systematic monitoring tool. It has been found after correlating the SS, Turbidity with the water reflectance obtained using the GER 1500 that high correlation was occurred for the wavelength region that corresponds to ASTER band 2 and band 3 respectively (r2>0.80 ). Temporal and spatial variations can be monitored from satellite images as shown from the in-situ validated spectroradiometric measurements.

  19. Using aster multispectral imagery for mapping woody invasive species in pico da vara natural reserve (Azores Islands, Portugal

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    Artur Gil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to assess the effectiveness of ASTER imagery to support the mapping of Pittosporum undulatum, an invasive woody species, in Pico da Vara Natural Reserve (S. Miguel Island, Archipelago of the Azores, Portugal. This assessment was done by applying K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN, Support Vector Machine (SVM and Maximum Likelihood (MLC pixel-based supervised classifications to 4 different geographic and remote sensing datasets constituted by the Visible, Near-Infrared (VNIR and Short Wave Infrared (SWIR of the ASTER sensor and by digital cartography associated to orography (altitude and "distance to water streams" of which the spatial distribution of Pittosporum undulatum directly depends. Overall, most performed classifications showed a strong agreement and high accuracy. At targeted species level, the two higher classification accuracies were obtained when applying MLC and KNN to the VNIR bands coupled with auxiliary geographic information use. Results improved significantly by including ecology and occurrence information of species (altitude and distance to water streams in the classification scheme. These results show that the use of ASTER sensor VNIR spectral bands, when coupled to relevant ancillary GIS data, can constitute an effective and low cost approach for the evaluation and continuous assessment of Pittosporum undulatum woodland propagation and distribution within Protected Areas of the Azores Islands.

  20. Generating daily high spatial land surface temperatures by combining ASTER and MODIS land surface temperature products for environmental process monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mingquan; Li, Hua; Huang, Wenjiang; Niu, Zheng; Wang, Changyao

    2015-08-01

    There is a shortage of daily high spatial land surface temperature (LST) data for use in high spatial and temporal resolution environmental process monitoring. To address this shortage, this work used the Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM), Enhanced Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (ESTARFM), and the Spatial and Temporal Data Fusion Approach (STDFA) to estimate high spatial and temporal resolution LST by combining Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) LST and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LST products. The actual ASTER LST products were used to evaluate the precision of the combined LST images using the correlation analysis method. This method was tested and validated in study areas located in Gansu Province, China. The results show that all the models can generate daily synthetic LST image with a high correlation coefficient (r) of 0.92 between the synthetic image and the actual ASTER LST observations. The ESTARFM has the best performance, followed by the STDFA and the STARFM. Those models had better performance in desert areas than in cropland. The STDFA had better noise immunity than the other two models.

  1. Inversion of Land Surface Temperature (LST Using Terra ASTER Data: A Comparison of Three Algorithms

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    Milton Isaya Ndossi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Land Surface Temperature (LST is an important measurement in studies related to the Earth surface’s processes. The Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER instrument onboard the Terra spacecraft is the currently available Thermal Infrared (TIR imaging sensor with the highest spatial resolution. This study involves the comparison of LSTs inverted from the sensor using the Split Window Algorithm (SWA, the Single Channel Algorithm (SCA and the Planck function. This study has used the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA data to model and compare the results from the three algorithms. The data from the sensor have been processed by the Python programming language in a free and open source software package (QGIS to enable users to make use of the algorithms. The study revealed that the three algorithms are suitable for LST inversion, whereby the Planck function showed the highest level of accuracy, the SWA had moderate level of accuracy and the SCA had the least accuracy. The algorithms produced results with Root Mean Square Errors (RMSE of 2.29 K, 3.77 K and 2.88 K for the Planck function, the SCA and SWA respectively.

  2. Thermal remote sensing of ice-debris landforms using ASTER: an example from the Chilean Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenning, A.; Peña, M. A.; Long, S.; Soliman, A.

    2012-03-01

    Remote sensors face challenges in characterizing mountain permafrost and ground thermal conditions or mapping rock glaciers and debris-covered glaciers. We explore the potential of thermal imaging and in particular thermal inertia mapping in mountain cryospheric research, focusing on the relationships between ground surface temperatures and the presence of ice-debris landforms on one side and land surface temperature (LST) and apparent thermal inertia (ATI) on the other. In our case study we utilize ASTER daytime and nighttime imagery and in-situ measurements of near-surface ground temperature (NSGT) in the Mediterranean Andes during a snow-free and dry observation period in late summer. Spatial patterns of LST and NSGT were mostly consistent with each other both at daytime and at nighttime. Daytime LST over ice-debris landforms was decreased and ATI consequently increased compared to other debris surfaces under otherwise equal conditions, but NSGT showed contradictory results, which underlines the complexity and possible scale dependence of ATI in heterogeneous substrates with the presence of a thermal mismatch and a heat sink at depth. While our results demonstrate the utility of thermal imaging and ATI mapping in a mountain cryospheric context, further research is needed for a better interpretation of ATI patterns in complex thermophysical conditions.

  3. An assessment of the land surface emissivity in the 8 - 12 micrometer window determined from ASTER and MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmugge, T.; Hulley, G.; Hook, S.

    2009-04-01

    The land surface emissivity is often overlooked when considering surface properties that effect the energy balance. However, knowledge of the emissivity in the window region is important for determining the longwave radiation balance and its subsequent effect on surface temperature. The net longwave radiation (NLR) is strongly affected by the difference between the temperature of the emitting surface and the sky brightness temperature, this difference will be the greatest in the window region. Outside the window region any changes in the emitted radiation by emissivity variability are mostly compensated for by changes in the reflected sky brightness. The emissivity variability is typically greatest in arid regions where the exposed soil and rock surfaces display the widest range of emissivity. For example, the dune regions of North Africa have emissivities of 0.7 or less in the 8 to 9 micrometer wavelength band due to the quartz sands of the region, which can produce changes in NLR of more than 10 w/m*m compared to assuming a constant emissivity. The errors in retrievals of atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles from hyperspectral infrared radiances, such as those from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the NASA Aqua satellite result from using constant or inaccurate surface emissivities, particularly over arid and semi-arid regions here the variation in emissivity is large, both spatially and spectrally. The multispectral thermal infrared data obtained from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER) radiometer and MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) sensors on NASA's Terra satellite have been shown to be of good quality and provide a unique new tool for studying the emissivity of the land surface. ASTER has 5 channels in the 8 to 12 micrometer waveband with 90 m spatial resolution, when the data are combined with the Temperature Emissivity Separation (TES) algorithm the surface emissivity over this wavelength region

  4. Alteration, slope-classified alteration, and potential lahar inundation maps of volcanoes for the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Volcano Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, John C.; Hubbard, Bernard E.; Pieri, David; Linick, Justin

    2015-01-01

    This study identifies areas prone to lahars from hydrothermally altered volcanic edifices on a global scale, using visible and near infrared (VNIR) and short wavelength infrared (SWIR) reflectance data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and digital elevation data from the ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) dataset. This is the first study to create a global database of hydrothermally altered volcanoes showing quantitatively compiled alteration maps and potentially affected drainages, as well as drainage-specific maps illustrating modeled lahars and their potential inundation zones. We (1) identified and prioritized 720 volcanoes based on population density surrounding the volcanoes using the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program database (GVP) and LandScan™ digital population dataset; (2) validated ASTER hydrothermal alteration mapping techniques using Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and ASTER data for Mount Shasta, California, and Pico de Orizaba (Citlaltépetl), Mexico; (3) mapped and slope-classified hydrothermal alteration using ASTER VNIR-SWIR reflectance data on 100 of the most densely populated volcanoes; (4) delineated drainages using ASTER GDEM data that show potential flow paths of possible lahars for the 100 mapped volcanoes; (5) produced potential alteration-related lahar inundation maps using the LAHARZ GIS code for Iztaccíhuatl, Mexico, and Mount Hood and Mount Shasta in the United States that illustrate areas likely to be affected based on DEM-derived volume estimates of hydrothermally altered rocks and the ~2x uncertainty factor inherent within a statistically-based lahar model; and (6) saved all image and vector data for 3D and 2D display in Google Earth™, ArcGIS® and other graphics display programs. In addition, these data are available from the ASTER Volcano Archive (AVA) for distribution (available at http://ava.jpl.nasa.gov/recent_alteration_zones.php).

  5. Wide area lithologic mapping with ASTER thermal infrared data: Case studies for the regions in/around the Pamir Mountains and the Tarim basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Yoshiki; Fu, Bihong

    2017-07-01

    After the authors have proposed the mineralogical indices, e.g., Quartz Index (QI), Carbonate Index (CI), Mafic Index (MI) for ASTER thermal infrared (TIR) data, many articles have been applied the indices for the geological case studies and proved to be robust in extracting geological information at the local scale. The authors also have developed a system for producing the regional map with the indices, which needs mosaicking of many scenes considering the relatively narrow spatial coverage of each ASTER scene. The system executes the procedures very efficiently to find ASTER data covering a wide target area in the vast and expanding ASTER data archive. Then the searched ASTER data are conditioned, prioritized, and the indices are calculated before finally mosaicking the imagery. Here in this paper, we will present two case studies of the regional lithologic and mineralogic mapping of the indices covering very wide regions in and around the Pamir Mountains and the Tarim basin. The characteristic features of the indices related to geology are analysed, interpreted and discussed.

  6. Conservation genetics of the rare Pyreneo-Cantabrian endemic Aster pyrenaeus (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escaravage, Nathalie; Cambecèdes, Jocelyne; Largier, Gérard; Pornon, André

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims Aster pyrenaeus (Asteraceae) is an endangered species, endemic to the Pyrenees and Cantabrian Mountain ranges (Spain). For its long-term persistence, this taxon needs an appropriate conservation strategy to be implemented. In this context, we studied the genetic structure over the entire geographical range of the species and then inferred the genetic relationships between populations. Methodology Molecular diversity was analysed for 290 individuals from 12 populations in the Pyrenees and the Cantabrian Mountains using inter simple sequence repeats (ISSRs). Bayesian-based analysis was applied to examine population structure. Principal results Analysis of genetic similarity and diversity, based on 87 polymorphic ISSR markers, suggests that despite being small and isolated, populations have an intermediate genetic diversity level (P % = 52.8 %, HE = 0.21 ± 0.01, genetic similarity between individuals = 49.6 %). Genetic variation was mainly found within populations (80–84 %), independently of mountain ranges, whereas 16–18 % was found between populations and <5 % between mountain ranges. Analyses of molecular variance indicated that population differentiation was highly significant. However, no significant correlation was found between the genetic and geographical distances among populations (Rs = 0.359, P = 0.140). Geographical structure based on assignment tests identified five different gene pools that were independent of any particular structure in the landscape. Conclusions The results suggest that population isolation is probably relatively recent, and that the outbreeding behaviour of the species maintains a high within-population genetic diversity. We assume that some long-distance dispersal, even among topographically remote populations, may be determinant for the pattern of genetic variation found in populations. Based on these findings, strategies are proposed for genetic conservation and management of the species. PMID:22476499

  7. Avaliação de fluxos de calor e evapotranspiração pelo modelo SEBAL com uso de dados do sensor ASTER Evaluation of heat fluxes and evapotranspiration using SEBAL model with data from ASTER sensor

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    Thiago Veloso dos Santos

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência da aplicação do modelo SEBAL em estimar os fluxos de energia em superfície e a evapotranspiração diária, numa extensa área de cultivo de arroz irrigado, no município de Paraíso do Sul, RS, tendo como parâmetros dados do sensor ASTER. As variáveis estudadas constituem importantes parâmetros do tempo e do clima em estudos agrometeorológicos e de racionalização no uso da água. As metodologias convencionais de estimativa desses parâmetros são pontuais e geralmente apresentam incertezas, que aumentam quando o interesse é o comportamento espacial desses parâmetros. Aplicou-se o algoritmo "Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land" (SEBAL, em uma imagem do sensor "Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer" (ASTER. As estimativas obtidas foram comparadas com medições em campo, realizadas por uma estação micrometeorológica localizada no interior da área de estudo. As estimativas mais precisas foram as de fluxo de calor sensível e de evapotranspiração diária, e a estimativa que apresentou maior erro foi a do fluxo de calor no solo. A metodologia empregada foi capaz de reproduzir os fluxos de energia em superfície de maneira satisfatória para estudos agrometeorológicos e de rendimento de culturas.The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of SEBAL model in estimating soil surface energy fluxes and daily evapotranspiration for a large area of irrigated rice farms, near the municipality of Paraíso do Sul, RS, Brazil, using data from ASTER sensor. The evaluated variables are important weather and climatic parameters for agrometeorological studies and rationalization of water use. The conventional methodologies for estimating these parameters generally present uncertainties, which increase when concern is in the spatial behavior of such parameters. The Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL was applied in an Advanced Spaceborne

  8. Mapping invasive alien Acacia dealbata Link using ASTER multispectral imagery: a case study in central-eastern of Portugal

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    Filipe Martins

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: Acacia dealbata is an alien invasive species that is widely spread in Portugal. The main goal of this study was to produce an accurate and detailed map for this invasive species using ASTER multispectral imagery. Area of study: The central-eastern zone of Portugal was used as study area. This whole area is represented in an ASTER scene covering about 321.1 x 103 ha. Material and methods: ASTER imagery of two dates (flowering season and dry season were classified by applying three supervised classifiers (Maximum Likelihood, Support Vector Machine and Artificial Neural Networks to five different land cover classifications (from most generic to most detailed land cover categories. The spectral separability of the land cover categories was analyzed and the accuracy of the 30 produced maps compared. Main results: The highest classification accuracy for acacia mapping was obtained using the flowering season imagery, the Maximum Likelihood classifier and the most detailed land cover classification (overall accuracy of 86%; Kappa statistics of 85%; acacia class Kappa statistics of 100%. As a result, the area occupied by acacia was estimated to be approximated 24,770 ha (i.e. 8% of the study area. Research highlights: The methodology explored proved to be a cost-effective solution for acacia mapping in central-eastern of Portugal. The obtained map enables a more accurate and detailed identification of this species’ invaded areas due to its spatial resolution (minimum mapping unit of 0.02 ha providing a substantial improvement comparably to the existent national land cover maps to support monitoring and control activities. Keywords: remote sensing; invasive alien species; land cover mapping; vegetation mapping.

  9. Mapping invasive alien Acacia dealbata Link using ASTER multispectral imagery: a case study in central-eastern of Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, F.; Alegria, C.; Artur, G.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: Acacia dealbata is an alien invasive species that is widely spread in Portugal. The main goal of this study was to produce an accurate and detailed map for this invasive species using ASTER multispectral imagery. Area of study: The central-eastern zone of Portugal was used as study area. This whole area is represented in an ASTER scene covering about 321.1 x 103 ha. Material and methods: ASTER imagery of two dates (flowering season and dry season) were classified by applying three supervised classifiers (Maximum Likelihood, Support Vector Machine and Artificial Neural Networks) to five different land cover classifications (from most generic to most detailed land cover categories). The spectral separability of the land cover categories was analyzed and the accuracy of the 30 produced maps compared. Main results: The highest classification accuracy for acacia mapping was obtained using the flowering season imagery, the Maximum Likelihood classifier and the most detailed land cover classification (overall accuracy of 86%; Kappa statistics of 85%; acacia class Kappa statistics of 100%). As a result, the area occupied by acacia was estimated to be approximated 24,770 ha (i.e. 8% of the study area). Research highlights: The methodology explored proved to be a cost-effective solution for acacia mapping in central-eastern of Portugal. The obtained map enables a more accurate and detailed identification of this species’ invaded areas due to its spatial resolution (minimum mapping unit of 0.02 ha) providing a substantial improvement comparably to the existent national land cover maps to support monitoring and control activities. (Author)

  10. Comparative lahar hazard mapping at Volcan Citlaltépetl, Mexico using SRTM, ASTER and DTED-1 digital topographic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Bernard E.; Sheridan, Michael F.; Carrasco-Nunez, Gerardo; Diaz-Castellon, Rodolfo; Rodriguez, Sergio R.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated and compared the utility of spaceborne SRTM and ASTER DEMs with baseline DTED-1 “bald-earth” topography for mapping lahar inundation hazards from volcan Citlaltépetl, Mexico, a volcano which has had a history of producing debris flows of various extents. In particular, we tested the utility of these topographic datasets for resolving ancient valley-filling deposits exposed around the flanks of the volcano, for determining their magnitude using paleohydrologic methods and for forecasting their inundation limits in the future. We also use the three datasets as inputs to a GIS stream inundation flow model, LAHARZ, and compare the results.

  11. The Penetration Depth Derived from the Synthesis of ALOS/PALSAR InSAR Data and ASTER GDEM for the Mapping of Forest Biomass

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    Wenjian Ni

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Global Digital Elevation Model produced from stereo images of Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer data (ASTER GDEM covers land surfaces between latitudes of 83°N and 83°S. The Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR onboard Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS collected many SAR images since it was launched on 24 January 2006. The combination of ALOS/PALSAR interferometric data and ASTER GDEM should provide the penetration depth of SAR data assuming ASTER GDEM was the elevation of vegetation canopy top. It would be correlated with forest biomass because penetration depth could be affected by forest density and forest canopy height. Their combination held great promises for the forest biomass mapping over large area. The feasibility of forest biomass mapping through the data synthesis of ALOS/PALSAR InSAR data and ASTER GDEM was investigated in this study. A procedure for the extraction of penetration depth was firstly proposed. Then three models were built for biomass estimation: (I model only using backscattering coefficients of ALOS/PALSAR data; (II model only using penetration depth; (III model using both of them. The biomass estimated from Lidar data was taken as reference data to evaluate the three different models. The results showed that the combination of backscattering coefficients and penetration depth gave the best accuracy. The forest disturbance has to be considered in forest biomass estimation because of the long time span of ASTER data for generating ASTER GDEM. The spatial homogeneity could be used to improve estimation accuracy.

  12. Validation of the Open Source Code_Aster Software Used in the Modal Analysis of the Fluid-filled Cylindrical Shell

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    B D. Kashfutdinov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a modal analysis of the elastic cylindrical shell with a clamped bottom partially filled with fluid in open source Code_Aster software using the finite element method. Natural frequencies and modes obtained in Code_Aster are compared to experimental and theoretical data. The aim of this paper is to prove that Code_Aster has all necessary tools for solving fluid structure interaction problems. Also, Code_Aster can be used in the industrial projects as an alternative to commercial software. The available free pre- and post-processors with a graphical user interface that is compatible with Code_Aster allow creating complex models and processing the results.The paper presents new validation results of open source Code_Aster software used to calculate small natural modes of the cylindrical shell partially filled with non-viscous compressible barotropic fluid under gravity field.The displacement of the middle surface of thin shell and the displacement of the fluid relative to the equilibrium position are described by coupled hydro-elasticity problem. The fluid flow is considered to be potential. The finite element method (FEM is used. The features of computational model are described. The resolution equation has symmetrical block matrices. To compare the results, is discussed the well-known modal analysis problem of cylindrical shell with flat non-deformable bottom, filled with a compressible fluid. The numerical parameters of the scheme were chosen in accordance with well-known experimental and analytical data. Three cases were taken into account: an empty, a partially filled and a full-filled cylindrical shell.The frequencies of Code_Aster are in good agreement with those, obtained in experiment, analytical solution, as well as with results obtained by FEM in other software. The difference between experiment and analytical solution in software is approximately the same. The obtained results extend a set of validation tests for

  13. Performance of ASTER and SRTM DEMs, and their potential for assessing glacial lakes in the Lunana region, Bhutan Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Koji; Suzuki, Ryohei; Nuimura, Takayuki; Sakai, Akiko

    To assess the potential volume of a glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) more precisely than in previous studies, we analyze ground survey data and remote-sensing digital elevation models (DEMs) around glacial lakes in the Lunana region, Bhutan. Based on a DEM generated from differential GPS ground surveys, we first evaluate the relative accuracies of DEMs produced by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Root-mean-square errors of the altitudinal difference between these DEMs and ground survey data were 11.0 m for ASTER and 11.3 m for SRTM. These errors are similar to those of previous studies. We show that a topographical classification allows a better estimate of elevation on lakes/ponds, riverbeds and glaciers due to their flat surfaces, while the relative accuracy is worse over moraines and hill slopes due to their narrow ridges and steep slopes. Using the optical satellite images and the ground survey data, we re-evaluate the GLOF volume in 1994 as (17.2±5.3) × 106 m3. We show GLOF-related information such as distance, altitudinal difference and gradient at possible outburst points where the lake level is higher than the neighboring riverbed and/or glacial lake.

  14. Mapping the alteration footprint and structural control of Taknar IOCG deposit in east of Iran, using ASTER satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroufi Naghadehi, Khosrow; Hezarkhani, Ardeshir; Asadzadeh, Saeid

    2014-12-01

    Taknar Fe + Cu ± Zn ± Pb ± Au ± Ag deposit in northeast of Iran is studied by Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER) reflectance and emittance data. Structural and mineralogical evidences of IOCG mineralization is mapped by visual image interpretation and spectral processing techniques. The tectonic model is consistent with an extensional zone associated with a releasing bend of right-lateral regional faults, extending about 7 km2 and encompassing all the known orebodies of Taknar. A combination of band ratio logical operator and matched filtering were used for spectral mapping, which lead to a series of mineral content and crystallinity maps including ferric oxide, ferrous, white mica, chlorite, silica and opaque minerals. The channel way in which hydrothermal fluids were migrating is accurately defined by abundance of white mica and ferric iron oxide maps. Rhythmic sediments of Taknar formation which was characterized by chlorite mineral map is a “reducing” environment that hosts the mineralization. This REDOX environment is also marked by a sudden change in white mica composition from acidic phases to neutral/alkaline. Subsequent field check and microscopic study indicated the accuracy of these remotely mapped minerals. Based on this finding, several new prospects for further exploration was proposed. These results indicates that ASTER data is capable of delineating alteration footprints of an IOCG mineral system in deposit scale exploration.

  15. Hydrothemal Alteration Mapping Using Feature-Oriented Principal Component Selection (fpcs) Method to Aster DATA:WIKKI and Mawulgo Thermal Springs, Yankari Park, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, A. J.; Hashim, M.; Pour, A. B.

    2017-10-01

    Geothermal systems are essentially associated with hydrothermal alteration mineral assemblages such as iron oxide/hydroxide, clay, sulfate, carbonate and silicate groups. Blind and fossilized geothermal systems are not characterized by obvious surface manifestations like hot springs, geysers and fumaroles, therefore, they could not be easily identifiable using conventional techniques. In this investigation, the applicability of Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) were evaluated in discriminating hydrothermal alteration minerals associated with geothermal systems as a proxy in identifying subtle Geothermal systems at Yankari Park in northeastern Nigeria. The area is characterized by a number of thermal springs such as Wikki and Mawulgo. Feature-oriented Principal Component selection (FPCS) was applied to ASTER data based on spectral characteristics of hydrothermal alteration minerals for a systematic and selective extraction of the information of interest. Application of FPCS analysis to bands 5, 6 and 8 and bands 1, 2, 3 and 4 datasets of ASTER was used for mapping clay and iron oxide/hydroxide minerals in the zones of Wikki and Mawulgo thermal springs in Yankari Park area. Field survey using GPS and laboratory analysis, including X-ray Diffractometer (XRD) and Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD) were carried out to verify the image processing results. The results indicate that ASTER dataset reliably and complementarily be used for reconnaissance stage of targeting subtle alteration mineral assemblages associated with geothermal systems.

  16. HYDROTHEMAL ALTERATION MAPPING USING FEATURE-ORIENTED PRINCIPAL COMPONENT SELECTION (FPCS METHOD TO ASTER DATA:WIKKI AND MAWULGO THERMAL SPRINGS, YANKARI PARK, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Abubakar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal systems are essentially associated with hydrothermal alteration mineral assemblages such as iron oxide/hydroxide, clay, sulfate, carbonate and silicate groups. Blind and fossilized geothermal systems are not characterized by obvious surface manifestations like hot springs, geysers and fumaroles, therefore, they could not be easily identifiable using conventional techniques. In this investigation, the applicability of Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER were evaluated in discriminating hydrothermal alteration minerals associated with geothermal systems as a proxy in identifying subtle Geothermal systems at Yankari Park in northeastern Nigeria. The area is characterized by a number of thermal springs such as Wikki and Mawulgo. Feature-oriented Principal Component selection (FPCS was applied to ASTER data based on spectral characteristics of hydrothermal alteration minerals for a systematic and selective extraction of the information of interest. Application of FPCS analysis to bands 5, 6 and 8 and bands 1, 2, 3 and 4 datasets of ASTER was used for mapping clay and iron oxide/hydroxide minerals in the zones of Wikki and Mawulgo thermal springs in Yankari Park area. Field survey using GPS and laboratory analysis, including X-ray Diffractometer (XRD and Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD were carried out to verify the image processing results. The results indicate that ASTER dataset reliably and complementarily be used for reconnaissance stage of targeting subtle alteration mineral assemblages associated with geothermal systems.

  17. Use of ASTER and MODIS thermal infrared data to quantify heat flow and hydrothermal change at Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, R. Greg; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Jaworowski, Cheryl; Heasler, Henry

    2012-01-01

    The overarching aim of this study was to use satellite thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing to monitor geothermal activity within the Yellowstone geothermal area to meet the missions of both the U.S. Geological Survey and the Yellowstone National Park Geology Program. Specific goals were to: 1) address the challenges of monitoring the surface thermal characteristics of the > 10,000 spatially and temporally dynamic thermal features in the Park (including hot springs, pools, geysers, fumaroles, and mud pots) that are spread out over ~ 5000 km2, by using satellite TIR remote sensing tools (e.g., ASTER and MODIS), 2) to estimate the radiant geothermal heat flux (GHF) for Yellowstone's thermal areas, and 3) to identify normal, background thermal changes so that significant, abnormal changes can be recognized, should they ever occur (e.g., changes related to tectonic, hydrothermal, impending volcanic processes, or human activities, such as nearby geothermal development). ASTER TIR data (90-m pixels) were used to estimate the radiant GHF from all of Yellowstone's thermal features and update maps of thermal areas. MODIS TIR data (1-km pixels) were used to record background thermal radiance variations from March 2000 through December 2010 and establish thermal change detection limits. A lower limit for the radiant GHF estimated from ASTER TIR temperature data was established at ~ 2.0 GW, which is ~ 30–45% of the heat flux estimated through geochemical thermometry. Also, about 5 km2 of thermal areas was added to the geodatabase of mapped thermal areas. A decade-long time-series of MODIS TIR radiance data was dominated by seasonal cycles. A background subtraction technique was used in an attempt to isolate variations due to geothermal changes. Several statistically significant perturbations were noted in the time-series from Norris Geyser Basin, however many of these did not correspond to documented thermal disturbances. This study provides concrete examples of the

  18. Uso de imagens do sensor ASTER na identificação de níveis de degradação em pastagens Use of ASTER sensor images for the identification of levels of pasture degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melchior C. Nascimento

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O manejo inadequado e a baixa disponibilidade de nutrientes nos solos da Zona da Mata de Minas Gerais, têm resultado em baixas produtividades de pastagens, aparecimento de solos descobertos e perdas de solo por erosão. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a capacidade das imagens do sensor ASTER em identificar diferentes níveis de degradação de pastagens. A área de estudo inclui parte dos municípios de Viçosa, Teixeiras e São Miguel do Anta, perfazendo cerca de 3.314 ha. Devido às características das pastagens da região, foram utilizados quatro níveis de degradação: leve, moderada, forte e muito forte. A classe que apresentou maior erro de classificação foi a pastagem com nível de degradação muito forte (Pastagem 4, com 53,91% dos pixels classificados, confundindo-se com as demais classes. A pastagem com nível de degradação moderada (Pastagem 2 apresentou a melhor classificação. Da área avaliada, aproximadamente 70% correspondem a pastagens, sendo 56,46% classificadas como fortemente degradadas; 28,73% Mata/Capoeira e 1,54% plantações de café. Os resultados permitiram concluir que as imagens do sensor ASTER apresentaram um potencial satisfatório para separar os diferentes níveis de degradação de pastagens.The improper management and the low availability of nutrients of soils in "Zona da Mata" in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, have led to low productivity of natural pasture, emergence of bare soils and soil losses by erosion. The objective of this work was to evaluate the capacity of ASTER sensor images to identify different levels of degradation in pasture lands. The studied area includes part of Viçosa, Teixeiras, and São Miguel do Anta municipalities, forming a total area around 3,314 ha. Due to natural characteristics of the pasture in this region, four levels of degradation were used: light, moderate, strong, and very strong. The class that showed the highest error in the classification was the very strong

  19. Influencia del fotoperiodo en el desarrollo floral de plantas de Solidago chilensis, Aster ericoides ev. 'Monteeasino' y Solidago x luteus Influenee of photoperiod on floral development in plants of Solidago chilensis, Aster ericoides ev. 'Monteeasino' and Solidago x tuteus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flórez Roncancio Victor J.

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Solidago x luteus es un híbrido interespecífico entre Solidago ptarmicoides y Solidago canadensis. Este híbrido, Solidago chilensis y Aster ericoides cv. 'Montecasino' son las especies objeto del presente estudio. Son plantas típicas de días largos, las cuales crecen como rosetas en días cortos y son explotadas para flor de corte. Se observaron características vegetativas y reproductivas de estas especies en condiciones fotoperiódicas de 8h y 20h y, en Solidago x luteus, por su mejor performance en cuanto a la inducción floral, se realizaron estudios de comportamiento fotoperiódico del desarrollo desde el botón floral hasta antesis. En forma general, en las tres especies estudiadas, los fotoperíodos largos promueven inducción floral y aumento en el número de ramificaciones laterales y de hojas. En días cortos, las
    plantas de Solidago chilensis permanecieron en roseta, en las de Solidago x luteus hubo inducción y antesis floral, en tanto que, en Aster ericoides, había plantas en roseta y plantas inducidas. La evidencia de que los días cortos aceleraban la antesis floral en plantas de Solidago x luteus, inducidas en
    días largos, se fortaleció con el experimento de diferente duración en días cortos (5; 10 y 15 días; lo cual se confirmó en experimentos subsecuentes, en donde se comprobó que la planta responde a los fotoperíodos cortos (8h; 10h y 12h, acelerando la antesis y a los fotoperíodos largos (16h y 20h, retardándola y los fotoperiódos entre 12h y 16h (14h  estarían en una situación de transición entre días cortos y días largos, caracterizando, así, una respuesta cuantitativa con el aumento del fotoperíodo.
    Solidago x luteus is a hybrid between Solidago ptarmicoides and Solidago canadensis. This hybrid, Solidago chilensis and Aster ericoides cv. 'Montecasino' are the subject of the present work. They are typically long-day plants which grow as rosettes in short days and are exploited as cut

  20. A posteriori error analysis for hydro-mechanical couplings and implementation in Code-Aster; Analyse d'erreur a posteriori pour les couplages hydro-mecaniques et mise en oeuvre dans Code-Aster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meunier, S

    2007-11-15

    We analyse approximations by finite elements in space and finite differences in time of coupled Hydro-Mechanical (HM) problems related to the quasi-static linear poro-elasticity theory. The physical bases of this theory are briefly restated and an abstract setting is proposed to perform the mathematical study of the stationary and un-stationary versions of the HM problem. For the stationary version, the well-posedness of the continuous and discrete problems are established and the a priori error analysis is performed. Then, we propose the a posteriori error analysis by using two different techniques suited to estimate the displacement error and the pressure error, respectively, both in the H{sub x}{sup 1}-norm. The classical properties of reliability and optimality are proved for the associated error estimators. Some numerical experiments using Code-Aster illustrate the theoretical results. For the un-stationary version, we first establish a stability result for the continuous problem. Then, we present an optimal a priori error analysis using elliptic projection techniques. Finally, the a posteriori error analysis is performed by using two different approaches: a direct approach and an elliptic reconstruction approach. The first is suited to estimate the pressure error in the L{sub t}{sup 2}(H{sub x}{sup 1})-norm and the second is suited to estimate the displacement error in the L{sub t}{sup {infinity}}(H{sub x}{sup 1})-norm and the pressure error in the L{sub t}{sup {infinity}}(H{sub x}{sup 1})-norm. Numerical experiments using Code-Aster complete the theoretical results. (author)

  1. Integrating Data of ASTER and Landsat-8 OLI (AO for Hydrothermal Alteration Mineral Mapping in Duolong Porphyry Cu-Au Deposit, Tibetan Plateau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingbin Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important characteristics of porphyry copper deposits (PCDs is the type and distribution pattern of alteration zones which can be used for screening and recognizing these deposits. Hydrothermal alteration minerals with diagnostic spectral absorption properties in the visible and near-infrared (VNIR through the shortwave infrared (SWIR regions can be identified by multispectral and hyperspectral remote sensing data. Six Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER bands in SWIR have been shown to be effective in the mapping of Al-OH, Fe-OH, Mg-OH group minerals. The five VNIR bands of Landsat-8 (L8 Operational Land Imager (OLI are useful for discriminating ferric iron alteration minerals. In the absence of complete hyperspectral coverage area, an opportunity, however, exists to integrate ASTER and L8-OLI (AO to compensate each other’s shortcomings in covering area for mineral mapping. This study examines the potential of AO data in mineral mapping in an arid area of the Duolong porphyry Cu-Au deposit(Tibetan Plateau in China by using spectral analysis techniques. Results show the following conclusions: (1 Combination of ASTER and L8-OLI data (AO has more mineral information content than either alone; (2 The Duolong PCD alteration zones of phyllic, argillic and propylitic zones are mapped using ASTER SWIR bands and the iron-bearing mineral information is best mapped using AO VNIR bands; (3 The multispectral integration data of AO can provide a compensatory data of ASTER VNIR bands for iron-bearing mineral mapping in the arid and semi-arid areas.

  2. Experimental dem Extraction from Aster Stereo Pairs and 3d Registration Based on Icesat Laser Altimetry Data in Upstream Area of Lambert Glacier, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, G.; Xie, H.; Chen, J.; Chen, L.; Li, R.; Tong, X.

    2017-09-01

    DEM Extraction from ASTER stereo pairs and three-dimensional registration by reference to ICESat laser altimetry data are carried out in upstream area of Lambert Glacier, East Antarctica. Since the study area is located in inland of East Antarctica where few textures exist, registration between DEM and ICESat data is performed. Firstly, the ASTER DEM generation is based on rational function model (RFM) and the procedure includes: a) rational polynomial coefficient (RPC) computation from ASTER metadata, b) L1A image product de-noise and destriping, c) local histogram equalization and matching, d) artificial collection of tie points and bundle adjustment, and e) coarse-to-fine hierarchical matching of five levels and grid matching. The matching results are filtered semi-automatically. Hereafter, DEM is interpolated using spline method with ground points converted from matching points. Secondly, the generated ASTER DEM is registered to ICESat data in three-dimensional space after Least-squares rigid transformation using singular value decomposition (SVD). The process is stated as: a) correspondence selection of terrain feature points from ICESat and DEM profiles, b) rigid transformation of generated ASTER DEM using selected feature correspondences based on least squares technique. The registration shows a good result that the elevation difference between DEM and ICESat data is low with a mean value less than 2 meters and the standard deviation around 7 meters. This DEM is generated and specially registered in Antarctic typical region without obvious ground rock control points and serves as true terrain input for further radar altimetry simulation.

  3. Evaluating the effect of spatial subsetting on subpixel unmixing methodology applied to ASTER over a hydrothermally altered terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoobi, Iman; Tangestani, Majid H.

    2017-10-01

    This study investigates the effect of spatial subsets of Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER) L1B visible-near infrared and short wave-infrared (VNIR-SWIR) data on matched filtering results at the central part of Kerman magmatic arc, where abundant porphyry copper deposits exist. The matched filtering (MF) procedure was run separately at sites containing hydrothermal minerals such as sericite, kaolinite, chlorite, and jarosite to map the abundances of these minerals on spatial subsets containing 100, 75, 50, and 25 percent of the original scene. Results were evaluated by comparing the matched filtering scores with the mineral abundances obtained by semi-quantitative XRD analysis of corresponding field samples. It was concluded that MF method should be applied to the whole scene prior to any data subsetting.

  4. Mapping temperature and radiant geothermal heat flux anomalies in the Yellowstone geothermal system using ASTER thermal infrared data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, R. Greg; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; Jaworowski, Cheryl; Heasler, Henry

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to use satellite-based thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing data to measure, map, and monitor geothermal activity within the Yellowstone geothermal area to help meet the missions of both the U.S. Geological Survey Yellowstone Volcano Observatory and the Yellowstone National Park Geology Program. Specifically, the goals were to: 1) address the challenges of remotely characterizing the spatially and temporally dynamic thermal features in Yellowstone by using nighttime TIR data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and 2) estimate the temperature, geothermal radiant emittance, and radiant geothermal heat flux (GHF) for Yellowstone’s thermal areas (both Park wide and for individual thermal areas). ASTER TIR data (90-m pixels) acquired at night during January and February, 2010, were used to estimate surface temperature, radiant emittance, and radiant GHF from all of Yellowstone’s thermal features, produce thermal anomaly maps, and update field-based maps of thermal areas. A background subtraction technique was used to isolate the geothermal component of TIR radiance from thermal radiance due to insolation. A lower limit for the Yellowstone’s total radiant GHF was established at ~2.0 GW, which is ~30-45% of the heat flux estimated through geochemical (Cl-flux) methods. Additionally, about 5 km2 was added to the geodatabase of mapped thermal areas. This work provides a framework for future satellite-based thermal monitoring at Yellowstone as well as exploration of other volcanic / geothermal systems on a global scale.

  5. KEMAMPUAN SALURAN TERMAL CITRA LANDSAT 7 ETM+ DAN CITRA ASTER DALAM MEMETAKAN POLA SUHU PERMUKAAN DI KOTA DENPASAR DAN SEKITARNYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gede Yudi Wisnawa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out in some parts of Bali Province, including Denpasar city and the surrounding regencies. The purposes of this research are: 1 to determine the pattern of surface temperature in Denpasar city; 2 to determine the accuracy level of the thermal channels in the Landsat 7 ETM+ and ASTER images for mapping the pattern of surface temperature in Denpasar city; 3 as well as to determine the relationship between the surface temperatures with building and with vegetation coverages. The method applied in this research are density slicing analysis, the 3rd ordo polynomial regression analysis, the root mean square different (rmsD, and the product moment correlations. The image enhancement techniques which are used in this research include thermal data calibrations, urban index transformation, and vegetation index transformation. The results of this study shows that the pattern of urban surface temperature spreads spatially and does not occur exclusively only in the city center but also in its surrounding areas; found in settlements with the density ranging from compact to more compact; also found in dry land with vegetation density ranging from sparse to sparser. Starting the value of rms difference can be used as the standard measurement in assesment of the surface temperature extraction accuracy. The 6.1st channel of Landsat 7 ETM+ image is the best which shows the rms difference of 4.95, followed by the 13rd channel of ASTER image with the rms difference of 5.73. The value of highly positive correlation between building density index with surface temperature is 0.73. It means that each increased of building density index value will be followed by increasing of surface temperature value. The value of highly negative correlation also happened between vegetation density index (vegetation coverage with the surface temperature is -0.53. It means that each increased of vegetation index value will be followed by decreasing of surface

  6. NASADEM Global Elevation Model of Earth: Methods for the Refinement and Merger of SRTM and ASTER GDEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippen, R. E.; Buckley, S.; Agram, P. S.; Belz, J. E.; Gurrola, E. M.; Hensley, S.; Kobrick, M.; Lavalle, M.; Martin, J. M.; Neumann, M.; Nguyen, Q.; Rosen, P. A.; Shimada, J.; Simard, M.; Tung, W.

    2016-12-01

    NASADEM is a near-global elevation model that is being produced primarily by completely reprocessing the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) radar data and then merging it with refined ASTER GDEM elevations. The new and improved SRTM elevations in NASADEM result from better vertical control of each SRTM data swath via reference to ICESat elevations and from SRTM void reductions using advanced interferometric unwrapping algorithms. Errors in SRTM (due to incorrect interferometric unwrapping) are rare but can be found and removed via a detector that relies upon pattern analysis within synergistic comparisons of SRTM and GDEM. Remnant voids in SRTM are filled primarily by GDEM3, but with removal of GDEM glitches that are mostly related to clouds. GDEM glitch removal uses a measure of curvature and then spatial filtering to detect, isolate, and delete anomalous spikes and pits that are uncharacteristic of natural topography. Water masking uses the original SRTM Water Body Dataset (SWBD), but with errors corrected via a new ASTER Water Body Database. The improved SRTM, GDEM, and water body databases will be made available individually in addition to our merged product, which is particularly important for the SRTM dataset, which stands as a February 2000 baseline for many topographic change studies. New and forthcoming freely available elevation data (at reduced resolutions) from the ALOS PRISM World 3D and TanDEM-X projects will contribute to the critical but not yet reached goal of a complete, high-quality elevation model of Earth, and they are expected to provide additional validation for NASADEM. Indeed, cross validation among all of these datasets is a vital part of reaching that goal. The value of elevation data is difficult to overstate. These data are used in nearly all types of geophysical study conducted at or near Earth's surface.

  7. Modelling Vegetation Cover Dynamics of the Niger Floodplain in Mali, Westafrica, Using Multitemporal MERIS Full Resolution and TERRA -ASTER Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Ralf

    This presentation aims at showing the potential of a combined use of multi-temporal data from two different sensors (MERIS and TERRA ASTER) for an analysis of vegetation cover changes in semi-arid environments. While MERIS data mainly provide information about the vegetation cover density, ASTER data were used to analyse soil properties -especially soil brightness and soil wetness. An algorithm is proposed that uses atmospherically corrected surface reflectance values from MERIS and ASTER measurements. These values are subsequently splitted into a signal component that is caused by the vegetation cover and the background component (triggered by soil properties) using a linear spectral unmixing approach. Vegetation cover then is described by Vegetation Indices (MGVI, NDVI / SAVI) that were calculated from the vegetation signal component. Finally, these vegetation parameter were classified for all multi-temporal MERIS data using the EM algorithm to derive the temporal behaviour of vegetation pattern at the Inland Delta. The algorithm provides, as results, a fractional vegetation cover, a vegetation density value and information on the soil type. A detailed mapping of the spatio-temporal vegetation cover patterns for the Niger Inland Delta during the period of 2002 -2005 is another outcome of this study in addition to an in-depth evaluation of the applicability of the used VIs for environments with sparse vegetation covers. Located in the western Sahel of Africa, (1330' N -17 N and 230' W -530' W), the Niger Inland Delta is one of the largest floodplains in the world. The geographic term "Niger Inland Delta" represents a vast, extremely flat area of around 40.000 km extend, which is annually inundated by water of the Niger -Bani riversystem. In contrast to its semi -arid surrounding, the delta's ecology can be described as a mosaic of permanent, periodical and episodically flooded areas. Their extend varies both in scale and time due to irregularities of amount as

  8. External Validation of the ASTER GDEM2, GMTED2010 and CGIAR-CSI- SRTM v4.1 Free Access Digital Elevation Models (DEMs in Tunisia and Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djamel Athmania

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Digital Elevation Models (DEMs including Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer-Global Digital Elevation Model (ASTER GDEM, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM, and Global Multi-resolution Terrain Elevation Data 2010 (GMTED2010 are freely available for nearly the entire earth’s surface. DEMs that are usually subject to errors need to be evaluated using reference elevation data of higher accuracy. This work was performed to assess the vertical accuracy of the ASTER GDEM version 2, (ASTER GDEM2, the Consultative Group on International Agriculture Research-Consortium for Spatial Information (CGIAR-CSI SRTM version 4.1 (SRTM v4.1 and the systematic subsample GMTED2010, at their original spatial resolution, using Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS validation points. Two test sites, the Anaguid Saharan platform in southern Tunisia and the Tebessa basin in north eastern Algeria, were chosen for accuracy assessment of the above mentioned DEMs, based on geostatistical and statistical measurements. Within the geostatistical approach, empirical variograms of each DEM were compared with those of the GPS validation points. Statistical measures were computed from the elevation differences between the DEM pixel value and the corresponding GPS point. For each DEM, a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE was determined for model validation. In addition, statistical tools such as frequency histograms and Q-Q plots were used to evaluate error distributions in each DEM. The results indicate that the vertical accuracy of SRTM model is much higher than ASTER GDEM2 and GMTED2010 for both sites. In Anaguid test site, the vertical accuracy of SRTM is estimated 3.6 m (in terms of RMSE 5.3 m and 4.5 m for the ASTERGDEM2 and GMTED2010 DEMs, respectively. In Tebessa test site, the overall vertical accuracy shows a RMSE of 9.8 m, 8.3 m and 9.6 m for ASTER GDEM 2, SRTM and GMTED2010 DEM, respectively. This work is the first study to report the

  9. Comparison of ASTER- and AVIRIS-Derived Mineraland Vegetation Maps of the White Horse Replacement Alunite Deposit and Surrounding Area, Marysvale Volcanic Field, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents and compares mineral and vegetation maps of parts of the Marysvale volcanic field in west-central Utah that were published in a recent paper describing the White Horse replacement alunite deposit. Detailed, field-verified maps of the deposit were produced from Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data acquired from a low-altitude Twin Otter turboprop airborne platform. Reconnaissance-level maps of surrounding areas including the central and northern Tushar Mountains, Pahvant Range, and portions of the Sevier Plateau to the east were produced from visible, near-infrared, and shortwave-infrared data acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor carried aboard the Terra satellite platform. These maps are also compared to a previously published mineral map of the same area generated from AVIRIS data acquired from the high-altitude NASA ER-2 jet platform. All of the maps were generated by similar analysis methods, enabling the direct comparison of the spatial scale and mineral composition of surface geologic features that can be identified using the three types of remote sensing data. The high spatial (2-17 meter) and spectral (224 bands) resolution AVIRIS data can be used to generate detailed mineral and vegetation maps suitable for geologic and geoenvironmental studies of individual deposits, mines, and smelters. The lower spatial (15-30 meter) and spectral (9 bands) resolution ASTER data are better suited to less detailed mineralogical studies of lithology and alteration across entire hydrothermal systems and mining districts, including regional mineral resource and geoenvironmental assessments. The results presented here demonstrate that minerals and mineral mixtures can be directly identified using AVIRIS and ASTER data to elucidate spatial patterns of mineralogic zonation; AVIRIS data can enable the generation of maps with significantly greater detail and accuracy. The

  10. IMÁGENES ASTER EN LA DISCRIMINACIÓN DE ÁREAS DE USO AGRÍCOLA EN COLOMBIA ASTER IMAGES FOR DISCRIMINATION OF AGRICULTURAL USE AREAS IN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidia Esperanza Ortiz Lozano

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El avance de las tecnologías de la información geográfica ha llevado a la puesta de nuevos sensores para observación de la tierra. ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Termal Emission and Reflection Radiometer, considerado como sensor de última generación, posee características especiales que lo colocan como una alternativa para estudios de la cobertura vegetal de la tierra. El presente trabajo se basó en sus características espaciales, espectrales y radiométricas con el fin de discriminar las áreas de cultivo agrícola en el distrito de riego Usocoello, en Colombia. Se utilizó una imagen ASTER de nivel 1B de 2006, corregida geométricamente, remuestreada y sus valores de radiancia fueron transformados a valores de reflectancia, permitiendo realizar dos composiciones: imágenes originales (VNIR-SWIR e imagen fusionada en transformación IHS. Se estableció una leyenda temática a partir del esquema de clasificación "CORINE Land Cover - Colombia", definiendo 10 categorías de cobertura representativas en la imagen. Para la fase de asignación se utilizó el clasificador de máxima probabilidad. En el proceso de verificación y cuantificación del nivel de exactitud se utilizó, como verdad terreno, la base de datos geográfica del área a nivel de predio de la misma fecha de la toma de la imagen, encontrándose una fiabilidad global estimada del 75% para la imagen VNIR-SWIR; si se tiene en cuenta la variabilidad de los estados fenológicos de los cultivos (arroz, maíz y sorgo en el área y un contraste espacial significativo en la imagen fusionada, el índice de Kappa obtenido fue de 0,75 con un grado de acuerdo sustancial.The advance of geographical information technology has led to the placement of new sensors for earth observation. ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer is considered as a latest generation sensor. It has special characteristics that places it as an alternative for studies of vegetation cover

  11. A Pixel Purity Index and Curvelet based approach for the Fusion of ASTER and MODIS data for land cover classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dharmendra

    In this paper, an approach of Pixel Purity Index is used in the aid of Curvelet transform for the fusion of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) of resolution of 250m, and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) of resolution of 15m data for utilization of freely available satellite data i.e. NOAA/MODIS for land cover classification of Roorkee (India) Region. The Roorkee Region of India has a blend of urban, water and agriculture bodies. Earth observation satellites provide data covering different portions of the electromagnetic spectrum at different spatial, temporal and spectral resolutions. For the full exploitation of increasingly sophisticated multisource data, advanced analytical or numerical data fusion techniques are being developed. Fused images may provide increased interpretation capabilities and more reliable results since data with different characteristics will be combined. The Terra and Aqua MODIS instrument provides high radiometric sensitivity (12 bit) in 36 spectral bands ranging in wavelength from 0.4 µm to 14.4 µm. Two bands are imaged at a nominal resolution of 250 m at nadir, with five bands at 500 m, and the remaining 29 bands at 1 km. The ASTER is an advanced multispectral imager that was launched on board NASA's Terra. ASTER covers a wide spectral region with 14 bands from the visible to the thermal infrared with high spatial, spectral and radiometric resolution. The spatial resolution varies with wavelength: 15 m in the visible and near-infrared (VNIR), 30 m in the short wave infrared (SWIR), and 90 m in the thermal infrared (TIR). Many image fusion techniques have been developed. The well-known methods are, for example, the Brovey, the IHS (Intensity, Hue, Saturation) color model, the PCA (Principal Components Analysis) method, and wavelet based method. The Limitations of the Brovey, IHS, and PCA fusion methods is some distortion of spectral characteristics in the original multispectral

  12. Self-Adaptive Gradient-Based Thresholding Method for Coal Fire Detection Based on ASTER Data—Part 2, Validation and Sensitivity Analysis

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    Xiaomin Du

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The self-adaptive gradient-based thresholding (SAGBT method is a simple non-interactive coal fire detection approach involving segmentation and a threshold identification algorithm that adapts to the spatial distribution of thermal features over a landscape. SAGBT detects coal fire using multispectral thermal images acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER sensor. The method was detailed by our previous work “Self-Adaptive Gradient-Based Thresholding Method for Coal Fire Detection Based on ASTER Data—Part 1, Methodology”. The current study evaluates the performance of SAGBT and validates its results by using ASTER thermal infrared (TIR images and ground temperature data collected at the Wuda coalfield (China during satellite overpass. We further analyzed algorithm performance by using nighttime TIR images and images from different seasons. SAGBT-derived fires matched fire spots measured in the field with an average offset of 32.44 m and a matching rate of 70%–85%. Coal fire areas from TIR images generally agreed with coal-related anomalies from visible-near infrared (VNIR images. Further, high-temperature pixels in the ASTER image matched observed coal fire areas, including the major extreme high-temperature regions derived from field samples. Finally, coal fires detected by daytime and by nighttime images were found to have similar spatial distributions, although fires differ in shape and size. Results included the stratification of our study site into two temperature groups (high and low temperature, using a fire boundary. We conclude that SAGBT can be successfully used for coal fire detection and analysis at our study site.

  13. Application of ASTER and Landsat 8 imagery data and mathematical evaluation method in detecting iron minerals contamination in the Chadormalu iron mine area, central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghtaderi, Arsia; Moore, Farid; Ranjbar, Hojjatollah

    2017-01-01

    Satellite images are widely used to map geological and environmental features at different map scales. The ability of visible to near-infrared (VNIR) scanner systems to map gossans, rich in iron and associated with weathered sulfide occurrences, as well as to characterize regoliths, is perhaps one of the most important current applications of this technology. Initial results of this study show that advanced space-borne thermal emission and reflection (ASTER), VNIR, and short-wave infrared radiometer scanner systems can be used successfully to map iron ores. By applying internal average relative reflectance, false color composite, minimum noise fraction transform, and mathematical evaluation method (MEM) techniques, iron contaminations were successfully detected in the Chadormalu iron mine area of central Iran. An attempt was also made to discriminate between the geogenic and anthropogenic iron contaminations in the vicinity of the Chadormalu iron deposit. This research compares ASTER and Landsat 8 data images and the MEM with the band ratio method in a full scope view scale and demonstrates ASTER image data capability in detecting iron contaminations in the Chadormalu area. This indicates that ASTER bands 3, 2, and 1 have a higher spatial (15 m) resolution compared with sensors used in previous works. In addition, the capability of the MEM in detecting Fe-contaminants, unlike the color judgments of the band ratio method, can discriminate between iron pollution in an alluvial plain and the Fe-contents of the host and country rocks in the study area. This study proved that Landsat 8 data illustrate exaggeration both in the MEM and band ratio final results (outputs) and cannot display iron contamination in detail.

  14. Hydrologic land-cover classification mapping at the local level with the combined use of ASTER multispectral imagery and GPS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysoulakis, Nektarios; Keramitsoglou, Iphigenia; Cartalis, Constantinos

    2004-02-01

    Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) and land cover products are primary inputs for hydrologic models of surface runoff that affects infiltration, erosion, and evapotranspiration. DEM and land cover play important role in determining the runoff characteristics of specific catchment areas. Recently, at local level, a number of data sources have been used to derive land cover products for high resolution studies. These studies have been carried out for a number of different applications, including estimation of biomass and vegetation mapping. A hydrologic land cover classification includes information not only about vegetation species, but also about the land surface and what classes are important hydrologically. This kind of classification must therefore incorporate information on elevation, slope, aspect, surface roughness, as well as vegetation species derived from satellite added-value products. The main problems when generating hydrologic land cover maps is the lack of accurate DEMs and the confusion of spectral responses from different features. In this study, a Terra/ASTER image acquired over the region of Heraklion, Crete, Greece was used. ASTER stereo imagery is used for DEM production because it gives a strong advantage in terms of radiometric variations versus the multi-date stereo-data acquisition with across-track stereo, which can then compensate for the weaker stereo geometry. GCPs (Ground Control Points) derived from differential GPS measurements were also used for absolute DEM production. A hydrologic land cover classification scheme was developed by combining ASTER multispectral imagery, ASTER DEM products and the spectral signatures derived from field observations at predefined training sites.

  15. A new 100-m Digital Elevation Model of the Antarctic Peninsula derived from ASTER Global DEM: methods and accuracy assessment

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    A. J. Cook

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A high resolution surface topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM is required to underpin studies of the complex glacier system on the Antarctic Peninsula. A complete DEM with better than 200 m pixel size and high positional and vertical accuracy would enable mapping of all significant glacial basins and provide a dataset for glacier morphology analyses. No currently available DEM meets these specifications. We present a new 100-m DEM of the Antarctic Peninsula (63–70° S, based on ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM data. The raw GDEM products are of high-quality on the rugged terrain and coastal-regions of the Antarctic Peninsula and have good geospatial accuracy, but they also contain large errors on ice-covered terrain and we seek to minimise these artefacts. Conventional data correction techniques do not work so we have developed a method that significantly improves the dataset, smoothing the erroneous regions and hence creating a DEM with a pixel size of 100 m that will be suitable for many glaciological applications. We evaluate the new DEM using ICESat-derived elevations, and perform horizontal and vertical accuracy assessments based on GPS positions, SPOT-5 DEMs and the Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA imagery. The new DEM has a mean elevation difference of −4 m (± 25 m RMSE from ICESat (compared to −13 m mean and ±97 m RMSE for the original ASTER GDEM, and a horizontal error of less than 2 pixels, although elevation accuracies are lower on mountain peaks and steep-sided slopes. The correction method significantly reduces errors on low relief slopes and therefore the DEM can be regarded as suitable for topographical studies such as measuring the geometry and ice flow properties of glaciers on the Antarctic Peninsula. The DEM is available for download from the NSIDC website: http://nsidc.org/data/nsidc-0516.html (Evaluation of Total Suspended Sediment (TSS) Distribution Using ASTER, ALOS, SPOT-4 Satellite Imagery in 2005-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariyanto, T.; Krisna, T. C.; Pribadi, C. B.; Kurniawan, A.; Sukojo, B. M.; Taufik, M.

    2017-12-01

    Lapindo mud thrown to Porong River from September 27, 2006 brought an enormous impact to the environment and surrounding communities. This will exacerbate the damage Porong ecosystems, and pollute the Madura Strait and surrounding areas (Wibisono, 2006). Disposal of sludge in large quantities and continuously to Porong also indicated sedimentation resulted in Porong River, Porong River estuary and along coastal of Surabaya-Pasuruan. This is because the material sediment transport along water flow, and the influence of geographical conditions, and the waves of the sea water. Satellite image data used in this study is the ASTER in 2005-2008, ALOS/AVNIR-2 in 2010, and SPOT-4 years 2009.2011 and 2012. In the satellite image processing, for obtain the value of is used TSS algorithm of Jing Li (2008) for ASTER satellite imagery, algorithms of Hendrawan and Asai (2008) for the ALOS satellite imagery, and algorithm of Budiman (2004) for the SPOT-4 satellite imagery. TSS value of the image processing results then performed validation / test precision using reference data TSS In-Situ to obtain linear correlation (R2). R2 value was obtained is 0.854 in 2009, 0.761 in 2011, and 0712 in 2013. That indicates that the value of TSS in the field is proportional with the TSS value in image and has a very good correlation. The results show the value of TSS in the study area ranged from 25 until more than 150 mg/L and according to the results of the analysis showed an upward trend of TSS values over time. There are several locations that indicated experiencing severe sedimentation impacts such as in Porong River, Porong River Estuary, Alo River Estuary, and the surrounding area of the estuary. According to Government Regulation Number 82 in 2001, the maximum value of TSS in the river or water is must less than 50 mg/L and so the value of TSS in the study area is very improper that if allowed to continue may damage the ecosystem in the area. Results from this study is expected to be

  16. Demarcation of mineral rich zones in areas adjoining to a copper prospect in Rajasthan, India using ASTER, DEM (ALOS) and spaceborne gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengar, Vivek K.; Champati Ray, P. K.; Chattoraj, Shovan L.; Venkatesh, A. S.; Sajeev, R.; Konwar, Purnima; Thapa, Shailaja

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this work is to identify the potential zones for detailed mineral exploration studies in areas adjoining to a copper prospect using Remotely Sensed data sets. In this study visualization of ASTER data has been enhanced to highlight the mineral-rich areas using various remote sensing techniques such as colour composites and band ratios. VNIR region of ASTER is significant to detect iron oxides while, clay minerals, carbonates and chlorites have characteristic absorption in the SWIR wavelength region. Therefore, an attempt has been made to target the mineral abundant regions through ASTER data processing. Height based information was extracted using high-resolution ALOSDEM to analyse the topographical controls in the region considering the fact that mineral deposits often found associated with geological structures and geomorphological units. Gravity data was used to generate gravity anomaly map which gives clues about subsurface density differences. In this context, base metal ores may show anomalous (high) gravity values in comparison to the non-mineralised areas. Outputs from all the data sets were analysed and correlated with the geological map and available literature. Final validation of results has been done through proper ground checks and laboratory analysis of rock samples collected from the litho-units present in the study area. Based on this study some new areas have been successfully demarcated which may be potential for base metal exploration.

  17. Effects of saltwater intrusion on pinewood vegetation using satellite ASTER data: the case study of Ravenna (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarella, M; De Giglio, M; Greggio, N

    2015-04-01

    The San Vitale pinewood (Ravenna, Italy) is part of the remaining wooded areas within the southeastern Po Valley. Several studies demonstrated a widespread saltwater intrusion in the phreatic aquifer caused by natural and human factors in this area as the whole complex coastal system. Groundwater salinization affects soils and vegetation, which takes up water from the shallow aquifer. Changes in groundwater salinity induce variations of the leaf properties and vegetation cover, recognizable by satellite sensors as a response to different spectral bands. A procedure to identify stressed areas from satellite remote sensing data, reducing the expensive and time-consuming ground monitoring campaign, was developed. Multispectral Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data, acquired between May 2005 and August 2005, were used to calculate Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Within the same vegetation type (thermophilic deciduous forest), the areas with the higher vegetation index were taken as reference to identify the most stressed areas using a statistical approach. To confirm the findings, a comparison was conducted using contemporary groundwater salinity data. The results were coherent in the areas with highest and lowest average NDVI values. Instead, to better understand the behavior of the intermediate areas, other parameters influencing vegetation (meteorological data, water table depth, and tree density) were added for the interpretation of the results.

  18. Ultrastructural changes in aster yellows phytoplasma affected Limonium sinuatum Mill. plants II. Pathology of cortex parenchyma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rudzińska-Langwald

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Limonium sinuatum Mill, plants with severe symptoms of aster yellows infection phytoplasmas were present not only in the phloem but also in some cortex parenchymas cells. These parenchyma cells were situated at some distance from the conducting bundles. The phytoplasmas were observed directly in parenchyma cells cytoplasm. The number of phytoplasmas present in each selected cell varies. The cells with a small number of phytoplasmas show little pathological changes compared with the unaffected cells of the same zone of the stem as well with the cells of healthy plants. The cells filled with a number of phytoplasmas had their protoplast very much changed. The vacuole was reduced and in the cytoplasm a reduction of the number of ribosomes was noted and regions of homogenous structure appeared. Mitochondria were moved in the direction of the tonoplast and plasma membrane. Compared to the cells unaffected by phytoplasma, the mitochondria were smaller and had an enlarged cristae internal space. The chloroplasts from affected cells had a very significant reduction in size and the tylacoids system had disappeared. The role of these changes for creating phytoplasma friendly enviroment is discused.

  19. Evaluating Spectral Indices for Assessing Fire Severity in Chaparral Ecosystems (Southern California Using MODIS/ASTER (MASTER Airborne Simulator Data

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    Simon Hook

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Wildland fires are a yearly recurring phenomenon in many terrestrial ecosystems. Accurate fire severity estimates are of paramount importance for modeling fire-induced trace gas emissions and rehabilitating post-fire landscapes. We used high spatial and high spectral resolution MODIS/ASTER (MASTER airborne simulator data acquired over four 2007 southern California burns to evaluate the effectiveness of 19 different spectral indices, including the widely used Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR, for assessing fire severity in southern California chaparral. Ordinal logistic regression was used to assess the goodness-of-fit between the spectral index values and ordinal field data of severity. The NBR and three indices in which the NBR is enhanced with surface temperature or emissivity data revealed the best performance. Our findings support the operational use of the NBR in chaparral ecosystems by Burned Area Emergency Rehabilitation (BAER projects, and demonstrate the potential of combining optical and thermal data for assessing fire severity. Additional testing in more burns, other ecoregions and different vegetation types is required to fully understand how (thermally enhanced spectral indices relate to fire severity.

  1. Geology, structure, geochemistry and ASTER-based mapping of Neoproterozoic Gebel El-Delihimmi granites, Central Eastern Desert of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asran, Asran Mohamed; Emam, Ashraf; El-Fakharani, Abdelhamid

    2017-06-01

    The Gebel El-Delihimmi granite intrusion, located in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt, cuts the core of a major anticlinal structure of calc-alkaline metavolcanics and ophiolitic mélange rocks. The intrusion is microscopically differentiated into granodiorite, monzogranite, syenogranite and alkali-feldspar granite. Decorrelation stretch and band-ratio techniques were applied to Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer data. Processing of ASTER-SWIR bands enabled discrimination of El-Delihimmi granite phases and generation of a detailed lithologic map of the study area. The structural and microfabric data suggest that the El-Delihimmi granite underwent at least two phases of deformations. The first was related to the Najd fault system during which the older granodiorite phase of the intrusion was affected by sinistral ductile shearing. During the second phase, monzogranite and syenogranite in the intrusion were affected by brittle E-W compressional deformation. Geochemical data reported here reveal that the granodiorite phase has K2O/Na2O ratio 1. The granite phases are generally I-type, metaluminous to slightly peraluminous and are interpreted as formed above subducted slabs of oceanic lithosphere rather than in continental collision zones.

  2. Qualification of Aster-code for the simulation of two-phase flows in porous media. application to Mascilia experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddi, M. [Electricite de France (EDF/RD/MFTT), 92 - Clamart (France); Chavantz, C. [Electricite de France (EDF/RD/AMA), 92 - Clamart (France); Texeraud, J. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., Student MATMECA, 33 - Talence (France)

    2005-07-01

    Within the framework of the nuclear waste storage in deep geological layers, the behavior of the saturated grounds in contact with the heating waste package is studied to ensure the short, average and long-term safety of the installation. However, experiments in geological ground, including heterogeneities, difficult to characterize, take a long time and are expensive. Therefore, the numerical simulation, which is a powerful tool to study the storage behavior versus space and time, became impossible to circumvent in order to analyze the radioactive waste management in porous media. In that prospect, the Thermo-Hydro-Mechanics (THM) modules of Code Aster were complemented by a two-phase thermal-hydraulics model, devoted to porous media. Such new developments intended to simulate the physical phenomena of un-saturation and re-saturation that occur in porous, permeable and initially saturated media, representative of worked engineer barriers or rock host. The concerned application is related to the storage of long-lived nuclear waste in deep geological layers. (authors)

  3. An Assessment of the Altimetric Information Derived from Spaceborne SAR (RADARSAT-1, SRTM3 and Optical (ASTER Data for Cartographic Application in the Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldir Renato Paradella

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Difficulties in acquiring a complete aerial photography coverage on a regular basis in the Brazilian Amazon due to adverse environmental conditions affect the quality of the national topographic database. As a consequence, topographic information is still poor, and when available needs to be up-dated or re-mapped. In this research, altimetric information derived from RADARSAT-1 (Fine and Standard modes, SRTM3 (3 arcseconds and ASTER (band 3N-3B was evaluated for topographic mapping in two sites located in the region: Serra dos Carajás (mountainous relief and Tapajós National Forest (flat terrain. The quality of the information produced from Digital Elevation Models (DEMs was evaluated regarding field altimetric measurements. Precise topographic field information acquired from Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS was used as Ground Control Points (GCPs for the modeling of the stereoscopic DEMs (RADARSAT- 1, ASTER and as Independent Check Points (ICPs for the calculation of accuracies of the products. The accuracies were estimated by comparison of the DEMs values and real elevation values given by ICPs. The analysis was performed following two approaches: (1 the use of Root Mean Square Error (RMSE for the overall classification of the DEMs considering the Brazilian Map Accuracy Standards (PEC limits and, (2 calculations of trend analysis and accuracy based on a methodology that takes into account computed discrepancies and standard deviations. The investigation has shown that for flat relief, the altimetric accuracy of SRTM3 and Fine RADARSAT-1 DEMs fulfilled the PEC requirements for 1:100,000 A Class Map. However, for mountainous terrain, only the altimetry of SRTM3 and ASTER fulfilled these requirements. In addition, the performance of ASTER was slightly superior to SRTM3. However it is important to consider the difficulties in the acquisition of good stereo-pairs with optical data in the Amazon and the additional cost

  4. A directed matched filtering algorithm (DMF) for discriminating hydrothermal alteration zones using the ASTER remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereydooni, H.; Mojeddifar, S.

    2017-09-01

    This study introduced a different procedure to implement matched filtering algorithm (MF) on the ASTER images to obtain the distribution map of alteration minerals in the northwestern part of the Kerman Cenozoic Magmatic Arc (KCMA). This region contains many areas with porphyry copper mineralization such as Meiduk, Abdar, Kader, Godekolvari, Iju, Serenu, Chahfiroozeh and Parkam. Also argillization, sericitization and propylitization are the most common types of hydrothermal alteration in the area. Matched filtering results were provided for alteration minerals with a matched filtering score, called MF image. To identify the pixels which contain only one material (endmember), an appropriate threshold value should be used to the MF image. The chosen threshold classifies a MF image into background and target pixels. This article argues that the current thresholding process (the choice of a threshold) shows misclassification for MF image. To address the issue, this paper introduced the directed matched filtering (DMF) algorithm in which a spectral signature-based filter (SSF) was used instead of the thresholding process. SSF is a user-defined rule package which contains numeral descriptions about the spectral reflectance of alteration minerals. On the other hand, the spectral bands are defined by an upper and lower limit in SSF filter for each alteration minerals. SSF was developed for chlorite, kaolinite, alunite, and muscovite minerals to map alteration zones. The validation proved that, at first: selecting a contiguous range of MF values could not identify desirable results, second: unexpectedly, considerable frequency of pure pixels was observed in the MF scores less than threshold value. Also, the comparison between DMF results and field studies showed an accuracy of 88.51%.

  5. GEOMETRIC ACCURACY ANALYSIS OF WORLDDEM IN RELATION TO AW3D30, SRTM AND ASTER GDEM2

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    S. Bayburt

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In a project area close to Istanbul the quality of WorldDEM, AW3D30, SRTM DSM and ASTER GDEM2 have been analyzed in relation to a reference aerial LiDAR DEM and to each other. The random and the systematic height errors have been separated. The absolute offset for all height models in X, Y and Z is within the expectation. The shifts have been respected in advance for a satisfying estimation of the random error component. All height models are influenced by some tilts, different in size. In addition systematic deformations can be seen not influencing the standard deviation too much. The delivery of WorldDEM includes information about the height error map which is based on the interferometric phase errors, and the number and location of coverage’s from different orbits. A dependency of the height accuracy from the height error map information and the number of coverage’s can be seen, but it is smaller as expected. WorldDEM is more accurate as the other investigated height models and with 10 m point spacing it includes more morphologic details, visible at contour lines. The morphologic details are close to the details based on the LiDAR digital surface model (DSM. As usual a dependency of the accuracy from the terrain slope can be seen. In forest areas the canopy definition of InSAR X- and C-band height models as well as for the height models based on optical satellite images is not the same as the height definition by LiDAR. In addition the interferometric phase uncertainty over forest areas is larger. Both effects lead to lower height accuracy in forest areas, also visible in the height error map.

  6. Geometric Accuracy Analysis of Worlddem in Relation to AW3D30, Srtm and Aster GDEM2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayburt, S.; Kurtak, A. B.; Büyüksalih, G.; Jacobsen, K.

    2017-05-01

    In a project area close to Istanbul the quality of WorldDEM, AW3D30, SRTM DSM and ASTER GDEM2 have been analyzed in relation to a reference aerial LiDAR DEM and to each other. The random and the systematic height errors have been separated. The absolute offset for all height models in X, Y and Z is within the expectation. The shifts have been respected in advance for a satisfying estimation of the random error component. All height models are influenced by some tilts, different in size. In addition systematic deformations can be seen not influencing the standard deviation too much. The delivery of WorldDEM includes information about the height error map which is based on the interferometric phase errors, and the number and location of coverage's from different orbits. A dependency of the height accuracy from the height error map information and the number of coverage's can be seen, but it is smaller as expected. WorldDEM is more accurate as the other investigated height models and with 10 m point spacing it includes more morphologic details, visible at contour lines. The morphologic details are close to the details based on the LiDAR digital surface model (DSM). As usual a dependency of the accuracy from the terrain slope can be seen. In forest areas the canopy definition of InSAR X- and C-band height models as well as for the height models based on optical satellite images is not the same as the height definition by LiDAR. In addition the interferometric phase uncertainty over forest areas is larger. Both effects lead to lower height accuracy in forest areas, also visible in the height error map.

  7. Using the Surface Temperature-Albedo Space to Separate Regional Soil and Vegetation Temperatures from ASTER Data

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    Lisheng Song

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil and vegetation component temperatures in non-isothermal pixels encapsulate more physical meaning and are more applicable than composite temperatures. The component temperatures however are difficult to be obtained from thermal infrared (TIR remote sensing data provided by single view angle observations. Here, we present a land surface temperature and albedo (T-α space approach combined with the mono-surface energy balance (SEB-1S model to derive soil and vegetation component temperatures. The T-α space can be established from visible and near infrared (VNIR and TIR data provided by single view angle observations. This approach separates the soil and vegetation component temperatures from the remotely sensed composite temperatures by incorporating soil wetness iso-lines for defining equivalent soil temperatures; this allows vegetation temperatures to be extracted from the T-α space. This temperature separation methodology was applied to advanced scanning thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER VNIR and high spatial resolution TIR image data in an artificial oasis area during the entire growing season. Comparisons with ground measurements showed that the T-α space approach produced reliable soil and vegetation component temperatures in the study area. Low root mean square error (RMSE values of 0.83 K for soil temperatures and 1.64 K for vegetation temperatures, respectively, were obtained, compared to component temperatures measurements from a ground-based thermal camera. These results support the use of soil wetness iso-lines to derive soil surface temperatures. It was also found that the estimated vegetation temperatures were extremely close to the near surface air temperature observations when the landscape is well watered under full vegetation cover. More robust soil and vegetation temperature estimates will improve estimates of soil evaporation and vegetation transpiration, leading to more reliable the monitoring of crop

  8. An Effort to Map and Monitor Baldcypress Forest Areas in Coastal Louisiana, Using Landsat, MODIS, and ASTER Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Sader, Steve; Smoot, James

    2012-01-01

    This presentation discusses a collaborative project to develop, test, and demonstrate baldcypress forest mapping and monitoring products for aiding forest conservation and restoration in coastal Louisiana. Low lying coastal forests in the region are being negatively impacted by multiple factors, including subsidence, salt water intrusion, sea level rise, persistent flooding, hydrologic modification, annual insect-induced forest defoliation, timber harvesting, and conversion to urban land uses. Coastal baldcypress forests provide invaluable ecological services in terms of wildlife habitat, forest products, storm buffers, and water quality benefits. Before this project, current maps of baldcypress forest concentrations and change did not exist or were out of date. In response, this project was initiated to produce: 1) current maps showing the extent and location of baldcypress dominated forests; and 2) wetland forest change maps showing temporary and persistent disturbance and loss since the early 1970s. Project products are being developed collaboratively with multiple state and federal agencies. Products are being validated using available reference data from aerial, satellite, and field survey data. Results include Landsat TM- based classifications of baldcypress in terms of cover type and percent canopy cover. Landsat MSS data was employed to compute a circa 1972 classification of swamp and bottomland hardwood forest types. Landsat data for 1972-2010 was used to compute wetland forest change products. MODIS-based change products were applied to view and assess insect-induced swamp forest defoliation. MODIS, Landsat, and ASTER satellite data products were used to help assess hurricane and flood impacts to coastal wetland forests in the region.

  9. Application of MODIS-ASTER (MASTER) simulator data to geological mapping of young volcanic regions in Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmochowski, Jane Ellen

    Visible, near infrared, short-wave infrared, and thermal infrared multi-channel remote sensing data, MODIS-ASTER (MASTER), are used to extract geologic information from two volcanic regions in Baja California, Mexico: Tres Virgenes-La Reforma Volcanic Region and the volcanic island of Isla San Luis. The visible and near infrared and short-wave infrared data were atmospherically corrected and classified. The resulting classification roughly delineates surfaces that vary in their secondary minerals. Attempts to identify these minerals using ENVI's Spectral Analyst(TM) were moderately successful. The analysis of the thermal infrared data utilizes the shift to longer wavelengths in the Reststrahlen band as the mineralogy changes from felsic to mafic to translate the data into values of weight percent SiO2. The results indicate that the general approach tends to underestimate the weight percent SiO2 in the image. This discrepancy is removed with a "site calibration," which provides good results in the calculated weight percent SiO2 with errors of a few percent. However, errors become larger with rugged topography or low solar angle at the time of image acquisition. Analysis of bathymetric data around Isla San Luis, and consideration of the island's alignment with the Ballenas transform fault zone to the south and volcanic seamounts nearby, suggest Isla San Luis is potentially volcanically active and could be the product of a "leaky" transform fault. The results from the image analysis in the Tres Virgenes-La Reforma Volcanic Region show the La Reforma and El Aguajito volcanic centers to be bimodal in composition and verify the most recent volcanism in the Tres Virgenes region to be basaltic-andesite. The results of fieldwork and image analysis indicate that the volcanic products of the central dome of La Reforma are likely a sequence of welded ash flow tuffs and lavas of varied composition, evidence of its origin as a caldera.

  10. Using the British National Collection of Asters to Compare the Attractiveness of 228 Varieties to Flower-Visiting Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbuzov, Mihail; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2015-06-01

    Wildlife-friendly gardening practices can help conserve biodiversity in urban areas. These include growing ornamental plant varieties attractive to flower-visiting insects. Because varieties vary greatly in attractiveness, there is a need to quantify it in order to give objective advice to gardeners. Here, we used the British national collection of asters to compare the attractiveness of varieties to flower-visiting insects. We counted and identified insects as they foraged on flowers in 228 varieties growing in discrete patches that flowered during the survey period, 14 September-20 October 2012. In each variety, we also determined the overall capitulum size, the central disc floret area, and the ray floret color (blue, red, purple, or white). We also scored attributes relevant to gardening: attractiveness to humans, ease of cultivation, and availability in the United Kingdom. There was great variation among varieties in their attractiveness to insects, ranging from 0.0 to 15.2 per count per square meter, and highly skewed, with most being unattractive. A similar skew held for the two main insect categories, honey bees and hover flies, which comprised 28 and 64% of all insects, respectively. None of the floral traits or attributes relevant to gardening correlated significantly with attractiveness to insects. Our study shows the practicality of using a national collection for quantifying and comparing the attractiveness of ornamental varieties to flower-visiting insects. These results imply that choosing varieties carefully is likely to be of conservation benefit to flower-visiting insects, and that doing so is a no-cost option in terms of garden beauty and workload. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. NASA and U.S. Geological Survey Long-Term Archive for the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, M.; Meyer, D. F.

    2013-12-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is a 14-channel optical imaging instrument on NASA's Terra spacecraft. ASTER is a joint project between Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry; and U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Since its launch in December, 1999, ASTER has acquired over 2.4 million multispectral images. The Level 0 data are sent to Japan by NASA, where they are processed to Level 1A (reconstructed, unprocessed instrument data with geometric and radiometric parameters attached). A copy of the L1A data is sent to the U.S. to the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LPDAAC), operated for NASA by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at the EROS Center. The joint US/Japan ASTER Science Team (AST) has provided algorithms to produce 14 Level 1, Level 2, and Level 3 products. The duplicate data distribution systems in Japan and the U.S. create these products 'on-demand' as users submit data requests. Only the L0 and L1A data are archived. After the termination of the mission, the USGS has the responsibility for creating, managing and distributing ASTER data products from a Long-Term Archive (LTA). In cooperation with the LPDAAC, the U.S. AST discussed various scenarios on how the LTA should operate. The two leading plans considered were: (1) duplicating the 'on-demand' system, fulfilling user requests as they arrived; this would require a high level of technical support for algorithm/software maintenance, user services to answer questions, hardware maintenance, and in general, was quite labor-intensive; (2) creating a static archive of all of the data products for every one of the L1A image granules; the LPDAAC would produce each of the 14 higher level data products from every L1A image currently archived. Users would order data products from this greatly expanded archive, with little human intervention. In both cases, complete documentation would be available to users, detailing the

  12. Elevation validation and geomorphic metric comparison with focus on ASTER GDEM2, SRTM- C, ALOS World 3D, and TanDEM-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purinton, Benjamin; Bookhagen, Bodo

    2017-04-01

    Geomorphologists use digital elevation models (DEMs) to quantify changes in topography - often without rigorous accuracy assessments. In this study we validate and compare elevation accuracy and derived geomorphic metrics from the current generation of satellite-derived DEMs on the southern Central Andean Plateau. The average elevation of 3.7 km, diverse topography and relief, lack of vegetation, and clear skies create ideal conditions for remote sensing in this study area. DEMs at resolutions of 5-30 m are sourced from open-access, research agreement, and commercial outlets, with a focus on the 30 m SRTM-C, 30 m ASTER GDEM2, 12 m TanDEM-X, and 5 m ALOS World 3D data. In addition to these edited products, manually generated DEMs included 10 m single-CoSSC TerraSAR-X / TanDEM-X DEMs and a 30 m stacked ASTER L1A stereopair DEM. We assessed vertical accuracy by comparing standard deviations (SD) of the DEM elevation versus 307,509 differential GPS (dGPS) measurements with < 0.5 m vertical accuracy, acquired across 4,000 m of elevation. Vertical SD was 3.33 m, 9.48 m, 6.93 m, 1.97 m, 2.02-3.83 m, and 1.64 m for the 30 m SRTM-C, 30 m ASTER GDEM2, 30 m stacked ASTER, 12 m TanDEM-X, 10 m single-CoSSC TerraSAR-X / TanDEM-X DEMs, and 5 m ALOS World 3D, respectively. Analysis of vertical uncertainty with respect to terrain elevation, slope, and aspect revealed the high performance across these attributes of the 30 m SRTM-C, 12 m TanDEM-X, and 5 m ALOS World 3D DEMs. The 10 m single-CoSSC TerraSAR-X / TanDEM-X DEMs and the 30 m ASTER GDEM2 displayed slight aspect biases, which were removed in their stacked counterparts (TanDEM-X and the stacked ASTER DEMs). We selected the high quality 30 m SRTM-C, 12 m TanDEM-X, and 5 m ALOS World 3D for geomorphic metric comparison in a 66 sqkm catchment with a clear river knickpoint. For trunk channel profiles analyzed with chi plots, consistent m/n values of 0.49-0.57 were found regardless of DEM resolution or SD. Hillslopes were analyzed

  13. Description and validation of an automated methodology for mapping mineralogy, vegetation, and hydrothermal alteration type from ASTER satellite imagery with examples from the San Juan Mountains, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of airborne spectroscopic, or "hyperspectral," remote sensing for geoenvironmental watershed evaluations and deposit-scale mapping of exposed mineral deposits has been demonstrated. However, the acquisition, processing, and analysis of such airborne data at regional and national scales can be time and cost prohibitive. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor carried by the NASA Earth Observing System Terra satellite was designed for mineral mapping and the acquired data can be efficiently used to generate uniform mineral maps over very large areas. Multispectral remote sensing data acquired by the ASTER sensor were analyzed to identify and map minerals, mineral groups, hydrothermal alteration types, and vegetation groups in the western San Juan Mountains, Colorado, including the Silverton and Lake City calderas. This mapping was performed in support of multidisciplinary studies involving the predictive modeling of surface water geochemistry at watershed and regional scales. Detailed maps of minerals, vegetation groups, and water were produced from an ASTER scene using spectroscopic, expert system-based analysis techniques which have been previously described. New methodologies are presented for the modeling of hydrothermal alteration type based on the Boolean combination of the detailed mineral maps, and for the entirely automated mapping of alteration types, mineral groups, and green vegetation. Results of these methodologies are compared with the more detailed maps and with previously published mineral mapping results derived from analysis of high-resolution spectroscopic data acquired by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) sensor. Such comparisons are also presented for other mineralized and (or) altered areas including the Goldfield and Cuprite mining districts, Nevada and the central Marysvale volcanic field, Wah Wah Mountains, and San Francisco Mountains, Utah. The automated

  14. Terrain Classification of Aster gDEM for Seismic Microzonation of Port-Au Haiti, Using - and - Based Analytic Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, A.; Hough, S. E.; Cox, B. R.; Rathje, E. M.; Bachhuber, J.; Hulslander, D.; Christiansen, L.; Abrams, M.

    2010-12-01

    The aftermath of the M7.0 Haiti earthquake of 12 January 2010 witnessed an impressive scientific response from the international community. In addition to conventional post-earthquake investigations, there was also an unprecedented reliance on remote-sensing technologies for scientific investigation and damage assessment. These technologies include sensors from both aerial and space-borne observational platforms. As part of the Haiti earthquake response and recovery effort, we develop a seismic zonation map of Port-au-Prince based on high-resolution satellite imagery as well as data from traditional seismographic monitoring stations and geotechnical site characterizations. Our imagery consists of a global digital elevation model (gDEM) of Hispaniola derived from data recorded by NASA-JPL's Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument onboard the multi-platform satellite Terra. To develop our model we also consider recorded waveforms from portable seismographic stations (Hough et al., in review) and 36 geotechnical shear-wave velocity surveys (Cox et al., in review). Following a similar approach developed by Yong et al. (2008; Bull. Seism Soc. Am.), we use both pixel- and object- based imaging analytic methods to systematically identify and extract local terrain features that are expected to amplify seismic ground motion. Using histogram-stretching techniques applied to the rDEM values, followed by multi-resolution, segmentations of the imagery into terrain types, we systematically classify the terrains of Hispaniola. By associating available Vs30 (average shear-wave velocity in the upper 30 meter depth) calculated from the MASW (Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Wave) survey method, we develop a first-order site characterization map. Our results indicate that the terrain-based Vs30 estimates are significantly associated with amplitudes recorded at station sites. We also find that the damage distribution inferred from UNOSAT

  15. Preliminary development plan of the ALR, the laser rangefinder for the ASTER deep space mission to the 2001 SN263 asteroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gil Vicente de Brum

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian deep space mission ASTER, as temporarily named, plans to send a small spacecraft to encounter and investigate the triple asteroid 2001-SN263. The launch is scheduled (initially to occur in 2015, arriving in 2018. The main motivation of the mission is the development of technology and expertise to leverage the national space sector. Within the scientific goals, the investigation of the still unknown asteroid 2001-SN263. The main project guideline is to aggregate the widest possible Brazilian involvement in the platform, the development and operation of subsystems, integration, payload, as well as in the tracking, navigation, guidance and control of the probe. To meet this guideline, among others, the decision for the development of a laser altimeter in Brazil to fly in the mission was taken. This effort is currently coordinated by a group of researchers from the aerospace engineering personnel of UFABC. This article presents the preliminary development plan for the design of this instrument, which was called ALR (ASTER Laser Rangefinder.

  16. New form of China aster (Callistephus chinensis (L. Nees. Structure and biology of ray florets with open tubular corollas (type RO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Wosińska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A radiomutant of China aster with a new type of head and new type of ray florets was described. All florets in the head were bisexual and tubular although dimorphic - they varied in size and colour. The place of ray florets in the head was taken by bisexual open tubular florets which were often crowned with irregular teeth. Disc florets were short and parchment-like. In both types of florets the following were compared: number and size of stamens, vitality of pollen and floret fertility. A number of teeth (lobes in the corolIas of disc florets was also determined. Attention was also paid to the frequently observed anomalies and in particular to stamen displation. The problem is discussed of whether the obtained form resulted from mutation of disc florets with the simultaneous mutation of factors determining the so far unknown in China aster the head type without the whorl ofray florets or whether it was a mutation of ray flowers (corolla type and androecium formation. The author presents the opinion that the form resulted from the mutation ligulate of ray florets to the type of florets described above.

  17. Development of a Model for Estimation of Acacia Senegal Tree Biomass Using Allometry and Aster Satellite Imagery at Ennuhud, West Kordofan State, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elamin, Hatim; Elnour Adam, Hassan; Csaplovics, Elmar

    The current paper deals with the development of a biomass model for Acacia senegal trees by applying allometric equations for ground data combined with ASTER satellite data sets. The current study is conducted around Ennuhud area which is located in Ennuhud locality in West Kordofan State, Sudan. Primary data are obtained by application of random sampling around Ennuhud town where Acacia senegal tree species is abundant. Ten sample units are taken. Each unit contains five sample plots (15x15 m), one in the centre and the others in the four directions 100 m away from the centre forming a total of 50 sample plots. The tree coordinates, diameter/diameters (diameter at breast height ≥ 5 cm), height and crown diameters will be recorded. Sensor data were acquired from ASTER remote sensing satellite (29.03.2007 & 26.01.2011) and integrated with the in-situ data. The expected findings allow for the calculation of the mean diameter of trees. The tree above ground biomass (TAGB), tree below ground biomass (TBGB) and the tree total biomass (TTB) of Acacia senegal are computed consequently. Remotely sensed data are integrated with the ground data for creating the data base for calculating the correlation of the relationship between the two methods of data collection. The application of allometric equations is useful as a non-destructive method for biomass estimation by the application of remote sensing is recommended for biomass modelling over large areas. Keywords: Biomass model, Acacia senegal tree, remote sensing, Ennuhud, North Kordofan

  18. Landsat maps (phase V, deliverable 60), ASTER maps (phase V, deliverable 62), ASTER_DEM maps (phase V, deliverable 63), and spectral remote sensing in support of PRISM-II mineral resource assessment project, Islamic Republic of Mauritania (phase V, deliverables 61 and 64): Chapter E in Second projet de renforcement institutionnel du secteur minier de la République Islamique de Mauritanie (PRISM-II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.; Knepper, Daniel H.; Horton, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Multispectral satellite data acquired by the Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM), Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensors were processed and interpreted in support of the PRISM-II project (Second Projet de Renforcement Institutionnel du Secteur Minier de la Republique Islamique de Mauritanie). This report and accompanying maps constitute project deliverables 60–64. All digital data for use in Geographic Information System (GIS) and image processing software will be included in the GIS deliverable 92. Image maps in PDF format of the processed Landsat and ASTER scenes are referenced in the appendixes.

  19. Combining ASTER multispectral imagery analysis and support vector machines for rapid and cost-effective post-fire assessment: a case study from the Greek wildland fires of 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Petropoulos

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing is increasingly being used as a cost-effective and practical solution for the rapid evaluation of impacts from wildland fires. The present study investigates the use of the support vector machine (SVM classification method with multispectral data from the Advanced Spectral Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER for obtaining a rapid and cost effective post-fire assessment in a Mediterranean setting. A further objective is to perform a detailed intercomparison of available burnt area datasets for one of the most catastrophic forest fire events that occurred near the Greek capital during the summer of 2007. For this purpose, two ASTER scenes were acquired, one before and one closely after the fire episode. Cartography of the burnt area was obtained by classifying each multi-band ASTER image into a number of discrete classes using the SVM classifier supported by land use/cover information from the CORINE 2000 land nomenclature. Overall verification of the derived thematic maps based on the classification statistics yielded results with a mean overall accuracy of 94.6% and a mean Kappa coefficient of 0.93. In addition, the burnt area estimate derived from the post-fire ASTER image was found to have an average difference of 9.63% from those reported by other operationally-offered burnt area datasets available for the test region.

  20. Two rare halophyte species: Aster tripolium L. and Plantago maritima L. on the Baltic coast in Poland – their resources, distribution and implications for conservation management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarus Magdalena

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of geobotanical studies on the distribution and resources of Aster tripolium L. and Plantago maritima L, two rare halophytes in Poland. The research was conducted in northern Poland, along the Baltic coast in 2013. The present distribution of the two species was compared with historical data and general trends of and threats to these two species were examined. In total, 33 sites of A. tripolium and 18 of P. maritima were found in the research area. The resources of both species have been perceptibly depleting during last 150 years, which is mostly due to human agencies (e.g. habitat devastation caused by growing urban areas and the change in management and/or habitat condition. In order to preserve both species, it may be necessary to start an ex situ conservation program.

  1. Study of the structural changes in the Popocatepetl volcano in Mexico related to microseismicity by applying the lineament analysis to the Aster (Terra) satellite data

    CERN Document Server

    Arellano-Baeza, A A; Trejo-Soto, M

    2007-01-01

    Mexico is one of the most volcanically active regions in North America. Volcanic activity in central Mexico is associated with the subduction of the Cocos and Rivera plates beneath the North American plate. Periods of enhanced microseismic activity, associated with the volcanic activity of the Popocatepetl volcano is compared with periods, during which the microseismic activity was low. We detected systematical changes in the number of lineaments, associated with the microseismic activity due to lineament analysis of a temporal sequence of high resolution satellite images of the Popocatepetl volcano, provided by the ASTER/VNIR instrument. The Lineament Extraction and Stripes Statistic Analysis (LESSA) software package was used for the lineament extraction. In the future it would allow develop a methodology for detection of possible elevation of pressure in volcano edifice.

  2. Hydrothermal alteration maps of the central and southern Basin and Range province of the United States compiled from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operator algorithms were used to map hydrothermally altered rocks in the central and southern parts of the Basin and Range province of the United States. The hydrothermally altered rocks mapped in this study include (1) hydrothermal silica-rich rocks (hydrous quartz, chalcedony, opal, and amorphous silica), (2) propylitic rocks (calcite-dolomite and epidote-chlorite mapped as separate mineral groups), (3) argillic rocks (alunite-pyrophyllite-kaolinite), and (4) phyllic rocks (sericite-muscovite). A series of hydrothermal alteration maps, which identify the potential locations of hydrothermal silica-rich, propylitic, argillic, and phyllic rocks on Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) band 7 orthorectified images, and geographic information systems shape files of hydrothermal alteration units are provided in this study.

  3. Slope adjustment of runoff curve number (CN) using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) for Kuantan River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Abolghasem

    2015-10-01

    The Natural Resources Conservation Service Curve Number (NRCS-CN) method is widely used for predicting direct runoff from rainfall. It employs the hydrologic soil groups and landuse information along with period soil moisture conditions to derive NRCS-CN. This method has been well documented and available in popular rainfall-runoff models such as HEC-HMS, SWAT, SWMM and many more. The Sharply-Williams and Hank methods was used to adjust CN values provided in standard table of TR-55. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) is used to derive slope map with spatial resolution of 30 m for Kuantan River Basin (KRB). The two investigated method stretches the conventional CN domain to the lower values. The study shows a successful application of remote sensing data and GIS tools in hydrological studies. The result of this work can be used for rainfall-runoff simulation and flood modeling in KRB.

  4. Cost effectiveness of endosonography versus surgical staging in potentially resectable lung cancer: a health economics analysis of the ASTER trial from a European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rintoul, Robert C; Glover, Matthew J; Jackson, Christopher; Hughes, Victoria; Tournoy, Kurt G; Dooms, Christophe; Annema, Jouke T; Sharples, Linda D

    2014-07-01

    In the ASTER study, mediastinal staging was more accurate for patients randomised to combined endobronchial and endoscopic ultrasound, followed by surgical staging if endoscopy was negative, versus surgical staging alone. Here, we report survival, quality of life and cost effectiveness up to 6 months, for the UK, The Netherlands and Belgium, separately. Survival in the two arms of the study was similar. In all three countries, the endosonography strategy had slightly higher quality-adjusted life years over 6 months, and was cheaper. Therefore, based on clinical accuracy and cost effectiveness, we conclude that mediastinal staging should commence with endosonography. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Use of heteroduplex mobility assay for identification and differentiation of phytoplasmas in the aster yellows group and the clover proliferation group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K; Hiruki, C

    2001-06-01

    ABSTRACT This paper describes the identification and differentiation of phytoplasmas by a highly sensitive diagnostic technique, DNA heteroduplex mobility assay (HMA). Closely related phytoplasma isolates of clover proliferation (CP), potato witches'-broom (PWB), and alfalfa witches'-broom (AWB) were collected from the field from 1990 to 1999. The entire 16S rRNA gene and 16/23S spacer region were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from the field samples and standard CP, PWB, and AWB phytoplasmas and were subjected to restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and HMA. Two subgroups (I and II) of phytoplasmas in the CP group were identified by HMA but not by RFLP analysis. The results were confirmed by 16/23S spacer region sequence data analysis. After HMA analyses of the PCR-amplified 16/23S spacer region, 14 phytoplasma isolates from field samples were classified into two aster yellows subgroups: subgroup I, phytoplasma isolates from China aster (Callistephus chinensis) yellows, French marigold (Tagetes patula) yellows, cosmos (Cosmos bipinnatus cv. Dazzler) yellows, clarkia (Clarkia unguiculata) yellows, California poppy (Eschscholzia californica cv. Tai Silk) yellows, monarda (Monarda fistulosa) yellows, and strawflower (Helichrysum bracteatum) yellows; and subgroup II, phytoplasma isolates from zinnia (Zinnia elegans cv. Dahlia Flower) yellows, Queen-Annes-Lace (Daucus carota) yellows, scabiosa (Scabiosa atropurpurea cv. Giant Imperial) yellows, Swan River daisy (Brachycombe multifida cv. Misty Pink) yellows, pot marigold (Calendula officinalis) yellows, purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea) yellows, and feverfew (Chrysanthemum parthenium) yellows. The results indicate that HMA is a simple, rapid, highly sensitive and accurate method not only for identifying and classifying phytoplasmas but also for studying the molecular epidemiology of phytoplasmas.

  6. Combining ASTER multispectral imagery analysis and support vector machines for rapid and cost-effective post-fire assessment: a case study from the Greek wildland fires of 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Petropoulos, G. P.; Knorr, W.; Scholze, M.; Boschetti, L.; Karantounias, G.

    2010-01-01

    Remote sensing is increasingly being used as a cost-effective and practical solution for the rapid evaluation of impacts from wildland fires. The present study investigates the use of the support vector machine (SVM) classification method with multispectral data from the Advanced Spectral Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) for obtaining a rapid and cost effective post-fire assessment in a Mediterranean setting. A further objective is to perform a detailed intercomparison of available ...

  7. Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration ameliorates effects of NaCl salinity on photosynthesis and leaf structure of Aster tripolium L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, Nicole; Hussin, Sayed; Koyro, Hans-Werner

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the interaction of NaCl-salinity and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration on gas exchange, leaf pigment composition, and leaf ultrastructure of the potential cash crop halophyte Aster tripolium. The plants were irrigated with five different salinity levels (0, 25, 50, 75, 100% seawater salinity) under ambient and elevated (520 ppm) CO2. Under saline conditions (ambient CO2) stomatal and mesophyll resistance increased, leading to a significant decrease in photosynthesis and water use efficiency (WUE) and to an increase in oxidative stress. The latter was indicated by dilations of the thylakoid membranes and an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Oxidative stress could be counteracted by thicker epidermal cell walls of the leaves, a thicker cuticle, a reduced chlorophyll content, an increase in the chlorophyll a/b ratio and a transient decline of the photosynthetic efficiency. Elevated CO2 led to a significant increase in photosynthesis and WUE. The improved water and energy supply was used to increase the investment in mechanisms reducing water loss and oxidative stress (thicker cell walls and cuticles, a higher chlorophyll and carotenoid content, higher SOD activity), resulting in more intact thylakoids. As these mechanisms can improve survival under salinity, A. tripolium seems to be a promising cash crop halophyte which can help in desalinizing and reclaiming degraded land. PMID:19036838

  8. The Extract of Aster Koraiensis Prevents Retinal Pericyte Apoptosis in Diabetic Rats and Its Active Compound, Chlorogenic Acid Inhibits AGE Formation and AGE/RAGE Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghyun Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Retinal capillary cell loss is a hallmark of early diabetic retinal changes. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs are believed to contribute to retinal microvascular cell loss in diabetic retinopathy. In this study, the protective effects of Aster koraiensis extract (AKE against damage to retinal vascular cells were investigated in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. To examine this issue further, AGE accumulation, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS were investigated using retinal trypsin digests from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In the diabetic rats, TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling-positive retinal microvascular cells were markedly increased. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that AGEs were accumulated within the retinal microvascular cells, and this accumulation paralleled the activation of NF-κB and the expression of iNOS in the diabetic rats. However, AKE prevented retinal microvascular cell apoptosis through the inhibition of AGE accumulation and NF-κB activation. Moreover, to determine the active compounds of AKE, two major compounds, chlorogenic acid and 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, were tested in an in vitro assay. Among these compounds, chlorogenic acid significantly reduced AGE formation as well as AGE/RAGE (receptor for AGEs binding activity. These results suggest that AKE, particularly chlorogenic acid, is useful in inhibiting AGE accumulation in retinal vessels and exerts a preventive effect against the injuries of diabetic retinal vascular cells.

  9. Principle and geomorphological applicability of summit level and base level technique using Aster Gdem satellite-derived data and the original software Baz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihisa Motoki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents principle and geomorphological applicability of summit level technique using Aster Gdem satellite-derived topographicdata. Summit level corresponds to thevirtualtopographic surface constituted bylocalhighest points, such as peaks and plateau tops, and reconstitutes palaeo-geomorphology before the drainage erosion. Summit level map is efficient for reconstitution of palaeo-surfaces and detection of active tectonic movement. Base level is thevirtualsurface composed oflocallowest points, as valley bottoms. The difference between summit level and base level is called relief amount. Thesevirtualmapsareconstructed by theoriginalsoftwareBaz. Themacroconcavity index, MCI, is calculated from summit level and relief amount maps. The volume-normalised three-dimensional concavity index, TCI, is calculated from hypsometric diagram. The massifs with high erosive resistance tend to have convex general form and low MCI and TCI. Those with low resistance have concave form and high MCI and TCI. The diagram of TCI vs. MCI permits to distinguish erosive characteristics of massifs according to their constituent rocks. The base level map for ocean bottom detects the basement tectonic uplift which occurred before the formation of the volcanic seamounts.

  10. Comparison of Landsat-8, ASTER and Sentinel 1 satellite remote sensing data in automatic lineaments extraction: A case study of Sidi Flah-Bouskour inlier, Moroccan Anti Atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiri, Zakaria; El Harti, Abderrazak; Jellouli, Amine; Lhissou, Rachid; Maacha, Lhou; Azmi, Mohamed; Zouhair, Mohamed; Bachaoui, El Mostafa

    2017-12-01

    Certainly, lineament mapping occupies an important place in several studies, including geology, hydrogeology and topography etc. With the help of remote sensing techniques, lineaments can be better identified due to strong advances in used data and methods. This allowed exceeding the usual classical procedures and achieving more precise results. The aim of this work is the comparison of ASTER, Landsat-8 and Sentinel 1 data sensors in automatic lineament extraction. In addition to image data, the followed approach includes the use of the pre-existing geological map, the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) as well as the ground truth. Through a fully automatic approach consisting of a combination of edge detection algorithm and line-linking algorithm, we have found the optimal parameters for automatic lineament extraction in the study area. Thereafter, the comparison and the validation of the obtained results showed that the Sentinel 1 data are more efficient in restitution of lineaments. This indicates the performance of the radar data compared to those optical in this kind of study.

  11. Application of fractal modeling and PCA method for hydrothermal alteration mapping in the Saveh area (Central Iran based on ASTER multispectral data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Ahmadfaraj

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is determination and separation of alteration zones using Concentration-Area (C-A fractal model based on remote sensing data which has been extracted from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER images. The studied area is on the SW part of Saveh, 1:250,000 geological map, which is located in Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic belt, Central Iran. The pixel values were computed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA method used to determine phyllic, argillic, and propylitic alteration zones. The C-A fractal model is utilized for separation of different parts of alteration zones due to their intensity. The log-log C-A plots reveal multifractal nature for phyllic, argillic, and propylitic alteration zones. The obtained results based on fractal model show that the main trend of the alteration zones is in NW-SE direction. Compared to the geological map of the study area and copper mineralizations, the alteration zones have been detected properly and correlate with the mineral occurrences, intrusive rock, and faults.

  12. Caffeoylquinic Acid-Rich Extract of Aster glehni F. Schmidt Ameliorates Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver through the Regulation of PPARδ and Adiponectin in ApoE KO Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Jik Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aster glehni is well known for its therapeutic properties. This study was performed to investigate the effects of A. glehni on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in atherosclerotic condition, by determining the levels of biomarkers related to lipid metabolism and inflammation in serum, liver, and adipose tissue. Body and abdominal adipose tissue weights and serum triglyceride level decreased in all groups treated with A. glehni. Serum adiponectin concentration and protein levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ, 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, superoxide dismutase, and PPARγ coactivator 1-alpha in liver tissues increased in the groups treated with A. glehni. Conversely, protein levels of ATP citrate lyase, fatty acid synthase, tumor necrosis factor α, and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase and the concentrations of interleukin 6 and reactive oxygen species decreased upon A. glehni. Triglyceride concentration in the liver was lower in mice treated with A. glehni than in control mice. Lipid accumulation in HepG2 and 3T3-L1 cells decreased upon A. glehni treatment; this effect was suppressed in the presence of the PPARδ antagonist, GSK0660. Our findings suggest that A. glehni extracts may ameliorate NAFLD through regulation of PPARδ, adiponectin, and the related subgenes.

  13. Identification of mineral resources in Afghanistan-Detecting and mapping resource anomalies in prioritized areas using geophysical and remote sensing (ASTER and HyMap) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    : King, Trude V. V.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Hubbard, Bernard E.; Drenth, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations (TFBSO) natural resources revitalization activities in Afghanistan (Peters and others, 2011), three new datasets have been collected, compiled, and analyzed. These data have been used to more fully evaluate the areas of interest (AOIs; fig. 1 ) where, on the basis of previous U.S.S.R. and Afghanistan studies, the opportunity for early economic development of a number of different mineral, commodity, and deposit types had been identified (Peters and others, 2007; Peters and others, 2011). The new data compilations include (1) regional magnetic and gravity data for use in the characterization of subsurface composition and structure (Sweeney and others, 2006a,b; Ashan and others, 2007; Sweeney and others, 2007; Ashan and others, 2008; Shenwary and others, 2011), (2) Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data to identify and evaluate surficial alteration patterns related to industrial minerals and other selected targets, and (3) HyMap imaging spectrometer data for characterization and mapping of surficial mineralogy (Cocks and others, 1998; Kokaly and others, 2008; Peters and others, 2011). These datasets have served as fundamental building blocks for the resource evaluation by Peters and others (2011).

  14. Self-Adaptive Gradient-Based Thresholding Method for Coal Fire Detection Using ASTER Thermal Infrared Data, Part I: Methodology and Decadal Change Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Du

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Coal fires that are induced by natural spontaneous combustion or result from human activities occurring on the surface and in underground coal seams destroy coal resources and cause serious environmental degradation. Thermal infrared image data, which directly measure surface temperature, can be an important tool to map coal fires over large areas. As the first of two parts introducing our coal fire detection method, this paper proposes a self-adaptive threshold-based approach for coal fire detection using ASTER thermal infrared data: the self-adaptive gradient-based thresholding method (SAGBT. This method is based on an assumption that the attenuation of temperature along the coal fire’s boundaries generates considerable numbers of spots with extremely high gradient values. The SAGBT method applied mathematical morphology thinning to skeletonize the potential high gradient buffers into the extremely high gradient lines, which provides a self-adaptive mechanism to generate thresholds according to the thermal spatial patterns of the images. The final threshold was defined as an average temperature value reading from the high temperature buffers (segmented by 1.0 σ from the mean and along a sequence of extremely high gradient lines (thinned from the potential high gradient buffers and segmented within the lower bounds, ranging from 0.5 σ to 1.5 σ and with an upper bound of 3.2 σ, where σ is the standard deviation, marking the coal fire areas. The SAGBT method used the basic outer boundary of the coal-bearing strata to simply exclude false alarms. The intermediate thresholds reduced the coupling with the temperature and converged by changing the potential high gradient buffers. This simple approach can be economical and accurate in identifying coal fire areas. In addition, it allows for the identification of thresholds using multiple ASTER TIR scenes in a consistent and uniform manner, and supports long-term coal fire change analyses using

  15. Exploiting Maximum Entropy method and ASTER data for assessing debris flow and debris slide susceptibility for the Giampilieri catchment (north-eastern Sicily, Italy).

    KAUST Repository

    Lombardo, Luigi

    2016-07-18

    This study aims at evaluating the performance of the Maximum Entropy method in assessing landslide susceptibility, exploiting topographic and multispectral remote sensing predictors. We selected the catchment of the Giampilieri stream, which is located in the north-eastern sector of Sicily (southern Italy), as test site. On 1/10/2009, a storm rainfall triggered in this area hundreds of debris flow/avalanche phenomena causing extensive economical damage and loss of life. Within this area a presence-only-based statistical method was applied to obtain susceptibility models capable of distinguish future activation sites of debris flow and debris slide, which where the main source failure mechanisms for flow or avalanche type propagation. The set of predictors used in this experiment comprised primary and secondary topographic attributes, derived by processing a high resolution digital elevation model, CORINE land cover data and a set of vegetation and mineral indices obtained by processing multispectral ASTER images. All the selected data sources are dated before the disaster. A spatially random partition technique was adopted for validation, generating fifty replicates for each of the two considered movement typologies in order to assess accuracy, precision and reliability of the models. The debris slide and debris flow susceptibility models produced high performances with the first type being the best fitted. The evaluation of the probability estimates around the mean value for each mapped pixel shows an inverted relation, with the most robust models corresponding to the debris flows. With respect to the role of each predictor within the modelling phase, debris flows appeared to be primarily controlled by topographic attributes whilst the debris slides were better explained by remotely sensed derived indices, particularly by the occurrence of previous wildfires across the slope. The overall excellent performances of the two models suggest promising perspectives for

  16. First-line use of contact aspiration for thrombectomy versus a stent retriever for recanalization in acute cerebral infarction: The randomized ASTER study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapergue, Bertrand; Labreuche, Julien; Blanc, Raphael; Barreau, Xavier; Berge, Jérome; Consoli, Arturo; Rodesch, Georges; Saleme, Susanna; Costalat, Vincent; Bracard, Serge; Desal, Hubert; Duhamel, Alain; Baffert, Sandrine; Mazighi, Mikael; Gory, Benjamin; Turjman, Francis; Piotin, Michel

    2018-01-01

    Rationale Mechanical thrombectomy with a stent retriever is now the standard of care in anterior circulation ischemic stroke caused by large vessel occlusion. New techniques for mechanical thrombectomy, such as contact aspiration, appear promising to increase reperfusion status and improve clinical outcome. Aim We aim at ascertaining whether contact aspiration is more efficient than the stent retriever as a first-line endovascular procedure. Sample size estimates With a two-sided test (alpha = 5%, power = 90%) and an anticipated rate of spontaneous recanalization and catheterization failures of 15%, we estimate that a sample size of 380 patients will be necessary to detect an absolute difference of 15% in primary outcome (superiority design). Methods and design The ASTER trial is a prospective, randomized, multicenter, controlled, open-label, blinded end-point clinical trial. Patients admitted with suspected ischemic anterior circulation stroke secondary to large vessel occlusion, with onset of symptoms contact aspiration or stent retriever in a 1:1 ratio; stratified by center and prior IV thrombolysis. If the assigned treatment technique is not successful after three attempts, another technique will be applied, at the operator's discretion. Study outcomes The primary outcome will be successful recanalization (modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction score 2b-3) at the end of the endovascular procedures. Secondary outcome will include successful recanalization after the assigned first-line treatment technique alone, procedural times, the need for a rescue technique, complications and modified Rankin Scale at three months. Discussion No previous head to head randomized trials have directly compared contact aspiration versus stent retriever reperfusion techniques. This prospective trial aims to provide further evidence of benefit of contact aspiration versus stent retriever techniques among patients with ischemic stroke.

  17. Protective effect of Aster tataricus extract on retinal damage on the virtue of its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect in diabetic rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hao; Zhang, Meng; Yao, Kejun; Hu, Zhitao

    2017-05-01

    Effect of Aster tataricus (AT) was estimated on the retinal injury in diabetic rats by its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Streptozotocin (STZ) was used to induce diabetes at a dose of 60mg/kg, i.p. and blood glucose was estimated to confirm the diabetic rats. All the animals were separated in to 5 different groups (n=10) such as control, diabetic retinopathy (DR) receives saline solution, and AT treated group receives AT (100, 200 and 400mg/kg) for the duration of 8 week. After treatment protocol period blood glucose and HbA1c% was estimated in the blood sample of diabetic rats. Retinal tissue was isolated for the fundus photography and retinal vessel diameter, retinal vascular permeability and leukocytosis were estimated. Moreover in the retinal tissue homogenate oxidative stress parameters such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH) and catalase (CAT) and concentration of cytokines (TNFα, IL10) was estimated. Result of the study suggested that root extract of AT contain rich amount of polyphenol in it which significantly reduces the body weight and concentration of glucose in blood in diabetic rats. Fundus photography suggested that AT extract attenuates the structure and functional abnormalities that develops due to diabetes. Retinal leukocytosis and vascular permeability was significantly decreases in AT treated group than DR group. There was significant increase in the activity of GSH, CAT and SOD in AT treated group than DR group. Moreover AT also attenuates the altered concentration of TNFα, IL10 and NF-κB in the retina of STZ induced diabetic rat. Thus present study concludes that root extract of AT effectively manages the diabetic retinopathy by controlling the blood glucose and also by attenuating the altered oxidative stresss and inflammatory mediators such as TNFα, IL10 and NF-κB in the retina of STZ induced diabetic rat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Preliminary results for a semi-automated quantification of site effects using geomorphometry and ASTER satellite data for Mozambique, Pakistan and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Alan; Hough, Susan E.; Abrams, Michael J.; Wills, Christopher J.

    2008-11-01

    Estimation of the degree of local seismic wave amplification (site effects) requires precise information about the local site conditions. In many regions of the world, local geologic information is either sparse or is not readily available. Because of this, seismic hazard maps for countries such as Mozambique, Pakistan and Turkey are developed without consideration of site factors and, therefore, do not provide a complete assessment of future hazards. Where local geologic information is available, details on the traditional maps often lack the precision (better than 1:10,000 scale) or the level of information required for modern seismic microzonation requirements. We use high-resolution (1:50,000) satellite imagery and newly developed image analysis methods to begin addressing this problem. Our imagery, consisting of optical data and digital elevation models (DEMs), is recorded from the ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) sensor system. We apply a semi-automated, object-oriented, multi-resolution feature segmentation method to identify and extract local terrain features. Then we classify the terrain types into mountain, piedmont and basin units using geomorphometry (topographic slope) as our parameter. Next, on the basis of the site classification schemes from the Wills and Silva (1998) study and the Wills et al (2000) and Wills and Clahan (2006) maps of California, we assign the local terrain units with V s 30 (the average seismic shear-wave velocity through the upper 30m of the subsurface) ranges for selected regions in Mozambique, Pakistan and Turkey. We find that the applicability of our site class assignments in each region is a good first-approximation for quantifying local site conditions and that additional work, such as the verification of the terrain’s compositional rigidity, is needed.

  19. Investigation of the fluid-structure interaction of a high head Francis turbine using OpenFOAM and Code_Aster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, M.; Doujak, E.; Waldner, L.

    2016-11-01

    The increasing energy consumption and highly stressed power grids influence the operating conditions of turbines and pump turbines in the present situation. To provide or use energy as quick as possible, hydraulic turbines are operated more frequent and over longer periods of time in lower part load at off-design conditions. This leads to a more turbulent behavior and to higher requirements of the strength of stressed components (e.g. runner, guide or stay vanes). The modern advantages of computational capabilities regarding numerical investigations allow a precise prediction of appearing flow conditions and thereby induced strains in hydraulic machines. This paper focuses on the calculation of the unsteady pressure field of a high head Francis turbine with a specific speed of nq ≈ 24 min-1 and its impact on the structure at different operating conditions. In the first step, unsteady numerical flow simulations are performed with the open-source CFD software OpenFOAM. To obtain the appearing dynamic flow phenomena, the entire machine, consisting of the spiral casing, the stay vanes, the wicket gate, the runner and the draft tube, is taken into account. Additionally, a reduced model without the spiral casing and with a simplified inlet boundary is used. To evaluate the accuracy of the CFD simulations, operating parameters such as head and torque are compared with the results of site measurements carried out on the corresponding prototype machine. In the second part, the obtained pressure fields are used for a fluid-structure analysis with the open-source Finite Element software Code_Aster, to predict the static loads on the runner.

  20. Mineral and Vegetation Maps of the Bodie Hills, Sweetwater Mountains, and Wassuk Range, California/Nevada, Generated from ASTER Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.

    2010-01-01

    Multispectral remote sensing data acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) were analyzed to identify and map minerals, vegetation groups, and volatiles (water and snow) in support of geologic studies of the Bodie Hills, Sweetwater Mountains, and Wassuk Range, California/Nevada. Digital mineral and vegetation mapping results are presented in both portable document format (PDF) and ERDAS Imagine format (.img). The ERDAS-format files are suitable for integration with other geospatial data in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) such as ArcGIS. The ERDAS files showing occurrence of 1) iron-bearing minerals, vegetation, and water, and 2) clay, sulfate, mica, carbonate, Mg-OH, and hydrous quartz minerals have been attributed according to identified material, so that the material detected in a pixel can be queried with the interactive attribute identification tools of GIS and image processing software packages (for example, the Identify Tool of ArcMap and the Inquire Cursor Tool of ERDAS Imagine). All raster data have been orthorectified to the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection using a projective transform with ground-control points selected from orthorectified Landsat Thematic Mapper data and a digital elevation model from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Elevation Dataset (1/3 arc second, 10 m resolution). Metadata compliant with Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) standards for all ERDAS-format files have been included, and contain important information regarding geographic coordinate systems, attributes, and cross-references. Documentation regarding spectral analysis methodologies employed to make the maps is included in these cross-references.

  1. Louisiana Air Quality - Using ASTER, Landsat 5, and MODIS to Assess the Impact of Sugar Cane and Marsh Burning Practices on Local Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Robert; Reahard, Ross; Robin, Chad; Zeringue, Jared

    2010-01-01

    Biomass burning is an event that occurs globally and encompasses both human-initiated and naturally-occurring fires. It is estimated that 3 billion metric tons of biomass are burned every year worldwide (Curtis 2002). Societies have used these burning techniques for cooking and heating, clearing land for agricultural use, and removing excess biomass from grazing and croplands (Levine 1991). Our study focuses on the state of Louisiana and its commonly occurring methods of sugarcane and marsh biomass burning (LSU Ag.Center 2000; Nyman and Chabreck 1995). Over the centuries, the sugarcane industry in this state has steadily grown to surpass all other agriculture commodities. To promote efficiency within this large industry, burning excess biomass takes place throughout the harvesting period (LSU Ag.Center 2000). In addition to sugarcane, Louisiana contains 30% of the total coastal marsh of the United States (LSU Ag.Center 2000). The periodic burning of such marshes is an ecologically important management tool that is practiced throughout the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts (Nyman and Chabreck 1995). In most biomass burning instances, the leading by-product is particulate matter that is less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10). Through past research, this fine material has been shown to have negative health effects on surrounding populations (Boopathy2001). While burning guidelines have been set into place by the Louisiana Department of Agriculture and Forestry (LDAF) to reduce health effects, the guidelines are voluntary (LDAF 2000). To help quantify emission estimates, we will focus on Iberia Parish for sugarcane burning and Cameron Parish for marsh burning. Through analysis of ASTER, Landsat 5 TM, and MODIS data, our goal is to determine the amount and location of land area burned for the years 2008 and 2009 due to these practices. With emissions algorithms from Seiler and Crutzen, 1980, total acreage burned can be used to estimate emissions. This information will help to

  2. The use of high-throughput small RNA sequencing reveals differentially expressed microRNAs in response to aster yellows phytoplasma-infection in Vitis vinifera cv. 'Chardonnay'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyman, Marius C; Solofoharivelo, Marie-Chrystine; Souza-Richards, Rose; Stephan, Dirk; Murray, Shane; Burger, Johan T

    2017-01-01

    during plant pathogenesis, and may be crucial in understanding disease symptom development in aster yellows phytoplasma-infected grapevines.

  3. Compositional variations revealed by ASTER image analysis of the Viedma Volcano, southern Andes Volcanic Zone Variaciones composicionales reveladas mediante análisis de imágenes ASTER del volcán Viedma, Zona Volcánica Andina Austral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiaki Kobayashi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a lithological mapping of the Viedma volcano, one of five volcanoes in the Andean Austral Volcanic Zone (AVZ, using remote sensing techniques. We used data of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER sensor which is highly effective in geological research, to understand build-up processes and to deduce compositional variation of the Viedma volcano emerging from the South Patagonian ice field. The volcanic edifice was divided into bright parts that mainly compose the eastern flank of the volcano and dark parts at the central crater area based on the observation in visible and near infrared ranges. The SiO2 concentration was cal-culated using the bands in the visible and thermal infrared regions. The dark part and the bright part have approximately 51 wt% and 63 wt% average SiO2 content respectively, indicating that the exposures of the Viedma volcano have a wide variation in SiO2 concentration. Although, according to other authors, ejecta from the Viedma volcano have 64-66 wt% SiO2 and other AV Z volcanoes are essentially monolithologic dacite/andesite volcanoes, the edifice of the Viedma volcano appears to be composed mostly of basalts or older rocks/basement with low silica contents.Mediante el uso de técnica de sensoría remota se ha desarrollado un mapeo litológico del volcán Viedma, uno de los cinco volcanes de la Zona Volcánica Andina Austral (ZVA. Para este efecto, se ha utilizado el radiómetro ‘Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection’ (ASTER que es muy efectivo en investigación geológica, para entender los procesos que han controlado la estructura y deducir las variaciones composi-cionales del volcán Viedma, que sobresale levemente de la superficie del campo de hielo Patagónico Sur. Sobre la base de la observación en el intervalo del espectro visible e infrarrojo cercano, en el edificio se distinguen partes brillantes que corresponden al flanco oriental del volcán y

  4. Regional mapping of hydrothermally altered igneous rocks along the Urumieh-Dokhtar, Chagai, and Alborz Belts of western Asia using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operators: a tool for porphyry copper exploration and assessment: Chapter O in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, John L.; Zientek, M.L.; Hammarstrom, J.M.; Johnson, K.M.; Pierce, F.W.

    2014-01-01

    Regional maps of phyllic and argillic hydrothermal alteration were compiled using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and logical operator algorithms. The area mapped extends from northwestern Iran to southeastern Pakistan and includes volcanic and magmatic arcs that make up the Urumieh-Dokhtar volcanic belt (UDVB), the Chagai volcanic belt (CVB), and the central part of the Alborz magmatic belt (AMB). The volcanic belts span the Zagros-Makran transform zone and the present day Baluchistan (Makran) volcanic arc. ASTER visible near infrared (VNIR) data contain three bands between 0.52 and 0.86 micrometers (μm) and the short-wave infrared (SWIR) data consist of six bands spanning 1.6 to 2.43 μm with 15-meter (m), and 30-m resolution, respectively.

  5. Mapping argillic and advanced argillic alteration in volcanic rocks, quartzites, and quartz arenites in the western Richfield 1° x 2 ° quadrangle, southwestern Utah, using ASTER satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.; Hofstra, Albert H.

    2012-01-01

    The Richfield quadrangle in southwestern Utah is known to contain a variety of porphyry Mo, skarn, polymetallic replacement and vein, alunite, and kaolin resources associated with 27-32 Ma calc-alkaline or 12-23 Ma bimodal volcano-plutonic centers in Neoproterozoic to Mesozoic carbonate and siliciclastic rocks. Four scenes of visible to shortwave-infrared image data acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor were analyzed to generate maps of exposed clay, sulfate, mica, and carbonate minerals, and ASTER thermal infrared data were analyzed to identify quartz and carbonate minerals. Argillic and advanced argillic alteration minerals including alunite, pyrophyllite, dickite, and kaolinite were identified in both undocumented (U) and known (K) areas, including in the southern Paradise Mtns. (U); in calc-alkaline volcanic rocks in the Wah Wah Mtns. between Broken Ridge and the NG area (U/K); at Wah Wah Summit in a small zone adjacent to 33.1 Ma diorite and marble (U); in fractures cutting quartzites surrounding the 20-22 Ma Pine Grove Mo deposit (U); in volcanic rocks in the Shauntie Hills (U/K); in quartzites in the west-central San Francisco Mtns. (U); in volcanic rocks in the Black Mtns. (K); and in mainly 12-13 Ma rhyolitic rocks along a 20 km E-W belt that includes the Bible Spring fault zone west of Broken Ridge, with several small centers in the Escalante Desert to the south (U/K). Argillized Navajo Sandstone with kaolinite and (or) dickite ± alunite was mapped adjacent to calc-alkaline intrusions in the Star Range (U). Intense quartz-sericite alteration (K) with local kaolinite was identified in andesite adjacent to calc-alkaline intrusions in the Beaver Lake Mountains. Mo-bearing phyllic alteration was identified in 22.2 Ma rhyolite plugs at the center of the NG alunite area. Limestones, dolomites, and marbles were differentiated, and quartz and sericite were identified in most unaltered quartzites. Halos of

  6. Determinação de elementos próprios dos asteróides troianos: comparação entre as teorias semi-analítica e sintética

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, F.; Beaugé, C.

    2003-08-01

    Além do cálculo semi-analítico de elementos próprios dos asteróides Troianos (Beaugé & Roig 2001, Icarus 153, 391), recentemente foi apresentado um novo conjunto destes elementos próprios determinado através de uma teoria sintética (Knenezevic & Milani 2003, comunicação pessoal). As bases de dados contendo estas determinações estão disponiveis na pagina web do Asteroid Dynamical Site (http://hamilton.dm.unipi.it/cgi-bin/astdys/astibo). Nesta comunicação apresentamos os primeiros resultados de um estudo comparativo entre ambos conjuntos de elementos próprios, analisando suas vantagens e desvantagens, assim como os limites de precisão de cada conjunto. Mostramos que os elementos próprios sintéticos são mais precisos que os smi-analíticos para grandes amplitudes de libração do ângulo s = l-lJup, embora acontece o contrario para os corpos cuja amplitude de libração é muito pequena. Finalmente discutimos a influencia destes erros na determinação de familias de asteroides e da estrutura resonante em torno dos pontos Lagrangeanos L4 e L5.

  7. Monitoring Urban Change with ASTER Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netzband, Maik; Schöpfer, Elisabeth; Möller, Matthias S.

    The appearance of urban areas manifested by human congregation and concentration is a phenomenon characteristic of the development of modern humankind. Historically, every ancient high culture was based on large agglomerations of people (e.g., Angkor Wat, Machu Picchu, Alexandria). Human concentration in urban areas offer a lot of advantages to those in areas with less benefits, especially rural areas. Urban areas provide economic welfare, efficient communication and transportation paths, a dense social and healthcare network, and numerous entertainment opportunities compared to remote and sparsely settled areas. Urban areas today provide home to more than 50% of the people worldwide. Urban areas display strong growth trends, especially in less-developed countries, where a rapid growth of unplanned informal settlements are evident.

  8. ASTER GLOBAL Digital Elevation Model V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The first Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite called Terra (previously AM-1) was launched on December 18, 1999. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and...

  9. ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The first Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite called Terra (previously AM-1) was launched on December 18, 1999. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and...

  10. ASTER 2002-2003 Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID):2002-2003 consists of image data gathered by three sensors. The first image data are terrain-corrected, precision...

  11. Pattern asterisms a new way to chart the stars

    CERN Document Server

    Chiravalle, John

    2006-01-01

    This book provides a learning tool to facilitate identifying patterns and stars in the sky with binoculars or at most a low-power telescope. It reflects a new aspect of astronomy that does not involve serious science - but makes it easy to learn about the night sky.

  12. SMEX02 ASTER Level 1B Data, Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is part of the Soil Moisture Experiment 2002 (SMEX02). Investigators acquired a series of Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection...

  13. Uncharted constellations asterisms, single-source and rebrands

    CERN Document Server

    Barentine, John C

    2016-01-01

    This book compiles an array of interesting constellations that fell by the wayside before the IAU established the modern canon of constellations. That decision left out lesser known ones whose history is nevertheless interesting, but at last author John Barentine is giving them their due. This book is a companion to "The Alternate Constellations", highlighting the more obscure configurations.  The 16 constellations found in this volume fall into one or more of three broad categories: asterims, such as the Big Dipper in Ursa Major; single-sourced constellations introduced on surviving charts by a cartographer perhaps currying the favor of sponsors; and re-brands, new figures meant to displace existing constellations, often for an ideological reason. All of them reveal something unique about the development of humanity's map of the sky. .

  14. Evaluation of ASTER-like daily land surface temperature by fusing ASTER and MODIS data during the HiWATER-MUSOEXE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land surface temperature (LST) is an important parameter that is highly responsive to surface energy fluxes and has become valuable to many disciplines. However, it is difficult to acquire satellite LSTs with both high spatial and temporal resolutions due to tradeoffs between them. Thus, various alg...

  15. Anti-cancer activity of Aster tataricus on SCC-9 human oral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 14, No 2 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. Spectroscopy of olivine basalts using FieldSpec and ASTER data: A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Several volcanic episodes occurred during Early- to Late-Cretaceous are recorded in the study area. Early-Cretaceous olivine basalts are highly carbonated. Late-Cretaceous eruptions took place throughout several volcanic cones aligned in NW direction. Based on FieldSpec measurements and petrographic data, two ...

  17. Modelling uncertainties in the climate of the last millennium: the ASTER project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loutre, M. F.; Mouchet, A.; Fichefet, T.; Goosse, H.; Goelzer, H.; Huybrechts, P.

    2009-04-01

    The LOVECLIM model (Driesschaert et al., 2007; Goosse et al., 2007) is used to simulate the climate of the last millennium with several ‘climate' parameter sets yielding different sensitivities of the climate and the carbon cycle model. The purpose of these simulations is twofold. We intend to assess first the role of the carbon cycle on the climate, and second, the ability of the different selected parameter sets to drive the model within the range of the observed climate, and further to assess the uncertainty related to these parameters. The high frequency variability of the forcings is taken into account. For each set of parameters, LOVECLIM is driven by the natural evolution of insolation, solar irradiance and stratospheric aerosol concentrations due to volcanic activity as well as by changes caused by human activities such as deforestation, CO2 emission or concentration changes, changes in concentrations of greenhouse gases other than CO2 (including ozone) and in sulphate aerosol load. Several transient experiments are conducted for each parameter set. A first transient simulation (Conc) is forced with reconstructed atmospheric CO2 concentration. In the next two simulations, the emissions of carbon were taken into account, the model computing the corresponding atmospheric CO2 concentration. First (EMIS), the emissions due both to the land use changes and the fossil fuel burning are provided. Second (Efor), only the emissions from fossil fuel burning are provided in addition to the vegetation change related to deforestation. The Northern Hemisphere annual mean temperatures simulated by the model according to the different parameter sets and carbon cycle sensitivities and the different experimental setups do not show striking differences compared to the NH temperature recontructions (IPCC, 2007). However, the simulated values are generally in the lower range of the reconstructions in the interval 900-1200 AD. Moreover some experiments are displaying a too large warming during the last century as well as a large variability occasionally out of the range of observation. The increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration over the last century is strongly depending on how the anthropogenic emission and the land-use scenario are taken into account. Difference in atmospheric CO2 concentration can reach up to 50 ppmv. All the parameter sets are not able to reproduce the decreasing trend of the Arctic summer sea ice as recorded over the last decades. Parameter sets corresponding to the largest climate sensitivity lead to a strong reduction of the summer sea ice. However, different scenarios for deforestation lead to significantly different time evolution of the NH Summer sea ice area for the same parameter set. The ocean C storage remains within the range of estimates when CO2 is prescribed. However, values are much larger when both fossil fuel and land cover change emission are prescribed. The deforestation emissions as computed by the model lead to intermediate cumulative CO2 fluxes to the atmosphere. Driesschaert E., Fichefet T., Goosse H., Huybrechts P., Janssens I., Mouchet A., Munhoven G., Brovkin V., and Weber S. L., 2007. Modelling the influence of Greenland ice sheet melting on the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during the next millennia. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34:L1070, 2007. Goosse H., Driesschaert E., Fichefet T., and Loutre M.F., 2007. Information on the early Holocene climate constrains the summer sea ice projections for the 21st century Clim. Past 3, 683-692. IPCC (2007). Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 996 pp.

  18. ABILITY OF ECOSAR, TOPKAT, NEURAL NETWORKS, AND ASTER TO PREDICT TOXICITY OF CHEMICALS TO AQUATIC BIOTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) which provides the basis for assessing and managing toxic substances in Canada, is being revised. Several new mandates have been introduced in the Act...

  19. Automatic identification of erosion gullies with ASTER imagery in the Brazilian Cerrados

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, A.; Rodrigues, S.C.; Bartholomeus, H.; Sterk, G.

    2007-01-01

    Gully erosion is a serious problem at many locations worldwide, but little is known about its importance at large spatial scales. The remote sensing contribution for the spatial assessment of gullies has thus far been confined to visual image interpretation. The current study was conducted to

  20. Spectroscopy of olivine basalts using FieldSpec and ASTER data: A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Visual and statistical assessment methods proved that HSV fusion image yields better image interpretability results compared to brovey image. It improves the spatial resolution of original FCC ratios image with acceptable spectral preservation. The present study proved the usefulness of Field-. Spec spectral profiles and the ...

  1. Biotic resistance via granivory: Establishment by invasive, naturalized, and native asters reflects generalist preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean E. Pearson; Ragan M. Callaway; John L. Maron

    2011-01-01

    Escape from specialist natural enemies is frequently invoked to explain exotic plant invasions, but little attention has been paid to how generalist consumers in the recipient range may influence invasion. We examined how seed preferences of the widespread generalist granivore Peromyscus maniculatus related to recruitment of the strongly invasive exotic Centaurea...

  2. Aplicação de imagens Aster para estudos territoriais no nordeste do estado do Rio Grande do Sul

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Paula Luz Wagner

    2004-01-01

    É apresentada uma nova abordagem na técnica e na avaliação de área de florestas nativas, exóticas e uso do solo do Nordeste do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, em particular no entorno da escarpa que divide os Campos de Cima da Serra e a Planície Costeira, caracterizada por apresentar espécies de Pinus elliotti Engelm var elliottiii e Pinus taeda L., Eucalyptus sp. e Araucaria angustifólia (Bert.) O. Ktze. e áreas de campo nativo. Nas últimas décadas tem se verificado avanço das florestas exótica...

  3. Disentangling the photochemical salinity tolerance in Aster tripolium L.: connecting biophysical traits with changes in fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, B; Cabrita, M T; Gameiro, C; Matos, A R; Godinho, R; Marques, J C; Caçador, I

    2017-03-01

    A profound analysis of A. tripolium photochemical traits under salinity exposure is lacking in the literature, with very few references focusing on its fatty acid profile role in photophysiology. To address this, the deep photochemical processes were evaluated by Pulse Amplitude Modulated (PAM) Fluorometry coupled with a discrimination of its leaf fatty acid profile. Plants exposed to 125-250 mm NaCl showed higher photochemical light harvesting efficiencies and lower energy dissipation rates. under higher NaCl exposure, there is evident damage of the oxygen evolving complexes (OECs). On the other hand, Reaction Centre (RC) closure net rate and density increased, improving the energy fluxes entering the PS II, in spite of the high amounts of energy dissipated and the loss of PS II antennae connectivity. Energy dissipation was mainly achieved through the auroxanthin pathway. Total fatty acid content displayed a similar trend, being also higher under 125-250 mm NaCl with high levels of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. The increase in oleic acid and palmitic acid allows the maintenance of the good functioning of the PS II. Also relevant was the high concentration of chloroplastic C16:1t in the individuals subjected to 125-250 mm NaCl, related with a higher electron transport activity and with the organization of the Light Harvesting Complexes (LHC) and thus reducing the activation of energy dissipation mechanisms. All these new insights shed some light not only on the photophysiology of this potential cash-crop, but also highlight its important saline agriculture applications of this species as forage and potential source of essential fatty acids. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  4. Using the Surface Temperature-Albedo Space to Separate Regional Soil and Vegetation Temperatures from ASTER Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil and vegetation component temperatures in non-isothermal pixels encapsulate more physical meaning and are more applicable than composite temperatures. The component temperatures however are difficult to be obtained from thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing data provided by single view angle obs...

  5. Assessing lahars from ice-capped volcanoes using ASTER satellite data, the SRTM DTM and two different flow models: case study on Iztaccíhuatl (Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Schneider

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Lahars frequently affect the slopes of ice-capped volcanoes. They can be triggered by volcano-ice interactions during eruptions but also by processes such as intense precipitation or by outbursts of glacial water bodies not directly related to eruptive activity. We use remote sensing, GIS and lahar models in combination with ground observations for an initial lahar hazard assessment on Iztaccíhuatl volcano (5230 m a.s.l., considering also possible future developments of the glaciers on the volcano. Observations of the glacial extent are important for estimations of future hazard scenarios, especially in a rapidly changing tropical glacial environment. In this study, analysis of the glaciers on Iztaccíhuatl shows a dramatic retreat during the last 150 years: the glaciated area in 2007 corresponds to only 4% of the one in 1850 AD and the glaciers are expected to survive no later than the year 2020. Most of the glacial retreat is considered to be related to climate change but in-situ observations suggest also that geo- and hydrothermal heat flow at the summit-crater area can not be ruled out, as emphasized by fumarolic activity documented in a former study. However, development of crater lakes and englacial water reservoirs are supposed to be a more realistic scenario for lahar generation than sudden ice melting by rigorous volcano-ice interaction. Model calculations show that possible outburst floods have to be larger than ~5×105 m3 or to achieve an H/L ratio (Height/runout Length of 0.2 and lower in order to reach the populated lower flanks. This threshold volume equals 2.4% melted ice of Iztaccíhuatl's total ice volume in 2007, assuming 40% water and 60% volumetric debris content of a potential lahar. The model sensitivity analysis reveals important effects of the generic type of the Digital Terrain Model (DTM used on the results. As a consequence, the predicted affected areas can vary significantly. For such hazard zonation, we therefore suggest the use of different types of DTMs and flow models, followed by a careful comparison and interpretation of the results.

  6. Self-Adaptive Gradient-Based Thresholding Method for Coal Fire Detection Using ASTER Thermal Infrared Data, Part I: Methodology and Decadal Change Detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xiaomin Du; Daiyong Cao; Deepak Mishra; Sergio Bernardes; Thomas R Jordan; Marguerite Madden

    2015-01-01

      Coal fires that are induced by natural spontaneous combustion or result from human activities occurring on the surface and in underground coal seams destroy coal resources and cause serious environmental degradation...

  7. Eficacia de un ácido kaurénico extraído de la planta venezolana Wedelia trilobata (Asterácea contra Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solanny Brito

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La leishmaniasis es un grave problema de salud pública y aun no existe un tratamiento eficaz para la enfermedad. Por esta razón, es necesario investigar nuevas alternativas terapéuticas. Objetivo. En este trabajo nos propusimos evaluar el efecto parasiticida de un ácido kaurénico (ent-kaur-16-in-19-oico aislado de la planta superior venezolana denominada Wedelia trilobata (Asteracea sobre Leishmania (V. braziliensis in vivo e in vitro. Materiales y métodos. Los estudios in vitro fueron realizados en amastigotes axénicos, promastigotes así como en macrófagos infectados y no infectados, los cuales fueron tratados con dosis entre 25-100 µg/ml del ácido kaurénico. El efecto del compuesto sobre la viabilidad celular fue evaluado utilizando el método de conteo directo en una cámara de Neubauer o hemocitómetro y por el método indirecto utilizando el método de MTT (Metil Tiazol Tetrazolium. Para el ensayo in vivo, se utilizaron ratones Balb/c infectados subcutáneamente en la almohadilla plantar con 1x106 promastigotes de Leishmania (V. braziliensis; posteriormente los ratones fueron tratados intraperitonealmente durante una semana con 30 mg del ácido kaurénico por kg de peso, en un volumen de 100 µl de etanol al 10%. Resultados. Este compuesto mostró un potente efecto parasiticida tanto sobre los amastigotes axénicos como sobre promastigotes con dosis letales 50 (DL50 de 0,25 y 0,78 µg/ml respectivamente, en 24 horas. Se observó una baja toxicidad del compuesto sobre macrófagos de la línea J774G8, con una DL50 de 25µg/ml, manteniéndose una alta viabilidad (70-92% de los mismos, y una moderada viabilidad para los macrófagos infectados (37-81% con concentraciones menores de 25µg/ml. Adicionalmente, se observó una clara reducción (70% en el tamaño de las lesiones de los ratones tratados sin efectos tóxicos aparentes. Conclusión. Los resultados obtenidos indican que este compuesto posee un potente efecto leishmanicida sobre Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis.

  8. Evaluation of the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) applied to ASTER imagery with flux-measurements at the SPARC 2004 site (Barrac, Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwast, van der J.; Timmermans, W.; Gieske, A.; Su, Z.; Olioso, A.; Jia, L.; Elbers, J.A.; Karssenberg, D.; Jong, de S.

    2009-01-01

    Accurate quantification of the amount and spatial variation of evapotranspiration is important in a wide range of disciplines. Remote sensing based surface energy balance models have been developed to estimate turbulent surface energy fluxes at different scales. The objective of this study is to

  9. Evaluation of the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) applied to ASTER imagery with flux-measurements at the SPARC 2004 site (Barrax, Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kwast, J.; Timmermans, W.; Gieske, A.; Su, Z.; Olioso, A.; Jia, L.; Elbers, J.; Karssenberg, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/241557119; de Jong, S.; de Jong, Steven|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/120221306

    2009-01-01

    Accurate quantification of the amount and spatial variation of evapotranspiration is important in a wide range of disciplines. Remote sensing based surface energy balance models have been developed to estimate turbulent surface energy fluxes at different scales. The objective of this study is to

  10. Analysis of composition and chronology of dome emplacement at Black Peak Volcano, Alaska utilizing aster remote sensing data and field-based studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Black Peak volcano is a ~3.5lcin-diameter caldera located on the Alaska Peninsula that formed ~4,600 years ago in an eruption that excavated >101cm 3 of material....

  11. Effects of water supply methods and seed moisture content on germination of China aster (Callistephus chinensis) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentun Mill.) seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badek, B.; Duijn, B. van; Grzesik, M.

    2006-01-01

    Uniform and fast germinating seeds are of prime importance for agriculture. To improve the germination properties of seeds, different treatments called priming are used. These methods generally involve the controlled uptake of water by the seeds. To be able to understand the processes involved in

  12. Gangrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aster JC. Cellular responses to stress and toxic insults. In: Kumar V, Abbas AK, Aster JC, eds. ... the first to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A. ...

  13. Coosa River Storage Annex, Talladega, Alabama. Environmental Investigation Report. Volume 2 of 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    indigo Carex barrattii sedge Carex decomposita sedge Cladrastis kentuckea yellowwood Coreopsis pulchra tickseed Croton elliottii croton Cyperus...PLANTS (9) Arenaria alabarnensis Alabama sandwort Asplenium x ebenoides Scott’s spleenwort Aster pinifoliuis aster Clematis gattingeri leatherleaf

  14. Lower Mississippi River Environmental Program. Report 10. Evaluation of Bird and Mammal Utilization of Dike Systems Along the Lower Mississippi River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    Melanerpes carolinus Red-bellied woodpecker Melanerpes erythrocephalus Red-headed woodpecker Picoides pubescens Downy woodpecker Picoides villosus Hairy ...arborea - + + + - + + + + - Ampelopsis cordata - - + + - - - - 4 - Aster lateriflorus - - + - - + - - - - Aster pilosus - + + + - - - - - - Bidens spp

  15. Metabolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar V, Abbas AK, Aster JC. Cellular responses to stress and toxic insults: adaptation, injury, and death. In: Kumar V, Abbas AK, Aster JC, eds. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  16. Hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar V, Abbas AK, Aster JC. Cellular responses to stress and toxic insults: adaptation, injury, and death. In: Kumar V, Abbas AK, Aster JC, eds. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  17. Lipofuscin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar V, Abbas AK, Aster JC. Cellular responses to stress and toxic insults: adaptation, injury, and death. In: Kumar V, Abbas AK, Aster JC, eds. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  18. Drug: D09138 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D09138 Crude ... Drug Aster root (non-JP); Aster root and rhizome; Asteris radix Triterpenoid... [CPD:C06085], Friedelin [CPD:C08626], Shionone, Triterpenoid saponin, Astersaponin, Quercetin [C

  19. Environ: E00205 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00205 Aster root (non-JP) Aster root and rhizome Asteris radix Crude drug Triterpenoid... [CPD:C06085], Friedelin [CPD:C08626], Shionone, Triterpenoid saponin, Astersaponin, Quercetin [CPD:C00

  20. Calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In: Kumar V, Abbas AK, Aster JC, eds. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease . 9th ed. ... In: Kumar V, Abbas AK, Aster JC, eds. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease . 9th ed. ...

  1. Verification of Aerosol Optical Depth Retrievals using Cloud Shadows Retrieved from Satellite Imagery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sweat, Perry C

    2008-01-01

    ...), IKONOS, and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). The lower resolution of MODIS and ASTER does not lend itself to focusing on building shadows, but rather cloud shadows...

  2. The Natural and Cultural Environmental Resources of the Aquilla Creek Watershed, Hill County, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-11-01

    Shinners Annual Aster Aster texanus Burgess Texas Aster Avena sativa L. Oats Bothriochloa saccharoides (Sw.) Rydb. var. longi- paniculata (Gould) Gould...Warbler U R F,Wd- Dendroica dominica: Yellow-throated Warbler* U R F,Wd- Dendroica pensylvanica: Chestnut-sided Warbler C R F,Th- Dendroica castanea : Bay

  3. Final Environmental Statement and Supplemental Information for Aquilla Lake, Aquilla Creek, Hill County, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-13

    ligulatus Shinners Annual Aster Aster texanus Burgess Texas Aster Avena sativa L. Oats Andropogon saccharoides (Sw.) Rydb. var. longi- paniculata...Chestnut -sided Warbler C R F,Th Dendroica castanea : Bay-breasted Warbler U R FWd SejuruS autocapillus: Ovenbird R R Wd,F Seiurus nove- boracensis

  4. Assessment of multispectral glacier mapping methods and derivation of glacier area changes, 1978–2002, in the central Southern Alps, New Zealand, from ASTER satellite data, field survey and existing inventory data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gjermundsen, EF

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available can be made by the use of satellite remote sensing, capable of acquiring comprehensive, uniform and frequent global observations of glaciers and ice sheets. In New Zealand the first and only glacier inventory including the two main islands...? glaciers was made from aerial photographs recorded in 1978 (Chinn, unpublished). The mapping showed that the Southern Alps hosted 3144 glaciers exceeding 0.01 km2, totalling an area of 1158 km2 and an estimated ice volume of 53.3 km3 (Chinn, 2001...

  5. АSTERISM AND CONSTELLATION: TERMINOLOGICAL DILEMMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Prnjat

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary astronomical literature, there is no uniform definition of the term asterism. This inconsistency is the consequence of differences between traditional understanding of the term constellation, from the standpoint of the naked eye astronomy, and its contemporary understanding from the standpoint of the International Astronomical Union. A traditional constellation is a recognizable star configuration with a well-established name, whereas the International Astronomical Union defines a constellation as an exactly defined sector of the cosmic space that belongs to a particular traditional constellation. Asterism is a lower rank term in comparison to constellation, and as such it may not denote a whole traditional constellation, as these terms would become synonymous and parts of constellations would become “asterisms of asterisms“. Similarly, asterism cannot define a macro configuration composed of the brightest stars in more constellations, thus, the Summer Triangle and other sky polygons are not asterisms. Therefore, asterisms are neither constellations nor sky polygons, but the third – easily recognizable parts of traditional constellations with historically well-established names, including separate groups of smaller stars that belong to star clusters (autonomous asterisms. Forms and names of asterisms may or may not be consistent with the parent constellation, and accordingly asterisms can be divided into compatible and incompatible. If asterisms have outlived the exact division of the celestial sphere and remained irreplaceable celestial landmarks in the naked eye astronomy, it is high time for the International Astronomical Union to agree on the definition of asterism and to compile their official list.

  6. Terrestrial Biological Inventory Hartwell Drainage and Levee District Greene County, Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Riparian woods Bulrush Scirpus polyphyllus Bottomland forest Ginseng Panax quinquefolius Forest Aster Aster undulatus Forest, Old field Golden Seal...Hardwood Forests of Southern Illinois-- Regeneration and Succession. Ecology 44:29-41. Hus, H. 1908. An Ecological Cross Section of the Mississippi River

  7. Interface colloidal robotic manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Igor; Snezhko, Oleksiy

    2015-08-04

    A magnetic colloidal system confined at the interface between two immiscible liquids and energized by an alternating magnetic field dynamically self-assembles into localized asters and arrays of asters. The colloidal system exhibits locomotion and shape change. By controlling a small external magnetic field applied parallel to the interface, structures can capture, transport, and position target particles.

  8. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15995-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 01-1... 56 0.002 2 ( CP000061 ) Aster yellows witches'-broom phytoplasma AYWB, co... 42 0.003 19 ( CP000743...CP000061_289( CP000061 |pid:none) Aster yellows witches'-broom phy... 35 9.2 >E71622( E71622 )probable

  9. Effect of lead contamination of soils and air on its accumulation in pollen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, W.H.O.; Bast-Cramer, W.B.

    1980-01-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals in the honey, derived from Aster tripolium was investigated. The lead content of pollen in Aster tripolium and Taraxacum officinale is mainly due to airborne lead. The accumulation of other heavy metals, such as zinc and copper, in pollen occurs mainly via a translocation process from roots to flowers. 14 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  10. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-15

    May 15, 2016 ... (Hunt, G. R., Salisbury, J. W. 1976). Landset 8 images are used for Fe-oxide minerals and Aster images are used for mapping hydrothermal alteration minerals such as Pyrophyllite, Kaolinite, Illite, Muscovite, Sericite, and carbonate. We used Spectral. Angle Mapper (SAM) method for processing Aster and ...

  11. Beneficial Use of Dredged Material Monitoring Program. 1996 Annual report (Base Year Through Fy1996).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    coccinea and showy species such as Ludwigia decurrens, Ludwigia octovalvis, Bidens frondosa, Aster tenuifolius, and Aster subulatus. There were...fresh or brackish - Baccharis haiimifolia L shrub; elevated sites in fresh to saline marshes groundselbush - Bidens frondosa L - B...perennial; freshwater marsh, pond and stream margins Conyza bonariensis (L) Cronq hairy fleabane (Erigeron bonariensis) winter annual; fields and

  12. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U09760-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 40 0.019 9 ( CP000061 ) Aster yellows witches'-broom phytoplasma AYWB, co... 36 0.021 20 ( FG337391 )...CP000061_339( CP000061 |pid:none) Aster yellows witches'-broom phy... 35 8.3 >AC116956_77( AC116956 |pid:none)

  13. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15103-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available . 38 2.9 3 ( CP000061 ) Aster yellows witches'-broom phytoplasma AYWB, co... 34 2.9 16 ( BJ414368 ) Dictyostelium...CP000061_529( CP000061 |pid:none) Aster yellows witches'-broom phy... 37 2.1 CS163776_1( CS163776 |pid:none) Sequence

  14. The Impact of a Professional Development Program Integrating Informal Science Education on Early Childhood Teachers' Self-Efficacy and Beliefs about Inquiry-Based Science Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Emilio; Ballone-Duran, Lena; Haney, Jodi; Beltyukova, Svetlana

    2009-01-01

    This report aimed to measure the impact of a unique professional development program entitled Project ASTER III (Active Science Teaching Encourages Reform) on teachers' self-efficacy and perceptions about inquiry-based science teaching. Project ASTER III enabled teachers to explore inquiry-based science teaching through exhibit-based…

  15. A Cultural Resources Reconnaissance at Lake Red Rock, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    Aster paatus Willow aster Anemone canadensis Canada anemone Soi altissima Tall goldenrod Silp ium laciniatum Cutleaf rosinweed Other Forbs and Shrubs...Phlox pioaPrairie phlox Silphium integrifolium Entire-leaved rosinweed- Helianthus grosseserratus Saw-tooth sunflower Liatrus pycnostachya Prairie

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-SARA-01-0388 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-SARA-01-0388 ref|YP_456746.1| phosphatidate cytidylyltransferase [Aster yellows witches...'-broom phytoplasma AYWB] gb|ABC65667.1| phosphatidate cytidylyltransferase [Aster yellows witches'-broom phytoplasma AYWB] YP_456746.1 2e-06 35% ...

  17. Remote sensing study of soil hazards for Odendaalsrus in the Free ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patrick Cole

    study examined ASTER satellite data, combined with standard remote sensing techniques, namely band ratios, in ... ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) data were selected for .... The process of using or designing band ratios based on mineral spectra can be effective at identifying ...

  18. Aplicación de índices de vegetación derivados de imágenes satelitales Landsat 7 ETM+ y ASTER para la caracterización de la cobertura vegetal en la zona centro de la provincia de Loja, Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzaga Aguilar, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Las variaciones de las coberturas vegetales en la superficie terrestre, en determinados periodos de tiempo, son un importante indicador ambiental que ha sido empleado en diferentes ámbitos, desde estudios relacionados a las dinámicas de los ecosistemas, hasta la orientación en la toma de decisiones en temas de planificación del territorio ligadas al desarrollo. La teledetección ha sido utilizada como valiosa herramienta y determinante a la hora de establecer indicadores de degradación y conse...

  19. A comparison of Landsat 8 (OLI) and Landsat 7 (ETM+) in mapping geology and visualising lineaments: A case study of central region Kenya

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M W Mwaniki; M S Moeller; G Schellmann

    2015-01-01

    .... While Landsat and Aster data have been used to map geology in arid areas and band ratios suiting the application established, mapping in geology in highland regions has been challenging due to vegetation land cover...

  20. Necrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aster JC. Cellular responses to stress and toxic insults: adaptation, injury, and death. In: Kumar V, Abbas ... the first to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A. ...

  1. Environmental Assessment for Type III Fuel Hydrant System at Grissom Air Reserve Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    catenatus Bird Haliaeetus leucocephalus Tyto alba Mammal Lutra canadensis lynx rufus Taxidea taxus Vascular P lant Arenaria stricta...Armoracia aquatica Aster furcatus Carex sparganioides var. cephaloidea Carex straminea Coeloglossum vir ide var. virescens Cypripedium calceolus var

  2. Spatial Vegetation Data Version 2.0a for Shenandoah National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This map depicts 35 USNVC vegetation association classes for Shenandoah National Park developed from AVIRIS hyperspectral imagery, ASTER multispectral imagery and...

  3. Translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins JA. Diseases of white blood cells, lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus. In: Kumar V, Abbas AK, Aster JC, eds. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 13.

  4. Drug-induced lupus erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tsokos GC, ed. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus . Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 54. Habif TP. Connective tissue diseases. ... TP, ed. Clinical Dermatology . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 17. Kumar V, Abbas AK, Aster ...

  5. 77 FR 66832 - Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications To Register New Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ..., tallow wood, tea oil plant, and vernonia). Contact: Bethany Benbow, (703) 347-8072, email address: benbow... seed, rose hip, sesame, Stokes aster, sweet rocket, tallow wood, tea oil plant, and vernonia). Contact...

  6. Use of NASA Satellite Data to Improve Coastal Cypress Forest Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurce, Joseph; Graham, William; Barras, John

    2010-01-01

    Problem: Information gaps exist regarding health status and location of cypress forests in coastal Louisiana (LA). Such information is needed to aid coastal forest conservation and restoration programs. Approach to Issue Mitigation: Use NASA data to revise cypress forest cover type maps. Landsat and ASTER data. Use NASA data to identify and track cypress forest change. Landsat, ASTER, and MODIS data. Work with partners and end-users to transfer useful products and technology.

  7. Environmental Impact Statement. Disposal and Reuse of Chanute Air Force Base, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    aster (Aster sp.), goldenrod (Solidago sp.), prairie violet (Viola p6datffida), and white wild Indigo (Baptisia leucantha). Land surrounding Chanute AFB...a card? 2 error was created because ttiei did not proparl) MAYOR PQDA1;hOGII May I make one more S research cur State kid Fare from the Stat, of...to operate within th Village forms. The Village contises this thy will hecoime Nh owner Kid operiato fte pubic Pt" Iteof SN rlectric systmss 2012

  8. Installation Restoration Program. Phase 1. Records Search, United States Air Force Academy, Colorado Springs, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    fertility and low water- holding capacity. Representative species include ponderosa pine, Douglas fir, scrub oak, mountain mahogany and blue gam- ma grass...contractor disposes of the collected grease. Digested sludge is composted and used as fertilizer throughout the Base. There have been m several overflow...Achillea lanulosa 17. Paintbrush Castilleja coccinia 3 18. Fringed sage Artemisia frigida 19. Stiff Goldenrod Solidago rigida 20. Aster Aster porteri 3 21

  9. Bipolarization and Poleward Flux Correlate during Xenopus Extract Spindle AssemblyV⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchison, T.J.; Maddox, P.; Groen, A.; Cameron, L.; Perlman, Z.; Ohi, R.; Desai, A.; Salmon, E.D.; Kapoor, T.M.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the mechanism by which meiotic spindles become bipolar and the correlation between bipolarity and poleward flux, using Xenopus egg extracts. By speckle microscopy and computational alignment, we find that monopolar sperm asters do not show evidence for flux, partially contradicting previous work. We account for the discrepancy by describing spontaneous bipolarization of sperm asters that was missed previously. During spontaneous bipolarization, onset of flux correlated with on...

  10. Ballistic Missile Defense in the European Theater: Political, Military and Technical Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-15

    in a ground-based system, called the Sol-Air Moyen Portee/ Terrestre (SAMP/T) that uses the Aster 15 and the Aster 30 missiles with a range of up to...development processes “ via a spiral pathway culminating in an operator-in-the- 107 COL Tim Polaske Chief...Reentry Vehicle SAMP/T Sol-Air Moyen Portee/ Terrestre SBI Space Based Interceptor SBIRS Space Based Infrared Satellite SHAPE

  11. The Effects of Designated Pollutants on Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-11-01

    quaking grass Calendula Calendula officinalis L. Flame beauty Citrus Citrus limo (L.) Burm. f. Rough lemon seedlings Lisbon lemon Citrus Citrus sinensis...aster, avocado, barley, briza, calendula and coreopsis ........ ................ .. 43 20. Probit analysis of five plant species: two citrus, grape and...species: aster, avocado, barley, briza, calendula and coreopsis. Probit scale is the probabil- ity that a certain percent of the total leaves exposed

  12. Characterizing regional soil mineral composition using spectroscopyand geostatistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, V.L.; de Bruin, S.; Weyermann, J.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Schaepman, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    This work aims at improving the mapping of major mineral variability at regional scale using scale-dependent spatial variability observed in remote sensing data. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and statistical methods were combined with laboratory-based mineral characterization of field samples to create maps of the distributions of clay, mica and carbonate minerals and their abundances. The Material Identification and Characterization Algorithm (MICA) was used to identify the spectrally-dominant minerals in field samples; these results were combined with ASTER data using multinomial logistic regression to map mineral distributions. X-ray diffraction (XRD)was used to quantify mineral composition in field samples. XRD results were combined with ASTER data using multiple linear regression to map mineral abundances. We testedwhether smoothing of the ASTER data to match the scale of variability of the target sample would improve model correlations. Smoothing was donewith Fixed Rank Kriging (FRK) to represent the mediumand long-range spatial variability in the ASTER data. Stronger correlations resulted using the smoothed data compared to results obtained with the original data. Highest model accuracies came from using both medium and long-range scaled ASTER data as input to the statistical models. High correlation coefficients were obtained for the abundances of calcite and mica (R2 = 0.71 and 0.70, respectively). Moderately-high correlation coefficients were found for smectite and kaolinite (R2 = 0.57 and 0.45, respectively). Maps of mineral distributions, obtained by relating ASTER data to MICA analysis of field samples, were found to characterize major soil mineral variability (overall accuracies for mica, smectite and kaolinite were 76%, 89% and 86% respectively). The results of this study suggest that the distributions of minerals and their abundances derived using FRK-smoothed ASTER data more closely match the spatial

  13. Provisional maps of thermal areas in Yellowstone National Park, based on satellite thermal infrared imaging and field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, R. Greg; Heasler, Henry; Jaworowski, Cheryl; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.

    2014-01-01

    Maps that define the current distribution of geothermally heated ground are useful toward setting a baseline for thermal activity to better detect and understand future anomalous hydrothermal and (or) volcanic activity. Monitoring changes in the dynamic thermal areas also supports decisions regarding the development of Yellowstone National Park infrastructure, preservation and protection of park resources, and ensuring visitor safety. Because of the challenges associated with field-based monitoring of a large, complex geothermal system that is spread out over a large and remote area, satellite-based thermal infrared images from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) were used to map the location and spatial extent of active thermal areas, to generate thermal anomaly maps, and to quantify the radiative component of the total geothermal heat flux. ASTER thermal infrared data acquired during winter nights were used to minimize the contribution of solar heating of the surface. The ASTER thermal infrared mapping results were compared to maps of thermal areas based on field investigations and high-resolution aerial photos. Field validation of the ASTER thermal mapping is an ongoing task. The purpose of this report is to make available ASTER-based maps of Yellowstone’s thermal areas. We include an appendix containing the names and characteristics of Yellowstone’s thermal areas, georeferenced TIFF files containing ASTER thermal imagery, and several spatial data sets in Esri shapefile format.

  14. Geological mapping and spectral based classification of basement rocks using remote sensing data analysis: The Korbiai-Gerf nappe complex, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Safaa M.; Sadek, Mohamed F.

    2017-10-01

    The Pan-African Neoproterozoic Korbiai-Gerf nappe complex in the extreme South Eastern Desert of Egypt comprises dismembered ophiolite assemblages tectonically thrusted over pelite-psammopelite, quartzo-feldspathic gneiss and island-arc schistose metavolcanics. The whole sequence is intruded by syn-late to post tectonic mafic and felsic intrusions. The enhanced Landsat-8 band ratio (bands 6/2, 6/7 and 6/5 × 4/5) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Principal Component (PC2, PC6, and PC5) successfully discriminated most of the exposed lithological units and produced a detailed geological map. Granitoids, psammopelite-pelite, gneiss and serpentinite-talc carbonate rocks have been discriminated using ASTER kaolinite, clay, sericite-muscovite and calcite-carbonate indices respectively. Three spectral based classification algorithms have been compared using Landsat-8 and the Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) datasets to obtain the best lithological classification for the exposed basement rock units. Results from the present study revealed that, Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier algorithm provided the best lithological classification accuracy (97.72%) using the combination of 9 ASTER bands and 20 ASTER derivative images. The results of the present study concluded that, the integrated data of ASTER and Landsat-8 enhanced images are effective in the discrimination and classification of the basement rock units exposed at Korbiai-Gerf nappe complex and can be applied in similar areas in the Arabian-Nubian Shield.

  15. Microtubule assembly and in vitro development of bovine oocytes with increased intracellular glutathione level prior to vitrification and in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, H; Yamane, I; Noto, I; Kagawa, N; Kuwayama, M; Hirabayashi, M; Hochi, S

    2014-11-01

    Although vitrification is a useful technique for preservation of bovine oocytes, the yield of blastocysts derived from the vitrified oocytes is still low. We have recently reported a new type of cryoinjury, multiple aster formation, by which pronuclear migration and development of vitrified-warmed and in vitro-fertilized bovine oocytes are impaired. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of glutathione (GSH) content of vitrified bovine oocytes on multiple aster formation and subsequent in vitro development. Treatment of bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes with β-mercaptoethanol (βME) and L-cysteine (Cys) during in vitro maturation resulted in 2.5-fold higher GSH content not only in fresh control but also in vitrified-warmed oocytes. The percentage of normally fertilized zygotes exhibiting sperm aster(s) was >95% in all four groups (with or without βME/Cys × fresh control or vitrified). The frequency of multiple aster formation in vitrified oocytes (three-fold higher than that in fresh control oocytes) was not affected by the increased level of intracellular GSH with βME/Cys. Consequently, the migration and development of pronuclei as well as the yield of blastocysts from vitrified-warmed oocytes (17 versus 41%) were not improved. In addition, there was no effect of increased GSH level on the yield of blastocysts in fresh control groups.

  16. Spectral unmixing of hyperspectral data to map bauxite deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Sanjeevi; Abhishekh, P. V.

    2006-12-01

    This paper presents a study about the potential of remote sensing in bauxite exploration in the Kolli hills of Tamilnadu state, southern India. ASTER image (acquired in the VNIR and SWIR regions) has been used in conjunction with SRTM - DEM in this study. A new approach of spectral unmixing of ASTER image data delineated areas rich in alumina. Various geological and geomorphological parameters that control bauxite formation were also derived from the ASTER image. All these information, when integrated, showed that there are 16 cappings (including the existing mines) that satisfy most of the conditions favouring bauxitization in the Kolli Hills. The study concludes that spectral unmixing of hyperspectral satellite data in the VNIR and SWIR regions may be combined with the terrain parameters to get accurate information about bauxite deposits, including their quality.

  17. Sydney, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This image was acquired on October 12, 2002 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, along-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.Size: 42 x 32 km (25.1 x 19.2 miles) Location: 33.7 deg. South lat., 151.4 deg. East long. Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 1,2, and 3. Original Data Resolution: 15 m Date Acquired: October 12, 2001

  18. Great Wall of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This ASTER sub-image covers a 12 x 12 km area in northern Shanxi Province, China, and was acquired January 9, 2001. The low sun angle, and light snow cover highlight a section of the Great Wall, visible as a black line running diagonally through the image from lower left to upper right. The Great Wall is over 2000 years old and was built over a period of 1000 years. Stretching 4500 miles from Korea to the Gobi Desert it was first built to protect China from marauders from the north.This image is located at 40.2 degrees north latitude and 112.8 degrees east longitude.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud morphology and physical properties, wetlands Evaluation, thermal pollution monitoring, coral reef degradation, surface temperature mapping of soils and geology, and measuring surface

  19. INNOVATIVE METHODOLOGY FOR DETECTION OF FRACTURE-CONTROLLED SWEET SPOTS IN THE NORTHERN APPALACHIAN BASIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Jacobi; John Fountain

    2005-03-01

    The primary goal was to enter Phase 2 by analyzing geophysical logs and sidewall cores from a verification well drilled into the Trenton/Black River section along lineaments. However, the well has not yet been drilled; Phase 2 has therefore not been accomplished. We have switched oil and gas exploration and production companies, and are now, in conjunction with Fortuna, planning to retrieve 18 m of horizontal core across a gas-charged zone in the Trenton/Black River in central New York State, the ''hottest'' play in the Appalachian Basin. Secondary goals in Phase I were also completed in previous reporting period. Although new structural data were collected and analyzed for a few regions where we had no data, the results did not change the previous conclusions. We have also continued analyzing remote sensing images to determine, by using the weights-of-evidence method, which images and processing techniques result in lineaments that best reflect the fractures found in outcrop. We have tested the lineaments from EarthSat (1997), as well as lineaments we identified on Landsat and ASTER images. For fracture intensification domains (FIDs) along Seneca Lake, we found that lineaments identified on a fused image of Landsat and ASTER images produced better correlation to FIDs than lineaments from EarthSat (1997) and ASTER alone. This relationship held true for all orientations of FIDs except E-striking FIDs, which showed a better correlation with lineaments observed on ASTER lineaments than on the fused Landsat and ASTER image lineaments. For Cayuga Lake FIDs, lineaments identified on a fused image of Landsat and ASTER images also produced significantly better correlation to FIDs than lineaments from ASTER alone for NW- and NNW-striking FIDs. However, for NE-, ENE- and E-striking FIDs, ASTER lineaments generally showed the closest match. These data continue to demonstrate that integration of aeromagnetic and remote sensing lineaments, surface structure

  20. Dynamical self-regulation in self-propelled particle flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Arvind; Hagan, Michael F; Marchetti, M Cristina; Baskaran, Aparna

    2012-06-01

    We study a continuum model of overdamped self-propelled particles with aligning interactions in two dimensions. Combining analytical theory and computations, we map out the phase diagram for the parameter space covered by the model. We find that the system self-organizes into two robust structures in different regions of parameter space: solitary waves composed of ordered swarms moving through a low density disordered background, and stationary radially symmetric asters. The self-regulating nature of the flow yields phase separation, ubiquitous in this class of systems, and controls the formation of solitary waves. Self-propulsion and the associated active convection play a crucial role in aster formation.

  1. Assessment of Different Remote Sensing Data for Forest Structural Attributes Estimation in the Hyrcanian forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nourian, N.; Shataee-Joibary, S.; Mohammadi, J.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: The objective of the study was the comparative assessment of various spatial resolutions of optical satellite imagery including Landsat-TM, ASTER, and Quickbird data to estimate the forest structure attributes of Hyrcanian forests, Golestan province, northernIran. Material and methods: The 112 square plots with area of0.09 ha were measured using a random cluster sampling method and then stand volume, basal area, and tree stem density were computed using measured data. After geometric and atmospheric corrections of images, the spectral attributes from original and different synthetic bands were extracted for modelling. The statistical modelling was performed using CART algorithm. Performance assessment of models was examined using the unused validation plots by RMSE and bias measures. Main Results: The results showed that model of Quickbird data for stand volume, basal area, and tree stem density had a better performance compared to ASTER and TM data. However, estimations by ASTER and TM imagery had slightly similar results for all three parameters. Research highlights: This study exposed that the high-resolution satellite data are more useful for forest structure attributes estimation in the Hyrcanian broadleaves forests compared with medium resolution images without consideration of images costs. However, regarding to be free of the most medium resolution data such as ASTER and TM,ETM+ or OLI images, these data can be used with slightly similar results. (Author)

  2. Above-ground tree outside forest (TOF) phytomass and carbon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The ancillary datasets such as topograph- ical map, district forest working plan, FRI/FSI publications (2000, 2003, 2007), soil maps, ASTER global digital elevation model (GDEM), forest cover type and density map from FSI (2005) were also used to assist the classification of TOF classes, to know the spatial distribution and ...

  3. Automated lineament mapping from remotely sensed data: case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The automatic procedures of PCI LINE and Imagine Objective Line Extraction were adopted to extract lineaments from Landsat OLI imagery (band 6) and Digital Elevation Models (SPOT DEM and ASTER DEM) of Osun Drainage Basin, Southwestern Nigeria. This was with a view to optimally map lineaments within the basin ...

  4. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 601 - 650 of 1250 ... Vol 11, No 1 (2014), Evaluation of royal jelly as an alternative to fetal bovine serum in cell culture using cell proliferation assays and live cell imaging, Abstract PDF. M Musa, NFM Nasir, KP Thirumulu. Vol 13, No 6 (2016), Evaluation of the acute and subchronic toxicity of Aster tataricus L.F., Abstract ...

  5. Woodlot Agroforestry in the Lower Volta Basin, Ghana: Contribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    appropriate conservation practices targets mainly cropland and pasture, .... purposes of improving the energy needs of ... Forestry Office, etc.) on past and present climate and agroforestry activities, etc. Satellite image analysis. Aster, 2007, Landsat TM 19985, Landsat. ETM+ 2000 and GoogleEarth 2009 maps respectively ...

  6. Ecosystem engineering effects of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, D.; Herman, P.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines how perennial Aster tripolium and annual Salicornia procumbens salt marshes alter the biomass, density, taxon diversity, and community structure of benthic macrofauna, and also examines the role of elevation, sediment grain size, plant cover, and marsh age. Core

  7. Current Application of Remote Sensing Techniques in Land Use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    most efficient scientific tool in conjunction with ground truth and ... Data sources. Remote sensing image data: We used LANDSAT. (spatial resolution 30m), LISS III (spatial resolution. 23.5m) and ASTER data (spatial resolution 15m) for. 2008 in the study ... spectral remote sensing data is essential for analyzing land use and ...

  8. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06849-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2_092 Ceratonia siliqua flowers cDNA... 44 4.7 1 ( CP000061 ) Aster yellows witches'-broom phytoplasma AYWB,... 4.7 1 ( DR393671 ) USDA-FP_153604 Adult Alate Aphis gossypii (WHAGA)... 44 4.7 1 ( FD381772 ) CeSi_F3_T7_C1

  9. Satellite Maps Deliver More Realistic Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    When Redwood City, California-based Electronic Arts (EA) decided to make SSX, its latest snowboarding video game, it faced challenges in creating realistic-looking mountains. The solution was NASA's ASTER Global Digital Elevation Map, made available by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, which EA used to create 28 real-life mountains from 9 different ranges for its award-winning game.

  10. Ethiopian Journal of Agricultural Sciences - Vol 26, No 2 (2016)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of response to super-ovulation, estrous synchronization and embryo transfer in local Zebu or crossbred dairy cattle · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Million Tadesse, Tamirate Degefa, Jeilu Jemal, Aster Yohanis, Tamirate Seyum, 27-35 ...

  11. How to merge a DEM?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuter, H.I.; Strobl, P.; Mehl, W.

    2011-01-01

    A DEM is one of the most useful information for spatial modelling and monitoring. Several DEMs have been published in the public domain like SRTM and ASTER GDEM with and without considering the horizontal and vertical misallocation of single input data. Results of that are for example the inherent

  12. 78 FR 53039 - Pyraclostrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ...; stokes aster, seed at 0.45 ppm; sunflower, seed at 0.45 ppm; sweet rocket, seed at 0.45 ppm; tallowwood.../pesticides/trac/science/trac6a05.pdf . 4. Cumulative effects from substances with a common mechanism of..., seed; sweet rocket, seed; tallowwood, seed; tea oil plant, seed; vernonia, seed; berry, group 13; grape...

  13. Evaluation of three classifiers in mapping forest stand types using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three classifiers were examined for their suitability in mapping the different forest stand types in the area (maximum likelihood, spectral angle mapper and decision tree). The results showed that using maximum likelihood classifier and ASTER imagery, different forest stand types can be accurately mapped with an overall ...

  14. Snohomish Estuary Wetlands Study Volume III. Classification and Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-07-01

    Ambrosia chamissonis Silver Oursage Anaphalis marsaritacea Pearly-averlasting Anthemis arvensis M4aywood Artemisia sukudarfii Coastal Wormwood Aster... fertile systems (Odum, 1971). Due to the lack of tidal action and flowing water, they *ffect a smaller area than marine plant communities and thus

  15. [Spectral characteristics analysis and remote sensing inversion of water quality parameters in Han Shiqiao wetland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei-Jing; Li, Shu-Min; Li, Hong; Sun, Dan-Feng; Zhou, Lian-Di

    2010-03-01

    The research object of the present paper is the water quality of Han Shiqiao wetland water. Water spectrum and quality parameters were measured on the site and in the lab. The authors simulated the relationships between water quality parameters and the best bands or combination, and built the multiple linear regression equation to obtain characteristic spectrum of the key water quality parameters. Besides, several key issues involved in applying ASTER satellite imagery to water quality include atmospheric correction, discussing methods for ASTER data bands analysis, and choosing the best bands and band combination. Results indicated that although the simulation model is not universal, the analysis of spectral characteristics based on ground spectrometer could provide foundations for the choice of remote sensing characteristics bands. The band ratio of water quality parameters simulated from ASTER spectral characteristics moves to relatively long-wave band. Finally, based on the analysis of ASTER remote sensing characteristics bands, the authors built water quality parameters regression model. The models for water quality parameters were recommended, and the accuracies of these models were analyzed. Making use of regression model, we executed spatial distribution map of water quality parameters to achieve wetland water monitoring with remote sensing in terms of variation in space and with time.

  16. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 499 ... Vol 201 (2004), Equations for predicting the biomass of Acacia cyclops and Acacia saligna in the western and eastern Cape regions of South Africa: Part ... Vol 70, No 3 (2008), Estimating plot-level forest structural attributes using high spectral resolution ASTER satellite data in even-aged Eucalyptus ...

  17. Connect the Dots and Pinhole Constellations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kominski, John

    1991-01-01

    Identifies a variety of methods to introduce constellations and asterisms to students in the classroom and planetarium prior to their study of the night sky. Materials used include transparencies, oatmeal boxes, photographic slides, and tracing paper. Exercises incorporate storytelling and prediction of location, movement, and seasonal patterns of…

  18. Hazards mitigation and natural resources evaluation around Sohag – Safaga highway, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salwa F. Elbeih

    2011-06-01

    This research mainly depends on using recent satellite images of Misrsat-1, Landsat TM5, and ASTER with the aid of Geographic Information Systems (GIS. Different soil types that were delineated are mostly suitable for agricultural landuse. The suitability of this agriculture depends on the availability and quality of the irrigation water.

  19. A regional view of fluctuations in glacier length in southern South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez, P.; Chevallier, P.; Favier, V.; Pouyaud, B.; Ordenes, F.; Oerlemans, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06833656X

    2010-01-01

    Fluctuations in the length of 72 glaciers in the Northern and Southern Patagonia Icefield (NPI and SPI, respectively) and the Cordillera Darwin Icefield (CDI) were estimated between 1945 and 2005. The information obtained from historical maps based on 1945 aerial photographs was compared to ASTER

  20. Interim Regional Supplement to the Corps of Engineers Wetland Delineation Manual: Alaska Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    Aster sibiricus FAC Galium boreale FACU Athyrium filix-femina FAC Geocaulon lividum FACU Beckmannia eruciformis OBL Geranium erianthum NI Betula...Artemisia arctica UPL Geranium pratense FAC Artemisia tilesii UPL Geum calthifolium FACW Athyrium filix-femina FAC Geum macrophyllum FACW Bromus

  1. Evaluation of Ovarian Lesions Inducing Endometrial Hyperplasia or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mubeen

    Department of Pathology, Jawaharlal Nehru Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry, 1Department of Community. Medicine, Saveetha ... institute board meeting. RESULTS. A total of 118 cases .... Kumar V, Abbas AK, Fausto N, Aster J. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic. Basis of Disease. 8th ed.

  2. Aspirator Gun for High-Throughput Mosquito Bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    to protect workers from harmful inhalation of dust , insect parts, or pathogens (Hurd 1954, Douglas 1984, Kim and Hong 2007). Powered aspirators also...Kim C-W, Hong C-S. 2007. Allergy to miscellaneous household arthropods. Protein Pept Lett 14:982–991. Kunkel LO. 1926. Studies on aster yellows. Am J

  3. Phytoplasma adapt to the diverse environments of their plant and insect hosts by altering gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarova, Olga; MacLean, Allyson M.; Nicolaisen, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    Phytoplasmas are intracellular insect-transmitted phytopathogenic bacteria with small genomes. To understand how Aster Yellows phytoplasma strain witches' broom (AY-WB) adapts to their hosts, we performed qRT-PCR analysis of 179 in silico functionally annotated AY-WB genes that are likely to have...

  4. Presence of Two Sets of Ribosomal Genes in Phytopathogenic Mollicutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, B.; Seemüller, E.

    1994-01-01

    DNA from 28 strains of phytopathogenic mycoplasmalike organisms that represented five primary taxonomic clusters was digested with restriction endonucleases and hybridized with several ribosomal probes. The results indicate the presence of two sets of ribosomal genes in all strains examined. Restriction maps of the two ribosomal operons for a group of 12 aster yellows mycoplasmalike organisms were constructed. Images PMID:16349389

  5. Update on Ifremer technological developments and operational feedbacks with underwater systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rigaud, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the status of Ifremer Underwater systems. It will focus on recent innovations, improvements and operational references of the remotely operated vehicle "Victor 6000", of the autonomous underwater vehicles "AsterX" and “IdefX”, of the new “Sysif” seismic tool and some hints about RanD in the domain of Advanced Intervention AUVs.

  6. Akinwumiju et al (14)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    ASTER Digital. Elevation Model (DEM). 2009. Ministry of Economy, Tra de, and Industry (METI) of. Japan /United States National Aeronautics and Space. Administration (NASA) Database. 2. Geological Map. 2006. Nigeria Geological Survey Agency, Abuja. 3. Topographical Map. 1966, 2010. Office of the Surveyor General ...

  7. Magnetic Resonance Studies of Photosensitizers and Their Effect in Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-01

    Chem. & 1998 M.P. Dobhal Pharm. Bulletin 15, 22-32 34. Ferulic acid aster from Plumeria bicolor M.P. Dobhal Phytochemistry 51, 1999 A.M. Hasan 319-21...Institute, Lucknow, India. 2. Prof. (Late) A.K. Mukerjee, Department of Chemistry, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India. Thesis entitled "Design

  8. Efficacy of bio and synthetic pesticides against the American ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    these bio and synthetic pesticides were used against third instar larvae of the American bollworm in a completely randomised experimental design with five replicates. Amdoc 3EC and Nimbecidine, showed maximum efficacy, 100 %, in terms of mortality after 72 hours. While Engeo, Aster extreme and Agrolambacin showed ...

  9. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abebe, Aster. Vol 4, No 2 (2015) - Articles The Effects of Area Enclosures on Rangeland Condition, Herbaceous Biomass and Nutritional Quality in Southeast Ethiopia Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2305-3372. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  10. Carthamus tinctorius L.

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Introduction. Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), a member of the Aster- aceae family, is a multipurpose crop used for its edible oil as well as its medicinal and industrial applications (Dwivedi et al. 2005). Currently, safflower is regarded as an impor- tant oilseed crop, and is grown commercially for its edible oil rich in ...

  11. Patterns of species discovery in the Western Ghats, a megadiversity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study we report the patterns of discovery of eight taxa – birds, butterflies, frogs, tiger beetles, grasses, asters, ferns and orchids – in the Western Ghats, a megadiversity centre in India. Our results indicate that the discovery curves for birds and butterflies have been saturated while those for frogs and grasses continue to ...

  12. Hydropower-induced land use change in Fincha's watershed, werstern Ethiopia: analysis and impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezuayehu, T.O.; Sterk, G.

    2008-01-01

    The present article analyzes the land use dynamics caused by hydropower dam construction in 1973 in the Fincha'a watershed (1318 km2), a tributary of the Blue Nile. Aerial photos (1957 and 1980) and an ASTER satellite image of 2001 were used to make 3 land use maps of the watershed using a

  13. Bioassay of Surface Quality/Chesapeake Bay, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Aster lateriflorus 175 primarily losing frequency Polygonum sagittatum 187 150 Lindernia dubia 190 Hypericum mutilum 192 Indicator species Impatiens ... capensis 194 primarily losing numbers of individuals Bochmeria cylindiica 196 Pilea pumila 197 125 00 196 Ca0 075- o 1 9 2 25 A -A 0 KI 0 0

  14. Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for Construction of a Base Civil Engineer Complex at Travis Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-26

    thistle (Eryngium vaseyi), curley leaved dock ( Rumex crispus ), inland salt grass and Geranium spp. These seasonal wetlands were assessed for a variety of...slimaster (Aster subulatus), valley gum plant, Fitch spike weed (Hemizonia fittchii), curley leaved dock ( Rumex crispus ), inland salt grass and

  15. 75 FR 34114 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ..., tallowwood, tea oil plant, veronia, cottonseed. Contact: Marianne Lewis, (703) 308-8043, [email protected], jojoba, niger seed, rose hip, safflower, stokes aster, sunflower, tallowwood, tea oil plant, veronia..., oil radish, poppy seed, rapeseed, sesame, sweet rocket, calendula, castor oil plant, Chinese...

  16. Sacramento River Flood Control Project, California, Mid-Valley Area, Phase III. Design Memorandum, Volume 1 of 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-01

    cuckoo, bank swallow, and giant garter snake as threatened and Mason’s lilaeopsis as rare; these may also be in the study area. The Federal list of...the Suisun aster, heart-scale, California hibiscus, delta tule-pea, Mason’s lilaeopsis , little mousetail, and Colusa grass. No sites in the study

  17. Study of land surface temperature and spectral emissivity using multi ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    LST) and spectral emissivities over a hard rock terrain using multi-sensor satellite data. The study area, of about 6000 km2, is a part of Singhbhum–Orissa craton situated in the eastern part of India. TIR data from ASTER, MODIS and Landsat ...

  18. ECOLOGY OF BABOONS (PAPIO URSINUSj AT CAPE POINT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-17

    west winds ... summer (south~asterly) is 21 kmlh while the average winter wind speed (north-westerly) is 13 kmlh. Vegetation. The vegetation ..... throughout the year mainly near the car-park. The animals are adept at begging ...

  19. Burlington Northern Taconite Transshipment Facility, Duluth-Superior Harbor, Superior Wisconsin. Environmental Assessment Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-03-01

    characterized by white birch-balsam fir association. The dominant understory is once again currant and blue grass; however, ferns were abundant, indicating a...formerly used for coal stockpiling and includes areas with willow saplings, aster, golden - rod and dense grasses. This vegetation would be smothered

  20. Effect of landcover/land-use changes on water availability in and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-15

    Jan 15, 2018 ... without remote-sensing data for characterization of land-use/ ... Data availability. Image acquisition and pre-processing. Cloud-free Landsat images used for the detection of landcover changes, were sourced from the online Landsat .... radiometer (ASTER) DEM of 30 m resolution covering the study.

  1. Northern Arizona Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Northern Arizona is best known for the Grand Canyon. Less widely known are the hundreds of geologically young volcanoes, at least one of which buried the homes of local residents. San Francisco Mtn., a truncated stratovolcano at 3887 meters, was once a much taller structure (about 4900 meters) before it exploded some 400,000 years ago a la Mt. St. Helens. The young cinder cone field to its east includes Sunset Crater, that erupted in 1064 and buried Native American homes. This ASTER perspective was created by draping ASTER image data over topographic data from the U.S. Geological Survey National Elevation Data. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Size: 20.4 by 24.6 kilometers (12.6 by 15.2 miles) Location: 35.3 degrees North latitude, 111.5 degrees West longitude

  2. 3D View of Death Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This 3-D perspective view looking north over Death Valley, California, was produced by draping ASTER nighttime thermal infrared data over topographic data from the US Geological Survey. The ASTER data were acquired April 7, 2000 with the multi-spectral thermal infrared channels, and cover an area of 60 by 80 km (37 by 50 miles). Bands 13, 12, and 10 are displayed in red, green and blue respectively. The data have been computer enhanced to exaggerate the color variations that highlight differences in types of surface materials. Salt deposits on the floor of Death Valley appear in shades of yellow, green, purple, and pink, indicating presence of carbonate, sulfate, and chloride minerals. The Panamint Mtns. to the west, and the Black Mtns. to the east, are made up of sedimentary limestones, sandstones, shales, and metamorphic rocks. The bright red areas are dominated by the mineral quartz, such as is found in sandstones; green areas are limestones. In the lower center part of the image is Badwater, the lowest point in North America.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide

  3. Application of Teledetection Methods for cuantitative analysis of non-metallic deposits in Cotopaxi-Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oña, Santiago; Lomas, Washington; Betancourt, Franz; Lima, Aracely; Velasquez, Colon

    2014-05-01

    The present study shows the ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) (1) sensor applications , used to find surface deposits of pumice stone in the Inter-Andean Valley area of the province of Cotopaxi - Ecuador, involving field spectrometry with spectral mapping. The purpose is to improve the distribution of deposits founded and to seek new areas of interest. To acquire the spectral signature, Reflectance Spectroscopy technique, which has produced a great impact on mineral exploration (2), was used associated with the spectroradiometer SVC HR 1024 to capture spectral signature of Pumice stone in order to identify their spectral characteristics within the ranges VNIR and SWIR (3). After, the spectrum was transformed to Aster parameters to perform the spectral mapping of the image using SAM (Spectral Angle Mapper) method, which identifies the pixels associated to the spectral signature with similar spectral absorption characteristics within the wavelengths associated with ASTER bands, this selection of pixels can be interpreted as accumulation or outcrops, allowing to detect possible lithologies associated with deposits of this material. The results of this study define important areas accumulation of pumice stone , locating a large deposit of this volcanic material to the south and southwest of Latacunga main city set in the study area. This data are consistent with the direction of the pyroclastic flow, which formed this deposit. With these results, we can conclude that the detection of materials using ASTER images , can be applied in areas of hydrothermal alteration and nonmetallic minerals. References (1) ERSDAC (2001). Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center. Aster user's guide part i: p. 104. (2) Hauff, P. (1993). Field spectroscopy as applied to precious metals exploration. Arvada-Colorado, spectral international inc.: p. 71. (3) Hunt, G.R. & Salisbury, J.W. (1970). Visible and neard-infrared spectra of mineral and rocks: i

  4. Lithological discrimination of accretionary complex (Sivas, northern Turkey) using novel hybrid color composites and field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, Mutlu; Çelik, Ömer Faruk; Özyavaş, Aziz

    2018-02-01

    One of the most appropriate approaches to better understand and interpret geologic evolution of an accretionary complex is to make a detailed geologic map. The fact that ophiolite sequences consist of various rock types may require a unique image processing method to map each ophiolite body. The accretionary complex in the study area is composed mainly of ophiolitic and metamorphic rocks along with epi-ophiolitic sedimentary rocks. This paper attempts to map the Late Cretaceous accretionary complex in detail in northern Sivas (within İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture Zone in Turkey) by the analysis of all of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) bands and field study. The new two hybrid color composite images yield satisfactory results in delineating peridotite, gabbro, basalt, and epi-ophiolitic sedimentary rocks of the accretionary complex in the study area. While the first hybrid color composite image consists of one principle component (PC) and two band ratios (PC1, 3/4, 4/6 in the RGB), the PC5, the original ASTER band 4 and the 3/4 band ratio images were assigned to the RGB colors to generate the second hybrid color composite image. In addition to that, the spectral indices derived from the ASTER thermal infrared (TIR) bands discriminate clearly ultramafic, siliceous, and carbonate rocks from adjacent lithologies at a regional scale. Peridotites with varying degrees of serpentinization illustrated as a single color were best identified in the spectral indices map. Furthermore, the boundaries of ophiolitic rocks based on fieldwork were outlined in detail in some parts of the study area by superimposing the resultant maps of ASTER maps on Google Earth images of finer spatial resolution. Eventually, the encouraging geologic map generated by the image analysis of ASTER data strongly correlates with lithological boundaries from a field survey.

  5. Internal Ocean Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Internal waves are waves that travel within the interior of a fluid. The waves propagate at the interface or boundary between two layers with sharp density differences, such as temperature. They occur wherever strong tides or currents and stratification occur in the neighborhood of irregular topography. They can propagate for several hundred kilometers. The ASTER false-color VNIR image off the island of Tsushima in the Korea Strait shows the signatures of several internal wave packets, indicating a northern propagation direction. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Size: 60 by 120 kilometers (37.2 by 74.4 miles) Location: 34.6 degrees North latitude, 129.5 degrees East longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 3, 2, and 1 Original Data Resolution: 90

  6. Facilitative and competitive interaction components among New England salt marsh plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, John F; Rand, Tatyana A; Emery, Nancy C; Bertness, Mark D

    2017-01-01

    Intra- and interspecific interactions can be broken down into facilitative and competitive components. The net interaction between two organisms is simply the sum of these counteracting elements. Disentangling the positive and negative components of species interactions is a critical step in advancing our understanding of how the interaction between organisms shift along physical and biotic gradients. We performed a manipulative field experiment to quantify the positive and negative components of the interactions between a perennial forb, Aster tenuifolius, and three dominant, matrix-forming grasses and rushes in a New England salt marsh. Specifically, we asked whether positive and negative interaction components: (1) are unique or redundant across three matrix-forming species (two grasses; Distichlis spicata and Spartina patens, and one rush; Juncus gerardi), and (2) change across Aster life stages (seedling, juvenile, and adult). For adult Aster the strength of the facilitative component of the matrix-forb interaction was stronger than the competitive component for two of the three matrix species, leading to net positive interactions. There was no statistically significant variation among matrix species in their net or component effects. We found little difference in the effects of J. gerardi on Aster at later life-history stages; interaction component strengths did not differ between juveniles and adults. However, mortality of seedlings in neighbor removal plots was 100%, indicating a particularly strong and critical facilitative effect of matrix species on this forb during the earliest life stages. Overall, our results indicate that matrix forming grasses and rushes have important, yet largely redundant, positive net effects on Aster performance across its life cycle. Studies that untangle various components of interactions and their contingencies are critical to both expanding our basic understanding of community organization, and predicting how natural

  7. Augustine Volcano, Cook Inlet, Alaska (January 12, 2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Since last spring, the U.S. Geological Survey's Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) has detected increasing volcanic unrest at Augustine Volcano in Cook Inlet, Alaska near Anchorage. Based on all available monitoring data, AVO regards that an eruption similar to 1976 and 1986 is the most probable outcome. During January, activity has been episodic, and characterized by emission of steam and ash plumes, rising to altitudes in excess of 9,000 m (30,000 ft), and posing hazards to aircraft in the vicinity. An ASTER image was acquired at 12:42 AST on January 12, 2006, during an eruptive phase of Augustine. The perspective rendition shows the eruption plume derived from the ASTER image data. ASTER's stereo viewing capability was used to calculate the 3-dimensional topography of the eruption cloud as it was blown to the south by prevailing winds. From a maximum height of 3060 m (9950 ft), the plume cooled and its top descended to 1900 m (6175 ft). The perspective view shows the ASTER data draped over the plume top topography, combined with a base image acquired in 2000 by the Landsat satellite, that is itself draped over ground elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The topographic relief has been increased 1.5 times for this illustration. Comparison of the ASTER plume topography data with ash dispersal models and weather radar data will allow the National Weather Service to validate and improve such models. These models are used to forecast volcanic ash plume trajectories and provide hazard alerts and warnings to aircraft in the Alaska region. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with

  8. Witch Wildland Fire, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The October wildfires that plagued southern California were some of the worst on record. One of these, the Witch Wildland fire, burned 198,000 acres north of San Diego, destroying 1125 homes, commercial structures, and outbuildings. Over 3,000 firefighters finally contained the fire two weeks after it started on October 21. Now begins the huge task of planning and implementing mitigation measures to replant and reseed the burned areas. This ASTER image depicts the area after the fire, on November 6; vegetation is green, burned areas are dark red, and urban areas are blue. On the burn severity index image, calculated using infrared and visible bands, red areas are the most severely burned, followed by green and blue. This information can help the US Forest Service to plan post-fire activities. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The

  9. Coal Mining, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This simulated natural color ASTER image in the German state of North Rhine Westphalia covers an area of 30 by 36 km, and was acquired on August 26, 2000. On the right side of the image are 3 enormous opencast coalmines. The Hambach opencast coal mine has recently been brought to full output capacity through the addition of the No. 293 giant bucket wheel excavator. This is the largest machine in the world; it is twice as long as a soccer field and as tall as a building with 30 floors. To uncover the 2.4 billion tons of brown coal (lignite) found at Hambach, five years were required to remove a 200-m-thick layer of waste sand and to redeposit it off site. The mine currently yields 30 million tons of lignite annually, with annual capacity scheduled to increase to 40 million tons in coming years.The image is centered at 51 degrees north latitude, 6.4 degrees east longitude. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Examples of

  10. Fire near South Lake Tahoe, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    A destructive forest fire that broke out June 24, 2007 near South Lake Tahoe, Calif., continued to burn June 27 when this image was acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer instrument on NASA's Terra satellite. As of June 28, the fire had destroyed about 230 residences and other buildings. In all, about 2,000 people were evacuated, according to South Lake Tahoe Police. The blaze has charred more than 3,100 acres -- about 4.8 square miles -- and was 60 percent contained on June 28. In this ASTER image, the burned area is in gray, a combination of burned forest and some smoke, between Fallen Leaf Lake and the Tahoe Airport. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Size: 15 by 15 kilometers (9.3 by 9.3 miles) Location: 38.9 degrees North

  11. Soufriere Hills Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    In this ASTER image of Soufriere Hills Volcano on Montserrat in the Caribbean, continued eruptive activity is evident by the extensive smoke and ash plume streaming towards the west-southwest. Significant eruptive activity began in 1995, forcing the authorities to evacuate more than 7,000 of the island's original population of 11,000. The primary risk now is to the northern part of the island and to the airport. Small rockfalls and pyroclastic flows (ash, rock and hot gases) are common at this time due to continued growth of the dome at the volcano's summit.This image was acquired on October 29, 2002 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA

  12. Meiotic analysis of the germoplasm of three medicinal species from Asteraceae family Análise meiótica do germoplasma de três espécies medicinais da família Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Olkoski

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic characterization was carried out on 12 accessions from Aster squamatus (Spreng. Hieron., Pterocaulon polystachyum DC, and Solidago microglossa DC by studying their meiotic behavior and pollen viability. These species are from the Asteraceae family, native to Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, and are important for medicinal use. Young inflorescences with four accessions of each species were collected, fixed in ethanol-acetic acid (3:1, and conserved in ethanol 70% until use. The method used was that of squashing the anthers and coloring with acetic orcein 2%. Meiosis was regular in all accessions, presenting chromosomal associations preferentially bivalent, where n=10 was found for Aster squamatus and n=9 for Pterocaulon polystachyum, and Solidago microglossa. The studied accessions presented a Meiotic Index (MI that varied from 65% to 87% in Aster squamatus, 85% to 92% in Pterocaulon polystachyum, and 64% to 92% in Solidago microglossa, indicating meiotic stability, although irregularities appeared during the cellular division. The pollen viability estimative was high in all studied accessions. These results indicate that the studied species can be included in future studies of genetic breeding.Foi realizada a caracterização citogenética de doze acessos de Aster squamatus, Pterocaulon polystachyum e Solidago microglossa, espécies da família Asteraceae, nativas do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, por meio do estudo do comportamento meiótico e da viabilidade polínica, que possuem grande importância para uso medicinal. Inflorescências jovens de quatro acessos de cada espécie foram fixadas em álcool-ácido acético (3:1 e conservadas em álcool 70% até o uso. O método utilizado foi o de esmagamento de anteras e a coloração com orceína acética 2%. A meiose foi regular em todos os acessos, apresentando associações cromossômicas preferencialmente em bivalentes, encontrando-se n=10 para Aster squamatus e n=9 para Pterocaulon

  13. Manaus, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The junctions of the Amazon and the Rio Negro Rivers at Manaus, Brazil. The Rio Negro flows 2300 km from Columbia, and is the dark current forming the north side of the river. It gets its color from the high tannin content in the water. The Amazon is sediment laden, appearing brown in this simulated natural color image. Manaus is the capital of Amazonas state, and has a population in excess of one million. The ASTER image covers an area of 60 x 45 km. This image was acquired on July 16, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface

  14. 3D View of Grand Canyon, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Grand Canyon is one of North America's most spectacular geologic features. Carved primarily by the Colorado River over the past six million years, the canyon sports vertical drops of 5,000 feet and spans a 445-kilometer-long stretch of Arizona desert. The strata along the steep walls of the canyon form a record of geologic time from the Paleozoic Era (250 million years ago) to the Precambrian (1.7 billion years ago).The above view was acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument aboard the Terra spacecraft. Visible and near infrared data were combined to form an image that simulates the natural colors of water and vegetation. Rock colors, however, are not accurate. The image data were combined with elevation data to produce this perspective view, with no vertical exaggeration, looking from above the South Rim up Bright Angel Canyon towards the North Rim. The light lines on the plateau at lower right are the roads around the Canyon View Information Plaza. The Bright Angel Trail, which reaches the Colorado in 11.3 kilometers, can be seen dropping into the canyon over Plateau Point at bottom center. The blue and black areas on the North Rim indicate a forest fire that was smoldering as the data were acquired on May 12, 2000.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as

  15. Eruption of Shiveluch Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    On the night of June 4, 2001 ASTER captured this thermal image of the erupting Shiveluch volcano. Located on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, Shiveluch rises to an altitude of 8028'. The active lava dome complex is seen as a bright (hot) area on the summit of the volcano. To the southwest, a second hot area is either a debris avalanche or hot ash deposit. Trailing to the west is a 25 km ash plume, seen as a cold 'cloud' streaming from the summit. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred during the last 10,000 years; the largest historical eruptions were in 1854 and 1964. Because Kamchatka is located along the major aircraft routes between North America/Europe and the Far East, this area is constantly monitored for potential ash hazards to aircraft. The lower image is the same as the upper, except it has been color coded: red is hot, light greens to dark green are progressively colder, and gray/black are the coldest areas.The image is located at 56.7 degrees north latitude, 161.3 degrees east longitude. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous

  16. Three Gorges Dam, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This ASTER image shows a 60 km stretch of the Yangtze River in China, including the Xiling Gorge, the eastern of the three gorges. In the left part of the image is the construction site of the Three Gorges Dam, the world's largest.This image was acquired on July 20, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.Size: 60 x 24 km (36 x 15 miles) Location: 30.6 deg. North lat., 111.2 deg. East long. Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 1,2, and 3

  17. A model for astral stimulation of cytokinesis in animal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    A model is proposed in which stimulation of cortical cytoplasm occurs near the distal ends of astral rays. Levels of stimulation sufficient to cause furrowing occur only in equatorial zones between asters. The model can account for positioning of furrows in very large cells (fertilized eggs of amphibians, birds, and fish) and in cells with several mitotic apparatuses (insects). Finally, the model correctly predicts the positioning and occurrence of furrowing in two experiments in which cellular shape was manipulated into either an hourglass or a cylindrical form before division. These results are consistent with equatorial stimulation theories in which mitotic asters differentially stimulate the future furrow region (equatorial cortex). The results are not consistent with models requiring differential stimulation of nonfurrowing, polar regions of the cell. PMID:2808526

  18. [Analysis on principle of treatment of cough of yan zhenghua based on apriori and clustering algorithm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia-Rui; Guo, Wei-Xian; Zhang, Xiao-Meng; Yang, Bing; Zhang, Bing

    2014-02-01

    Based on the data mining methods of association rules and clustering algorithm, the 188 prescriptions for cough that built by Yan Zhenghua were collected and analyzed to get the frequency of drug usage and the relationship between drugs. From which we could conclude the experiences of Yan Zhenghua for the treatment of cough. The results of the analysis were that 20 core combinations were dig out, such as Bambusae Caulis in Taenias-Almond-Sactmarsh Aster. And there were 10 new prescriptions were found out, such as Sactmarsh Aster-Scutellariae Radix-Album Viscum-Bambusae Caulis in Taenian-Eriobotryae Folium. The results of the analysis were proved that Yan Zhenghua was good at curing cough by using the traditional Chinese medicine that can dispel wind and heat from the body, and remove heat from the lung to relieve cough.

  19. Self-organizing actin patterns shape membrane architecture but not cell mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsche, M.; Li, D.; Colin-York, H.; Chang, V. T.; Moeendarbary, E.; Felce, J. H.; Sezgin, E.; Charras, G.; Betzig, E.; Eggeling, C.

    2017-02-01

    Cell-free studies have demonstrated how collective action of actin-associated proteins can organize actin filaments into dynamic patterns, such as vortices, asters and stars. Using complementary microscopic techniques, we here show evidence of such self-organization of the actin cortex in living HeLa cells. During cell adhesion, an active multistage process naturally leads to pattern transitions from actin vortices over stars into asters. This process is primarily driven by Arp2/3 complex nucleation, but not by myosin motors, which is in contrast to what has been theoretically predicted and observed in vitro. Concomitant measurements of mechanics and plasma membrane fluidity demonstrate that changes in actin patterning alter membrane architecture but occur functionally independent of macroscopic cortex elasticity. Consequently, tuning the activity of the Arp2/3 complex to alter filament assembly may thus be a mechanism allowing cells to adjust their membrane architecture without affecting their macroscopic mechanical properties.

  20. Chiliques volcano, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A January 6, 2002 ASTER nighttime thermal infrared image of Chiliques volcano in Chile shows a hot spot in the summit crater and several others along the upper flanks of the edifice, indicating new volcanic activity. Examination of an earlier nighttime thermal infrared image from May 24,2000 showed no thermal anomaly. Chiliques volcano was previously thought to be dormant. Rising to an elevation of 5778 m, Chiliques is a simple stratovolcano with a 500-m-diameter circular summit crater. This mountain is one of the most important high altitude ceremonial centers of the Incas. It is rarely visited due to its difficult accessibility. Climbing to the summit along Inca trails, numerous ruins are encountered; at the summit there are a series of constructions used for rituals. There is a beautiful lagoon in the crater that is almost always frozen.The daytime image was acquired on November 19, 2000 and was created by displaying ASTER bands 1,2 and 3 in blue, green and red. The nighttime image was acquired January 6, 2002, and is a color-coded display of a single thermal infrared band. The hottest areas are white, and colder areas are darker shades of red. Both images cover an area of 7.5 x 7.5 km, and are centered at 23.6 degrees south latitude, 67.6 degrees west longitude.Both images cover an area of 7.5 x 7.5 km, and are centered at 23.6 degrees south latitude, 67.6 degrees west longitude.These images were acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U

  1. Data Access, Discovery and Interoperability in the European Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Francoise

    2015-12-01

    European Virtual Observatory (VO) activities have been coordinated by a series of projects funded by the European Commission. Three pillar were identified: support to the data providers for implementation of their data in the VO framework; support to the astronomical community for their usage of VO-enabled data and tools; technological work for updating the VO framework of interoperability standards and tools. A new phase is beginning with the ASTERICS cluster project. ASTERICS Work Package "Data Access, Discovery and Interoperability" aims at making the data from the ESFRI projects and their pathfinders available for discovery and usage, interoperable in the VO framework and accessible with VO-enabled common tools. VO teams and representatives of ESFRI and pathfinder projects and of EGO/VIRGO are engaged together in the Work Package. ESO is associated to the project which is also working closely with ESA. The three pillars identified for coordinating Europaen VO activities are tackled.

  2. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Level 1 Precision Terrain Corrected Registered At-Sensor Radiance (AST_L1T) Product, algorithm theoretical basis document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, David; Siemonsma, Dawn; Brooks, Barbara; Johnson, Lowell

    2015-09-15

    This document provides an overview of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) supplemental algorithms in conjunction with the reuse of Landsat geometric algorithms modified by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) to create an ASTER Level 1 Precision Terrain Corrected Registered At-Sensor Radiance (AST_L1T) product. Implementation of these algorithms occurs within the AST_L1T product generation executable (PGE) as part of the open source Simple, Scalable, Script-based Science Processor for Missions (S4PM) processing software subsystem. The AST_L1T algorithms include the following: Generation of the AST_L1A input product via supplemental algorithms

  3. Pembuatan Digital Elevation Model Resolusi 10m dari Peta RBI dan Survei GPS dengan Algoritma Anudem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indarto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes the generation of Digital Elevation Model (DEM with spatial resolution of 10m x 10m by re-interpolation of elevation data. Data input for this study includes: (1 digitized datum coordinate from RBI map, (2 sample points surveyed by GPS, (3 digitized contour data fromSRTM DEM and ASTER GDEM2, and (4 digitized stream-network layer from RBI. All collected data were converted to mass point coordinats. On the top of Topogrid-ArcGIS, all points data were interpolated to produce DEM. After that the produced DEM were compared and evaluated to the SRTM and ASTER DEMvisually. The result shows that produced DEM are more accurate to represent the detailed topography of the study areas.

  4. Boston Community Energy Study - Zonal Analysis for Urban Microgrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-05

    Administration (NOAA), there were 178 weather events between 1980 and 2014 that exceeded $1 billion in damages [1]. These events totaled more than $1...Hotels/motels • Libraries • Museums • Public schools 31 • Shelters • Malls • Baseball and football stadiums • Basketball and hockey arenas The...National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration , “Billion-Dollar Weather and Climate Dis- asters: Table of Events — National Centers for Environmental

  5. A Motor-Gradient and Clustering Model of the Centripetal Motility of MTOCs in Meiosis I of Mouse Oocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Khetan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Asters nucleated by Microtubule (MT organizing centers (MTOCs converge on chromosomes during spindle assembly in mouse oocytes undergoing meiosis I. Time-lapse imaging suggests that this centripetal motion is driven by a biased 'search-and-capture' mechanism. Here, we develop a model of a random walk in a drift field to test the nature of the bias and the spatio-temporal dynamics of the search process. The model is used to optimize the spatial field of drift in simulations, by comparison to experimental motility statistics. In a second step, this optimized gradient is used to determine the location of immobilized dynein motors and MT polymerization parameters, since these are hypothesized to generate the gradient of forces needed to move MTOCs. We compare these scenarios to self-organized mechanisms by which asters have been hypothesized to find the cell-center- MT pushing at the cell-boundary and clustering motor complexes. By minimizing the error between simulation outputs and experiments, we find a model of "pulling" by a gradient of dynein motors alone can drive the centripetal motility. Interestingly, models of passive MT based "pushing" at the cortex, clustering by cross-linking motors and MT-dynamic instability gradients alone, by themselves do not result in the observed motility. The model predicts the sensitivity of the results to motor density and stall force, but not MTs per aster. A hybrid model combining a chromatin-centered immobilized dynein gradient, diffusible minus-end directed clustering motors and pushing at the cell cortex, is required to comprehensively explain the available data. The model makes experimentally testable predictions of a spatial bias and self-organized mechanisms by which MT asters can find the center of a large cell.

  6. Res Cover Sep 07

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    THOLASI

    algebra has been to ¯nd good w ays of solving polyno- m ial equations. Linear and quadratic equations w ere m astered long back, and attem pts to solve the cubic equation brought m athem aticians into contact for the. ¯rst tim e w ith the strange w orld of com plex num bers. B y the seventeenth century,cubic equations and ...

  7. Deforestation and Forest Fragmentation in South Ecuador since the 1970s - Losing a Hotspot of Biodiversity.

    OpenAIRE

    María Fernanda Tapia-Armijos; Jürgen Homeier; Carlos Iván Espinosa; Christoph Leuschner; Marcelino de la Cruz

    2015-01-01

    Deforestation and fragmentation are major components of global change; both are contributing to the rapid loss of tropical forest area with important implications for ecosystem functioning and biodiversity conservation. The forests of South Ecuador are a biological 'hotspot' due to their high diversity and endemism levels. We examined the deforestation and fragmentation patterns in this area of high conservation value using aerial photographs and Aster satellite scenes. The registered annual ...

  8. KAJIAN: KHASIAT DAN KEAMANAN STEVIA SEBAGAI PEMANIS PENGGANTI GULA

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Raini; Ani Isnawati

    2012-01-01

    The increasing of diabetic prevalence encouraged scientists to discover sweetener  as sugar substitution. Stevia is a perenial shrub (known as Stevia rebaudiana) of the aster family that has been used for hundred of years to sweetening. Stevia is a natural, non caloric, sweet tasting plant known for its pleasant sweet taste without leaving bitter aftertaste.  The leaves contain primarily stevioside and rebaudioside. Both have potential for  antihyperlicemic and blood pressure lowering effect....

  9. Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS). North Carolina Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    envirw~.mental laws and wcur k~ie The U.S. Army ha~s adopted ar~ erdcdFo m0 WtlI co ri ! r Ce PC (r M that kid ntifieS CO nV lt-Ia C S e t A a l b e C pff...Trisetum Trisetum spicaturm molle E Georgia Indigo -bush Amorpha georgiana georgiana T Savanna Indigo -bush Amorpiw georgiana confusa E Serpentine Aster

  10. Thermal remote sensing for reservoir modelling and management

    OpenAIRE

    Martí-Cardona, B.; Arbat-Bofill, M; Prats-Rodríguez, J.; Pipia, L.

    2016-01-01

    ASTER and Landsat images were used for mapping the water surface temperature in the Sobrón, Mequinenza and Ribarroja reservoirs in the Ebro River, Spain. The spatially continuous information in these maps reveals the impact of the reservoir on the river natural thermal gradient in two different periods of the year. It also evidences the thermal impact intensity and extent of the refrigeration flow discharge from a nuclear power plant located on the river bank. The high spatial resolution i...

  11. Thermal remote sensing for reservoir modelling and management

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    ASTER and Landsat images were used for mapping the water surface temperature in the Sobrón, Mequinenza and Ribarroja reservoirs in the Ebro River, Spain. The spatially continuous information in these maps reveals the impact of the reservoir on the river natural thermal gradient in two different periods of the year. It also evidences the thermal impact intensity and extent of the refrigeration flow discharge from a nuclear power plant located on the river bank. The high spatial resolution imag...

  12. Télédétection thermique appliquée à la modélisation et à la gestion des barrages

    OpenAIRE

    Martí-Cardona, B.; Arbat-Bofill, M; Prats-Rodríguez, J.; Pipia, L.

    2016-01-01

    Living Planet Symposium 2016, Prague, CZE, 09-/05/2016 - 13/05/2016; International audience; ASTER and Landsat images were used for mapping the water surface temperature in the Sobrón, Mequinenza and Ribarroja reservoirs in the Ebro River, Spain. The spatially continuous information in these maps reveals the impact of the reservoir on the river natural thermal gradient in two different periods of the year. It also evidences the thermal impact intensity and extent of the refrigeration flow dis...

  13. Cytoskeleton and chromatin reorganization in horse oocytes following intracytoplasmic sperm injection: patterns associated with normal and defective fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremoleda, Jordi L; Van Haeften, Theo; Stout, Tom A E; Colenbrander, Ben; Bevers, Mart M

    2003-07-01

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is the method of choice for fertilizing horse oocytes in vitro. Nevertheless, for reasons that are not yet clear, embryo development rates are low. The aims of this study were to examine cytoskeletal and chromatin reorganization in horse oocytes fertilized by ICSI or activated parthenogenetically. Additional oocytes were injected with a sperm labeled with a mitochondrion-specific vital dye to help identify the contribution of the sperm to zygotic structures, in particular the centrosome. Oocytes were fixed at set intervals after sperm injection and examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy. In unfertilized oocytes, microtubules were present only in the metaphase-arrested second meiotic spindle and the first polar body. After sperm injection, an aster of microtubules formed adjacent to the sperm head and subsequently enlarged such that at the time of pronucleus migration and apposition it filled the entire cytoplasm. During syngamy, the microtubule matrix reorganized to form a mitotic spindle on which the chromatin of both parents aligned. Finally, after nuclear and cellular cleavage were complete, the microtubule asters dispersed into the interphase daughter cells. Sham injection induced parthenogenetic activation of 76% of oocytes, marked by the formation of multiple cytoplasmic microtubular foci that later developed into a dense microtubule network surrounding the female pronucleus. The finding that a parthenote alone can produce a microtubule aster, whereas the aster invariably forms at the base of the sperm head during normal fertilization, indicates that both gametes contribute to the formation of the zygotic centrosome in the horse. Finally, 25% of sperm-injected oocytes failed to complete fertilization, mostly due to absence of oocyte activation (65%), which was often accompanied by failure of sperm decondensation. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that union of the parental genomes in horse zygotes is

  14. Estimating plot-level forest structural attributes using high spectral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results indicated weak relationships between the studied forest structural attributes and ASTER data. In the younger plantation stands (4–6 years) the adjusted R2 values from CCA regression for SPHA, DBH, MTH, basal area and volume were 54.2, 63.5, 33.8, 25.4 and 30.3, respectively. The adjusted R2 values in the ...

  15. Seismology of Giant Planets: General Overview and Results from the Kepler K2 Observations of Neptune

    OpenAIRE

    Gaulme Patrick

    2017-01-01

    For this invited contribution, I was asked to give an overview about the application of helio and aster-oseismic techniques to study the interior of giant planets, and to specifically present the recent observations of Neptune by Kepler K2. Seismology applied to giant planets could drastically change our understanding of their deep interiors, as it has happened with the Earth, the Sun, and many main-sequence and evolved stars. The study of giant planets' composition is important for understan...

  16. Editorial : Optimal Satellite Sensor Selection Utilized to Monitor the Impact of Urban Sprawl on the Thermal Environment in Doha City, Qatar

    OpenAIRE

    Al Kuwari, NY; Ahmed, S; Kaiser, MF

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the most appropriate Landsat and ASTER Image spatial and spectral resolutions were selected to extract thermal infrared data in Doha City, Qatar from 1990-2015. Results indicated Urban Heat Island(UHI) calculated from Landsat sensor data was more consistent with ground truthed temperatures. Landsat TM thermal infrared data with low spatial resolution (60-120 m) was more appropriate for large-scale thermal studies, but was not suitable to assess complex urban thermal e...

  17. Tectonic Control on Drainage Network Evolution in the Upper Narmada Valley: Implication to Neotectonics

    OpenAIRE

    Girish Ch. Kothyari; B. K. Rastogi

    2013-01-01

    Convergence of the Indian plate towards Eurasia is reflected in neotectonics along several zones throughout the Indian plate. Neotectonics of the upper Narmada river basin following one of the active Son-Narmada Fault (SNF central part) zones in central Peninsular India has been studied through tectonic geomorphometric parameters. The study area is 175 km wide and 400 km long valley and catchment area of upper Narmada river basin in Madhya Pradesh state. High resolution ASTER data indicates n...

  18. Evaluation of different digital elevation models for analyzing drainage morphometric parameters in a mountainous terrain: a case study of the Supin?Upper Tons Basin, Indian Himalayas

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Sayantan; Patel, Priyank Pravin; Sengupta, Somasis

    2016-01-01

    Background With myriad geospatial datasets now available for terrain information extraction and particularly streamline demarcation, there arises questions regarding the scale, accuracy and sensitivity of the initial dataset from which these aspects are derived, as they influence all other parameters computed subsequently. In this study, digital elevation models (DEM) derived from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER V2), Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM...

  19. AcEST: DK955456 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available aster GN=sls PE... 31 4.2 sp|Q8R368|DYXC1_MOUSE Dyslexia susceptibility 1 candida... >sp|Q8R368|DYXC1_MOUSE Dyslexia susceptibility 1 candidate gene 1 protein homolog OS=Mus musculus GN=Dyx1c1...KPRLQP 164 F E +M +S R ++LE+QR Q + W+ + +P+LQP Sbjct: 5137 FITTEDVNIMHVSER-EKLEAQRLIREQQAVNWRQQQQRPQLQP 5179

  20. Progress in Understanding the Impacts of 3-D Cloud Structure on MODIS Cloud Property Retrievals for Marine Boundary Layer Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhibo; Werner, Frank; Miller, Daniel; Platnick, Steven; Ackerman, Andrew; DiGirolamo, Larry; Meyer, Kerry; Marshak, Alexander; Wind, Galina; Zhao, Guangyu

    2016-01-01

    Theory: A novel framework based on 2-D Tayler expansion for quantifying the uncertainty in MODIS retrievals caused by sub-pixel reflectance inhomogeneity. (Zhang et al. 2016). How cloud vertical structure influences MODIS LWP retrievals. (Miller et al. 2016). Observation: Analysis of failed MODIS cloud property retrievals. (Cho et al. 2015). Cloud property retrievals from 15m resolution ASTER observations. (Werner et al. 2016). Modeling: LES-Satellite observation simulator (Zhang et al. 2012, Miller et al. 2016).

  1. A Study on New Pochonka Published in A.D. 1792

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sang-Hyeon

    2009-12-01

    New Pochonka published in the eighteenth century of the Choson dynasty was composed of star-charts based on the new observations made by Jesuits in China and songs corrected a little bit from previous version of Pochonka. The asterisms in the previous Pochonka are listed in the same order to that in the Song dynasty's literature; while the asterisms in the new Pochonka are listed in accordance with Pu-tien-ko published in China after the Ming dynasty. The Chinese-style twelve-equatorial-section system is adopted in the new Pochonka, while in its song is adopted the zodiac system, which can be seen in the star-charts of previous version of Pochonka. The asterisms belonging to three or four neighboring lunar-mansions are drawn in one chart. Each chart covers asterisms not belonging to a certain range of right ascension, but to a certain lunar mansion. We estimate the forming era of the new Pochonka from the following facts; that the Ling-Tai-I-Hsiang-Chih was used to make charts and footnotes whose archetype can be found in the Chinese literature around A.D. 1700, that these Chinese books were imported into Choson in A.D. 1709, that the naming taboo to the emperor Khang-Hsi was used, that the order of Shen-Hsiu (參宿) was transposed with Tshui-Hsiu (자宿), and that the new Pochonka was substituted for the old version when the rules of Royal Astronomical Bureau was reformed in A.D. 1791. In conclusion, the parent sources of the charts and footnotes of the new Pochonka might be imported from the Ching dynasty around 1709 A.D. to form the new Pochonka between A.D. 1709 and A.D. 1791, and finally to be published in A.D. 1792. We discuss the possible future works to make a firm conclusion.

  2. Contact frottant avec X-FEM: formulation 3D et stabilisation

    OpenAIRE

    Geniaut, Samuel; Massin, Patrick; Moës, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    International audience; This work presents a new method, based on the extended finite element method (X-FEM), for the survey of frictional contact cracks. Because of X-FEM, a continuum mechanics formulation of contact is used, with an Augmented Lagrangian method. In order to satisfy the LBB condition, we propose an algorithm for building an appropriate Lagrange multiplier space. A detailed numerical example with the finite element software Code_Aster illustrates this approach while solving a ...

  3. Surge-type and surge-modified glaciers in the Karakoram

    OpenAIRE

    Bhambri, R.; Hewitt, K.; P. Kawishwar; Pratap, B

    2017-01-01

    Glaciers in the Karakoram exhibit irregular behavior. Terminus fluctuations of individual glaciers lack consistency and, unlike other parts of the Himalaya, total ice mass remained stable or slightly increased since the 1970s. These seeming anomalies are addressed through a comprehensive mapping of surge-type glaciers and surge-related impacts, based on satellite images (Landsat and ASTER), ground observations, and archival material since the 1840s. Some 221 surge-type and surge-like glaciers...

  4. An Ancient Egyptian Diagonal Star Table in Mallawi, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, Sarah; Cockcroft, Robert

    2013-11-01

    A coffin belonging to an Egyptian Middle Kingdom official Hor-em-hetepu, on public display in the Mallawi Monuments Museum, Egypt, contains a previously-unpublished diagonal star table (or "diagonal star clock"). This table adds to the other twenty-four examples of this type of astronomical record or calendar from around 2100 B.C. The table displays a regular diagonal pattern of decan (star or asterism) names, with some interesting points of content, epigraphy, and typology.

  5. Numerical analysis of temperature field during hardfacing process and comparison with experimental results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić Vukić N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional transient nonlinear thermal analysis of the hard facing process is performed by using the finite element method. The simulations were executed on the open source Salome platform using the open source finite element solver Code_Aster. The Gaussian double ellipsoid was selected in order to enable greater possibilities for the calculation of the moving heat source. The numerical results were compared with available experimental results.

  6. Feasibility Report and Environmental Impact Statement for Navigation and Related Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    California Hibiscus and a Lilaeopsis that have been found adjacent to the ship channel. Also, the Anthicid Beetle is a proposed species and its...distributions in the Sacramento River Deep Water Ship Channel area are: California hibiscus — Rio Vista vicinity; Lilaeopsis — Montezuma Hills...Costa wallflower4 Antioch Dunes evening primrose4 California hibiscus Lilaeopsis Suisun aster Delta tule pea Bolander water hemlock Gum plant

  7. Final Environmental Assessment for Proposed Construction II, Buckley Air Force Base, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    MACTEC Engineering and Consulting 1627 Cole Boulevard Golden , CO 80401 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME...of installation 0.52 Weedy short-grass Prairie and Turfgrass (on existing ball field) Buffalo Grass Fescue Golden Aster 8. Demolish Building...on the installation. Hypoxis hirsute Yellow stargrass G5/S1 Generally not known from Arapahoe County. Ribes americanum American currant G5/S1 Not

  8. Pathogenicity of eight formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. in relation to different plants species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Wagner

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Eight formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum were isolated from plants of aster, flax, bean, pea, tomato, carnation, yellow lupine and pine, showing visible symptoms of wilting. Plants of the eight species were inoculated with each of the studied formae speciales of F. oxysporum, F. oxysporum f. sp. lupini could be reisolated only from lupine, while the others were pathogenic for the hosts and showed ability to colonize another plants.

  9. World Cup Final

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    On July 9, hundreds of millions of fans worldwide will be glued to their television sets watching the final match of the 2006 FIFA World Cup, played in Berlin's Olympic stadium (Olympiastadion). The stadium was originally built for the 1936 Summer Olympics. The Olympic Stadium seats 76,000,; its roof rises 68 meters over the seats and is made up of transparent panels that allow sunlight to stream in during the day. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Size: 12.1 by 15.9 kilometers (7.5 by 9.5 miles) Location: 52.5 degrees North latitude, 13.3 degrees East longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 3, 2, and 1 Original Data Resolution: 15 meters (49.2 feet) Dates Acquired: October 15, 2005

  10. Antioxidant Activity and Anti-Adipogenic Effects of Wild Herbs Mainly Cultivated in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boo-Yong Lee

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Wild herbs, which are edible plants that grow in mountainous areas, have diverse biological effects such as anti-obesity and anti-cancer activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as the antioxidant activity of methanol extracts of Aster scaber, Ligularia fischeri, Kalopanax pictus, Codonopsis lanceolata, and Cirsium setidens and to assess their effects on lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS production during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells. The results revealed that among the five studied wild herb extracts, Ligularia fischeri showed the highest total phenolic contents (215.8 ± 14.2 mg GAE/g and Aster scaber showed the highest total flavonoid content (103.9 ± 3.4 mg RE/g. Furthermore, Aster scaber and Ligularia fischeri extracts showed higher antioxidant activity than the other wild herbs. Regarding anti-adipogenic activity, the Cirsium setidens extract significantly inhibited lipid accumulation (~80% and ROS production (~50% during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells compared with control cells. These results suggest that wild herbs could be used for the development of functional foods as well as health promoting and pharmaceutical agents.

  11. MEaSUREs Land Surface Temperature from GOES Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinker, Rachel T.; Chen, Wen; Ma, Yingtao; Islam, Tanvir; Borbas, Eva; Hain, Chris; Hulley, Glynn; Hook, Simon

    2017-04-01

    Information on Land Surface Temperature (LST) can be generated from observations made from satellites in low Earth orbit (LEO) such as MODIS and ASTER and by sensors in geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) such as GOES. Under a project titled: "A Unified and Coherent Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Earth System Data Record for Earth Science" led by Jet Propulsion Laboratory, an effort is underway to develop long term consistent information from both such systems. In this presentation we will describe an effort to derive LST information from GOES satellites. Results will be presented from two approaches: 1) based on regression developed from a wide range of simulations using MODTRAN, SeeBor Version 5.0 global atmospheric profiles and the CAMEL (Combined ASTER and MODIS Emissivity for Land) product based on the standard University of Wisconsin 5 km emissivity values (UWIREMIS) and the ASTER Global Emissivity Database (GED) product; 2) RTTOV radiative transfer model driven with MERRA-2 reanalysis fields. We will present results of evaluation of these two methods against various products, such as MOD11, and ground observations for the five year period of (2004-2008).

  12. Targeting Hydrothermal Alterations Utilizing LANDSAT-8 Andaster Data in Shahr-E Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, M.; Pour, A. B.; Maghsoudi, A.; Hashim, M.

    2017-10-01

    Shahr-e-Babak tract of the Kerman metalogenic belt is one of the most potential segments of Urumieh-Dokhtar (Sahand-Bazman) magmatic arc. This area encompasses several porphyry copper deposits in exploration, development and exploitation hierarchy. The aim of this study is to map hydrothermal alterations caused by early Cenozoic magmatic intrusions in Shahr-e-Babak area. To this purpose, mineral mapping methods including band combinations, ratios and multiplications as well as PCA and MNF data space transforms in SWIR and VNIR for both ASTER and OLI sensors. Alteration zones according to spectral signatures of each type of alteration mineral assemblages such as argillic, phyllic and propylitic are successfully mapped. For enhancing the target areas false color composites and HSI-RGB color space transform are performed on developed band combinations. Previous studies have proven the robust application of ASTER in geology and mineral exploration; nonetheless, the results of this investigation prove applicability of OLI sensor from landsat-8 for alteration mapping. According to the results, evidently OLI sensor data can accurately map alteration zones. Additionally, the 12-bit quantization of OLI data is its privilege over 8-bit data of ASTER in VNIR and SWIR, thus OLI high quality results, which makes it easy to distinguish targets with enhanced color contrast between the altered and unaltered rocks.

  13. Lithological mapping of Kanjamalai hill using hyperspectral remote sensing tools in Salem district, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulbalaji, Palanisamy; Balasubramanian, Gurugnanam

    2017-07-01

    This study uses advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER) hyperspectral remote sensing techniques to discriminate rock types composing Kanjamalai hill located in the Salem district of Tamil Nadu, India. Kanjamalai hill is of particular interest because it contains economically viable iron ore deposits. ASTER hyperspectral data were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA), independent component analysis (ICA), and minimum noise fraction (MNF) to improve identification of lithologies remotely and to compare these digital data results with published geologic maps. Hyperspectral remote sensing analysis indicates that PCA (R∶G∶B=2∶1∶3), MNF (R∶G∶B=3∶2∶1), and ICA (R∶G∶B=1∶3∶2) provide the best band combination for effective discrimination of lithological rock types composing Kanjamalai hill. The remote sensing-derived lithological map compares favorably with a published geological map from Geological Survey of India and has been verified with ground truth field investigations. Therefore, ASTER data-based lithological mapping provides fast, cost-effective, and accurate geologic data useful for lithological discrimination and identification of ore deposits.

  14. Free Global Dsm Assessment on Large Scale Areas Exploiting the Potentialities of the Innovative Google Earth Engine Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascetti, A.; Di Rita, M.; Ravanelli, R.; Amicuzi, M.; Esposito, S.; Crespi, M.

    2017-05-01

    The high-performance cloud-computing platform Google Earth Engine has been developed for global-scale analysis based on the Earth observation data. In particular, in this work, the geometric accuracy of the two most used nearly-global free DSMs (SRTM and ASTER) has been evaluated on the territories of four American States (Colorado, Michigan, Nevada, Utah) and one Italian Region (Trentino Alto- Adige, Northern Italy) exploiting the potentiality of this platform. These are large areas characterized by different terrain morphology, land covers and slopes. The assessment has been performed using two different reference DSMs: the USGS National Elevation Dataset (NED) and a LiDAR acquisition. The DSMs accuracy has been evaluated through computation of standard statistic parameters, both at global scale (considering the whole State/Region) and in function of the terrain morphology using several slope classes. The geometric accuracy in terms of Standard deviation and NMAD, for SRTM range from 2-3 meters in the first slope class to about 45 meters in the last one, whereas for ASTER, the values range from 5-6 to 30 meters. In general, the performed analysis shows a better accuracy for the SRTM in the flat areas whereas the ASTER GDEM is more reliable in the steep areas, where the slopes increase. These preliminary results highlight the GEE potentialities to perform DSM assessment on a global scale.

  15. The class inclusion question: a case study in applying pragmatics to the experimental study of cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politzer, Guy

    2016-01-01

    For more than 70 years, Piaget's class-inclusion task (given, e.g., five asters and three tulips, the child is asked whether "there are more asters or more flowers") has been the object of experimental investigation. Inclusion is of considerable importance for cognitive science as it is a key concept for logical operations and knowledge representation. It is shown that the question can be characterised by a kind of privative ambiguity which is at the source of the younger children's answer, "more asters". A relevance-theoretic explanation of children's interpretation of the question and of the subsequent responses is expounded. This account can explain the effect of all the factors that are known to influence performance (e.g., role of collections, counting, typicality, qualification, syntax, etc.), a review of which is presented. It is further tested experimentally. The development of performance is explained on the basis of the way children disambiguate the question. This study exemplifies the two ways in which pragmatic analysis is pertinent to the study of children's (as well as adults') reasoning and judgement, namely in explaining and predicting participants' comprehension of the statements and questions, and in taking into account attribution processes that occur in the experimental setting.

  16. Aftermath of Griffith Park Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    In mid-May 2007, wind-driven flames raced through Griffith Park in Los Angeles, forcing hasty evacuations and threatening numerous famous landmarks and tourist spots, such as the Los Angeles Zoo and the Hollywood Sign. Ultimately, no one was injured in the fire, which may have been started by a cigarette. About 800 acres burned in the urban park, which is itself a Hollywood landmark, having been the location for several movies, including Rebel Without A Cause. This image of the park was captured by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite on June 6, 2007, about a month after the fire. ASTER detects both visible and infrared wavelengths of light, and both kinds have been used to make this image. Vegetation appears in various shades of red, while the burned areas appear charcoal. Roads and dense urban areas appear purplish-gray or white. Water is dark blue. Large burned areas are evident in the northwest and southeast parts of the park, with scattered smaller patches along the southern margin. Some botanical gardens and parts of a bird sanctuary, as well as some park structures like restrooms, were destroyed. The park's unburned, natural vegetation appears brick red, while the irrigated golf courses adjacent to the park are bright red. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  17. MAST/Orbit has a role in microtubule–kinetochore attachment and is essential for chromosome alignment and maintenance of spindle bipolarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiato, Helder; Sampaio, Paula; Lemos, Catarina L.; Findlay, John; Carmena, Mar; Earnshaw, William C.; Sunkel, Claudio E.

    2002-01-01

    Multiple asters (MAST)/Orbit is a member of a new family of nonmotor microtubule-associated proteins that has been previously shown to be required for the organization of the mitotic spindle. Here we provide evidence that MAST/Orbit is required for functional kinetochore attachment, chromosome congression, and the maintenance of spindle bipolarity. In vivo analysis of Drosophila mast mutant embryos undergoing early mitotic divisions revealed that chromosomes are unable to reach a stable metaphase alignment and that bipolar spindles collapse as centrosomes move progressively closer toward the cell center and eventually organize into a monopolar configuration. Similarly, soon after depletion of MAST/Orbit in Drosophila S2 cells by double-stranded RNA interference, cells are unable to form a metaphase plate and instead assemble monopolar spindles with chromosomes localized close to the center of the aster. In these cells, kinetochores either fail to achieve end-on attachment or are associated with short microtubules. Remarkably, when microtubule dynamics is suppressed in MAST-depleted cells, chromosomes localize at the periphery of the monopolar aster associated with the plus ends of well-defined microtubule bundles. Furthermore, in these cells, dynein and ZW10 accumulate at kinetochores and fail to transfer to microtubules. However, loss of MAST/Orbit does not affect the kinetochore localization of D-CLIP-190. Together, these results strongly support the conclusion that MAST/Orbit is required for microtubules to form functional attachments to kinetochores and to maintain spindle bipolarity. PMID:12034769

  18. Aurora A phosphorylates MCAK to control ran-dependent spindle bipolarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Ems-McClung, Stephanie C; Walczak, Claire E

    2008-07-01

    During mitosis, mitotic centromere-associated kinesin (MCAK) localizes to chromatin/kinetochores, a cytoplasmic pool, and spindle poles. Its localization and activity in the chromatin region are regulated by Aurora B kinase; however, how the cytoplasmic- and pole-localized MCAK are regulated is currently not clear. In this study, we used Xenopus egg extracts to form spindles in the absence of chromatin and centrosomes and found that MCAK localization and activity are tightly regulated by Aurora A. This regulation is important to focus microtubules at aster centers and to facilitate the transition from asters to bipolar spindles. In particular, we found that MCAK colocalized with NuMA and XMAP215 at the center of Ran asters where its activity is regulated by Aurora A-dependent phosphorylation of S196, which contributes to proper pole focusing. In addition, we found that MCAK localization at spindle poles was regulated through another Aurora A phosphorylation site (S719), which positively enhances bipolar spindle formation. This is the first study that clearly defines a role for MCAK at the spindle poles as well as identifies another key Aurora A substrate that contributes to spindle bipolarity.

  19. Full Physical Optics Sky Coverage Simulation for MCAO Systems on ELT's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lianqi; Ellerbroek, Brent; Veran, Jean Pierre

    For multi-conjugate and multi-object AO (MCAO and MOAO) systems, the evaluation of sky coverage is challenging because asterisms of three or more natural guide stars (NGS's) must be considered. In this paper, we described a full rank, physical optics sky coverage simulation tool for modeling both the NGS and LGS AO control loops of MCAO systems on ELT's. Sufficient computational efficiency to enable practical Monte Carlo simulations over a large number of natural guide star asterisms can be obtained using the so-called “split tomography” control architecture, in which the higher-order wavefront correction computed from the LGS WFS measurements is not affected by the lower-order NGS control loop. We first compute and store time histories of 1) the atmospheric modes that are blind to LGS WFS and 2) natural guide star point spread functions for a full ensemble of many NGS over the course of a single high order AO simulation run. The behavior of the NGS loop may then be evaluated separately for each NGS asterism in a post-processing step to derive sky coverage statistics. This post-processing analysis also helps us find the best approach to WFS centroiding to maximize skycoverage.

  20. PENGGUNAAN ALGORITMA NDVI DAN EVI PADA CITRA MULTISPEKTRAL UNTUK ANALISA PERTUMBUHAN PADI (STUDI KASUS : KABUPATEN INDRAMAYU, JAWA BARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia Hafizh S

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Kabupaten Indramayu merupakan salah satu kabupaten yang merupakan daerah sentra pertanian dimana sektor ini menyumbang 43% dari total PDRB (Produk Domestik Regional Bruto. Strategi yang tepat dan cepat harus dicanangkan untuk selalu memenuhi kebutuhan akan bahan pokok tersebut. Teknologi penginderaan jauh dapat mengakomodir informasi suatu objek secara cepat dan akurat tanpa harus berinteraksi langsung dengan objek dan dapat dimanfaatkan dalam berbagai aplikasi yang diinginkan. Pembangunan model - model estimasi produktivitas pada beberapa komoditas vegetasi pertanian seperti padi telah digunakan sejak dua dekade lalu. Dari berbagai macam permodelan vegetasi, indeks vegetasi yang paling umum digunakan adalah NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index dan EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah penentuan fase pertumbuhan , masa tanam, dan masa panen tumbuhan padi pada citra MODIS L1B. Masa tanam padi di kabupaten Indramayu berada pada bulan Juni dan Desember 2011, masa panen berada pada bulan  Mei dan September 2011. Citra Aster digunakan sebagai data pendukung untuk menentukan korelasi linear  terhadap data lapangan (fieldspectometer. Korelasi yang dihasilkan Antara Modis - Aster sebesar 0.9576 pada EVI dan 0.9654 pada NDVI; Modis - Fieldspectometer sebesar 0.8798 pada EVI dan 0.9077 pada NDVI; dan pada Aster - Fieldspectometer sebesar 0.9220 pada EVI dan 0.9460 pada NDVI. Korelasi dari ketiga data tersebut memiliki hubungan yang cukup kuat dikarenakan nilai yang dihasilkan mendekati nilai 1.

  1. Spatial Analysis of Environmental Factors Related to Lyme Disease in Alabama by Means of NASA Earth Observation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renneboog, Nathan; Capilouto, Emily G.; Firsing, Stephen L., III; Levy, Kyle; McAllister, Marilyn; Roa, Kathryn; Setia,Shveta; Xie, Lili; Burnett, Donna; Luvall, Jeffrey C.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the epidemiology of Lyme Disease that accounts for more than 95% or vector borne diseases in the United States. The history, symptoms and the life cycle of the tick, the transmitting agent of Lyme Disease, a map that shows the cases reported to the CDC between1990 and 2006 and the number of cases in Alabama by year from 1986 to 2007. A NASA project is described, the goals of which are to (1) Demonstrate the presence of the chain of infection of Lyme disease in Alabama (2) Identify areas with environmental factors that support tick population using NASA Earth Observation Systems data in selected areas of Alabama and (3) Increase community awareness of Lyme disease and recommend primary and secondary prevention strategies. The remote sensing methods included: Analyzed Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and DigitalGlobe Quickbird satellite imagery from summer months and Performed image analyses in ER Mapper 7.1. Views from the ASTER and Quickbird land cover are shown, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) algorithm was applied to all ASTER and Quickbird imagery. The use of the images to obtain the level of soil moisture is reviewed, and this analysis was used along with the NDVI, was used to identify the areas that support the tick population.

  2. Optical satellite data volcano monitoring: a multi-sensor rapid response system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Kenneth A.; Ramsey, Michael; Wessels, Rick L.; Dehn, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter, the use of satellite remote sensing to monitor active geological processes is described. Specifically, threats posed by volcanic eruptions are briefly outlined, and essential monitoring requirements are discussed. As an application example, a collaborative, multi-agency operational volcano monitoring system in the north Pacific is highlighted with a focus on the 2007 eruption of Kliuchevskoi volcano, Russia. The data from this system have been used since 2004 to detect the onset of volcanic activity, support the emergency response to large eruptions, and assess the volcanic products produced following the eruption. The overall utility of such integrative assessments is also summarized. The work described in this chapter was originally funded through two National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth System Science research grants that focused on the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument. A skilled team of volcanologists, geologists, satellite tasking experts, satellite ground system experts, system engineers and software developers collaborated to accomplish the objectives. The first project, Automation of the ASTER Emergency Data Acquisition Protocol for Scientific Analysis, Disaster Monitoring, and Preparedness, established the original collaborative research and monitoring program between the University of Pittsburgh (UP), the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), the NASA Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center, and affiliates on the ASTER Science Team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) as well as associates at the Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center (ERSDAC) in Japan. This grant, completed in 2008, also allowed for detailed volcanic analyses and data validation during three separate summer field campaigns to Kamchatka Russia. The second project, Expansion and synergistic use

  3. TPXL-1 activates Aurora A to clear contractile ring components from the polar cortex during cytokinesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangal, Sriyash; Sacher, Jennifer; Kim, Taekyung; Osório, Daniel Sampaio; Motegi, Fumio; Carvalho, Ana Xavier; Oegema, Karen; Zanin, Esther

    2018-01-08

    During cytokinesis, a signal from the central spindle that forms between the separating anaphase chromosomes promotes the accumulation of contractile ring components at the cell equator, while a signal from the centrosomal microtubule asters inhibits accumulation of contractile ring components at the cell poles. However, the molecular identity of the inhibitory signal has remained unknown. To identify molecular components of the aster-based inhibitory signal, we developed a means to monitor the removal of contractile ring proteins from the polar cortex after anaphase onset. Using this assay, we show that polar clearing is an active process that requires activation of Aurora A kinase by TPXL-1. TPXL-1 concentrates on astral microtubules coincident with polar clearing in anaphase, and its ability to recruit Aurora A and activate its kinase activity are essential for clearing. In summary, our data identify Aurora A kinase as an aster-based inhibitory signal that restricts contractile ring components to the cell equator during cytokinesis. © 2018 Mangal et al.

  4. A Study on the Establishment of Pochonka and Chonmun yucho in the Early Choson Dynasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sang-Hyeon

    2009-12-01

    We investigated the formation of Pochonka (Song of the Sky Pacers) and Chonmun yucho (Selected and classified writings on astrology) of the early Choson dynasty. We recognized that the songs in these books were deeply influenced by those in a Chinese book Tong-zhi published in 1161 A.D., based on the following facts; the contents of both treatises are described in the same order; the first phrase of the song for Thai-wei-yuan has composed of five words rather than seven words; in particular, Choson's Pochonka has the song that describes the position of the Milky Way relative to asterisms, which was supplemented by the author Zheng Qiao. Since Tong-zhi were brought into Koryo in 1364 A.D., Choson's Pochonka must be formed after that time. In particular, compared with Chinese Pu-tien-ko, Choson's Pochonka stresses the colors of asterisms in order to represent the origin of each asterism with respect to the astronomers, Shih-shen, Kan-te, and Wu-Hsien. We also find that the star-charts in Pochonka and Chonsang-yolcha-punyajido (Chart of the asterisms and the regions they govern) published in the early Choson dynasty are significantly similar in names, number of stars, and shapes of asterisms in them. This fact means that the star-charts in Pochonka originated from either the parent chart of Chonsang-yolcha-punyajido or Chonsang-yolcha-punyajido itself. The parent rubbing was reappeared in 1392 A.D. and carved on stele in 1396 A.D., and so the publication of Pochonka can be dated back to A.D. 1392. Chonmun yucho is a book that was formed by footnoting Pochonka with astrological descriptions in Chinese treatises. The formation period of Chonmun yucho is estimated to be 1440-1450 A.D. from the facts such as the biographical survey of the author Yi Sunji. Furthermore, Pochonka was adopted as a textbook of the government service examination for the astronomy division in Soungwan or the Royal Bureau of Astronomy in 1430 A.D.. We inferred from these facts that Choson

  5. Iturralde Crater, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    NASA scientists will venture into an isolated part of the Bolivian Amazon to try and uncover the origin of a 5 mile (8 kilometer) diameter crater there known as the Iturralde Crater. Traveling to this inhospitable forest setting, the Iturralde Crater Expedition 2002 will seek to determine if the unusual circular crater was created by a meteor or comet. Organized by Dr. Peter Wasilewski of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., the Iturralde Crater Expedition 2002 will be led by Dr. Tim Killeen of Conservation International, which is based in Bolivia. Killeen will be assisted by Dr. Compton Tucker of Goddard. The team intends to collect and analyze rocks and soil, look for glass particles that develop from meteor impacts and study magnetic properties in the area to determine if the Iturralde site was indeed created by a meteor.This image was acquired on June 29, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution

  6. A Study on the Establishment of Pochonka and Chonmun yucho in the Early Choson Dynasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hyeon Ahn

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the formation of Pochonka (Song of the Sky Pacers and Chonmun yucho (Selected and classified writings on astrology of the early Choson dynasty. We recognized that the songs in these books were deeply influenced by those in a Chinese book Tong-zhi published in 1161 A.D., based on the following facts; the contnts of both treatises are described in the same order; the first phrase of the song for Thai-wei-yuan has composed of five words rather than seven words; in particular, Choson`s Pochonka has the song that describes the position of the Milky Way relative to asterisms, which was supplemented by the author Zheng Qiao. Since Tong-zhi were brought into Koryo in 1364 A.D., Choson`s Pochonka must be formed after that time. In particular, compared with Chinese Pu-tien-ko, Choson`s Pochonka stresses the colors of asterisms in order to represent the origin of each asterism with respect to the astronomers, Shih-shen, Kan-te, and Wu-Hsien. We also find that the star-charts in Pochonka and Chonsang-yolcha-punyajido (Chart of the asterisms and the regions they govern published in the early Choson dynasty are significantly similar in names, number of stars, and shapes of asterisms in them. This fact means that the star-charts in Pochonka originated from either the parent chart of Chonsang-yolcha-punyajido or Chonsang-yolcha-punyajido itself. The parent rubbing was reappeared in 1392 A.D. and carved on stele in 1396 A.D., and so the publication of Pochonka can be dated back to A.D. 1392. Chonmun yucho is a book that was formed by footnoting Pochonka with astrological descriptions in Chinese treatises. The formation period of Chonmun yucho is estimated to be 1440-1450 A.D. from the facts such as the biographical survey of the author Yi Sunji. Furthermore, Pochonka was adopted as a textbook of the government service examination for the astronomy division in Soungwan or the Royal Bureau of Astronomy in 1430 A.D.. We inferred from these facts

  7. Anti-Atlas Mountains, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Anti-Atlas Mountains of Morocco formed as a result of the collision of the African and Eurasian tectonic plates about 80 million years ago. This collision destroyed the Tethys Ocean; the limestone, sandstone, claystone, and gypsum layers that formed the ocean bed were folded and crumpled to create the Atlas and Anti-Atlas Mountains. In this ASTER image, short wavelength infrared bands are combined to dramatically highlight the different rock types, and illustrate the complex folding. The yellowish, orange and green areas are limestones, sandstones and gypsum; the dark blue and green areas are underlying granitic rocks. The ability to map geology using ASTER data is enhanced by the multiple short wavelength infrared bands, that are sensitive to differences in rock mineralogy. This image was acquired on June 13, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and

  8. Huaraz, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    A chunk of glacier was threatening to fall into an Andean lake and cause major flooding in a Peruvian city of 60,000. A fissure has appeared in the glacier that feeds the Lake Palcacocha near the city of Huaraz, 270 km north of Lima. If the piece breaks off, ensuing floods would take 15 minutes to reach the city. In 1941, the lake overflowed and caused massive destruction, killing 7,000 people. The city can be seen in the left-center part of the image. Lake Palcacocha is in the upper right corner of the image at the head of a valley, below the snow and glacier cap. The ASTER instrument is being tasked to obtain current images of the glacier to help monitor the situation. This image was acquired on November 5, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena

  9. London, England

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    For almost 2,000 years, the River Thames has served as the life force of London, capital of the United Kingdom and one of the world's most famous cities. In AD 43 the Romans established the trading settlement of Londinium at a favorable crossing point on the river. The Romans remained until the 5th century, when the city came under Saxon control. The early 17th century saw enormous growth, but the deadly plague of 1664 and 1665 ravaged the population, and in the following year the Great Fire, which burned for four days, destroyed most of the city. A public transportation system and other city services in the early 19th century eased many of the increasing urban problems of the burgeoning capital of the wealthy British Empire. After coping with the devastating effects of bombing during World War II and the gradual dismantling of the empire, London today thrives as a vital modern metropolis. London is one of 100 cities being studied using ASTER data to map and monitor urban use patterns and growth.This image was acquired on October 12, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring

  10. Validation of digital elevation models (DEMs) and comparison of geomorphic metrics on the southern Central Andean Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purinton, Benjamin; Bookhagen, Bodo

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we validate and compare elevation accuracy and geomorphic metrics of satellite-derived digital elevation models (DEMs) on the southern Central Andean Plateau. The plateau has an average elevation of 3.7 km and is characterized by diverse topography and relief, lack of vegetation, and clear skies that create ideal conditions for remote sensing. At 30 m resolution, SRTM-C, ASTER GDEM2, stacked ASTER L1A stereopair DEM, ALOS World 3D, and TanDEM-X have been analyzed. The higher-resolution datasets include 12 m TanDEM-X, 10 m single-CoSSC TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X DEMs, and 5 m ALOS World 3D. These DEMs are state of the art for optical (ASTER and ALOS) and radar (SRTM-C and TanDEM-X) spaceborne sensors. We assessed vertical accuracy by comparing standard deviations of the DEM elevation versus 307 509 differential GPS measurements across 4000 m of elevation. For the 30 m DEMs, the ASTER datasets had the highest vertical standard deviation at > 6.5 m, whereas the SRTM-C, ALOS World 3D, and TanDEM-X were all < 3.5 m. Higher-resolution DEMs generally had lower uncertainty, with both the 12 m TanDEM-X and 5 m ALOS World 3D having < 2 m vertical standard deviation. Analysis of vertical uncertainty with respect to terrain elevation, slope, and aspect revealed the low uncertainty across these attributes for SRTM-C (30 m), TanDEM-X (12-30 m), and ALOS World 3D (5-30 m). Single-CoSSC TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X 10 m DEMs and the 30 m ASTER GDEM2 displayed slight aspect biases, which were removed in their stacked counterparts (TanDEM-X and ASTER Stack). Based on low vertical standard deviations and visual inspection alongside optical satellite data, we selected the 30 m SRTM-C, 12-30 m TanDEM-X, 10 m single-CoSSC TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X, and 5 m ALOS World 3D for geomorphic metric comparison in a 66 km2 catchment with a distinct river knickpoint. Consistent m/n values were found using chi plot channel profile analysis, regardless of DEM type and spatial resolution. Slope, curvature

  11. Shiveluch and Klyuchevskaya Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    A distance of about 80 kilometers (50 miles) separates Shiveluch and Klyuchevskaya Volcanoes on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula. Despite this distance, however, the two acted in unison on April 26, 2007, when the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite caught them both erupting simultaneously. ASTER 'sees' a slightly different portion of the light spectrum than human eyes. Besides a portion of visible light, ASTER detects thermal energy, meaning it can detect volcanic activity invisible to human eyes. Inset in each image above is a thermal infrared picture of the volcano's summit. In these insets, dark red shows where temperatures are coolest, and yellowish-white shows where temperatures are hottest, heated by molten lava. Both insets show activity at the crater. In the case of Klyuchevskaya, some activity at the crater is also visible in the larger image. In the larger images, the landscapes around the volcanoes appear in varying shades of blue-gray. Dark areas on the snow surface are likely stains left over from previous eruptions of volcanic ash. Overhead, clouds dot the sky, casting their shadows on the snow, especially southeast of Shiveluch and northeast of Klyuchevskaya. To the northwest of Klyuchevskaya is a large bank of clouds, appearing as a brighter white than the snow surface. Shiveluch (sometimes spelled Sheveluch) and Klyuchevskaya (sometimes spelled Klyuchevskoy or Kliuchevskoi) are both stratovolcanoes composed of alternating layers of hardened lava, solidified ash, and rocks from earlier eruptions. Both volcanoes rank among Kamchatka's most active. Because Kamchatka is part of the Pacific 'Ring of Fire,' the peninsula experiences regular seismic activity as the Pacific Plate slides below other tectonic plates in the Earth's crust. Large-scale plate tectonic activity causing simultaneous volcanic eruptions in Kamchatka is not uncommon.

  12. Late Neoproterozoic basement rocks of Meatiq area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt: Petrography and remote sensing characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Safaa M.; El kazzaz, Yahiya A.; Taha, Maysa M. N.; Mohammad, Abdullah T.

    2017-07-01

    Meatiq dome is one of the mysteries of the basement rocks in Central Eastern Desert (CED) of Egypt. Its mode of formation, and tectonic evolution are still controversial and not fully understood. Satellite remote sensing is a powerful tool for geologic applications, especially in inaccessible regions of the Earth's surface. In this study, three proposed Landsat-8 band ratios (6/2, 6/7, (6/4*4/3)), (6/7, 6/4, 4/2), and (7/5, 7/6, 5/3) are successfully used for detailed geological mapping of the different lithological rock units exposed in Meatiq dome area in the CED. Landsat-8 Principal component (PC) images is also used for refinement the boundaries between the widely-exposed rock units in the study area. Fourteen spectral bands of Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data are successfully used to emphasize the distribution of some rock forming minerals (i.e. muscovite, quartz, ferrous oxides, ferrous silicates and hydroxyl-bearing minerals) in the lithological rock units of Meatiq dome area. ASTER muscovite index (B7/B6) and quartz index (B14/B12), ferrous iron index (B5/B3), ferrous silicates index (B5/B4), mafic index (B12/B13) and hydroxyl-bearing minerals index ((B7/B6)*(B4/B6)) discriminate muscovite bearing rocks, Granitoids, and other felsic rocks, amphibolite and other mafic rocks. The proposed image processing methods effectively discriminates between four granitic varieties existed in Meatiq area. They are namely; Abu Ziran, Ariki, Fawakhir and Atalla Plutons. This study reveals that the applied data of ASTER and Landsat-8 enhanced images produced a modified geological map with well emphasized rock units which are verified with field observations, and petrographic study.

  13. First Record of the European Rusted Flea Beetle, Neocrepidodera ferruginea (Scopoli, 1763, in North America (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent LeSage

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The European rusted flea beetle Neocrepidodera ferruginea (Scopoli, 1763 is reported for the first time from Québec and Ontario, Canada. It was likely introduced into southern Ontario at an international port on the Great Lakes in early 1970s, or possibly earlier in the 1960s. However, the exact location and date of introduction could not be precisely determined. The flea beetle has since dispersed northeastwards and reached Aylmer, north of Ottawa River, in Québec, by 2003. This is about 375 km from Niagara Falls, where the oldest known specimens were collected in 1977. In 2009, various wild habitats and cultivated areas of Aylmer were surveyed. The host plants of the larvae could not be determined, but adults were swept from many plant species including various weeds and cultivated grasses: Alopecurus pratense (meadow foxtail, Dactylis glomerata (orchard-grass, Festuca rubra (red fescue-grass, and Poa pratensis (Kentucky blue-grass. Adults were also collected from flowers of several weeds: Aster sp. (undetermined species, Aster novae-angliae (New England aster, Ambrosia artemisiifolia (small ragweed, Echium vulgare (viper’s bugloss, Nasturtium officinale (water cress, Melilotus alba (white sweet-clover, Hypericum perforatum (common St. John’s-wort, Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife, Ranunculus acris (buttercup, and Solidago spp. (goldenrods. Since larvae are known to develop inside the roots and central stems of cereals, this new alien species represents a threat to Canadian agriculture, particularly if it reaches the Prairies in western Canada, where cereals represent a considerable part of their economy. European rusted flea beetle and Altise ferrugineuse européenne are suggested for the English and French common names of this flea beetle, respectively.

  14. The Prehistory and Paleoenvironment of Hominy Creek Valley. 1979 Field Season,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    45.6% 22.2% 18.8% 10.2," (4) (1) Carya 22.9 18.7 3.3 7.4 3.0 (3) - p Juglans 1.4 2.0 0.7 0.7 - (1) - Pimus 9.9 10.8 2.0 1.3 2.4 - - Fraxinus 1.4 4.4...added 25,000±1,000 Lycopodium count 62 Quercus count 4 Carya count 4 Juglans count 1 Ambrosia count 8 Aster count I Indeterminable 24 (57.1’/) Total count

  15. El mático de la Región de Cuyo (Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Ariza Espinar, Luis; Bonzani, Norma

    1992-01-01

    Se estudiaron los caracteres morfoanatómicos de valor diagnóstico de dos especies conocidas en la Argentina con el nombre vulgar de "mático" o "matico": una piperácea andina (Piper elongatum Vahl) y una asterácea (Artemisia douglasiana Bess.) asilvestrada y cultivada en la región de Cuyo (Provincia de San Juan, La Rioja, San Luis y Mendoza). Esta última ha despertado el interés de los fitoquímicos y es utilizada como antiulcerosa en medicina popular.

  16. Augustine Volcano, Cook Inlet, Alaska (January 31, 2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Since last spring, the U.S. Geological Survey's Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) has detected increasing volcanic unrest at Augustine Volcano in Cook Inlet, Alaska near Anchorage. Based on all available monitoring data, AVO regards that an eruption similar to 1976 and 1986 is the most probable outcome. During January, activity has been episodic, and characterized by emission of steam and ash plumes, rising to altitudes in excess of 9,000 m (30,000 ft), and posing hazards to aircraft in the vicinity. In the last week, volcanic flows have been seen on the volcano's flanks. An ASTER thermal image was acquired at night at 22:50 AST on January 31, 2006, during an eruptive phase of Augustine. The image shows three volcanic flows down the north flank of Augustine as white (hot) areas. The eruption plume spreads out to the east in a cone shape: it appears dark blue over the summit because it is cold and water ice dominates the composition; further downwind a change to orange color indicates that the plume is thinning and the signal is dominated by the presence of ash. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion

  17. Contribution of noncentrosomal microtubules to spindle assembly in Drosophila spermatocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Rebollo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous data suggested that anastral spindles, morphologically similar to those found in oocytes, can assemble in a centrosome-independent manner in cells that contain centrosomes. It is assumed that the microtubules that build these acentrosomal spindles originate over the chromatin. However, the actual processes of centrosome-independent microtubule nucleation, polymerisation, and sorting have not been documented in centrosome-containing cells. We have identified two experimental conditions in which centrosomes are kept close to the plasma membrane, away from the nuclear region, throughout meiosis I in Drosophila spermatocytes. Time-lapse confocal microscopy of these cells labelled with fluorescent chimeras reveals centrosome-independent microtubule nucleation, growth, and sorting into a bipolar spindle array over the nuclear region, away from the asters. The onset of noncentrosomal microtubule nucleation is significantly delayed with respect to nuclear envelope breakdown and coincides with the end of chromosome condensation. It takes place in foci that are close to the membranes that ensheath the nuclear region, not over the condensed chromosomes. Metaphase plates are formed in these spindles, and, in a fraction of them, some degree of polewards chromosome segregation takes place. In these cells that contain both membrane-bound asters and an anastral spindle, the orientation of the cytokinesis furrow correlates with the position of the asters and is independent of the orientation of the spindle. We conclude that the fenestrated nuclear envelope may significantly contribute to the normal process of spindle assembly in Drosophila spermatocytes. We also conclude that the anastral spindles that we have observed are not likely to provide a robust back-up able to ensure successful cell division. We propose that these anastral microtubule arrays could be a constitutive component of wild-type spindles, normally masked by the abundance of centrosome

  18. Occupational dermatitis in Danish gardeners and greenhouse workers (III). Compositae-related symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, E; Søgaard, Jes; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1998-01-01

    . The Compositae mix detected 2x as many as the SL mix, and the overall detection rate with both was 76%, making aimed patch testing necessary. Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema), marguerite daisy (Argyranthemum frutescens) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) were frequent sensitizers. Occupational type I allergy to Compositae...... comprised sensitization to Gerbera, chrysanthemum, lettuce, Senecio cruentus and Aster. Among 1657 respondents in the questionnaire part of the study, 824 had worked with Compositae, and 160 (19%) reported occupational Compositae-related symptoms of skin and mucous membranes. Possible risk factors...

  19. Environmental Impact Study of the Northern Section of the Upper Mississippi River. Pool 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-11-01

    femina 74 7.6 Botrychium virginianum 83 6.3 Brachyelytrum erectum 67 7.2 Carex pensylvanica 78 14.4 Caulophyl-lum thalictroides 65 3.3 Celastrus...Freq. Amphicarpa bracteata 34% 10.1% Arenaria lateriflora 34 9.0 Arisaema triphyllum 66 17.2 A. dracontium 44 2.5 Aster lateriflorus 41 12.5...Schott .27 Boehmeria cylindrica (L.) S.W. .20 Carex tribuloides Wahlenb. (?) .20 Eguiseturn arvense L. .20 La ortea canadensis (L.) Wedd. .20 _____ puia (L

  20. Stevia rebaudiana (Bert.) Bertoni. UNA REVISIÓN

    OpenAIRE

    Michel Martínez Cruz

    2015-01-01

    Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana(Bert.)Bertoni) esunaespeciedel géneroSteviade la familia de lasAsteráceasnativa de la regióntropicaldeSudamérica.Es una plantaconsiderada medicinal, pues varios estudios demuestran quepuede tener efectos beneficiosos sobre la diabetes tipo II,ya que posee glicósidos con propiedades edulcorantes sincalorías. Muchas de las actividades de investigación sobre suspropiedades químicas y biológicas se han hecho en el pasadoreciente. El objetivo de este trabajo fue compilar ...

  1. Research on remote sensing assessment technology for porphyry copper in south of Arequipa province of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rihong; Li, Zhizhong; Cheng, Xiufa; Zhao, Yuling

    2014-05-01

    The study area is located in the middle section of Andean metallogenic zone. Excellent mineralization geological conditions make it the most principal Porphyry Copper Deposits (PCDs) distribution area in southern Peru and there are several super-large PCDs for hundreds of kilometers in every direction. The regional metallogenic regularity of this area is controlled by the NNW fault parallel to the trench on the west of the South American continent. Small porphyry rocks are very common in this area (circular structure pattern in remote sensing image) with typical zoned alteration of PCD - potassic alteration, argillic alteration, phyllic alteration and propylitization (most exposed) from inside to the outside on the surface. These geologic features can be recognized and extracted by using remote sensing image data. Accordingly, the reflectivity curve of main altered minerals of the typical alteration zones of PCD was rebuilt which was corresponded to B1-B9 of ASTER satellite data, based on the altered mineral assemblages and their spectral characteristics of the typical alteration zones of PCD, and ASTER data's ability of identifying minerals with argillic alteration and carbonatite alteration. Based on the standard spectral data of USGS, We found that the information of argillic-and phyllic- altered minerals assemblages in the typical alteration zones can be extracted in the principal components analysis pattern based on ASTER B1467 while the information of propylitization altered minerals in the principal components analysis pattern based on ASTER B1348 with larger reflectivity of B9 than B8, after comparing and analyzing comprehensively the spectral curve characteristics of main altered minerals. In this method, altered minerals assemblages of argillic-and phyllic- altered zone and propylitization altered zone in this study area was extracted, and the results agree well with the distribution of known PCD. Meanwhile, remote sensing geological interpretation has

  2. Effective temperature and spontaneous collective motion of active matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shenshen; Wolynes, Peter

    2012-02-01

    Spontaneous directed motion, a hallmark of cell biology, is unusual in classical statistical physics. Here we study, using both numerical and analytical methods, organized motion in models of the cytoskeleton in which constituents are driven by energy-consuming motors. Although systems driven by small-step motors are described by an effective temperature and are thus quiescent, at higher order in step size, both homogeneous and inhomogeneous, flowing and oscillating behavior emerges. Motors that respond with a negative susceptibility to imposed forces lead to an apparent negative temperature system in which beautiful structures form resembling the asters seen in cell division.

  3. Mapping Glauconite Unites with Using Remote Sensing Techniques in North East of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadirouhani, R.; Samiee, S.

    2014-10-01

    Glauconite is a greenish ferric-iron silicate mineral with micaceous structure, characteristically formed in shallow marine environments. Glauconite has been used as a pigmentation agent for oil paint, contaminants remover in environmental studies and a source of potassium in plant fertilizers, and other industries. Koppeh-dagh basin is extended in Iran, Afghanistan and Turkmenistan countries and Glauconite units exist in this basin. In this research for enhancing and mapping glauconitic units in Koppeh-dagh structural zone in north east of Iran, remote sensing techniques such as Spectral Angle Mapper classification (SAM), band ratio and band composition methods on SPOT, ASTER and Landsat data in 3 steps were applied.

  4. Clasificación de asterismos utilizando datos astrométricos

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Biasi, M. S.; Orellana, R. B.

    Based on accurate positions and proper motion data up to faint magnitudes, we have studied the regions of twenty three objects known in the literature as asterisms. A parametric method was applied to confirm the nature of these objects. The following objects have been classified: Alessi 11, Alessi 17, Brosch 1, Collinder 21, Dol-Dzim 1, Dolidze 31, Dolidze 43, Dolidze 50, Dolidze 51, NGC 272, NGC2063, NGC 2413, NGC 2664, NGC 5155, NGC 5284, NGC 6222, NGC 6360, NGC 6447, NGC 6476, NGC 6480, NGC 6605, NGC 6659, NGC 6728. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  5. Una Aproximació a l'obra d'Aristarc de Samos (ca. 310 aC - 230 aC)

    OpenAIRE

    Massa i Esteve, Maria Rosa

    2009-01-01

    Aristarchus, known as the ancient Copernicus by his heliocentric ideas, was the author of the work: «On the sizes and distances of the Sun and Moon». In this text Aristarchus could be seem as a pioneer of Greek astronomy. He reckoned the sizes of the Sun and the Moon and compared them with the Earth and the distances of these asters to the Earth. After the publication of my Spanish translation of this text (2007), the aim of this paper is to provide some mathematical features ...

  6. The Dead Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The Dead Sea is the lowest point on Earth at 418 meters below sea level, and also one of the saltiest bodies of water on Earth with a salinity of about 300 parts-per-thousand (nine times greater than ocean salinity). It is located on the border between Jordan and Israel, and is fed by the Jordan River. The Dead Sea is located in the Dead Sea Rift, formed as a result of the Arabian tectonic plate moving northward away from the African Plate. The mineral content of the Dead Sea is significantly different from that of ocean water, consisting of approximately 53% magnesium chloride, 37% potassium chloride and 8% sodium chloride. In the early part of the 20th century, the Dead Sea began to attract interest from chemists who deduced that the Sea was a natural deposit of potash and bromine. From the Dead Sea brine, Israel and Jordan produce 3.8 million tons potash, 200,000 tons elemental bromine, 45,000 tons caustic soda, 25, 000 tons magnesium metal, and sodium chloride. Both countries use extensive salt evaporation pans that have essentially diked the entire southern end of the Dead Sea. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining

  7. Occupational dermatitis in Danish gardeners and greenhouse workers (III)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Søgaard, Jes; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1998-01-01

    . The Compositae mix detected 2x as many as the SL mix, and the overall detection rate with both was 76%, making aimed patch testing necessary. Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema), marguerite daisy (Argyranthemum frutescens) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) were frequent sensitizers. Occupational type I allergy to Compositae...... comprised sensitization to Gerbera, chrysanthemum, lettuce, Senecio cruentus and Aster. Among 1657 respondents in the questionnaire part of the study, 824 had worked with Compositae, and 160 (19%) reported occupational Compositae-related symptoms of skin and mucous membranes. Possible risk factors...

  8. Training Extract AFSC 51XX Computer Systems Officer AFPT 90-51X-468.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    BOAPDS (CC6) .65 10.2 7.7 J6. 9.1 ,1. - 97. GRIEF COMPUTER OPERTOPS ON CHANGES IN PROCEDURES .65 33.0 8.1 20.0 9.j 11.1 0C2,w PREPARE SOURCE OR ’ASTER...REFERENCES I.’ 2.5 7.1 i 1 . 6 . 1.3 .2 L 63E VALUATE USER PET IEVAL REQuESTS 1.8! V.1 V.5 1.7 .B 7.’ .2 6.6 . Ib7 ADVISE PROGRAMMERS ON PROPER USE OF DATA

  9. Non-Lambertian Corrected Albedo and Vegetation Index for Estimating Land Evapotranspiration in a Heterogeneous Semi-Arid Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Mariotto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The application of energy balance algorithms to remotely sensed imagery often fails to account for surface roughness variation with diverse land cover, resulting in poor resolution of evapotranspiration (ET variations. Furthermore, the assumption of a horizontally homogeneous Lambertian surface reflecting energy equally in all directions affects the calculations of albedo and vegetation index. The primary objective of this study is to improve the accuracy of the estimation and discrimination of ET among different land cover types in Southern New Mexico from ASTER datasets, by formulating the spatial variation of non-Lambertian reflectance using a wavelength-dependent Minnaert function.

  10. NATO and U.S. Ballistic Missile Defense Programs: Divergent or Convergent Paths?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    making framework. It is common for TMD systems to be developed and deployed via bilateral negotiations. The only TMD project that has been subject to...sol-air moyenne portée- terrestre , that is, a ground based surface- to-air medium-range missile. 52 “Aster 30 SAMP/T – Surface-to-Air Missile Platform...alone rather than via a joint development with Alliance members that have expressed interest. Additionally, some European members of the Alliance

  11. Effect of motor vehicle emission on assimilative apparatus of decorative ornamental plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Pryimak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of motor vehicle emission ingredients on the state of assimilative apparatus of decorative ornamental plants is studied in Dnepropetrovsk. The morphometric indices of leaves of studied species are discussed. The changes of the leaves area and their amount on a plant are shown. The damages of assimilative organs and its structure abnormalities are revealed. The negative influence of motor transport emission on forming and growth of leaves was determined. The Aster novі-belgii L. and Tagetes patula L. are resistant, but Begonia×semperflorens hort, Salvia splendens L. and Zinnia elegans Jacq. are sensitive to the influence of emissions.

  12. Identification and characterization of tsunami deposits off southeast coast of India from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami: Rock magnetic and geochemical approach.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Veerasingam, S.; Venkatachalapathy, R.; Basavaiah, N.; Ramkumar, T.; Venkatramanan, S.; Deenadayalan, K.

    , Nichol S, Jaffe B and Dominey- Howes D 2012 Progress in palaeotsunami research; Sedim. Geol. 243 70–88. Goff J, Dudley W C, deMaintenon M J, Cain G and Coney J P 2006 The largest local tsunami in 20th century Hawaii; Marine Geol. 226 65–79. Goff J R..., Nettles M, Ward S N, Aster R C, Beck S L, Bilek S L, Brudzinski M R, Butler R, DeShon H R, Ekstrom G, Satake K and Sipkin S 2005 The great Sumatra–Andaman earthquake of 26 December 2004; Science 308 1127–1132. Maher B A 1988 Magnetic properties of some...

  13. The spatiotemporal analysis of the bottom geomorphology in Peter the Great Bay of the Sea of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotchenko, R. A.; Samchenko, A. N.; Yaroshchuk, I. O.

    2014-07-01

    Based on the shipboard measurements data, GTOPO1 and ASTER satellite information, GEBCO databases, and bathymetry maps, a digital elevation model encompassing the shelf of Peter the Great Bay of the Sea of Japan is constructed. By two-dimensional singular spectral analysis, the scale decomposition of the surface of the shelf relief is made into the components with the main tectonic structure, the secondary folding zones, and the sedimentation landforms. A comparison between the found elements and the geological data on South Primorye is performed to specify the age of the tectonic units of different scale.

  14. Predicting Vascular Plant Diversity in Anthropogenic Peatlands: Comparison of Modeling Methods with Free Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Castillo-Riffart

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Peatlands are ecosystems of great relevance, because they have an important number of ecological functions that provide many services to mankind. However, studies focusing on plant diversity, addressed from the remote sensing perspective, are still scarce in these environments. In the present study, predictions of vascular plant richness and diversity were performed in three anthropogenic peatlands on Chiloé Island, Chile, using free satellite data from the sensors OLI, ASTER, and MSI. Also, we compared the suitability of these sensors using two modeling methods: random forest (RF and the generalized linear model (GLM. As predictors for the empirical models, we used the spectral bands, vegetation indices and textural metrics. Variable importance was estimated using recursive feature elimination (RFE. Fourteen out of the 17 predictors chosen by RFE were textural metrics, demonstrating the importance of the spatial context to predict species richness and diversity. Non-significant differences were found between the algorithms; however, the GLM models often showed slightly better results than the RF. Predictions obtained by the different satellite sensors did not show significant differences; nevertheless, the best models were obtained with ASTER (richness: R2 = 0.62 and %RMSE = 17.2, diversity: R2 = 0.71 and %RMSE = 20.2, obtained with RF and GLM respectively, followed by OLI and MSI. Diversity obtained higher accuracies than richness; nonetheless, accurate predictions were achieved for both, demonstrating the potential of free satellite data for the prediction of relevant community characteristics in anthropogenic peatland ecosystems.

  15. Wetlands Research Program Bulletin. Volume 5. Number 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, M.C.; Stutheit, R.G.; Davis, M.

    1995-03-01

    The city of Lincoln, Neb., was founded in the mid-18OOs along Salt Creek. During the last century, the saline marshes suffered extensive degradation through commercial and residential development, road construction, and agriculture. Today, Nebraska`s eastern saline wetlands are considered to be among the most restricted and imperiled ecosystems. Eastern Nebraska saline wetlands are regionally unique, located in floodplain swales and depressions within the Salt Creek and Rock Creek watersheds in Lancaster and southern Saunders counties. Water sources are a combination of discharge from the Dakota sandstone formation aquifer, precipitation, and overbank flooding. Salts are concentrated in the soil during dry periods. Vegetation in these wetlands is characterized by halophytes including spearscale (Atriplex subspicata), inland saltgrass (Distichlis spicata var. stricta), saltwort (Sa1icornia rubra), prairie bulrush (Scirpus mantimus var. paludosus), sea blite (Suaeda depressa), and narrow-leaved cattail (Typha angustifolia). Four plant species considered rare in Nebraska are saltmarsh aster (Aster subulatus var. ligulatus), seaside heliotrope (Heliotropium curassavicurn), saltwort, and Texas dropseed (Sporobolus texanus) can be found in the marshes along Salt Creek.

  16. CENP-32 is required to maintain centrosomal dominance in bipolar spindle assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Shinya; Wood, Laura; Toramoto, Iyo; Yagyu, Ken-Ichi; Fukagawa, Tatsuo; Earnshaw, William C.

    2015-01-01

    Centrosomes nucleate spindle formation, direct spindle pole positioning, and are important for proper chromosome segregation during mitosis in most animal cells. We previously reported that centromere protein 32 (CENP-32) is required for centrosome association with spindle poles during metaphase. In this study, we show that CENP-32 depletion seems to release centrosomes from bipolar spindles whose assembly they had previously initiated. Remarkably, the resulting anastral spindles function normally, aligning the chromosomes to a metaphase plate and entering anaphase without detectable interference from the free centrosomes, which appear to behave as free asters in these cells. The free asters, which contain reduced but significant levels of CDK5RAP2, show weak interactions with spindle microtubules but do not seem to make productive attachments to kinetochores. Thus CENP-32 appears to be required for centrosomes to integrate into a fully functional spindle that not only nucleates astral microtubules, but also is able to nucleate and bind to kinetochore and central spindle microtubules. Additional data suggest that NuMA tethers microtubules at the anastral spindle poles and that augmin is required for centrosome detachment after CENP-32 depletion, possibly due to an imbalance of forces within the spindle. PMID:25657325

  17. Colombia Mi Pronostico Flood Application: Updating and Improving the Mi Pronostico Flood Web Application to Include an Assessment of Flood Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushley, Stephanie; Carter, Matthew; Chiou, Charles; Farmer, Richard; Haywood, Kevin; Pototzky, Anthony, Jr.; White, Adam; Winker, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Colombia is a country with highly variable terrain, from the Andes Mountains to plains and coastal areas, many of these areas are prone to flooding disasters. To identify these risk areas NASA's Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) was used to construct a digital elevation model (DEM) for the study region. The preliminary risk assessment was applied to a pilot study area, the La Mosca River basin. Precipitation data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)'s near-real-time rainfall products as well as precipitation data from the Instituto de Hidrologia, Meteorologia y Estudios Ambientales (the Institute of Hydrology, Meteorology and Environmental Studies, IDEAM) and stations in the La Mosca River Basin were used to create rainfall distribution maps for the region. Using the precipitation data and the ASTER DEM, the web application, Mi Pronóstico, run by IDEAM, was updated to include an interactive map which currently allows users to search for a location and view the vulnerability and current weather and flooding conditions. The geospatial information was linked to an early warning system in Mi Pronóstico that can alert the public of flood warnings and identify locations of nearby shelters.

  18. Fifteen Years (1993–2007 of Surface Freshwater Storage Variability in the Ganges-Brahmaputra River Basin Using Multi-Satellite Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Salameh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface water storage is a key component of the terrestrial hydrological and biogeochemical cycles that also plays a major role in water resources management. In this study, surface water storage (SWS variations are estimated at monthly time-scale over 15 years (1993–2007 using a hypsographic approach based on the combination of topographic information from Advance Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER and Hydrological Modeling and Analysis Platform (HyMAP-based Global Digital Elevation Models (GDEM and the Global Inundation Extent Multi-Satellite (GIEMS product in the Ganges-Brahmaputra basin. The monthly variations of the surface water storage are in good accordance with precipitation from Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP, river discharges at the outlet of the Ganges and the Brahmaputra, and terrestrial water storage (TWS from the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE, with correlations higher than 0.85. Surface water storage presents a strong seasonal signal (~496 km3 estimated by GIEMS/ASTER and ~378 km3 by GIEMS/HyMAPs, representing ~51% and ~41% respectively of the total water storage signal and it exhibits a large inter-annual variability with strong negative anomalies during the drought-like conditions of 1994 or strong positive anomalies such as in 1998. This new dataset of SWS is a new, highly valuable source of information for hydrological and climate modeling studies of the Ganges-Brahmaputra river basin.

  19. Integrin adhesion drives the emergent polarization of active cytoskeletal stresses to pattern cell delamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghana, C; Ramdas, Nisha; Hameed, Feroz Meeran; Rao, Madan; Shivashankar, G V; Narasimha, Maithreyi

    2011-05-31

    Tissue patterning relies on cellular reorganization through the interplay between signaling pathways and mechanical stresses. Their integration and spatiotemporal coordination remain poorly understood. Here we investigate the mechanisms driving the dynamics of cell delamination, diversely deployed to extrude dead cells or specify distinct cell fates. We show that a local mechanical stimulus (subcellular laser perturbation) releases cellular prestress and triggers cell delamination in the amnioserosa during Drosophila dorsal closure, which, like spontaneous delamination, results in the rearrangement of nearest neighbors around the delaminating cell into a rosette. We demonstrate that a sequence of "emergent cytoskeletal polarities" in the nearest neighbors (directed myosin flows, lamellipodial growth, polarized actomyosin collars, microtubule asters), triggered by the mechanical stimulus and dependent on integrin adhesion, generate active stresses that drive delamination. We interpret these patterns in the language of active gels as asters formed by active force dipoles involving surface and body stresses generated by each cell and liken delamination to mechanical yielding that ensues when these stresses exceed a threshold. We suggest that differential contributions of adhesion, cytoskeletal, and external stresses must underlie differences in spatial pattern.

  20. Tools and Services for Working with Multiple Land Remote Sensing Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krehbiel, C.; Friesz, A.; Harriman, L.; Quenzer, R.; Impecoven, K.; Maiersperger, T.

    2016-12-01

    The availability of increasingly large and diverse satellite remote sensing datasets provides both an opportunity and a challenge across broad Earth science research communities. On one hand, the extensive assortment of available data offer unprecedented opportunities to improve our understanding of Earth science and enable data use across a multitude of science disciplines. On the other hand, increasingly complex formats, data structures, and metadata can be an obstacle to data use for the broad user community that is interested in incorporating remote sensing Earth science data into their research. NASA's Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) provides easy to use Python notebook tutorials for services such as accessing land remote sensing data from the LP DAAC Data Pool and interpreting data quality information from MODIS. We use examples to demonstrate the capabilities of the Application for Extracting and Exploring Analysis Ready Samples (AppEEARS), such as spatially and spectrally subsetting data, decoding valuable quality information, and exploring initial analysis results within the user interface. We also show data recipes for R and Python scripts that help users process ASTER L1T and ASTER Global Emissivity Datasets.

  1. Chromophore-Assisted Light Inactivation and Self-Organization of Microtubules and Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surrey, Thomas; Elowitz, Michael B.; Wolf, Pierre-Etienne; Yang, Feng; Nedelec, Francois; Shokat, Kevan; Leibler, Stanislas

    1998-04-01

    Chromophore-assisted light inactivation (CALI) offers the only method capable of modulating specific protein activities in localized regions and at particular times. Here, we generalize CALI so that it can be applied to a wider range of tasks. Specifically, we show that CALI can work with a genetically inserted epitope tag; we investigate the effectiveness of alternative dyes, especially fluorescein, comparing them with the standard CALI dye, malachite green; and we study the relative efficiencies of pulsed and continuous-wave illumination. We then use fluorescein-labeled hemagglutinin antibody fragments, together with relatively low-power continuous-wave illumination to examine the effectiveness of CALI targeted to kinesin. We show that CALI can destroy kinesin activity in at least two ways: it can either result in the apparent loss of motor activity, or it can cause irreversible attachment of the kinesin enzyme to its microtubule substrate. Finally, we apply this implementation of CALI to an in vitro system of motor proteins and microtubules that is capable of self-organized aster formation. In this system, CALI can effectively perturb local structure formation by blocking or reducing the degree of aster formation in chosen regions of the sample, without influencing structure formation elsewhere.

  2. Pyrenees Mtns., Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This ASTER image, acquired on August 1, 2000, covers an area of 57 by 29 km and covers part of the central Pyrenees in Spain. The Pyrenees in southwestern Europe extend for about 435 kilometers (about 270 miles) from the Bay of Biscay to the Mediterranean Sea, separating the Iberian Peninsula from the rest of Europe. The Pyrenees form most of the boundary between France and Spain, and encompass the tiny principality of Andorra. Approximately two-thirds of the mountains lie in Spain. The central Pyrenees extend to the Collines du Perche and contain the highest peaks of the system, including Pico de Aneto, the highest at 3,404 meters (11,168 feet). ASTER bands 4, 3 and 2 were displayed in red, green and blue. In this combination, snow is blue, vegetation is green, bare rocks are pink and dark blue, and clouds are white. The image is located at 42.6 degrees north latitude and 0.6 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  3. Kondyor Massif, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This is neither an impact crater nor a volcano. It is a perfect circular intrusion, about 10 km in diameter with a topographic ridge up to 600 m high. The Kondyor Massif is located in Eastern Siberia, Russia, north of the city of Khabarovsk. It is a rare form of igneous intrusion called alkaline-ultrabasic massif and it is full of rare minerals. The river flowing out of it forms placer mineral deposits. Last year 4 tons of platinum were mined there. A remarkable and very unusual mineralogical feature of the deposit is the presence of coarse crystals of Pt-Fe alloy, coated with gold. This 3-D perspective view was created by draping a simulated natural color ASTER composite over an ASTER-derived digital elevation model. The image was acquired on June 10, 2006, and is located at 57.6 degrees north latitude, 134.6 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  4. EVALUATING EROSION FROM SPACE: A CASE STUDY NEAR UBERLÂNDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Vrieling

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Satellites can offer important spatial data for the assessment of soil erosion. This study was conducted to explore how satellite imagery could be used for evaluating erosion in a 10*10 km area in the Brazilian Cerrados. Products obtained from a variety of satellite sensors were analyzed for the purpose of (1 detecting erosion features; and (2 qualitatively mapping erosion risk. Erosion detection was done through visual image interpretation. Optical TerraASTER images allowed for a better detection and delineation of major gullies as ENVISAT ASAR imagery. Gully dynamics could be assessed by jointly interpreting aerial photos of 1979 and a high-resolution QuickBird image of 2003. QuickBird also allowed for the detection of smaller erosion features, like rills. Erosion risk mapping was performed for the complete study area with a simple qualitative method integrating information on slope and vegetation cover. Slope was calculated from the SRTM DEM, and NDVI, being indicative of vegetation cover, was obtained from a wet-season ASTER image. Both factors were automatically classified based on their relative susceptibility to erosion. The erosion risk map was constructed by combining both classifications with the minimum-operator. The accuracyof the map was good (75 % when compared to field estimates of erosion risk. The method presented therefore allowed for a quick and proper indication of spatial differences of erosion risk in the study area, particularly concerning rill and sheet erosion.

  5. A Study on New Song of the Sky Pacers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sang-Hyeon

    2009-12-01

    We investigated `Song of the Sky Pacers, Adopted to the New Methods' (新法步天歌), the latest version of Joseon's `Song of the Sky Pacers' (步天歌). Due to the influence of new knowledge on Chinese asterisms imported from the Ching dynasty, `Song of the Sky Pacers with New Star-Charts' was written in the eighteenth century. However, the disagreement between song and star-charts was causing confusion in practical applications such as Joseon's national examination for selecting astronomers. In order to improve this situation, Royal Observatory of the Joseon dynasty (觀象監) published `Song of the Sky Pacers, Adopted to the New Methods' based upon star-charts and song in the Sequel of I-Hsiang-K'ao-ch'eng (欽定儀象考成續編). The New Song was edited by a middle-class professional astronomer Yi Jun-yang (李俊養), and corrected by a nobleman Nam Byeong-gil (南秉吉). We establish a brief biography of Yi Jun-yang. The New Song preserves the genuine characteristics of previous Joseon's Song including the format of title of each lunar mansion and description on the location of the Milky Way in the asterisms. The description of the Milky Way was newly written based on the data in volume 31 and 32 of the Sequel of I-Hsiang-K'ao-ch'eng.

  6. Accuracy Assessment of Open Source Digital Elevation Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aqeel Abboud Abdul Hassan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Digital Elevation Model is a three-dimensional representation of the earth's surface, which is essential for Geoscience and hydrological implementations. DEM can be created utilizing Photogrammetry techniques, radar interferometry, laser scanning and land surveying. There are some world agencies provide open source digital elevation models which are freely available for all users, such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency’s (JAXA and others. ALOS, SRTM and ASTER are satellite based DEMs which are open source products. The technologies that are used for obtaining raw data and the methods used for its processing and on the other hand the characteristics of natural land and land cover type, these and other factors are the cause of implied errors produced in the digital elevation model which can't be avoided. In this paper, ground control points observed by the differential global positioning system DGPS were used to compare the validation and performance of different satellite based digital elevation models. For validation, standard statistical tests were applied such as Mean Error (ME and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE which showed ALOS DEM had ME and RMSE are -1.262m and 1.988m, while SRTM DEM had ME of -0.782m with RMSE of 2.276m and ASTER DEM had 4.437m and 6.241m, respectively. These outcomes can be very helpful for analysts utilizing such models in different areas of work.

  7. Forest above Ground Biomass Inversion by Fusing GLAS with Optical Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohuan Xi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest biomass is an important parameter for quantifying and understanding biological and physical processes on the Earth’s surface. Rapid, reliable, and objective estimations of forest biomass are essential to terrestrial ecosystem research. The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS produced substantial scientific data for detecting the vegetation structure at the footprint level. This study combined GLAS data with MODIS/BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function and ASTER GDEM data to estimate forest aboveground biomass (AGB in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province, China. The GLAS waveform characteristic parameters were extracted using the wavelet method. The ASTER DEM was used to compute the terrain index for reducing the topographic influence on the GLAS canopy height estimation. A neural network method was applied to assimilate the MODIS BRDF data with the canopy heights for estimating continuous forest heights. Forest leaf area indices (LAIs were derived from Landsat TM imagery. A series of biomass estimation models were developed and validated using regression analyses between field-estimated biomass, canopy height, and LAI. The GLAS-derived canopy heights in Xishuangbanna correlated well with the field-estimated AGB (R2 = 0.61, RMSE = 52.79 Mg/ha. Combining the GLAS estimated canopy heights and LAI yielded a stronger correlation with the field-estimated AGB (R2 = 0.73, RMSE = 38.20 Mg/ha, which indicates that the accuracy of the estimated biomass in complex terrains can be improved significantly by integrating GLAS and optical remote sensing data.

  8. Transformations of sperm nuclei incorporated into sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata) embryos at different stages of the cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, F J

    1984-05-01

    In order to test the hypothesis that regulators of male pronuclear development may have a more general role, sharing some relation to factors involved with the cell cycle, Arbacia zygotes and 2- to 8-cell stage embryos were inseminated during different phases of the cell cycle and examined by light and electron microscopy. Differences in the development and morphology of fertilization cones and sperm asters were observed in embryos inseminated during different stages of the cell cycle. Extremely large fertilization cones, approximately four times the length of those found in fertilized eggs, formed in embryos inseminated during metaphase to telophase. Sperm asters developed only in embryos inseminated during prophase to anaphase. These variations are believed to reflect changes in the status of the cortex and cytoskeletal system of the embryo. Although sperm nuclei underwent morphological changes subsequent to incorporation, in general, they failed to develop into male pronuclei. There was a consistent correlation in sperm nuclear transformations and the cell cycle which was expressed in two patterns of morphogenesis: (1) sperm nuclei incorporated into embryos just prior to prophase and at telophase failed, for the most part, to disperse and transformed into aggregations of chromatin granules approximately 40 nm in diameter; and (2) sperm nuclei incorporated into prometaphase-anaphase embryos dispersed and then condensed into chromatin masses, morphologically similar to chromosomes of the embryo. Evidence is discussed which indicates that following the normal period of fertilization changes occur in the zygote, rendering it unable to fully support the transformation of sperm nuclei into male pronuclei.

  9. Native Michigan plants stimulate soil microbial species changes and PAH remediation at a legacy steel mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, John C; Cable, Edward; Dabkowski, Robert T; Gargala, Stephanie; McCall, Daniel; Pangrazzi, Garett; Pierson, Adam; Ripper, Mark; Russell, Donald K; Rugh, Clayton L

    2013-01-01

    A 1.3-acre phytoremediation site was constructed to mitigate polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination from a former steel mill in Michigan. Soil was amended with 10% (v/v) compost and 5% (v/v) poultry litter. The site was divided into twelve 11.89 m X 27.13 m plots, planted with approximately 35,000 native Michigan perennials, and soils sampled for three seasons. Soil microbial density generally increased in subplots of Eupatorium perfoliatum (boneset), Aster novae-angliae (New England aster), Andropogon gerardii (big bluestem), and Scirpus atrovirens (green bulrush) versus unplanted subplots. Using enumeration assays with root exudates, PAH degrading bacteria were greatest in soils beneath plants. Initially predominant, Arthrobacter were found capable of degrading a PAH cocktail in vitro, especially upon the addition of root exudate. Growth of some Arthrobacter isolates was stimulated by root exudate. The frequency of Arthrobacter declined in planted subplots with a concurrent increase in other species, including secondary PAH degraders Bacillus and Nocardioides. In subplots supporting only weeds, an increase in Pseudomonas density and little PAH removal were observed. This study supports the notion that a dynamic interplay between the soil, bacteria, and native plant root secretions likely contributes to in situ PAH phytoremediation.

  10. Centrosomal microtubule nucleation activity is inhibited by BRCA1-dependent ubiquitination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Satish; Starita, Lea M; Groen, Aaron C; Ko, Min Ji; Parvin, Jeffrey D

    2005-10-01

    In this study we find that the function of BRCA1 inhibits the microtubule nucleation function of centrosomes. In particular, cells in early S phase have quiescent centrosomes due to BRCA1 activity, which inhibits the association of gamma-tubulin with centrosomes. We find that modification of either of two specific lysine residues (Lys-48 and Lys-344) of gamma-tubulin, a known substrate for BRCA1-dependent ubiquitination activity, led to centrosome hyperactivity. Interestingly, mutation of gamma-tubulin lysine 344 had a minimal effect on centrosome number but a profound effect on microtubule nucleation function, indicating that the processes regulating centrosome duplication and microtubule nucleation are distinct. Using an in vitro aster formation assay, we found that BRCA1-dependent ubiquitination activity directly inhibits microtubule nucleation by centrosomes. Mutant BRCA1 protein that was inactive as a ubiquitin ligase did not inhibit aster formation by the centrosome. Further, a BRCA1 carboxy-terminal truncation mutant that was an active ubiquitin ligase lacked domains critical for the inhibition of centrosome function. These experiments reveal an important new functional assay regulated by the BRCA1-dependent ubiquitin ligase, and the results suggest that the loss of this BRCA1 activity could cause the centrosome hypertrophy and subsequent aneuploidy typically found in breast cancers.

  11. FUSION OF LASER ALTIMETRY DATA WITH DEMS DERIVED FROM STEREO IMAGING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Schenk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades surface elevation data have been gathered over the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS from a variety of different sensors including spaceborne and airborne laser altimetry, such as NASA’s Ice Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat, Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM and Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS, as well as from stereo satellite imaging systems, most notably from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER and Worldview. The spatio-temporal resolution, the accuracy, and the spatial coverage of all these data differ widely. For example, laser altimetry systems are much more accurate than DEMs derived by correlation from imaging systems. On the other hand, DEMs usually have a superior spatial resolution and extended spatial coverage. We present in this paper an overview of the SERAC (Surface Elevation Reconstruction And Change detection system, designed to cope with the data complexity and the computation of elevation change histories. SERAC simultaneously determines the ice sheet surface shape and the time-series of elevation changes for surface patches whose size depends on the ruggedness of the surface and the point distribution of the sensors involved. By incorporating different sensors, SERAC is a true fusion system that generates the best plausible result (time series of elevation changes a result that is better than the sum of its individual parts. We follow this up with an example of the Helmheim gacier, involving ICESat, ATM and LVIS laser altimetry data, together with ASTER DEMs.

  12. Automated mapping of mineral groups and green vegetation from Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery with an example from the San Juan Mountains, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.

    2013-01-01

    Multispectral satellite data acquired by the ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (TM) sensors are being used to populate an online Geographic Information System (GIS) of the spatial occurrence of mineral groups and green vegetation across the western conterminous United States and Alaska. These geospatial data are supporting U.S. Geological Survey national-scale mineral deposit database development and other mineral resource and geoenvironmental research as a means of characterizing mineral exposures related to mined and unmined hydrothermally altered rocks and mine waste. This report introduces a new methodology for the automated analysis of Landsat TM data that has been applied to more than 180 scenes covering the western United States. A map of mineral groups and green vegetation produced using this new methodology that covers the western San Juan Mountains, Colorado, and the Four Corners Region is presented. The map is provided as a layered GeoPDF and in GIS-ready digital format. TM data analysis results from other well-studied and mineralogically characterized areas with strong hydrothermal alteration and (or) supergene weathering of near-surface sulfide minerals are also shown and compared with results derived from ASTER data analysis.

  13. Multispectral remote sensing for site-specific nitrogen fertilizer management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikrooz Bagheri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the use of multispectral remote sensing for site-specific nitrogen fertilizer management. Satellite imagery from the advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (Aster was acquired in a 23 ha corn-planted area in Iran. For the collection of field samples, a total of 53 pixels were selected by systematic randomized sampling. The total nitrogen content in corn leaf tissues in these pixels was evaluated. To predict corn canopy nitrogen content, different vegetation indices, such as normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, soil-adjusted vegetation index (Savi, optimized soil-adjusted vegetation index (Osavi, modified chlorophyll absorption ratio index 2 (MCARI2, and modified triangle vegetation index 2 (MTVI2, were investigated. The supervised classification technique using the spectral angle mapper classifier (SAM was performed to generate a nitrogen fertilization map. The MTVI2 presented the highest correlation (R²=0.87 and is a good predictor of corn canopy nitrogen content in the V13 stage, at 60 days after cultivating. Aster imagery can be used to predict nitrogen status in corn canopy. Classification results indicate three levels of required nitrogen per pixel: low (0-2.5 kg, medium (2.5-3 kg, and high (3-3.3 kg.

  14. A surge of the glaciers Skobreen–Paulabreen, Svalbard, observed by time-lapse photographs and remote sensing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lene Kristensen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We present observations of a surge of the glaciers Skobreen–Paulabreen, Svalbard, during 2003–05, including a time-lapse movie of the frontal advance during 2005, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission (ASTER imagery and oblique aerial photographs. The surge initiated in Skobreen, and then propagated downglacier into the lower parts of Paulabreen. ASTER satellite images from different stages of the surge are used to evaluate the surge progression. Features on the glacier surface advanced 2800 m over 2.4 yr, averaging 3.2 m/day, while the front advanced less (ca. 1300 m due to contemporaneous calving. The surge resulted in a lateral displacement of the medial moraines of Paulabreen of ca. 600 m at the glacier front. The time-lapse movie captured the advance of the frontal part of the glacier, and dramatically illustrates glacier dynamic processes in an accessible way. The movie documents a range of processes such as a plug-like flow of the glacier, proglacial thrusting, incorporation of old, dead ice at the margin, and calving into the fjord. The movie provides a useful resource for researchers, educators seeking to teach and inspire students, and those wishing to communicate the fascination of glacier science to a wider public.

  15. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma lycopersici', a phytoplasma associated with 'hoja de perejil' disease in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arocha, Yaima; Antesana, Olivia; Montellano, Ernesto; Franco, Pablo; Plata, G; Jones, Phil

    2007-08-01

    New diseases known locally as 'hoja de perejil' of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) and 'brotes grandes' of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) were first recognized in surveys of production fields in Bolivia during 2000-2003. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) witches' broom and little leaf diseases of native weeds Morrenia variegata and mora-mora (Serjania perulacea) were also identified near to production fields. Phytoplasma aetiology was attributed to each of these diseases following detection and initial identification of aster yellows group (16SrI) phytoplasmas in all five diseased plant species. While potato, alfalfa and mora-mora plants contained indistinguishable 16SrI-B strains, 'hoja de perejil' (THP) and morrenia little leaf (MVLL)-associated phytoplasma strains shared 97.5 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with 'Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris' and related strains and <95 % similarity with all other 'Candidatus Phytoplasma' species. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the THP and MVLL phytoplasmas represent a novel lineage within the aster yellows (16SrI) group and, on the basis of unique 16S rRNA gene sequences, we propose that THP and MVLL phytoplasmas represent 'Candidatus Phytoplasma lycopersici', with THP as the reference strain.

  16. Determining mineralogical variations of aeolian deposits using thermal infrared emissivity and linear deconvolution methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Bernard E.; Hooper, Donald M.; Solano, Federico; Mars, John C.

    2018-01-01

    We apply linear deconvolution methods to derive mineral and glass proportions for eight field sample training sites at seven dune fields: (1) Algodones, California; (2) Big Dune, Nevada; (3) Bruneau, Idaho; (4) Great Kobuk Sand Dunes, Alaska; (5) Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, Colorado; (6) Sunset Crater, Arizona; and (7) White Sands National Monument, New Mexico. These dune fields were chosen because they represent a wide range of mineral grain mixtures and allow us to gauge a better understanding of both compositional and sorting effects within terrestrial and extraterrestrial dune systems. We also use actual ASTER TIR emissivity imagery to map the spatial distribution of these minerals throughout the seven dune fields and evaluate the effects of degraded spectral resolution on the accuracy of mineral abundances retrieved. Our results show that hyperspectral data convolutions of our laboratory emissivity spectra outperformed multispectral data convolutions of the same data with respect to the mineral, glass and lithic abundances derived. Both the number and wavelength position of spectral bands greatly impacts the accuracy of linear deconvolution retrieval of feldspar proportions (e.g. K-feldspar vs. plagioclase) especially, as well as the detection of certain mafic and carbonate minerals. In particular, ASTER mapping results show that several of the dune sites display patterns such that less dense minerals typically have higher abundances near the center of the active and most evolved dunes in the field, while more dense minerals and glasses appear to be more abundant along the margins of the active dune fields.

  17. Channel planform geometry and slopes from freely available high-spatial resolution imagery and DEM fusion: Implications for channel width scalings, erosion proxies, and fluvial signatures in tectonically active landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, G. Burch; Bookhagen, Bodo; Amos, Colin B.

    2013-07-01

    The rapid expansion of high-spatial resolution optical sensors and imagery over the last decade presents exceptional opportunities for quantifying visible attributes of geomorphic systems. In this study, we detail a simple, robust methodology (ChanGeom) to extract continuous channel width and centerline datasets for single-thread channels using freely available high-spatial resolution imagery currently available in Google Earth and Bing Maps. Comparisons with a global dataset of field and lidar-derived channel widths indicate minimal errors associated with the imagery and ChanGeom methodology (digital elevation models (DEMs), removes along-profile shortening and coincident increases in reach-scale channel slope. Lastly, comparisons of ASTER GDEM V2, SRTM V4.1, and lidar channel profiles extracted in moderate to high-relief regions demonstrate the inferiority of the ASTER GDEM for channel slope calculations, despite the apparent spatial resolution advantages (9 ×). The methodology presented here will facilitate new discoveries in the fluvial environment that have historically been difficult due to access and imagery resolution issues, and provide greater perspective on channel signatures and responses to a host of landscape forcings, especially in tectonically active bedrock and lower order drainage systems.

  18. Mapping and evaluation of snow avalanche risk using GIS technique in Rodnei National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covǎsnianu, Adrian; Grigoraş, Ioan-Rǎducu; Covǎsnianu, Liliana-Elena; Iordache, Iulian; Balin, Daniela

    2010-05-01

    The study consisted in a precise mapping project (GPS field campaign, on-screen digitization of the topographic maps at 1:25.000 scale and updated with ASTER mission) of the Rodnei National Park area (Romanian Carpathians) with a focus on snow avalanche risk survey. Parameters taken into account were slope, aspect, altitude, landforms and roughness resulted from a high resolute numerical terrain model obtained by ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) mission. The resulted digital surface model with a spatial resolution of 10 m covered a total area of 187 square kilometers and was improved by the help of Topo to Raster tool. All these parameters were calibrated after a model applied onto Tatra Massive and also Ceahlău Mountain. The results were adapted and interpreted in accordance with European avalanche hazard scale. This work was made in the context of the elaboration of Risk Map and is directly concerning both the security of tourism activities but also the management of the Rodnei Natural Park. The extension of this method to similar mountain areas is ongoing.

  19. Thermal infrared spectra of surface rocks. Comparison of in the laboratory, in situ, and remote sensing data; Chihyo ganseki no netsusekigaiiki bunko tokusei. Chijo sokutei data to remote sensing data no hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ninomiya, Y.; Matsunaga, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    An ASTER (advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer) is one of the image sensors. It is to be installed in an earth survey polar orbit platform satellite, EOS-AM1, which is to be launched in 1998, and it is going to start its operation. Data observed by the thermal infrared remote sensing of ASTER include the spectral emissivity, and the spectral emission reflectivity which is expressed by the function of temperature. It is required to overcome technical problems how to extract the spectral emissivity from the observed data. The spectral emissivity extracted from the remote sensing data by the MMD method, measured for samples collected in Cuprite area, Nevada, and/or measured at sampled points were compared to each other and discussed. The hemisphere spectral reflectivity, which is indirect spectral emissivity, agreed well with the direct spectral emissivity. Data suggesting the establishment of Kirchhoff`s law were obtained even for the weathered samples. The spectral emissivity derived from the remote sensing data by the MMD method was in harmony with the spectral characteristics measured strictly on the ground. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Assessment of WorldView-3 Data for Lithological Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei Ye

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The WorldView-3 (WV-3 satellite is a new sensor with high spectral resolution, which equips eight multispectral bands in the visible and near-infrared (VNIR and additional eight bands in the shortwave infrared (SWIR. In order to meet the requirements of large-scale geological mapping, this paper assessed WV-3 data for lithological mapping in comparison with Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER and Operational Land Imager (OLI/Landsat-8 data. The study area is located in the Pobei area of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, where bedrock outcrops are widely distributed. The whole experiment was divided into six steps: data pre-processing, visual interpretation of various lithological units, samples procedure, lithological mapping by a support vector machine algorithm (SVM, accuracy evaluation, and assessment. The results showed that the classification accuracy of WV-3 data was 87%, which kept 17% higher than that of ASTER data, 14% higher than that of OLI/Landsat-8 data, indicated that WV-3 data contained more diagnostic absorption features mainly thanks to its SWIR bands, and benefited by its high spatial resolution, as well. However, it also confirmed that there were some considerable flaws, such as the confusing identification of biotite-quartz schist. Overall, the WV-3 data is still the most promising data for geological applications currently.

  1. APPLICATION OF MULTISPECTRAL SATELLITE DATA FOR GEOLOGICAL MAPPING IN ANTARCTIC ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Pour

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing imagery is capable to provide a solution to overcome the difficulties associated with geological field mapping in the Antarctic. Advanced optical and radar satellite imagery is the most applicable tool for mapping and identification of inaccessible regions in Antarctic. Consequently, an improved scientific research using remote sensing technology would be essential to provide new and more complete lithological and structural data to fill the numerous knowledge gaps on Antarctica’s geology. In this investigation, Oscar coast area in Graham Land, Antarctic Peninsula (AP was selected to conduct a remote sensing study using Landsat-7 Thematic Mapper (TM, Landsat-8 and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER data. Contrast-enhanced Red-Green-Blue (RGB composites, band ratios and Relative Band Depth (RBD image processing techniques were applied to Landsat-8 and ASTER dataset for establishing the spectral separation of the main lithologic groups exposed in the study area. The outcomes of this investigation demonstrated the applications of SWIR and TIR bands of the multispectral remote sensing datasets to identify lithological units and producing geological maps with suitable accuracy of ice-free rock regions in the Antarctic Peninsula. The results could be extended to map coverage of non-investigated regions further east and validated previously inferred geological observations concerning other rocks and mineral deposits throughout the Antarctica.

  2. Pipeline corridors through wetlands -- Impacts on plant communities: Norris Brook Crossing Peabody, Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shem, L.M.; Van Dyke, G.D.; Zimmerman, R.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The goal of the Gas Research Institute Wetland Corridors Program is to document impacts of existing pipelines on the wetlands they traverse. To accomplish this goal, 12 existing wetland crossings were surveyed. These sites varied in elapsed time since pipeline construction, wetland type, pipeline installation techniques, and right-of-way (ROW) management practices. This report presents the results of a survey conducted August 17--19, 1992, at the Norris Brook crossing in the town of Peabody, Essex County, Massachusetts. The pipeline at this site was installed during September and October 1990. A backhoe was used to install the pipeline. The pipe was assembled on the adjacent upland and slid into the trench, after which the backhoe was used again to fill the trench and cover the pipeline. Within two years after pipeline construction, a dense vegetative community, composed predominantly of native perennial species, had become established on the ROW. Compared with adjacent natural areas undisturbed by pipeline installation, there was an increase in purple loosestrife and cattail within the ROW, while large woody species were excluded from the ROW. As a result of the ROW`s presence, habitat diversity, edge-type habitat, and species diversity increased within the site. Crooked-stem aster, Aster prenanthoides (a species on the Massasschusetts list of plants of special concern), occurred in low numbers in the adjacent natural areas and had reinvaded the ROW in low numbers.

  3. Global Land Ice Measurements from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharfen, Gregory R.; Troisi, Vincent J.; Barry, Roger G.

    2004-01-01

    The NSIDC at the University of Colorado has successfully completed the tasks outlined in its proposal 0999.08.1216B, the 'Global Land Ice Measurements from Space' grant funded by NASA under NAG5-9722. The Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) grant reported on here is one of the first completed elements of the overall GLIMS project that continues with separate funding from NASA, the United States Geological Survey (USGS), and internationally by many national agencies and universities. The primary goals of GLIMS are to survey significant numbers of the world's 160,000 glaciers with data collected by the ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and reflection Radiometer) instrument aboard the EOS Terra spacecraft, and Landsat ETM+ (Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus) and to make these data available to users in a common and easily usable format. GLIMS participants include: NSIDC as developer of the GLIMS database, USGS Flagstaff as the GLIMS Coordination Center, USGS EROS Data Center (EDC) as the archive for satellite imagery used in GLIMS analyses (NASA funding for GLIMS also includes the Flagstaff group and EDC through the related ASTER Science Team and Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center [LP DAAC] activities), and approximately twenty two Regional Centers (RCs). RCs are funded by the national agencies of participating countries to analyze satellite imagery for a specified set of glaciological parameters and provide the results to NSIDC for archive and distribution to the public.

  4. Generation of a high-accuracy regional DEM based on ALOS/PRISM imagery of East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiramizu, Kaoru; Doi, Koichiro; Aoyama, Yuichi

    2017-12-01

    A digital elevation model (DEM) is used to estimate ice-flow velocities for an ice sheet and glaciers via Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) processing. The accuracy of DInSAR-derived displacement estimates depends upon the accuracy of the DEM. Therefore, we used stereo optical images, obtained with a panchromatic remote-sensing instrument for stereo mapping (PRISM) sensor mounted onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS), to produce a new DEM ("PRISM-DEM") of part of the coastal region of Lützow-Holm Bay in Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica. We verified the accuracy of the PRISM-DEM by comparing ellipsoidal heights with those of existing DEMs and values obtained by satellite laser altimetry (ICESat/GLAS) and Global Navigation Satellite System surveying. The accuracy of the PRISM-DEM is estimated to be 2.80 m over ice sheet, 4.86 m over individual glaciers, and 6.63 m over rock outcrops. By comparison, the estimated accuracy of the ASTER-GDEM, widely used in polar regions, is 33.45 m over ice sheet, 14.61 m over glaciers, and 19.95 m over rock outcrops. For displacement measurements made along the radar line-of-sight by DInSAR, in conjunction with ALOS/PALSAR data, the accuracy of the PRISM-DEM and ASTER-GDEM correspond to estimation errors of <6.3 mm and <31.8 mm, respectively.

  5. Multispectral Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing of Volcanic SO2 Plumes with NASA’s Earth Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realmuto, V. J.

    2009-12-01

    The instruments aboard NASA’s series of Earth Observing System satellites provide a rich suite of measurements for the mapping of volcanic plumes and clouds. This presentation will focus on applications of thermal multispectral infrared (TIR) data acquired with the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS), and Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) to the recent eruptions of Augustine and Sarychev volcanoes in Alaska and the Russian Kuril Islands, respectively. ASTER, MODIS, and AIRS provide complimentary information on the quantity and distribution of sulfur dioxide (SO2), silicate ash, and sulfate (SO4) aerosols within plumes. In addition, data from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) are used to derive estimates of aerosol loading, cloud-top altitude, wind direction, and wind speed. MODIS is our workhorse for plume mapping projects. There are MODIS instruments on the Terra and Aqua platforms, ensuring at least two MODIS passes per day over most volcanoes and four passes per day over many volcanoes. The spatial resolution of MODIS TIR radiance measurements is 1 km (at nadir) over a ground swath of 2330 km. MODIS can detect both the 7.3 and 8.5 μm bands of SO2, although the 7.3 μm band is often obscured by water vapor absorption when plumes are altitudes below ~ 4 km. ASTER has five channels in the TIR, and can detect the 8.5 μm SO2 band. The high spatial resolution (90 m) of ASTER TIR radiance measurements results in high sensitivity to SO2 within a narrow ground swath (60 km). AIRS has over 2700 spectral channels between 3.7 and 15.4 μm, allowing us to make unambiguous identifications of SO2, SO4 aerosols, and ash over a ground swath of ~2330 km. AIRS can detect the 7.3 μm SO2 band, and the strength of this band partially offsets the coarse spatial resolution of this instrument (~17 km at nadir). The key to multi-sensor mapping is the availability of a standard set

  6. Surface Elevation Changes and Velocities from Remote-Sensing Data at Vil'kitskogo, Inostranzeva and Bunge Glaciers on the Novaya Zemlya Icefield in the Russian High Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkonian, A. K.; Willis, M. J.; Pritchard, M. E.; Stewart, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Northern Ice Cap of Novaya Zemlya is the largest (22,000 km2) and most rapidly changing ice cap in the Russian High Arctic, accounting for 80% of the region's estimated 0.025 mm/yr contribution to sea level rise between 2003-2009 (Moholdt et al., 2012). We use several remote sensing instruments to extend this time series forward and instead of computing a regional average, we seek a detailed glacier-by-glacier inventory of elevation and velocity changes. Here, we focus on three glaciers along the Barents Sea coast of the ice cap: Vil'kitskogo, Inostranzeva and Bunge, all of which experienced area reduction at an average rate of roughly 1 sq. km/yr from 1990 to 2000 (Kouraev, Legrésy and Remy, 2006). Our estimates of the current surface elevation change rates (dh/dt) and velocities at these glaciers will allow us to determine the connections between thinning, dynamics and the documented climatic changes -- 2004-2009 mean summer temperatures in Novaya Zemlya were anomalously high, +0.50×0.28C greater than mean summer temperatures from 1980-2009 (Moholdt et al., 2012), while Meng (2013) found that melt duration increased by 1.3 days/yr from 1996 to 2011. Based on warming and increased melt in the region, we expect to find a seasonally-related increase in velocity. Comparing acceleration (or the lack thereof) with thinning rates and combining both with existing bathymetry to calculate flux will enable us to estimate the contribution of dynamics to mass change at these glaciers relative to melt. We estimate dh/dt by applying a weighted linear regression to time series of ASTER DEMs acquired between 2003/07/29 to 2013/07/27 and Russian cartographic DEMs issued in 1970/71. Glacier velocities are calculated using automated normalized cross correlation, or 'pixel-tracking', applied to ASTER image pairs from 2003 to 2013. We supplement our ASTER time series with velocities and DEMs from very high-resolution (0.5-2 m/pixel) imagery acquired by QuickBird, WorldView and

  7. NASA Keeps Watch on a Potential Disaster in the Icy Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    A chunk of glacier was threatening to fall into an Andean lake and cause major flooding in a Peruvian city of 60,000. A fissure has appeared in the glacier that feeds Lake Palcacocha near the city of Huaraz, 270 km north of Lima. If the piece breaks off, ensuing floods would take 15 minutes to reach the city. In 1941, the lake overflowed and caused massive destruction, killing 7,000 people. The city can be seen in the lower left part of the two images, acquired this week and 18 months ago. Lake Palcacocha is in the upper right corner of the image at the head of a valley, below the snow and glacier cap. The inset image shows an enlargement of the lake and the glacier occupying the cirque valley above it. The images are being provided to the Peruvian authorities and geologists to help them assess the state of the glacier, and compare the recent image with historic data. These images were acquired on November 5, 2001 and April 8, 2003 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties

  8. Machu Picchu, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The ruins of Machu Picchu, rediscovered in 1911 by Hiram Bingham, are one of the most beautiful and enigmatic ancient sites in the world. While the Inca people utilized the Andean mountain top (2800 m elevation), erecting massive stone structures from the early 1400's, legends and myths indicate that Machu Picchu (meaning 'Old Peak' in the Quechua language) was revered as a sacred place from a far earlier time. The Inca turned the site into a small (12 square kilometers) but extraordinary city. Invisible from the Urubamba River valley below and completely self-contained, surrounded by agricultural terraces sufficient to feed the population, and watered by natural springs, Machu Picchu seems to have been utilized by the Inca as a secret ceremonial city. The Spaniards never found Machu Picchu, even though they suspected its existence. The mountain top sanctuary fell into disuse and was abandoned some forty years after the Spanish took Cuzco in 1533. Supply lines linking the many Inca social centers were disrupted and the great empire came to an end.This image was acquired on June 25, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example

  9. Comparison between hydrographically conditioned digital elevation models in the morphometric charaterization of watersheds Comparação de modelos digitais de elevação hidrograficamente condicionados na caracterização morfométrica de bacias hidrográficas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo A. S. Guedes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the hydrographically conditioned digital elevation models (HCDEMs generated from data of VNIR (Visible Near Infrared sensor of ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer, of SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission and topographical maps from IBGE in a scale of 1:50,000, processed in the Geographical Information System (GIS, aiming the morphometric characterization of watersheds. It was taken as basis the Sub-basin of São Bartolomeu River, obtaining morphometric characteristics from HCDEMs. Root Mean Square Error (RMSE and cross validation were the statistics indexes used to evaluate the quality of HCDEMs. The percentage differences in the morphometric parameters obtained from these three different data sets were less than 10%, except for the mean slope (21%. In general, it was observed a good agreement between HCDEMs generated from remote sensing data and IBGE maps. The result of HCDEM ASTER was slightly higher than that from HCDEM SRTM. The HCDEM ASTER was more accurate than the HCDEM SRTM in basins with high altitudes and rugged terrain, by presenting frequency altimetry nearest to HCDEM IBGE, considered standard in this study.O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar modelos digitais de elevação hidrograficamente condicionados (MDEHCs, gerados a partir de dados do sensor VNIR (Visible Near Infrared do ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer, da SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission e de cartas topográficas do IBGE na escala 1:50.000, processados em Sistema de Informações Geográficas (SIG, visando à caracterização morfométrica de bacias hidrográficas. A área de estudo selecionada foi a sub-bacia hidrográfica do Ribeirão São Bartolomeu, sendo obtidas as características morfométricas a partir dos MDEHCs. Aplicaram-se o índice estatístico Raiz do Erro Médio Quadrático (REMQ e a validação cruzada para avaliar a qualidade dos MDEHCs. A

  10. Remote Sensing Assessment of Soil Moisture, Soil Mineralogy and other Environmental Factors Influencing Mosquito-borne Infection Risks in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, U.S. - Mexico Border (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, B. E.; Folger, H. W.; Page, W. R.

    2010-12-01

    A dengue fever outbreak occurred near Matamoros, Mexico along the Lower Rio Grande Valley during the summer of 2005 following heavy rainfall from Tropical Storm Gert and Hurricane Emily. This outbreak exemplifies the need for monitoring soil moisture and mapping soil permeability factors affecting the breeding and distribution of mosquito species capable of spreading disease. For example, the Rio Grande delta of South Texas and North Tamaulipas Mexico is inhabited by over 50 native and invasive species of mosquitoes capable of hosting Malaria, West Nile Virus and other types of human and livestock infecting Encephalitis. They range in ecological habitats from coastal salt marshes to freshwater riparian wetlands, tree holes and/or urban containers, flooded agricultural fields, and the many irrigation canals and ditches present throughout our study area. For this study, water-saturated and flooded soils were mapped using a “soil moisture availability” index (Mo) based on normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) images and surface radiant and/or kinetic temperature images derived from multi-temporal Landsat-7 ETM+ and ASTER imagery. In particular, the Landsat-7 imagery covers ten cloud-free or minimal cloud cover acquisition dates during drought and wet periods of 2002, prior to the scan-line corrector failure in 2003. This includes one date (August 18, 2002) of co-orbital swath coverage between Landsat and ASTER, acquired after the land fall and dissipation of Tropical Storm Bertha (August 09, 2002). ASTER image dates used include those before and after the land fall of Hurricane Emily on July 20, 2005. The resulting maps show the distribution of relatively permeable (i.e. sandier) and impermeable soil types, the latter of which are dominated by clay-rich soils deposited in remnant interdistributary channels as channel-fill, and overbank flood deposits along the modern Rio Grande delta and portions of the (remapped) Pleistocene Beaumont coastal deltaic plain

  11. Multi-sensor Mapping of Volcanic Plumes and Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realmuto, V. J.

    2006-12-01

    The instruments aboard the NASA series of Earth Observing System satellites provide a rich suite of measurements for the mapping of volcanic plumes and clouds. In this presentation we focus on analyses of data acquired with the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS), and Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). ASTER, MODIS, AIRS, and MISR provide complimentary information on the quantity and distribution of sulfur dioxide, silicate ash, and sulfate aerosols within plumes. In addition, MISR data are used to derive estimates of cloud-top altitude, wind direction, and wind speed. The key to multi-sensor mapping is the availability of a standard set of tools for the processing of data from different instruments. To date we have used the MAP_SO2 toolkit to analyze the thermal infrared (TIR) data from MODIS, ASTER, and AIRS. MAP_SO2, a graphic user interface to the MODTRAN radiative transfer model, provides tools for the estimation of emissivity spectra, water vapor and ozone correction factors, surface temperature, and concentrations of SO2. We use the MISR_Shift toolkit to estimate plume-top altitudes and local wind vectors. Our continuous refinement of MAP_SO2 has resulted in lower detection limits for SO2 and lower sensitivity to the presence of sulfate aerosols and ash. Our plans for future refinements of MAP_SO2 include the incorporation of AIRS-based profiles of atmospheric temperature, water vapor and ozone, and MISR-based maps of plume-top altitude into the plume mapping procedures. The centerpiece of our study is a time-series of data acquired during the 2002-2003 and 2006 eruptions of Mount Etna. Time-series measurements are the only means of recording dynamic phenomena and characterizing the processes that generate such phenomena. We have also analyzed data acquired over Klychevskoy, Bezymianny, and Sheveluch (Kamchatka), Augustine

  12. Formation condition of debris-covered glaciers in the Bhutan Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, H.; Fujita, K.; Nuimura, T.

    2011-12-01

    Debris-covered glaciers are widely distributed along the Himalayas. It is well known that insulation effect of debris mantle and heterogeneous topography make the response of the debris-covered glaciers to climate change complex. Furthermore, glacial lakes, which have often caused outburst floods and thus threatened Himalayan countries, are formed at the termini of debris-covered glaciers. It is little understood, however, what kinds of geomorphological and climatic environments determine the glacier termini as debris-covered or debris-free. In this study, we analyze remotely sensed satellite data to describe formation condition of debris-covered glaciers. We first delineated glaciers, debris-covered areas, and surrounding slopes using ALOS AVNIR-2, visible ortho-rectified images. We analyzed inclinations and aspects of the surrounding slopes using ASTER-GDEM by assuming that the debris mantle was supplies from the slope steeper than 40 degrees.We also estimated surface temperature distribution using thermal infrared data of ASTER because freeze-thaw activity on the bedrock should produce debris mantle. More than 1,200 glaciers in the Bhutan Himalaya including north-facing glaciers on the Tibetan side were delineated. Spatial analysis shows that the debris-covered glaciers have ten times larger area of steep slopes than the debris-free glaciers. Spatial distribution of surface temperature obtained from the nighttime ASTER TIR data shows a significant negative correlation with the altitude whereas daytime data shows no dependency on altitude. The surface exceeding 0 degrees Celsius is found on the south-facing steep slopes even in a winter season. It suggests that the more south-facing steep slope should have more active freeze-melt cycles and provide more debris onto glaciers. We also find a significant positive correlation among the areas of south-facing steep slopes and of debris-covered surface. In addition, the ablation areas of the south-facing debris

  13. Performances evaluation of different open source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Patel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Open sources DEMs such as SRTM, ASTER and Cartosat-1, various factors affecting the accuracy of satellite based DEM such as errors during data collection, systematic errors and unknown errors that are geographically dependent on terrain conditions cannot be avoided. For these reasons it is very necessary to check and compare the performances and validation of the above mentioned different satellite based DEMs. Accuracy assessment of these DEM has been done using DGPS points. For these points proper interpolation of the surface was developed using different interpolation techniques. For the generation of the surface the first step was converting the satellite based DEMs height into linear interpolation contour maps of 1 m interval. Then came selecting random sample points on the contour line and generating the interpolated surface using different interpolation techniques such as IDW, GPI, RBF, OK and UK, LPI, TR and BI, which are commonly used in geomorphology research. This interpolated surface helps in proper representation of the terrain and was checked under different terrain surfaces. For validation of DGPS points the height was taken for ground control points and standard statistical tests such as ME and RMSE were applied. From above investigation, it is reveals that above mention DEMs which are used for study. Cartosat-1 (30 m data product is better than SRTM (90 m and ASTER (30 m because it had produced low RMSE of 3.49 m without applying the interpolation method. Investigation also reveals after applying the interpolation techniques on this data error can be reduced. In the case of Cartosat-1 and SRTM, low RMSE and ME were produced by the BI method, where Cartosat-1 DEM had an RMSE of 3.36 m with ME of −2.74 m, respectively. But in this case, RMSE and ME of SRTM is 2.73 m and −0.36 m, respectively. BI is designed for image processing and can be used for imagery were a maximum height variation in satellite DEM and terrain

  14. The GLIMS Glacier Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raup, B. H.; Khalsa, S. S.; Armstrong, R.

    2007-12-01

    The Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) project has built a geospatial and temporal database of glacier data, composed of glacier outlines and various scalar attributes. These data are being derived primarily from satellite imagery, such as from ASTER and Landsat. Each "snapshot" of a glacier is from a specific time, and the database is designed to store multiple snapshots representative of different times. We have implemented two web-based interfaces to the database; one enables exploration of the data via interactive maps (web map server), while the other allows searches based on text-field constraints. The web map server is an Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) compliant Web Map Server (WMS) and Web Feature Server (WFS). This means that other web sites can display glacier layers from our site over the Internet, or retrieve glacier features in vector format. All components of the system are implemented using Open Source software: Linux, PostgreSQL, PostGIS (geospatial extensions to the database), MapServer (WMS and WFS), and several supporting components such as Proj.4 (a geographic projection library) and PHP. These tools are robust and provide a flexible and powerful framework for web mapping applications. As a service to the GLIMS community, the database contains metadata on all ASTER imagery acquired over glacierized terrain. Reduced-resolution of the images (browse imagery) can be viewed either as a layer in the MapServer application, or overlaid on the virtual globe within Google Earth. The interactive map application allows the user to constrain by time what data appear on the map. For example, ASTER or glacier outlines from 2002 only, or from Autumn in any year, can be displayed. The system allows users to download their selected glacier data in a choice of formats. The results of a query based on spatial selection (using a mouse) or text-field constraints can be downloaded in any of these formats: ESRI shapefiles, KML (Google Earth), Map

  15. Volcanic and geologic database projects of the Geological Survey of Japan (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takarada, S.; Nakano, S.; Hoshizumi, H.; Itoh, J.; Urai, M.; Nishiki, K.

    2009-12-01

    Geological Survey of Japan (GSJ) is presently implementing the GEO-DB project, which aims to integrate all kinds of geological information in GSJ. GSJ published more than 50 CD-ROM series and established more than 20 databases at the Research Information Database (RIO-DB) of the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST). Presently, four volcanic databases are open to the public: (1) Quaternary volcano database (RIO-DB), (2) Active volcano database (RIO-DB), and (3) ASTER satellite image database of major volcanoes. The Quaternary volcano database contains information such as volcanic type, history, age and pictures of more than 300 Quaternary volcanoes in Japan. More detailed volcanic information will be added to the database in the near future. The active volcano database contains information of active volcanoes in Japan such as the catalog of eruptive events during the last 10,000 years and geological maps of active volcanoes. The ASTER satellite image database provides sequential ASTER satellite image datasets of major volcanoes in the world. Collaboration between Quaternary and active volcano databases and the VOGRIPA project is the next important activity at the Geological Survey of Japan. The Geological Survey of Japan introduced the Integrated Geological Map Database (GeoMapDB) in 2006. The GeoMapDB is based on a WebGIS technology, which makes it possible to browse, overlay and search geological maps online. The database contains geological maps with scales ranging from 1:2 million to 1:25,000. Links to aforementioned volcanic database and active fault database in RIO-DB are also available. OneGeology is an international initiative of the geological surveys of the world and a flagship project of the ‘International Year of Planet Earth’. It aims to create dynamic geological map of the world available at the world wide web. Geological Surveys from 109 countries of the world are participating in this project. The Geological

  16. Evaluation of the influence of source and spatial resolution of DEMs on derivative products used in landslide mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubini Mahalingam

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Landslides are a major geohazard, which result in significant human, infrastructure, and economic losses. Landslide susceptibility mapping can help communities plan and prepare for these damaging events. Digital elevation models (DEMs are one of the most important data-sets used in landslide hazard assessment. Despite their frequent use, limited research has been completed to date on how the DEM source and spatial resolution can influence the accuracy of the produced landslide susceptibility maps. The aim of this paper is to analyse the influence of spatial resolutions and source of DEMs on landslide susceptibility mapping. For this purpose, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER, National Elevation Dataset (NED, and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR DEMs were obtained for two study sections of approximately 140 km2 in north-west Oregon. Each DEM was resampled to 10, 30, and 50 m and slope and aspect grids were derived for each resolution. A set of nine spatial databases was constructed using geoinformation science (GIS for each of the spatial resolution and source. Additional factors such as distance to river and fault maps were included. An analytical hierarchical process (AHP, fuzzy logic model, and likelihood ratio-AHP representing qualitative, quantitative, and hybrid landslide mapping techniques were used for generating landslide susceptibility maps. The results from each of the techniques were verified with the Cohen's kappa index, confusion matrix, and a validation index based on agreement with detailed landslide inventory maps. The spatial resolution of 10 m, derived from the LiDAR data-set showed higher predictive accuracy in all the three techniques used for producing landslide susceptibility maps. At a resolution of 10 m, the output maps based on NED and ASTER had higher misclassification compared to the LiDAR-based outputs. Further, the 30-m LiDAR output showed improved results over the 10-m NED and 10-m

  17. DIaaS: Data-Intensive workflows as a service - Enabling easy composition and deployment of data-intensive workflows on Virtual Research Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgueira, R.; Ferreira da Silva, R.; Deelman, E.; Atkinson, M.

    2016-12-01

    We present the Data-Intensive workflows as a Service (DIaaS) model for enabling easy data-intensive workflow composition and deployment on clouds using containers. DIaaS model backbone is Asterism, an integrated solution for running data-intensive stream-based applications on heterogeneous systems, which combines the benefits of dispel4py with Pegasus workflow systems. The stream-based executions of an Asterism workflow are managed by dispel4py, while the data movement between different e-Infrastructures, and the coordination of the application execution are automatically managed by Pegasus. DIaaS combines Asterism framework with Docker containers to provide an integrated, complete, easy-to-use, portable approach to run data-intensive workflows on distributed platforms. Three containers integrate the DIaaS model: a Pegasus node, and an MPI and an Apache Storm clusters. Container images are described as Dockerfiles (available online at http://github.com/dispel4py/pegasus_dispel4py), linked to Docker Hub for providing continuous integration (automated image builds), and image storing and sharing. In this model, all required software (workflow systems and execution engines) for running scientific applications are packed into the containers, which significantly reduces the effort (and possible human errors) required by scientists or VRE administrators to build such systems. The most common use of DIaaS will be to act as a backend of VREs or Scientific Gateways to run data-intensive applications, deploying cloud resources upon request. We have demonstrated the feasibility of DIaaS using the data-intensive seismic ambient noise cross-correlation application (Figure 1). The application preprocesses (Phase1) and cross-correlates (Phase2) traces from several seismic stations. The application is submitted via Pegasus (Container1), and Phase1 and Phase2 are executed in the MPI (Container2) and Storm (Container3) clusters respectively. Although both phases could be executed

  18. Remote Sensing Assessment of Soil Moisture, Soil Mineralogy and other Environmental Factors Influencing Mosquito-borne Infection Risks in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, U.S. - Mexico Border (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, B. E.; Folger, H. W.; Page, W. R.

    2010-12-01

    A dengue fever outbreak occurred near Matamoros, Mexico along the Lower Rio Grande Valley during the summer of 2005 following heavy rainfall from Tropical Storm Gert and Hurricane Emily. This outbreak exemplifies the need for monitoring soil moisture and mapping soil permeability factors affecting the breeding and distribution of mosquito species capable of spreading disease. For example, the Rio Grande delta of South Texas and North Tamaulipas Mexico is inhabited by over 50 native and invasive species of mosquitoes capable of hosting Malaria, West Nile Virus and other types of human and livestock infecting Encephalitis. They range in ecological habitats from coastal salt marshes to freshwater riparian wetlands, tree holes and/or urban containers, flooded agricultural fields, and the many irrigation canals and ditches present throughout our study area. For this study, water-saturated and flooded soils were mapped using a “soil moisture availability” index (Mo) based on normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) images and surface radiant and/or kinetic temperature images derived from multi-temporal Landsat-7 ETM+ and ASTER imagery. In particular, the Landsat-7 imagery covers ten cloud-free or minimal cloud cover acquisition dates during drought and wet periods of 2002, prior to the scan-line corrector failure in 2003. This includes one date (August 18, 2002) of co-orbital swath coverage between Landsat and ASTER, acquired after the land fall and dissipation of Tropical Storm Bertha (August 09, 2002). ASTER image dates used include those before and after the land fall of Hurricane Emily on July 20, 2005. The resulting maps show the distribution of relatively permeable (i.e. sandier) and impermeable soil types, the latter of which are dominated by clay-rich soils deposited in remnant interdistributary channels as channel-fill, and overbank flood deposits along the modern Rio Grande delta and portions of the (remapped) Pleistocene Beaumont coastal deltaic plain

  19. MEaSUREs Land Surface Temperature from GOES satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinker, Rachel T.; Ma, Yingtao; Chen, Wen; Hulley, Glynn; Borbas, Eva; Hain, Chris; Hook, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Information on Land Surface Temperature (LST) can be generated from observations made from satellites in low Earth orbit (LEO) such as MODIS and ASTER and by sensors in geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) such as GOES. Both observations have unique advantages, however, when combined, introduced are challenges related to inhomogeneity of the resulting information. NASA has identified a major need for developing long-term, consistent, and calibrated data and products that are consistent across multiple missions and satellite sensors. Under a project titled: "A Unified and Coherent Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Earth System Data Record (ESDR) for Earth Science" led by Jet Propulsion Laboratory, such an effort is underway. In this presentation we will describe part of that effort, dealing with the generation of an approach to derive LST information from the GOES satellites from 2000 and onward. Since implementation of the well-established split window approach is not possible after mid-2003 (will be possible again after the launch of GOES-R in October of 2016), there is a need to focus on retrievals from a single thermal channel in order to provide continuity in the LST record. The methodology development requires the generation of consistently calibrated GOES observations, identification of clear sky radiances, and development of retrieval algorithms that benefit from most recent advances in related fields that provide auxiliary information required for driving the inference schemes. Results will be presented from two approaches. One is based on a regression approach that utilizes a wide range of simulations using MODTRAN, SeeBor Version 5.0 global atmospheric profiles and. The second approach uses MERRA-2 reanalysis fields with the RTTOV radiative transfer model approach to derive LST from the LEO satellites, adjusted for the GEO characteristics. The advantage of this latter approach is in the consistency between this retrieval approaches and those used at JPL

  20. Leafhoppers and Cixiids in Phytoplasma-infected Carrot Fields: Species Composition and Potential Phytoplasma Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Drobnjaković

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The first molecular analysis of samples collected in southern Bačka (Serbia confirmed the presence of aster yellows (16SrI and stolbur phytoplasmas (16SrXII in insects belonging to the family Cicadellidae, as well as in carrot plants where the insects were collected. A correct identification of the phytoplasmas and their vectors is essential to arrange effective control strategies to prevent diseases associated with phytoplasmas from spreading to carrots and other vegetable crops. In order to enhance knowledgeabout insect vectors of aster yellows and stolbur phytoplasmas in Serbia, Cicadellidae and Cixiidae (Homoptera Auchenorrhyncha, the most common vectors of these phytoplasmas,were monitored in southern Bačka during 2008. Adults leaf- and planthoppers were collected and identified at species level using standard entomological methods,and tested for phytoplasma presence by means of PCR/RFLP. A total of 13 insect species of Cicadellidae were identified, as follows: a three species of the subfamily Agallinae: Anaceratagallia ribauti (Ossiannilsson, Anaceratagallia venosa (Fourcroy,and Anaceratagallia laevis (Ribaut; b seven species of the subfamily Deltocephalinae: Psammotettix confinis (Dahlbom, Psammotettix striatus (Linnaues Psammottettix alienus (Dahlbom, Macrosteles sexnotatus (Fallén, Ophiola decumana (Kontkanen,Errastunus ocellaris Fallén, and Scaphoideus titanus Ball; c three species of the subfamily Typhlocibinae: Eupteryx atropunctata (Goeze, Eupteryx mellissae Curtis, Zyginidia pullula (Boheman. Female specimens of the genus Euscelis (Deltocephalinae were also collected, as well as one species of Reptalus quinquecostatus (Dufour of the family Cixiidae. Stolbur phytoplasmas were detected in A. laevis, A. ribauti, A. venosa, P. striatus, P. confinis and P. alienus. The species: A. laevis, O. decumana, and P. confinis were AY-infected (subgroup 16SrI-A, while subgroup 16SrI-C was found only in one specimen of P. confinis. Since some

  1. Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing of the Yellowstone Geothermal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, R. G.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; Heasler, H.; Jaworowski, C.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Schneider, D. J.

    2009-12-01

    The Yellowstone National Park (YNP) geothermal system is one of the largest in the world, with thousands of individual thermal features ranging in size from a few centimeters to tens of meters across, (e.g., fumaroles, geysers, mud pots and hot spring pools). Together, large concentrations of these thermal features make up dozens of distinct thermal areas, characterized by sparse vegetation, hydrothermally altered rocks, and usually either sinter, travertine, or acid sulfate alteration. The temperature of these thermal features generally ranges from ~30 to ~93 oC, which is the boiling temperature of water at the elevation of Yellowstone. In-situ temperature measurements of various thermal features are sparse in both space and time, but they show a dynamic time-temperature relationship. For example, as geysers erupt and send pulses of warm water down slope, the warm water cools rapidly and is then followed by another pulse of warm water, on time scales of minutes. The total heat flux from the Park’s thermal features has been indirectly estimated from chemical analysis of Cl- flux in water flowing from Yellowstone’s rivers. We are working to provide a more direct measurement, as well as estimates of time variability, of the total heat flux using satellite multispectral thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing data. Over the last 10 years, NASA’s orbiting ASTER and MODIS instruments have acquired hundreds and thousands of multispectral TIR images, respectively, over the YNP area. Compared with some volcanoes, Yellowstone is a relatively low-temperature geothermal system, with low thermal contrast to the non-geothermal surrounding areas; therefore we are refining existing techniques to extract surface temperature and thermal flux information. This task is complicated by issues such as, during the day, solar heated surfaces may be warmer than nearby geothermal features; and there is some topographic (elevation) influence on surface temperatures, even at night. Still

  2. Cross-calibration of A.M. constellation sensors for long term monitoring of land surface processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, D.; Chander, G.

    2006-01-01

    Data from multiple sensors must be used together to gain a more complete understanding of land surface processes at a variety of scales. Although higher-level products derived from different sensors (e.g., vegetation cover, albedo, surface temperature) can be validated independently, the degree to which these sensors and their products can be compared to one another is vastly improved if their relative spectro-radiometric responses are known. Most often, sensors are directly calibrated to diffuse solar irradiation or vicariously to ground targets. However, space-based targets are not traceable to metrological standards, and vicarious calibrations are expensive and provide a poor sampling of a sensor's full dynamic range. Cross-calibration of two sensors can augment these methods if certain conditions can be met: (1) the spectral responses are similar, (2) the observations are reasonably concurrent (similar atmospheric & solar illumination conditions), (3) errors due to misregistrations of inhomogeneous surfaces can be minimized (including scale differences), and (4) the viewing geometry is similar (or, some reasonable knowledge of surface bi-directional reflectance distribution functions is available). This study extends on a previous study of Terra/MODIS and Landsat/ETM+ cross calibration by including the Terra/ASTER and EO-1/ALI sensors, exploring the impacts of cross-calibrating sensors when conditions described above are met to some degree but not perfectly. Measures for spectral response differences and methods for cross calibrating such sensors are provided in this study. These instruments are cross calibrated using the Railroad Valley playa in Nevada. Best fit linear coefficients (slope and offset) are provided for ALI-to-MODIS and ETM+-to-MODIS cross calibrations, and root-mean-squared errors (RMSEs) and correlation coefficients are provided to quantify the uncertainty in these relationships. Due to problems with direct calibration of ASTER data, linear

  3. Cross-calibration of A.M. constellation for long-term monitoring of land surface processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, David; Chander, Gyanesh

    2006-12-01

    Data from multiple sensors must be used together to gain a more complete understanding of land surface processes at a variety of scales. Although higher-level products derived from different sensors (e.g., vegetation cover, albedo, surface temperature) can be validated independently, the degree to which these sensors and their products can be compared to one another is vastly improved if their relative spectroradiometric responses are known. Most often, sensors are directly calibrated to diffuse solar irradiation or vicariously to ground targets. However, space-based targets are not traceable to metrological standards, and vicarious calibrations are expensive and provide a poor sampling of a sensor's full dynamic range. Crosscalibration of two sensors can augment these methods if certain conditions can be met: (1) the spectral responses are similar, (2) the observations are reasonably concurrent (similar atmospheric & solar illumination conditions), (3) errors due to misregistrations of inhomogeneous surfaces can be minimized (including scale differences), and (4) the viewing geometry is similar (or, some reasonable knowledge of surface bi-directional reflectance distribution functions is available). This study extends on a previous study of Terra/MODIS and Landsat/ETM+ cross calibration by including the Terra/ASTER and EO-1/ALI sensors, exploring the impacts of cross-calibrating sensors when conditions described above are met to some degree but not perfectly. Measures for spectral response differences and methods for cross calibrating such sensors are provided in this study. These instruments are cross calibrated using the Railroad Valley playa in Nevada. Best fit linear coefficients (slope and offset) are provided for ALIto- MODIS and ETM+-to-MODIS cross calibrations, and root-mean-squared errors (RMSEs) and correlation coefficients are provided to quantify the uncertainty in these relationships. Due to problems with direct calibration of ASTER data, linear fits

  4. Spatial modeling of soil salinity using remote sensing, GIS, and field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldeiry, Ahmed Aly Mohamed

    In this study a new methodology was developed to generate accurate predicted soil salinity maps using remote sensing data. The techniques used include integrating field data, geographic information systems (GIS), remote sensing, and spatial modelling techniques. Corn and alfalfa crops were selected as indicators of soil salinity during 2001 and 2004 respectively. Five images were acquired from Aster, Ikonos, and Landsat to check the correlation between measured soil salinity and remote sensing data. Observed data from four corn fields during 2001 and four alfalfa fields during 2004 were used in conjunction with the Aster, Ikonos, and Landsat images. Three subsets of 75%, 50%, and 25% were randomly selected from each main set of observed data to be used in conjunction with the Ikonos and Landsat images. Three models were applied to predict soil salinity from remote sensing: the ordinary least squares model (OLS), spatial autoregressive model (SAR), and modified kriging model. The combination of satellite imagery bands that had the best correlation with measured soil salinity was used to predict soil salinity. A number of criteria were used to select the best model. The results show that the modified kriging model provides the best results over the OLS and the SAR models. The OLS model meets the model selection criteria, but, in most cases, it involves some autocorrelation among the residuals. The SAR model was able to remove some of the autocorrelation among the residuals, but the R2 was reduced. The R 2 values of the OLS model were 0.34, 0.47, 0.52, 0.26, and 0.37 for the 2001 Aster, Landsat, Ikonos images for corn, the 2004 Landsat and Ikonos image for alfalfa respectively. The R2 values of the SAR model were 0.05, 0.18, 0.25. 0.03, and 0.15 for the same images. The R2 values of the modified kriging model were 0.81, 0.83, 0.91, 0.60 and 0.68 for the same images. Also, the mean absolute error (MAE) improved significantly when using modified kriging over the OLS and

  5. Use of quantitative real time PCR for a genome-wide study of AYWB phytoplasma gene expression in plant and insect hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarova, Olga; MacLean, Allyson M.; Hogenhout, Saskia A.

    2011-01-01

    Phytoplasmas are obligate parasites of plants and insects and cause significant crop yield losses worldwide. A number of microarray gene expression studies have been performed to understand better the effects of phytoplasma infection on plant physiology. However, little effort has been made...... this technique for reliable gene expression quantification of phytoplasmas on a large scale. In our experimental setup, 242 genes of aster yellows phytoplasma strain witches' broom (AY-WB) were tested for differences in expression in plant and insect host environments, and were shown to be predominantly...... expressed in the plant or insect hosts. In silico operon prediction corroborated the experimental data. Our findings suggest that the delta delta Ct method can be used to study the physiology of this pathogen...

  6. USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS-TECHNIQUES IN SOUTH EAST CASPIAN COASTAL CHANGES DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Mousavi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing and GIS techniques have been used to detect the shoreline changes along Miankaleh peninsula promontory of the Gorgan Bay entrance over the last three decades (1975-2002. For this purpose satellite data including LANDSAT ETM+, TM, SPOT, ASTER L1A and RADARSAT have been analyzed. SPOT-Pan data were georeferenced with respect to 1 : 50 000 topographic maps using a Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM projection, then all the needed data sets were registered to the SPOT-Pan image. The hydrological data showed a rapid rise of the Caspian Sea level by 2.6 m between “1975-1996”.

  7. Building a Massive Volcano Archive and the Development of a Tool for the Science Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linick, Justin

    2012-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has traditionally housed one of the world's largest databases of volcanic satellite imagery, the ASTER Volcano Archive (10Tb), making these data accessible online for public and scientific use. However, a series of changes in how satellite imagery is housed by the Earth Observing System (EOS) Data Information System has meant that JPL has been unable to systematically maintain its database for the last several years. We have provided a fast, transparent, machine-to-machine client that has updated JPL's database and will keep it current in near real-time. The development of this client has also given us the capability to retrieve any data provided by NASA's Earth Observing System Clearinghouse (ECHO) that covers a volcanic event reported by U.S. Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA). We will also provide a publicly available tool that interfaces with ECHO that can provide functionality not available in any of ECHO's Earth science discovery tools.

  8. Effect of saline soil parameters on endo mycorrhizal colonisation of dominant halophytes in four Hungarian sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuzy, A.; Biro, B.; Toth, T.

    2010-07-01

    Soil and root samples were collected from the rhizosphere of dominant halophytes (Artemisia santonicum, Aster tripolium, Festuca pseudovina, Lepidium crassifolium, Plantago maritima and Puccinellia limosa) at four locations with saline soils in Hungary. The correlations- between arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungal colonisation parameters (% colonisation, % arbuscules) and soil physical, chemical and biological parameters were determined Endomycorrhiza colonisation was found to be negatively correlated with the electric conductivity of the soil paste, the salt-specific ion concentrations and the cation exchange capacity, showing the sensitivity of AM fungi at increasing salt concentrations, independently of the types of salt-specific anions. A positive correlation was detected between the mycorrhiza colonisation and the abundance of oligotroph bacteria known to be the less variable and more stable (k-strategist) group. This fact and the negative correlation found with the humus content underlines the importance of nutrient availability and the limitations of the symbiotic interactions in stressed saline or sodic soils. (Author) 29 refs.

  9. Der Telemanipulator daVinci als mechanisches Trackingsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käst, Johannes; Neuhaus, Jochen; Nickel, Felix; Kenngott, Hannes; Engel, Markus; Short, Elaine; Reiter, Michael; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Maier-Hein, Lena

    Der Telemanipulator daVinci (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, Kalifornien) ist ein M aster-Slave System für roboterassistierte minimalinvasive Chirurgie. Da er über integrierte Gelenksensoren verfügt, kann er unter Verwendung der daVinci-API als mechanisches Trackingsystem verwendet werden. In dieser Arbeit evaluieren wir die Präzision und Genauigkeit eines daVinci mit Hilfe eines Genauigkeitsphantoms mit bekannten Maßen. Der ermittelte Positionierungsfehler liegt in der Größenordnung von 6 mm und ist somit für einen Großteil der medizinischen Fragestellungen zu hoch. Zur Reduktion des Fehlers schlagen wir daher eine Kalibrierung der Gelenksensoren vor.

  10. Stonehenge's Greater Cursus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Paul; Mooers, Howard D.

    2016-01-01

    Archaeological investigations have emphasized relationships between solar and lunar phenomena and architectural features of prehistoric sites located on the Stonehenge ritual landscape. However, no over-riding landscape design has been identified to explain the purpose of placing hundreds of Neolithic through Iron Age burial sites upon the landscape. Our research and analysis shows the mid-4th millennium BC (mid-Neolithic) landscape represents an 'above, so below' cosmo-geographical relationship. Type, shape, size and orientation of specific elements (such as long barrows, henges, cursus and topography) created a hierotopy representing the Winter Hexagon asterism, Milky Way, ecliptic and other stellar features. The resulting pattern of ritual sites represents translocation of the astronomical Otherworld - the Spirit World - onto the plain. Results of the analysis create a new paradigm of purpose for the built landscape circa 3500 BC, and identifies the reason why Stonehenge is located where it is with respect to other contemorary monuments.

  11. Mineral mapping in the western Kunlun Mountains using Tiangong-1 hyperspectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, W.; Cheng, Q.; Jing, L.; Chen, Y.; Guo, X.; Ding, H.; Liu, Q.

    2016-04-01

    The unmanned Chinese space module Tiangong-1 was launched in September 2011 with a hyperspectral sensor on board. The sensor combines high spatial and spectral resolution suitable for mineral mapping. In this study, Tiangong-1 hyperspectral data were employed for mineral mapping in the western Kunlun Mountains, an important metallogenic belt in China. A Spectral Hourglass Wizard method was applied to detect common minerals from the Tiangong- 1 shortwave infrared data with reference to a set of spectral libraries. Spectral information on minerals, such as zoisite, mica, quartz, sodalite, dolomite, and actinolite, was extracted from the data. The resulting mineral interpretation maps were highly correlated with the reference geological maps and information from ASTER satellite imagery, suggesting that the hyperspectral data are suitable for mineral mapping.

  12. Land Surface Temperature Differences within Local Climate Zones, Based on Two Central European Cities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Geletič, Jan; Lehnert, M.; Dobrovolný, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 10 (2016), č. článku 788. ISSN 2072-4292 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Grant - others:UrbanAdapt(XE) EHP-CZ02-OV-1-036-2015 Program:CZ02 Biodiverzita a ekosystémové služby / Monitorování a integrované plánování a kontrola v životním prostředí/ Adaptace na změnu klimatu Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : land surface temperature * local climate zones * ASTER * LANDSAT * analysis of variance * Prague * Brno * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.244, year: 2016

  13. Thermal Remote Sensing for Reservoir Modelling and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti-Cardona, Belen; Arbat-Bofill, Marina; Prats-Rodriquez, Jordi; Pipia, Luca

    2016-08-01

    ASTER and Landsat images were used for mapping the water surface temperature in the Sobrón, Mequinenza and Ribarroja reservoirs in the Ebro River, Spain. The spatially continuous information in these maps reveals the impact of the reservoir on the river natural thermal gradient in two different periods of the year. It also evidences the thermal impact intensity and extent of the refrigeration flow discharge from a nuclear power plant located on the river bank.The high spatial resolution images of the Ribarroja reservoir, acquired by the airborne hyperspectral TASI sensor, show spatial patterns which complemented the in-situ point measurements and contributed valuable data for validating the three-dimensional thermo- hydrodynamic model of the reservoir.

  14. Les activités de gestion d’alerte épidémiologique : les transformations induites par l’utilisation d’un système de surveillance en temps réel Alert Management Activity: Cognitive and team activity modifications due to the use of an early warning system Las actividades de gestión de alerta epidemiológica : las transformaciones inducidas por la utilización de un sistema de vigilancia en tiempo real

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Gaudin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente une recherche en psychologie cognitive et ergonomique visant à analyser l’activité de gestion d’une alerte épidémiologique. Gérer une alerte épidémiologique est une activité médicale distribuée et complexe consistant en la gestion d’un environnement dynamique puisque l’épidémie évolue et se propage rapidement si aucune action n’est entreprise pour la contrôler. Plus précisément, deux types de situation sont analysées : (1 l’activité traditionnelle de gestion d’alerte et (2 cette même activité lorsqu’elle est assistée par un système informatique, en l’occurrence le système ASTER (ou Alerte et Surveillance en TEmps Réel. Les résultats obtenus sont ensuite discutés au niveau cognitif et au niveau des activités collectives consécutivement à l’introduction et à l’utilisation d’un système technique.This paper presents a study that investigated the management of epidemiological alerts. Alert management is a complex, distributed medical activity. It can be compared to the largest category of dynamic environment management. Two activities were examined. First, we analyzed traditional alert management activity with the MAD method (observations and interviews. Second, we analyzed and characterized alert management activities when supported by the computerized ASTER system (Alerte et Surveillance en TEmps Réel, alert and monitoring in real time. The second analysis was conducted with EORCA method, which is used to describe collective and complex activities. The results highlight various modifications to both the cognitive activity and team activities which were due to the use of the ASTER system.Este artículo presenta una investigación en psicología cognitiva y ergonómica cuyo objetivo es analizar la actividad de gestión de una alerta epidemiológica. Manejar una alerta epidemiológica es una actividad médica distribuida y compleja que consiste en la gestión de un ambiente

  15. Monitoring green leaf tea quality parameters of different TV clones grown in northeast India using satellite data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Rishiraj

    2013-08-15

    This study tries to quantify the effects of green leaf tea parameters that influence tea quality in Northeast India. The study is to identify the different parameters that have a significant influence on tea quality through the use of remote sensing. It investigates the methods for estimating tea quality based on remotely sensed Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data. Attention focused on high yielding TV clones (TV1, TV18, TV22, TV23, TV25 and TV26). NDVI was obtained from ASTER images. Statistical analysis shows that NDVI has a strong significant effect on the caffeine content followed by epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin (EGC) and to some extent in other chemical parameters. Relationships therefore exist between quality parameters and remote sensing in particular for the TV clones. This leads to the conclusion that NDVI has a large potential to be used for monitoring tea quality of individual cultivars in the future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Carrying out thermodynamic calculations and definition of the main reactions of decomposition of vapours of ethyl alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechin, A. I.; Kyrmakova, O. S.; Ivanova, T. A.

    2015-04-01

    Thermodynamic opportunities of course of chemical reactions of decomposition of the vapors of ethyl alcohol necessary at development of devices where these reactions will take place are considered. The entalpiyny method of calculation of constants of balance of probable chemical reactions is given in the Excel editor. Independent reactions of process of oxidation are defined. By result of thermodynamic calculation of each reaction schedules of dependence of a constant of balance on environment temperature from which follows are constructed that one reactions proceed until the end of aside formation of the final products, and others are improbable or impossible. The analysis of the received results shows that reactions of oxidation will successfully proceed in the established directions, and for an intensification of process of decomposition it is necessary to provide a supply of some energy which quantity will be sufficient for oxidation of vapors of ethyl alcohol. Results of calculations showed good convergence with programs of thermodynamic calculations like "Aster - 4" and "TERRA".

  17. The methods of geomorphometry and digital soil mapping for assessing spatial variability in the properties of agrogray soils on a slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopp, N. V.; Nechaeva, T. V.; Savenkov, O. A.; Smirnova, N. V.; Smirnov, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    The relationships between the morphometric parameters (MPs) of topography calculated on the basis of digital elevation model (ASTER GDEM, 30 m) and the properties of the plow layer of agrogray soils on a slope were analyzed. The contribution of MPs to the spatial variability of the soil moisture reached 42%; to the content of physical clay (exchangeable potassium, 45%; to the content of exchangeable calcium, 67%; to the content of exchangeable magnesium, 40%; and to the soil pH, 42%. A comparative analysis of the plow layer within the eluvial and transitional parts of the slope was performed with the use of geomorphometric methods and digital soil mapping. The regression analysis showed statistically significant correlations between the properties of the plow layer and the MPs describing surface runoff, geometric forms of surface, and the soil temperature regime.

  18. THE PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF MONITORING IN TERMS RAINWATER IN 2013–2014 IN THE CITY OF BYDGOSZCZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Pasela

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the results of analysis distribution of the amount and rainfall intensity in Bydgoszcz based on network measurements of rain, which is operated by the Municipal Water Supply and sewers in Bydgoszcz. The system consists of six rain-gauges type TPG-036-H24 by A-STER, which are equipped with electronic data recording system with GPRS transmission to a central server. A record of the amount of rainfall measurement results is carried out in 2-minute intervals with an accuracy of 0.1 millimeters. The extreme highs and the intensity of rainfall registered in the audited period was analyzed. The results were presented in a form of tables and graphs. The intensity measurements and the amount of rainfall were used by a dense network of rainwater, which allows you to get valuable results, essential in the analysis of the functioning of municipal sewer system.

  19. Caracterización de la situación posincendio en el área afectada por el incendio de 2005 en el Parque Nacional de Torres del Paine (Chile) a partir de imágenes multiespectrales

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro Cerrillo, Rafael M.; Hayas, Antonio; Hernández Clemente, Rocío; Duhalde, Pamela; González, Luis; García-Ferrer Porras, Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    El uso de sensores remotos para la evaluación de la severidad es una de los aspectos más importantes en el estudio de grandes incendios, así como la aplicación de los resultados para el proceso de restauración. En este trabajo se ha estudiado la aplicación de imágenes de los sensores Landsat ETM+ y ASTER para evaluar la vegetación previa, la superficie recorrida por el fuego y los daños producidos por el incendio ocurrido en el año 2005 en el Parque Nacional de Torres del Paine (C...

  20. Caracterización de la situación posincendio en el área afectada por el incendio de 2005 en el Parque Nacional de Torres del Paine (Chile) a partir de imágenes multiespectrales Characteristics of areas affected by fire in 2005 at Parque Nacional de Torres del Paine (Chile) as assessed from multispectral images

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro Cerrillo, Rafael M.; ANTONIO HAYAS; ALFONSO GARCÍA-FERRER; ROCÍO HERNÁNDEZ CLEMENTE; PAMELA DUHALDE; LUIS GONZÁLEZ

    2008-01-01

    El uso de sensores remotos para la evaluación de la severidad es una de los aspectos más importantes en el estudio de grandes incendios, así como la aplicación de los resultados para el proceso de restauración. En este trabajo se ha estudiado la aplicación de imágenes de los sensores Landsat ETM+ y ASTER para evaluar la vegetación previa, la superficie recorrida por el fuego y los daños producidos por el incendio ocurrido en el año 2005 en el Parque Nacional de Torres del Paine (Chile). Los r...

  1. Determining the suitable areas for winter sports by using remote sensing and geographical information systems in Aladağ Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anıl Akın

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the suitable areas for winter sports alternatively to summerhouses and flatlands in Çukurova using remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS in the Aladağ region of Toros Mountain. Appropriate areas were determined based on the snow cover, current land use pattern, Digital Elevation Model (DEM and related outputs (altitude, aspect, slope groups and slope length within a GIS environment. Landsat TM/ETM and ASTER images were utilised using various remote sensing data. Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA was used to determine the suitable areas. This enabled the multi criteria integration to the planning process. Initially, physical environmental factors and inputs were identified, and then criteria and constraints were identified considering these variables. Three categorical maps including beginners, moderate and advanced skiers were created by standardising the subjected criteria.

  2. Stevia rebaudiana (Bert.) Bertoni extract clarification by cactus Cereus peruvianus

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Larissa Maria; UEM; Pereira, Nehemias Curvelo; UEM; Mendes, Elisabete Scolin; UEM; da Motta Lima, Oswaldo Curty; UEM; da Costa, Silvio Claudio; UEM

    2008-01-01

    A tendência das indústrias que se preocupam em promover a saúde e prevenir doenças está em investir no desenvolvimento de tecnologias para produção de alimentos com baixas calorias e reduzido teor de gordura, mantendo suas qualidades nutricionais. Um dos estudos mais freqüentes é a substituição do açúcar por edulcorantes não calóricos, com a preocupação que estes substitutos sejam semelhantes em função organoléptica. Nas folhas da planta conhecida como Stevia rebaudiana (Bert.) Bertoni (Aster...

  3. Brief communication: Glaciers in the Hunza catchment (Karakoram) have been nearly in balance since the 1970s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolch, Tobias; Pieczonka, Tino; Mukherjee, Kriti; Shea, Joseph

    2017-02-01

    Previous geodetic estimates of mass changes in the Karakoram revealed balanced budgets or a possible slight mass gain since ˜ 2000. Indications of longer-term stability exist but only very few mass budget analyses are available before 2000. Here, based on 1973 Hexagon KH-9, ˜ 2009 ASTER and the SRTM DTM, we show that glaciers in the Hunza River basin (central Karakoram) were on average in balance or showed slight insignificant mass loss within the period ˜ 1973-2009. Heterogeneous behaviour and frequent surge activities were also characteristic of the period before 2000. Surge-type and non-surge-type glaciers showed on average no significantly different mass change values. However, some individual glacier mass change rates differed significantly for the periods before and after ˜ 2000.

  4. Chile Altiplano Unconformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This 10.5 by 11 km sub-area in northern Chile was acquired by ASTER on April 7, 2000. Dramatically displayed is a geological angular unconformity: a contact between layers of rock at different angles. On the right side of the image, Cretaceous sediments were tilted upward to an angle of about 50 degrees, then eroded. On this surface volcanic pyroclastic deposits were deposited as a flat sheet. The section of rocks has been eroding from the east, exposing the tilted and flat rock layers. The image is located at 24.8 degrees south latitude and 69.1 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  5. Plant response to polluted air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendrick, J.B. Jr.; Darley, E.F.; Middleton, J.T.; Paulus, A.O.

    1956-08-01

    Field observations and controlled fumigation experiments have shown that plants differ in their response to atmospheric contamination by ethylene, herbicides, fluorides, sulfur dioxide, and smog, or oxidized hydrocarbons. Controlled experiments have also shown that plant response to air pollution varies with species and variety of plant, age of plant tissue, soil fertility levels, soil moisture, air temperatures during the prefumigation growth period, and presence of certain agricultural chemicals on leaves. The leaves of many plants; such as tomato, African marigold, fuchsia, pepper, and potato, become curved and malformed in the presence of ethylene, while those of cantaloupe, China aster, gardenia, Cattleya orchid, and snapdragon do not. Ethylene may cause serious damage to the sepals of orchids without injury to the petals or leaves.

  6. NEW CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF ALIEN FLORA IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SÎRBU CULIŢĂ

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a number of seventeen alien plant species are presented, one of them being now for the first time reported in Romania (Sedum sarmentosum Bunge. Some species are mentioned for the first time in the flora of Moldavia (Aster novae-angliae L., Cenchrus incertus M. A. Curtis, Chenopodium pumilio R. Br., Fraxinus americana L., Lindernia dubia (L. Pennell, Petunia × atkinsiana D. Don, Solidago gigantea Aiton, Tagetes erecta L. or Transylvania (Kochia sieversiana (Pallas C. A. Mey., and some are reported from new localities (seven species. For each species, there are presented general data on the geographical origin, its distribution in Europe and worldwide, as well as its invasion history and current distribution in Romania. Some of these species manifest a remarkable spreading tendency, expanding their invasion area in Romania. Voucher specimens were deposited in the Herbarium of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Iaşi (IASI.

  7. Tectonic Control on Drainage Network Evolution in the Upper Narmada Valley: Implication to Neotectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Ch. Kothyari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Convergence of the Indian plate towards Eurasia is reflected in neotectonics along several zones throughout the Indian plate. Neotectonics of the upper Narmada river basin following one of the active Son-Narmada Fault (SNF central part zones in central Peninsular India has been studied through tectonic geomorphometric parameters. The study area is 175 km wide and 400 km long valley and catchment area of upper Narmada river basin in Madhya Pradesh state. High resolution ASTER data indicates neotectonic features like sudden changes in drop of Narmada river floor at two locations around Jabalpur formed by conjugate normal faults. Cross profiles indicate uplift of the entire area by a few hundred meters south of the Son-Narmada south fault. Basin asymmetry parameter indicates northward shifting of the river course from middle of the basin due to uplift of the southern block.

  8. Aportes a la Flora de Colombia: Estudios en Compuestas - VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Piedrahíta Santiago

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Bajo este título se han publicado varios artículos en los cuales se han propuesto nuevas especies de asteráceas de los géneros Espeletia, Paragynoxys, Senecio y Verbesina; en esta ocasión se describe una especie de Senecio, novedad surgida en desarrollo de la revisión del material de herbario y preparación de los textos del tratamiento de las Cornpositae de la Flora de la Real Expedición Botánica del Nuevo Reino de Granada.  Se trata de una interesante especie sobresaliente por el color blanco de las flores femeninas y de la cual se conservan en los archivos del Real Jardín Botánico de Madrid, una bella lámina iluminada en color y una diagnosis.

  9. Arithmetic Abilities in Children With Developmental Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq-Quaegebeur, Maryse; Casalis, Séverine; Vilette, Bruno; Lemaitre, Marie-Pierre; Vallée, Louis

    2017-01-01

    A high comorbidity between reading and arithmetic disabilities has already been reported. The present study aims at identifying more precisely patterns of arithmetic performance in children with developmental dyslexia, defined with severe and specific criteria. By means of a standardized test of achievement in mathematics ( Calculation and Number Processing Assessment Battery for Children; von Aster & Dellatolas, 2006), we analyzed the arithmetic abilities of 47 French children with dyslexia attending 3rd, 4th, and 5th grade. Of them, 40% displayed arithmetic deficits, mostly with regard to number transcoding and mental calculation. Their individual profiles of performance accounted for varying strengths and weaknesses in arithmetic abilities. Our findings showed the pathway for the development of arithmetic abilities in children with dyslexia is not unique. Our study contrasts with the hypotheses suggesting the mutual exclusiveness of the phonological representation deficit and the core number module deficit.

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DSIM-02-0057 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DSIM-02-0057 gb|AAS74185.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74209.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74210.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74211.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74224.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74234.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanog...aster] gb|AAS74254.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74258.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74262.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74278.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila mela

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DSIM-02-0057 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DSIM-02-0057 gb|AAS74195.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74276.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74292.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74298.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74303.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74304.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanog...aster] gb|AAS74321.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74359.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] AAS74195.1 1e-176 97% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DYAK-02-0049 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DYAK-02-0049 gb|AAS74383.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74385.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74397.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74398.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74401.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74414.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanog...aster] gb|AAS74416.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74418.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74419.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74424.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila mela

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DSIM-02-0056 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DSIM-02-0056 gb|AAS74383.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74385.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74397.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74398.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74401.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74414.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanog...aster] gb|AAS74416.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74418.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74419.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74424.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila mela

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DYAK-02-0049 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DYAK-02-0049 gb|AAS74384.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74386.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74388.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74390.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74392.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74394.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanog...aster] gb|AAS74395.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74396.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74404.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74408.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila mela

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DMEL-02-0053 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DMEL-02-0053 gb|AAS74380.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74382.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74389.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74402.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74403.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74405.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanog...aster] gb|AAS74406.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74411.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74412.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74413.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila mela

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DSIM-02-0056 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DSIM-02-0056 gb|AAS74384.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74386.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74388.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74390.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74392.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74394.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanog...aster] gb|AAS74395.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74396.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74404.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74408.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila mela

  17. Automated mapping of Earth's annual minimum exposed snow and ice with MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Thomas H.; Brodzik, Mary J.; Racoviteanu, Adina; Armstrong, Richard

    2012-10-01

    Global snow and ice have been diminishing during the Anthropocene but we still lack a complete mapping of annual minimum exposed snow and ice with a consistent, repeatable algorithm. The Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) project has compiled digital glacier outlines and related metadata for the majority of the world's glaciers but inconsistency among product algorithms and time periods represented precludes the production of a consistently derived global data set. Here we present the MODIS Persistent Ice (MODICE) algorithm that leverages the time series of fractional snow and ice cover from the MODIS Snow Covered Area and Grain size (MODSCAG) algorithm. The end product of MODICE is a consistently derived map of annual minimum exposed snow and ice. Comparisons of MODICE with GLIMS glacier outlines derived from SPOT, ASTER, and Landsat Thematic Mapper show strong agreement with the higher resolution outlines subject to uncertainties with spatial resolution, deep mountain shadows, and GLIMS interpretation errors.

  18. A new technique for fire risk estimation in the wildland urban interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, S.; Qu, J. J.; Hao, X.

    A novel technique based on the physical variable of pre-ignition energy is proposed for assessing fire risk in the Grassland-Urban-Interface The physical basis lends meaning a site and season independent applicability possibilities for computing spread rates and ignition probabilities features contemporary fire risk indices usually lack The method requires estimates of grass moisture content and temperature A constrained radiative-transfer inversion scheme on MODIS NIR-SWIR reflectances which reduces solution ambiguity is used for grass moisture retrieval while MODIS land surface temperature emissivity products are used for retrieving grass temperature Subpixel urban contamination of the MODIS reflective and thermal signals over a Grassland-Urban-Interface pixel is corrected using periodic estimates of urban influence from high spatial resolution ASTER

  19. Floristic analysis of perennial species on flowerbeds in Belgrade with special attention on invasiveness of the recorded species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Marija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban areas are among the most important centres of invasive plant species distribution due to their richness in alien species. Because of that, a detailed floristic analysis of perennial flowerbeds was conducted in the central parks of Belgrade. A total of 53 perennial species were found, of which 55% were the alien species planted on 75% of the research area. Among them, two species (Aster novi belgii and Solidago canadensis are invasive and six species are potentially invasive in Serbia. These are planted on 5% and 20% of the flowerbeds, respectively. We can conclude that both the experts and institutions should be informed about the invasive species and potential damages. In the meantime, planting of native decorative species should be encouraged, since they will not pose a threat to natural habitats. Also, detailed research should be conducted in order to eradicate invasive and potentially invasive species from the surfaces around the research area.

  20. USAGE OF NON MEDICATED METHODS FOR CHILDREN'S BRONCHIAL ASTHMA THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Vishneva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes current situation of bronchial asthma non medicated therapy. The need to apply such therapy is associated with the on going trend of more frequent severe bronchial asthma cases, as well as not always efficient standard schemes of medicated treatment. The authors announce a physiotherapy device «aster» — it is based on innovative technologies and designed for noninvasive impact of electromagnetic waves with non thermal intensity upon the «pulmonary triangle» body area. A randomized multicentered survey of Russia's pediatricians union is being conducted to prove the efficiency of this device for children with bronchial asthma and basic therapy adequate to the severity degree. The application of this device is expected to reduce symptoms and eliminate dysfunctions of respiratory system typical for bronchial asthma, which cannot be totally eliminated with the current anti inflammatory agents.Key words: bronchial asthma, non medicated therapy.