WorldWideScience

Sample records for aster frikartii

  1. ASTER Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Eiffel Tower and its shadow can be seen next to the Seine in the left middle of this ASTER image of Paris. Based on the length of the shadow and the solar elevation angle of 59 degrees, we can calculate its height as 324 meters (1,054 feet), compared to its actual height of 303 meters (985 feet). Acquired on July 23, 2000, this image covers an area 23 kilometers (15 miles) wide and 20 kilometers (13 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. Known as the City of Light, Paris has been extolled for centuries as one of the great cities of the world. Its location on the Seine River, at a strategic crossroads of land and river routes, has been the key to its expansion since the Parisii tribe first settled here in the 3rd century B.C.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the

  2. ASTER Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This image of Saudi Arabia shows a great sea of linear dunes in part of the Rub' al Khali, or the Empty Quarter. Acquired on June 25, 2000, the image covers an area 37 kilometers (23 miles) wide and 28 kilometers (17 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. The dunes are yellow due to the presence of iron oxide minerals. The inter-dune area is made up of clays and silt and appears blue due to its high reflectance in band 1. The Rub' al Khali is the world's largest continuous sand desert. It covers about 650,000 square kilometers (250,966 square miles) and lies mainly in southern Saudi Arabia, though it does extend into the United Arab Emirates, Oman, and Yemen. One of the world's driest areas, it is uninhabited except for the Bedouin nomads who cross it. The first European to travel through the desert was Bertram Thomas in 1930.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Examples of

  3. The Aster code; Code Aster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbecq, J.M

    1999-07-01

    The Aster code is a 2D or 3D finite-element calculation code for structures developed by the R and D direction of Electricite de France (EdF). This dossier presents a complete overview of the characteristics and uses of the Aster code: introduction of version 4; the context of Aster (organisation of the code development, versions, systems and interfaces, development tools, quality assurance, independent validation); static mechanics (linear thermo-elasticity, Euler buckling, cables, Zarka-Casier method); non-linear mechanics (materials behaviour, big deformations, specific loads, unloading and loss of load proportionality indicators, global algorithm, contact and friction); rupture mechanics (G energy restitution level, restitution level in thermo-elasto-plasticity, 3D local energy restitution level, KI and KII stress intensity factors, calculation of limit loads for structures), specific treatments (fatigue, rupture, wear, error estimation); meshes and models (mesh generation, modeling, loads and boundary conditions, links between different modeling processes, resolution of linear systems, display of results etc..); vibration mechanics (modal and harmonic analysis, dynamics with shocks, direct transient dynamics, seismic analysis and aleatory dynamics, non-linear dynamics, dynamical sub-structuring); fluid-structure interactions (internal acoustics, mass, rigidity and damping); linear and non-linear thermal analysis; steels and metal industry (structure transformations); coupled problems (internal chaining, internal thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling, chaining with other codes); products and services. (J.S.)

  4. Opportunities within ASTERICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Rob; Cimò, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    ASTERICS, The Astronomy ESFRI and Research Infrastructure Cluster project, brings together astronomers and astroparticle physicists of 22 institutes in Europe to help Europe's world-leading observatories work together to find common solutions to their Big Data challenges, their interoperability and scheduling, and their data access, searching for cross-cutting solutions with mutual and wide-ranging benefit to all concerned. ASTERICS is a four year project, funded through the European Union's Horizon 2020 Framework Programme. The facilities supported by ASTERICS include SKA, CTA, KM3NeT, E-ELT. ASTERICS aims to open up multi messenger astronomy to all scientists and the public through the Virtual Observatory and the citizen science work. I will draw a picture of the landscape in which ASTERICS operates and the possible interaction with the Very Large Volume Neutrino Telescope community. Attention will be given to emerging opportunities for the Neutrino community and how these can be recognised or created.

  5. Opportunities within ASTERICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meer Rob van der

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ASTERICS, The Astronomy ESFRI and Research Infrastructure Cluster project, brings together astronomers and astroparticle physicists of 22 institutes in Europe to help Europe's world-leading observatories work together to find common solutions to their Big Data challenges, their interoperability and scheduling, and their data access, searching for cross-cutting solutions with mutual and wide-ranging benefit to all concerned. ASTERICS is a four year project, funded through the European Union's Horizon 2020 Framework Programme. The facilities supported by ASTERICS include SKA, CTA, KM3NeT, E-ELT. ASTERICS aims to open up multi messenger astronomy to all scientists and the public through the Virtual Observatory and the citizen science work. I will draw a picture of the landscape in which ASTERICS operates and the possible interaction with the Very Large Volume Neutrino Telescope community. Attention will be given to emerging opportunities for the Neutrino community and how these can be recognised or created.

  6. The Aster code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Aster code is a 2D or 3D finite-element calculation code for structures developed by the R and D direction of Electricite de France (EdF). This dossier presents a complete overview of the characteristics and uses of the Aster code: introduction of version 4; the context of Aster (organisation of the code development, versions, systems and interfaces, development tools, quality assurance, independent validation); static mechanics (linear thermo-elasticity, Euler buckling, cables, Zarka-Casier method); non-linear mechanics (materials behaviour, big deformations, specific loads, unloading and loss of load proportionality indicators, global algorithm, contact and friction); rupture mechanics (G energy restitution level, restitution level in thermo-elasto-plasticity, 3D local energy restitution level, KI and KII stress intensity factors, calculation of limit loads for structures), specific treatments (fatigue, rupture, wear, error estimation); meshes and models (mesh generation, modeling, loads and boundary conditions, links between different modeling processes, resolution of linear systems, display of results etc..); vibration mechanics (modal and harmonic analysis, dynamics with shocks, direct transient dynamics, seismic analysis and aleatory dynamics, non-linear dynamics, dynamical sub-structuring); fluid-structure interactions (internal acoustics, mass, rigidity and damping); linear and non-linear thermal analysis; steels and metal industry (structure transformations); coupled problems (internal chaining, internal thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling, chaining with other codes); products and services. (J.S.)

  7. ASTER DEM performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisada, H.; Bailey, G.B.; Kelly, Glen G.; Hara, S.; Abrams, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument onboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Terra spacecraft has an along-track stereoscopic capability using its a near-infrared spectral band to acquire the stereo data. ASTER has two telescopes, one for nadir-viewing and another for backward-viewing, with a base-to-height ratio of 0.6. The spatial resolution is 15 m in the horizontal plane. Parameters such as the line-of-sight vectors and the pointing axis were adjusted during the initial operation period to generate Level-1 data products with a high-quality stereo system performance. The evaluation of the digital elevation model (DEM) data was carried out both by Japanese and U.S. science teams separately using different DEM generation software and reference databases. The vertical accuracy of the DEM data generated from the Level-1A data is 20 m with 95% confidence without ground control point (GCP) correction for individual scenes. Geolocation accuracy that is important for the DEM datasets is better than 50 m. This appears to be limited by the spacecraft position accuracy. In addition, a slight increase in accuracy is observed by using GCPs to generate the stereo data. ?? 2005 IEEE.

  8. NASA ASTER Level 1T

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is an advanced multispectral imager that was launched on board NASA's Terra spacecraft in...

  9. ASTER Flyby of San Francisco

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer, ASTER, is an international project: the instrument was supplied by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint US/Japan science team developed algorithms for science data products, and is validating instrument performance. With its 14 spectral bands, extremely high spatial resolution, and 15 meter along-track stereo capability, ASTER is the zoom lens of the Terra satellite. The primary mission goals are to characterize the Earth's surface; and to monitor dynamic events and processes that influence habitability at human scales. ASTER's monitoring and mapping capabilities are illustrated by this series of images of the San Francisco area. The visible and near infrared image reveals suspended sediment in the bays, vegetation health, and details of the urban environment. Flying over San Francisco (3.2MB) (high-res (18.3MB)), we see the downtown, and shadows of the large buildings. Past the Golden Gate Bridge and Alcatraz Island, we cross San Pablo Bay and enter Suisun Bay. Turning south, we fly over the Berkeley and Oakland Hills. Large salt evaporation ponds come into view at the south end of San Francisco Bay. We turn northward, and approach San Francisco Airport. Rather than landing and ending our flight, we see this is as only the beginning of a 6 year mission to better understand the habitability of the world on which we live. For more information: ASTER images through Visible Earth ASTER Web Site Image courtesy of MITI, ERSDAC, JAROS, and the U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  10. Comparison of ASTER TOA Radiance with MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Hiroto; Iwasaki, Akira

    Synergistic fusion of multi-resolution remote sensing images is important to data users that require observation frequency, spatial resolution and observation wavelength. However, it requires compatibility of these data products. Top of Atmosphere (TOA) radiances of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are compared in the shortwave infrared (SWIR) and it is found that the sensitivity of MODIS is slightly higher and that the ASTER radiance is higher at the lower reflectance regions. ASTER suffers from stray light phenomena because of the nature of a pushbroom sensor, which stands out for SWIR. In contrast, MODIS is free from ghost phenomena in reflective bands, although existence of stray light is known in thermal bands. In this work, correction of stray light in ASTER is carried out using MODIS images with a wider swath, which makes the correction of full scene of ASTER images.

  11. Evapotranspiration estimates using ASTER thermal infrared imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmugge, Thomas J.; French, Andrew; Kustas, William P.

    2002-01-01

    The recent availability of multi-band thermal infrared imagery from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission & Reflection radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite has made feasible the estimation of evapotranspiration at 90 meter resolution. One critical variable in evapotranspiration models is surface temperature. With ASTER the temperature can be reliably determined over a wide range of vegetative conditions. The requirements for accurate temperature measurement include minimization of atmospheric effects, correction for surface emissivity variations and sufficient resolution for the type of vegetative cover. When ASTER imagery are combined with meteorological observations, these requirements are usually met and result in surface temperatures accurate within 1-2 C. ASTER-based evapotranspiration estimates were made during September 2000 over a sub-humid regions at the USDA/ARS Grazinglands research laboratory near El Reno in central Oklahoma. Daily evapotranspiration was estimated by applying instantaneous ASTER surface temperatures, as well as ASTER-based vegetation indices from visible-near infrared bands, to a two-source energy flux model and combining the result with separately acquired hourly solar radiation data. The estimates of surface fluxes show reasonable agreement (within 50-100 W/m2) with ground-based Bowen Ratio Energy Balance measurements and illustrate how ASTER measurements can be applied to heterogeneous terrain. There are some significant discrepancies, however, and these may in part be due to difficulty quantifying fractional cover of senescent vegetation.

  12. Shape-motion relationships of centering microtubule asters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Hirokazu; Kimura, Akatsuki; Minc, Nicolas

    2016-03-28

    Although mechanisms that contribute to microtubule (MT) aster positioning have been extensively studied, still little is known on how asters move inside cells to faithfully target a cellular location. Here, we study sperm aster centration in sea urchin eggs, as a stereotypical large-scale aster movement with extreme constraints on centering speed and precision. By tracking three-dimensional aster centration dynamics in eggs with manipulated shapes, we show that aster geometry resulting from MT growth and interaction with cell boundaries dictates aster instantaneous directionality, yielding cell shape-dependent centering trajectories. Aster laser surgery and modeling suggest that dynein-dependent MT cytoplasmic pulling forces that scale to MT length function to convert aster geometry into directionality. In contrast, aster speed remains largely independent of aster size, shape, or absolute dynein activity, which suggests it may be predominantly determined by aster growth rate rather than MT force amplitude. These studies begin to define the geometrical principles that control aster movements. PMID:27022090

  13. Onboard Calibration Trends of ASTER/TIR

    OpenAIRE

    Sakuma, F.; Kikuchi, M.; Ono, H.

    2012-01-01

    The ASTER Instrument is one of the five sensors on the NASA’s Terra satellite on orbit since December 1999. ASTER consists of three radiometers, VNIR, SWIR and TIR whose spatial resolutions are 15 m, 30 m and 90 m, respectively. Unfortunately SWIR stopped taking pictures since May 2008 due to the offset rise caused by the cooler temperature rise, but VNIR and TIR are taking Earth pictures of good quality. TIR has five bands whose center wavelengths are 8.3 mm, 8.6 mm, 9.1 mm, 10.6 mm and 11.1...

  14. Assessing Mesoscale Volcanic Aviation Hazards using ASTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieri, D.; Gubbels, T.; Hufford, G.; Olsson, P.; Realmuto, V.

    2006-12-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER) imager onboard the NASA Terra Spacecraft is a joint project of the Japanese Ministry for Economy, Trade, and Industry (METI) and NASA. ASTER has acquired over one million multi-spectral 60km by 60 km images of the earth over the last six years. It consists of three sub-instruments: (a) a four channel VNIR (0.52-0.86um) imager with a spatial resolution of 15m/pixel, including three nadir-viewing bands (1N, 2N, 3N) and one repeated rear-viewing band (3B) for stereo-photogrammetric terrain reconstruction (8-12m vertical resolution); (b) a SWIR (1.6-2.43um) imager with six bands at 30m/pixel; and (c) a TIR (8.125-11.65um) instrument with five bands at 90m/pixel. Returned data are processed in Japan at the Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center (ERSDAC) and at the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC), located at the USGS Center for Earth Resource Observation and Science (EROS) in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. Within the ASTER Project, the JPL Volcano Data Acquisition and Analyses System (VDAAS) houses over 60,000 ASTER volcano images of 1542 volcanoes worldwide and will be accessible for downloads by the general public and on-line image analyses by researchers in early 2007. VDAAS multi-spectral thermal infrared (TIR) de-correlation stretch products are optimized for volcanic ash detection and have a spatial resolution of 90m/pixel. Digital elevation models (DEM) stereo-photogrammetrically derived from ASTER Band 3B/3N data are also available within VDAAS at 15 and 30m/pixel horizontal resolution. Thus, ASTER visible, IR, and DEM data at 15-100m/pixel resolution within VDAAS can be combined to provide useful boundary conditions on local volcanic eruption plume location, composition, and altitude, as well as on topography of underlying terrain. During and after eruptions, low- altitude winds and ash transport can be affected by topography, and other orographic thermal and water vapor

  15. A New Diterpenoid Glucoside from Aster smithianus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shou Jun GUO; Xing Hua ZHAO; Dong Liang CHENG

    2004-01-01

    A new diterpenoid trisaccharide, smithoside A, was isolated from Aster smithianus. Its structure was identified as pimar-15 (16)-β-en-3β, 8β, 1 1α-triol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (l→3)-[β-glucopyranosyl (1→2)]-β-D-glucopyranoside on the basis of the spectral and chemical methods.

  16. Crop Residue Coverage Estimation Using ASTER Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, D.; Yao, H.; Kincaid, R.

    2006-12-01

    Soil erosion and its related runoff is a serious problem in U.S. agriculture. USDA has classified 33 percent of U.S. agricultural land as being highly erodible. It is well recognized that residue coverage on the soil surface can reduce soil erosion. The National Food Security Act of 1985 requires that agricultural producers protect all highly erodible cropland from excessive erosion. The 2002 Farm Bill gave U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) the authority to make a determination of compliance. NRCS is currently running several programs to implement conservation practices and to monitor compliance. To be in compliance, growers must keep crop residue cover more than 30 percent of the field. This requires field-level assessment. The NRCS does not have the resources to regularly survey every field. One potential approach for compliance decision making is using data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor onboard NASA's Terra satellite. ASTER data provides 15 bands of 15 meter visible/NIR (VNIR) and 30 meter SWIR resolution data. Both the spatial resolution and spectral wavelength range and resolution are suitable for field level residue cover estimation. The objective of this study was to explore the potential of using ASTER data for crop residue cover estimation. The results indicate that ASTER imagery has good capability to identify residue within the corn fields and moderate capability in soybean residue estimation. SWIR bands have the most promise in separating crop residue when compared to the VNIR bands. Satellite based remote sensing imagery could be a potential rapid decision making tool for NRCS's compliance programs.

  17. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset represents multiple products archived at the Land Processes DAAC for ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) aboard the...

  18. Creating improved ASTER DEMs over glacierized terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raup, B. H.; Khalsa, S. S.; Armstrong, R.

    2006-12-01

    Digital elevation models (DEMs) produced from ASTER stereo imagery over glacierized terrain frequently contain data voids, which some software packages fill by interpolation. Even when interpolation is applied, the results are often not accurate enough for studies of glacier thickness changes. DEMs are created by automatic cross-correlation between the image pairs, and rely on spatial variability in the digital number (DN) values for this process. Voids occur in radiometrically homogeneous regions, such as glacier accumulation areas covered with uniform snow, due to lack of correlation. The same property that leads to lack of correlation makes possible the derivation of elevation information from photoclinometry, also known as shape-from-shading. We demonstrate a technique to produce improved DEMs from ASTER data by combining the results from conventional cross-correlation DEM-generation software with elevation information produced from shape-from-shading in the accumulation areas of glacierized terrain. The resulting DEMs incorporate more information from the imagery, and the filled voids more accurately represent the glacier surface. This will allow for more accurate determination of glacier hypsometry and thickness changes, leading to better predictions of response to climate change.

  19. ASTER system operating achievement for 15 years on orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inada, Hitomi; Ito, Yoshiyuki; Kikuchi, Masakuni; Sakuma, Fumihiro; Tatsumi, Kenji; Akagi, Shigeki; Ono, Hidehiko

    2015-10-01

    ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) System is operating more than 15 years since launched on board of NASA's Terra spacecraft in December 1999. ASTER System is composed of 3 radiometers (VNIR (Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer), SWIR (Short-Wave Infrared Radiometer), and TIR (Thermal Infrared Radiometer)), CSP (Common Signal Processor) and MSP (Master Power Supply). This paper describes the ASTER System operating history and the achievement of ASTER System long term operation since the initial checkout operation, the normal operation, and the continuous operation. Through the 15 years operation, ASTER system had totally checked the all subsystems (MPS, VNIR, TIR, SWIR, and CSP) health and safety check using telemetry data trend evaluation, and executed the necessary action. The watch items are monitored as the life control items. The pointing mechanics for VNIR, SWIR and TIR, and the cooler for SWIR and TIR are all operating with any problem for over 15 years. In 2003, ASTER was successfully operated for the lunar calibration. As the future plan, ASTER team is proposing the 2nd lunar calibration before the end of mission.

  20. ASTER Level 1B Registered Radiance at the Sensor

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is an advanced multispectral imager that was launched on board NASA's Terra spacecraft in...

  1. ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset 100-meter V003 - AG100

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer Global Emissivity Database (ASTER GED) was developed by the National Aeronautics and Space...

  2. Lithologic mapping with multispectral ASTER TIR and SWIR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Yoshiki

    2004-02-01

    ASTER, launched in December, 1999, composed of three subsystems, each of which multispectrally observes the reflected or emitted radiation from the surface of the earth to space in VNIR (visible and near infrared), SWIR (shortwave infrared) and TIR (thermal infrared) wavelength regions, respectively. ASTER-VNIR has three spectral bands with a spatial resolution of 15m, and the one of which in near infrared has an along track stereo observation capability to produce high quality Digital Elevation Model (DEM). ASTER-SWIR has six spectral bands with a spatial resolution of 30m, which are mainly designed for discriminating altered minerals bearing hydroxyl group. ASTER-TIR has five spectral bands with a spatial resolution of 90m, which presents us a powerful tool for identifying quartz and carbonate minerals as well as discriminating types of silicate rocks. The author have successfully developed a robust method for detecting quartzite and carbonate rocks as well as classifying type of igneous rocks with ASTER TIR data without atmospheric corrections (Level-1B data). Here in this paper, reflectance spectra of minerals in SWIR region measured in the laboratory are analyzed to define calcite index, OH-bearing silicate index, kaolinite index and alunite index for discriminating each mineral by ASTER-SWIR. The defined indices are applied to SWIR data of ASTER Level-1B radiance at the sensor data observing Cuprite area in Nevada, USA, and the discussions are made on the results by comparing the well-known geology of the area. Also, the result of calcite index is compared with the result of applying well-characterized carbonate index defined for ASTER-TIR to clarify the strong point of each index.

  3. ASTER satellite observations for international disaster management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, K.A.; Abrams, M.

    2012-01-01

    When lives are threatened or lost due to catastrophic disasters, and when massive financial impacts are experienced, international emergency response teams rapidly mobilize to provide urgently required support. Satellite observations of affected areas often provide essential insight into the magnitude and details of the impacts. The large cost and high complexity of developing and operating satellite flight and ground systems encourages international collaboration in acquiring imagery for such significant global events in order to speed delivery of critical information to help those affected, and optimize spectral, spatial, and temporal coverage of the areas of interest. The International Charter-Space and Major Disasters was established to enable such collaboration in sensor tasking during times of crisis and is often activated in response to calls for assistance from authorized users. Insight is provided from a U.S. perspective into sensor support for Charter activations and other disaster events through a description of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), which has been used to support emergency situations for over a decade through its expedited tasking and near real-time data delivery capabilities. Examples of successes achieved and challenges encountered in international collaboration to develop related systems and fulfill tasking requests suggest operational considerations for new missions as well as areas for future enhancements.

  4. ASTER 15 years challenging trail on-orbit operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Masakuni; Sakuma, Fumihiro; Tatsumi, Kenji; Inada, Hitomi; Itou, Yoshiyuki; Akagi, Shigeki; Ono, Hidehiko

    2015-10-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is a high-resolution optical sensor system that can observe in a wide region from the visible and near-infrared, the short wavelength infrared to the thermal infrared with 14 spectral bands on board of NASA's Terra spacecraft for Earth Observing System (EOS) "A mission to planet earth." ASTER achieved 5 years mission success on orbit operation normally which is the specified target after launched on December, 1999. And after through 10 years continuous orbit operation, ASTER has still operating the long life observation of extra success to be 15 years in total on December, 2014. As for ASTER instrument that is composed of 3 radiometers; the Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer (VNIR) with 3 bands, the Short Wavelength Infrared Radiometer (SWIR) with 6 bands, the Thermal Infrared Radiometer (TIR) with 5 bands, overall ASTER long life data taken by 15 years onboard operation has been reviewed from the point of view of the health and safety check by Telemetry (TLM) data trend, the function and performance evaluation by observation data trend, the onboard calibration and verification by periodic Calibration(CAL) data trend. As a result, the radiometric degradation of VNIR and TIR and the temperature rise of SWIR detector were identified as significant challenges. The countermeasure plan towards the end of mission was clarified and also the novel lessons learned was verified.

  5. An Introduction to ASTER GDEM and Procedure Reading%ASTER GDEM数据介绍与程序读取

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康晓伟; 冯钟葵

    2011-01-01

    2009年6月30日,期待已久的ASTER GDEM数据由日本经济产业省(METI)和美国航天局(NASA)共同发布,其空间分辨率达到了1弧秒×1弧秒(约30m× 30m),相比2003年NASA发布的SRTM数据有了很大的提高,并且其陆地表面覆盖率也大幅提高,达到了陆地面积的99%.本文介绍了ASTER GDEM的相关特性以及使用程序读取该数据的方法.%On 30th,June 2009,METI and NASA distributed the ASTER GDEM(Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Global Digital Elevation Model). The space resolution of ASTER GDEM is 1 arc-secX 1 arc-sec(ap-proximately 30m × 30m) and the land surface coverage reached 99%, both have much greater improvement than SRTM which was distributed in 2003 by NASA. This paper introduced characteristics of ASTER GDEM and how to read the data with programming language.

  6. General theory for the mechanics of confined microtubule asters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In cells, dynamic microtubules organize into asters or spindles to assist positioning of organelles. Two types of forces are suggested to contribute to the positioning process: (i) microtubule-growth based pushing forces; and (ii) motor protein mediated pulling forces. In this paper, we present a general theory to account for aster positioning in a confinement of arbitrary shape. The theory takes account of microtubule nucleation, growth, catastrophe, slipping, as well as interaction with cortical force generators. We calculate microtubule distributions and forces acting on microtubule organizing centers in a sphere and in an ellipsoid. Positioning mechanisms based on both pushing forces and pulling forces can be distinguished in our theory for different parameter regimes or in different geometries. In addition, we investigate positioning of microtubule asters in the case of asymmetric distribution of motors. This analysis enables us to characterize situations relevant for Caenorrhabditis elegans embryos. (paper)

  7. Evaluation of Aster Gdem v3 Using Icesat Laser Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabajal, C. C.; Boy, J.-P.

    2016-06-01

    We have used a set of Ground Control Points (GCPs) derived from altimetry measurements from the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) to evaluate the quality of the 30 m posting ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) V3 elevation products produced by NASA/METI for Greenland and Antarctica. These data represent the highest quality globally distributed altimetry measurements that can be used for geodetic ground control, selected by applying rigorous editing criteria, useful at high latitudes, where other topographic control is scarce. Even if large outliers still remain in all ASTER GDEM V3 data for both, Greenland and Antarctica, they are significantly reduced when editing ASTER by number of scenes (N≥5) included in the elevation processing. For 667,354 GCPs in Greenland, differences show a mean of 13.74 m, a median of -6.37 m, with an RMSE of 109.65 m. For Antarctica, 6,976,703 GCPs show a mean of 0.41 m, with a median of -4.66 m, and a 54.85 m RMSE, displaying smaller means, similar medians, and less scatter than GDEM V2. Mean and median differences between ASTER and ICESat are lower than 10 m, and RMSEs lower than 10 m for Greenland, and 20 m for Antarctica when only 9 to 31 scenes are included.

  8. Recent developments in seismic analysis in the code Aster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress in the field of seismic qualification and design methods made these last few years allows physical phenomena actually in play to be better considered, while cutting down the conservatism associated with some simplified design methods. So following the change in methods and developing the most advantageous ones among them contributes to the process of the seismic margins assessment and the preparation of new design tools for future series. In this paper, the main developments and improvements in methods which have been made these last two years in the Code Aster, in order to improve seismic calculation methods and seismic margin assessment are presented. The first development relates to making the MISS3D soil structure interaction code available, thanks to an interface made with the Code Aster. The second relates to the possibility of making modal basis time calculations on multi-supported structures by considering local non linearities like impact, friction or squeeze fluid forces. Recent developments in random dynamics and postprocessing devoted to earthquake designs are then mentioned. Three applications of these developments are then ut forward. The first application relates to a test case for soil structure interaction design using MISS3D-Aster coupling. The second is a test case for a multi-supported structure. The last application, more for manufacturing, refers to seismic qualification of Main Live Steam stop valves. First results of the independent validation of the Code Aster seismic design functionalities, which provide and improve the quality of software, are also recalled. (authors)

  9. Recent developments in seismic analysis in the code Aster; Les developpements recents en analyse sismique dans le code aster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guihot, P.; Devesa, G.; Dumond, A.; Panet, M.; Waeckel, F.

    1996-12-31

    Progress in the field of seismic qualification and design methods made these last few years allows physical phenomena actually in play to be better considered, while cutting down the conservatism associated with some simplified design methods. So following the change in methods and developing the most advantageous ones among them contributes to the process of the seismic margins assessment and the preparation of new design tools for future series. In this paper, the main developments and improvements in methods which have been made these last two years in the Code Aster, in order to improve seismic calculation methods and seismic margin assessment are presented. The first development relates to making the MISS3D soil structure interaction code available, thanks to an interface made with the Code Aster. The second relates to the possibility of making modal basis time calculations on multi-supported structures by considering local non linearities like impact, friction or squeeze fluid forces. Recent developments in random dynamics and postprocessing devoted to earthquake designs are then mentioned. Three applications of these developments are then ut forward. The first application relates to a test case for soil structure interaction design using MISS3D-Aster coupling. The second is a test case for a multi-supported structure. The last application, more for manufacturing, refers to seismic qualification of Main Live Steam stop valves. First results of the independent validation of the Code Aster seismic design functionalities, which provide and improve the quality of software, are also recalled. (authors). 11 refs.

  10. ASTER VNIR and SWIR Radiometric Calibration and Atmospheric Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Kohei; Thome, Kurtis; Iwasaki, Akira; Biggar, Stuart

    As described in the previous chapter, ASTER relies on three separate subsystems to cover the full spectral range from the visible and near infrared (VNIR), short-wave infrared (SWIR), to the thermal infrared (TIR). Establishing the accuracy of data from all three subsystems requires both sensor-related calibration and atmospheric correction. The dominance of reflected solar energy in the VNIR and SWIR, and emitted terrestrial radiation in the TIR allows separate treatment of the two spectral regions. TIR calibration and correction are covered in a separate chapter. This chapter has two main goals: (1) to allow the user to understand ASTER's radiometric calibration and atmospheric correction processes that enable conversion of VNIR and SWIR digital numbers (DN) to at-sensor reflectance and spectral radiance, and (2) to provide a succinct analysis of the SWIR crosstalk problem and its solutions.

  11. ASTER temperature and emissivity validation on volcano Teide

    OpenAIRE

    Amici, Stefania; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione CNT, Roma, Italia; Piscini, Alessandro; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione CNT, Roma, Italia; Buongiorno, Fabrizia; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione CNT, Roma, Italia

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER ) has operated since 19 December 1999 from NASA’s Terra Earth-orbiting, sun synchronous satellite. Emissivity and temperature standard products are based on the TES algorithms and require periodical validation campaign. In the frame of the EC project PREVIEW (http://www.preview-risk.com/) a field campaign on Volcano Teide was carried on, from the 16th to 24th of September 2007, to validate and to integrate the satellite...

  12. Identificación de metabasaltos alterados mediante datos ASTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Castro Godoy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Los datos del sensor ASTER permitieron desarrollar una metodología sencilla, utilizando las bandas del infrarrojo de onda corta (subsistema SWIR, para prospectar cuerpos ígneos alterados que manifiestan diferencias espectrales con respecto a la roca de caja. A modo de ejemplo se detectó la alteración clorítica presente en metabasaltos intercalados en metasedimentitas de la Formación Puntilla de Uspallata en la Precordillera mendocina.

  13. Validation of the ASTER thermal infrared surface radiance data product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palluconi, Frank D.

    1996-11-01

    The advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER) is a 14 channel high spatial resolution instrument selected for flight on the EOS AM-1 platform. This instrument has a 60 km pointable cross-track swath and five thermal infrared channels between 8 and 12 micrometers with 90 m spatial resolution. Correction for the effect of atmospheric attenuation and emission will be made using a radiative transfer model and atmospheric parameters either from the EOS AM-1 platform instruments MODIS (moderate- resolution imaging spectroradiometer) and MISR (multi-angle imaging spectroradiometer) or temperature and moisture profiles from global numerical assimilation models. The correction accuracy depends strongly on the accuracy of the atmospheric information used. To provide an objective assessment of the validity of the atmospheric correction in situ measurements of water surfaces under a variety of atmospheric conditions will be used to estimate the surface leaving radiance at the scale of an ASTER pixel. The procedure will use an array of continuously recording temperature buoys to establish the bulk water temperature, broadband radiometers to determine the near surface water temperature gradient and radiosonde and sunphotometer measurements and a radiative transfer model to deduce the sky irradiance. These measurements and the spectral emissivity of the water will be combined with the relative system spectral response to provide an estimate of thermal infrared surface leaving radiance for each ASTER thermal channel. An example of this approach using a multichannel thermal aircraft scanner as a stand in for ASTER is described. It is expected this approach will provide estimates of surface radiance accurate, in temperature terms, to better than 1 K.

  14. Discrepancy Between ASTER- and MODIS- Derived Land Surface Temperatures: Terrain Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Yasushi Yamaguchi; Yuanbo Liu; Yousuke Noumi

    2009-01-01

    The MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) are onboard the same satellite platform NASA TERRA. Both MODIS and ASTER offer routine retrieval of land surface temperatures (LSTs), and the ASTER- and MODIS-retrieved LST products have been used worldwide. Because a large fraction of the earth surface consists of mountainous areas, variations in elevation, terrain slope and aspect angles can cause biases in th...

  15. Collective behavior of minus-ended motors in mitotic microtubule asters gliding toward DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microtubules (MTs) nucleated by centrosomes form star-shaped structures referred to as asters. Aster motility and dynamics is vital for genome stability, cell division, polarization and differentiation. Asters move either toward the cell center or away from it. Here, we focus on the centering mechanism in a membrane independent system of Xenopus cytoplasmic egg extracts. Using live microscopy and single particle tracking, we find that asters move toward chromatinized DNA structures. The velocity and directionality profiles suggest a random-walk with drift directed toward DNA. We have developed a theoretical model that can explain this movement as a result of a gradient of MT length dynamics and MT gliding on immobilized dynein motors. In simulations, the antagonistic action of the motor species on the radial array of MTs leads to a tug-of-war purely due to geometric considerations and aster motility resembles a directed random-walk. Additionally, our model predicts that aster velocities do not change greatly with varying initial distance from DNA. The movement of asymmetric asters becomes increasingly super-diffusive with increasing motor density, but for symmetric asters it becomes less super-diffusive. The transition of symmetric asters from superdiffusive to diffusive mobility is the result of number fluctuations in bound motors in the tug-of-war. Overall, our model is in good agreement with experimental data in Xenopus cytoplasmic extracts and predicts novel features of the collective effects of motor-MT interactions. (paper)

  16. The influence of Aster x salignus Willd. Invasion on the diversity of soil yeast communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushakova, A. M.; Kachalkin, A. V.; Chernov, I. Yu.

    2016-07-01

    The annual dynamics of yeast communities were studied in the soddy-podzolic soil under the thickets of Aster x salignus Willd., one of the widespread invasive plant species in central Russia. Yeast groups in the soils under continuous aster thickets were found to differ greatly from the yeast communities in the soils under the adjacent indigenous meadow vegetation. In both biotopes the same species ( Candida vartiovaarae, Candida sake, and Cryptococcus terreus) are dominants. However, in the soils under indigenous grasses, eurybiontic yeasts Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, which almost never occur in the soil under aster, are widespread. In the soil under aster, the shares of other typical epiphytic and pedobiontic yeast fungi (ascomycetic species Wickerhamomyces aniomalus, Barnettozyma californica and basidiomycetic species Cystofilobasidium macerans, Guehomyces pullulans) significantly increase. Thus, the invasion of Aster x salignus has a clear effect on soil yeast complexes reducing their taxonomic and ecological diversity.

  17. Prediction of landslides using ASTER imagery and data mining models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kyo-Young; Oh, Hyun-Joo; Choi, Jaewon; Park, Inhye; Lee, Changwook; Lee, Saro

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify landslide-related factors using only remotely sensed data and to present landslide susceptibility maps using a geographic information system, data-mining models, an artificial neural network (ANN), and an adaptive neuro-fuzzy interface system (ANFIS). Landslide-related factors were identified in Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) satellite imagery. The slope, aspect, and curvature of topographic features were calculated from a digital elevation model that was made using the ASTER imagery. Lineaments, land-cover, and normalized difference vegetative index layers were also extracted from the imagery. Landslide-susceptible areas were analyzed and mapped based on occurrence factors using the ANN and ANFIS. The generalized bell-shaped built-in membership function of the ANFIS was applied to landslide susceptibility mapping. Analytical results were validated using landslide test location data. In the validation results, the ANN model showed 80.42% prediction accuracy and the ANFIS model showed 86.55% prediction accuracy. These results suggest that the ANFIS model has a better performance than does the ANN in predicting landslide susceptibility.

  18. Stereo Pair with ASTER Image, Iturralde Structure, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    An 8-kilometer (5-mile) wide crater of possible impact origin is shown in this stereoscopic view of an isolated part of the Bolivian Amazon. The view is derived from an Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) satellite image and a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation model. The circular feature covering much of the image, known as the Iturralde Structure, is possibly the Earth's most recent 'big' impact event recording collision with a meteor or comet that might have occurred between 11,000 and 30,000 years ago.Although the structure was identified on satellite photographs in the mid-1980s, its location is so remote that it has only been visited by scientific investigators twice, most recently by a team from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in September 2002. Lying in an area of very low relief, the landform is a quasi-circular closed depression only about 20 meters (66 feet) in depth, with sharply defined sub-angular 'rim' materials. It resembles a 'cookie cutter' in that its appearance 'cuts' the heavily vegetated soft-sediments and pampas of this part of Bolivia. The SRTM data have provided investigators with the first topographic map of the site and will allow studies of its three-dimensional structure crucial to determining whether it actually is of impact origin.This stereoscopic image was generated by first draping the ASTER satellite image over the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model. Two differing perspectives were then calculated, one for each eye. They can be seen in 3-D by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing) or by downloading and printing the image pair and viewing them with a stereoscope. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.Thick vegetation in part defines the surface that the SRTM radar sees as it maps the terrain. Much of the local

  19. INTEGRATION OF PALSAR AND ASTER SATELLITE DATA FOR GEOLOGICAL MAPPING IN TROPICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Beiranvand Pour

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the integration of the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER satellite data for geological mapping applications in tropical environments. The eastern part of the central belt of peninsular Malaysia has been investigated to identify structural features and mineral mapping using PALSAR and ASTER data. Adaptive local sigma and directional filters were applied to PALSAR data for detecting geological structure elements in the study area. The vegetation, mineralogic and lithologic indices for ASTER bands were tested in tropical climate. Lineaments (fault and fractures and curvilinear (anticline or syncline were detected using PALSAR fused image of directional filters (N-S, NE-SW, and NW-SE.Vegetation index image map show vegetation cover by fusing ASTER VNIR bands. High concentration of clay minerals zone was detected using fused image map derived from ASTER SWIR bands. Fusion of ASTER TIR bands produced image map of the lithological units. Results indicate that data integration and data fusion from PALSAR and ASTER sources enhanced information extraction for geological mapping in tropical environments.

  20. Thermal Infrared ASTER Observations of Faults in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eneva, M.

    2005-12-01

    Reports on earthquake precursors observed in the thermal infrared (TIR) data from several satellites have caused mixed reactions. Some researchers have identified precursory anomalies, such as increased temperatures of several degrees over several days in areas extending up to hundreds of kilometers. In view of the uncertainties in the data, others have been skeptical that such changes can be reliably and uniquely associated with seismic events. This problem is a subset of the more general question how to interpret TIR observations from space for the purpose of fault characterization. Although faults are often clearly discernable in thermal images, the contributions of various factors to any temporal variability in their thermal properties are not clear. These factors include vegetation, soil moisture, surface and air temperature, atmospheric water vapor, and perhaps even wind. Extracting anomalies specifically associated with earthquakes in view of this natural variability and in the presence of observational uncertainties is a difficult task at best. Using standard higher-level TIR products (e.g., surface temperature) derived from radiance at sensor is likely questionable without additional corrections. We address these questions through the analysis of 60 km x 60 km images collected by the ASTER instrument on board of the Terra satellite. ASTER is unique in that five of its 14 channels are TIR, with a spatial resolution of 90 m (compared with at least 1-km spatial resolution of instruments used in previous reports of precursory anomalies). We focus on a specific area in southern California (32.80N - 34.50N, 115.90W - 117.20W) that includes substantial parts of the San Andreas, San Jacinto and Elsinore faults, as well as two recent M5.2 and M4.9 earthquakes (June 12 and 16, 2005). In addition to the existing ASTER data, mostly collected in the daytime, we have made arrangements for future data collections over the next year, with emphasis on nighttime TIR data

  1. Poly-Pattern Compressive Segmentation of ASTER Data for GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Wayne; Warner, Eric; Tutwiler, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Pattern-based segmentation of multi-band image data, such as ASTER, produces one-byte and two-byte approximate compressions. This is a dual segmentation consisting of nested coarser and finer level pattern mappings called poly-patterns. The coarser A-level version is structured for direct incorporation into geographic information systems in the manner of a raster map. GIs renderings of this A-level approximation are called pattern pictures which have the appearance of color enhanced images. The two-byte version consisting of thousands of B-level segments provides a capability for approximate restoration of the multi-band data in selected areas or entire scenes. Poly-patterns are especially useful for purposes of change detection and landscape analysis at multiple scales. The primary author has implemented the segmentation methodology in a public domain software suite.

  2. Ship extraction and categorization from ASTER VNIR imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partsinevelos, Panagiotis; Miliaresis, George

    2014-08-01

    We present a methodology for ship extraction and categorization from relatively low resolution multispectral ASTER imagery, corresponding to the sea region south east of Athens in Greece. At a first level, in the radiometrically corrected image, quad tree decomposition and bounding rectangular extraction automatically outline location of objects - possible ships, by statistically evaluating spectral responses throughout the segmented image. Subsequently, the object borders within the rectangular regions are extracted, while connected component labelling combined by size and shape filtering allows ship characterization. The ships' spectral signature is determined in green, red and infrared bands while cluster analysis allows the identification of ship categories on the basis of their size and reflectance. Additional pixel- based measures reveal estimated ship orientation, direction, movement, stability and turning. The results are complemented with additional geographic information and inference tools are formed towards the determination of probable ship type and its destination.

  3. Distribution and Ecology of Aster amellus aggregates in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mandáková, T.; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 98, - (2006), s. 845-856. ISSN 0305-7364 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Distribution * Ecology * Aster amellus Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.448, year: 2006

  4. ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset Monthly 0.05 degree HDF5

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Emissivity Dataset (GED) is a collection of monthly files (see known issues for gaps)...

  5. ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset Monthly 0.05 degree NetCDF4

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Emissivity Dataset (GED) is a collection of monthly files (see known issues for gaps)...

  6. ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset 100-meter Binary V003 - AG100B

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer Global Emissivity Database (ASTER GED) was developed by the National Aeronautics and Space...

  7. ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset 1-kilometer Binary V003 - AG1KMB

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer Global Emissivity Database (ASTER GED) was developed by the National Aeronautics and Space...

  8. ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset 1-kilometer V003 - AG1KM

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer Global Emissivity Database (ASTER GED) was developed by the National Aeronautics and Space...

  9. Rock type mapping with indices defined for multispectral thermal infrared ASTER data: case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Yoshiki

    2003-03-01

    ASTER sensor aboard NASA's Terra satellite has the capability of measuring multispectral thermal infrared (TIR) emission from the earth's surface to space. The author proposed indices by the combination of ASTER-TIR bands for detecting quartz and carbonate minerals, and another index to estimate the abundance of bulk SiO2 content in the surface silicate rocks, applied them to the low level ASTER radiance at the sensor data without atmospheric corrections, and showed a potential ability of the indices in a rock type mapping. This paper tries to apply the proposed method into the practical case studies using ASTER-TIR data. The study sites include ophiolitic belt zones in Oman and along Yarlun Zangbo River in Tibet. The applied results are compared with the geology of the study areas. It indicates that the new remote sensing approach proposed here would improve the quality and the cost of the geological mapping in arid and semi-arid regions.

  10. An assessment of ASTER surface reflectance products generated by GEO Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hirokazu; Kamei, Akihide; Moriyama, Masao; Tsuchida, Satoshi

    2010-08-01

    The GEO Grid is an e-infrastructure, which is capable in archiving large amount of satellite data and conducting higher level processing using the advanced grid technologies.1 The Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Level 0 data are stored in a cluster system on GEO Grid, and ASTER ortho-rectified radiance and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) products are able to be generated on this system globally since 2000. This research shows validation of new ASTER surface reflectance products generated by the GEO Grid system, which can apply the radiometric and atmospheric correction to ASTER ortho-rectified radiance data of Visible and Near Infrared (VNIR) and Shortwave Infrared (SWIR).

  11. ASTER, ALI and Hyperion sensors data for lithological mapping and ore minerals exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Beiranvand Pour, Amin; Hashim, Mazlan

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Advanced Land Imager (ALI), and Hyperion data and applications of the data as a tool for ore minerals exploration, lithological and structural mapping. Spectral information extraction from ASTER, ALI, and Hyperion data has great ability to assist geologists in all disciplines to map the distribution and detect the rock units exposed at the earth’s surface. The near coincidence of Earth ...

  12. Remote sensing of volcanic plumes using the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henney, Lorna Alison

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) has been used to quantify SO2 emissions from passively degassing volcanoes. This dissertation explores ASTER's capability to detect SO 2 with satellite validation, enhancement techniques and extensive processing of images at a variety of volcanoes. ASTER is compared to the Mini UV Spectrometer (MUSe), a ground based instrument, to determine if reasonable SO2 fluxes can be quantified from a plume emitted from Lascar, Chile. The two sensors were in good agreement with ASTER proving to be a reliable detector of SO2. ASTER illustrated the advantages of imaging a plume in 2D, with better temporal resolution than the MUSe. SO2 plumes in ASTER imagery are not always discernible in the raw TIR data. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Decorrelation Stretch (DCS) enhancement techniques were compared to determine how well they highlight a variety of volcanic plumes. DCS produced a consistent output and the composition of the plumes was easy to identify from explosive eruptions. As the plumes became smaller and lower in altitude they became harder to distinguish using DCS. PCA proved to be better at identifying smaller low altitude plumes. ASTER was used to investigate SO2 emissions at Lascar, Chile. Activity at Lascar has been characterized by cyclic behavior and persistent degassing (Matthews et al. 1997). Previous studies at Lascar have primarily focused on changes in thermal infrared anomalies, neglecting gas emissions. Using the SO2 data along with changes in thermal anomalies and visual observations it is evident that Lascar is at the end an eruptive cycle that began in 1993. Declining gas emissions and crater temperatures suggest that the conduit is sealing. ASTER and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) were used to determine the annual contribution of SO2 to the troposphere from the Central and South American volcanic arcs between 2000 and 2011. Fluxes of 3.4 Tg/a for Central America and 3

  13. Validation of ASTER Surface Temperature Data with In Situ Measurements to Evaluate Heat Islands in Complex Urban Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Bonggeun Song; Kyunghun Park

    2014-01-01

    This study compared Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) surface temperature data with in situ measurements to validate the use of ASTER data for studying heat islands in urban settings with complex spatial characteristics. Eight sites in Changwon, Korea, were selected for analyses. Surface temperature data were extracted from the thermal infrared (TIR) band of ASTER on four dates during the summer and fall of 2012, and corresponding in situ measurements of tempe...

  14. "Spiral asters" and cytoplasmic rotation in sea urchin eggs: induction in Strongylocentrotus purpuratus eggs by elevated temperature

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    "Spiral asters" composed of swirls of subcortical microtubules were recently described in fertilized eggs of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. In our study, these structures did not occur at culture temperatures below 16 degrees C. When the culture temperature was elevated, however, "spiral asters" routinely appeared during a susceptible period before mitotic prophase when the sperm aster-diaster normally exists. A massive and protracted rotation of the cytoplasm (excluding an imm...

  15. Aster images for discrimination of agricultural use areas in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advance of geographical information technology has led to the placement of new sensors for earth observation. ASTER (Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) is considered as a latest generation sensor. It has special characteristics that places it as an alternative for studies of vegetation cover on earth. This work is based on its spatial, spectral and radiometric features to discriminate agricultural areas in the irrigation district of USOCOELLO in Colombia. We used a level 1B image from 2006, geometrically corrected, re sampled and its radiance values transformed into reflectance values allowing us to make two compositions: original images (VNIR-SWIR) and fusion images in IHS transformation. The thematic legend was established from the classification scheme Corine Land Cover - Colombia, defining 10 representative coverage categories in the image. The maximum likelihood classifier was used in the allocation phase. In the process of verifying and quantifying the level of accuracy, it was used, as ground truth, the database of geographical area at the site in the same date that the image was taken, obtaining an estimating a global reliability of 75 % for VNIR - SWIR images; if the variability of phenological stages of crops (rice, maize and sorghum) in the area and an important space contrast in the fusion image are taken into account, the obtained Kappa index was 0,75, which means that there is a substantial degree of agreement.

  16. Preliminary Attitude Control Studies for the ASTER Mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work discusses an attitude control study for the ASTER mission, the first Brazilian mission to the deep space. The study is part of a larger scenario that is the development of optimal trajectories to navigate in the 2001 SN263 asteroid system, together with the generation of orbit and attitude controllers for autonomous operation. The spacecraft attitude is defined from the orientation of the body reference system to the Local Vertical Local Horizontal (LVLH) of a circular orbit around the Alpha asteroid. The rotational equations of motion involve the dynamic equations, where the three angular speeds are generated from a set of three reaction wheels and the gravitational torque. The rotational kinematics is represented in the Euler angles format. The controller is developed via the linear quadratic regulator approach with output feedback. It involves the generation of a stability augmentation (SAS) loop and a tracking outer loop, with a compensator of desired structure. It was chosen the feedback of the p, q and r angular speeds in the SAS, one for each reaction wheel. In the outer loop, it was chosen a proportional integral compensator. The parameters are tuned using a numerical minimization that represents a linear quadratic cost, with weightings in the tracking error and controls. Simulations are performed with the nonlinear model. For small angle manoeuvres, the linear results with reaction wheels or thrusters are reasonable, but, for larger manoeuvres, nonlinear control techniques shall be applied, for example, the sliding mode control

  17. Estimation of broadband emissivity (8-12 um) from ASTER data by using RM-NN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, K B; Ma, Y; Shen, X Y; Li, B P; Li, C Y; Li, Z L

    2012-08-27

    Land surface window emissivity is a key parameter for estimating the longwave radiative budget. The combined radiative transfer model (RM) with neural network (NN) algorithm is utilized to directly estimate the window (8-12 um) emissivity from the brightness temperature of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) with 90 m spatial resolution. Although the estimation accuracy is very high when the broadband emissivity is estimated from AST05 (ASTER Standard Data Product) by using regression method, the accuracy of AST05 is about ± 0.015 for 86 spectra which is determined by the atmosphere correction for ASTER 1B data. The MODTRAN 4 is used to simulate the process of radiance transfer, and the broadband emissivity is directly estimated from the brightness temperature of ASTER 1B data at satellite. The comparison analysis indicates that the RM-NN is more competent to estimate broadband emissivity than other method when the brightness temperatures of band 11, 12, 13, 14 are made as input nodes of dynamic neural network. The estimation average accuracy is about 0.009, and the estimation results are not sensitive to instrument noise. The RM-NN is applied to extract broadband emissivity from an image of ASTER 1B data in China, and the comparison against a classification based multiple bands with 15 m spatial resolution shows that the estimation results from RM-NN are very good. PMID:23037062

  18. Mapping advanced argillic alteration zones with ASTER and Hyperion data in the Andes Mountains of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Yuddy; Goïta, Kalifa; Péloquin, Stéphane

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluates Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Hyperion hyperspectral sensor datasets to detect advanced argillic minerals. The spectral signatures of some alteration clay minerals, such as dickite and alunite, have similar absorption features; thus separating them using multispectral satellite images is a complex challenge. However, Hyperion with its fine spectral bands has potential for good separability of features. The Spectral Angle Mapper algorithm was used in this study to map three advanced argillic alteration minerals (alunite, kaolinite, and dickite) in a known alteration zone in the Peruvian Andes. The results from ASTER and Hyperion were analyzed, compared, and validated using a Portable Infrared Mineral Analyzer field spectrometer. The alterations corresponding to kaolinite and alunite were detected with both ASTER and Hyperion (80% to 84% accuracy). However, the dickite mineral was identified only with Hyperion (82% accuracy).

  19. Discrimination of iron ore deposits of granulite terrain of Southern Peninsular India using ASTER data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Sankaran; Thirunavukkarasu, A.; Balamurugan, G.; Shankar, K.

    2011-04-01

    This work describes a new image processing technique for discriminating iron ores (magnetite quartzite deposits) and associated lithology in high-grade granulite region of Salem, Southern Peninsular India using visible, near-infrared and short wave infrared reflectance data of Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). Image spectra show that the magnetite quartzite and associated lithology of garnetiferrous pyroxene granulite, hornblende biotite gneiss, amphibolite, dunite, and pegmatite have absorption features around spectral bands 1, 3, 5, and 7. ASTER band ratios ((1 + 3)/2, (3 + 5)/4, (5 + 7)/6) in RGB are constructed by summing the bands representing the shoulders of absorption features as a numerator, and the band located nearest the absorption feature as a denominator to map iron ores and band ratios ((2 + 4)/3, (5 + 7)/6, (7 + 9)/8) in RGB for associated lithology. The results show that ASTER band ratios ((1 + 3)/2, (3 + 5)/4, (5 + 7)/6) in a Red-Green-Blue (RGB) color combination identifies the iron ores much better than previously published ASTER band ratios analysis. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is applied to reduce redundant information in highly correlated bands. PCA (3, 2, and 1 for iron ores and 5, 4, 2 for granulite rock) in RGB enabled the discrimination between the iron ores and garnetiferrous pyroxene granulite rock. Thus, this image processing technique is very much suitable for discriminating the different types of rocks of granulite region. As outcome of the present work, the geology map of Salem region is provided based on the interpretation of ASTER image results and field verification work. It is recommended that the proposed methods have great potential for mapping of iron ores and associated lithology of granulite region with similar rock units of granulite regions of Southern Peninsular India. This work also demonstrates the ability of ASTER's to provide information on iron ores, which is valuable

  20. Synergistic Use of Satellite Volcano Detection and Science: A Fifteen Year Perspective of ASTER on Terra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    The success of Terra-based observations using the ASTER instrument of active volcanic processes early in the mission gave rise to a funded NASA program designed to both increase the number of ASTER observations following an eruption and validate the satellite data. The urgent request protocol (URP) system for ASTER grew out of this initial study and has now operated in conjunction with and the support of the Alaska Volcano Observatory, the University of Alaska Fairbanks, the University of Hawaii, the USGS Land Processes DAAC, and the ASTER science team. The University of Pittsburgh oversees this rapid response/sensor-web system, which until 2011 had focused solely on the active volcanoes in the North Pacific region. Since that time, it has been expanded to operate globally with AVHRR and MODIS and now ASTER VNIR/TIR data are being acquired at numerous erupting volcanoes around the world. This program relies on the increased temporal resolution of AVHRR/MODIS midwave infrared data to trigger the next available ASTER observation, which results in ASTER data as frequently as every 2-5 days. For many targets, the URP has increased the observational frequency over active eruptions by as much 50%. The data have been used for operational response to new eruptions, longer-term scientific studies such as capturing detailed changes in lava domes/flows, pyroclastic flows and lahars. These data have also been used to infer the emplacement of new lava lobes, detect endogenous dome growth, and interpret hazardous dome collapse events. The emitted TIR radiance from lava surfaces has also been used effectively to model composition, texture and degassing. Now, this long-term archive of volcanic image data is being mined to provide statistics on the expectations of future high-repeat TIR data such as that proposed for the NASA HyspIRI mission. In summary, this operational/scientific program utilizing the unique properties of ASTER and the Terra mission has shown the potential for

  1. Reducing the Discrepancy Between ASTER and MODIS Land Surface Temperature Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changqing Ke

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Human-induced global warming has significantly increased the importance ofsatellite monitoring of land surface temperature (LST on a global scale. The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS provides a 1-km resolution LST productwith almost daily coverage of the Earth, invaluable to both local and global change studies.The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Reflection Radiometer (ASTER provides aLST product with a high spatial resolution of 90-m and a 16-day recurrent cycle,simultaneously acquired at the same height and nadir view as MODIS. ASTER andMODIS are complementary in resolution, offering a unique opportunity for scale-relatedstudies. ASTER and MODIS LST have been widely used but the errors in LST were mostlydisregarded. Correction of ASTER-to-MODIS LST discrepancies is essential for studiesreliant upon the joint use of these sensors. In this study, we compared three correctionapproaches: the Wan et al.’s approach, the refined Wan et al.’s approach, and thegeneralized split window (GSW algorithm based approach. The Wan et al.’s approachcorrects the MODIS 1-km LST using MODIS 5-km LST. The refined approach modifiesthe Wan et al.’s approach through incorporating ASTER emissivity and MODIS 5-km data.The GSW algorithm approach does not use MODIS 5-km but only ASTER emissivity data. We examined the case over a semi-arid terrain area for the part of the Loess Plateau of China. All the approaches reduced the ASTER-to-MODIS LST discrepancy effectively. With terrain correction, the original ASTER-to-MODIS LST difference reduced from 2.7±1.28 K to -0.1±1.87 K for the Wan et al.’s approach, 0.2±1.57 K for the refined approach, and 0.1±1.33 K for the GSW algorithm based approach. Among all the approaches, the GSW algorithm based approach performed best in terms of mean, standard deviation, root mean square root, and correlation coefficient.

  2. Application Analysis of Global Public Data Resources ASTER GDEM%全球公众数据资源ASTER GDEM的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛

    2015-01-01

    Based on the global public data resources ASTER GDEM (space borne thermal emission and reflection ra⁃diometer global digital elevation model) data publicly announced by the USA space agency (NASA),this paper con⁃ducted practical processing and research, and carried out statistical validation on its accuracy.%本文利用美国太空总署(NASA)对外公布的全球公众数据资源ASTER GDEM(星载热发射和反射辐射仪全球数字高程模型)数据进行了实践性处理和研究,并对其精度进行统计验证。

  3. ASTER and USGS EROS disaster response: emergency imaging after Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Kenneth A.; Abrams, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The value of remotely sensed imagery during times of crisis is well established, and the increasing spatial and spectral resolution in newer systems provides ever greater utility and ability to discriminate features of interest (International Charter, Space and Major Disasters, 2005). The existing suite of sensors provides an abundance of data, and enables warning alerts to be broadcast for many situations in advance. In addition, imagery acquired soon after an event occurs can be used to assist response and remediation teams in identifying the extent of the affected area and the degree of damage. The data characteristics of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Refl ection Radiometer (ASTER) are well-suited for monitoring natural hazards and providing local and regional views after disaster strikes. For this reason, and because of the system fl exibility in scheduling high-priority observations, ASTER is often tasked to support emergency situations. The Emergency Response coordinators at the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) work closely with staff at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) at EROS and the ASTER Science Team as they fulfi ll their mission to acquire and distribute data during critical situations. This article summarizes the role of the USGS/EROS Emergency Response coordinators, and provides further discussion of ASTER data and the images portrayed on the cover of this issue

  4. An algorithm to retrieve land surface temperature from ASTER thermal band data for agricultural drought monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhihao; Li, Wenjuan; Gao, Maofang; Zhang, Hong'ou

    2006-09-01

    High spatial resolution ASTER data have 5 thermal bands, of which band 13 and 14 are especially suitable for land surface temperature (LST) estimation. Generally, LST retrieval from two thermal bands is done through so-called split window technique. In the past two decades above 17 split window algorithms have been proposed. However, such algorithm for ASTER data has not been reported, probably due to the new availability of the data for environmental application. In the study, a new split window algorithm has been developed for LST retrieval from ASTER data. Our algorithm only involves two essential parameters for LST retrieval while keeping the same accuracy as those having more parameters. Detailed derivation of the split window algorithm has been given in the paper, which including formulation of thermal radiation transfer equation, determination of algorithm constants, and estimation of the essential parameters. Comparison of our algorithm with the existing ones for validation of its accuracy and applicability in the real world indicates that our algorithm has an average root mean square (RMS) error of 0.67°C when transmittance has an error of 0.05 and emissivity has an error of 0.01. Thus we can conclude that our algorithm is a very good alternative for accurate LST retrieval from ASTER data. Application of the algorithm to Wuxi-Suchou region in Yangtze River Delta produces a very reseasonable LST image of the region, hence confirms the applicability of the algorithm.

  5. Improvement of dem Generation from Aster Images Using Satellite Jitter Estimation and Open Source Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girod, L.; Nuth, C.; Kääb, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) system embarked on the Terra (EOS AM-1) satellite has been a source of stereoscopic images covering the whole globe at a 15m resolution at a consistent quality for over 15 years. The potential of this data in terms of geomorphological analysis and change detection in three dimensions is unrivaled and needs to be exploited. However, the quality of the DEMs and ortho-images currently delivered by NASA (ASTER DMO products) is often of insufficient quality for a number of applications such as mountain glacier mass balance. For this study, the use of Ground Control Points (GCPs) or of other ground truth was rejected due to the global "big data" type of processing that we hope to perform on the ASTER archive. We have therefore developed a tool to compute Rational Polynomial Coefficient (RPC) models from the ASTER metadata and a method improving the quality of the matching by identifying and correcting jitter induced cross-track parallax errors. Our method outputs more accurate DEMs with less unmatched areas and reduced overall noise. The algorithms were implemented in the open source photogrammetric library and software suite MicMac.

  6. Exploring the limits of identifying sub-pixel thermal features using ASTER TIR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, R. Greg; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; Davies, Ashley G.; Schneider, David J.; Jaworowski, Cheryl; Heasler, Henry

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the characteristics of volcanic thermal emissions and how they change with time is important for forecasting and monitoring volcanic activity and potential hazards. Satellite instruments view volcanic thermal features across the globe at various temporal and spatial resolutions. Thermal features that may be a precursor to a major eruption, or indicative of important changes in an on-going eruption can be subtle, making them challenging to reliably identify with satellite instruments. The goal of this study was to explore the limits of the types and magnitudes of thermal anomalies that could be detected using satellite thermal infrared (TIR) data. Specifically, the characterization of sub-pixel thermal features with a wide range of temperatures is considered using ASTER multispectral TIR data. First, theoretical calculations were made to define a "thermal mixing detection threshold" for ASTER, which quantifies the limits of ASTER's ability to resolve sub-pixel thermal mixing over a range of hot target temperatures and % pixel areas. Then, ASTER TIR data were used to model sub-pixel thermal features at the Yellowstone National Park geothermal area (hot spring pools with temperatures from 40 to 90 °C) and at Mount Erebus Volcano, Antarctica (an active lava lake with temperatures from 200 to 800 °C). Finally, various sources of uncertainty in sub-pixel thermal calculations were quantified for these empirical measurements, including pixel resampling, atmospheric correction, and background temperature and emissivity assumptions.

  7. Cytotype distribution at a diploid-hexaploid contact zone in Aster amellus (Asteraceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Castro, Sílvia; Loureiro, J.; Procházka, T.; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 5 (2012), s. 1047-1050. ISSN 0305-7364 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP506/10/P188 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Aster amellus * diploid * hexaploid Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.449, year: 2012

  8. Glacier Volume Change Estimation Using Time Series of Improved Aster Dems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girod, Luc; Nuth, Christopher; Kääb, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Volume change data is critical to the understanding of glacier response to climate change. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) system embarked on the Terra (EOS AM-1) satellite has been a unique source of systematic stereoscopic images covering the whole globe at 15m resolution and at a consistent quality for over 15 years. While satellite stereo sensors with significantly improved radiometric and spatial resolution are available to date, the potential of ASTER data lies in its long consistent time series that is unrivaled, though not fully exploited for change analysis due to lack of data accuracy and precision. Here, we developed an improved method for ASTER DEM generation and implemented it in the open source photogrammetric library and software suite MicMac. The method relies on the computation of a rational polynomial coefficients (RPC) model and the detection and correction of cross-track sensor jitter in order to compute DEMs. ASTER data are strongly affected by attitude jitter, mainly of approximately 4 km and 30 km wavelength, and improving the generation of ASTER DEMs requires removal of this effect. Our sensor modeling does not require ground control points and allows thus potentially for the automatic processing of large data volumes. As a proof of concept, we chose a set of glaciers with reference DEMs available to assess the quality of our measurements. We use time series of ASTER scenes from which we extracted DEMs with a ground sampling distance of 15m. Our method directly measures and accounts for the cross-track component of jitter so that the resulting DEMs are not contaminated by this process. Since the along-track component of jitter has the same direction as the stereo parallaxes, the two cannot be separated and the elevations extracted are thus contaminated by along-track jitter. Initial tests reveal no clear relation between the cross-track and along-track components so that the latter seems not to be

  9. Validation of ASTER Surface Temperature Data with In Situ Measurements to Evaluate Heat Islands in Complex Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonggeun Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Reflection Radiometer (ASTER surface temperature data with in situ measurements to validate the use of ASTER data for studying heat islands in urban settings with complex spatial characteristics. Eight sites in Changwon, Korea, were selected for analyses. Surface temperature data were extracted from the thermal infrared (TIR band of ASTER on four dates during the summer and fall of 2012, and corresponding in situ measurements of temperature were also collected. Comparisons showed that ASTER derived temperatures were generally 4.27°C lower than temperatures collected by in situ measurements during the daytime, except on cloudy days. However, ASTER temperatures were higher by 2.23–2.69°C on two dates during the nighttime. Temperature differences between a city park and a paved area were insignificant. Differences between ASTER derived temperatures and onsite measurements are caused by a variety of factors including the application of emissivity values that do not consider the complex spatial characteristics of urban areas. Therefore, to improve the accuracy of surface temperatures extracted from infrared satellite imagery, we propose a revised model whereby temperature data is obtained from ASTER and emissivity values for various land covers are extracted based on in situ measurements.

  10. Lithological Discrimination of the Mafic-Ultramafic Complex, Huitongshan, Beishan, China:Using ASTER Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Liu; Jun Zhou; Dong Jiang; Dafang Zhuang; Lamin R Mansaray

    2014-01-01

    The Beishan area has more than seventy mafic-ultramafic complexes sparsely distributed in the area and is of a big potential in mineral resources related to mafic-ultramafic intrusions. Many mafic-ultramafic intrusions which are mostly in small sizes have been omitted by previous works. This research takes Huitongshan as the study area, which is a major district for mafic-ultramafic occur-rences in Beishan. Advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER) data have been processed and interpreted for mapping the mafic-ultramafic complex. ASTER data were processed by different techniques that were selected based on image reflectance and laboratory emis-sivity spectra. The visible near-infrared (VNIR) and short wave infrared (SWIR) data were trans-formed using band ratios and minimum noise fraction (MNF), while the thermal infrared (TIR) data were processed using mafic index (MI) and principal components analysis (PCA). ASTER band ratios (6/8, 5/4, 2/1) in RGB image and MNF (1, 2, 4) in RGB image were powerful in distinguishing the subtle differences between the various rock units. PCA applied to all five bands of ASTER TIR imagery high-lighted marked differences among the mafic rock units and was more effective than the MI in differen-tiating mafic-ultramafic rocks. Our results were consistent with information derived from local geolog-ical maps. Based on the remote sensing results and field inspection, eleven gabbroic intrusions and a pyroxenite occurrence were recognized for the first time. A new geologic map of the Huitongshan area was created by integrating the results of remote sensing, previous geological maps and field inspection. It is concluded that the workflow of ASTER image processing, interpretation and ground inspection has great potential for mafic-ultramafic rocks identifying and relevant mineral targeting in the sparsely vegetated arid region of northwestern China.

  11. ASTER, ALI and Hyperion sensors data for lithological mapping and ore minerals exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiranvand Pour, Amin; Hashim, Mazlan

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Advanced Land Imager (ALI), and Hyperion data and applications of the data as a tool for ore minerals exploration, lithological and structural mapping. Spectral information extraction from ASTER, ALI, and Hyperion data has great ability to assist geologists in all disciplines to map the distribution and detect the rock units exposed at the earth's surface. The near coincidence of Earth Observing System (EOS)/Terra and Earth Observing One (EO-1) platforms allows acquiring ASTER, ALI, and Hyperion imagery of the same ground areas, resulting accurate information for geological mapping applications especially in the reconnaissance stages of hydrothermal copper and gold exploration, chromite, magnetite, massive sulfide and uranium ore deposits, mineral components of soils and structural interpretation at both regional and district scales. Shortwave length infrared and thermal infrared bands of ASTER have sufficient spectral resolution to map fundamental absorptions of hydroxyl mineral groups and silica and carbonate minerals for regional mapping purposes. Ferric-iron bearing minerals can be discriminated using six unique wavelength bands of ALI spanning the visible and near infrared. Hyperion visible and near infrared bands (0.4 to 1.0 μm) and shortwave infrared bands (0.9 to 2.5 μm) allowed to produce image maps of iron oxide minerals, hydroxyl-bearing minerals, sulfates and carbonates in association with hydrothermal alteration assemblages, respectively. The techniques and achievements reviewed in the present paper can further introduce the efficacy of ASTER, ALI, and Hyperion data for future mineral and lithological mapping and exploration of the porphyry copper, epithermal gold, chromite, magnetite, massive sulfide and uranium ore deposits especially in arid and semi-arid territory. PMID:25674434

  12. NASA and USGS ASTER Expedited Satellite Data Services for Disaster Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    Significant international disasters related to storms, floods, volcanoes, wildfires and numerous other themes reoccur annually, often inflicting widespread human suffering and fatalities with substantial economic consequences. During and immediately after such events it can be difficult to access the affected areas and become aware of the overall impacts, but insight on the spatial extent and effects can be gleaned from above through satellite images. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on the Terra spacecraft has offered such views for over a decade. On short notice, ASTER continues to deliver analysts multispectral imagery at 15 m spatial resolution in near real-time to assist participating responders, emergency managers, and government officials in planning for such situations and in developing appropriate responses after they occur. The joint U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team has developed policies and procedures to ensure such ongoing support is accessible when needed. Processing and distribution of data products occurs at the NASA Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) located at the USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science Center in South Dakota. In addition to current imagery, the long-term ASTER mission has generated an extensive collection of nearly 2.5 million global 3,600 km2 scenes since the launch of Terra in late 1999. These are archived and distributed by LP DAAC and affiliates at Japan Space Systems in Tokyo. Advanced processing is performed to create higher level products of use to researchers. These include a global digital elevation model. Such pre-event imagery provides a comparative basis for use in detecting changes associated with disasters and to monitor land use trends to portray areas of increased risk. ASTER imagery acquired via the expedited collection and distribution process illustrates the utility and relevancy of such data in crisis situations.

  13. East-Asia land surface emissivity maps generated from Terra/ASTER data archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonooka, Hideyuki; Urai, Minoru

    2009-09-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is a high-spatial-resolution multispectral imager on the Terra satellite launched in December 1999. The ASTER thermal infrared (TIR) subsystem has five spectral bands with a spatial resolution of 90 m in the TIR spectral region, which are used for generation of the standard products of surface temperature and surface spectral emissivity. High-resolution surface emissivity at five spectral bands is unique, and is particularly useful for geological mapping. However, the emissivity product is not always easy to use, because (1) its image size is about 60 km square which is not large enough for regional-scale studies, (2) its imaged area is not fixed to the world reference system (WRS) due to a flexible pointing system, and (3) standard atmospheric correction often fails under humid conditions. Thus, in order to improve the usability of the ASTER emissivity product, we are generating land surface emissivity maps in a regional scale by applying improved retrieval algorithms and stack/mosaic processing to an ASTER orthogonal projection dataset which have been produced from the ASTER data archives by the Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Japan. In the present paper, we introduce East-Asia land surface emissivity maps as the first result of this project. A comparison study with MODIS monthly emissivity products (MOD11C3) indicates that the generated maps give more reasonable emissivity spectra with higher spatial resolution than the MODIS emissivity products, though the maps have missing pixels in high latitude areas and humid areas.

  14. Adubação nitrogenada e potássica do Aster ericoides cultivado em ambiente protegido Nitrogen and potassium fertilization of Aster ericoides cultivated in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Sartori de Camargo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O Aster ericoides é uma flor de corte recentemente introduzida no Brasil com grande potencial de produção e aceitação pelo mercado consumidor, mas são escassas as informações sobre o manejo da adubação, prática fundamental para desenvolvimento e qualidade da planta. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar adubações nitrogenadas e potássicas na produção e absorção de nutrientes pelo Aster ericoides (White Master cultivado em Latossolo Amarelo eutrófico em condições de estufa. O experimento foi instalado em delineamento de blocos completos em esquema fatorial (4x4 com 4 doses de N (0; 50; 75 e 100 kg ha-1 N, 4 doses de K (0; 52; 78; 104 kg ha-1 K2O e 4 repetições no segundo ciclo da planta. A população foi de 400 mil plantas por hectare. Após 105 dias, foram colhidas dez hastes de cada parcela. A produção de matéria seca de hastes e folhas, número de flores por haste, número de ramificações laterais por haste não foram influenciadas pelos tratamentos. A dose de 46 kg ha-1 de N proporcionou máxima produção de matéria seca de flores (19,40 g planta-1 e a adubação com potássio não influenciou as características avaliadas. Estes resultados mostraram que é preciso ser cauteloso com as altas adubações de N e K no solo estudado para não reduzir a produção de matéria seca de flores. Mais estudos sobre a fertilização nitrogenada e potássica devem ser realizados para definir a recomendação de doses adequadas para o cultivo de Aster ericoides em condições tropicais.The Aster ericoides is a cut flower crop recently introduced into Brazil. It has great production potential and acceptation by consumer market but exist little information about fertilization management, essential to its development and quality. In this work we evaluated the nitrogen and potassium fertilization on dry matter yield and nutrient absorption by Aster ericoides (White Master growing in a Typic Hapludox soil under greenhouse

  15. Monitoring and predicting eutrophication of Sri Lankan inland waters using ASTER satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahanayaka, D. D. G. L.; Wijeyaratne, M. J. S.; Tonooka, H.; Minato, A.; Ozawa, S.; Perera, B. D. C.

    2014-10-01

    This study focused on determining the past changes and predicting the future trends in eutrophication of the Bolgoda North lake, Sri Lanka using in situ Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) measurements and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER) satellite data. This Lake is located in a mixed land use area with industries, some agricultural lands, middle income and high income housing, tourist hotels and low income housing. From March to October 2013, water samples from five sampling sites were collected once a month parallel to ASTER overpass and Chl-a, nitrate and phosphate contents of each sample were measured using standard laboratory methods. Cloud-free ASTER scenes over the lake during the 2000-2013 periods were acquired for Chl-a estimation and trend analysis. All ASTER images were atmospherically corrected using FLAASH software and in-situ Chl-a data were regressed with atmospherically corrected three ASTER VNIR band ratios of the same date. The regression equation of the band ratio and Chl-a content with the highest correlation, which was the green/red band ratio was used to develop algorithm for generation of 15-m resolution Chl-a distribution maps. According to the ASTER based Chl-a distribution maps it was evident that eutrophication of this lake has gradually increased from 2008-2011. Results also indicated that there had been significantly high eutrophic conditions throughout the year 2013 in several regions, especially in water stagnant areas and adjacent to freshwater outlets. Field observations showed that this lake is receiving various discharges from factories. Unplanned urbanization and inadequacy of proper facilities in the nearby industries for waste management have resulted in the eutrophication of the water body. If the present trends of waste disposal and unplanned urbanization continue, enormous environmental problems would be resulted in future. Results of the present study showed that information from satellite remote

  16. Measurements of volcanic SO2 with ASTER. Comparison with automated scanning DOAS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, R. A.; Salerno, G. G.; Bernard, A. M.; Burton, M.; Coheur, P.; Caltabiano, T.

    2009-12-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emitted by volcanoes has an important impact on the environment and climate and is also a critical parameter for volcano monitoring. A number of satellites operating in the ultra violet and in the Thermal infrared can measure SO2. However a lot of work has still to be done towards a rigorous validation of SO2 measurements from space. ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Reflection radiometer) acquires images in the thermal infrared (TIR) with a resolution of 90m/pixel, which enables to quantify the SO2 fluxes emitted in small-scale tropospheric plumes. ASTER images are processed with radiative transfer simulations and a band ratio algorithm to produce maps of SO2 column amounts. The band ratios (B10+B12)/B11 and B14/B11 are used for their insensitivity to variations in ground altitude and atmospheric humidity, two variables that often complicate SO2 retrievals in the TIR. Their sensitivity to surface emissivity is also reduced. So far, the ground validation of satellite SO2 measurements has been complex due to logistics difficulties and the lack of strictly simultaneous measurements. Recently the development of permanent networks of scanning DOAS on several active volcanoes has provide a wealth of ground based SO2 measurements that can be exploited for validating satellite-based measurements. We will present the results of comparisons between SO2 Column Amount (CA) and fluxes measured by ASTER and by the FLAME network of Mt. Etna. The two independent measurements sets are in good agreement in magnitude. Fluxes range from 2000 to 5000 T/days and column amounts from 0 to 4 g/m2. CAs measured by ASTER present a 0.5g/m2 random dispersion and no systematic bias compared to DOAS measurements. However the CAs measured by DOAS are subject to increase at low-scanning angles. These results constitute a rigorous ground validation of ASTER SO2, and provides valuable insights into accuracy and precision on both methodologies. Figure 1: Comparison

  17. Urban Heat Island Analysis Using the Landsat TM Data and ASTER Data: A Case Study in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Liu; Yuanzhi Zhang

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of urban heat island is analyzed using the Landsat TM data and ASTER data in 2005 as a case study in Hong Kong. Two algorithms were applied to retrieve the land surface temperature (LST) distribution from the Landsat TM and ASTER data. The spatial pattern of LST in the study area is retrieved to characterize their local effects on urban heat island. In addition, the correlation between LST and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), the normalized differen...

  18. A Class-Oriented Strategy for Features Extraction from Multidate ASTER Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Crocetto

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a hybrid classification method, adopting the best features extraction strategy for each land cover class on multidate ASTER data. To enable an effective comparison among images, Multivariate Alteration Detection (MAD transformation was applied in the pre-processing phase, because of its high level of automation and reliability in the enhancement of change information among different images. Consequently, different features identification procedures, both spectral and object-based, were implemented to overcome problems of misclassification among classes with similar spectral response. Lastly, a post-classification comparison was performed on multidate ASTER-derived land cover (LC maps to evaluate the effects of change in the study area.

  19. Quinic acids from Aster caucasicus and from transgenic callus expressing a beta-amyrin synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecchia, Paola; Cammareri, Maria; Malafronte, Nicola; Consiglio, M Federica; Gualtieri, Maria Josefina; Conicella, Clara

    2011-11-01

    Several different classes of secondary metabolites, including flavonoids, triterpenoid saponins and quinic acid derivatives, are found in Aster spp. (Fam. Asteraceae). Several Aster compounds revealed biological as well as pharmacological activities. In this work, a phytochemical investigation of A. caucasicus evidenced the presence of quinic acid derivatives, as well as the absence of triterpene saponins. To combine in one species the production of different phytochemicals, including triterpenes, an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of A. caucasicus was set up to introduce A. sedifolius beta-amyrin synthase (AsOXA1)-encoding gene under the control of the constitutive promoter CaMV35S. The quali-quantitative analysis of transgenic calli with ectopic expression of AsOXA1 showed, in one sample, a negligible amount of triterpene saponins combined with higher amount of quinic acid derivatives as compared with the wild type callus. PMID:22224284

  20. Digital Mapping of Soil Properties Using Multivariate Statistical Analysis and ASTER Data in an Arid Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Nawar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling and mapping of soil properties has been identified as key for effective land degradation management and mitigation. The ability to model and map soil properties at sufficient accuracy for a large agriculture area is demonstrated using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER imagery. Soil samples were collected in the El-Tina Plain, Sinai, Egypt, concurrently with the acquisition of ASTER imagery, and measured for soil electrical conductivity (ECe, clay content and soil organic matter (OM. An ASTER image covering the study area was preprocessed, and two predictive models, multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS and the partial least squares regression (PLSR, were constructed based on the ASTER spectra. For all three soil properties, the results of MARS models were better than those of the respective PLSR models, with cross-validation estimated R2 of 0.85 and 0.80 for ECe, 0.94 and 0.90 for clay content and 0.79 and 0.73 for OM. Independent validation of ECe, clay content and OM maps with 32 soil samples showed the better performance of the MARS models, with R2 = 0.81, 0.89 and 0.73, respectively, compared to R2 = 0.78, 0.87 and 0.71 for the PLSR models. The results indicated that MARS is a more suitable and superior modeling technique than PLSR for the estimation and mapping of soil salinity (ECe, clay content and OM. The method developed in this paper was found to be reliable and accurate for digital soil mapping in arid and semi-arid environments.

  1. EXTRACTION OF FOREST STANDS PARAMETERS FROM ASTER DATA IN OPEN FOREST

    OpenAIRE

    M Abbasi; Riyahi Bakhtyarib, H. R.

    2012-01-01

    Tree crown size (CS) and stem number per hectare (SN) has become increasingly important for forest management and ecosystem monitoring. Tree crown size is also strongly related to other canopy structural parameters, such as diameter at breast height, tree height and biomass. For both issues, remote sensing data are attractive for their large-area and up-to-date mapping capacities. The QuickBird and ASTER imagery used in this study was acquired over Zagros Forests in southern Zagros region, Fa...

  2. Metabolic potential of microorganisms associated with the halophyte Aster tripolium L. in saline soils

    OpenAIRE

    Szymańska, Sonia; Piernik, Agnieszka; Hrynkiewicz, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Increased soil salinization may be caused by a natural (e.g. climate change) and anthropogenic (e.g. improper fertilization and irrigation of agricultural land) factors. The submitted work assumes that microorganisms associated with plant halophytes have a unique metabolic properties that can stimulate plant growth under salt stress. The aim of the study was to determine the abundance and metabolic biodiversity of endophytic and rhizosphere microorganisms co-existing with Aster tripolium L. a...

  3. Seed quantity and quality in fruit heads of Aster lanceolatus Willd.: Implications for invasion success

    OpenAIRE

    Nešić Marija; Obratov-Petković Dragica; Skočajić Dragana; Bjedov Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Aster lanceolatus Willd. is a herbaceous perennial that is considered invasive in many European countries. In Serbia, this plant inhabits wet habitats and forms widespread monospecific stands. The objective of this research is to determine whether generative reproduction has an important role in the expansion of this species to new areas. In 13 different localities, fruit heads were collected from lateral and terminal parts of infructescence. Seed quantity ...

  4. Estimating Evapotranspiration from an Improved Two-Source Energy Balance Model Using ASTER Satellite Imagery

    OpenAIRE

    Qifeng Zhuang; Bingfang Wu

    2015-01-01

    Reliably estimating the turbulent fluxes of latent and sensible heat at the Earth’s surface by remote sensing is important for research on the terrestrial hydrological cycle. This paper presents a practical approach for mapping surface energy fluxes using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) images from an improved two-source energy balance (TSEB) model. The original TSEB approach may overestimate latent heat flux under vegetative stress conditions, as has al...

  5. Reducing the Discrepancy Between ASTER and MODIS Land Surface Temperature Products

    OpenAIRE

    Changqing Ke; Yasushi Yamaguchi; Yuanbo Liu

    2007-01-01

    Human-induced global warming has significantly increased the importance ofsatellite monitoring of land surface temperature (LST) on a global scale. The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) provides a 1-km resolution LST productwith almost daily coverage of the Earth, invaluable to both local and global change studies.The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) provides aLST product with a high spatial resolution of 90-m and a 16-day recurrent cycle,...

  6. PEMETAAN SUHU PERMUKAAN LAUT (SPL MENGGUNAKAN CITRA SATELIT ASTER DI PERAIRAN LAUT JAWA BAGIAN BARAT MADURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Sulistyo Rini

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Oceanographical temperature in Java Sea is very important to be considered. This research was combines in-site observation technique, Geographical Information System (GLS and remote sensing in order to get accurate, present and updateable data. The aim of this research is to determine the distribution of sea-surface temperature and accuration-test value in Java Sea especially on western coast of Madura using ASTER satellite imagery. This research were used software of ENVI 4.5, ILWIS 3.3, and ArcGIS 9.3 and also changed the radian value until °C. Result showed that using ASTER satellite imagery within band 10 range between 32 "C-35 "C. Band 11,between 24.9"C 25,2"C. Band 12 between 16,7"C to 17"C. Band while band 13 abd 14 between 30.7, band 28. Band 11 is more accurate compared to Band 10, 12, 13. 14, the RMS Error on band 11 showed lower value compared to the other band.Keywords: Sea-surface Temperature. ASTER satellite imagery. Java Sea, Western coast of Madura

  7. Detection of High Local Groundwater Inflow to Rock Tunnels using ASTER Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sharafi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available High local groundwater flow into rock tunnels may lead to a potential hazard and is an important factor influencing construction time and costs. Geological features such as fault zones and open fractures can be the source of very high local groundwater inflows. Having a reliable estimation of location groundwater inflows is essential before excavation of tunnels. To reduce the costs and time of field works, remote sensing investigations can be a good solution. The main aim of the present study is to propose a methodology for detecting the geomorphic markers of cuesta in the high local groundwater inflow to Nosoud tunnel using the satellite imagery data. For this purpose, a reflectance image from the ASTER satellite sensor was used. Our Experiments show that cuesta springs, caused by hydraulic fracturing, can be detected using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI map, computed on the ASTER image, and analyzing the topographic and morphometric features of the area. Moreover, observations in tunnel excavation stage showed that crossing through open fractures in hard and thick layers is the major cause of water inflow into the tunnel, which corresponds to the surface hydrogeological evidences obtained from the ASTER image.

  8. Estimating Coastal Lagoon Tidal Flooding and Repletion with Multidate ASTER Thermal Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Allen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Coastal lagoons mix inflowing freshwater and tidal marine waters in complex spatial patterns. This project sought to detect and measure temperature and spatial variability of flood tides for a constricted coastal lagoon using multitemporal remote sensing. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Radiometer (ASTER thermal infrared data provided estimates of surface temperature for delineation of repletion zones in portions of Chincoteague Bay, Virginia. ASTER high spatial resolution sea-surface temperature imagery in conjunction with in situ observations and tidal predictions helped determine the optimal seasonal data for analyses. The selected time series ASTER satellite data sets were analyzed at different tidal phases and seasons in 2004–2006. Skin surface temperatures of ocean and estuarine waters were differentiated by flood tidal penetration and ebb flows. Spatially variable tidal flood penetration was evaluated using discrete seed-pixel area analysis and time series Principal Components Analysis. Results from these techniques provide spatial extent and variability dynamics of tidal repletion, flushing, and mixing, important factors in eutrophication assessment, water quality and resource monitoring, and application of hydrodynamic modeling for coastal estuary science and management.

  9. Estimating surface fluxes over the north Tibetan Plateau area with ASTER imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiqiang Ma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface fluxes are important boundary conditions for climatological modeling and Asian monsoon system. The recent availability of high-resolution, multi-band imagery from the ASTER (Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer sensor has enabled us to estimate surface fluxes to bridge the gap between local scale flux measurements using micrometeorological instruments and regional scale land-atmosphere exchanges of water and heat fluxes that are fundamental for the understanding of the water cycle in the Asian monsoon system. A parameterization method based on ASTER data and field observations has been proposed and tested for deriving surface albedo, surface temperature, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (MSAVI, vegetation coverage, Leaf Area Index (LAI, net radiation flux, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux over heterogeneous land surface in this paper. As a case study, the methodology was applied to the experimental area of the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP Asia-Australia Monsoon Project (CAMP on the Tibetan Plateau (CAMP/Tibet, located at the north Tibetan Plateau. The ASTER data of 24 July 2001, 29 November 2001 and 12 March 2002 was used in this paper for the case of summer, winter and spring. To validate the proposed methodology, the ground-measured surface variables (surface albedo and surface temperature and land surface heat fluxes (net radiation flux, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux were compared to the ASTER derived values. The results show that the derived surface variables and land surface heat fluxes in three different months over the study area are in good accordance with the land surface status. Also, the estimated land surface variables and land surface heat fluxes are in good accordance with ground measurements, and all their absolute percentage difference (APD is less than 10% in the validation sites

  10. Inter-Comparison of ASTER and MODIS Surface Reflectance and Vegetation Index Products for Synergistic Applications to Natural Resource Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Tomoaki; Yoshioka, Hiroki; Fujiwara, Kayo; Yamamoto, Hirokazu

    2008-01-01

    Synergistic applications of multi-resolution satellite data have been of a great interest among user communities for the development of an improved and more effective operational monitoring system of natural resources, including vegetation and soil. In this study, we conducted an inter-comparison of two remote sensing products, namely, visible/near-infrared surface reflectances and spectral vegetation indices (VIs), from the high resolution Advanced Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) (15 m) and lower resolution Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) (250 m – 500 m) sensors onboard the Terra platform. Our analysis was aimed at understanding the degree of radiometric compatibility between the two sensors' products due to sensor spectral bandpasses and product generation algorithms. Multiple pairs of ASTER and MODIS standard surface reflectance products were obtained at randomly-selected, globally-distributed locations, from which two types of VIs were computed: the normalized difference vegetation index and the enhanced vegetation indices with and without a blue band. Our results showed that these surface reflectance products and the derived VIs compared well between the two sensors at a global scale, but subject to systematic differences, of which magnitudes varied among scene pairs. An independent assessment of the accuracy of ASTER and MODIS standard products, in which “in-house” surface reflectances were obtained using in situ Aeronet atmospheric data for comparison, suggested that the performance of the ASTER atmospheric correction algorithm may be variable, reducing overall quality of its standard reflectance product. Atmospheric aerosols, which were not corrected for in the ASTER algorithm, were found not to impact the quality of the derived reflectances. Further investigation is needed to identify the sources of inconsistent atmospheric correction results associated with the ASTER algorithm, including additional quality

  11. Inter-Comparison of ASTER and MODIS Surface Reflectance and Vegetation Index Products for Synergistic Applications to Natural Resource Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Yamamoto

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Synergistic applications of multi-resolution satellite data have been of a great interest among user communities for the development of an improved and more effective operational monitoring system of natural resources, including vegetation and soil. In this study, we conducted an inter-comparison of two remote sensing products, namely, visible/near-infrared surface reflectances and spectral vegetation indices (VIs, from the high resolution Advanced Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER (15 m and lower resolution Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS (250 m – 500 m sensors onboard the Terra platform. Our analysis was aimed at understanding the degree of radiometric compatibility between the two sensors’ products due to sensor spectral bandpasses and product generation algorithms. Multiple pairs of ASTER and MODIS standard surface reflectance products were obtained at randomly-selected, globally-distributed locations, from which two types of VIs were computed: the normalized difference vegetation index and the enhanced vegetation indices with and without a blue band. Our results showed that these surface reflectance products and the derived VIs compared well between the two sensors at a global scale, but subject to systematic differences, of which magnitudes varied among scene pairs. An independent assessment of the accuracy of ASTER and MODIS standard products, in which “in-house” surface reflectances were obtained using in situ Aeronet atmospheric data for comparison, suggested that the performance of the ASTER atmospheric correction algorithm may be variable, reducing overall quality of its standard reflectance product. Atmospheric aerosols, which were not corrected for in the ASTER algorithm, were found not to impact the quality of the derived reflectances. Further investigation is needed to identify the sources of inconsistent atmospheric correction results

  12. ASTER spectral analysis and lithologic mapping of the Khanneshin carbonatite volcano, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, J.C.; Rowan, L.C.

    2011-01-01

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data of the early Quaternary Khanneshin carbonatite volcano located in southern Afghanistan were used to identify carbonate rocks within the volcano and to distinguish them from Neogene ferruginous polymict sandstone and argillite. The carbonatitic rocks are characterized by diagnostic CO3 absorption near 11.2 ??m and 2.31-2.33 ??m, whereas the sandstone, argillite, and adjacent alluvial deposits exhibit intense Si-O absorption near 8.7 ??m caused mainly by quartz and Al-OH absorption near 2.20 ??m due to muscovite and illite. Calcitic carbonatite was distinguished from ankeritic carbonatite in the short wave infrared (SWIR) region of the ASTER data due to a slight shift of the CO3 absorption feature toward 2.26 ??m (ASTER band 7) in the ankeritic carbonatite spectra. Spectral assessment using ASTER SWIR data suggests that the area is covered by extensive carbonatite flows that contain calcite, ankerite, and muscovite, though some areas mapped as ankeritic carbonatite on a pre existing geologic map were not identified in the ASTER data. A contact aureole shown on the geologic map was defined using an ASTER false color composite image (R = 6, G = 3, B = 1) and a logical operator byte image. The contact aureole rocks exhibit Fe2+, Al-OH, and Fe, Mg-OH spectral absorption features at 1.65, 2.2, and 2.33 ??m, respectively, which suggest that the contact aureole rocks contain musco vite, epidote, and chlorite. The contact aureole rocks were mapped using an Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operator. A visible through short wave infrared (VNIR-SWIR) mineral and rock-type map based on matched filter, band ratio, and logical operator analysis illustrates: (1) laterally extensive calcitic carbonatite that covers most of the crater and areas northeast of the crater; (2) ankeritic carbonatite located southeast and north of the crater and some small deposits located within the crater; (3) agglomerate that

  13. Comparative mineral mapping in the Colorado Mineral Belt using AVIRIS and ASTER remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents results of interpretation of spectral remote sensing data covering the eastern Colorado Mineral Belt in central Colorado, USA, acquired by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensors. This study was part of a multidisciplinary mapping and data integration project at the U.S. Geological Survey that focused on long-term resource planning by land-managing entities in Colorado. The map products were designed primarily for the regional mapping and characterization of exposed surface mineralogy, including that related to hydrothermal alteration and supergene weathering of pyritic rocks. Alteration type was modeled from identified minerals based on standard definitions of alteration mineral assemblages. Vegetation was identified using the ASTER data and subdivided based on per-pixel chlorophyll content (depth of 0.68 micrometer absorption band) and dryness (fit and depth of leaf biochemical absorptions in the shortwave infrared spectral region). The vegetation results can be used to estimate the abundance of fire fuels at the time of data acquisition (2002 and 2003). The AVIRIS- and ASTER-derived mineral mapping results can be readily compared using the toggleable layers in the GeoPDF file, and by using the provided GIS-ready raster datasets. The results relating to mineral occurrence and distribution were an important source of data for studies documenting the effects of mining and un-mined, altered rocks on aquatic ecosystems at the watershed level. These studies demonstrated a high correlation between metal concentrations in streams and the presence of hydrothermal alteration and (or) pyritic mine waste as determined by analysis of the map products presented herein. The mineral mapping results were also used to delineate permissive areas for various mineral deposit types.

  14. EXTRACTION OF FOREST STANDS PARAMETERS FROM ASTER DATA IN OPEN FOREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abbasi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Tree crown size (CS and stem number per hectare (SN has become increasingly important for forest management and ecosystem monitoring. Tree crown size is also strongly related to other canopy structural parameters, such as diameter at breast height, tree height and biomass. For both issues, remote sensing data are attractive for their large-area and up-to-date mapping capacities. The QuickBird and ASTER imagery used in this study was acquired over Zagros Forests in southern Zagros region, Fars province of Iran on 1 August 2005 and 1 July 2005, respectively. For the forest site investigated in this study, we concentrated on stands of Quercus Persica which is the dominant species in Zagros region. This study was conducted to investigate the capabilities of ASTER-L1B data to estimate some of forest parameters at individual tree and stand level in dry area. The forest stand parameters are crown area, crown density, average crown area. Obtaining the accuracy of classification the ground truth map was prepared by tree crown delineation using the panchromatic band of QuickBird data. Individual tree crowns were automatically delineated by color segmentation of QuickBird imagery. Simple linear regression procedure was used to show the relationships between spectral variables and the individual trees and forest stand parameters. With decreasing the crown density the effects of background will increase. Our results indicated that crown size could be accurately extracted from panchromatic band of QuickBird images especially for open forest stands. This paper demonstrates that using high-resolution satellite imagery in the open forest offers a unique opportunity for deriving single tree attributes and allowing reliable ground truth map to estimate stand structure. ASTER data and its indices showed good capability to estimate crown area in this study.

  15. Analysis of ASTER data for mapping bauxite rich pockets within high altitude lateritic bauxite, Jharkhand, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Arindam; Singh, Vivek Kr.; Parveen, Reshma; Kumar, K. Vinod; Jeyaseelan, A. T.; Dhanamjaya Rao, E. N.

    2013-04-01

    Bauxite deposits of Jharkhand in India are resulted from the lateritization process and therefore are often associated with the laterites. In the present study, ASTER (Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) image is processed to delineate bauxite rich pockets within the laterites. In this regard, spectral signatures of lateritic bauxite samples are analyzed in the laboratory with reference to the spectral features of gibbsite (main mineral constituent of bauxite) and goethite (main mineral constituent of laterite) in VNIR-SWIR (visible-near infrared and short wave infrared) electromagnetic domain. The analysis of spectral signatures of lateritic bauxite samples helps in understanding the differences in the spectral features of bauxites and laterites. Based on these differences; ASTER data based relative band depth and simple ratio images are derived for spatial mapping of the bauxites developed within the lateritic province. In order to integrate the complementary information of different index image, an index based principal component (IPC) image is derived to incorporate the correlative information of these indices to delineate bauxite rich pockets. The occurrences of bauxite rich pockets derived from density sliced IPC image are further delimited by the topographic controls as it has been observed that the major bauxite occurrences of the area are controlled by slope and altitude. In addition to above, IPC image is draped over the digital elevation model (DEM) to illustrate how bauxite rich pockets are distributed with reference to the topographic variability of the terrain. Bauxite rich pockets delineated in the IPC image are also validated based on the known mine occurrences and existing geological map of the bauxite. It is also conceptually validated based on the spectral similarity of the bauxite pixels delineated in the IPC image with the ASTER convolved laboratory spectra of bauxite samples.

  16. Self-organizing feature map neural network classification of the ASTER data based on wavelet fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HASI Bagan; MA Jianwen; LI Qiqing; HAN Xiuzhen; LIU Zhili

    2004-01-01

    Most methods for classification of remote sensing data are based on the statistical parameter evaluation with the assumption that the samples obey the normal distribution. However, more accurate classification results can be obtained with the neural network method through getting knowledge from environments and adjusting the parameter (or weight) step by step by a specific measurement. This paper focuses on the double-layer structured Kohonen self-organizing feature map (SOFM), for which all neurons within the two layers are linked one another and those of the competition layers are linked as well along the sides. Therefore, the self-adapting learning ability is improved due to the effective competition and suppression in this method. The SOFM has become a hot topic in the research area of remote sensing data classification. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER) is a new satellite-borne remote sensing instrument with three 15-m resolution bands and three 30-m resolution bands at the near infrared. The ASTER data of Dagang district, Tianjin Municipality is used as the test data in this study. At first, the wavelet fusion is carried out to make the spatial resolutions of the ASTER data identical; then, the SOFM method is applied to classifying the land cover types. The classification results are compared with those of the maximum likelihood method (MLH). As a consequence, the classification accuracy of SOFM increases about by 7% in general and, in particular, it is almost as twice as that of the MLH method in the town.

  17. SRTM DEM与ASTER DEM数据比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹤元; 孙亮

    2014-01-01

    SRTM DEM是利用航天飞机雷达地形测绘获取的全球中低纬度地区地表的高分辨率雷达影像生成的DEM,它具有较高的分辨率和现势性;ASTER DEM是利用高分辨率卫星成像设备ASTER获取的立体影像生成的DEM,全球覆盖范围更广、数据分辨率更高。由于两种DEM获取机理与生产工艺不同,因此存在较大的数据差异。为了利用两种数据进行DEM数据融合与更新,需要对不同地形DEM数据进行比较研究与分析。本文选取具有高山峡谷地貌特征的某山区为实验区,运用总体统计分析、检查点法和剖面法对SRTM DEM与ASTER DEM进行数据比较研究。结果表明,SRTM DEM与ASTER DEM中误差约为45m,误差值在-150m至150m的点数量呈正态分布,在山峰与山谷处高程值差异明显。

  18. ASTER GDEM validation using LiDAR data over coastal regions of Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidegaard, Sine Munk; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Forsberg, René

    2011-01-01

    Elevation data from airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) campaigns are used in an attempt to evaluate the accuracy of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) global digital elevation model (GDEM) in Greenland. The LiDAR elevation data set is characterized...... by a high spatial resolution of about 1 m and elevation accuracy of 20–30 cm root mean square error (RMSE). The LiDAR data sets used were acquired during ice-monitoring campaigns carried out from 2003 to 2008. The study areas include ice-free regions, local ice caps and the ice sheet margin. A linear...

  19. Reconstructing Holocene Glacier Changes in West Greenland From Multispectral ASTER Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, K.; Csatho, B.; van der Veen, C. J.; Ahn, Y.

    2006-12-01

    To understand the mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet and to identify mechanisms controlling that balance and Greenland's contribution to future changes in global sea level, it is crucial to construct longer temporal records, reaching back to the Little Ice Age (LIA) or beyond. The primary objectives of this project are to develop procedures for mapping glacial trimlines, marking maximum glacier extent during the LIA, and terminal moraines indicating earlier advanced terminus positions, in central west Greenland using multispectral ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) images. The motivation for using satellite imagery for mapping glacial-geological features is the greater spatial coverage that can be achieved, as opposed to the traditional method of field mapping in restricted areas. ASTER imagery provides spectral bands spanning from the visible to the thermal infrared bands, including two stereo bands, enabling us to map the spectral properties of the Earth's surface as well as to obtain surface topography. This poster presents examples of mapping the 3D shapes of glacial geomorphological features using supervised classification, visual interpretation and advanced pattern recognition methods, and results of the volume change computation and interpretation, focusing on the Jakobshavn drainage basin. For trimline mapping, a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was generated from the stereo bands of the same data set, followed by orthorectification using Ground Control Points (GCPs) and checkpoints extracted from stereo aerial photographs and digital maps. Surface reflectance was estimated from the raw DN values by applying the Empirical Line Correction model for atmospheric effects. Maximum likelihood classification, in supervised mode, was applied to distinguish different land cover types. Classification of the ASTER image with nine non-thermal bands provides a good discrimination between the exposed fresh rock surfaces, moraines of

  20. An application of the Self Organizing Map Algorithm to computer aided classification of ASTER multispectral data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinando Giacco

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we employ the Kohonen’s Self Organizing Map (SOM as a strategy for an unsupervised analysis of ASTER multispectral (MS images. In order to obtain an accurate clusterization we introduce as input for the network, in addition to spectral data, some texture measures extracted from IKONOS images, which gives a contribution to the classification of manmade structures. After clustering of SOM outcomes, we associated each cluster with a major land cover and compared them with prior knowledge of the scene analyzed.

  1. A Project to Map and Monitor Baldcypress Forests in Coastal Louisiana, Using Landsat, MODIS, and ASTER Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph; Sader, Steven; Smoot, James

    2012-01-01

    Cypress swamp forests of Louisiana offer many important ecological and economic benefits: wildlife habitat, forest products, storm buffers, water quality, and recreation. Such forests are also threatened by multiple factors: subsidence, salt water intrusion, sea level rise, persistent flooding, hydrologic modification, hurricanes, insect and nutria damage, timber harvesting, and land use conversion. Unfortunately, there are many information gaps regarding the type, location, extent, and condition of these forests. Better more up to date swamp forest mapping products are needed to aid coastal forest conservation and restoration work (e.g., through the Coastal Forest Conservation Initiative or CFCI). In response, a collaborative project was initiated to develop, test and demonstrate cypress swamp forest mapping products, using NASA supported Landsat, ASTER, and MODIS satellite data. Research Objectives are: Develop, test, and demonstrate use of Landsat and ASTER data for computing new cypress forest classification products and Landsat, ASTER, and MODIS satellite data for detecting and monitoring swamp forest change

  2. Implementation of a very large atmospheric correction lookup table for ASTER using a relational database management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Alex T.; Eng, Bjorn T.; Thome, Kurtis J.

    1996-11-01

    The advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER) is designed to provide a high resolution map of the Earth in both visible, near-infrared, and thermal spectral regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The ASTER science team has developed several standard data product algorithms, but the most complex and computing-intensive of these is the estimation of surface radiance and reflectance values, which is done by modeling and correcting for the effects of the atmosphere. The algorithm for atmospheric correction in the visible bands sensed by ASTER calls fur the use of a very large atmospheric correction look up table (ACLUT). The ACLUT contains coefficients which describe atmospheric effects on ASTER data under various conditions. The parameters used to characterize the atmosphere and its effects on radiation in the ASTER bands include aerosol and molecular optical depth, aerosol size distribution, single scattering albedo, and solar, nadir view, and azimuth angles. The ACLUT coefficients are produced by thousands of runs of a radiative transfer code (RTC) program produced by Phil Slater and Kurt Thome of U. of A. The final version of ACLUT is expected to be in the neighborhood of 10 gigabytes. The RDBMS Sybase is used to manage the process of generating the ACLUT as well as to host the table and service queries on it. Queries on the table are made using ASTER band number and seven floating-point values as keys. The floating-point keys do not necessarily exactly match key values in the database, so the query involves a hierarchical closest-fit search. All aspects of table implementation are described.

  3. A Forest Fire Risk Assessment Using ASTER Images in Peninsular Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Guang-xiong; LI Jing; CHEN Yun-hao; NORIZAN Abdul-patah

    2007-01-01

    Based on the physical concept of heat energy of pre-ignition, a new fire susceptibility index (FSI) is used to estimate forest fire risk. This physical basis allows calculation of ignition probabilities and comparisons of fire risk across eco-regions. The computation of the index requires inputs of fuel temperature and fuel moisture content (FMC), both of which can be estimated using remote sensing data. While ASTER data for land surface temperatures (LST) was used as proxys for fuel temperatures, fuel moisture content is estimated by regression technique utilizing the ratio NDVI/LST of ASTER data. FSIs are computed in peninsular Malaysia for nine days before the fires of 2004 and 2005 and validated with fire occurrence data. Results show that the FSI increases as the day approaches the fire day. This trend can be observed clearly about four days before the day of fire. It suggests that FSI can be a good estimator of fire risk. The physical basis provides a more meaningful FSI, allows calculation of ignition probabilities and facilitates the development of a future class of fire risk models. FSI can be used to compare fire risk across different eco-regions and time periods. FSI retains the flexibility to be localized to a vegetation type or eco-regions for improved performance.

  4. Molecular and microscopical detection of aster yellows phytoplasma associated with infected parsnip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadhair, A H; Evans, I R

    2000-04-01

    Typical phytoplasma yellows symptoms were observed in parsnip (Pastinaca sativa L.) plants grown around Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Examination of ultrathin sections of leaf midribs by electron microscopy revealed numerous phytoplasma bodies localized in the phloem cells. DNA extracted from the infected leaves was amplified with a 16S rDNA universal primer pair P1/P6 giving the expected PCR product of 1.5 kb. The phytoplasma was confirmed as a member of the aster yellows (AY) group by amplification with the specific primer pair R16(1)/F1/R1 that was designed on the basis of AY phytoplasma 16S rDNA sequences. In the nested PCR assays, the expected DNA fragment of 1.1 kb was amplified with this specific primer set. Similar restriction patterns were found for the 1.1 kb PCR products of the phytoplasma isolated from parsnip and an AY phytoplasma control after digestion with restriction endonucleases AluI, HhaI, KpnI and RsaI. This is the first reported observation of aster yellows in parsnip in Canada. PMID:10830901

  5. Spectral properties and ASTER-based alteration mapping of Masahim volcano facies, SE Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayebi, Mohammad H.; Tangestani, Majid H.; Vincent, Robert K.; Neal, Devin

    2014-10-01

    This study applies Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and the Mixture Tuned Matched Filtering (MTMF) algorithm to map the sub-pixel distribution of alteration minerals associated with the Masahim volcano, SE Iran for understanding the spatial relationship between alteration minerals and volcano facies. Investigations of the alteration mineralogy were conducted using field-spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and ASTER Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) spectral data. In order to spectrally characterize the stratovolcano deposits, lithological units and alteration minerals, the volcano was divided into three facies: the Central, Proximal, and Medial-distal facies. The reflectance spectra of rock samples show absorption features of a number of minerals including white mica, kaolinite, montmorillonite, illite, goethite, hematite, jarosite, opal, and chlorite. The end-members of key alteration minerals including sericite (phyllic zone), kaolinite (argillic zone) and chlorite (propylitic zone) were extracted from imagery using the Pixel Purity Index (PPI) method and were used to map alteration minerals. Accuracy assessment through field observations was used to verify the fraction maps. The results showed that most prominent altered rocks situated at the central facies of volcano. The alteration minerals were discriminated with the coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.74, 0.81, and 0.68 for kaolinite, sericite, and chlorite, respectively. The results of this study have the potential to refine the map of alteration zones in the Masahim volcano.

  6. A posteriori error analysis for hydro-mechanical couplings and implementation in Code-Aster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyse approximations by finite elements in space and finite differences in time of coupled Hydro-Mechanical (HM) problems related to the quasi-static linear poro-elasticity theory. The physical bases of this theory are briefly restated and an abstract setting is proposed to perform the mathematical study of the stationary and un-stationary versions of the HM problem. For the stationary version, the well-posedness of the continuous and discrete problems are established and the a priori error analysis is performed. Then, we propose the a posteriori error analysis by using two different techniques suited to estimate the displacement error and the pressure error, respectively, both in the Hx1-norm. The classical properties of reliability and optimality are proved for the associated error estimators. Some numerical experiments using Code-Aster illustrate the theoretical results. For the un-stationary version, we first establish a stability result for the continuous problem. Then, we present an optimal a priori error analysis using elliptic projection techniques. Finally, the a posteriori error analysis is performed by using two different approaches: a direct approach and an elliptic reconstruction approach. The first is suited to estimate the pressure error in the Lt2(Hx1)-norm and the second is suited to estimate the displacement error in the Lt∞(Hx1)-norm and the pressure error in the Lt∞(Hx1)-norm. Numerical experiments using Code-Aster complete the theoretical results. (author)

  7. Hydrothermal alteration mapping using ASTER data in Baogutu porphyry deposit, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remote sensing plays an important role in mineral exploration. One of its proven applications is extracting host-rock lithology and alteration zones that are related to porphyry copper deposits. An Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) was used to map the Baogutu porphyry deposit alteration area. A circular alteration mineral zoning pattern was clearly observed in the classification result of potassic, phyllic, argillic, propylitic zones. The potassic is characterized by biotite and anhydrite with an absorption feature centered at 1.94 and 2.1um. The phyllic zone is characterized by illite and sericite that indicates an intense Al-OH absorption feature centered at 2.20um. The narrower argillic zone including kaolinite and alunite displays a secondary Al-OH absorption feature at 2.17 um. The mineral assemblages of the outer propylitic zone are epidote, chlorite and calcite that exhibit absorption features at 2.335um.The performance of Principal Component Analysis(PCA), Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF), band ratio(BR) and Constrained Energy Minimization(CEM) has been evaluated. These techniques identified new prospects of porphyry copper mineralization in the study areas. These results indicate that ASTER is a powerful tool in the initial steps of mineral exploration

  8. Extracting lithologic information from ASTER multispectral thermal infrared data in the eastern Kunlun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kai; Kong, Chunfang; Shuai, Yanmin; Cao, Chunxiang; Yan, Shouxun

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, mechanisms of mineral radiation transfer, atmospheric correction and surface temperature retrieve, method of minerals identification based on emissivity spectral features are studied. Mineral radiation transfer can model the mechanisms of spectral formation and variation, and is one of study methods of spectral mechanism. Along with the variation of mineral granularity, the shape and absorption depth of mineral emissivity spectral will all variate. However, the law of emissivity variation with emission angle of different minerals is identical. Along with the increasement of emission angle, emissivity decrease. The more emissivity is small, the more variation range and speed are large. The reflectance mixture of mineral is non-linear, and can be lineated using mineral radiative transfer model. After the mixture spectral is lineated, the precision of linear unmixing of spectral and mineral content extraction will be improved greatly. The atmospheric correction and surface temperature retrieve of thermal remote sensing data will affect extraction lithologic information greatly. In this paper, using the MODTRAN model to atmospheric correction, and using split-window algorithm for retrieving surface temperature from ASTER thermal infrared data. With the minerals emissivity spectral features and the index (QI, CI and SI), retrieving Si02 content of rock quantitatively using ASTER thermal infrared data. The method can be used to extract lithologic information.

  9. Temperature/emissivity separation of MTI data using the Terra/ASTER TES algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushkin, Amit; Balick, Lee K.; Gillespie, Alan R.

    2002-08-01

    Surface temperatures and emissivities can be estimated using multispectral thermal infrared (TIR) data, from various instruments. In this paper the temperature-emissivity separation algorithm (TES) is modified to recover surface temperatures and emissivities using Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) data from two mid infrared (MIR) and three TIR bands. As TES was originally designed for use with the five TIR bands from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER) instrument, broadening its application to MIR wavelengths requires careful evaluation of possible atmospheric and reflected daytime solar illumination effects. Numerical simulations show that TES results for MTI data, assuming error-free atmospheric corrections, are statistically similar to TES results for ASTER data, with surface temperature recovery within +/- 1.5K and emissivity recovery within +/- 0.02. However, strong atmospheric absorption (as high as 61%), and expected daytime reflected solar illumination (as high as 50% of measured radiance) in the MIR bands suggest that TES results for MTI data are more sensitive to errors in atmospheric compensation. Furthermore, the relatively steep slope of Planck's radiation curve for typical terrestrial temperatures in the MIR wavelengths, suggests that inverting temperatures from measured MIR radiance using Planck's law will be more sensitive to error. Numerical simulations and preliminary image analysis suggest that the three TIR MTI bands are not sufficient to obtain the desired TES results. However, omitting one of the MIR bands and using a four-band configuration decreases sensitivity to atmospheric effects, while still maintaining acceptable theoretical TES performance.

  10. Verification of the ASTER/TIR atmospheric correction algorithm based on water surface emissivity retrieved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonooka, Hideyuki; Palluconi, Frank D.

    2002-02-01

    The standard atmospheric correction algorithm for five thermal infrared (TIR) bands of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is currently based on radiative transfer computations with global assimilation data on a pixel-by-pixel basis. In the present paper, we verify this algorithm using 100 ASTER scenes globally acquired during the early mission period. In this verification, the max-min difference (MMD) of the water surface emissivity retrieved from each scene is used as an atmospheric correction error index, since the water surface emissivity is well known; if the MMD retrieved is large, an atmospheric correction error also will be possibly large. As the results, the error of the MMD retrieved by the standard atmospheric correction algorithm and a typical temperature/emissivity separation algorithm is shown to be remarkably related with precipitable water vapor, latitude, elevation, and surface temperature. It is also mentioned that the expected error on the MMD retrieved is 0.05 for the precipitable water vapor of 3 cm.

  11. Estimating Evapotranspiration from an Improved Two-Source Energy Balance Model Using ASTER Satellite Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qifeng Zhuang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Reliably estimating the turbulent fluxes of latent and sensible heat at the Earth’s surface by remote sensing is important for research on the terrestrial hydrological cycle. This paper presents a practical approach for mapping surface energy fluxes using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER images from an improved two-source energy balance (TSEB model. The original TSEB approach may overestimate latent heat flux under vegetative stress conditions, as has also been reported in recent research. We replaced the Priestley-Taylor equation used in the original TSEB model with one that uses plant moisture and temperature constraints based on the PT-JPL model to obtain a more accurate canopy latent heat flux for model solving. The collected ASTER data and field observations employed in this study are over corn fields in arid regions of the Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER area, China. The results were validated by measurements from eddy covariance (EC systems, and the surface energy flux estimates of the improved TSEB model are similar to the ground truth. A comparison of the results from the original and improved TSEB models indicates that the improved method more accurately estimates the sensible and latent heat fluxes, generating more precise daily evapotranspiration (ET estimate under vegetative stress conditions.

  12. Temperature-emissivity separation with ASTER and LANDSAT 7 imagery validation on the fringe of the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieske, Ambro S.; Wubett, Michael T.; Timmermans, Wim J.; Parodi, Gabriel N.; Wolski, Piotr; Arneth, Almut

    2004-02-01

    Land surface temperatures are important in global change studies, in estimating radiation budget, heat balance studies and as control for climate models. A new algorithm for estimating land surface temperature and emissivity spectra for multi spectral thermal infrared ranging from 8 to 12mm images has been developed recently (Schmugge et al., 2002) for use with data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on the TERRA platform. Similar methods are also used with the MODIS instrument. In this study, the method developed by Ogawa et al. (2002) was adopted to estimate the broadband emissivity from the narrow band emissivities of the five TIR channels of ASTER instrument in an area on the southern fringe of the Okavango Delta (Botswana). MODTRAN 4 was used to determine the necessary atmospheric corrections while software was developed to facilitate MODTRAN pre- and post-processing. The results were compared with field data, with a LANDSAT 7 image of the same day, and finally also with reported ASTER surface temperature and emissivities for the same image (high level ASTER product). Results indicate that the surface temperature depends rather sensitively on atmospheric transmissivity. No relation was found between broad-band emissivity and NDVI, contrary, for example, to earlier findings in Botswana by Owe and Van de Griend (1993). Using the TES method it becomes possible to obtain more reliable solutions to the energy balance and evapotranspiration problem, especially in semi-arid areas.

  13. Mass Balance of Glaciers In Southern Chile, Based On Dems From Aster and Aerial Photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, A.; Casassa, G.; Bown, F.; Fernandez, A.

    The glaciers located in the Chilean southern Andes region (41-51S) have been re- treating and shrinking during most of the last century, in response to a climate warm- ing trend recognised in many climatic stations of the country. During recent years, several calving and small mountain glaciers have been analysed, in an attempt to cor- relate the short historical glacier variation (no longer than 150 years) with long term dendrochronological series (from 300 to 1000 years). The aim of this analysis is to un- derstand climate change during the last millennia, as well as the mechanisms of glacier response to such climatic changes. In this context, mass balance studies are one of the most important approaches to determine the specific relationship of glaciers to annual and decadal climatic changes. In Chile, only one glacier (glaciar Echaurren, 33S) has been systematically measured since 1975, generating the longest mass balance series of the country. To account for the mass balance of glaciers in the southern region of Chile, a geodetic method is presented, based upon the comparison of digital elevation models (DEM) obtained from aerial photographs and ASTER imagery from different dates. This method have been applied to glaciar Chico located at 49S in the Southern Patagonia Icefield, where we have generated DEMs from aerial photographs of 1975 and 1995, as well as one DEM from an ASTER image of October 2001. The DEMs are geo-referenced to a network of GPS points, measured in several field campaigns carried out during recent years at rock outcrops and in the accumulation area of the glacier. The last campaign was done during September and October 2001, allowing a high accuracy ground control validation for DEM derived from the contemporary ASTER image. The mass balance analysis is complemented with frontal variations derived from Landsat TM imagery, as well as field data and aerial photographs. One preliminary result of this study shows a consistent ice thinning, at

  14. Estimating surface fluxes over middle and upper streams of the Heihe River Basin with ASTER imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Ma

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Land surface heat fluxes are essential measures of the strengths of land-atmosphere interactions involving energy, heat and water. Correct parameterization of these fluxes in climate models is critical. Despite their importance, state-of-the-art observation techniques cannot provide representative areal averages of these fluxes comparable to the model grid. Alternative methods of estimation are thus required. These alternative approaches use (satellite observables of the land surface conditions. In this study, the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS algorithm was evaluated in a cold and arid environment, using land surface parameters derived from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER data. Field observations and estimates from SEBS were compared in terms of net radiation flux (Rn, soil heat flux (G0, sensible heat flux (H and latent heat flux (λE over a heterogeneous land surface. As a case study, this methodology was applied to the experimental area of the Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (WATER project, located on the mid-to-upstream sections of the Heihe River in northwest China. ASTER data acquired between 3 May and 4 June 2008, under clear-sky conditions were used to determine the surface fluxes. Ground-based measurements of land surface heat fluxes were compared with values derived from the ASTER data. The results show that the derived surface variables and the land surface heat fluxes furnished by SEBS in different months over the study area are in good agreement with the observed land surface status under the limited cases (some cases looks poor results. So SEBS can be used to estimate turbulent heat fluxes with acceptable accuracy in areas where there is partial vegetation cover in exceptive conditions. It is very important to perform calculations using ground-based observational data for parameterization in SEBS in the future

  15. Assessment of Landscape Fragmentation Associated With Urban Centers Using ASTER Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, W. L.

    2002-12-01

    The role of humans as an integral part of the environment and ecosystem processes has only recently been accepted into mainstream ecological thought. The realization that virtually all ecosystems on Earth have experienced some degree of human alteration or impact has highlighted the need to incorporate humans (and their environmental effects) into ecosystem models. A logical starting point for investigation of human ecosystem dynamics is examination of the land cover characteristics of large urban centers. Land cover and land use changes associated with urbanization are important drivers of local geological, hydrological, ecological, and climatic change. Quantification and monitoring of urban land cover/land use change is part of the primary mission of the ASTER instrument on board the NASA Terra satellite, and comprises the fundamental research objective of the Urban Environmental Monitoring (UEM) Program at Arizona State University. The UEM program seeks to acquire day/night, visible through thermal infrared data twice per year for 100 global urban centers (with an emphasis on semi-arid cities) over the nominal six-year life of the Terra mission. Data have been acquired for the majority of the target urban centers and are used to compare landscape fragmentation patterns on the basis of land cover classifications. Land cover classifications of urban centers are obtained using visible through mid-infrared reflectance and emittance spectra together with calculated vegetation index and spatial variance texture information (all derived from raw ASTER data). This information is combined within a classification matrix, using an expert system framework, to obtain final pixel classifications. Landscape fragmentation is calculated using a pixel per unit area metric for comparison between 55 urban centers with varying geographic and climatic settings including North America, South America, Europe, central and eastern Asia, and Australia. Temporal variations in land cover

  16. Decadal region-wide and glacier-wide mass balances derived from multi-temporal ASTER satellite digital elevation models. Validation over the Mont-Blanc area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthier, Etienne; Cabot, Vincent; Vincent, Christian; Six, Delphine

    2016-06-01

    Since 2000, a vast archive of stereo-images has been built by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER) satellite. Several studies already extracted glacier mass balances from multi-temporal ASTER digital elevation models (DEMs) but they lacked accurate independent data for validation. Here, we apply a linear regression to a time series of 3D-coregistered ASTER DEMs to estimate the rate of surface elevation changes (dh/dtASTER) and geodetic mass balances of Mont-Blanc glaciers (155 km²) between 2000 and 2014. Validation using field and spaceborne geodetic measurements reveals large errors at the individual pixel level (> 1 m a-1) and an accuracy of 0.2-0.3 m a-1 for dh/dtASTER averaged over areas larger than 1 km². For all Mont-Blanc glaciers, the ASTER region-wide mass balance (-1.05±0.37 m water equivalent (w.e.) a-1) agrees remarkably with the one measured using Spot5 and Pléiades DEMs (-1.06±0.23 m w.e. a-1) over their common 2003-2012 period. This multi-temporal ASTER DEM strategy leads to smaller errors than the simple differencing of two ASTER DEMs. By extrapolating dh/dtASTER to mid-February 2000, we infer a mean penetration depth of about 9±3 m for the C-band Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) radar signal, with a strong altitudinal dependency (range 0-12 m). This methodology thus reveals the regional pattern of glacier surface elevation changes and improves our knowledge of the penetration of the radar signal into snow and ice.

  17. ASTER and USGS EROS emergency imaging for hurricane disasters: Chapter 4D in Science and the storms-the USGS response to the hurricanes of 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Kenneth A.; Abrams, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Satellite images have been extremely useful in a variety of emergency response activities, including hurricane disasters. This article discusses the collaborative efforts of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Joint United States-Japan Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Science Team, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in responding to crisis situations by tasking the ASTER instrument and rapidly providing information to initial responders. Insight is provided on the characteristics of the ASTER systems, and specific details are presented regarding Hurricane Katrina support.

  18. Aster albescens Rust Caused by Aecidium asterum and Its Hyperparasitic Fungus Tuberculina persicina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yun; YE Hua-zhi; CHEN Guang-yan; LIU Zi-ying; DONG Bao-chen

    2005-01-01

    Aster albescens is a medicinal plant. The rust caused by Aecidium asterum is a new record in China and an important disease of A. albescens in Feng Tong-zhai national reservation area. The percentages of diseased plant and the diseased leaf reach 100 and 28% respectively when the disease is serious. The disease results in leaf spot and leaf cast. Tuberculina persicina is a natural hyperparasite of A. asterum and is firstly reported in the world. The hyperparasite attacks aecium of A. asterum and hinderes the release of aeciospores. The symptom of the rust and the morphological characteristics of A.asterum is reported. The hyperparasitism of A. asterum and the morphological characteristics of the Tuberculina persicina are also reported.

  19. Seed quantity and quality in fruit heads of Aster lanceolatus Willd.: Implications for invasion success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nešić Marija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aster lanceolatus Willd. is a herbaceous perennial that is considered invasive in many European countries. In Serbia, this plant inhabits wet habitats and forms widespread monospecific stands. The objective of this research is to determine whether generative reproduction has an important role in the expansion of this species to new areas. In 13 different localities, fruit heads were collected from lateral and terminal parts of infructescence. Seed quantity and germination parameters were determined for seeds in the fruit heads. The results showed that the position of the fruit heads did not have a major impact on germination parameters. However, germination parameters differed among the localities. The findings of this study suggest that A. lanceolatus produces a great amount of viable seeds that germinate in an amount sufficient to ensure a successful spread of this invasive species to new areas. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007: Studying climate change and its influence on the environment: impacts, adaptation and mitigation

  20. VALIDATION OF THE ASTER GLOBAL DIGITAL ELEVATION MODEL VERSION 2 OVER THE CONTERMINOUS UNITED STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gesch

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model Version 2 (GDEM v2 was evaluated over the conterminous United States in a manner similar to the validation conducted for the original GDEM Version 1 (v1 in 2009. The absolute vertical accuracy of GDEM v2 was calculated by comparison with more than 18,000 independent reference geodetic ground control points from the National Geodetic Survey. The root mean square error (RMSE measured for GDEM v2 is 8.68 meters. This compares with the RMSE of 9.34 meters for GDEM v1. Another important descriptor of vertical accuracy is the mean error, or bias, which indicates if a DEM has an overall vertical offset from true ground level. The GDEM v2 mean error of –0.20 meters is a significant improvement over the GDEM v1 mean error of –3.69 meters. The absolute vertical accuracy assessment results, both mean error and RMSE, were segmented by land cover to examine the effects of cover types on measured errors. The GDEM v2 mean errors by land cover class verify that the presence of aboveground features (tree canopies and built structures cause a positive elevation bias, as would be expected for an imaging system like ASTER. In open ground classes (little or no vegetation with significant aboveground height, GDEM v2 exhibits a negative bias on the order of 1 meter. GDEM v2 was also evaluated by differencing with the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM dataset. In many forested areas, GDEM v2 has elevations that are higher in the canopy than SRTM.

  1. Aster spathulifolius Maxim extract reduces body weight and fat mass in obese humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, In-Jin; Choung, Se Young; Hwang, You-Cheol; Ahn, Kyu Jeung; Chung, Ho Yeon; Jeong, In-Kyung

    2016-07-01

    Aster spathulifolius Maxim (AS), a perennial herb of the genus Aster within the family Asteraceae, induced weight loss in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. We hypothesized that AS could also reduce body weight in obese humans. Therefore, we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in Korea to evaluate the effect of AS extract (ASE) on body weight and fat mass and its safety in obese humans. Forty-four obese participants (body mass index [BMI], 25-30 kg/m(2)) aged ≥20 years were randomly assigned to the placebo or ASE group (700 mg/d of ASE) and were instructed to take a once-daily pill for 12 weeks. Weight, BMI, waist circumference, fat mass (measured using bioimpedance, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and computed tomography), and laboratory tests were assessed at baseline and at 12 weeks. Body weight significantly decreased after 12 weeks of treatment in the ASE group (placebo vs ASE: -0.08 ± 2.11 kg vs -3.30 ± 3.15 kg, P bioimpedance method: -0.51 ± 1.89 kg vs -2.38 ± 2.30 kg, P < .05; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: 0.38 ± 1.59 kg vs -2.26 ± 2.37 kg, P < .05). Changes in lipid profiles, fasting plasma glucose, and hemoglobin A1c did not differ between the 2 groups. No drug-related adverse events were observed during the study. In conclusion, ASE significantly decreases body weight and fat mass in obese humans, suggesting that ASE may be a potential therapeutic candidate for reducing obesity. PMID:27333958

  2. Monitoring vegetation cover changes over a semi-arid rangeland with multispectral ASTER thermal infrared emissivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, A. N.; Schmugge, T.; Ritchie, J.; Hsu, A.; Jacob, F.; Ogawa, K.; Inamdar, A.

    2006-12-01

    Observations of land surface temperatures with thermal infrared are an important and crucial application of satellite remote sensing that the value of multispectral thermal infrared emissivities, a measurement component, may be overlooked. Spectral emissivities, retrievable from sensors such as ASTER and MODIS provide indispensable data for more accurate land surface temperature estimates and characterization of land surface cover. This study addresses the latter issue, whereby long-term changes in vegetation canopy densities can be detected in a way independent of more conventional vegetation indices such as NDVI. Thermal emissivities are dependent upon the surface geometry and are especially variable over sparse vegetation. When viewing such terrain, emissivities range in values from 0.8-0.9 represent dry soils and up to 0.98-0.99 represent vegetation. Using ASTER's 90 m multispectral thermal infrared capability, a sequence of 21 scenes were acquired for 2001-2003 over the New Mexico semi-arid rangeland, Jornada. These were calibrated, atmospherically corrected, georegistered, then converted to spectral and broadband emissivities. Analysis of the scenes reveals spatially coherent patches of grass and shrubland showing decreasing emissivities on the order of 1% per 3 years. The observed patterns could be due to long-term soil surface texture or moisture changes, but a more likely explanation is decreased vegetation density. A significant benefit of emissivity monitoring, particularly at 8-9.5 μm wavelengths, is its independence from vegetation greenness, which means thermal infrared assessments can be a useful canopy density estimator year-round. When used in conjunction with NDVI, thermal data can help discriminate soils from both green and senescent vegetation.

  3. Mapping of high pressure metamorphics in the As Sifah region, NE Oman using ASTER data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Sankaran; Nasir, Sobhi

    2015-02-01

    The high pressure metamorphic zone of As Sifah area in the Saih Hatat window, NE Oman plays a vital role to study global tectonic setting, metamorphism, transport direction and age of initial ophiolite emplacement. Scientists and researchers are keen in determining the protolith, structural evolution, and timing and metamorphic conditions of the Saih Hatat area. In this study, mapping of the metamorphic zone and discrimination of associated rock formations occurred in the As Sifah region is carried out using visible and near infrared-shortwave infrared (VNIR-SWIR) spectral bands of Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and well known image processing methods such as image decorrelation, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Spectral Angel Mapper (SAM). The study delineated the region of metamorphic zone and discriminated the different metamorphic and carbonate rocks of the study area characterized by hydroxyl (OH) and carbonate bearing minerals. The assessment of accuracy for the occurrence and spatial distribution of major lithological units provided the overall accuracy of 96.06% with Kappa Coefficient = 0.95 in the matrix of Maximum Likelihood (ML) and compared with the Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Spectral Information Divergence (SID) algorithms. The occurrence of such minerals are detected and confirmed by SAM supervised classification method. The study also describes the spectral character of metamorphic and carbonates minerals. The metamorphic zone and associated rock types interpreted over the images are verified in the field and checked for their occurrences and spatial distributions. The occurrence of CO3 bearing carbonate minerals and OH bearing metamorphic minerals are confirmed further under microscope, XRD analysis and PIMA spectral measurements in the laboratory studies. The study proved sensor capability of ASTER to discriminate metamorphic rocks from associated formations and detection of different mineral

  4. The resolution-dependence of satellite-based cloud retrievals: First results from ASTER and MODIS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, F.; Wind, G.; Zhang, Z.; Platnick, S. E.; Di Girolamo, L.

    2015-12-01

    The spatial resolution dependence of retrieved optical and microphysical cloud properties of marine shallow convective water clouds is presented using data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), as well as the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the scientific research satellite Terra. Both instruments are characterized by vastly different spatial resolutions of 15m (ASTER) and 1000m (MODIS), respectively. Cloud optical thickness (τ) and effective droplet radius (reff) are derived by means of the Cross-platform HIgh resolution Multi-instrument AtmosphEric Retrieval Algorithms (CHIMAERA) system which yields MODIS-like cloud property retrievals via a shared-core architecture. The retrieval algorithm employs a standard bi-spectral retrieval scheme with two reflectances (ρ) in the visible to near-infrared spectral wavelength range (VNIR, 0.86μm) and shortwave infrared spectral wavelength range (SWIR, 2.1μm), respectively. For an exemplary granule the high-resolution ρ sampled by the ASTER instrument are aggregated from 15m to an increasingly coarse spatial resolution between (30-1000m). Subsequently, retrieved τ and reff from aggregated ρ are compared to the mean of the high-resolution cloud properties within the aggregated pixels. The differences in retrieved τ and reff are related to the sub-pixel covariance of ρ in the VNIR and SWIR band, as well as the inhomogeneity index (i.e., the ratio of standard deviation to mean value of ρ in the VNIR). This analysis highlights the impact of sub-pixel inhomogeneity and plane-parallel assumptions in the cloud property retrieval. CHIMAERA also allows for a comparison of ASTER and MODIS retrievals without introducing biases due to individual instrument algorithms. Retrieved τ and reff from the 1000m aggregated ρ sampled by ASTER are compared to the retrieved cloud properties provided by MODIS. The presented results highlight the different

  5. Hydrothermal Alteration Maps of the Central and Southern Basin and Range Province of the United States Compiled From Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operator algorithms were used to map...

  6. Rapid Analysis Of Wildfire Impacts Using ASTER Data And Support Vector Machines: A Case Study From the Greek Fires Season Of Summer 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, G.; Knorr, W.; Scholze, M.; Boschetti, L.; Karantounias, G.

    2009-04-01

    The present study investigates the use of support vector machine (SVM) classification methods with multispectral data from the Advanced Spectral Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) for obtaining rapid and cost effective cartography of fuel types and burn scars in a Mediterranean setting. A further objective is to perform a detailed intercomparison of available burned area datasets for one of the most catastrophic forest fires that occurred near the Greek capital during the summer of 2007. Two ASTER multispectral images were acquired, one before and one closely after the fire episode. Fuel type and burned area maps were obtained by classifying each ASTER image into a number of discrete classes based on the Prometheus fuel model system. Training of the SVM classifier and accuracy assessment of derived fuel type maps was done using information from CORINE2000 land cover classification system. Accuracy assessment of the fuel type maps yielded an overall accuracy of 94.6% and a mean Kappa coefficient of 0.93, results comparable to or better than those reported by previous studies using parametric classification methods with ASTER data, or SVM classifiers with hyperspectral and LiDAR data. Fuel classes for the area under the envelope of the burned area extracted from the pre-fire ASTER image were in reasonable agreement with those reported by the local inventories by the Greek Forest Office and principally those from the European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS). Reported total burned area by the independent sources on average deviated by 14% from the ASTER-derived estimate. Results confirmed the suitability of ASTER data in combination with SVM classifiers and the CORINE land information system as a means for rapid and low cost fuel type mapping and post-fire assessment. Keywords: burned area mapping, fuel types, support vector machines, ASTER, MODIS burned area product, EFFIS, Greek fires 2007

  7. Topographic profile of a target with use of laser pulses. A survey directed to the Brazilian deep space mission ASTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is directly related to the development of the laser altimeter for the ASTER mission, named ALR. The Brazilian deep space mission ASTER plans to send a small spacecraft to encounter and investigate the triple asteroid 2001-SN263. The launch is scheduled to occur in 2017 and the ALR is now under development in partnership with UNICAMP, UFABC and aerospace companies. In this work, the environment and the operation of the instrument were modeled and simulations were carried out in order to better understand and define the instrument parameters. The creation of the simulation software to control the operation of the instrument was the main purpose of this work, and the software so far created is the main result of it. The software was successfully tested with respect to some common expected situations

  8. Lithological mapping using multispectral ASTER and Landsat 8 data in the Bas Drâa inlier, Moroccan Anti Atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiri, Zakaria; El Harti, Abderrazak; Jellouli, Amine; Maacha, Lhou; Bachaoui, El Mostafa

    2015-10-01

    Lithological mapping is one of the fundamental steps in the various mineral prospecting studies, because it forms the basis of the interpretation and validation of retrieved results. Therefore, this study exploited the multispectral ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) and Landsat 8 data in order to map lithological units in the Bas Drâa inlier, at the Moroccan Anti atlas. This task was completed by using the principal component analysis (PCA), band ratios (BR) and support vector machine (SVM) classification. Overall accuracy and the kappa coefficient of SVM based on ground truth in addition to the results of PCA and BR show an excellent correlation with the existing geological maps and previous works on the study area. Consequently, the methodology proposed demonstrates a high potential of ASTER and Landsat 8 data in lithological units discrimination.

  9. Mapping Hydrothermal Alterations in the Muteh Gold Mining Area in Iran by using ASTER satellite Imagery data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi Haroni, Hooshang; Hassan Tabatabaei, Seyed

    2016-04-01

    Muteh gold mining area is located in 160 km NW of Isfahan town. Gold mineralization is meso-thermal type and associated with silisic, seresitic and carbonate alterations as well as with hematite and goethite. Image processing and interpretation were applied on the ASTER satellite imagery data of about 400 km2 at the Muteh gold mining area to identify hydrothermal alterations and iron oxides associated with gold mineralization. After applying preprocessing methods such as radiometric and geometric corrections, image processing methods of Principal Components Analysis (PCA), Least Square Fit (Ls-Fit) and Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) were applied on the ASTER data to identify hydrothermal alterations and iron oxides. In this research reference spectra of minerals such as chlorite, hematite, clay minerals and phengite identified from laboratory spectral analysis of collected samples were used to map the hydrothermal alterations. Finally, identified hydrothermal alteration and iron oxides were validated by visiting and sampling some of the mapped hydrothermal alterations.

  10. Retrieval of a Temporal High-Resolution Leaf Area Index (LAI) by Combining MODIS LAI and ASTER Reflectance Data

    OpenAIRE

    Yonghua Qu; Wenchao Han; Mingguo Ma

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to retrieve temporal high-resolution LAI derived by fusing MOD15 products (1 km resolution), field-measured LAI and ASTER reflectance (15-m resolution). Though the inversion of a physically based canopy reflectance model using high-resolution satellite data can produce high-resolution LAI products, the obstacle to producing temporal products is obvious due to the low temporal resolution of high resolution satellite data. A feasible method is to combine different source data, ...

  11. Using ASTER Imagery in Land Use/cover Classification of Eastern Mediterranean Landscapes According to CORINE Land Cover Project

    OpenAIRE

    Recep Gundogan; Abdullah E. Akay; Alaaddin Yüksel

    2008-01-01

    The satellite imagery has been effectively utilized for classifying land cover types and detecting land cover conditions. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor imagery has been widely used in classification process of land cover. However, atmospheric corrections have to be made by preprocessing satellite sensor imagery since the electromagnetic radiation signals received by the satellite sensors can be scattered and absorbed by the atmospheric gases...

  12. Surface Heat Balance Analysis of Tainan City on March 6, 2001 Using ASTER and Formosat-2 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Soushi; Yamaguchi, Yasushi; Liu, Cheng-Chien; Sun, Chen-Yi

    2008-01-01

    The urban heat island phenomenon occurs as a mixed result of anthropogenic heat discharge, decreased vegetation, and increased artificial impervious surfaces. To clarify the contribution of each factor to the urban heat island, it is necessary to evaluate the surface heat balance. Satellite remote sensing data of Tainan City, Taiwan, obtained from Terra ASTER and Formosat-2 were used to estimate surface heat balance in this study. ASTER data is suitable for analyzing heat balance because of the wide spectral range. We used Formosat-2 multispectral data to classify the land surface, which was used to interpolate some surface parameters for estimating heat fluxes. Because of the high spatial resolution of the Formosat-2 image, more roads, open spaces and small vegetation areas could be distinguished from buildings in urban areas; however, misclassifications of land cover in such areas using ASTER data would overestimate the sensible heat flux. On the other hand, the small vegetated areas detected from the Formosat-2 image slightly increased the estimation of latent heat flux. As a result, the storage heat flux derived from Formosat-2 is higher than that derived from ASTER data in most areas. From these results, we can conclude that the higher resolution land coverage map increases accuracy of the heat balance analysis. Storage heat flux occupies about 60 to 80% of the net radiation in most of the artificial surface areas in spite of their usages. Because of the homogeneity of the building roof materials, there is no contrast between the storage heat flux in business and residential areas. In sparsely vegetated urban areas, more heat is stored and latent heat is smaller than that in the forested suburbs. This result implies that density of vegetation has a significant influence in decreasing temperatures.

  13. Induction with 60Co gamma rays of modification variability and mutation of China aster (Callistephus chinensis Nees

    OpenAIRE

    A. Wosińska

    2013-01-01

    The effect of radiation on variability was investigated in plants of five varieties of China aster, grown from seeds pretreated with various doses of gamma rays (generation M1) and in the progeny of these plants (generation M2). Both in generation M1 and in M2 the frequency of occurrence of radiation induced changes varied. In the M1 generation, beside teratological changes found most frequently in early periods, the observed variability concerned mostly leaves, their colour and size and the ...

  14. Untersuchungen zum Entwicklungsrhythmus und zur Kultursteuerung belaubt überwinternder Stauden am Beispiel von Aster alpinus 'Happy End'

    OpenAIRE

    Jende, Andreas

    2000-01-01

    Am Beispiel von Aster alpinus 'Happy End' wird der Entwicklungsverlauf vom Zeitpunkt der Vermehrung bis zur Ausbildung von Infloreszenzen beschrieben, um daraus Empfehlungen für die Kultur als blühende Topfstaude abzuleiten. Dazu wurden über einen Zeitraum von drei Jahren Versuche mit unterschiedlich vermehrten Pflanzen durchgeführt. Verwendet wurden hierbei Pflanzen aus generativer und vegetativer Vermehrung (Stecklinge, in vitro). Untersucht wurde der Verlauf der vegetativen und generativen...

  15. An approach of surface coal fire detection from ASTER and Landsat-8 thermal data: Jharia coal field, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Priyom; Guha, Arindam; Kumar, K. Vinod

    2015-07-01

    Radiant temperature images from thermal remote sensing sensors are used to delineate surface coal fires, by deriving a cut-off temperature to separate coal-fire from non-fire pixels. Temperature contrast of coal fire and background elements (rocks and vegetation etc.) controls this cut-off temperature. This contrast varies across the coal field, as it is influenced by variability of associated rock types, proportion of vegetation cover and intensity of coal fires etc. We have delineated coal fires from background, based on separation in data clusters in maximum v/s mean radiant temperature (13th band of ASTER and 10th band of Landsat-8) scatter-plot, derived using randomly distributed homogeneous pixel-blocks (9 × 9 pixels for ASTER and 27 × 27 pixels for Landsat-8), covering the entire coal bearing geological formation. It is seen that, for both the datasets, overall temperature variability of background and fires can be addressed using this regional cut-off. However, the summer time ASTER data could not delineate fire pixels for one specific mine (Bhulanbararee) as opposed to the winter time Landsat-8 data. The contrast of radiant temperature of fire and background terrain elements, specific to this mine, is different from the regional contrast of fire and background, during summer. This is due to the higher solar heating of background rocky outcrops, thus, reducing their temperature contrast with fire. The specific cut-off temperature determined for this mine, to extract this fire, differs from the regional cut-off. This is derived by reducing the pixel-block size of the temperature data. It is seen that, summer-time ASTER image is useful for fire detection but required additional processing to determine a local threshold, along with the regional threshold to capture all the fires. However, the winter Landsat-8 data was better for fire detection with a regional threshold.

  16. Google Earth's derived digital elevation model: A comparative assessment with Aster and SRTM data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a statistical analysis showing additional evidence that Digital Elevation Model (DEM) derived from Google Earth is commendable and has a good correlation with ASTER (Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) and SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) elevation data. The accuracy of DEM elevation points from Google Earth was compared against that of DEMs from ASTER and SRTM for flat, hilly and mountainous sections of a pre-selected rural watershed. For each section, a total of 5,000 DEM elevation points were extracted as samples from each type of DEM data. The DEM data from Google Earth and SRTM for flat and hilly sections are strongly correlated with the R2 of 0.791 and 0.891 respectively. Even stronger correlation is shown for the mountainous section where the R2 values between Google Earth's DEM and ASTER's and between Google Earth's DEM and SRTM's DEMs are respectively 0.917 and 0.865. Further accuracy testing was carried out by utilising the DEM dataset to delineate Muar River's watershed boundary using ArcSWAT2009, a hydrological modelling software. The result shows that the percentage differences of the watershed size delineated from Google Earth's DEM compared to those derived from Department of Irrigation and Drainage's data (using 20m-contour topographic map), ASTER and SRTM data are 9.6%, 10.6%, and 7.6% respectively. It is therefore justified to conclude that the DEM derived from Google Earth is relatively as acceptable as DEMs from other sources

  17. Recent changes in glacier area in the Central Southern Alps of New Zealand : - Mapped from ASTER satellite imagery

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Change in glacier extent is a good indication of climate change. Inventories for glaciated areas should therefore be made at certain intervals. For New Zealand a digitized glacial inventory including both the two main islands’ glaciers was made from aerial photographs recorded in 1978. This inventory needed an update. One Aster scene (60*60km) recorded 14. February 2002 covering the central Southern Alps of New Zealand is used for the updating. The area covered by the image contained, in ...

  18. Surface Heat Balance Analysis of Tainan City on March 6, 2001 Using ASTER and Formosat-2 Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yi Sun

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The urban heat island phenomenon occurs as a mixed result of anthropogenic heat discharge, decreased vegetation, and increased artificial impervious surfaces. To clarify the contribution of each factor to the urban heat island, it is necessary to evaluate the surface heat balance. Satellite remote sensing data of Tainan City, Taiwan, obtained from Terra ASTER and Formosat-2 were used to estimate surface heat balance in this study. ASTER data is suitable for analyzing heat balance because of the wide spectral range. We used Formosat-2 multispectral data to classify the land surface, which was used to interpolate some surface parameters for estimating heat fluxes. Because of the high spatial resolution of the Formosat-2 image, more roads, open spaces and small vegetation areas could be distinguished from buildings in urban areas; however, misclassifications of land cover in such areas using ASTER data would overestimate the sensible heat flux. On the other hand, the small vegetated areas detected from the Formosat-2 image slightly increased the estimation of latent heat flux. As a result, the storage heat flux derived from Formosat-2 is higher than that derived from ASTER data in most areas. From these results, we can conclude that the higher resolution land coverage map increases accuracy of the heat balance analysis. Storage heat flux occupies about 60 to 80% of the net radiation in most of the artificial surface areas in spite of their usages. Because of the homogeneity of the building roof materials, there is no contrast between the storage heat flux in business and residential areas. In sparsely vegetated urban areas, more heat is stored and latent heat is smaller than that in the forested suburbs. This result implies that density of vegetation has a significant influence in decreasing temperatures.

  19. Generating daily high spatial land surface temperatures by combining ASTER and MODIS land surface temperature products for environmental process monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mingquan; Li, Hua; Huang, Wenjiang; Niu, Zheng; Wang, Changyao

    2015-08-01

    There is a shortage of daily high spatial land surface temperature (LST) data for use in high spatial and temporal resolution environmental process monitoring. To address this shortage, this work used the Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM), Enhanced Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (ESTARFM), and the Spatial and Temporal Data Fusion Approach (STDFA) to estimate high spatial and temporal resolution LST by combining Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) LST and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LST products. The actual ASTER LST products were used to evaluate the precision of the combined LST images using the correlation analysis method. This method was tested and validated in study areas located in Gansu Province, China. The results show that all the models can generate daily synthetic LST image with a high correlation coefficient (r) of 0.92 between the synthetic image and the actual ASTER LST observations. The ESTARFM has the best performance, followed by the STDFA and the STARFM. Those models had better performance in desert areas than in cropland. The STDFA had better noise immunity than the other two models. PMID:26165141

  20. Ecology and distribution of an invasive species Aster­lanceolatus willd. on wet habitats in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obratov-Petković Dragica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The species Aster lanceolatus occupies a significant position in the world and European lists of invasive species. Its spreading potential is a hazardous factor to the biodiversity in many countries. There are no relevant data on the wider proportion of this species in the area of Belgrade. The sites of Aster lanceolatus are annual or pioneer communities along the water courses, abandoned and neglected areas, forest margins, moist meadows. The study areas are located near a choice of water courses in Belgrade. The aim of the study was to assess the species ecology and population density, synecological interrelationships among the coenobionts of the communities in which it occurs, and also to map its the habitats. The study of population density was performed on the supplemented and partially modified 'CPS SKEW' form, applied in West European countries, by the principle of squares. The species was determined by standard floristic method, and the species location by GPS system. It was concluded that Aster lanceolatus was dominant and wild at all study sites. The individuals and populations are especially numerous on the river islands Ada Ciganlija and Veliko Ratno Ostrvo, along the stream Kumodršaki Potok and the Danube left bank, where the number of individuals per squares is above 1300 and the degree of coverage is 100%. Its spreading potential is conditioned by the species biology, and the expansiveness by climate changes, anthropogenic impacts and the competitive interrelationships.

  1. Using ASTER Imagery in Land Use/cover Classification of Eastern Mediterranean Landscapes According to CORINE Land Cover Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep Gundogan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The satellite imagery has been effectively utilized for classifying land covertypes and detecting land cover conditions. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emissionand Reflection Radiometer (ASTER sensor imagery has been widely used in classificationprocess of land cover. However, atmospheric corrections have to be made by preprocessingsatellite sensor imagery since the electromagnetic radiation signals received by the satellitesensors can be scattered and absorbed by the atmospheric gases and aerosols. In this study,an ASTER sensor imagery, which was converted into top-of-atmosphere reflectance(TOA, was used to classify the land use/cover types, according to COoRdination ofINformation on the Environment (CORINE land cover nomenclature, for an arearepresenting the heterogonous characteristics of eastern Mediterranean regions inKahramanmaras, Turkey. The results indicated that using the surface reflectance data ofASTER sensor imagery can provide accurate (i.e. overall accuracy and kappa values of83.2% and 0.79, respectively and low-cost cover mapping as a part of inventory forCORINE Land Cover Project.

  2. Using aster multispectral imagery for mapping woody invasive species in pico da vara natural reserve (Azores Islands, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Gil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to assess the effectiveness of ASTER imagery to support the mapping of Pittosporum undulatum, an invasive woody species, in Pico da Vara Natural Reserve (S. Miguel Island, Archipelago of the Azores, Portugal. This assessment was done by applying K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN, Support Vector Machine (SVM and Maximum Likelihood (MLC pixel-based supervised classifications to 4 different geographic and remote sensing datasets constituted by the Visible, Near-Infrared (VNIR and Short Wave Infrared (SWIR of the ASTER sensor and by digital cartography associated to orography (altitude and "distance to water streams" of which the spatial distribution of Pittosporum undulatum directly depends. Overall, most performed classifications showed a strong agreement and high accuracy. At targeted species level, the two higher classification accuracies were obtained when applying MLC and KNN to the VNIR bands coupled with auxiliary geographic information use. Results improved significantly by including ecology and occurrence information of species (altitude and distance to water streams in the classification scheme. These results show that the use of ASTER sensor VNIR spectral bands, when coupled to relevant ancillary GIS data, can constitute an effective and low cost approach for the evaluation and continuous assessment of Pittosporum undulatum woodland propagation and distribution within Protected Areas of the Azores Islands.

  3. Civil engineering: calculations of pre-stressed concrete structures using CodeAster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents an analysis of the different calculation methods for pre-stressed concrete structure which can be performed by using finite element methods. Two methods of calculating the pre-stressing of concrete structures with finite elements have been determined. The equivalent method which consists of replacing the action of pre-stressing the concrete by equivalent forces. These method is well suited to dimensioning and studying the overall stability of a structure. It is not an easy matter to take into account the coupled or time-varying phenomena. This approach ignores the evolution of the interaction between the pre-stressing and the concrete. The explicit method which consists of including the mechanical resolution of the pre-stressed cables in that of a concrete structure. Not only does this allow a local study of the pre-stressed to be made, it also allows the coupling which developed over time to be determined, e.g. slip, deferred deformation and coupling between the steel and concrete behaviours. This method enables non-linear phenomena with varying degrees of complexity, such as fracture or yielding of the steels, drying out of the concrete, creep, etc to be described. The two methods are complementary. This document presents the mathematical and computer developments relating to each of this method. In the case of the explicit method, certain of the Code-Aster functions already make it possible to meet several EDF application requirements. Several couplings can be taken into account, such as thermomechanical, shrinkage in drying, creep, relaxation and injection of the cables. Three immediate developments of Code-Aster are proposed for the following applications: - a procedure for calculating the pre-stress losses along the pre-stressing cables; - a command to allocate these forces in the form of an initial force field in the bar elements associated with the cables; - a procedure for linking elements whose nodes do not coincide with each other

  4. Validation of the Aster Global Digital Elevation Model Version 3 Over the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesch, D.; Oimoen, M.; Danielson, J.; Meyer, D.

    2016-06-01

    The ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model Version 3 (GDEM v3) was evaluated over the conterminous United States in a manner similar to the validation conducted for the original GDEM Version 1 (v1) in 2009 and GDEM Version 2 (v2) in 2011. The absolute vertical accuracy of GDEM v3 was calculated by comparison with more than 23,000 independent reference geodetic ground control points from the U.S. National Geodetic Survey. The root mean square error (RMSE) measured for GDEM v3 is 8.52 meters. This compares with the RMSE of 8.68 meters for GDEM v2. Another important descriptor of vertical accuracy is the mean error, or bias, which indicates if a DEM has an overall vertical offset from true ground level. The GDEM v3 mean error of -1.20 meters reflects an overall negative bias in GDEM v3. The absolute vertical accuracy assessment results, both mean error and RMSE, were segmented by land cover type to provide insight into how GDEM v3 performs in various land surface conditions. While the RMSE varies little across cover types (6.92 to 9.25 meters), the mean error (bias) does appear to be affected by land cover type, ranging from -2.99 to +4.16 meters across 14 land cover classes. These results indicate that in areas where built or natural aboveground features are present, GDEM v3 is measuring elevations above the ground level, a condition noted in assessments of previous GDEM versions (v1 and v2) and an expected condition given the type of stereo-optical image data collected by ASTER. GDEM v3 was also evaluated by differencing with the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) dataset. In many forested areas, GDEM v3 has elevations that are higher in the canopy than SRTM. The overall validation effort also included an evaluation of the GDEM v3 water mask. In general, the number of distinct water polygons in GDEM v3 is much lower than the number in a reference land cover dataset, but the total areas compare much more closely.

  5. Emplacement of Basaltic Flow Fields: New Insights Using MODIS/ASTER Airborne Simulator (MASTER) Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, J. M.; Ramsey, M. S.; Crown, D. A.

    2001-12-01

    Surface units that reflect local emplacement conditions within the 1969-1974 Mauna Ulu lava flow field (Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii) have been identified and are being mapped using field observations and remote sensing analyses. Investigation of a preliminary study site on and below Holei Pali utilized high-resolution color aerial photographs [Byrnes and Crown, 2000. J Geophys Res 106, 2139-2151] and TIMS (Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner) airborne data. Four surface units were identified that are related to the state of the lava during emplacement and were found to be correlated with the pre-eruption topography but not to the major lava tube segments mapped previously. These units show variations at visible wavelengths related to color, the presence of a glassy surface crust, and unit (dm- to m-scale) morphology. Variations at thermal wavelengths are presumably related to surface variations in phenocryst abundance, vesicles/micron-scale roughness, and glass. Interpretations based on the TIMS data are significantly limited by noise in available data covering the flow field. The present study uses MASTER (MODIS/ASTER airborne simulator) data to extend the spatial and spectral coverage of the Mauna Ulu flow field. Preliminary analyses of the data (corrected for atmospheric effects) indicate that: (1) additional classes of surface units (such as shelly pahoehoe) can be identified within the flow field, and (2) systematic changes in emplacement occurred from the proximal to the medial and distal portions of the flow field. Comparison with ASTER images indicates that similar classes of surface units may be discriminated in both datasets, though MASTER is preferable for this study because it provides: (1) higher spatial resolution (especially in thermal bands), and (2) constant pixel size for all wavelengths. These factors allow for discrimination of smaller flow units and more accurate correlation of visible- and thermal-wavelength spectral signatures. The higher

  6. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radometer (ASTER) Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) Products from Global Earth Observation (GEO) Grid: An Assessment Using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for Synergistic Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Satoshi Tsuchida; Tomoaki Miura; Hirokazu Yamamoto

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the compatibility of three Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radometer (ASTER) based Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) products generated in the GEO Grid system to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) EVI. The three products were two forms of the two-band EVI with ASTER red and NIR bands but without a blue band and the original, three-band EVI computed with ASTER red and NIR, and MODIS blue reflectances. Our assessment results showed good compatibi...

  7. Assessment Of ASTER GDEM And SRTM Performance By Comparing With Survey Control Points And Icesat/GLAS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarihani, A. A.; Callow, J. N.

    2011-12-01

    Topographic data plays a critical role in water resources modeling with determining watershed hydrologic characteristics from raster-based digital elevation models (DEM). Raster-based DEMs have been widely used to derive topographic attributes used in hydraulic and hydrologic modeling such as slope, stream network, basins boundary and area. Accurate models of floodplain topography are essential for having accurate output of hydrologic models. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) provides near-global topographic coverage of the Earth's surface with unprecedented consistency and accuracy with the resolution of 1-3 arc sec. A new Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) from optical stereo data acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) was recently released with the resolution of 1 arc sec. This study the performance of the ASTER GDEM and SRTM DEMs is assessed by comparing with ground-based survey control points and point data from ICESat/GLAS (Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite/Geoscience Laser Altimeter System) for a 7x7degree area in Queensland Australia. This area contains large and remote river basins, where these datasets provide an invaluable resource from which river floodplain inundation can be measured and modelled. Our study focuses on both data and datum issues, which are required to provide a realistic assessment of the achievable relative and absolute ground topographic accuracies. We assessed ground-based survey control points' with ICESat satellite altimetry points and in turn assessed accuracy of the ASTER GDEM and SRTM DEMs over the study area. ICESat provides globally-distributed elevation data of high accuracy (2.47.3 m horizontal error and 0.040.13 m (per degree of incidence angle) vertical error)We applied the GLA14 elevation products (Land/Canopy elevations) for the Laser 3a observation period and Release 31 to compare with 5000 ground survey control points in study area.Our ICESat

  8. Spatial distributions of the leafminer Ophiomyia maura (Diptera: Agromyzidae) in host plant Aster ageratoides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshiko Ayabe; Ei'ichi Shibata

    2008-01-01

    The seasonal occurrence and among-plant and within-plant spatial distribution of the multivoltine leafminer Ophiomyia maura Meigen (Diptera: Agromyzidae) on the herbaceous plant Aster ageratoides Turcz. subsp, ovatus (Asteraceae) were investigated in the field. O. maura has at least four generations a year and mines per leaf fluctuate with a mean of 0.007 throughout the occurrence period. Seasonal occurrence is associated with abundance of new host leaves, suggesting O. maura females prefer to oviposit in newly emerged leaves. The among-plant distribution of O. maura is described by a Poisson distribution early in the season but tends to be weakly clumped later. The within-plant vertical distribution of larval mines increased from middle to upper leaves during plantdevelopment, because mined leaves in the middle position early in the season move downward with the emergence of new leaves, shifting mined leaves from the position where O. maura oviposits eggs. Later in the season, mined leaves remain where they are deposited because few new leaves emerge. The spatial distribution of O. rnaura, resource utilization patterns, and host plant characteristics are discussed.

  9. Comparison and analysis of bare soil evaporation models combined with ASTER data in Heihe River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-xia KANG

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer remote sensing data, bare soil evaporation was estimated with the Penman-Monteith model, the Priestley-Taylor model, and the aerodynamics model. Evaporation estimated by each of the three models was compared with actual evaporation, and error sources of the three models were analyzed. The mean absolute relative error was 9% for the Penman-Monteith model, 14% for the Priestley-Taylor model, and 32% for the aerodynamics model; the Penman-Monteith model was the best of these three models for estimating bare soil evaporation. The error source of the Penman-Monteith model is the neglect of the advection estimation. The error source of the Priestley-Taylor model is the simplification of the component of aerodynamics as 0.72 times the net radiation. The error source of the aerodynamics model is the difference of vapor pressure and neglect of the radiometric component. The spatial distribution of bare soil evaporation is evident, and its main factors are soil water content and elevation.

  10. A morphometric comparison of the Namib and southwest Kalahari dunefields using ASTER GDEM data

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kevin; Bullard, Joanna; Livingstone, Ian; Moran, Lisa

    2015-12-01

    The increased availability of digital elevation models and satellite image data enable testing of morphometric relationships between sand dune variables (dune height, spacing and equivalent sand thickness), which were originally established using limited field survey data. These long-established geomorphological hypotheses can now be tested against very much larger samples than were possible when available data were limited to what could be collected by field surveys alone. This project uses ASTER global digital elevation model (GDEM) data to compare morphometric relationships between sand dune variables in the southwest Kalahari dunefield to those of the Namib sand sea, to test whether the relationships found in an active sand sea (Namib) also hold for the fixed dune system of the nearby southwest Kalahari. The data show significant morphometric differences between the simple linear dunes of the Namib sand sea and the southwest Kalahari; the latter do not show the expected positive relationship between dune height and spacing. The southwest Kalahari dunes show a similar range of dune spacings, but they are less tall, on average, than the Namib sand sea dunes. There is a clear spatial pattern to these morphometric data; the tallest and most closely spaced dunes are towards the southeast of the Kalahari dunefield; and this is where the highest values of equivalent sand thickness result. We consider the possible reasons for the observed differences and highlight the need for more studies comparing sand seas and dunefields from different environmental settings.

  11. Per-Field Irrigated Crop Classification in Arid Central Asia Using SPOT and ASTER Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Conrad

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The overarching goal of this research was to explore accurate methods of mapping irrigated crops, where digital cadastre information is unavailable: (a Boundary separation by object-oriented image segmentation using very high spatial resolution (2.5–5 m data was followed by (b identification of crops and crop rotations by means of phenology, tasselled cap, and rule-based classification using high resolution (15–30 m bi-temporal data. The extensive irrigated cotton production system of the Khorezm province in Uzbekistan, Central Asia, was selected as a study region. Image segmentation was carried out on pan-sharpened SPOT data. Varying combinations of segmentation parameters (shape, compactness, and color were tested for optimized boundary separation. The resulting geometry was validated against polygons digitized from the data and cadastre maps, analysing similarity (size, shape and congruence. The parameters shape and compactness were decisive for segmentation accuracy. Differences between crop phenologies were analyzed at field level using bi-temporal ASTER data. A rule set based on the tasselled cap indices greenness and brightness allowed for classifying crop rotations of cotton, winter-wheat and rice, resulting in an overall accuracy of 80 %. The proposed field-based crop classification method can be an important tool for use in water demand estimations, crop yield simulations, or economic models in agricultural systems similar to Khorezm.

  12. ASTER based velocity profile of glaciers in the Nanga Parbat region, western Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, A. T.; Haritashya, U. K.

    2011-12-01

    Glaciers, in general, are highly sensitive to climate fluctuations making them important indicators of climate change. Overall, lack of data on this region is troubling for the amount of hydrological importance and climatic forecasts these glaciers hold. Therefore, this study aims to measure glacier velocity on selected glaciers using cross-correlation techniques. One of the main problems with determining the amount of loss or perhaps gain in glacier mass is determining their velocity. The Himalayan glaciers are inaccessible in most areas and field measurements can be impossible, which creates a problem when determining the velocity of glaciers. Consequently, we generated velocity profiles of glaciers in the Nanga Parbat region of the western Himalaya using 2009 and 2010 ASTER satellite data. Our glacier fluctuation study have shown oscillating behavior of these glaciers; however, our preliminary velocity result indicates high velocity on most of these glaciers. These results are the first ever velocity profile generated for this region and would be able to help understand glacier dynamics in a much more comprehensive manner.

  13. Feature level fusion for enhanced geological mapping of ophiolile complex using ASTER and Landsat TM data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromite ore deposit occurrence is related to ophiolite complexes as a part of the oceanic crust and provides a good opportunity for lithological mapping using remote sensing data. The main contribution of this paper is a novel approaches to discriminate different rock units associated with ophiolite complex using the Feature Level Fusion technique on ASTER and Landsat TM satellite data at regional scale. In addition this study has applied spectral transform approaches, consisting of Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) to distinguish the concentration of high-potential areas of chromite and also for determining the boundary between different rock units. Results indicated both approaches show superior outputs compared to other methods and can produce a geological map for ophiolite complex rock units in the arid and the semi-arid region. The novel technique including feature level fusion and Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) discriminated ophiolitic rock units and produced detailed geological maps of the study area. As a case study, Sikhoran ophiolite complex located in SE, Iran has been selected for image processing techniques. In conclusion, a suitable approach for lithological mapping of ophiolite complexes is demonstrated, this technique contributes meaningfully towards economic geology in terms of identifying new prospects

  14. The effect of salinity on different developmental stages of an endemic annual plant, Aster laurentianus (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, G; Morel, L; Reynolds, C; Siégel, J

    2001-01-01

    Salinity reduces substrate water potential, thereby restricting water and nutrient uptake by plants; salinity may also cause ionic imbalance and toxicity. Because substrate salinity fluctuates through the growing season, a plant may be exposed to different salinity levels, at various stages of development, with potentially significant consequences on population dynamics. Here, we present the results of a study of the effect of substrate salinity on seed germination, seedling emergence, and growth of Aster laurentianus, an annual marsh plant, endemic to the Gulf of St. Lawrence and potentially threatened. Seed germination was reduced in low salt concentration (10 g sea salt/L) and completely inhibited by salinity levels >/=20 g sea salt/L. However, this inhibiting effect was reversible: seeds from the salt treatments germinated readily after being washed in distilled water. Though seedling emergence was diminished at low salinity levels, postemergence survival was little affected. Plant growth was reduced, but net carbon assimilation rate was not affected by high salinity levels. Increased root respiration and respiratory costs associated with salt tolerance might have contributed to lower C accumulation at higher salinity levels. All developmental processes considered are thus negatively affected by substrate salinity, with potentially significant consequences on population abundance and distribution in salt marshes. Yet, the tolerance of this species to high salinity levels after seedling emergence is remarkable. Seed germination represents a major bottleneck in the species life cycle, potentially controlling local distribution and abundance in the natural habitat. PMID:11159127

  15. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Aster spathulifolius (Asteraceae); genomic features and relationship with Asteraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyoung Su; Park, SeonJoo

    2015-11-10

    Aster spathulifolius, a member of the Asteraceae family, is distributed along the coast of Japan and Korea. This plant is used for medicinal and ornamental purposes. The complete chloroplast (cp) genome of A. sphathulifolius consists of 149,473 bp that include a pair of inverted repeats of 24,751 bp separated by a large single copy region of 81,998 bp and a small single copy region of 17,973 bp. The chloroplast genome contains 78 coding genes, four rRNA genes and 29 tRNA genes. When compared to other cpDNA sequences of Asteraceae, A. spathulifolius showed the closest relationship with Jacobaea vulgaris, and its atpB gene was found to be a pseudogene, unlike J. vulgaris. Furthermore, evaluation of the gene compositions of J. vulgaris, Helianthus annuus, Guizotia abyssinica and A. spathulifolius revealed that 13.6-kb showed inversion from ndhF to rps15, unlike Lactuca of Asteraceae. Comparison of the synonymous (Ks) and nonsynonymous (Ka) substitution rates with J. vulgaris revealed that synonymous genes related to a small subunit of the ribosome showed the highest value (0.1558), while nonsynonymous rates of genes related to ATP synthase genes were highest (0.0118). These findings revealed that substitution has occurred at similar rates in most genes, and the substitution rates suggested that most genes is a purified selection. PMID:26164759

  16. Accuracy Improvement of ASTER Stereo Satellite Generated DEM Using Texture Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mandla V. Ravibabu; Kamal Jain; Surendra Pal Singh; Naga Jyothi Meeniga

    2010-01-01

    The grid DEM (digital elevation model) generation can be from any of a number of sources: for instance, analogue to digital conversion of contour maps followed by application of the TIN model, or direct elevation point modelling via digital photogrammetry applied to airborne images or satellite images. Currently, apart from the deployment of point-clouds from LiDAR data acquisition, the generally favoured approach refers to applications of digital photogrammetry. One of the most important steps in such deployment is the stereo matching process for conjugation point (pixel) establishment: very difficult in modelling any homogenous areas like water cover or forest canopied areas due to the lack of distinct spatial features. As a result, application of automated procedures is sure to generate erroneous elevation values. In this paper, we present and apply a method for improving the quality of stereo DEMs generated via utilization of an entropy texture filter. The filter was applied for extraction of homogenous areas before stereo matching so that a statistical texture filter could then be applied for removing anomalous evaluation values prior to interpolation and accuracy assessment via deployment of a spatial correlation technique. For exemplification, we used a stereo pair of ASTER 1B images.

  17. Glacier mass change evaluation in Lambert-Amery Area from 2002 to 2012 using ASTER stereo images and ICESat GLAS laser altimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, one of the major issues is to transform different remote sensing observations into a global reference for sustainable global-scale glacier change monitoring. In order to put glacier changes into a broader temporal context, it is desirable to extend the glacier observation time as far back as possible. In this paper, we present a case study of registering ASTER satellite stereo images to ICESat GLAS laser altimetry data, by matching terrain features identified from the ICESat measurements to those corresponding in the ASTER images. Features like ridges and nunatak can be extracted from ICESat data, and these features can also be measured in ASTER stereo images. A rigid body transformation (3 translations, 3 rotations) is applied for an optimal fit of these two sets of feature points. After transforming the ASTER photogrammetry measurements into the ICESat reference frame, we compute elevation change rates at each ICESat point by using a linear interpolation to obtain an estimate of surface elevation from ASTER. The surface firn/ice density model is used in converting the elevation changes to mass changes. Our study indicates that Lambert Glacier is close to being in mass balance between 2002 and 2012

  18. Atividade antibacteriana e antifúngica de extratos etanólicos de Aster lanceolatus Willd., Asteraceae Antibacterial and antifungal activity of ethanolics extracts from Aster lanceolatus Willd., Asteraceae

    OpenAIRE

    Josiane F. Gaspari Dias; Suzane Virtuoso; Aline Davet; Miriam M. Cunico; Marilis D. Miguel; Obdúlio G. Miguel; Celso G. Auer; Albino Grigoletti-Júnior; Andressa B. Oliveira; Marlene L. Ferronato

    2006-01-01

    Conhecida popularmente como áster-arbustiva, margarida-de-são-miguel e monte-cassino, Aster lanceolatus é uma planta ornamental de corte. Sabendo-se que não existem estudos que atestem a atividade biológica desta espécie, procurou-se neste trabalho atividades antibacteriana e antifúngica. Para tanto se utilizaram extratos brutos etanólicos de duas porções distintas, das flores e dos caules com folhas. Para a atividade antibacteriana, oito bactérias patogênicas foram submetidas a ensaio de dif...

  19. IMÁGENES ASTER EN LA DISCRIMINACIÓN DE ÁREAS DE USO AGRÍCOLA EN COLOMBIA ASTER IMAGES FOR DISCRIMINATION OF AGRICULTURAL USE AREAS IN COLOMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Nidia Esperanza Ortiz Lozano; Uriel Pérez Gómez

    2009-01-01

    El avance de las tecnologías de la información geográfica ha llevado a la puesta de nuevos sensores para observación de la tierra. ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Termal Emission and Reflection Radiometer), considerado como sensor de última generación, posee características especiales que lo colocan como una alternativa para estudios de la cobertura vegetal de la tierra. El presente trabajo se basó en sus características espaciales, espectrales y radiométricas con el fin de discriminar las áreas d...

  20. Clasificación de yeso mediante imágenes ASTER en la Cordillera Principal Mendocina Gypsum classification based on ASTER images in the Principal Cordillera of Mendoza

    OpenAIRE

    José F Mescua

    2010-01-01

    Se presenta una metodología para obtener el mapa de distribución de yeso con imágenes satelitales ASTER. Se utilizaron imágenes con nivel de procesamiento ASTERL3A correspondientes a dos áreas de la Cordillera Principal mendocina. La estratigrafía de las áreas de estudio se encuentra compuesta por una espesa sucesión sedimentaria mesozoica, volcanitas cenozoicas y depósitos cuaternarios. Dentro de los depósitos mesozoicos se encuentra la Formación Auquilco, integrada por yeso y anhidrita. El ...

  1. An Improved Method to Retrieve Surface Emissivity in a Canary Pine Forest Using Aster Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto-Velasco, Africa; Hernandez-Leal, Pedro A.; Arbelo, Manuel; Podesta, Guillermo P.

    2012-07-01

    The widely-used Temperature and Emissivity Separation (TES) algorithm has been shown to provide reliable temperature and emissivity estimates from land-leaving thermal data. Nevertheless, TES has some important limitations mainly related to its inability to correct important inaccuracies for gray bodies, such as vegetation. In this study, this problem is addressed through an improvement to the current NEM (Normalized Emissivity Method) module included in the TES algorithm. The proposed method, called Modified NEM (ModNEM), has been specifically designed to retrieve an accurate surface emissivity for bodies with a spectral behavior typical of gray-bodies, i. e., flat and near spectrally invariant. ModNEM selects two different approximations of surface temperature instead of the usual maximum temperature, with the aim of accounting for the peculiar spectral behavior of brightness temperature and emissivity for vegetation. The NEM and TES, as well as the ModNEM, have been used to recover surface emissivity in a pine forest located in Tenerife Island (Canary Islands, Spain) using data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). Results have been compared and validated using reference emissivity values obtained from the pines by means of the box method. This validation study showed that high uncertainties are associated with the standard techniques (up to 0.034), whereas ModNEM results in lower uncertainties in emissivity estimates (NEM module are not suitable for surfaces with a spectral behavior similar to a grey body. This work was supported by MICINN under Grant CGL2010-22189-C02.

  2. ALR - Laser altimeter for the ASTER deep space mission. Simulated operation above a surface with crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brum, A. G. V.; da Cruz, F. C.; Hetem, A., Jr.

    2015-10-01

    To assist in the investigation of the triple asteroid system 2001-SN263, the deep space mission ASTER will carry onboard a laser altimeter. The instrument was named ALR and its development is now in progress. In order to help in the instrument design, with a view to the creation of software to control the instrument, a package of computer programs was produced to simulate the operation of a pulsed laser altimeter with operating principle based on the measurement of the time of flight of the travelling pulse. This software Simulator was called ALR_Sim, and the results obtained with its use represent what should be expected as return signal when laser pulses are fired toward a target, reflect on it and return to be detected by the instrument. The program was successfully tested with regard to some of the most common situations expected. It constitutes now the main workbench dedicated to the creation and testing of control software to embark in the ALR. In addition, the Simulator constitutes also an important tool to assist the creation of software to be used on Earth, in the processing and analysis of the data received from the instrument. This work presents the results obtained in the special case which involves the modeling of a surface with crater, along with the simulation of the instrument operation above this type of terrain. This study points out that the comparison of the wave form obtained as return signal after reflection of the laser pulse on the surface of the crater with the expected return signal in the case of a flat and homogeneous surface is a useful method that can be applied for terrain details extraction.

  3. Characterization of land surface energy fluxes at the Salar de Atacama, Northern Chile using ASTER image classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, S. K.; Tyler, S. W.

    2003-12-01

    Models of land surface energy fluxes often use remotely sensed data to derive surface temperature, albedo, and emissivity, important parameters in energy budget calculations. The ability to determine the spatial distribution of these parameters can lead to improved estimations of the spatial variability of land surface energy fluxes. However, other parameters used in energy flux calculations such as aerodynamic resistance are not directly linked to quantities commonly derived from remotely sensed data. If images can be accurately classified into separate land cover types, empirically determined values of unknown parameters can then be assigned separately to each land cover classification. This study examines several techniques of determining the spatial distribution of land surface energy fluxes at the Salar de Atacama, a large playa in northern Chile. Fluxes are calculated using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER) Level 2 surface kinetic temperature, surface emissivity, and surface reflectance data in conjunction with ground-based meteorological measurements. Energy fluxes are calculated initially by applying a single value of aerodynamic resistance to the entire image area. Subsequently, the ASTER scene is classified into distinct land cover types, and land surface roughness is characterized using the ratio of ASTER band 3N (nadir-viewing) to band 3B (back-viewing). Separate values of aerodynamic resistance are then assigned to each land cover type, and energy fluxes over the entire Salar de Atacama are calculated using these spatially distributed aerodynamic resistance values. Results of both energy flux calculation techniques are evaluated at several sites on the playa using ground-based energy flux measurements.

  4. Effect of day length, growth regulators and fertilization on growth and development of Michaelmas Daisy (Aster novi-belgii L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ines Vršek; Ksenija Karlović; Vesna Židovec

    2002-01-01

    Effect of day length, growth regulators and fertilization on the height, plant diameter, number of buds and inflorescences was monitored in the species Aster novi-belgii L. ´Mary Ballard´ throughout three growing seasons in order to explore the possibility of its late-summer growing as a flowering pot plant. The total number of buds and inflorescences was by 20% larger under natural day length compared to plants grown under the shortened photoperiod. Bud opening dynamics was more intensive un...

  5. ASTER Observations of 2000-2007 Thermal Features at Pavlof Volcano and Mt. Hague (Emmons Lake Volcanic Center), Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, R. L.; Schneider, D.; Ramsey, M.; Mangan, M. T.

    2007-12-01

    Emmons Lake Volcanic Center (ELVC) is a 15 km by 30 km area of nested calderas, stratovolcanoes, lava domes, hyaloclastite rings, and cinder cones aligned along the arc axis. Pavlof Volcano is the most active volcano along the ELVC, with more than 40 historic eruptions since 1790. The most recent eruption of Pavlof Volcano began in August 2007 after almost 11 years of quiescence. Mount Hague is a prominent intracaldera vent with no known historical eruptions that lies approximately 7 kilometers to the southwest of Pavlof. The southern crater of Mount Hague commonly fluctuates between a crater-filling lake to a dry crater floor with vigorously steaming fumaroles. Mount Hague has another fumarole field on the southeast flank at nearly the same elevation as the crater floor. To better document the behavior of persistent thermal features at these remote volcanoes, we have compiled temperature and dimension data using a seven-year long time series of satellite data. Over 25 daytime and 40 nighttime clear thermal infrared (TIR) images (90 m resolution) from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) have recorded variations in the thermal activity at both volcanic vents since July 2000. All cloud-free ASTER TIR observations document persistent low- temperature features at both Pavlof Volcano and Mount Hague during this period. The size and temperature of each thermal feature varies throughout the study period. The data show that the 2518 m summit of Pavlof Volcano is occasionally snow-free in early summer whereas neighboring peaks at lower elevations are still snow-clad. FLIR data acquired near the summit of Pavlof in 2004 show that the majority of warm ground was at 20°C to 40°C. These warm areas commonly persist snow-free into the winter. Temperature variations observed at Mt Hague crater usually correlate to the size of the ephemeral crater lake. As the lake grows, the pixel-integrated ASTER TIR temperature increases. Measurements

  6. Clasificación de yeso mediante imágenes ASTER en la Cordillera Principal Mendocina

    OpenAIRE

    José F Mescua

    2010-01-01

    Se presenta una metodología para obtener el mapa de distribución de yeso con imágenes satelitales ASTER. Se utilizaron imágenes con nivel de procesamiento ASTERL3A correspondientes a dos áreas de la Cordillera Principal mendocina. La estratigrafía de las áreas de estudio se encuentra compuesta por una espesa sucesión sedimentaria mesozoica, volcanitas cenozoicas y depósitos cuaternarios. Dentro de los depósitos mesozoicos se encuentra la Formación Auquilco, integrada por yeso y anhidrita. El ...

  7. The Penetration Depth Derived from the Synthesis of ALOS/PALSAR InSAR Data and ASTER GDEM for the Mapping of Forest Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjian Ni

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Global Digital Elevation Model produced from stereo images of Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer data (ASTER GDEM covers land surfaces between latitudes of 83°N and 83°S. The Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR onboard Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS collected many SAR images since it was launched on 24 January 2006. The combination of ALOS/PALSAR interferometric data and ASTER GDEM should provide the penetration depth of SAR data assuming ASTER GDEM was the elevation of vegetation canopy top. It would be correlated with forest biomass because penetration depth could be affected by forest density and forest canopy height. Their combination held great promises for the forest biomass mapping over large area. The feasibility of forest biomass mapping through the data synthesis of ALOS/PALSAR InSAR data and ASTER GDEM was investigated in this study. A procedure for the extraction of penetration depth was firstly proposed. Then three models were built for biomass estimation: (I model only using backscattering coefficients of ALOS/PALSAR data; (II model only using penetration depth; (III model using both of them. The biomass estimated from Lidar data was taken as reference data to evaluate the three different models. The results showed that the combination of backscattering coefficients and penetration depth gave the best accuracy. The forest disturbance has to be considered in forest biomass estimation because of the long time span of ASTER data for generating ASTER GDEM. The spatial homogeneity could be used to improve estimation accuracy.

  8. 天睿子公司Aster Data的专利技术打开大数据商机大门

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    中国,北京—全球最大、专注于数据仓库,大数据分析和整合营销管理解决方案的厂商Teradata天睿公司(Teradata Corporation,美国纽约证券交易所交易代码:TDC)的子公司Aster Data日前宣布,其SQL—Map Reduce技术获得了美国第7966340号专利。Teradata天睿公司于今年四月收购了Aster Data公司。

  9. Digital Mapping of Soil Drainage Classes Using Multitemporal RADARSAT-1 and ASTER Images and Soil Survey Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abou Niang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Discriminant analysis classification (DAC and decision tree classifiers (DTC were used for digital mapping of soil drainage in the Bras-d’Henri watershed (QC, Canada using earth observation data (RADARSAT-1 and ASTER and soil survey dataset. Firstly, a forward stepwise selection was applied to each land use type identified by ASTER image in order to derive an optimal subset of soil drainage class predictors. The classification models were then applied to these subsets for each land use and merged to obtain a digital soil drainage map for the whole watershed. The DTC method provided better classification accuracies (29 to 92% than the DAC method (33 to 79% according to the land use type. A similarity measure (S was used to compare the best digital soil drainage map (DTC to the conventional soil drainage map. Medium to high similarities (0.6≤S<0.9 were observed for 83% (187 km2 of the study area while 3% of the study area showed very good agreement (S≥0.9. Few soil polygons showed very weak similarities (S<0.3. This study demonstrates the efficiency of combining radar and optical remote sensing data with a representative soil dataset for producing digital maps of soil drainage.

  10. Retrieval of a Temporal High-Resolution Leaf Area Index (LAI by Combining MODIS LAI and ASTER Reflectance Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghua Qu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to retrieve temporal high-resolution LAI derived by fusing MOD15 products (1 km resolution, field-measured LAI and ASTER reflectance (15-m resolution. Though the inversion of a physically based canopy reflectance model using high-resolution satellite data can produce high-resolution LAI products, the obstacle to producing temporal products is obvious due to the low temporal resolution of high resolution satellite data. A feasible method is to combine different source data, taking advantage of the spatial and temporal resolution of different sensors. In this paper, a high-resolution LAI retrieval method was implemented using a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN inversion framework. MODIS LAI data with higher temporal resolution were used to fit the temporal background information, which is then updated by new, higher resolution data, herein ASTER data. The interactions between the different resolution data were analyzed from a Bayesian perspective. The proposed method was evaluated using a dataset collected in the HiWater (Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research experiment. The determination coefficient and RMSE between the estimated and measured LAI are 0.80 and 0.43, respectively. The research results suggest that even though the coarse-resolution background information differs from the high-resolution satellite observations, a satisfactory estimation result for the temporal high-resolution LAI can be produced using the accumulated information from both the new observations and background information.

  11. The microtubule aster formation and its role in nuclear envelope assembly around the sperm chromatin in Xenopus egg extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ning; CHEN Zhongcai; LU Ping; ZHANG Chuanmao; ZHAI Zhonghe; TANG Xiaowei

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear envelope is a dynamic structure in the cell cycle. At the beginning of mitosis, nuclear envelope breaks down and its components disperse into the cytoplasm. At the end of mitosis, nuclear envelope reassembles using the dispersed components. Searching for the mechanisms of the nuclear disassembly and reassembly has for a long time been one of the key projects for cell biologists. In this report we show that microtubules take a role in the nuclear envelope assembly around the sperm chromatin in Xenopus egg extracts. Microtubule cytoskeleton has been demonstrated to take roles in the transport of intracellular membranes such as Golgi and ER vesicles. We found that the nuclear envelope assembly needs functional microtubules. At the beginning of the nuclear assembly, microtubules nucleated to form a microtubule aster around the centrosome at the base of the sperm head. Using the microtubule drug colchicine to disrupt the microtubule nucleation, nuclear envelope reassembly was seriously inhibited. If the microtubules were stabilized by taxol, another microtubule drug, the nuclear envelope reassembly was also interfered, although a significantly large aster formed around the chromatin. Based on these observations, we propose that microtubules play an important role in the nuclear envelope reassembly maybe by transporting the nuclear envelope precursors to the chromatin surfaces.

  12. First Report of Aerial Blight of Ruth’s Golden Aster (Pityopsis ruthii) caused by Rhizoctonia solani in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth's golden aster (Pityopsis ruthii) is an endangered, herbaceous perennial that occurs only at a few sites along small reaches of the Hiwassee and Ocoee rivers in Polk County, Tennessee. This species has ornamental potential. In 2012, we vegetatively propagated various genotypes and established p...

  13. Use of ASTER and MODIS thermal infrared data to quantify heat flow and hydrothermal change at Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, R. Greg; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Jaworowski, Cheryl; Heasler, Henry

    2012-01-01

    The overarching aim of this study was to use satellite thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing to monitor geothermal activity within the Yellowstone geothermal area to meet the missions of both the U.S. Geological Survey and the Yellowstone National Park Geology Program. Specific goals were to: 1) address the challenges of monitoring the surface thermal characteristics of the > 10,000 spatially and temporally dynamic thermal features in the Park (including hot springs, pools, geysers, fumaroles, and mud pots) that are spread out over ~ 5000 km2, by using satellite TIR remote sensing tools (e.g., ASTER and MODIS), 2) to estimate the radiant geothermal heat flux (GHF) for Yellowstone's thermal areas, and 3) to identify normal, background thermal changes so that significant, abnormal changes can be recognized, should they ever occur (e.g., changes related to tectonic, hydrothermal, impending volcanic processes, or human activities, such as nearby geothermal development). ASTER TIR data (90-m pixels) were used to estimate the radiant GHF from all of Yellowstone's thermal features and update maps of thermal areas. MODIS TIR data (1-km pixels) were used to record background thermal radiance variations from March 2000 through December 2010 and establish thermal change detection limits. A lower limit for the radiant GHF estimated from ASTER TIR temperature data was established at ~ 2.0 GW, which is ~ 30–45% of the heat flux estimated through geochemical thermometry. Also, about 5 km2 of thermal areas was added to the geodatabase of mapped thermal areas. A decade-long time-series of MODIS TIR radiance data was dominated by seasonal cycles. A background subtraction technique was used in an attempt to isolate variations due to geothermal changes. Several statistically significant perturbations were noted in the time-series from Norris Geyser Basin, however many of these did not correspond to documented thermal disturbances. This study provides concrete examples of the

  14. Crescimento e absorção de nutrientes pelo Aster ericoides cultivado em solo sob estufa Growth and nutrients absorption by Aster ericoides cultivated in soil at greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica S. de Camargo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O Aster ericoides é flor de corte recente no Brasil com grande potencial de produção e aceitação pelo mercado consumidor, mas são escassas as informações sobre sua nutrição e adubação. O objetivo foi avaliar o crescimento, produção de matéria seca e a absorção de nutrientes pelo Aster ericodes (cv. White Master cultivado em estufa comercial. Plântulas dessa espécie foram transplantadas para canteiros após 30 dias da semeadura, em outubro de 1999. As avaliações do material vegetal foram feitas aos 15; 30; 45; 60; 75; 90 e 96 dias após o transplantio. O crescimento inicial foi lento, mas aos 60 dias as plantas já haviam atingido 69% do crescimento em altura e, respectivamente, 27 e 50% do peso final da matéria seca da parte aérea e das raízes. O aparecimento dos botões florais ocorreu no período de 75 a 90 dias. No final do ciclo, as plantas atingiram 137 cm e 24,21 g de matéria seca. A absorção de macronutrientes (kg ha-1 pela parte aérea aos 96 dias foi de: 316,32 de K > 230,52 de N > 35,30 de P > 18,54 de S > 16,14 de Mg > 8,58 de Ca e de micronutrientes (g ha-1 3464,89 de Mn > 1603,23 de Fe > 1104,12 de Zn > 308,40 de B > 61,02 de Cu.Aster ericoides is a cut flower crop with great market and production potential that was only recently introduced into Brazil. Thus, little information is available regarding fertilization and nutrition under tropical conditions. The growth, dry matter production and nutrient absorption of Aster ericoides (cv. White Master cultivated in an UDOX soil under greenhouse conditions was evaluated. Seedlings were transplanted 30 days after sowing date, in October 99. Plant samples were taken at 15; 30; 45; 60; 75; 90 and 96 days after transplanting. Plant growth and dry matter production were slow in the beginning but at 60 days (before flowering 69% of the height, 27% of the top and 50% of the roots dry matter was reached. Plants reached 137 cm in height and 24.21 g of dry weight at the

  15. A posteriori error analysis for hydro-mechanical couplings and implementation in Code-Aster; Analyse d'erreur a posteriori pour les couplages hydro-mecaniques et mise en oeuvre dans Code-Aster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meunier, S

    2007-11-15

    We analyse approximations by finite elements in space and finite differences in time of coupled Hydro-Mechanical (HM) problems related to the quasi-static linear poro-elasticity theory. The physical bases of this theory are briefly restated and an abstract setting is proposed to perform the mathematical study of the stationary and un-stationary versions of the HM problem. For the stationary version, the well-posedness of the continuous and discrete problems are established and the a priori error analysis is performed. Then, we propose the a posteriori error analysis by using two different techniques suited to estimate the displacement error and the pressure error, respectively, both in the H{sub x}{sup 1}-norm. The classical properties of reliability and optimality are proved for the associated error estimators. Some numerical experiments using Code-Aster illustrate the theoretical results. For the un-stationary version, we first establish a stability result for the continuous problem. Then, we present an optimal a priori error analysis using elliptic projection techniques. Finally, the a posteriori error analysis is performed by using two different approaches: a direct approach and an elliptic reconstruction approach. The first is suited to estimate the pressure error in the L{sub t}{sup 2}(H{sub x}{sup 1})-norm and the second is suited to estimate the displacement error in the L{sub t}{sup {infinity}}(H{sub x}{sup 1})-norm and the pressure error in the L{sub t}{sup {infinity}}(H{sub x}{sup 1})-norm. Numerical experiments using Code-Aster complete the theoretical results. (author)

  16. Spectro-radiometers ASTER and MODIS - character of data, their accessibility and exploitability in area of environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this presentation some basic information about spectro-radiometers ASTER and MODIS are presented. Relative wide opportunities of exploitation of these products in area of environment, their high spectral and in case of MODIS time resolution are discussed. These parameters create starting-point for building-up of regional monitoring systems of different biophysical characteristics of terrestrial ecosystems and monitoring of time and spatial variability. Next effort in this area should be aimed on development and optimisation of regional models based on monitoring of time and spatial changes of vegetable and foliar indexes (NDVI, EVI, LAI), photosynthetically active part of radiation absorbed by vegetation (FPAR) and likewise, as well as detail analyses of these data in context of global climatic changes. Perspectives of remote sensing earth in the Slovak republic are discussed

  17. Spectro-radiometers ASTER and MODIS - character of data, their accessibility and exploitability in area of environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this contribution some basic information about spectro-radiometers ASTER and MODIS are presented. Relative wide opportunities of exploitation of these products in area of environment, their high spectral and in case of MODIS time resolution are discussed. These parameters create starting-point for building-up of regional monitoring systems of different biophysical characteristics of terrestrial ecosystems and monitoring of time and spatial variability. Next effort in this area should be aimed on development and optimisation of regional models based on monitoring of time and spatial changes of vegetable and foliar indexes (NDVI, EVI, LAI), photosynthetically active part of radiation absorbed by vegetation (FPAR) and likewise, as well as detail analyses of these data in context of global climatic changes. Perspectives of remote sensing earth in the Slovak republic are discussed

  18. Rapid Evaluation of Germinability of Primed China Aster (Callistephus Chinensis Ness. Seeds with Physiological and Biochemical Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badek Bogumiła

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The correlation between the sowing value of primed China aster seeds represented by germination percentage (GP, mean germination time (MGT, germination uniformity expressed as the time between 25% and 75% of germinated seeds (T75-25 and some selected physiological characteristics - total activity of dehydrogenases (TAD, activity of catalase (AC, activity of cell cycle (ACC and electrolyte leakage (EL has been analysed in order to find useful markers of biological quality of seeds. To achieve this objective, analyses of effects of three methods of water supply to seeds viz. - hydroconditioning by soaking in excessive amount of water (M1, hydroconditioning by soaking in limited amount of water (M2 or hydroconditioning by contact with solid carrier of water - matriconditioning (M3, three levels (30.0, 35.0 and 40.0% of seed moisture content (m.c. and three incubation periods (1, 8 and 10 days during priming and hence their influence on germination properties (GP, MGT, T75-25 in comparison with TAD, AC, ACC and EL were determined. The results showed that MGT and T75-25 were correlated with TAD, AC, ACC and EL, irrespective of their priming method and sowing value. Therefore, all the investigated physiological/biochemical parameters of seed quality can be used as markers of germinability and sowing value reached by primed China aster seeds. The results also proved that, irrespective of the water supply method applied, hydration of seeds up to 37.5% m.c., and their incubation at 20 °C for 8 days, followed by drying to their initial moisture content, increased to the greatest extent the speed and uniformity of seed germination and their physiological activity.

  19. External Validation of the ASTER GDEM2, GMTED2010 and CGIAR-CSI- SRTM v4.1 Free Access Digital Elevation Models (DEMs in Tunisia and Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djamel Athmania

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Digital Elevation Models (DEMs including Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer-Global Digital Elevation Model (ASTER GDEM, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM, and Global Multi-resolution Terrain Elevation Data 2010 (GMTED2010 are freely available for nearly the entire earth’s surface. DEMs that are usually subject to errors need to be evaluated using reference elevation data of higher accuracy. This work was performed to assess the vertical accuracy of the ASTER GDEM version 2, (ASTER GDEM2, the Consultative Group on International Agriculture Research-Consortium for Spatial Information (CGIAR-CSI SRTM version 4.1 (SRTM v4.1 and the systematic subsample GMTED2010, at their original spatial resolution, using Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS validation points. Two test sites, the Anaguid Saharan platform in southern Tunisia and the Tebessa basin in north eastern Algeria, were chosen for accuracy assessment of the above mentioned DEMs, based on geostatistical and statistical measurements. Within the geostatistical approach, empirical variograms of each DEM were compared with those of the GPS validation points. Statistical measures were computed from the elevation differences between the DEM pixel value and the corresponding GPS point. For each DEM, a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE was determined for model validation. In addition, statistical tools such as frequency histograms and Q-Q plots were used to evaluate error distributions in each DEM. The results indicate that the vertical accuracy of SRTM model is much higher than ASTER GDEM2 and GMTED2010 for both sites. In Anaguid test site, the vertical accuracy of SRTM is estimated 3.6 m (in terms of RMSE 5.3 m and 4.5 m for the ASTERGDEM2 and GMTED2010 DEMs, respectively. In Tebessa test site, the overall vertical accuracy shows a RMSE of 9.8 m, 8.3 m and 9.6 m for ASTER GDEM 2, SRTM and GMTED2010 DEM, respectively. This work is the first study to report the

  20. Comparison of ASTER- and AVIRIS-Derived Mineraland Vegetation Maps of the White Horse Replacement Alunite Deposit and Surrounding Area, Marysvale Volcanic Field, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents and compares mineral and vegetation maps of parts of the Marysvale volcanic field in west-central Utah that were published in a recent paper describing the White Horse replacement alunite deposit. Detailed, field-verified maps of the deposit were produced from Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data acquired from a low-altitude Twin Otter turboprop airborne platform. Reconnaissance-level maps of surrounding areas including the central and northern Tushar Mountains, Pahvant Range, and portions of the Sevier Plateau to the east were produced from visible, near-infrared, and shortwave-infrared data acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor carried aboard the Terra satellite platform. These maps are also compared to a previously published mineral map of the same area generated from AVIRIS data acquired from the high-altitude NASA ER-2 jet platform. All of the maps were generated by similar analysis methods, enabling the direct comparison of the spatial scale and mineral composition of surface geologic features that can be identified using the three types of remote sensing data. The high spatial (2-17 meter) and spectral (224 bands) resolution AVIRIS data can be used to generate detailed mineral and vegetation maps suitable for geologic and geoenvironmental studies of individual deposits, mines, and smelters. The lower spatial (15-30 meter) and spectral (9 bands) resolution ASTER data are better suited to less detailed mineralogical studies of lithology and alteration across entire hydrothermal systems and mining districts, including regional mineral resource and geoenvironmental assessments. The results presented here demonstrate that minerals and mineral mixtures can be directly identified using AVIRIS and ASTER data to elucidate spatial patterns of mineralogic zonation; AVIRIS data can enable the generation of maps with significantly greater detail and accuracy. The

  1. IMÁGENES ASTER EN LA DISCRIMINACIÓN DE ÁREAS DE USO AGRÍCOLA EN COLOMBIA ASTER IMAGES FOR DISCRIMINATION OF AGRICULTURAL USE AREAS IN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidia Esperanza Ortiz Lozano

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El avance de las tecnologías de la información geográfica ha llevado a la puesta de nuevos sensores para observación de la tierra. ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Termal Emission and Reflection Radiometer, considerado como sensor de última generación, posee características especiales que lo colocan como una alternativa para estudios de la cobertura vegetal de la tierra. El presente trabajo se basó en sus características espaciales, espectrales y radiométricas con el fin de discriminar las áreas de cultivo agrícola en el distrito de riego Usocoello, en Colombia. Se utilizó una imagen ASTER de nivel 1B de 2006, corregida geométricamente, remuestreada y sus valores de radiancia fueron transformados a valores de reflectancia, permitiendo realizar dos composiciones: imágenes originales (VNIR-SWIR e imagen fusionada en transformación IHS. Se estableció una leyenda temática a partir del esquema de clasificación "CORINE Land Cover - Colombia", definiendo 10 categorías de cobertura representativas en la imagen. Para la fase de asignación se utilizó el clasificador de máxima probabilidad. En el proceso de verificación y cuantificación del nivel de exactitud se utilizó, como verdad terreno, la base de datos geográfica del área a nivel de predio de la misma fecha de la toma de la imagen, encontrándose una fiabilidad global estimada del 75% para la imagen VNIR-SWIR; si se tiene en cuenta la variabilidad de los estados fenológicos de los cultivos (arroz, maíz y sorgo en el área y un contraste espacial significativo en la imagen fusionada, el índice de Kappa obtenido fue de 0,75 con un grado de acuerdo sustancial.The advance of geographical information technology has led to the placement of new sensors for earth observation. ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer is considered as a latest generation sensor. It has special characteristics that places it as an alternative for studies of vegetation cover

  2. Atividade antibacteriana e antifúngica de extratos etanólicos de Aster lanceolatus Willd., Asteraceae Antibacterial and antifungal activity of ethanolics extracts from Aster lanceolatus Willd., Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane F. Gaspari Dias

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Conhecida popularmente como áster-arbustiva, margarida-de-são-miguel e monte-cassino, Aster lanceolatus é uma planta ornamental de corte. Sabendo-se que não existem estudos que atestem a atividade biológica desta espécie, procurou-se neste trabalho atividades antibacteriana e antifúngica. Para tanto se utilizaram extratos brutos etanólicos de duas porções distintas, das flores e dos caules com folhas. Para a atividade antibacteriana, oito bactérias patogênicas foram submetidas a ensaio de difusão em gel e concentração inibitória mínima. Demonstrou-se atividade do extrato bruto etanólico de flores contra Streptococcus pyogenes, em difusão em gel e atividade de extrato bruto etanólico de caules e folhas contra Salmonella typhimurium e Streptococcus pyogenes em concentração inibitória mínima. Para a atividade antifúngica, utilizaram-se três fungos patogênicos em ensaios de crescimento micelial em placas e bioautografia direta. No ensaio de crescimento micelial em placas verificou-se a inibição de Fusarium oxysporum e na bioautografia direta, inibição do Cylindrocladium spathulatum. Os resultados delinearam uma nova fonte de pesquisa, as plantas ornamentais. Estas podem ser fonte de constituintes químicos capazes de servirem como protótipos para novos agentes terapêuticos e para tratamento sanitário de plantas medicinais.Popularly known as aster-arbustiva, margarida-de-são-miguel and monte-cassino, Aster lanceolatus is an ornamental plant. Having the knowledge that there is no studies on the biological activity of this species, this work aimed to check the antibacterial and antifungal activities. The ethanol extracts of the flowers and of the stems with leaves were used. For the antibacterial activity eight pathogenic bacteria were submitted to the diffusion test in gel and minimal inhibitory concentration. The activity of the ethanolic extract of the flowers has been demonstrated against Streptococcus pyogenes in

  3. 紫菀的化学成分及其药理活性研究进展%Advances on chemical components and pharmacological actions of Aster tataricus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房慧勇; 单高威; 秦桂芳; 甄林娜; 李旻辉; 郝丽静

    2012-01-01

      紫菀具有良好的润肺、祛痰、止咳效果,通过查阅国内外相关文献,综述了其化学成分和化痰镇咳、抗肿瘤等方面的药理作用,为紫菀的综合开发利用提供参考。%  Aster tataricus L. f. has a good effect upon moistening lung, eliminating phlegm, and suppressing cough. The literature reviews its chemical compositions and pharmacological action of eliminating phlegm, anti-tumor and etc.. The literature could provide reference for development and utilization of Aster tataricus.

  4. Genetic variability induced in winter rye (Secale cereale l.), soya bean (Glicine max merill.) and china aster (Callistephus chinensis L. Nees)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optimal treatments for mutation induction were established as follows: for China aster - treating seeds with gamma rays of 6-9 rad; for soya bean - irradiating seeds with fast neutrons of 100 rad, for rye - soaking the grains in water solutions of NEU (0.04% concentration) and of SA (1.5-2.0-2.5 mM concentration). The most interesting mutants of each species are kept in collection. They include the following mutants of China aster (homogamic) of soya bean (with tall and strong stems, with great leaves) and of winter rye (short-straw mutants, xanthina, with horizontal type of growth and with late senescence, combined with long spikes). (author)

  5. Lithological mapping using Landsat 8 OLI and Terra ASTER multispectral data in the Bas Drâa inlier, Moroccan Anti Atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiri, Zakaria; Harti, Abderrazak El; Jellouli, Amine; Maacha, Lhou; Bachaoui, El Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Lithological mapping is a fundamental step in various mineral prospecting studies because it forms the basis of the interpretation and validation of retrieved results. Therefore, this study exploited the multispectral Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) data in order to map lithological units in the Bas Drâa inlier, at the Moroccan Anti Atlas. This task was completed by using principal component analysis (PCA), band ratios (BR), and support vector machine (SVM) classification. Overall accuracy and the kappa coefficient of SVM based on ground truth in addition to the results of PCA and BR show an excellent correlation with the existing geological map of the study area. Consequently, the methodology proposed demonstrates a high potential of ASTER and Landsat 8 OLI data in lithological units discrimination.

  6. Applying Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) spectral indices for geological mapping and mineral identification on the Tibetan Plateau

    CERN Document Server

    Corrie, Robert; Aitchison, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau holds clues to understanding the dynamics and mechanisms associated with continental growth. Part of the region is characterized by zones of ophiolitic melange believed to represent the remnants of ancient oceanic crust and underlying upper mantle emplaced during oceanic closures. However, due to the remoteness of the region and the inhospitable terrain many areas have not received detailed investigation. Increased spatial and spectral resolution of satellite sensors have made it possible to map in greater detail the mineralogy and lithology than in the past. Recent work by Yoshiki Ninomiya of the Geological Survey of Japan has pioneered the use of several spectral indices for the mapping of quartzose, carbonate, and silicate rocks using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) thermal infrared (TIR) data. In this study, ASTER TIR indices have been applied to a region in western-central Tibet for the purposes of assessing their effectiveness for differentiatin...

  7. Extraction and analysis of reducing alteration information of oil-gas in Bashibulake uranium ore district based on ASTER remote sensing data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beginning with the analysis of the spectral characteristics of sandstone with reducing alteration of oil-gas in Bashibulake ore district, the extract technology of reducing alteration information based on ASTER data is presented. Several remote sensing anomaly zones of reducing alteration information similar with that in uranium deposit are interpreted in study area. On the basis of above study, these alteration anomaly information are further classified by using the advantage of ASTER data with multi-band in SWIR, the geological significance for alteration anomaly information is respectively discussed. As a result, alteration anomalies good for uranium prospecting are really selected, which provides some important information for uranium exploration in outland of Bashibulake uranium ore area. (authors)

  8. Spectroscopy of olivine basalts using FieldSpec and ASTER data: A case study from Wadi Natash volcanic field, south Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Ahmed

    2015-10-01

    This paper aims at revealing the spectral characteristics of the olivine basalts exposed at Wadi Natash area, Egypt, using FieldSpec spectroradiometer. It also evaluates band ratios and fusion techniques for mapping purposes using ASTER data. Several volcanic episodes occurred during Early- to Late-Cretaceous are recorded in the study area. Early-Cretaceous olivine basalts are highly carbonated. Late-Cretaceous eruptions took place throughout several volcanic cones aligned in NW direction. Based on FieldSpec measurements and petrographic data, two groups of olivine basalt namely `A' and `B' are recognized. Fresh olivine basalt (group A) is characterized by low flat spectral profile with overall low reflectance values (˜20%). Spectral profile of altered olivine basalt (group B) shows moderate reflectance values (˜37%) with four little absorption features around the 1.10, 1.40, 2.00 and 2.35 μm wavelength regions. These absorption features are attributed mainly to the presence of chlorite and carbonate alteration products as indicated by petrographic examination. ASTER false colour composite band ratio image (3/2:R, 8/1:G and 8/5:B) discriminates easily the fresh and altered basalts by deep blue and reddish blue colours respectively. Image fusion between previously mentioned FCC ratios image and high spatial resolution ASTER panchromatic image are carried out using brovey and HSV transformation methods. Visual and statistical assessment methods proved that HSV fusion image yields better image interpretability results compared to brovey image. It improves the spatial resolution of original FCC ratios image with acceptable spectral preservation. The present study proved the usefulness of FieldSpec spectral profiles and the processed ASTER data for discriminating different olivine basalt groups exposed at the study area.

  9. Validation and Performance Evaluations of Methods for Estimating Land Surface Temperatures from ASTER Data in the Middle Reach of the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China

    OpenAIRE

    Ji Zhou; Mingsong Li; Shaomin Liu; Zhenzhen Jia; Yanfei Ma

    2015-01-01

    Validation and performance evaluations are beneficial for developing methods that estimate the remotely sensed land surface temperature (LST). However, such evaluations for Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data are rare. By selecting the middle reach of the Heihe River basin (HRB), China, as the study area, the atmospheric correction (AC), mono-window (MW), single-channel (SC), and split-window (SW) methods were evaluated based on in situ measured LSTs. ...

  10. Ecosystem engineering effects of Aster tripolium and Salicornia procumbens salt marsh on macrofaunal community structure.

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Wal, D.; Herman, P.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines how perennial Aster tripolium and annual Salicornia procumbens salt marshes alter the biomass, density, taxon diversity, and community structure of benthic macrofauna, and also examines the role of elevation, sediment grain size, plant cover, and marsh age. Core samples were collected on a fixed grid on an intertidal flat in the Westerschelde estuary (51.4° N, 4.1° E) over 5 years (2004–2008) of salt marsh development. In unvegetated areas, macrobenthic biomass, density, a...

  11. Preliminary development plan of the ALR, the laser rangefinder for the ASTER deep space mission to the 2001 SN263 asteroid

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Gil Vicente de Brum; Annibal Hetem Jr.; Israel da Silveira Rêgo; Cayo Prado Fernandes Francisco; Andre Fenili; Fernando Madeira; Flavio Caldas da Cruz; Marcelo Assafin

    2011-01-01

    The Brazilian deep space mission ASTER, as temporarily named, plans to send a small spacecraft to encounter and investigate the triple asteroid 2001-SN263. The launch is scheduled (initially) to occur in 2015, arriving in 2018. The main motivation of the mission is the development of technology and expertise to leverage the national space sector. Within the scientific goals, the investigation of the still unknown asteroid 2001-SN263. The main project guideline is to aggregate the widest possi...

  12. A Mechanistic Model for the Organization of Microtubule Asters by Motor and Non-Motor Proteins in a Mammalian Mitotic ExtractD⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Chakravarty, Arijit; Howard, Louisa; Compton, Duane A.

    2004-01-01

    We used computer simulation to understand the functional relationships between motor (dynein, HSET, and Eg5) and non-motor (NuMA) proteins involved in microtubule aster organization. The simulation accurately predicted microtubule organization under all combinations of motor and non-motor proteins, provided that microtubule cross-links at minus-ends were dynamic, and dynein and HSET were restricted to cross-linking microtubules in parallel orientation only. A mechanistic model was derived fro...

  13. SiO2 content retrieving based on ASTER thermal data and its application in substracting metallogenic factor of a uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taking a granite-type uranium deposit in south China as an example,thermal infrared data of ASTER is used to quantitatively retrieve the SiO2 content of the rocks after radiometric calibration, atmospheric correction and separation of the temperature and emissivity. According to the inversion map, strong silicified fault zones, the distribution area of granite and the red beds was identified, and the results have been validated in the field. (authors)

  14. An Assessment of the Altimetric Information Derived from Spaceborne SAR (RADARSAT-1, SRTM3) and Optical (ASTER) Data for Cartographic Application in the Amazon Region

    OpenAIRE

    Waldir Renato Paradella; Cleber Gonzales de Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Difficulties in acquiring a complete aerial photography coverage on a regular basis in the Brazilian Amazon due to adverse environmental conditions affect the quality of the national topographic database. As a consequence, topographic information is still poor, and when available needs to be up-dated or re-mapped. In this research, altimetric information derived from RADARSAT-1 (Fine and Standard modes), SRTM3 (3 arcseconds) and ASTER (band 3N-3B) was evaluated for topographic mapping in two ...

  15. A Multi-Index Approach to Delineate Surface Water Bodies in the Pastoral Regions of Mali Using ASTER Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, H.; Velpuri, N.; Senay, G. B.; Angerer, J.

    2011-12-01

    Information on the location and availability of water resources is a day-to-day challenge for pastoralists in the Sahelian region of Mali. They move seasonally along their migration corridors in search for water and forage. Satellite data can be used to map the spatial and temporal dynamics of these water resources. In this work, ASTER imagery is selected for its high (15 m) spatial resolution and suitable spectral bands for water body identification. Our research indicates that as most of the waterholes of interest in the study area are very shallow and heavily sediment-laden, using only one of those commonly used water identification indices such as the Simple Band Ratio (SBR), or the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) alone does not help in effectively characterizing all the surface water bodies in the region. As a result, we used four different spectral indices to identify surface water features: (i) Simple Band Ratio (SBR), (ii) Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), (iii) Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI), and (iv) the Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD) to identify and delineate surface water bodies using 91 ASTER images. Initial results indicate that the SBR method identified 17 waterholes while the NDWI 18, the MNDWI 36, and the MAD method identified 28 waterholes. However, by combining the results from the four aforementioned spectral indices following a multi-index approach, 89 waterholes that were previously unidentified by a single approach alone were identified. Furthermore, our analysis indicates that the SBR and the NDWI methods identify relatively clearer waterholes better (29% of the waterholes), whereas MNDWI and MAD proved to be good indices for identifying sediment-laden waterholes. Identifying the location and spatial distribution of surface water bodies is the first step towards monitoring their seasonal dynamics using a hydrologic modeling system, similar to an existing setup for east Africa (http

  16. An Assessment of the Altimetric Information Derived from Spaceborne SAR (RADARSAT-1, SRTM3 and Optical (ASTER Data for Cartographic Application in the Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldir Renato Paradella

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Difficulties in acquiring a complete aerial photography coverage on a regular basis in the Brazilian Amazon due to adverse environmental conditions affect the quality of the national topographic database. As a consequence, topographic information is still poor, and when available needs to be up-dated or re-mapped. In this research, altimetric information derived from RADARSAT-1 (Fine and Standard modes, SRTM3 (3 arcseconds and ASTER (band 3N-3B was evaluated for topographic mapping in two sites located in the region: Serra dos Carajás (mountainous relief and Tapajós National Forest (flat terrain. The quality of the information produced from Digital Elevation Models (DEMs was evaluated regarding field altimetric measurements. Precise topographic field information acquired from Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS was used as Ground Control Points (GCPs for the modeling of the stereoscopic DEMs (RADARSAT- 1, ASTER and as Independent Check Points (ICPs for the calculation of accuracies of the products. The accuracies were estimated by comparison of the DEMs values and real elevation values given by ICPs. The analysis was performed following two approaches: (1 the use of Root Mean Square Error (RMSE for the overall classification of the DEMs considering the Brazilian Map Accuracy Standards (PEC limits and, (2 calculations of trend analysis and accuracy based on a methodology that takes into account computed discrepancies and standard deviations. The investigation has shown that for flat relief, the altimetric accuracy of SRTM3 and Fine RADARSAT-1 DEMs fulfilled the PEC requirements for 1:100,000 A Class Map. However, for mountainous terrain, only the altimetry of SRTM3 and ASTER fulfilled these requirements. In addition, the performance of ASTER was slightly superior to SRTM3. However it is important to consider the difficulties in the acquisition of good stereo-pairs with optical data in the Amazon and the additional cost

  17. Induction with 60Co gamma rays of modification variability and mutation of China aster (Callistephus chinensis Nees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wosińska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of radiation on variability was investigated in plants of five varieties of China aster, grown from seeds pretreated with various doses of gamma rays (generation M1 and in the progeny of these plants (generation M2. Both in generation M1 and in M2 the frequency of occurrence of radiation induced changes varied. In the M1 generation, beside teratological changes found most frequently in early periods, the observed variability concerned mostly leaves, their colour and size and the form of the lingual flowers. Plants with a different colour of flowers or a different habit were only sporadic. The changes induced by radiation were more frequently observed in the M2 generation than in the M1 They involved the following characters: height and habit of plants, colour of shoots, leaves and flowers, the forms of lingual marginal flowers, the time of flowering and the perfume. Most frequently changes were observed in several characters. When the shoots and leaves colour showed changes of anthocyanin type, the colour of the flowers was usually also modified. Most changed plants were noted after a dose of 9 kR in the M1 generation, and after 6-9 kR in the M2 generation. These doses were described in generation M1 at the stage of flowering in most of the tested varieties as LD50.

  18. Alteration zone mapping for detecting potential mineralized areas in Kaladawan of north altyn tagh using ASTER data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kaladawan area has been found developing intense hydrothermal altered rocks associated with mineralized area such as Kaladaban Pb-Zn deposit, A-bei Ag-Pb depositduring earlier geological investigations.Yet the sparse vegetation cover and excellent bedrock exposure make it a suitable place for the use of remote sensing methods for lithological mapping. ASTER data has been used in this study to identify alteration zones, and then to detect potential mineralized areas. Band ratio and PCA procedures were applied based on the analysis of spectral properties of typical alteration minerals. Band 4/2 and mineralogic indices proposed by Ninomiya were designed to map the distribution of Fe-oxides and alteration zones. Selected bands combinations were transformed in a PCA procedure to map the Al-OH, Mg-OH, CO32−and Fe-oxides altered minerals. The analysis focused on the spatial distribution of hydrothermal altered minerals. Band ratio result images including both Fe-oxides and mineralogic indices show high-level similarity with the PCA transform procedure. They both show intense hydrothermal alteration zone in Kaladaban,west Kaladawan and A-bei area. Hence, these areas are considered to have potential for further mineralogic exploration. The results were validated by field work in the Kaladaban and west Kaladawan area,indicating that this method can be a useful tool for detecting potential mineralization area in Kaladawan and similar areas elsewhere

  19. Qualification of Aster-code for the simulation of two-phase flows in porous media. application to Mascilia experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the framework of the nuclear waste storage in deep geological layers, the behavior of the saturated grounds in contact with the heating waste package is studied to ensure the short, average and long-term safety of the installation. However, experiments in geological ground, including heterogeneities, difficult to characterize, take a long time and are expensive. Therefore, the numerical simulation, which is a powerful tool to study the storage behavior versus space and time, became impossible to circumvent in order to analyze the radioactive waste management in porous media. In that prospect, the Thermo-Hydro-Mechanics (THM) modules of Code Aster were complemented by a two-phase thermal-hydraulics model, devoted to porous media. Such new developments intended to simulate the physical phenomena of un-saturation and re-saturation that occur in porous, permeable and initially saturated media, representative of worked engineer barriers or rock host. The concerned application is related to the storage of long-lived nuclear waste in deep geological layers. (authors)

  20. Effects of saltwater intrusion on pinewood vegetation using satellite ASTER data: the case study of Ravenna (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarella, M; De Giglio, M; Greggio, N

    2015-04-01

    The San Vitale pinewood (Ravenna, Italy) is part of the remaining wooded areas within the southeastern Po Valley. Several studies demonstrated a widespread saltwater intrusion in the phreatic aquifer caused by natural and human factors in this area as the whole complex coastal system. Groundwater salinization affects soils and vegetation, which takes up water from the shallow aquifer. Changes in groundwater salinity induce variations of the leaf properties and vegetation cover, recognizable by satellite sensors as a response to different spectral bands. A procedure to identify stressed areas from satellite remote sensing data, reducing the expensive and time-consuming ground monitoring campaign, was developed. Multispectral Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data, acquired between May 2005 and August 2005, were used to calculate Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Within the same vegetation type (thermophilic deciduous forest), the areas with the higher vegetation index were taken as reference to identify the most stressed areas using a statistical approach. To confirm the findings, a comparison was conducted using contemporary groundwater salinity data. The results were coherent in the areas with highest and lowest average NDVI values. Instead, to better understand the behavior of the intermediate areas, other parameters influencing vegetation (meteorological data, water table depth, and tree density) were added for the interpretation of the results. PMID:25750065

  1. Ultrastructural changes in aster yellows phytoplasma affected Limonium sinuatum Mill. plants II. Pathology of cortex parenchyma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rudzińska-Langwald

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In Limonium sinuatum Mill, plants with severe symptoms of aster yellows infection phytoplasmas were present not only in the phloem but also in some cortex parenchymas cells. These parenchyma cells were situated at some distance from the conducting bundles. The phytoplasmas were observed directly in parenchyma cells cytoplasm. The number of phytoplasmas present in each selected cell varies. The cells with a small number of phytoplasmas show little pathological changes compared with the unaffected cells of the same zone of the stem as well with the cells of healthy plants. The cells filled with a number of phytoplasmas had their protoplast very much changed. The vacuole was reduced and in the cytoplasm a reduction of the number of ribosomes was noted and regions of homogenous structure appeared. Mitochondria were moved in the direction of the tonoplast and plasma membrane. Compared to the cells unaffected by phytoplasma, the mitochondria were smaller and had an enlarged cristae internal space. The chloroplasts from affected cells had a very significant reduction in size and the tylacoids system had disappeared. The role of these changes for creating phytoplasma friendly enviroment is discused.

  2. Clasificación de yeso mediante imágenes ASTER en la Cordillera Principal Mendocina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F Mescua

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una metodología para obtener el mapa de distribución de yeso con imágenes satelitales ASTER. Se utilizaron imágenes con nivel de procesamiento ASTERL3A correspondientes a dos áreas de la Cordillera Principal mendocina. La estratigrafía de las áreas de estudio se encuentra compuesta por una espesa sucesión sedimentaria mesozoica, volcanitas cenozoicas y depósitos cuaternarios. Dentro de los depósitos mesozoicos se encuentra la Formación Auquilco, integrada por yeso y anhidrita. El reconocimiento y distribución areal de esta unidad es el objetivo de este trabajo. Se aplicaron dos métodos de procesamiento a las imágenes. Por un lado se utilizó el índice de cuarzo (Qi, uno de los índices de determinación de minerales definidos para el subsistema TIR de ASTER. Este índice puede usarse también para reconocer sulfatos, y en particular yeso, ya que estos minerales proporcionan una respuesta muy baja en el Qi. El segundo método consistió en la aplicación combinada de los cocientes de bandas 4/5 y 7/5. Este método permite identificar al yeso por su elevada respuesta en el cociente 4/5 y baja respuesta en el cociente 7/5. A fin de simplificar la metodología, se generó un nuevo cociente a partir de los dos mencionados: (4/5/(7/5, de manera de destacar el yeso con alta respuesta. A partir del relevamiento de campo se observó que en ambos métodos los errores por exceso fueron más importantes que los errores por defecto, y que los píxeles determinados como yeso erróneamente por cada método son diferentes. Este hecho permite la aplicación de la técnica de "Decision Tree" del programa ENVI 4.2 con el objetivo de eliminar estos errores. En cada una de las imágenes se determinaron los valores de umbral para los píxeles reconocidos como yeso. Luego se generó un "árbol de decisiones" combinando los umbrales de cada imagen, seleccionando en una nueva clase los píxeles determinados como yeso por ambos métodos y

  3. Anti-Obesity Effects of Aster spathulifolius Extract in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sa-Jic; Bang, Chae-Young; Guo, Yuan-Ri; Choung, Se-Young

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-obesity and antihyperlipidemic efficacy and molecular mechanisms of Aster spathulifolius Maxim extract (ASE) in rats with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Rats were separately fed a normal diet or a HFD for 8 weeks, then they were treated with ASE (62.5, 125, or 250 mg/kg) for another 4.5 weeks. The ASE supplementation significantly lowered body weight gain, visceral fat pad weights, serum lipid levels, as well as hepatic lipid levels in HFD-induced obese rats. Histological analysis showed that the ASE-treated group showed lowered numbers of lipid droplets and smaller size of adipocytes compared to the HFD group. To understand the mechanism of action of ASE, the expression of genes and proteins involved in obesity were measured in liver and skeletal muscle. The expression of fatty acid oxidation and thermogenesis-related genes (e.g., PPAR-α, ACO, CPT1, UCP2, and UCP3) of HFD-induced obese rats were increased by ASE treatment. On the other hand, ASE treatment resulted in decreased expression of fat intake-related gene ACC2 and lipogenesis-related genes (e.g., SREBP-1c, ACC1, FAS, SCD1, GPATR, AGPAT, and DGAT). Furthermore, ASE treatment increased the level of phosphorylated AMPKα in obese rats. Similarly, the level of phosphorylated ACC, a target protein of AMPKα in ASE groups, was increased by ASE treatment compared with the HFD group. These results suggest that ASE attenuated visceral fat accumulation and improved hyperlipidemia in HFD-induced obese rats by increasing lipid metabolism through the regulation of AMPK activity and the expression of genes and proteins involved in lipolysis and lipogenesis. PMID:26908215

  4. Exploration of gold occurrences in alteration zones at Dungash district, Southeastern Desert of Egypt using ASTER data and geochemical analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, S. M.; El Sharkawi, M.; El-Alfy, Z.; Soliman, N. M.; Ahmed, S. E.

    2016-05-01

    The present study aims at exploration of new gold occurrences in the alteration zones at Dungash district. Processed ASTER images band ratios 7/6 × 4/6 and (7 + 9/8), field geology and mineralogical and geochemical data help characterize three types of alterations in three areas 1 to 3 that may be targeted for Au exploration. Area1 confined to the metavolcanics located in the SE of Dungash gold mine and revealed silicified and sericitized type alterations, composed of quartz, epidote, chlorite, biotite and opaque minerals mainly pyrite and chalcopyrite. Area2 occurs in the gabbro-diorite rocks at Abu Meraiwa area NE of Dungash gold mine, which are rich in kaolinite, illite, sericite, pyrite, arsenopyrite and chalcopyrite that record kaolinitized alteration. Area3 is hosted in carbonaceous listwaenized serpentinite thus indicating the role of listwaenitization type alteration in ore genesis. It is composed of calcite, chromite, pyrite, arsenopyrite, chalcopyrite and Ni-bearing sulphides. Au contents in area 1 range between 0.12 and 14.91 ppm, and between 6.1 and 16.3 ppm in area 2, while gold values in area 3 vary from <0.01 to 0.03 ppm. Dungash district is comprised of Pan-African assemblages of ophiolitic ultramafics thrusted over the island arc metavolcanics of dacitic- andesite composition. Gabbro-diorite rocks are intruded in the ultramafics and the acidic metavolcanics as well as diorite-quartz diorite suite intruded in the intermediate metavolcanics. Several acidic dykes, granitic dykes and quartz veins cut through the different rocks types.

  5. An Effort to Map and Monitor Baldcypress Forest Areas in Coastal Louisiana, Using Landsat, MODIS, and ASTER Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Sader, Steve; Smoot, James

    2012-01-01

    This presentation discusses a collaborative project to develop, test, and demonstrate baldcypress forest mapping and monitoring products for aiding forest conservation and restoration in coastal Louisiana. Low lying coastal forests in the region are being negatively impacted by multiple factors, including subsidence, salt water intrusion, sea level rise, persistent flooding, hydrologic modification, annual insect-induced forest defoliation, timber harvesting, and conversion to urban land uses. Coastal baldcypress forests provide invaluable ecological services in terms of wildlife habitat, forest products, storm buffers, and water quality benefits. Before this project, current maps of baldcypress forest concentrations and change did not exist or were out of date. In response, this project was initiated to produce: 1) current maps showing the extent and location of baldcypress dominated forests; and 2) wetland forest change maps showing temporary and persistent disturbance and loss since the early 1970s. Project products are being developed collaboratively with multiple state and federal agencies. Products are being validated using available reference data from aerial, satellite, and field survey data. Results include Landsat TM- based classifications of baldcypress in terms of cover type and percent canopy cover. Landsat MSS data was employed to compute a circa 1972 classification of swamp and bottomland hardwood forest types. Landsat data for 1972-2010 was used to compute wetland forest change products. MODIS-based change products were applied to view and assess insect-induced swamp forest defoliation. MODIS, Landsat, and ASTER satellite data products were used to help assess hurricane and flood impacts to coastal wetland forests in the region.

  6. Using the British National Collection of Asters to Compare the Attractiveness of 228 Varieties to Flower-Visiting Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbuzov, Mihail; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2015-06-01

    Wildlife-friendly gardening practices can help conserve biodiversity in urban areas. These include growing ornamental plant varieties attractive to flower-visiting insects. Because varieties vary greatly in attractiveness, there is a need to quantify it in order to give objective advice to gardeners. Here, we used the British national collection of asters to compare the attractiveness of varieties to flower-visiting insects. We counted and identified insects as they foraged on flowers in 228 varieties growing in discrete patches that flowered during the survey period, 14 September-20 October 2012. In each variety, we also determined the overall capitulum size, the central disc floret area, and the ray floret color (blue, red, purple, or white). We also scored attributes relevant to gardening: attractiveness to humans, ease of cultivation, and availability in the United Kingdom. There was great variation among varieties in their attractiveness to insects, ranging from 0.0 to 15.2 per count per square meter, and highly skewed, with most being unattractive. A similar skew held for the two main insect categories, honey bees and hover flies, which comprised 28 and 64% of all insects, respectively. None of the floral traits or attributes relevant to gardening correlated significantly with attractiveness to insects. Our study shows the practicality of using a national collection for quantifying and comparing the attractiveness of ornamental varieties to flower-visiting insects. These results imply that choosing varieties carefully is likely to be of conservation benefit to flower-visiting insects, and that doing so is a no-cost option in terms of garden beauty and workload. PMID:26313970

  7. Using the Surface Temperature-Albedo Space to Separate Regional Soil and Vegetation Temperatures from ASTER Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisheng Song

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil and vegetation component temperatures in non-isothermal pixels encapsulate more physical meaning and are more applicable than composite temperatures. The component temperatures however are difficult to be obtained from thermal infrared (TIR remote sensing data provided by single view angle observations. Here, we present a land surface temperature and albedo (T-α space approach combined with the mono-surface energy balance (SEB-1S model to derive soil and vegetation component temperatures. The T-α space can be established from visible and near infrared (VNIR and TIR data provided by single view angle observations. This approach separates the soil and vegetation component temperatures from the remotely sensed composite temperatures by incorporating soil wetness iso-lines for defining equivalent soil temperatures; this allows vegetation temperatures to be extracted from the T-α space. This temperature separation methodology was applied to advanced scanning thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER VNIR and high spatial resolution TIR image data in an artificial oasis area during the entire growing season. Comparisons with ground measurements showed that the T-α space approach produced reliable soil and vegetation component temperatures in the study area. Low root mean square error (RMSE values of 0.83 K for soil temperatures and 1.64 K for vegetation temperatures, respectively, were obtained, compared to component temperatures measurements from a ground-based thermal camera. These results support the use of soil wetness iso-lines to derive soil surface temperatures. It was also found that the estimated vegetation temperatures were extremely close to the near surface air temperature observations when the landscape is well watered under full vegetation cover. More robust soil and vegetation temperature estimates will improve estimates of soil evaporation and vegetation transpiration, leading to more reliable the monitoring of crop

  8. Application of MODIS-ASTER (MASTER) simulator data to geological mapping of young volcanic regions in Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmochowski, Jane Ellen

    Visible, near infrared, short-wave infrared, and thermal infrared multi-channel remote sensing data, MODIS-ASTER (MASTER), are used to extract geologic information from two volcanic regions in Baja California, Mexico: Tres Virgenes-La Reforma Volcanic Region and the volcanic island of Isla San Luis. The visible and near infrared and short-wave infrared data were atmospherically corrected and classified. The resulting classification roughly delineates surfaces that vary in their secondary minerals. Attempts to identify these minerals using ENVI's Spectral Analyst(TM) were moderately successful. The analysis of the thermal infrared data utilizes the shift to longer wavelengths in the Reststrahlen band as the mineralogy changes from felsic to mafic to translate the data into values of weight percent SiO2. The results indicate that the general approach tends to underestimate the weight percent SiO2 in the image. This discrepancy is removed with a "site calibration," which provides good results in the calculated weight percent SiO2 with errors of a few percent. However, errors become larger with rugged topography or low solar angle at the time of image acquisition. Analysis of bathymetric data around Isla San Luis, and consideration of the island's alignment with the Ballenas transform fault zone to the south and volcanic seamounts nearby, suggest Isla San Luis is potentially volcanically active and could be the product of a "leaky" transform fault. The results from the image analysis in the Tres Virgenes-La Reforma Volcanic Region show the La Reforma and El Aguajito volcanic centers to be bimodal in composition and verify the most recent volcanism in the Tres Virgenes region to be basaltic-andesite. The results of fieldwork and image analysis indicate that the volcanic products of the central dome of La Reforma are likely a sequence of welded ash flow tuffs and lavas of varied composition, evidence of its origin as a caldera.

  9. NASA and U.S. Geological Survey Long-Term Archive for the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, M.; Meyer, D. F.

    2013-12-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is a 14-channel optical imaging instrument on NASA's Terra spacecraft. ASTER is a joint project between Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry; and U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Since its launch in December, 1999, ASTER has acquired over 2.4 million multispectral images. The Level 0 data are sent to Japan by NASA, where they are processed to Level 1A (reconstructed, unprocessed instrument data with geometric and radiometric parameters attached). A copy of the L1A data is sent to the U.S. to the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LPDAAC), operated for NASA by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at the EROS Center. The joint US/Japan ASTER Science Team (AST) has provided algorithms to produce 14 Level 1, Level 2, and Level 3 products. The duplicate data distribution systems in Japan and the U.S. create these products 'on-demand' as users submit data requests. Only the L0 and L1A data are archived. After the termination of the mission, the USGS has the responsibility for creating, managing and distributing ASTER data products from a Long-Term Archive (LTA). In cooperation with the LPDAAC, the U.S. AST discussed various scenarios on how the LTA should operate. The two leading plans considered were: (1) duplicating the 'on-demand' system, fulfilling user requests as they arrived; this would require a high level of technical support for algorithm/software maintenance, user services to answer questions, hardware maintenance, and in general, was quite labor-intensive; (2) creating a static archive of all of the data products for every one of the L1A image granules; the LPDAAC would produce each of the 14 higher level data products from every L1A image currently archived. Users would order data products from this greatly expanded archive, with little human intervention. In both cases, complete documentation would be available to users, detailing the

  10. Description and validation of an automated methodology for mapping mineralogy, vegetation, and hydrothermal alteration type from ASTER satellite imagery with examples from the San Juan Mountains, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of airborne spectroscopic, or "hyperspectral," remote sensing for geoenvironmental watershed evaluations and deposit-scale mapping of exposed mineral deposits has been demonstrated. However, the acquisition, processing, and analysis of such airborne data at regional and national scales can be time and cost prohibitive. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor carried by the NASA Earth Observing System Terra satellite was designed for mineral mapping and the acquired data can be efficiently used to generate uniform mineral maps over very large areas. Multispectral remote sensing data acquired by the ASTER sensor were analyzed to identify and map minerals, mineral groups, hydrothermal alteration types, and vegetation groups in the western San Juan Mountains, Colorado, including the Silverton and Lake City calderas. This mapping was performed in support of multidisciplinary studies involving the predictive modeling of surface water geochemistry at watershed and regional scales. Detailed maps of minerals, vegetation groups, and water were produced from an ASTER scene using spectroscopic, expert system-based analysis techniques which have been previously described. New methodologies are presented for the modeling of hydrothermal alteration type based on the Boolean combination of the detailed mineral maps, and for the entirely automated mapping of alteration types, mineral groups, and green vegetation. Results of these methodologies are compared with the more detailed maps and with previously published mineral mapping results derived from analysis of high-resolution spectroscopic data acquired by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) sensor. Such comparisons are also presented for other mineralized and (or) altered areas including the Goldfield and Cuprite mining districts, Nevada and the central Marysvale volcanic field, Wah Wah Mountains, and San Francisco Mountains, Utah. The automated

  11. Size and volume evaluation of the caldera collapse on Piton de la Fournaise volcano during the April 2007 eruption using ASTER stereo imagery

    OpenAIRE

    Urai, Minoru; Geshi, Nobuo; Staudacher, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    [1] The scale of summit collapse during the April 2007 eruption of Piton de la Fournaise volcano, Réunion Island, western Indian Ocean, was evaluated using before-and-after differential digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from nadir and backward-looking images from the Advanced Spaceborne Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER) instrument. The dimensions of horizontal length and width, volume and depth of the depression were estimated as 1,100 Â 800 m, 9.6 Â 10 7 m 3 and 320 m, respect...

  12. Imágenes aster en la discriminación de áreas de uso agrícola en colombia.

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz Lozano, Nidia Esperanza; Pérez Gómez, Uriel

    2011-01-01

    El avance de las tecnologías de la información geográfica ha llevado a la puesta de nuevos sensores para observación de la tierra. ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Termal Emission and Reflection Radiometer), considerado como sensor de última generación, posee características especiales que lo colocan como una alternativa para estudios de la cobertura vegetal de la tierra. El presente trabajo se basó en sus características espaciales, espectrales y radiométricas con el fin de discriminar las áreas d...

  13. Countrywide digital elevation models for the Islamic Republic of Mauritania—SRTM and ASTER (phase V, deliverable 65): Chapter F in Second projet de renforcement institutionnel du secteur minier de la République Islamique de Mauritanie (PRISM-II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gregory K.

    2015-01-01

    A digital elevation model (DEM) of the entire country of the Islamic Republic of Mauritania was produced using Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data as required for deliverable 65 of the contract. In addition, because of significant recent advancements of availability, seamlessness, and validity of Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) global elevation data, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) extended its efforts to include a higher resolution countrywide ASTER DEM as value added to the required Deliverable 63, which was limited to five areas within the country. Both SRTM and ASTER countrywide DEMs have been provided in ERDAS Imagine (.img) format that is also directly compatible with ESRI ArcMap, ArcGIS Explorer, and other GIS applications.

  14. Landsat maps (phase V, deliverable 60), ASTER maps (phase V, deliverable 62), ASTER_DEM maps (phase V, deliverable 63), and spectral remote sensing in support of PRISM-II mineral resource assessment project, Islamic Republic of Mauritania (phase V, deliverables 61 and 64): Chapter E in Second projet de renforcement institutionnel du secteur minier de la République Islamique de Mauritanie (PRISM-II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.; Knepper, Daniel H.; Horton, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Multispectral satellite data acquired by the Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM), Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensors were processed and interpreted in support of the PRISM-II project (Second Projet de Renforcement Institutionnel du Secteur Minier de la Republique Islamique de Mauritanie). This report and accompanying maps constitute project deliverables 60–64. All digital data for use in Geographic Information System (GIS) and image processing software will be included in the GIS deliverable 92. Image maps in PDF format of the processed Landsat and ASTER scenes are referenced in the appendixes.

  15. Estimates of land surface heat fluxes of the Mt. Everest region over the Tibetan Plateau utilizing ASTER data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Cunbo; Ma, Yaoming; Chen, Xuelong; Su, Zhongbo

    2016-02-01

    Regional land surface albedo, land surface temperature, net radiation flux, ground heat flux, sensible heat flux, and latent heat flux were derived in the Mt. Everest area utilizing topographical enhanced surface energy balance system (TESEBS) model and nine scenes of ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) data under clear-sky and in-situ measurements at the QOMS station (the Qomolangma Station for Atmospheric Environmental Observation and Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences). The parameterization schemes for diffused and reflected downward shortwave radiation flux of the TESEBS model were improved by introducing the parameters sky-view factor (SVF) and terrain configuration factor (Ct). Then, a so-called C-correction method for land surface albedo was coupled into the TESEBS model to reduce the influences of topography. After topographical correction, the albedo of the dark tilted surface facing away from the Sun was compensated and albedo of the brightness surface facing the Sun was restrained. The downward shortwave radiation flux was broken down into three components including solar direct radiation flux, solar diffused radiation flux, and reflected solar radiation flux by surrounding terrain. The solar diffused radiation flux ranges from about 30 to 60 W/m2 at the satellite passing time on 6 January 2008. The reflected solar radiation flux changes from 0 to more than 100 W/m2 in the area covered by glaciers and snows. Thus, it is important to take the topographical effects into account in estimation of surface radiation balance in the mountainous area, especially in the glacier area. The retrieved land surface parameters, land surface radiation balance components, and the land surface energy balance components were evaluated by the field measurements in the QOMS station. The estimated results were very close to the in-situ observations with low mean bias errors, low root mean square errors and high correlation coefficients

  16. Identification and mapping of soil erosion areas in the Blue Nile-Eastern Sudan using multispectral ASTER and MODIS satellite data and the SRTM elevation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. El Haj Tahir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is part of a set of studies to evaluate the spatial and temporal variability of soil water in terms of natural as well as land-use changes as fundamental factors for vegetation regeneration in arid ecosystems in the Blue Nile-Sudan. The specific aim is to indicate the spatial distribution of soil erosion caused by the rains of 2006. The current study is conducted to determine whether automatic classification of multispectral Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER imagery could accurately discriminate erosion gullies. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM is used to orthoproject ASTER data. A maximum likelihood classifier is trained with four classes, Gullies, Flat_Land, Mountains and Water and applied to images from March and December 2006. Validation is done with field data from December and January 2006/2007, and using drainage network analysis of SRTM digital elevation model. The results allow the identification of erosion gullies and subsequent estimation of eroded area. Consequently the results were up-scaled using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS images of the same dates. Because the selected study site is representative of the wider Blue Nile province, it is expected that the approach presented could be applied to larger areas.

  17. Preliminary development plan of the ALR, the laser rangefinder for the ASTER deep space mission to the 2001 SN263 asteroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gil Vicente de Brum

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian deep space mission ASTER, as temporarily named, plans to send a small spacecraft to encounter and investigate the triple asteroid 2001-SN263. The launch is scheduled (initially to occur in 2015, arriving in 2018. The main motivation of the mission is the development of technology and expertise to leverage the national space sector. Within the scientific goals, the investigation of the still unknown asteroid 2001-SN263. The main project guideline is to aggregate the widest possible Brazilian involvement in the platform, the development and operation of subsystems, integration, payload, as well as in the tracking, navigation, guidance and control of the probe. To meet this guideline, among others, the decision for the development of a laser altimeter in Brazil to fly in the mission was taken. This effort is currently coordinated by a group of researchers from the aerospace engineering personnel of UFABC. This article presents the preliminary development plan for the design of this instrument, which was called ALR (ASTER Laser Rangefinder.

  18. Development of a Model for Estimation of Acacia Senegal Tree Biomass Using Allometry and Aster Satellite Imagery at Ennuhud, West Kordofan State, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elamin, Hatim; Elnour Adam, Hassan; Csaplovics, Elmar

    The current paper deals with the development of a biomass model for Acacia senegal trees by applying allometric equations for ground data combined with ASTER satellite data sets. The current study is conducted around Ennuhud area which is located in Ennuhud locality in West Kordofan State, Sudan. Primary data are obtained by application of random sampling around Ennuhud town where Acacia senegal tree species is abundant. Ten sample units are taken. Each unit contains five sample plots (15x15 m), one in the centre and the others in the four directions 100 m away from the centre forming a total of 50 sample plots. The tree coordinates, diameter/diameters (diameter at breast height ≥ 5 cm), height and crown diameters will be recorded. Sensor data were acquired from ASTER remote sensing satellite (29.03.2007 & 26.01.2011) and integrated with the in-situ data. The expected findings allow for the calculation of the mean diameter of trees. The tree above ground biomass (TAGB), tree below ground biomass (TBGB) and the tree total biomass (TTB) of Acacia senegal are computed consequently. Remotely sensed data are integrated with the ground data for creating the data base for calculating the correlation of the relationship between the two methods of data collection. The application of allometric equations is useful as a non-destructive method for biomass estimation by the application of remote sensing is recommended for biomass modelling over large areas. Keywords: Biomass model, Acacia senegal tree, remote sensing, Ennuhud, North Kordofan

  19. Combining ASTER multispectral imagery analysis and support vector machines for rapid and cost-effective post-fire assessment: a case study from the Greek wildland fires of 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, G. P.; Knorr, W.; Scholze, M.; Boschetti, L.; Karantounias, G.

    2010-02-01

    Remote sensing is increasingly being used as a cost-effective and practical solution for the rapid evaluation of impacts from wildland fires. The present study investigates the use of the support vector machine (SVM) classification method with multispectral data from the Advanced Spectral Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) for obtaining a rapid and cost effective post-fire assessment in a Mediterranean setting. A further objective is to perform a detailed intercomparison of available burnt area datasets for one of the most catastrophic forest fire events that occurred near the Greek capital during the summer of 2007. For this purpose, two ASTER scenes were acquired, one before and one closely after the fire episode. Cartography of the burnt area was obtained by classifying each multi-band ASTER image into a number of discrete classes using the SVM classifier supported by land use/cover information from the CORINE 2000 land nomenclature. Overall verification of the derived thematic maps based on the classification statistics yielded results with a mean overall accuracy of 94.6% and a mean Kappa coefficient of 0.93. In addition, the burnt area estimate derived from the post-fire ASTER image was found to have an average difference of 9.63% from those reported by other operationally-offered burnt area datasets available for the test region.

  20. Combining ASTER multispectral imagery analysis and support vector machines for rapid and cost-effective post-fire assessment: a case study from the Greek wildland fires of 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Petropoulos

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing is increasingly being used as a cost-effective and practical solution for the rapid evaluation of impacts from wildland fires. The present study investigates the use of the support vector machine (SVM classification method with multispectral data from the Advanced Spectral Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER for obtaining a rapid and cost effective post-fire assessment in a Mediterranean setting. A further objective is to perform a detailed intercomparison of available burnt area datasets for one of the most catastrophic forest fire events that occurred near the Greek capital during the summer of 2007. For this purpose, two ASTER scenes were acquired, one before and one closely after the fire episode. Cartography of the burnt area was obtained by classifying each multi-band ASTER image into a number of discrete classes using the SVM classifier supported by land use/cover information from the CORINE 2000 land nomenclature. Overall verification of the derived thematic maps based on the classification statistics yielded results with a mean overall accuracy of 94.6% and a mean Kappa coefficient of 0.93. In addition, the burnt area estimate derived from the post-fire ASTER image was found to have an average difference of 9.63% from those reported by other operationally-offered burnt area datasets available for the test region.

  1. Study of the structural changes in the Popocatepetl volcano in Mexico related to microseismicity by applying the lineament analysis to the Aster (Terra) satellite data

    CERN Document Server

    Arellano-Baeza, A A; Trejo-Soto, M

    2007-01-01

    Mexico is one of the most volcanically active regions in North America. Volcanic activity in central Mexico is associated with the subduction of the Cocos and Rivera plates beneath the North American plate. Periods of enhanced microseismic activity, associated with the volcanic activity of the Popocatepetl volcano is compared with periods, during which the microseismic activity was low. We detected systematical changes in the number of lineaments, associated with the microseismic activity due to lineament analysis of a temporal sequence of high resolution satellite images of the Popocatepetl volcano, provided by the ASTER/VNIR instrument. The Lineament Extraction and Stripes Statistic Analysis (LESSA) software package was used for the lineament extraction. In the future it would allow develop a methodology for detection of possible elevation of pressure in volcano edifice.

  2. Primary study on seedings classification of Aster tataricus L.f%祁紫菀种苗质量分级标准的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田汝美; 孟义江; 葛淑俊

    2011-01-01

    The main problem in Aster tataricus L. F. Production is there is no rule registered to control the seedlings quality. Making a seedling classification criteria and distributing the good quality seedlings are the base to improve the yield and quality of Aster. In this paper quality classification standard was studied with 17 germplasms collected from Anguo, Hebei province. Taking stem hair number, stem diameter and shoot distance as the main factors, adopting the orthogonal experiment design L9(34) for seedlings treatments, multi-factors field trails, randomized block design,the Aster seedlings were divided into three grades by investigating the relationship between the graded seedling and agronomic traits such as seedling emergence,growth vigor, plant height, yield and quality etc, The stem hair of seedling grade 1st is above 4 and stem diameter is above 0. 3 cm. They had high germination percentage, the best vigorous growth and highest yield. The grade 2nd , the number of stem hair is no less than 2 and stem diameter is greater than or equal to 0. 25 cm. Grade 3rd :the sum of stem hair is less than 4 and the stem diameter is less than 0. 25 cm. The yield of former two grades is about 700 - 800 kg/ 667 m2 thus could be used as seedlings for production. The grading standards provided effective theoretical basis for the Aster seedings breeding.%针对紫菀生产中种苗来源混乱、质量参差不齐等主要问题,本研究搜集整理出河北安国紫菀种苗17份,以茎毛数、茎粗和芽距为主要因素,采取正交试验设计L9(34)进行种苗不同处理,田间种植采取多因素多点、随机区组设计,以出苗率、生长势、株高和产量等性状为依据,把紫菀种苗划分为3级.其中,1级种苗茎毛数>4,茎粗>0.3 cm,出苗率高,植株生长最旺盛,产量最高;2级种苗茎毛数为≥2个,茎粗为≥0.25 cm,3级种苗茎毛数<2个,茎粗<0.25 cm,1级、2级种苗产量在700~800 kg/667 m2,

  3. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of site-dependent uptake and distribution of trace elements in the saltmarsh plant Aster tripolium from marsh fields in the Schelde estuary, Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of an environmental chemical investigation the uptake of heavy metals by a saltmarsh plant Aster tripolium from two differently polluted salt marsh sites of the North Sea between 20 to 30 trace elements were determined in soil and plant organs. A sensitive gamma ray counting system was installed and tested for instrumental activation analyses (INAA). Installations to improve sensitivity as well as conditions necessary for reliable trace element analysis with the aid of Anticompton spectrometers (ACS) are described. The accuracy and reproducibility of the method was determined by the analysis of reference- and control materials of the german environmental specimen bank. In order to characterise the state of pollution of the salt marsh soils pollution-factors for single elements as well as interelemental correlations were evaluated. In addition, uptake and translocation factors of the biological samples were calculated. The many highly significant correlations between elements within the plant organs indicated that uptake appears to be physiologicaly controlled and not dependent on soil concentration. In order to detect further consequences of differing pollution influences within these plants biochemical separation techniques were applied and trace element levels in selected extracts were determined. For the specification of heavy metals gelpermeation chromatography of ethanolic extracts proved to be the most promising method. Furthermore, propositions for the use of trace elements as a fingerprint for pollution status and characterisation of species for referenz- and specimenbank materials have been developed. Aster tripolium as a cadmium accumulating plant can probably be used as an indicator in the monitoring of cadmium polluted salt marsh areas. (orig.)

  4. Unraveling Hydrocarbon Microseepages in Onshore Basins Using Spectral-Spatial Processing of Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammoglia, Talita; de Souza Filho, Carlos Roberto

    2013-05-01

    This study focuses on the spectral characterization of superficial effects caused by natural gaseous hydrocarbon (HC) escapes (microseepages) on onshore basins and means to detect the phenomena using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) imagery. The Northern Tucano basin (NTB) (Brazil) displays archetypal onshore microseepages, and it is used here as a case study area. Regional HC geochemical data yielded from NTB soil samples helped to outline the strategies for imagery processing and assessment of results. We firstly devised a generic detection model for onshore basins in which microseepages indicated by HC geochemistry should spatially match a number of surface expressions with key remote sensing signatures, such as bleached soil and rocks (i.e., reduction in Fe3+ to Fe2+), concentration of specific clays (kaolinite), and carbonates (siderite) and geobotanical markers. These evidences guided the use of remote sensing data and information extraction techniques to find more sites favorable to host HC microseepages in the NTB. ASTER data processed through spectral mixing analysis and supervised and unsupervised neural network systems highlighted sites where features predicted in the detection model concurred seamlessly with geochemical anomalies. The approach also revealed other sites with similar characteristics, but for which no geochemical data exist. These sites are taken as new potential targets for the presence of microseepages and possibly HC reservoirs. The research demonstrated the potential of remote sensing data and spectral-spatial methodologies for economical, onshore detection of HCs for exploration purposes. Potential ramifications of the study include indirect detection of gaseous HC reservoirs in terrestrial planets (fostering the search for signs of life) and depiction of non-negligible, replenishable continental sources of HC emissions on Earth that may contribute to global warming.

  5. Validation and Performance Evaluations of Methods for Estimating Land Surface Temperatures from ASTER Data in the Middle Reach of the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Zhou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Validation and performance evaluations are beneficial for developing methods that estimate the remotely sensed land surface temperature (LST. However, such evaluations for Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER data are rare. By selecting the middle reach of the Heihe River basin (HRB, China, as the study area, the atmospheric correction (AC, mono-window (MW, single-channel (SC, and split-window (SW methods were evaluated based on in situ measured LSTs. Results demonstrate that the influences of surface heterogeneity on the validation are significant in the study area. For the AC, MW, and SC methods, the LSTs estimated from channel 13 are more accurate than those from channel 14 in general cases. When the in situ measured atmospheric profiles are available, the AC method has the highest accuracy, with a root-mean squared error (RMSE of about 1.4–1.5 K at the homogenous oasis sites. In actual application without sufficient in situ measured inputs, the MW method is highly accurate; the RMSE is around 1.5–1.6 K. The SC method systematically overestimates LSTs and it is sensitive to error in the water vapor content. The two SW methods are simple to use but their performances are limited by accuracies, revealed by the simulation dataset. Therefore, when the in situ atmospheric profiles are available, the AC method is recommended to generate reliable ASTER LSTs for modeling the eco-hydrological processes in the middle reach of the HRB. When sufficient in situ measured inputs are not available, the MW method can be used instead.

  6. Temporal monitoring of radiative heat flux from the craters of Tendürek volcano (East Anatolia, Turkey) using ASTER satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusoy, İnan

    2014-05-01

    Tendürek volcano is situated in the Eastern Anatolia near Turkish-Iranian border. It is one of the youngest volcanoes of Eastern Anatolia and it is a polygenetic, basaltic shield volcano formed by successive basalt flows. Tendürek is characterized by alkaline volcanism. Holocene and historical activity has been reported. Hydrothermal activity have been observed on the twin summit craters. Fumaroles, steam vents, steam/gas emission and zones of hot grounds have been reported. In order to quantify and to determine a base value for the current thermal state of the volcano, we used ASTER Thermal Infrared spectra. Four ASTER daytime and nighttime images have been used to calculate radiative heat flux from the craters. Heat flux calculations have been made using three nighttime images and a daytime image acquired in 2002, 2004, 2008 and 2012. Images have been atmospherically corrected, temperature and emissivity have been separated and Land Surface Temperature (LST) has been calculated from 5 thermal bands. LST images have been topographically corrected. Heat flux have been calculated using corrected surface temperature data, emissivity, vapor pressure and height-dependent air temperature values. Maximum temperature anomalies observed were 9.0 °C and 15.9 °C for the western and eastern craters respectively. Heat flux is estimated between 14.4 and 25.2 W/m² at the western crater and between 16.5 and 49.4 W/m² at the eastern crater. These values are well correlated with other known low-level activity volcanoes such as Yellowstone, Stromboli and Nisyros, whereas they are lower than that of observed at Vulcano.

  7. Modeling urban heat islands in heterogeneous land surface and its correlation with impervious surface area by using night-time ASTER satellite data in highly urbanizing city, Delhi-India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Javed; Rahman, Atiqur; Singh, Chander Kumar

    2013-08-01

    The present study is an assessment and identification of urban heat island (UHI) in the environment of one of the fastest urbanizing city of India, Delhi Metropolis, employing satellite image of ASTER and Landsat 7 ETM+ in the thermal infrared region 3-14 μm. Temporal (2001 and 2005) ASTER datasets were used to analyze the spatial structure of the thermal urban environment subsequently urban heat island (UHI) in relation to the urban surface characteristics and land use/land cover (LULC). The study involves derivation of parameters governing the surface heat fluxes, constructing statistics of ASTER thermal infrared images along with validation through intensive in situ measurements. The average images reveal spatial and temporal variations of land surface temperature (LST) of night-time and distinct microclimatic patterns. Central Business District (CBD) of Delhi, (Connaught Place, a high density built up area), and commercial/industrial areas display heat islands condition with a temperature greater than 4 °C compared to the suburbs. The small increase in surface temperature at city level is mainly attributed to cumulative impact of human activities, changes in LULC pattern and vegetation density. In this study the methodology takes into account spatially-relative surface temperatures and impervious surface fraction value to measure surface UHI intensity between the urban land cover and rural surroundings. Both the spatial and temporal variation in surface temperature associated with impervious surface area (ISA) has been evaluated to assess the effect of urbanization on the local climate.

  8. 基于光学立体和 InSAR 的 Grove 山地区DEM 建立和分析%GENERATION AND COMPARISON OF ASTER DEM AND INSAR DEM OF THE GROVE MOUNTAINS AREA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万雷; 周春霞; 鄂栋臣

    2015-01-01

    本文分别利用光学立体和InSAR技术生成了东南极Grove山地区15 m分辨率的ASTER DEM和20 m分辨率的InSAR DEM。在利用ASTER立体像对生成DEM的过程中引入ICESat测高数据作为高程控制以减少错误匹配,提高DEM垂直精度;而在利用ERS tandem数据生成DEM后,选取ICESat测高数据对InSAR DEM进行倾斜面纠正,以消除基线不精确估计等带来的影响。通过与未作控制的ICESat测高数据进行比较,评价了两种DEM的精度并对误差进行了分析。同时,比较了两种DEM的差异,并分析了造成这些差异的原因,探讨了两种技术生成南极冰盖DEM的优势和不足。最后结合两DEM的优势,融合生成了Grove山地区高精度的DEM。%A 15-m ASTER Digital Elevation Model ( DEM) of the Grove Mountains area which is located at 72°45′S, 75°00′E was generated by optical stereo technique and an InSAR DEM with resolution of 20 m was derived.ICESat data were introduced in the process of the ASTER DEM construction, and utilized to correct the InSAR DEM.ICE-Sat footprints were used as elevation control points during the ASTER DEM generation to reduce mismatching points.Finally, the vertical accuracy of the DEM was improved.The InSAR DEM was corrected using the quadrat-ic polynomial with ICESat footprints as control points.And this correction has been designed to eliminate errors in-troduced by inaccurate estimations of the baseline.The accuracies of the ASTER and InSAR DEMs were evaluated using another set of ICESat data and the major error sources were discussed.Furthermore, the two DEMs were com-pared and analyzed.The specific advantages and disadvantages of these two techniques in DEM construction of the ice sheet in Antarctica were elaborated, and the advantages of both DEMs were combined to generate a high-accura-cy DEM of the Grove Mountains area.

  9. Recent changes in Imja Glacial Lake and its damming moraine in the Nepal Himalaya revealed by in situ surveys and multi-temporal ASTER imagery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in the area and bathymetry of Imja Glacial Lake and in the elevation of its damming moraine, Khumbu region, Nepal Himalaya are investigated. Previously reported changes in the lake area have been updated by multi-temporal ASTER images, which revealed a decreased expansion rate after 2000. A provisional expansion of the lake observed in 2004, from which some studies concluded an accelerated lake expansion due to global warming, has, from 2005, subsided to the glacier surface. Bathymetric changes for the period 1992-2002 that were first obtained for Himalayan glacial lakes suggest that the melting of debris-covered ice beneath the lake is insignificant in terms of the increase in lake volume, and that the retreat of a glacier in contact with the lake by calving is essential for the lake's expansion. Changes in the height of a damming moraine for the period 2001-2007 suggest a continuous surface lowering near the lake, though the lowering rates are smaller than those for the period 1989-1994.

  10. Recent changes in Imja Glacial Lake and its damming moraine in the Nepal Himalaya revealed by in situ surveys and multi-temporal ASTER imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Koji; Sakai, Akiko; Nuimura, Takayuki [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Satoru [Snow and Ice Research Center, National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention, Nagaoka 940-0821 (Japan); Sharma, Rishi R [Department of Hydrology and Meteorology, Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology, Babar Mahal, Kathmandu (Nepal)

    2009-10-15

    Changes in the area and bathymetry of Imja Glacial Lake and in the elevation of its damming moraine, Khumbu region, Nepal Himalaya are investigated. Previously reported changes in the lake area have been updated by multi-temporal ASTER images, which revealed a decreased expansion rate after 2000. A provisional expansion of the lake observed in 2004, from which some studies concluded an accelerated lake expansion due to global warming, has, from 2005, subsided to the glacier surface. Bathymetric changes for the period 1992-2002 that were first obtained for Himalayan glacial lakes suggest that the melting of debris-covered ice beneath the lake is insignificant in terms of the increase in lake volume, and that the retreat of a glacier in contact with the lake by calving is essential for the lake's expansion. Changes in the height of a damming moraine for the period 2001-2007 suggest a continuous surface lowering near the lake, though the lowering rates are smaller than those for the period 1989-1994.

  11. Accuracy assessment of the U.S. Geological Survey National Elevation Dataset, and comparison with other large-area elevation datasets: SRTM and ASTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesch, Dean B.; Oimoen, Michael J.; Evans, Gayla A.

    2014-01-01

    The National Elevation Dataset (NED) is the primary elevation data product produced and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey. The NED provides seamless raster elevation data of the conterminous United States, Alaska, Hawaii, U.S. island territories, Mexico, and Canada. The NED is derived from diverse source datasets that are processed to a specification with consistent resolutions, coordinate system, elevation units, and horizontal and vertical datums. The NED serves as the elevation layer of The National Map, and it provides basic elevation information for earth science studies and mapping applications in the United States and most of North America. An important part of supporting scientific and operational use of the NED is provision of thorough dataset documentation including data quality and accuracy metrics. The focus of this report is on the vertical accuracy of the NED and on comparison of the NED with other similar large-area elevation datasets, namely data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER).

  12. Antiviral activity of the plant extracts from Thuja orientalis, Aster spathulifolius, and Pinus thunbergii against influenza virus A/PR/8/34.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Ji-Na; Lee, Seo-Yong; Song, Dae-sub; Poo, Haryoung

    2013-01-01

    Influenza viruses cause significant morbidity and mortality in humans through epidemics or pandemics. Currently, two classes of anti-influenza virus drugs, M2 ion-channel inhibitors (amantadin and rimantadine) and neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir and zanamivir), have been used for the treatment of the influenza virus infection. Since the resistance to these drugs has been reported, the development of a new antiviral agent is necessary. In this study, we examined the antiviral efficacy of the plant extracts against the influenza A/PR/8/34 infection. In vitro, the antiviral activities of the plant extracts were investigated using the cell-based screening. Three plant extracts, Thuja orientalis, Aster spathulifolius, and Pinus thunbergii, were shown to induce a high cell viability rate after the infection with the influenza A/PR/8/34 virus. The antiviral activity of the plant extracts also increased as a function of the concentration of the extracts and these extracts significantly reduced the visible cytopathic effect caused by virus infections. Furthermore, the treatment with T. orientalis was shown to have a stronger inhibitory effect than that with A. spathulifolius or P. thunbergii. These results may suggest that T. orientalis has anti-influenza A/PR/8/34 activity. PMID:23314378

  13. Estimating Thermal Energy Emission and Eruption Rates at Guatemalan Volcanoes Using Thermal Data From a FLIR Camera, ASTER and MODIS Data Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, L. J.; Kapelanczyk, L.; Colvin, A. S.; Matias, O.; Rose, W. I.

    2008-12-01

    Analysis of thermal images taken with a Forward-Looking Infrared camera has allowed us to establish a baseline data set for three open vent volcanoes in Guatemala that vary in composition from dacite (Santiaguito) to basalt (Fuego and Pacaya). This allows for the evaluation of eruption rates using remote sensing and provides satellite thermal remote sensing validations. The field data were collected during two field trips in 2008. The Santiaguito data have been atmospherically corrected and analyzed to allow estimates of the emitted thermal energy and also the equivalent eruption rate (Rose, et al 2008). Using similar techniques, data from Pacaya volcano were analyzed to obtain estimated emission of thermal energy along with observations of vent morphology. The long term goal is to employ a variety of thermal remote sensing tools, including data comparison from ASTER and MODIS sources, in order to closely monitor eruption rates at open vent volcanoes, such as Santiaguito, Fuego and Pacaya. Ultimately, eruption rate estimates at these volcanoes may lead to improved hazard forecasts.

  14. Principle and geomorphological applicability of summit level and base level technique using Aster Gdem satellite-derived data and the original software Baz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihisa Motoki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents principle and geomorphological applicability of summit level technique using Aster Gdem satellite-derived topographicdata. Summit level corresponds to thevirtualtopographic surface constituted bylocalhighest points, such as peaks and plateau tops, and reconstitutes palaeo-geomorphology before the drainage erosion. Summit level map is efficient for reconstitution of palaeo-surfaces and detection of active tectonic movement. Base level is thevirtualsurface composed oflocallowest points, as valley bottoms. The difference between summit level and base level is called relief amount. Thesevirtualmapsareconstructed by theoriginalsoftwareBaz. Themacroconcavity index, MCI, is calculated from summit level and relief amount maps. The volume-normalised three-dimensional concavity index, TCI, is calculated from hypsometric diagram. The massifs with high erosive resistance tend to have convex general form and low MCI and TCI. Those with low resistance have concave form and high MCI and TCI. The diagram of TCI vs. MCI permits to distinguish erosive characteristics of massifs according to their constituent rocks. The base level map for ocean bottom detects the basement tectonic uplift which occurred before the formation of the volcanic seamounts.

  15. Reconocimiento de alteración hidrotermal con el sensor ASTER, en el curso medio del Río Santa Cruz (31°40's, provincia de San Juan Reconnaissance of hydrothermal alteration with the ASTER sensor, in the middle course of Río Santa Cruz (31°40' S, province of San Juan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Pérez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La utilización del sensor ASTER (Advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer permitió la identificación de diversos depósitos de alteración hidrotermal, indicando que la aplicación de técnicas espectrales en regiones con buena exposición de afloramientos, permite la identificación de diversas litologías asociadas a dichos depósitos. En el presente trabajo se han probado diferentes métodos para identificar y generar un mapa de zonas con alteración hidrotermal mediante el uso de escenas ASTER. Estas áreas usualmente contienen grandes cantidades de minerales arcillosos susceptibles de ser detectados con imágenes multiespectrales. Diversos autores han desarrollado diferentes procedimientos para clasificar y generar un mapa de estos minerales de origen hidrotermal. Entre las más simples, las combinaciones y cocientes de bandas han probado ser herramientas muy efectivas para detectar blancos. Los índices litológicos buscan reforzar la respuesta espectral de este grupo de minerales mediante productos y cocientes de bandas. Estas técnicas no implican una corrección integral de la escena ASTER. Otras técnicas empleadas en este estudio requieren de un procesamiento más profundo, especialmente cuando se trabaja con datos espectrales. Las mismas incluyen la clasificación SAM (spectral angle mapper y la transformación MNF (minimun noise fraction para separar el ruido y reducir los requisitos posteriores para procesar la imagen. Los espectros utilizados en este trabajo fueron obtenidos con muestras de campo con un espectrómetro de reflectancia SWIR (short wave infrared y mediante la derivación de sus escenas. Los métodos de clasificación han sido probados enáreas de mineralización conocida, como Los Pelambres, El Pachón y Altar; y en otros sectores en la región del río Santa Cruz como Carnicerías y La Coipa; en el sector sudoccidental de la provincia de San Juan. Los resultados de este trabajo se presentan

  16. EarthEnv-DEM90: A nearly-global, void-free, multi-scale smoothed, 90m digital elevation model from fused ASTER and SRTM data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Natalie; Regetz, James; Guralnick, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    A variety of DEM products are available to the public at no cost, though all are characterized by trade-offs in spatial coverage, data resolution, and quality. The absence of a high-resolution, high-quality, well-described and vetted, free, global consensus product was the impetus for the creation of a new DEM product described here, 'EarthEnv-DEM90'. This new DEM is a compilation dataset constructed via rigorous techniques by which ASTER GDEM2 and CGIAR-CSI v4.1 products were fused into a quality-enhanced, consistent grid of elevation estimates that spans ∼91% of the globe. EarthEnv-DEM90 was assembled using methods for seamlessly merging input datasets, thoroughly filling voids, and smoothing data irregularities (e.g. those caused by DEM noise) from the approximated surface. The result is a DEM product in which elevational artifacts are strongly mitigated from the input data fusion zone, substantial voids are filled in the northern-most regions of the globe, and the entire DEM exhibits reduced terrain noise. As important as the final product is a well defined methodology, along with new processing techniques and careful attention to final outputs, that extends the value and usability of the work beyond just this single product. Finally, we outline EarthEnv-DEM90 acquisition instructions and metadata availability, so that researchers can obtain this high-resolution, high-quality, nearly-global new DEM product for the study of wide-ranging global phenomena.

  17. Exploiting Maximum Entropy method and ASTER data for assessing debris flow and debris slide susceptibility for the Giampilieri catchment (north-eastern Sicily, Italy).

    KAUST Repository

    Lombardo, L.

    2016-07-18

    This study aims at evaluating the performance of the Maximum Entropy method in assessing landslide susceptibility, exploiting topographic and multispectral remote sensing predictors. We selected the catchment of the Giampilieri stream, which is located in the north-eastern sector of Sicily (southern Italy), as test site. On 1/10/2009, a storm rainfall triggered in this area hundreds of debris flow/avalanche phenomena causing extensive economical damage and loss of life. Within this area a presence-only-based statistical method was applied to obtain susceptibility models capable of distinguish future activation sites of debris flow and debris slide, which where the main source failure mechanisms for flow or avalanche type propagation. The set of predictors used in this experiment comprised primary and secondary topographic attributes, derived by processing a high resolution digital elevation model, CORINE land cover data and a set of vegetation and mineral indices obtained by processing multispectral ASTER images. All the selected data sources are dated before the disaster. A spatially random partition technique was adopted for validation, generating fifty replicates for each of the two considered movement typologies in order to assess accuracy, precision and reliability of the models. The debris slide and debris flow susceptibility models produced high performances with the first type being the best fitted. The evaluation of the probability estimates around the mean value for each mapped pixel shows an inverted relation, with the most robust models corresponding to the debris flows. With respect to the role of each predictor within the modelling phase, debris flows appeared to be primarily controlled by topographic attributes whilst the debris slides were better explained by remotely sensed derived indices, particularly by the occurrence of previous wildfires across the slope. The overall excellent performances of the two models suggest promising perspectives for

  18. Evaluation of ASTER GDEM2 in Comparison with GDEM1, SRTM DEM and Topographic-Map-Derived DEM Using Inundation Area Analysis and RTK-dGPS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beni Raharjo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the quality of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Radiometer-Global Digital Elevation Model version 2 (ASTER GDEM2 in comparison with the previous version (GDEM1 as well as the Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM DEM and topographic-map-derived DEM (Topo-DEM using inundation area analysis for the projected location of the Karian dam, Indonesia. In addition, the vertical accuracy of each DEM is evaluated using the Real-Time Kinematic differential Global Positioning Systems (RTK-dGPS data obtained from an intensive geodetic survey. The results of the inundation area analysis show that GDEM2 produced a higher maximum contour level (MCL (64 m than did GDEM1 (55 m, and thus, GDME2 has a better quality. In addition, the GDEM2-derived MCL is similar to those produced by SRTM DEM (69 m and Topo-DEM (62 m. The improvement in the contour level in GDEM2 is believed to be related to the successful removal of voids (artifacts and anomalies present in GDEM1. However, our RTK-dGPS results show that the vertical accuracy of GDEM2 is much lower than that of GDEM1 and the other DEMs, which is contradictory to the accuracy stated in the GDEM2 validation document. The vertical profiles of all DEMs show that GDEM2 contains a comparatively large number of undulation effects, thereby resulting in higher root mean square error (RMSE values. These undulation effects may have been introduced during the GDEM2 validation process. Although the results of this study may be site-specific, it is important that they be considered for the improvement of the next GDEM version.

  19. Preliminary results for a semi-automated quantification of site effects using geomorphometry and ASTER satellite data for Mozambique, Pakistan and Turkey

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alan Yong; Susan E Hough; Michael J Abrams; Christopher J Wills

    2008-11-01

    Estimation of the degree of local seismic wave amplification (site effects) requires precise information about the local site conditions. In many regions of the world, local geologic information is either sparse or is not readily available. Because of this, seismic hazard maps for countries such as Mozambique, Pakistan and Turkey are developed without consideration of site factors and, therefore, do not provide a complete assessment of future hazards. Where local geologic information is available, details on the traditional maps often lack the precision (better than 1:10,000 scale) or the level of information required for modern seismic microzonation requirements. We use high-resolution (1:50,000) satellite imagery and newly developed image analysis methods to begin addressing this problem. Our imagery, consisting of optical data and digital elevation models (DEMs), is recorded from the ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) sensor system. We apply a semi-automated, object-oriented, multi-resolution feature segmentation method to identify and extract local terrain features. Then we classify the terrain types into mountain, piedmont and basin units using geomorphometry (topographic slope) as our parameter. Next, on the basis of the site classification schemes from the Wills and Silva (1998) study and the Wills et al (2000) and Wills and Clahan (2006) maps of California, we assign the local terrain units with 30 (the average seismic shear-wave velocity through the upper 30m of the subsurface) ranges for selected regions in Mozambique, Pakistan and Turkey. We find that the applicability of our site class assignments in each region is a good first-approximation for quantifying local site conditions and that additional work, such as the verification of the terrain’s compositional rigidity, is needed.

  20. 百部-紫菀药对不同配比组方的药效作用研究%Effect of Stemona Tuberosa and Aster Tataricus with Different Proportions on Antitussive, Antiasthmatic and Expectorant Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜登钊; 肖欣戈; 唐进波

    2016-01-01

    分别采用小鼠呼吸道酚红排泄法,小鼠浓氨水喷雾法,乙酰胆碱-组胺引喘豚鼠平喘实验考察百部、紫菀配伍前后及不同配比的止咳、化痰、平喘药效作用。结果表明配伍能够增强药物的止咳、化痰、平喘药效作用,其中百部-紫菀(1:2)组祛痰作用最强,百部-紫菀(1:1)组止咳、平喘作用最强,而配伍比例对于药对的药效作用也具有重要影响。%In this study, the effects of Stemona tuberosa and Aster tataricus with different proportions on antitussive, antiasthmatic and expectorant activities were observed.The expectorant effects were observed on phenol red expectorant experiment, the antitussive effects were observed on ammonia water-induced cough model of mice and the antiasthmatic effects was observed by prolonging the latent period of asthma induced by histamine and acetylcholine mixture in guinea pigs.The results showed that the antitussive, antiasthmatic and expectorant activities were enhanced when compatibility of Stemona tuberosa and Aster tataricus.The effect of expectorant activity was the strongest when the compatibility ratio of Stemona tuberosa and Aster tataricus was 1:2 while antitussive and antiasthmatic activities were 1:1 which suggested that proportion had an important role in the pharmacodynamic function.

  1. The combined use of reflectance, emissivity and elevation Aster/Terra data for tropical soil studies Uso combinado de dados de reflectância, emissividade e elevação do Aster/Terra para estudo de solos tropicais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Marcelo Breunig

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Reflectance, emissivity and elevation data of the sensor ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer/Terra were used to characterize soil composition variations according to the toposequence position. Normalized data of SWIR (shortwave infrared reflectance and TIR (thermal infrared emissivity, coupled to a soil-fraction image from a spectral mixture model, were evaluated to separate bare soils from nonphotosynthetic vegetation. Regression relationships of some soil properties with reflectance and emissivity data were then applied on the exposed soil pixels. The resulting estimated values were plotted on the ASTER-derived digital elevation model. Results showed that the SWIR bands 5 and 6 and the TIR bands 10 and 14 measured the clay mineral absorption band and the quartz emissivity feature, respectively. These bands improved also the discrimination between nonphotosynthetic vegetation and soils. Despite the differences in pixel size and field sampling size, some soil properties were correlated with reflectance (R² of 0.65 for Al2O3 in band 6; 0.61 for Fe2O3 in band 3 and emissivity (R² of 0.65 for total sand fraction in the 10/14 band ratio. The combined use of reflectance, emissivity and elevation data revealed variations in soil composition with topography in specific parts of the landscape. From higher to lower slope positions, a general decrease in Al2O3 and increase in total sand fraction was observed, due to the prevalence of Rhodic Acrustox at the top and its gradual transition to Typic Acrustox at the bottom.Dados de reflectância, emissividade e elevação do sensor ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer/Terra foram usados para caracterizar variações na composição dos solos com a posição em topossequências. Dados normalizados de reflectância do SWIR (shortwave infrared e de emissividade do TIR (thermal infrared, integrados com a imagem fração-solo de um modelo de

  2. A New Disease of Cherry Plum Tree with Yellow Leaf Symptoms Associated with a Novel Phytoplasma in the Aster Yellows Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zheng-nan; ZHANG Lei; TAO Ye; CHI Ming; XIANG Yu; WU Yun-feng

    2014-01-01

    A novel phytoplasma was detected in a cherry plum (Prunus cerasifera Ehrh) tree that mainly showed yellow leaf symptom. The tree was growing in an orchard located in Yangling District, Shaanxi Province, China. The leaves started as chlorotic and yellowing along leaf minor veins and leaf tips. Chlorosis rapidly developed to inter-veinal areas with the whole leaf becoming pale yellow in about 1-4 wk. Large numbers of phytoplasma-like bodies (PLBs) were seen under transmission electron microscopy. The majority of the PLBs was spherical or elliptical vesicles, with diameters in range of 0.1-0.6 µm, and distributed in the phloem cells of the infected tissues. A 1 246-bp 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene fragment was ampliifed from DNA samples extracted from the yellow leaf tissues using two phytoplasma universal primer pairs R16mF2/R16mR1 and R16F2n/R16R2. Phylogenetic analysis using the 16S rRNA gene sequence suggested that the phytoplasma associated with the yellow leaf symptoms belongs to a novel subclade in the aster yellows (AY) group (16SrI group). Virtual and actual restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the 16S rRNA gene fragment revealed that the phytoplasma was distinguishable from all existing 19 subgroups in the AY group (16SrI) by four restriction sites, Hinf I, Mse I, Sau3A I and Taq I. The similarity coefifcients of comparing the RFLP pattern of the 16S rRNA gene fragment of this phytoplasma to each of the 19 reported subgroups ranged from 0.73 to 0.87, which indicates the phytoplasma associated with the cherry plum yellow leaf (CPYL) symptoms is probably a distinct and novel subgroup lineage in the AY group (16SrI). In addition, the novel phytoplasma was experimentally transmitted to periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) plants from the tree with CPYL symptoms and then back to a healthy 1-yr-old cherry plum tree via dodder (Cuscuta odorata) connections.

  3. Louisiana Air Quality - Using ASTER, Landsat 5, and MODIS to Assess the Impact of Sugar Cane and Marsh Burning Practices on Local Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Robert; Reahard, Ross; Robin, Chad; Zeringue, Jared

    2010-01-01

    Biomass burning is an event that occurs globally and encompasses both human-initiated and naturally-occurring fires. It is estimated that 3 billion metric tons of biomass are burned every year worldwide (Curtis 2002). Societies have used these burning techniques for cooking and heating, clearing land for agricultural use, and removing excess biomass from grazing and croplands (Levine 1991). Our study focuses on the state of Louisiana and its commonly occurring methods of sugarcane and marsh biomass burning (LSU Ag.Center 2000; Nyman and Chabreck 1995). Over the centuries, the sugarcane industry in this state has steadily grown to surpass all other agriculture commodities. To promote efficiency within this large industry, burning excess biomass takes place throughout the harvesting period (LSU Ag.Center 2000). In addition to sugarcane, Louisiana contains 30% of the total coastal marsh of the United States (LSU Ag.Center 2000). The periodic burning of such marshes is an ecologically important management tool that is practiced throughout the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts (Nyman and Chabreck 1995). In most biomass burning instances, the leading by-product is particulate matter that is less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10). Through past research, this fine material has been shown to have negative health effects on surrounding populations (Boopathy2001). While burning guidelines have been set into place by the Louisiana Department of Agriculture and Forestry (LDAF) to reduce health effects, the guidelines are voluntary (LDAF 2000). To help quantify emission estimates, we will focus on Iberia Parish for sugarcane burning and Cameron Parish for marsh burning. Through analysis of ASTER, Landsat 5 TM, and MODIS data, our goal is to determine the amount and location of land area burned for the years 2008 and 2009 due to these practices. With emissions algorithms from Seiler and Crutzen, 1980, total acreage burned can be used to estimate emissions. This information will help to

  4. Environmental evolution of the Rio Grande drainage basin and Nasca region (Peru) in 2003-2007 using ENVISAT ASAR and ASTER time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigna, Francesca; Tapete, Deodato; Lasaponara, Rosa; Masini, Nicola

    2013-04-01

    Recent palaeo-environmental studies and remote sensing investigations demonstrated that the Rio Grande drainage basin in Southern Peru is a still evolving landscape, and impacts due to its changes have implications for the preservation of both the natural and cultural features of the Nasca region, well-known for the evidences of the ancient Paracas and Nasca Civilizations, who flourished from the 4th century BC to the 6th century AD. To image the modifications occurred in the last decade, we exploited the entire 4year-long stack of ENVISAT ASAR C-band archive imagery available over the region, which was provided by the European Space Agency (ESA) via the Cat-1 project 11073. The latter supports the activities of the Italian mission of heritage Conservation and Archaeogeophysics (ITACA), which directly involve researchers from the Institute for Archaeological and Monumental Heritage (IBAM) and the Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis (IMAA), National Research Council (CNR) of Italy. With the aim of reconstructing the temporal evolution of the Rio Grande drainage basin and its effects and implications for the heritage of the region, we processed 8 ASAR Image Mode IS2 scenes acquired in descending mode between 04/02/2003 and 15/11/2005 and 5 images in ascending mode between 24/07/2005 and 11/11/2007, and focused on SAR backscattering information, amplitude change detection methods and extraction of ASAR-derived time series of the backscattering coefficient over target areas of interest. The ASAR 2003-2007 analysis was coupled and integrated with NDVI-based soil moisture and vegetation change assessment performed by using ASTER multi-spectral data acquired during the same time frame of the ASAR stacks, on 30/05/2003, 01/06/2004 and 10/06/2007. The research was performed both at the regional scale over the entire Rio Grande drainage basin, with particular focus on its tributaries Rio Ingenio, Rio Nazca and Rio Taruga, and at the local scale over the

  5. ASTERISMS IDENTIFICATION USING ASTROMETRIC DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Orellana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudian las regiones de los objetos Collinder 399, Upgren 1 y Melotte 227 clasi cados como asterismos en la literatura reciente. Se utilizan las posiciones y movimientos propios obtenidos del cat logo astrom trico UCAC2 y de su suplemento de estrellas brillantes, y se aplica el m todo de Vasilevskis-Sanders modi cado porla distribuci n espacial para con rmar la naturaleza de estos grupos de estrellas.

  6. Reconocimiento de alteración hidrotermal con el sensor ASTER, en el curso medio del Río Santa Cruz (31°40's, provincia de San Juan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Pérez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La utilización del sensor ASTER (Advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer permitió la identificación de diversos depósitos de alteración hidrotermal, indicando que la aplicación de técnicas espectrales en regiones con buena exposición de afloramientos, permite la identificación de diversas litologías asociadas a dichos depósitos. En el presente trabajo se han probado diferentes métodos para identificar y generar un mapa de zonas con alteración hidrotermal mediante el uso de escenas ASTER. Estas áreas usualmente contienen grandes cantidades de minerales arcillosos susceptibles de ser detectados con imágenes multiespectrales. Diversos autores han desarrollado diferentes procedimientos para clasificar y generar un mapa de estos minerales de origen hidrotermal. Entre las más simples, las combinaciones y cocientes de bandas han probado ser herramientas muy efectivas para detectar blancos. Los índices litológicos buscan reforzar la respuesta espectral de este grupo de minerales mediante productos y cocientes de bandas. Estas técnicas no implican una corrección integral de la escena ASTER. Otras técnicas empleadas en este estudio requieren de un procesamiento más profundo, especialmente cuando se trabaja con datos espectrales. Las mismas incluyen la clasificación SAM (spectral angle mapper y la transformación MNF (minimun noise fraction para separar el ruido y reducir los requisitos posteriores para procesar la imagen. Los espectros utilizados en este trabajo fueron obtenidos con muestras de campo con un espectrómetro de reflectancia SWIR (short wave infrared y mediante la derivación de sus escenas. Los métodos de clasificación han sido probados enáreas de mineralización conocida, como Los Pelambres, El Pachón y Altar; y en otros sectores en la región del río Santa Cruz como Carnicerías y La Coipa; en el sector sudoccidental de la provincia de San Juan. Los resultados de este trabajo se presentan

  7. Regional mapping of hydrothermally altered igneous rocks along the Urumieh-Dokhtar, Chagai, and Alborz Belts of western Asia using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operators: a tool for porphyry copper exploration and assessment: Chapter O in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, John L.

    2014-01-01

    Regional maps of phyllic and argillic hydrothermal alteration were compiled using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and logical operator algorithms. The area mapped extends from northwestern Iran to southeastern Pakistan and includes volcanic and magmatic arcs that make up the Urumieh-Dokhtar volcanic belt (UDVB), the Chagai volcanic belt (CVB), and the central part of the Alborz magmatic belt (AMB). The volcanic belts span the Zagros-Makran transform zone and the present day Baluchistan (Makran) volcanic arc. ASTER visible near infrared (VNIR) data contain three bands between 0.52 and 0.86 micrometers (μm) and the short-wave infrared (SWIR) data consist of six bands spanning 1.6 to 2.43 μm with 15-meter (m), and 30-m resolution, respectively.

  8. Determinação de elementos próprios dos asteróides troianos: comparação entre as teorias semi-analítica e sintética

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, F.; Beaugé, C.

    2003-08-01

    Além do cálculo semi-analítico de elementos próprios dos asteróides Troianos (Beaugé & Roig 2001, Icarus 153, 391), recentemente foi apresentado um novo conjunto destes elementos próprios determinado através de uma teoria sintética (Knenezevic & Milani 2003, comunicação pessoal). As bases de dados contendo estas determinações estão disponiveis na pagina web do Asteroid Dynamical Site (http://hamilton.dm.unipi.it/cgi-bin/astdys/astibo). Nesta comunicação apresentamos os primeiros resultados de um estudo comparativo entre ambos conjuntos de elementos próprios, analisando suas vantagens e desvantagens, assim como os limites de precisão de cada conjunto. Mostramos que os elementos próprios sintéticos são mais precisos que os smi-analíticos para grandes amplitudes de libração do ângulo s = l-lJup, embora acontece o contrario para os corpos cuja amplitude de libração é muito pequena. Finalmente discutimos a influencia destes erros na determinação de familias de asteroides e da estrutura resonante em torno dos pontos Lagrangeanos L4 e L5.

  9. Development and validation of an LC/MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of shionone and epi-friedelinol in rat plasma for pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of Aster tataricus extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, De-Feng; Zhou, Kai; Liu, Ji-Tao; Hu, Li; Liu, Ying; Deng, Jun; Wang, Song-Ping; Xiong, Ying; Zhong, Wu

    2016-07-01

    A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method was developed and validated using spinasterol as the internal standard (IS) for the simultaneous determination of shionone and epi-friedelinol in rat plasma. Plasma samples were pretreated using liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl ether. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column (100 × 2.1 mm, 5 μm) with an isocratic elution consisting of acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid water (75:25, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.30 mL/min. Detection was performed under the selected reaction monitoring scan using an electrospray ionization in the positive ion mode. The mass transitions were as follows: m/z 427.4 → 95.1 for shionone, m/z 411.4 → 205.2 for epi-friedelinol and m/z 395.3 → 105.2 for IS. All calibration curves exhibited good linearity (r > 0.995) over the concentration range for both components. The intra- and inter-day precisions at three QC and lower limit of quantitation levels were both <10.21% in terms of relative standard deviation, and the accuracy ranged from -7.13 to 8.02% in terms of relative error. The extraction recoveries of the compounds ranged from 82.07 to 89.81%. The developed method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of shionone and epi-friedelinol after oral administration of Aster tataricus extract to rats. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26581126

  10. ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The first Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite called Terra (previously AM-1) was launched on December 18, 1999. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and...

  11. ASTER GLOBAL Digital Elevation Model V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The first Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite called Terra (previously AM-1) was launched on December 18, 1999. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and...

  12. Monitoring Urban Change with ASTER Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netzband, Maik; Schöpfer, Elisabeth; Möller, Matthias S.

    The appearance of urban areas manifested by human congregation and concentration is a phenomenon characteristic of the development of modern humankind. Historically, every ancient high culture was based on large agglomerations of people (e.g., Angkor Wat, Machu Picchu, Alexandria). Human concentration in urban areas offer a lot of advantages to those in areas with less benefits, especially rural areas. Urban areas provide economic welfare, efficient communication and transportation paths, a dense social and healthcare network, and numerous entertainment opportunities compared to remote and sparsely settled areas. Urban areas today provide home to more than 50% of the people worldwide. Urban areas display strong growth trends, especially in less-developed countries, where a rapid growth of unplanned informal settlements are evident.

  13. Conception de systèmes de polyculture élevage laitiers en agriculture biologique : Synthèse de la démarche pas à pas centrée sur le dispositif expérimental INRA ASTER-Mirecourt

    OpenAIRE

    Coquil, Xavier; Fiorelli, Jean-Louis; Blouet, André; Trommenschlager, Jean-Marie; Bazard, Claude; Mignolet, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    La démarche de conception est basée sur une expérimentation long terme, à l'échelle de systèmes de production, conduite sur l'installation expérimentale INRA ASTER-Mirecourt. La conception a été réalisée selon un objectif général d'autonomie (décisionnelle) et d'économie (en intrants) des systèmes agricoles. Deux systèmes autonomes et biologiques, conçus à partir des propriétés du milieu naturel, sont testés depuis 2005 : un système laitier herbager (SH) et un système de polyculture élevage l...

  14. Ταξινόμηση δορυφορικών εικόνων ASTER σε αστικό περιβάλλον

    OpenAIRE

    Πετροπούλου, Άννα

    2008-01-01

    Σε αυτήν την πτυχιακή εργασία στόχος είναι η αξιολόγηση του θεματικού πληροφοριακού περιεχομένου των δορυφορικών εικόνων ASTER και η ικανότητα τους να αποδώσουν τις καλύψεις γης σε αστικό περιβάλλον. Η περιοχή μελέτης είναι το λεκανοπέδιο Αττικής με συντεταγμένες : Φ : (38.1428), (38.0399), (37.4878), (37.5899) Λ : (23.3637), (24.0596), (23.8886), (23.1977) Πρώτα έγινε η ραδιομετρική διόρθωση των εικόνων ASTER (κανάλια VNIR 1- Πράσινο, 2-Κόκκινο, 3-Υπέρυθρο). Πιο συγκεκριμένα επιλέ...

  15. Maping Soil Desertification in the Weigan and Kuqa River Delta Oasis area with Aster data%基于Aster数据的新疆渭--库绿洲及其周边地区土地沙化信息提取

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴明艳; 翁永玲; 戚浩平; 周少红

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to map the desertification around the Weigan and Kuqa River Delta Oasis area in Xinjiang .Based on field measurements and image analysis ,the vegetation indexes such as NDVI ,VC(vegetation cover) were calculated with the Aster image .The SSC(soil salinity content ) was estimated by PLSR model .Then combined the NDVI ,CV and SSC ,the decision functions and decision tree were built to map the desertification using decision tree classification techniques . The results indicated that combination of vegetation index and soil property (SSC) could extract soil desertification area separated from soil salinization area .The map of soil desertification consistent well with field investigate .This study offered a good method for mapping of soil desertification over a large area .%以新疆渭干河———库车河绿洲及其周边地区为研究区,在野外调查的基础上,基于Aster数据,利用ND‐VI、植被盖度作为特征变量,结合偏最小二乘回归法模型反演得到的盐分含量(SSC)指标作为决策树分类的各节点的判别函数,通过决策树分类方法实现了沙化土地信息的提取与制图。结果表明结合植被覆盖信息与土壤特性能够在提取沙化信息的同时区分出盐渍化土壤,结果与野外调查较为一致。该研究为大区域土壤沙化信息提取与制图提供了较好的方法。

  16. Uncharted constellations asterisms, single-source and rebrands

    CERN Document Server

    Barentine, John C

    2016-01-01

    This book compiles an array of interesting constellations that fell by the wayside before the IAU established the modern canon of constellations. That decision left out lesser known ones whose history is nevertheless interesting, but at last author John Barentine is giving them their due. This book is a companion to "The Alternate Constellations", highlighting the more obscure configurations.  The 16 constellations found in this volume fall into one or more of three broad categories: asterims, such as the Big Dipper in Ursa Major; single-sourced constellations introduced on surviving charts by a cartographer perhaps currying the favor of sponsors; and re-brands, new figures meant to displace existing constellations, often for an ideological reason. All of them reveal something unique about the development of humanity's map of the sky. .

  17. ASTER 2002-2003 Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID):2002-2003 consists of image data gathered by three sensors. The first image data are terrain-corrected, precision...

  18. Elimination of the outliers from Aster GDEM data

    OpenAIRE

    Arefi, Hossein; Reinartz, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Digital Elevation Models (DEM) provided by stereo matching techniques often contain unwanted outliers due to the mismatched points. Detected outliers are candidate for wrong data that may otherwise adversely lead to model misspecification, biased parameter estimation and incorrect results. Therefore detection of outlying observations and elimination of them from the data is considered as one of the first steps towards obtaining a refined DEM. Several statistical and non-statistical methods ar...

  19. 三维动画设计在大学生实践创新训练项目中的应用心得--以大孚膜废水深度处理工艺三维动画演示项目为例%Application Experience of 3D Animation Design in Colleague Students' Practice Innovation Training Project:Taking the 3D Animation Demonstration Design Project of“Dafu”Wastage Aster In-depth Purification Process for Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨恒; 陈仲先

    2014-01-01

    大学生创新训练课题,为培养大学生的创新能力,全面提高学生综合素质提供了平台。本文结合自己作为三维动画专业教师指导大学生创新课题的实践体会,以大孚膜废水深度处理工艺三维动画演示项目为例,全面展示项目的研究目标、研究过程、研究成果、研究心得以及项目创新点与特色,希望能为今后大学生创新项目的不断完善和顺利实施提供有益的帮助。%Training Project of colleague student creatively practice has provided a platform where we can cultivate colleague students' creation ability and fully improve overall quality of student. This article took advantage of practical experience from a professional teacher who had guide and enlighten student on subject of creatively practice. By taking 3D animation demonstration design project of "Dafu"wastage aster in-depth purification process for example. We can illustrate the study target, procedure, achievement, experience and project creative achievement and characteristic, our intention is to facilitate further perfection and successful implementation on college students' creatively practice.

  20. Solutions Network Formulation Report. NASA's Potential Contributions using ASTER Data in Marine Hazard Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Rose

    2010-01-01

    The 28-foot storm surge from Hurricane Katrina pushed inland along bays and rivers for a distance of 12 miles in some areas, contributing to the damage or destruction of about half of the fleet of boats in coastal Mississippi. Most of those boats had sought refuge in back bays and along rivers. Some boats were spared damage because the owners chose their mooring site well. Gulf mariners need a spatial analysis tool that provides guidance on the safest places to anchor their boats during future hurricanes. This product would support NOAA s mission to minimize the effects of coastal hazards through awareness, education, and mitigation strategies and could be incorporated in the Coastal Risk Atlas decision support tool.

  1. Coal fire quantification using ASTER, ETM and BIRD satellite instrument data

    OpenAIRE

    Tetzlaff, Anke

    2004-01-01

    Coal fires cause severe environmental and economic problems. Although satellite remote sensing has been used successfully to detect coal fires, a satellite data based concept that can quantify the majority of the detected coal fires is still missing. Recently, the determination of fire radiative energy (FRE) has been introduced as a new remote sensing tool to quantify forest and grassland fires. This thesis tests the concept of remotely measured FRE, with a view to ascertaining its potential...

  2. Etofenamate fatty acid asters. An example of a new route of drug metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, H D; Fielder, J; Kamp, R; Gau, W; Kurz, J; Weber, B; Wuensche, C

    1982-01-01

    Etofenamate [2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)ethyl-N-(alpha, alpha, alpha-trifluoro-m-tolyl)-anthranilate] was administered to dogs by the oral route. Minor amounts of etofenamate (Eto) and its glucuronide were found in urine and feces. The main portion of metabolites was eliminated as flufenamic acid (Flu) and hydroxy derivatives of Eto and Flu. Furthermore, a highly lipophilic fraction was isolated (extraction and TLC) and further separated into several compounds (HPLC, GLC). These metabolites were identified as Eto oleate, palmitate, linoleate, stearate, palmitoleate, myristate, and laurate by NMR and MS. The structures were confirmed by comparison with authentic material. The conjugation of etofenamate with fatty acids is an example of a new route of drug metabolism. PMID:6124384

  3. Comparison Among Cross, Onboard and Vicarious Calibrations for Terra/ASTER/VNIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Comparative study on radiometric calibration methods among onboard, cross and vicarious calibration for visible to near infrared radiometers onboard satellites is conducted. The data sources of the aforementioned three calibration methods are different and independent. Therefore, it may say that the reliable Radiometric Calibration Accuracy: RCC would be the RCC which are resemble each other two of three RCCs. As experimental results, it is found that vicarious and cross calibration are reliable than onboard calibration. Also vicarious calibration based cross calibration method is proposed here. The proposed cross calibration method should be superior to the conventional cross calibration method based on band-to-band data comparison. Through experiments, it is also found that the proposed cross calibration is better than the conventional cross calibration. The radiometric calibration accuracy of the conventional cross calibration method can be evaluated by using the proposed cross calibration method.

  4. Molecular Characterization of Aster Yellows Subgroup 16SrI-B Phytoplasma in Verbena x hybrida

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přibylová, Jaroslava; Petrzik, Karel; Fránová, Jana; Špak, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 163, č. 7 (2015), s. 664-669. ISSN 0931-1785 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : 16-23S rDNA gene * PCR * rp genes * tuf gene Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.820, year: 2014

  5. Aster Yellows Subgroup 16SrI-C Phytoplasma in Rhododendron hybridum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přibylová, Jaroslava; Špak, Josef; Fránová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 161, 7-8 (2013), s. 590-593. ISSN 0931-1785 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD12074 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : electron microscopy * PCR * phytoplasma Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.921, year: 2013

  6. Using electronic resources to support dialogue in undergraduate small-group teaching: the ASTER project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Condron

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Of all the learning experiences to which students are exposed in British universities, some of the most intensely demanding and rewarding are those where students and tutor engage in lengthy discussion. For many disciplines, tutorials, seminars and workshops have a special role in developing expertise in applying complex and abstract theories to rich, diverse bodies of material. The ability to present convincing arguments, both written and verbal, is a skill that undergraduates need to acquire.

  7. Rapid ASTER imaging facilitates timely assessment of glacier hazards and disasters

    OpenAIRE

    A. Kääb; Wessels, R.; Haeberli, W.; C. Huggel; J. S. Kargel; Khalsa, S. J. S.

    2003-01-01

    Glacier- and permafrost-related hazards increasingly threaten human lives, settlements, and infrastructure in high-mountain regions. Present atmospheric warming particularly affects terrestrial systems where surface and sub-surface ice are involved. Changes in glacier and permafrost equilibrium are shifting beyond historical knowledge. Human settlement and activities are extending toward danger zones in the cryospheric system. A number of recent glacier hazards and disasters underscore these ...

  8. Using electronic resources to support dialogue in undergraduate small-group teaching: the ASTER project

    OpenAIRE

    Condron, Frances

    2001-01-01

    Of all the learning experiences to which students are exposed in British universities, some of the most intensely demanding and rewarding are those where students and tutor engage in lengthy discussion. For many disciplines, tutorials, seminars and workshops have a special role in developing expertise in applying complex and abstract theories to rich, diverse bodies of material. The ability to present convincing arguments, both written and verbal, is a skill that undergraduates need to acquir...

  9. Multigene Sequence Analysis of Aster Yellows Phytoplasma Associated with Primrose Yellows

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fránová, Jana; Přibylová, Jaroslava; Koloniuk, Igor; Podrábská, Kateřina; Špak, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 164, č. 3 (2016), s. 166-176. ISSN 0931-1785 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris * pyrH-frr genes * Primula acaulis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.820, year: 2014

  10. Estimating surface fluxes over middle and upper streams of the Heihe River Basin with ASTER imagery

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, W.; Y. Ma; Hu, Z.; Su, Z.; Wang, J.; H. Ishikawa

    2009-01-01

    Land surface heat fluxes are essential measures of the strengths of land-atmosphere interactions involving energy, heat and water. Correct parameterization of these fluxes in climate models is critical. Despite their importance, state-of-the-art observation techniques cannot provide representative areal averages of these fluxes comparable to the model grid. Alternative methods of estimation are thus required. These alternative approaches use (satellite) observables of the land surface conditi...

  11. ABILITY OF ECOSAR, TOPKAT, NEURAL NETWORKS, AND ASTER TO PREDICT TOXICITY OF CHEMICALS TO AQUATIC BIOTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) which provides the basis for assessing and managing toxic substances in Canada, is being revised. Several new mandates have been introduced in the Act...

  12. Structural morphology of alkali feldspars and zircon and oriented intergrowths causing asterism in gemstones

    OpenAIRE

    Woensdregt, C.F.

    1990-01-01

    Crystalline material grown in aqueous solutions or from vapour phase is often bounded by plane crystal faces. The surface configuration of such faces, that is controlled by the internal crystal structure, can be derived by the Hartman-Perdok theory with atomic precision. The crystal faces can be classified into three different categories. The most important faces with the lowest growth rates are the F faces, which are parallel to at least two non-collinear Periodic Bond Chains (PBCs). A PBC i...

  13. DETERMINATION OF THE WINDOW EMISSIVITY WITH ASTER MULTI-SPECTRAL THERMAL INFRARED DATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowledge of the land surface window (8 - 12 micrometer) emissivity is important for estimating the longwave radiation budget. With the successful launch of NASA's Terra satellite in December 1999 a new tool for observing land surface emissivity became available, i.e. multi-spectral thermal infrared...

  14. Not an open cluster after all: the NGC 6863 asterism in Aquila

    CERN Document Server

    Bidin, Christian Moni; Marcos, Carlos de la Fuente; Carraro, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    Shortly after birth, open clusters start dissolving; gradually losing stars into the surrounding star field. The time scale for complete disintegration depends both on their initial membership and location within the Galaxy. Open clusters undergoing the terminal phase of cluster disruption or open cluster remnants (OCRs) are notoriously difficult to identify. From an observational point, a combination of low number statistics and minimal contrast against the general stellar field conspire to turn them into very challenging objects. To make the situation even worst, random samples of field stars often display features that may induce to classify them erroneously as extremely evolved open clusters. In this paper, we provide a detailed study of the stellar content and kinematics of NGC 6863, a compact group of a few stars located in Aquila and described by the POSS as a non existent cluster. Nonetheless, this object has been recently classified as OCR. The aim of the present work is to either confirm or disprove...

  15. Can ASTER-data be used for bathymetric mapping of coral reefs in the Red Sea using digital photogrammetry?

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderstraete, T.; Goossens, R.; Ghabour, T.K.

    2003-01-01

    Coral reefs are main contributors to the national income of many developing countries. As they are experiencing more and more stress due to inappropriate human actions and global change, they need to be studied in order to monitor them and preserve them for the future. Bathymetric mapping of coral reefs has always experienced difficulties. Due to their rather shallow depth and/or often remote location in the middle of the ocean, they are not always suitable for standard bathymetric sounding c...

  16. A new glacier inventory on southern Baffin Island, Canada, from ASTER data: II. Data analysis, glacier change and applications

    OpenAIRE

    F. Paul; Svoboda, F

    2009-01-01

    Despite its large area covered by glaciers and ice caps, detailed glacier inventory data are not yet available for most parts of Baffin Island, Canada. Automated classification of satellite data could help to overcome the data gaps. Along-track stereo sensors allow the derivation of a digital elevation model (DEM) and glacier outlines from the same point in time, and are particularly useful for this task. While part I of this study describes the remote-sensing methods, in part II we present a...

  17. Utilization of ASTER image in the determination and verification Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) prone areas in Banjar city, West Java

    OpenAIRE

    Andri Ruliansyah; Yuneu Yuliasih; Setiazy Hasbullah

    2014-01-01

    Distribution of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) can be viewed from geospatial perspective elaborating temperature, rain fall, humidity, and certain land uses information. Remote sensing and GIS approach can be used as effective tool on dengue prevention and control policies. The aim of this study was to identify vulnerable dengue areas in Banjar, West Java through image verification. This study is an observational study with cross sectional analysis conducted in Banjar in March to October 2012...

  18. Using the Surface Temperature-Albedo Space to Separate Regional Soil and Vegetation Temperatures from ASTER Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil and vegetation component temperatures in non-isothermal pixels encapsulate more physical meaning and are more applicable than composite temperatures. The component temperatures however are difficult to be obtained from thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing data provided by single view angle obs...

  19. Accuracy assessment of SRTM v4 and ASTER GDEM v2 over the Altiplano watershed using ICESat/GLAS data

    OpenAIRE

    Satge, F.; Bonnet, Marie-Paule; Timouk, Franck; Calmant, Stéphane; Pillco, R.; Molina, J; Lavado-Casimiro, W.; Arsen, A.; Cretaux, J. F.; J. Garnier

    2015-01-01

    The new Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM v2) has been available since 17 October 2011. With a resolution of approximately 30 m, this model should provide more accurate information than the latest version of Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM v4) with a resolution of 90 m outside of the USA. The accuracies of these two recently released digital elevation models (DEMs) were assessed over the Altiplano watershed in South America using ICESat/GLAS data (Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Sate...

  20. Uji Fungsional dan Karakteristik Sel Punca Hematopoetik Hasil Isolasi dari Darah Tali Pusat Manusia Menggunakan Metode Modifikasi Unpad- Aster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tono Djuwantono

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The conventional method of mononuclear cells (MNCs isolation from human umbilical cord blood (UCB yielded high erythrocyte contamination level. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the differences of cell viability and erythrocyte contamination on the population of UCB MNCs in our modified isolation method. This study was also aimed to test the function and characteristic of human MNCs derived from UCB as the basis for the development of UCB banking in Indonesia. The study was conducted in Department of Obstetry and Ginecology >RS Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung in period of January–October 2010. The modified isolation method (namely Unpad Aster’s modification yielded 5.1x106 MNC cell/mL has lower erythrocyte contamination level than conventional method. The morphology of MNCs cultured in unrestricted somatic stem cells (USSCs medium looked like adhered cells (attached at the surface of culture flask, spindle-shaped cells with positive luster of ifferentiation-90 (CD-90 (leukocyte antigen and cluster of differentiation-105 (CD-105 and could differentiate into neuronal cells and adipocytes. While the morphology of cord blood-derived multipotent progenitor cells (CB-MPCs looked like fibroblast cells with positive cluster of differentiation-45 (CD-45 (antigen hematopoietic and could differentiate into neuronal cells. In conclusions, the Unpad-Aster’s modified isolation method gives lower level of erythrocyte contamination compared with conventional method. Mononuclear cells derived from UCB could differentiate into neuronal cells and adipocytes.

  1. Uji Fungsional dan Karakteristik Sel Punca Hematopoetik Hasil Isolasi dari Darah Tali Pusat Manusia Menggunakan Metode Modifikasi Unpad- Aster

    OpenAIRE

    Tono Djuwantono; Firman F. Wirakusumah; Leri Septiani; Ike Kristina; Devi Natalia; Danny Halim; Ahmad Faried

    2011-01-01

    The conventional method of mononuclear cells (MNCs) isolation from human umbilical cord blood (UCB) yielded high erythrocyte contamination level. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the differences of cell viability and erythrocyte contamination on the population of UCB MNCs in our modified isolation method. This study was also aimed to test the function and characteristic of human MNCs derived from UCB as the basis for the development of UCB banking in Indonesia. The study was con...

  2. Inter-Comparison of ASTER and MODIS Surface Reflectance and Vegetation Index Products for Synergistic Applications to Natural Resource Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Hirokazu Yamamoto; Kayo Fujiwara; Hiroki Yoshioka; Tomoaki Miura

    2008-01-01

    Synergistic applications of multi-resolution satellite data have been of a great interest among user communities for the development of an improved and more effective operational monitoring system of natural resources, including vegetation and soil. In this study, we conducted an inter-comparison of two remote sensing products, namely, visible/near-infrared surface reflectances and spectral vegetation indices (VIs), from the high resolution Advanced Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer ...

  3. Molecular detection of aster yellows phytoplasma and 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' in carrots affected by the psyllid Trioza apicalis (Hemiptera: triozidae) in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrot psyllid (Trioza apicalis Förster) causes considerable damage to carrot (Daucus carota L.) in many parts of Europe. It was recently established that the new bacterium “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” is associated with carrot psyllid and plants affected by this insect pest. No other path...

  4. Self-Adaptive Gradient-Based Thresholding Method for Coal Fire Detection Using ASTER Thermal Infrared Data, Part I: Methodology and Decadal Change Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaomin Du; Daiyong Cao; Deepak Mishra,; Sergio Bernardes; Thomas R. Jordan; Marguerite Madden

    2015-01-01

    Coal fires that are induced by natural spontaneous combustion or result from human activities occurring on the surface and in underground coal seams destroy coal resources and cause serious environmental degradation. Thermal infrared image data, which directly measure surface temperature, can be an important tool to map coal fires over large areas. As the first of two parts introducing our coal fire detection method, this paper proposes a self-adaptive threshold-based approach for coal fire d...

  5. Annual Change Detection by ASTER TIR Data and an Estimation of the Annual Coal Loss and CO2 Emission from Coal Seams Spontaneous Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Du

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Coal fires, including both underground and coal waste pile fires, result in large losses of coal resources and emit considerable amounts of greenhouse gases. To estimate the annual intensity of greenhouse gas emissions and the loss of coal resources, estimating the annual loss from fire-influenced coal seams is a feasible approach. This study assumes that the primary cause of coal volume loss is subsurface coal seam fires. The main calculation process is divided into three modules: (1 Coal fire quantity calculations, which use change detection to determine the areas of the different coal fire stages (increase/growth, maintenance/stability and decrease/shrinkage. During every change detections, the amount of coal influenced by fires for these three stages was calculated by multiplying the coal mining residual rate, combustion efficiency, average thickness and average coal intensity. (2 The life cycle estimate is based on remote sensing long-term coal fires monitoring. The life cycles for the three coal fire stages and the corresponding life cycle proportions were calculated; (3 The diurnal burnt rates for different coal fire stages were calculated using the CO2 emission rates from spontaneous combustion experiments, the coal fire life cycle, life cycle proportions. Then, using the fire-influenced quantity aggregated across the different stages, the diurnal burn rates for the different stages and the time spans between the multi-temporal image pairs used for change detection, we estimated the annual coal loss to be 44.3 × 103 tons. After correction using a CH4 emission factor, the CO2 equivalent emissions resulting from these fires was on the order of 92.7 × 103 tons. We also discovered that the centers of these coal fires migrated from deeper to shallower parts of the coal seams or traveled in the direction of the coal seam strike. This trend also agrees with the cause of the majority coal fires: spontaneous combustion of coalmine goafs.

  6. Assessing lahars from ice-capped volcanoes using ASTER satellite data, the SRTM DTM and two different flow models: case study on Iztaccíhuatl (Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Schneider

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Lahars frequently affect the slopes of ice-capped volcanoes. They can be triggered by volcano-ice interactions during eruptions but also by processes such as intense precipitation or by outbursts of glacial water bodies not directly related to eruptive activity. We use remote sensing, GIS and lahar models in combination with ground observations for an initial lahar hazard assessment on Iztaccíhuatl volcano (5230 m a.s.l., considering also possible future developments of the glaciers on the volcano. Observations of the glacial extent are important for estimations of future hazard scenarios, especially in a rapidly changing tropical glacial environment. In this study, analysis of the glaciers on Iztaccíhuatl shows a dramatic retreat during the last 150 years: the glaciated area in 2007 corresponds to only 4% of the one in 1850 AD and the glaciers are expected to survive no later than the year 2020. Most of the glacial retreat is considered to be related to climate change but in-situ observations suggest also that geo- and hydrothermal heat flow at the summit-crater area can not be ruled out, as emphasized by fumarolic activity documented in a former study. However, development of crater lakes and englacial water reservoirs are supposed to be a more realistic scenario for lahar generation than sudden ice melting by rigorous volcano-ice interaction. Model calculations show that possible outburst floods have to be larger than ~5×105 m3 or to achieve an H/L ratio (Height/runout Length of 0.2 and lower in order to reach the populated lower flanks. This threshold volume equals 2.4% melted ice of Iztaccíhuatl's total ice volume in 2007, assuming 40% water and 60% volumetric debris content of a potential lahar. The model sensitivity analysis reveals important effects of the generic type of the Digital Terrain Model (DTM used on the results. As a consequence, the predicted affected areas can vary significantly. For such hazard zonation, we therefore suggest the use of different types of DTMs and flow models, followed by a careful comparison and interpretation of the results.

  7. Study of the structural changes in the Popocatepetl volcano in Mexico related to microseismicity by applying the lineament analysis to the Aster (Terra) satellite data

    OpenAIRE

    Arellano-Baeza, A. A.; Garcia, R. V.; Trejo-Soto, M.

    2007-01-01

    Mexico is one of the most volcanically active regions in North America. Volcanic activity in central Mexico is associated with the subduction of the Cocos and Rivera plates beneath the North American plate. Periods of enhanced microseismic activity, associated with the volcanic activity of the Popocatepetl volcano is compared with periods, during which the microseismic activity was low. We detected systematical changes in the number of lineaments, associated with the microseismic activity due...

  8. Evaluation of ASTER and SRTM DEM data for lahar modeling: A case study on lahars from Popocatépetl Volcano, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Huggel, C.; Schneider, D.; Miranda, P. J.; Granados, H D; A. Kääb

    2008-01-01

    Lahars are among themost serious and far-reaching volcanic hazards. In regions with potential interactions of lahars with populated areas and human structures the assessment of the related hazards is crucial for undertaking appropriate mitigating actions and reduce the associated risks. Modeling of lahars has become an important tool in such assessments, in particular where the geologic record of past events is insufficient. Mass-flow modeling strongly relies on digital terrain data. Availabi...

  9. Annual Change Detection by ASTER TIR Data and an Estimation of the Annual Coal Loss and CO2 Emission from Coal Seams Spontaneous Combustion

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaomin Du; Suping Peng; Haiyan Wang; Sergio Bernardes; Guang Yang; Zhipeng Li

    2014-01-01

    Coal fires, including both underground and coal waste pile fires, result in large losses of coal resources and emit considerable amounts of greenhouse gases. To estimate the annual intensity of greenhouse gas emissions and the loss of coal resources, estimating the annual loss from fire-influenced coal seams is a feasible approach. This study assumes that the primary cause of coal volume loss is subsurface coal seam fires. The main calculation process is divided into three modules: (1) Coal f...

  10. Some notes on China aster (Callistephus chinensis (L. Nees with particular attention paid to the changeability of florets and inflorescences in view of the so far used descriptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Wosińska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is mostly devoted to the variability of florets and heads in Callistephus sp.- in its wild form and cultivated varieties. Describing the variability of heads more attention was paid to florets and specially ray florets including rare and often incorrectly described florets with tubular corollas. Attention was called to the necessity of using univocal and generally accepted basic vocabulary for heterogamic heads.

  11. Numerical simulation of cracks and interfaces with cohesive zone models in the extended finite element method, with EDF R and D software Code Aster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to assess the harmfulness of detected defects in some nuclear power plants, EDF Group is led to develop advanced simulation tools. Among the targeted mechanisms are 3D non-planar quasi-static crack propagation, but also dynamic transients during unstable phases. In the present thesis, quasi-brittle crack growth is simulated based on the combination of the XFEM and cohesive zone models. These are inserted over large potential crack surfaces, so that the cohesive law will naturally separate adherent and de-bonding zones, resulting in an implicit update of the crack front, which makes the originality of the approach. This requires a robust insertion of non-smooth interface laws in the XFEM, which is achieved in quasi-statics with the use of XFEM-suited multiplier spaces in a consistent formulation, block-wise diagonal interface operators and an augmented Lagrangian formalism to write the cohesive law. Based on this concept and a novel directional criterion appealing to cohesive integrals, a propagation procedure over non-planar crack paths is proposed and compared with literature benchmarks. As for dynamics, an initially perfectly adherent cohesive law is implicitly treated within an explicit time-stepping scheme, resulting in an analytical determination of interface tractions if appropriate discrete spaces are used. Implementation is validated on a tapered DCB test. Extension to quadratic elements is then investigated. For stress-free cracks, it was found that a subdivision into quadratic sub-cells is needed for optimality. Theory expects enriched quadrature to be necessary for distorted sub-cells, but this could not be observed in practice. For adherent interfaces, a novel discrete multiplier space was proposed which has both numerical stability and produces quadratic convergence if used along with quadratic sub-cells. (author)

  12. 78 FR 37327 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Designation of Critical Habitat for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... (published in the Federal Register on July 1, 1994 (59 FR 34271)), the Information Quality Act (section 515... hemlock (Circuta douglasii), field mint (Mentha arvense), asters (Aster spp.), or cutleaf...

  13. Expectorant and Antitussive Effects of Tatarian Aster (Asler lalar,Lul) and lts Active Constituents%紫菀祛痰镇咳作用及其有效部位和有效成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢艳花; 戴岳; 王峥涛; 徐珞珊

    1999-01-01

    对紫菀祛痰镇咳作用进行了系统实验研究,发现紫菀水煎剂、石油醚及醇提液中乙酸乙酯提取物部分都明显增加小鼠呼吸道酚红排泄,而醇提液中正丁醇提取及剩余母液却无明显影响,提示紫菀祛痰作用的有效部位为石油醚、乙酸乙酯部分.从以上两部位中分得的紫菀酮、表木栓醇单体亦表现出明显祛痰作用,表明紫菀祛痰作用的有效成分至少包括紫菀酮、表木栓醇.紫菀水煎剂对小鼠氨水致咳没表现出明显镇咳作用,而紫菀酮、表木栓醇却显著抑制小鼠的咳嗽反应.

  14. Studies on expectorant compounds in volatile oil from root and rhizome of Aster tataricus%紫菀挥发油中祛痰活性化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨滨; 王永炎; 肖永庆; 梁日欣; 王若菁; 李文; 张村; 曹莹; 王谦鹏; 王岚

    2008-01-01

    目的:对紫菀挥发油中祛痰活性化学成分进行研究.方法:用气.质联用法分析挥发油成分;另以硅胶薄层色谱法进行纯化,得到单体化合物,根据各种有机波谱鉴定其结构.同时以酚红法进行祛痰活性研究.结果:以气-质联用法鉴定了7个化合物,分别是(R)-(-)-p-menth-1-en-4-ol(1),2-undecanone(2),n-decanoic acid (3),(-)-spathulenol(4),hexahydrofarnesyl acetone(5),hexadecanoic acid(6),cis-9,cis-12-octadecadienoic acid(7);分离鉴定1-乙酰基-反式-2-烯-4,6-癸二炔(8),具有祛痰作用.结论:紫菀挥发油中的主要成分1-乙酰基-反式-2-烯-4,6-癸二炔具有祛痰作用.

  15. Posouzení výsledků chovu a stavu příbuzenské plemenitby u stáda huculských koní z farmy Aster

    OpenAIRE

    Prajzlerová, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The Hucul horse is a breed of small mountain horse from the Tarpanic subfamily. Its name origins from the name of Romania-Ruthenian hedrsmen called "Huculs". From the immemorial, Hucul was raised half-wild and in very hard conditions in the Carpathian plains. During the 70´s the total amount of hucul horser decreased to about 300 hucul horses on whole planet. Team around Otakar Leiský and Dr Hrabánek bought four old mares from Muráň stud farm – 1 Colga, 3 Dalma, 5 Galba and 4 Edda and stallio...

  16. Comparison of in-situ measurements and satellite-derived surface emissivity over Italian volcanic areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Malvina; Musacchio, Massimo; Cammarano, Diego; Fabrizia Buongiorno, Maria; Amici, Stefania; Piscini, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    In this work we compare ground measurements of emissivity collected during dedicated fields campaign on Mt. Etna and Solfatara of Pozzuoli volcanoes and acquired by means of Micro-FTIR (Fourier Thermal Infrared spectrometer) instrument with the emissivity obtained by using single ASTER data (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer, ASTER 05) and the ASTER emissivity map extract from ASTER Global Emissivity Database (GED), released by LP DAAC on April 2, 2014. The database was developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology. The database includes land surface emissivity derived from ASTER data acquired over the contiguous United States, Africa, Arabian Peninsula, Australia, Europe, and China. Through this analysis we want to investigate the differences existing between the ASTER-GED dataset (average from 2000 to 2008 seasoning independent) and fall in-situ emissivity measurement. Moreover the role of different spatial resolution characterizing ASTER and MODIS, 90mt and 1km respectively, by comparing them with in situ measurements, is analyzed. Possible differences can be due also to the different algorithms used for the emissivity estimation, Temperature and Emissivity Separation algorithm for ASTER TIR band( Gillespie et al, 1998) and the classification-based emissivity method (Snyder and al, 1998) for MODIS. Finally land surface temperature products generated using ASTER-GED and ASTER 05 emissivity are also analyzed. Gillespie, A. R., Matsunaga, T., Rokugawa, S., & Hook, S. J. (1998). Temperature and emissivity separation from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) images. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 36, 1113‑1125. Snyder, W.C., Wan, Z., Zhang, Y., & Feng, Y.-Z. (1998). Classification-based emissivity for land surface temperature measurement from space. International Journal of Remote Sensing

  17. Interface colloidal robotic manipulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aronson, Igor; Snezhko, Oleksiy

    2015-08-04

    A magnetic colloidal system confined at the interface between two immiscible liquids and energized by an alternating magnetic field dynamically self-assembles into localized asters and arrays of asters. The colloidal system exhibits locomotion and shape change. By controlling a small external magnetic field applied parallel to the interface, structures can capture, transport, and position target particles.

  18. Toxicokinetics and pathology of plant-associated acute selenium toxicosis in steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixteen of about 500 yearling steers died of acute selenium (Se) toxicosis after grazing Se contaminated range for only a few days. Field studies and chemical analyses identified the predominant toxic plant as western aster (Aster ascendens), which contained over 4,000 ppm Se. Several dead animals...

  19. Millisecond X-ray Star Tracker Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CrossTrac Engineering, in cooperation with its subcontractors Dr Suneel Sheikh of ASTER Labs, Inc, and Mr Paul Graven of Cateni, Inc, proposes to develop a next...

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U02501-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ) Aster yellows witches'-broom phytoplasma AYWB, co... 38 0.006 12 ( FG289263 ) 1108793295629 New World Scre...FG290297 ) 1108793315558 New World Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 44 9.4 1 ( FE7256

  1. Spatial Vegetation Data Version 2.0a for Shenandoah National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This map depicts 35 USNVC vegetation association classes for Shenandoah National Park developed from AVIRIS hyperspectral imagery, ASTER multispectral imagery and...

  2. Characterizing regional soil mineral composition using spectroscopyand geostatistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, V.L.; de Bruin, S.; Weyermann, J.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Schaepman, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    This work aims at improving the mapping of major mineral variability at regional scale using scale-dependent spatial variability observed in remote sensing data. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and statistical methods were combined with laboratory-based mineral characterization of field samples to create maps of the distributions of clay, mica and carbonate minerals and their abundances. The Material Identification and Characterization Algorithm (MICA) was used to identify the spectrally-dominant minerals in field samples; these results were combined with ASTER data using multinomial logistic regression to map mineral distributions. X-ray diffraction (XRD)was used to quantify mineral composition in field samples. XRD results were combined with ASTER data using multiple linear regression to map mineral abundances. We testedwhether smoothing of the ASTER data to match the scale of variability of the target sample would improve model correlations. Smoothing was donewith Fixed Rank Kriging (FRK) to represent the mediumand long-range spatial variability in the ASTER data. Stronger correlations resulted using the smoothed data compared to results obtained with the original data. Highest model accuracies came from using both medium and long-range scaled ASTER data as input to the statistical models. High correlation coefficients were obtained for the abundances of calcite and mica (R2 = 0.71 and 0.70, respectively). Moderately-high correlation coefficients were found for smectite and kaolinite (R2 = 0.57 and 0.45, respectively). Maps of mineral distributions, obtained by relating ASTER data to MICA analysis of field samples, were found to characterize major soil mineral variability (overall accuracies for mica, smectite and kaolinite were 76%, 89% and 86% respectively). The results of this study suggest that the distributions of minerals and their abundances derived using FRK-smoothed ASTER data more closely match the spatial

  3. Use of NASA Satellite Data to Improve Coastal Cypress Forest Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurce, Joseph; Graham, William; Barras, John

    2010-01-01

    Problem: Information gaps exist regarding health status and location of cypress forests in coastal Louisiana (LA). Such information is needed to aid coastal forest conservation and restoration programs. Approach to Issue Mitigation: Use NASA data to revise cypress forest cover type maps. Landsat and ASTER data. Use NASA data to identify and track cypress forest change. Landsat, ASTER, and MODIS data. Work with partners and end-users to transfer useful products and technology.

  4. Spatial Organization of Cytokinesis Signaling Reconstituted in a Cell-Free System*

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Phuong A.; Groen, Aaron C.; Loose, Martin; Ishihara, Keisuke; Wühr, Martin; Field, Christine M.; Mitchison, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    During animal cell division, the cleavage furrow is positioned by microtubules that signal to the actin cortex at the cell midplane. We developed a cell-free system to recapitulate cytokinesis signaling using cytoplasmic extract from Xenopus eggs. Microtubules grew out as asters from artificial centrosomes and met to organize antiparallel overlap zones. These zones blocked interpenetration of neighboring asters and recruited cytokinesis midzone proteins including the Chromosoma...

  5. Synergistic Use of Thermal Infrared Field and Satellite Data: Eruption Detection, Monitoring and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The ASTER-based observational success of active volcanic processes early in the Terra mission later gave rise to a funded NASA program designed to both increase the number of ASTER scenes following an eruption and perform the ground-based science needed to validate that data. The urgent request protocol (URP) system for ASTER grew out of this initial study and has now operated in conjunction with and the support of the Alaska Volcano Observatory, the University of Alaska Fairbanks, the University of Hawaii, the USGS Land Processes DAAC, and the ASTER science team. The University of Pittsburgh oversees this rapid response/sensor-web system, which until 2011 had focused solely on the active volcanoes in the North Pacific region. Since that time, it has been expanded to operate globally with AVHRR and MODIS and now ASTER visible and thermal infrared (TIR) data are being acquired at numerous active volcanoes around the world. This program relies on the increased temporal resolution of AVHRR/MODIS midwave infrared data to trigger the next available ASTER observation, which results in ASTER data as frequently as every 2-5 days. For many new targets such as Mt. Etna, the URP has increased the observational frequency by as much 50%. Examples of these datasets will be presented, which have been used for operational response to new eruptions as well as longer-term scientific studies. These studies include emplacement of new lava flows, detection of endogenous dome growth, and interpretation of hazardous dome collapse events. As a means to validate the ASTER TIR data and capture higher-resolution images, a new ground-based sensor has recently been developed that consists of standard FLIR camera modified with wavelength filters similar to the ASTER bands. Data from this instrument have been acquired of the lava lake at Kilauea and reveal differences in emissivity between molten and cooled surfaces confirming prior laboratory results and providing important constraints on lava

  6. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11056-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available search space used: 374608907761 Neighboring words threshold: 12 Window for multiple hits: 40 X1: 16 ( 7.3 bi... |pid:none) Malaysian periwinkle yellows phyto... 57 2e-06 AM260525_1821( AM260525 |pid:none) Bartonella tri...e) Zea mays full-length cDNA clone ZM... 62 7e-08 CP000061_182( CP000061 |pid:none) Aster yellows witches'-b...( DQ111953 |pid:none) Phytoplasma sp. CPh FliA (fliA) ge... 60 4e-07 CP000061_223( CP000061 |pid:none) Aster yellows wi...3( CP000061 |pid:none) Aster yellows witches'-broom phy... 53 4e-05 AM260525_376( AM260525 |pid:none) Barton

  7. Great Wall of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This ASTER sub-image covers a 12 x 12 km area in northern Shanxi Province, China, and was acquired January 9, 2001. The low sun angle, and light snow cover highlight a section of the Great Wall, visible as a black line running diagonally through the image from lower left to upper right. The Great Wall is over 2000 years old and was built over a period of 1000 years. Stretching 4500 miles from Korea to the Gobi Desert it was first built to protect China from marauders from the north.This image is located at 40.2 degrees north latitude and 112.8 degrees east longitude.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud morphology and physical properties, wetlands Evaluation, thermal pollution monitoring, coral reef degradation, surface temperature mapping of soils and geology, and measuring surface

  8. Optimization of the concrete delayed deformations by Kalman filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imperviousness of French nuclear power plants containments has to secure radioactive products confinement during incident or accident. Temporal evolution of containments is obtained through the numerical model Code Aster that purpose is to detect if some fissure could appear and as a consequence, imperviousness lost. In parallel, sensors are placed all around the containments to follow real time deformations. In this paper, Kalman filter analysis of an extensometer data is used to optimize eight parameters of the numerical model Code Aster. This method allows us to improve the concrete delayed behaviors modelization and supplies uncertainties to the forecast of the containment evolution. (author)

  9. Optimization of the concrete delayed deformations by Kalman filter; Optimisation des deformations differees du beton par filtre de Kalman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastien Massart [CERFACS / URA 1875, 42 Avenue Gaspard Coriolis, 31057 Toulouse Cedex 01, (France)

    2005-07-01

    Imperviousness of French nuclear power plants containments has to secure radioactive products confinement during incident or accident. Temporal evolution of containments is obtained through the numerical model Code Aster that purpose is to detect if some fissure could appear and as a consequence, imperviousness lost. In parallel, sensors are placed all around the containments to follow real time deformations. In this paper, Kalman filter analysis of an extensometer data is used to optimize eight parameters of the numerical model Code Aster. This method allows us to improve the concrete delayed behaviors modelization and supplies uncertainties to the forecast of the containment evolution. (author)

  10. Transmission of phytoplasmas associated with full blossom disease in Ribes rubrum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špak, Josef; Přibylová, Jaroslava; Kubelková, Darina; Špaková, Vlastimila

    Leueven 1 : ISHS Acta Horticulturea, 2008 - (Martin, R.), s. 67-70 ISBN 978-90-6605-038-9. ISSN 0567-7572. [International Symposium on Small Fruit Virus Diseases /11./. Antalya (TR), 22.05.2006-26.05.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : currant * aster yellows phytoplasma * Ribes rubrum Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  11. A regional view of fluctuations in glacier length in southern South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez, P.; Chevallier, P.; Favier, V.; Pouyaud, B.; Ordenes, F.; Oerlemans, J.

    2010-01-01

    Fluctuations in the length of 72 glaciers in the Northern and Southern Patagonia Icefield (NPI and SPI, respectively) and the Cordillera Darwin Icefield (CDI) were estimated between 1945 and 2005. The information obtained from historical maps based on 1945 aerial photographs was compared to ASTER an

  12. Use of UAS remote sensing data to estimate crop ET at high spatial resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estimation of the spatial distribution of evapotranspiration (ET) based on remotely sensed imagery has become useful for managing water in irrigated agricultural at various spatial scales. However, data acquired by conventional satellites (Landsat, ASTER, etc.) lack the spatial resolution to capture...

  13. 76 FR 44564 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of Seven Listed Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... florentina FR 24062). curtisii. PLANTS Decurrent false aster Boltonia Threatened U.S.A. (IL, MO).. November... April 28, 1976 Southeastern (41 FR 17736). U.S.A. Bat, Indiana Myotis sodalis... Endangered Eastern and March 11, 1967 Midwestern U.S.A. (32 FR 4001). Snake, copperbelly water....... Nerodia Threatened...

  14. TWO STAGE INTERCONNECTION NETWORK ARCHITECTURE FOR LINEAR ARRAYS, BINARY TREES, AND CUBES

    OpenAIRE

    Lala, P.; Tyagi, M.; Foster, J.

    1996-01-01

    A two stage interconnection network architecture has been proposed 77?w architecture is reconfigurable into a linear array, binary tree and a cube. To speed up the communication process among the nodes and switches, a 20 bit register has been incorporated in each switch. This architecture makes the interconnection network more flexible and/aster in comparison to multistage interconnection networks.

  15. Phenolic composition of selected herbal infusions and their anti-inflammatory effect on a colonic model in vitro in HT-29 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Elda Herrera-Carrera; Martha Rocío Moreno-Jiménez; Nuria Elizabeth Rocha-Guzmán; José Alberto Gallegos-Infante; Jesús Omar Díaz-Rivas; Claudia Ivette Gamboa-Gómez; Rubén Francisco González-Laredo

    2015-01-01

    Some herbal infusions used in folk medicine in Mexico to treat gastrointestinal disorders were evaluated. Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds were analyzed on the lyophilized aqueous crude extracts (LACE) of arnica (Aster gymnocephalus), chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile), cumin (Cominum cyminum), desert resurrection plant (DRP) (Selaginella lepidophylla), laurel (Listea glaucescens), marjoram (Origanum majorana), mint (Mentha spicata), salvilla (Buddleia scordioides) and yerbaniz (Tagete...

  16. Comparing techniques for vegetation classification using multi- and hyperspectral images and ancillary environmental data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluiter, R; Pebesma, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper evaluates the predictive power of innovative and more conventional statistical classification techniques. We use Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETMþ), Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and airborne imaging spectrometer (HyMap) images to class

  17. THE USE OF RECYCLED SOLID AUTOMOTIVE PAINT WASTES AS INGREDIENTS IN AUTOMOTIVE SEALANT PRODUCTS - PHASE II

    Science.gov (United States)

    About 75,000,000 lbs of paint sludge is generated by the U.S. automotive industry each year. This type of waste and (similar streams from other industries) make significant contributions to landfills. The solution proposed by ASTER, Inc., proven feasible during the Phase I of thi...

  18. Satellite Maps Deliver More Realistic Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    When Redwood City, California-based Electronic Arts (EA) decided to make SSX, its latest snowboarding video game, it faced challenges in creating realistic-looking mountains. The solution was NASA's ASTER Global Digital Elevation Map, made available by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, which EA used to create 28 real-life mountains from 9 different ranges for its award-winning game.

  19. Mapping Equus kiang (Tibetan Wild Ass) Habitat in Surkhang, Upper Mustang, Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, B.D.; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Graaf, de N.R.; Chapagain, N.R.

    2004-01-01

    The present paper describes land cover classification and habitat mapping for the Tibetan wild ass (Equus kiang), also commonly known as kiang, in the Surkhang VDC, Upper Mustang, Nepal. Remote sensing techniques were applied for this classification, employing an ASTER satellite image from October 2

  20. Rifte Guaritas basin compartmentation in Camaqua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study contributes to the knowledge of the tectonic evolution of the Guaritas rift basin in Camaqua. Were used aero magnetic geophysical data for modeling the geometry and the depth of the structures and geological units. The research was supported in processing and interpretation of Aster images (EOS-Terra), which were extracted from geophysical models and digital image

  1. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06849-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2_092 Ceratonia siliqua flowers cDNA... 44 4.7 1 ( CP000061 ) Aster yellows witches'-broom phytoplasma AYWB,... 4.7 1 ( DR393671 ) USDA-FP_153604 Adult Alate Aphis gossypii (WHAGA)... 44 4.7 1 ( FD381772 ) CeSi_F3_T7_C1

  2. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13968-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available d norma... 46 4.5 1 ( FG666559 ) G1142P326FN16.T0 Anolis carolinensis pooled norma... 46 4.5 1 ( EY451819 ) CBAZ5347.rev CBAZ Tubifex... tubifex Embryos and juv... 46 4.5 1 ( CP000061 ) Aster

  3. Drug: D09138 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rpenoid [CPD:C06085], Friedelin [CPD:C08626], Shionone, Triterpenoid saponin, Astersaponin, Quercetin [CPD:C...ophyllol acetate, Astersaponin, Essential oil Aster tataricus [TAX:588669] Same a...00389], Prosapogenin, epi-Friedelanol [CPD:C17123], Lachnophyllol [CPD:C17965], Anethole [CPD:C10428], Lachn

  4. Environ: E00205 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available noid [CPD:C06085], Friedelin [CPD:C08626], Shionone, Triterpenoid saponin, Astersaponin, Quercetin [CPD:C003...89], Prosapogenin, epi-Friedelanol [CPD:C17123], Lachnophyllol [CPD:C17965], Anethole [CPD:C10428], Lachnophyllol acetate, Astersapon...in, Essential oil Aster tataricus [TAX:588669] Same as:

  5. Vooral chrysant en radijs zijn vatbaar: Rhizoctonia veroorzaakt voet- en wortelrot

    OpenAIRE

    M. Arkesteijn; Paternotte, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani is een algemeen voorkomende bodemschimmel, die vooral schade veroorzaakt aan het begin van de teelt. Het is de veroorzaker van voet- en wortelrot in diverse groenten en bloemen in de vollegrond, zoals sla, chrysant, aster, hortensia, celosia en trachelium. In teeltbedden komt de ziekte in mindere mate voor en in steenwol niet.

  6. Improving multispectral mapping by spectral modeling with hyperspectral signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Fred A.; Perry, Sandra L.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) data in the 0.4 - 2.5 micrometer spectral range allow direct identification of materials using their spectral signatures, however, spatial coverage is limited. Multispectral Imaging (MSI) data are spectrally undersampled and may not allow unique identification, but they do provide synoptic spatial coverage. We have developed an approach that uses coincident HSI/MSI data to extend mineral mapping to larger areas. Hyperspectral data are used to model and extend signatures to multispectral Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emmission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data. Analysis consists of 1. Atmospheric correction of both the hyperspectral and multispectral data, 2. Analysis of the hyperspectral data to determine spectral endmembers and their spatial distributions, 3. Spectral modeling to convert the hyperspectral signatures to the multispectral response, and 4. Analysis of the MSI data to extend mapping to the larger spatial coverage of the multispectral data. Comparing overlapping area with extensive field verification shows that ASTER mineral mapping using these methods approaches 70% accuracy compared to HSI for selected minerals. Spot checking of extended ASTER mapping results also shows good correspondence. While examples shown are specific to ASTER Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) data, the approach could also be used for other multispectral sensors and spectral ranges.

  7. Evaluation of land surface reflectance and emissivity spectra retrieved from MASTER data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugisaki, Takashi; Tonooka, Hideyuki

    2008-10-01

    The MODIS/ASTER (MASTER) airborne simulator which has fifty bands in the visible to the thermal-infrared spectral regions was developed mainly to support the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER) and the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument teams in the areas of algorithm development, calibration and validation, but its wide spectral capability is also useful for other studies such as geology, environmental monitoring, and land management. Currently, only MASTER product distributed to users is a level-1B at-sensor radiance product, so that if a user needs surface reflectance and/or emissivity/temperature, the user should apply atmospheric correction to a level-1B product. Thus in the present study, we derived surface reflectance and emissivity spectra from MASTER data acquired over Railroad Valley Playa, NV/USA, by atmospheric correction with various atmospheric sources like Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) products, and then compared with in-situ measured spectra for both reflective and emissive regions. Calibration errors in the reflective region which caused discrepancy from the in-situ spectra were reduced by adjusting the MASTER radiance to ASTER and MODIS radiances at the top of the atmosphere. We also compared the spectral similarity in the reflective region versus that in the emissive region, for MASTER spectra, and the spectra of ASTER spectral library and in-situ spectra, as an example of discrimination analysis using both reflective and emissive bands.

  8. Internal Ocean Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Internal waves are waves that travel within the interior of a fluid. The waves propagate at the interface or boundary between two layers with sharp density differences, such as temperature. They occur wherever strong tides or currents and stratification occur in the neighborhood of irregular topography. They can propagate for several hundred kilometers. The ASTER false-color VNIR image off the island of Tsushima in the Korea Strait shows the signatures of several internal wave packets, indicating a northern propagation direction. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Size: 60 by 120 kilometers (37.2 by 74.4 miles) Location: 34.6 degrees North latitude, 129.5 degrees East longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 3, 2, and 1 Original Data Resolution: 90

  9. Evaluation of Land Surface Temperature Retrieval from FY-3B/VIRR Data in an Arid Area of Northwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxiong Jiang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the refined Generalized Split-Window (GSW algorithm to derive the land surface temperature (LST from the data acquired by the Visible and Infrared Radiometer on FengYun 3B (FY-3B/VIRR. The coefficients in the GSW algorithm corresponding to a series of overlapping ranges for the mean emissivity, the atmospheric Water Vapor Content (WVC, and the LST are derived using a statistical regression method from the numerical values simulated with an accurate atmospheric radiative transfer model MODTRAN 4 over a wide range of atmospheric and surface conditions. The GSW algorithm is applied to retrieve LST from FY-3B/VIRR data in an arid area in northwestern China. Three emissivity databases are used to evaluate the accuracy of different emissivity databases for LST retrieval, including the ASTER Global Emissivity Database (ASTER_GED at a 1-km spatial resolution (AG1km, an average of twelve ASTER emissivity data in the 2012 summer and emissivity spectra extracted from spectral libraries. The LSTs retrieved from the three emissivity databases are evaluated with ground-measured LST at four barren surface sites from June 2012 to December 2013 collected during the HiWATER field campaign. The results indicate that using emissivity extracted from ASTER_GED can achieve the highest accuracy with an average bias of 1.26 and −0.04 K and an average root mean square error (RMSE of 2.69 and 1.38 K for the four sites during daytime and nighttime, respectively. This result indicates that ASTER_GED is a useful emissivity database for generating global LST products from different thermal infrared data and that using FY-3B/VIRR data can produce reliable LST products for other research areas.

  10. Effect of DEM resolution on SWAT outputs of runoff, sediment and nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Digital Elevation Models (DEMs have been successfully used in a large range of environmental issues. Several methods such as digital contour interpolation and remote sensing have allowed the generation of DEMs, some of which are now freely available for almost the entire globe. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT is a widely used semi-distributed model operating at the watershed level and has previously been shown to be very sensitive to the quality of the input topographic information. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of DEMs generated from different data sources, respectively DLG5m (local Digital Line Graph, 5 m interval, ASTER30m (1 arc-s ASTER Global DEM Version 1, approximately 30 m resolution, and SRTM90m (3 arc-s SRTM Version 4, approximately 90 m resolution, on SWAT predictions for runoff, sediment, total phosphor (TP and total nitrogen (TN. Eleven resolutions, from 5 m to 140 m, were considered in this study. Results indicate that the predictions of TPs and TNs decreased substantially with coarser resampled resolution. Slightly decreased trends could be found in the predicted sediments when DEMs were resampled to coarser resolutions. Predicted runoffs were not sensitive to resampled resolutions. The predicted outputs based on DLG5m were more sensitive to resampled resolutions than those based on ASTER30m and SRTM90m. At original resolutions, the predicted outputs based on ASTER30m and SRTM90m were similar, but the predicted TNs and TPs based on ASTER30m and SRTM90m were much lower than the one based on DLG5m. For the predicted TNs and TPs, which were substantially sensitive to DEM resolutions, the output accuracies of SWAT derived from ASTER30m and SRTM90m could be improved by down-scaled resampling, but they could not improve on finer DEM (DLG5m at the same resolution. This study helps GIS environmental model users to understand the sensitivities of SWAT to DEM resolution, and choose feasible DEM data for

  11. Volcanic Eruptions in Kamchatka

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Sheveluch Stratovolcano Click on the image for full resolution TIFF Klyuchevskoy Stratovolcano Click on the image for full resolution TIFF One of the most volcanically active regions of the world is the Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Siberia, Russia. It is not uncommon for several volcanoes to be erupting at the same time. On April 26, 2007, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radioneter (ASTER) on NASA's Terra spacecraft captured these images of the Klyuchevskoy and Sheveluch stratovolcanoes, erupting simultaneously, and 80 kilometers (50 miles) apart. Over Klyuchevskoy, the thermal infrared data (overlaid in red) indicates that two open-channel lava flows are descending the northwest flank of the volcano. Also visible is an ash-and-water plume extending to the east. Sheveluch volcano is partially cloud-covered. The hot flows highlighted in red come from a lava dome at the summit. They are avalanches of material from the dome, and pyroclastic flows. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and

  12. Oahu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This 60 by 55 km ASTER scene shows almost the entire island of Oahu, Hawaii on June 3, 2000. The data were processed to produce a simulated natural color presentation. Oahu is the commercial center of Hawaii and is important to United States defense in the Pacific. Pearl Harbor naval base is situated here. The chief agricultural industries are the growing and processing of pineapples and sugarcane. Tourism also is important to the economy. Among the many popular beaches is the renowned Waikiki Beach, backed by the famous Diamond Head, an extinct volcano. The largest community, Honolulu, is the state capital.The image is located at 21.5 degrees north latitude and 158 degrees west longitude. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud morphology and physical properties, wetlands Evaluation

  13. Meiotic analysis of the germoplasm of three medicinal species from Asteraceae family Análise meiótica do germoplasma de três espécies medicinais da família Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Olkoski

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic characterization was carried out on 12 accessions from Aster squamatus (Spreng. Hieron., Pterocaulon polystachyum DC, and Solidago microglossa DC by studying their meiotic behavior and pollen viability. These species are from the Asteraceae family, native to Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, and are important for medicinal use. Young inflorescences with four accessions of each species were collected, fixed in ethanol-acetic acid (3:1, and conserved in ethanol 70% until use. The method used was that of squashing the anthers and coloring with acetic orcein 2%. Meiosis was regular in all accessions, presenting chromosomal associations preferentially bivalent, where n=10 was found for Aster squamatus and n=9 for Pterocaulon polystachyum, and Solidago microglossa. The studied accessions presented a Meiotic Index (MI that varied from 65% to 87% in Aster squamatus, 85% to 92% in Pterocaulon polystachyum, and 64% to 92% in Solidago microglossa, indicating meiotic stability, although irregularities appeared during the cellular division. The pollen viability estimative was high in all studied accessions. These results indicate that the studied species can be included in future studies of genetic breeding.Foi realizada a caracterização citogenética de doze acessos de Aster squamatus, Pterocaulon polystachyum e Solidago microglossa, espécies da família Asteraceae, nativas do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, por meio do estudo do comportamento meiótico e da viabilidade polínica, que possuem grande importância para uso medicinal. Inflorescências jovens de quatro acessos de cada espécie foram fixadas em álcool-ácido acético (3:1 e conservadas em álcool 70% até o uso. O método utilizado foi o de esmagamento de anteras e a coloração com orceína acética 2%. A meiose foi regular em todos os acessos, apresentando associações cromossômicas preferencialmente em bivalentes, encontrando-se n=10 para Aster squamatus e n=9 para Pterocaulon

  14. Study of land surface temperature and spectral emissivity using multi-sensor satellite data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P K Srivastava; T J Majumdar; Amit K Bhattacharya

    2010-02-01

    In this study, an attempt has been made to estimate land surface temperatures (LST) and spectral emissivities over a hard rock terrain using multi-sensor satellite data. The study area, of about 6000 km2, is a part of Singhbhum–Orissa craton situated in the eastern part of India. TIR data from ASTER, MODIS and Landsat ETM+ have been used in the present study. Telatemp Model AG-42D Portable Infrared Thermometer was used for ground measurements to validate the results derived from satellite (MODIS/ASTER) data. LSTs derived using Landsat ETM+ data of two different dates have been compared with the satellite data (ASTER and MODIS) of those two dates. Various techniques, viz., temperature and emissivity separation (TES) algorithm, gray body adjustment approach in TES algorithm, Split-Window algorithms and Single Channel algorithm along with NDVI based emissivity approach have been used. LSTs derived from bands 31 and 32 of MODIS data using Split-Window algorithms with higher viewing angle (50°) (LST1 and LST2) are found to have closer agreement with ground temperature measurements (ground LST) over waterbody, Dalma forest and Simlipal forest, than that derived from ASTER data (TES with AST 13). However, over agriculture land, there is some uncertainty and difference between the measured and the estimated LSTs for both validation dates for all the derived LSTs. LST obtained using Single Channel algorithm with NDVI based emissivity method in channel 13 of ASTER data has yielded closer agreement with ground measurements recorded over vegetation and mixed lands of low spectral contrast. LST results obtained with TIR band 6 of Landsat ETM+ using Single Channel algorithm show close agreement over Dalma forest, Simlipal forest and waterbody with LSTs obtained using MODIS and ASTER data for a different date. Comparison of LSTs shows good agreement with ground measurements in thermally homogeneous area. However, results in agriculture area with less homogeneity show

  15. Fire in Southern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The last major fire in southern Greece was brought under control this weekend, but not until over 469,000 acres of mostly forest and farmland were destroyed. An estimated 4000 people lost their homes, and over 60 deaths were reported. These were the worst fires ever to occur in Greece. In this Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image acquired September 4 over the western coast of the Peloponnesus Peninsula, burned areas appear in dark red, and unburned vegetation is green. The area includes the ancient site of Olympia, the site of the Olympic Games in classical times. The fires came within 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) of the archaeological site, but spared it. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Size: 56.4 by 63.5 kilometers (35 by 39

  16. College Fjord, Prince Williams Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The College Fjord with its glaciers was imaged by ASTER on June 24, 2000.This image covers an area 20 kilometers (13 miles) wide and 24 kilometers (15 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. College Fjord is located in Prince Williams Sound, east of Seward, Alaska. Vegetation is in red, and snow and ice are white and blue. Ice bergs calved off of the glaciers can be seen as white dots in the water. At the head of the fjord, Harvard Glacier (left) is one of the few advancing glaciers in the area; dark streaks on the glacier are medial moraines: rock and dirt that indicate the incorporated margins of merging glaciers. Yale Glacier to the right is retreating, exposing (now vegetated) bedrock where once there was ice. On the west edge of the fjord, several small glaciers enter the water. This fjord is a favorite stop for cruise ships plying Alaska's inland passage.This image is located at 61.2 degrees north latitude and 147.7 degrees west longitude. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with

  17. Spatial characterization of land surface energy fluxes and uncertainty estimation at the Salar de Atacama, Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, Stephanie K.; Tyler, Scott W.

    2006-02-01

    We use Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER) data to estimate spatial energy flux and evaporation distributions at the Salar de Atacama, a playa in Northern Chile. Our approach incorporates ASTER surface kinetic temperature, emissivity, and reflectance data, ground-based meteorological measurements, and empirical parameters. Energy flux distributions are estimated using either spatially constant or spatially distributed values of model parameters, with spatially distributed parameters assigned separately to each land cover category in an image classification. We test the sensitivity of energy budget calculations to state variable and parameter values by conducting Monte Carlo simulations for regions with ground energy budget measurements. Results show that assigning spatially distributed model parameters via land cover classifications yields significant improvements to ground and sensible heat flux predictions. Latent heat fluxes cannot, however, be predicted with sufficient accuracy to allow estimation of area-integrated evaporative moisture loss at this low-evaporation playa.

  18. Determination for regional differences of agriculture using satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, G.

    2006-12-01

    Remote Sensing Laboratory, Field Science Center, Graduate School of Agriculture Science, Tohoku University starts at April 2004. For studies and education at the laboratory we are now developing the system of remote sensing and GIS. Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center (ERSDAC) made the Home Pages of Terra/ASTER Image Web Library 3 "The Major Airport of the World." http://www.Ersdac.or.jp/ASTERimage3/library_E.html. First, we check the Airport Data to use agricultural understanding for the world. Almost major airport is located in rural area and surrounded with agriculture field. To survey the agriculture field adjacent to the major airport has almost the same condition of human activities. The images are same size and display about 18km X 14km. We can easily understand field size and surrounding conditions. We study seven airports as follows, 1. Tokyo Narita Airport (NRT), Japan, 2. Taipei Chiang kai Shek International Airport (TPE), Taiwan, 3. Bangkok International Airport (BKK), Thailand, 4. Riyadh King Khalid International Airport (RUH), Saudi Arabia, 5. Charles de Gaulle Airport (CDG), Paris, France, 6. Vienna International Airport (VIE), Austria, 7. Denver International Airport (DEN), CO, USA. At the area of Tokyo Narita Airport, there are many golf courses, big urban area and small size of agricultural fields. At Taipei Airport area are almost same as Tokyo Narita Airport area and there are many ponds for irrigations. Bangkok Airport area also has golf courses and many ponds for irrigation water. Riyadh Airport area is quite different from others, and there are large bare soils and small agriculture fields with irrigation and circle shape. Paris Airport area and Vienna Airport area are almost agricultural fields and there are vegetated field and bare soil fields because of crop rotation. Denver Airport area consists of almost agriculture fields and each field size is very large. The advantages of ASTER data are as follows, 1. High-resolution and large

  19. Pembuatan Digital Elevation Model Resolusi 10m dari Peta RBI dan Survei GPS dengan Algoritma Anudem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indarto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes the generation of Digital Elevation Model (DEM with spatial resolution of 10m x 10m by re-interpolation of elevation data. Data input for this study includes: (1 digitized datum coordinate from RBI map, (2 sample points surveyed by GPS, (3 digitized contour data fromSRTM DEM and ASTER GDEM2, and (4 digitized stream-network layer from RBI. All collected data were converted to mass point coordinats. On the top of Topogrid-ArcGIS, all points data were interpolated to produce DEM. After that the produced DEM were compared and evaluated to the SRTM and ASTER DEMvisually. The result shows that produced DEM are more accurate to represent the detailed topography of the study areas.

  20. Data Access, Discovery and Interoperability in the European Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Francoise

    2015-12-01

    European Virtual Observatory (VO) activities have been coordinated by a series of projects funded by the European Commission. Three pillar were identified: support to the data providers for implementation of their data in the VO framework; support to the astronomical community for their usage of VO-enabled data and tools; technological work for updating the VO framework of interoperability standards and tools. A new phase is beginning with the ASTERICS cluster project. ASTERICS Work Package "Data Access, Discovery and Interoperability" aims at making the data from the ESFRI projects and their pathfinders available for discovery and usage, interoperable in the VO framework and accessible with VO-enabled common tools. VO teams and representatives of ESFRI and pathfinder projects and of EGO/VIRGO are engaged together in the Work Package. ESO is associated to the project which is also working closely with ESA. The three pillars identified for coordinating Europaen VO activities are tackled.

  1. Mount Vesuvius, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image of Mt. Vesuvius, Italy was acquired September 26, 2000. The full-size false-color image covers an area of 36 by 45 km. Vesuvius overlooks the city of Naples and the Bay of Naples in central Italy. (Popocatepetl and Mount Fuji are other volcanos surrounded by dense urban areas.) In 79 AD, Vesuvius erupted cataclysmically, burying all of the surrounding cites with up to 30 m of ash. The towns of Pompeii and Herculanaeum were rediscovered in the 18th century, and excavated in the 20th century. They provide a snapshot of Roman life from 2000 years ago: perfectly preserved are wooden objects, food items, and the casts of hundreds of victims. Vesuvius is intensively monitored for potential signs of unrest that could signal the beginning of another eruption. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  2. EXTERNAL FEATURES OF CYPSELAS OF SOME SPECIES OF COMPOSITAE, WITH THE HELP OF LM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidyut Kr. Jana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the detailed external features of cypselas in 9 species belonging to 7 genera of the family Compositae. All the studied species exhibit different external features. Except Inula ensifolia, all the studied species are homomorphic. Morphologically, pappus structure is also important. In the cypsela ofTelekia speciosa, Aster alpinus , scaly pappus are present. In the cypsela of Elephantopus carolinianus, sitae type of pappus is present. In the cypselas of remaining studied species, barbellate pappus bristles are present. Layer of carpopodial cells are also variable and varies from 1-7 layers in studied species. In the cypselaof Aster alpines, stylopodium is enlarge and prominent. Among the studied cypselas, some cypselas are with slightly curved ( Inula ensifolia, Inula Britannica, Inula helenium in direction. Surface hairs are alwase, biseriately forked type. An artificial key is presented here to recognize the studied taxa at the specific level.

  3. The effect of rates of sedimentation and tidal submersion regimes on the growth of salt marsh plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boorman, Laurence A.; Hazelden, J.; Boorman, M.

    2001-12-01

    A system of tidal mesocosms has been constructed in order to determine interactions between rates of accretion and duration of inundation. Plants are grown in three tanks in which different tidal regimes are simulated by a system of electronically controlled pumps. Sediment is added to give four different rates of accretion and the mesocosms are run under controlled greenhouse conditions. To date experiments have been conducted with seedlings of Salicornia europaea and Aster tripolium. The longest duration of immersion reduces the growth rate of root and shoot of Salicornia seedlings but Aster was unaffected by 5 h submersion daily. Both species, however, responded positively to all rates of sediment addition up to the equivalent of 60 mm per year. The implication of these findings are discussed in relation to salt marsh development.

  4. Dynamical Self-regulation in Self-propelled Particle Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Gopinath, Arvind; Marchetti, M Cristina; Baskaran, Aparna

    2011-01-01

    We study a continuum model of overdamped self-propelled particles with an aligning interaction in two dimensions. By combining analytical and numerical work, we map out the phase diagram for generic parameters. We find that the system self-organizes into two robust structures in different regions of parameter space: solitary waves of ordered swarms moving through a low density disordered background, and stationary asters. The self-regulating nature of the flow yields phase separation, ubiquitous in this class of systems, and controls the formation of solitary waves. Self-propulsion and the associated active convection play a crucial role in aster formation. A new result of our work is a phase diagram that displays these different regimes in a unified manner.

  5. [Analysis on principle of treatment of cough of yan zhenghua based on apriori and clustering algorithm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia-Rui; Guo, Wei-Xian; Zhang, Xiao-Meng; Yang, Bing; Zhang, Bing

    2014-02-01

    Based on the data mining methods of association rules and clustering algorithm, the 188 prescriptions for cough that built by Yan Zhenghua were collected and analyzed to get the frequency of drug usage and the relationship between drugs. From which we could conclude the experiences of Yan Zhenghua for the treatment of cough. The results of the analysis were that 20 core combinations were dig out, such as Bambusae Caulis in Taenias-Almond-Sactmarsh Aster. And there were 10 new prescriptions were found out, such as Sactmarsh Aster-Scutellariae Radix-Album Viscum-Bambusae Caulis in Taenian-Eriobotryae Folium. The results of the analysis were proved that Yan Zhenghua was good at curing cough by using the traditional Chinese medicine that can dispel wind and heat from the body, and remove heat from the lung to relieve cough. PMID:25204134

  6. JPL Mission Bibliometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppin, Ann

    2013-01-01

    For a number of years ongoing bibliographies of various JPL missions (AIRS, ASTER, Cassini, GRACE, Earth Science, Mars Exploration Rovers (Spirit & Opportunity)) have been compiled by the JPL Library. Mission specific bibliographies are compiled by the Library and sent to mission scientists and managers in the form of regular (usually quarterly) updates. Charts showing publications by years are periodically provided to the ASTER, Cassini, and GRACE missions for supporting Senior Review/ongoing funding requests, and upon other occasions as a measure of the impact of the missions. Basically the Web of Science, Compendex, sometimes Inspec, GeoRef and Aerospace databases are searched for the mission name in the title, abstract, and assigned keywords. All get coded for journal publications that are refereed publications.

  7. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Level 1 Precision Terrain Corrected Registered At-Sensor Radiance (AST_L1T) Product, algorithm theoretical basis document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, David; Siemonsma, Dawn; Brooks, Barbara; Johnson, Lowell

    2015-01-01

    This document provides an overview of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) supplemental algorithms in conjunction with the reuse of Landsat geometric algorithms modified by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) to create an ASTER Level 1 Precision Terrain Corrected Registered At-Sensor Radiance (AST_L1T) product. Implementation of these algorithms occurs within the AST_L1T product generation executable (PGE) as part of the open source Simple, Scalable, Script-based Science Processor for Missions (S4PM) processing software subsystem. The AST_L1T algorithms include the following: Generation of the AST_L1A input product via supplemental algorithms

  8. Detection of Surface Temperature Anomalies in the Coso Geothermal Field Using Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolbaugh, M.; Eneva, M.; Bjornstad, S.; Combs, J.

    2007-12-01

    We use thermal infrared (TIR) data from the spaceborne ASTER instrument to detect surface temperature anomalies in the Coso geothermal field in eastern California. The identification of such anomalies in a known geothermal area serves as an incentive to search for similar markers to areas of unknown geothermal potential. We carried out field measurements concurrently with the collection of ASTER images. The field data included reflectance, subsurface and surface temperatures, and radiosonde atmospheric profiles. We apply techniques specifically targeted to correct for thermal artifacts caused by topography, albedo, and thermal inertia. This approach has the potential to reduce data noise and to reveal thermal anomalies which are not distinguishable in the uncorrected imagery. The combination of remote sensing and field data can be used to evaluate the performance of TIR remote sensing as a cost-effective geothermal exploration tool.

  9. Meteor Crater, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The Barringer Meteorite Crater (also known as 'Meteor Crater') is a gigantic hole in the middle of the arid sandstone of the Arizona desert. A rim of smashed and jumbled boulders, some of them the size of small houses, rises 50 m above the level of the surrounding plain. The crater itself is nearly a 1500 m wide, and 180 m deep. When Europeans first discovered the crater, the plain around it was covered with chunks of meteoritic iron - over 30 tons of it, scattered over an area 12 to 15 km in diameter. Scientists now believe that the crater was created approximately 50,000 years ago. The meteorite which made it was composed almost entirely of nickel-iron, suggesting that it may have originated in the interior of a small planet. It was 50 m across, weighed roughly 300,000 tons, and was traveling at a speed of 65,000 km per hour. This ASTER 3-D perspective view was created by draping an ASTER bands 3-2-1image over a digital elevation model from the US Geological Survey National Elevation Dataset.This image was acquired on May 17, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, along

  10. What's in an elevation difference? Accuracy and corrections of satellite elevation data sets for quantification of glacier changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuth, C.; Kääb, A.

    2010-10-01

    There is an increasing number of DEMs available worldwide for deriving elevation differences over time, including vertical changes on glaciers. Most of these DEMs are heavily post-processed or merged, so that physical error modelling becomes impossible and statistical error modelling is required instead. We propose a three-step methodological framework for assessing and correcting DEMs to quantify glacier elevation changes: remove DEM shifts, check for elevation-dependent biases, and check for higher-order, sensor-specific biases. An analytic, simple and robust method to co-register elevation data is presented in regions where stable terrain is either plentiful (case study New Zealand) or limited (case study Svalbard). The method is exemplified using the three global elevation data sets available, SRTM, ICESat and the ASTER GDEM, and with automatically generated DEMs from satellite stereo instruments of ASTER and SPOT5-HRS. After three-dimensional co-registration, significant biases related to elevation were found in some of the stereoscopic DEMs. Biases related to the satellite acquisition geometry (along/cross track) were detected at two frequencies in the automatically generated ASTER DEMs. The higher frequency bias seems to be related to satellite emph{jitter}, most effective in the back-looking pass of the satellite. The origins of the more significant lower frequency bias is uncertain. ICESat-derived elevations are found to be the most consistent globally available elevation data set available so far. Before performing regional-scale glacier elevation change studies or mosaicking DEMs from multiple individual tiles (e.g. ASTER GDEM), we recommend to co-register all elevation data to ICESat as a global vertical reference system. The proposed methodological framework is exemplified for elevation changes on the Fox, Franz Joseph, Tasman and Murchison glaciers of New Zealand and the glaciers of central Spitsbergen, Svalbard.

  11. Co-registration and bias corrections of satellite elevation data sets for quantifying glacier thickness change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Nuth

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available There are an increasing number of digital elevation models (DEMs available worldwide for deriving elevation differences over time, including vertical changes on glaciers. Most of these DEMs are heavily post-processed or merged, so that physical error modelling becomes difficult and statistical error modelling is required instead. We propose a three-step methodological framework for assessing and correcting DEMs to quantify glacier elevation changes: (i remove DEM shifts, (ii check for elevation-dependent biases, and (iii check for higher-order, sensor-specific biases. A simple, analytic and robust method to co-register elevation data is presented in regions where stable terrain is either plentiful (case study New Zealand or limited (case study Svalbard. The method is demonstrated using the three global elevation data sets available to date, SRTM, ICESat and the ASTER GDEM, and with automatically generated DEMs from satellite stereo instruments of ASTER and SPOT5-HRS. After 3-D co-registration, significant biases related to elevation were found in some of the stereoscopic DEMs. Biases related to the satellite acquisition geometry (along/cross track were detected at two frequencies in the automatically generated ASTER DEMs. The higher frequency bias seems to be related to satellite jitter, most apparent in the back-looking pass of the satellite. The origins of the more significant lower frequency bias is uncertain. ICESat-derived elevations are found to be the most consistent globally available elevation data set available so far. Before performing regional-scale glacier elevation change studies or mosaicking DEMs from multiple individual tiles (e.g. ASTER GDEM, we recommend to co-register all elevation data to ICESat as a global vertical reference system.

  12. Co-registration and bias corrections of satellite elevation data sets for quantifying glacier thickness change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuth, C.; Kääb, A.

    2011-03-01

    There are an increasing number of digital elevation models (DEMs) available worldwide for deriving elevation differences over time, including vertical changes on glaciers. Most of these DEMs are heavily post-processed or merged, so that physical error modelling becomes difficult and statistical error modelling is required instead. We propose a three-step methodological framework for assessing and correcting DEMs to quantify glacier elevation changes: (i) remove DEM shifts, (ii) check for elevation-dependent biases, and (iii) check for higher-order, sensor-specific biases. A simple, analytic and robust method to co-register elevation data is presented in regions where stable terrain is either plentiful (case study New Zealand) or limited (case study Svalbard). The method is demonstrated using the three global elevation data sets available to date, SRTM, ICESat and the ASTER GDEM, and with automatically generated DEMs from satellite stereo instruments of ASTER and SPOT5-HRS. After 3-D co-registration, significant biases related to elevation were found in some of the stereoscopic DEMs. Biases related to the satellite acquisition geometry (along/cross track) were detected at two frequencies in the automatically generated ASTER DEMs. The higher frequency bias seems to be related to satellite jitter, most apparent in the back-looking pass of the satellite. The origins of the more significant lower frequency bias is uncertain. ICESat-derived elevations are found to be the most consistent globally available elevation data set available so far. Before performing regional-scale glacier elevation change studies or mosaicking DEMs from multiple individual tiles (e.g. ASTER GDEM), we recommend to co-register all elevation data to ICESat as a global vertical reference system.

  13. What's in an elevation difference? Accuracy and corrections of satellite elevation data sets for quantification of glacier changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Nuth

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing number of DEMs available worldwide for deriving elevation differences over time, including vertical changes on glaciers. Most of these DEMs are heavily post-processed or merged, so that physical error modelling becomes impossible and statistical error modelling is required instead. We propose a three-step methodological framework for assessing and correcting DEMs to quantify glacier elevation changes: remove DEM shifts, check for elevation-dependent biases, and check for higher-order, sensor-specific biases. An analytic, simple and robust method to co-register elevation data is presented in regions where stable terrain is either plentiful (case study New Zealand or limited (case study Svalbard. The method is exemplified using the three global elevation data sets available, SRTM, ICESat and the ASTER GDEM, and with automatically generated DEMs from satellite stereo instruments of ASTER and SPOT5-HRS. After three-dimensional co-registration, significant biases related to elevation were found in some of the stereoscopic DEMs. Biases related to the satellite acquisition geometry (along/cross track were detected at two frequencies in the automatically generated ASTER DEMs. The higher frequency bias seems to be related to satellite emph{jitter}, most effective in the back-looking pass of the satellite. The origins of the more significant lower frequency bias is uncertain. ICESat-derived elevations are found to be the most consistent globally available elevation data set available so far. Before performing regional-scale glacier elevation change studies or mosaicking DEMs from multiple individual tiles (e.g. ASTER GDEM, we recommend to co-register all elevation data to ICESat as a global vertical reference system. The proposed methodological framework is exemplified for elevation changes on the Fox, Franz Joseph, Tasman and Murchison glaciers of New Zealand and the glaciers of central Spitsbergen, Svalbard.

  14. Scientometric diagnosis of the use of remote sensing images in Landscape Ecology studies - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i1.8444

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Cristina Sarragiotto; Evanilde Benedito

    2012-01-01

    This work analyzed the implementation of images from the remote sensors ASTER, CBERS, IKONOS, LANDSAT, MODIS, NOAA, QUICKBIRD and SPOT in Brazilian and international Landscape Ecology studies, developed between 1991 and July 2009. The study analyzed works published in article form using the ISI Web of Knowledge website, and theses and dissertations from the “Thesis Database” at CAPES (Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Ensino Superior). A total of 124 Brazilian and 144 international...

  15. The Effects of Spatial Resolution, Spectral Resolution, and SNR on Geologic Mapping Using Hyperspectral Data, Northern Grapevine Mountains, Nevada

    OpenAIRE

    Kruse, Fred A.

    2000-01-01

    A variety of multispectral and hyperspectral data have been collected for a site in the northern Grapevine Mountains, Nevada, spanning the period 1982 - 1999. Results described here are for both high and low altitude Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data, HyMap, and MODIS/ASTER Airborne Simulator (MASTER) data. These data have been analyzed separately, however, no detailed comparison of the information extracted from each dataset or the reasons for differenc...

  16. QUALITY TEST VARIOUS EXISTING DEM IN INDONESIA TOWARD 10 METER NATIONAL DEM

    OpenAIRE

    Amhar, Fahmi

    2016-01-01

    Indonesia has various DEM from many sources and various acquisition date spreaded in the past two decades. There are DEM from spaceborne system (Radarsat, TerraSAR-X, ALOS, ASTER-GDEM, SRTM), airborne system (IFSAR, Lidar, aerial photos) and also terrestrial one. The research objective is the quality test and how to extract best DEM in particular area. The method is using differential GPS levelling using geodetic GPS equipment on places which is ensured not changed during past 20 yea...

  17. Interventi di ingegneria genetica per aumentare la produzione di metaboliti vegetali con attività biocida

    OpenAIRE

    Pecchia, Paola

    2008-01-01

    Nelle piante sono presenti numerosi metaboliti con attività biocida tra cui le saponine triterpenoidiche, implicate nei meccanismi di difesa della pianta. La loro attività biologica, principalmente legata all’interazione con le membrane cellulari, si manifesta inibendo la crescita di funghi, batteri, insetti e nematodi. Tre nuove saponine triterpenoidiche, Astersedifolioside A, B, C, identificate nella specie Aster sedifolius, mostrano un’inibizione della crescita di funghi fitopatogeni tellu...

  18. AcEST: DK955456 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available aster GN=sls PE... 31 4.2 sp|Q8R368|DYXC1_MOUSE Dyslexia susceptibility 1 candida... >sp|Q8R368|DYXC1_MOUSE Dyslexia susceptibility 1 candidate gene 1 protein homolog OS=Mus musculus GN=Dyx1c1...KPRLQP 164 F E +M +S R ++LE+QR Q + W+ + +P+LQP Sbjct: 5137 FITTEDVNIMHVSER-EKLEAQRLIREQQAVNWRQQQQRPQLQP 5179

  19. Bioethical Issues of Nanotechnology at a Glance

    OpenAIRE

    M Aala; Larijani, B; F Zahedi

    2008-01-01

    Nanotechnology is considered as an industrial revolution of the third millennium. Advances have a remarkable impact on differ¬ent fields such as medicine, engineering, economy and even politics. However, a wide range of ethical issues has been raised by this innovative science. Many authorities believe that these advancements could lead to irreversible dis¬asters if not lim¬ited by ethical guidelines. Involvement of developing countries in new fields of science could b...

  20. Analyzing the anisotropy of thermal infrared emissivity over arid regions using a new MODIS land surface temperature and emissivity product (MOD21)

    OpenAIRE

    García Santos, Vicente; Coll Company, César; Valori Micó, Enric; Niclòs Corts, Raquel; Caselles Miralles, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    The MOD21 Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST&E) product will be included in forthcoming Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Collection 6. Surface temperature and emissivities for thermal bands 29 (8.55 μm), 31 (11 μm) and 32 (12 μm) will be retrieved using the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Temperature and Emissivity Separation (TES) method adapted to MODIS at-sensor spectral radiances, previously corrected with the Water Vap...

  1. Assessing the impact of different sources of topographic data on 1-D hydraulic modelling of floods

    OpenAIRE

    A. Md Ali; D. P. Solomatine; G. Di Baldassarre

    2014-01-01

    Topographic data, such as digital elevation models (DEMs), are essential input in flood inundation modelling. DEMs can be derived from several sources either through remote sensing techniques (space-borne or air-borne imagery) or from traditional methods (ground survey). The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), the Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), and topographic contour maps are some of the ...

  2. Assessing the impact of different sources of topographic data on 1-D hydraulic modelling of floods

    OpenAIRE

    A. Md Ali; D. P. Solomatine; G. Di Baldassarre

    2015-01-01

    Topographic data, such as digital elevation models (DEMs), are essential input in flood inundation modelling. DEMs can be derived from several sources either through remote sensing techniques (spaceborne or airborne imagery) or from traditional methods (ground survey). The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), the light detection and ranging (lidar), and topographic contour maps are some of the mo...

  3. EXTERNAL FEATURES OF CYPSELAS OF SOME SPECIES OF COMPOSITAE, WITH THE HELP OF LM

    OpenAIRE

    Bidyut Kr. Jana; Sobhan Kr. Mukherjee

    2012-01-01

    The present study deals with the detailed external features of cypselas in 9 species belonging to 7 genera of the family Compositae. All the studied species exhibit different external features. Except Inula ensifolia, all the studied species are homomorphic. Morphologically, pappus structure is also important. In the cypsela ofTelekia speciosa, Aster alpinus , scaly pappus are present. In the cypsela of Elephantopus carolinianus, sitae type of pappus is present. In the cypselas of remaining s...

  4. Analytically derived conversion of spectral band radiance to brightness temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berk, Alexander [Spectral Sciences, Inc., 44th Avenue, Burlington, MA 01803 (United States)], E-mail: lex@spectral.com

    2008-05-15

    Simple analytic expressions for brightness temperature have been derived in terms of band response function spectral moments. Accuracy measures are also derived. Application of these formulas to GOES-12 Sounder thermal infrared bands produces brightness temperature residuals between -5.0 and 2.5 mK for a 150-400 K temperature range. The magnitude of residuals for the five ASTER Radiometer thermal infrared bands over the same temperature range is less than 0.22 mK.

  5. The contribution of vegetation cover and bare soil to pixel reflectance in an arid ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, C. M.; Smith, A.; Campanella, A.; Rango, A.

    2008-12-01

    The heterogeneity of vegetation and soils in arid and semi-arid environments complicates the analysis of medium spatial resolution remotely sensed imagery. A single pixel may contain several different types of vegetation, as well as a sizeable proportion of bare soil. We have used linear mixture modeling to explore the contribution of vegetation cover and bare soil to pixel reflectance. In October, 2006, aerial imagery (0.25 m spatial resolution) was acquired for our study sites in the Jornada Experimental Range, southern New Mexico. Imagery was also acquired from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) for June and November, 2006. These data corresponded with pre- and post monsoon conditions. Object-based feature extraction was used to classify the aerial imagery to shrub, grass and bare ground cover classes. Percent cover was then calculated for each cover class. Visible-near-infrared and shortwave infrared ASTER reflectance data from both dates were combined into a single 18-band dataset (30 m spatial resolution). A vector overlay from the classification results of the aerial imagery was used to define pure endmember pixels in the ASTER imagery. Estimates of the proportions of shrub, grass and bare ground cover from the linear mixture modeling approach were compared with cover calculated using feature extraction from the aerial imagery. The results indicate that reflectance in ASTER pixels is likely to be a linear combination of the cover proportions of the three main cover types (shrubs, grass, bare ground). However, noticeable outliers in the relationship between cover calculated from each method, indicate there may be other variables that affect the accuracy with which we can estimate cover using linear mixture modeling.

  6. A Study on New Pochonka Published in A.D. 1792

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sang-Hyeon

    2009-12-01

    New Pochonka published in the eighteenth century of the Choson dynasty was composed of star-charts based on the new observations made by Jesuits in China and songs corrected a little bit from previous version of Pochonka. The asterisms in the previous Pochonka are listed in the same order to that in the Song dynasty's literature; while the asterisms in the new Pochonka are listed in accordance with Pu-tien-ko published in China after the Ming dynasty. The Chinese-style twelve-equatorial-section system is adopted in the new Pochonka, while in its song is adopted the zodiac system, which can be seen in the star-charts of previous version of Pochonka. The asterisms belonging to three or four neighboring lunar-mansions are drawn in one chart. Each chart covers asterisms not belonging to a certain range of right ascension, but to a certain lunar mansion. We estimate the forming era of the new Pochonka from the following facts; that the Ling-Tai-I-Hsiang-Chih was used to make charts and footnotes whose archetype can be found in the Chinese literature around A.D. 1700, that these Chinese books were imported into Choson in A.D. 1709, that the naming taboo to the emperor Khang-Hsi was used, that the order of Shen-Hsiu (參宿) was transposed with Tshui-Hsiu (자宿), and that the new Pochonka was substituted for the old version when the rules of Royal Astronomical Bureau was reformed in A.D. 1791. In conclusion, the parent sources of the charts and footnotes of the new Pochonka might be imported from the Ching dynasty around 1709 A.D. to form the new Pochonka between A.D. 1709 and A.D. 1791, and finally to be published in A.D. 1792. We discuss the possible future works to make a firm conclusion.

  7. SOL-MapReduce获专利 大数据进入新时代

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    专注于数据仓库,大数据分析和整合营销管理解决方案的厂商Teradata天睿公司(Teradata Corporation)的子公司Aster Data日前宣布,其SQL Map Reduce技术获得了美国第7966340号专利。

  8. A comparison of Landsat 8 (OLI) and Landsat 7 (ETM+) in mapping geology and visualising lineaments: A case study of central region Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Mwaniki, M. W.; M. S. Moeller; G. Schellmann

    2015-01-01

    Availability of multispectral remote sensing data cheaply and its higher spectral resolution compared to remote sensing data with higher spatial resolution has proved valuable for geological mapping exploitation and mineral mapping. This has benefited applications such as landslide quantification, fault pattern mapping, rock and lineament mapping especially with advanced remote sensing techniques and the use of short wave infrared bands. While Landsat and Aster data have been used to...

  9. Pemetaan Indeks Stabilitas Tanah Menggunakan SINMAP di Sub-DAS Rawatamtu

    OpenAIRE

    Aulia Nafiza Andalina; Hamid Ahmad; Indarto

    2014-01-01

    The research shows the application of Soil Stability Index Mapping (SINMAP) to predict the potential of landslide hazard. The study was conducted at Rawatamtu sub-Watershed, located at Jember Regency. Input data for this study are: (1) digital elevation model (DEM), (2) physical preperties of soil, (3) rainfall data, and (4) other GIS layers collected from the study area. The DEM was obtained from ASTER GDEM2. SINMAP calculate the soil stability index based on combination effect of: slope sta...

  10. DEVELOPING TROPICAL LANDSLIDE SUSCEPTIBILITY MAP USING DINSAR TECHNIQUE OF JERS-1 SAR DATA

    OpenAIRE

    Alimuddin, Ilham

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive information in natural disaster area is essential to prevent and mitigate people from further damage that might occur before and after such event. Mapping this area is one way to comprehend the situation when disaster strikes. Remote sensing data have been widely used along with GIS to create a susceptibility map. The objective of this study was to develop existing landslides susceptibility map by integrating optical satellite images of Landsat ETM and ASTER with Japanese Earth ...

  11. Progress in Understanding the Impacts of 3-D Cloud Structure on MODIS Cloud Property Retrievals for Marine Boundary Layer Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhibo; Werner, Frank; Miller, Daniel; Platnick, Steven; Ackerman, Andrew; DiGirolamo, Larry; Meyer, Kerry; Marshak, Alexander; Wind, Galina; Zhao, Guangyu

    2016-01-01

    Theory: A novel framework based on 2-D Tayler expansion for quantifying the uncertainty in MODIS retrievals caused by sub-pixel reflectance inhomogeneity. (Zhang et al. 2016). How cloud vertical structure influences MODIS LWP retrievals. (Miller et al. 2016). Observation: Analysis of failed MODIS cloud property retrievals. (Cho et al. 2015). Cloud property retrievals from 15m resolution ASTER observations. (Werner et al. 2016). Modeling: LES-Satellite observation simulator (Zhang et al. 2012, Miller et al. 2016).

  12. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U02210-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available truncatula clone mth2-49j14, WORKING DRA... 38 7.1 6 ( CP000061 ) Aster yellows witches'-broom phytoplasma ...abase: 630,428,194 Effective search space: 156346192112 Effective search space used: 156346192112 Neighborin...tketffdsssreqpkftntsmcsskc*nmnnidclel *iifllllshlilvelngpndkackllfnindnsivstfniiykspsiklv*li*nkevf kyyw*gfll...*lvlmfisflkeiglvpkeiietgfsaydti*qkc*tf kciimiwiniidlgktikesiptwyh*lks**ylkklrlrsssalqilntdnlktltith knh*tiis...g words threshold: 12 Window for multiple hits: 40 X1: 16 ( 7.3 bits) X2: 38 (14.

  13. An Ancient Egyptian Diagonal Star Table in Mallawi, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, Sarah; Cockcroft, Robert

    2013-11-01

    A coffin belonging to an Egyptian Middle Kingdom official Hor-em-hetepu, on public display in the Mallawi Monuments Museum, Egypt, contains a previously-unpublished diagonal star table (or "diagonal star clock"). This table adds to the other twenty-four examples of this type of astronomical record or calendar from around 2100 B.C. The table displays a regular diagonal pattern of decan (star or asterism) names, with some interesting points of content, epigraphy, and typology.

  14. Globally aligned states and hydrodynamic traffic jams in confined active suspensions

    OpenAIRE

    Lefauve, Adrien; Saintillan, David

    2013-01-01

    Strongly confined active liquids are subject to unique hydrodynamic interactions due to momentum screening and lubricated friction by the confining walls. Using numerical simulations, we demonstrate that 2D dilute suspensions of fore-aft asymmetric polar swimmers in a Hele-Shaw geometry can exhibit a rich variety of novel phase behaviors depending on particle shape, including: coherent polarized density waves with global alignment, stationary asters, persistent counter-rotating vortices, dens...

  15. Mapping Glacial Weathering Processes with Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing: A Case Study at Robertson Glacier, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, A. M.; Christensen, P. R.; Shock, E.; Canovas, P. A., III

    2014-12-01

    Geologic weathering processes in cold environments, especially subglacial chemical processes acting on rock and sediment, are not well characterized due to the difficulty of accessing these environments. Glacial weathering of geologic materials contributes to the solute flux in meltwater and provides a potential source of energy to chemotrophic microbes, and is thus an important component to understand. In this study, we use Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data to map the extent of glacial weathering in the front range of the Canadian Rockies using remotely detected infrared spectra. We ground-truth our observations using laboratory infrared spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and geochemical analyses of field samples. The major goals of the project are to quantify weathering inputs to the glacial energy budget, and to link in situ sampling with remote sensing capabilities. Robertson Glacier, Alberta, Canada is an excellent field site for this technique as it is easily accessible and its retreating stage allows sampling of fresh subglacial and englacial sediments. Infrared imagery of the region was collected with the ASTER satellite instrument. At that same time, samples of glacially altered rock and sediments were collected on a downstream transect of the glacier and outwash plain. Infrared laboratory spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction were used to determine the composition and abundance of minerals present. Geochemical data were also collected at each location, and ice and water samples were analyzed for major and minor elements. Our initial conclusion is that the majority of the weathering seems to be occurring at the glacier-rock interface rather than in the outwash stream. Results from both laboratory and ASTER data indicate the presence of leached weathering rinds. A general trend of decreasing carbonate abundances with elevation (i.e. residence time in ice) is observed, which is consistent with increasing calcium ion

  16. KAJIAN: KHASIAT DAN KEAMANAN STEVIA SEBAGAI PEMANIS PENGGANTI GULA

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Raini; Ani Isnawati

    2012-01-01

    The increasing of diabetic prevalence encouraged scientists to discover sweetener  as sugar substitution. Stevia is a perenial shrub (known as Stevia rebaudiana) of the aster family that has been used for hundred of years to sweetening. Stevia is a natural, non caloric, sweet tasting plant known for its pleasant sweet taste without leaving bitter aftertaste.  The leaves contain primarily stevioside and rebaudioside. Both have potential for  antihyperlicemic and blood pressure lowering effect....

  17. Detection of land cover changes in El Rawashda forest, Sudan: A systematic comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Nori, Wafa

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this research was to evaluate the potential for monitoring forest change using Landsat ETM and Aster data. This was accomplished by performing eight change detection algorithms: pixel post-classification comparison (PCC), image differencing Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), Transformed Difference Vegetation Index (TDVI), principal component analysis (PCA), multivariate alteration detection (MAD), change vector analys...

  18. Vaccine development and new attempts of treatment for ragweed allergy

    OpenAIRE

    El-Qutob, David

    2015-01-01

    Ragweeds are flowering plants in the genus Ambrosia in the aster family, Asteraceae. They are distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions of the New World, especially North America. Short ragweed is the most important weed. The ragweed flowering occurs late in the summer and the pollination period extends from the beginning of August to mid-October. Sensitization to ragweed pollen has risen in United States in the past decade and probably worldwide. The major allergenic compound in th...

  19. Investigation of alteration zones, geochemistry and petrogenesis of the Chahshaljami prospect, Easthern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Arjmandzadeh, R.; M. H. Karimpour; Mazaheri, S. A.; Santos, J. F.; Medina, J. M.; Homam, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    Chahshalghami mineral index is located 190 km to the south of Birjand in the Lut Block volcanic-plutonic belt. Intrusive rocks of Chahshalghami include quartz monzonite, monzonite, granodiorite and diorite and classified as volcanic arc granites, high-K calc alkaline to shoshonite rocks. Processing Aster Satellite image has detected alteration minerals such as alunite, jarusite, chlorite, dickite, sericite, montmorillonite, quartz and iron oxide. Silicic, sulfide and stockwork zones show anom...

  20. A new glacier inventory for 2009 reveals spatial and temporal variability in glacier response to atmospheric warming in the Northern Antarctic Peninsula, 1988–2009

    OpenAIRE

    M. J. Hambrey; N. F. Glasser; Carrivick, J. L.; Davies, B.J.; Smellie, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    The Northern Antarctic Peninsula has recently exhibited ice-shelf disintegration, glacier recession and acceleration. However, the dynamic response of land-terminating, ice-shelf tributary and tidewater glaciers has not yet been quantified or assessed for variability, and there are sparse published data for glacier classification, morphology, area, length or altitude. This paper firstly uses ASTER images from 2009 and a SPIRIT DEM from 2006 to classify the area, length, altitude, slop...

  1. Mass movement susceptibility mapping using satellite optical imagery compared with InSAR monitoring: Zigui County, Three Gorges region, China

    OpenAIRE

    Kincal, C.; Singleton, A.; Li, Z.; Drummond, J.; Hoey, T.; Muller, J; Qu, W; Zeng, Q.; Zhang, J.; Du, P

    2010-01-01

    Mass movements on steep slopes are a major hazard to communities and infrastructure in the Three Gorges region, China. Developing susceptibility maps of mass movements is therefore very important in both current and future land use planning. This study employed satellite optical imagery and an ASTER GDEM (15 m) to derive various parameters (namely geology; slope gradient; proximity to drainage networks and proximity to lineaments) in order to create a GIS-based map of ...

  2. Pathogenicity of eight formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. in relation to different plants species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Wagner

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Eight formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum were isolated from plants of aster, flax, bean, pea, tomato, carnation, yellow lupine and pine, showing visible symptoms of wilting. Plants of the eight species were inoculated with each of the studied formae speciales of F. oxysporum, F. oxysporum f. sp. lupini could be reisolated only from lupine, while the others were pathogenic for the hosts and showed ability to colonize another plants.

  3. Pathogenicity of eight formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. in relation to different plants species

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Wagner

    2014-01-01

    Eight formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum were isolated from plants of aster, flax, bean, pea, tomato, carnation, yellow lupine and pine, showing visible symptoms of wilting. Plants of the eight species were inoculated with each of the studied formae speciales of F. oxysporum, F. oxysporum f. sp. lupini could be reisolated only from lupine, while the others were pathogenic for the hosts and showed ability to colonize another plants.

  4. Landcover classification: western Kenya, 2010.

    OpenAIRE

    Wardrop, Nicola A.

    2015-01-01

    Landcover classifications were produced for an area of western Kenya based on ASTER (15m spatial resolution) and Landsat (30m spatial resolution) imagery from 2010 and 2011. The land cover classification was carried out in a hierarchical manner, resulting in two overarching classes (a) vegetated land (versus built up and bare ground) and (b) flooding land (versus non-flooding land); and five lower level classes (c) agricultural land and grassland, (d) swamp, (e) trees and shrubs, (f) rice and...

  5. Accessing, Utilizing and Visualizing NASA Remote Sensing Data for Malaria Modeling and Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Richard K.; Adimi, Farida; Kempler, Steven

    2007-01-01

    This poster presentation reviews the use of NASA remote sensing data that can be used to extract environmental information for modeling malaria transmission. The authors discuss the remote sensing data from Landsat, Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Earth Observing One (EO-1), Advanced Land Imager (ALI) and Seasonal to Interannual Earth Science Information Partner (SIESIP) dataset.

  6. Monitoring Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Rice Planting Area in the Yangtze River Delta Region Using MODIS Images

    OpenAIRE

    Jingjing Shi; Jingfeng Huang

    2015-01-01

    A large-area map of the spatial distribution of rice is important for grain yield estimations, water management and an understanding of the biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nitrogen. In this paper, we developed the Normalized Weighted Difference Water Index (NWDWI) for identifying the unique characteristics of rice during the flooding and transplanting period. With the aid of the ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model and the phenological data observed at agrometeorological stations, the sp...

  7. Identifying Land Use/Cover Dynamics in the Koga Catchment, Ethiopia, from Multi-Scale Data, and Implications for Environmental Change

    OpenAIRE

    Günter Blöschl; Dagnachew Legesse; Michael Exner-Kittridge; Wolfgang Wagner; Eleni Yeshaneh

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed more than 50 years of land cover and land use changes in the 260 km2 Koga catchment in North Western Ethiopia. The data used includes 1:50,000 scale aerial photographs, Landsat MSS, TM and ETM images, and ASTER images together with ground truth data collected through field surveys and community elders’ interviews. Aerial photographs have high spatial resolution but provide lower spectral resolution than satellite data. While most land use/cover change studies compare chang...

  8. Dosadašnje stanje rasprostranjenosti nekih neofita u Hrvatskoj

    OpenAIRE

    Pandža, M.; Franjić, J.; Trinajstić, I.; Škvorc, Ž.; Stančić, Z.

    2001-01-01

    Istraživanjem rasprostranjenosti neofita u Hrvatskoj ukupno je otkriveno 332 novih nalazišta za 21 neofitsku vrstu. Najviše novih nalazišta ima vrsta Bidens subalternans (52), zatim slijede Impatiens glandulifera (49), Aster squamatus (43), Impatiens balfourii (29), Datura inoxia (25), Euphorbia prostrata (11), Galinsoga parviflora (17), Amaranthus albus (14), Galinsoga quadriradiata (15), Diplotaxis erucoides (11), Xanthium strumarium ssp. italicum (9), Phytolacca americana (12), Artemisia v...

  9. Analysis of antidiarrhoeic effect of plants used in popular medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Cybele E. Almeida; Margô G.O. Karnikowski; Rejane Foleto; Bernardo Baldisserotto

    1995-01-01

    People customarily use the extracts of plants known to have antidiarrhoeal effects without any scientific base to explain the action of the extract. For this reason, an investigation was undertaken with a view to determining the efficacy of the effects of the brute aqueous extract (BAE) of the leaves of Psidium guajava (guava), Stachytarpheta cayenensis (bastard vervain), Polygonum punctatum (water. smartweed), Eugenia uniflora (Brazil or Surinam cherry) and Aster squamatus (zé-da-silva) on t...

  10. Consequences of near and far between-population crosses for offspring fitness in a rare herb

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Raabová, J.; Münzbergová, Zuzana; Fischer, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 6 (2009), s. 829-836. ISSN 1435-8603 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD206/03/H137; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA600050623 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : outbreeding depression * breeding system * Aster amellus Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.223, year: 2009

  11. Numerical analysis of temperature field during hardfacing process and comparison with experimental results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić Vukić N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional transient nonlinear thermal analysis of the hard facing process is performed by using the finite element method. The simulations were executed on the open source Salome platform using the open source finite element solver Code_Aster. The Gaussian double ellipsoid was selected in order to enable greater possibilities for the calculation of the moving heat source. The numerical results were compared with available experimental results.

  12. Akebia quinata (Houtt.) Dcne., new species for slovenian flora, and contribution to the knowledge of the neophytic flora of Primorska region

    OpenAIRE

    Fišer Pečnikar, Živa; Glasnović, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses Akebia quinata, a new alien species for the Slovenian flora. The authors provide a description of the species and its locality, and discuss its invasive potential, as in 2008, the species was recognized by the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization as emerging invader in Europe. The authors also discuss the occurrence of several other neophytes in the Primorska region (Slovenia): Amaranthus deflexus, Artemisia annua, Aster squamatus, Bidens pilosa, Bide...

  13. Akebia quinata (Houtt.) Dcne., nova vrsta v slovenski flori, ter prispevek k poznavanju neofitske flore Primorske: Akebia quinata (Houtt.) Dcne., new species for slovenian flora, and contribution to the knowledge of the neophytic flora of Primorska region:

    OpenAIRE

    Fišer Pečnikar, Živa; Glasnović, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The article discusses Akebia quinata, a new alien species for the Slovenian flora. The authors provide a description of the species and its locality, and discuss its invasive potential, as in 2008, the species was recognized by the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization as emerging invader in Europe. The authors also discuss the occurrence of several other neophytes in the Primorska region (Slovenia): Amaranthus deflexus, Artemisia annua, Aster squamatus, Bidens pilosa, Bide...

  14. A sequential model for disaggregating near-surface soil moisture observations using multi-resolution thermal sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Merlin, O.; al Bitar, A.; Walker, J.P.; Kerr, Y.H.

    2009-01-01

    A sequential model is developed to disaggregate microwave-derived soil moisture from 40 km to 4 km resolution using MODIS (Moderate Imaging Spectroradiometer) data and subsequently from 4 km to 500 m resolution using ASTER (Advanced Scanning Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) data. The 1 km resolution airborne data collected during the three-week National Airborne Field Experiment 2006 (NAFE'06) are used to simulate the 40 km pixels, and a thermal-based disaggregation algorithm is ap...

  15. Evaluation of MODIS LST Products Using Longwave Radiation Ground Measurements in the Northern Arid Region of China

    OpenAIRE

    Wenping Yu; Mingguo Ma; Xufeng Wang; Liying Geng; Junlei Tan; Jinan Shi

    2014-01-01

    This study presents preliminary results of the validation of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) daily LST products (MOD/MYD11A1, Version 5) using longwave radiation ground measurements obtained at 12 stations in the North Arid and Semi-Arid Area Cooperative Experimental Observation Integrated Research program. In this evaluation process, the broadband emissivity at each station was obtained from the ASTER Spectral Library or estimated from the MODIS narrowband emissivit...

  16. Distribution, Hosts, and Morphological Characteristics of Tylenchulus palustris in Florida and Bermuda

    OpenAIRE

    Dow, Roberta L.; Inserra, R. N.; Esser, R. P.; Langdon, K. R.

    1990-01-01

    Studies on the geographical distribution and hosts of Tylenchulus palustris were conducted over a 3-year period in Florida and Bermuda. Tylenchulus palustris was found on Aster elliottii and Liquidambar styraciflua roots in swamps of northern and central Florida. It was detected also on Borrichia arborescens and B. frutescens roots in tidal marshes of northern Florida and coastal rocklands of southern Florida and Bermuda. Posterior bodies of T. palustris swollen females from Bermuda did not d...

  17. Active colloids at liquid-liquid interfaces: dynamic self-assembly and functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snezhko, Alexey; Aranson, Igor

    2012-02-01

    Self-assembled materials must actively consume energy and remain out of equilibrium in order to support structural complexity and functional diversity. Colloids of interacting particles suspended at liquid-liquid interfaces and maintained out of equilibrium by external alternating electromagnetic fields develop nontrivial collective dynamics and self-assembly. We use ferromagnetic colloidal micro-particles (so the magnetic moment is fixed in each particle and interactions between colloids is highly anisotropic and directional) suspended over an interface of two immiscible liquids and energized by vertical alternating magnetic fields to demonstrate novel dynamic and active self-assembled structures (``asters'') which are not accessible through thermodynamic assembly. Structures are attributed to the interplay between surface waves, generated at the liquid/liquid interface by the collective response of magnetic microparticles to the alternating magnetic field, and hydrodynamic fields induced in the boundary layers of both liquids forming the interface. Two types of magnetic order are reported. We demonstrate that asters develop self-propulsion in the presence of a small in-plane dc magnetic field. We show that asters can capture, transport, and position target microparticles.

  18. PENGGUNAAN ALGORITMA NDVI DAN EVI PADA CITRA MULTISPEKTRAL UNTUK ANALISA PERTUMBUHAN PADI (STUDI KASUS : KABUPATEN INDRAMAYU, JAWA BARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia Hafizh S

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Kabupaten Indramayu merupakan salah satu kabupaten yang merupakan daerah sentra pertanian dimana sektor ini menyumbang 43% dari total PDRB (Produk Domestik Regional Bruto. Strategi yang tepat dan cepat harus dicanangkan untuk selalu memenuhi kebutuhan akan bahan pokok tersebut. Teknologi penginderaan jauh dapat mengakomodir informasi suatu objek secara cepat dan akurat tanpa harus berinteraksi langsung dengan objek dan dapat dimanfaatkan dalam berbagai aplikasi yang diinginkan. Pembangunan model - model estimasi produktivitas pada beberapa komoditas vegetasi pertanian seperti padi telah digunakan sejak dua dekade lalu. Dari berbagai macam permodelan vegetasi, indeks vegetasi yang paling umum digunakan adalah NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index dan EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah penentuan fase pertumbuhan , masa tanam, dan masa panen tumbuhan padi pada citra MODIS L1B. Masa tanam padi di kabupaten Indramayu berada pada bulan Juni dan Desember 2011, masa panen berada pada bulan  Mei dan September 2011. Citra Aster digunakan sebagai data pendukung untuk menentukan korelasi linear  terhadap data lapangan (fieldspectometer. Korelasi yang dihasilkan Antara Modis - Aster sebesar 0.9576 pada EVI dan 0.9654 pada NDVI; Modis - Fieldspectometer sebesar 0.8798 pada EVI dan 0.9077 pada NDVI; dan pada Aster - Fieldspectometer sebesar 0.9220 pada EVI dan 0.9460 pada NDVI. Korelasi dari ketiga data tersebut memiliki hubungan yang cukup kuat dikarenakan nilai yang dihasilkan mendekati nilai 1.

  19. Decision Tree and Texture Analysis for Mapping Debris-Covered Glaciers in the Kangchenjunga Area, Eastern Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Racoviteanu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study we use visible, short-wave infrared and thermal Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER data validated with high-resolution Quickbird (QB and Worldview2 (WV2 for mapping debris cover in the eastern Himalaya using two independent approaches: (a a decision tree algorithm, and (b texture analysis. The decision tree algorithm was based on multi-spectral and topographic variables, such as band ratios, surface reflectance, kinetic temperature from ASTER bands 10 and 12, slope angle, and elevation. The decision tree algorithm resulted in 64 km2 classified as debris-covered ice, which represents 11% of the glacierized area. Overall, for ten glacier tongues in the Kangchenjunga area, there was an area difference of 16.2 km2 (25% between the ASTER and the QB areas, with mapping errors mainly due to clouds and shadows. Texture analysis techniques included co-occurrence measures, geostatistics and filtering in spatial/frequency domain. Debris cover had the highest variance of all terrain classes, highest entropy and lowest homogeneity compared to the other classes, for example a mean variance of 15.27 compared to 0 for clouds and 0.06 for clean ice. Results of the texture image for debris-covered areas were comparable with those from the decision tree algorithm, with 8% area difference between the two techniques.

  20. Actomyosin dynamics drive local membrane component organization in an in vitro active composite layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köster, Darius Vasco; Husain, Kabir; Iljazi, Elda; Bhat, Abrar; Bieling, Peter; Mullins, R Dyche; Rao, Madan; Mayor, Satyajit

    2016-03-22

    The surface of a living cell provides a platform for receptor signaling, protein sorting, transport, and endocytosis, whose regulation requires the local control of membrane organization. Previous work has revealed a role for dynamic actomyosin in membrane protein and lipid organization, suggesting that the cell surface behaves as an active composite composed of a fluid bilayer and a thin film of active actomyosin. We reconstitute an analogous system in vitro that consists of a fluid lipid bilayer coupled via membrane-associated actin-binding proteins to dynamic actin filaments and myosin motors. Upon complete consumption of ATP, this system settles into distinct phases of actin organization, namely bundled filaments, linked apolar asters, and a lattice of polar asters. These depend on actin concentration, filament length, and actin/myosin ratio. During formation of the polar aster phase, advection of the self-organizing actomyosin network drives transient clustering of actin-associated membrane components. Regeneration of ATP supports a constitutively remodeling actomyosin state, which in turn drives active fluctuations of coupled membrane components, resembling those observed at the cell surface. In a multicomponent membrane bilayer, this remodeling actomyosin layer contributes to changes in the extent and dynamics of phase-segregating domains. These results show how local membrane composition can be driven by active processes arising from actomyosin, highlighting the fundamental basis of the active composite model of the cell surface, and indicate its relevance to the study of membrane organization. PMID:26929326

  1. Spatial Analysis of Environmental Factors Related to Lyme Disease in Alabama by Means of NASA Earth Observation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renneboog, Nathan; Capilouto, Emily G.; Firsing, Stephen L., III; Levy, Kyle; McAllister, Marilyn; Roa, Kathryn; Setia,Shveta; Xie, Lili; Burnett, Donna; Luvall, Jeffrey C.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the epidemiology of Lyme Disease that accounts for more than 95% or vector borne diseases in the United States. The history, symptoms and the life cycle of the tick, the transmitting agent of Lyme Disease, a map that shows the cases reported to the CDC between1990 and 2006 and the number of cases in Alabama by year from 1986 to 2007. A NASA project is described, the goals of which are to (1) Demonstrate the presence of the chain of infection of Lyme disease in Alabama (2) Identify areas with environmental factors that support tick population using NASA Earth Observation Systems data in selected areas of Alabama and (3) Increase community awareness of Lyme disease and recommend primary and secondary prevention strategies. The remote sensing methods included: Analyzed Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and DigitalGlobe Quickbird satellite imagery from summer months and Performed image analyses in ER Mapper 7.1. Views from the ASTER and Quickbird land cover are shown, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) algorithm was applied to all ASTER and Quickbird imagery. The use of the images to obtain the level of soil moisture is reviewed, and this analysis was used along with the NDVI, was used to identify the areas that support the tick population.

  2. Assessment of Reference Height Models on Quality of Tandem-X dem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaee, S.; Motagh, M.; Arefi, H.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of various Global Digital Elevation Models (GDEMs) in producing high-resolution topography model using TanDEM-X (TDX) Coregistered Single Look Slant Range Complex (CoSSC) images. We selected an image acquired on Jun 12th, 2012 over Doroud region in Lorestan, west of Iran and used 4 external digital elevation models in our processing including DLR/ASI X-SAR DEM (SRTM-X, 30m resolution), ASTER GDEM Version 2 (ASTER-GDEMV2, 30m resolution), NASA SRTM Version 4 (SRTM-V4, 90m resolution), and a local photogrammetry-based DEM prepared by National Cartographic Center (NCC DEM, 10m resolution) of Iran. InSAR procedure for DEM generation was repeated four times with each of the four external height references. The quality of each external DEM was initially assessed using ICESat filtered points. Then, the quality of, each TDX-based DEM was assessed using the more precise external DEM selected in the previous step. Results showed that both local (NCC) DEM and SRTM X-band performed the best (RMSE< 9m) for TDX-DEM generation. In contrast, ASTER GDEM v2 and SRTM C-band v4 showed poorer quality.

  3. Antioxidant Activity and Anti-Adipogenic Effects of Wild Herbs Mainly Cultivated in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boo-Yong Lee

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Wild herbs, which are edible plants that grow in mountainous areas, have diverse biological effects such as anti-obesity and anti-cancer activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as the antioxidant activity of methanol extracts of Aster scaber, Ligularia fischeri, Kalopanax pictus, Codonopsis lanceolata, and Cirsium setidens and to assess their effects on lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS production during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells. The results revealed that among the five studied wild herb extracts, Ligularia fischeri showed the highest total phenolic contents (215.8 ± 14.2 mg GAE/g and Aster scaber showed the highest total flavonoid content (103.9 ± 3.4 mg RE/g. Furthermore, Aster scaber and Ligularia fischeri extracts showed higher antioxidant activity than the other wild herbs. Regarding anti-adipogenic activity, the Cirsium setidens extract significantly inhibited lipid accumulation (~80% and ROS production (~50% during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells compared with control cells. These results suggest that wild herbs could be used for the development of functional foods as well as health promoting and pharmaceutical agents.

  4. Optical satellite data volcano monitoring: a multi-sensor rapid response system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Kenneth A.; Ramsey, Michael; Wessels, Rick L.; Dehn, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter, the use of satellite remote sensing to monitor active geological processes is described. Specifically, threats posed by volcanic eruptions are briefly outlined, and essential monitoring requirements are discussed. As an application example, a collaborative, multi-agency operational volcano monitoring system in the north Pacific is highlighted with a focus on the 2007 eruption of Kliuchevskoi volcano, Russia. The data from this system have been used since 2004 to detect the onset of volcanic activity, support the emergency response to large eruptions, and assess the volcanic products produced following the eruption. The overall utility of such integrative assessments is also summarized. The work described in this chapter was originally funded through two National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth System Science research grants that focused on the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument. A skilled team of volcanologists, geologists, satellite tasking experts, satellite ground system experts, system engineers and software developers collaborated to accomplish the objectives. The first project, Automation of the ASTER Emergency Data Acquisition Protocol for Scientific Analysis, Disaster Monitoring, and Preparedness, established the original collaborative research and monitoring program between the University of Pittsburgh (UP), the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), the NASA Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center, and affiliates on the ASTER Science Team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) as well as associates at the Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center (ERSDAC) in Japan. This grant, completed in 2008, also allowed for detailed volcanic analyses and data validation during three separate summer field campaigns to Kamchatka Russia. The second project, Expansion and synergistic use

  5. Satellite-derived Digital Elevation Model (DEM) selection, preparation and correction for hydrodynamic modelling in large, low-gradient and data-sparse catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarihani, Abdollah A.; Callow, John N.; McVicar, Tim R.; Van Niel, Thomas G.; Larsen, Joshua R.

    2015-05-01

    Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) that accurately replicate both landscape form and processes are critical to support modelling of environmental processes. Topographic accuracy, methods of preparation and grid size are all important for hydrodynamic models to efficiently replicate flow processes. In remote and data-scarce regions, high resolution DEMs are often not available and therefore it is necessary to evaluate lower resolution data such as the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) for use within hydrodynamic models. This paper does this in three ways: (i) assessing point accuracy and geometric co-registration error of the original DEMs; (ii) quantifying the effects of DEM preparation methods (vegetation smoothed and hydrologically-corrected) on hydrodynamic modelling relative accuracy; and (iii) quantifying the effect of the hydrodynamic model grid size (30-2000 m) and the associated relative computational costs (run time) on relative accuracy in model outputs. We initially evaluated the accuracy of the original SRTM (∼30 m) seamless C-band DEM (SRTM DEM) and second generation products from the ASTER (ASTER GDEM) against registered survey marks and altimetry data points from the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat). SRTM DEM (RMSE = 3.25 m,) had higher accuracy than ASTER GDEM (RMSE = 7.43 m). Based on these results, the original version of SRTM DEM, the ASTER GDEM along with vegetation smoothed and hydrologically corrected versions were prepared and used to simulate three flood events along a 200 km stretch of the low-gradient Thompson River, in arid Australia (using five metrics: peak discharge, peak height, travel time, terminal water storage and flood extent). The hydrologically corrected DEMs performed best across these metrics in simulating floods compared with vegetation smoothed DEMs and original DEMs. The response of model performance to grid size was non

  6. Venice, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Four hundred bridges cross the labyrinth of canals that form the 120 islands of Venice, situated in a saltwater lagoon between the mouths of the Po and Piave rivers in northeast Italy. All traffic in the city moves by boat. Venice is connected to the mainland, 4 kilometers (2.5 miles) away, by ferries as well as a causeway for road and rail traffic. The Grand Canal winds through the city for about 3 kilometers (about 2 miles), dividing it into two nearly equal sections. According to tradition, Venice was founded in 452, when the inhabitants of Aquileia, Padua, and several other northern Italian cities took refuge on the islands of the lagoon from the Teutonic tribes invading Italy at that time.This image was acquired on December 9, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA

  7. Mt. Etna, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    On Sunday, November 3, 2002, Mt. Etna's ash-laden plume was imaged by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. The plume is seen blowing toward the south-southeast, over the city and airport of Catania, Sicily. The previous day, the plume was blowing toward the northwest, and posed no hazard to Catania. The current eruption of Mt. Etna, Europe's most active volcano, began on October 27. These sorts of observations from space may help civil defense authorities mitigate hazards from active eruptions. Space data may also help scientists evaluate the behavior and effects volcanic eruptions have on our global climate system.With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a

  8. Predicting eruptions from precursory activity using remote sensing data hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reath, K. A.; Ramsey, M. S.; Dehn, J.; Webley, P. W.

    2016-07-01

    Many volcanoes produce some level of precursory activity prior to an eruption. This activity may or may not be detected depending on the available monitoring technology. In certain cases, precursors such as thermal output can be interpreted to make forecasts about the time and magnitude of the impending eruption. Kamchatka (Russia) provides an ideal natural laboratory to study a wide variety of eruption styles and precursory activity prior to an eruption. At Bezymianny volcano for example, a clear increase in thermal activity commonly occurs before an eruption, which has allowed predictions to be made months ahead of time. Conversely, the eruption of Tolbachik volcano in 2012 produced no discernable thermal precursors before the large scale effusive eruption. However, most volcanoes fall between the extremes of consistently behaved and completely undetectable, which is the case with neighboring Kliuchevskoi volcano. This study tests the effectiveness of using thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing to track volcanic thermal precursors using data from both the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensors. It focuses on three large eruptions that produced different levels and durations of effusive and explosive behavior at Kliuchevskoi. Before each of these eruptions, TIR spaceborne sensors detected thermal anomalies (i.e., pixels with brightness temperatures > 2 °C above the background temperature). High-temporal, low-spatial resolution (i.e., ~ hours and 1 km) AVHRR data are ideal for detecting large thermal events occurring over shorter time scales, such as the hot material ejected following strombolian eruptions. In contrast, high-spatial, low-temporal resolution (i.e., days to weeks and 90 m) ASTER data enables the detection of much lower thermal activity; however, activity with a shorter duration will commonly be missed. ASTER and AVHRR data are combined to track low

  9. A Study on the Establishment of Pochonka and Chonmun yucho in the Early Choson Dynasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sang-Hyeon

    2009-12-01

    We investigated the formation of Pochonka (Song of the Sky Pacers) and Chonmun yucho (Selected and classified writings on astrology) of the early Choson dynasty. We recognized that the songs in these books were deeply influenced by those in a Chinese book Tong-zhi published in 1161 A.D., based on the following facts; the contents of both treatises are described in the same order; the first phrase of the song for Thai-wei-yuan has composed of five words rather than seven words; in particular, Choson's Pochonka has the song that describes the position of the Milky Way relative to asterisms, which was supplemented by the author Zheng Qiao. Since Tong-zhi were brought into Koryo in 1364 A.D., Choson's Pochonka must be formed after that time. In particular, compared with Chinese Pu-tien-ko, Choson's Pochonka stresses the colors of asterisms in order to represent the origin of each asterism with respect to the astronomers, Shih-shen, Kan-te, and Wu-Hsien. We also find that the star-charts in Pochonka and Chonsang-yolcha-punyajido (Chart of the asterisms and the regions they govern) published in the early Choson dynasty are significantly similar in names, number of stars, and shapes of asterisms in them. This fact means that the star-charts in Pochonka originated from either the parent chart of Chonsang-yolcha-punyajido or Chonsang-yolcha-punyajido itself. The parent rubbing was reappeared in 1392 A.D. and carved on stele in 1396 A.D., and so the publication of Pochonka can be dated back to A.D. 1392. Chonmun yucho is a book that was formed by footnoting Pochonka with astrological descriptions in Chinese treatises. The formation period of Chonmun yucho is estimated to be 1440-1450 A.D. from the facts such as the biographical survey of the author Yi Sunji. Furthermore, Pochonka was adopted as a textbook of the government service examination for the astronomy division in Soungwan or the Royal Bureau of Astronomy in 1430 A.D.. We inferred from these facts that Choson

  10. Aspen Fire, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    On June 26, NASA's Terra satellite acquired this image of the Aspen fire burning out of control north of Tucson, AZ. As of that date, the fire had consumed more than 27,000 acres and destroyed more than 300 homes, mostly in the resort community of Summerhaven, according to news reports. These data are being used by NASA's Wildfire Response Team and the US Forest Service to assess the intensity of the burn for future remediation efforts.This image was acquired on June 26, 2003 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on Terra. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, CA, is the U.S. science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long- term research effort to understand and protect our home planet. Through the study of Earth, NASA will help to provide

  11. Santa Claus, Ga./Ind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The towns of Santa Claus, Ga., (top) and Santa Claus, Ind. (bottom), are shown in these two images from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite. They are the only two Santa Claus towns in the United States with post offices and zip codes, although there are 11 towns with this name in the United States. Santa Claus, Ga. is located in Toombs County, and has a population of 237. Santa Claus, Ind. is located in Spencer County, and has a population of 2,041. Its name was accepted by the United States Postal Service in 1856. The images were acquired on July 3, 2000 (top) and June 16, 2001 (bottom), respectively.With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long

  12. DEM数据源及分辨率对HEC-HMS水文模拟的影响%Effects of DEM source and resolution on the HEC-HMS hydrological simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高玉芳; 陈耀登; 蒋义芳; 彭涛

    2015-01-01

    Hydrological simulations are affected by the parameters derived from DEM, which describes the water-shed features. Xitiaoxi River basin was selected to simulate two runoff processes in Jun and Aug to Sep 2011 using the HEC-HMS model with ASTER 30 m DEM、SRTM 90 m DEM and DEM resample data as input for HEC-geoHMS to de-rive the basin characteristics. The results showed that, the simulated and observed flood were fitting well and the effi-ciency coefficients of the model were all larger than 0. 82, Uni-modal flood showed a better performance in runoff simulation than multi-modal flood. The efficiency coefficients of model based on SRTM 90 m was larger than based on ASTER 30 m DEM and resampled 90 m DEM. The efficiency coefficients of model based on resampled DEM had nonlinear relationship with DEM resolution. The relative error of HEC-HMS simulations based on ASTER 30 m DEM and SRTM 90 m DEM had a difference of 3%—5%. The relative error of simulations based on the SRTM 90 m DEM and the resampled 90 m DEM had a difference of 2%—4%. The maximum difference between the relative error of HEC-HMS simulations based on the resampled 90 m DEM was 11%.%DEM数据源及分辨率会影响流域特征参数的提取, 进而影响水文模拟结果. 将 ASTER 30 m DEM、SRTM 90 m DEM及基于ASTER 30 m DEM的40 m、 50 m、 60 m、 70 m、 80 m、 90 m重采样DEM作为HEC-geoHMS模型输入, 提取流域特征, 采用HEC-HMS模型, 以西笤溪流域为研究区域, 分析2011年6月和2011年8—9月的两场降雨径流过程中, DEM数据源和分辨率对水文模拟输出的影响. 研究结果表明, 两次径流模拟结果与实测数据拟合都较好, 模型确定性系数都大于0. 82, 但是单峰的洪水模拟效果总体更好, 基于SRTM 90 m的模型确定性系数比基于ASTER 30 m DEM、 重采样90 m DEM的模型确定性系数都大. 基于重采样DEM的模型确定性系数变化较大, 而且与分辨率的变化呈非线性关系.

  13. Anti-Atlas Mountains, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Anti-Atlas Mountains of Morocco formed as a result of the collision of the African and Eurasian tectonic plates about 80 million years ago. This collision destroyed the Tethys Ocean; the limestone, sandstone, claystone, and gypsum layers that formed the ocean bed were folded and crumpled to create the Atlas and Anti-Atlas Mountains. In this ASTER image, short wavelength infrared bands are combined to dramatically highlight the different rock types, and illustrate the complex folding. The yellowish, orange and green areas are limestones, sandstones and gypsum; the dark blue and green areas are underlying granitic rocks. The ability to map geology using ASTER data is enhanced by the multiple short wavelength infrared bands, that are sensitive to differences in rock mineralogy. This image was acquired on June 13, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and

  14. London, England

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    For almost 2,000 years, the River Thames has served as the life force of London, capital of the United Kingdom and one of the world's most famous cities. In AD 43 the Romans established the trading settlement of Londinium at a favorable crossing point on the river. The Romans remained until the 5th century, when the city came under Saxon control. The early 17th century saw enormous growth, but the deadly plague of 1664 and 1665 ravaged the population, and in the following year the Great Fire, which burned for four days, destroyed most of the city. A public transportation system and other city services in the early 19th century eased many of the increasing urban problems of the burgeoning capital of the wealthy British Empire. After coping with the devastating effects of bombing during World War II and the gradual dismantling of the empire, London today thrives as a vital modern metropolis. London is one of 100 cities being studied using ASTER data to map and monitor urban use patterns and growth.This image was acquired on October 12, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring

  15. Huaraz, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    A chunk of glacier was threatening to fall into an Andean lake and cause major flooding in a Peruvian city of 60,000. A fissure has appeared in the glacier that feeds the Lake Palcacocha near the city of Huaraz, 270 km north of Lima. If the piece breaks off, ensuing floods would take 15 minutes to reach the city. In 1941, the lake overflowed and caused massive destruction, killing 7,000 people. The city can be seen in the left-center part of the image. Lake Palcacocha is in the upper right corner of the image at the head of a valley, below the snow and glacier cap. The ASTER instrument is being tasked to obtain current images of the glacier to help monitor the situation. This image was acquired on November 5, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena

  16. Remote sensing analysis for fault-zones detection in the Central Andean Plateau (Catamarca, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traforti, Anna; Massironi, Matteo; Zampieri, Dario; Carli, Cristian

    2015-04-01

    Remote sensing techniques have been extensively used to detect the structural framework of investigated areas, which includes lineaments, fault zones and fracture patterns. The identification of these features is fundamental in exploration geology, as it allows the definition of suitable sites for the exploitation of different resources (e.g. ore mineral, hydrocarbon, geothermal energy and groundwater). Remote sensing techniques, typically adopted in fault identification, have been applied to assess the geological and structural framework of the Laguna Blanca area (26°35'S-66°49'W). This area represents a sector of the south-central Andes localized in the Argentina region of Catamarca, along the south-eastern margin of the Puna plateau. The study area is characterized by a Precambrian low-grade metamorphic basement intruded by Ordovician granitoids. These rocks are unconformably covered by a volcano-sedimentary sequence of Miocene age, followed by volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of Upper Miocene to Plio-Pleistocene age. All these units are cut by two systems of major faults, locally characterized by 15-20 m wide damage zones. The detection of main tectonic lineaments in the study area was firstly carried out by classical procedures: image sharpening of Landsat 7 ETM+ images, directional filters applied to ASTER images, medium resolution Digital Elevation Models analysis (SRTM and ASTER GDEM) and hill shades interpretation. In addition, a new approach in fault zone identification, based on multispectral satellite images classification, has been tested in the Laguna Blanca area and in other sectors of south-central Andes. In this perspective, several prominent fault zones affecting basement and granitoid rocks have been sampled. The collected fault gouge samples have been analyzed with a Field-Pro spectrophotometer mounted on a goniometer. We acquired bidirectional reflectance spectra, from 0.35μm to 2.5μm with 1nm spectral sampling, of the sampled fault rocks

  17. Ecological Niche Modelling using satellite data for assessing distribution of threatened species Ceropegia bulbosa Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Kulloli, R. N.; Tewari, J. C.; Singh, J. P.; Singh, A.

    2014-11-01

    Ceropegia bulbosa Roxb. is a narrow endemic, tuberous twiner of Asclepiadaceae family. It is medicinally important: tubers are nutritive and edible, leaves are digestive and a cure for dysentery and diarrhea. Exploitation for its tubers and poor regeneration of this species has shrunk its distribution. In order to know its present status, we report here the results of its appraisal in Rajasthan, using remote sensing and ground truthing in the past five years (2009-14). A base map of C. bulbosa was prepared using Geographical Information System (GIS), open source software Quantum GIS, SAGA. The Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) +Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) Satellite Data were used in this study. ASTER and GDEM Data was clipped with district boundary and provided color range to get elevation information. A digital elevation model of Rajasthan physiography was developed from ASTER GDEM of 30-m resolution. GIS layers of Area of occurrences for C. bulbosa plant and elevation were created. This map along with topographic sheets of 1:50000 were used for field traversing and ground truthing as per GPS location inferred from map. Its geographic distribution was assessed using MaxEnt distribution modelling algorithm that employed 12 presence locality data, 19 bioclimatic variables, and elevation data. Results of this modelling predicted occurrence of C. bulbosa in the districts of Sirohi, Jalore, Barmer, Pali, Ajmer, Jhalawar, Dungarpur, Banswara, Baran, Kota, Bundi and Chittorgarh. Ground validation in these districts revealed its presence only at four places in three districts confirming its rarity. Analysis of dominance at their sites of occurrence revealed their poor populations and sub dominant status (RIV = 20-32) and very low density (2-12 plants per tenth ha).

  18. Axis establishment and microtubule-mediated waves prior to first cleavage in Beroe ovata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houliston, E; Carré, D; Johnston, J A; Sardet, C

    1993-01-01

    The single axis (oral-aboral) and two planes of symmetry of the ctenophore Beroe ovata become established with respect to the position of zygote nucleus formation and the orientation of first cleavage. Bisection of Beroe eggs at different times revealed that differences in egg organisation are established in relation to the presumptive oral-aboral axis before first cleavage. Lateral fragments produced after but not before the time of first mitosis developed into larvae lacking comb-plates on one side. Time-lapse video demonstrated that waves of cytoplasmic reorganisation spread through the layer of peripheral cytoplasm (ectoplasm) of the egg during the 80 minute period between pronuclear fusion and first cleavage, along the future oral-aboral axis. These waves are manifest as the progressive displacement and dispersal of plaques of accumulated organelles around supernumerary sperm nuclei, and a series of surface movements. Their timing and direction of propagation suggest they may be involved in establishing cytoplasmic differences with respect to the embryonic axis. Inhibitor experiments suggested that the observed cytoplasmic reorganisation involves microtubules. Nocodazole and taxol, which prevent microtubule turnover,blocked plaque dispersal and reduced surface movements. The microfilament-disrupting drug cytochalasin B did not prevent plaque dispersal but induced abnormal surface contractions. We examined changes in microtubule organisation using immunofluorescence on eggs fixed at different times and in live eggs following injection of rhodamine-tubulin. Giant microtubule asters become associated with each male pronucleus after the end of meiosis. Following pronuclear fusion they disappear successively, those nearest the zygote nucleus shrinking first, to establish gradients of aster size within single eggs. Regional differences in microtubule behaviour around the time of mitosis were revealed by brief taxol treatment, which induced the formation of small

  19. Characteristics of pronuclear migration in Beroe ovata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouvière, C; Houliston, E; Carré, D; Chang, P; Sardet, C

    1994-01-01

    In the large eggs (approximately 1 mm) of the ctenophore Beroe ovata, female pronuclei migrate long distances to join stationary male pronuclei in the peripheral cytoplasm that surrounds the yolky interior. We have investigated the mechanism of nuclear migration using time lapse video recording, automated image analysis, visualization of microtubules by immunofluorescence and rhodamine-tubulin injection, and electron microscopy. Female pronuclei migrated at average speeds of 0.2 microns/sec, and were found to show periodic oscillations in velocity. Alternating phases of acceleration and deceleration occurred with an average periodicity of 235 seconds covering distances of 47 microns (about 3 times the nuclear diameter). Migration velocities and velocity oscillations were similar in fertilized and unfertilized eggs; however, changes in migration direction were much more frequent in unfertilized eggs. Characteristic deformations of the pronuclear membrane and occasional rotation of the nuclear contents were observed during migration. Inhibitor studies indicated that microtubules are required for nuclear migration. In fertilized eggs the top of the nucleus was found to move through the dense layer of aligned sperm aster microtubules. The frequent changes in direction of pronuclear migration in unfertilized eggs reflect the random organization of the microtubule layer in the absence of sperm derived centrosomes. Densely packed endoplasmic reticulum was found intermeshed with sperm aster microtubules and connected extensively with the nuclear membrane during migration. Most nuclear pores were grouped in an infolding of the nuclear membrane. We suggest that in fertilized eggs the female pronucleus is transported to the minus ends of sperm aster microtubules using motor molecules attached either to the outer nuclear membrane and/or to the network of connecting ER. PMID:7859293

  20. The Diary of Frances Jacobs: Astronomical Observations by a 19th-century Oregon Woman

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGown, R. D.

    2002-12-01

    This abstract summarizes my research, transcription and editing of Francis Jacob's 170-page handwritten astronomical diary. This diary is a unique example of a time in early Portland history, illustrating the mind of a young woman who was interested in science and astronomy. Reflected in her diary are the discoveries and mention of leading astronomers of the day like Emerson Bernard and Edward Pickering. Francis Jacobs lived in an era of the great refractors For example, ``The Leviathan," built by Lord Rosse in Ireland was completed in 1847. In this 72-inch telescope, stars of 18th magnitude could be seen. The first spiral nebulae to be revealed was M51 - known today as the Whirlpool Galaxy. The Earl was the first to suggest that these spirals could actually be rotating masses of stars. At the turn of the century, study of observational astronomy was rooted in naked eye observing, study of binary stars and nebula. This was a time when women were becoming interested in the sciences and had begun to play an important role in science and astronomy. It was an incredible inspiration for other women across the country to hear what was happening on the astronomical frontiers at Harvard. Some constellation asterisms used in Francis Jacob's diary were different than they are today. One asterism in particular, the Egyptian Cross, is relatively unknown now. The summer triangle and winter circle asterisms were used in her notes and obviously popular in her era, as today. Her written comments included some Messier catalogue numbers and in some case written on her sketches and diagrams nicknames, such as the 'Dumbbell' nebula. She also referred to M99 as `St. Katherine's Wheel', a nickname that is not in common use today.

  1. Fluctuation Analysis of Centrosomes Reveals a Cortical Function of Kinesin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Franziska; Gummalla, Maheshwar; Künneke, Lutz; Lv, Zhiyi; Zippelius, Annette; Aspelmeier, Timo; Grosshans, Jörg

    2015-09-01

    The actin and microtubule networks form the dynamic cytoskeleton. Network dynamics is driven by molecular motors applying force onto the networks and the interactions between the networks. Here we assay the dynamics of centrosomes in the scale of seconds as a proxy for the movement of microtubule asters. With this assay we want to detect the role of specific motors and of network interaction. During interphase of syncytial embryos of Drosophila, cortical actin and the microtubule network depend on each other. Centrosomes induce cortical actin to form caps, whereas F-actin anchors microtubules to the cortex. In addition, lateral interactions between microtubule asters are assumed to be important for regular spatial organization of the syncytial embryo. The functional interaction between the microtubule asters and cortical actin has been largely analyzed in a static manner, so far. We recorded the movement of centrosomes at 1 Hz and analyzed their fluctuations for two processes—pair separation and individual movement. We found that F-actin is required for directional movements during initial centrosome pair separation, because separation proceeds in a diffusive manner in latrunculin-injected embryos. For assaying individual movement, we established a fluctuation parameter as the deviation from temporally and spatially slowly varying drift movements. By analysis of mutant and drug-injected embryos, we found that the fluctuations were suppressed by both cortical actin and microtubules. Surprisingly, the microtubule motor Kinesin-1 also suppressed fluctuations to a similar degree as F-actin. Kinesin-1 may mediate linkage of the microtubule (+)-ends to the actin cortex. Consistent with this model is our finding that Kinesin-1-GFP accumulates at the cortical actin caps. PMID:26331244

  2. Thermal infrared investigation of the pyroclastic flow deposits and dome region of Bezymianny volcano, Kamchatka, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, A. J.; Ramsey, M. S.; van Manen, S. M.

    2007-12-01

    Bezymianny (Kamchatka, Russia) is an active stratovolcano that contains a summit lava dome and pyroclastic flow (PF) sheet to the southeast. Two recent eruptions (24 December 2006 and 11 May 2007) generated fresh pyroclastic flows on the southeastern flank. During the winter of 2006, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) collected several day- and night-time images to monitor the December eruption deposits and subsequent events. A field campaign in August 2007 was conducted to investigate recent changes at the lava dome and to map the new PF deposits. Within the cloud-free night time ASTER image from 30 June 2007, seven ASTER thermal infrared (TIR) 90 m pixels were identified as being thermally-anomalous and were investigated in the field. Both handheld Forward Looking Infrared Radiometer (FLIR) and thermocouple probe data were obtained and compared to the satellite TIR data. Helicopter- and ground-based FLIR surveys revealed thermally-elevated PF deposits that contained warm blocks and fumaroles. The maximum fumarole temperature within the December 2006 PF deposit was 377C at a distance of five kilometers from the lava dome. At the terminus of the 24 December 2006 PF, seven kilometers from the dome, the maximum temperature recorded was 228C. This suggests that eight months after the December 2006 eruption, the deposit was of a sufficient thickness in this area to retain heat. In addition, the thickness of the deposit probably increased as the slope angle decreased approximately 4 kilometers from dome, which may explain the high temperatures observed. We present spaceborne, airborne and ground-based thermal data in order to compare direct and remote thermal observations of ongoing activity and provide the first ground-based TIR data of actively cooling PF deposits at Bezymianny.

  3. Hyacinths Choke the Rio Grande

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    These images acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, demonstrate the potential of satellite-based remote sensors to monitor infestations of non-native plant species. These images show the vigorous growth of water hyacinths along a stretch of the Rio Grande River in Texas. The infestation had grown so dense in some places it was impeding the flow of water and rendered the river impassible for boats. The hyacinth is an aquatic weed native to South America. The plant is exotic looking and, when it blooms, the hyacinth produces a pretty purple flower, which is why it was introduced into North America. However, it has the capacity to grow and spread at astonishing rates so that in the wild it can completely clog the flow of rivers and waterways in a matter of days or weeks. The top image was acquired on March 30, 2002, and the bottom image on May 9, 2002. In the near-infrared region of the spectrum, photosynthetically-active vegetation is highly reflective. Consequently, vegetation appears bright to the near-infrared sensors aboard ASTER; and water, which absorbs near-infrared radiation, appears dark. In these false-color images produced from the sensor data, healthy vegetation is shown as bright red while water is blue or black. Notice a water hyacinth infestation is already apparent on March 30 near the center of the image. By May 9, the hyacinth population has exploded to cover more than half the river in the scene. Satellite-based remote sensors can enable scientists to monitor large areas of infestation like this one rather quickly and efficiently, which is particularly useful for regions that are difficult to reach from on the ground. (For more details, click to read Showdown in the Rio Grande.) Images courtesy Terrametrics; Data provided by the ASTER Science Team

  4. Assessment of cropland area on sloping land in DPRK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the famines of the mid 1990s, the government of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) authorized cultivation on sloping land before deciding, in the years 2000, to limit this practice on slopes above 15 degrees in order to reduce erosion. There are still many cultivated fields on slopes and their total estimated area ranges from 300,000 ha to more than 2 million ha. This study aims at assessing cropland areas on slopes above 10 and 15 degrees by using high to very high resolution remote sensing satellite imagery. For this purpose, a grid of points was superimposed over the DPRK territory and stratified according to slope, as derived from two DEMs, the 30 m ASTER GDEM V2 and the 3 arc second (∼90 m) SRTM Dem V4. A sample of about 2100 points was drawn using an optimal allocation sampling plan, based on a preliminary assessment of the variance of the estimated cropland percentage per class of slope. These 2100 points were interpreted into cropland, no cropland and doubt using mostly Google Earth imagery acquired after 2004. For slopes above 10 degrees, the area cropped was estimated to be around 1,000,000 ha (5.6% CV) and 742,000 ha (8.1% CV) according to the ASTER and SRTM DEM respectively. Above 15 degrees, the estimated cropland area ranges from 360,000 ha (9.7% CV) with SRTM to 540,000 ha (6.6.% CV) with ASTER. To decide between these two estimations, a validation of the two DEMs should be carried out on a region with similar relief. Alternatively, a higher accuracy DEM such as the one to be derived from the TanDEM-X mission in 2014 should provide more accurate estimates of the cropland area on sloping land

  5. Improved Remote Sensing Retrieval of Land Surface Temperature in the Thermal Infrared (TIR) Using Visible/Short Wave Infrared (VSWIR) Imaging Spectrometer Estimated Water Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigsby, S.; Hulley, G. C.; Roberts, D. A.; Scheele, C. J.; Ustin, S.; Alsina, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is an important parameter in many ecological studies, where processes such as evapotranspiration have impacts at temperature gradients less than 1 K. Current errors in standard MODIS and ASTER LST products are greater than 1 K, and for ASTER can be greater than 2 K in humid conditions due to incomplete atmospheric correction of atmospheric water vapor. Estimates of water vapor, either derived from visible-to-shortwave-infrared (VSWIR) remote sensing data or taken from weather simulation data such as NCEP, can be combined with coincident Thermal-Infrared (TIR) remote sensing data to yield improved accuracy in LST measurements. This study compares LST retrieval accuracies derived using the standard JPL MASTER Temperature Emissivity Separation (TES) algorithm, and the Water Vapor Scaling (WVS) atmospheric correction method proposed for the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager, or HyspIRI, mission with ground observations. The 2011 ER-2 Delano/Lost Hills flights acquired TIR data from the MODIS/ASTER Simulator (MASTER) and VSWIR data from Airborne Visible InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) instruments flown concurrently. The TES and WVS retrieval methods are run with and without high spatial resolution AVIRIS-derived water vapor maps to assess the improvement using VSWIR water vapor estimates. We find improvement using VSWIR derived water vapor maps in both cases, with the WVS method being most accurate overall. For closed canopy agricultural vegetation we observed canopy temperature retrieval RMSEs of 0.49 K and 0.70 K using the WVS method on MASTER data with and without AVIRIS derived water vapor, respectively.

  6. The effect of DEM resolution on the computation of the factor of safety using an infinite slope model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Michael; Torizin, Jewgenij; Kühn, Friedrich

    2014-11-01

    The quality of digital elevation models (DEMs) is essential for reliable landslide susceptibility assessments. In this paper, two DEMs derived from ASTER (ASTER GDEM v.2 with 30 m horizontal resolution) and TerraSAR-X (GeoElevation10 with 10 m horizontal resolution) data are compared to study the effects of resolution on the derived slope and wetness index parameters in the application of the infinite slope model for the computation of the factor of safety. Several slope stability scenarios representing different wetness conditions with 5, 10 and 100 mm d- 1 of steady-state recharge were calculated for the eastern flank of Mount Rinjani Volcano on Lombok Island, Indonesia. Each scenario was conducted by computing the static factor of safety with mean values of the bulk density, angle of internal friction, cohesion, and failure depth parameters, as well as for their normally distributed values by Monte Carlo simulation. All scenarios were applied to both DEMs. The scenarios were evaluated by calculating the success/prediction rate using the respective area under the curve (AUC) and an existing landslide inventory. Additionally, uncertainties in the estimated positions of landslides were taken into account. Depending on the particular scenario, the success rate of the GeoElevation10 model shows differences up to 3% compared to the ASTER GDEM model. This apparent improvement is mainly caused by the higher ground resolution in GeoElevation10. However, the success rate increases for the 10 mm d- 1 and decreases for the 100 mm d- 1 steady-state recharge conditions. Consequently, the more detailed flow direction in the GeoElevation10 DEM has the highest impact under conditions with lower water saturation. The slight improvement in the total model quality shows that the higher resolution of the DEM has a small impact on poorly parameterized models, in which the material properties are described by roughly estimated parameters. Therefore, the application of a high

  7. Generation of a new Greenland Ice Sheet Digital Elevation Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagarajan, Sudhagar; Csatho, Beata M; Schenk, Anton F;

    m)), a high resolution, consistent DEM of GrIS is not yet available. This is due to various problems, such as different error sources in the data and different dates of data acquisition. In order to overcome these difficulties, we generated a multi-resolution DEM of GrIS, reflecting June 2008...... conditions, by fusing a photoclinometry DEM, SPOT and ASTER DEMs as well as elevations from ICESat, ATM and LVIS laser altimetry. The new multi-resolution DEM has a resolution of 40 m x 40 m in the marginal ice sheet regions and 250 m elsewhere. The ice sheet margin is mapped from SPOT and Landsat imagery...

  8. Effect of motor vehicle emission on assimilative apparatus of decorative ornamental plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Pryimak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of motor vehicle emission ingredients on the state of assimilative apparatus of decorative ornamental plants is studied in Dnepropetrovsk. The morphometric indices of leaves of studied species are discussed. The changes of the leaves area and their amount on a plant are shown. The damages of assimilative organs and its structure abnormalities are revealed. The negative influence of motor transport emission on forming and growth of leaves was determined. The Aster novі-belgii L. and Tagetes patula L. are resistant, but Begonia×semperflorens hort, Salvia splendens L. and Zinnia elegans Jacq. are sensitive to the influence of emissions.

  9. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14481-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available HSPLTSPSPSLQSPVNNYPNQFSSPQY HTSPNQXXQQQQQYVPSSQP Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: skrnfikkrig*y*is*sicksiiiin...ne) Homo sapiens programmed cell death... 136 2e-30 AK298727_1( AK298727 |pid:none) Homo sap...ne) Gallus gallus mRNA for hypothetica... 135 2e-30 (Q8WUM4) RecName: Full=Programmed cell death 6-interactin...4Z ,255,861 est3= VHI762Z ,659,1144 Translated Amino Acid sequence QKETLLRKELDNIEFHNQSAKASLLSMGLPGSIEALDVGVP...aster chromos... 152 2e-35 (Q9WU78) RecName: Full=Programmed cell death 6-interacting p

  10. Números cromosómicos de Asteraceae de la Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel (REPSA), México, Distrito Federal Chromosome numbers in Asteraceae of the Ecological Reserve of the Pedregal de San Ángel (REPSA), Mexico City, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiola Soto-Trejo; Guadalupe Palomino; José Luis Villaseñor

    2011-01-01

    Se registraron los números cromosómicos mitóticos o meióticos de 31 especies de Asteraceae en la Reserva Ecológica del Pedregal de San Ángel (REPSA), y por primera vez, los conteos cromosómicos de 3 especies endémicas de México: Acourtia cordata (2n= 54), Ageratina cylindrica (2n= 34) y Viguiera buddleiiformis (n= 17). Se discuten los resultados obtenidos de acuerdo con los datos disponibles para cada especie analizada.Mitotic or meiotic chromosome numbers are recorded for 31 species of Aster...

  11. Introduction of the thermal gradient influence in the damage laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to model the thermo-mechanical behaviour of a fuel rod, the micro-fissuring of the fuel pellet is taken into account to evaluate its mechanical characteristics. More generally, a micro-fissured thermoelastic material submitted to a spatially non-uniform temperature increase with strong gradients is considered. The aim is to build a model of homogenized behaviour taking into account these strong spatial variations. Then, a numerical validation of this model is performed using the finite-element method of the ASTER code. (J.S.). 5 refs., 3 figs

  12. The Dead Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The Dead Sea is the lowest point on Earth at 418 meters below sea level, and also one of the saltiest bodies of water on Earth with a salinity of about 300 parts-per-thousand (nine times greater than ocean salinity). It is located on the border between Jordan and Israel, and is fed by the Jordan River. The Dead Sea is located in the Dead Sea Rift, formed as a result of the Arabian tectonic plate moving northward away from the African Plate. The mineral content of the Dead Sea is significantly different from that of ocean water, consisting of approximately 53% magnesium chloride, 37% potassium chloride and 8% sodium chloride. In the early part of the 20th century, the Dead Sea began to attract interest from chemists who deduced that the Sea was a natural deposit of potash and bromine. From the Dead Sea brine, Israel and Jordan produce 3.8 million tons potash, 200,000 tons elemental bromine, 45,000 tons caustic soda, 25, 000 tons magnesium metal, and sodium chloride. Both countries use extensive salt evaporation pans that have essentially diked the entire southern end of the Dead Sea. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining

  13. Contribution of noncentrosomal microtubules to spindle assembly in Drosophila spermatocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Rebollo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous data suggested that anastral spindles, morphologically similar to those found in oocytes, can assemble in a centrosome-independent manner in cells that contain centrosomes. It is assumed that the microtubules that build these acentrosomal spindles originate over the chromatin. However, the actual processes of centrosome-independent microtubule nucleation, polymerisation, and sorting have not been documented in centrosome-containing cells. We have identified two experimental conditions in which centrosomes are kept close to the plasma membrane, away from the nuclear region, throughout meiosis I in Drosophila spermatocytes. Time-lapse confocal microscopy of these cells labelled with fluorescent chimeras reveals centrosome-independent microtubule nucleation, growth, and sorting into a bipolar spindle array over the nuclear region, away from the asters. The onset of noncentrosomal microtubule nucleation is significantly delayed with respect to nuclear envelope breakdown and coincides with the end of chromosome condensation. It takes place in foci that are close to the membranes that ensheath the nuclear region, not over the condensed chromosomes. Metaphase plates are formed in these spindles, and, in a fraction of them, some degree of polewards chromosome segregation takes place. In these cells that contain both membrane-bound asters and an anastral spindle, the orientation of the cytokinesis furrow correlates with the position of the asters and is independent of the orientation of the spindle. We conclude that the fenestrated nuclear envelope may significantly contribute to the normal process of spindle assembly in Drosophila spermatocytes. We also conclude that the anastral spindles that we have observed are not likely to provide a robust back-up able to ensure successful cell division. We propose that these anastral microtubule arrays could be a constitutive component of wild-type spindles, normally masked by the abundance of centrosome

  14. 遥感技术在格咱岛弧地区斑岩铜矿勘查中的应用%The application of remote sensing technique for porphyry copper exploration in the Gezan arc region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘峻杉; 胡滨; 何政伟

    2015-01-01

    Remote sensing data can be used to extract alteration information,which provides the basis for porphyry copper ore exploration.The study area is located in the Gezan arc region.The level of geological research is low and the metallogenic potential is tremendous.Principal component analyses (PCA)were applied to get the iron-stain alteration and hydroxyl altera-tion information by making use of OLI data.Principal component analyses (PCA)were applied to get sericite information from ASTER data.SWIR band of ASTER data is used to extract sericite information,the method can inhibit the vegetation informa-tion,highlight the mineral information.A porphyry mineralization point was discovered during ground inspection which has confirmed the validity of remote sensing technology.The method can provide a reference for the mineral exploration in Yunnan region.%遥感数据能够提取围岩蚀变信息,为斑岩铜矿的勘查提供依据。研究区地处格咱岛弧地区,地质研究程度较低,成矿潜力巨大。采用主成分分析法处理 OLI 数据得到研究区的铁染和羟基蚀变信息,采用该方法从 ASTER 数据中提取了绢云母信息。利用 ASTER 数据的 SWIR波段来提取绢云母信息,能够抑制植被信息,突出矿物信息。经过野外踏勘发现了斑岩铜矿点,证实了遥感技术的有效性,该方法能够为云南地区斑岩铜矿的勘查提供借鉴。

  15. Mapping Mineralogical Alteration Using MNF Transfrom and Mineral in Vegetated Areas%基于最大噪声分量变换(MNF)和矿物标识的植被区蚀变信息提取

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱云; 王安建; 李丽辉

    2011-01-01

    Mapping of altered rocks in areas with heavy vegetation is difficult by using principal component analysis and band ratios to remote sensing data, which have been commonly applied to locate hydmthermal alteration zones related to metallic deposits. We propose a method to effectively map al- tered recks, which is based on that the reflectance of green vegetation is low in the shortwave infrared portion and maximum signal to noise ratio (MNF) transform can reduce the effect caused by the vetetation. This technique turns target mineral spectra into pixels of ASTER images as mineral indicators that provide a potential approach for fast and effective extracting mineral alteration from ASTER muhispectral data. In this study, the method was applied to ASTER bands converiong the SWIR with the objective of mapping phyllic and argillic hydrothermally altered rocks in the Prong-Hongshan copper belt in Yunnan Province. The mineral abundance images produced using this method are less affected by inerference compared with other methods such as the PCA and band ratio method. The result shows that this method can suppress well the influence of vegetation and highlight target ores, and extract alteration information of ores from ASTER remote sensing images fastly and efficiently.%以往常规的遥感找矿的方法是主成分分析和比值方法,在植被发育的区域,利用这些常规方法难以识别矿物蚀变信息。本文提出了一种方法,将已知目标矿物转换为图像像元作为标识谱,利用植被在短波红外是暗目标和最大信噪比MNF变换可以有效的突出信息的前提,可以快速比对提取蚀变信息。以云南中句地区的普朗一红山斑岩成矿带为例,进行绢英岩化和泥化蚀变信息提取。结果表明,该方法与主成分分析法和比值法结果具有一致性,但具有更好的降噪效果。该方法能很好的抑制植被影响,突出目标矿物,是一种快速有效的提

  16. Avaliação dos fluxos de mercúrio para a atmosfera numa zona contaminada

    OpenAIRE

    Cascão, Pedro Manuel Maia de Carvalho

    2007-01-01

    Com o objectivo de avaliar os fluxos de mercúrio gasoso total (MGT) emitidos para a atmosfera por sedimentos, coluna de água e algumas espécies autóctones de plantas do Esteiro de Estarreja (Juncus maritimus, Phragmites australis, Scirpus maritimus e Aster subulatus) numa área contaminada por Hg foram efectuadas várias amostragens com a aplicação de câmaras de fluxo dinâmicas construídas para o efeito. No caso das plantas pretende-se averiguar qual a sua importância na mo...

  17. Seismic response based on transient calculations. Spectral and stochastic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Further to the recent development in the ASTER code of functionalities enabling random dynamic responses to be calculated, notably a stochastic type seismic analysis, we propose a combination of three calculation methods to estimate a probabilistic seismic response on an N4 reactor building stick-model. Transient calculations involves time-and cost-consuming repetition. The conventional oscillator response spectrum calculation yields only the maximum response expectation. On the other hand, the stochastic approach in this context gives the response corresponding to selected probabilities. (authors). 12 figs., 3 tabs., 4 refs

  18. Stevia rebaudiana (Bert.) Bertoni. UNA REVISIÓN

    OpenAIRE

    Michel Martínez Cruz

    2015-01-01

    Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana(Bert.)Bertoni) esunaespeciedel géneroSteviade la familia de lasAsteráceasnativa de la regióntropicaldeSudamérica.Es una plantaconsiderada medicinal, pues varios estudios demuestran quepuede tener efectos beneficiosos sobre la diabetes tipo II,ya que posee glicósidos con propiedades edulcorantes sincalorías. Muchas de las actividades de investigación sobre suspropiedades químicas y biológicas se han hecho en el pasadoreciente. El objetivo de este trabajo fue compilar ...

  19. Detection of Neolithic Settlements in Thessaly (Greece) Through Multispectral and Hyperspectral Satellite Imagery

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrios Alexakis; Apostolos Sarris; Theodoros Astaras; Konstantinos Albanakis

    2009-01-01

    Thessaly is a low relief region in Greece where hundreds of Neolithic settlements/tells called magoules were established from the Early Neolithic period until the Bronze Age (6,000 – 3,000 BC). Multi-sensor remote sensing was applied to the study area in order to evaluate its potential to detect Neolithic settlements. Hundreds of sites were geo-referenced through systematic GPS surveying throughout the region. Data from four primary sensors were used, namely Landsat ETM, ASTER, EO1 - HYPERION...

  20. Clasificación de asterismos utilizando datos astrométricos

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Biasi, M. S.; Orellana, R. B.

    Based on accurate positions and proper motion data up to faint magnitudes, we have studied the regions of twenty three objects known in the literature as asterisms. A parametric method was applied to confirm the nature of these objects. The following objects have been classified: Alessi 11, Alessi 17, Brosch 1, Collinder 21, Dol-Dzim 1, Dolidze 31, Dolidze 43, Dolidze 50, Dolidze 51, NGC 272, NGC2063, NGC 2413, NGC 2664, NGC 5155, NGC 5284, NGC 6222, NGC 6360, NGC 6447, NGC 6476, NGC 6480, NGC 6605, NGC 6659, NGC 6728. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  1. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U04747-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available g words threshold: 12 Window for multiple hits: 40 X1: 16 ( 7.3 bits) X2: 38 (14.6 bits) X3: 64 (24.7...a spiralis chromosome UNK clone TS195-3... 34 8.2 7 ( BA000021 ) Wigglesworthia glossinidia endosymbiont of ...01-1... 34 8.6 2 ( CP000061 ) Aster yellows witches'-broom phytoplasma AYWB, co... 40 8.7 11 ( EJ795270 ) 10...o Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: hkikngi**rrfwtfkywin**y*s*s**npnctiyski***...ikkikii*i knnkkriekmv*rivnlkliiyiqeenisnvlmn*ii*khwln*krnkiimmil*iqrld visn*inlik*ln*llmlkthyn*rmv*ptnlkiqi*fsf*hnhytlkinllnqefnind

  2. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13906-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available g words threshold: 12 Window for multiple hits: 40 X1: 16 ...Schistosoma japonicum SJCHGC09421 ... 44 0.009 CP000061_339( CP000061 |pid:none) Aster yellows witches'-broo... EU867791 |pid:none) Plasmodium knowlesi normocyte bind... 42 0.045 CP000123_803(...AOP1... 37 1.4 AP006628_481( AP006628 |pid:none) Onion yellows phytoplasma OY-M D... 37 1.4 AL844508_120( AL...80355_2790( AM180355 |pid:none) Clostridium difficile 630 compl... 35 4.2 (Q9LW85) RecName: Full=MAR-bind

  3. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14236-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available search space: 62385364608 Effective search space used: 62385364608 Neighboring words threshold: 12 Window f....042 8 ( BA000021 ) Wigglesworthia glossinidia endosymbiont of Glossi... 34 0.045...5 ( AC116330 ) Dictyostelium discoideum chromosome 2 map 3191214... 36 7e-04 9 ( CP000061 ) Aster yellows... AC153431 ) Medicago truncatula clone mth2-11h15, WORKING DRA... 36 0.084 7 ( AP006628 ) Onion yellows phyto....3 CP000934_260( CP000934 |pid:none) Cellvibrio japonicus Ueda107, co... 34 3.3 BX950851_3812( BX950851 |pid:none) Erwin

  4. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U09319-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available g words threshold: 12 Window for multiple hits: 40 X1: 16 ( 7.3 bits) X2: 38 (14.6 bits) X3: 64 (24.7 bits)...lete genome. 38 7e-05 22 ( BA000021 ) Wigglesworthia glossinidia endosymbiont of Glossi... 38 8e-05 15 ( AC1...IN PR... 34 0.016 15 ( CP000061 ) Aster yellows witches'-broom phytoplasma AYWB, co... 36 0.016 16 ( AC21309...LSTNGN GDNLKQPAYNSYGQLEYQDFQIGTLYELTLFVDTT--- ---nhhhhwnfpxn*yiyitffh*klmgskrnaydplnwin...virus, complete g... 36 3e-04 15 ( AE017308 ) Mycoplasma mobile 163K complete genome. 50 4e-04 17 ( AP006628 ) Onion yellows

  5. Cultivo in vitro de Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez Baxcajay, Liberia

    2012-01-01

    Stevia es un género de plantas fanerógamas perteneciente a la familia de las asteráceas, tiene 407 especies; una de sus especies es Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, nombrada así por Moisés de Santiago Bertoni. Para el establecimiento in vitro de Stevia rebaudiana se aplicaron cinco tratamientos de desinfestación y se obtuvo al usar Cloro® (1.8 % cloro activo), Ridomil y Fungimycin previo a la siembra in vitro y al agregar al medio Cefotaxima (500 mgL-1) se obtuvo un porcentaje de contaminación de ...

  6. Mapping of Moho and Moho Transition Zone (MTZ) in Samail ophiolites of Sultanate of Oman using remote sensing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Sankaran; Nasir, Sobhi

    2015-08-01

    Moho and Moho Transition Zone (MTZ) of the Samail ophiolite of Sultanate of Oman are characteristic to potential occurrences of chromite deposit, hydrothermal mineralization and serpentinization. Mapping of Moho and MTZ, and discriminating them in between the mafic and ultramafic rocks in ophiolite sequence are more significant and important. The present study describes the remote sensing spectral characters of minerals and rocks of the Moho and MTZ and discriminates the Moho of Wadi Al Abyad of Nakhl massif, and Wadi Nidab and Wadi Abda regions of Sumail massif in the visible and near infrared (VNIR), and short wavelength infrared (SWIR) spectral regions using low-cost multispectral satellite data of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). Results of this study show that the red-green-blue (RGB) color composite images of ASTER spectral bands 8, 3 and 1, and 8, 7 and 4 are able to delineate the Moho and MTZ of the regions. The RGB images of ASTER band ratios (4/8, 4/1, 3/2 * 4/3 and (1 + 3)/2, (4 + 6)/5, (7 + 9)/8) are capable to discriminate the mantle material (ultramafic harzburgites) and crustal rocks (mafic gabbros). The occurrence of such rock types is demonstrated by detection of their minerals using Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) image processing method. The presence of Moho and MTZ, and associated lithologies are verified in field at Wadi Al Abyad, Wadi Nidab, Wadi Abda, Wadi Tayin, Wadi Fizh and several locations of Nakhl regions of Samail ophiolites. The laboratory study shows the occurrence of typical minerals namely olivine, orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene in the harzburgite and the minerals such as plagioclase, clinopyroxene, hornblende, orthopyroxene and olivine in the layered gabbro. The spectral properties of the rocks are studied using Portable Infrared Mineral Analyzer (PIMA) spectrometer and the occurrences of minerals are confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. This study demonstrates the sensor

  7. Produção de concentrados de frutose por inulinases de Penicillium janczewskii e atividade sobre o nível de glicose plasmática em ratos diabéticos Fructose syrups produced by inulinases from Penicillium janczewskii and activity on plasma glucose level in diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Rosemeire A. Bom Pessoni; Pedro M. O. Olmedo; Ana C. Clemente Filha; Rita C. L. Figueiredo-Ribeiro

    2004-01-01

    A frutose é utilizada atualmente como adoçante para diabéticos, sendo produzida comercialmente por hidrólise do amido, sob um processo de alto custo que envolve três etapas enzimáticas usando alfa-amilase, amiloglicosidase e glicose isomerase. Uma alternativa para a produção de concentrados de frutose é a hidrólise enzimática da inulina, polímero de frutose encontrado em Asteráceas, incluindo espécies nativas do cerrado. Nesse caso, através de uma única etapa enzimática obtêm-se concentrados ...

  8. Adaptación de dos clones de Estevia (Stevia rebaudiana bert.) en tres ambientes del Caribe colombiano / Adaptation of two clones of Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana bert.) in three Colombian Caribbean environments

    OpenAIRE

    Jarma Orozco, Alfredo De Jesús

    2010-01-01

    La estevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bert.), es una planta herbácea perenne que pertenece a la familia de las Asteráceas. La especie cobra un alto valor debido a que contiene glucósidos de diterpeno bajos en calorías, cuyo poder edulcorante en estado puro y cristalino es 300 veces más potente que la sacarosa (0,4% en volumen) y cuyo contenido puede variar entre un 4 y 20% dependiendo del genotipo y las condiciones ambientales y de cultivo (Geuns, 2003). Se distingue de los edulcorantes artificiales ...

  9. Hydropower-induced land use change in Fincha's watershed, werstern Ethiopia: analysis and impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Bezuayehu, T.O.; G. Sterk

    2008-01-01

    The present article analyzes the land use dynamics caused by hydropower dam construction in 1973 in the Fincha'a watershed (1318 km2), a tributary of the Blue Nile. Aerial photos (1957 and 1980) and an ASTER satellite image of 2001 were used to make 3 land use maps of the watershed using a geographic information system (GIS). The 239-km2 water reservoir inundated 100 km2 of grazing land, 120 km2 of swamp, 18 km2 of cropland, and 1.2 km2 of forestland. In 2001, cropland covered 77% of the land...

  10. The Infrared Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) for TMT: motion planning with collision avoidance for the on-instrument wavefront sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Chapin, Edward L.; Dunn, Jennifer; Weiss, Jason; Gillies, Kim; Hayano, Yutaka; Johnson, Chris; Larkin, James; Moore, Anna; Riddle, Reed L.; Sohn, Ji Man; Smith, Roger; Suzuki, Ryuji; Walth, Gregory; Wright, Shelley

    2016-01-01

    The InfraRed Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) will be a first-light client instrument for the Narrow Field Infrared Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS) on the Thirty Meter Telescope. IRIS includes three configurable tip/tilt (TT) or tip/tilt/focus (TTF) On-Instrument Wavefront Sensors (OIWFS). These sensors are positioned over natural guide star (NGS) asterisms using movable polar-coordinate pick-off arms (POA) that patrol an approximately 2-arcminute circular field-of-view (FOV). The POAs are capabl...

  11. Ascouf: an industrial software for the engineering of nuclear facilities in operation; Ascouf: un outil numerique industriel pour l`ingenierie nucleaire du parc en exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genette, P.; Martelet, B. [Electricite de France (EDF), 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Div. Mecanique des Structures du Septen; Debost-Eymart, I. [Electricite de France (EDF), 92 - Clamart (France). Dept. Mecanique et Modeles Numeriques

    1998-10-01

    The ASCOUF software has been developed par EDF to facilitate the quick analysis of defects contained in pipes or elbows of the primary loop. This preprocessing tool of Code Aster, the structural analysis finite element code of EDF, has been used to carry out, with an increase of productivity a series of numerical studies proving the mechanical strength of these components. Its validation, taking into account the feed-back from previous studies, leads us to rely on the results. ASCOUF has afterwards been extended to solve the problems of lack of thickness of pipes of the secondary loop. (authors)

  12. The First Three Catalogues of Southern Star Clusters and Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozens, Glen; Orchiston, W.; Walsh, A.

    2011-01-01

    Nicolas de la Caille, James Dunlop and John Herschel compiled the first three catalogues of southern star clusters and nebulae. Lacaille catalogued 42 objects from Cape Town, South Africa, in 1751 and 1752. Dunlop catalogued 629 objects from Parramatta, Australia, in 1826 and Herschel catalogued 1708 objects between 1834 and 1838 from Cape Town. Many of these objects had not been seen before; In this paper we discuss the new discoveries and the accuracy of the positions supplied by Lacaille, Dunlop and Herschel. Half of Dunlop's 629 objects turned out to be asterisms and faint double stars.

  13. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06999-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available complete... 43 0.004 CP001228_13( CP001228 |pid:none) Rickettsia peacockii str. Rustic ... 43 0.005 CP001099...idium botulinum A2 str. K... 37 0.29 CP000061_17( CP000061 |pid:none) Aster yellows witches'-broom phyt... 3...ca 224 ||||||||||||||||||| Sbjct: 206 caggaattccaattaacca 224 Score = 63.9 bits (32), Expect = 2e-10 Identities...2 effective length of database: 5,564,391 effective search space: 2793324282 effective search spac...|||||||||||||||||||||||||| Sbjct: 178 gatagctatattatagaagtagaaataccagg 209 Score = 50.1 bits (25), Expect(4) = 3e-85 Identities

  14. Efecto de plantas usadas etnomédicamente sobre la actividad hemorrágica y proteolítica inducida por Bothrops asper

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Badilla Baltodano; Fernando Chaves Mora; Luis Jorge Poveda Álvarez; Sandra Jiménez Castro; Gina Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2006-01-01

    Se evaluó la capacidad para neutralizar la acción hemorrágica y proteolítica causada por el veneno de la serpiente Bothrops asper de extractos acuosos de 5 plantas utilizadas etnomédicamente para tratar este problema. Este trabajo forma parte de un estudio de tamizaje farmacológico sobre las plantas usadas por los curanderos para tratar las mordeduras de serpientes. Se usaron extractos liofilizados de las hojas de Buddleja americana H.B.& K. (Buddlejaceae), Mikania guaco Humb. & Bonpl. (Aster...

  15. Investigation of potential sea level rise impact on the Nile Delta, Egypt using digital elevation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Emad; Khan, Sadiq Ibrahim; Hong, Yang

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the future impact of Sea Level Rise (SLR) on the Nile Delta region in Egypt is assessed by evaluating the elevations of two freely available Digital Elevation Models (DEMs): the SRTM and the ASTER-GDEM-V2. The SLR is a significant worldwide dilemma that has been triggered by recent climatic changes. In Egypt, the Nile Delta is projected to face SLR of 1 m by the end of the 21th century. In order to provide a more accurate assessment of the future SLR impact on Nile Delta's land and population, this study corrected the DEM's elevations by using linear regression model with ground elevations from GPS survey. The information for the land cover types and future population numbers were derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land cover and the Gridded Population of the Worlds (GPWv3) datasets respectively. The DEM's vertical accuracies were assessed using GPS measurements and the uncertainty analysis revealed that the SRTM-DEM has positive bias of 2.5 m, while the ASTER-GDEM-V2 showed a positive bias of 0.8 m. The future inundated land cover areas and the affected population were illustrated based on two SLR scenarios of 0.5 m and 1 m. The SRTM DEM data indicated that 1 m SLR will affect about 3900 km(2) of cropland, 1280 km(2) of vegetation, 205 km(2) of wetland, 146 km(2) of urban areas and cause more than 6 million people to lose their houses. The overall vulnerability assessment using ASTER-GDEM-V2 indicated that the influence of SLR will be intense and confined along the coastal areas. For instance, the data indicated that 1 m SLR will inundate about 580 Km(2) (6%) of the total land cover areas and approximately 887 thousand people will be relocated. Accordingly, the uncertainty analysis of the DEM's elevations revealed that the ASTER-GDEM-V2 dataset product was considered the best to determine the future impact of SLR on the Nile Delta region. PMID:26410824

  16. New Products for Near Real-Time Enhanced Landslide Identification and Precipitation Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Pierel, J.; Ahamed, A.; Fayne, J.; Rumsey, A.

    2015-12-01

    Nepal and the Himalayan region are hotspots for landslide activity due to mountainous topography, complex terrain, and monsoon rains. Current research in landslide modeling and detection generally requires high resolution imagery with software aided classification or manual digitization by analysts. These methods are plagued by low spatial and temporal accuracy. Addressing issues in conventional measurement, this study combined optical data from Landsat 8, a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) generated from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), and precipitation data from the Global Precipitation Measurement Mission (GPM) to create two products. The Sudden Landslide Identification Product (SLIP) uses Landsat 8 and the ASTER DEM to identify landslides in near real-time, and provides damage assessments by mapping landslides triggered by precipitation. Detecting Real-time Increased Precipitation (DRIP) monitors precipitation levels extracted from the GPM-IMERG 30-minute product to create alerts in near real-time when current rainfall levels exceed regional threshold values. After a landslide detection is made by SLIP, historical rainfall data from DRIP is analyzed to estimate a date for the detected landslide. Together, DRIP and SLIP will be used by local and regional organizations in Nepal such as the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), as well as the international scientific community to protect lives, preserve infrastructure, and manage local ecosystems.

  17. Geomorphological changes associated with underground coal mining in the Fushun area, northeast China revealed by multitemporal satellite remote sensing data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Y.F.; Fu, B.H.; Ninomiya, Y. [China Earthquake Administration, Beijing (China). Inst. of Earthquake Science

    2009-07-01

    Fushun is a famous coal-mining city in northeastern China with more than 100 years of history. Long-term underground coal mining has caused serious surface subsidence in the eastern part of the city. In this study, multitemporal and multi-source satellite remote sensing data were used to detect subsidence and geomorphological changes associated with underground coal mining over a 10-year period (1996-2006). A digital elevation model (DEM) was generated through Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) interferometry processing using data from a pair of European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS) SAR images acquired in 1996. In addition, a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) DEM obtained from data in 2000 and an Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) DEM from 2006 were used for this study. The multitemporal DEMs indicated that the maximum vertical displacement due to subsidence was around 13 m from 1996 to 2006. Multitemporal ASTER images showed that the flooded water area associated with subsidence had increased by 1.73 km{sup 2} over the same time period. Field investigations and ground level measurements confirmed that the results obtained from the multitemporal remote sensing data agreed well with ground truth data. This study demonstrates that DEMs derived from multisource satellite remote sensing data can provide a powerful tool to map geomorphological changes associated with underground mining activities.

  18. Estuarine Sediment Deposition during Wetland Restoration: A GIS and Remote Sensing Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomer, Michelle; Kuss, Amber; Kentron, Tyler; Remar, Alex; Choksi, Vivek; Skiles, J. W.

    2011-01-01

    Restoration of the industrial salt flats in the San Francisco Bay, California is an ongoing wetland rehabilitation project. Remote sensing maps of suspended sediment concentration, and other GIS predictor variables were used to model sediment deposition within these recently restored ponds. Suspended sediment concentrations were calibrated to reflectance values from Landsat TM 5 and ASTER using three statistical techniques -- linear regression, multivariate regression, and an Artificial Neural Network (ANN), to map suspended sediment concentrations. Multivariate and ANN regressions using ASTER proved to be the most accurate methods, yielding r2 values of 0.88 and 0.87, respectively. Predictor variables such as sediment grain size and tidal frequency were used in the Marsh Sedimentation (MARSED) model for predicting deposition rates for three years. MARSED results for a fully restored pond show a root mean square deviation (RMSD) of 66.8 mm (<1) between modeled and field observations. This model was further applied to a pond breached in November 2010 and indicated that the recently breached pond will reach equilibrium levels after 60 months of tidal inundation.

  19. Chronology and backtracking of oil slick trajectory to source in offshore environments using ultraspectral to multispectral remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammoglia, Talita; Souza Filho, Carlos Roberto de

    2015-07-01

    Offshore natural seepage confirms the occurrence of an active petroleum system with thermal maturation and migration, regardless its economic viability for petroleum production. Ocean dynamics, however, impose a challenge for correlation between oil seeps detected on the water surface and its source at the ocean floor. This hinders the potential use of seeps in petroleum exploration. The present study aims to estimate oil exposure time on the water surface via remote sensing in order to help locating ocean floor seepage sources. Spectral reflectance properties of a variety of fresh crude oils, oil films on water and oil-water emulsions were determined. Their spectral identity was used to estimate the duration of exposure of oil-water emulsions based on their temporal spectral responses. Laboratory models efficiently predicted oil status using ultraspectral (>2000 bands), hyperspectral (>300 bands), and multispectral (oil seepage recorded by the ASTER sensor on the Brazilian coast was used to test the designed predictive model. Results indicate that the model can successfully forecast the timeframe of crude oil exposure in the ocean (i.e., the relative "age" of the seepage). The limited spectral resolution of the ASTER sensor, though, implies less accurate estimates compared to higher resolution sensors. The spectral libraries and the method proposed here can be reproduced for other oceanic areas in order to approximate the duration of exposure of noticeable natural oil seepages. This type of information is optimal for seepage tracing and, therefore, for oceanic petroleum exploration and environmental monitoring.

  20. Evaluation of a complementary based model for mapping land surface evapotranspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Sun

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A modified Priestley-Taylor (P-T equation was proposed by Venturini et al. (2008 to map actual evapotranspiration (ET based solely on satellite remote sensing data, involving a parameter based on a scaled temperature between dew point temperature and surface temperature. In this study, however, theoretical analyses and field experimental evidence show that it is hard to obtain this scaled temperature using dew point temperature and surface temperature. This study also presents a new parameterization method using air temperature, surface temperature, and surface temperature of a reference dry surface. The actual ET estimates obtained by means of our proposed parameterization method are validated at a site scale, and a case study is conducted to map actual ET from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER images using our proposed method. Results of ground-based validation and a case study of mapping ET using ASTER images indicate that the improvement on the modified P-T equation proposed by Venturini et al. (2008 can contribute to generating reliable actual ET.

  1. Thermal infrared spectra of surface rocks. Comparison of in the laboratory, in situ, and remote sensing data; Chihyo ganseki no netsusekigaiiki bunko tokusei. Chijo sokutei data to remote sensing data no hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ninomiya, Y.; Matsunaga, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    An ASTER (advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer) is one of the image sensors. It is to be installed in an earth survey polar orbit platform satellite, EOS-AM1, which is to be launched in 1998, and it is going to start its operation. Data observed by the thermal infrared remote sensing of ASTER include the spectral emissivity, and the spectral emission reflectivity which is expressed by the function of temperature. It is required to overcome technical problems how to extract the spectral emissivity from the observed data. The spectral emissivity extracted from the remote sensing data by the MMD method, measured for samples collected in Cuprite area, Nevada, and/or measured at sampled points were compared to each other and discussed. The hemisphere spectral reflectivity, which is indirect spectral emissivity, agreed well with the direct spectral emissivity. Data suggesting the establishment of Kirchhoff`s law were obtained even for the weathered samples. The spectral emissivity derived from the remote sensing data by the MMD method was in harmony with the spectral characteristics measured strictly on the ground. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  2. CENP-32 is required to maintain centrosomal dominance in bipolar spindle assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Shinya; Wood, Laura; Toramoto, Iyo; Yagyu, Ken-Ichi; Fukagawa, Tatsuo; Earnshaw, William C

    2015-04-01

    Centrosomes nucleate spindle formation, direct spindle pole positioning, and are important for proper chromosome segregation during mitosis in most animal cells. We previously reported that centromere protein 32 (CENP-32) is required for centrosome association with spindle poles during metaphase. In this study, we show that CENP-32 depletion seems to release centrosomes from bipolar spindles whose assembly they had previously initiated. Remarkably, the resulting anastral spindles function normally, aligning the chromosomes to a metaphase plate and entering anaphase without detectable interference from the free centrosomes, which appear to behave as free asters in these cells. The free asters, which contain reduced but significant levels of CDK5RAP2, show weak interactions with spindle microtubules but do not seem to make productive attachments to kinetochores. Thus CENP-32 appears to be required for centrosomes to integrate into a fully functional spindle that not only nucleates astral microtubules, but also is able to nucleate and bind to kinetochore and central spindle microtubules. Additional data suggest that NuMA tethers microtubules at the anastral spindle poles and that augmin is required for centrosome detachment after CENP-32 depletion, possibly due to an imbalance of forces within the spindle. PMID:25657325

  3. Soil emissivity and reflectance spectra measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an analysis of the laboratory reflectance and emissivity spectra of 11 soil samples collected on different field campaigns carried out over a diverse suite of test sites in Europe, North Africa, and South America from 2002 to 2008. Hemispherical reflectance spectra were measured from 2.0 to 14 μm with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, and x-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) was used to determine the mineralogical phases of the soil samples. Emissivity spectra were obtained from the hemispherical reflectance measurements using Kirchhoff's law and compared with in situ radiance measurements obtained with a CIMEL Electronique CE312-2 thermal radiometer and converted to emissivity using the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) temperature and emissivity separation algorithm. The CIMEL has five narrow bands at approximately the same positions as the ASTER. Results show a root mean square error typically below 0.015 between laboratory emissivity measurements and emissivity measurements derived from the field radiometer.

  4. Soil emissivity and reflectance spectra measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobrino, Jose A.; Mattar, Cristian; Pardo, Pablo; Jimenez-Munoz, Juan C.; Hook, Simon J.; Baldridge, Alice; Ibanez, Rafael

    2009-07-01

    We present an analysis of the laboratory reflectance and emissivity spectra of 11 soil samples collected on different field campaigns carried out over a diverse suite of test sites in Europe, North Africa, and South America from 2002 to 2008. Hemispherical reflectance spectra were measured from 2.0 to 14 {mu}m with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, and x-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) was used to determine the mineralogical phases of the soil samples. Emissivity spectra were obtained from the hemispherical reflectance measurements using Kirchhoff's law and compared with in situ radiance measurements obtained with a CIMEL Electronique CE312-2 thermal radiometer and converted to emissivity using the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) temperature and emissivity separation algorithm. The CIMEL has five narrow bands at approximately the same positions as the ASTER. Results show a root mean square error typically below 0.015 between laboratory emissivity measurements and emissivity measurements derived from the field radiometer.

  5. Soil emissivity and reflectance spectra measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrino, José A; Mattar, Cristian; Pardo, Pablo; Jiménez-Muñoz, Juan C; Hook, Simon J; Baldridge, Alice; Ibañez, Rafael

    2009-07-01

    We present an analysis of the laboratory reflectance and emissivity spectra of 11 soil samples collected on different field campaigns carried out over a diverse suite of test sites in Europe, North Africa, and South America from 2002 to 2008. Hemispherical reflectance spectra were measured from 2.0 to 14 microm with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, and x-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) was used to determine the mineralogical phases of the soil samples. Emissivity spectra were obtained from the hemispherical reflectance measurements using Kirchhoff's law and compared with in situ radiance measurements obtained with a CIMEL Electronique CE312-2 thermal radiometer and converted to emissivity using the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) temperature and emissivity separation algorithm. The CIMEL has five narrow bands at approximately the same positions as the ASTER. Results show a root mean square error typically below 0.015 between laboratory emissivity measurements and emissivity measurements derived from the field radiometer. PMID:19571921

  6. Experimental Approach of Reflectance Based Vicarious Calibration Method for Solar Reflectance Wavelength Region of Sensor Onboard Remote Sensing Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Experimental approach of reflectance based vicarious calibration of solar reflectance wavelength region of mission instruments onboard remote sensing satellites is conducted. As an example, vicarious calibration of ASTER/VNIR with estimated aerosol refractive index and size distribution that depends on atmospheric conditions is discussed. Strange solution of estimated refractive index and size distribution may occurred due to the fact that solution fell into one of local minima in the inversion process for phase function fitting between measured and estimated with assumed refractive index and size distribution. This paper describes atmospheric conditions that may induce such a situation. Namely, it may occur when the atmospheric optical depth is too thin and or Junge parameter is too small. In such case, refractive index and size distribution estimation accuracy is poor. A relation between refractive index and size distribution estimation accuracy and estimation accuracy of the Top of the Atmosphere (TOA radiance (vicarious calibration accuracy is also clarified in particular for ASTER/VNIR vicarious calibration. It is found that 10% of the refractive index and size distribution estimation error causes approximately 1.3% of TOA radiance estimation error.

  7. Fusion of Laser Altimetry Data with Dems Derived from Stereo Imaging Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, T.; Csatho, B. M.; Duncan, K.

    2016-06-01

    During the last two decades surface elevation data have been gathered over the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) from a variety of different sensors including spaceborne and airborne laser altimetry, such as NASA's Ice Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat), Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) and Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS), as well as from stereo satellite imaging systems, most notably from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Worldview. The spatio-temporal resolution, the accuracy, and the spatial coverage of all these data differ widely. For example, laser altimetry systems are much more accurate than DEMs derived by correlation from imaging systems. On the other hand, DEMs usually have a superior spatial resolution and extended spatial coverage. We present in this paper an overview of the SERAC (Surface Elevation Reconstruction And Change detection) system, designed to cope with the data complexity and the computation of elevation change histories. SERAC simultaneously determines the ice sheet surface shape and the time-series of elevation changes for surface patches whose size depends on the ruggedness of the surface and the point distribution of the sensors involved. By incorporating different sensors, SERAC is a true fusion system that generates the best plausible result (time series of elevation changes) a result that is better than the sum of its individual parts. We follow this up with an example of the Helmheim gacier, involving ICESat, ATM and LVIS laser altimetry data, together with ASTER DEMs.

  8. Pipeline corridors through wetlands -- Impacts on plant communities: Norris Brook Crossing Peabody, Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shem, L.M.; Van Dyke, G.D.; Zimmerman, R.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The goal of the Gas Research Institute Wetland Corridors Program is to document impacts of existing pipelines on the wetlands they traverse. To accomplish this goal, 12 existing wetland crossings were surveyed. These sites varied in elapsed time since pipeline construction, wetland type, pipeline installation techniques, and right-of-way (ROW) management practices. This report presents the results of a survey conducted August 17--19, 1992, at the Norris Brook crossing in the town of Peabody, Essex County, Massachusetts. The pipeline at this site was installed during September and October 1990. A backhoe was used to install the pipeline. The pipe was assembled on the adjacent upland and slid into the trench, after which the backhoe was used again to fill the trench and cover the pipeline. Within two years after pipeline construction, a dense vegetative community, composed predominantly of native perennial species, had become established on the ROW. Compared with adjacent natural areas undisturbed by pipeline installation, there was an increase in purple loosestrife and cattail within the ROW, while large woody species were excluded from the ROW. As a result of the ROW`s presence, habitat diversity, edge-type habitat, and species diversity increased within the site. Crooked-stem aster, Aster prenanthoides (a species on the Massasschusetts list of plants of special concern), occurred in low numbers in the adjacent natural areas and had reinvaded the ROW in low numbers.

  9. Asteretum lanceolati: Xenospontaneous community on wet and riparian habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obratov-Petković Dragica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive species Aster lanceolatus grows on moist habitats on the whole territory of Serbia. In Belgrade, this species is recorded with a higher degree of presence at a number of localities. With the aim to investigate the community in which this species is dominant, the wide area of Serbia was researched, and 8 localities on the territory of Belgrade were chosen for the analysis of the community. Floristic structure of the community was determined by the standard Braun-Blanquet method (1964, phytogeographical analysis was performed according to Gajić (1980, 1984, and determination of life forms according to Raunkier (Ellenberg, Mueller-Dombois, 1967. pH soil analysis and electric conductivity (EC were performed at all investigated localities. It was established that the community dominates the moist habitats of Belgrade. It is composed of 104 species and among them Aster lanceolatus Willd., Cichorium intybus L., Agropyrum repens (L. Beauv., Calystegia sepium (L. R. Br., Cirsium arvense (L. Scop., Symphytum officinale L. and Rumex obtusifolius L. are the most frequent. In relation to life forms, the community has hemicriptophytes character, and in relation to phytogeography Euroasian and Middle Europaean floral elements are dominant, with a high presence of cosmopolitan and adventive floral elements. On the locialities Veliko Ratno ostrvo (island and Makiš, EC values point to the fact that the amount of nutrient in the soil is higher than at other localities.

  10. Advances on application of remote sensing technology to uranium prospecting in northwest of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some advances on application of remote sensing technology to uranium prospecting in northwest of China since 21st century are presented in this paper. They included: (1) application of ETM multi-spectral remote sensing technology to identify the sandstone-type uranium ore-controlling structure in north of Ordos Basin and investigate the uranium metallogenetic geological conditions in Qiangtang Basin, Tibet, (2) application of ASTER multi-spectral and QuickBird high spatial resolution remote sensing technology to extract and analyze the oil-gas reduced alteration in Bashibulake uranium ore district, Xinjiang, (3) discovery of Salamubulake uranium metallogenetic belt in Keping, Xinjiang, using ASTER multi-spectral, QuickBird high spatial resolution, and CASI/SASI airborne hyper-spectral remote sensing comprehensively, and (4) application of CASI/SASI airborne hyper-spectral remote sensing technology to extract volcanicrock type uranium mineralization alteration in Baiyanghe area, Xinjiang. These application advances show the good application effects of remote sensing technology to uranium exploration in northwest of China, which provides important references for making further uranium prospecting using remote sensing technology. (authors)

  11. Forest above Ground Biomass Inversion by Fusing GLAS with Optical Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohuan Xi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest biomass is an important parameter for quantifying and understanding biological and physical processes on the Earth’s surface. Rapid, reliable, and objective estimations of forest biomass are essential to terrestrial ecosystem research. The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS produced substantial scientific data for detecting the vegetation structure at the footprint level. This study combined GLAS data with MODIS/BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function and ASTER GDEM data to estimate forest aboveground biomass (AGB in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province, China. The GLAS waveform characteristic parameters were extracted using the wavelet method. The ASTER DEM was used to compute the terrain index for reducing the topographic influence on the GLAS canopy height estimation. A neural network method was applied to assimilate the MODIS BRDF data with the canopy heights for estimating continuous forest heights. Forest leaf area indices (LAIs were derived from Landsat TM imagery. A series of biomass estimation models were developed and validated using regression analyses between field-estimated biomass, canopy height, and LAI. The GLAS-derived canopy heights in Xishuangbanna correlated well with the field-estimated AGB (R2 = 0.61, RMSE = 52.79 Mg/ha. Combining the GLAS estimated canopy heights and LAI yielded a stronger correlation with the field-estimated AGB (R2 = 0.73, RMSE = 38.20 Mg/ha, which indicates that the accuracy of the estimated biomass in complex terrains can be improved significantly by integrating GLAS and optical remote sensing data.

  12. Stability Regions Around the Components of the Triple System 2001 SN263

    CERN Document Server

    Araujo, R A N; Prado, A F B A; Sukhanov, A

    2012-01-01

    The NEAs (Near-Earth Asteroids) are good targets for spatial missions, since they periodically approach the orbit of the Earth. Recently, the NEA (153591) 2001 SN263 was chosen as the target of the ASTER MISSION- First Brazilian Deep Space Mission, planned to be launched in 2015. In February 2008, the radio astronomers from Arecibo-Puerto Rico concluded that (153591) 2001 SN263 is actually a triple system (Nolan et al., 2008). The announcement of the ASTER MISSION has motivated the development of the present work, whose goal is to characterize regions of stability and instability of the triple system (153591) 2001 SN263. The method adopted consisted in dividing the region around the system into four distinct regions. We have performed numerical integrations of systems composed by seven bodies: Sun, Earth, Mars, Jupiter and the three components of the system, and by thousands of particles randomly distributed within the demarcated regions, for the planar and inclined prograde cases. The results are diagrams of...

  13. Colombia Mi Pronostico Flood Application: Updating and Improving the Mi Pronostico Flood Web Application to Include an Assessment of Flood Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushley, Stephanie; Carter, Matthew; Chiou, Charles; Farmer, Richard; Haywood, Kevin; Pototzky, Anthony, Jr.; White, Adam; Winker, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Colombia is a country with highly variable terrain, from the Andes Mountains to plains and coastal areas, many of these areas are prone to flooding disasters. To identify these risk areas NASA's Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) was used to construct a digital elevation model (DEM) for the study region. The preliminary risk assessment was applied to a pilot study area, the La Mosca River basin. Precipitation data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)'s near-real-time rainfall products as well as precipitation data from the Instituto de Hidrologia, Meteorologia y Estudios Ambientales (the Institute of Hydrology, Meteorology and Environmental Studies, IDEAM) and stations in the La Mosca River Basin were used to create rainfall distribution maps for the region. Using the precipitation data and the ASTER DEM, the web application, Mi Pronóstico, run by IDEAM, was updated to include an interactive map which currently allows users to search for a location and view the vulnerability and current weather and flooding conditions. The geospatial information was linked to an early warning system in Mi Pronóstico that can alert the public of flood warnings and identify locations of nearby shelters.

  14. Molecular phylogenies support homoplasy of multiple morphological characters used in the taxonomy of Heteroscleromorpha (Porifera: Demospongiae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Christine C; Redmond, Niamh E; Picton, Bernard E; Thacker, Robert W; Collins, Allen G; Maggs, Christine A; Sigwart, Julia D; Allcock, A Louise

    2013-09-01

    Sponge classification has long been based mainly on morphocladistic analyses but is now being greatly challenged by more than 12 years of accumulated analyses of molecular data analyses. The current study used phylogenetic hypotheses based on sequence data from 18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, and the CO1 barcoding fragment, combined with morphology to justify the resurrection of the order Axinellida Lévi, 1953. Axinellida occupies a key position in different morphologically derived topologies. The abandonment of Axinellida and the establishment of Halichondrida Vosmaer, 1887 sensu lato to contain Halichondriidae Gray, 1867, Axinellidae Carter, 1875, Bubaridae Topsent, 1894, Heteroxyidae Dendy, 1905, and a new family Dictyonellidae van Soest et al., 1990 was based on the conclusion that an axially condensed skeleton evolved independently in separate lineages in preference to the less parsimonious assumption that asters (star-shaped spicules), acanthostyles (club-shaped spicules with spines), and sigmata (C-shaped spicules) each evolved more than once. Our new molecular trees are congruent and contrast with the earlier, morphologically based, trees. The results show that axially condensed skeletons, asters, acanthostyles, and sigmata are all homoplasious characters. The unrecognized homoplasious nature of these characters explains much of the incongruence between molecular-based and morphology-based phylogenies. We use the molecular trees presented here as a basis for re-interpreting the morphological characters within Heteroscleromorpha. The implications for the classification of Heteroscleromorpha are discussed and a new order Biemnida ord. nov. is erected. PMID:23753661

  15. A Study on New Song of the Sky Pacers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sang-Hyeon

    2009-12-01

    We investigated `Song of the Sky Pacers, Adopted to the New Methods' (新法步天歌), the latest version of Joseon's `Song of the Sky Pacers' (步天歌). Due to the influence of new knowledge on Chinese asterisms imported from the Ching dynasty, `Song of the Sky Pacers with New Star-Charts' was written in the eighteenth century. However, the disagreement between song and star-charts was causing confusion in practical applications such as Joseon's national examination for selecting astronomers. In order to improve this situation, Royal Observatory of the Joseon dynasty (觀象監) published `Song of the Sky Pacers, Adopted to the New Methods' based upon star-charts and song in the Sequel of I-Hsiang-K'ao-ch'eng (欽定儀象考成續編). The New Song was edited by a middle-class professional astronomer Yi Jun-yang (李俊養), and corrected by a nobleman Nam Byeong-gil (南秉吉). We establish a brief biography of Yi Jun-yang. The New Song preserves the genuine characteristics of previous Joseon's Song including the format of title of each lunar mansion and description on the location of the Milky Way in the asterisms. The description of the Milky Way was newly written based on the data in volume 31 and 32 of the Sequel of I-Hsiang-K'ao-ch'eng.

  16. Stato evolutivo delle stelle della Cintura di Orione ed implicazioni archeoastronomiche

    CERN Document Server

    Orofino, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    In the present work it is evaluated the evolutionary state of the Orion Belt stars, an asterism very important for the ancient Egyptians, finding that, when the pyramids were built, the brightness of the three stars of the Belt was practically the same as today. This not trivial result has important implications in the framework of the so-called Orion Correlation Theory, a controversial theory proposed by Bauval and Gilbert (1994), according to which a perfect coincidence would exist between the disposition of the three stars of the Orion Belt and that of the main Giza pyramids, so that the latter would represent the monumental reproduction on the ground of that important asterism. ----------- Nel presente lavoro viene determinato lo stato evolutivo delle stelle della Cintura di Orione, ricavando che, all'epoca della costruzione delle piramidi, la luminosita' delle tre stelle della Cintura era di fatto uguale a quella odierna. Tale non banale risultato riveste una importanza fondamentale nell'ambito della ver...

  17. A comparison of multi-resource remote sensing data for vegetation indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the development of the satellite sensor, multi-resource observation systems have become widely used. However, there is a huge difference between quantitative remote sensing products because of the different sensing observations and the quantitative retrieval algorithms. In this paper, the quantitative relationships between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), the soil-adjusted vegetation index (SAVI) and the vegetation index based on the universal pattern decomposition method (VIUPD) of Landsat ETM+ and ASTER sensors are investigated. The difference in observations was examined between the two sensors, based on a pair of images. The results showed that: 1) There was a strong correlation between the different vegetation indices for the same sensor, with the coefficient of determination being greater than 0.9. 2) Whether for ASTER or Landsat, the information of VIUPD was richer than that of NDVI and SAVI. Furthermore, in dense vegetation areas, the values of NDVI and SAVI could easily reach saturation. 3) The values of SAVI were higher than NDVI in the areas of water or bare soil, while this was the opposite in areas of lush vegetation

  18. The kinesin-13 KLP10A motor regulates oocyte spindle length and affects EB1 binding without altering microtubule growth rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin K. Do

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Kinesin-13 motors are unusual in that they do not walk along microtubules, but instead diffuse to the ends, where they remove tubulin dimers, regulating microtubule dynamics. Here we show that Drosophila kinesin-13 klp10A regulates oocyte meiosis I spindle length and is haplo-insufficient – KLP10A, reduced by RNAi or a loss-of-function P element insertion mutant, results in elongated and mispositioned oocyte spindles, and abnormal cortical microtubule asters and aggregates. KLP10A knockdown by RNAi does not significantly affect microtubule growth rates in oocyte spindles, but, unexpectedly, EB1 binding and unbinding are slowed, suggesting a previously unobserved role for kinesin-13 in mediating EB1 binding interactions with microtubules. Kinesin-13 may regulate spindle length both by disassembling subunits from microtubule ends and facilitating EB1 binding to plus ends. We also observe an increased number of paused microtubules in klp10A RNAi knockdown spindles, consistent with a reduced frequency of microtubule catastrophes. Overall, our findings indicate that reduced kinesin-13 decreases microtubule disassembly rates and affects EB1 interactions with microtubules, rather than altering microtubule growth rates, causing spindles to elongate and abnormal cortical microtubule asters and aggregates to form.

  19. AGRO BOTANICAL ILLUSTRATION IN HAND FAN PAINTING AS A RESOURCE OF INFORMATION ON BREEDING AND PLANT INTRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsatsenko L. V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses agro-botanical illustration of hand fans painting as an independent resource of visual information on the history of culture of introduction, distribution, species diversity and plant breeding. We have reviewed the history of the fan and the causes of widespread of fans and the respective painting plants. The article shows the different trends in the filing of a visual image in the fan art: from accurate, detailed drawing of the image, until smooth, blurred contours, made in the "boneless" or "acyclic" technique. On the example of pumpkins, lagenaria, soybeans, corn, flowers, namely asters and peonies we have shown various aspects of breeding and agronomic work for several centuries. The article uses the method of visual analysis as a tool for collection and analysis of data on breeding and introduction of a number of crops on the example of specific crops, particularly soybeans. The analysis includes a description of morphotypes, area of origin, distribution, physiology, individual characteristics, and insects found in the ecological niche. It is noted that visual analysis can be successfully applied in the study of varietal diversity of a number of flower crops: asters, peonies, chrysanthemums, and some fruits and vegetables

  20. Machu Picchu, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The ruins of Machu Picchu, rediscovered in 1911 by Hiram Bingham, are one of the most beautiful and enigmatic ancient sites in the world. While the Inca people utilized the Andean mountain top (2800 m elevation), erecting massive stone structures from the early 1400's, legends and myths indicate that Machu Picchu (meaning 'Old Peak' in the Quechua language) was revered as a sacred place from a far earlier time. The Inca turned the site into a small (12 square kilometers) but extraordinary city. Invisible from the Urubamba River valley below and completely self-contained, surrounded by agricultural terraces sufficient to feed the population, and watered by natural springs, Machu Picchu seems to have been utilized by the Inca as a secret ceremonial city. The Spaniards never found Machu Picchu, even though they suspected its existence. The mountain top sanctuary fell into disuse and was abandoned some forty years after the Spanish took Cuzco in 1533. Supply lines linking the many Inca social centers were disrupted and the great empire came to an end.This image was acquired on June 25, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example

  1. Comparison between hydrographically conditioned digital elevation models in the morphometric charaterization of watersheds Comparação de modelos digitais de elevação hidrograficamente condicionados na caracterização morfométrica de bacias hidrográficas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo A. S. Guedes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the hydrographically conditioned digital elevation models (HCDEMs generated from data of VNIR (Visible Near Infrared sensor of ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer, of SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission and topographical maps from IBGE in a scale of 1:50,000, processed in the Geographical Information System (GIS, aiming the morphometric characterization of watersheds. It was taken as basis the Sub-basin of São Bartolomeu River, obtaining morphometric characteristics from HCDEMs. Root Mean Square Error (RMSE and cross validation were the statistics indexes used to evaluate the quality of HCDEMs. The percentage differences in the morphometric parameters obtained from these three different data sets were less than 10%, except for the mean slope (21%. In general, it was observed a good agreement between HCDEMs generated from remote sensing data and IBGE maps. The result of HCDEM ASTER was slightly higher than that from HCDEM SRTM. The HCDEM ASTER was more accurate than the HCDEM SRTM in basins with high altitudes and rugged terrain, by presenting frequency altimetry nearest to HCDEM IBGE, considered standard in this study.O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar modelos digitais de elevação hidrograficamente condicionados (MDEHCs, gerados a partir de dados do sensor VNIR (Visible Near Infrared do ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer, da SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission e de cartas topográficas do IBGE na escala 1:50.000, processados em Sistema de Informações Geográficas (SIG, visando à caracterização morfométrica de bacias hidrográficas. A área de estudo selecionada foi a sub-bacia hidrográfica do Ribeirão São Bartolomeu, sendo obtidas as características morfométricas a partir dos MDEHCs. Aplicaram-se o índice estatístico Raiz do Erro Médio Quadrático (REMQ e a validação cruzada para avaliar a qualidade dos MDEHCs. A

  2. NASA Keeps Watch on a Potential Disaster in the Icy Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    A chunk of glacier was threatening to fall into an Andean lake and cause major flooding in a Peruvian city of 60,000. A fissure has appeared in the glacier that feeds Lake Palcacocha near the city of Huaraz, 270 km north of Lima. If the piece breaks off, ensuing floods would take 15 minutes to reach the city. In 1941, the lake overflowed and caused massive destruction, killing 7,000 people. The city can be seen in the lower left part of the two images, acquired this week and 18 months ago. Lake Palcacocha is in the upper right corner of the image at the head of a valley, below the snow and glacier cap. The inset image shows an enlargement of the lake and the glacier occupying the cirque valley above it. The images are being provided to the Peruvian authorities and geologists to help them assess the state of the glacier, and compare the recent image with historic data. These images were acquired on November 5, 2001 and April 8, 2003 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties

  3. Multispectral Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing of Volcanic SO2 Plumes with NASA’s Earth Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realmuto, V. J.

    2009-12-01

    The instruments aboard NASA’s series of Earth Observing System satellites provide a rich suite of measurements for the mapping of volcanic plumes and clouds. This presentation will focus on applications of thermal multispectral infrared (TIR) data acquired with the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS), and Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) to the recent eruptions of Augustine and Sarychev volcanoes in Alaska and the Russian Kuril Islands, respectively. ASTER, MODIS, and AIRS provide complimentary information on the quantity and distribution of sulfur dioxide (SO2), silicate ash, and sulfate (SO4) aerosols within plumes. In addition, data from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) are used to derive estimates of aerosol loading, cloud-top altitude, wind direction, and wind speed. MODIS is our workhorse for plume mapping projects. There are MODIS instruments on the Terra and Aqua platforms, ensuring at least two MODIS passes per day over most volcanoes and four passes per day over many volcanoes. The spatial resolution of MODIS TIR radiance measurements is 1 km (at nadir) over a ground swath of 2330 km. MODIS can detect both the 7.3 and 8.5 μm bands of SO2, although the 7.3 μm band is often obscured by water vapor absorption when plumes are altitudes below ~ 4 km. ASTER has five channels in the TIR, and can detect the 8.5 μm SO2 band. The high spatial resolution (90 m) of ASTER TIR radiance measurements results in high sensitivity to SO2 within a narrow ground swath (60 km). AIRS has over 2700 spectral channels between 3.7 and 15.4 μm, allowing us to make unambiguous identifications of SO2, SO4 aerosols, and ash over a ground swath of ~2330 km. AIRS can detect the 7.3 μm SO2 band, and the strength of this band partially offsets the coarse spatial resolution of this instrument (~17 km at nadir). The key to multi-sensor mapping is the availability of a standard set

  4. Assessing coastal plain wetland composition using advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantaleoni, Eva

    Establishing wetland gains and losses, delineating wetland boundaries, and determining their vegetative composition are major challenges that can be improved through remote sensing studies. We used the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) to separate wetlands from uplands in a study of 870 locations on the Virginia Coastal Plain. We used the first five bands from each of two ASTER scenes (6 March 2005 and 16 October 2005), covering the visible to the short-wave infrared region (0.52-2.185mum). We included GIS data layers for soil survey, topography, and presence or absence of water in a logistic regression model that predicted the location of over 78% of the wetlands. While this was slightly less accurate (78% vs. 86%) than current National Wetland Inventory (NWI) aerial photo interpretation procedures of locating wetlands, satellite imagery analysis holds great promise for speeding wetland mapping, lowering costs, and improving update frequency. To estimate wetland vegetation composition classes, we generated a classification and regression tree (CART) model and a multinomial logistic regression (logit) model, and compared their accuracy in separating woody wetlands, emergent wetlands and open water. The overall accuracy of the CART model was 73.3%, while for the logit model was 76.7%. The CART producer's accuracy of the emergent wetlands was higher than the accuracy from the multinomial logit (57.1% vs. 40.7%). However, we obtained the opposite result for the woody wetland category (68.7% vs. 52.6%). A McNemar test between the two models and NWI maps showed that their accuracies were not statistically different. We conducted a subpixel analysis of the ASTER images to estimate canopy cover of forested wetlands. We used top-of-atmosphere reflectance from the visible and near infrared bands, Delta Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, and a tasseled cap brightness, greenness, and wetness in linear regression model with canopy

  5. Ancient and Modern Salars of the Atacama Desert, Chile: A Terrestrial Analog for Evaporite Formation on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungers, M. C.; Amundson, R.; Heimsath, A. M.; Christensen, P. R.; Edwards, C. S.

    2010-12-01

    The hyperarid (Atacama Desert of northern Chile is a widely accepted terrestrial analog for the surface of Mars. Sulfate and chloride deposits are present in uncommonly high abundances throughout the Atacama. The formation and preservation of these evaporite deposits are a direct result of the arid-hyperarid climate of the region from the Triassic to the present. Mars, too, is known for a long history of aridity. Remotely sensed data from THEMIS, TES, and analyses conducted during Mars landing missions have revealed the presence of sulfate and chloride deposits covering some portions of Mars’ surface. We synthesize remotely sensed (ASTER) data from the Atacama with field observations and sample analyses by laboratory thermal spectroscopy and portable XRF to inform how best to interpret signatures of sulfate and chloride deposits on Mars. We focus on two salars, one ancient (Salar de Llamara) and one modern (Salar de Atacama), to better understand how evaporites’ spectral and geochemical signatures may evolve through time. The oldest deposits of the Salar de Llamara are Miocene in age, while the Salar de Atacama continues to develop today. Compositionally, both salars’ surfaces are dominated by sulfate (gypsum and anhydrite) and chloride (halite) deposits. We selected sample sites according to compositional boundaries inferred from decorrelation stretches of thermal infrared (TIR) ASTER bands supplemented by previous field reconnaissance. We collected surface samples along transects from the core of the salars to their shorelines, intersecting zones ranging from predominantly sulfate or chloride to near equal mixtures of each composition. This transect approach to sampling allowed us to collect samples that incorporated a range of both geochemical compositions and processes fundamental to the spatial and temporal evolution of evaporite deposits. Preliminary results show promise in refining our ability to identify sulfates and chlorides using lab spectra, and

  6. An efficient approach for pixel decomposition to increase the spatial resolution of land surface temperature images from MODIS thermal infrared band data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Qin, Zhihao; Li, Wenjuan; Song, Caiying; Karnieli, Arnon; Zhao, Shuhe

    2015-01-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) images retrieved from the thermal infrared (TIR) band data of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) have much lower spatial resolution than the MODIS visible and near-infrared (VNIR) band data. The coarse pixel scale of MODIS LST images (1000 m under nadir) have limited their capability in applying to many studies required high spatial resolution in comparison of the MODIS VNIR band data with pixel scale of 250-500 m. In this paper we intend to develop an efficient approach for pixel decomposition to increase the spatial resolution of MODIS LST image using the VNIR band data as assistance. The unique feature of this approach is to maintain the thermal radiance of parent pixels in the MODIS LST image unchanged after they are decomposed into the sub-pixels in the resulted image. There are two important steps in the decomposition: initial temperature estimation and final temperature determination. Therefore the approach can be termed double-step pixel decomposition (DSPD). Both steps involve a series of procedures to achieve the final result of decomposed LST image, including classification of the surface patterns, establishment of LST change with normalized difference of vegetation index (NDVI) and building index (NDBI), reversion of LST into thermal radiance through Planck equation, and computation of weights for the sub-pixels of the resulted image. Since the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) with much higher spatial resolution than MODIS data was on-board the same platform (Terra) as MODIS for Earth observation, an experiment had been done in the study to validate the accuracy and efficiency of our approach for pixel decomposition. The ASTER LST image was used as the reference to compare with the decomposed LST image. The result showed that the spatial distribution of the decomposed LST image was very similar to that of the ASTER LST image with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 2

  7. Satellite Data for a Rapid Assessment of Tsunami Inundation Areas after the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Herrera, María Teresa; Navarrete-Pacheco, José Antonio

    2013-06-01

    The M w = 9.0 earthquake that occurred off the coast of Japan's Tohoku region produced a great tsunami causing catastrophic damage and loss of life. Within hours of the tsunami event, satellite data were readily available and massive media coverage immediately circulated thousands of photographs and videos of the tsunami. Satellite data allow a rapid assessment of inundated areas where access can be difficult either as a result of damaged infrastructure (e.g., roads, bridges, ports, airports) or because of safety issues (e.g., the hazard at Nuclear Power Plant at Fukushima). In this study, we assessed in a day tsunami inundation distances and runup heights using satellite data (very high-resolution satellite images from the GeoEye1 satellite and from the DigitalGlobe worldview, SRTM and ASTER GDEM) of the Tohoku region, Northeast Japan. Field survey data by Japanese and other international scientists validated our results. This study focused on three different locations. Site selection was based on coastal morphologies and the distance to the tsunami source (epicenter). Study sites are Rikuzentakata, Oyagawahama, and Yagawahama in the Oshika Peninsula, and the Sendai coastal plain (Sendai City to Yamamoto City). Maximum inundation distance (6 km along the river) and maximum runup (39 m) at Rikuzentakata estimated from satellite data agree closely with the 39.7 m inundation reported in the field. Here the ria coastal morphology and horn shaped bay enhanced the tsunami runup and effects. The Sendai coastal plain shows large inundation distances (6 km) and lower runup heights. Natori City and Wakabayashi Ward, on the Sendai plain, have similar runup values (12 and 16 m, respectively) obtained from SRTM data; these are comparable to those obtained from field surveys (12 and 9.5 m). However, at Yagawahama and Oyagawahama, Miyagi Prefecture, both SRTM and ASTER data provided maximum runup heights (41 to 45 m and 33 to 34 m, respectively), which are higher than those

  8. 3D Reconstruction of geological structures based on remote sensing data: example from Anaran anticline, Lurestan province, Zagros folds and thrust belt, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snidero, M.; Amilibia, A.; Gratacos, O.; Muñoz, J. A.

    2009-04-01

    This work presents a methodological workflow for the 3D reconstruction of geological surfaces at regional scale, based on remote sensing data and geological maps. This workflow has been tested on the reconstruction of the Anaran anticline, located in the Zagros Fold and Thrust belt mountain front. The used remote sensing data-set is a combination of Aster and Spot images as well as a high resolution digital elevation model. A consistent spatial positioning of the complete data-set in a 3D environment is necessary to obtain satisfactory results during the reconstruction. The Aster images have been processed by the Optimum Index Factor (OIF) technique, in order to facilitate the geological mapping. By pansharpening of the resulting Aster image with the SPOT panchromatic one we obtain the final high-resolution image used during the 3D mapping. Structural data (dip data) has been acquired through the analysis of the 3D mapped geological traces. Structural analysis of the resulting data-set allows us to divide the structure in different cylindrical domains. Related plunge lines orientation has been used to project data along the structure, covering areas with little or no information. Once a satisfactory dataset has been acquired, we reconstruct a selected horizon following the dip-domain concept. By manual editing, the obtained surfaces have been adjusted to the mapped geological limits as well as to the modeled faults. With the implementation of the Discrete Smooth Interpolation (DSI) algorithm, the final surfaces have been reconstructed along the anticline. Up to date the results demonstrate that the proposed methodology is a powerful tool for 3D reconstruction of geological surfaces when working with remote sensing data, in very inaccessible areas (eg. Iran, China, Africa). It is especially useful in semiarid regions where the structure strongly controls the topography. The reconstructed surfaces clearly show the geometry in the different sectors of the structure

  9. Remote Sensing Assessment of Soil Moisture, Soil Mineralogy and other Environmental Factors Influencing Mosquito-borne Infection Risks in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, U.S. - Mexico Border (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, B. E.; Folger, H. W.; Page, W. R.

    2010-12-01

    A dengue fever outbreak occurred near Matamoros, Mexico along the Lower Rio Grande Valley during the summer of 2005 following heavy rainfall from Tropical Storm Gert and Hurricane Emily. This outbreak exemplifies the need for monitoring soil moisture and mapping soil permeability factors affecting the breeding and distribution of mosquito species capable of spreading disease. For example, the Rio Grande delta of South Texas and North Tamaulipas Mexico is inhabited by over 50 native and invasive species of mosquitoes capable of hosting Malaria, West Nile Virus and other types of human and livestock infecting Encephalitis. They range in ecological habitats from coastal salt marshes to freshwater riparian wetlands, tree holes and/or urban containers, flooded agricultural fields, and the many irrigation canals and ditches present throughout our study area. For this study, water-saturated and flooded soils were mapped using a “soil moisture availability” index (Mo) based on normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) images and surface radiant and/or kinetic temperature images derived from multi-temporal Landsat-7 ETM+ and ASTER imagery. In particular, the Landsat-7 imagery covers ten cloud-free or minimal cloud cover acquisition dates during drought and wet periods of 2002, prior to the scan-line corrector failure in 2003. This includes one date (August 18, 2002) of co-orbital swath coverage between Landsat and ASTER, acquired after the land fall and dissipation of Tropical Storm Bertha (August 09, 2002). ASTER image dates used include those before and after the land fall of Hurricane Emily on July 20, 2005. The resulting maps show the distribution of relatively permeable (i.e. sandier) and impermeable soil types, the latter of which are dominated by clay-rich soils deposited in remnant interdistributary channels as channel-fill, and overbank flood deposits along the modern Rio Grande delta and portions of the (remapped) Pleistocene Beaumont coastal deltaic plain

  10. MEaSUREs Land Surface Temperature from GOES satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinker, Rachel T.; Ma, Yingtao; Chen, Wen; Hulley, Glynn; Borbas, Eva; Hain, Chris; Hook, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Information on Land Surface Temperature (LST) can be generated from observations made from satellites in low Earth orbit (LEO) such as MODIS and ASTER and by sensors in geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) such as GOES. Both observations have unique advantages, however, when combined, introduced are challenges related to inhomogeneity of the resulting information. NASA has identified a major need for developing long-term, consistent, and calibrated data and products that are consistent across multiple missions and satellite sensors. Under a project titled: "A Unified and Coherent Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Earth System Data Record (ESDR) for Earth Science" led by Jet Propulsion Laboratory, such an effort is underway. In this presentation we will describe part of that effort, dealing with the generation of an approach to derive LST information from the GOES satellites from 2000 and onward. Since implementation of the well-established split window approach is not possible after mid-2003 (will be possible again after the launch of GOES-R in October of 2016), there is a need to focus on retrievals from a single thermal channel in order to provide continuity in the LST record. The methodology development requires the generation of consistently calibrated GOES observations, identification of clear sky radiances, and development of retrieval algorithms that benefit from most recent advances in related fields that provide auxiliary information required for driving the inference schemes. Results will be presented from two approaches. One is based on a regression approach that utilizes a wide range of simulations using MODTRAN, SeeBor Version 5.0 global atmospheric profiles and. The second approach uses MERRA-2 reanalysis fields with the RTTOV radiative transfer model approach to derive LST from the LEO satellites, adjusted for the GEO characteristics. The advantage of this latter approach is in the consistency between this retrieval approaches and those used at JPL

  11. Multi-sensor Mapping of Volcanic Plumes and Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realmuto, V. J.

    2006-12-01

    The instruments aboard the NASA series of Earth Observing System satellites provide a rich suite of measurements for the mapping of volcanic plumes and clouds. In this presentation we focus on analyses of data acquired with the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS), and Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). ASTER, MODIS, AIRS, and MISR provide complimentary information on the quantity and distribution of sulfur dioxide, silicate ash, and sulfate aerosols within plumes. In addition, MISR data are used to derive estimates of cloud-top altitude, wind direction, and wind speed. The key to multi-sensor mapping is the availability of a standard set of tools for the processing of data from different instruments. To date we have used the MAP_SO2 toolkit to analyze the thermal infrared (TIR) data from MODIS, ASTER, and AIRS. MAP_SO2, a graphic user interface to the MODTRAN radiative transfer model, provides tools for the estimation of emissivity spectra, water vapor and ozone correction factors, surface temperature, and concentrations of SO2. We use the MISR_Shift toolkit to estimate plume-top altitudes and local wind vectors. Our continuous refinement of MAP_SO2 has resulted in lower detection limits for SO2 and lower sensitivity to the presence of sulfate aerosols and ash. Our plans for future refinements of MAP_SO2 include the incorporation of AIRS-based profiles of atmospheric temperature, water vapor and ozone, and MISR-based maps of plume-top altitude into the plume mapping procedures. The centerpiece of our study is a time-series of data acquired during the 2002-2003 and 2006 eruptions of Mount Etna. Time-series measurements are the only means of recording dynamic phenomena and characterizing the processes that generate such phenomena. We have also analyzed data acquired over Klychevskoy, Bezymianny, and Sheveluch (Kamchatka), Augustine

  12. Scenario-Based Validation of Moderate Resolution DEMs Freely Available for Complex Himalayan Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mritunjay Kumar; Gupta, R. D.; Snehmani; Bhardwaj, Anshuman; Ganju, Ashwagosha

    2016-02-01

    Accuracy of the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) affects the accuracy of various geoscience and environmental modelling results. This study evaluates accuracies of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global DEM Version-2 (GDEM V2), the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) X-band DEM and the NRSC Cartosat-1 DEM V1 (CartoDEM). A high resolution (1 m) photogrammetric DEM (ADS80 DEM), having a high absolute accuracy [1.60 m linear error at 90 % confidence (LE90)], resampled at 30 m cell size was used as reference. The overall root mean square error (RMSE) in vertical accuracy was 23, 73, and 166 m and the LE90 was 36, 75, and 256 m for ASTER GDEM V2, SRTM X-band DEM and CartoDEM, respectively. A detailed error analysis was performed for individual as well as combinations of different classes of aspect, slope, land-cover and elevation zones for the study area. For the ASTER GDEM V2, forest areas with North facing slopes (0°-5°) in the 4th elevation zone (3773-4369 m) showed minimum LE90 of 0.99 m, and barren with East facing slopes (>60°) falling under the 2nd elevation zone (2581-3177 m) showed maximum LE90 of 166 m. For the SRTM DEM, pixels with South-East facing slopes of 0°-5° in the 4th elevation zone covered with forest showed least LE90 of 0.33 m and maximum LE90 of 521 m was observed in the barren area with North-East facing slope (>60°) in the 4th elevation zone. In case of the CartoDEM, the snow pixels in the 2nd elevation zone with South-East facing slopes of 5°-15° showed least LE90 of 0.71 m and maximum LE90 of 1266 m was observed for the snow pixels in the 3rd elevation zone (3177-3773 m) within the South facing slope of 45°-60°. These results can be highly useful for the researchers using DEM products in various modelling exercises.

  13. Use of quantitative real time PCR for a genome-wide study of AYWB phytoplasma gene expression in plant and insect hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarova, Olga; MacLean, Allyson M.; Hogenhout, Saskia A.;

    2011-01-01

    technique for reliable gene expression quantification of phytoplasmas on a large scale. In our experimental setup, 242 genes of aster yellows phytoplasma strain witches' broom (AY-WB) were tested for differences in expression in plant and insect host environments, and were shown to be predominantly......Phytoplasmas are obligate parasites of plants and insects and cause significant crop yield losses worldwide. A number of microarray gene expression studies have been performed to understand better the effects of phytoplasma infection on plant physiology. However, little effort has been made for the...... expressed in the plant or insect hosts. In silico operon prediction corroborated the experimental data. Our findings suggest that the delta delta Ct method can be used to study the physiology of this pathogen...

  14. Caractérisation numérique couplée fluide-aérothermique/structure dédiée à partir de techniques aux frontières immergées

    OpenAIRE

    Luu, Hong Quan

    2013-01-01

    La caractérisation des mécanismes de transfert entre un écoulement fluide incompressible et une structure solide constitue l’objectif principal de ce présent mémoire. A partir d’un solveur développé au sein de l’équipe, les travaux se sont plus particulièrement focalisés sur les stratégies de couplage avec un solveur solide, afin de traiter à la fois les échanges énergétiques et les mouvements de la structure. Dans notre approche, le modèle traitant la partie solide est le solveur ASTER et un...

  15. Development of Ground and Remotely Based Evaporation Measurements at the Salar de Atacama, Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, S. K.; Tyler, S. W.; Menz, S. F.; Muñoz, J. F.; Astete, C. O.

    2001-12-01

    Evaporation represents an important component of the water budget in desert playa lakes, and accurate spatial and temporal assessment of evaporation rates has the potential to greatly improve the accuracy of hydrologic models in such environments. To this end, evaporation at the Salar de Atacama, a large playa in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile, has been examined at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Previous investigators have measured evaporation from the Salar using lysimeters and Bowen Ratio stations and have found that actual evaporation rates in much of the playa are extremely low (Salar are presented along with an assessment of the ability of ASTER imagery to provide accurate measurements of evaporation rates in playa environments.

  16. Multi-scale approach of the mechanical behaviour of reinforced concrete structures - Application to nuclear plant containment buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis develops a multi-scale strategy to describe the mechanical behaviour of steel reinforcements and prestressing tendons in a reinforced concrete structure. This strategy is declined in several steps, which allow gradual integration of new physical phenomena. The first asymptotic model represents the effective elastic behaviour of heterogeneities periodically distributed on a surface. It combines an elastic interface behaviour and a membrane behaviour. A second asymptotic model then focuses on the behaviour of rigid fibers distributed on a surface, which may slide with respect to the surrounding volume. These models induce less stress concentrations than the usual truss models. They are implemented in the finite element code Code-Aster, and validated with respect to reference three-dimensional simulations. Their interaction with a macroscopic crack is studied. Finally, this strategy allows the modeling of experimental tests carried out on a portion of a containment building in real scale. (author)

  17. Arizona Forest Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    These ASTER images cover an area of 11 x 14 km on the north rim of the Grand Canyon, Arizona, and were acquired May 12, 2000. The left image displays bands 3,2,1 in RGB, displaying vegetation as red. The large dark area is burned forest, and small smoke plumes can be seen at the edges where active fires are burning. The right display substitutes SWIR band 8 for band 3. The bright red spots are the active fires, visible because the SWIR wavelength region has the capability to penetrate through the smoke. This image is located at 35.9 degrees north latitude and 113.4 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  18. Disasters and Social Securities in Huaihe River Basin Since Yuan and Ming Dynasties%元明以降淮河流域灾害与社会保障

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于文善; 吴海涛

    2013-01-01

    Disasters have been frequently taking place in Huaihe River basin since Yuan and Ming Dynasties .Faced with dis-asters, the feudal governments and civil societies , especially non-government organizations , all have taken corresponding social se-curity and social assistance measures , from which we should learn some experience and lessons .%元明以降淮河流域灾害频发。面对灾害,封建官府和民间社会都曾采取过相应的社会保障和社会救助措施,应当一定程度上肯定这些保障和救助措施,尤其是社会和民间组织应对灾害时的表现,从中我们可以吸取一定的经验与教训。

  19. The effects of vertebrate herbivory on plant community structure in the coastal marshes of the Pearl River, Louisiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, K.L.; Grace, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the impacts of herbivory by the introduced aquatic herbivore, nutria (Myocastor coypus), on three marsh communities of the Pearl River using fenced exclosures and control plots. Although total community above-ground biomass was reduced by 30% in the plots exposed to herbivory as compared to those protected from herbivory, we found species richness to be unaffected. When individual species were examined within each community,Panicum virgatum andAster subulatus were found to be significantly reduced by herbivory in the freshwater community,Panicum virgatum andVigna luteola were significantly increased by herbivory in the oligohaline community, and no species were significantly affected in the mesohaline community. We conclude that this herbivory has some specific effects on some plant species as well as having a general community effect.

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U04794-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nuclear 16.0 %: mitochondrial 4.0 %: cytoskeletal >> prediction for Contig-U04794-1 is cyt VS (DIR, S) 0 VH...train 3D7, chromosome 9; s... 36 0.16 10 ( AP006628 ) Onion yellows phytoplasma OY-M DNA, complete genome. 3....4 4 ( CP001078 ) Clostridium botulinum E3 str. Alaska E43, complet... 40 1.4 14 ( FP102340 ) H.melpomene DN...e RP21-509E24 on chro... 34 6.8 4 ( AL035476 ) Plasmodium falciparum MAL4P3. 40 6.9 7 ( CP000061 ) Aster yell... SALK_089472.55.40.n Arabidopsis thaliana TDNA ins... 34 0.80 2 ( DT957227 ) CFW150-B03.x1d-t SHGC-CFW Gaste