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Sample records for aster ericoides cultivar

  1. Bewaren van onbeworteld stek : bewaring van onbeworteld stek van aster en solidago

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eveleens, B.; Krijger, D.; Kouwenhoven, D.; Berg, van den T.; Telgen, van H.J.

    2002-01-01

    In de praktijk worden geoogste stekken van Aster ericoides en Solidago maximaal een week bewaard. Bij langere bewaring (of transport) treden vaak problemen op als uitval ten gevolge van rot en/of slechte beworteling. Een langere bewaarduur is gewenst, zowel voor planning van werkzaamheden als behoud

  2. ASTER Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Eiffel Tower and its shadow can be seen next to the Seine in the left middle of this ASTER image of Paris. Based on the length of the shadow and the solar elevation angle of 59 degrees, we can calculate its height as 324 meters (1,054 feet), compared to its actual height of 303 meters (985 feet). Acquired on July 23, 2000, this image covers an area 23 kilometers (15 miles) wide and 20 kilometers (13 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. Known as the City of Light, Paris has been extolled for centuries as one of the great cities of the world. Its location on the Seine River, at a strategic crossroads of land and river routes, has been the key to its expansion since the Parisii tribe first settled here in the 3rd century B.C.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the

  3. ASTER Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This image of Saudi Arabia shows a great sea of linear dunes in part of the Rub' al Khali, or the Empty Quarter. Acquired on June 25, 2000, the image covers an area 37 kilometers (23 miles) wide and 28 kilometers (17 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. The dunes are yellow due to the presence of iron oxide minerals. The inter-dune area is made up of clays and silt and appears blue due to its high reflectance in band 1. The Rub' al Khali is the world's largest continuous sand desert. It covers about 650,000 square kilometers (250,966 square miles) and lies mainly in southern Saudi Arabia, though it does extend into the United Arab Emirates, Oman, and Yemen. One of the world's driest areas, it is uninhabited except for the Bedouin nomads who cross it. The first European to travel through the desert was Bertram Thomas in 1930.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Examples of

  4. The Aster code; Code Aster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbecq, J.M

    1999-07-01

    The Aster code is a 2D or 3D finite-element calculation code for structures developed by the R and D direction of Electricite de France (EdF). This dossier presents a complete overview of the characteristics and uses of the Aster code: introduction of version 4; the context of Aster (organisation of the code development, versions, systems and interfaces, development tools, quality assurance, independent validation); static mechanics (linear thermo-elasticity, Euler buckling, cables, Zarka-Casier method); non-linear mechanics (materials behaviour, big deformations, specific loads, unloading and loss of load proportionality indicators, global algorithm, contact and friction); rupture mechanics (G energy restitution level, restitution level in thermo-elasto-plasticity, 3D local energy restitution level, KI and KII stress intensity factors, calculation of limit loads for structures), specific treatments (fatigue, rupture, wear, error estimation); meshes and models (mesh generation, modeling, loads and boundary conditions, links between different modeling processes, resolution of linear systems, display of results etc..); vibration mechanics (modal and harmonic analysis, dynamics with shocks, direct transient dynamics, seismic analysis and aleatory dynamics, non-linear dynamics, dynamical sub-structuring); fluid-structure interactions (internal acoustics, mass, rigidity and damping); linear and non-linear thermal analysis; steels and metal industry (structure transformations); coupled problems (internal chaining, internal thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling, chaining with other codes); products and services. (J.S.)

  5. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Blum

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Some modern agrochemicals with antioxidant potential were tested for their protective effect against ozone injury using clover and tobacco ozone-sensitive cultivars as model plants subjected to ambient ozone at two sites (Kyiv city in Ukraine and Szarów village in Poland. All used agrochemicals showed partial protective effects against ozone injury on clover and tobacco. Conducted studies confirmed the effectiveness of modern fungicides belonging to strobilurin group as protectants of sensitive crops against ozone damage. The effectiveness of new growth regulators “Emistym C” and “Agrostymulin” was showed for the first time. Out of the studied agrochemicals, fungicide “Strobi” and natural growth regulator “Emistym C” demonstrated the best protective effects. These agrochemicals present promise for further studies of their possible utilization for enhancement of ozone tolerance of sensitive crops.

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome of Niphotrichum ericoides (Bryophyta, Grimmiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczecińska, Monika; Sawicki, Jakub; Chmielewski, Jarosław; Bednarek-Ochyra, Halina; Ochyra, Ryszard

    2016-09-01

    The mitogenome of Niphotrichum ericoides (GenBank accession number KP 233863) has a total length of 106,727 bp and consists of 40 protein-coding genes, three ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), and 24 transfer RNAs. The gene order is identical to that known in other moss mitogenomes.

  7. Opportunities within ASTERICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Rob; Cimò, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    ASTERICS, The Astronomy ESFRI and Research Infrastructure Cluster project, brings together astronomers and astroparticle physicists of 22 institutes in Europe to help Europe's world-leading observatories work together to find common solutions to their Big Data challenges, their interoperability and scheduling, and their data access, searching for cross-cutting solutions with mutual and wide-ranging benefit to all concerned. ASTERICS is a four year project, funded through the European Union's Horizon 2020 Framework Programme. The facilities supported by ASTERICS include SKA, CTA, KM3NeT, E-ELT. ASTERICS aims to open up multi messenger astronomy to all scientists and the public through the Virtual Observatory and the citizen science work. I will draw a picture of the landscape in which ASTERICS operates and the possible interaction with the Very Large Volume Neutrino Telescope community. Attention will be given to emerging opportunities for the Neutrino community and how these can be recognised or created.

  8. Exclusion of grass roots from soil organic layers by Calluna: the role of ericoid mycorrhizas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genney, D R; Alexander, I J; Hartley, S E

    2000-06-01

    The role of ericoid mycorrhizal colonization in competition between the dwarf shrub Calluna vulgaris and coarse grass Nardus stricta was investigated. Nardus was grown alone, or in competition with Calluna, in a layered organic/sand substrate with and without inoculation with the ericoid mycorrhizal endophyte Hymenoscyphus ericae, and with and without the addition of nitrogen. Root length and allocation between different substrate layers was assessed along with plant biomass, nutrient uptake and mycorrhizal colonization. Calluna was the superior competitor for nutrients, probably because of its ability to concentrate root growth in the upper organic layer. In the presence of Calluna both the absolute amount and proportion of Nardus root length in the organic layer were reduced, and this reduction was greatest when Calluna was mycorrhizal. The presence of ericoid mycorrhizal colonization did not reduce Nardus shoot nutrient content or concentration, suggesting that ericoid mycorrhizal suppression of Nardus growth was not due to nutrient competition: alternative mechanisms of interference are discussed.

  9. ASTER DEM performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisada, H.; Bailey, G.B.; Kelly, Glen G.; Hara, S.; Abrams, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument onboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Terra spacecraft has an along-track stereoscopic capability using its a near-infrared spectral band to acquire the stereo data. ASTER has two telescopes, one for nadir-viewing and another for backward-viewing, with a base-to-height ratio of 0.6. The spatial resolution is 15 m in the horizontal plane. Parameters such as the line-of-sight vectors and the pointing axis were adjusted during the initial operation period to generate Level-1 data products with a high-quality stereo system performance. The evaluation of the digital elevation model (DEM) data was carried out both by Japanese and U.S. science teams separately using different DEM generation software and reference databases. The vertical accuracy of the DEM data generated from the Level-1A data is 20 m with 95% confidence without ground control point (GCP) correction for individual scenes. Geolocation accuracy that is important for the DEM datasets is better than 50 m. This appears to be limited by the spacecraft position accuracy. In addition, a slight increase in accuracy is observed by using GCPs to generate the stereo data. ?? 2005 IEEE.

  10. Improved endoglucanase production and mycelial biomass of some ericoid fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeoyo, O R; Pletschke, B I; Dames, J F

    2017-12-01

    Fungal species associated with ericaceous plant roots produce a number of enzymes and other bio-active metabolites in order to enhance survival of their host plants in natural environments. This study focussed on endoglucanase production from root associated ericoid mycorrhizal and dark septate endophytic fungal isolates. Out of the five fungal isolates screened, Leohumicola sp. (ChemRU330/PPRI 13195) had the highest relative enzyme activity and was tested along with isolates belonging to Hyloscyphaceae (EdRU083/PPRI 17284) and Leotiomycetes (EdRU002/PPRI 17261) for endoglucanase production under different pH and nutritional conditions that included: carbon sources, nitrogen sources and metal ions, at an optimum temperature of 28 °C. An optimal of pH 5.0 produced enzyme activity of 3.99, 2.18 and 4.31 (U/mg protein) for isolates EdRU083, EdRU002 and Leohumicola sp. respectively. Increased enzyme activities and improved mycelial biomass production were obtained in the presence of supplements such as potassium, sodium, glucose, maltose, cellobiose, tryptone and peptone. While NaFe-EDTA and Co(2+) inhibited enzyme activity. The potential role of these fungi as a source of novel enzymes is an ongoing objective of this study.

  11. NASA ASTER Level 1T

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is an advanced multispectral imager that was launched on board NASA's Terra spacecraft in...

  12. Model systems to unravel the molecular mechanisms of heavy metal tolerance in the ericoid mycorrhizal symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daghino, Stefania; Martino, Elena; Perotto, Silvia

    2016-05-01

    Ericoid mycorrhizal plants dominate in harsh environments where nutrient-poor, acidic soil conditions result in a higher availability of potentially toxic metals. Although metal-tolerant plant species and ecotypes are known in the Ericaceae, metal tolerance in these plants has been mainly attributed to their association with ericoid mycorrhizal fungi. The mechanisms underlying plant protection by the fungal symbiont are poorly understood, whereas some insights have been achieved regarding the molecular mechanisms of heavy metal tolerance in the fungal symbiont. This review will briefly introduce the general features of heavy metal tolerance in mycorrhizal fungi and will then focus on the use of "omics" approaches and heterologous expression in model organisms to reveal the molecular bases of fungal response to heavy metals. Functional complementation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has allowed the identification of several ericoid mycorrhizal fungi genes (i.e., antioxidant enzymes, metal transporters, and DNA damage repair proteins) that may contribute to metal tolerance in a metal-tolerant ericoid Oidiodendron maius isolate. Although a powerful system, the use of the yeast complementation assay to study metal tolerance in mycorrhizal symbioses has limitations. Thus, O. maius has been developed as a model system to study heavy metal tolerance mechanisms in mycorrhizal fungi, thanks to its high metal tolerance, easy handling and in vitro mycorrhization, stable genetic transformation, genomics, transcriptomic and proteomic resources.

  13. Physical Basis of Large Microtubule Aster Growth

    CERN Document Server

    Ishihara, Keisuke; Mitchison, Timothy J

    2016-01-01

    Microtubule asters - radial arrays of microtubules organized by centrosomes - play a fundamental role in the spatial coordination of animal cells. The standard model of aster growth assumes a fixed number of microtubules originating from the centrosomes. However, aster morphology in this model does not scale with cell size, and we recently found evidence for non-centrosomal microtubule nucleation. Here, we combine autocatalytic nucleation and polymerization dynamics to develop a biophysical model of aster growth. Our model predicts that asters expand as traveling waves and recapitulates all major aspects of aster growth. As the nucleation rate increases, the model predicts an explosive transition from stationary to growing asters with a discontinuous jump of the growth velocity to a nonzero value. Experiments in frog egg extract confirm the main theoretical predictions. Our results suggest that asters observed in large frog and amphibian eggs are a meshwork of short, unstable microtubules maintained by autoca...

  14. Nutritional influences on the solubilization of metal phosphate by ericoid mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Brian R; Mitchell, Derek T

    2004-08-01

    Four ericoid mycobionts (two isolates of Hymenoscyphus ericae, and two dark, sterile ericoid mycobionts isolated from metal-contaminated mine sites) were grown on solid agar plates supplemented with zinc phosphate (0.25 %) containing different forms of nitrogen (nitrate, ammonium or alanine) and different concentrations of carbon (glucose) and phosphorus (K2HPO4). The influence of nutrient variation on solubilizing ability of the fungi was assessed by measuring the zones of solubilization appearing beneath the growing colonies. All four mycobionts were capable of zinc phosphate solubilization in the presence of all three nitrogen sources and in media containing no nitrogen. No solubilization was observed at 0 mM glucose-C but was observed with increasing glucose concentration from 300 to 600 mM C. Increasing phosphorus concentration (0-5 mM P) had no effect on the solubilizing ability of the isolates. All but one of the mycobionts were capable of solubilizing calcium phosphate (CaHPO4), while no solubilization was observed in media containing aluminium phosphate (AlPO4), iron phosphate (FePO4 x 4H2O) or copper phosphate (Cu3O8P2 x 2H2O) under conditions which were found to be optimal for zinc phosphate solubilization. Under conditions of glucose at 300 mM C and alanine as the N source in the zinc phosphate-amended agar medium, one of the mycobionts produced new crystals, which were morphologically distinct from the original zinc phosphate crystals. It is concluded that medium composition influences the metal-phosphate solubilizing ability of ericoid mycobionts. The results are discussed in relation to the possible mechanisms involved in solubilization and the potential benefits of metal-phosphate solubilization to ericoid mycobionts and their host plants.

  15. Chemical composition and amoebicidal activity of Croton pallidulus, Croton ericoides, and Croton isabelli (Euphorbiaceae) essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vunda, Sita Luvangadio Lukoki; Sauter, Ismael Pretto; Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Roehe, Paulo Michel; Bordignon, Sérgio A Loreto; Rott, Marilise Brittes; Apel, Miriam A; von Poser, Gilsane Lino

    2012-09-01

    Acanthamoeba is a free-living amoebae genus that causes amoebic keratitis which is a painful sight-threatening disease of the eyes. Its treatment is difficult, and the search for new drugs is very important. Here, essential oils obtained from the aerial parts of Croton pallidulus, Croton isabelli, and Croton ericoides (Euphorbiaceae), native plants of Southern Brazil, were tested against Acanthamoeba polyphaga and analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The essential oils of C. pallidulus and C. isabelli were characterized by the presence of sesquiterpenes: germacrene D (15.5 %), terpinen-4-ol (13.2 %), and β-caryophyllene (13.1 %) in C. pallidulus and bicyclogermacrene (48.9 %) in C. isabelli. The essential oil of C. ericoides presented mainly monoterpenes, β-pinene (39.0 %) being the main component. Laboratory tests were carried out to determine the effect of the essential oils against A. polyphaga trophozoites. The essential oil of C. ericoides was the most active, killing 87 % of trophozoites at the concentration of 0.5 mg/mL. The essential oil of C. pallidulus killed only 29 % of the trophozoites at the same concentration. The essential oil of C. isabelli presented the lowest activity, killing only 4 % of the trophozoites at the concentration of 10 mg/mL. The essential oils of the three species showed cytotoxic effect by the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) method in Vero cells. The oil of C. ericoides, which showed the highest amoebicidal activity, was the most cytotoxic on these mammalian cells.

  16. Ergosterol content in ericaceous hair roots correlates with dark septate endophytes but not with ericoid mycorrhizal colonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsrud, Maria; Michelsen, Anders; Wallander, Håkon

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between ergosterol content in ericaceous hair roots and ericoid mycorrhizal (ErM) colonization versus dark septate endophytic (DSE) hyphal colonization was examined in a dwarf shrub-dominated subarctic mire in Northern Sweden. Ergosterol content in hair roots did not correlate...

  17. Research Progress on Ericoid Mycorrhiza%杜鹃花科植物菌根研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟林芳; 郁书君

    2012-01-01

    杜鹃是我国传统花卉,具有极高的观赏及园林应用价值.杜鹃能够在恶劣环境下存活与其根部能形成菌根是密不可分的.开展杜鹃菌根研究不仅对杜鹃花的园林应用具有重要价值,同时对其物种的多样性保育也具有重要意义.综述了杜鹃内生菌根真菌的生物多样性及对杜鹃生长发育的作用,以期为加强杜鹃内生菌根真菌应用前景及探究其作用机制奠定基础.%Rhododendron is one of traditional flowers in China,and it has excellent ornamental and application values. Survival of rhododendron under severe natural environment is intimately related with ericoid mycorrhiza. To carry out studies on ericoid mycorrhiza is not only of important value for rhododendron garden application,but also of great significance for species diversity conservation. This paper expounds the biodiversity of ericoid mycorrhizal fungi and its function in rhododendron's growth and development. This study will surely lay a solid foundation for further utilization and mechanism exploitation of ericoid mycorrhizal fungi.

  18. Terpenoid Glucosides from Aster Smithianus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Shou-jun; ZHAO Xin-hua; YANG Yong-li; CHENG Dong-liang

    2005-01-01

    A diterpenoid trisaccharide, smithoside A, and a saponin, smithoside B, as well as six known compounds, apigenin, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, daucosterol, shanzhiside methyl ester, 8-acetylshanzhiside methyl ester and acteoside, were isolated from Aster smithianus. On the basis of spectral evidence and chemical analytical results, smithosides A and B were identified as pimar-15(16)-β-ene-8β,11α-diol-3β-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→3)-[β-glucopyranosyl(1→2)]-β-D-glucopyranoside and 2β,3β,16β,21β,23-pentahydroxy-12-ene-28 oleanoic acid lactone-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→3)-β-D-glucopyranoside, respectively.

  19. Zinc ions alter morphology and chitin deposition in an ericoid fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Lanfranco

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A sterile mycelium PS IV, an ascomycete capable of establishing ericoid mycorrhizas, was used to investigate how zinc ions affect the cellular mechanisms of fungal growth. Asignificant reduction of the fungal biomass was observed in the presence of millimolar zinc concentrations; this mirrored conspicuous changes in hyphal morphology which led to apical swellings and increased branching in the subapical parts. Specific probes for fluorescence and electron microscopy localised chitin, the main cell wall polysaccharide, on the inner part of the fungal wall and on septa in control specimens. In Zn-treated mycelium, hyphal walls were thicker and a more intense chitin labelling was detected on the transverse walls. Aquantitative assay showed a significant increase in the amount of chitin in metal- treated hyphae.

  20. Formation of structures resembling ericoid mycorrhizas by the root endophytic fungus Heteroconium chaetospira within roots of Rhododendron obtusum var. kaempferi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuki, Fumiaki; Narisawa, Kazuhiko

    2005-01-01

    A resynthesis study was conducted to clarify the relationship between the root endophyte, Heteroconium chaetospira and the ericaceous plant, Rhododendron obtusum var. kaempferi. The host plant roots were recovered 2 months after inoculation, and the infection process and colonization pattern of the fungus were observed under a microscope. The hyphae of H. chaetospira developed structures resembling ericoid mycorrhizas, such as hyphal coils within the host epidermal cells. These structures were morphologically the same as previously reported ericoid mycorrhizal structures. The frequencies of hyphal coils within the epidermal cells of host roots ranged from 13 to 20%. H. chaetospira did not promote or reduce host plant growth. This is the first reported study that H. chaetospira is able to form structures resembling mycorrhizas within the roots of ericaceous plants.

  1. Digital elevation modelling using ASTER stereo imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkuo, Eric Kwabena

    2010-04-01

    Digital elevation model (DEM) in recent times has become an integral part of national spatial data infrastructure of many countries world-wide due to its invaluable importance. Although DEMs are mostly generated from contours maps, stereo aerial photographs and air-borne and terrestrial laser scanning, the stereo interpretation and auto-correlation from satellite image stereo-pairs such as with SPOT, IRS, and relatively new ASTER imagery is also an effective means of producing DEM data. In this study, terrain elevation data were derived by applying photogrammetric process to ASTER stereo imagery. Also, the quality ofDEMs produced from ASTER stereo imagery was analysed by comparing it with DEM produced from topographic map at a scale of 1:50,000. While analyzing the vertical accuracy of the generated ASTER DEM, fifty ground control points were extracted from the map and overlaid on the DEM. Results indicate that a root-mean-square error in elevation of +/- 14 m was achieved with ASTER stereo image data of good quality. The horizontal accuracy obtained from the ground control points was 14.77, which is within the acceptable range of +/- 7m to +/- 25 m. The generated (15 m) DEM was compared with a 20m, 25m, and a 30 m pixel DEM to the original map. In all, the results proved that, the 15 m DEM conform to the original map DEM than the others. Overall, this analysis proves that, the generated digital terrain model, DEM is acceptable.

  2. BARLEY CULTIVARS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1993-06-13

    Jun 13, 1993 ... models were each based on several parametric statistics: 1. Thevarianceofacultivaracrossenvironments. This approach uses the variance of a cultivar ... The predicted yield values areadjusted ... Subsistence farmers risks.

  3. Thermal monitoring using an ASTER image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Domenica; Angelini, Maria Giuseppa

    2016-10-01

    The research is focused on the study of the applicability of remote sensing techniques (specifically using ASTER data) for marine environmental analysis, relative to the determination of the surface temperatures. Using a multitemporal approach, two images (classified as level-1B), acquired in August 2000 and in 2005, were considered. The thermal maps were realized by means of the emissivity spectral normalization method, defining the thermal gradients in the area under investigation. The spatial and temporal anomalies related to the temperature distribution were highlighted; these anomalies represent an important parameter for the identification of probable groundwater pollution and soil contamination. To define the map of the surface temperature using thermal infrared ASTER channels, a numerical model dedicated to ASTER data was implemented during the experimentation. This model is based on the principle of interpolation of the type "least square interpolation (linear)," and it implies a reduction in the number of unknowns to obtain an acceptable solution to the problem. This experimental model has provided good results in the phase of implementation and in the tests on a synthetic image that were simulated in the laboratory. However, further verifications and modifications are necessary for the processing of real ASTER images.

  4. Two New Diterpene Acetylxylosides From Aster Veitchianus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Er Wei LI; Kun GAO; Zhong Jian JIA

    2004-01-01

    Two new acetylxylosides, ent-manool-13-O-β-D-2'-acetylxylopyranoside(1)and ent-manool-13-O-β-D-2',4'-diacetylxylopyranoside(2)were isolated from Aster veitchianus.Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods.

  5. Infra specific variability in the essential oil composition of Lychnophora ericoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyra, Cynthia C.G.V. [Universidade Catolica de Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Vieira, Roberto F. [EMBRAPA Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Oliveira, Carolina B.A. de; Santos, Suzana C.; Ferri, Pedro H. [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Lab. de Bioatividade Molecular]. E-mail: pedro@quimica.ufg.br; Seraphin, Jose C. [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica e Estatistica. Nucleo de Estatistica Aplicada

    2008-07-01

    Variations in the composition of the leaf essential oils of wild Lychnophora ericoides, with and without scent, which were grown in three sampling sites, were examined by GC-MS. Results were submitted to principal component and cluster analysis which allowed for two groups of essential oils to be distinguished with regard to scent: cluster I with specimens exhibiting an aromatic scent and containing a high percentage of {alpha}-bisabolol (34{+-}23%) and o-cymene (8.4{+-}6.9%); cluster II with specimens without any scent and characterised by a high percentage of caryophyllene oxide (11{+-}9%) and {delta}-elemene (5.7{+-}6.9%). The two types of oil coexist in all the populations under study, although patterns of aromatic samples deriving from Caldas Novas State Park reveal chemical differences in relation to the samples from Brasilia's National Park and Santo Antonio do Descoberto. Such chemical variations clearly suggest, apart from a geographical influence, genetic differences between individuals in the populations. The high content of {alpha}-bisabolol supports the folk medicinal use of arnica as anti-inflammatory. (author)

  6. The pLISA project in ASTERICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bonis, Giulia; Bozza, Cristiano

    2017-03-01

    In the framework of Horizon 2020, the European Commission approved the ASTERICS initiative (ASTronomy ESFRI and Research Infrastructure CluSter) to collect knowledge and experiences from astronomy, astrophysics and particle physics and foster synergies among existing research infrastructures and scientific communities, hence paving the way for future ones. ASTERICS aims at producing a common set of tools and strategies to be applied in Astronomy ESFRI facilities. In particular, it will target the so-called multi-messenger approach to combine information from optical and radio telescopes, photon counters and neutrino telescopes. pLISA is a software tool under development in ASTERICS to help and promote machine learning as a unified approach to multivariate analysis of astrophysical data and signals. The library will offer a collection of classification parameters, estimators, classes and methods to be linked and used in reconstruction programs (and possibly also extended), to characterize events in terms of particle identification and energy. The pLISA library aims at offering the software infras tructure for applications developed inside different experiments and has been designed with an effort to extrapolate general, physics-related estimators from the specific features of the data model related to each particular experiment. pLISA is oriented towards parallel computing architectures, with awareness of the opportunity of using GPUs as accelerators demanding specifically optimized algorithms and to reduce the costs of pro cessing hardware requested for the reconstruction tasks. Indeed, a fast (ideally, real-time) reconstruction can open the way for the development or improvement of alert systems, typically required by multi-messenger search programmes among the different experi mental facilities involved in ASTERICS.

  7. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset represents multiple products archived at the Land Processes DAAC for ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) aboard the...

  8. The potential of Dark Septate Endophytes to form root symbioses with ectomycorrhizal and ericoid mycorrhizal middle European forest plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Lukešová

    Full Text Available The unresolved ecophysiological significance of Dark Septate Endophytes (DSE may be in part due to existence of morphologically indistinguishable cryptic species in the most common Phialocephala fortinii s. l.--Acephala applanata species complex (PAC. We inoculated three middle European forest plants (European blueberry, Norway spruce and silver birch with 16 strains of eight PAC cryptic species and other DSE and ectomycorrhizal/ericoid mycorrhizal fungi and focused on intraradical structures possibly representing interfaces for plant-fungus nutrient transfer and on host growth response. The PAC species Acephala applanata simultaneously formed structures resembling ericoid mycorrhiza (ErM and DSE microsclerotia in blueberry. A. macrosclerotiorum, a close relative to PAC, formed ectomycorrhizae with spruce but not with birch, and structures resembling ErM in blueberry. Phialocephala glacialis, another close relative to PAC, formed structures resembling ErM in blueberry. In blueberry, six PAC strains significantly decreased dry shoot biomass compared to ErM control. In birch, one A. macrosclerotiorum strain increased root biomass and the other shoot biomass in comparison with non-inoculated control. The dual mycorrhizal ability of A. macrosclerotiorum suggested that it may form mycorrhizal links between Ericaceae and Pinaceae. However, we were unable to detect this species in Ericaceae roots growing in a forest with presence of A. macrosclerotiorum ectomycorrhizae. Nevertheless, the diversity of Ericaceae mycobionts was high (380 OTUs with individual sites often dominated by hitherto unreported helotialean and chaetothyrialean/verrucarialean species; in contrast, typical ErM fungi were either absent or low in abundance. Some DSE apparently have a potential to form mycorrhizae with typical middle European forest plants. However, except A. applanata, the tested representatives of all hitherto described PAC cryptic species formed typical DSE

  9. The potential of Dark Septate Endophytes to form root symbioses with ectomycorrhizal and ericoid mycorrhizal middle European forest plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukešová, Tereza; Kohout, Petr; Větrovský, Tomáš; Vohník, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The unresolved ecophysiological significance of Dark Septate Endophytes (DSE) may be in part due to existence of morphologically indistinguishable cryptic species in the most common Phialocephala fortinii s. l.--Acephala applanata species complex (PAC). We inoculated three middle European forest plants (European blueberry, Norway spruce and silver birch) with 16 strains of eight PAC cryptic species and other DSE and ectomycorrhizal/ericoid mycorrhizal fungi and focused on intraradical structures possibly representing interfaces for plant-fungus nutrient transfer and on host growth response. The PAC species Acephala applanata simultaneously formed structures resembling ericoid mycorrhiza (ErM) and DSE microsclerotia in blueberry. A. macrosclerotiorum, a close relative to PAC, formed ectomycorrhizae with spruce but not with birch, and structures resembling ErM in blueberry. Phialocephala glacialis, another close relative to PAC, formed structures resembling ErM in blueberry. In blueberry, six PAC strains significantly decreased dry shoot biomass compared to ErM control. In birch, one A. macrosclerotiorum strain increased root biomass and the other shoot biomass in comparison with non-inoculated control. The dual mycorrhizal ability of A. macrosclerotiorum suggested that it may form mycorrhizal links between Ericaceae and Pinaceae. However, we were unable to detect this species in Ericaceae roots growing in a forest with presence of A. macrosclerotiorum ectomycorrhizae. Nevertheless, the diversity of Ericaceae mycobionts was high (380 OTUs) with individual sites often dominated by hitherto unreported helotialean and chaetothyrialean/verrucarialean species; in contrast, typical ErM fungi were either absent or low in abundance. Some DSE apparently have a potential to form mycorrhizae with typical middle European forest plants. However, except A. applanata, the tested representatives of all hitherto described PAC cryptic species formed typical DSE colonization without

  10. Magnetic manipulation of self-assembled colloidal asters.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snezhko, A.; Aranson, I. S. (Materials Science Division)

    2011-09-01

    Self-assembled materials must actively consume energy and remain out of equilibrium to support structural complexity and functional diversity. Here we show that a magnetic colloidal suspension confined at the interface between two immiscible liquids and energized by an alternating magnetic field dynamically self-assembles into localized asters and arrays of asters, which exhibit locomotion and shape change. By controlling a small external magnetic field applied parallel to the interface, we show that asters can capture, transport, and position target microparticles. The ability to manipulate colloidal structures is crucial for the further development of self-assembled microrobots

  11. Monitoring volcanic threats using ASTER satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, K.A.; Wessels, R.; Ramsey, M.; Dehn, J.

    2008-01-01

    This document summarizes ongoing activities associated with a research project funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) focusing on volcanic change detection through the use of satellite imagery. This work includes systems development as well as improvements in data analysis methods. Participating organizations include the NASA Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS), the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Science Team, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) at the USGS Alaska Science Center, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology (JPL/CalTech), the University of Pittsburgh, and the University of Alaska Fairbanks. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  12. ASTER Level 1B Registered Radiance at the Sensor

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is an advanced multispectral imager that was launched on board NASA's Terra spacecraft in...

  13. ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset 100-meter V003 - AG100

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer Global Emissivity Database (ASTER GED) was developed by the National Aeronautics and Space...

  14. An Assessment of Changes in Kunzea ericoides var . microflora and Other Hydrothermal Vegetation at the Wairakei-Tauhara Geothermal Field, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, Saskia M.; Reeves, Robert

    2012-10-01

    Hydrothermal ecosystems are of high conservation and scientific value, but they are sensitive to external perturbations that result from development. This study examines the composition of vegetation at four plots at the Wairakei-Tauhara geothermal field, New Zealand, using the Scott height-frequency method, ground temperatures at 0.1- and 1-m depth, soil pH, and photographic surveys. It highlights the response of plant communities, in particular that of Kunzea ericoides var. microflora, in terms of composition, structure, and biomass index values, measures changes in ground temperature, as well as provides baseline data against which to compare future changes. It was found that optimal growing conditions for K. ericoides var. microflora are at temperatures above background conditions with a slightly acidic pH. Plots with cooler, less acidic conditions support more diverse plant communities, which also promote the establishment of invasive species. This suggests that the largest threats to thermotolerant vegetation in New Zealand, including K. ericoides var. microflora, are further decreases in ground temperature because the establishment of invasive species may result in thermolerant vegetation being out-competed in hydrothermal ecosystems. Recognising and understanding the ecological diversity and dynamics of hydrothermal ecosystems, as well as acknowledging the competing interests between development and conservation, is key to the management and protection of these areas.

  15. Fifteen Years of ASTER Data on NASA's Terra Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, M.; Tsu, H.

    2014-12-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five instruments operating on NASA's Terra platform. Launched in 1999, ASTER has been acquiring data for 15 years. ASTER is a joint project between Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry; and US NASA. Data processing and distribution are done by both organizations; a joint science team helps to define mission priorities. ASTER acquires ~550 images per day, with a 60 km swath width. A daytime acquisition is three visible bands and a backward-looking stereo band with 15 m resolution, six SWIR bands with 30 m resolution, and 5 TIR bands with 90 m resolution. Nighttime TIR-only data are routinely collected. The stereo capability has allowed the ASTER project to produce a global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) data set, covering the earth's land surfaces from 83 degrees north to 83 degrees south, with 30 m data postings. This is the only (near-) global DEM available to all users at no charge; to date, over 28 million 1-by-1 degree DEM tiles have been distributed. As a general-purpose imaging instrument, ASTER-acquired data are used in numerous scientific disciplines, including: land use/land cover, urban monitoring, urban heat island studies, wetlands studies, agriculture monitoring, forestry, etc. Of particular emphasis has been the acquisition and analysis of data for natural hazard and disaster applications. We have been systematically acquiring images for 15,000 valley glaciers through the USGS Global Land Ice Monitoring from Space Project. The recently published Randolph Glacier Inventory, and the GLIMS book, both relied heavily on ASTER data as the basis for glaciological and climatological studies. The ASTER Volcano Archive is a unique on-line archive of thousands of daytime and nighttime ASTER images of ~1500 active glaciers, along with a growing archive of Landsat images. ASTER was scheduled to target active volcanoes at least 4 times per year, and more frequently for

  16. Aster Global dem Version 3, and New Aster Water Body Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, M.

    2016-06-01

    In 2016, the US/Japan ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) project released Version 3 of the Global DEM (GDEM). This 30 m DEM covers the earth's surface from 82N to 82S, and improves on two earlier versions by correcting some artefacts and filling in areas of missing DEMs by the acquisition of additional data. The GDEM was produced by stereocorrelation of 2 million ASTER scenes and operation on a pixel-by-pixel basis: cloud screening; stacking data from overlapping scenes; removing outlier values, and averaging elevation values. As previously, the GDEM is packaged in ~ 23,000 1 x 1 degree tiles. Each tile has a DEM file, and a NUM file reporting the number of scenes used for each pixel, and identifying the source for fill-in data (where persistent clouds prevented computation of an elevation value). An additional data set was concurrently produced and released: the ASTER Water Body Dataset (AWBD). This is a 30 m raster product, which encodes every pixel as either lake, river, or ocean; thus providing a global inland and shore-line water body mask. Water was identified through spectral analysis algorithms and manual editing. This product was evaluated against the Shuttle Water Body Dataset (SWBD), and the Landsat-based Global Inland Water (GIW) product. The SWBD only covers the earth between about 60 degrees north and south, so it is not a global product. The GIW only delineates inland water bodies, and does not deal with ocean coastlines. All products are at 30 m postings.

  17. Novel Root-Fungus Symbiosis in Ericaceae: Sheathed Ericoid Mycorrhiza Formed by a Hitherto Undescribed Basidiomycete with Affinities to Trechisporales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohník, Martin; Sadowsky, Jesse J.; Kohout, Petr; Lhotáková, Zuzana; Nestby, Rolf; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Ericaceae (the heath family) are widely distributed calcifuges inhabiting soils with inherently poor nutrient status. Ericaceae overcome nutrient limitation through symbiosis with ericoid mycorrhizal (ErM) fungi that mobilize nutrients complexed in recalcitrant organic matter. At present, recognized ErM fungi include a narrow taxonomic range within the Ascomycota, and the Sebacinales, basal Hymenomycetes with unclamped hyphae and imperforate parenthesomes. Here we describe a novel type of basidiomycetous ErM symbiosis, termed ‘sheathed ericoid mycorrhiza’, discovered in two habitats in mid-Norway as a co-dominant mycorrhizal symbiosis in Vaccinium spp. The basidiomycete forming sheathed ErM possesses clamped hyphae with perforate parenthesomes, produces 1- to 3-layer sheaths around terminal parts of hair roots and colonizes their rhizodermis intracellularly forming hyphal coils typical for ErM symbiosis. Two basidiomycetous isolates were obtained from sheathed ErM and molecular and phylogenetic tools were used to determine their identity; they were also examined for the ability to form sheathed ErM and lignocellulolytic potential. Surprisingly, ITS rDNA of both conspecific isolates failed to amplify with the most commonly used primer pairs, including ITS1 and ITS1F + ITS4. Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear LSU, SSU and 5.8S rDNA indicates that the basidiomycete occupies a long branch residing in the proximity of Trechisporales and Hymenochaetales, but lacks a clear sequence relationship (>90% similarity) to fungi currently placed in these orders. The basidiomycete formed the characteristic sheathed ErM symbiosis and enhanced growth of Vaccinium spp. in vitro, and degraded a recalcitrant aromatic substrate that was left unaltered by common ErM ascomycetes. Our findings provide coherent evidence that this hitherto undescribed basidiomycete forms a morphologically distinct ErM symbiosis that may occur at significant levels under natural conditions, yet remain

  18. Novel root-fungus symbiosis in Ericaceae: sheathed ericoid mycorrhiza formed by a hitherto undescribed basidiomycete with affinities to Trechisporales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Vohník

    Full Text Available Ericaceae (the heath family are widely distributed calcifuges inhabiting soils with inherently poor nutrient status. Ericaceae overcome nutrient limitation through symbiosis with ericoid mycorrhizal (ErM fungi that mobilize nutrients complexed in recalcitrant organic matter. At present, recognized ErM fungi include a narrow taxonomic range within the Ascomycota, and the Sebacinales, basal Hymenomycetes with unclamped hyphae and imperforate parenthesomes. Here we describe a novel type of basidiomycetous ErM symbiosis, termed 'sheathed ericoid mycorrhiza', discovered in two habitats in mid-Norway as a co-dominant mycorrhizal symbiosis in Vaccinium spp. The basidiomycete forming sheathed ErM possesses clamped hyphae with perforate parenthesomes, produces 1- to 3-layer sheaths around terminal parts of hair roots and colonizes their rhizodermis intracellularly forming hyphal coils typical for ErM symbiosis. Two basidiomycetous isolates were obtained from sheathed ErM and molecular and phylogenetic tools were used to determine their identity; they were also examined for the ability to form sheathed ErM and lignocellulolytic potential. Surprisingly, ITS rDNA of both conspecific isolates failed to amplify with the most commonly used primer pairs, including ITS1 and ITS1F + ITS4. Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear LSU, SSU and 5.8S rDNA indicates that the basidiomycete occupies a long branch residing in the proximity of Trechisporales and Hymenochaetales, but lacks a clear sequence relationship (>90% similarity to fungi currently placed in these orders. The basidiomycete formed the characteristic sheathed ErM symbiosis and enhanced growth of Vaccinium spp. in vitro, and degraded a recalcitrant aromatic substrate that was left unaltered by common ErM ascomycetes. Our findings provide coherent evidence that this hitherto undescribed basidiomycete forms a morphologically distinct ErM symbiosis that may occur at significant levels under natural conditions, yet

  19. ASTER satellite observations for international disaster management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, K.A.; Abrams, M.

    2012-01-01

    When lives are threatened or lost due to catastrophic disasters, and when massive financial impacts are experienced, international emergency response teams rapidly mobilize to provide urgently required support. Satellite observations of affected areas often provide essential insight into the magnitude and details of the impacts. The large cost and high complexity of developing and operating satellite flight and ground systems encourages international collaboration in acquiring imagery for such significant global events in order to speed delivery of critical information to help those affected, and optimize spectral, spatial, and temporal coverage of the areas of interest. The International Charter-Space and Major Disasters was established to enable such collaboration in sensor tasking during times of crisis and is often activated in response to calls for assistance from authorized users. Insight is provided from a U.S. perspective into sensor support for Charter activations and other disaster events through a description of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), which has been used to support emergency situations for over a decade through its expedited tasking and near real-time data delivery capabilities. Examples of successes achieved and challenges encountered in international collaboration to develop related systems and fulfill tasking requests suggest operational considerations for new missions as well as areas for future enhancements.

  20. Ericoid mycorrhizal fungi are common root inhabitants of non-Ericaceae plants in a south-eastern Australian sclerophyll forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Susan M; Curlevski, Nathalie J A; Cairney, John W G

    2008-08-01

    Fungi were isolated from the roots of 17 plant species from the families Apiaceae, Cunoniaceae, Cyperaceae, Droseraceae, Fabaceae-Mimosoideae, Lomandraceae, Myrtaceae, Pittosporaceae, Proteaceae and Stylidiaceae at a sclerophyll forest site in New South Wales, Australia. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequence comparisons indicated that the isolated fungi had affinities to a range of ascomycetes, basidiomycetes and zygomycetes. Four RFLP types had closest affinities to previously identified Helotiales ericoid mycorrhizal (ERM) or Oidiodendron spp. Isolates representing six RFLP types, which were variously isolated from all 17 plant species, formed ERM coils in hair root epidermal cells of Woollsia pungens (Ericaceae) under gnotobiotic conditions. Three of these isolates formed intercellular hyphae, intracellular hyphae and/or microsclerotia, which are typical of dark septate endophyte infection, in roots of Stylidium productum (Stylidiaceae), indicating an ability to form different types of association with roots of different hosts. Overall the data indicate that a broad range of plant taxa may act as repositories for ERM fungi in sclerophyll forest soil.

  1. ASTER Imaging and Analysis of Glacier Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargel, Jeffrey; Furfaro, Roberto; Kaser, Georg; Leonard, Gregory; Fink, Wolfgang; Huggel, Christian; Kääb, Andreas; Raup, Bruce; Reynolds, John; Wolfe, David; Zapata, Marco

    Most scientific attention to glaciers, including ASTER and other satellite-derived applications in glacier science, pertains to their roles in the following seven functions: (1) as signposts of climate change (Kaser et al. 1990; Williams and Ferrigno 1999, 2002; Williams et al. 2008; Kargel et al. 2005; Oerlemans 2005), (2) as natural reservoirs of fresh water (Yamada and Motoyama 1988; Yang and Hu 1992; Shiyin et al. 2003; Juen et al. 2007), (3) as contributors to sea-level change (Arendt et al. 2002), (4) as sources of hydropower (Reynolds 1993); much work also relates to the basic science of glaciology, especially (5) the physical phenomeno­logy of glacier flow processes and glacier change (DeAngelis and Skvarca 2003; Berthier et al. 2007; Rivera et al. 2007), (6) glacial geomorphology (Bishop et al. 1999, 2003), and (7) the technology required to acquire and analyze satellite images of glaciers (Bishop et al. 1999, 2000, 2003, 2004; Quincey et al. 2005, 2007; Raup et al. 2000, 2006ab; Khalsa et al. 2004; Paul et al. 2004a, b). These seven functions define the important areas of glaciological science and technology, yet a more pressing issue in parts of the world is the direct danger to people and infrastructure posed by some glaciers (Trask 2005; Morales 1969; Lliboutry et al. 1977; Evans and Clague 1988; Xu and Feng 1989; Reynolds 1993, 1998, 1999; Yamada and Sharma 1993; Hastenrath and Ames 1995; Mool 1995; Ames 1998; Chikita et al. 1999; Williams and Ferrigno 1999; Richardson and Reynolds 2000a, b; Zapata 2002; Huggel et al. 2002, 2004; Xiangsong 1992; Kääb et al. 2003, 2005, 2005c; Salzmann et al. 2004; Noetzli et al. 2006).

  2. General theory for the mechanics of confined microtubule asters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rui; Laan, Liedewij; Dogterom, Marileen; Pavin, Nenad; Jülicher, Frank

    2014-01-01

    In cells, dynamic microtubules organize into asters or spindles to assist positioning of organelles. Two types of forces are suggested to contribute to the positioning process: (i) microtubule-growth based pushing forces; and (ii) motor protein mediated pulling forces. In this paper, we present a general theory to account for aster positioning in a confinement of arbitrary shape. The theory takes account of microtubule nucleation, growth, catastrophe, slipping, as well as interaction with cortical force generators. We calculate microtubule distributions and forces acting on microtubule organizing centers in a sphere and in an ellipsoid. Positioning mechanisms based on both pushing forces and pulling forces can be distinguished in our theory for different parameter regimes or in different geometries. In addition, we investigate positioning of microtubule asters in the case of asymmetric distribution of motors. This analysis enables us to characterize situations relevant for Caenorrhabditis elegans embryos.

  3. Differential gene expression in Rhododendron fortunei roots colonized by an ericoid mycorrhizal fungus and increased nitrogen absorption and plant growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangying Wei

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ericoid mycorrhizal (ERM fungi are specifically symbiotic with plants in the family Ericaceae. Little is known thus far about their symbiotic establishment and subsequent nitrogen (N uptake at the molecular level. The present study devised a system for establishing a symbiotic relationship between Rhododendron fortunei Lindl. and an ERM fungus (Oidiodendron maius var. maius strain Om19, quantified seedling growth and N uptake, and compared transcriptome profiling between colonized and uncolonized roots using RNA-Seq. The Om19 colonization induced 16,892 genes that were differentially expressed in plant roots, of which 14,364 were upregulated and 2,528 were downregulated. These genes included those homologous to ATP-binding cassette transporters, calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinases, and symbiosis receptor-like kinases. N metabolism was particularly active in Om19-colonized roots, and 51 genes were upregulated, such as nitrate transporters, nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, ammonium transporters, glutamine synthetase, and glutamate synthase. Transcriptome analysis also identified a series of genes involving endocytosis, Fc-gamma R-mediated phagocytosis, glycerophospholipid metabolism, and GnRH signal pathway that have not been reported previously. Their roles in the symbiosis require further investigation. The Om19 colonization significantly increased N uptake and seedling growth. Total N content and dry weight of colonized seedlings were 36.6% and 46.6% greater than control seedlings. This is the first transcriptome analysis of a species from the family Ericaceae colonized by an ERM fungus. The findings from this study will shed light on the mechanisms underlying symbiotic relationships of ericaceous species with ERM fungi and the symbiosis-resultant N uptake and plant growth.

  4. ASTER Global DEM contribution to GEOSS demonstrates open data sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohre, T.; Duda, K. A.; Meyer, D. J.; Behnke, J.; Nasa Esdis Lp Daac

    2010-12-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) remote sensing instrument on the Terra spacecraft has been acquiring images of Earth since launch in 1999. Throughout this time data products have been openly available to the general public through sites in the U.S. and Japan. As the ASTER mission matured, a spatially broad and temporally deep data archive was gradually established. With this extensive accumulation of Earth observations, it became possible to create a new global digital elevation product, the ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM), using multi-temporal data, resulting in over 22,000 static 10 X 10 tiles. The ASTER GDEM was contributed by Japan’s Ministry of Economy Trade and Industry (METI) and the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) for distribution at no cost to users. As such, both METI and NASA desired to understand the uses of the ASTER GDEM, expressed as one of the GEOSS applications themes: disasters, health, energy, climate, water, weather, ecosystems, agriculture or biodiversity. This required both the registration of users, and restrictions on redistribution, to capture the intended use in terms of the GEOSS themes. The ASTER GDEM was made available to users worldwide via electronic download from the Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center (ERSDAC) of Japan and from NASA’s Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC). During the first three months after product release, over 4 million GDEM tiles were distributed from the LP DAAC and ERSDAC. The ASTER GDEM release generated nearly 20,000 new user registrations in the NASA EOS ClearingHOuse (ECHO)/WIST and the ERSDAC systems. By the end of 2009, over 6.5 Million GDEM tiles were distributed by the LP DAAC and ERSDAC. Users have requested tiles over specific areas of interest as well as the entire dataset for global research. Intense global interest in the GDEM

  5. ASTER cloud coverage reassessment using MODIS cloud mask products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonooka, Hideyuki; Omagari, Kunjuro; Yamamoto, Hirokazu; Tachikawa, Tetsushi; Fujita, Masaru; Paitaer, Zaoreguli

    2010-10-01

    In the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER) Project, two kinds of algorithms are used for cloud assessment in Level-1 processing. The first algorithm based on the LANDSAT-5 TM Automatic Cloud Cover Assessment (ACCA) algorithm is used for a part of daytime scenes observed with only VNIR bands and all nighttime scenes, and the second algorithm based on the LANDSAT-7 ETM+ ACCA algorithm is used for most of daytime scenes observed with all spectral bands. However, the first algorithm does not work well for lack of some spectral bands sensitive to cloud detection, and the two algorithms have been less accurate over snow/ice covered areas since April 2008 when the SWIR subsystem developed troubles. In addition, they perform less well for some combinations of surface type and sun elevation angle. We, therefore, have developed the ASTER cloud coverage reassessment system using MODIS cloud mask (MOD35) products, and have reassessed cloud coverage for all ASTER archived scenes (>1.7 million scenes). All of the new cloud coverage data are included in Image Management System (IMS) databases of the ASTER Ground Data System (GDS) and NASA's Land Process Data Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) and used for ASTER product search by users, and cloud mask images are distributed to users through Internet. Daily upcoming scenes (about 400 scenes per day) are reassessed and inserted into the IMS databases in 5 to 7 days after each scene observation date. Some validation studies for the new cloud coverage data and some mission-related analyses using those data are also demonstrated in the present paper.

  6. CHROMITITE PROSPECTING USING LANDSAT TM AND ASTER REMOTE SENSING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Beiranvand Pour

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Studying the ophiolite complexes using multispectral remote sensing satellite data are interesting because of high diversity of minerals and the source of podiform chromitites. This research developed an approach to discriminate lithological units and detecting host rock of chromitite bodies within ophiolitic complexes using the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER and Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM satellite data. Three main ophiolite complexes located in south of Iran have been selected for the study. Spectral transform techniques, including minimum noise fraction (MNF and specialized band ratio were employed to detect different rock units and the identification of high-potential areas of chromite ore deposits within ophiolitic complexes. A specialized band ratio (4/1, 4/5, 4/7 of ASTER, MNF components and Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM on ASTER and Landsat TM data were used to distinguish ophiolitic rock units. Results show that the specialized band ratio was able to identify different rock units and serpentinized dunite as host rock of chromitites within ophiolitic complexes, appropriately. MNF components of ASTER and Landsat TM data were suitable to distinguish ophiolitic rock complexes at a regional scale. The integration of SAM and Feature Level Fusion (FLF used in this investigation discriminated the ophiolitic rock units and prepared detailed geological map for the study area. Accordingly, high potential areas (serpentinite dunite were identified in the study area for chromite exploration targets.The approach used in this research offers the image processing techniques as a robust, reliable, fast and cost-effective method for detecting serpentinized dunite as host rock of chromitite bodies within vast ophiolite complexes using ASTER and Landsat TM satellite data.

  7. Genomic insights into the carbohydrate catabolism of Cairneyella variabilis gen. nov. sp. nov., the first reports from a genome of an ericoid mycorrhizal fungus from the southern hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midgley, David J; Rosewarne, Carly P; Greenfield, Paul; Li, Dongmei; Vockler, Cassandra J; Hitchcock, Catherine J; Sawyer, Nicole A; Brett, Robyn; Edwards, Jacqueline; Pitt, John I; Tran-Dinh, Nai

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes a novel species of ericoid mycorrhizal fungus from Australia, Cairneyella variabilis, Midgley and Tran-Dinh, gen. nov. sp. nov. The genome of C. variabilis was sequenced and a draft genome assembled. The draft genome of C. variabilis is 52.4 Mbp in length, and to our knowledge, this is the first study to present a genome of an ericoid mycorrhizal fungus from the southern hemisphere. Using the SignalP and dbCAN bioinformatic pipelines, a study of the catabolic potential of C. variabilis was undertaken and showed genes for an array of degradative enzymes, most of which appear to be secreted from the hyphae, to access a suite of different carbon sources. Isolates of C. variabilis have been previously shown to utilise cellulose, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), cellobiose, xylan, pectin, starch and tannic acid for growth, and in the current study, putative enzymes for these processes were revealed. These enzymes likely play key roles in nutrient cycling and other edaphic processes in heathland environments. ITS phylogenetic analyses showed C. variabilis to be distinct from the fungi of the "Hymenoscyphus ericae aggregate".

  8. CULTIVAR RELEASE - BRS Saturno – triticale cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo do Nascimento Junior

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The triticale cultivar BRS Saturno was developed by Embrapa (Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation inpartnership with the Fundação Pró-Sementes de Apoio à Pesquisa. It is the result of a cross between the genotypes PFT 512 and CEP28 – Guará, adapted to the environmental conditions of cultivation in southern Brazil.

  9. Recent developments in seismic analysis in the code Aster; Les developpements recents en analyse sismique dans le code aster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guihot, P.; Devesa, G.; Dumond, A.; Panet, M.; Waeckel, F.

    1996-12-31

    Progress in the field of seismic qualification and design methods made these last few years allows physical phenomena actually in play to be better considered, while cutting down the conservatism associated with some simplified design methods. So following the change in methods and developing the most advantageous ones among them contributes to the process of the seismic margins assessment and the preparation of new design tools for future series. In this paper, the main developments and improvements in methods which have been made these last two years in the Code Aster, in order to improve seismic calculation methods and seismic margin assessment are presented. The first development relates to making the MISS3D soil structure interaction code available, thanks to an interface made with the Code Aster. The second relates to the possibility of making modal basis time calculations on multi-supported structures by considering local non linearities like impact, friction or squeeze fluid forces. Recent developments in random dynamics and postprocessing devoted to earthquake designs are then mentioned. Three applications of these developments are then ut forward. The first application relates to a test case for soil structure interaction design using MISS3D-Aster coupling. The second is a test case for a multi-supported structure. The last application, more for manufacturing, refers to seismic qualification of Main Live Steam stop valves. First results of the independent validation of the Code Aster seismic design functionalities, which provide and improve the quality of software, are also recalled. (authors). 11 refs.

  10. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) after fifteen years: Review of global products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Michael; Tsu, Hiroji; Hulley, Glynn; Iwao, Koki; Pieri, David; Cudahy, Tom; Kargel, Jeffrey

    2015-06-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is a 15-channel imaging instrument operating on NASA's Terra satellite. A joint project between the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry, ASTER has been acquiring data for 15 years, since March 2000. The archive now contains over 2.8 million scenes; for the majority of them, a stereo pair was collected using nadir and backward telescopes imaging in the NIR wavelength. The majority of users require only a few to a few dozen scenes for their work. Studies have ranged over numerous scientific disciplines, and many practical applications have benefited from ASTER's unique data. A few researchers have been able to mine the entire ASTER archive, that is now global in extent due to the long duration of the mission. Six examples of global products are described in this contribution: the ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM), the most complete, highest resolution DEM available to all users; the ASTER Emissivity Database (ASTER GED), a global 5-band emissivity map of the land surface; the ASTER Global Urban Area Map (AGURAM), a 15-m resolution database of over 3500 cities; the ASTER Volcano Archive (AVA), an archive of over 1500 active volcanoes; ASTER Geoscience products of the continent of Australia; and the Global Ice Monitoring from Space (GLIMS) project.

  11. Identificación de metabasaltos alterados mediante datos ASTER

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Castro Godoy; Mariela Etcheverría; Marta Godeas

    2010-01-01

    Los datos del sensor ASTER permitieron desarrollar una metodología sencilla, utilizando las bandas del infrarrojo de onda corta (subsistema SWIR), para prospectar cuerpos ígneos alterados que manifiestan diferencias espectrales con respecto a la roca de caja. A modo de ejemplo se detectó la alteración clorítica presente en metabasaltos intercalados en metasedimentitas de la Formación Puntilla de Uspallata en la Precordillera mendocina.

  12. Identificación de metabasaltos alterados mediante datos ASTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Castro Godoy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Los datos del sensor ASTER permitieron desarrollar una metodología sencilla, utilizando las bandas del infrarrojo de onda corta (subsistema SWIR, para prospectar cuerpos ígneos alterados que manifiestan diferencias espectrales con respecto a la roca de caja. A modo de ejemplo se detectó la alteración clorítica presente en metabasaltos intercalados en metasedimentitas de la Formación Puntilla de Uspallata en la Precordillera mendocina.

  13. Prediction of winter wheat grain protein content by ASTER image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenjiang; Song, Xiaoyu; Wang, Jihua; Wang, Zhijie; Zhao, Chunjiang

    2008-10-01

    The Advanced technology in space-borne determination of grain crude protein content (CP) by remote sensing can help optimize the strategies for buyers in aiding purchasing decisions, and help farmers to maximize the grain output by adjusting field nitrogen (N) fertilizer inputs. We performed field experiments to study the relationship between grain quality indicators and foliar nitrogen concentration (FNC). FNC at anthesis stage was significantly correlated with CP, while spectral vegetation index was significantly correlated to FNC. Based on the relationships among nitrogen reflectance index (NRI), FNC and CP, a model for CP prediction was developed. NRI was able to evaluate FNC with a higher coefficient of determination of R2=0.7302. The method developed in this study could contribute towards developing optimal procedures for evaluating wheat grain quality by ASTER image at anthesis stage. The RMSE was 0.893 % for ASTER image model, and the R2 was 0.7194. It is thus feasible to forecast grain quality by NRI derived from ASTER image.

  14. Identificación de metabasaltos alterados mediante datos ASTER Identification of altered metabasalts from ASTER data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Castro Godoy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Los datos del sensor ASTER permitieron desarrollar una metodología sencilla, utilizando las bandas del infrarrojo de onda corta (subsistema SWIR, para prospectar cuerpos ígneos alterados que manifiestan diferencias espectrales con respecto a la roca de caja. A modo de ejemplo se detectó la alteración clorítica presente en metabasaltos intercalados en metasedimentitas de la Formación Puntilla de Uspallata en la Precordillera mendocina.ASTER data allowed developing a simple methodology, using the Short Wave Infrared spectral bands (SWIR, in order to detect alteration minerals that affect igneous bodies and have spectral differences with the country rock. As an example chloritic alteration was detected in metabasalts interbedded in metasediments of Puntilla de Uspallata Formation, Precordillera Mendocina.

  15. Pessegueiro: cultivar BRS kampai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Bassols Raseira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O programa de Melhoramento Genético de Pessegueiros da Embrapa Clima Temperado tem, entre seus objetivos, a obtenção de cultivares produtoras de frutas para consumo in natura, com características que satisfaçam às exigências dos consumidores. Alguns dos grandes centros consumidores, como é o caso de São Paulo e Curitiba, preferem pêssegos de polpa branca e sabor doce. A cultivar BRS Kampai, obtida de um cruzamento entre 'Chimarrita' e 'Flordaprince', alia a baixa necessidade em frio, o que é uma vantagem em regiões subtropicais, à boa aparência, com sabor superior a qualquer um dos parentais. A colheita dos frutos desta cultivar inicia-se geralmente, em meados de novembro, em Pelotas-RS (em Atibaia, São Paulo, inicia-se na segunda quinzena de outubro, poucos dias antes das cultivares Rubimel (polpa amarela e Premier (polpa branca, sendo ótima substituta para esta última.

  16. Comparison of field emissivities with laboratory measurements and ASTER data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mira, M.; Schmugge, T.; Valor, E.; Caselles, V.; Coll, C.

    2008-10-01

    Surface emissivity in the thermal infrared (TIR) region is an important parameter for determining the land surface temperature from remote sensing measurements. This work compares the emissivities measured by different field methods (the Box method and the Temperature and Emissivity Separation, TES, algorithm) as well as emissivity data from ASTER scenes and the spectra obtained from the ASTER Spectral Library. The study was performed with a field radiometer having TIR bands with central wavelengths at 11.3 μm, 10.6 μm, 9.1 μm, 8.7 μm and 8.4 μm, similar to the ASTER TIR bands. The measurements were made at two sites in southern New Mexico. The first was in the White Sands National Monument, and the second was an open shrub land in the Jornada Experimental Range, in the northern Chihuahuan Desert, New Mexico, USA. The measurements show that, in general, emissivities derived with the Box method agree within 3% with those derived with the TES method for the spectral bands centered at 10.6 μm and 11.3 μm. However, the emissivities for the shorter wavelength bands are higher when derived with the Box method than those with the TES algorithm (differences range from 2% to 7%). The field emissivities agree within 2% with the laboratory spectrum for the 8-13 μm, 11.3 μm and 10.6 μm bands. However, the field and laboratory measurements in general differ from 3% to 16% for the shorter wavelength bands, i.e., 9.1 μm, 8.6 μm and 8.4 μm. A good agreement between the experimental measurements and the ASTER TIR emissivity data is observed for White Sands, especially over the 9 - 12 μm range (agreement within 4%). The study showed an emissivity increase up to 17% in the 8 to 9 μm range and an increase of 8% in emissivity ratio of average channels (8.4 μm, 8.6 μm, 9.1 μm):(10.6 μm, 11.3 μm) for two gypsum samples with different water content.

  17. Assessing the land cover situation in Surkhang, Upper Mustang, Nepal, using an ASTER image

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, B.D.; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Graaf, de N.R.; Chapagain, N.R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the remote sensing technique used to prepare a land cover map of Surkhang, Upper Mustang Nepal. The latest ASTER image (October 2002) and an ASTER DEM were used for the land cover classification. The study was carried out in Surkhang Village Development Committee (area 799 km2)

  18. The influence of Aster x salignus Willd. Invasion on the diversity of soil yeast communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushakova, A. M.; Kachalkin, A. V.; Chernov, I. Yu.

    2016-07-01

    The annual dynamics of yeast communities were studied in the soddy-podzolic soil under the thickets of Aster x salignus Willd., one of the widespread invasive plant species in central Russia. Yeast groups in the soils under continuous aster thickets were found to differ greatly from the yeast communities in the soils under the adjacent indigenous meadow vegetation. In both biotopes the same species ( Candida vartiovaarae, Candida sake, and Cryptococcus terreus) are dominants. However, in the soils under indigenous grasses, eurybiontic yeasts Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, which almost never occur in the soil under aster, are widespread. In the soil under aster, the shares of other typical epiphytic and pedobiontic yeast fungi (ascomycetic species Wickerhamomyces aniomalus, Barnettozyma californica and basidiomycetic species Cystofilobasidium macerans, Guehomyces pullulans) significantly increase. Thus, the invasion of Aster x salignus has a clear effect on soil yeast complexes reducing their taxonomic and ecological diversity.

  19. Archiving, processing, and disseminating ASTER products at the USGS EROS Data Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B.; Tolk, B.; ,

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center archives, processes, and disseminates Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data products. The ASTER instrument is one of five sensors onboard the Earth Observing System's Terra satellite launched December 18, 1999. ASTER collects broad spectral coverage with high spatial resolution at near infrared, shortwave infrared, and thermal infrared wavelengths with ground resolutions of 15, 30, and 90 meters, respectively. The ASTER data are used in many ways to understand local and regional earth-surface processes. Applications include land-surface climatology, volcanology, hazards monitoring, geology, agronomy, land cover change, and hydrology. The ASTER data are available for purchase from the ASTER Ground Data System in Japan and from the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center in the United States, which receives level 1A and level 1B data from Japan on a routine basis. These products are archived and made available to the public within 48 hours of receipt. The level 1A and level 1B data are used to generate higher level products that include routine and on-demand decorrelation stretch, brightness temperature at the sensor, emissivity, surface reflectance, surface kinetic temperature, surface radiance, polar surface and cloud classification, and digital elevation models. This paper describes the processes and procedures used to archive, process, and disseminate standard and on-demand higher level ASTER products at the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center.

  20. Archiving, processing, and disseminating of ASTER products at the USGS EROS Data Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brenda K.; Tolk, Brian

    2002-09-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center archives, processes, and disseminates Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data products. The ASTER instrument is one of five sensors onboard the Earth Observing System's Terra satellite launched December 18, 1999. ASTER collects broad spectral coverage with high spatial resolution at near infrared, shortwave infrared, and thermal infrared wavelengths with ground resolutions of 15, 30, and 90 meters, respectively. The ASTER data are used in many ways to understand local and regional earth-surface processes. Applications include land-surface climatology, volcanology, hazards monitoring, geology, agronomy, land cover change, and hydrology. The ASTER data are available for purchase from the ASTER Ground Data System in Japan and from the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center in the United States, which receives level 1A and level 1B data from Japan on a routine basis. These products are archived and made available to the public within 48 hours of receipt. The level 1A and level 1B data are used to generate higher level products that include routine and on-demand decorrelation stretch, brightness temperature at the sensor, emissivity, surface reflectance, surface kinetic temperature, surface radiance, polar surface and cloud classification, and digital elevation models. This paper describes the processes and procedures used to archive, process, and disseminate standard and on-demand higher level ASTER products at the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center.

  1. INTEGRATION OF PALSAR AND ASTER SATELLITE DATA FOR GEOLOGICAL MAPPING IN TROPICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Beiranvand Pour

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the integration of the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER satellite data for geological mapping applications in tropical environments. The eastern part of the central belt of peninsular Malaysia has been investigated to identify structural features and mineral mapping using PALSAR and ASTER data. Adaptive local sigma and directional filters were applied to PALSAR data for detecting geological structure elements in the study area. The vegetation, mineralogic and lithologic indices for ASTER bands were tested in tropical climate. Lineaments (fault and fractures and curvilinear (anticline or syncline were detected using PALSAR fused image of directional filters (N-S, NE-SW, and NW-SE.Vegetation index image map show vegetation cover by fusing ASTER VNIR bands. High concentration of clay minerals zone was detected using fused image map derived from ASTER SWIR bands. Fusion of ASTER TIR bands produced image map of the lithological units. Results indicate that data integration and data fusion from PALSAR and ASTER sources enhanced information extraction for geological mapping in tropical environments.

  2. Poly-Pattern Compressive Segmentation of ASTER Data for GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Wayne; Warner, Eric; Tutwiler, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Pattern-based segmentation of multi-band image data, such as ASTER, produces one-byte and two-byte approximate compressions. This is a dual segmentation consisting of nested coarser and finer level pattern mappings called poly-patterns. The coarser A-level version is structured for direct incorporation into geographic information systems in the manner of a raster map. GIs renderings of this A-level approximation are called pattern pictures which have the appearance of color enhanced images. The two-byte version consisting of thousands of B-level segments provides a capability for approximate restoration of the multi-band data in selected areas or entire scenes. Poly-patterns are especially useful for purposes of change detection and landscape analysis at multiple scales. The primary author has implemented the segmentation methodology in a public domain software suite.

  3. Response of mycorrhizal periwinkle plants to aster yellows phytoplasma infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamińska, Maria; Klamkowski, Krzysztof; Berniak, Hanna; Sowik, Iwona

    2010-03-01

    The objective of our research was to assess if arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal colonization can modify the effect of infection by two aster yellows phytoplasma strains (AY1, AYSim) in Catharanthus roseus plants. Both phytoplasma strains had a negative effect on the root fresh weight, but they differed in symptoms appearance and in their influence on photosynthetic and transpiration rates of the periwinkle plants. AM plants showed significantly reduced shoot fresh weight, while the transpiration rate was significantly increased. AM fungal colonization significantly affected shoot height and fresh weight of the plants infected by each phytoplasma strains as well as the root system of plants infected with the more aggressive AYSim phytoplasma strain. Double inoculation did not reduce the negative effects induced with phytoplasma alone on the photosynthetic activity of phytoplasma-infected plants.

  4. Thermal mapping of Hawaiian volcanoes with ASTER satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Matthew R.; Witzke, Coral-Nadine

    2011-01-01

    Thermal mapping of volcanoes is important to determine baseline thermal behavior in order to judge future thermal activity that may precede an eruption. We used cloud-free kinetic temperature images from the ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) sensor obtained between 2000 and 2010 to produce thermal maps for all five subaerial volcanoes in Hawai‘i that have had eruptions in the Holocene (Kīlauea, Mauna Loa, Hualālai, Mauna Kea, and Haleakalā). We stacked the images to provide time-averaged thermal maps, as well as to analyze temperature trends through time. Thermal areas are conspicuous at the summits and rift zones of Kīlauea and Mauna Loa, and the summit calderas of these volcanoes contain obvious arcuate, concentric linear thermal areas that probably result from channeling of rising gas along buried, historical intracaldera scarps. The only significant change in thermal activity noted in the study period is the opening of the Halema‘uma‘u vent at Kīlauea's summit in 2008. Several small thermal anomalies are coincident with pit craters on Hualālai. We suspect that these simply result from the sheltered nature of the depression, but closer inspection is warranted to determine if genuine thermal activity exists in the craters. Thermal areas were not detected on Haleakalā or Mauna Kea. The main limitation of the study is the large pixel size (90 m) of the ASTER images, which reduces our ability to detect subtle changes or to identify small, low-temperature thermal activity. This study, therefore, is meant to characterize the broad, large-scale thermal features on these volcanoes. Future work should study these thermal areas with thermal cameras and thermocouples, which have a greater ability to detect small, low-temperature thermal features.

  5. Identical genotypes of an ericoid mycorrhiza-forming fungus occur in roots of Epacris pulchella (Ericaceae) and Leptospermum polygalifolium (Myrtaceae) in an Australian sclerophyll forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curlevski, Nathalie J A; Chambers, Susan M; Anderson, Ian C; Cairney, John W G

    2009-03-01

    Assemblages of fungi associated with roots of cooccurring Epacris pulchella (Ericaceae) and Leptospermum polygalifolium (Myrtaceae) seedlings at a sclerophyll forest site in New South Wales, Australia, were investigated by direct DNA extraction and analysis of rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) products by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses. While ordination of the DGGE data suggested that the assemblages did not differ significantly between the two plant taxa, T-RFLP data provided marginal statistical support for the presence of different assemblages. Fungi isolated from roots of both plants were identified by ITS sequence comparisons largely as ascomycetes, several of which had close sequence identity to Helotiales ericoid mycorrhizal (ERM) fungi. One isolate morphotype from E. pulchella had close sequence similarity to ectomycorrhizal fungi in the Cenococcum geophilum complex, and neighbour-joining analysis grouped this strongly with other Australian C. geophilum-like sequences. Distribution of genotypes of an ERM Helotiales ascomycete in root systems of the two plant taxa was also investigated using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR)-PCR. Nineteen ISSR genotypes were identified, two of which were present in roots of both plant taxa. The results are discussed in the context of potential mycelial connections between Ericaceae and non-Ericaceae plants.

  6. Spore germination, early development and some notes on the effects of in vitro culture medium on Frullania ericoides (Nees Mont. (Frullaniaceae, Marchantiophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana da Costa Silva-e-Costa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In bryophytes, establishment can occur by a sexual or asexual process, but the production of spores enables colonization of a wider range of habitats and substrates than can asexual propagules. Successful germination is critical for establishment in a new environment. This paper addresses germination and sporeling development in Frullania ericoides, a leafy liverwort species. Fresh spores were inoculated in vitro in different culture strengths of Knop’s nutrient solution (one-fourth strength, half strength, full strength, one and a half strength and double strength, in order to evaluate the effects of this solution on spore germination and on the development of external protonema. On the first assessment, spore germination was observed at all the concentrations. Germination was endosporic, with cell division and proliferation, resulting in a globular protonema, within the spore wall. Beginning at the fourth week, the development of tightly concave primordial leaves was observed in all but the double-strength medium. Throughout the period of study, the treatments with lower concentrations exhibited external protonema with greater lengths. The double-strength treatment was statistically different from other treatments in at least two parameters. The results of this study demonstrate the potential of in vitro culture techniques for bryophyte spore studies and germplasm preservation.

  7. Evidence on Possible Mycoplasma Etiology of Aster Yellows Disease II. Suppression of Aster Yellows in Insect Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, R F; Davis, R E

    1970-08-01

    Chlortetracycline or chloramphenicol (but not kanamycin, penicillin, or erythromycin), when administered in hydroponic solution to diseased aster, reduced the availability of the aster yellows (AY) agent to nymphs of Macrosteles fascifrons (Stål). Insects exposed to healthy plants whose roots were immersed in chlortetracycline were able to acquire AY agent from diseased plants the day after removal from the antibiotic-treated plants, but the latent period of the ensuing disease in the insects was prolonged. Chlortetracycline or tylosin tartrate blocked AY infection in nymphs injected with a mixture of antibiotic and the AY agent, but polymyxin, neomycin, vancomycin, penicillin, carbomycin, or chloramphenicol did not. All tetracyclines tested, methacycline, oxytetracycline, and chlortetracycline, produced a dramatic reduction in the ability of infected vectors to transmit AY agent. Tylosin tartrate also reduced transmission when injected into AY-transmitting vectors, but carbomycin, spectinomycin, cycloserine, penicillin, erythromycin, or kanamycin had no such effect. During the first 10 days after injection of tylosin tartrate or oxytetracycline into transmitting vectors, ability of the insects to transmit AY decayed rapidly. Transmission by insects injected with buffer alone, after decreasing the first day after injection, gradually returned to its normal level in less than 1 week. By 2 to 3 weeks after injection with tylosin or oxytetracycline, ability to transmit AY was regained by vectors. The results suggest that tetracycline antibiotics and tylosin tartrate inhibit multiplication of AY agent in the insect. The spectrum of antibiotic activity in the insect is consistent with the hypothesis that AY and other plant yellows diseases are caused by mycoplasma-like organisms.

  8. ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset Monthly 0.05 degree HDF5

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Emissivity Dataset (GED) is a collection of monthly files (see known issues for gaps)...

  9. ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset 1-kilometer Binary V003 - AG1KMB

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer Global Emissivity Database (ASTER GED) was developed by the National Aeronautics and Space...

  10. ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset 100-meter Binary V003 - AG100B

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer Global Emissivity Database (ASTER GED) was developed by the National Aeronautics and Space...

  11. ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset 1-kilometer V003 - AG1KM

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer Global Emissivity Database (ASTER GED) was developed by the National Aeronautics and Space...

  12. Comparing Landsat-7 ETM+ and ASTER Imageries to Estimate Daily Evapotranspiration Within a Mediterranean Vineyard Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Carlo; Jacob, Frederic

    2017-01-01

    We compared the capabilities of Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) imageries for mapping daily evapotranspiration (ET) within a Mediterranean vineyard watershed. We used Landsat and ASTER data simultaneously collected on four dates in 2007 and 2008, along with the simplified surface energy balance index (S-SEBI) model. We used previously ground-validated good quality ASTER estimates as reference, and we analyzed the differences with Landsat retrievals in light of the instrumental factors and methodology. Although Landsat and ASTER retrievals of S-SEBI inputs were different, estimates of daily ET from the two imageries were similar. This is ascribed to the S-SEBI spatial differencing in temperature, and opens the path for using historical Landsat time series over vineyards.

  13. ASTER Global Emissivity Data Set Monthly 0.05 degree V041 - AG5KMMOH

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Emissivity Dataset (GED) is a collection of monthly files (see known issues for gaps)...

  14. ASTER Global Emissivity Data Set Monthly 0.05 degree V041 - AG5KMMOH

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Emissivity Dataset (GED) is a collection of monthly files (see known issues for gaps)...

  15. ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset Monthly 0.05 degree NetCDF4

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Emissivity Dataset (GED) is a collection of monthly files (see known issues for gaps)...

  16. ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset Monthly 0.05 degree NetCDF4

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Emissivity Dataset (GED) is a collection of monthly files (see known issues for gaps)...

  17. High-resolution gulf water skin temperature estimation using TIR/ASTER

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; ManiMurali, R.; Mahender, K.

    Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is the highest-resolution multi-spectral thermal infrared (TIR) sensor currently available on a polar-orbiting spacecraft which allows surface temperature estimation, at a...

  18. On-Orbit Spatial Characterization of MODIS with ASTER Aboard the Terra Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yong; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2011-01-01

    This letter presents a novel approach for on-orbit characterization of MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) band-to-band registration (BBR) using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) aboard the Terra spacecraft. The spatial resolution of ASTER spectral bands is much higher than that of MODIS, making it feasible to characterize MODIS on-orbit BBR using their simultaneous observations. The ground target selected for on-orbit MODIS BBR characterization in this letter is a water body, which is a uniform scene with high signal contrast relative to its neighbor areas. A key step of this approach is to accurately localize the measurements of each MODIS band in an ASTER measurement plane coordinate (AMPC). The ASTER measurements are first interpolated and aggregated to simulate the measurements of each MODIS band. The best measurement match between ASTER and each MODIS band is obtained when the measurement difference reaches its weighted minimum. The position of each MODIS band in the AMPC is then used to calculate the BBR. The results are compared with those derived from MODIS onboard Spectro-Radiometric Calibration Assembly. They are in good agreement, generally less than 0.1 MODIS pixel. This approach is useful for other sensors without onboard spatial characterization capability. Index Terms Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), band-to-band registration (BBR), MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), spatial characterization.

  19. Characterization of intestinal absorption of C-glycoside flavonoid vicenin-2 from Lychnophora ericoides leafs in rats by nonlinear mixed effects modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela A. Buqui

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractVicenin-2 (apigenin-6,8-di-C-β-d-glucopyranoside is present in hydroalcoholic extracts of the Brazilian species Lychnophora ericoides Mart., Asteraceae, leaves, and the biological effects of this compound have been demonstrated including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-tumor effects in rat models. Given the potential of this compound as a pharmacological agent, the aims of this investigation were to evaluate the extent of intestinal absorption of vicenin-2, and to determine the intestinal permeation profile using an in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion technique. A validated HPLC–UV method was applied to measure the amount of unabsorbed vicenin-2 in the gut after an oral administration of 180 mg kg-1 in five rats. A nonlinear mixed effects model was used to determine the absorption pharmacokinetic parameters assuming a first order absorption and active secretion processes for this compound, wherein the active secretion was characterized by a zero-order process. The population pharmacokinetic parameters obtained were 0.274 min-1 for the first-order absorption rate constant, 16.3% min-1 for the zero-order rate constant; the final percentage of the original dose that was absorbed in vivo was 40.2 ± 2.5%. These parameters indicated that vicenin-2 was rapidly absorbed in the small intestine. In contrast to literature information indicating no absorption of vicenin-2 in Caco-2 cells, our results suggested that vicenin-2 can be absorbed in the small intestine of rats. The finding supports further investigation of vicenin-2 as a viable oral phytopharmaceutical agent for digestive diseases.

  20. Pharmacological and antimicrobial studies on different tea-tree oils (Melaleuca alternifolia, Leptospermum scoparium or Manuka and Kunzea ericoides or Kanuka), originating in Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis-Balchin, M; Hart, S L; Deans, S G

    2000-12-01

    Three different species of Myrtaceae growing in Australia and New Zealand are known as 'Tea-tree': the Australian Tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia), the New Zealand Manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) and Kanuka (Kunzea ericoides). All three essential oils are used by aromatherapists, although only Melaleuca has been tested for toxicity, and its antimicrobial effects studied. The pharmacology and antimicrobial activity of the three 'tea-tree' oils was determined using guinea-pig ileum, skeletal muscle (chick biventer muscle and the rat phrenic nerve diaphragm) and also rat uterus in vitro. Differences were shown between the three essential oils in their action on smooth muscle: Manuka had a spasmolytic action, while Kanuka and Melaleuca had an initial spasmogenic action. Using the diaphragm, Manuka and Melaleuca decreased the tension and caused a delayed contracture; Kanuka had no activity at the same concentration. The action on chick biventer muscle was, however, similar for all three oils, as was the action on the uterus, where they caused a decrease in the force of the spontaneous contractions. The latter action suggests caution in the use of these essential oils during childbirth, as cessation of contractions could put the baby, and mother, at risk. The comparative antimicrobial activity showed greater differences between different samples of Manuka and Kanuka than Melaleuca samples. The antifungal activity of Kanuka was inversely proportional to its strong antibacterial activity, whilst Manuka displayed a stronger antifungal effect, though not as potent as Melaleuca. The antioxidant activity of Manuka samples was more consistent than that of Kanuka, while Melaleuca showed no activity. The variability in the Manuka and Kanuka essential oils suggests caution in their usage, as does the fact that the oils have not been tested for toxicity.

  1. EOS Contract Report: The ASTER and MODIS Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, P.; Thome, K. (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    Three major tasks occupied the group's efforts during this six months. The first was measuring the bidirectional reflectance properties of four reflectance samples provided by NIST. S. Biggar and P. Spyak made these measurements in both the VNIR and SWIR. The second major task was the group's move to a new facility in March. This required that our calibration laboratory and blacklab be disassembled and reassembled in addition to moving offices and other equipment. The third task was the joint vicarious calibration that took place the latter half of June. This campaign included two weeks of laboratory measurements by the RSG and nine days in the field. Other work during the past six months consisted of Science Team support activities including the attendance at meetings related to MODIS and ASTER. In addition, K. Scott continued work on the cross-calibration software package by developing a graphical interface to 6S, an uncertainty analysis code, and an image registration module. M. Sicard used a trip to Cimel in France to change the Cimel TIR radiometer's field of view and then characterized this new field of view. Z. Rouf and Z. Murshalin processed radiance-based data from last summer's Lunar Lake campaign.

  2. Thermal remote sensing of ice-debris landforms using ASTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenning, A.; Peña, M. A.; Long, S.; Soliman, A.

    2011-10-01

    Remote sensors face challenges in characterizing mountain permafrost and ground thermal conditions or mapping rock glaciers and debris-covered glaciers. We explore the potentials of thermal imaging and in particular thermal inertia mapping in mountain cryospheric research, focusing on the relationships between ground surface temperatures and the presence of ice-debris landforms on one side and land surface temperature (LST) and apparent thermal inertia (ATI) on the other. In our case study we utilize ASTER daytime and nighttime imagery and in-situ measurements of near-surface ground temperature (NSGT) in the Mediterranean Andes during a snow-free and dry observation period in late summer. Spatial patterns of LST and NSGT were mostly consistent with each other both at daytime and at nighttime. Daytime LST over ice-debris landforms was decreased and ATI consequently increased compared to other debris surfaces under otherwise equal conditions, but NSGT showed contradictory results, which underlines the complexity and possible scale dependence of ATI in heterogeneous substrates with the presence of a thermal mismatch and a heat sink at depth. While our results demonstrate the utility of thermal imaging and ATI mapping in a mountain cryospheric context, further research is needed for a better interpretation of ATI patterns in complex thermophysical conditions

  3. Pessegueiro: cultivar BRS kampai Peach cultivar BRS kampai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Bassols Raseira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O programa de Melhoramento Genético de Pessegueiros da Embrapa Clima Temperado tem, entre seus objetivos, a obtenção de cultivares produtoras de frutas para consumo in natura, com características que satisfaçam às exigências dos consumidores. Alguns dos grandes centros consumidores, como é o caso de São Paulo e Curitiba, preferem pêssegos de polpa branca e sabor doce. A cultivar BRS Kampai, obtida de um cruzamento entre 'Chimarrita' e 'Flordaprince', alia a baixa necessidade em frio, o que é uma vantagem em regiões subtropicais, à boa aparência, com sabor superior a qualquer um dos parentais. A colheita dos frutos desta cultivar inicia-se geralmente, em meados de novembro, em Pelotas-RS (em Atibaia, São Paulo, inicia-se na segunda quinzena de outubro, poucos dias antes das cultivares Rubimel (polpa amarela e Premier (polpa branca, sendo ótima substituta para esta última.The peach breeding program of Embrapa Clima Temperado has, among the objectives the development of fresh market cultivars that fulfill the consumer's preference. Some of the largest consumer centers, such as São Paulo and Curitiba, prefer white flesh peaches with sweet flavor. Cultivar BRS Kampai originated from a cross between 'Chimarrita' and 'Flordaprince', adds the low chilling requirement, advantageous for subtropical areas, to the good appearance and flavor superior to any of the parents. The harvest period of this cultivar begins mid November, in Pelotas, RS, a few days before Rubimel (yellow flesh and Premier (white flesh cultivars (and in the second half of October, in Atibaia, SP being a good substitute for the later.

  4. Evaluation of ASTER-Like Daily Land Surface Temperature by Fusing ASTER and MODIS Data during the HiWATER-MUSOEXE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guijun Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Land surface temperature (LST is an important parameter that is highly responsive to surface energy fluxes and has become valuable to many disciplines. However, it is difficult to acquire satellite LSTs with both high spatial and temporal resolutions due to tradeoffs between them. Thus, various algorithms/models have been developed to enhance the spatial or the temporal resolution of thermal infrared (TIR data or LST, but rarely both. The Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM is the widely-used data fusion algorithm for Landsat and MODIS imagery to produce Landsat-like surface reflectance. In order to extend the STARFM application over heterogeneous areas, an enhanced STARFM (ESTARFM approach was proposed by introducing a conversion coefficient and the spectral unmixing theory. The aim of this study is to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of the ESTARFM algorithm for generating ASTER-like daily LST by three approaches: simulated data, ground measurements and remote sensing products, respectively. The datasets of LST ground measurements, MODIS, and ASTER images were collected in an arid region of Northwest China during the first thematic HiWATER-Multi-Scale Observation Experiment on Evapotranspiration (MUSOEXE over heterogeneous land surfaces in 2012 from May to September. Firstly, the results of the simulation test indicated that ESTARFM could accurately predict background with temperature variations, even coordinating with small ground objects and linear ground objects. Secondly, four temporal ASTER and MODIS data fusion LSTs (i.e., predicted ASTER-like LST products were highly consistent with ASTER LST products. Here, the four correlation coefficients were greater than 0.92, root mean square error (RMSE reached about 2 K and mean absolute error (MAE ranged from 1.32 K to 1.73 K. Finally, the results of the ground measurement validation indicated that the overall accuracy was high (R2 = 0.92, RMSE = 0.77 K, and the

  5. Cultivar development of allogamous crops

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Souza Jr., Cláudio Lopes de

    2011-01-01

    .... It was reviewed the genetic structure of these species and its relationship with the development of cultivars, the technologies used to develop hybrids and improved open-pollinated varieties and their F1...

  6. How to maintain improved cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parlevliet, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Improved cultivars loose their identity and healthiness unless maintained properly. Contaminating and degrading forces, such as outcrossing, volunteer plants, mixing, natural selection, mutation and seed-borne diseases, are at the root of this. Maintenance selection can prevent this deterioration.

  7. BRS Progresso – Rye cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo do Nascimento Junior

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The rye cultivar BRS Progresso, developed by the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa, is the result of a synthetic cross of 18 open-pollinated, self-incompatible lines, resistant to stem rust.

  8. Micropropagation of four blueberry cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Brenes Angulo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sharpblue, Woodard, Bonita and Delite cultivars were propagated from leaf explants. Leaf sections from in vitro singlenode explants were compared with those from plants in the field. The explants were placed in WPM medium supplemented with 1.5 mg.l-1 TDZ to promote sprouting, then subcultured to fresh WPM medium supplemented with 0.5 or 1.0 mg.l-1 zeatin to enhance adventitious shoot growth. Shoot clump length and number of shoots >2mm and >1cm in each clump were determined. Shoots 8 to 10 cm were harvested at 8 weeks and subcultured in WPM medium supplemented with 0, 1, 2, 4 or 8 mg.l-1 IBA for rooting. After 10 weeks, shoots were transplanted to greenhouse for acclimatization. The leaf segments cultured in WPM medium with TDZ formed adventitious shoot clumps in all varieties, regardless of leaf source. A significant effect of cultivar, source of explant and interaction cultivar x leaf source was found for shoots >2 mm. Clump size varied significantly among cultivars, leaf source, and interaction cultivars x source x zeatin concentration, when transfering to a medium with 2 concentrations of the growth regulator, but no differences due to cytokinin concentration were found. Number of shoots >2mm and length of the longest shoot varied significantly with cultivar and the interaction cultivar x source of explant in WPM + zeatin medium. Woodard explants from in vitro leaf sections produced the highest number of shoots (44.70±13.34 and Delite the lowest (21.50±4.99. Shoots subcultured in WPM with different IBA concentrations had les than 10% rooting in all treatments. However, when transplanted to greenhouse 100% rooting was obtained, regardless of in vitro treatment with IBA or leaf explant source. All the microshoots of the 4 cultivars were successfully greenhouse acclimatized and plantlets later established in the field.

  9. Isomorphic coalescence of aster cores formed in vitro from microtubules and kinesin motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K.; Sikora, A.; Nakazawa, H.; Umetsu, M.; Hwang, W.; Teizer, W.

    2016-10-01

    We report fluorescence microscopy studies of the formation of aster-like structures emerging from a cellular element-based active system and a novel analysis of the aster condensation. The system consists of rhodamine labeled microtubules which are dynamically coupled by functionalized kinesin motor proteins cross-linked via streptavidin-coated quantum dots (QDs). The aster-shaped objects contain core structures. The cores are aggregates of the QD-motor protein complexes, and result from the dynamic condensation of sub-clusters that are connected to each other randomly. The structural specificity of the aster core reflects a configuration of the initial connectivity between sub-clusters. Detailed image analysis allows us to extract a novel correlation between the condensation speed and the sub-cluster separation. The size of the core is scaled down during the condensation process, following a power law dependence on the distance between sub-clusters. The exponent of the power law is close to two, as expected from a geometric model. This single exponent common to all the contractile lines implies that there exists a time regime during which an isomorphic contraction of the aster core continues during the condensation process. We analyze the observed contraction by using a model system with potential applicability in a wide range of emergent phenomena in randomly coupled active networks, which are prevalent in the cellular environment.

  10. Estimation of broadband emissivity (8-12 um) from ASTER data by using RM-NN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, K B; Ma, Y; Shen, X Y; Li, B P; Li, C Y; Li, Z L

    2012-08-27

    Land surface window emissivity is a key parameter for estimating the longwave radiative budget. The combined radiative transfer model (RM) with neural network (NN) algorithm is utilized to directly estimate the window (8-12 um) emissivity from the brightness temperature of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) with 90 m spatial resolution. Although the estimation accuracy is very high when the broadband emissivity is estimated from AST05 (ASTER Standard Data Product) by using regression method, the accuracy of AST05 is about ± 0.015 for 86 spectra which is determined by the atmosphere correction for ASTER 1B data. The MODTRAN 4 is used to simulate the process of radiance transfer, and the broadband emissivity is directly estimated from the brightness temperature of ASTER 1B data at satellite. The comparison analysis indicates that the RM-NN is more competent to estimate broadband emissivity than other method when the brightness temperatures of band 11, 12, 13, 14 are made as input nodes of dynamic neural network. The estimation average accuracy is about 0.009, and the estimation results are not sensitive to instrument noise. The RM-NN is applied to extract broadband emissivity from an image of ASTER 1B data in China, and the comparison against a classification based multiple bands with 15 m spatial resolution shows that the estimation results from RM-NN are very good.

  11. Evapotranspiration Estimation Using Multispectral Thermal Infrared Data from ASTER and MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, A. N.; Schmugge, T. J.; Kustas, W. P.; Prueger, J. H.

    2009-12-01

    Estimating evapotranspiration (ET) from space is important for monitoring water use at local and regional scales. Terra platform sensors ASTER and MODIS have been valuable for this goal because of their multispectral capabilities and high (90 m with ASTER) to moderate ( 1 km with MODIS) spatial resolutions. These capabilities have allowed discrimination of land cover conditions unobtainable from more conventional satellite imagery. In particular the multiple thermal channels provided by ASTER and MODIS have helped collect accurate observations of land surface temperature and emissivity which can be used to detect water stress and to distinguish between living and senescent vegetation. Each of these characteristics is important for modeling water fluxes. The frequent coverage by MODIS is also very important for this endeavor. To demonstrate how this can be accomplished, ASTER and Terra/MODIS data were modeled using images collected over the Jornada Experimental Range, a semi-arid research site in southern New Mexico. By combining 27 ASTER clear sky scenes with several hundred 1-km scale MODIS scenes between 2001 and 2003, it was feasible to estimate ET at weekly time steps and to also assess longer-term changes in vegetation distributions.

  12. Mapping advanced argillic alteration zones with ASTER and Hyperion data in the Andes Mountains of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Yuddy; Goïta, Kalifa; Péloquin, Stéphane

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluates Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Hyperion hyperspectral sensor datasets to detect advanced argillic minerals. The spectral signatures of some alteration clay minerals, such as dickite and alunite, have similar absorption features; thus separating them using multispectral satellite images is a complex challenge. However, Hyperion with its fine spectral bands has potential for good separability of features. The Spectral Angle Mapper algorithm was used in this study to map three advanced argillic alteration minerals (alunite, kaolinite, and dickite) in a known alteration zone in the Peruvian Andes. The results from ASTER and Hyperion were analyzed, compared, and validated using a Portable Infrared Mineral Analyzer field spectrometer. The alterations corresponding to kaolinite and alunite were detected with both ASTER and Hyperion (80% to 84% accuracy). However, the dickite mineral was identified only with Hyperion (82% accuracy).

  13. Recognition of a porphyry system using ASTER data in Bideghan - Qom province (central of Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizi, F.; Mansouri, E.

    2014-07-01

    The Bideghan area is located south of the Qom province (central of Iran). The most impressive geological features in the studied area are the Eocene sequences which are intruded by volcanic rocks with basic compositions. Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image processing have been used for hydrothermal alteration mapping and lineaments identification in the investigated area. In this research false color composite, band ratio, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Least Square Fit (LS-Fit) and Spectral Angel Mapping (SAM) techniques were applied on ASTER data and argillic, phyllic, Iron oxide and propylitic alteration zones were separated. Lineaments were identified by aid of false color composite, high pass filters and hill-shade DEM techniques. The results of this study demonstrate the usefulness of remote sensing method and ASTER multi-spectral data for alteration and lineament mapping. Finally, the results were confirmed by field investigation.

  14. Recognition of a porphyry system using ASTER data in Bideghan – Qom province (central of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Feizi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Bideghan area is located south of the Qom province (central of Iran. The most impressive geological features in the studied area are the Eocene sequences which are intruded by volcanic rocks with basic compositions. Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER image processing have been used for hydrothermal alteration mapping and lineaments identification in the investigated area. In this research false color composite, band ratio, Principal Component Analysis (PCA, Least Square Fit (LS-Fit and Spectral Angel Mapping (SAM techniques were applied on ASTER data and argillic, phyllic, Iron oxide and propylitic alteration zones were separated. Lineaments were identified by aid of false color composite, high pass filters and hill-shade DEM techniques. The results of this study demonstrate the usefulness of remote sensing method and ASTER multi-spectral data for alteration and lineament mapping. Finally, the results were confirmed by field investigation.

  15. Reducing the Discrepancy Between ASTER and MODIS Land Surface Temperature Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changqing Ke

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Human-induced global warming has significantly increased the importance ofsatellite monitoring of land surface temperature (LST on a global scale. The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS provides a 1-km resolution LST productwith almost daily coverage of the Earth, invaluable to both local and global change studies.The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Reflection Radiometer (ASTER provides aLST product with a high spatial resolution of 90-m and a 16-day recurrent cycle,simultaneously acquired at the same height and nadir view as MODIS. ASTER andMODIS are complementary in resolution, offering a unique opportunity for scale-relatedstudies. ASTER and MODIS LST have been widely used but the errors in LST were mostlydisregarded. Correction of ASTER-to-MODIS LST discrepancies is essential for studiesreliant upon the joint use of these sensors. In this study, we compared three correctionapproaches: the Wan et al.’s approach, the refined Wan et al.’s approach, and thegeneralized split window (GSW algorithm based approach. The Wan et al.’s approachcorrects the MODIS 1-km LST using MODIS 5-km LST. The refined approach modifiesthe Wan et al.’s approach through incorporating ASTER emissivity and MODIS 5-km data.The GSW algorithm approach does not use MODIS 5-km but only ASTER emissivity data. We examined the case over a semi-arid terrain area for the part of the Loess Plateau of China. All the approaches reduced the ASTER-to-MODIS LST discrepancy effectively. With terrain correction, the original ASTER-to-MODIS LST difference reduced from 2.7±1.28 K to -0.1±1.87 K for the Wan et al.’s approach, 0.2±1.57 K for the refined approach, and 0.1±1.33 K for the GSW algorithm based approach. Among all the approaches, the GSW algorithm based approach performed best in terms of mean, standard deviation, root mean square root, and correlation coefficient.

  16. Application Analysis of Global Public Data Resources ASTER GDEM%全球公众数据资源ASTER GDEM的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛

    2015-01-01

    Based on the global public data resources ASTER GDEM (space borne thermal emission and reflection ra⁃diometer global digital elevation model) data publicly announced by the USA space agency (NASA),this paper con⁃ducted practical processing and research, and carried out statistical validation on its accuracy.%本文利用美国太空总署(NASA)对外公布的全球公众数据资源ASTER GDEM(星载热发射和反射辐射仪全球数字高程模型)数据进行了实践性处理和研究,并对其精度进行统计验证。

  17. Phylogenetic relationships and generic delimitation of Eurasian Aster (Asteraceae: Astereae) inferred from ITS, ETS and trnL-F sequence data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Ping; Yang, Fu-Sheng; Jivkova, Todorka; Yin, Gen-Shen

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The classification and phylogeny of Eurasian (EA) Aster (Asterinae, Astereae, Asteraceae) remain poorly resolved. Some taxonomists adopt a broad definition of EA Aster, whereas others favour a narrow generic concept. The present study aims to delimit EA Aster sensu stricto (s.s.), elucidate the phylogenetic relationships of EA Aster s.s. and segregate genera. Methods The internal and external transcribed spacers of nuclear ribosomal DNA and the plastid DNA trnL-F region were used to reconstruct the phylogeny of EA Aster through maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses. Key Results The analyses strongly support an Aster clade including the genera Sheareria, Rhynchospermum, Kalimeris (excluding Kalimeris longipetiolata), Heteropappus, Miyamayomena, Turczaninowia, Rhinactinidia, eastern Asian Doellingeria, Asterothamnus and Arctogeron. Many well-recognized species of Chinese Aster s.s. lie outside of the Aster clade. Conclusions The results reveal that EA Aster s.s. is both paraphyletic and polyphyletic. Sheareria, Rhynchospermum, Kalimeris (excluding K. longipetiolata), Heteropappus, Miyamayomena, Turczaninowia, Rhinactinidia, eastern Asian Doellingeria, Asterothamnus and Arctogeron should be included in Aster, whereas many species of Chinese Aster s.s. should be excluded. The recircumscribed Aster should be divided into two subgenera and nine sections. Kalimeris longipetiolata, Aster batangensis, A. ser. Albescentes, A. series Hersileoides, a two-species group composed of A. senecioides and A. fuscescens, and a six-species group including A. asteroides, should be elevated to generic level. With the Aster clade, they belong to the Australasian lineages. The generic status of Callistephus should be maintained. Whether Galatella (including Crinitina) and Tripolium should remain as genera or be merged into a single genus remains to be determined. In addition, the taxonomic status of A. auriculatus and the A. pycnophyllus–A. panduratus clade remains

  18. Spectral mineral mapping for characterization of subtle geothermal prospects using ASTER data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, A. J.; Hashim, M.; Pour, A. B.

    2017-05-01

    In this study, the performance of ASTER data is evaluated for mapping subtle geothermal prospects in an unexplored tropical region having a number of thermal springs. The study employed a simple Decorrelation stretch with specific absorptions to highlight possible alteration zones of interest related to Geothermal (GT) systems. Hydrothermal alteration minerals are subsequently mapped using Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Linear Spectral Unmixing (LSU) algorithms to target representative minerals such as clays, carbonates and AL-OH minerals as indicators of GT activity. The results were validated through field GPS survey, rock sampling and laboratory analysis using latest smart lab X-Ray Diffractometer technology. The study indicates that ASTER broadband satellite data could be used to map subtle GT prospects with the aid of an in-situ verification. However, it also shows that ASTER could not discriminate within specie minerals especially for clays using SWIR bands. Subsequent studies are aimed at looking at both ASTER and Hyperion hyperspectral data in the same area as this could have significant implications for GT resource detection in unmapped aseismic and inaccessible tropical regions using available spaceborne data.

  19. First report of Alternaria alternata causing leaf spot on Ruth's golden aster (Pityopsis ruthii) in Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth’s golden aster, Pityopsis ruthii (Small), is an endangered, herbaceous perennial plant that is only endemic to small sections of the Hiwassee and Ocoee Rivers, in Polk County, Tennessee. In July 2015, a greenhouse grown plant exhibited symptoms of disease that included elongated brown lesions o...

  20. Dynamics of microtubule asters in microfabricated chambers: The role of catastrophes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faivre-Moskalenko, Cendrine; Dogterom, Marileen

    2002-01-01

    Recent in vivo as well as in vitro experiments have indicated that microtubule pushing alone is sufficient to position a microtubule-organizing center within a cell. Here, we investigate the effect of catastrophes on the dynamics of microtubule asters within microfabricated chambers that mimic the confining geometry of living cells. The use of a glass bead as the microtubule-organizing center allows us to manipulate the aster by using optical tweezers. In the case in which microtubules preexist, we show that because of microtubule buckling, repositioning almost never occurs after relocation with the optical tweezers, although initial microtubule growth always leads the aster to the geometrical center of the chamber. When a catastrophe promoter is added, we find instead that the aster is able to efficiently explore the chamber geometry even after being relocated with the optical tweezers. As predicted by theoretical calculations, the results of our in vitro experiments clearly demonstrate the need for catastrophes for proper positioning in a confining geometry. These findings correlate with recent observations of nuclear positioning in fission yeast cells. PMID:12486218

  1. Improvement of dem Generation from Aster Images Using Satellite Jitter Estimation and Open Source Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girod, L.; Nuth, C.; Kääb, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) system embarked on the Terra (EOS AM-1) satellite has been a source of stereoscopic images covering the whole globe at a 15m resolution at a consistent quality for over 15 years. The potential of this data in terms of geomorphological analysis and change detection in three dimensions is unrivaled and needs to be exploited. However, the quality of the DEMs and ortho-images currently delivered by NASA (ASTER DMO products) is often of insufficient quality for a number of applications such as mountain glacier mass balance. For this study, the use of Ground Control Points (GCPs) or of other ground truth was rejected due to the global "big data" type of processing that we hope to perform on the ASTER archive. We have therefore developed a tool to compute Rational Polynomial Coefficient (RPC) models from the ASTER metadata and a method improving the quality of the matching by identifying and correcting jitter induced cross-track parallax errors. Our method outputs more accurate DEMs with less unmatched areas and reduced overall noise. The algorithms were implemented in the open source photogrammetric library and software suite MicMac.

  2. Cyanodermella asteris sp. nov. (Ostropales) from the inflorescence axis of Aster tataricus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Linda; Schafhauser, Thomas; Pan, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    An endophytic fungus isolated from the inflorescence axis of Aster tataricus is proposed as a new species. Phylogenetic analyses based on sequences from the ribosomal DNA cluster (the ITS1+5.8S+ITS2, 18S, and 28S regions) and the RPB2 gene revealed a relationship between the unknown fungus...

  3. Spindle pole mechanics studied in mitotic asters: dynamic distribution of spindle forces through compliant linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlebois, Blake D; Kollu, Swapna; Schek, Henry T; Compton, Duane A; Hunt, Alan J

    2011-04-06

    During cell division, chromosomes must faithfully segregate to maintain genome integrity, and this dynamic mechanical process is driven by the macromolecular machinery of the mitotic spindle. However, little is known about spindle mechanics. For example, spindle microtubules are organized by numerous cross-linking proteins yet the mechanical properties of those cross-links remain unexplored. To examine the mechanical properties of microtubule cross-links we applied optical trapping to mitotic asters that form in mammalian mitotic extracts. These asters are foci of microtubules, motors, and microtubule-associated proteins that reflect many of the functional properties of spindle poles and represent centrosome-independent spindle-pole analogs. We observed bidirectional motor-driven microtubule movements, showing that microtubule linkages within asters are remarkably compliant (mean stiffness 0.025 pN/nm) and mediated by only a handful of cross-links. Depleting the motor Eg5 reduced this stiffness, indicating that Eg5 contributes to the mechanical properties of microtubule asters in a manner consistent with its localization to spindle poles in cells. We propose that compliant linkages among microtubules provide a mechanical architecture capable of accommodating microtubule movements and distributing force among microtubules without loss of pole integrity-a mechanical paradigm that may be important throughout the spindle.

  4. Glacier Volume Change Estimation Using Time Series of Improved Aster Dems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girod, Luc; Nuth, Christopher; Kääb, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Volume change data is critical to the understanding of glacier response to climate change. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) system embarked on the Terra (EOS AM-1) satellite has been a unique source of systematic stereoscopic images covering the whole globe at 15m resolution and at a consistent quality for over 15 years. While satellite stereo sensors with significantly improved radiometric and spatial resolution are available to date, the potential of ASTER data lies in its long consistent time series that is unrivaled, though not fully exploited for change analysis due to lack of data accuracy and precision. Here, we developed an improved method for ASTER DEM generation and implemented it in the open source photogrammetric library and software suite MicMac. The method relies on the computation of a rational polynomial coefficients (RPC) model and the detection and correction of cross-track sensor jitter in order to compute DEMs. ASTER data are strongly affected by attitude jitter, mainly of approximately 4 km and 30 km wavelength, and improving the generation of ASTER DEMs requires removal of this effect. Our sensor modeling does not require ground control points and allows thus potentially for the automatic processing of large data volumes. As a proof of concept, we chose a set of glaciers with reference DEMs available to assess the quality of our measurements. We use time series of ASTER scenes from which we extracted DEMs with a ground sampling distance of 15m. Our method directly measures and accounts for the cross-track component of jitter so that the resulting DEMs are not contaminated by this process. Since the along-track component of jitter has the same direction as the stereo parallaxes, the two cannot be separated and the elevations extracted are thus contaminated by along-track jitter. Initial tests reveal no clear relation between the cross-track and along-track components so that the latter seems not to be

  5. IPR 118 - Bread wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Riede

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat cultivar IPR 118 developed by IAPAR has a good yield potential and is widely adapted. It is earlymaturing and moderately tolerant to shattering and soil aluminum, moderately resistant to leaf rust and presents high glutenstrength for bread-making. The overall yield exceeded controls by 13%.

  6. ASTER, ALI and Hyperion sensors data for lithological mapping and ore minerals exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiranvand Pour, Amin; Hashim, Mazlan

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Advanced Land Imager (ALI), and Hyperion data and applications of the data as a tool for ore minerals exploration, lithological and structural mapping. Spectral information extraction from ASTER, ALI, and Hyperion data has great ability to assist geologists in all disciplines to map the distribution and detect the rock units exposed at the earth's surface. The near coincidence of Earth Observing System (EOS)/Terra and Earth Observing One (EO-1) platforms allows acquiring ASTER, ALI, and Hyperion imagery of the same ground areas, resulting accurate information for geological mapping applications especially in the reconnaissance stages of hydrothermal copper and gold exploration, chromite, magnetite, massive sulfide and uranium ore deposits, mineral components of soils and structural interpretation at both regional and district scales. Shortwave length infrared and thermal infrared bands of ASTER have sufficient spectral resolution to map fundamental absorptions of hydroxyl mineral groups and silica and carbonate minerals for regional mapping purposes. Ferric-iron bearing minerals can be discriminated using six unique wavelength bands of ALI spanning the visible and near infrared. Hyperion visible and near infrared bands (0.4 to 1.0 μm) and shortwave infrared bands (0.9 to 2.5 μm) allowed to produce image maps of iron oxide minerals, hydroxyl-bearing minerals, sulfates and carbonates in association with hydrothermal alteration assemblages, respectively. The techniques and achievements reviewed in the present paper can further introduce the efficacy of ASTER, ALI, and Hyperion data for future mineral and lithological mapping and exploration of the porphyry copper, epithermal gold, chromite, magnetite, massive sulfide and uranium ore deposits especially in arid and semi-arid territory.

  7. Lithological Discrimination of the Mafic-Ultramafic Complex, Huitongshan, Beishan, China:Using ASTER Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Liu; Jun Zhou; Dong Jiang; Dafang Zhuang; Lamin R Mansaray

    2014-01-01

    The Beishan area has more than seventy mafic-ultramafic complexes sparsely distributed in the area and is of a big potential in mineral resources related to mafic-ultramafic intrusions. Many mafic-ultramafic intrusions which are mostly in small sizes have been omitted by previous works. This research takes Huitongshan as the study area, which is a major district for mafic-ultramafic occur-rences in Beishan. Advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER) data have been processed and interpreted for mapping the mafic-ultramafic complex. ASTER data were processed by different techniques that were selected based on image reflectance and laboratory emis-sivity spectra. The visible near-infrared (VNIR) and short wave infrared (SWIR) data were trans-formed using band ratios and minimum noise fraction (MNF), while the thermal infrared (TIR) data were processed using mafic index (MI) and principal components analysis (PCA). ASTER band ratios (6/8, 5/4, 2/1) in RGB image and MNF (1, 2, 4) in RGB image were powerful in distinguishing the subtle differences between the various rock units. PCA applied to all five bands of ASTER TIR imagery high-lighted marked differences among the mafic rock units and was more effective than the MI in differen-tiating mafic-ultramafic rocks. Our results were consistent with information derived from local geolog-ical maps. Based on the remote sensing results and field inspection, eleven gabbroic intrusions and a pyroxenite occurrence were recognized for the first time. A new geologic map of the Huitongshan area was created by integrating the results of remote sensing, previous geological maps and field inspection. It is concluded that the workflow of ASTER image processing, interpretation and ground inspection has great potential for mafic-ultramafic rocks identifying and relevant mineral targeting in the sparsely vegetated arid region of northwestern China.

  8. [Cross comparison of ASTER and Landsat ETM+ multispectral measurements for NDVI and SAVI vegetation indices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Han-qiu; Zhang, Tie-jun

    2011-07-01

    The present paper investigates the quantitative relationship between the NDVI and SAVI vegetation indices of Landsat and ASTER sensors based on three tandem image pairs. The study examines how well ASTER sensor vegetation observations replicate ETM+ vegetation observations, and more importantly, the difference in the vegetation observations between the two sensors. The DN values of the three image pairs were first converted to at-sensor reflectance to reduce radiometric differences between two sensors, images. The NDVI and SAVI vegetation indices of the two sensors were then calculated using the converted reflectance. The quantitative relationship was revealed through regression analysis on the scatter plots of the vegetation index values of the two sensors. The models for the conversion between the two sensors, vegetation indices were also obtained from the regression. The results show that the difference does exist between the two sensors, vegetation indices though they have a very strong positive linear relationship. The study found that the red and near infrared measurements differ between the two sensors, with ASTER generally producing higher reflectance in the red band and lower reflectance in the near infrared band than the ETM+ sensor. This results in the ASTER sensor producing lower spectral vegetation index measurements, for the same target, than ETM+. The relative spectral response function differences in the red and near infrared bands between the two sensors are believed to be the main factor contributing to their differences in vegetation index measurements, because the red and near infrared relative spectral response features of the ASTER sensor overlap the vegetation "red edge" spectral region. The obtained conversion models have high accuracy with a RMSE less than 0.04 for both sensors' inter-conversion between corresponding vegetation indices.

  9. Inaccessible Biodiversity on Limestone Cliffs: Aster tianmenshanensis (Asteraceae, a New Critically Endangered Species from China.

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    Guo-Jin Zhang

    Full Text Available Aster tianmenshanensis G. J. Zhang & T. G. Gao, a new species of Asteraceae from southern China is described and illustrated based on evidence from morphology, micromorphology and molecular phylogeny. The new species is superficially similar to Aster salwinensis Onno in having rosettes of spatulate leaves and a solitary, terminal capitulum, but it differs by its glabrous leaf margins, unequal disc floret lobes and 1-seriate pappus. The molecular phylogenetic analysis, based on nuclear sequences ITS, ETS and chloroplast sequence trnL-F, showed that the new species was nested within the genus Aster and formed a well supported clade with Aster verticillatus (Reinw. Brouillet et al. The new species differs from the latter in having unbranched stems, much larger capitula, unequal disc floret lobes, beakless achenes and persistent pappus. In particular, A. tianmenshanensis has very short stigmatic lines, only ca. 0.18 mm long and less than 1/3 of the length of sterile style tip appendages, remarkably different from its congeners. This type of stigmatic line, as far as we know, has not been found in any other species of Aster. The very short stigmatic lines plus the unequal disc floret lobes imply that the new species may have a very specialized pollination system, which may be a consequence of habitat specialization. The new species grows only on the limestone cliffs of Mt. Tianmen, Hunan Province, at the elevation of 1400 m. It could only be accessed when a plank walkway was built across the cliffs for tourists. As it is known only from an area estimated at less than 10 km2 and a walkway passes through this location, its habitat could be easily disturbed. This species should best be treated as Critically Endangered based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List Categories and Criteria B2a.

  10. Genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars

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    Hudson de Oliveira Rabelo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars released in the period from 1965 to 2012. The genealogies of the cultivars were obtained based on information from marketing folders, websites, crossings records, and scientific articles. The following factors were calculated: relative genetic contribution (RGC, accumulated genetic contribution (AGC, frequency (in percentage of each ancestor in the genealogy (FAG, number of ancestors that constitute each cultivar (NAC,number of ancestors responsible for 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% of the genetic base (NAGB, and average number of ancestor per cultivar (ANAC. The cultivars were also grouped based on the period of release (1965-1980, 1981-1990, 1991-2000 and 2001-2012. For each grouping, the previously described factors were also estimated. A total of 110 cultivars were studied and it was concluded that the genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars is narrow.

  11. 'Gloriosa': cultivar de alface americana tropicalizada 'Gloriosa': crisphead tropicalized cultivar

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    Fernando C. Sala

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available 'Gloriosa' é uma cultivar de alface (Lactuca sativa L. americana tropicalizada e resistente a Thielaviopsis basicola. Foi selecionada a partir de variantes da cultivar Lucy Brown, pelo método genealógico. Progênies S1 a S6 foram selecionadas para resistência a T. basicola, características hortícolas, tolerância ao pendoamento precoce e adaptação ao cultivo de verão. Apresenta ciclo precoce de 40 a 50 dias pós-transplante, pendoamento lento, cabeças grandes e três camadas de folhas externas. Possui tolerância a Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians e suporta o cultivo nos períodos de elevadas temperaturas e pluviosidade. Trata-se da primeira cultivar de alface americana tropicalizada no Brasil.'Gloriosa' is a tropicalized crisphead lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. resistant to Thielaviopsis basicola. It was derived by selection from cv. Lucy Brown variants by pedigree method. Progenies S1 to S6 were selected for T. basicola resistance, desirable horticulture traits, slowbolting and adaptation for Brazilian summer crop. It presents a precocious cycle within 40 to 50 days of being planted, slowbolting, large head and three layers of frame levels. It is tolerant to Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians and is able to be grown under high temperature and rainy summer in southern of Brazil. It is the first crisphead lettuce type developed for tropical regions of Brazil.

  12. Occurrence of Stolbur Phytoplasma Disease in Spreading Type Petunia hybrida Cultivars in Korea

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    Bong Nam Chung

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In January 2012, spreading type petunia cv. Wave Pink plants showing an abnormal growth habit of sprouting unusual multiple plantlets from the lateral buds were collected from a greenhouse in Gwacheon, Gyeonggi Province, Korea. The presence of phytoplasma was investigated using PCR with the primer pairs P1/P6, and R16F1/R1 for nested-PCR. In the nested PCR, 1,096 bp PCR products were obtained, and through sequencing 12 Pet-Stol isolates were identified. Comparison of the nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA gene of the 12 Pet-Stol isolates with other phytoplasmas belonging to aster yellows or Stolbur showed that Pet-Stol isolates were members of Stolbur. The presence of phytoplasma in petunia was also confirmed by microscopic observation of the pathogens. In this study, Stolbur phytoplasma was identified from spreading type petunia cultivars by sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene of phytoplasma and microscopic observation of phytoplasma bodies. This is the first report of Stolbur phytoplasma in commercial Petunia hybrida cultivars.

  13. Monitoring and predicting eutrophication of Sri Lankan inland waters using ASTER satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahanayaka, D. D. G. L.; Wijeyaratne, M. J. S.; Tonooka, H.; Minato, A.; Ozawa, S.; Perera, B. D. C.

    2014-10-01

    This study focused on determining the past changes and predicting the future trends in eutrophication of the Bolgoda North lake, Sri Lanka using in situ Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) measurements and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER) satellite data. This Lake is located in a mixed land use area with industries, some agricultural lands, middle income and high income housing, tourist hotels and low income housing. From March to October 2013, water samples from five sampling sites were collected once a month parallel to ASTER overpass and Chl-a, nitrate and phosphate contents of each sample were measured using standard laboratory methods. Cloud-free ASTER scenes over the lake during the 2000-2013 periods were acquired for Chl-a estimation and trend analysis. All ASTER images were atmospherically corrected using FLAASH software and in-situ Chl-a data were regressed with atmospherically corrected three ASTER VNIR band ratios of the same date. The regression equation of the band ratio and Chl-a content with the highest correlation, which was the green/red band ratio was used to develop algorithm for generation of 15-m resolution Chl-a distribution maps. According to the ASTER based Chl-a distribution maps it was evident that eutrophication of this lake has gradually increased from 2008-2011. Results also indicated that there had been significantly high eutrophic conditions throughout the year 2013 in several regions, especially in water stagnant areas and adjacent to freshwater outlets. Field observations showed that this lake is receiving various discharges from factories. Unplanned urbanization and inadequacy of proper facilities in the nearby industries for waste management have resulted in the eutrophication of the water body. If the present trends of waste disposal and unplanned urbanization continue, enormous environmental problems would be resulted in future. Results of the present study showed that information from satellite remote

  14. Cultivar de soja BRS 205

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    Bonato Emídio Rizzo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A BRS 205, cultivar de soja de ciclo semiprecoce, obtida do cruzamento [BR-16(2 x Ocepar 8] x Tracy-M, é indicada para o Rio Grande do Sul, em semeaduras de novembro. Possui crescimento determinado, plantas de flor branca, pubescência marrom, porte baixo e grãos de hilo preto. Tem resistência ao cancro-da-haste (Diaporthe phaseolorum f. sp. meridionalis, à podridão-parda-da-haste (Phialophora gregata, à mancha-olho-de-rã (Cercospora sojina e à pústula bacteriana (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines. É moderadamente resistente ao oídio (Microsphaera diffusa. O rendimento médio de grãos foi 6% e 11% superior ao das cultivares RS 7-Jacuí e BR-16, respectivamente.

  15. Land Surface Temperature Retrieval in Wetlands Using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index-Emissivity Estimation and ASTER Emissivity Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro, Javier; Heinmann, Sascha; Strauch, Adrian; Menz, Gunter

    2016-08-01

    Land Surface Temperature (LST) has the potential to act as a continuous indicator of the ecological status of wetlands. Accurate emissivity values are required in order to calculate precise LST. We test two emissivity retrieval methods and their influence on LST calculated from a Landsat 7 image of a highly dynamic wetland in Southern Spain. LST calculated using NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) threshold estimations and the ASTER emissivity product are compared. The results show differences of around 0-1 K for most land covers, and up to 3 K for areas of bare soil when Landsat and ASTER images have the same acquisition date. Tests using Landsat and ASTER images from different seasons do not show greater differences between both LSTs. This has important implications for automated LST retrieval methods, such as the one planed by the USGS using Landsat and ASTER emissivity products.

  16. Microsporogenesis of Apricot Cultivars in Hungary

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    Veronika HAJNAL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Like all phenological processes, microsporogenesis is mainly determined genetically, but its phenotypical expression is greatly influenced by environmental factors, particularly the temperature. During the 3-year experimental period, the process of microsporogenesis was examined in eight apricot cultivars originated in North America and in Romania. The Hungarian cultivar ‘Gönci magyar kajszi’ was used as the control. Based on the results it was possible to rank the cultivars in terms of their microsporogenesis schedule. The same order was found in all three years. This order also indicates the yield reliability of the cultivars. Endodormancy ended between January 10th and 25th in the buds of the earliest cultivar ‘Pinkcot’, but not until February 5-10th in the latest cultivar ‘Harlayne’. Three of the cultivars had faster flower bud development than the control, in the order ‘Pinkcot’, ‘Orange Red’ and ‘Harcot’. Growing these cultivars thus involves greater risk than for ‘Gönci magyar kajszi’ in Hungary, due to their rapid winter flower bud development. Some cultivars found to have slower flower bud development than ‘Gönci magyar kajszi’; ‘Litoral’, ‘Harogem’, ‘Comandor’, ‘Sirena’ and ‘Harlayne’ – thus these cultivars can be grown more reliably.

  17. Marine boundary layer cloud property retrievals from high-resolution ASTER observations: case studies and comparison with Terra MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Frank; Wind, Galina; Zhang, Zhibo; Platnick, Steven; Di Girolamo, Larry; Zhao, Guangyu; Amarasinghe, Nandana; Meyer, Kerry

    2016-12-01

    A research-level retrieval algorithm for cloud optical and microphysical properties is developed for the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) aboard the Terra satellite. It is based on the operational MODIS algorithm. This paper documents the technical details of this algorithm and evaluates the retrievals for selected marine boundary layer cloud scenes through comparisons with the operational MODIS Data Collection 6 (C6) cloud product. The newly developed, ASTER-specific cloud masking algorithm is evaluated through comparison with an independent algorithm reported in [Zhao and Di Girolamo(2006)]. To validate and evaluate the cloud optical thickness (τ) and cloud effective radius (reff) from ASTER, the high-spatial-resolution ASTER observations are first aggregated to the same 1000 m resolution as MODIS. Subsequently, τaA and reff, aA retrieved from the aggregated ASTER radiances are compared with the collocated MODIS retrievals. For overcast pixels, the two data sets agree very well with Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficients of R > 0.970. However, for partially cloudy pixels there are significant differences between reff, aA and the MODIS results which can exceed 10 µm. Moreover, it is shown that the numerous delicate cloud structures in the example marine boundary layer scenes, resolved by the high-resolution ASTER retrievals, are smoothed by the MODIS observations. The overall good agreement between the research-level ASTER results and the operational MODIS C6 products proves the feasibility of MODIS-like retrievals from ASTER reflectance measurements and provides the basis for future studies concerning the scale dependency of satellite observations and three-dimensional radiative effects.

  18. Recent variation of the Las Vacas Glacier Mt. Aconcagua region, Central Andes, Argentina, based on ASTER stereoscopic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzano, M. G.; Leiva, J. C.; Lenzano, L.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents the results of the ASTER stereoscopic image processing to calculate the volume changes of Las Vacas Glacier. The processing of medium resolution satellite images (ASTER level 1A - pixel 15 m) from February 2001 and 2007 was performed applying the satellite digital photogrammetry method (Kääb, 2005). The comparison of the two generated DTM returns results that are acceptable within the parameters and precisions that can be obtained with this kind of sensor and the processing methodology.

  19. Effect of colour and size grading of China aster (Callistephus chinensis Nees seeds on their germination

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    Agnieszka Rosińska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of 3 commercial China aster (Callistephus chinensis Nees lots were divided by hand into 3 grades with different colours: dark brown, brown and light brown, and 2 grades with a different size: length below 3.9 mm (small and above 3.9 mm (large. The colour grading was done based on the Royal Horticultural Society Colour Chart and size grading was done by hand for each seed. Then, seeds were routinely germinated based on the International Seed Testing Association (ISTA rules. The size of seeds had no effect on their germination. The dark brown seeds germinated better than the light brown ones. Removing light brown seeds from the China aster seed lot improved their germination.

  20. Estimation of Tree Size Diversity Using Object Oriented Texture Analysis and Aster Imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Ibrahim; Norton, David A; Ozkan, Ulas Yunus; Mert, Ahmet; Senturk, Ozdemir

    2008-08-11

    This study investigates the potential of object-based texture parameters extracted from 15m spatial resolution ASTER imagery for estimating tree size diversity in a Mediterranean forested landscape in Turkey. Tree size diversity based on tree basal area was determined using the Shannon index and Gini Coefficient at the sampling plot level. Image texture parameters were calculated based on the grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) for various image segmentation levels. Analyses of relationships between tree size diversity and texture parameters found that relationships between the Gini Coefficient and the GLCM values were the most statistically significant, with the highest correlation (r=0.69) being with GLCM Homogeneity values. In contrast, Shannon Index values were weakly correlated with image derived texture parameters. The results suggest that 15m resolution Aster imagery has considerable potential in estimating tree size diversity based on the Gini Coefficient for heterogeneous Mediterranean forests.

  1. Visual interpretation of ASTER satellite data, Part II: Land use mapping in Mpumalanga,South Africa

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    Elna van Niekerk

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the initiation in 1960 of the era of satellite remote sensing to detect the different characteristics of the earth, a powerful tool was created to aid researchers. Many land-use studies were undertaken using Landsat MSS, Landsat TM and ETM, as well as SPOT satellite data. The application of these data to the mapping of land use and land cover at smaller scales was constrained by the limited spectral and/or spatial resolution of the data provided by these satellite sensors. In view of the relatively high cost of SPOT data, and uncertainty regarding the future continuation of the Landsat series, alternative data sources need to be investigated. In the absence of published previous research on this issue in South Africa, the purpose of this article is to investigate the value of visual interpretation of ASTER satellite images for the identification and mapping of land-use in an area in South Africa. The study area is situated in Mpumalanga, in the area of Witbank, around the Witbank and Doorndraai dams. This area is characterised by a variety of urban, rural and industrial land uses. Digital image processing of one Landsat 5 TM, one Landsat 7 ETM and one ASTER satellite image was undertaken, including atmospheric correction and georeferencing, natural colour composites, photo infrared colour composites (or false colour satellite images, band ratios, Normalised Difference Indices, as well as the Brightness, Greenness and Wetness Indices. The efficacy with which land use could be identified through the visual interpretation of the processed Landsat 5 TM, Landsat 7 TM and ASTER satellite images was compared. The published 1:50 000 topographical maps of the area were used for the purpose of initial verification. Findings of the visual interpretation process were verified by field visits to the study area. The study found that the ASTER satellite data produced clearer results and therefore have a higher mapping ability and capacity than the

  2. Digital Mapping of Soil Properties Using Multivariate Statistical Analysis and ASTER Data in an Arid Region

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    Said Nawar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling and mapping of soil properties has been identified as key for effective land degradation management and mitigation. The ability to model and map soil properties at sufficient accuracy for a large agriculture area is demonstrated using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER imagery. Soil samples were collected in the El-Tina Plain, Sinai, Egypt, concurrently with the acquisition of ASTER imagery, and measured for soil electrical conductivity (ECe, clay content and soil organic matter (OM. An ASTER image covering the study area was preprocessed, and two predictive models, multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS and the partial least squares regression (PLSR, were constructed based on the ASTER spectra. For all three soil properties, the results of MARS models were better than those of the respective PLSR models, with cross-validation estimated R2 of 0.85 and 0.80 for ECe, 0.94 and 0.90 for clay content and 0.79 and 0.73 for OM. Independent validation of ECe, clay content and OM maps with 32 soil samples showed the better performance of the MARS models, with R2 = 0.81, 0.89 and 0.73, respectively, compared to R2 = 0.78, 0.87 and 0.71 for the PLSR models. The results indicated that MARS is a more suitable and superior modeling technique than PLSR for the estimation and mapping of soil salinity (ECe, clay content and OM. The method developed in this paper was found to be reliable and accurate for digital soil mapping in arid and semi-arid environments.

  3. Detection of Alteration Induced by Onshore Gas Seeps from ASTER and WorldView-2 Data

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    Sanaz Salati

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbon seeps cause chemical and mineralogical changes at the surface, which can be detected by remote sensing. This paper aims at the detection of mineral alteration induced by gas seeps in a marly limestone formation, SW Iran. For this purpose, the multispectral Advance Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER and the high spatial resolution WorldView-2 (WV-2 data were utilized for mapping surficial rock alteration. In addition, the potential of Visible Near Infrared (VNIR bands of the WV-2 and its high spatial resolution for mapping alterations was determined. Band ratioing, principal component analysis (PCA, data fusion and the boosted regression trees (BRT were applied to enhance and classify the altered and unaltered marly limestone formation. The alteration zones were identified and mapped by remote sensing analyses. Integrating the WV-2 into the ASTER data improved the spatial accuracy of the BRT classifications. The results showed that the BRT classification of the multiple band imagery (created from ASTER and WV-2 using regions of interest (ROIs around field data provides the best discrimination between altered and unaltered areas. It is suggested that the WV-2 dataset can provide a potential tool along higher spectral resolution data for mapping alteration minerals related to hydrocarbon seeps in arid and semi-arid areas.

  4. Remote sensing of thermal state of volcanoes in Turkey and neighbouring countries using ASTER nighttime images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusoy, İnan; Diker, Caner

    2016-04-01

    Ongoing studies are increasingly revealing that Holocene and historical activity has been reported for many of the Anatolian volcanoes. So far, hydrothermal activity have been observed on Nemrut, Tendürek, Aǧrı (Ararat), Hasan daǧ and Kula. Fumaroles, steam vents, steam/gas emission and zones of hot grounds have been reported. Thermal state of Anatolian volcanoes have been investigated using ASTER nighttime satellite imagery. We have analyzed the nighttime thermal images of Aǧrı, Akça, Çandarlı, Erciyes, Gölcük, Göllüdaǧ, Hasandaǧ, Kula, Meydan, Nemrut, Süphan and Tendürek volcanoes in Turkey and Demavand and Nisyros volcanoes in the neighboring countries. In order to quantify the current thermal state of the volcanos studied, we have used ASTER Thermal Infrared spectra. Several ASTER nighttime images have been used to calculate land surface temperature, surface thermal anomaly and relative radiative heat flux on the volcanoes. Following the atmospheric correction of thermal images, temperature and emissivity have been separated and then land surface temperature have been calculated from 5 thermal bands. Surface temperature images have been topographically corrected. Relative radiative heat flux have been calculated using corrected surface temperature data, emissivity, vapor pressure and height-dependent air temperature values. These values have been correlated with ongoing activity observed on active Indonesian volcanoes Sinabung, Semeru and Bromo Tengger. (This study have been financially supported by TUBITAK project no: 113Y032).

  5. Detection and evaluation on phosphorite mining environment contamination sources using ASTER and DEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-tao; Zhang, Zhi; Li, Zhi-zhong; Yang, Jun-jie; Qian, Li-ping

    2008-11-01

    The main environment contamination source of the phosphorite mining area, located in Huji city, Hubei province, China, was detected and evaluated using ASTER and DEM. Firstly, the featured spectrum that has unique diagnose spectral feature was generalized after analyzing the types and spectrum characteristics of the sample contamination source in the area. Secondly, the main contamination source of the area was recognized by means of principal component analysis using ASTER band 1-9. And the distributions of them were in accordance with that of phosphorite, carbonate and waste water. Finally, flow accumulation and catchment images were simulated using DEM and GIS. By analyzing the images of the flow accumulation, catchment and contamination source, the authors conclude that large scale opencast phosphorite mining and solid waste materials have damaged mining environment; the disordered piling of solid waste material has been boosting diffusion and migration of harmful and toxic matters; and all of these has damaged heavily ecological environment of lower reaches, and is the potential unsafe factor for that of Hanjiang river also. Keywords: ASTER, DEM, mining contamination, detection and evaluation on contamination sources 1.

  6. Estimating Coastal Lagoon Tidal Flooding and Repletion with Multidate ASTER Thermal Imagery

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    Thomas R. Allen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Coastal lagoons mix inflowing freshwater and tidal marine waters in complex spatial patterns. This project sought to detect and measure temperature and spatial variability of flood tides for a constricted coastal lagoon using multitemporal remote sensing. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Radiometer (ASTER thermal infrared data provided estimates of surface temperature for delineation of repletion zones in portions of Chincoteague Bay, Virginia. ASTER high spatial resolution sea-surface temperature imagery in conjunction with in situ observations and tidal predictions helped determine the optimal seasonal data for analyses. The selected time series ASTER satellite data sets were analyzed at different tidal phases and seasons in 2004–2006. Skin surface temperatures of ocean and estuarine waters were differentiated by flood tidal penetration and ebb flows. Spatially variable tidal flood penetration was evaluated using discrete seed-pixel area analysis and time series Principal Components Analysis. Results from these techniques provide spatial extent and variability dynamics of tidal repletion, flushing, and mixing, important factors in eutrophication assessment, water quality and resource monitoring, and application of hydrodynamic modeling for coastal estuary science and management.

  7. PEMETAAN SUHU PERMUKAAN LAUT (SPL MENGGUNAKAN CITRA SATELIT ASTER DI PERAIRAN LAUT JAWA BAGIAN BARAT MADURA

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    Dyah Ayu Sulistyo Rini

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Oceanographical temperature in Java Sea is very important to be considered. This research was combines in-site observation technique, Geographical Information System (GLS and remote sensing in order to get accurate, present and updateable data. The aim of this research is to determine the distribution of sea-surface temperature and accuration-test value in Java Sea especially on western coast of Madura using ASTER satellite imagery. This research were used software of ENVI 4.5, ILWIS 3.3, and ArcGIS 9.3 and also changed the radian value until °C. Result showed that using ASTER satellite imagery within band 10 range between 32 "C-35 "C. Band 11,between 24.9"C 25,2"C. Band 12 between 16,7"C to 17"C. Band while band 13 abd 14 between 30.7, band 28. Band 11 is more accurate compared to Band 10, 12, 13. 14, the RMS Error on band 11 showed lower value compared to the other band.Keywords: Sea-surface Temperature. ASTER satellite imagery. Java Sea, Western coast of Madura

  8. NS Pudarka: A new winter wheat cultivar

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    Hristov Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-yielding, medium late winter wheat cultivar NS Pudarka was developed by crossing genetic divergent parents: line NMNH-07 and cv. NS 40S and Simonida. In cultivar NS Pudarka genes responsible for high yield potential, very good technological quality, resistance to lodging, low temperature and diseases, were successfully combined. It was registered by Ministry of agriculture, forestry and water management of Serbia Republic in 2013. This cultivar has wide adaptability and stability of yield that enable growing in different environments with optimal agricultural practice. On the base of technological quality this cultivar belongs to the second quality class, A2 farinograph subgroup and second technological group.

  9. Use of multiline cultivars and cultivar mixtures for disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, C C

    2002-01-01

    The usefulness of mixtures (multiline cultivars and cultivar mixtures) for disease management has been well demonstrated for rusts and powdery mildews of small grain crops. Such mixtures are more useful under some epidemiological conditions than under others, and experimental methodology, especially problems of scale, may be crucial in evaluating the potential efficacy of mixtures on disease. There are now examples of mixtures providing both low and high degrees of disease control for a wide range of pathosystems, including crops with large plants, and pathogens that demonstrate low host specificity, or are splash dispersed, soilborne, or insect vectored. Though most analyses of pathogen evolution in mixtures consider static costs of virulence to be the main mechanism countering selection for pathogen complexity, many other potential mechanisms need to be investigated. Agronomic and marketing considerations must be carefully evaluated when implementing mixture approaches to crop management. Practical difficulties associated with mixtures have often been overestimated, however, and mixtures will likely play an increasingly important role as we develop more sustainable agricultural systems.

  10. ASTER-Derived 30-Meter-Resolution Digital Elevation Models of Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Peter G.; Warner, Michael B.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is an imaging instrument aboard the Terra satellite, launched on December 19, 1999, as part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Earth Observing System (EOS). The ASTER sensor consists of three subsystems: the visible and near infrared (VNIR), the shortwave infrared (SWIR), and the thermal infrared (TIR), each with a different spatial resolution (VNIR, 15 meters; SWIR, 30 meters, TIR 90 meters). The VNIR system has the capability to generate along-track stereo images that can be used to create digital elevation models (DEMs) at 30-meter resolution. Currently, the only available DEM dataset for Afghanistan is the 90-meter-resolution Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data. This dataset is appropriate for macroscale DEM analysis and mapping. However, ASTER provides a low cost opportunity to generate higher resolution data. For this publication, study areas were identified around populated areas and areas where higher resolution elevation data were desired to assist in natural resource assessments. The higher resolution fidelity of these DEMs can also be used for other terrain analysis including landform classification and geologic structure analysis. For this publication, ASTER scenes were processed and mosaicked to generate 36 DEMs which were created and extracted using PCI Geomatics' OrthoEngine 3D Stereo software. The ASTER images were geographically registered to Landsat data with at least 15 accurate and well distributed ground control points with a root mean square error (RMSE) of less that one pixel (15 meters). An elevation value was then assigned to each ground control point by extracting the elevation from the 90-meter SRTM data. The 36 derived DEMs demonstrate that the software correlated on nearly flat surfaces and smooth slopes accurately. Larger errors occur in cloudy and snow-covered areas, lakes, areas with steep slopes, and

  11. Estimating surface fluxes over the north Tibetan Plateau area with ASTER imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiqiang Ma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface fluxes are important boundary conditions for climatological modeling and Asian monsoon system. The recent availability of high-resolution, multi-band imagery from the ASTER (Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer sensor has enabled us to estimate surface fluxes to bridge the gap between local scale flux measurements using micrometeorological instruments and regional scale land-atmosphere exchanges of water and heat fluxes that are fundamental for the understanding of the water cycle in the Asian monsoon system. A parameterization method based on ASTER data and field observations has been proposed and tested for deriving surface albedo, surface temperature, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (MSAVI, vegetation coverage, Leaf Area Index (LAI, net radiation flux, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux over heterogeneous land surface in this paper. As a case study, the methodology was applied to the experimental area of the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP Asia-Australia Monsoon Project (CAMP on the Tibetan Plateau (CAMP/Tibet, located at the north Tibetan Plateau. The ASTER data of 24 July 2001, 29 November 2001 and 12 March 2002 was used in this paper for the case of summer, winter and spring. To validate the proposed methodology, the ground-measured surface variables (surface albedo and surface temperature and land surface heat fluxes (net radiation flux, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux were compared to the ASTER derived values. The results show that the derived surface variables and land surface heat fluxes in three different months over the study area are in good accordance with the land surface status. Also, the estimated land surface variables and land surface heat fluxes are in good accordance with ground measurements, and all their absolute percentage difference (APD is less than 10% in the validation sites

  12. �Saruman� Apple Cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu SESTRAS

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The apple cultivar Saruman was obtained at Fruit Research Station Cluj, Romania (FRS Cluj, and homologated in 2007. Saruman was released by hybridization between Cluj III-VI-5-26 selection (Parmain dOr, open pollinated and NJ 46. The trees are vigorous, spreading shape, and with medium crop yield. The fruits have large size, conic shape and mostly red (purple coloration; they have white flesh with a sweet, crisp, aromatic flavour and low acidity. Fruits become ripe in the last decade of August, first decade of September and the fruits are proper for dessert and well suited for cooking, applesauce, cider, pies.

  13. RESPONSE OF CABBAGE CULTIVARS TO BLACK ROT INFECTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yield stability of white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) cultivars were ... and stable cultivar(s) with adequate resistance to black rot caused by ..... Principles and Procedures of Statistics: ... black rot development in introduced cabbage.

  14. CULTIVAR IMPACT ON THE CHEMICAL CONTENT AND GRAIN TECHNOLOGICAL QUALITIES OF SOME DURUM WHEAT CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanko Kolev

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A comparative experiment was carried out with five Bulgarian and five foreign durum wheat cultivars. The aim of the experiment was to determine the chemical content and grain technological quality of some Bulgarian and foreign durum wheat cultivars grown under the agriecological conditions of Southern Bulgaria. The Vazhod cultivar proved to give the highest durum wheat grain yield, followed by Beloslava cultivar. Out of the foreign durum wheat cultivars the Durumko was notable for its higher productivity. The crude protein content in the grain was highest in Zagorka, Yavor and Yukon. The highest yield of gluten was reported in Beloslava, Vazhod and Zagorka.

  15. Cannabis - from cultivar to chemovar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazekamp, A; Fischedick, J T

    2012-01-01

    The medicinal use of Cannabis is increasing as countries worldwide are setting up official programs to provide patients with access to safe sources of medicinal-grade Cannabis. An important question that remains to be answered is which of the many varieties of Cannabis should be made available for medicinal use. Drug varieties of Cannabis are commonly distinguished through the use of popular names, with a major distinction being made between Indica and Sativa types. Although more than 700 different cultivars have already been described, it is unclear whether such classification reflects any relevant differences in chemical composition. Some attempts have been made to classify Cannabis varieties based on chemical composition, but they have mainly been useful for forensic applications, distinguishing drug varieties, with high THC content, from the non-drug hemp varieties. The biologically active terpenoids have not been included in these approaches. For a clearer understanding of the medicinal properties of the Cannabis plant, a better classification system, based on a range of potentially active constituents, is needed. The cannabinoids and terpenoids, present in high concentrations in Cannabis flowers, are the main candidates. In this study, we compared cultivars obtained from multiple sources. Based on the analysis of 28 major compounds present in these samples, followed by principal component analysis (PCA) of the quantitative data, we were able to identify the Cannabis constituents that defined the samples into distinct chemovar groups. The study indicates the usefulness of a PCA approach for chemotaxonomic classification of Cannabis varieties.

  16. Effects of Soybean Cultivars on Soymilk Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziadekey, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Soymilk was prepared from twelve soybean cultivars grown under the same environmental conditions to evaluate their effects on soymilk characteristics. Significant correlations were observed between the Chemical composition of the seeds and the resultant soymilk. Soymilk solids were significantly affected by seed size and seed phosphorus contents. Cultivars with dark hilum produced soymilk with less attractive colour.

  17. Regional mapping methods using ASTER data to map minerals in the U.S. Basin and Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is currently mapping minerals associated with hydrothermal alteration in a study area that covers most of the U.S. Basin and Range. The study area was mapped using AST_L1B radiance data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). ASTER measures reflected radiation in three bands in the 0.52-0.86 μm wavelength region (VNIR); six bands in the 1.6-2.43 μm wavelength region (SWIR); and five bands of emitted radiation in the 8.125-11.65 μm wavelength region (TIR) with 15 m, 30 m, and 90 m resolution, respectively. ASTER VNIR and SWIR radiance data were calibrated to reflectance data using ACORN atmospheric correction software. TIR radiance data were calibrated to emissivity data using atmospheric removal and emissivity normalization algorithms in ENVI. Rocks containing hydrothermal silica, calcite-dolomite, epidote-chlorite, alunite-kaolinite, and sericite were mapped using Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operators. IDL logical operators string together band thresholds and band ratios to map spectral features of minerals. ASTER SWIR band ratios are used in IDL logical operators to map Al-O-H spectral absorption features of alunite, kaolinite and sericite. The ASTER SWIR 4/5 ratio maps the 2.165 μm spectral absorption feature in alunite and kaolinite, and the ASTER SWIR 4/6 and 7/6 ratios map the 2.2 μm spectral absorption feature exhibited in alunite, kaolinite and sericite. Hydrothermal silica was mapped using ASTER SWIR and ASTER TIR band ratios. The ASTER SWIR band ratio 4/7 is typically higher for hydrothermal silica-rich rocks which have lower overall SWIR reflectance in the 2.0 to 2.4 μm region than non-hydrothermal silica-rich rocks due to residual molecular water or an O-H absorption feature spanning 2.26 to 2.4 μm. The ASTER TIR band ratio 13/12 maps the 9.09 μm quartz restralen absorption feature. Thus, silica-rich rocks were mapped using the TIR emissivity data and hydrothermal

  18. Adjacent effect and cross talk of land surfaces on coastal water in the Aster VNIR and SWIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Tsutomu; Masuda, Kazuhiko; Sato, Isao; Tsuchida, Satoshi

    2002-12-01

    The adjacency effect is discussed at coastal areas of main land and peninsula using VNIR and SWIR on ASTER sensor, although the cross-talk phenomenon is apparently noted on some SWIR. The purpose of the analysis is to derive optical characteristics of atmospheric aerosol. The aerosol model is in accordance to the dust-like model. This model is adopted to ASTER and MISR on Terra satellite. Data is the Atsumi Peninsula near Nagoya (34° 40'N, 134° 00'E) GMT1.55 on July 10,2000. The ASTER SWIR(1.65μm-2.395μm) cross-talk phenomenon is noted in the data. This is known as a result of a structure of ASTER sensor. It is relatively large (5-6 DN counts and 100 lines or 3km length). On the other hands, when ASTER observe heterogeneous surface of coastal water, the adjacency effect due to the scattering by atmosphere might partly be contaminated to the above effect. In the SWIR region of spectrum, molecular scattering is practically neglected. However, some aerosol model indicates strong scattering effect at SWIR wavelengths. The main results are (1) The Japan Main land indicates 6~20 times more effect than the peninsula on adjacent radiance from ocean water. (2) SWIR & VNIR exhibit similar adjacent effect which might indicate aerosol or large particles.

  19. According to Regression Combine with Interpolation to Mend ASTER GDEM Data%回归与内插法处理ASTER GDEM数据异常值的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    惠珊; 李远华

    2012-01-01

    How to solve the common no data or data abnormality problem in ASTER GDEM is mainly studied. At first, detecting the section which no data or data abnormality in ASTER GDEM slope analysis together with density divide method isused. Then SRTM DEM is used according to regression fusing combine with interpolation to simulate and mend the ASTER GDEM data . At Last, the results through using the mended ASTER GDEM data to set up 3D model and Hydrological Model are evaluated. The study results indicate that regression fusing and interpolation method can produce a less error margin and advanced precision data . The mended data is primly matched with remote sensing data and the hydrological model is reasonable. Above all, this method mendes no data and abnormality section in ASTER GDEM improving the data integrality and applicability.%为了解决ASTER GDEM数据中普遍存在的数据空洞及异常问题,在利用坡度分析与密度分割等方法,提取ASTERGDEM数据中存在的空洞及异常值后,借助SRTM DEM数据,利用回归与内插法对空洞及异常区域的高程进行模拟修复.并通过三维建模和实例应用评估其模拟质量.研究结果表明:回归与内插法误差较小、精度较高,所得DEM三维模型良好,能有效提高ASTER GDEM数据的完整性和可用性.

  20. �Saruman� Apple Cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu SESTRAS

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The apple cultivar �Saruman� was obtained at Fruit Research Station Cluj, Romania (FRS Cluj, and homologated in 2007. �Saruman� was released by hybridization between �Cluj III-VI-5-26� selection (�Parmain d�Or�, open pollinated and �NJ 46�. The trees are vigorous, spreading shape, and with medium crop yield. The fruits have large size, conic shape and mostly red (purple coloration; they have white flesh with a sweet, crisp, aromatic flavour and low acidity. Fruits become ripe in the last decade of August, first decade of September and the fruits are proper for dessert and well suited for cooking, applesauce, cider, pies.

  1. �Sauron� Apple Cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu SESTRAS

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The new apple cultivar Sauron was obtained at Fruit Research Station Cluj, Romania (FRS Cluj, and homologated in 2007. Sauron was identified in open pollinated population of Cluj 3/83 selection [Cluj III-VI-5-26 selection (Parmain dOr, open pollinated x NJ 46]. The trees have moderate vigour, upright then spread, with moderate productivity. Fruits are medium to large, usually red, with a portion being greenish or yellow-green and purple red vertically striped. The fruit has good quality, being soft eating apple due to their lack of crispness. Quality indices include firmness, crispness and excellent flavour. Fruits become ripe between 15 August and 5 September and the fruits are good quality, being proper for dessert and industrialization (juice, applesauce, pies, and cider.

  2. �Sauron� Apple Cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu SESTRAS

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The new apple cultivar �Sauron� was obtained at Fruit Research Station Cluj, Romania (FRS Cluj, and homologated in 2007. �Sauron� was identified in open pollinated population of �Cluj 3/83� selection [�Cluj III-VI-5-26� selection (�Parmain d�Or�, open pollinated x �NJ 46�]. The trees have moderate vigour, upright then spread, with moderate productivity. Fruits are medium to large, usually red, with a portion being greenish or yellow-green and purple red vertically striped. The fruit has good quality, being soft eating apple due to their lack of crispness. Quality indices include firmness, crispness and excellent flavour. Fruits become ripe between 15 August and 5 September and the fruits are good quality, being proper for dessert and industrialization (juice, applesauce, pies, and cider.

  3. Cultivar de soja BRS 66

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertagnolli Paulo Fernando

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available BRS 66, oriunda do cruzamento BR 83-147 x FT-Abyara, é indicada para cultivo no Rio Grande do Sul. Na média de 21 ambientes no RS, no período de 1993/94 a 1995/96, essa cultivar apresentou rendimento médio de grãos de 2.883 kg/ha. Apresenta resistência ao cancro-da-haste, à podridão-parda-da-haste, à mancha-olho-de-rã, à raça 1 de Phytophthora sojae, à pústula-bacteriana e ao oídio. Tem flor branca, pubescência marrom, tegumento da semente amarelo-fosco, hilo marrom e tipo de crescimento determinado. É de ciclo médio e apresenta estatura da planta de média a alta, com boa resistência ao acamamento.

  4. Estimation of aboveground biomass in Mediterranean forests by statistical modelling of ASTER fraction images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Manso, O.; Fernández-Manso, A.; Quintano, C.

    2014-09-01

    Aboveground biomass (AGB) estimation from optical satellite data is usually based on regression models of original or synthetic bands. To overcome the poor relation between AGB and spectral bands due to mixed-pixels when a medium spatial resolution sensor is considered, we propose to base the AGB estimation on fraction images from Linear Spectral Mixture Analysis (LSMA). Our study area is a managed Mediterranean pine woodland (Pinus pinaster Ait.) in central Spain. A total of 1033 circular field plots were used to estimate AGB from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) optical data. We applied Pearson correlation statistics and stepwise multiple regression to identify suitable predictors from the set of variables of original bands, fraction imagery, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and Tasselled Cap components. Four linear models and one nonlinear model were tested. A linear combination of ASTER band 2 (red, 0.630-0.690 μm), band 8 (short wave infrared 5, 2.295-2.365 μm) and green vegetation fraction (from LSMA) was the best AGB predictor (Radj2=0.632, the root-mean-squared error of estimated AGB was 13.3 Mg ha-1 (or 37.7%), resulting from cross-validation), rather than other combinations of the above cited independent variables. Results indicated that using ASTER fraction images in regression models improves the AGB estimation in Mediterranean pine forests. The spatial distribution of the estimated AGB, based on a multiple linear regression model, may be used as baseline information for forest managers in future studies, such as quantifying the regional carbon budget, fuel accumulation or monitoring of management practices.

  5. EXTRACTION OF FOREST STANDS PARAMETERS FROM ASTER DATA IN OPEN FOREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abbasi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Tree crown size (CS and stem number per hectare (SN has become increasingly important for forest management and ecosystem monitoring. Tree crown size is also strongly related to other canopy structural parameters, such as diameter at breast height, tree height and biomass. For both issues, remote sensing data are attractive for their large-area and up-to-date mapping capacities. The QuickBird and ASTER imagery used in this study was acquired over Zagros Forests in southern Zagros region, Fars province of Iran on 1 August 2005 and 1 July 2005, respectively. For the forest site investigated in this study, we concentrated on stands of Quercus Persica which is the dominant species in Zagros region. This study was conducted to investigate the capabilities of ASTER-L1B data to estimate some of forest parameters at individual tree and stand level in dry area. The forest stand parameters are crown area, crown density, average crown area. Obtaining the accuracy of classification the ground truth map was prepared by tree crown delineation using the panchromatic band of QuickBird data. Individual tree crowns were automatically delineated by color segmentation of QuickBird imagery. Simple linear regression procedure was used to show the relationships between spectral variables and the individual trees and forest stand parameters. With decreasing the crown density the effects of background will increase. Our results indicated that crown size could be accurately extracted from panchromatic band of QuickBird images especially for open forest stands. This paper demonstrates that using high-resolution satellite imagery in the open forest offers a unique opportunity for deriving single tree attributes and allowing reliable ground truth map to estimate stand structure. ASTER data and its indices showed good capability to estimate crown area in this study.

  6. Self-organizing feature map neural network classification of the ASTER data based on wavelet fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HASI Bagan; MA Jianwen; LI Qiqing; HAN Xiuzhen; LIU Zhili

    2004-01-01

    Most methods for classification of remote sensing data are based on the statistical parameter evaluation with the assumption that the samples obey the normal distribution. However, more accurate classification results can be obtained with the neural network method through getting knowledge from environments and adjusting the parameter (or weight) step by step by a specific measurement. This paper focuses on the double-layer structured Kohonen self-organizing feature map (SOFM), for which all neurons within the two layers are linked one another and those of the competition layers are linked as well along the sides. Therefore, the self-adapting learning ability is improved due to the effective competition and suppression in this method. The SOFM has become a hot topic in the research area of remote sensing data classification. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER) is a new satellite-borne remote sensing instrument with three 15-m resolution bands and three 30-m resolution bands at the near infrared. The ASTER data of Dagang district, Tianjin Municipality is used as the test data in this study. At first, the wavelet fusion is carried out to make the spatial resolutions of the ASTER data identical; then, the SOFM method is applied to classifying the land cover types. The classification results are compared with those of the maximum likelihood method (MLH). As a consequence, the classification accuracy of SOFM increases about by 7% in general and, in particular, it is almost as twice as that of the MLH method in the town.

  7. Comparative mineral mapping in the Colorado Mineral Belt using AVIRIS and ASTER remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents results of interpretation of spectral remote sensing data covering the eastern Colorado Mineral Belt in central Colorado, USA, acquired by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensors. This study was part of a multidisciplinary mapping and data integration project at the U.S. Geological Survey that focused on long-term resource planning by land-managing entities in Colorado. The map products were designed primarily for the regional mapping and characterization of exposed surface mineralogy, including that related to hydrothermal alteration and supergene weathering of pyritic rocks. Alteration type was modeled from identified minerals based on standard definitions of alteration mineral assemblages. Vegetation was identified using the ASTER data and subdivided based on per-pixel chlorophyll content (depth of 0.68 micrometer absorption band) and dryness (fit and depth of leaf biochemical absorptions in the shortwave infrared spectral region). The vegetation results can be used to estimate the abundance of fire fuels at the time of data acquisition (2002 and 2003). The AVIRIS- and ASTER-derived mineral mapping results can be readily compared using the toggleable layers in the GeoPDF file, and by using the provided GIS-ready raster datasets. The results relating to mineral occurrence and distribution were an important source of data for studies documenting the effects of mining and un-mined, altered rocks on aquatic ecosystems at the watershed level. These studies demonstrated a high correlation between metal concentrations in streams and the presence of hydrothermal alteration and (or) pyritic mine waste as determined by analysis of the map products presented herein. The mineral mapping results were also used to delineate permissive areas for various mineral deposit types.

  8. Technoscientific Diplomacy: The Practice of International Politics in the ASTER Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plafcan, Dan

    Most chapters in this volume focus on the scientific and technical aspects of the design, performance, operations, and applications of the MODIS and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instruments. In contrast, this final chapter focuses on politics - specifically, the politics of technical decision making and scientific judgment. When scientific objectives, engineering design decisions, and familiar forms of scientific and technical authority are uncertain or otherwise unsettled, how do they become certain and settled? What facilitates collective judgment and the exercise of power in efforts to advance and achieve common scientific goals, especially in the international arena?

  9. An application of the Self Organizing Map Algorithm to computer aided classification of ASTER multispectral data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinando Giacco

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we employ the Kohonen’s Self Organizing Map (SOM as a strategy for an unsupervised analysis of ASTER multispectral (MS images. In order to obtain an accurate clusterization we introduce as input for the network, in addition to spectral data, some texture measures extracted from IKONOS images, which gives a contribution to the classification of manmade structures. After clustering of SOM outcomes, we associated each cluster with a major land cover and compared them with prior knowledge of the scene analyzed.

  10. ASTER GDEM validation using LiDAR data over coastal regions of Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidegaard, Sine Munk; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Forsberg, René

    2011-01-01

    Elevation data from airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) campaigns are used in an attempt to evaluate the accuracy of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) global digital elevation model (GDEM) in Greenland. The LiDAR elevation data set is characterized...... by a high spatial resolution of about 1 m and elevation accuracy of 20–30 cm root mean square error (RMSE). The LiDAR data sets used were acquired during ice-monitoring campaigns carried out from 2003 to 2008. The study areas include ice-free regions, local ice caps and the ice sheet margin. A linear error...

  11. A Project to Map and Monitor Baldcypress Forests in Coastal Louisiana, Using Landsat, MODIS, and ASTER Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph; Sader, Steven; Smoot, James

    2012-01-01

    Cypress swamp forests of Louisiana offer many important ecological and economic benefits: wildlife habitat, forest products, storm buffers, water quality, and recreation. Such forests are also threatened by multiple factors: subsidence, salt water intrusion, sea level rise, persistent flooding, hydrologic modification, hurricanes, insect and nutria damage, timber harvesting, and land use conversion. Unfortunately, there are many information gaps regarding the type, location, extent, and condition of these forests. Better more up to date swamp forest mapping products are needed to aid coastal forest conservation and restoration work (e.g., through the Coastal Forest Conservation Initiative or CFCI). In response, a collaborative project was initiated to develop, test and demonstrate cypress swamp forest mapping products, using NASA supported Landsat, ASTER, and MODIS satellite data. Research Objectives are: Develop, test, and demonstrate use of Landsat and ASTER data for computing new cypress forest classification products and Landsat, ASTER, and MODIS satellite data for detecting and monitoring swamp forest change

  12. Regional Lithological Mapping Using ASTER-TIR Data: Case Study for the Tibetan Plateau and the Surrounding Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiki Ninomiya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The mineralogical indices the Quartz Index (QI, Carbonate Index (CI and Mafic Index (MI for ASTER multispectral thermal infrared (TIR data were applied to various geological materials for regional lithological mapping on the Tibetan Plateau. Many lithological and structural features are not currently well understood in the central Tibetan Plateau, including the distribution of mafic-ultramafic rocks related to the suture zones, the quartzose and carbonate sedimentary rocks accreted to the Eurasian continent, and sulfate layers related to the Tethys and neo-Tethys geological setting. These rock types can now be mapped with the interpretation of the processed ASTER TIR images described in this paper. A methodology is described for the processing of ASTER TIR data applied to a very wide region of the Tibetan Plateau. The geometrical and radiometric performance of the processed images is discussed, and the advantages of using ortho-rectified data are shown. The challenges of using ASTER data with a small footprint in addition to selecting an appropriate subset of scenes are also examined. ASTER scenes possess a narrow swath width when compared to LANDSAT data (60 km vs. 185 km, respectively. Furthermore, the ASTER data archive is vast, consisting of approximately three million images. These details can present an added level of complexity during an image processing workflow. Finally, geological interpretations made on the maps of the indices are compared with prior geological field studies. The results from the investigations suggest that the indices perform well in the classification of quartzose rocks based on the carbonate and mafic mineral content, in addition to the granitic rocks based on the feldspar content.

  13. ASTER L1B satellite data applied to geothermal in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. González-Acosta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The 83 ASTER L1B thermal channels of Cuban territorial scenes, from 2000 to 2008 years, selected and processed with geothermal aims showed almost 50% of cloudy coverage. The vortex coordinated as well as other data from such metadata facilitated completing the designed database. From a preliminary mosaic with the images existent these were subsequently processed in order to obtain temperature images. Such images were then integrated into another mosaic with a suitable reclassification resulting in 11 classes with 3°C each. This allowed delimitating those anomalous zones where the greater distribution of pixels oscillated from 25°C to 37°C, and the cloudy coverage temperature aroused up to 20°C approximately. In the resulting temperature map, 69 polygons were a priori delimitated and categorized, as for their perspective and the temperature value above 40°C. These polygons were later overlapped to Google Earth images with the aim to identify those from anthropogenic origins. Finally it was obtained an estimation of the temperature value of the surface coverage of the national territory as well as the understanding of that the eastern zone is the most perspective. This is an experimental application, using satellite images ASTER L1B with geothermic purpose.

  14. Hydrothermal alteration mapping using ASTER data in Baogutu porphyry deposit, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Zhang, B.; Lu, L.; Lin, Q.

    2014-03-01

    Remote sensing plays an important role in mineral exploration. One of its proven applications is extracting host-rock lithology and alteration zones that are related to porphyry copper deposits. An Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) was used to map the Baogutu porphyry deposit alteration area. A circular alteration mineral zoning pattern was clearly observed in the classification result of potassic, phyllic, argillic, propylitic zones. The potassic is characterized by biotite and anhydrite with an absorption feature centered at 1.94 and 2.1um. The phyllic zone is characterized by illite and sericite that indicates an intense Al-OH absorption feature centered at 2.20um. The narrower argillic zone including kaolinite and alunite displays a secondary Al-OH absorption feature at 2.17 um. The mineral assemblages of the outer propylitic zone are epidote, chlorite and calcite that exhibit absorption features at 2.335um.The performance of Principal Component Analysis(PCA), Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF), band ratio(BR) and Constrained Energy Minimization(CEM) has been evaluated. These techniques identified new prospects of porphyry copper mineralization in the study areas. These results indicate that ASTER is a powerful tool in the initial steps of mineral exploration.

  15. AUTOMATED CONSTRUCTION OF COVERAGE CATALOGUES OF ASTER SATELLITE IMAGE FOR URBAN AREAS OF THE WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Miyazaki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We developed an algorithm to determine a combination of satellite images according to observation extent and image quality. The algorithm was for testing necessity for completing coverage of the search extent. The tests excluded unnecessary images with low quality and preserve necessary images with good quality. The search conditions of the satellite images could be extended, indicating the catalogue could be constructed with specified periods required for time series analysis. We applied the method to a database of metadata of ASTER satellite images archived in GEO Grid of National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST, Japan. As indexes of populated places with geographical coordinates, we used a database of 3372 populated place of more than 0.1 million populations retrieved from GRUMP Settlement Points, a global gazetteer of cities, which has geographical names of populated places associated with geographical coordinates and population data. From the coordinates of populated places, 3372 extents were generated with radiuses of 30 km, a half of swath of ASTER satellite images. By merging extents overlapping each other, they were assembled into 2214 extents. As a result, we acquired combinations of good quality for 1244 extents, those of low quality for 96 extents, incomplete combinations for 611 extents. Further improvements would be expected by introducing pixel-based cloud assessment and pixel value correction over seasonal variations.

  16. Inter-Band Radiometric Comparison and Calibration of ASTER Visible and Near-Infrared Bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Obata

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates inter-band radiometric consistency across the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER visible and near-infrared (VNIR bands and develops an inter-band calibration algorithm to improve radiometric consistency. Inter-band radiometric comparison of current ASTER data shows a root mean square error (RMSE of 3.8%–5.7% among radiance outputs of spectral bands due primarily to differences between calibration strategies of the NIR band for nadir-looking (Band 3N and the other two bands (green and red bands, corresponding to Bands 1 and 2. An algorithm for radiometric calibration of Bands 2 and 3N with reference to Band 1 is developed based on the band translation technique and is used to obtain new radiometric calibration coefficients (RCCs for sensor sensitivity degradation. The systematic errors between radiance outputs are decreased by applying the derived RCCs, which result in reducing the RMSE from 3.8%–5.7% to 2.2%–2.9%. The remaining errors are approximately equal to or smaller than the intrinsic uncertainties of inter-band calibration derived by sensitivity analysis. Improvement of the radiometric consistency would increase the accuracy of band algebra (e.g., vegetation indices and its application. The algorithm can be used to evaluate inter-band radiometric consistency, as well as for the calibration of other sensors.

  17. A Forest Fire Risk Assessment Using ASTER Images in Peninsular Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Guang-xiong; LI Jing; CHEN Yun-hao; NORIZAN Abdul-patah

    2007-01-01

    Based on the physical concept of heat energy of pre-ignition, a new fire susceptibility index (FSI) is used to estimate forest fire risk. This physical basis allows calculation of ignition probabilities and comparisons of fire risk across eco-regions. The computation of the index requires inputs of fuel temperature and fuel moisture content (FMC), both of which can be estimated using remote sensing data. While ASTER data for land surface temperatures (LST) was used as proxys for fuel temperatures, fuel moisture content is estimated by regression technique utilizing the ratio NDVI/LST of ASTER data. FSIs are computed in peninsular Malaysia for nine days before the fires of 2004 and 2005 and validated with fire occurrence data. Results show that the FSI increases as the day approaches the fire day. This trend can be observed clearly about four days before the day of fire. It suggests that FSI can be a good estimator of fire risk. The physical basis provides a more meaningful FSI, allows calculation of ignition probabilities and facilitates the development of a future class of fire risk models. FSI can be used to compare fire risk across different eco-regions and time periods. FSI retains the flexibility to be localized to a vegetation type or eco-regions for improved performance.

  18. Morphometric analysis of sub-watershed in parts of Western Ghats, South India using ASTER DEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelin Ramani Sujatha

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Morphometric analysis is a key to understand the hydrological process and hence is a prerequisite for the assessment of hydrological characteristics of surface water basin. Morphometric analysis to determine the drainage characteristics of Palar sub-watershed, a part of Shanmukha watershed in the Amaravati sub-catchment is done using Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Global Digital Elevation Model (ASTER GDEM data, and is supplemented with topographical maps in geographical information systems platform. This study uses ASTER GDEM data to extract morphometric features of a mountain stream at micro-watershed level. The sub-watershed is divided into six micro-watersheds. The sub-watershed includes a sixth-order stream. Lower stream orders, in particular first-order streams, dominate the sub-watershed. Development of stream segments is controlled by slope and local relief. Drainage pattern of the sub-watershed and micro-watersheds is dendritic in general. The mean bifurcation ratio of the sub-watershed is 3.69 but its variation between the various stream orders suggests structural control in the development of stream network. The shape factors reveal the elongation of the sub-watershed and micro-watersheds.The relief ratio reveals the high discharge capability of the sub-watershed and meagre groundwater potential. This study is a useful tool for planning strategies in control of soil erosion and soil conservation.

  19. Surface energy balance and resolution effects using ASTER imagery over Jornada, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, A.; Schmugge, T.; Kustas, W.; Prueger, J.; Jacob, F.

    2003-04-01

    Knowledge of the relationship between the accuracy of surface energy balance estimates and remote sensing resolution is important for the integration of instantaneous satellite observations with regional and global scale hydrological models. Higher resolution thermal infrared imagery, such as from the ASTER sensor (90 m), provide the needed observations to distinguish between hydrological end-member conditions and are expected to be more accurate than imagery with resolutions >1 km. But higher resolution observations are instantaneous and usually not repeatable at time intervals less than 2 to 4 weeks. On the other hand, lower resolution imagery from sensors such as GOES, in combination with hydrological assimilation models, can estimate the diurnal variations in surface energy balance. To assess the relative merits of resolution vs. imaging frequency, we have collected a series of ASTER observations, between May and October 2002 over the Jornada Experimental Range in New Mexico, and modeled the surface energy balance. Estimates of the energy components are made from the original resolution (90 m) up to an aggregated resolution of 4 km. These estimates are compared with ground based flux observations, and then compared with each other. Loss in range of data and expected biases due to resolution effects will be discussed.

  20. Estimating Evapotranspiration from an Improved Two-Source Energy Balance Model Using ASTER Satellite Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qifeng Zhuang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Reliably estimating the turbulent fluxes of latent and sensible heat at the Earth’s surface by remote sensing is important for research on the terrestrial hydrological cycle. This paper presents a practical approach for mapping surface energy fluxes using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER images from an improved two-source energy balance (TSEB model. The original TSEB approach may overestimate latent heat flux under vegetative stress conditions, as has also been reported in recent research. We replaced the Priestley-Taylor equation used in the original TSEB model with one that uses plant moisture and temperature constraints based on the PT-JPL model to obtain a more accurate canopy latent heat flux for model solving. The collected ASTER data and field observations employed in this study are over corn fields in arid regions of the Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER area, China. The results were validated by measurements from eddy covariance (EC systems, and the surface energy flux estimates of the improved TSEB model are similar to the ground truth. A comparison of the results from the original and improved TSEB models indicates that the improved method more accurately estimates the sensible and latent heat fluxes, generating more precise daily evapotranspiration (ET estimate under vegetative stress conditions.

  1. ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model Version 2 - summary of validation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachikawa, Tetushi; Kaku, Manabu; Iwasaki, Akira; Gesch, Dean B.; Oimoen, Michael J.; Zhang, Z.; Danielson, Jeffrey J.; Krieger, Tabatha; Curtis, Bill; Haase, Jeff; Abrams, Michael; Carabajal, C.; Meyer, Dave

    2011-01-01

    On June 29, 2009, NASA and the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) of Japan released a Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) to users worldwide at no charge as a contribution to the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS). This “version 1” ASTER GDEM (GDEM1) was compiled from over 1.2 million scenebased DEMs covering land surfaces between 83°N and 83°S latitudes. A joint U.S.-Japan validation team assessed the accuracy of the GDEM1, augmented by a team of 20 cooperators. The GDEM1 was found to have an overall accuracy of around 20 meters at the 95% confidence level. The team also noted several artifacts associated with poor stereo coverage at high latitudes, cloud contamination, water masking issues and the stacking process used to produce the GDEM1 from individual scene-based DEMs (ASTER GDEM Validation Team, 2009). Two independent horizontal resolution studies estimated the effective spatial resolution of the GDEM1 to be on the order of 120 meters.

  2. Flower colours and pigments in tulip cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, van J.P.; Keulen, van H.A.; Dijk, van A.J.

    1987-01-01

    Aanvullend op eerder onderzoek, waarbij bijna 500 oude en nieuwe tulpencultivars op bloempigmenten werden geanalyseerd, worden in tabelvorm van diezelfde cultivars nu de bloemkleur en de relatieve hoeveelheden carotenoiden, delfinidine, cyanidine, pelargonidine en flavonolen aangegeven

  3. Phenotypic profiles of Armenian grape cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroutiounian Rouben

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The conservation and sustainable use of grapevine biodiversity in Armenia is particularly important due to the large number of traditional local varieties. Being partially different from European grapevine gene pool, the material of Armenian local cultivars significantly contributes to the understanding of the genetic variation and is valuable source for target selection. During last years many Armenian grapevine cultivars have been already described and their genotypes determined, but some local varieties and wild accessions remain unidentified and their phenotypic characteristics overlooked. The comprehensive analysis of phenotypes is essential for research, including genetic association studies, cultivar evaluation and selection. The goal of our research was the phenotyping on the base of reproductive, carpological and analytical characteristics of 80 Armenian aboriginal and new grape cultivars. Description of phenotypic profiles is important step towards identification and conservation of genetic resources of Armenian grapes. In future, these data can be applied for breeding of improved grape varieties targeted to fresh consumption and wine production.

  4. Parental Selection in Rice Cultivar Improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stanley Omar P B.SAMONTE; Rodante E.TABIEN; Lloyd T.WILSON

    2013-01-01

    The evaluation of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars assists breeders in identifying useful trait relationships and in selecting parents as donors of specific traits.This study was conducted to compare long-grain rice cultivars using genotype x trait (GT) biplot analysis and determine potential donors of traits related to grain yield and quality.Seventeen cultivars in the 2005 and 2006 Uniform Regional Rice Nursery in Beaumont,Texas,USA were analyzed for 20 traits using GT biplot analysis.The GT biplots showed the diversity among cultivars with regards to yield-related traits.Cultivars recommended as donor parents were:Trenasse,Spring,Presidio,and Cocodrie for high grain yield and head rice rate;Trenasse and Presidio for semi-dwarfness; Banks for tall plant height; Wells for high flag leaf area,panicle weight,and number and mass of filled grains per panicle; Hidalgo for high tiller density; Francis for high number of spikelets per panicle; Spring and Trenasse for short flowering duration; Cheniere for more days to heading and maturity and Spring for less days; and Spring and Hidalgo for high grain weight.Breeders can use these cultivars with specific traits to increase grain yield and quality.

  5. High-quality seamless DEM generation blending SRTM-1, ASTER GDEM v2 and ICESat/GLAS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Linwei; Shen, Huanfeng; Zhang, Liangpei; Zheng, Xianwei; Zhang, Fan; Yuan, Qiangqiang

    2017-01-01

    The absence of a high-quality seamless global digital elevation model (DEM) dataset has been a challenge for the Earth-related research fields. Recently, the 1-arc-second Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM-1) data have been released globally, covering over 80% of the Earth's land surface (60°N-56°S). However, voids and anomalies still exist in some tiles, which has prevented the SRTM-1 dataset from being directly used without further processing. In this paper, we propose a method to generate a seamless DEM dataset blending SRTM-1, ASTER GDEM v2, and ICESat laser altimetry data. The ASTER GDEM v2 data are used as the elevation source for the SRTM void filling. To get a reliable filling source, ICESat GLAS points are incorporated to enhance the accuracy of the ASTER data within the void regions, using an artificial neural network (ANN) model. After correction, the voids in the SRTM-1 data are filled with the corrected ASTER GDEM values. The triangular irregular network based delta surface fill (DSF) method is then employed to eliminate the vertical bias between them. Finally, an adaptive outlier filter is applied to all the data tiles. The final result is a seamless global DEM dataset. ICESat points collected from 2003 to 2009 were used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, and to assess the vertical accuracy of the global DEM products in China. Furthermore, channel networks in the Yangtze River Basin were also extracted for the data assessment.

  6. Tsunami Inundation, North of Phuket, Thailand ASTER Images and SRTM Elevation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 The Indian Ocean coastline north of Phuket, Thailand is a major tourist destination that was in the path of the tsunami produced by a giant offshore earthquake on December 26, 2004. This disaster resulted in a heavy loss of life. These simulated natural color ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) images show a 27 kilometer (17-mile) long stretch of coast 80 kilometers (50 miles) north of the Phuket airport in the Khao Lak area on December 31 (middle) and also two years earlier (left). The changes along the coast are obvious (changing from green to grey) where the vegetation was stripped away by the tsunami. The image on the right is a copy of the later ASTER scene but it includes highlighting in red for areas that have elevations within 10 meters (33 feet) of sea level. This elevation information was supplied by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The red areas appear to include most of the tsunami inundated areas. The geographic correspondence of the imaged damage and the highlighted elevation range is quite good in the middle and upper parts of the scene and is consistent with an early field report of about 10 meters of inundation. In the south, the elevation range corresponds to a much wider area than the actual damage, but this is to be expected for areas increasingly far from the coast. Offshore bathymetry (depth variations), coastal landforms, distance from the coast, and additional factors other than elevation range control the damage extent. But elevation measurements along the coast, as provided by SRTM, give a general indication of areas at risk, as now confirmed by ASTER. ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet with its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet). These data provide scientists in numerous disciplines

  7. Asterism: an integrated, complete, and open-source approach for running seismologist continuous data-intensive analysis on heterogeneous systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira da Silva, R.; Filgueira, R.; Deelman, E.; Atkinson, M.

    2016-12-01

    We present Asterism, an open source data-intensive framework, which combines the Pegasus and dispel4py workflow systems. Asterism aims to simplify the effort required to develop data-intensive applications that run across multiple heterogeneous resources, without users having to: re-formulate their methods according to different enactment systems; manage the data distribution across systems; parallelize their methods; co-place and schedule their methods with computing resources; and store and transfer large/small volumes of data. Asterism's key element is to leverage the strengths of each workflow system: dispel4py allows developing scientific applications locally and then automatically parallelize and scale them on a wide range of HPC infrastructures with no changes to the application's code; Pegasus orchestrates the distributed execution of applications while providing portability, automated data management, recovery, debugging, and monitoring, without users needing to worry about the particulars of the target execution systems. Asterism leverages the level of abstractions provided by each workflow system to describe hybrid workflows where no information about the underlying infrastructure is required beforehand. The feasibility of Asterism has been evaluated using the seismic ambient noise cross-correlation application, a common data-intensive analysis pattern used by many seismologists. The application preprocesses (Phase1) and cross-correlates (Phase2) traces from several seismic stations. The Asterism workflow is implemented as a Pegasus workflow composed of two tasks (Phase1 and Phase2), where each phase represents a dispel4py workflow. Pegasus tasks describe the in/output data at a logical level, the data dependency between tasks, and the e-Infrastructures and the execution engine to run each dispel4py workflow. We have instantiated the workflow using data from 1000 stations from the IRIS services, and run it across two heterogeneous resources described as

  8. CULTIVAR RELEASE-IPR 98: Rust-resistant dwarf arabica coffee cultivar for dense spacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumoru Sera

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The IPR 98 coffee cultivar is a dwarf plant smaller than the Catuaí Vermelho IAC-81 cultivar, completelyresistant to Hemileia vastatrix Berk. et Br. with medium precocity in ripening and superior quality and high yields with semidense,dense and super dense spacing in lower temperature coffee regions of the state of Paraná.

  9. Cultivar identification and genetic relationship of pineapple (Ananas comosus) cultivars using SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y S; Kuan, C S; Weng, I S; Tsai, C C

    2015-11-25

    The genetic relationships among 27 pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] cultivars and lines were examined using 16 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The number of alleles per locus of the SSR markers ranged from 2 to 6 (average 3.19), for a total of 51 alleles. Similarity coefficients were calculated on the basis of 51 amplified bands. A dendrogram was created according to the 16 SSR markers by the unweighted pair-group method. The banding patterns obtained from the SSR primers allowed most of the cultivars and lines to be distinguished, with the exception of vegetative clones. According to the dendrogram, the 27 pineapple cultivars and lines were clustered into three main clusters and four individual clusters. As expected, the dendrogram showed that derived cultivars and lines are closely related to their parental cultivars; the genetic relationships between pineapple cultivars agree with the genealogy of their breeding history. In addition, the analysis showed that there is no obvious correlation between SSR markers and morphological characters. In conclusion, SSR analysis is an efficient method for pineapple cultivar identification and can offer valuable informative characters to identify pineapple cultivars in Taiwan.

  10. Paleohydrologic Analysis of Debris-Flow Inundation at Mount Rainier, Washington Using ASTER and SRTM Derived Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, B. E.; Crowley, J. K.; Mars, J.

    2002-05-01

    Methods used in extracting digital topography from remote sensing data include photogrammetry, interferometry, altimetry, and photoclinometry. Two recent spaceborne missions: ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) and SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) use some of these methods for generating global DEM coverages at horizontal resolutions less than 100 m per pixel. This study evaluates the utility of such data for estimating inundation levels of past debris-flows based on the geomorphometric characteristics of terraces preserved along river valleys draining Mount Rainier. Deposits representing debris-flow volumes spanning several orders of magnitude are used as case examples. ASTER DEMs are derived photogrammetrically by measuring the parallax between a stereo pair of images acquired simultaneously by nadir- and aft-viewing instruments. The two channels used (3N and 3B) have a near-infrared bandwidth of 0.76-0.86 microns and a base/height ratio of 0.6 for the stereo pair. SRTM DEMs are generated interferometrically from C- (5.6 cm wavelength) and X-band (3 cm wavelength) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) by measuring the phase differences between SAR images acquired by two antennas spaced 60 m apart. Terrace deposits of the Osceola mudflow, Electron mudflow, National lahar, and Tahoma lahar were all resolved to varying degrees in cross-sectional profiles extracted from the ASTER and SRTM DEMs. Profiles from these two datasets were compared to profiles extracted from a level 2 USGS DEM. The latter dataset was derived by interpolation of USGS digital contour plots, which have been stereoscopically corrected for errors in elevation caused by canopy height variations. Both ASTER and SRTM DEMs were spatially registered to the USGS DEM, which has a spatial resolution of 30 m and vertical accuracy within +15 m. The vertical accuracies of ASTER and STRM DEMs vary within +30 m and +16 m, respectively. The extent of canopy cover throughout

  11. ASTER image based assessment of glacier mass balance of Nanga Parbat massif, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargel, Jeffrey; Leonard, Gregory; Haritashya, Umesh

    2014-05-01

    Starting with the analytical approach given in detail by Nuth and Kääb (2011; henceforth NK2011), we have further developed an approach toward analysis of repeat stereo ASTER-derived DEMs to extract specific and net annual mass balance of glaciers of Nanga Parbat, Pakistan. We used the approach of NK2011 to coregister DEMs obtained from ASTER stereo images acquired in September 2004 and October 2010, and the glacier outlines produced by Haritashya et al. (2014 in prep) as a mask to isolate glacier from stable (nonglacier) areas. We then devised a protocol to remove DEM data deemed to be the pits, cones, and bulges that are common artifacts with ASTER DEM data. We developed an approach similar to that given by NK2011 to make corrections for cross- and along-track errors of elevation differences and to zero out the mean elevation difference bias for stable (non-glacier points). The largest sources of correctable error were cross-track and along-track slope-dependent artifacts, which we corrected using an approach modified from that of NK2011. Several small systematic errors, such as that related to elevation, became even smaller when cross- and along-track errors were corrected. We then proceeded to analyze the statistics for the cumulative ice area and for individual glaciers. Also using the DEM-change spread function for stable areas, we deconvolved the random error from the actual change signal present in the glacier areas. Ten glaciers of Nanga Parbat thinned by an average of 6 m, i.e., 1 m/year over the 6-year period. Ice in the highest elevations remained fairly stable or even thickened by a few meters, whereas that in lower elevations thinned. Bazhin Glacier apparently was undergoing a surge-like phenomenon of rapid mass transfer from higher elevations (where thinning occurred) to lower elevations (where it thickened), though the terminus advanced by only ~182 m (Haritashya et al. 2014). Hence, our results indicate fluctuations of glaciers in Nanga Parbat

  12. Estimating surface fluxes over middle and upper streams of the Heihe River Basin with ASTER imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Ma

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Land surface heat fluxes are essential measures of the strengths of land-atmosphere interactions involving energy, heat and water. Correct parameterization of these fluxes in climate models is critical. Despite their importance, state-of-the-art observation techniques cannot provide representative areal averages of these fluxes comparable to the model grid. Alternative methods of estimation are thus required. These alternative approaches use (satellite observables of the land surface conditions. In this study, the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS algorithm was evaluated in a cold and arid environment, using land surface parameters derived from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER data. Field observations and estimates from SEBS were compared in terms of net radiation flux (Rn, soil heat flux (G0, sensible heat flux (H and latent heat flux (λE over a heterogeneous land surface. As a case study, this methodology was applied to the experimental area of the Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (WATER project, located on the mid-to-upstream sections of the Heihe River in northwest China. ASTER data acquired between 3 May and 4 June 2008, under clear-sky conditions were used to determine the surface fluxes. Ground-based measurements of land surface heat fluxes were compared with values derived from the ASTER data. The results show that the derived surface variables and the land surface heat fluxes furnished by SEBS in different months over the study area are in good agreement with the observed land surface status under the limited cases (some cases looks poor results. So SEBS can be used to estimate turbulent heat fluxes with acceptable accuracy in areas where there is partial vegetation cover in exceptive conditions. It is very important to perform calculations using ground-based observational data for parameterization in SEBS in the future

  13. Assessment of Landscape Fragmentation Associated With Urban Centers Using ASTER Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, W. L.

    2002-12-01

    The role of humans as an integral part of the environment and ecosystem processes has only recently been accepted into mainstream ecological thought. The realization that virtually all ecosystems on Earth have experienced some degree of human alteration or impact has highlighted the need to incorporate humans (and their environmental effects) into ecosystem models. A logical starting point for investigation of human ecosystem dynamics is examination of the land cover characteristics of large urban centers. Land cover and land use changes associated with urbanization are important drivers of local geological, hydrological, ecological, and climatic change. Quantification and monitoring of urban land cover/land use change is part of the primary mission of the ASTER instrument on board the NASA Terra satellite, and comprises the fundamental research objective of the Urban Environmental Monitoring (UEM) Program at Arizona State University. The UEM program seeks to acquire day/night, visible through thermal infrared data twice per year for 100 global urban centers (with an emphasis on semi-arid cities) over the nominal six-year life of the Terra mission. Data have been acquired for the majority of the target urban centers and are used to compare landscape fragmentation patterns on the basis of land cover classifications. Land cover classifications of urban centers are obtained using visible through mid-infrared reflectance and emittance spectra together with calculated vegetation index and spatial variance texture information (all derived from raw ASTER data). This information is combined within a classification matrix, using an expert system framework, to obtain final pixel classifications. Landscape fragmentation is calculated using a pixel per unit area metric for comparison between 55 urban centers with varying geographic and climatic settings including North America, South America, Europe, central and eastern Asia, and Australia. Temporal variations in land cover

  14. Decadal region-wide and glacier-wide mass balances derived from multi-temporal ASTER satellite digital elevation models. Validation over the Mont-Blanc area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthier, Etienne; Cabot, Vincent; Vincent, Christian; Six, Delphine

    2016-06-01

    Since 2000, a vast archive of stereo-images has been built by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER) satellite. Several studies already extracted glacier mass balances from multi-temporal ASTER digital elevation models (DEMs) but they lacked accurate independent data for validation. Here, we apply a linear regression to a time series of 3D-coregistered ASTER DEMs to estimate the rate of surface elevation changes (dh/dtASTER) and geodetic mass balances of Mont-Blanc glaciers (155 km²) between 2000 and 2014. Validation using field and spaceborne geodetic measurements reveals large errors at the individual pixel level (> 1 m a-1) and an accuracy of 0.2-0.3 m a-1 for dh/dtASTER averaged over areas larger than 1 km². For all Mont-Blanc glaciers, the ASTER region-wide mass balance (-1.05±0.37 m water equivalent (w.e.) a-1) agrees remarkably with the one measured using Spot5 and Pléiades DEMs (-1.06±0.23 m w.e. a-1) over their common 2003-2012 period. This multi-temporal ASTER DEM strategy leads to smaller errors than the simple differencing of two ASTER DEMs. By extrapolating dh/dtASTER to mid-February 2000, we infer a mean penetration depth of about 9±3 m for the C-band Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) radar signal, with a strong altitudinal dependency (range 0-12 m). This methodology thus reveals the regional pattern of glacier surface elevation changes and improves our knowledge of the penetration of the radar signal into snow and ice.

  15. Decadal region-wide and glacier-wide mass balances derived from multi-temporal ASTER satellite digital elevation models. Validation over the Mont-Blanc area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne eBerthier

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 2000, a vast archive of stereo-images has been built by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER satellite. Several studies already extracted glacier mass balances from multi-temporal ASTER digital elevation models (DEMs but they lacked accurate independent data for validation. Here, we apply a linear regression to a time series of 3D-coregistered ASTER DEMs to estimate the rate of surface elevation changes (dh/dtASTER and geodetic mass balances of Mont-Blanc glaciers (155 km² between 2000 and 2014. Validation using field and spaceborne geodetic measurements reveals large errors at the individual pixel level (> 1 m a-1 and an accuracy of 0.2-0.3 m a-1 for dh/dtASTER averaged over areas larger than 1 km². For all Mont-Blanc glaciers, the ASTER region-wide mass balance (-1.05±0.37 m water equivalent (w.e. a-1 agrees remarkably with the one measured using Spot5 and Pléiades DEMs (-1.06±0.23 m w.e. a-1 over their common 2003-2012 period. This multi-temporal ASTER DEM strategy leads to smaller errors than the simple differencing of two ASTER DEMs. By extrapolating dh/dtASTER to mid-February 2000, we infer a mean penetration depth of about 9±3 m for the C-band Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM radar signal, with a strong altitudinal dependency (range 0-12 m. This methodology thus reveals the regional pattern of glacier surface elevation changes and improves our knowledge of the penetration of the radar signal into snow and ice.

  16. Resistance of some commercial winter wheat cultivars to Tilletia tritici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staletić Mirjana D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the resistance of twenty commercial winter wheat cultivars to common bunt causal agent (Tilletia tritici. Significant differences among the cultivars concerning the infection percent were observed, as well as the differences in the level of commercial cultivars' resistance to T. tritici. Most of the studied cultivars belonged to susceptible categories, and just few of them to the resistant ones. Cultivar Lasta was classified as highly resistant during the both investigation years in Kragujevac, while in Leposavić Lasta and Tiha were classified as resistant. The other studied cultivars were more or less susceptible.

  17. Aster albescens Rust Caused by Aecidium asterum and Its Hyperparasitic Fungus Tuberculina persicina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yun; YE Hua-zhi; CHEN Guang-yan; LIU Zi-ying; DONG Bao-chen

    2005-01-01

    Aster albescens is a medicinal plant. The rust caused by Aecidium asterum is a new record in China and an important disease of A. albescens in Feng Tong-zhai national reservation area. The percentages of diseased plant and the diseased leaf reach 100 and 28% respectively when the disease is serious. The disease results in leaf spot and leaf cast. Tuberculina persicina is a natural hyperparasite of A. asterum and is firstly reported in the world. The hyperparasite attacks aecium of A. asterum and hinderes the release of aeciospores. The symptom of the rust and the morphological characteristics of A.asterum is reported. The hyperparasitism of A. asterum and the morphological characteristics of the Tuberculina persicina are also reported.

  18. ASTERICS : Addressing Cross-Cutting Synergies and Common Challenges for the Next Decade Astronomy Facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Pasian, Fabio; Genova, Francoise; Lamanna, Giovanni; Serjeant, Stephen; Szomoru, Arpad; van der Meer, Rob

    2016-01-01

    The large infrastructure projects for the next decade will allow a new quantum leap in terms of new possible science. ESFRI, the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures, a strategic initiative to develop the scientific integration of Europe, has identified four facilities (SKA, CTA, KM3Net and E-ELT) deserving priority in support. The ASTERICS project aims to address the cross-cutting synergies and common challenges shared by the various Astronomy ESFRI and other world-class facilities. The project (22 partners across Europe) is funded by the EU Horizon 2020 programme with 15 MEuro in 4 years. It brings together for the first time the astronomy, astrophysics and particle astrophysics communities, in addition to other related research infrastructures.

  19. [Cross-comparison between ASTER and Landsat-7 ETM+ multispectral imagery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-hua; Xu, Han-qiu; Chen, Li-cong

    2010-09-01

    Up to present, no study has been published with respect to the cross-comparison between ASTER and Landsat-7 ETM+ imagery. Therefore, the present paper has implemented the complementary study on the images between these two sensors. The study firstly conducted the sensors characteristics comparison, including orbit characteristic, sensor scanning mode and imagery spectral characteristic. Further comparison was implemented to get the relation equations between corresponding VNIR and SWIR bands of these two sensors based on the apparent reflectance of the three pairs of synchronization images and large common ground regions. The validation has been done to verify the effectiveness of the proposed corresponding bands relation equations and matching coefficients. The result shows that the provided relation equations have high accuracy.

  20. New varieties of annual aster (Callistephus chinensis (L. Nees by Ukrainian breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Л. О. Шевель

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the state of breeding and variety studying for Callistephus chinensis in Ukraine and, in particular, in the Horticulture Institute of NAA, and offers the summary of studying the growth and development aspects for Callistephus, various varieties productivity level, their response to specific set of weather and climatic conditions. The research objectives and methods for their achieving are disclosed, as well the requirements a variety shall comply with, namely: reaching homozygote state, distinctness and ornamentality, fusariose and weather conditions resistance. 11 descriptions for new varieties of annual aster (Anastasia, Angelina, Litnia Nich, Lybid, Oksamyt, Samanta, Sofia, Snizhana, Flamingo , Shokoladka, Tsarivna as bred by the Horticulture Institute of NAAS were provided, namely by identification and economic and biologic characteristics, these varieties are listed in the State Register of Plant Varieties Suitable for Dissemination in Ukraine.

  1. VALIDATION OF THE ASTER GLOBAL DIGITAL ELEVATION MODEL VERSION 2 OVER THE CONTERMINOUS UNITED STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gesch

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model Version 2 (GDEM v2 was evaluated over the conterminous United States in a manner similar to the validation conducted for the original GDEM Version 1 (v1 in 2009. The absolute vertical accuracy of GDEM v2 was calculated by comparison with more than 18,000 independent reference geodetic ground control points from the National Geodetic Survey. The root mean square error (RMSE measured for GDEM v2 is 8.68 meters. This compares with the RMSE of 9.34 meters for GDEM v1. Another important descriptor of vertical accuracy is the mean error, or bias, which indicates if a DEM has an overall vertical offset from true ground level. The GDEM v2 mean error of –0.20 meters is a significant improvement over the GDEM v1 mean error of –3.69 meters. The absolute vertical accuracy assessment results, both mean error and RMSE, were segmented by land cover to examine the effects of cover types on measured errors. The GDEM v2 mean errors by land cover class verify that the presence of aboveground features (tree canopies and built structures cause a positive elevation bias, as would be expected for an imaging system like ASTER. In open ground classes (little or no vegetation with significant aboveground height, GDEM v2 exhibits a negative bias on the order of 1 meter. GDEM v2 was also evaluated by differencing with the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM dataset. In many forested areas, GDEM v2 has elevations that are higher in the canopy than SRTM.

  2. Detecting Montane Meadows in the Tahoe National Forest Using LiDAR and ASTER Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, A.; Blesius, L.; Davis, J. D.

    2016-12-01

    In the Sierra Nevada mountains, meadows provide numerous hydraulic and ecosystem functions such as flood attenuation, groundwater storage, and wildlife habitat. However, many meadows have been degraded from historical land use such as water diversion, grazing, and logging. Land managers have altered management strategies for restoration purposes, but there is a lack of comprehensive data on meadow locations. Previous attempts to inventory Sierra Nevada meadows have included several remote sensing techniques including heads up digitizing and pixel based image analysis, but this has been challenging due to geographic variability, seasonal changes, and meadow health. I present a remote sensing method using multiple return LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) and ASTER imagery to detect montane meadows in a subset of the Tahoe National Forest. The project used LiDAR data to create a digital terrain model and digital surface model. From these models, I derived canopy height, surface slope, and watercourse for the entire study area. Literature queries returned known values for canopy height and surface slope characteristic of montane meadows. These values were used to select for possible meadows within the study area. To filter out noise, only contiguous areas greater than one acre that satisfied the queries were used. Finally, 15-meter ASTER imagery was used to de-select for areas such as dirt patches or gravel bars that might have satisfied the previous queries and meadow criteria. When using high resolution aerial imagery to assess model accuracy, preliminary results show user accuracy of greater than 80%. Further validation is still needed to improve the accuracy of modeled meadow delineation. This method allows for meadows to be inventoried without discriminating based on geographic variability, seasonal changes, or meadow health.

  3. Mycorrhizal symbiosis and local adaptation in Aster amellus: a field transplant experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Pánková

    Full Text Available Many plant populations have adapted to local soil conditions. However, the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is often overlooked in this context. Only a few studies have used reciprocal transplant experiments to study the relationships between soil conditions, mycorrhizal colonisation and plant growth. Furthermore, most of the studies were conducted under controlled greenhouse conditions. However, long-term field experiments can provide more realistic insights into this issue. We conducted a five-year field reciprocal transplant experiment to study the relationships between soil conditions, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth in the obligate mycotrophic herb Aster amellus. We conducted this study in two regions in the Czech Republic that differ significantly in their soil nutrient content, namely Czech Karst (region K and Ceske Stredohori (region S. Plants that originated from region S had significantly higher mycorrhizal colonisation than plants from region K, indicating that the percentage of mycorrhizal colonisation has a genetic basis. We found no evidence of local adaptation in Aster amellus. Instead, plants from region S outperformed the plants from region K in both target regions. Similarly, plants from region S showed more mycorrhizal colonisation in all cases, which was likely driven by the lower nutrient content in the soil from that region. Thus, plant aboveground biomass and mycorrhizal colonisation exhibited corresponding differences between the two target regions and regions of origin. Higher mycorrhizal colonisation in the plants from region with lower soil nutrient content (region S in both target regions indicates that mycorrhizal colonisation is an adaptive trait. However, lower aboveground biomass in the plants with lower mycorrhizal colonisation suggests that the plants from region K are in fact maladapted by their low inherent mycorrhizal colonization. We conclude that including mycorrhizal symbiosis in local

  4. Desert disturbance assessments of regional oil exploitation by Aster and ETM+ images in Taklimakan Desert China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wei; Hao, Fang-Hua; Fu, Yongshuo; Zhang, Jiaxun

    2008-09-01

    To feed its rapidly growing energy demand, oil exploitation in China has never been more intensive. The most obvious characteristics of oil exploitation are progressive and regional, which can be monitored by remote sensing, such as land use and cover change, either perpetual or temporary, during oil field development such as construction of oil well, roads, transportation systems and other facilities. In this paper, the oil field located on the north edge of Taklimakan Desert, in the Tarim River watershed in northwest of China. The disturbance effects of regional oil exploitation were the main content of regional environmental managements and monitoring. Based on Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Aster images, analyzed regional land use and landscape change from 2001 to 2003. By the comparison, it can be concluded that the ecological quality was deteriorating in these 3 years. The woodland was degrading to grass and desert. The area of woodland dropped from 9.06 km(2) in 2001 to 3.24 km(2) in 2003 with a 64.23% decrease. At the same time, the area of shrubbery lessened 18.23%. On the other hand, the whole area of desert and Saline soils inflated from 15.08 km(2) in 2001 to 25.36 km(2) in 2003. The patch number of bare land did climb dramatically, but single patch area increased. The research demonstrated that desert and Saline soils patches were activated by the human behavior and climate change. The information from the ETM+ and Aster images was proved be an effective and efficient way to be applied in regional environmental managements.

  5. Tsunami Inundation, North of Phuket, Thailand ASTER Images and SRTM Elevation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 The Indian Ocean coastline north of Phuket, Thailand is a major tourist destination that was in the path of the tsunami produced by a giant offshore earthquake on December 26, 2004. This disaster resulted in a heavy loss of life. These simulated natural color ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) images show a 27 kilometer (17-mile) long stretch of coast 80 kilometers (50 miles) north of the Phuket airport in the Khao Lak area on December 31 (middle) and also two years earlier (left). The changes along the coast are obvious (changing from green to grey) where the vegetation was stripped away by the tsunami. The image on the right is a copy of the later ASTER scene but it includes highlighting in red for areas that have elevations within 10 meters (33 feet) of sea level. This elevation information was supplied by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The red areas appear to include most of the tsunami inundated areas. The geographic correspondence of the imaged damage and the highlighted elevation range is quite good in the middle and upper parts of the scene and is consistent with an early field report of about 10 meters of inundation. In the south, the elevation range corresponds to a much wider area than the actual damage, but this is to be expected for areas increasingly far from the coast. Offshore bathymetry (depth variations), coastal landforms, distance from the coast, and additional factors other than elevation range control the damage extent. But elevation measurements along the coast, as provided by SRTM, give a general indication of areas at risk, as now confirmed by ASTER. ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet with its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet). These data provide scientists in numerous disciplines

  6. Cadmium accumulation in different pakchoi cultivars and screening for pollution-safe cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying CHEN; Ting-qiang LI; Xuan HAN; Zhe-li DING; Xiao-e YANG; Ye-fei JIN

    2012-01-01

    The selection and breeding of pollution-safe cultivars (PSCs) is a practicable and cost-effective approach to minimize the influx of heavy metal to the human food chain.In this study,both pot-culture and field experiments were conducted to identify and screen out cadmium pollution-safe cultivars (Cd-PSCs) from 50 pakchoi (Brassica rapa L.ssp.chinensis) cultivars for food safety.When treated with 1.0 or 2.5 mg/kg Cd,most of the pakchoi cultlvars (>70%)showed greater or similar shoot biomass when compared with the control.This result indicates that pakchoi has a considerable tolerance to soil Cd stress.Cd concentrations in the shoot varied significantly (P<0.05) between cultivars:in two Cd treatments (1.0 and 2.5 mg/kg),the average values were 0.074 and 0.175 mg/kg fresh weight (FW),respectively.Cd concentrations in the shoots of 14 pakchoi cultivars were lower than 0.05 mg/kg FW.In pot-culture experiments,both enrichment factors (EFs) and translocation factors (TFs) of six pakchoi cultivars were lower than 1.0.The field studies further confirmed that the Hangzhouyoudonger,Aijiaoheiye 333,and Zaoshenghuajing cultivars are Cd-PSCs,and are therefore suitable for growth in low Cd-contaminated soils (≤1.2 mg/kg) without any risk to food safety.

  7. Capacidade produtiva de cultivares de berinjela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonini Antonio C. C.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a capacidade produtiva de diferentes híbridos e cultivares de berinjela. Sete híbridos (Nápoli, Diamante Negro, Ciça, F-100, Super F-100, Kiko e F-2000 e duas cultivares de polinização aberta (Suzuki e Florida Market foram avaliados. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, constituído de nove tratamentos e três repetições. Cada repetição foi composta de oito plantas. As mudas foram plantadas no espaçamento 1,5m x 1,0m. A cultivar Suzuki produziu a maior quantidade de frutos por planta (27 frutos embora tenha apenas diferido significativamente da cultivar Flórida Market (13 frutos. Os híbridos testados apresentaram número de frutos variando de 20 a 25. Não foi verificada diferença significativa para o número de frutos de 1ª e 2ª categoria entre os materiais testados. Flórida Market e Kiko apresentaram a maior massa média do fruto (362,5 e 358,7 g, respectivamente, diferindo significativamente da cultivar Suzuki, que produziu frutos com a menor massa (178,9 g. As maiores produções por planta foram obtidas com o híbrido Kiko que diferiu significativamente da cultivar Suzuki. Foi verificado que os híbridos Kiko, Diamante Negro, Ciça e F-2000 apresentam potencial de produção semelhante ao Nápoli, atual padrão de mercado.

  8. CULTIVAR RELEASE-IAC-Alvorada and IAC-Diplomata: new common bean cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Augusto Morais Carbonell

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of common bean breeding programs is the development of high-yielding cultivars, with multipledisease resistance and high technological and nutritional grain quality. Two cultivars, IAC-Alvorada with carioca grain, andIAC-Diplomata with black grain, meet these standards, according to the results of trials of Value for Cultivation and Use(VCU 2005/2006/2007 in São Paulo. The cultivars, developed by the Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, were registered bythe MAPA/RNC.

  9. Hydrothermal Alteration Maps of the Central and Southern Basin and Range Province of the United States Compiled From Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operator algorithms were used to map...

  10. Analysis of Topographic Feature with SRTM DEM and ASTER GDEM Data and Railway Alignment%基于SRTM DEM,ASTER GDEM 地貌特征分析与铁路选线

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高山

    2012-01-01

    研究目的:SRTM DEM,ASTER GDEM 数据具有全球范围、免费获取、精度较高的优点,结合复杂山区铁路工程,评价其数据精度,研究线路地貌特征,辅助铁路选线.研究结论:SRTM DEM,ASTER GDEM 数据由于各自存在较大的系统误差,通过采用高程精度评价、DEM融合、高程基准偏移、DEM重采样方法提高数字高程精度,进而构建大范围、高精度、可视化的三维数字地貌模型,有助于分析构造地貌特征、岩溶水文地质条件、地质灾害发育规律,提高铁路选线质量和效率.%Research purposes: The SRTM DEM and ASTER GDEM data have the advantages of the global scope, free access and high precision. The data were appliied in building railways in mountain area with complex geological condition to evaluate the data accuracy and study the topographic feature for assisting the railway alignment. Research conclusions:As the SRTM DEM and ASTER GDEM data have its own system error, the measures, such as the digital elevation accuracy evaluation, DEM fusion, elevation datum offset and DEM re - sampling, should be taken for improving the DEM accuracy and building a large range, high accuracy and visual digital topographic feature model to assist the analysis of the structural topographic feature, the geological condition of karst hydrology and the development regulation of geological disaster in order to enhance the quality and efficiency of railway alignment.

  11. Response of broccoli and cabbage hybrid cultivars to clomazone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clomazone herbicide (Command 3ME) is registered for cabbage in the U.S., but not for other cultivar groups within Brassica oleracea. Cabbage cultivars vary in clomazone tolerance, and recommended use rates can cause severe foliar chlorosis and yield reduction to susceptible cultivars. The objectiv...

  12. Distinguishing Nonpareil marketing group almond cultivars through multivariate analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledbetter, Craig A; Sisterson, Mark S

    2013-09-01

    More than 80% of the world's almonds are grown in California with several dozen almond cultivars available commercially. To facilitate promotion and sale, almond cultivars are categorized into marketing groups based on kernel shape and appearance. Several marketing groups are recognized, with the Nonpareil Marketing Group (NMG) demanding the highest prices. Placement of cultivars into the NMG is historical and no objective standards exist for deciding whether newly developed cultivars belong in the NMG. Principal component analyses (PCA) were used to identify nut and kernel characteristics best separating the 4 NMG cultivars (Nonpareil, Jeffries, Kapareil, and Milow) from a representative of the California Marketing Group (cultivar Carmel) and the Mission Marketing Group (cultivar Padre). In addition, discriminant analyses were used to determine cultivar misclassification rates between and within the marketing groups. All 19 evaluated carpological characters differed significantly among the 6 cultivars and during 2 harvest seasons. A clear distinction of NMG cultivars from representatives of the California and Mission Marketing Groups was evident from a PCA involving the 6 cultivars. Further, NMG kernels were successfully discriminated from kernels representing the California and Mission Marketing Groups with overall kernel misclassification of only 2% using 16 of the 19 evaluated characters. Pellicle luminosity was the most discriminating character, regardless of the character set used in analyses. Results provide an objective classification of NMG almond kernels, clearly distinguishing them from kernels of cultivars representing the California and Mission Marketing Groups.

  13. Mineral mapping on the Chilean-Bolivian Altiplano using co-orbital ALI, ASTER and Hyperion imagery: Data dimensionality issues and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, B.E.; Crowley, J.K.

    2005-01-01

    Hyperspectral data coverage from the EO-1 Hyperion sensor was useful for calibrating Advanced Land Imager (ALI) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) images of a volcanic terrane area of the Chilean-Bolivian Altiplano. Following calibration, the ALI and ASTER datasets were co-registered and joined to produce a 13-channel reflectance cube spanning the Visible to Short Wave Infrared (0.4-2.4 ??m). Eigen analysis and comparison of the Hyperion data with the ALI + ASTER reflectance data, as well as mapping results using various ALI+ASTER data subsets, provided insights into the information dimensionality of all the data. In particular, high spectral resolution, low signal-to-noise Hyperion data were only marginally better for mineral mapping than the merged 13-channel, low spectral resolution, high signal-to-noise ALI + ASTER dataset. Neither the Hyperion nor the combined ALI + ASTER datasets had sufficient information dimensionality for mapping the diverse range of surface materials exposed on the Altiplano. However, it is possible to optimize the use of the multispectral data for mineral-mapping purposes by careful data subsetting, and by employing other appropriate image-processing strategies.

  14. Growth and development in Achimenes cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlahos, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Achimenes is a herbaceous perennial of the Gesneriaceae family. Its origin is Central and South America. It has been cultivated as a pot plant since the Victorian era. Extensive hybridization has produced many attractive cultivars which have been Introduced in

  15. Blueberry Cultivars for Oregon (EC 1308)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Extension publication gives an overview of the types of blueberries and the blueberry cultivars that might be grown in Oregon or elsewhere in the Pacific Northwest. Bush and berry characteristics, yield potential, and suitability for commercial or home garden production are given for over 30 bl...

  16. Growth and development in Achimenes cultivars.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlahos, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Achimenes is a herbaceous perennial of the Gesneriaceae family. Its origin is Central and South America. It has been cultivated as a pot plant since the Victorian era. Extensive hybridization has produced many attractive cultivars which have been Introduced in commercial floriculture both In the Uni

  17. Micropropagation of peach rootstocks and cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balla, Ildikó; Mansvelt, Lucienne

    2013-01-01

    Peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) is one of the most popular stone fruits, commercially produced largely in Mediterranean and, to a lesser extent, in continental climatic conditions. Several breeding programs with different aims release annually large numbers of new cultivars. Micropropagation offers a suitable method to provide the growers of sufficient quantities of rootstocks, as well as of pathogen-free planting material of old and new cultivars.An effective four-step micropropagation procedure for cultivar and rootstock production is described here, based on the use of modified MS and WPM media. The health status of the initial shoot tips is very important, also because the growth and proliferation rate of shoot cultures from virus-infected clones are generally very poor. Proliferation and elongation phases depend on the major macro-elements, as well as the content and ratio of plant growth regulators. It is important to grow the cultures at 22°C, as hyperhydricity may develop at higher temperatures. Although sucrose is the most common carbon source used during proliferation and rooting, for some peach cultivars and rootstocks the replacement of sucrose (10 g/L) with glucose (20 g/L) in the rooting medium improves the rooting and survival rates of plants in the acclimatization phase. The rooting rate of the rootstock "Cadaman" is improved with the chelated form of iron FeEDDHA at 150 mg/L. Rooted plants are acclimatized in greenhouse under high humidity conditions.

  18. Distribution of Glucosinolates in Brassica oleracea cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro, A; Aires, A; Rosa, E; Bloem, E; Stulen, I.; De Kok, LJ

    2004-01-01

    Glucosinolates are important secondary compounds, commonly found in Brassicaceae. To what extent these sulfur and nitrogen containing compounds contribute to the total sulfur pool was investigated. In various cultivars of Brassica oleracea viz. curly kale, pointed cabbage, red cabbage, savoy cabbage

  19. Substrates in the development potted gerbera cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ludwig

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The gerbera is a prominent culture that has gained in the Brazilian market of flowers and ornamental plants and there is a great demand for adequate substrates for its production. This study was conducted to evaluate the growth and distribution of dry mass and nitrogen in potted gerbera, depending on the substrates and cultivars. Experimental design was randomized blocks in a 5x2 factorial arrangement (5 substrates and 2 cultivars. Red and Cherry cultivars were evaluated at 1, 15, 29, 43 and 50 days of acclimation (DAA to the leaves number, leaf area, dry mass of aerial parts (leaf and flower and accumulation of nitrogen. From 29 DAA, the inflorescence has established as the drain and has contributed significantly to the total dry mass. The accumulation of nitrogen was similar in vegetative and reproductive periods. The traits evaluated varied depending on the substrate used, influenced by physical and chemical properties of the same. The growth, dry matter and nitrogen distribution potted gerbera cultivars Cherry and Red are influenced by physical and chemical characteristics of substrates, with better results in substrates with bulk density of less than 530 kg m-3 and pH values between 5.5 and 6.8

  20. Yield potential of pigeon pea cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yield potential of twelve vegetable pigeon pea (Cajanus cajun) cultivars was evaluated at two locations in eastern Kenya during 2012 and 2013 cropping years. Pigeon pea pod numbers, seeds per pod, seed mass, grain yield and shelling percentage were quantified in three replicated plots, arranged in a...

  1. Evaluating the quality of the Digital Elevation Models produced from ASTER stereoscopy for topographic mapping in the Brazilian Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber G. de Oliveira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian Amazon is a vast territory rich in natural renewable and non-renewable resources. Due to the adverse environmental condition (rain, cloud, dense vegetation and difficult access, topographic information is still poor, and when available needs to be up-dated or remapped. In this paper, the feasibility of using elevation generated from orbital ASTER- stereo-pairs images for topographic mapping was investigated for the mountainous relief in the Serra dos Carajás, Pará. The quality of information derived from these optical images was evaluated regarding field altimetric measurements. Precise topographic field information acquired from Global Positioning System (GPS was used as Ground Control Points (GCPs for the modeling of the stereoscopic Digital Elevation Models (DEMs and as Independent Check Points (ICPs for the calculation of elevation accuracies. The analysis was performed following two approaches: (1 the use of Root Mean Square Error (RMSE and (2 calculations of trend analysis and accuracy. The investigation has shown that the altimetric accuracy from ASTER fulfilled the Brazilian Map Accuracy Standards elevation requirements for 1:100,000 A Class. In addition, ASTER can provide up-dated planimetric information that is also necessary for cartographic production. Thus, when the environment condition allows the acquisition of stereo-pairs, the use of ASTER can be considered an alternative for semi-detailed topographic mapping in similar environments of the Brazilian Amazon.A Amazônia Brasileira é um rico e vasto território em recursos naturais renováveis e nãorenováveis. Devido às condições ambientais adversas (chuvas, nuvens, vegetação densa e difícil acesso, a informação topográfica ainda é escassa, e quando disponível necessita ser atualizada ou remapeada. Neste trabalho, a viabilidade de usar elevação para mapeamento topográfico por meio de imagens estereoscópicas orbitais ASTER foi investigada para relevo

  2. CULTIVAR RELEASE-CD 115: Soft Wheat Cultivar for colder regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volmir Sergio Marchioro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivar CD 115 was developed by the Cooperativa Central de Pesquisa Agrícola (COODETEC and isrecommended for cultivation in the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and Paraná. The cultivar is tolerant todiseases and pre-harvest sprouting. The mean grain yield in four years of evaluation was 3,420 kg ha-1, exceeding thecontrols by 7%.

  3. Surface Heat Balance Analysis of Tainan City on March 6, 2001 Using ASTER and Formosat-2 Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yi Sun

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The urban heat island phenomenon occurs as a mixed result of anthropogenic heat discharge, decreased vegetation, and increased artificial impervious surfaces. To clarify the contribution of each factor to the urban heat island, it is necessary to evaluate the surface heat balance. Satellite remote sensing data of Tainan City, Taiwan, obtained from Terra ASTER and Formosat-2 were used to estimate surface heat balance in this study. ASTER data is suitable for analyzing heat balance because of the wide spectral range. We used Formosat-2 multispectral data to classify the land surface, which was used to interpolate some surface parameters for estimating heat fluxes. Because of the high spatial resolution of the Formosat-2 image, more roads, open spaces and small vegetation areas could be distinguished from buildings in urban areas; however, misclassifications of land cover in such areas using ASTER data would overestimate the sensible heat flux. On the other hand, the small vegetated areas detected from the Formosat-2 image slightly increased the estimation of latent heat flux. As a result, the storage heat flux derived from Formosat-2 is higher than that derived from ASTER data in most areas. From these results, we can conclude that the higher resolution land coverage map increases accuracy of the heat balance analysis. Storage heat flux occupies about 60 to 80% of the net radiation in most of the artificial surface areas in spite of their usages. Because of the homogeneity of the building roof materials, there is no contrast between the storage heat flux in business and residential areas. In sparsely vegetated urban areas, more heat is stored and latent heat is smaller than that in the forested suburbs. This result implies that density of vegetation has a significant influence in decreasing temperatures.

  4. CULTIVAR RELEASE - BRSMG União: common bean cultivar with jalo grain for the state of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magno Antonio Patto Ramalho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The bean cultivar BRSMG União as a new option of a bean cultivar with jalo grains for the state of Minas Gerais. The cultivar BRSMG União had an average grain yield of 9.8% above the mean of the controls (Jalo EEP 558 and BRS Radiante and was resistant to powdery-mildew.

  5. Lithological and mineralogical survey of the Oyu Tolgoi region, Southeastern Gobi, Mongolia using ASTER reflectance and emissivity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Young-Sun; Kang, Moon-Kyung; Yoon, Wang-Jung

    2014-02-01

    The Oyu Tolgoi porphyry Cu-Au deposits, Southeastern Gobi, Mongolia, are estimated to be among the world's largest reserves. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER) reflectance and emissivity data were used to map distribution patterns of hydrothermal alteration and igneous rocks, and to locate areas with potential mineral deposit in the Oyu Tolgoi region. To obtain more accurate information for the detection and classification of minerals, pre-processing such as crosstalk correction and additional radiometric correction was performed. The shortwave infrared band ratio logical operator (SWIR-BRLO) models and matched filtering were used to map alteration zone and minerals in the Oyu Tolgoi region. These results were fairly consistent with mineralogical information of previous researches. In addition, we identified mineral potential areas with characteristics similar to the Oyu Tolgoi Cu-Au deposits. In particular, in the northwestern part of the OT North Pluton, an extensive area predicted to be an argillic zone was newly detected. ASTER Level 2B surface emissivity data was effectively used for lithological mapping of the Oyu Tolgoi region. The new thermal infrared band ratio logical operator (TIR-BRLO) models could detect areas showing emissivity features of quartzose and alkalic rocks. These results indicate that despite some limitations, ASTER data can provide basic information in the initial steps of ore deposit exploration, or when mapping the distribution of altered, quartzose and igneous rocks, especially in areas where direct field survey is difficult.

  6. Cross-satellite comparison of operational land surface temperature products derived from MODIS and ASTER data over bare soil surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Si-Bo; Li, Zhao-Liang; Cheng, Jie; Leng, Pei

    2017-04-01

    The collection 6 (C6) MODIS land surface temperature (LST) product is publicly available for the user community. Compared to the collection 5 (C5) MODIS LST product, the C6 MODIS LST product has been refined over bare soil pixels. Assessing the accuracy of the C6 MODIS LST product will help to facilitate the use of the LST product in various applications. In this study, we present a cross-satellite comparison to evaluate the accuracy of the C6 MODIS LST product (MOD11_L2) over bare soil surfaces under various atmospheric and surface conditions using the ASTER LST product as a reference. For comparison, the C5 MODIS LST product was also used in the analysis. The absolute biases (0.2-1.5 K) of the differences between the C6 MODIS LST and ASTER LST over bare soil surfaces are approximately two times less than those (0.6-3.8 K) of the differences between the C5 MODIS LST and ASTER LST. Furthermore, the RMSEs (0.7-2.3 K) over bare soil surfaces for the C6 MODIS LST are significantly smaller than those (0.9-4.2 K) for the C5 MODIS LST. These results indicate that the accuracy of the C6 MODIS LST product is much better than that of the C5 MODIS LST product. We recommend that the user community employs the C6 MODIS LST product in their applications.

  7. Using aster multispectral imagery for mapping woody invasive species in pico da vara natural reserve (Azores Islands, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Gil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to assess the effectiveness of ASTER imagery to support the mapping of Pittosporum undulatum, an invasive woody species, in Pico da Vara Natural Reserve (S. Miguel Island, Archipelago of the Azores, Portugal. This assessment was done by applying K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN, Support Vector Machine (SVM and Maximum Likelihood (MLC pixel-based supervised classifications to 4 different geographic and remote sensing datasets constituted by the Visible, Near-Infrared (VNIR and Short Wave Infrared (SWIR of the ASTER sensor and by digital cartography associated to orography (altitude and "distance to water streams" of which the spatial distribution of Pittosporum undulatum directly depends. Overall, most performed classifications showed a strong agreement and high accuracy. At targeted species level, the two higher classification accuracies were obtained when applying MLC and KNN to the VNIR bands coupled with auxiliary geographic information use. Results improved significantly by including ecology and occurrence information of species (altitude and distance to water streams in the classification scheme. These results show that the use of ASTER sensor VNIR spectral bands, when coupled to relevant ancillary GIS data, can constitute an effective and low cost approach for the evaluation and continuous assessment of Pittosporum undulatum woodland propagation and distribution within Protected Areas of the Azores Islands.

  8. Long-Term Volcanic Activity at Shiveluch Volcano: Nine Years of ASTER Spaceborne Thermal Infrared Observations  

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Carter

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Shiveluch (Kamchatka, Russia is the most active andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc, typically exhibiting near-continual high-temperature fumarolic activity and periods of exogenous lava dome emplacement punctuated by discrete large explosive eruptions. These eruptions can produce large pyroclastic flow (PF deposits, which are common on the southern flank of the volcano. Since 2000, six explosive eruptions have occurred that generated ash fall and PF deposits. Over this same time period, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER instrument has been acquiring image-based visible/near infrared (VNIR, short wave infrared (SWIR and thermal infrared (TIR data globally, with a particular emphasis on active volcanoes. Shiveluch was selected as an ASTER target of interest early in the mission because of its frequent activity and potential impact to northern Pacific air transportation. The north Pacific ASTER archive was queried for Shiveluch data and we present results from 2000 to 2009 that documents three large PF deposits emplaced on 19 May 2001, 9 May 2004, and 28 February 2005. The long-term archive of infrared data provides an excellent record on the changing activity and eruption state of the volcano.

  9. Using ASTER Imagery in Land Use/cover Classification of Eastern Mediterranean Landscapes According to CORINE Land Cover Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep Gundogan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The satellite imagery has been effectively utilized for classifying land covertypes and detecting land cover conditions. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emissionand Reflection Radiometer (ASTER sensor imagery has been widely used in classificationprocess of land cover. However, atmospheric corrections have to be made by preprocessingsatellite sensor imagery since the electromagnetic radiation signals received by the satellitesensors can be scattered and absorbed by the atmospheric gases and aerosols. In this study,an ASTER sensor imagery, which was converted into top-of-atmosphere reflectance(TOA, was used to classify the land use/cover types, according to COoRdination ofINformation on the Environment (CORINE land cover nomenclature, for an arearepresenting the heterogonous characteristics of eastern Mediterranean regions inKahramanmaras, Turkey. The results indicated that using the surface reflectance data ofASTER sensor imagery can provide accurate (i.e. overall accuracy and kappa values of83.2% and 0.79, respectively and low-cost cover mapping as a part of inventory forCORINE Land Cover Project.

  10. ASTER/AVHRR Data Hybridization to determine Pyroclastic Flow cooling curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reath, K. A.; Wright, R.; Ramsey, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    Shiveluch Volcano (Kamchatka, Russia) has been in a consistent state of eruption for the past 15 years. During this period different eruption styles have been documented including: sub-plinian events, dome growth and collapse, and subsequent debris flow deposits. For example, on June 25-26, 2009 a pyroclastic debris flow was emplaced and the eruption onset that produced it was recorded by a series of seismic events spanning several hours. However, due to cloud cover, visual confirmation of the exact emplacement time was obscured. Orbital remote sensing was able to image the deposit repeatedly over the subsequent months. ASTER is a high spatial resolution (90m), low temporal resolution (2 - 4 days at the poles, 16 days at the equator) thermal infrared (TIR) sensor on the NASA Terra satellite. AVHRR is a high temporal resolution (minutes to several hours), low spatial resolution (1km) spaceborne TIR sensor on a series of NOAA satellites. Combined, these sensors provide a unique opportunity to fuse high-spatial and high-temporal resolution data to better observe changes on the surface of the deposit over time. For example, ASTER data were used to determine the flow area and to provide several data points for average temperature while AVHRR data were used to increase the amount of data points. Through this method an accurate average cooling rate over a three month period was determined. This cooling curve was then examined to derive several features about the deposit that were previously unknown. The time of emplacement and period of time needed for negligible thermal output were first determined by extrapolating the cooling curve in time. The total amount of heat output and total flow volume of the deposit were also calculated. This volume was then compared to the volume of the dome to calculate the percentage of collapse. This method can be repeated for other flow deposits to determine if there is a consistent correlation between the dome growth rate, the average

  11. VALIDATION OF THE ASTER GLOBAL DIGITAL ELEVATION MODEL VERSION 3 OVER THE CONTERMINOUS UNITED STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gesch

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model Version 3 (GDEM v3 was evaluated over the conterminous United States in a manner similar to the validation conducted for the original GDEM Version 1 (v1 in 2009 and GDEM Version 2 (v2 in 2011. The absolute vertical accuracy of GDEM v3 was calculated by comparison with more than 23,000 independent reference geodetic ground control points from the U.S. National Geodetic Survey. The root mean square error (RMSE measured for GDEM v3 is 8.52 meters. This compares with the RMSE of 8.68 meters for GDEM v2. Another important descriptor of vertical accuracy is the mean error, or bias, which indicates if a DEM has an overall vertical offset from true ground level. The GDEM v3 mean error of −1.20 meters reflects an overall negative bias in GDEM v3. The absolute vertical accuracy assessment results, both mean error and RMSE, were segmented by land cover type to provide insight into how GDEM v3 performs in various land surface conditions. While the RMSE varies little across cover types (6.92 to 9.25 meters, the mean error (bias does appear to be affected by land cover type, ranging from −2.99 to +4.16 meters across 14 land cover classes. These results indicate that in areas where built or natural aboveground features are present, GDEM v3 is measuring elevations above the ground level, a condition noted in assessments of previous GDEM versions (v1 and v2 and an expected condition given the type of stereo-optical image data collected by ASTER. GDEM v3 was also evaluated by differencing with the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM dataset. In many forested areas, GDEM v3 has elevations that are higher in the canopy than SRTM. The overall validation effort also included an evaluation of the GDEM v3 water mask. In general, the number of distinct water polygons in GDEM v3 is much lower than the number in a reference land cover dataset, but the total areas compare much more closely.

  12. Developing New Coastal Forest Restoration Products Based on Landsat, ASTER, and MODIS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Graham, William; Smoot, James

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses an ongoing effort to develop new geospatial information products for aiding coastal forest restoration and conservation efforts in coastal Louisiana and Mississippi. This project employs Landsat, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data in conjunction with airborne elevation data to compute coastal forest cover type maps and change detection products. Improved forest mapping products are needed to aid coastal forest restoration and management efforts of State and Federal agencies in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) region. In particular, such products may aid coastal forest land acquisition and conservation easement procurements. This region's forests are often disturbed and subjected to multiple biotic and abiotic threats, including subsidence, salt water intrusion, hurricanes, sea-level rise, insect-induced defoliation and mortality, altered hydrology, wildfire, and conversion to non-forest land use. In some cases, such forest disturbance has led to forest loss or loss of regeneration capacity. In response, a case study was conducted to assess and demonstrate the potential of satellite remote sensing products for improving forest type maps and for assessing forest change over the last 25 years. Change detection products are needed for assessing risks for specific priority coastal forest types, such as live oak and baldcypress-dominated forest. Preliminary results indicate Landsat time series data are capable of generating the needed forest type and change detection products. Useful classifications were obtained using 2 strategies: 1) general forest classification based on use of 3 seasons of Landsat data from the same year; and 2) classification of specific forest types of concern using a single date of Landsat data in which a given targeted type is spectrally distinct compared to adjacent forested cover. When available, ASTER data was

  13. Validation of the ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model version 3 over the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesch, Dean B.; Oimoen, Michael J.; Danielson, Jeffrey J.; Meyer, David

    2016-01-01

    The ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model Version 3 (GDEM v3) was evaluated over the conterminous United States in a manner similar to the validation conducted for the original GDEM Version 1 (v1) in 2009 and GDEM Version 2 (v2) in 2011. The absolute vertical accuracy of GDEM v3 was calculated by comparison with more than 23,000 independent reference geodetic ground control points from the U.S. National Geodetic Survey. The root mean square error (RMSE) measured for GDEM v3 is 8.52 meters. This compares with the RMSE of 8.68 meters for GDEM v2. Another important descriptor of vertical accuracy is the mean error, or bias, which indicates if a DEM has an overall vertical offset from true ground level. The GDEM v3 mean error of −1.20 meters reflects an overall negative bias in GDEM v3. The absolute vertical accuracy assessment results, both mean error and RMSE, were segmented by land cover type to provide insight into how GDEM v3 performs in various land surface conditions. While the RMSE varies little across cover types (6.92 to 9.25 meters), the mean error (bias) does appear to be affected by land cover type, ranging from −2.99 to +4.16 meters across 14 land cover classes. These results indicate that in areas where built or natural aboveground features are present, GDEM v3 is measuring elevations above the ground level, a condition noted in assessments of previous GDEM versions (v1 and v2) and an expected condition given the type of stereo-optical image data collected by ASTER. GDEM v3 was also evaluated by differencing with the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) dataset. In many forested areas, GDEM v3 has elevations that are higher in the canopy than SRTM. The overall validation effort also included an evaluation of the GDEM v3 water mask. In general, the number of distinct water polygons in GDEM v3 is much lower than the number in a reference land cover dataset, but the total areas compare much more closely.

  14. Validation of the Aster Global Digital Elevation Model Version 3 Over the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesch, D.; Oimoen, M.; Danielson, J.; Meyer, D.

    2016-06-01

    The ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model Version 3 (GDEM v3) was evaluated over the conterminous United States in a manner similar to the validation conducted for the original GDEM Version 1 (v1) in 2009 and GDEM Version 2 (v2) in 2011. The absolute vertical accuracy of GDEM v3 was calculated by comparison with more than 23,000 independent reference geodetic ground control points from the U.S. National Geodetic Survey. The root mean square error (RMSE) measured for GDEM v3 is 8.52 meters. This compares with the RMSE of 8.68 meters for GDEM v2. Another important descriptor of vertical accuracy is the mean error, or bias, which indicates if a DEM has an overall vertical offset from true ground level. The GDEM v3 mean error of -1.20 meters reflects an overall negative bias in GDEM v3. The absolute vertical accuracy assessment results, both mean error and RMSE, were segmented by land cover type to provide insight into how GDEM v3 performs in various land surface conditions. While the RMSE varies little across cover types (6.92 to 9.25 meters), the mean error (bias) does appear to be affected by land cover type, ranging from -2.99 to +4.16 meters across 14 land cover classes. These results indicate that in areas where built or natural aboveground features are present, GDEM v3 is measuring elevations above the ground level, a condition noted in assessments of previous GDEM versions (v1 and v2) and an expected condition given the type of stereo-optical image data collected by ASTER. GDEM v3 was also evaluated by differencing with the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) dataset. In many forested areas, GDEM v3 has elevations that are higher in the canopy than SRTM. The overall validation effort also included an evaluation of the GDEM v3 water mask. In general, the number of distinct water polygons in GDEM v3 is much lower than the number in a reference land cover dataset, but the total areas compare much more closely.

  15. Screening of Carnation Cultivars for Resistance to Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, M R; Kim, J Y; Song, C; Ko, J Y; Na, S Y; Yiem, M S

    1996-12-01

    A total of 33 carnation cultivars cultured in Korea were screened for resistance to the southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita. Carnations were tested by either inoculating with 5,000 eggs or by transplanting into a mixture of bedding medium and soil infested with an average of 435 second-stage juveniles/300 cm(3) soil. Cultivars, Desio, Castelaro, Kappa, Rara, Izu Pink, Target, and Antalia were highly resistant to M. incognita. Twelve cultivars were moderately resistant, and the remaining 14 cultivars were susceptible. These results were similar to those obtained when the cultivars were subjected to field populations of the condition on a carnation farm.

  16. Per-Field Irrigated Crop Classification in Arid Central Asia Using SPOT and ASTER Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Conrad

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The overarching goal of this research was to explore accurate methods of mapping irrigated crops, where digital cadastre information is unavailable: (a Boundary separation by object-oriented image segmentation using very high spatial resolution (2.5–5 m data was followed by (b identification of crops and crop rotations by means of phenology, tasselled cap, and rule-based classification using high resolution (15–30 m bi-temporal data. The extensive irrigated cotton production system of the Khorezm province in Uzbekistan, Central Asia, was selected as a study region. Image segmentation was carried out on pan-sharpened SPOT data. Varying combinations of segmentation parameters (shape, compactness, and color were tested for optimized boundary separation. The resulting geometry was validated against polygons digitized from the data and cadastre maps, analysing similarity (size, shape and congruence. The parameters shape and compactness were decisive for segmentation accuracy. Differences between crop phenologies were analyzed at field level using bi-temporal ASTER data. A rule set based on the tasselled cap indices greenness and brightness allowed for classifying crop rotations of cotton, winter-wheat and rice, resulting in an overall accuracy of 80 %. The proposed field-based crop classification method can be an important tool for use in water demand estimations, crop yield simulations, or economic models in agricultural systems similar to Khorezm.

  17. ASTER based velocity profile of glaciers in the Nanga Parbat region, western Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, A. T.; Haritashya, U. K.

    2011-12-01

    Glaciers, in general, are highly sensitive to climate fluctuations making them important indicators of climate change. Overall, lack of data on this region is troubling for the amount of hydrological importance and climatic forecasts these glaciers hold. Therefore, this study aims to measure glacier velocity on selected glaciers using cross-correlation techniques. One of the main problems with determining the amount of loss or perhaps gain in glacier mass is determining their velocity. The Himalayan glaciers are inaccessible in most areas and field measurements can be impossible, which creates a problem when determining the velocity of glaciers. Consequently, we generated velocity profiles of glaciers in the Nanga Parbat region of the western Himalaya using 2009 and 2010 ASTER satellite data. Our glacier fluctuation study have shown oscillating behavior of these glaciers; however, our preliminary velocity result indicates high velocity on most of these glaciers. These results are the first ever velocity profile generated for this region and would be able to help understand glacier dynamics in a much more comprehensive manner.

  18. River Profile Analysis Using ASTER DEM: the case study in the Puqu Fault Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, P.; Shang, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Puqu Fault, as one of the two easternmost branches of the famous Jiali Fault, is not only influ- enced by the eastward extrusion of the northern Tibet, but also suffers the clockwise rotation followed by the southward extrusion. As a result, the Puqu Fault is bounded by the principal dynamic zones and the tectonics behaves active and variable along the fault. Because of the precipitous topography, it makes researchers difficult to reach to the field and thus few re- search has been conducted in that area. The study focuses on the application of remote sensing techniques in extracting tectonics from topography. High resolution Digital Elevation Model (20 meters resolution) generated from ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) stereo pair is used to extract the river network in the fault region. In addition, slope and drainage area indices are calculated from Digital Elevation Model. Based on the stream power law, we make area-slope plot of the streams so as to derive the channel concavity and steepness which are related closely to the tectonics activities. The result shows that the surface uplift varies significantly in the Puqu Fault region. The great variance occurs with the advent of significant bend along the fault. Still, for the single channel, the uplift tends to behave higher towards the direction of upper segment. The whole results are expected to be connected to the future field works and possible studies of neotectonics in the southeastern Tibet.

  19. Spatial distributions of the leafminer Ophiomyia maura (Diptera: Agromyzidae) in host plant Aster ageratoides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshiko Ayabe; Ei'ichi Shibata

    2008-01-01

    The seasonal occurrence and among-plant and within-plant spatial distribution of the multivoltine leafminer Ophiomyia maura Meigen (Diptera: Agromyzidae) on the herbaceous plant Aster ageratoides Turcz. subsp, ovatus (Asteraceae) were investigated in the field. O. maura has at least four generations a year and mines per leaf fluctuate with a mean of 0.007 throughout the occurrence period. Seasonal occurrence is associated with abundance of new host leaves, suggesting O. maura females prefer to oviposit in newly emerged leaves. The among-plant distribution of O. maura is described by a Poisson distribution early in the season but tends to be weakly clumped later. The within-plant vertical distribution of larval mines increased from middle to upper leaves during plantdevelopment, because mined leaves in the middle position early in the season move downward with the emergence of new leaves, shifting mined leaves from the position where O. maura oviposits eggs. Later in the season, mined leaves remain where they are deposited because few new leaves emerge. The spatial distribution of O. rnaura, resource utilization patterns, and host plant characteristics are discussed.

  20. Accuracy Improvement of ASTER Stereo Satellite Generated DEM Using Texture Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mandla V. Ravibabu; Kamal Jain; Surendra Pal Singh; Naga Jyothi Meeniga

    2010-01-01

    The grid DEM (digital elevation model) generation can be from any of a number of sources: for instance, analogue to digital conversion of contour maps followed by application of the TIN model, or direct elevation point modelling via digital photogrammetry applied to airborne images or satellite images. Currently, apart from the deployment of point-clouds from LiDAR data acquisition, the generally favoured approach refers to applications of digital photogrammetry. One of the most important steps in such deployment is the stereo matching process for conjugation point (pixel) establishment: very difficult in modelling any homogenous areas like water cover or forest canopied areas due to the lack of distinct spatial features. As a result, application of automated procedures is sure to generate erroneous elevation values. In this paper, we present and apply a method for improving the quality of stereo DEMs generated via utilization of an entropy texture filter. The filter was applied for extraction of homogenous areas before stereo matching so that a statistical texture filter could then be applied for removing anomalous evaluation values prior to interpolation and accuracy assessment via deployment of a spatial correlation technique. For exemplification, we used a stereo pair of ASTER 1B images.

  1. Inversion of Land Surface Temperature (LST Using Terra ASTER Data: A Comparison of Three Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Isaya Ndossi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Land Surface Temperature (LST is an important measurement in studies related to the Earth surface’s processes. The Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER instrument onboard the Terra spacecraft is the currently available Thermal Infrared (TIR imaging sensor with the highest spatial resolution. This study involves the comparison of LSTs inverted from the sensor using the Split Window Algorithm (SWA, the Single Channel Algorithm (SCA and the Planck function. This study has used the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA data to model and compare the results from the three algorithms. The data from the sensor have been processed by the Python programming language in a free and open source software package (QGIS to enable users to make use of the algorithms. The study revealed that the three algorithms are suitable for LST inversion, whereby the Planck function showed the highest level of accuracy, the SWA had moderate level of accuracy and the SCA had the least accuracy. The algorithms produced results with Root Mean Square Errors (RMSE of 2.29 K, 3.77 K and 2.88 K for the Planck function, the SCA and SWA respectively.

  2. The recent retreat of Mexican glaciers on Citlaltépetl Volcano detected using ASTER data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Ramos, J.; Delgado-Granados, H.

    2012-08-01

    Satellite imagery and net radiation data collected between 2001 and 2007 for Citlaltépetl Volcano confirm the dramatic shrinkage of Glaciar Norte and the elimination of Jamapa and Chichimeco glacier tongues. The Glaciar Norte rapidly retreated between 2001 and 2002 while for 2007 this retreat decreases considerably. Jamapa and Chichimeco tongues disappeared by 2001 as compared to the geometry shown for 1958. The Glaciar Norte lost about 72% of its surface area between 1958 and 2007. Recently, the ice loss appears to be accelerating as evidenced by the 33% areal loss in just 6 yr between 2001 and 2007. At this shrinkage rate the glaciers would be gone from the volcano by the year 2020, which is decades earlier than previously estimated. The net radiation from ASTER images and the energy fluxes calculated via the meteorological data at the glacial surface show the close relationship between glacial shrinkage and surface energy balance. The magnitude of changes in the net radiation balance allows improved understanding of glacial retreat in Mexico.

  3. Glacial Ice Velocity Determination and Correlation from Different Mountain Ranges Using Aster Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleasants, M.; Haritashya, U. K.

    2013-12-01

    Mountain glaciers make good indicators of even slight changes in climatic conditions because of their sensitivity to temperature and other environmental changes. Due to the inaccessibility of most mountain glaciers, field based measurements of glacier dynamics, especially ice velocities, has proved to be difficult and unrealistic. Because of this, evaluation of satellite imagery has become useful in the determination of glacial ice velocities and production of ice flow models. The calculation and comparison of ice velocities from three glaciated regions (the Southern Alps of New Zealand, the North-east Nepali Himalaya, and the south-eastern Chugach Mountains of Alaska) is presented here. This study was completed to establish the accuracy and global applicability of the method of precise orthorectification, co-registration, and correlation using the software COSI-Corr and in-house filtering techniques. We chose glaciers from different mountain ranges that present different dynamics to establish a specific ice velocity method. Advanced Spacebourne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) L1A images were chosen as close to annual pairs as possible from the available data at the USGS Global Visualization Viewer (GloVis). This study focuses on the Tasman glacier in New Zealand, the Khumbu glacier in the Himalayas, the previously unstudied Scott glacier in Alaska, and the comparison of these ice velocities to climate data for each region compiled from numerous sources in an attempt to draw conclusions of the behavior of these glaciers in response to current climatic changes.

  4. 用Asterisk和AsterCRM部署心理咨询呼叫中心

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李正鹏; 王迪

    2010-01-01

    随着社会快速发展与变革,人们对心理咨询的需求日益增多,如何提高客户服务质量和效率是心理咨询机构成功的关键因素.由于呼叫中心(CallCenter)能提供便利、规范和高效的客户服务,因此在心理咨询客户诉聊中具有很好的应用价值,Asterisk是目前使用最广泛的开源IP-PBX系统软件,AsterCRM是一款基于web的针对asterisk开发的开源呼叫中心软件,文章详细介绍了Asterisk软交换平台和AstetCRM呼叫中心平台,并设计实现了心理咨询呼叫中心.

  5. Thermal remote sensing of ice-debris landforms using ASTER: an example from the Chilean Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenning, A.; Peña, M. A.; Long, S.; Soliman, A.

    2012-03-01

    Remote sensors face challenges in characterizing mountain permafrost and ground thermal conditions or mapping rock glaciers and debris-covered glaciers. We explore the potential of thermal imaging and in particular thermal inertia mapping in mountain cryospheric research, focusing on the relationships between ground surface temperatures and the presence of ice-debris landforms on one side and land surface temperature (LST) and apparent thermal inertia (ATI) on the other. In our case study we utilize ASTER daytime and nighttime imagery and in-situ measurements of near-surface ground temperature (NSGT) in the Mediterranean Andes during a snow-free and dry observation period in late summer. Spatial patterns of LST and NSGT were mostly consistent with each other both at daytime and at nighttime. Daytime LST over ice-debris landforms was decreased and ATI consequently increased compared to other debris surfaces under otherwise equal conditions, but NSGT showed contradictory results, which underlines the complexity and possible scale dependence of ATI in heterogeneous substrates with the presence of a thermal mismatch and a heat sink at depth. While our results demonstrate the utility of thermal imaging and ATI mapping in a mountain cryospheric context, further research is needed for a better interpretation of ATI patterns in complex thermophysical conditions.

  6. Antiadipogenic Effects of Aster glehni Extract: In Vivo and In Vitro Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heon-Myung Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aster glehni (AG is a Korean traditional herb that grows in Ulleungdo Island, Republic of Korea. None of the several reports on AG include a determination of the effect of AG on adipogenesis. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether AG attenuates adipogenesis in mouse 3T3-L1 cells and epididymal fat tissue. AG blocked the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in a concentration-dependent manner and suppressed the expression of adipogenesis-related genes such as PPARγ, C/EBPα, and SREBP1c, the master regulators of adipogenesis. Male C57BL/6J mice were divided randomly and equally into 4 diet groups: control diet (CON, high-fat diet (HFD, HFD with 1% AG extract added (AG1, and HFD with 5% AG extract added (AG5. The experimental animals were fed HFD and the 2 combinations for 10 weeks. Mice fed HFD with AG gained less body weight and visceral fat-pad weight than did the mice fed HFD alone. Moreover, AG inhibited the expression of important adipogenic genes such as PPARγ, C/EBPα, SREBP1c, LXR, and leptin in the epididymal adipose tissue of the mice treated with AG1 and AG5. These findings indicate antiadipogenic and antiobesity effects of AG and suggest its therapeutic potential in obesity and obesity-related diseases.

  7. Alteration, slope-classified alteration, and potential lahar inundation maps of volcanoes for the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Volcano Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, John C.; Hubbard, Bernard E.; Pieri, David; Linick, Justin

    2015-01-01

    This study identifies areas prone to lahars from hydrothermally altered volcanic edifices on a global scale, using visible and near infrared (VNIR) and short wavelength infrared (SWIR) reflectance data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and digital elevation data from the ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) dataset. This is the first study to create a global database of hydrothermally altered volcanoes showing quantitatively compiled alteration maps and potentially affected drainages, as well as drainage-specific maps illustrating modeled lahars and their potential inundation zones. We (1) identified and prioritized 720 volcanoes based on population density surrounding the volcanoes using the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program database (GVP) and LandScan™ digital population dataset; (2) validated ASTER hydrothermal alteration mapping techniques using Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and ASTER data for Mount Shasta, California, and Pico de Orizaba (Citlaltépetl), Mexico; (3) mapped and slope-classified hydrothermal alteration using ASTER VNIR-SWIR reflectance data on 100 of the most densely populated volcanoes; (4) delineated drainages using ASTER GDEM data that show potential flow paths of possible lahars for the 100 mapped volcanoes; (5) produced potential alteration-related lahar inundation maps using the LAHARZ GIS code for Iztaccíhuatl, Mexico, and Mount Hood and Mount Shasta in the United States that illustrate areas likely to be affected based on DEM-derived volume estimates of hydrothermally altered rocks and the ~2x uncertainty factor inherent within a statistically-based lahar model; and (6) saved all image and vector data for 3D and 2D display in Google Earth™, ArcGIS® and other graphics display programs. In addition, these data are available from the ASTER Volcano Archive (AVA) for distribution (available at http://ava.jpl.nasa.gov/recent_alteration_zones.php).

  8. Textural properties of mango cultivars during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Shyam Narayan; Jaiswal, Pranita; Narsaiah, Kairam; Kaur, Poonam Preet; Singh, Ashish Kumar; Kumar, Ramesh

    2013-12-01

    Firmness and toughness of fruit, peel and pulp of seven different mango cultivars were studied over a ripening period of ten days to investigate the effects of harvesting stages (early, mid and late) on fruit quality. Parameters were measured at equatorial region of fruits using TA-Hdi Texture Analyzer. The textural characteristics showed a rapid decline in their behaviour until mangoes got ripened and thereafter, the decline became almost constant indicating the completion of ripening. However, the rate of decline in textural properties was found to be cultivar specific. In general, the changes in textural attributes were found to be significantly influenced by ripening period and stage of harvesting, but firmness attributes (peel, fruit and pulp) of early harvested mangoes did not differ significantly from mid harvested mangoes, while peel, fruit and pulp firmness of late harvested mangoes were found to be significantly lower than early and mid harvested mangoes.

  9. Relative competitiveness of soybean cultivars with barnyardgrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Ouriques Bastiani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to evaluate the competitiveness between soybean cultivars and barnyardgrass, based on morphological and physiological characteristics of species. The experiments were conducted in completely randomized experimental design, with 4 replications. In the first study, for both soybean and barnyardgrass, it was determined the population of plants in which shoot dry matter became constant and independent of the population (16 plants∙pot−1 or 400 plants∙m−2. In the second study, 2 experiments were conducted to evaluate the competitiveness of BMX Apolo RR and BMX Potência RR soybean cultivars with barnyardgrass plants, both carried out in replacement series under different proportions of plants∙pot−1 (100:0; 75:25; 50:50; 25:75 and 0:100 between the crop and the weed. The analysis of the species competitiveness was determined through diagrams applied to replacement series experiments and use of relative competitiveness indexes. At 44 days after the emergence of species, the physiological and morphological parameters of the crop and the weed were evaluated. The BMX Apolo RR and BMX Potência RR soybean cultivars show similar competitiveness when competing with the barnyardgrass; therefore, the ability of one species to interfere on another is equivalent. For plant height, barnyardgrass displays higher competitiveness compared to BMX Apolo RR, with early cycle and short height. The intraspecific competition is more important to barnyardgrass than interspecific competition with soybean cultivars, resulting in negative effects on the morphological and physiological characteristics of species.

  10. RB975952 – Early maturing sugarcane cultivar

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    Monalisa Sampaio Carneiro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available RB975952 is an early maturing sugarcane cultivar released for the South-Central region of Brazil. It should be harvested between April and May, and it is recommended for planting in environments with medium to high production potential. RB975952 has high resistance levels to the main diseases of the crop, it also has a good shoot development after mechanical harvesting, and high sucrose yields.

  11. Evaluation of garlic cultivars for polyphenolic content and antioxidant properties.

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    Shuxia Chen

    Full Text Available Two phenolic compound parameters (total phenolic and flavonoid contents and 5 antioxidant parameters (DPPH [2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl] radical scavenging activity, HRSC (hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity, FRAP (ferric ion reducing antioxidant power, CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity, and MCA (metal chelating activity were measured in bulbs and bolts of 43 garlic cultivars. The bulbs of cultivar '74-x' had the highest phenolic content (total phenolic, flavonoids and the strongest antioxidant capacity (DPPH, FRAP, and CUPRAC, followed by bulbs of cultivar 'Hanzhong purple'; the bulbs of cultivar 'Gailiang' had the lowest phenolic content and antioxidant capacity (FRAP, CUPRAC, MCA. The bolts of 'Hanzhong purple' also had higher phenolic content. Principal components analysis (PCA separated the cultivars into 3 groups according to phenolic and flavonoid contents and strength of antioxidant activity. The first group had higher HRSC, FRAP, and flavonoid content; the second group had higher total phenolic content and MCA; some cultivars in the third group had higher HRSC and FRAP. All 8 test garlic bulb extracts successfully prevented Human Vascular Endothelial Cell death and significantly prevented reactive-oxygen species (ROS formation in oxidative stress model, in which cultivar '74-x' had highest protection capability, following by cultivar 'Hanzhong purple', and the bulbs of cultivar 'No. 105 from Korea' had the lower protection capability against cell death and ROS formation. The protection capability in vivo of these garlic cultivars was consistent with their phenolic content and antioxidant capacity.

  12. Evaluation of garlic cultivars for polyphenolic content and antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuxia; Shen, Xiaoqing; Cheng, Siqiong; Li, Panpan; Du, Junna; Chang, Yanxia; Meng, Huanwen

    2013-01-01

    Two phenolic compound parameters (total phenolic and flavonoid contents) and 5 antioxidant parameters (DPPH [2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl] radical scavenging activity, HRSC (hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity), FRAP (ferric ion reducing antioxidant power), CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity), and MCA (metal chelating activity) were measured in bulbs and bolts of 43 garlic cultivars. The bulbs of cultivar '74-x' had the highest phenolic content (total phenolic, flavonoids) and the strongest antioxidant capacity (DPPH, FRAP, and CUPRAC), followed by bulbs of cultivar 'Hanzhong purple'; the bulbs of cultivar 'Gailiang' had the lowest phenolic content and antioxidant capacity (FRAP, CUPRAC, MCA). The bolts of 'Hanzhong purple' also had higher phenolic content. Principal components analysis (PCA) separated the cultivars into 3 groups according to phenolic and flavonoid contents and strength of antioxidant activity. The first group had higher HRSC, FRAP, and flavonoid content; the second group had higher total phenolic content and MCA; some cultivars in the third group had higher HRSC and FRAP. All 8 test garlic bulb extracts successfully prevented Human Vascular Endothelial Cell death and significantly prevented reactive-oxygen species (ROS) formation in oxidative stress model, in which cultivar '74-x' had highest protection capability, following by cultivar 'Hanzhong purple', and the bulbs of cultivar 'No. 105 from Korea' had the lower protection capability against cell death and ROS formation. The protection capability in vivo of these garlic cultivars was consistent with their phenolic content and antioxidant capacity.

  13. Cadmium accumulation in different rice cultivars and screening for pollution-safe cultivars of rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Hui [State Key Laboratory for Biocontrol, also School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Wang Junli [State Key Laboratory for Biocontrol, also School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Fang Wei [Biology Department, Long Island University, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States); Yuan Jiangang [State Key Laboratory for Biocontrol, also School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Yang Zhongyi [State Key Laboratory for Biocontrol, also School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)]. E-mail: adsyzy@mail.sysu.edu.cn

    2006-11-01

    Large areas of contaminated land are being used for agricultural production in some countries due to the high demand for food. To minimize the influx of pollutants to the human food chain through consumption of agricultural products, we propose the concept of pollution-safe cultivars (PSCs), i.e. cultivars whose edible parts accumulate a specific pollutant at a level low enough for safe consumption, even when grown in contaminated soil. We tested the feasibility of the PSC concept by growing 43 cultivars of paddy rice (Oryza sativa L., including 20 normal and 23 hybrid cultivars) under a high (75.69-77.55 mg kg{sup -1}) and a low (1.75-1.85 mg kg{sup -1}) cadmium (Cd) exposure. These pot experiments took place in the spring and summer of 2004. At the low level of Cd exposure, 30 out of the 43 tested cultivars were found to be Cd-PSCs. Grain Cd concentrations were highly correlated (p < 0.01) between the two experiments, suggesting that Cd accumulation in rice grain is genotype-dependent and that the selection of PSCs is possible, at least at a certain level of soil contamination. No Cd-PSCs were found under the high level of Cd exposure. Yield was enhanced in some cultivars and depressed in others in response to elevated soil Cd, indicating that farmers cannot rely on yield depression as an indicator of toxicity of the grains. It is therefore important and feasible to screen for PSCs and to establish PSC breeding programs to effectively and efficiently reduce the risk of human exposure to soil pollutants, such as Cd, through crop consumption.

  14. Characterization of oats (Avena sativa L.) cultivars using machine vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumathi, S; Balamurugan, P

    2013-10-15

    Machine vision or image analysis is an important tool in the study of morphology of any materials. This technique has been used successfully to differentiate the eleven oats cultivars based on morphological characters. The geometry of seeds was measured through image analyzer and the variation was observed and recorded. From the recorded data, the cluster analysis was carried out and it revealed that the cultivars could be grouped into two main clusters based on similarity in the measured parameters. Cultivar Sabzar, UPO 212, OL 9 and OL 88 formed one main cluster. The another main cluster includes cv. Kent, OS 6, UPO 94, HFO 114, OS 7, HJ 8 and JHO 822 with many sub clusters. Among the cultivars HJ 8 and JHO 822 has more similarity in all measured parameters than other cultivars. Thus morphological characterization through seed image analysis was found useful to discriminate the cultivars.

  15. Avaliação de fluxos de calor e evapotranspiração pelo modelo SEBAL com uso de dados do sensor ASTER Evaluation of heat fluxes and evapotranspiration using SEBAL model with data from ASTER sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Veloso dos Santos

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência da aplicação do modelo SEBAL em estimar os fluxos de energia em superfície e a evapotranspiração diária, numa extensa área de cultivo de arroz irrigado, no município de Paraíso do Sul, RS, tendo como parâmetros dados do sensor ASTER. As variáveis estudadas constituem importantes parâmetros do tempo e do clima em estudos agrometeorológicos e de racionalização no uso da água. As metodologias convencionais de estimativa desses parâmetros são pontuais e geralmente apresentam incertezas, que aumentam quando o interesse é o comportamento espacial desses parâmetros. Aplicou-se o algoritmo "Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land" (SEBAL, em uma imagem do sensor "Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer" (ASTER. As estimativas obtidas foram comparadas com medições em campo, realizadas por uma estação micrometeorológica localizada no interior da área de estudo. As estimativas mais precisas foram as de fluxo de calor sensível e de evapotranspiração diária, e a estimativa que apresentou maior erro foi a do fluxo de calor no solo. A metodologia empregada foi capaz de reproduzir os fluxos de energia em superfície de maneira satisfatória para estudos agrometeorológicos e de rendimento de culturas.The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of SEBAL model in estimating soil surface energy fluxes and daily evapotranspiration for a large area of irrigated rice farms, near the municipality of Paraíso do Sul, RS, Brazil, using data from ASTER sensor. The evaluated variables are important weather and climatic parameters for agrometeorological studies and rationalization of water use. The conventional methodologies for estimating these parameters generally present uncertainties, which increase when concern is in the spatial behavior of such parameters. The Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL was applied in an Advanced Spaceborne

  16. Cytotype distribution at a diploid–hexaploid contact zone in Aster amellus (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, S.; Loureiro, J.; Procházka, T.; Münzbergová, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The present study aims to assess the diversity and distribution of cytotypes of Aster amellus in central and eastern Europe, contributing with data to improve understanding of the evolutionary dynamics of the contact zone between diploids and hexaploids of this polyploid complex. Methods Large-scale cytotype screening of 4720 individuals collected in 229 populations was performed using 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) flow cytometry. Fine-scale cytotype screening was performed in the mixed-ploidy population. Reproductive variables, such as number of florets per flower head, seed set and seedling emergence, as well as ploidy level of seeds and seedlings were recorded in this population. Key Results The diploid–hexaploid contact zone is large and complex, reaching the Czech Republic in the west, Austria in the south, Poland in the north-east and Romania in the extreme east of the surveyed areas. Most populations presented only one cytotype, either diploid or hexaploid. In several areas of the contact zone both cytotypes were found to grow in parapatry. One mixed-ploidy population of diploids and hexaploids was detected for the first time, but no signs of hybridization were detected. In this population, diploids had a significantly lower reproductive success, and significantly higher production of intercytotype offspring, being in reproductive disadvantage in comparison with hexaploids. Conclusions The contact zone of diploid and hexaploid A. amellus in central and eastern Europe seems to be highly dynamic and diffuse, with both primary and secondary contacts being possible. The obtained results suggest the origin of hexaploids through diploids, overall supporting previous hypotheses that this species is autopolyploid. Data from the only mixed-ploidy population detected so far suggest that the minority cytotype exclusion is an important evolutionary mechanisms driving the prevalence of single-cytotype populations, and thus contributing to

  17. Rooting of stem segments from fig tree cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Rayane Barcelos Bisi; Guilherme Locatelli; Caio Morais de Alcântara Barbosa; Rafael Pio; Rodrigo Vieira Balbi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Although Brazil is the largest fig (Ficus carica L.) producer in the Southern Hemisphere, it mainly uses only one cultivar, 'Roxo de Valinhos'. In addition, propagation is almost entirely through hardwood cuttings. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish a propagation method that provides more successful rooting of stem segments of fig cultivars for the purpose of expanding the genetic base of the fig tree. The cultivars used were 'Brunswick', 'Calabacita', 'Negro de Bursa...

  18. Screening of Carnation Cultivars for Resistance to Meloidogyne incognita

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, M. R.; Kim, J. Y.; Song, C.; Ko, J.Y.; Na, S. Y.; Yiem, M. S.

    1996-01-01

    A total of 33 carnation cultivars cultured in Korea were screened for resistance to the southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita. Carnations were tested by either inoculating with 5,000 eggs or by transplanting into a mixture of bedding medium and soil infested with an average of 435 second-stage juveniles/300 cm³ soil. Cultivars, Desio, Castelaro, Kappa, Rara, Izu Pink, Target, and Antalia were highly resistant to M. incognita. Twelve cultivars were moderately resistant, and the re...

  19. Cultivar identification in T. aestivum using highly polymorphic RFLP probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccino, P; Accerbi, M; Corbellini, M

    1993-08-01

    Two probes, specific for HMW-glutenins and γ-gliadins have been used to identify 50 common wheat Italian cultivars, most of which are closely related, and four common wheat cultivars originating outside Italy. The probes revealed complex polymorphic patterns; three probe/enzyme combinations had the necessary sensitivity for the identification of all 54 cultivars. As already shown for potato and barley, the use of four-cutter restriction enzymes and polyacrylamide gels proved particularly useful for detecting polymorphism.

  20. Mapping invasive alien Acacia dealbata Link using ASTER multispectral imagery: a case study in central-eastern of Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, F.; Alegria, C.; Artur, G.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: Acacia dealbata is an alien invasive species that is widely spread in Portugal. The main goal of this study was to produce an accurate and detailed map for this invasive species using ASTER multispectral imagery. Area of study: The central-eastern zone of Portugal was used as study area. This whole area is represented in an ASTER scene covering about 321.1 x 103 ha. Material and methods: ASTER imagery of two dates (flowering season and dry season) were classified by applying three supervised classifiers (Maximum Likelihood, Support Vector Machine and Artificial Neural Networks) to five different land cover classifications (from most generic to most detailed land cover categories). The spectral separability of the land cover categories was analyzed and the accuracy of the 30 produced maps compared. Main results: The highest classification accuracy for acacia mapping was obtained using the flowering season imagery, the Maximum Likelihood classifier and the most detailed land cover classification (overall accuracy of 86%; Kappa statistics of 85%; acacia class Kappa statistics of 100%). As a result, the area occupied by acacia was estimated to be approximated 24,770 ha (i.e. 8% of the study area). Research highlights: The methodology explored proved to be a cost-effective solution for acacia mapping in central-eastern of Portugal. The obtained map enables a more accurate and detailed identification of this species’ invaded areas due to its spatial resolution (minimum mapping unit of 0.02 ha) providing a substantial improvement comparably to the existent national land cover maps to support monitoring and control activities. (Author)

  1. Photosynthetic Diurnal Variation of Soybean Cultivars with High Photosynthetic Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAN Wei-qun; DU Wei-guang; ZHANG Gui-ru; LUAN Xiao-yan; GE Qiao-ying; HAO Nai-bin; CHEN Yi

    2002-01-01

    The photosynthetic characters were investigated among soybean cultivars with high photosynthetic efficiency and high yield. The results indicated that: 1) There were significant differences in photosynthetic rate (Ph) and dark respiration rate (DR) under saturation light intensity and appropriate temperature.2) There were a little difference in light compensation point among them. Photo flux density (PFD) were mong the cultivars. Diurnal variation of Pn was shown a curve with two peaks. 4) The cultivars with high photosynthetic efficiency were subjected less to photoinhibition than that with high yield. Critical temperatures of photoinhibition in high photosynthetic efficiency cultivars were higher than that of high yield.

  2. Rational regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jun; Pan, Yong-Bao; Xu, Liping; Grisham, Michael Paul; Zhang, Hua; Que, Youxiong

    2015-10-26

    Knowing yield potential and yield stability of sugarcane cultivars is of significance in guiding sugarcane breeding and rationalising regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars. In the present study, a heritability-adjusted genotype main effect plus genotype × environment (HA-GGE) biplot program was used to analyze the cane and sucrose yields of 44 newly released sugarcane cultivars at eight pilot test sites. The cane and sucrose yields of nine cultivars were higher than those of the control cultivar ROC22. From the perspective of cane yield, cultivars FN 40 and YZ 06-407 were well adapted to a wider range of conditions and produced relatively high cane yields in several pilot sites. From the perspective of sucrose yield, cultivars LC 03-1137, FN 38, FN 41, MT 01-77 and LC 05-136 were well adapted to a wide range of conditions and produced relatively high sucrose yields. Based on these results, three high yielding and widely adapted cultivars, namely, FN 39, LC 05-136, and YZ 05-51 were recommended for production in three major Chinese sugarcane planting areas. The results will provide a theoretical basis for recommending the effective use and rational regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars in China.

  3. Consumer evaluation of scab-resistant apple cultivars in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Å. JÖNSSON

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of using untrained consumers for sensory evaluation was investigated on Swedish-grown scab-resistant apple cultivars in 2002 (11 cultivars and 2003 (15 cultivars. The consumers evaluated five cultivars each, including the control cultivar ‘Aroma’. Each cultivar was scored for appearance, texture, juiciness, taste and overall impression by a minimum of 100 consumers in 2002 and by 200 in 2003. All quality attributes were positively correlated when calculations were performed across all consumer scores, with overall impression and taste having the strongest association. ‘Rubinola’ and K:1160 emerged as the best liked cultivars overall. Cultivar means were analysed for relationships with some previously scored or measured variables and with consumer profile data. Positive correlations with overall impression were obtained for amount of red colour in 2002, and for sugar levels in 2003. Among consumer profile variables, age had the largest influence on consumer scores, with some indications that older consumers preferred (or at least tolerated soft-fleshed cultivars better than did younger consumers. Minimum number of consumers needed to obtain reliable results was determined by computer simulations indicating that the error rate became stabilized already with 50 consumers.;

  4. Comparative lahar hazard mapping at Volcan Citlaltépetl, Mexico using SRTM, ASTER and DTED-1 digital topographic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Bernard E.; Sheridan, Michael F.; Carrasco-Núñez, Gerardo; Díaz-Castellón, Rodolfo; Rodríguez, Sergio Raúl

    2007-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated and compared the utility of spaceborne SRTM and ASTER DEMs with baseline DTED-1 "bald-earth" topography for mapping lahar inundation hazards from volcan Citlaltépetl, Mexico, a volcano which has had a history of producing debris flows of various extents. In particular, we tested the utility of these topographic datasets for resolving ancient valley-filling deposits exposed around the flanks of the volcano, for determining their magnitude using paleohydrologic methods and for forecasting their inundation limits in the future. We also use the three datasets as inputs to a GIS stream inundation flow model, LAHARZ, and compare the results. In general all three datasets, with spatial resolution of 90 m or better, were capable of resolving debris flow and lahar deposits at least 3 × 10 6 m 3 in volume or larger. Canopy- and slope-related height errors in the ASTER and SRTM DEMs limit their utility for measuring valley-filling cross-sectional area and deriving flow magnitude for the smallest deposits using a cross-sectional area to volume scaling equation. Height errors in the ASTER and SRTM DEMs also causes problems in resolving stream valley hydrography which controls lahar flow paths and stream valley morphology which controls lahar filling capacity. However, both of the two spaceborne DEM datasets are better than DTED-1 at resolving fine details in stream hydrography and erosional morphologies of volcaniclastics preserved in the valleys around the more humid, eastern flanks of the volcanic range. The results of LAHARZ flow inundation modeling using all three DEMs as inputs are remarkably similar and co-validate one another. For example, at Citlaltépetl all lahar simulations show that the city of Orizaba is the most vulnerable to flows similar in magnitude to, or larger than, one that occurred in 1920. Many of the other cities and towns illustrated are built higher up on terrace deposits of older debris flows, and are safe from all but

  5. The Penetration Depth Derived from the Synthesis of ALOS/PALSAR InSAR Data and ASTER GDEM for the Mapping of Forest Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjian Ni

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Global Digital Elevation Model produced from stereo images of Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer data (ASTER GDEM covers land surfaces between latitudes of 83°N and 83°S. The Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR onboard Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS collected many SAR images since it was launched on 24 January 2006. The combination of ALOS/PALSAR interferometric data and ASTER GDEM should provide the penetration depth of SAR data assuming ASTER GDEM was the elevation of vegetation canopy top. It would be correlated with forest biomass because penetration depth could be affected by forest density and forest canopy height. Their combination held great promises for the forest biomass mapping over large area. The feasibility of forest biomass mapping through the data synthesis of ALOS/PALSAR InSAR data and ASTER GDEM was investigated in this study. A procedure for the extraction of penetration depth was firstly proposed. Then three models were built for biomass estimation: (I model only using backscattering coefficients of ALOS/PALSAR data; (II model only using penetration depth; (III model using both of them. The biomass estimated from Lidar data was taken as reference data to evaluate the three different models. The results showed that the combination of backscattering coefficients and penetration depth gave the best accuracy. The forest disturbance has to be considered in forest biomass estimation because of the long time span of ASTER data for generating ASTER GDEM. The spatial homogeneity could be used to improve estimation accuracy.

  6. CULTIVAR RELEASE-BRS 217 Flora: Early-maturing soybean cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plínio Itamar de Mello de Souza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cultivar BRS 217 Flora was developed by Embrapa and released forproduction in the states of Goiás, Minas Gerais, Bahia, Mato Grosso and the Distrito Federal, Brazil. It is resistant to stemcanker, frog-eye leaf spot, bacterial pustule, and partially resistant to powdery mildew.

  7. UEL 7: nova cultivar de Dendrobium UEL 7: a new Dendrobium cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Tadeu de Faria

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available UEL 7 é uma cultivar de Dendrobium nobile desenvolvida no Departamento de Agronomia da Universidade Estadual de Londrina resultante do cruzamento das plantas matrizes D3 x D8 e selecionada pela coloração das flores amarelas e com largura e comprimento semelhantes (7,0 cm, formando praticamente um círculo. As plantas foram polinizadas artificialmente, e as sementes semeadas em meio de cultura in vitro. A cultivar apresenta flores de coloração amarela, labelo com o centro marrom escuro e o pseudobulbo apresenta em mé dia 11 flores. As flores têm durabilidade de aproximadamente 30 dias.UEL 7 is a Dendrobium nobile's cultivar developed at The Department of Agronomy of Universidade Estadual de Londrina and is the result of the crossing between D3 x D8 and selected for its yellow flowers and format with similar width and length (7.0 cm, almost forming a circle. The plants were pollinated artificially, and the seeds sowed in growth media in vitro. The cultivar presents flowers of yellow coloration, labelo with the center dark brown color and the pseudobulb presents 11 flowers on average. The flowers durability is about 30 days.

  8. CULTIVAR RELEASE - FAEM Carlasul: new white oat cultivar with high grain yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Costa de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The white oat cultivar FAEM Carlasul was developed at the Plant Genomics and Breeding Center, Faculty of Agronomy Eliseu Maciel, Federal University of Pelotas, as a result of the cross between UFRGS 10 and 90SAT-28 (Coronado2/Cortez3/Pendek/ME 1563. It is characterized by high yield and grain quality.

  9. Storage performance of Taiwanese sweet potato cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Che-Lun; Liao, Wayne C.; Chan, Chin-Feng; Lai, Yung-Chang

    2013-01-01

    Three sweet potato cultivars (TNG57, TNG66, and TNG73), provided by the Taiwanese Agricultural Research Institute (TARI), were stored at either 15 °C or under ambient conditions (23.8 ~ 28.4 °C and 77.1 ~ 81.0 % of relative humidity). Sweet potato roots were randomly chosen from each replicate and evaluated for measurement of weight loss, sugar content analysis, and sprouting after 0, 14, 24, 48, 56, 70, 84, and 98 days of storage. Fresh sweet potato roots were baked at 200 °C for 60 min then...

  10. Sensibilidade de cultivares de algodoeiro ao cloreto de mepiquat Sensibility of cotton cultivars to mepiquat chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Bogiani

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a sensibilidade de cultivares de algodoeiro ao cloreto de mepiquat e verificar se ela está relacionada ao ciclo ou à arquitetura da planta. Foi realizado um experimento em casa de vegetação com seis cultivares de algodoeiro - FiberMax 966, FiberMax 977, Delta Penta, Delta Opal, FMT 501 e FMT 701 - e quatro doses do regulador vegetal à base de cloreto de mepiquat - 0, 7,5, 15 e 22,5 g ha-1 de i.a. -, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com arranjo fatorial 6x4 e quatro repetições. As parcelas experimentais foram constituídas por vasos de 12 L com duas plantas em cada um. As doses do regulador vegetal foram aplicadas sem adjuvante, no estádio de aparecimento dos botões florais, aos 34 dias após a emergência das plântulas. Paralelamente ao experimento com doses, a retenção do regulador pelas folhas das cultivares foi quantificada. O crescimento em altura das plantas de algodoeiro é diminuído com a aplicação do regulador vegetal, e esse efeito se intensifica com o aumento da dosagem aplicada. Existe diferença entre as cultivares estudadas quanto à sensibilidade ao cloreto de mepiquat, sendo que as mais precoces são mais sensíveis. Além da sensibilidade diferenciada, a arquitetura das plantas pode possibilitar maior ou menor deposição do regulador sobre as folhas.The objective of this work was to assess the sensibility of cotton cultivars to mepiquat chloride and to verify if it is related to plant cycle or architecture. A green-house experiment was carried out with six cotton cultivars - FiberMax 966, FiberMax 977, Delta Penta, Delta Opal, FMT 501 e FMT 701 -, and four concentrations of mepiquat chloride plant growth regulator - 0, 7,5, 15 and 22,5 g ha-1 of the active ingredient - in complete block design with a 6x4 factorial arrangement and four replicates. The plots consisted of 12 L pots with two plants per pot. Regulator doses were applied without adjuvants at the beginning of

  11. Yield and quality of strawberry cultivars Produtividade e qualidade de cultivares de morangueiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo C Antunes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The strawberry cultivation is an important economic activity in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, however the number of offered cultivars to the growers is reduced. The yield and quality of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. cultivars Camarosa, Galexia, Earlibrite, Festival, Plarionfre and Sabrosa was evaluated under the climatic conditions of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State. We determined the number, mass, total soluble solids (TSS ºBrix, total titratable acidity (TTA, antocianin level and fresh fruits produced in an experimental unit. We also determined the production of fruits per hectare and per plant. The statistical design used in the experiment was of completely randomized blocks with 6 treatments (cultivars and 4 replicates where the experimental unit was composed of 8 plants. The harvest began in the first half of August, extending to the second half of December, totalling 20 weeks. Plarionfre, Earlibrite and Festival cultivars showed higher production from the first half of October until the end of the first half of November. Camarosa reached higher productivity, mass of plants and fruit weight. There were no differences between the evaluated cultivars in the levels of TSS, antocianin, ATT and pH during the period of evaluation.No estado do Rio Grande do Sul o cultivo do morangueiro é uma atividade econômica importante, entretanto o número de cultivares disponíveis no mercado é bastante reduzido. Assim buscou-se com este trabalho avaliar a produtividade e a qualidade dos frutos de cultivares de morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa Duch., Camarosa, Galexia, Earlibrite, Festival, Plarionfre e Sabrosa, cultivados nas condições climáticas e de solo do município de Pelotas, RS. Determinaram-se, o número, massa fresca e teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST (expresso em ºBrix, acidez total titulável (ATT (expresso em % de ácido cítrico e teor de antocianinas, dos frutos produzidos por unidade experimental. Determinou

  12. Identification of hydrothermal alteration zones of the Baogutu porphyry copper deposits in northwest China using ASTER data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nannan; Zhou, Kefa

    2017-01-01

    Remote sensing technology plays a vital role in the initial stages of ore deposits exploration, with special significance in arid and semiarid regions. Advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER) creates opportunities for geologists and many researchers to study the extraction of hydrothermal alterations of the porphyry copper and epithermal gold deposits. ASTER data were used to map distribution of hydrothermal alteration of deposits in the Baogutu region which is located in western Junggar, Xinjiang, China, including Baogutu II and Baogutu V deposits. Band ratio logical operator (BRLO), principal component analysis (PCA), mixture-tuned matched-filtering (MTMF), and constrained energy minimization (CEM) techniques were used for detailed hydrothermal alteration mapping. The alteration zones were identified using BRLO and PCA. The minerals subject to alteration were extracted by MTMF and CEM. The results were validated through field observation, spectral measurements, and petrographic studies. By comparing the extraction results and accuracy rates of four methods, CEM boasts the highest accuracy and identifies the altered minerals corresponding to three types of alterations at accuracy of over 80%. The identifying result of CEM method indicates that the prospect areas that were located in the southeast part of the Baogutu II rocks and in the southwest part of the Baogutu V rocks are valuable for further exploration.

  13. The microtubule aster formation and its role in nuclear envelope assembly around the sperm chromatin in Xenopus egg extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ning; CHEN Zhongcai; LU Ping; ZHANG Chuanmao; ZHAI Zhonghe; TANG Xiaowei

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear envelope is a dynamic structure in the cell cycle. At the beginning of mitosis, nuclear envelope breaks down and its components disperse into the cytoplasm. At the end of mitosis, nuclear envelope reassembles using the dispersed components. Searching for the mechanisms of the nuclear disassembly and reassembly has for a long time been one of the key projects for cell biologists. In this report we show that microtubules take a role in the nuclear envelope assembly around the sperm chromatin in Xenopus egg extracts. Microtubule cytoskeleton has been demonstrated to take roles in the transport of intracellular membranes such as Golgi and ER vesicles. We found that the nuclear envelope assembly needs functional microtubules. At the beginning of the nuclear assembly, microtubules nucleated to form a microtubule aster around the centrosome at the base of the sperm head. Using the microtubule drug colchicine to disrupt the microtubule nucleation, nuclear envelope reassembly was seriously inhibited. If the microtubules were stabilized by taxol, another microtubule drug, the nuclear envelope reassembly was also interfered, although a significantly large aster formed around the chromatin. Based on these observations, we propose that microtubules play an important role in the nuclear envelope reassembly maybe by transporting the nuclear envelope precursors to the chromatin surfaces.

  14. Temporal radiative heat flux estimation and alteration mapping of Tendürek volcano (eastern Turkey) using ASTER imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusoy, İnan

    2016-11-01

    Tendürek volcano is a polygenetic, basaltic shield volcano formed by successive alkaline basalt flows. It is one of the youngest volcanoes of Turkey; both historical and Holocene activities have been reported for the volcano. Continuous hydrothermal and fumarole activity has been observed on the twin summit craters located 4.5 km apart. ASTER daytime and nighttime satellite imagery acquired between 2001 and 2014 are used to calculate surface temperature, surface temperature anomaly and relative radiative heat flux from the craters to determine a base value for the current thermal emission. Surface temperature and surface temperature anomaly calculations yield a heat flux between 14.4 and 35.5 W/m2 at the western crater and between 7.72 and 28.3 W/m2 at the eastern crater. These values are well-correlated with other known low-level activity volcanoes. The annual and long term consistency of the thermal pattern is investigated. The location and extent of surficial hydrothermal alteration within and surrounding the Tendürek craters is identified by band ratioing and indexing using ASTER visible through shortwave infrared bands. Spectral identification of gypsum, hydroxides, sulfates, hydrated sulfates and clay mineralisation indicates pervasive acid-sulfate alteration due to the activity of fumarole vents around Tendürek craters.

  15. Digital Mapping of Soil Drainage Classes Using Multitemporal RADARSAT-1 and ASTER Images and Soil Survey Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abou Niang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Discriminant analysis classification (DAC and decision tree classifiers (DTC were used for digital mapping of soil drainage in the Bras-d’Henri watershed (QC, Canada using earth observation data (RADARSAT-1 and ASTER and soil survey dataset. Firstly, a forward stepwise selection was applied to each land use type identified by ASTER image in order to derive an optimal subset of soil drainage class predictors. The classification models were then applied to these subsets for each land use and merged to obtain a digital soil drainage map for the whole watershed. The DTC method provided better classification accuracies (29 to 92% than the DAC method (33 to 79% according to the land use type. A similarity measure (S was used to compare the best digital soil drainage map (DTC to the conventional soil drainage map. Medium to high similarities (0.6≤S<0.9 were observed for 83% (187 km2 of the study area while 3% of the study area showed very good agreement (S≥0.9. Few soil polygons showed very weak similarities (S<0.3. This study demonstrates the efficiency of combining radar and optical remote sensing data with a representative soil dataset for producing digital maps of soil drainage.

  16. Seismic zonation of Port-Au-Prince using pixel- and object-based imaging analysis methods on ASTER GDEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Alan; Hough, Susan E.; Cox, Brady R.; Rathje, Ellen M.; Bachhuber, Jeff; Dulberg, Ranon; Hulslander, David; Christiansen, Lisa; and Abrams, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    We report about a preliminary study to evaluate the use of semi-automated imaging analysis of remotely-sensed DEM and field geophysical measurements to develop a seismic-zonation map of Port-au-Prince, Haiti. For in situ data, VS30 values are derived from the MASW technique deployed in and around the city. For satellite imagery, we use an ASTER GDEM of Hispaniola. We apply both pixel- and object-based imaging methods on the ASTER GDEM to explore local topography (absolute elevation values) and classify terrain types such as mountains, alluvial fans and basins/near-shore regions. We assign NEHRP seismic site class ranges based on available VS30 values. A comparison of results from imagery-based methods to results from traditional geologic-based approaches reveals good overall correspondence. We conclude that image analysis of RS data provides reliable first-order site characterization results in the absence of local data and can be useful to refine detailed site maps with sparse local data.

  17. Seismic-zonation of Port-au-Prince using pixel- and object-based imaging analysis methods on ASTER GDEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, A.; Hough, S.E.; Cox, B.R.; Rathje, E.M.; Bachhuber, J.; Dulberg, R.; Hulslander, D.; Christiansen, L.; Abrams, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    We report about a preliminary study to evaluate the use of semi-automated imaging analysis of remotely-sensed DEM and field geophysical measurements to develop a seismic-zonation map of Port-au-Prince, Haiti. For in situ data, Vs30 values are derived from the MASW technique deployed in and around the city. For satellite imagery, we use an ASTER GDEM of Hispaniola. We apply both pixel- and object-based imaging methods on the ASTER GDEM to explore local topography (absolute elevation values) and classify terrain types such as mountains, alluvial fans and basins/near-shore regions. We assign NEHRP seismic site class ranges based on available Vs30 values. A comparison of results from imagery-based methods to results from traditional geologic-based approaches reveals good overall correspondence. We conclude that image analysis of RS data provides reliable first-order site characterization results in the absence of local data and can be useful to refine detailed site maps with sparse local data. ?? 2011 American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.

  18. Planimetric and volumetric glacier changes in the Khumbu Himal, Nepal, since 1962 using Corona, Landsat TM and ASTER data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolch, Tobias; Buchroithner, Manfred; Pieczonka, Tino; Kunert, Andreé

    Multitemporal space imagery from 1962 (Corona KH-4), 1992 (Landsat TM), 2001 and 2005 (Terra ASTER) was used to investigate the glacier changes in the Khumbu Himal, Nepal. The ice coverage in the investigation area decreased by about 5% between 1962 and 2005, with the highest retreat rates occurring between 1992 and 2001. The debris coverage increased concomitantly with the decrease in total glacier area. The clean-ice area decreased by >10%. Digital terrain model (DTM) generation from the early Corona KH-4 stereo data in this high-relief terrain is time-consuming, and the results still contain some elevation errors. However, these are minor in the snow-free areas with gentle slopes. Thus comparison of the surfaces of the debris-covered glacier tongues based on the Corona DTM and an ASTER DTM is feasible and shows the downwasting of the debris-covered glaciers. The highest downwasting rates, more than 20m (>0.5ma-1), can be found near the transition zone between the active and the stagnant glacier parts of the debris-covered glacier tongues. The downwasting is lower, but still evident, in the active ice areas and at the snout with thick debris cover. All investigated debriscovered glaciers in the study area show similar behaviour. The estimated volume loss for the investigated debris-covered glacier tongues is 0.19km3.

  19. Cultivar and row distance interactions in perennial ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise C; Gislum, René; Boelt, Birte

    2009-01-01

    yield and seed weight (r=0.72***), whereas the correlation between seed yield and the number of reproductive tillers was negatively correlated (r= - 0.49***). This may reflect choice of cultivars in the experiment with the tetraploid forage cultivar 'Tivoli' having the lowest number of reproductive...

  20. Identifying nitrogen-efficient potato cultivars for organic farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemens-Hulscher, M.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    In organic farming, nitrogen efficiency of potato might vary among cultivars, even within the same maturity type. We therefore analysed in depth the response to nitrogen of a diverse set of cultivars, grown at different locations (differing in soil type and management) and in four years (differing i

  1. Performance de six cultivars de tomates Lycopersicon esculentum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... de déterminer sur la parcelle après apport d\\'insecticides, les incidences du TYLCV ... others diseases: the yellow leaf curl, bacterial wilt and root knot nematodes. In order to identify performants cultivars, six improved cultivars of tomato were ...

  2. Performance of blueberry cultivars under mild winter conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gilberto Sousa Medeiros

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Evaluation of yield performance is important to find the most adapted blueberry cultivars in a particular region. This research aimed to evaluate the flowering and hasvesting periods, the production per plant, and fruit quality of eight rabbiteye blueberry cultivars (Aliceblue, Bluebelle, Bluegem, Briteblue, Climax, Delite, Powderblue, and Woodard and two highbush blueberries (Georgiagem and O’Neal, in mild winter conditions in Pinhais-PR. Flowering and harvesting periods, production, berry weight, size, pH, soluble solids, titratable acidity, ratio and color of the fruits were evaluated in the 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 growing seasons, when the plants had two and three years old, respectively. Cultivars flowered from August to September, and harvest was concentrated in November and December. Berry weight, size, pH, soluble solids and acidity varied among the cultivars. The average ratios of 14.97 and 13.39 for each crop proved that the cultivars have good fruit quality. There was little variation in fruit color in the two years evaluated. Blueberry cultivars showed the staining characteristics and physical and chemical attributes of quality compatible to blueberry from other traditional regions. Under mild winter conditions, young plants of rabbiteye blueberry cultivars, Climax, Delite, Bluegem and Powderblue, are the most productive, while the highbusch cultivars bear few fruits.

  3. Blueberry cultivars for the Pacific Northwest (PNW 656)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bush habit, berry characteristics, yield potential, and suitability for commercial or homeowner production for 41 highbush, rabbiteye and ornamental blueberry cultivars are presented. This extension guide reviews many of the possible cultivars a commercial grower or homeowner might grow. Standar...

  4. Measurement of lipid transfer protein in 88 apple cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sancho, A.I.; Ree, van R.; Leeuwen, van A.; Meulenbroek, E.J.; Weg, van de W.E.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Puehringer, H.; Laimer, M.; Martinelli, A.; Zaccharini, M.; Vazquez-Cortes, S.; Fernandez-Rivas, M.; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K.; Clare Mills, E.N.; Zuidmeer, L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Fruits are a major cause of food allergy in adults. Lipid transfer proteins (LTP) are implicated in severe allergic reactions to fruits, but little is known about LTP content in different cultivars. Objective: Determination of the levels of LTP in a wide range of apple cultivars. Methods

  5. Evaluation of Wheat and Barley Cultivars Tolerance to Metribuzine Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Izadi Darbandi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to study of barely and wheat cultivars tolerance to metribuzin, a factorial experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design, with three replications in Greenhouse of Agricultural Research at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Treatments included wheat cultivars (Backcross roshan, Cross Arvand, Bahar, Sepahan, Gascosion, Sayonez, Bam garmsiry, Garmsiri, Ghods, Pishtaz, Chamran and Shoori 6, barely cultivars (Macouyi, Karoon and Bahman and metribuzin application rates ( 0, 175, 350, 700, 1050, 1400 and 2100 gr. ai.ha-1. Metribuzine was applied at 3-4 leaf stage and 3 weeks after herbicide spraying, plants survival and their biomass were determined. Results showed that metribuzin application had a significant effect (p≤0.01 on barley and wheat dry weight. Based on results, mertibuzin application did not affect on barley cultivars up to 30 g.a.i.ha-1 but in wheat varieties lead to significant reduction in their biomass and survival. Increasing of metribuzin rates reduced wheat and barley cultivars biomass (p≤0.01. Barely varieties were less sensitive than wheat cultivars to metribuzine. The highest and the lowest ED50 in wheat cultivars were observed in cross arvand (940 and shoori (25 varieties, respectively. In barley cultivars the highest and lowest ED50 were observed in Macouyi (614 and Karoon (396, respectively.

  6. Effect of cultivar and year on phyllochron in winter barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pržulj Novo M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Development and growth of leaves in cereals significantly affects grain yield since dry matter accumulation depends on the leaf area that intercepts light. Phyllochron (PHY is defined as time interval between the emergences of successive leaves on the main stem. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of year and cultivar on phyllochron in winter barley. Twelve cultivars of winter barley differing in origin and time of anthesis were tested during six growing seasons (GS, from 2002/03 to 2007/08. The highest PHY across GSs was determined in the two-rowed cultivar Cordoba (81.6°Cd and the lowest in the two-rowed cultivar Novosadski 581 (71.0°Cd. The early cultivars had fast leaf development, the medium cultivars medium and the late cultivars slow development, 72.5°Cd, 75.6°Cd and 78.9°Cd, respectively. The tested cultivars showed significant variability in the PHY, which can be used for selecting most adaptable genotypes for specific growing conditions.

  7. New Kiwifruit Cultivar Carves a Firm Niche in European Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ While enhancing the world kiwifruit production by developing new cultivars,CAS researchers are gaining a firm foothold in international kiwifruit market as they prolong their control over the propagation rights of a recently developed novel yellowfleshed cultivar, Jin Tao, in European countries.

  8. Vertical Accuracy Assessment of 30-M Resolution Alos, Aster, and Srtm Global Dems Over Northeastern Mindanao, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillan, J. R.; Makinano-Santillan, M.

    2016-06-01

    The ALOS World 3D - 30 m (AW3D30), ASTER Global DEM Version 2 (GDEM2), and SRTM-30 m are Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) that have been made available to the general public free of charge. An important feature of these DEMs is their unprecedented horizontal resolution of 30-m and almost global coverage. The very recent release of these DEMs, particularly AW3D30 and SRTM- 30 m, calls for opportunities for the conduct of localized assessment of the DEM's quality and accuracy to verify their suitability for a wide range of applications in hydrology, geomorphology, archaelogy, and many others. In this study, we conducted a vertical accuracy assessment of these DEMs by comparing the elevation of 274 control points scattered over various sites in northeastern Mindanao, Philippines. The elevations of these control points (referred to the Mean Sea Level, MSL) were obtained through 3rd order differential levelling using a high precision digital level, and their horizontal positions measured using a global positioning system (GPS) receiver. These control points are representative of five (5) land-cover classes namely brushland (45 points), built-up (32), cultivated areas (97), dense vegetation (74), and grassland (26). Results showed that AW3D30 has the lowest Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 5.68 m, followed by SRTM-30 m (RMSE = 8.28 m), and ASTER GDEM2 (RMSE = 11.98 m). While all the three DEMs overestimated the true ground elevations, the mean and standard deviations of the differences in elevations were found to be lower in AW3D30 compared to SRTM-30 m and ASTER GDEM2. The superiority of AW3D30 over the other two DEMS was also found to be consistent even under different landcover types, with AW3D30's RMSEs ranging from 4.29 m (built-up) to 6.75 m (dense vegetation). For SRTM-30 m, the RMSE ranges from 5.91 m (built-up) to 10.42 m (brushland); for ASTER GDEM2, the RMSE ranges from 9.27 m (brushland) to 14.88 m (dense vegetation). The

  9. Esterase polymorphism marking cultivars of Manihot esculenta, Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Gazoli Resende

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Esterase isozymes were used to detected substrate-preference polymorphism in twenty cultivars of Manihot esculenta, and to show cultivar-specific variation of this species. A relatively complex extraction solution of proteins from leaves was needed to show a larger number of esterase isozymes. Similarity between cultivars from six groups ranged from 51 to 96%. The cultivars identified by the same name seemed to be biochemically different regarding esterase isozymes. Esterase isozyme electrophoretic patterns could, therefore, be used to discriminate the cultivars identified by the same name, and to monitor the vegetative propagation of cultivars maintained in the germplasm collection. In breeding strategies, isoesterase analysis could be used to avoid intercrossing between the similar genotypes.Isoenzimas esterases foram usadas no presente estudo, para detectar polimorfismos específicos para diferentes substratos em vinte cultivares de Manihot esculenta, e para mostrar variações específicas de cultivares nesta espécie. Os diferentes cultivares de M. esculenta tem sido mantidos na coleção de germoplasma do Departamento de Agronomia da Universidade Estadual de Maringá (Maringá, PR, e foram provenientes de cultivares tradicionais coletados nas regiões sudoeste e noroeste do Estado. Foi necessário a utilização de uma solução de extração de proteínas relativamente mais complexa, para evidenciar um maior número de isoenzimas esterases. A similaridade entre os cultivares variou de 51 a 96%. Cultivares identificados pelo mesmo nome parecem ser bioquimicamente diferentes para as isoenzimas esterases. Os padrões eletroforéticos das isoesterases podem, portanto, serem usados para discriminar os cultivares que são identificados pelo mesmo nome, e para monitorar a propagação vegetativa dos cultivares mantidos na coleção de germoplasma. A análise das isoesterases pode também ser usada para evitar cruzamentos entre genótipos mais

  10. Metabolomics-driven nutraceutical evaluation of diverse green tea cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Fujimura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Green tea has various health promotion effects. Although there are numerous tea cultivars, little is known about the differences in their nutraceutical properties. Metabolic profiling techniques can provide information on the relationship between the metabolome and factors such as phenotype or quality. Here, we performed metabolomic analyses to explore the relationship between the metabolome and health-promoting attributes (bioactivity of diverse Japanese green tea cultivars. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the ability of leaf extracts from 43 Japanese green tea cultivars to inhibit thrombin-induced phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (MRLC in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. This thrombin-induced phosphorylation is a potential hallmark of vascular endothelial dysfunction. Among the tested cultivars, Cha Chuukanbohon Nou-6 (Nou-6 and Sunrouge (SR strongly inhibited MRLC phosphorylation. To evaluate the bioactivity of green tea cultivars using a metabolomics approach, the metabolite profiles of all tea extracts were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS. Multivariate statistical analyses, principal component analysis (PCA and orthogonal partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA, revealed differences among green tea cultivars with respect to their ability to inhibit MRLC phosphorylation. In the SR cultivar, polyphenols were associated with its unique metabolic profile and its bioactivity. In addition, using partial least-squares (PLS regression analysis, we succeeded in constructing a reliable bioactivity-prediction model to predict the inhibitory effect of tea cultivars based on their metabolome. This model was based on certain identified metabolites that were associated with bioactivity. When added to an extract from the non-bioactive cultivar Yabukita, several metabolites enriched in SR were able to transform the extract into a bioactive

  11. ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIMUTAGENIC ACTIVITIES OF TAIF GRAPE (VITIS VINIFERA CULTIVARS

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    Abdelmegid Ibrahim Fahmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extract of grape Vitis vinifera has been reported to exhibit antioxidant and antimutagenic activities and the phenolic compounds play a vital role in determining these activities. Therefore; the objective of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-mutagenic activities as well as the phenolic composition of different grape cultivar extracts collected from Taif region. The grape cultivars namely; Italian, American, Lebanese, Taifyb and Taifye were collected at maturity stage to represent Taif region cultivars. The total concentrations of phenoles were determined for the five cultivar extracts and results indicated that the concentrations ranged from 115-960 mg L-1 Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE. Also, HPLC analysis included was carried out of nine important phenolic compounds namely; Cyanidine chloride, Myricetin, Chrysin, Quercetin, Delphinidine chloride, Malvidine chloride, Naringenin, Galangin and Caffeic acid. Significant differences among cultivars were obtained for each compound. However, the highest cultivar for each compound differed from compound to another. At the same time, DPPH was used to estimate antioxidant activity and the data showed that different grape cultivar extracts were able to quench 47-60% of DPPH radical solution and to exhibited potent radical scavenging activity. Also, antimutagenic activity was measured as a decrease of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells of mice treated with the mutagen Endoxan. Results showed that treatment of mice with grape cultivar extracts resulted in a significant decrease in all types of chromosomal aberrations induced by Endoxan. Also, the anticlastogenic effect was measured using micronulei test and results indicated that all grape cultivar extracts reduced significantly the effect of Endoxan on micronulei test. Finally, treatment of mice with grape cultivar extracts enhanced mitotic index of mice bone marrow cells reduced by Endoxan treatment. The relationship

  12. Compatibilidade de enxertia de cultivares de marmeleiros com pereiras Compatibility of pear cultivars on quinces rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeni Fonseca Pinto Tomaz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A insuficiência de estudos sobre compatibilidade de porta-enxertos é um dos fatores limitantes ao desenvolvimento da cultura da pereira (Pyrus sp. no Brasil. A utilização do marmeleiro (Cydonia oblonga como porta-enxerto para a cultura da pereira apresenta inúmeras vantagens, entre as quais a redução do vigor e a rápida entrada em produção; todavia, sua combinação com algumas cultivares copa apresenta problemas de incompatibilidade de enxertia, podendo ocasionar a ruptura do caule das plantas no pomar. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar a compatibilidade de enxertia de algumas cultivares de marmeleiros ('Quince C' e 'Adams' com pereiras ('Packham's Triumph' e 'Kieffer'. As variáveis analisadas foram: diâmetro da secção do tronco no ponto de enxertia, 5 cm abaixo e 5 cm acima do ponto de enxertia, diferença do diâmetro entre porta-enxerto e copa, altura das plantas, volume e massa seca da copa e raízes. Além disso, efetuou-se a observação da conexão vascular no ponto de enxertia através da imersão da base das plantas (abaixo do ponto de enxertia, em solução corante de Ácido Fuccínico 0,08%. Concluiu-se que a cultivar 'Packham's Triumph'apresenta compatibilidade de enxertia com o marmeleiro cultivares 'Adams'e 'Quince C', enquanto o híbrido 'Kieffer' apresentou sintomas morfológicos de incompatibilidade de enxertia com o marmeleiro cultivares 'Quince C' e 'Adams'.The lack of studies on compatibility of pear cultivars and rootstocks is one of the limiting factors on the development of the pear crop in Brazil. The use of quinces as rootstocks for pear cultivars has several advantages, among them the reduction in vigor and earlier bearing trees, however, its combination with some scions cultivars results in problems of incompatibility , such as lost of trees of the orchard due to break of the graft union. The objective of this study was to determine the compatibility between pears cvs. Packham's Triumph and Kieffer

  13. HYDROTHEMAL ALTERATION MAPPING USING FEATURE-ORIENTED PRINCIPAL COMPONENT SELECTION (FPCS METHOD TO ASTER DATA:WIKKI AND MAWULGO THERMAL SPRINGS, YANKARI PARK, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Abubakar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal systems are essentially associated with hydrothermal alteration mineral assemblages such as iron oxide/hydroxide, clay, sulfate, carbonate and silicate groups. Blind and fossilized geothermal systems are not characterized by obvious surface manifestations like hot springs, geysers and fumaroles, therefore, they could not be easily identifiable using conventional techniques. In this investigation, the applicability of Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER were evaluated in discriminating hydrothermal alteration minerals associated with geothermal systems as a proxy in identifying subtle Geothermal systems at Yankari Park in northeastern Nigeria. The area is characterized by a number of thermal springs such as Wikki and Mawulgo. Feature-oriented Principal Component selection (FPCS was applied to ASTER data based on spectral characteristics of hydrothermal alteration minerals for a systematic and selective extraction of the information of interest. Application of FPCS analysis to bands 5, 6 and 8 and bands 1, 2, 3 and 4 datasets of ASTER was used for mapping clay and iron oxide/hydroxide minerals in the zones of Wikki and Mawulgo thermal springs in Yankari Park area. Field survey using GPS and laboratory analysis, including X-ray Diffractometer (XRD and Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD were carried out to verify the image processing results. The results indicate that ASTER dataset reliably and complementarily be used for reconnaissance stage of targeting subtle alteration mineral assemblages associated with geothermal systems.

  14. CULTIVAR RELEASE - CD 120 – wheat cultivar, standard quality soft, for the Southern Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Schuster

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivar CD 120, developed by the Cooperativa Central de Pesquisa Agrícola (COODETEC is suitable for cultivation in the VCU wheat-producing regions 1 and 2 of the states of Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. It is tolerant to the major wheat diseases and pre-harvest germination and has soft wheat quality and a 6.5 % higher grain yield (3.678 kg ha-1 than the control.

  15. Evaluation of ASTER and SRTM DEM data for lahar modeling: A case study on lahars from Popocatépetl Volcano, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggel, C.; Schneider, D.; Miranda, P. Julio; Delgado Granados, H.; Kääb, A.

    2008-02-01

    Lahars are among the most serious and far-reaching volcanic hazards. In regions with potential interactions of lahars with populated areas and human structures the assessment of the related hazards is crucial for undertaking appropriate mitigating actions and reduce the associated risks. Modeling of lahars has become an important tool in such assessments, in particular where the geologic record of past events is insufficient. Mass-flow modeling strongly relies on digital terrain data. Availability of digital elevation models (DEMs), however, is often limited and thus an obstacle to lahar modeling. Remote-sensing technology has now opened new perspectives in generating DEMs. In this study, we evaluate the feasibility of DEMs derived from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) for lahar modeling on Popocatépetl Volcano, Mexico. Two GIS-based models are used for lahar modeling, LAHARZ and a flow-routing-based debris-flow model (modified single-flow direction model, MSF), both predicting areas potentially affected by lahars. Results of the lahar modeling show that both the ASTER and SRTM DEMs are basically suitable for use with LAHARZ and MSF. Flow-path prediction is found to be more reliable with SRTM data, though with a coarser spatial resolution. Errors of the ASTER DEM affecting the prediction of flow paths due to the sensor geometry are associated with deeply incised gorges with north-facing slopes. LAHARZ is more sensitive to errors of the ASTER DEM than the MSF model. Lahar modeling with the ASTER DEM results in a more finely spaced predicted inundation area but does not add any significant information in comparison with the SRTM DEM. Lahars at Popocatépetl are modeled with volumes of 1 × 10 5 to 8 × 10 6 m 3 based on ice-melt scenarios of the glaciers on top of the volcano and data on recent and historical lahar events. As regards recently observed lahars, the travel

  16. Breeding Potential in Danish Apple Cultivar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjarne

    understanding of the link between phenotypes and the underlying gene-tic background which is crucial in plant breeding. We found a considerable genetic diversity in the collection and no genetic structure. We exposed a high number of accessions in admix and revealed several putative cultivar parentages, never......The diversity in plant genetic resources is a prerequisite for genetic improvement of cultivated crop species. Lack of in-depth characterization and evaluation of gene bank accessions is a major obstacle for their potential utilization. The Danish apple (Malus domestica L.) gene bank collection...... be used directly for marker-assisted selection. In addition, we suggest a number of candidate genes involved in the control of several important fruit quality traits. Future studies and breeding attempts can therefore benefit from the results, including genetic fingerprints and pedigree reconstruction...

  17. Adaptability and stability of sweet sorghum cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vander Fillipe de Souza

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the phenotypic stability and adaptability of 25 sweet sorghum cultivars of EmbrapaMaize and Sorghum. The experiments were conducted in five Brazilian environments, three in the state of Minas Gerais, and theothers in Sinop, Mato Grosso and Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul. Fresh biomass yield (FBY, and total soluble solids (TSS of the juicewere evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Analysis of variance showed significant genotype byenvironment interaction for both traits. According to the Annicchiarico methodology analysis, genotypes CMSXS634, BRS506, andCMSXS646 were the most stable and adapted for FBY and TSS concomitantly; CMSXS634 being more adapted to favorable environmentsand CMSXS646 being more adapted to unfavorable environments.

  18. ASTER Urgent Response to the 2006 Eruption of Augustine Volcano, Alaska: Science and Decision Support Gained From Frequent High-resolution, Satellite Thermal Infrared Imaging of Volcanic Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, R. L.; Ramsey, M. S.; Schneider, D. S.; Coombs, M.; Dehn, J.; Realmuto, V. J.

    2006-12-01

    Augustine Volcano, Alaska explosively erupted on January 11, 2006 after nearly eight months of increasing seismicity, deformation, gas emission, and small phreatic explosions. The volcano produced a total of 13 explosive eruptions during the last three weeks of January 2006. A new summit lava dome and two short, blocky lava flows grew during February and March 2006. A series of 7 daytime and 15 nighttime Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) scenes were acquired in response to this new activity. This response was facilitated by a new ASTER Urgent Request Protocol system. The ASTER data provided several significant observations as a part of a much larger suite of real-time or near-real-time data from other satellite (AVHRR, MODIS), airborne (FLIR, visual, gas), and ground-based (seismometers, radiometers) sensors used at the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO). ASTER is well-suited to volcanic observations because of its 15-m to 90-m spatial resolution, its ability to be scheduled and point off-nadir, and its ability to collect visible-near infrared (VNIR) to thermal infrared (TIR) data during both the day and night. Aided by the volcano's high latitude (59.4°N) ASTER was able to provide frequent repeat imaging as short as one day between scenes with an average 6-day repeat during the height of activity. These data provided a time series of high-resolution VNIR, shortwave infrared (SWIR - detects temperatures from about 200°C to > 600°C averaged over a 30-m pixel), and TIR (detects temperatures up to about 100°C averaged over a 90-m pixel) data of the volcano and its eruptive products. Frequent satellite imaging of volcanoes is necessary to record rapid changes in activity and to avoid recurring cloud cover. Of the 22 ASTER scenes acquired between October 30, 2005 and May 30, 2006, the volcano was clear to partly cloudy in 13 scenes. The most useful pre-eruption ASTER Urgent Request image was acquired on December 20. These data

  19. Morphological diversity in fourteen cultivars Tiron village, Kediri, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Azis Fuad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tiron village, Kediri is one of central mangoes in Indonesia. Many cultivar of mangoes encountered at this location. This study aims to look at the diversity of mango cultivars in the Tiron Village, Kediri, Indonesia. Mangoes diversity is based on qualitative and quantitative character of each cultivar. The diversity among cultivar indicated by the standard deviation and variance in the eleven quantitative characters of mango. Mango cultivars categorized by phylogeny morphological characters. The method used for phylogeny analysis is an UPGMA method (unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean. Phylogenic analysis is based by the qualitative character of the plant. The results showed there were fourteen cultivars of mango in the village of Tiron Kediri have high diversity. Fourteen mango cultivars were categorized four groups. Based on a qualitative character, there are four classes of mango. The first group is the Katul, Podang Urang, and Podang Lumut. The second group is the Gadung, Jaran, Madu, Endog, Pakel, Dodonilo, Ireng, Lanang and Cantek. Santok Kapur into groups to form groups of three and Kopyor fourth. The high diversity in the village mango Tiron Kediri potential for resource in situ germplasm.

  20. Integrating Data of ASTER and Landsat-8 OLI (AO for Hydrothermal Alteration Mineral Mapping in Duolong Porphyry Cu-Au Deposit, Tibetan Plateau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingbin Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important characteristics of porphyry copper deposits (PCDs is the type and distribution pattern of alteration zones which can be used for screening and recognizing these deposits. Hydrothermal alteration minerals with diagnostic spectral absorption properties in the visible and near-infrared (VNIR through the shortwave infrared (SWIR regions can be identified by multispectral and hyperspectral remote sensing data. Six Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER bands in SWIR have been shown to be effective in the mapping of Al-OH, Fe-OH, Mg-OH group minerals. The five VNIR bands of Landsat-8 (L8 Operational Land Imager (OLI are useful for discriminating ferric iron alteration minerals. In the absence of complete hyperspectral coverage area, an opportunity, however, exists to integrate ASTER and L8-OLI (AO to compensate each other’s shortcomings in covering area for mineral mapping. This study examines the potential of AO data in mineral mapping in an arid area of the Duolong porphyry Cu-Au deposit(Tibetan Plateau in China by using spectral analysis techniques. Results show the following conclusions: (1 Combination of ASTER and L8-OLI data (AO has more mineral information content than either alone; (2 The Duolong PCD alteration zones of phyllic, argillic and propylitic zones are mapped using ASTER SWIR bands and the iron-bearing mineral information is best mapped using AO VNIR bands; (3 The multispectral integration data of AO can provide a compensatory data of ASTER VNIR bands for iron-bearing mineral mapping in the arid and semi-arid areas.

  1. Amplifying the benefits of agroecology by using the right cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera, D; Laossi, K-R; Lavelle, P; De Carvalho, M H Cruz; Asakawa, N; Botero, C; Barot, S

    2011-10-01

    Tropical soils are particularly vulnerable to fertility losses due to their low capacity to retain organic matter and mineral nutrients. This urges the development of new agricultural practices to manage mineral nutrients and organic matter in a more sustainable way while relying less on fertilizer inputs. Two methods pertaining to ecological engineering and agroecology have been tested with some success: (1) the addition of biochar to the soil, and (2) the maintenance of higher earthworm densities. However, modern crop varieties have been selected to be adapted to agricultural practices and to the soil conditions they lead to and common cultivars might not be adapted to new practices. Using rice as a model plant, we compared the responsiveness to biochar and earthworms of five rice cultivars with contrasted selection histories. These cultivars had contrasted responsivenesses to earthworms, biochar, and the combination of both. The mean relative increase in grain biomass, among all treatments and cultivars, was 94% and 32%, respectively, with and without fertilization. Choosing the best combination of cultivar and treatment led to a more than fourfold increase in this mean benefit (a 437% and a 353% relative increase in grain biomass, respectively, with and without fertilization). Besides, the more rustic cultivar, a local landrace adapted to diverse and difficult conditions, responded the best to earthworms in terms of total biomass, while a modern common cultivar responded the best in term of grain biomass. This suggests that cultivars could be selected to amplify the benefit of biochar- and earthworm-based practices. Overall, selecting new cultivars interacting more closely with soil organisms and soil heterogeneity could increase agriculture sustainability, fostering the positive feedback loop between soils and plants that has evolved in natural ecosystems.

  2. Studying on rooting ability of olive cultivars region of Tirana

    OpenAIRE

    KOZETA BREGU; FADIL THOMAJ; ANIDA MEMA

    2014-01-01

    The results brought in this study present the rooting ability of semi dendric olive pieces, including the five most important cultivars of the area which are used as oil cultivar ("olive white", “Kushan", "Karre" and "black olive from Ndroq Tirana") or as cultivar used for oil and salting (Boç and red olive). Anchoring (sample) material is taken from three age-old mother plants and with a good health and vegetation condition. Previously pieces are treated with IBA at 4000 ppm concentration. ...

  3. The Extraction of Altered Minerals by use of Hyperspectral and Aster Data and Their Comparison Research in Beketan, Altyn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, H.; Li, J. Q.; Ren, G. L.; Yang, M.; Han, H. H.; Gao, T.; Yang, J. L.

    2016-11-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing technology has played an important role in the field of geological application in recent years. Based on the reflectance of typical altered minerals and the spectral characteristics of rocks, we tried to identify and extract the altered minerals such as calcite, dolomite, epidote, chlorite, moscovite, limonite, hematite, etc. by using of CASI/SASI data in Beketan, Altyn. Moreover, we extracted Mg-OH/CO32-/Al-OH/Fe3+/Ferric oxide from Aster data by the ratio method. Combined with known geological background and the field investigation, we found that the extracted altered mineral information was consistent with the actual distribution of the field. The altered mineral information extracted by Hyperspectral data dispalyed more mineral distribution in details. It showed that the hyperspectral remote sensing technology could provide accurate hydrothermal altered mineral information which is helpful for geological mapping work.

  4. CCD CBERS and ASTER data in dasometric characterization of Pinus radiata D. Don (north-western Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Sevillano-Marco

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A Chinese-Brazilian Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS and an Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER scenes coupled with ancillary georeferenced data and field survey were employed to examine the potential of the remote sensing data in stand basal area, volume and aboveground biomass assessment over large areas of Pinus radiata D. Don plantations in Northwestern Spain. Statistical analysis proved that the near infrared band and the shade fraction image showed significant correlation coefficients with all stand variables considered. Predictive models were accordingly selected and utilized to undertake the spatial distribution of stand variables in radiata stands delimited by the National Forestry Map. The study reinforces the potentiality of remote sensing techniques in a cost-effective assessment of forest systems.

  5. BRS 137: cultivar de soja para cultivo no Sul do Brasil BRS 137: soybean cultivar for southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emídio Rizzo Bonato

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available A liberação de cultivares de elevado potencial produtivo e com resistência a doenças é fundamental para continuar agregando rendimento na produção brasileira de soja. A cultivar BRS 137 é resultado do programa de melhoramento de soja desenvolvido pela Embrapa. A cultivar apresentou rendimento médio de grãos 2% superior ao da cultivar IAS 5, em 24 ambientes, no Rio Grande do Sul. É resistente à pústula-bacteriana (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines, ao cancro-da-haste (Diaporthe phaseolorum f. sp. meridionalis, à podridão-parda-da-haste (Phialophora gregata, à mancha-olho-de-rã (Cercospora sojina e ao oídio (Microsphaera diffusa. É indicada para cultivo no Rio Grande do Sul, em semeaduras realizadas a partir de meados de outubro até fim de novembro, com população máxima de 300.000 plantas/ha.The goals of the soybean breeding program for the release of a new cultivar include high yield potential and resistance to diseases in order to improve Brazilian production. The cultivar BRS 137 is a result of the soybean breeding program of Embrapa (Brazil. Prior to its release, the cultivar had shown a mean grain yield potential 2% higher than the cultivar IAS 5 in 24 environments in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Moreover, it is resistant to bacterial pustule (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines, soybean stem canker (Diaporthe phaseolorum f. sp. meridionalis, brown stem rot (Phialophora gregata, frogeye leaf spot (Cercospora sojina, and powdery mildew (Microsphaera diffusa. The cultivar is being indicated to be cropped in the Rio Grande do Sul state for sowing from mid October to the end of November with a maximum population of 300,000 plants/ha.

  6. Resposta diferencial das cultivares de algodoeiro a Alternaria macrospora Differential response of cotton cultivars to Alternaria macrospora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeshwant Ramchandra Mehta

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a resposta diferencial de 32 cultivares comerciais do algodoeiro a A. macrospora em casa de vegetação. A inoculação foi realizada em plântulas de 20-25 dias de idade com 25 repetições, utilizando-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso. As cultivares foram agrupadas através de análise de Scott & Knott. Resistência completa não foi encontrada, sendo que todas as cultivares foram suscetíveis. Houve diferença entre reação de plantas da mesma cultivar. Não obstante, quando algumas plantas das cvs. BRS Antares e Fibermax 986, que mostraram resistência, foram inoculadas com mistura de nove isolados escolhidos ao acaso, as mesmas mantiveram sua resistência a esta mistura. Trabalhos futuros deverão ser realizados para encontrar fontes de resistência a este patógeno em outras espécies de Gossypium.The differential response of 32 commercial cotton cultivars to A. macrospora was studied under greenhouse conditions. Twenty to twentyfive days old plants were inoculated in 25 repetitions in a randomized block design. The cultivars were grouped using the Scott & Knott analysis. Complete resistance was not found and all cultivars were susceptible to the pathogen. Differential reaction within the plants of the same cultivar was observed. However, when some resistant plants of cultivars BRS Antares and Fibermax 986 were inoculated using a mixture of nine randomly selected isolates of A. macrospora, the plants maintained their resistance. Further research is necessary to find sources of resistance to this pathogen in other species of Gossypium.

  7. NASADEM Global Elevation Model of Earth: Methods for the Refinement and Merger of SRTM and ASTER GDEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippen, R. E.; Buckley, S.; Agram, P. S.; Belz, J. E.; Gurrola, E. M.; Hensley, S.; Kobrick, M.; Lavalle, M.; Martin, J. M.; Neumann, M.; Nguyen, Q.; Rosen, P. A.; Shimada, J.; Simard, M.; Tung, W.

    2016-12-01

    NASADEM is a near-global elevation model that is being produced primarily by completely reprocessing the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) radar data and then merging it with refined ASTER GDEM elevations. The new and improved SRTM elevations in NASADEM result from better vertical control of each SRTM data swath via reference to ICESat elevations and from SRTM void reductions using advanced interferometric unwrapping algorithms. Errors in SRTM (due to incorrect interferometric unwrapping) are rare but can be found and removed via a detector that relies upon pattern analysis within synergistic comparisons of SRTM and GDEM. Remnant voids in SRTM are filled primarily by GDEM3, but with removal of GDEM glitches that are mostly related to clouds. GDEM glitch removal uses a measure of curvature and then spatial filtering to detect, isolate, and delete anomalous spikes and pits that are uncharacteristic of natural topography. Water masking uses the original SRTM Water Body Dataset (SWBD), but with errors corrected via a new ASTER Water Body Database. The improved SRTM, GDEM, and water body databases will be made available individually in addition to our merged product, which is particularly important for the SRTM dataset, which stands as a February 2000 baseline for many topographic change studies. New and forthcoming freely available elevation data (at reduced resolutions) from the ALOS PRISM World 3D and TanDEM-X projects will contribute to the critical but not yet reached goal of a complete, high-quality elevation model of Earth, and they are expected to provide additional validation for NASADEM. Indeed, cross validation among all of these datasets is a vital part of reaching that goal. The value of elevation data is difficult to overstate. These data are used in nearly all types of geophysical study conducted at or near Earth's surface.

  8. Rapid Evaluation of Germinability of Primed China Aster (Callistephus Chinensis Ness. Seeds with Physiological and Biochemical Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badek Bogumiła

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The correlation between the sowing value of primed China aster seeds represented by germination percentage (GP, mean germination time (MGT, germination uniformity expressed as the time between 25% and 75% of germinated seeds (T75-25 and some selected physiological characteristics - total activity of dehydrogenases (TAD, activity of catalase (AC, activity of cell cycle (ACC and electrolyte leakage (EL has been analysed in order to find useful markers of biological quality of seeds. To achieve this objective, analyses of effects of three methods of water supply to seeds viz. - hydroconditioning by soaking in excessive amount of water (M1, hydroconditioning by soaking in limited amount of water (M2 or hydroconditioning by contact with solid carrier of water - matriconditioning (M3, three levels (30.0, 35.0 and 40.0% of seed moisture content (m.c. and three incubation periods (1, 8 and 10 days during priming and hence their influence on germination properties (GP, MGT, T75-25 in comparison with TAD, AC, ACC and EL were determined. The results showed that MGT and T75-25 were correlated with TAD, AC, ACC and EL, irrespective of their priming method and sowing value. Therefore, all the investigated physiological/biochemical parameters of seed quality can be used as markers of germinability and sowing value reached by primed China aster seeds. The results also proved that, irrespective of the water supply method applied, hydration of seeds up to 37.5% m.c., and their incubation at 20 °C for 8 days, followed by drying to their initial moisture content, increased to the greatest extent the speed and uniformity of seed germination and their physiological activity.

  9. Mapping temperature and radiant geothermal heat flux anomalies in the Yellowstone geothermal system using ASTER thermal infrared data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, R. Greg; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; Jaworowski, Cheryl; Heasler, Henry

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to use satellite-based thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing data to measure, map, and monitor geothermal activity within the Yellowstone geothermal area to help meet the missions of both the U.S. Geological Survey Yellowstone Volcano Observatory and the Yellowstone National Park Geology Program. Specifically, the goals were to: 1) address the challenges of remotely characterizing the spatially and temporally dynamic thermal features in Yellowstone by using nighttime TIR data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and 2) estimate the temperature, geothermal radiant emittance, and radiant geothermal heat flux (GHF) for Yellowstone’s thermal areas (both Park wide and for individual thermal areas). ASTER TIR data (90-m pixels) acquired at night during January and February, 2010, were used to estimate surface temperature, radiant emittance, and radiant GHF from all of Yellowstone’s thermal features, produce thermal anomaly maps, and update field-based maps of thermal areas. A background subtraction technique was used to isolate the geothermal component of TIR radiance from thermal radiance due to insolation. A lower limit for the Yellowstone’s total radiant GHF was established at ~2.0 GW, which is ~30-45% of the heat flux estimated through geochemical (Cl-flux) methods. Additionally, about 5 km2 was added to the geodatabase of mapped thermal areas. This work provides a framework for future satellite-based thermal monitoring at Yellowstone as well as exploration of other volcanic / geothermal systems on a global scale.

  10. ANALISA KESEHATAN TANAMAN PADI BERDASARKAN NILAI NORMALIZED DIFFERENCE VEGETATION INDEX (NDVI MENGGUNAKAN CITRA ASTER (STUDI KASUS : KABUPATEN INDRAMAYU - JAWA BARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasetyo Rahaldi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Padi merupakan salah satu tanaman budidaya yang terpenting karena merupakan makanan pokok bagi 90% penduduk Indonesia. Oleh sebab itu dibutuhkan analisa yang cepat dan akurat mengenai kesehatan tanaman padi. Dalam Penelitian ini NDVI atau Normalized Difference Vegetation Index merupakan metode yang digunakan dalam membandingkan tingkat kehijauan vegetasi yang berasal dari citra ASTER. Dari nilai NDVI tersebut dapat diketahui klasifikasi kesehatan tanaman padi. Dalam penelitian ini klasifikasi kesehatan tanaman padi dibagi menjadi  4 kelas. Kesehatan sangat baik terdapat pada rentang nilai NDVI 0.721-0.92, untuk kesehatan baik rentang nilai NDVI antara 0.421-0.72, dan nilai NDVI kesehatan normal terdapat pada rentang 0.221-0.42, sedangkan kesehatan buruk nilai NDVI 0.11-0.22. Selain itu juga menggunakan data Field Spectrometer sebanyak 14 titik sebagai data lapangan yang digunakan untuk proses validasi. Validasi ini mempunyai koefisien korelasi (R sebesar 0.829. Sehingga dapat dikatakan antara nilai hasil prediksi dan hasil pengukuran lapangan berkolerasi sebesar 82,9 %. Dengan data citra ASTER juga dihasilkan pustaka spektral dan peta kesehatan tanaman padi, dalam pustaka spektral semakin sehat tanaman nilai Digital Number pada band 2 semakin kecil. Sedangkan band 3 banyak dipantulkan atau tidak digunakan sehingga nilai Digital Number pada tanaman padi yang semakin sehat, nilainya semakin tinggi. Sedangkan dalam peta kesehatan tanaman padi klasifikasi kesehatan buruk luas areanya 3.949.560 Ha. Pada klasifikasi kesehatan normal luas areanya 14.877.315 Ha. Sedangkan pada klasifikasi kesehatan baik luas areanya 9.846.833 Ha dan pada klasifikasi kesehatan sangat baik luas areanya 8.922.892.

  11. Modelling Vegetation Cover Dynamics of the Niger Floodplain in Mali, Westafrica, Using Multitemporal MERIS Full Resolution and TERRA -ASTER Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Ralf

    This presentation aims at showing the potential of a combined use of multi-temporal data from two different sensors (MERIS and TERRA ASTER) for an analysis of vegetation cover changes in semi-arid environments. While MERIS data mainly provide information about the vegetation cover density, ASTER data were used to analyse soil properties -especially soil brightness and soil wetness. An algorithm is proposed that uses atmospherically corrected surface reflectance values from MERIS and ASTER measurements. These values are subsequently splitted into a signal component that is caused by the vegetation cover and the background component (triggered by soil properties) using a linear spectral unmixing approach. Vegetation cover then is described by Vegetation Indices (MGVI, NDVI / SAVI) that were calculated from the vegetation signal component. Finally, these vegetation parameter were classified for all multi-temporal MERIS data using the EM algorithm to derive the temporal behaviour of vegetation pattern at the Inland Delta. The algorithm provides, as results, a fractional vegetation cover, a vegetation density value and information on the soil type. A detailed mapping of the spatio-temporal vegetation cover patterns for the Niger Inland Delta during the period of 2002 -2005 is another outcome of this study in addition to an in-depth evaluation of the applicability of the used VIs for environments with sparse vegetation covers. Located in the western Sahel of Africa, (1330' N -17 N and 230' W -530' W), the Niger Inland Delta is one of the largest floodplains in the world. The geographic term "Niger Inland Delta" represents a vast, extremely flat area of around 40.000 km extend, which is annually inundated by water of the Niger -Bani riversystem. In contrast to its semi -arid surrounding, the delta's ecology can be described as a mosaic of permanent, periodical and episodically flooded areas. Their extend varies both in scale and time due to irregularities of amount as

  12. Genetic variation of 12 rice cultivars grown in Brunei Darussalam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dell

    2015-03-25

    Mar 25, 2015 ... Genetic variations of 12 different rice cultivars in Brunei Darussalam were studied using 15 different. SSR markers ..... Principles of plant breeding: John Wiley & Sons Inc.,. New York .... and reproductive development of rice.

  13. introduction and evaluation of improved banana cultivars for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jen

    Central and Eastern Provinces account for 26 %. The rest of the provinces ... from traditional cash crops, especially coffee. (Coffea arabica) ..... Impact Study of the Tissue Culture. Banana. Project in ... local cultivars. INIBAP Newsletter for Asia.

  14. Nonstructural carbohydrates and return bloom potential differ among cranberry cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    explain low fruit set and biennial bearing tendencies of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon). Yet, comparisons of nonstructural carbohydrate concentrations during critical phenological stages across cultivars that differ in biennial bearing tendencies and return bloom potential are lacking, particular...

  15. RAPD-based genetic relationships in different Bougainvillea cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Srivastava

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with authenticating existing knowledge about 21 Bougainvillea cultivars comprisingof 9 hybrids and their parents through RAPD analysis. The 19 degenerate primer sets generated 234 bands from which 158(67.5% were polymorphic. The UPGMA based dendrogram divided 21 cultivars into two major groups with Jaccard’ssimilarity coefficient ranging from 0.51 to 0.942. Group A had three cultivars namely Trinidad, Formosa and Dr. H. B. Singhin which Dr. H.B. Singh was confirmed as a hybrid of other two cultivars. Group B was sub divided into 8 clusters. Theparentages of 7 out of 8 hybirds have been confirmed based on clusters. The study concluded that the RAPD technique issuitable for confirmation of parent-hybrid relationship.

  16. Blueberry estimated harvest from seven new cultivars: fruit and anthocyanins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalzo, Jessica; Stevenson, David; Hedderley, Duncan

    2013-08-15

    This study compares the yields, weights and anthocyanin contents of fruit from a group of seven new cultivars released from the New Zealand blueberry breeding programme and selected for the longest possible combined harvest season. The measured factors were primarily influenced by cultivar, and seasonal variations had relatively minor effects. The late-ripening cultivars 'Velluto Blue' and 'Centra Blue' had the highest fruit yields, anthocyanin contents and estimated total anthocyanin harvestable from a given area. 'Blue Moon' and 'Sky Blue' had the largest fruit sizes. The early-ripening cultivars 'Blue Bayou', 'Blue Moon' and 'Sunset Blue' had the lowest anthocyanin contents. The yield, fruit size and total anthocyanin content results obtained from any single year were highly correlated with the average of the three years, which makes pursuing the evaluation for these traits from a single year and at an early stage of plant development a practical proposition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF INVESTIGATED RAPESEED HYBRIDS AND CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Pospišil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate new winter rapeseed hybrids and cultivars, investigations were conducted at the experimental field of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb, in the period 2009/10 - 2011/12. The trial involved 11 hybrids and 5 cultivars rapeseed of 5 seed producers selling seed in Croatia. The studied rapeseed hybrids and cultivars differed significantly in seed and oil yields, oil content and yield components (seed number per silique and 1000 seed weight. However, a number of hybrids rendered identical results, since the differences in the investigated properties were within statistically allowable deviation. Hybrids Traviata and CWH 119 can be singled out based on the achieved seed and oil yields, and the cultivar Ricco and hybrids CWH 119 and PR46W15 for their high oil content in seed. Hybrids with a larger silique number per plant also achieved a higher seed yield.

  18. development of hardy sorghum cultivars for the arid and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEVELOPMENT OF HARDY SORGHUM CULTIVARS FOR THE ARID AND. SEMI ARID REGIONS .... media and presence or absence ofin vitro selective agents (Amzallag et ...... diversity in India Mustard (Brassica Juncea) and its relationship ...

  19. Chemical desiccation for early harvest in soybean cultivars

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tamara Pereira; Cileide Maria Medeiros Coelho; Clovis Arruda Souza; Analu Mantovani; Vanderléia Mathias

    2015-01-01

    .... The objective of this work was to assess the production performance and germination seeds in response to differents stages and desiccation chemicals products to early harvest of soybean cultivars...

  20. The use of cultivars of Raphanus sativus for cytokinin bioassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kubowicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Six cultivars of radish (Raphanus sativus were tested for their usefulness in radish cytokinin bioassay by the method of Letham (1971. The best cultivar was found to be 'Sopel Lodu' which responds well to both zeatin and 2iP over a wide range of concentrations. The fresh weight of cotyledons increased at most by 71.5% (if treated with zeatin or 101.0% (if treated with 2iP compared to untreated cotyledons. This cultivar is also sensitive to the partially purified cytokinin-like fraction isolated from the pine (Pinus silvestris cambial region. The cultivar 'Sopel Lodu' is therefore proposed to be a suitable plant for cytokinin bioassays.

  1. Integration of Information on Climate, Soil and Cultivar to Increase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cultivar to Increase Water Productivity of Maize in. Semi-arid ... 2Department of Soil and Crop Science, Texas A & M University, Texas USA. Abstract .... historical climate data into wet, normal and dry seasons (tercile probability) in particular.

  2. Respose of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars to drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Domínguez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tolerance to drought is a desired cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris L. The present study aimed to determine the response of 22 cultivars of common bean during the early stages of vegetative development character. The plants were subjected to irrigation at 70% or 20% of field capacity (FC for seven days and the indicators were measured relative water content, stomatal opening, stomatal index, proline content and total phenols in leaves. The data obtained were processed using a principal component analysis and the variables studied were represented by a bivariate graph (biplot. It was possible to group the cultivars based on their response in tolerant, moderately tolerant and susceptible to water stress condition induced by irrigation at 20% FC. Stomatal opening and relative water content were recommended to be used as criteria for selecting cultivars tolerant to water stress indicators bean. Key words: PCA, Phaseolus vulgaris L., proline, water stress

  3. New hop (Humulus lupulus L. cultivars from Romania

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    Alexandru SALONTAI

    1985-08-01

    Full Text Available The research staff of the Agronomy Institute of Cluj-Napoca breeded the first Romanian hop cultivars officially approved in 1984 by the State Commission for the Testing and Approval of Plant Varieties. The new Humulus lupulus varieties are cv. "Napoca'l", cv. "Aroma" and cv. "Transilvania". The selection method, origin, biological characteristics, productivity and some technological qualities of the new cultivars are discussed in the paper.

  4. EVALUATION FOR SALT STRESS TOLERANCE IN TWO STRAWBERRY CULTIVARS

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    W. Al-Shorafa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Salt stress conditions have been found to destroy the vital physiological process in plant where slower cell division and cell enlargement or both and limit mineral nutrient uptake with clearly nutritional imbalance. A greenhouse pot experiment was carried out at Agricultural Research Station, Mu’tah University, Jordan to evaluate growth responses and mineral composition of two strawberry cultivars to salt stress by different NaCl levels. Six NaCl levels (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 150 mM and two strawberry cultivars, Camarosa and Albino, were used. Nutrient elements were added at the 0.5-strength Hoagland nutrient concentration. Distilled water supplemented with half strength Hoagland solution was used as control. Number of leaves and runners of both strawberry cultivars were significantly reduced by increasing NaCl level. Growth parameters (shoot, root and total dry weights and root: Shoot ratios were significantly reduced with each increase in salinity level. Camarosa had higher value for all these parameters compared with Albino. Leaf chlorophyll content of both strawberry cultivars was significantly decreased when 25 mM NaCl or higher was applied. Regardless of NaCl level, Camarosa cultivar had significantly higher chlorophyll content compared with Albino. Elevated salinity level significantly increased leaf proline content of both cultivars. Albino leaves accumulated higher proline compared with Camarosa at salinized and non-salinized treatments. Both strawberry cultivars had significantly higher leaf and root Na and Cl contents under salinized conditions compared with non-salinized conditions. Each increase in NaCl level resulted in an increase in leaf and root Na and Cl contents of both cultivars. On contrast, leaf K content was decreased with salinity, root content of this mineral was significantly increased with salinity. It could be recommended to avoid growing ‘Camarosa’ and ‘Albino’ strawberry using irrigation water of 25 m

  5. Androgenesis in anther culture of Lithuanian spring barley cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Asakavičiūtė, Rita; Pašakinskienė, Izolda

    2006-01-01

    The method of anther culture was used for the production of doubled haploids in Lithuanian spring barley cultivars. Two methods, (i) regeneration from callus (Szarjeko’s method) and (ii) direct regeneration from embryoids (Caredda’s method) were applied to determine the androgenic potential according to the green regenerant yield and other morphogenetic factors. Green double haploid regenerants were obtained in four Lithuanian spring barley cultivars (‘Aura’, ‘Aidas’, ‘Alsa’ and ‘Auksiniai’) ...

  6. Processamento de tomate seco de diferentes cultivares Dried tomato processing of different cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorivaldo da Silva Raupp

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O tomate seco apresenta um consumo crescente, principalmente como ingrediente de pizzas e lasanhas, e na forma de aperitivo. A pesquisa avaliou o processo de produção de tomate seco de quatro cultivares comerciais (Italiano, Débora Plus, Santa Cruz, Delícia e a qualidade dos produtos prontos. O tomate foi fatiado em quatro cortes longitudinais, sentido pedúnculo-ápice, e as fatias tiveram suas massas loculares removidas. O secador foi regulado nas primeiras três horas para 100ºC, seguido de 80ºC até completar a secagem do produto, o qual apresentou uma umidade residual em torno de 60%. A cv. Delícia produziu a maior perda de 39,8% durante o preparo das fatias frescas, sendo que as perdas para as demais cultivares variaram entre 32,7 a 34,3%. Os rendimentos dos tomates inteiros em produtos prontos foram iguais a: cv. Débora Plus 9,1%; cv. Santa Cruz 8,9%; cv. Delícia 8,6%; e cv. Italiano 8,3%. O maior tempo de secagem de 9 horas e 25 minutos foi para a cv. Delícia; as demais apresentaram um mínimo de 8 horas e 10 minutos (Italiano e um máximo de 8 horas e 35 minutos (Santa Cruz. Os tomates secos das cultivares Italiano e Débora Plus apresentaram-se levemente adocicados; o da cv. Santa Cruz foi ainda menos; e, esta característica foi de difícil percepção para o da cv. Delícia, que também teve uma mastigação não suave e mais prolongada. Apesar da diferença, os produtos tomates secos obtidos a partir dessas cultivares não diferiram significativamente quanto ao paladar quando degustados por provadores não treinados.Consumption of dried tomatoes has been increasing, mainly as an ingredient of pizzas and lasagnas, and also as an appetizer. This study evaluated the production process of four commercial varieties (Italiano, Débora Plus, Santa Cruz, Delícia and the quality of the finished products, which had a moisture content of around 60%. The tomatoes were sliced into four longitudinal cuts in the stalk-apex direction and

  7. De novo transcriptome assembly of a sour cherry cultivar, Schattenmorelle

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    Yeonhwa Jo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus in the genus Prunus in the family Rosaceae is one of the most popular stone fruit trees worldwide. Of known sour cherry cultivars, the Schattenmorelle is a famous old sour cherry with a high amount of fruit production. The Schattenmorelle was selected before 1650 and described in the 1800s. This cultivar was named after gardens of the Chateau de Moreille in which the cultivar was initially found. In order to identify new genes and to develop genetic markers for sour cherry, we performed a transcriptome analysis of a sour cherry. We selected the cultivar Schattenmorelle, which is among commercially important cultivars in Europe and North America. We obtained 2.05 GB raw data from the Schattenmorelle (NCBI accession number: SRX1187170. De novo transcriptome assembly using Trinity identified 61,053 transcripts in which N50 was 611 bp. Next, we identified 25,585 protein coding sequences using TransDecoder. The identified proteins were blasted against NCBI's non-redundant database for annotation. Based on blast search, we taxonomically classified the obtained sequences. As a result, we provide the transcriptome of sour cherry cultivar Schattenmorelle using next generation sequencing.

  8. Adaptability of soybean cultivars in different crop years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, I O; Rezende, P M; Bruzi, A T; Zambiazzi, E V; Zuffo, A M; Silva, K B; Gwinner, R

    2015-08-07

    Soybean is one of the main sources of foreign exchange credits for Brazil in the agricultural sector. There is increasing interest in growing this leguminous crop, especially in the southern region of Minas Gerais, due to its importance as an alternative for crop rotation with maize. In this respect, the study of the adaptability of new cultivars to the region is indispensable so as to obtain high yields. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of 38 soybean cultivars for growing in the summer season in the municipality of Lavras, MG, Brazil, in the 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 crop years. The experiments were conducted in a randomized block design with 3 replications and the treatments consisted of 38 cultivars. At the time of harvest, the following assessments were made: grain yield (kg/ha), height of the lowest pod (cm), plant height (cm), and lodging. The data were subjected to individual and combined analysis of variance. The phenotypic mean values were clustered, adopting the Scott and Knott test. For simultaneous selection of multiple traits, the sum of rank index of Mulamba and Mock was adopted. The cultivar TMG 801 RR had the best yield performance; the cultivars Monsoy 8001, MGBR-46 (Conquista), and BRSMG 68 (Vencedora) also stood out. Considering simultaneous selection for grain yield, plant height, height of the lowest pod, and lodging, the cultivar TMG 801 RR is recommended for growing in the summer season in the southern region of Minas Gerais.

  9. Adaptability and stability of strawberry cultivars using a mixed model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Ferreira Costa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although strawberry crops have a strong socio-economic impact on the agricultural sector of Espírito Santo State, there are few studies on the performance of strawberry cultivars in different locations and years under a low tunnel management system (LT. Therefore, this study aimed to estimate the parameters of adaptability and stability of strawberry cultivars under LT-protected cultivation using the harmonic mean of the relative performance of genetically predicted values. Seven strawberry cultivars were assessed (‘Dover’, ‘Camino Real’, ‘Ventana’, ‘Camarosa’, ‘Seascape’, ‘Diamante’ and ‘Aromas’ in the agricultural years 2006/7, 2007/8 and 2008/9 in three locations in the mountainous region of Espírito Santo State. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design, with 3 replications and 15 plants per plot. The analysis of deviance for the yield (ton. ha-1 demonstrated that only the effects of genotype and the triple interaction genotype x location x year were significant, which indicates the presence of genetic variability among the cultivars and the inconsistency of the position among the genotypes for combinations of year and location. Considering the selection for yield, adaptability and stability, in LT-protected cultivation, cultivars Camarosa and Aromas are highlighted for expressing average values that were 22% higher than the overall mean of the cultivars (24.55 ton. há-1 in the environments assessed.

  10. SSR Analysis of Genetic Diversity Among 192 Diploid Potato Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Song

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In potato breeding, it is difficult to improve the traits of interest at the tetraploid level due to the tetrasomic inheritance. A promising alternative is diploid breeding. Thus it is necessary to assess the genetic diversity of diploid potato germplasm for efficient exploration and deployment of desirable traits. In this study, we used SSR markers to evaluate the genetic diversity of diploid potato cultivars. To screen polymorphic SSR markers, 55 pairs of SSR primers were employed to amplify 39 cultivars with relatively distant genetic relationships. Among them, 12 SSR markers with high polymorphism located at 12 chromosomes were chosen to evaluate the genetic diversity of 192 diploid potato cultivars. The primers produced 6 to 18 bands with an average of 8.2 bands per primer. In total, 98 bands were amplified from 192 cultivars, and 97 of them were polymorphic. Cluster analysis using UPGMA showed the genetic relationships of all accessions tested: 186 of the 192 accessions could be distinguished by only 12 pairs of SSR primers, and the 192 diploid cultivars were divided into 11 groups, and 83.3% constituted the first group. Clustering results showed relatively low genetic diversity among 192 diploid cultivars, with closer relationship at the molecular level. The results can provide molecular basis for diploid potato breeding.

  11. Growth Responses of Wheat Cultivars to Rock Phosphate in Hydroponics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.ASHRAF; RAHMATULLAH; M.A.MAQSOOD; S.KANWAL; M.A.TAHIR; L.ALI

    2009-01-01

    Screening cultivars to grow under conditions of low phosphorus (P) availability and utilize P efficiently from compounds of low solubility in soils may be beneficial to overcome poor plant growth in P-deficient soils.The growth behavior and P utilization efficiency of seven wheat cultivars grown in hydroponics were studied,using rock phosphate as P source.The wheat cultivars grown for 30 days were significantly different in biomass accumulation,P uptake and P utilization efficiency.The dry matter production of all the cultivars was significantly correlated with P uptake,which in turn correlated to the drop in the root medium pH.The ranking of wheat cultivars on the basis of dry matter yield,P uptake and P utilization efficiency was Zamindar 80 > Yccora > C 271 > WL 711 > Barani 83 > PARI 73 > Rohtas.The cultivar Zamindar 80 appeared to possess the best growth potential in P-deficient soils.

  12. Altered Cultivar Resistance of Kimchi Cabbage Seedlings Mediated by Salicylic Acid, Jasmonic Acid and Ethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Hee Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Two cultivars Buram-3-ho (susceptible and CR-Hagwang (moderate resistant of kimchi cabbage seedlings showed differential defense responses to anthracnose (Colletotrichum higginsianum, black spot (Alternaria brassicicola and black rot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, Xcc diseases in our previous study. Defense-related hormones salicylic acid (SA, jasmonic acid (JA and ethylene led to different transcriptional regulation of pathogenesis-related (PR gene expression in both cultivars. In this study, exogenous application of SA suppressed basal defenses to C. higginsianum in the 1st leaves of the susceptible cultivar and cultivar resistance of the 2nd leaves of the resistant cultivar. SA also enhanced susceptibility of the susceptible cultivar to A. brassicicola. By contrast, SA elevated disease resistance to Xcc in the resistant cultivar, but not in the susceptible cultivar. Methyl jasmonate (MJ treatment did not affect the disease resistance to C. higginsianum and Xcc in either cultivar, but it compromised the disease resistance to A. brassicicola in the resistant cultivar. Treatment with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC ethylene precursor did not change resistance of the either cultivar to C. higginsianum and Xcc. Effect of ACC pretreatment on the resistance to A. brassicicola was not distinguished between susceptible and resistant cultivars, because cultivar resistance of the resistant cultivar was lost by prolonged moist dark conditions. Taken together, exogenously applied SA, JA and ethylene altered defense signaling crosstalk to three diseases of anthracnose, black spot and black rot in a cultivar-dependent manner.

  13. External Validation of the ASTER GDEM2, GMTED2010 and CGIAR-CSI- SRTM v4.1 Free Access Digital Elevation Models (DEMs in Tunisia and Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djamel Athmania

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Digital Elevation Models (DEMs including Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer-Global Digital Elevation Model (ASTER GDEM, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM, and Global Multi-resolution Terrain Elevation Data 2010 (GMTED2010 are freely available for nearly the entire earth’s surface. DEMs that are usually subject to errors need to be evaluated using reference elevation data of higher accuracy. This work was performed to assess the vertical accuracy of the ASTER GDEM version 2, (ASTER GDEM2, the Consultative Group on International Agriculture Research-Consortium for Spatial Information (CGIAR-CSI SRTM version 4.1 (SRTM v4.1 and the systematic subsample GMTED2010, at their original spatial resolution, using Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS validation points. Two test sites, the Anaguid Saharan platform in southern Tunisia and the Tebessa basin in north eastern Algeria, were chosen for accuracy assessment of the above mentioned DEMs, based on geostatistical and statistical measurements. Within the geostatistical approach, empirical variograms of each DEM were compared with those of the GPS validation points. Statistical measures were computed from the elevation differences between the DEM pixel value and the corresponding GPS point. For each DEM, a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE was determined for model validation. In addition, statistical tools such as frequency histograms and Q-Q plots were used to evaluate error distributions in each DEM. The results indicate that the vertical accuracy of SRTM model is much higher than ASTER GDEM2 and GMTED2010 for both sites. In Anaguid test site, the vertical accuracy of SRTM is estimated 3.6 m (in terms of RMSE 5.3 m and 4.5 m for the ASTERGDEM2 and GMTED2010 DEMs, respectively. In Tebessa test site, the overall vertical accuracy shows a RMSE of 9.8 m, 8.3 m and 9.6 m for ASTER GDEM 2, SRTM and GMTED2010 DEM, respectively. This work is the first study to report the

  14. Avaliação de herbicidas para dois cultivares de mandioca Selectivity of herbicide alternatives for two cassava cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F Biffe

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available É importante avaliar a tolerância de variedade de mandioca a novas alternativas de controle químico, com o intuito de ampliar as opções disponíveis. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a seletividade de herbicidas aplicados em pré-emergência, para duas importantes variedades de mandioca cultivadas no Estado do Paraná. Os herbicidas e respectivas doses (g i.a. ha-1 avaliadas foram: diuron (400 e 800, metribuzin (360 e 720, isoxaflutole (60, atrazine (720, S-metolachlor (1.920 e as misturas ametryn + clomazone (1.350+1.900, ametryn+trifluralin (1.500+1.350, isoxaflutole+metribuzin (60+320, isoxaflutole+diuron (60+400, combinados com uso de uma testemunha dupla adjacente a cada tratamento. Os cultivares utilizados neste trabalho foram Fécula Branca e Fibra. Apenas o herbicida S-metolachlor, para ambos os cultivares, e metribuzin (360 g i.a. ha-1, para o cultivar Fibra, não provocaram injúrias. Atrazine provocou redução de estande para o cultivar Fécula Branca aos 60 DAP, mas não foi detectada redução na altura de plantas. Tanto atrazine (para os dois cultivares quanto diuron na dose de 800 g i.a. ha-1 (para o cultivar Fécula Branca afetaram a produtividade de raízes. Dessa forma, atrazine foi considerado não seletivo para ambos os cultivares, e a maior dose de diuron foi também considerada não seletiva para o cultivar Fécula Branca. Há diferenças de tolerância entre os cultivares, sendo o Fibra, de modo geral, mais tolerante aos herbicidas avaliados.It is important to evaluate the tolerance of cassava varieties under new weed chemical control alternatives. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the selectivity of herbicides, applied at pre-emergence, for two important cassava varieties grown in the state of Paraná, Brazil. The herbicides and respective doses (g a.i. ha-1 were: diuron (400 and 800, metribuzin (360 and 720, isoxaflutole (60, atrazine (720, S-metolachlor (1,920 and mixtures ametryn+clomazone (1

  15. Desempenho de cultivares de alface na região de Manaus Performance of lettuce cultivars in Manaus region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isac N Rodrigues

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Na avaliação de cultivares de hortaliças, os rendimentos médios mais elevados nos ensaios de competição, associados a fatores de qualidade, são utilizados como critérios de recomendação para plantio. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar as cultivares de alface Frisella, Deisy, Tender Green, Lollo Bionda, Itapuã 401, Marisa, Verônica, Banchu New Red Fire e Hortência nas condições climáticas da região de Manaus, sob cultivo protegido e a campo. Foram avaliadas as características: massa fresca total, massa fresca comercial, diâmetro da cabeça e altura. As cultivares de alface Marisa, Itapuã 401 e Hortência são opções mais adequadas para o cultivo protegido e a campo na região, incluindo-se para o cultivo a campo a cultivar Verônica, a qual apresentou a melhor produção na avaliação realizada neste ambiente.In the evaluation of vegetable cultivars, the high average yield in the competition assays associated to quality factors are utilized as criteria to recommend cultivars. In the present work we evaluated the lettuce cultivars Frisella, Deisy, Tender Green, Lollo Bionda, Itapuã 401, Marisa, Verônica, Banchu New Red Fire and Hortência under the climatic conditions of the region of Manaus, under protected and conventional cultivation. The evaluated characteristics were: total and commercial weight, plant diameter and height. The lettuce cultivars Marisa, Itapuã 401 and Hortência presented higher production in both environments adding Verônica with best production under conventional cultivation.

  16. Atividade antibacteriana e antifúngica de extratos etanólicos de Aster lanceolatus Willd., Asteraceae Antibacterial and antifungal activity of ethanolics extracts from Aster lanceolatus Willd., Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane F. Gaspari Dias

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Conhecida popularmente como áster-arbustiva, margarida-de-são-miguel e monte-cassino, Aster lanceolatus é uma planta ornamental de corte. Sabendo-se que não existem estudos que atestem a atividade biológica desta espécie, procurou-se neste trabalho atividades antibacteriana e antifúngica. Para tanto se utilizaram extratos brutos etanólicos de duas porções distintas, das flores e dos caules com folhas. Para a atividade antibacteriana, oito bactérias patogênicas foram submetidas a ensaio de difusão em gel e concentração inibitória mínima. Demonstrou-se atividade do extrato bruto etanólico de flores contra Streptococcus pyogenes, em difusão em gel e atividade de extrato bruto etanólico de caules e folhas contra Salmonella typhimurium e Streptococcus pyogenes em concentração inibitória mínima. Para a atividade antifúngica, utilizaram-se três fungos patogênicos em ensaios de crescimento micelial em placas e bioautografia direta. No ensaio de crescimento micelial em placas verificou-se a inibição de Fusarium oxysporum e na bioautografia direta, inibição do Cylindrocladium spathulatum. Os resultados delinearam uma nova fonte de pesquisa, as plantas ornamentais. Estas podem ser fonte de constituintes químicos capazes de servirem como protótipos para novos agentes terapêuticos e para tratamento sanitário de plantas medicinais.Popularly known as aster-arbustiva, margarida-de-são-miguel and monte-cassino, Aster lanceolatus is an ornamental plant. Having the knowledge that there is no studies on the biological activity of this species, this work aimed to check the antibacterial and antifungal activities. The ethanol extracts of the flowers and of the stems with leaves were used. For the antibacterial activity eight pathogenic bacteria were submitted to the diffusion test in gel and minimal inhibitory concentration. The activity of the ethanolic extract of the flowers has been demonstrated against Streptococcus pyogenes in

  17. IMÁGENES ASTER EN LA DISCRIMINACIÓN DE ÁREAS DE USO AGRÍCOLA EN COLOMBIA ASTER IMAGES FOR DISCRIMINATION OF AGRICULTURAL USE AREAS IN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidia Esperanza Ortiz Lozano

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El avance de las tecnologías de la información geográfica ha llevado a la puesta de nuevos sensores para observación de la tierra. ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Termal Emission and Reflection Radiometer, considerado como sensor de última generación, posee características especiales que lo colocan como una alternativa para estudios de la cobertura vegetal de la tierra. El presente trabajo se basó en sus características espaciales, espectrales y radiométricas con el fin de discriminar las áreas de cultivo agrícola en el distrito de riego Usocoello, en Colombia. Se utilizó una imagen ASTER de nivel 1B de 2006, corregida geométricamente, remuestreada y sus valores de radiancia fueron transformados a valores de reflectancia, permitiendo realizar dos composiciones: imágenes originales (VNIR-SWIR e imagen fusionada en transformación IHS. Se estableció una leyenda temática a partir del esquema de clasificación "CORINE Land Cover - Colombia", definiendo 10 categorías de cobertura representativas en la imagen. Para la fase de asignación se utilizó el clasificador de máxima probabilidad. En el proceso de verificación y cuantificación del nivel de exactitud se utilizó, como verdad terreno, la base de datos geográfica del área a nivel de predio de la misma fecha de la toma de la imagen, encontrándose una fiabilidad global estimada del 75% para la imagen VNIR-SWIR; si se tiene en cuenta la variabilidad de los estados fenológicos de los cultivos (arroz, maíz y sorgo en el área y un contraste espacial significativo en la imagen fusionada, el índice de Kappa obtenido fue de 0,75 con un grado de acuerdo sustancial.The advance of geographical information technology has led to the placement of new sensors for earth observation. ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer is considered as a latest generation sensor. It has special characteristics that places it as an alternative for studies of vegetation cover

  18. Novo cultivar de mamona: IAC-226(Tarabay New castor bean cultivar IAC-226 (Tarabay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Savy Filho

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve um novo cultivar de mamona (Ricinus communis 1., IAC-226 (Tarabay originado de linhagem pura, obtida do cruzamento controlado entre o 'Pindorama' e o 'Campinas': trata-se de germoplasma adaptado às condições climáticas normais de cultura no Estado de São Paulo, material de porte alto (250-350cm, diâmetro de copa de 215cm e ciclo vegetativo médio (180 dias, a partir da emergência. A produção econômica é dada pelos racemos primários, secundários, terciários e quaternários, com 19, 30, 23 e 28% da produção total respectivamente, elevado potencial produtivo (2.681kg/ha de sementes e 1.233kg/ha de óleo, e frutos indeiscentes.The characteristics of a new castor bean (Ricinus communis L. cultivar, named IAC-226 (Tarabay, obtained by hybridization between 'Pindorama' and 'Campinas', and selected by the pedigree method, are reported. The origin, characteristics of the plant and fruits such as seed weight and yield are described. Remarkable traits are: tall height indehiscent fruits, adaptation and outstanding yield ability with mean value of 2,681kg of seeds/ha and 1,233kg of oil/ha.

  19. Microrganismos associados a frutos de diferentes cultivares de noz Pecan Microorganisms associated with fruits of different cultivars of Pecan nut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Izumi Terabe

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento do comportamento natural da nogueira Pecan às principais doenças é de suma importância para o estabelecimento do planejamento da implantação da cultura. O controle fitossanitário e tratos culturais devem ser realizados de modo a não comprometerem a qualidade do produto final, as amêndoas. Foram avaliadas nozes produzidas na safra de 2005 e oriundas de Uraí-PR, pelas cultivares Burkett, Frotscher e Moneymaker, para identificar e quantificar os microrganismos associados à amêndoas e cascas dos frutos, bem como observar diferenças entre organismos colonizadores das cultivares. Os frutos foram avaliados na pós-colheita, aos trinta dias de armazenamento em ambiente, através da metodologia do papel de filtro, sendo submetidos ou não à assepsia superficial. O fungo Cladosporium caryigenum, promotor da rancificação das amêndoas foi observado, em amêndoas e cascas, nas cultivares Burkett, Frotscher e Moneymaker; Fusarium sp., foi encontrado em porcentuais elevados, tanto em amêndoas quanto em cascas das três cultivares estudadas; Cephalothecium roseum, causador do mofo róseo em amêndoas, na cultivar Frotscher. Aspergillus sp. e Penicillium sp., causadores de emboloramento e produtores de aflotoxinas foram observados em porcentuais representativos, em amêndoas da cultivar Frotscher e em amêndoas e cascas das cultivares Frotscher, Burkett e Moneymaker, respectivamente. Os maiores porcentuais de perda do rendimento foram observados na cultivar Burkett, por causa da incidência de Colletotrichum sp., causador da antracnose em amêndoas, que acarreta escurecimento e deterioração do produto final, levando-o ao descarte.The knowledgement of the natural behavior of the main diseases of Pecan nut is of utmost importance for the stablishment of an implantation plan for that culture. The phytosanitary control and cultural treatments should be performed in order not to change the quality of the final product. Nuts harvest

  20. Civil engineering: calculations of pre-stressed concrete structures using Code{sub A}ster; Genie civil: calcul des ouvrages en beton precontraint avec le Code{sub A}ster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerard, B.; Ulm, F. [Service Ensembles de Production, Departement Surveillance Diagnostic Maintenance, Direction des Etudes et Recherches, Electricite de France (EDF), 92 - Clamart (France)

    1997-11-01

    This document presents an analysis of the different calculation methods for pre-stressed concrete structure which can be performed by using finite element methods. Two methods of calculating the pre-stressing of concrete structures with finite elements have been determined. The equivalent method which consists of replacing the action of pre-stressing the concrete by equivalent forces. These method is well suited to dimensioning and studying the overall stability of a structure. It is not an easy matter to take into account the coupled or time-varying phenomena. This approach ignores the evolution of the interaction between the pre-stressing and the concrete. The explicit method which consists of including the mechanical resolution of the pre-stressed cables in that of a concrete structure. Not only does this allow a local study of the pre-stressed to be made, it also allows the coupling which developed over time to be determined, e.g. slip, deferred deformation and coupling between the steel and concrete behaviours. This method enables non-linear phenomena with varying degrees of complexity, such as fracture or yielding of the steels, drying out of the concrete, creep, etc to be described. The two methods are complementary. This document presents the mathematical and computer developments relating to each of this method. In the case of the explicit method, certain of the Code-Aster functions already make it possible to meet several EDF application requirements. Several couplings can be taken into account, such as thermomechanical, shrinkage in drying, creep, relaxation and injection of the cables. Three immediate developments of Code-Aster are proposed for the following applications: - a procedure for calculating the pre-stress losses along the pre-stressing cables; - a command to allocate these forces in the form of an initial force field in the bar elements associated with the cables; - a procedure for linking elements whose nodes do not coincide with each other

  1. Evaluación de los datos del sensor ASTER para estimar la superficie cultivada y los niveles de producción de caña de azúcar en Tucumán, Argentina An evaluation of ASTER data to estimate sugarcane planted area and production levels in Tucumán, Argentina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Federico J. Soria; Carmina Fandos; Jorge Scandaliaris; Miguel Morandini; Daniela R. Pérez

    2007-01-01

    ... (Visible Near Infrared) y la banda espectral 4 del subsistema SWIR (Short Wave Infrared) del sensor ASTER, para estimar la superficie cultivada y los niveles de producción de caña de azúcar en un...

  2. Estimation of Lake Water Temperature with ASTER and Landsat 8 OLI-TIRS Thermal Infrared Bands: A Case Study Beysehir Lake (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, Sehnaz; Sener, Erhan

    2016-08-01

    Beyşehir Lake is the largest fresh water lake in our country with the 653 km2 surface area. Lake water have used for drinking water of several settlements in the basin. Beyşehir Lake is a shallow lake and, especially in recent years its water level was dropped due to unplanned usage and effects of climate change.In this study, determination of the water temperature in Lake Beyşehir is aimed using 90m resolution thermal infrared bands of ASTER (Advance Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) satellite and 30m resolution thermal infrared bands of Landsat 8 OLI-TIRS satellite. The Normalized Water Different Index (NWDI) has been applied to ASTER and Landsat 8 OLI-TIRS satellite images to determine lake surface area. Accordingly, the lake water temperature is generally proportional to the depth and it relatively higher in the shallow area.

  3. Frequency fraction and spatial distribution of clay minerals detection by sub-pixel classification of ASTER data, case study, Esteghlal mine of Abadeh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Hashemi Tangestani

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Esteghlal fireclay mine, northern Abadeh, with dominant composition of kaolinite and pyrophyllite, and annual production of over a million tons, is one of the largest sedimentary deposits in Iran. Linear Spectral Unmixing (LSU and Mixture Tuned Matched Filtering (MTMF processes were applied on the VNIR + SWIR dataset of ASTER for identifying the frequency fraction and distribution of clay minerals in this mine. Sub-pixel frequency assessment of ASTER data showed that distribution of pixels with higher fractions belong to the kaolinite and pyrophyllite, outcropped in two different parts of the mine. Comparison of LSU and MTMF output results showed that MTMF is more reliable to determining the relative fraction of clay minerals at the study area.

  4. Applying Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) spectral indices for geological mapping and mineral identification on the Tibetan Plateau

    CERN Document Server

    Corrie, Robert; Aitchison, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau holds clues to understanding the dynamics and mechanisms associated with continental growth. Part of the region is characterized by zones of ophiolitic melange believed to represent the remnants of ancient oceanic crust and underlying upper mantle emplaced during oceanic closures. However, due to the remoteness of the region and the inhospitable terrain many areas have not received detailed investigation. Increased spatial and spectral resolution of satellite sensors have made it possible to map in greater detail the mineralogy and lithology than in the past. Recent work by Yoshiki Ninomiya of the Geological Survey of Japan has pioneered the use of several spectral indices for the mapping of quartzose, carbonate, and silicate rocks using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) thermal infrared (TIR) data. In this study, ASTER TIR indices have been applied to a region in western-central Tibet for the purposes of assessing their effectiveness for differentiatin...

  5. Genealogy of wine grape cultivars: "Pinot" is related to "Syrah".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouillamoz, J F; Grando, M S

    2006-08-01

    Since the domestication of wild grapes ca 6000 years ago, numerous cultivars have been generated by spontaneous or deliberate crosses, and up to 10 000 are still in existence today. Just as in human paternity analysis, DNA typing can reveal unexpected parentage of grape cultivars. In this study, we have analysed 89 grape cultivars with 60 microsatellite markers in order to accurately calculate the identity-by-descent (IBD) and relatedness (r) coefficients among six putatively related cultivars from France ("Pinot", "Syrah" and "Dureza") and northern Italy ("Teroldego", "Lagrein" and "Marzemino"). Using a recently developed likelihood-based approach to analyse kinship in grapes, we provide the first evidence of a genetic link between grapes across the Alps: "Dureza" and "Teroldego" turn out to be full-siblings (FS). For the first time in grapevine genetics we were able to detect FS without knowing one of the parents and identify unexpected second-degree relatives. We reconstructed the most likely pedigree that revealed a third-degree relationship between the worldwide-cultivated "Pinot" from Burgundy and "Syrah" from the Rhone Valley. Our finding was totally unsuspected by classical ampelography and it challenges the commonly assumed independent origins of these grape cultivars. Our results and this new approach in grape genetics will (a) help grape breeders to avoid choosing closely related varieties for new crosses, (b) provide pedigrees of cultivars in order to detect inheritance of disease-resistance genes and (c) open the way for future discoveries of first- and second-degree relationships between grape cultivars in order to better understand viticultural migrations.

  6. Storage performance of Taiwanese sweet potato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Che-Lun; Liao, Wayne C; Chan, Chin-Feng; Lai, Yung-Chang

    2014-12-01

    Three sweet potato cultivars (TNG57, TNG66, and TNG73), provided by the Taiwanese Agricultural Research Institute (TARI), were stored at either 15 °C or under ambient conditions (23.8 ~ 28.4 °C and 77.1 ~ 81.0 % of relative humidity). Sweet potato roots were randomly chosen from each replicate and evaluated for measurement of weight loss, sugar content analysis, and sprouting after 0, 14, 24, 48, 56, 70, 84, and 98 days of storage. Fresh sweet potato roots were baked at 200 °C for 60 min then samples were taken for sugar analysis. After 14 days of ambient condition storage, the sprouting percentages for TNG57, TNG66, and TNG73 were 100, 85, and 95 % respectively. When sweet potatoes were stored at 15 °C, the weight loss became less and no sweet potato root sprouted after 14 days of storage. Because manufacturers can store sweet potatoes at 15 °C for almost 2 month without other treatments, the supply capacity shortage in July and September can be reduced. The total sugar content slowly increased along with increasing the storage time. After baking, the total sugar content of sweet potatoes significantly increased due to the formation of maltose. Maltose became the major sugar of baked sweet potatoes. Raw sweet potatoes stored at 15 °C had higher total sugar contents after baking than those stored under ambient conditions. Raw sweet potatoes were recommended to be stored at 15 °C before baking.

  7. Interferência de Raphanus sativus na produtividade de cultivares de soja Interference of Raphanus sativus in soybean cultivars' yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A Bianchi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A forte dependência de herbicidas para o controle de plantas daninhas em soja tem como consequência a seleção de espécies daninhas tolerantes e resistentes. O manejo integrado considera, além do uso de herbicidas, técnicas como a habilidade competitiva do cultivar para controlar plantas daninhas. Com os objetivos de avaliar a resposta de cultivares à competição com nabo (Raphanus sativus e identificar aqueles portadores de habilidade competitiva superior, foi conduzido experimento em campo, em Cruz Alta-RS, na safra 2000/01. Testaram-se duas condições de competição (ausência ou presença de nabo forrageiro durante a fase de desenvolvimento vegetativo da soja, combinadas com 11 cultivares da cultura. O efeito da competição com nabo é variável entre os cultivares, caracterizando variabilidade genética que permite selecionar genótipos portadores de habilidade competitiva superior. A competição com nabo reduz a estatura de planta, o comprimento médio dos ramos e a produtividade de grãos de soja. Entre os genótipos de soja utilizados, o cultivar MSoy 6101 destaca-se quanto à habilidade competitiva pela maior produtividade potencial de grãos na ausência de competição e pela capacidade de mantê-la diante da competição com nabo.The strong dependence on herbicides for weed control in soybean has led to the selection of tolerant and/or resistant weed plants. Besides the use of herbicides, integrated management includes techniques such as cultivar competitive ability to control weed plants. This work aimed to evaluate cultivar response to competition with forage turnip (Raphanus sativus and to identify carriers of superior competitive ability. The experiment was carried out under field conditions in Cruz Alta-RS, during the 2000/01 season. Two competition conditions (absence and presence of forage turnip during the soybean vegetative growth stage were tested in combination with 11 soybean cultivars. The effect of forage

  8. Coerência espectroscópica de famílias de asteróides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothé Diniz, T.; Roig, F. V.

    2003-08-01

    As Famílias de asteróides são caracterizadas como agrupamentos de objetos provenientes da quebra por colisão de corpos precursores. Desta forma, seus membros devem preservar relações genéticas que podem ser traduzidas sob a análise de suas características espectrais. Neste trabalho é apresentado o primeiro estudo espectroscópico de todas as famílias de asteróides do cinturão principal. Para tal, a divisão em famílias foi refeita utilizando-se o método HCM com uma base de elementos próprios analíticos (Knezevic e Milani, Jun 2001) e para o estudo espectroscópico foram utilizadas diversas campanhas de observação espectroscópica, tais o S3OS2 e o SMASSII, bem como outros dados disponíveis na literatura. A homogeneidade espectroscópica de cada família foi avaliada através da verificação das classes espectroscópicas presentes, bem como da comparação destes espectros com os de objetos de fundo, localizados na vizinhança da família. Vinte e duas famílias foram analisadas (as que possuíam mais do que 3 membros com espectro) e, dentre as principais conclusões pode-se citar a homogeneidade espectroscópica e, provavelmente mineralógica das famílias de Vesta, Eunomia, Hoffmeister, Dora, Merxia, Agnia, Koronis e Veritas. Esta última em particular, foi tida como uma família não homogênea espectroscopicamente em trabalho anterior (Di Martino et al. 1997). Outro resultado interessante é, por um lado, a aparente falta de homogeneidade dos membros da família de Eos, e por outro sua forte distinção dos objetos de fundo. O oposto ocorre na família de Themis, esta apresentando-se espectroscopicamente compatível com os objetos de fundo, mas com grande homogeneidade taxonômica entre seus membros. Algumas das famílias apresentam asteróides "intrusos" (objetos cujas características físicas não são compatíveis com aquelas dos membros da família) que, de modo geral desaparecem ao se considerarem níveis mais baixos de corte para a

  9. Spectroscopy of olivine basalts using FieldSpec and ASTER data: A case study from Wadi Natash volcanic field, south Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ahmed Madani

    2015-10-01

    This paper aims at revealing the spectral characteristics of the olivine basalts exposed at Wadi Natash area, Egypt, using FieldSpec spectroradiometer. It also evaluates band ratios and fusion techniques for mapping purposes using ASTER data. Several volcanic episodes occurred during Early- to Late-Cretaceous are recorded in the study area. Early-Cretaceous olivine basalts are highly carbonated. Late-Cretaceous eruptions took place throughout several volcanic cones aligned in NW direction. Based on FieldSpec measurements and petrographic data, two groups of olivine basalt namely `A' and `B' are recognized. Fresh olivine basalt (group A) is characterized by low flat spectral profile with overall low reflectance values (~20%). Spectral profile of altered olivine basalt (group B) shows moderate reflectance values (~37%) with four little absorption features around the 1.10, 1.40, 2.00 and 2.35 μm wavelength regions. These absorption features are attributed mainly to the presence of chlorite and carbonate alteration products as indicated by petrographic examination. ASTER false colour composite band ratio image (3/2:R, 8/1:G and 8/5:B) discriminates easily the fresh and altered basalts by deep blue and red-dish blue colours respectively. Image fusion between previously mentioned FCC ratios image and high spatial resolution ASTER panchromatic image are carried out using brovey and HSV transformation methods. Visual and statistical assessment methods proved that HSV fusion image yields better image interpretability results compared to brovey image. It improves the spatial resolution of original FCC ratios image with acceptable spectral preservation. The present study proved the usefulness of Field-Spec spectral profiles and the processed ASTER data for discriminating different olivine basalt groups exposed at the study area.

  10. Principle and geomorphological applicability of summit level and base level technique using Aster Gdem satellite-derived data and the original software Baz

    OpenAIRE

    Akihisa Motoki; Kenji Freire Motoki; Susanna Eleonora Sichel; Samuel da Silva; José Ribeiro Aires

    2015-01-01

    This article presents principle and geomorphological applicability of summit level technique using Aster Gdem satellite-derived topographicdata. Summit level corresponds to thevirtualtopographic surface constituted bylocalhighest points, such as peaks and plateau tops, and reconstitutes palaeo-geomorphology before the drainage erosion. Summit level map is efficient for reconstitution of palaeo-surfaces and detection of active tectonic movement. Base level is thevirtualsurface composed oflocal...

  11. Consistência do padrão de agrupamento de cultivares de milho Clustering pattern consistency of corn cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Cargnelutti Filho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a consistência do padrão de agrupamento obtido a partir da combinação de duas medidas de dissimilaridade e quatro métodos de agrupamento, em cenários formados por combinações de número de cultivares e número de variáveis, com dados reais de cultivares de milho (Zea mays L. e com dados simulados. Foram usados os dados reais de cinco variáveis mensuradas em 69 experimentos de competição de cultivares de milho, cujo número de cultivares avaliadas oscilou entre 9 e 40. A fim de investigar os resultados com maior número de cultivares e de variáveis, foram simulados, sob distribuição normal padrão, 1.000 experimentos para cada um dos 54 cenários formados pela combinação entre o número de cultivares (20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 e 100 e o número de variáveis (5, 6, 7, 8, 9 e 10. Foram realizadas análises de correlação, de diagnóstico de multicolinearidade e de agrupamento. A consistência do padrão de agrupamento foi avaliada por meio do coeficiente de correlação cofenética. Há decréscimo da consistência do padrão de agrupamento com o acréscimo do número de cultivares e de variáveis. A distância euclidiana proporciona maior consistência no padrão de agrupamento em relação à distância de Manhattan. A consistência do padrão de agrupamento entre os métodos aumenta na seguinte ordem: Ward, ligação completa, ligação simples e ligação média entre grupo.The objective of this research was to evaluate the clustering pattern consistency obtained from the combination of the two dissimilarity measures and four clustering methods, in scenarios consist of combinations number of cultivars and number of variables, with real data in corn cultivars (Zea mays L. and simulated data. We used real data from five variables measured in 69 trials involving corn cultivars, the number of cultivars ranged between 9 and 40. In order to investigate the results with more cultivars and

  12. A new 100-m Digital Elevation Model of the Antarctic Peninsula derived from ASTER Global DEM: methods and accuracy assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Cook

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A high resolution surface topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM is required to underpin studies of the complex glacier system on the Antarctic Peninsula. A complete DEM with better than 200 m pixel size and high positional and vertical accuracy would enable mapping of all significant glacial basins and provide a dataset for glacier morphology analyses. No currently available DEM meets these specifications. We present a new 100-m DEM of the Antarctic Peninsula (63–70° S, based on ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM data. The raw GDEM products are of high-quality on the rugged terrain and coastal-regions of the Antarctic Peninsula and have good geospatial accuracy, but they also contain large errors on ice-covered terrain and we seek to minimise these artefacts. Conventional data correction techniques do not work so we have developed a method that significantly improves the dataset, smoothing the erroneous regions and hence creating a DEM with a pixel size of 100 m that will be suitable for many glaciological applications. We evaluate the new DEM using ICESat-derived elevations, and perform horizontal and vertical accuracy assessments based on GPS positions, SPOT-5 DEMs and the Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA imagery. The new DEM has a mean elevation difference of −4 m (± 25 m RMSE from ICESat (compared to −13 m mean and ±97 m RMSE for the original ASTER GDEM, and a horizontal error of less than 2 pixels, although elevation accuracies are lower on mountain peaks and steep-sided slopes. The correction method significantly reduces errors on low relief slopes and therefore the DEM can be regarded as suitable for topographical studies such as measuring the geometry and ice flow properties of glaciers on the Antarctic Peninsula. The DEM is available for download from the NSIDC website: http://nsidc.org/data/nsidc-0516.html (The French accelerator mass spectrometry facility ASTER after 4 years: Status and recent developments on 36Cl and 129I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Maurice; Aumaître, Georges; Bourlès, Didier L.; Keddadouche, Karim; Braucher, Régis; Finkel, Robert C.; Nottoli, Emmanuelle; Benedetti, Lucilla; Merchel, Silke

    2013-01-01

    Since the acceptance tests of the French 5 MV accelerator mass spectrometry facility ASTER in 2007, routine measurement conditions for the long-lived radionuclides 10Be and 26Al have been established. Yearly sample throughput as high as over 3300 unknowns has been reached for 10Be in 2010. Cross-contamination for volatile elements has been largely solved by an ion source upgrade allowing 36Cl measurements at ASTER. However, recent long-term tests using 35Cl/37Cl samples with strongly varying ratios have shown that identical targets lead to different 35Cl/37Cl results at the 2-4% level when being measured after a time gap of 24 h while the source is running other samples. Besides time dependent mass fractionation, another likely reason for this effect might be source memory, thus, asking for sophisticated measurement strategies and improved data evaluation and eventually further ion source improvement. Finally, after establishing quality assurance by cross-calibration of secondary in-house 26Al and 41Ca standards and taking part in round-robin exercises of 10Be and 36Cl, a two-step cross-calibration of secondary in-house 129I standards has been performed. The NIST 3231 standard containing 129I/127I at (0.981 ± 0.012) × 10-6 has been used for step-wise dilution with NaI to produce gram-quantities of lower-level standards for every-day use. The resulting material SM-I-9 (129I/127I: ∼1 × 10-9) has been measured vs. AgI produced using minimum chemistry from the two NIST ampoules containing a solution with a nominal ratio 129I/127I of (0.982 ± 0.012) × 10-8. In a second stage, SM-I-10 and SM-I-11 with ratios of ∼1 × 10-10 and ∼1 × 10-11, respectively, have been cross-calibrated against SM-I-9. Individual uncertainties of the traceable secondary standards are 1.3-1.4% (2σ), mainly originating from the given uncertainty of the primary NIST 3231 at the 10-8 level. The cross-contamination for iodine is in the range of 0.4-0.6% within the first 20 h of running

  13. Hyperoside and anthocyanin content of ten different pomegranate cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanavi, M; Moghaddam, G; Oveisi, M R; Sadeghi, N; Jannat, B; Rostami, M; Saadat, M A; Hajimahmoodi, M

    2013-07-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is native to the Mediterranean region and has been used extensively as a medicine in many counties. Hyperoside is known as an important flavonoid with antioxidant activity and anti hypertension effect. Anthocyanins are the active component in several herbal medicines, thus accurate measurement of hyperoside and anthocyanins, along with their degradation indices, is very useful to food technologists and horticulturists. The aim of the current study was to determine the antioxidant capacity as hyperoside and anthocyanin content of ten different Iranian pomegranate cultivars. Spectroscopic analyses of the pomegranate showed Black peel cultivar had the highest hyperoside content (25.93 +/- 2.87, 620.41 +/- 30.32 mg/100 g) in its pulp and peel, respectively. Based on this study, the amounts of anthocyanin in pulp ranged between 1.56 +/- 0.05 and 3.89 +/- 0.07 mg g(-1) which related to Sweet white peel and Sweet alac cultivars, respectively. More over the highest and also the lowest peel anthocyanin contents related to these cultivars. The results revealed that the hyperoside and also anthocyanin peel content of each variety is higher than its pulp content. In addition the potency of black peel (Medicinal pomegranate) and Sweet alac cultivars for prevention of coronary heart disease and hypertension were presented.

  14. Analysis of pecan cultivars Mahan and Western in East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, X; Li, Z; Sun, Z; Wan, X

    2016-09-16

    Pecan (Carya illinoensis) has been introduced to East China for over one hundred years, but its planting is still only occurring at a small scale. The key limiting factor is its low yield. To enhance the yield pecan in East China, two pecan cultivars, Mahan and Western, were examined. Twenty traits describing phasic development, yield, nut quality, and cultural practice were investigated. We found that pecan cultivar Mahan gives a higher yield and nut quality than cultivar Western. We recommend interplanting of cultivar Pawnee to act as a pollinator tree. Appropriate cultivation practices that can be implemented to enhance fruit yield of cultivars Mahan and Western include soil-applied paclobutrazol (PBZ) at certain concentrations, pinching, and supplementary pollination. For example, the addition of 1.25 g/m(2) of PBZ inhibits pecan branch growth and stimulates short bearing branches, which promotes fruit yield. We found that soil-applied PBZ reached optimal performance 82 days after application. A pinching length of 40 cm resulted in a fruit yield increase. In addition, grafting and transplantation may promote male flowering, but delays female flowering. These cultural practices may provide insights that can be used to improve pecan cultivation in East China.

  15. Chemical characteristics and volatile profile of genetically modified peanut cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ee Chin; Dunford, Nurhan T; Chenault, Kelly

    2008-10-01

    Genetic engineering has been used to modify peanut cultivars for improving agronomic performance and pest resistance. Food products developed through genetic engineering have to be assessed for their safety before approval for human consumption. Preservation of desirable chemical, flavor and aroma attributes of the peanut cultivars during the genetic modifications is critical for acceptance of genetically modified peanuts (GMP) by the food industry. Hence, the main objective of this study is to examine chemical characteristics and volatile profile of GMP. The genetically modified peanut cultivars, 188, 540 and 654 were obtained from the USDA-ARS in Stillwater, Oklahoma. The peanut variety Okrun was examined as a control. The volatile analysis was performed using a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) equipped with an olfactory detector. The peanut samples were also analyzed for their moisture, ash, protein, sugar and oil compositions. Experimental results showed that the variations in nutritional composition of peanut lines examined in this study were within the values reported for existing cultivars. There were minor differences in volatile profile among the samples. The implication of this study is significant, since it shows that peanut cultivars with greater pest and fungal resistance were successfully developed without major changes in their chemical characteristics.

  16. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Capacity of Three Plum Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Voća

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition and antioxidants capacity of three plum cultivars, namely ‘Top’, ‘Elena’ and ‘Bistrica’. Fruits were harvested and following parameters were determined: dry matter, total acids (TA, total soluble solids (TSS, pH, vitamin C, total phenols, nonflavonoids and antioxidant capacity. Differences between cultivars for most of the chemical parameters were observed. The cultivar ‘Bistrica’ showed higher values of dry matter, TSS, vitamin C and pH value, while ‘Top’ had higher total acids value and lowest TSS, dry matter, vitamin C and pH. Total phenolics content varied from 157.70 mg in ‘Elena’ to 344.10 mg in ‘Bistrica’, expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE, on fresh weight basis. ‘Top’ contains the highest amount of non-flavonoids among cultivars studied. Therefore, ‘Bistrica’ and ‘Top’ show the highest antioxidant capacity, as well. There were significant differences between total phenolics and non-flavonoids content between ‘Elena’ and other two cultivars, while antioxidant capacity showed no significant difference (p ≤ 0.05. Total antioxidant capacity of fruits ranged from 3.10 mmol/kg in ‘Elena’ to 3.17 mmol/kg in ‘Top’ and ‘Bistrica’.

  17. Evaluation of Drought Tolerance in Some of Winter Canola Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Rashidifar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate terminal drought tolerance in different Canola cultivars based on drought tolerance indices, an experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications at experimental field of Seed and Plant Improvement Institute (SPII, Karaj in 2008-09. Results using stress tolerance index (STI, geometric mean productivity (GMP and mean productivity (MP indices revealed Zarfam, Talaye and GKH305, were as cultivars with highest yield in both optimum irrigation and terminal drought conditions. High and positive correlation between STI, GMP and MP indices with yield in optimum and drought conditions indicated that they were as the best indices for introduction and characterization of drought tolerant canola cultivars. Biplot graph showed that MP, GMP and STI indices had high correlation coefficient with each other, and tolerant genotypes were located near tolerance indices. Also results of three dimensional scatter plot indicated that cultivars Zarfam, GKH 305 and Tassilo were recognized as tolerant genotypes to drought stress, and cultivars ES Astrid, GK Helena, Modena and Okapi were identified as sensitive genotypes.

  18. Response mechanisms of Brachiaria brizantha cultivars to water deficit stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Menezes Santos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Two cultivars of Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst ex. A. Rich Stapf. (Syn. Urochloa were evaluated for their adaptation to water deficit and the stress response mechanisms in a greenhouse experiment. The experimental design was in completely randomized blocks with a 2 × 2 × 4 factorial arrangement. The Marandu and BRS Piatã cultivars were evaluated under two water availability conditions, with or without water restriction. The harvests were carried out 0, 7, 14 and 28 days after the start of water restriction. For both cultivars, the water deficit stress caused a reduction in shoot biomass and leaf area and an increase in the percentage of roots in the deeper soil layers. The B. brizantha cv. Marandu reached critical levels of leaf water potential in a shorter period of water restriction than did the B. brizantha cv. BRS Piatã. The osmoregulation and deepening of the root system are mechanisms of adaptation to water stress observed in both Marandu and BRS Piatã cultivars. Besides that, the Marandu cultivar also increases its leaf senescence and, consequentially, decreases its leaf area, as a response to water deficit.

  19. Morphological variation of 20 local rice cultivars of East Kalimantan

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    FITRI HANDAYANI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Handayani F, Sumarmiyati, Ahmadi NR. 2016. Morphological variation of 20 local rice cultivars of East Kalimantan. Pros Sem Nas Masy Biodiv Indon 3: 88-93. High diversity of local rice is very important in rice breeding program as a gene pool for valuable traits such as resistance to specific disease and tolerance against environmental stresses (Al, Fe, acidity, etc. East Kalimantan is a province which has so many local rice cultivars either lowland, upland or tidal swamp rice. Unfortunately, there is still limited scientific information about local rice genetic diversity in East Kalimantan, whereas it is an important basic information for rice breeding program. The aim of this research was to study the morphological variation of 20 local rice cultivars from some regions in East Kalimantan. The research was conducted at Lempake trial field, Samarinda in April-September 2016. The result showed that the cultivars had variability in morphological characters. Plant profile was medium to high while some tillers were little and very little. The color of lemma and palea was yellowish straw in 17 cultivars while the rest had brown lines in yellowish straw background. Seed length ranged between 7.3-9.6 mm, while seed width ranged between 1.9-3.3 mm, and seed thickness ranged between 1.5-2.1 mm. The shape of the rice grain varied between medium grain (length: width = 2.1-3.0 or long grain (length: width > 3.0.

  1. Desempenho agronômico de quatro cultivares de almeirão Agronomic performance of four chicory cultivars

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    Franciele dos Santos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Na literatura são escassas as informações sobre as principais cultivares de almeirão (Cichorium intybus cultivadas no Brasil. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho agronômico de cultivares de almeirão na região de Campinas-SP. As cultivares avaliadas foram Catalonha, Folha Amarela, Folha Larga e Pão-de-Açúcar, em experimento realizado em canteiros no Centro Experimental Central do Instituto Agronômico, de dezembro de 2009 a janeiro de 2010 com mudas transplantadas. O delineamento experimental no campo foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Aos 50 dias após o transplante foram avaliadas cinco plantas de cada parcela quanto à altura, número de folhas, massa fresca e seca, e em duas dessas plantas avaliou-se a área foliar. Foi avaliado, também, o sabor, com e sem tempero, por seis provadores. As cultivares apresentaram diferenças significativas em relação à altura das plantas, área foliar e sabor. 'Pão-de-Açúcar' apresentou em magnitude maior rendimento agronômico (516,0 g planta-1, seguida pela 'Folha Amarela' (432,7 g planta-1. Esta constitui-se em uma alternativa para o mercado, uma vez que apresenta desempenho semelhante ao das principais cultivares de almeirão comercializadas no Estado de São Paulo.In the literature there is little information about the main chicory cultivars (Cichorium intybus grown in Brazil. The present paper aims to evaluate the agronomic performance of the chicory cultivars in the region of Campinas, São Paulo state, Brazil. Catalonha, Folha Amarela, Folha Larga and Pão-de-Açúcar cultivars were evaluated, in an experiment carried out in field conditions in the Experimental Center of the Instituto Agronômico, from December 2009 to January 2010. The experimental design was completely randomized, with 4 replications. At 50 days after transplanting five plants of each plot were evaluated for the height, leaf number, fresh and dry weight and two of these plants

  2. An Assessment of the Altimetric Information Derived from Spaceborne SAR (RADARSAT-1, SRTM3 and Optical (ASTER Data for Cartographic Application in the Amazon Region

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    Waldir Renato Paradella

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Difficulties in acquiring a complete aerial photography coverage on a regular basis in the Brazilian Amazon due to adverse environmental conditions affect the quality of the national topographic database. As a consequence, topographic information is still poor, and when available needs to be up-dated or re-mapped. In this research, altimetric information derived from RADARSAT-1 (Fine and Standard modes, SRTM3 (3 arcseconds and ASTER (band 3N-3B was evaluated for topographic mapping in two sites located in the region: Serra dos Carajás (mountainous relief and Tapajós National Forest (flat terrain. The quality of the information produced from Digital Elevation Models (DEMs was evaluated regarding field altimetric measurements. Precise topographic field information acquired from Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS was used as Ground Control Points (GCPs for the modeling of the stereoscopic DEMs (RADARSAT- 1, ASTER and as Independent Check Points (ICPs for the calculation of accuracies of the products. The accuracies were estimated by comparison of the DEMs values and real elevation values given by ICPs. The analysis was performed following two approaches: (1 the use of Root Mean Square Error (RMSE for the overall classification of the DEMs considering the Brazilian Map Accuracy Standards (PEC limits and, (2 calculations of trend analysis and accuracy based on a methodology that takes into account computed discrepancies and standard deviations. The investigation has shown that for flat relief, the altimetric accuracy of SRTM3 and Fine RADARSAT-1 DEMs fulfilled the PEC requirements for 1:100,000 A Class Map. However, for mountainous terrain, only the altimetry of SRTM3 and ASTER fulfilled these requirements. In addition, the performance of ASTER was slightly superior to SRTM3. However it is important to consider the difficulties in the acquisition of good stereo-pairs with optical data in the Amazon and the additional cost

  3. Annual variation in sensory characteristics of seventeen apple cultivars

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    Laila Seppä

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sensory characteristics of 17 apple cultivars commonly grown in Finland were compared over three harvest years (2009–2011. Descriptive analysis with a trained panel (n = 11–14 comprised 17 attributes rated from 0 (‘not at all’ to 10 (‘very’: four appearance (green, red, area of red colour, skin waxiness, three odour (intense, grassy, fruity, five  texture (hard, crispy, mealy, juicy, tough peel, and five flavour (intense, sour, sweet, astringent, diverse attributes. Ratedintensities differed between the harvest years but their magnitude and direction of change varied according to the cultivar. Odour and flavour ratings tended to be higher in 2009 than in 2010 and 2011. The summer 2009 was fairly normal, while summer 2010 was hot and dry, and summer 2011  hot and humid. These climate may explain some of the differences between the first and the two subsequent years. Late season cultivars tended to be relatively stable against annual effects.

  4. Volatile components from mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, Jorge A; Mesa, Judith; Muñoz, Yamilie; Martí, M Pilar; Marbot, Rolando

    2005-03-23

    The volatile components of 20 mango cultivars were investigated by means of simultaneous distillation-extraction, GC, and GC-MS. Three hundred and seventy-two compounds were identified, of which 180 were found for the first time in mango fruit. The total concentration of volatiles was approximately 18-123 mg/kg of fresh fruit. Terpene hydrocarbons were the major volatiles of all cultivars, the dominant terpenes being delta-3-carene (cvs. Haden, Manga amarilla, Macho, Manga blanca, San Diego, Manzano, Smith, Florida, Keitt, and Kent), limonene (cvs. Delicioso, Super Haden, Ordonez, Filipino, and La Paz), both terpenes (cv. Delicia), terpinolene (cvs. Obispo, Corazon, and Huevo de toro), and alpha-phellandrene (cv. Minin). Other qualitative and quantitative differences among the cultivars could be demonstrated.

  5. Apple tree production in Italy: rootstocks, cultivars, fertilization, and irrigation

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    Giovambattista Sorrenti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Italy is one of the main apple producers in Europe, primarily intended for fresh consumption, both in the domestic and foreign markets. Fruit yield and quality depends on the cultivar, rootstock, and management practices, such as the fertilization and irrigation adopted in the orchard. This review aims at reporting the main apple cultivars and rootstocks, the management of fertilization and irrigation, as well as their adaptation to apple tree orchards in Italy. The programs for genetic improvement carried out in this country involved the selection of apple tree cultivars and rootstocks which enable a high fruit yield and quality, in order to meet the requirements from the consumer market. In the fertilization and irrigation management, nutrients and water are supplied in amounts next to the actual need of the plants, providing an adequate nutrition, a satisfactory yield, and high quality fruits, besides preventing, whenever possible, nutrients and water losses in the environment.

  6. Comportamento de cultivares de cafeeiros C. Arabica L. enxertados sobre cultivar 'Apoatã IAC 2258' (Coffea canephora Performance of C. Arabica L. Coffee cultivars grafted on 'Apoatã IAC 2258' cultivar (Coffea canephora

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    Renato Fonseca de Paiva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se no trabalho avaliar a influência da enxertia e do porta-enxerto 'Apoatã IAC 2258' no comportamento agronômico de sete cultivares de cafeeiro da espécie Coffea arabica cultivadas em solo isento de fitonematoides. O ensaio foi conduzido em delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial (7 x 3 com quatro repetições, sendo sete cultivares de Coffea arabica ('Obatã IAC 1669-20', 'Acauã', 'Oeiras MG 6851', 'Catucaí Amarelo 2SL', 'Topázio MG 1190', 'IBC Palma II' e 'Paraíso MG H 419-1' e três tipos de enxertia (muda enxertada, auto enxertada e pé franco. Foi avaliada a produtividade média de quatro anos, uniformidade de maturação, percentagem de frutos chochos e classificação do grão por tipo de peneira. As cultivares enxertadas estudadas apresentaram comportamento agronômico satisfatório em todas as características avaliadas e semelhante ao pé-franco. Em áreas isentas de fitonematoides, à exceção das cultivares 'IBC Palma II' e 'Paraíso MG H 419-1', as demais cultivares estudadas são adequadas opções de escolha para uso como copas. A técnica da enxertia com o uso do porta-enxerto 'Apoatã IAC 2258' em área isenta de fitonematoides não se justifica para incremento de produtividade.This research had the objective to evaluate the effect of grafting and 'Apoatã IAC 2258' cv. as rootstock on agronomic performance of seven Coffea arabica cvs. planted in area nematodes free. The experimental design was randomized blocks using a 7x3 factorial scheme with four repetitions. The treatments were 'Obatã IAC 1669-20', 'Acauã', 'Oeiras MG 6851', 'Catucaí Amarelo 2SL', 'Topázio MG 1190', 'IBC Palma II' and 'Paraíso MG H 419-1' coffee cultivars grafted on 'Apoatã IAC 2258', self grafted (meaning a cultivar was grafted on a rootstock of the same cultivar and no grafting. The characteristic evaluated was the average yield of beans between the first and the fourth year, the fruit maturation stage

  7. Six cultivars of Solanum macrocarpon (Solanaceae in Ghana

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    Z. R. Bukenya

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available The  Solanum macrocarpon complex (the cultivated egg plant has been studied in Ghana using morphological and experimental methods. Six cultivars belonging to the S.  macrocarpon complex have been recognized and described. The cultivars are  S. macrocarpon ‘Gboma’,  S. macrocarpon ‘Mankessim’,  S. macrocarpon ‘Akwaseho’,  S. macrocarpon ‘Kade’,  S. macrocarpon ‘Sarpeiman’ and  S. macrocarpon ‘Bui’. The very spiny, hairy plant traditionally called S. dasyphyllum is regarded as the wild ancestor from which the cultivars have been derived through a process of crop evolution. The variation within S. macrocarpon complex is attributable to genotypic differences and environmental factors.

  8. Evaluation of fruit leather made from two cultivars of papaya

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    ZUHAIR RADHI ADDAI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Two papaya cultivars were used to manufacture fruit leather. The objective of this study was to formulate papaya leather from locally grown papaya using natural ingredients like pectin, honey and citric acid. The fresh fruits were pureed and mix with natural ingredients, and dried in an oven at 60°C for 12 hours. The physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity were determined.The results showed that fruit leather made from Hongkong cultivar is significantly (P<0.05 higher in sensory parameters as well as physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity. The phenolics content and antioxidant activity increased by process of drying the fruit leather compared to fresh fruits in both papaya cultivars. Therefore, the consumer requirements for healthy and safe food products were respected.

  9. Identification of zygotic and nucellar seedlings in polyembryonic mango cultivars

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    Elisa del Carmen Martínez Ochoa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the occurrence of polyembryony in the mango cultivars Manila and Ataulfo, and to determine whether seedlings cultured in vitro are zygotic or nucelar. Percentage of polyembryony was calculated and the number of embryos in 100 seeds of each cultivar was recorded. 'Manila' exhibited 97% polyembryony with 3.4 embryos per seed, while 'Ataulfo' had 95% polyembryony with 3.2 embryos per seed. Later, 20 seeds of each cultivar were established in vitro, and it was analyzed those in which all embryos germinated (12 seeds from 'Manila' and 7 from 'Ataulfo'. DNA was extracted from seedling leaf tissue, and its origin was identified with 14 RAPD primers. The polymorphic markers recognized the seedlings of sexual origin in seven of nine 'Manila' polyembryonic seeds, and in four of seven 'Ataulfo' ones. Also, in polyembryonic seeds not all zygotic seedlings were produced by small embryos located at the micropyle.

  10. Processing potential of jellies from subtropical loquat cultivars

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    Paula Nogueira CURI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To increase the availability to consumers and add more value to loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl., which is a very perishable and seasonal fruit, and in order to identify which cultivars grown in subtropical regions are more suitable for jelly processing, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different loquat cultivars (Fukuhara, Kurisaki, Mizumo, Mizuho and Mizauto grown in subtropical regions of Brazil on the physicochemical characteristics, rheological properties and sensory acceptance of the resulting jelly. Based on sensory acceptance the most suitable loquat cultivars for jelly processing are Kurisaki and Mizuho. In this study it was found that the consumer prefers a more acidic, less sweet, less firm or softer loquat jelly, clearer with a more intense red color.

  11. Drought responses in six hazelnut (Corylus avellana L. cultivars

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    Ali Shahi-Gharahlar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the major causes of reduction of crop yields worldwide, a problem that will increase in the next decades due to climate change. We describe here an initial attempt to define biochemical markers associated to water stress in several hazelnut cultivars, by measuring the levels of common osmolytes and the generation of secondary oxidative stress, in plants subjected to water stress, and after recovery from the stress treatment. Proline appears to be a reliable marker in this species, as its accumulation in leaves correlates well with the degree of stress affecting the plants. Differences between cultivars in relative Pro accumulation and oxidative stress suggested that some cultivars are more tolerant than others and could be selected for cultivation in drought-affected areas

  12. Identificação de cultivares de trigo pelo teste de fenol Cultivars identification of wheat by phenol test

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    Nilson Lemos de Menezes

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available O teste de fenol é recomendado para a identificação de cultivares de trigo em laboratório e se baseia na reação de compostos presentes no pericarpo das sementes. Devido à reação constante para cada cultivar, o teste serve para caracterização rápida e fácil de materiais com reações diferentes. No presente trabalho, com o objetivo de facilitar a identificação varietal em trigo, determinou-se a reação ao fenol de 42 cultivares, que estiveram ou estão em recomendação no Brasil.The phenol test is recommended for wheat cultivar identification and is based on the reaction of compounds present in the seeds pericarp. Due to the constant reaction for each cultivar, the test may be used for a rapid and easy characterization of different reactions materiais. In this essay, the phenol reaction was determined in 42 brazilian wheat varieties aiming to facilitate its identification.

  13. Bagasse production potential from late sugar cane cultivars; Potencial produtivo de bagaco por cultivares tardios de cana-de-acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Tulibio F. da; Silva Neto, Helio F. da; Tasso Junior, Luiz C.; Marques, Diogo; Marques, Marcos O. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCAV/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias], E-mail: tulibio_fernandes@yahoo.com.br

    2010-07-01

    In order to diversify energy sources, the residue of sugarcane gathers attributes that qualify its use. Therefore, this study was to evaluate the potential of bagasse production in late cultivars of sugarcane. The experimental design was a randomized block design with 6 treatments (cultivars) and 3 replications. The experiment was carried out at FCAV/UNESP Jaboticabal. To calculate the productivity, it was counted the number of stems in a row linear meter, it was obtained the weight of stems. The percentage of fiber for each cultivar was determined by a calculation of estimated production and productivity of mulch. Using these values to estimate the number of people who would benefit from the energy generated from the combustion of bagasse in a process of cogeneration power. The results were submitted to analysis of variance by F test and averages compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. Cultivars RB867515, RB72454 and CTC6 showed the best performance, indicating its greater potential for power cogeneration. Cultivars CTC IAC94-2 and 2101 were lower when considering the results obtained. (author)

  14. Ultrastructural changes in aster yellows phytoplasma affected Limonium sinuatum Mill. plants.I Pathology of conducting tissues

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    Anna Rudzińska-Langwald

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in anatomy and cytology of conducting tissues of Limonium sinuatum Mill. plants affected by aster yellows phytoplasma were investigated. In the phloem tissues of affected plants stem necrosis takes place. In necrotic regions no sieve tubes were observed only necrotic cells and parenchyma cells. The sieve tubes present on the border of necrosis showed collapsed walls and were rich in vesicles. Phytoplasma cells were observed in sieve tubes present in nonnecrotic regions of the phloem. Various structural changes in sieve elements were investigated. The endoplasmic reticulum cistemae were often localised in the lumen of the sieve element without contact with the walls. Such localisation of endoplasmic reticulum was never observed in healthy plants. Vesicles of different size, fuzzy material and clumping of p-proteins were characteristic for sieve elements from nonnecrotic part of phloem. No correlation with the sieve tube structure and the appearance of phytoplasma in a single sieve element was found. In control plants of L. sinuatum phloem observed were phloem parenchyma cells with spiny vesicles (SV. In infected plants there were a remarkable increase in cells with SV. Also the SV itself had not only a vesicular but also a tubular or extended cistern shape.

  15. Changes of ultrastructure and cytoplasmic free calcium in Gladiolus x hybridus Van Houtte roots infected by aster yellows phytoplasma

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    Anna Rudzińska-Langwald

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Roots of Gladiolus x hybridus Van Houtte plants infected with aster yellows phytoplasma were examined. The infected plants had a reduced root system in comparison to control plants. Their roots were thinner and the stele organisation was changed. Phytoplasmas were present in sieve tubes, companion cells and phloem parenchyma cells of the infected plant roots. Free calcium ions were localized in the cells of infected plants. Cells of the stele of infected roots, especially these infected with phytoplasmas, showed an increase of calcium antimonite deposits in theirs protoplasts. Also the number of calcium antimonite deposits increased in sieve tubes of infected roots. The deposits were present on plasma membrane, around the sieve tube plate and also in the lumen of the sieve tube. The increase of free calcium ions in sieve tubes did not cause the occlusion of sieve tube pores. Companion cells and some parenchyma cells with phytoplasmas did not react to phytoplasma infection with an increase of Ca2+ ions in protoplast. The parenchyma cells showing signs of degeneration reacted with high increase of calcium ions. The Ca2+ ions were present mainly in cytoplasm of infected parenchyma cells. There were calcium antimonite deposits in infected plant roots xylem elements and in intracellular spaces of cortex parenchyma. Such deposits were not present in control plants.

  16. Study of the structure changes caused by earthquakes in Chile applying the lineament analysis to the Aster (Terra) satellite data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-Baeza, A.; Zverev, A.; Malinnikov, V.

    Chile is one of the most seismically and volcanically active regions in the South America due to a constant subdiction of the South American plate, converging with the Nazca plate in the extreme North of Chile. Four events, namely: the Ovalle earthquake of Juny 18, 2003, M=6.3, with epicenter localized at (-30:49:33, -71:18:53), the Calama earthquake of Junly 19, 2001, M=5.2, (-30:29:38,-68:33:18), the Pica earthquake of April 10, 2003, M=5.1, (-21:03:20,-68:47:10) and the La Ligua earthquake of May 6, 2001, M=5.1, (-32:35:31,-71:07:58:) were analysed using the 15 m resolution satellite images, provided by the ASTER/VNIR instrument. The Lineament Extraction and Stripes Statistic Analysis (LESSA) software package was used to examine changes in the lineament features caused by sismic activity. Lack of vegetation facilitates the study of the changes in the topography common to all events and makes it possible to evaluate the sismic risk in this region for the future.

  17. Lithologic mapping in the Mountain Pass, California area using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, L.C.; Mars, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluation of an Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image of the Mountain Pass, California area indicates that several important lithologic groups can be mapped in areas with good exposure by using spectral-matching techniques. The three visible and six near-infrared bands, which have 15-m and 30-m resolution, respectively, were calibrated by using in situ measurements of spectral reflectance. Calcitic rocks were distinguished from dolomitic rocks by using matched-filter processing in which image spectra were used as references for selected spectral categories. Skarn deposits and associated bright coarse marble were mapped in contact metamorphic zones related to intrusion of Mesozoic and Tertiary granodioritic rocks. Fe-muscovite, which is common in these intrusive rocks, was distinguished from Al-muscovite present in granitic gneisses and Mesozoic granite. Quartzose rocks were readily discriminated, and carbonate rocks were mapped as a single broad unit through analysis of the 90-m resolution, five-band surface emissivity data, which is produced as a standard product at the EROS Data Center. Three additional classes resulting from spectral-angle mapper processing ranged from (1) a broad granitic rock class (2) to predominately granodioritic rocks and (3) a more mafic class consisting mainly of mafic gneiss, amphibolite and variable mixtures of carbonate rocks and silicate rocks. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The role of Aster amellus Linn. in the degradation of a sulfonated azo dye Remazol Red: a phytoremediation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandare, Rahul V; Kabra, Akhil N; Tamboli, Dhawal P; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2011-02-01

    Phytoremediation is a novel and promising approach for the treatment of pollutants. This study did explore the potential of Aster amellus Linn. to decolorize a sulfonated azo dye Remazol Red (RR), a mixture of dyes and a textile effluent. Induction in the activities of lignin peroxidase, tyrosinase, veratryl alcohol oxidase and riboflavin reductase was observed during RR decolorization, suggesting their involvement in the metabolism of RR. UV-Visible absorption spectrum, HPLC and FTIR analysis confirmed the degradation of RR. Four metabolites after the degradation of the dye were identified as 2-[(3-diazenylphenyl) sulfonyl] ethanesulfonate, 4-amino-5-hydroxynaphthalene-2,7-disulfonate, naphthalene-2-sulfonate and 3-(1,3,5-triazin-2-ylamino)benzenesulfonate by using GC/MS. Textile effluent and mixture of dyes showed 47% and 62% decrease respectively in American Dye Manufacturers Institute value. BOD of textile effluent and mixture of dyes were reduced by 75% and 48% respectively, COD of industrial effluent and mixture of dyes was reduced by 60% and 75% and TOC was reduced by 54% and 69% respectively after the treatment by A. amellus for 60 h; this indicated that the plant can be used for cleaning textile effluents. Toxicity study revealed the phytotransformation of RR into non-toxic products.

  19. Effects of saltwater intrusion on pinewood vegetation using satellite ASTER data: the case study of Ravenna (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarella, M; De Giglio, M; Greggio, N

    2015-04-01

    The San Vitale pinewood (Ravenna, Italy) is part of the remaining wooded areas within the southeastern Po Valley. Several studies demonstrated a widespread saltwater intrusion in the phreatic aquifer caused by natural and human factors in this area as the whole complex coastal system. Groundwater salinization affects soils and vegetation, which takes up water from the shallow aquifer. Changes in groundwater salinity induce variations of the leaf properties and vegetation cover, recognizable by satellite sensors as a response to different spectral bands. A procedure to identify stressed areas from satellite remote sensing data, reducing the expensive and time-consuming ground monitoring campaign, was developed. Multispectral Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data, acquired between May 2005 and August 2005, were used to calculate Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Within the same vegetation type (thermophilic deciduous forest), the areas with the higher vegetation index were taken as reference to identify the most stressed areas using a statistical approach. To confirm the findings, a comparison was conducted using contemporary groundwater salinity data. The results were coherent in the areas with highest and lowest average NDVI values. Instead, to better understand the behavior of the intermediate areas, other parameters influencing vegetation (meteorological data, water table depth, and tree density) were added for the interpretation of the results.

  20. Ultrastructural changes in aster yellows phytoplasma affected Limonium sinuatum Mill. plants II. Pathology of cortex parenchyma cells

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    Anna Rudzińska-Langwald

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Limonium sinuatum Mill, plants with severe symptoms of aster yellows infection phytoplasmas were present not only in the phloem but also in some cortex parenchymas cells. These parenchyma cells were situated at some distance from the conducting bundles. The phytoplasmas were observed directly in parenchyma cells cytoplasm. The number of phytoplasmas present in each selected cell varies. The cells with a small number of phytoplasmas show little pathological changes compared with the unaffected cells of the same zone of the stem as well with the cells of healthy plants. The cells filled with a number of phytoplasmas had their protoplast very much changed. The vacuole was reduced and in the cytoplasm a reduction of the number of ribosomes was noted and regions of homogenous structure appeared. Mitochondria were moved in the direction of the tonoplast and plasma membrane. Compared to the cells unaffected by phytoplasma, the mitochondria were smaller and had an enlarged cristae internal space. The chloroplasts from affected cells had a very significant reduction in size and the tylacoids system had disappeared. The role of these changes for creating phytoplasma friendly enviroment is discused.

  1. Metabolic potential and community structure of endophytic and rhizosphere bacteria associated with the roots of the halophyte Aster tripolium L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymańska, Sonia; Płociniczak, Tomasz; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia; Złoch, Michał; Ruppel, Silke; Hrynkiewicz, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    The submitted work assumes that the abundance and diversity of endophytic and rhizosphere microorganisms co-existing with the halophytic plant Aster tripolium L. growing in a salty meadow in the vicinity of a soda factory (central Poland) represent unique populations of cultivable bacterial strains. Endophytic and rhizosphere bacteria were (i) isolated and identified based on 16S rDNA sequences; (ii) screened for nifH and acdS genes; and (iii) analyzed based on selected metabolic properties. Moreover, total microbial biomass and community structures of the roots (endophytes), rhizosphere and soil were evaluated using a cultivation-independent technique (PLFA) to characterize plant-microbial interactions under natural salt conditions. The identification of the isolated strains showed domination by Gram-positive bacteria (mostly Bacillus spp.) both in the rhizosphere (90.9%) and roots (72.7%) of A. tripolium. Rhizosphere bacterial strains exhibited broader metabolic capacities, while endophytes exhibited higher specificities for metabolic activity. The PLFA analysis showed that the total bacterial biomass decreased in the following order (rhizosphere

  2. ANALISA BATAS DAERAH ALIRAN SUNGAI DARI DATA ASTER GDEM TERHADAP DATA BPDAS (STUDI KASUS : SUB DAS BUNGBUNTU DAS TAROKAM

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    Yogyrema Setyanto Putra

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pemetaan batas daerah aliran sungai (DAS merupakan salah satu parameter utama yang digunakan sebagai batasan penentuan kondisi tutupan lahan dan geomorfologi pada DAS. Ketersediaan data Digital Elevation Model (DEM, dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai pengelolaan DAS dalam bentuk pemetaan batas DAS serta mendapatkan kondisi geomorfologi DAS. Sayangnya keberagaman produk data DEM sering menimbulkan pertanyaan bagi pengguna tentang produk data DEM manakah yang sebaiknya digunakan dalam penelitiannya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan hasil perbandingan dari batas DAS yang diolah yaitu menggunakan data ASTERGlobal Digital Elevation Model (GDEM terhadap data Badan Pengelolaan Daerah Aliran Sungai (BPDAS. Metode yang dilakukan dalam penelitian ini mencakup pra pengolahan, pengolahan, dan kartografis. Pada pra pengolahan citra proses yang dilakukan antara lain pemotongan citra DEM, koreksi geometrik, ekstraksi garis kontur Peta RBI ke DEM, pengkoreksian jaringan sungai BPDAS terhadap Peta RBI. Pada tahap pengolahan dilakukan analisa hidrologi permukaan pada data DEM untuk mendapat batas DAS. Pada tahap akhir dilakukan kartografi untuk pembuatan peta batas dimana data batas ditampalkan. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, secara kuantitatif nilai morfometri hasil pengolahan ASTER GDEM menunjukkan nilai yang berbeda dengan data BPDAS, tetapi masih dalam rentang kelas benuk DAS yang sama.

  3. Common bean cultivars and lines interactions with environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carbonell Sérgio Augusto Morais

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of bean lines brought forth in breeding programs or of cultivars in use can be affected by environmental variability. The adaptability and stability of grain yield of 18 common bean cultivars and lines in 23 environments (combinations of seasons, years and locations were evaluated in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. 'IAC-Carioca' and 'IAC-Carioca Eté' were used as standard cultivars for the carioca grain type, while 'FT-Nobre' and 'IAC-Una' represented the standard for black grains. The experiment was set up in a randomized complete block design with four replications and plots consisting of two, two central five meters rows flanked by border rows. Stability parameters were estimated by the methods Maximum Yield Deviations (MYD and by the Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interaction Analysis (AMMI. For the identification of the most stable cultivars, the two methods led to consistent results, although by MYD the highest stability was always associated to the highest yield. 'MAC-733327' and 'LP 9637' were the most suitable cultivars and lines for the joint seasons, while 'LP 9637' and 'FT-Nobre' were the most suitable for the dry season. The MYD method combined a simple procedure, easiness of result interpretation, uniqueness of parameters, and association between stability and yield. On the other hand, the AMMI method simplified the identification of stable cultivars by visual inspection, also providing information on the environments. However, the complex nature which combines uni-and multivariate techniques hampers its widespread use in breeding programs.

  4. Soil covering in organic cultivation of onion cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Barreto Tavella

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The soil preparation in horticulture, including organic, is characterized by intense soil tillage, which increases energy costs and unbalanced the environment. The organic system in onion cultivation has shown satisfactory results, however the soil covering use tends to improve the cultivation environment and may result in higher yields. The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of onion cultivars in organic cultivation under different soil coverages. The experiment was conducted in the period of April to October of 2009, under protected cropping, in the experimental area of the horticulture sector of the Universidade Federal do Acre (UFAC, in Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil. A randomized block design was adopted, in a split-plot arrangement, the plots being comprised of soil coverings: coffee bean husks, grass straw (Brachiaria decumbens; dessicated bamboo leaves (Bambusa spp. and uncovered soil (control treatment, and the subplots comprised of three onion cultivars (IPA 10, IPA 11 and IPA 12, with four repetitions. The variables analyzed were total bulb yield (t ha-1, marketable bulb yield (t ha-1, fresh mass of the bulb (g bulb-1, classification of the bulbs and loss of mass as a function of storage time. There was no interaction effect between the soil coverings and the cultivars. Cultivars IPA 10 and IPA 11 showed greater agronomic performance of the studied variables. The soil coverings did not affect the yield and average mass of the bulbs under organic cultivation. The three cultivars presented more than approximately 70% of the bulbs in class 2 and a maximum of 5% of unmarketable bulbs. The loss of mass after 49 days of storage was 10% independent of the cultivar or soil covering.

  5. Evaluación de los datos del sensor ASTER para estimar la superficie cultivada y los niveles de producción de caña de azúcar en Tucumán, Argentina An evaluation of ASTER data to estimate sugarcane planted area and production levels in Tucumán, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico J. Soria

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se evalúa la capacidad de los datos de las bandas espectrales 2 y 3 del subsistema VNIR (Visible Near Infrared y la banda espectral 4 del subsistema SWIR (Short Wave Infrared del sensor ASTER, para estimar la superficie cultivada y los niveles de producción de caña de azúcar en un área ubicada en el departamento Chicligasta de la provincia de Tucumán, Argentina. Se aplicó la metodología de clasificación multiespectral supervisada. Los resultados obtenidos fueron comparados con los generados con igual metodología utilizando los datos de las bandas 3, 4 y 5 del sensor TM del satélite Landsat 5. El análisis estadístico de la información disponible demostró que los datos del sensor ASTER, en sus bandas 2 y 3 del VNIR, poseen la capacidad de discriminar la superficie y los niveles de producción de caña de azúcar en el área de estudio. De la comparación estadística de estos resultados con los de la imagen Landsat, resulta que la banda 3 de ASTER y 4 de Landsat poseen una significancia mayor para discriminar niveles de producción, que las bandas 2 y 3 de los respectivos sensores. Ante estos resultados, el sensor ASTER se muestra como una alternativa viable para la discriminación y cuantificación de la caña de azúcar.In this work, data obtained by Visible Near Infrared (VNIR bands 2 and 3 and Short Wave Infrared (SWIR subsystem (band 4 of the ASTER sensor, were evaluated in terms of their potential use in estimating planted surface and production levels of a sugarcane growing area in Chicligasta, province of Tucumán, Argentina. The multiespectral supervised classification methodology was applied. The results were compared with the ones obtained by applying the same methodology to data provided by bands 3, 4 and 5 of Landsat 5 satellite TM sensor. Statistical analysis of the available information demonstrated that data supplied by VNIR bands 2 and 3 of the ASTER sensor allow discriminating sugarcane planted area

  6. The antioxidant activitives of mango peel among different cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Ge; Zhang, Xiu-Mei; Ma, Fei-Yue; Fu, Qiong

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, the contents of total phenol and total flavonoid of 8 mango cultivars were determined. Their antioxidant abilities were also evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-pireyhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Correlations between total phenol, total flavonoid and FRAP as well as TEAC were also analyzed. Results showed that mango peels were rich in natural antioxidant compounds the antioxidant abilities were different among different cultivars. The correlations between total phenol, total flavonoid and FRAP indicated phenolics represent a major part of antioxidant capacity in mango peels. This was also useful in the utilization of mango processing waste.

  7. Bioactivity of sour cherry cultivars grown in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoo, Gaik Ming; Clausen, Morten Rahr; Pedersen, Bjarne Hjelmsted;

    2012-01-01

    Thirty four varieties of sour cherries (Prunus cerasus) were investigated for their total antioxidant activity, Caco-2 cancer cell proliferation inhibitory activity and effect on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. Total phenolic content, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and cancer cell...... proliferation inhibitory activity of sour cherries were closely correlated but not PGE2 production. The cultivars ‘BirgitteBöttermö’, ‘Fanal’ and ‘Tiki’ were the three cultivars with the highest ORAC values (180, 147 and 133mmol TE/g, respectively) and inhibition against Caco-2 cancer cell proliferation (74...

  8. Yield Potential of Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Cultivars in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Flengmark, Poul Kristiansen

    2005-01-01

    In order to determine the yield potential of fibre hemp in Denmark, defined as seed yield, biomass, stem and fibre production, five cultivars were evaluated in field trials at two sites during 1998-2000. The total dry matter yield, stem yield, fibre yield, fibre percent, plant height, and seed...... was approximately 500 kg ha-1. In general, fibre yields increased when seed rates of 16 kg ha-1 or more were used. At 32 kg seed ha-1 Futura gave higher fibre yields than at all other seed rates, and higher yields at 24 cm row distance than at 48 cm. Fasamo differed from the other cultivars by having a lower dry...

  9. Biochemical and Physiological Changes of Three Watermelon Cultivars Infested with Fusarium oxysporum f. Sp.niveum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-ming; HAO Chi; GUO Chun-rong; ZHANG Zuo-gang; HE Yun-chun

    2002-01-01

    The dynamic changes in membrane permeability, activities of disease-related enzymes, and contents of pathogenesis-relevant chemical compounds and photosynthetic pigments in root cells of three watermelon cultivars were studied after inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum at seedling stage. The results showed that the capacity of self-regulating and returning to normal status of cultivar Kelunsheng (resistant) was greater than that of a susceptible cultivar, Zaohua, in terms of malonaldehyde (MDA) content, relative conductivity, and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). The resistant cultivar maintained a higher activity of dehydrogenase, higher content of vitamin C(Vc), and relatively lower content of soluble sugar than the susceptible cultivar. The content of soluble protein was higher in the resistant cultivar than that in the susceptible one at day 1 after inoculation. The capacities of the resistant cultivar to inhibit chlorophyll deterioration and maintain a higher carotenoid content were significantly stronger than those of the susceptible cultivar.

  10. Synonyms and homonyms of Malvasia cultivars (Vitis vinifera L.) existing in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Torres, I.; Ibanez, J.; Andres, M. T. de; Rubio, C.; Borrego, J.; Cabello, F.; Zerolo, J.; Munoz Organero, G.

    2009-07-01

    Malvasia is a common name for different grape cultivars that have long been grown in Spain. In many cases, these cultivars are noted as being aromatic, sweet, and similar to Muscat in flavour. However, not all grapes that share this name exhibit these characteristics. This study compares the Malvasia cultivars in the Spanish Denominations of Origin with those grape cultivars grown in the grapevine collection of El Encin (Alcala de Henares, Spain) using morphological, iso enzymatic, and micro satellite analysis as well as a large bibliographic search of the studied cultivars. Despite their Malvasia denomination, some cultivars have been identified as synonyms of Macabeo, Alarije, Dona Blanca, Chasselas, or Planta Nova, all included on the official Spanish list of commercial grape cultivars. Malvasia de Sitges and Malvasia de Lanzarote have the characteristic flavour of Malvasia grapes and no synonyms were found among the cultivars grown in Spain, whereas Malvasia Rosada resulted from a colour mutation in Malvasia de Sitges. (Author) 26 refs.

  11. Stability of partial resistance in potato cultivars exposed to aggressive strains of Phytophthora infestans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flier, W.G.; Bosch, van den G.B.M.; Turkensteen, L.J.

    2003-01-01

    Potato cultivars were evaluated for their resistance responses to aggressive strains of Phytophthora infestans in field and laboratory experiments. Analysis of variance revealed differential cultivar-by-isolate interactions for both foliar and tuber blight resistance. Differential responses occur as

  12. Physicochemical and functional properties of two cowpea cultivars grown in temperate Indian climate

    OpenAIRE

    Saima Hamid; Sabeera Muzzafar; Idrees Ahmed Wani; Farooq Ahmad Masoodi

    2015-01-01

    Flours of two local cowpea cultivars namely Red cowpea and Black cowpea were analysed for proximate composition, pasting and functional properties. The crude protein and fat contents were higher for Black cultivar than the Red cultivar. The apparent amylose content was significantly higher for Red cowpea (25.54%) than Black cowpea (15.09%). Polyphenols were significantly higher for Red cowpea than Black cowpea. The pasting profile of two cultivars revealed significantly higher values of peak ...

  13. Estimation of resistance pear cultivars to Erwinia amylovora using artificial immature pear fruits method

    OpenAIRE

    Gavrilović, Veljko; Stanisavljević, Rade; Stošić, Stefan; Stevanović, Miloš; Aleksić, Goran; Stajić, Milica; Dolovac, Nenad

    2014-01-01

    Susceptibility of different pear cultivars to Erwinia amaylovora by artificial inoculated immature pear fruits are shown in this article. According obtained results significant differences among cultivars are confirmed and they could be divided in four groups. Most susceptibly cultivars were Santa Marija. Second group includes Williams, Morettini, Carmen, Hardenpont. As most resistant shown to be Magness, Turandot and two local varietyies Karamanka, as well as another unknown local cultivar. ...

  14. Growth and Spread of Blueberry Cultivars in a 15 Year-Old Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blueberry cultivars with reduced plant height and non-spreading, upright growth habit would be useful for reducing pruning requirements and improving ease of hand and machine harvest. Twenty-one rabbiteye cultivars and six southern highbush cultivars and selections were planted on March 6,1985 in s...

  15. Evaluation of maize cultivars for their susceptibility towards mycotoxigenic fungi under storage conditions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dawlal, P

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available was carried out where each maize cultivar was serially inoculated with each of the fungi. Results showed that four maize cultivars had a slower rate of infestation towards the field fungi while three cultivars had a slower rate of infestation towards...

  16. Resposta de cultivares de algodoeiro a subdoses de glyphosate Response of cotton cultivars to reduced rates of glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Yamashita

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a resposta de nove cultivares de algodoeiro, de importância econômica no Estado do Mato Grosso, quanto à intoxicação causada por subdoses de glyphosate. Os cultivares de algodoeiro utilizados foram Fabrika, Makina, ITA-90, FM 986, FM 966, Delta Opal, BRS Facual, Antares e Coodetec 407. As plantas foram cultivadas em tubetes preenchidos com substrato de solo e mantidas em casa telada, tendo recebido a aplicação do glyphosate aos 20 dias após a emergência, época em que apresentavam quatro folhas verdadeiras. As subdoses de glyphosate, simulando deriva, foram de 270 e 540 g ha-1. Também foi utilizada testemunha, sem aplicação do herbicida, para efeito de comparação. Foram realizadas avaliações semanais até 42 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos (DAA, período em que também foi tomada a altura das plantas. Os sintomas visuais de intoxicação iniciaram-se aos 3 DAA, caracterizados pelo amarelecimento das pontas das folhas mais novas, seguido de murchamento do ápice das plantas. Na dose de 270 g ha-1 esses sintomas foram de baixa intensidade, mas a 540 g ha-1 causaram, na maioria dos casos, toxidez "preocupante" a "muito alta". Os cultivares BRS Facual e FM 986 mostraram-se os mais suscetíveis. A altura das plantas foi mais afetada quando se aplicou a menor dose de glyphosate. Houve recuperação de todos os cultivares tratados com 270 g ha-1 de glyphosate até os 42 DAA. Quando tratados com 540 g ha-1 de glyphosate, os cultivares Fabrika, Coodetec 407, BRS-Facual e ITA-90 foram mais sensíveis, apresentando redução de altura entre 84 e 90% aos 42 DAA. Os cultivares menos sensíveis na dose de 270 g ha-1 de glyphosate não foram os mesmos para a dose de 540 g ha-1.The response of nine cotton cultivars economically important in the state of Mato Grosso was evaluated in relation to the toxicity caused by reduced rates of glyphosate. The cotton cultivars used were Fabrika, Makina, ITA-90, FM 986, FM 966, Delta Opal

  17. Resistance of squash cultivars to Aphis gossypii Resistência de cultivares de abobrinha italiana a Aphis gossypii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson LL Baldin

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The Cucurbitaceae plants are damaged by attack of a wide spectrum of insects and microorganisms. Among the sucker insects causing damages on squash Cucurbita pepo (L., the aphid Aphis gossypii (Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae is pointed as one of the most important, once their nymphs and adults suck the sap of the leaves continuously, besides being potential vector of virus. The present research evaluated different cultivars, aiming to identify the resistance against this aphid. The cultivars Novita, Sandy, Caserta Cac Melhorada, Novita Plus, Samira, AF-2858 and Caserta TS were used in laboratory assays (T= 25±2ºC; RH= 70±10% and fotophase= 12 h. In the immature phase the duration of nymphal instars was evaluated, the total duration and their viability, confining individuals on leaf disks from cultivars. In the adult phase the duration of reproductive period, the fecundity and the biological cycle were observed. The cultivar 'Sandy' expressed high level of antibiosis and feeding non-preference against A. gossypii, increasing the nymphal stage and causing mortality near to 70%. Besides, this cultivar reduced the production of nymphs and the longevity of the insects. The 'Novita Plus' cultivar also induced significant nymphal mortality, however in lower levels than those verified in 'Sandy', indicating a moderate resistance.As plantas da família Cucurbitaceae são prejudicadas pelo ataque de um amplo espectro de insetos e microrganismos. Dentre os insetos sugadores que atacam a abobrinha Cucurbita pepo (L., o pulgão Aphis gossypii (Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae merece destaque, uma vez que suas ninfas e adultos sugam a seiva das folhas constantemente, além de ser potencial vetor de vírus. A presente pesquisa foi realizada com o objetivo de avaliar diferetes cultivares de abobrinha italiana quanto à resistência a esse pulgão. Utilizaram-se as cultivares Novita, Sandy, Caserta Cac Melhorada, Novita Plus, Samira, AF-2858 e Caserta TS em ensaios

  18. Características do cultivar iarana de coffea arabica The iarana cultivar of coffea arabica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Carvalho

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available Misturas mecânicas de sementes de cafeeiros selecionados portadores de alelos individuais SH1, SH2 , SH3 , SH4 responsáveis pela resistência de Coffea arabica a grupos de raças fisiológicas de Hemileia vastatrix foram distribuídas aos lavradores com as denominações de cultivar iarana-C 73 e iarana-C 74. As sementes foram misturadas nas proporções, em peso, de 2:12:3:1 e 2:8:2:1, para os genotipos SH1SH1, SH2SH2 , SH3,SH3, e SH4SH4 , para os anos de 1973 e 1974, respectivamente. Todos os cafeeiros devem ser portadores dos alelos SH5SH5. A mistura foi distribuida em 1973, a 987 lavradores e, em 1974, a 463 lavradores de todas as regiões cafeeiras do Brasil. O iarana deverá ser plantado isoladamente do resto do cafezal em cada propriedade, para observação e seleção das plantas mais adaptadas para produção de sementes. As hibridações naturais que ocorrem entre plantas de diferentes genotipos darão origem a novas combinações genéticas portadoras de vários dos fatores genéticos, com espectro mais amplo de resistência às raças fisiológicas de H. vastatrix.Mechanical mixtures of seeds of selected plants of Coffea arabica carrying the dominant alleles SH1, SH2, SH3, and SH4 conditioning resistance to different races of Hemileia vastatrix were released to the growers as Iarana C 73 and Iarana C 74 cultivars. The seeds were mixed in the proportion of 2:12:3:1 and 2:8:2:1 for the genotypes SH1SH1, SH2SH2, SH2SH3 and SH4SH4 for 1973 and 1974 crops, respectively. The mixed seeds were distributed to 987 farmers in 1973 and 463 coffee farmers in 1974 from most of the coffee regions in Brazil. Iarana is to be planted in isolated plots for observation and selection of the more adapted plants for seed production. Natural hybridization between plants of different genotypes will give rise to new combinations with broader spectrum of resistance to physiological races of H. vastratrix.

  19. A Multiplexed Microsatellite Fingerprinting Set for Hazelnut Cultivar Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to develop a robust and cost-effective fingerprinting set for hazelnuts using microsatellite (SSR) markers. Twenty SSRs containing repeat motifs of = three nucleotides distributed throughout the hazelnut genome were screened on eight genetically diverse cultivars to a...

  20. Rooting of stem segments from fig tree cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayane Barcelos Bisi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Although Brazil is the largest fig (Ficus carica L. producer in the Southern Hemisphere, it mainly uses only one cultivar, ‘Roxo de Valinhos’. In addition, propagation is almost entirely through hardwood cuttings. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish a propagation method that provides more successful rooting of stem segments of fig cultivars for the purpose of expanding the genetic base of the fig tree. The cultivars used were ‘Brunswick’, ‘Calabacita’, ‘Negro de Bursa’, ‘Mini Figo’, ‘Lampa Preta’, ‘Lemon’, ‘Troiano’,’ Nazaré’, ‘Três num Prato’, ‘Princesa’, ‘Colo de Dama’, ‘Montes’, ‘Bêbera Branca’, ‘Pingo de Mel’, and ‘Roxo de Valinhos’. The propagation methods used were layering, hardwood cuttings, nodal segments, herbaceous cuttings originating from the removal of sprouts, and herbaceous cuttings obtained during growth. We found that the propagation method influences the rooting of stem segments, and cultivars differ in their rooting potential.

  1. Rational regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luo, Jun; Pan, Yong-Bao; Xu, Liping; Grisham, Michael Paul; Zhang, Hua; Que, Youxiong

    2015-01-01

    .... In the present study, a heritability-adjusted genotype main effect plus genotype × environment (HA-GGE) biplot program was used to analyze the cane and sucrose yields of 44 newly released sugarcane cultivars at eight pilot test sites...

  2. Predicting Development of an Epidemics on Cultivar Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergård, Hanne

    1983-01-01

    A mathematical model for the development of an epidemic on a plant cultivar mixture illustrates the influence of the infection efficiency, spore production rate, proportion of deposited spores, frequency of autodeposition, and composition of the mixture on the genetic composition of the pathogen...

  3. Variation in fruit chilling injury among mango cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phakawatmongkol, W.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2004-01-01

    Mango(Mangifera indica L.) fruit of six cultivars ('Kaew', 'Rad', 'Okrong', 'Tongdum', 'Nam Dok Mai' and 'Nungklangwun') were stored at 4, 8 and 12degreesC (85-90% RH) and randomly sampled every 5 days. Chilling injury was manifested initially as a gray to brown discoloration of the peel, followed b

  4. Two new promising cultivars of mango for Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango cultivars are mostly the result of random selections from open pollinated chance seedlings of indigenous or introduced germplasm. The National Germplasm Repository (genebank) at the Subtropical Horticulture Research Station (SHRS) in Miami, Florida is an important mango germplasm repository an...

  5. Irreversible commitment to flowering in two mango cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, the state of Nayarit, Mexico has experienced variations in rainfall distribution and warmer temperatures during the autumn-winter season which have caused erratic flowering of mango. The early-flowering cultivars, such as ‘Ataulfo’, have been less affected than tardy ones such as ‘T...

  6. Nutritional composition of new peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos-Mondragon, M. G.; Calderon de la Barca, A. M.; Duran-Prado, A.; Campos-Reyes, L. C.; Oliart-Ros, R. M.; Ortega-Garcia, J.; Medina-Juarez, L. A.; Angulo, O.

    2009-07-01

    Six peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars (Col-24-Gro, Col-61-Gto, VA-81-B, Ranferi Diaz, NC-2 and Florunner) were studied for agricultural yield, chemical composition (protein, fat, carbohydrates, fiber and ash), amino acid profile, digestibility, fatty acid profile, tocopherol and sterol contents. Results indicated that Ranferi Diaz and Col-61-Gto presented the highest yield (6.3 Ton/ha). Protein content was from 23.5 to 26.6% and fat content ranged from 49.8-53.4%. Mean digestibility was 86%. Lysine and threonine levels in all cultivars were sufficient to meet human requirements. Total saturated fatty acids ranged from 15-18%. The oleic/linoleic ratio was estimated 1.3-1.4. Tocopherol levels varied from 390 to 706 ppm. The highest tocopherol levels corresponded to the cultivars with the lowest yield. The alpha tocopherol content was estimated at 90-150 ppm, while gamma tocopherol was 270-570 ppm. The main sterol present was A- sitosterol (approx. 65%). Ranferi Diaz variety presented the highest agronomic yield and the highest protein content but low oleic acid, low sterols and low total tocopherols. The differences among cultivars suggest differences in their applications. (Author) 40 refs.

  7. Sensitivity and growth of twelve Elatior begonia cultivars to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinert, R.A.; Nelson, P.V.

    1979-12-01

    Twelve cultivars of Elatior begonia (Begonia X hiemalis Fotsch.) were exposed to O/sub 3/ at 25 and 50 pphM. The 'Schwabenland' group, 'Whisper 'O' Pink', and 'Improved Krefeld Orange' were the most sensitive, whereas 'Ballerina', 'Mikkell Limelight', and 'Turo' were the least sensitive. 'Rennaisance', 'Heirloom' 'Nixe', and 'Fantasy' were intermediate in sensitivity. The dry weight of foliage (stems plus leaves) of 9 cultivars exposed to O/sub 3/ was significantly less than that of control plants. Ozone at 25 and 50 pphM inhibited flower growth (including peduncles) and development in 4 and 8 of the 12 cultivars, respectively. Differences in flower weight ranged from 43 to 105% of the control at 25 pphM and from 25 to 98% of the control at 50 pphM, depending on cultivar. 1 table.

  8. WHEAT CULTIVARS: RESPONSE TO IRRIGATION AND SOWING DATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klar A.E.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in an Alfisol-Oxisol transition sandy-clay texture, using six wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum, L.: two tall and tolerant to soil aluminium toxicity (BH-1146, and IAC-18, and four semi-dwarf cultivars - Anahuac, IAC-162, IAC-24, and IAC-60 - of which only the first two are sensitive to soil aluminium toxicity. Two minimum soil water potentials (ys levels were used: 1. watered, when Ys reached about -0.05 MPa; 2. dry, when the water potential reached around -1.5 MPa. Two sowing dates, 05/22/92 and 06/11/92, were used. The results showed that Anahuac and IAC-60 are the most indicated cultivars for the studied region; when irrigated all cultivars presented similar yield level under no irrigation conditions; the irrigation was not sufficient to avoid yield differences between the two growing seasons; differences in rainfall were important for the crop in the dry treatment for both seasons.

  9. Susceptibility of highbush blueberry cultivars to Phytophthora root rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands is a ubiquitous soilborne pathogen associated with root rot in many woody perennial plant species, including highbush blueberry (Vaccinium sp.). To identify genotypes with resistance to the pathogen, cultivars and advanced selections of highbush blueberry were grown in a...

  10. Quality Parameters of Six Cultivars of Blueberry Using Computer Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Matiacevich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Blueberries are considered an important source of health benefits. This work studied six blueberry cultivars: “Duke,” “Brigitta”, “Elliott”, “Centurion”, “Star,” and “Jewel”, measuring quality parameters such as °Brix, pH, moisture content using standard techniques and shape, color, and fungal presence obtained by computer vision. The storage conditions were time (0–21 days, temperature (4 and 15°C, and relative humidity (75 and 90%. Results. Significant differences (P<0.05 were detected between fresh cultivars in pH, °Brix, shape, and color. However, the main parameters which changed depending on storage conditions, increasing at higher temperature, were color (from blue to red and fungal presence (from 0 to 15%, both detected using computer vision, which is important to determine a shelf life of 14 days for all cultivars. Similar behavior during storage was obtained for all cultivars. Conclusion. Computer vision proved to be a reliable and simple method to objectively determine blueberry decay during storage that can be used as an alternative approach to currently used subjective measurements.

  11. Quality Parameters of Six Cultivars of Blueberry Using Computer Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matiacevich, Silvia; Celis Cofré, Daniela; Silva, Patricia; Enrione, Javier; Osorio, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Background. Blueberries are considered an important source of health benefits. This work studied six blueberry cultivars: "Duke," "Brigitta", "Elliott", "Centurion", "Star," and "Jewel", measuring quality parameters such as °Brix, pH, moisture content using standard techniques and shape, color, and fungal presence obtained by computer vision. The storage conditions were time (0-21 days), temperature (4 and 15°C), and relative humidity (75 and 90%). Results. Significant differences (P cultivars in pH, °Brix, shape, and color. However, the main parameters which changed depending on storage conditions, increasing at higher temperature, were color (from blue to red) and fungal presence (from 0 to 15%), both detected using computer vision, which is important to determine a shelf life of 14 days for all cultivars. Similar behavior during storage was obtained for all cultivars. Conclusion. Computer vision proved to be a reliable and simple method to objectively determine blueberry decay during storage that can be used as an alternative approach to currently used subjective measurements.

  12. Register of new fruit and nut cultivars, list 48: strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Brooks and Olmo Registry of Fruit and Nut Varieties is a compilation of fruit and nut variety descriptions first published in 1952 and cataloging cultivars from 1920 through 1950. A second edition was published in 1972, and a third was published in 1997. Since then, fruit and nut variety descrip...

  13. Leaf gas exchange and yield of three upland rice cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Félix Alvarez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies of physiological parameters associated with crop performance and growth in different groups of upland rice (Oryza sativa L. may support plant breeding programs. We evaluated the role of gas exchange rates and dry matter accumulation (DMA as traits responsible for yields in a traditional (cv. ‘Caiapó’, intermediate (cv. ‘Primavera’ and modern (cv. ‘Maravilha’ upland rice cultivars. Leaf gas exchange rates, DMA, leaf area index (LAI, harvest indexes (HI and yield components were measured on these genotypes in the field, under sprinkler irrigation. Panicles per m2 and DMA at flowering (FL and heading, as well as CO2 assimilation rates (A were similar across these cultivars. The highest yield was found in ‘Primavera’, which may be explained by (i a two-fold higher HI compared to the other cultivars, (ii greater rates of DMA during spikelet formation and grain-filling, as well as (iii a slow natural decrease of A in this cultivar, at the end of the season (between FL and maturation.

  14. Sensory Profiles and Seasonal Variation of Black Walnut Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Catherine; Koppel, Kadri; Reid, William

    2016-03-01

    Black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) is a North American hardwood tree valued for producing nuts and wood. Black walnut cultivars were evaluated by a trained panel over 2 growing seasons to determine the seasonal variation in the sensory profile. Results showed that cultivars were significantly different on 3 appearance (skin color, nutmeat color, and kernel roughness), 1 aroma (black walnut ID), 5 flavor (black walnut ID, banana-like, piny, rancid, and overall nutty), and 2 texture attributes (surface roughness and hardness). These profiles were compared to results collected in 2011 to determine differences between growing seasons. Results showed 4 flavor attributes (black walnut ID, overall nutty, fruity-dark and rancid) had an interaction effect of year and cultivar, while 6 attributes (brown, caramelized, floral/fruity, piny, musty/dusty, and oily) showed a main effect of year. In general, flavor attributes had higher intensities in 2011 than in 2013. These results suggest that seasonal variation may influence flavor profile more than cultivar. Thus, using samples from only 1 growing season when testing agricultural products may not provide adequate information for the long term. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. RB962962, a sugarcane cultivar for late harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz José Oliveira Tavares de Melo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the Northeast of Brazil, sugarcane cultivar RB962962 is harvested at the end of the cycle, between December and February, with a high sugar yield per area. Recommended for sandy soils of medium texture and fertility, it is resistant to the major diseases and fast-growing in plant and ratoon crops.

  16. Atividade antioxidante de frutos de quatro cultivares de pessegueiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Mendes dos Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Esforços são empregados para identificar plantas com teores de antioxidantes que conferem benefícios à saúde. A capacidade antioxidante do pêssego deve-se aos compostos fenólicos, vitamina C e carotenoides. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar quatro cultivares de pessegueiro (Aurora, Biuti, Diamante e Douradão em relação à capacidade antioxidante, determinando o teor dos compostos antioxidantes relacionados a essa atividade. Os frutos foram separados em dois grupos: sem armazenamento e armazenados por cinco dias à temperatura ambiente. Foram determinados os teores de vitamina C, carotenoides, compostos fenólicos e a capacidade antioxidante, pelos métodos DPPH e β-caroteno/ácido linoleico. As quatro cultivares mostraram-se ricas em substâncias antioxidantes, porém a intensidade dessa ação foi diferenciada entre elas. A cultivar Biuti apresentou maior teor das substâncias analisadas e maior atividade antioxidante em relação às outras cultivares. Foi observado que o potencial antioxidante dos frutos de pêssego aumentou durante o período de armazenamento.

  17. Cultivar affects browning susceptibility of freshly cut star fruit slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira Gustavo Henrique de Almeida

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of freshly-cut horticultural products has increased in the last few years. The principal restraint to using freshly-cut carambola is its susceptibility to tissue-browning, due to polyphenol oxidase-mediated oxidation of phenolic compounds present in the tissue. The current study investigated the susceptibility to browning of star fruit slices (Averrhoa carambola L. of seven genotypes (Hart, Golden Star, Taen-ma, Nota-10, Malásia, Arkin, and Fwang Tung. Cultivar susceptibility to browning as measured by luminosity (L* varied significantly among genotypes. Without catechol 0.05 M, little changes occurred on cut surface of any cultivars during 6 hour at 25degreesC, 67% RH. Addition of catechol led to rapid browning, which was more intense in cvs. Taen-ma, Fwang Tung, and Golden Star, with reduction in L* value of 28.60%, 27.68%, and 23.29%, respectively. Browning was more intense in the center of the slices, particularly when treated with catechol, indicating highest polyphenol oxidase (PPO concentration. Epidermal browning, even in absence of catechol, is a limitation to visual acceptability and indicates a necessity for its control during carambola processing. Care must be given to appropriate selection of cultivars for fresh-cut processing, since cultivar varied in browning susceptibility in the presence of catechol.

  18. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF WHEAT CULTIVARS ESTIMATED BY SSR MARKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dvojković

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Presence and utilization of the genetic variability in the breeding programmes is prerequisite for their successfulness. Important factor for crop improvement is knowledge about the genetic diversity which providing a basis for the precise selection of parental combinations. Since beginning of 20th century, generation of wheat breeders and scientists in Croatia developed numerous advanced and successful wheat cultivars. Previous researches aimed to genetic diversity evaluation in Croatia were conducted by means of morphological traits, pedigree data (coefficients of parentage, proteins (glutenins and gliadins and RAPD DNA markers. DNA markers detect directly variation of DNA sequence for particular loci and they are not under influence of environment, epistatic and pleiotropic effects. Microsatellite markers (Simple Sequence Repeats; SSRs, as highly polymorphic, informative and codominant DNA marker system, have been extensively used for genetic diversity studies on wheat world wide. A set of 98 wheat cultivars released in Croatia during the period 1905-2007, and 24 foreign cultivar (included because of their ancestral significance or as standards, were screened by 45 microsatellite markers, covering all three wheat genomes. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the microsatellites-based genetic diversity with emphasize on cultivars created at the Agricultural Institute Osijek, as well as to investigate SSR application for selection of genetically the most distant parental pairs. Preliminary data obtained by means of SSR markers showed a satisfactory level of genetic diversity and usefulness of microsatellites for parental selection.

  19. (RR) soybean cultivars estimated by phenotypic characteristics and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-25

    Jun 25, 2014 ... phenotypic characteristics and microsatellite molecular markers (SSR). Ten agronomic traits ... genetic variations at the DNA, which are inherited genetically. ...... having been responsible for the development of RR. Villela et al. ..... soybean cultivars: evolution over time and breeding implications. Genet. Mol.

  20. susceptibility of some kersting's groundnut landrace cultivars to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    The com- pletely randomized design was used to obtain data on the oviposition, developmental period, ... jung-black and Nakori-brown landrace cultivars consistently demonstrated high tolerance to the pest and .... Two hundred (200) sound seeds of each culti- var were ..... Ndlovu and Giga (1988) reported that the pat-.

  1. Properties of kenaf from various cultivars, growth and pulping conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Han; Ernest S. Miyashita; Sara J. Spielvogel

    1999-01-01

    The physical properties of kenaf offer potential as an alternative raw material for the manufacture of paper. Investigations to date have not determined whether core and fiber should be pulped together or separately. Kenaf bast and core fibers of different cultivars were pulped under various kraft pulping conditions and physical properties: density, Canadian Standard...

  2. Impact of Molecular Genetic Research on Peanut Cultivar Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baozhu Guo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. has lagged other crops on use of molecular genetic technology for cultivar development in part due to lack of investment, but also because of low levels of molecular polymorphism among cultivated varieties. Recent advances in molecular genetic technology have allowed researchers to more precisely measure genetic polymorphism and enabled the development of low density genetic maps for A. hypogaea and the identification of molecular marker or QTL’s for several economically significant traits. Genomic research has also been used to enhance the amount of genetic diversity available for use in conventional breeding through the development of transgenic peanut, and the creation of TILLING populations and synthetic allotetraploids. Marker assisted selection (MAS is becoming more common in peanut cultivar development programs, and several cultivar releases are anticipated in the near future. There are also plans to sequence the peanut genome in the near future which should result in the development of additional molecular tools that will greatly advance peanut cultivar development.

  3. Variation of photosynthetic tolerance of rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-01

    Mar 1, 2010 ... Institute of Food Crops, Jiangsu High Quality Rice R and D Center, ... temperature in the light at bud, seedling and booting stages and divided into three basic types; cultivars .... saturating photon pulse (4000 mol/m2 s).

  4. Reaction of peanut cultivars to late leafspot and rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimitr Vorasoot

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Late leafspot caused by Phaeoisariopsis personata (Berk. & M.A. Curtis van Arx and rust caused by Puccinia arachidis Speg. are among the most serious diseases of peanut. Although fungicide application is effective in controlling the diseases, its high cost is considered uneconomical in many developing countries. In this situation, the use of resistant cultivars offers a better alternative. The objective of this study was to evaluate seven peanut cultivars for their resistances to late leafspot and rust. Peanut cultivars were planted in a randomized complete block design (RCBD with 4 replications at Khon Kaen University Experimental Farm. Natural infection of late leafspot and rust were allowed. Disease score, sporulation index and lesion number per 100 cm2 of leaf area were recorded as the resistance parameters of both diseases. Pod yield, seed yield, shelling percentage, pod number per plant and pod length were also measured. NC 17135 was the most resistant to late leafspot and moderately resistant to rust. NC 17090 was the most resistant to rust but susceptible to late leafspot. NC 17135 and NC 17090 should be recommended as sources of late leafspot and rust resistance, respectively. The two Thai released cultivars, Tainan 9 and Lampang were highly susceptible to both diseases.

  5. Variation in fruit chilling injury among mango cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phakawatmongkol, W.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2004-01-01

    Mango(Mangifera indica L.) fruit of six cultivars ('Kaew', 'Rad', 'Okrong', 'Tongdum', 'Nam Dok Mai' and 'Nungklangwun') were stored at 4, 8 and 12degreesC (85-90% RH) and randomly sampled every 5 days. Chilling injury was manifested initially as a gray to brown discoloration of the peel, followed b

  6. Selection and breeding of plant cultivars to minimize cadmium accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, C A; Clarke, J M; Duguid, S; Chaney, R L

    2008-02-15

    Natural variation occurs in the uptake and distribution of essential and nonessential trace elements among crop species and among cultivars within species. Such variation can be responsible for trace element deficiencies and toxicities, which in turn can affect the quality of food. Plant breeding can be an important tool to both increase the concentration of desirable trace elements and reduce that of potentially harmful trace elements such as cadmium (Cd). Selection programs for a low-Cd content of various crops, including durum wheat, sunflower, rice and soybean have been established and low-Cd durum wheat cultivars and sunflower hybrids have been developed. In durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum), low-Cd concentration is controlled by a single dominant gene. The trait is highly heritable, and incorporation of the low-Cd allele can help to reduce the average grain Cd to levels below proposed international limits. The allele for low-Cd concentration does not appear to affect major economic traits and should not cause problems when incorporated into durum cultivars. The cost of Cd selection in a breeding program is initially large both in terms of Cd determination and reduced progress towards development of other economic traits, but declines as more breeding lines in the program carry the low-Cd trait and are utilized in new crosses. Production of low-Cd crop cultivars can be used as a tool to reduce the risk of movement of Cd into the human diet.

  7. Selection and breeding of plant cultivars to minimize cadmium accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, C.A. [AAFC Brandon Research Centre, Box 1000A, R.R. 3, Brandon, MB, R7A 5Y3 (Canada)], E-mail: cgrant@agr.gc.ca; Clarke, J.M. [AAFC Semiarid Prairie Agricultural Research Centre, Swift Current, SK, S9H 3X2 (Canada); Duguid, S. [AAFC Morden Research Station, Morden, MB, R6M 1Y5 (Canada); Chaney, R.L. [USDA, ARS, Animal Manure and Byproducts Laboratory, Room 013, Building 007, BARC-West, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705-2350 (United States)

    2008-02-15

    Natural variation occurs in the uptake and distribution of essential and nonessential trace elements among crop species and among cultivars within species. Such variation can be responsible for trace element deficiencies and toxicities, which in turn can affect the quality of food. Plant breeding can be an important tool to both increase the concentration of desirable trace elements and reduce that of potentially harmful trace elements such as cadmium (Cd). Selection programs for a low-Cd content of various crops, including durum wheat, sunflower, rice and soybean have been established and low-Cd durum wheat cultivars and sunflower hybrids have been developed. In durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum), low-Cd concentration is controlled by a single dominant gene. The trait is highly heritable, and incorporation of the low-Cd allele can help to reduce the average grain Cd to levels below proposed international limits. The allele for low-Cd concentration does not appear to affect major economic traits and should not cause problems when incorporated into durum cultivars. The cost of Cd selection in a breeding program is initially large both in terms of Cd determination and reduced progress towards development of other economic traits, but declines as more breeding lines in the program carry the low-Cd trait and are utilized in new crosses. Production of low-Cd crop cultivars can be used as a tool to reduce the risk of movement of Cd into the human diet.

  8. BRS Centauro – oat cultivar for ground cover and grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo do Nascimento Junior

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants and seeds of oat cultivar BRS Centauro, of the species Avena brevis Roth., are highly uniform. The crop cycle is long, the suitability as fodder excellent, and leaf production particularly high, resulting in better quality forage than that of the black oat forage controls.

  9. Susceptibility of Geranium Cultivars (Pelargonium spp.) to Ralstonia solanacearum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixty-one cultivars of geraniums including zonal, regal, ivy, and scented were tested for susceptibility to three strains of Ralstonia solanacearum: a Race 1 Biovar 1 (R1B1) strain P597 isolated from tomato in Florida, a R1B1 strain P673 obtained from pothos originating in Costa Rica, and a Race 3 B...

  10. BRS Pampeira: new irrigated rice cultivar with high yield potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariano Martins de Magalhães Júnior

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BRS Pampeira is a rice cultivar developed by Embrapa, recommended for irrigated cultivation in Brazil. It shows modern architecture, with high tillering and tolerance to lodging. It stands out for its high yield potential, medium cycle and good grain quality.

  11. 'Ramata': a new dwarf and variegated Hedychium J. Koenig cultivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new dwarf (~71 cm) variegated Hedychium cultivar, ‘Ramata’, was developed at the USDA-ARS Thad Cochran Southern Horticultural Laboratory (TCSHL), Poplarville. A potted ‘Ramata’ plant produces multiple pseudostems, originating from the rhizome, giving it a compact appearance. ‘Ramata’ originated fr...

  12. 'Suvetar' and 'Valotar' - new strawberry cultivars (Research Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. HIETARANTA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa cultivars ‘Suvetar’ and ‘Valotar’ have been released from the breeding programme of MTT Agrifood Research Finland. Both new cultivars overwintered as well as the control cultivars ‘Jonsok’ and ‘Polka’. ‘Suvetar’ overwintered even better than ‘Polka’. ‘Suvetar’ was produced from the cross ‘Polka’ × ‘Emily’. It scored better than the control cultivars for sensory assessed skin resistance. Measured fruit firmness of ‘Suvetar’ was not significantly different from that of ‘Polka’, but was better than ‘Jonsok’. ‘Valotar’ originates from a cross between ‘Jewel’ and ‘Senga Sengana’. Its measured fruit firmness was better than that of ‘Jonsok’ and ‘Polka’. Considering sensory assessments, the good firmness seems to be largely due to good skin resistance. The fresh flavour, yield, fruit size and fruit appearance of ‘Suvetar’ and ‘Valotar’, together with improved fruit firmness, make both the new varieties suitable for the fresh fruit market.;

  13. Performance de six cultivars de tomates Lycopersicon esculentum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrateur

    Elle s'est déroulée sur deux cycles de production, l'un en saison sèche et ... respectively. The results obtained allowed us to make a hierarchical classification of the cultivars according to their ..... Plan directeur du développement agricole ...

  14. Cultivars of Codiaeum variegatum (L.) Blume (Euphorbiaceae) show ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-10-18

    Oct 18, 2007 ... times the leaf blade is interrupted along the midrib and become divided into an ... Two-month room temperature air-dried samples of six cultivars of ..... of garden horticulture and landscape design, De Lux ed, Garden City.

  15. Culture of the Tomato Micro-Tom Cultivar in Greenhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothan, Christophe; Just, Daniel; Fernandez, Lucie; Atienza, Isabelle; Ballias, Patricia; Lemaire-Chamley, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Micro-Tom tomato cultivar is particularly adapted to the development of genomic approaches in tomato. Here, we describe the culture of this plant in greenhouse, including climate regulation, seed sowing and watering, vegetative development, plant maintenance, including treatment of phytosanitary problems, and reproductive development.

  16. Phenology, production and fruit quality of new Czech apricot cultivars in the Belgrade region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milatović Dragan P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at evaluating of 14 new apricot cultivars created at the Faculty of Horticulture in Lednice in the Czech Republic in order to recommend the best of them for growing in the Belgrade region. The study was carried out at the Experimental station ‘Radmilovac’ of the Faculty of Agriculture in Belgrade over a period of five years (2009-2013. The experimental orchard was established in 2007, the rootstock was Myrobalan seedling, and tree spacing was 4.5 x 3 m. The control cultivar for comparison was the clone of ‘Velkopavlovická’ cultivar (type of ‘Hungarian Best’, LE-12/2. Flowering of introduced cultivars started from three days before to one day after the control cultivar, while the maturation time ranged from 19 days earlier in cultivar ‘Leskora’ to 12 days after the control in cultivar ‘Sophia’ (LE-2926. Compared with the control cultivar, significantly higher yield was achieved only in cultivar ‘Palava’, while significantly higher fruit weight was recorded in three cultivars: ‘Candela’ (LE-2927, ‘Sophia’ (LE-2926 and ‘Betinka’ (LE-3276. Cultivars ‘Sophia’ and ‘Betinka’ got the best scores for fruit appearance, while cultivars ‘Marlen’ and ‘Lebona’ ranked the highest for fruit taste. Among studied apricot cultivars, for the cultivation in the Belgrade region, the following cultivars can be recommended as promising: ‘Palava’ (early season, ‘Betinka’ (mid-season and ‘Sophia’ (late season. Regarding the large size and attractive appearance of fruits, these cultivars are more suitable for fresh consumption, but they can also be used for processing. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31063

  17. Does excess boron affect malondialdehyde levels of potato cultivars?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Kemal Avci

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malondialdehyde (MDA is a product of lipid peroxidation and a sign of oxidative stress in plants. Therefore, determining the responses of plants to a particular type of stress at a particular time will shed a light on clarifying the stress status of the plants. In this study, we report how MDA levels in potato cultivars changed under toxic concentrations of boron, an essential plant micronutrient. Materials and Methods: Eight different potato (Solanum tuberosum cultivars (cv. Konsul, cv. Morene, cv. Slaney, cv. Mona Lisa, cv. Jaerla, cv. Poroventa, cv. Yayla Kizi, cv. Armada were used as study material. Excess boron was applied for seven weeks in three concentrations (0.5, 2.5 and 5 mM to plants that were grown from tubers. Plants were harvested and malondialdehyde content analyses were carried out in leaf tissues. Results: MDA levels under excess boron in cv. Mona Lisa and Yayla Kizi steadily increased rose with increasing concentrations in all groups, compared to control. In cv. Morene, MDA decreased in 0.5 mM Boron and increased in 2.5 and 5 mM Boron applications. In cv. Armada, cv. Slaney, cv. Konsul and cv. Poroventa, MDA levels fluctuated in different groups of each cultivar. In cv. Jaerla, MDA decreased in all groups with increasing boron, compared to control. Conclusions: MDA levels under excess boron showed increase, fluctuation and decrease in each group of the cultivars, compared to control. Therefore, MDA levels in potato plants under excess boron might not be a clear sign to determine the level of stress. This is the first report of MDA levels in eight different potato cultivars subjected to three different excess boron concentrations.

  18. The Processing of Turning Colour Olives of Oblica Cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tea Kulišić

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research the observation of the preservation process of turning colour olives of Oblica cultivar (an autochthonous Croatian cultivar processed according to the Californian type of processing has been carried out. Although the oblica cultivar is the most frequent cultivar in Croatian orchards, it is absolutely unexplored concerning the concentration of polyphenolic compounds (oleuropein and its derivatives as well as concerning the composition of natural microflora in the fruit. It has been very important to determine to what extent the choice of preserving technology is optimal for the cultivar’s particularities. The changes of fundamental physical and chemical features of brine (total acidity, pH value, the concentration of sodium chloride, the concentration of sugar, and brine temperature have been screened during the process of preservation. The appearance of the lactobacilli population has also been observed. The Lactobacillus plantarum species has been isolated and identified in this population on the seventh day after the fruit has been put in brine. The Lactobacillus plantarum species has been isolated and identified by means of the API 50 CHL (“bioMérieux”, France biochemical test and the APILAB PLUS (“bioMérieux”, France software. During further phases of the process, no appearance of the lactobacilli has been identified. On the basis of our physical and chemical examinations, we have concluded that the type of processing of turning colour olives of Oblica cultivar (which was applied without a complete knowledge of the Oblica’s particularities did not give optimal and expected values (low brine temperature, exceptionally high acidity of the medium. We have also concluded that it is necessary for further research to include the examinations of the portion of polyphenolic compounds in the fruit, as well as the examinations of the composition of naturally present microflora. Both examinations represent the

  19. A comparative evaluation of MODIS/ASTER airborne simulator (MASTER) data and burn indices for mapping southern California fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, S. L.; Hook, S. J.

    2009-12-01

    Large fires occur annually in southern California, producing impacts at a number of scales, from local impacts on vegetation, hydrology and microclimates, to global impacts such as emissions, affecting atmospheric chemistry, air quality, radiation balance and biogeochemical cycling. As a consequence fires are routinely mapped using various sensors and burn indices. However, the indices employed for mapping these fires have not been developed and optimized for mapping southern California burned surfaces. Therefore, this study utilizes the high spatial and spectral resolution imagery from the MODIS/ASTER airborne simulator (MASTER) to identify the most effective bands and indices specifically for burned area mapping of the southern California region. The fire perimeter is based on the Burned Area Reflectance Classification (BARC) map created by the United States Forest Service (USFS), Remote Sensing Applications Center (RSAC) and a supervised classification which defines the burned and unburned regions. A separability index is employed to identify the bands and indices that can best distinguish between classes. The results identify a range of well performing indices, such as the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) and the Vegetation Index based on mid-infrared spectral region (VI3), and some poor performing indices, such as the Global Environment Monitoring Index (GEMI) and the Burned Area Index (BAI). Additionally this study highlights the indices that perform better over certain vegetation types. These results are useful for understanding the application of remotely sensed data for mapping burned surfaces. Improved burned area mapping capabilities are essential for informing land managers when identifying regions susceptible to hazards (such as debris and flood flows) and for deciding where to allocate time and resources in recovery efforts. Additionally, these results can be used to validate other sensors that are used to map burned surfaces on greater spatial and

  20. Post-classification comparison of land cover using multitemporal Landsat and ASTER imagery: the case of Kahramanmaraş, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphan, Hakan; Doygun, Hakan; Unlukaplan, Yüksel I

    2009-04-01

    This study assessed land cover (LC) changes in Kahramanmaraş (K.Maraş) and its environs by using multitemporal Landsat and ASTER imagery, respectively belong to 1989, 2000 and 2004. A priori defined nine land cover classes in the classification scheme were urban and built-up, forest, sparsely vegetated areas, grassland, vegetated stream beds, unvegetated stream beds, bare areas, crop fields, and water bodies. Individual classifications were employed using the combination of both unsupervised and supervised classification methods. Iterative Self Organizing Data Analysis (ISODATA) was used to reduce spectral variation in the scenes arising from complex pattern of crop fields. Maximum Likelihood classifier was used in the LC classification of the individual images. Image pairs of consecutive dates were compared by overlaying the thematic LC maps and cross-tabulating the LC statistics. Urbanization and expansion of agriculture were the major reasons for the dramatic LC conversions. The amount of conversion from crop fields to water occurred as large as 927.67 ha, accounting for 73% of the total land-to-water conversion. Conversions to agriculture have mainly been occurred from grasslands and sparsely vegetated areas as large as 1,314.95 and 1,325.84 ha, respectively. Urban coverage doubled in this period as a result of 1,443.45 ha of increase. Urban area increased in the second period from 2,920 to 3,526 ha. Conversions to agriculture occurred at high amounts. A total of 1,075.79 ha area changed from sparsely vegetated areas to crop fields. A landscape-level environmental monitoring scheme based on satellite remote sensing was proposed for effective environmental resource management.

  1. Growth and nitrogen uptake by Salicornia europaea and Aster tripolium in nutrient conditions typical of aquaculture wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintã, R; Santos, R; Thomas, D N; Le Vay, L

    2015-02-01

    The increasing need for environmentally sound aquaculture development can, in part, be addressed by using halophytic plants in integrated multitrophic aquaculture systems (IMTA) to remove waste dissolved nitrogen (N). However, knowledge of plant ability to take up nitrogen is of foremost importance to predict plants performance in such systems. Two species, Salicornia europaea and Aster tripolium, have been identified as potential candidates for IMTA due to their salt tolerance, potential N removal capabilities and their high commercial value as an additional crop. This study investigated the growth and N uptake rates of these two species under different N supply (NH4(+), NO3(-), NH4NO3). S. europaea plants produced a lower biomass when grown in NH4(+) compared to NO3(-) or NH4NO3, while A. tripolium biomass was not affected by the form in which N was supplied. N uptake in plants incubated at different concentrations of (15)N enriched solution (up to 2 mmol l(-1)) fitted the Michaelis-Menten model. While S. europaea NH4-N maximum uptake did not differ between starved and non-starved plants, A. tripolium NH4-N uptake was higher in starved plants when supplied alone. When NO3(-) was supplied alone, NO3-N maximum uptake was lower, for both species, when the plants were not starved. Comparison of starved and non-starved plants N uptake demonstrates the need for cautious interpretation of N uptake rates across different conditions. According to the observed results, both S. europaea and A. tripolium are capable of significantly high biomass production and N removal making them potential species for inclusion in efficient IMTA.

  2. Anti-Obesity Effects of Aster spathulifolius Extract in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sa-Jic; Bang, Chae-Young; Guo, Yuan-Ri; Choung, Se-Young

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-obesity and antihyperlipidemic efficacy and molecular mechanisms of Aster spathulifolius Maxim extract (ASE) in rats with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Rats were separately fed a normal diet or a HFD for 8 weeks, then they were treated with ASE (62.5, 125, or 250 mg/kg) for another 4.5 weeks. The ASE supplementation significantly lowered body weight gain, visceral fat pad weights, serum lipid levels, as well as hepatic lipid levels in HFD-induced obese rats. Histological analysis showed that the ASE-treated group showed lowered numbers of lipid droplets and smaller size of adipocytes compared to the HFD group. To understand the mechanism of action of ASE, the expression of genes and proteins involved in obesity were measured in liver and skeletal muscle. The expression of fatty acid oxidation and thermogenesis-related genes (e.g., PPAR-α, ACO, CPT1, UCP2, and UCP3) of HFD-induced obese rats were increased by ASE treatment. On the other hand, ASE treatment resulted in decreased expression of fat intake-related gene ACC2 and lipogenesis-related genes (e.g., SREBP-1c, ACC1, FAS, SCD1, GPATR, AGPAT, and DGAT). Furthermore, ASE treatment increased the level of phosphorylated AMPKα in obese rats. Similarly, the level of phosphorylated ACC, a target protein of AMPKα in ASE groups, was increased by ASE treatment compared with the HFD group. These results suggest that ASE attenuated visceral fat accumulation and improved hyperlipidemia in HFD-induced obese rats by increasing lipid metabolism through the regulation of AMPK activity and the expression of genes and proteins involved in lipolysis and lipogenesis.

  3. A directed matched filtering algorithm (DMF) for discriminating hydrothermal alteration zones using the ASTER remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereydooni, H.; Mojeddifar, S.

    2017-09-01

    This study introduced a different procedure to implement matched filtering algorithm (MF) on the ASTER images to obtain the distribution map of alteration minerals in the northwestern part of the Kerman Cenozoic Magmatic Arc (KCMA). This region contains many areas with porphyry copper mineralization such as Meiduk, Abdar, Kader, Godekolvari, Iju, Serenu, Chahfiroozeh and Parkam. Also argillization, sericitization and propylitization are the most common types of hydrothermal alteration in the area. Matched filtering results were provided for alteration minerals with a matched filtering score, called MF image. To identify the pixels which contain only one material (endmember), an appropriate threshold value should be used to the MF image. The chosen threshold classifies a MF image into background and target pixels. This article argues that the current thresholding process (the choice of a threshold) shows misclassification for MF image. To address the issue, this paper introduced the directed matched filtering (DMF) algorithm in which a spectral signature-based filter (SSF) was used instead of the thresholding process. SSF is a user-defined rule package which contains numeral descriptions about the spectral reflectance of alteration minerals. On the other hand, the spectral bands are defined by an upper and lower limit in SSF filter for each alteration minerals. SSF was developed for chlorite, kaolinite, alunite, and muscovite minerals to map alteration zones. The validation proved that, at first: selecting a contiguous range of MF values could not identify desirable results, second: unexpectedly, considerable frequency of pure pixels was observed in the MF scores less than threshold value. Also, the comparison between DMF results and field studies showed an accuracy of 88.51%.

  4. An Effort to Map and Monitor Baldcypress Forest Areas in Coastal Louisiana, Using Landsat, MODIS, and ASTER Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Sader, Steve; Smoot, James

    2012-01-01

    This presentation discusses a collaborative project to develop, test, and demonstrate baldcypress forest mapping and monitoring products for aiding forest conservation and restoration in coastal Louisiana. Low lying coastal forests in the region are being negatively impacted by multiple factors, including subsidence, salt water intrusion, sea level rise, persistent flooding, hydrologic modification, annual insect-induced forest defoliation, timber harvesting, and conversion to urban land uses. Coastal baldcypress forests provide invaluable ecological services in terms of wildlife habitat, forest products, storm buffers, and water quality benefits. Before this project, current maps of baldcypress forest concentrations and change did not exist or were out of date. In response, this project was initiated to produce: 1) current maps showing the extent and location of baldcypress dominated forests; and 2) wetland forest change maps showing temporary and persistent disturbance and loss since the early 1970s. Project products are being developed collaboratively with multiple state and federal agencies. Products are being validated using available reference data from aerial, satellite, and field survey data. Results include Landsat TM- based classifications of baldcypress in terms of cover type and percent canopy cover. Landsat MSS data was employed to compute a circa 1972 classification of swamp and bottomland hardwood forest types. Landsat data for 1972-2010 was used to compute wetland forest change products. MODIS-based change products were applied to view and assess insect-induced swamp forest defoliation. MODIS, Landsat, and ASTER satellite data products were used to help assess hurricane and flood impacts to coastal wetland forests in the region.

  5. Using the British National Collection of Asters to Compare the Attractiveness of 228 Varieties to Flower-Visiting Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbuzov, Mihail; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2015-06-01

    Wildlife-friendly gardening practices can help conserve biodiversity in urban areas. These include growing ornamental plant varieties attractive to flower-visiting insects. Because varieties vary greatly in attractiveness, there is a need to quantify it in order to give objective advice to gardeners. Here, we used the British national collection of asters to compare the attractiveness of varieties to flower-visiting insects. We counted and identified insects as they foraged on flowers in 228 varieties growing in discrete patches that flowered during the survey period, 14 September-20 October 2012. In each variety, we also determined the overall capitulum size, the central disc floret area, and the ray floret color (blue, red, purple, or white). We also scored attributes relevant to gardening: attractiveness to humans, ease of cultivation, and availability in the United Kingdom. There was great variation among varieties in their attractiveness to insects, ranging from 0.0 to 15.2 per count per square meter, and highly skewed, with most being unattractive. A similar skew held for the two main insect categories, honey bees and hover flies, which comprised 28 and 64% of all insects, respectively. None of the floral traits or attributes relevant to gardening correlated significantly with attractiveness to insects. Our study shows the practicality of using a national collection for quantifying and comparing the attractiveness of ornamental varieties to flower-visiting insects. These results imply that choosing varieties carefully is likely to be of conservation benefit to flower-visiting insects, and that doing so is a no-cost option in terms of garden beauty and workload.

  6. Application of MODIS-ASTER (MASTER) simulator data to geological mapping of young volcanic regions in Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmochowski, Jane Ellen

    Visible, near infrared, short-wave infrared, and thermal infrared multi-channel remote sensing data, MODIS-ASTER (MASTER), are used to extract geologic information from two volcanic regions in Baja California, Mexico: Tres Virgenes-La Reforma Volcanic Region and the volcanic island of Isla San Luis. The visible and near infrared and short-wave infrared data were atmospherically corrected and classified. The resulting classification roughly delineates surfaces that vary in their secondary minerals. Attempts to identify these minerals using ENVI's Spectral Analyst(TM) were moderately successful. The analysis of the thermal infrared data utilizes the shift to longer wavelengths in the Reststrahlen band as the mineralogy changes from felsic to mafic to translate the data into values of weight percent SiO2. The results indicate that the general approach tends to underestimate the weight percent SiO2 in the image. This discrepancy is removed with a "site calibration," which provides good results in the calculated weight percent SiO2 with errors of a few percent. However, errors become larger with rugged topography or low solar angle at the time of image acquisition. Analysis of bathymetric data around Isla San Luis, and consideration of the island's alignment with the Ballenas transform fault zone to the south and volcanic seamounts nearby, suggest Isla San Luis is potentially volcanically active and could be the product of a "leaky" transform fault. The results from the image analysis in the Tres Virgenes-La Reforma Volcanic Region show the La Reforma and El Aguajito volcanic centers to be bimodal in composition and verify the most recent volcanism in the Tres Virgenes region to be basaltic-andesite. The results of fieldwork and image analysis indicate that the volcanic products of the central dome of La Reforma are likely a sequence of welded ash flow tuffs and lavas of varied composition, evidence of its origin as a caldera.

  7. NASA and U.S. Geological Survey Long-Term Archive for the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, M.; Meyer, D. F.

    2013-12-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is a 14-channel optical imaging instrument on NASA's Terra spacecraft. ASTER is a joint project between Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry; and U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Since its launch in December, 1999, ASTER has acquired over 2.4 million multispectral images. The Level 0 data are sent to Japan by NASA, where they are processed to Level 1A (reconstructed, unprocessed instrument data with geometric and radiometric parameters attached). A copy of the L1A data is sent to the U.S. to the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LPDAAC), operated for NASA by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at the EROS Center. The joint US/Japan ASTER Science Team (AST) has provided algorithms to produce 14 Level 1, Level 2, and Level 3 products. The duplicate data distribution systems in Japan and the U.S. create these products 'on-demand' as users submit data requests. Only the L0 and L1A data are archived. After the termination of the mission, the USGS has the responsibility for creating, managing and distributing ASTER data products from a Long-Term Archive (LTA). In cooperation with the LPDAAC, the U.S. AST discussed various scenarios on how the LTA should operate. The two leading plans considered were: (1) duplicating the 'on-demand' system, fulfilling user requests as they arrived; this would require a high level of technical support for algorithm/software maintenance, user services to answer questions, hardware maintenance, and in general, was quite labor-intensive; (2) creating a static archive of all of the data products for every one of the L1A image granules; the LPDAAC would produce each of the 14 higher level data products from every L1A image currently archived. Users would order data products from this greatly expanded archive, with little human intervention. In both cases, complete documentation would be available to users, detailing the

  8. Desempenho de cultivares de alface no Estado do Acre Performance of lettuce cultivars in the State of Acre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. da S. Lédo

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Devido às condições ambientais verificadas no estado do Acre, caracterizado pela ocorrência de temperaturas elevadas e alta precipitação, as cultivares tradicionalmente utilizadas pelos produtores apresentam baixo rendimento e qualidade. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento das novas cultivares de alface disponíveis no mercado, em termos de características agronômicas e rendimento, nas condições edafoclimáticas de Rio Branco, Acre. Para isso foram realizados dois ensaios no campo experimental da Embrapa Acre, em um solo do tipo Argissolo Vermelho-Escuro, textura argilosa. O primeiro de maio a julho de 1996 (período seco e o segundo de dezembro de 1996 a fevereiro de 1997 (período chuvoso. Foram avaliadas as cultivares Babá de Verão, Brisa, Carolina AG-576, Elisa, Lucy Brown, Marisa AG-216, Piracicaba 65, Regina 71, Tainá, Simpson, Vanessa e Verônica, sendo que 'Regina 71' e 'Elisa' foram incluídas apenas no ensaio do período seco. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. No período seco, as cultivares Simpson, Lucy Brown e Regina 71 apresentaram os maiores pesos médios (373; 362 e 341 g, respectivamente e produções comerciais de 49,8; 48,3 e 45,5 t/ha, respectivamente. Em geral, as cultivares dos tipos lisa sem cabeça e lisa com cabeça apresentaram maior índice de ataque de nematóide (Meloidogyne javanica quando comparadas às do tipo crespa. No ensaio realizado no período chuvoso, as cultivares Marisa AG-216, Verônica, Lucy Brown, Brisa, Tainá e Piracicaba-65 apresentaram os maiores pesos médios e produções comerciais. Entretanto, as médias obtidas foram bem inferiores às verificadas no ensaio do período seco, variando de 164 a 198 g para o peso médio, e 21,9 a 25,9 t/ha para produção comercial. Dentre as cultivares avaliadas no período seco, Regina 71 (lisa, sem cabeça e Carolina AG-576 (lisa, com cabeça destacaram-se entre as do tipo

  9. Resistance and susceptibility of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cultivars to the aphid Therioaphis maculata (Homoptera:Aphididae): insect biology and cultivar evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALEXANDRE DE ALMEIDA E SILVA; ELENICE MOURO VARANDA; JOS(E) RICARDO BAROSELA

    2006-01-01

    Biology of the aphid Therioaphis maculata was studied on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), including four resistant (Mesa-Sirsa, CUF101, Baker and Lahontan) and two susceptible (ARC and Caliverde) alfalfa cultivars, and one of the most cropped Brazilian cultivars, Crioula. Under controlled conditions, antibiosis (i.e., reduced longevity, fecundity and increased mortality of the aphid) was observed mainly on the resistant alfalfa cultivars,except on Lahontan. Crioula seemed to be tolerant to aphids. Present data support geographic limitation usage of cultivars, and we suggest Baker and Mesa-Sirsa as sources of antibiosis,and provide biological information of a tropical T. maculata biotype on alfalfa.

  10. Studi Penentuan Aliran Hidrologi Metode Steepest Slope dan Lowest Height Dengan Aster GDEMV2 dan Alos Palsar (Studi Kasus: Gunung Kelud, Jawa Timur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad Sigit Arisandy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gunung Kelud memiliki ketinggian 1.731 mdpl dengan kemiringan lebih dari 40º. Gunung Kelud di Kabupaten Kediri, Jawa Timur memiliki tipe erupsi stratovulkan dengan karakteristik letusan eksplosit. Mempunyai nilai volcanic explosive index 4, dengan durasi letusan ± 12 menit. Letusan Gunung Kelud salah satunya menghasilkan aliran hidrologi yaitu berupa lahar dan lava yang dapat memberikan ancaman tinggi bagi masyarakat sekitar. Data yang digunakan untuk penentuan aliran hidrologi (lahar dan lava tersebut adalah DEM Aster GDEMV2 dan Alos Palsar. DEM memiliki informasi data ketinggian yang dapat digunakan untuk memodelkan penentuan arah aliran hidrologi. Hasil pemodelannya menyerupai bentuk di lapangan, sehingga dapat digunakan untuk mitigasi bencana. Teknik penentuan aliran hidrologi pada penelitian ini menggunakan metode steepest slope dan lowest height berdasarkan teori aliran hidrologi. Dari hasil arah pemodelan aliran metode steepest slope, arah aliran hidrologi yang dominan dari puncak Gunung Kelud adalah menuju ke arah barat (21%, utara (19%, dan selatan (16%. Sedangkan untuk Metode lowest height lebih dominan menuju ke arah barat (19%, barat laut (18%, dan barat laut (19%. dapat disimpulkan bahwa aliran dominan menuju arah barat, barat laut, barat daya, selatan dan utara. Sedangkan hasil perbandingan akumulasi aliran yang di-overlay dengan data BNPB, pada metode steepest slope dari data DEM Aster GDEMV2 memiliki kesalahan hasil aliran sebesar 9,81% sedangkan data DEM Alos Palsar 7,29%. Sedangkan metode lowest height dari data DEM Aster GDEMV2 memiliki kesalahan hasil aliran sebesar 12,18% sedangkan data DEM Alos Palsar 11,25%. Desa yang terdampak letusan Gunung Kelud yaitu untuk Kabupaten Kediri 29 desa, Blitar 26 desa dan Malang 2 desa.

  11. Description and validation of an automated methodology for mapping mineralogy, vegetation, and hydrothermal alteration type from ASTER satellite imagery with examples from the San Juan Mountains, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of airborne spectroscopic, or "hyperspectral," remote sensing for geoenvironmental watershed evaluations and deposit-scale mapping of exposed mineral deposits has been demonstrated. However, the acquisition, processing, and analysis of such airborne data at regional and national scales can be time and cost prohibitive. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor carried by the NASA Earth Observing System Terra satellite was designed for mineral mapping and the acquired data can be efficiently used to generate uniform mineral maps over very large areas. Multispectral remote sensing data acquired by the ASTER sensor were analyzed to identify and map minerals, mineral groups, hydrothermal alteration types, and vegetation groups in the western San Juan Mountains, Colorado, including the Silverton and Lake City calderas. This mapping was performed in support of multidisciplinary studies involving the predictive modeling of surface water geochemistry at watershed and regional scales. Detailed maps of minerals, vegetation groups, and water were produced from an ASTER scene using spectroscopic, expert system-based analysis techniques which have been previously described. New methodologies are presented for the modeling of hydrothermal alteration type based on the Boolean combination of the detailed mineral maps, and for the entirely automated mapping of alteration types, mineral groups, and green vegetation. Results of these methodologies are compared with the more detailed maps and with previously published mineral mapping results derived from analysis of high-resolution spectroscopic data acquired by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) sensor. Such comparisons are also presented for other mineralized and (or) altered areas including the Goldfield and Cuprite mining districts, Nevada and the central Marysvale volcanic field, Wah Wah Mountains, and San Francisco Mountains, Utah. The automated

  12. Variantes somaclonais da cultivar de arroz Bluebelle resistentes à brusone Blast resistant somaclonal variants of rice cultivar Bluebelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Garcês de Araújo

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available A brusone, causada por Pyricularia grisea, constitui fator limitante da produtividade do arroz irrigado, principalmente no Estado do Tocantins. A detecção de variabilidade genética quanto à resistência à brusone em cultivares suscetíveis, como a Bluebelle, considerada uma das cultivares-padrões quanto à qualidade dos grãos, foi o principal objetivo deste trabalho. O procedimento adotado incluiu a indução de calos provenientes de panículas imaturas, regeneração, avaliação e seleção das plantas R2 resistentes à doença. O mesmo procedimento foi utilizado para nova indução de calos e regeneração de plantas a partir de três plantas R2 selecionadas. Foi realizada a avaliação e a seleção de plantas resistentes nas gerações R2 e R4 em viveiro de brusone. Nos testes realizados em casa de vegetação com três isolados coletados da cultivar Metica1, pertencentes aos patótipos IB41 e IB45 de P. grisea, todos os 47 somaclones R6 foram resistentes. Por outro lado, os somaclones apresentaram reações diferenciais frente a cinco isolados provenientes de somaclones da cultivar Bluebelle, e resistência a um isolado proveniente da cultivar Bluebelle, enquanto a cultivar Bluebelle foi suscetível a todos os isolados. Estes resultados indicaram variação genética no que diz respeito à resistência à brusone, na segunda fase de indução de calos e na regeneração de plantas. Dos 47 somaclones R6, 22 apresentaram alto grau de resistência vertical nos testes conduzidos nos viveiros de brusone em quatro locais, e poderão ser utilizados como novas fontes de resistência.Rice blast, caused by Pyricularia grisea, is the major yield constraint in irrigated rice mainly in the State of Tocantins. The detection of genetic variability for blast resistance in susceptible cultivars such as Bluebelle, considered as a standard for superior grain quality, was the main objective of the present investigation. The adopted procedure included

  13. High-accuracy topographical information extraction based on fusion of ASTER stereo-data and ICESat/GLAS data in Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang DongChen; SHEN Qiang; XU Ying; CHEN Gang

    2009-01-01

    In order to better support Antarctic Inland ice sheet expedition from Zhongshan Station to Dome A, the topographic data are necessary. At present, although the entire Antarctic DEM provided by RAMP (Ra-daraat Antarctic Mapping Project) was estimated at the highest horizontal (spatial) resolution of about 200 m, the real horizontal resolution of the DEM varies from place to place depending on the density and scale of the original source data. For ice shelves and the inland ice sheet, the horizontal resolution is about 5 km; the vertical accuracy is estimated to be ±50 m in interior East Antarctic ice sheet and away from the mountain ranges. Therefore, more accurate topographic data are unavailable in Antarc-tica. In order to meet the requirements of high-accuracy topographic information for further researches, this paper mainly addresses a fusion study of ASTER stereo pairs and ICESat/GLAS altimetry data for extraction of high-accuracy DEM in East Antarctica, based on the high horizontal resolution (15 m) of ASTER and vertical accuracy (13.8 cm) of ICESat/GLAS. First, some altimetry data were selected as vertical control points to reduce errors of image correlation matching during the extraction of ASTER-based DEM. Second, ice sheet altimetry data derived from ICESat were used to generate DEM ranging from 75° to 81°S because existing ASTER data do not cover this area and high density of the coverage of ICESat altimetry data. Finally, the DEM in coverage of the expedition route was produced. The analysis of result reveals that the DEM accuracy is improved significantly. The absolute vertical accuracy of DEM is higher than 15 m in some cases and higher than 30 m for all the areas along the expedition route except from the 009-001 scene; the interior accuracy is higher than 15 m and higher than 7 m in some cases. It can meet the requirements of topographic map at 1 : 50000 scale, which is an economic and advantageous method to produce the topographic products.

  14. 湖南菊科紫菀属一新种——吉首紫菀%Aster jishouensis (Asteraceae), a new species from Hunan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎维平; 刘胜祥

    2002-01-01

    吉首紫菀新种图1 Aster jishouensis W. P. Li et S. X. Liu, sp. nov. Fig. 1 Species A. baccharoidi (Benth.) Steetz. affinis, sed caule simplici, caulor um fol iorum laminis linearilanceolatis usque oblongolanceolatis apice longe acumi nat is, nervis lateralibus inconspicuis, capitulis 1~4 in racemum dispositis, invol ucri phyllariis purpureorubris vel apice purpureorubris, pedunculis tenuibus 4~17 mm longis, tubo flosculi disci c. 5 mm longo bene differt.

  15. LEAF MINERAL CONCENTRATION OF FIVE OLIVE CULTIVARS GROWN ON CALCAREOUS SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Pasković

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There are limited numbers of scientific publication regarding genotypic differences which exist among olive cultivars concerning nutrient uptake and translocation. For that purpose, the object of our study was to determine possible differences between leaf mineral content of five selected olive cultivars since leaf nutrient analysis is consider being the best method for diagnosing olive tree nutritional status. Plant material was obtained from an olive collection, grown on calcareous soil maintained at Institute of Adriatic Crops and Karst Reclamation, Split, Croatia. The study was conducted with two Croatian autochthonous olive cultivars (“Istarska bjelica”, “Lastovka”, two Italian cultivars (“Pendolino”, “Leccino” and one Spanish cultivar (“Hojiblanca”. Completely randomized design was applied. This study has shown questionably low Mg concentration in all olive cultivars with exception for “Hojiblanca” cultivar. Also, only Croatian cultivars “Istarska bjelica” and “Lastovka” as well as Spanish cultivar “Hojiblanca” recorded sufficient levels of iron leaf mineral content. Regarding other elements studied (P, K, Ca, Zn, Mn, Cu all cultivars were above literature cited thresholds for possible deficiencies. Selected olive cultivars in our experiment demonstrated different nutrient leaf concentration, which is of particular importance for fertilization requirements and fertilization practice in Croatian orchards grown on calcareous soil.

  16. Characterization and quantification of fruit phenolic compounds of European and Tunisian pear cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahem, Marwa; Renard, Catherine M G C; Eder, Severin; Loonis, Michèle; Ouni, Rim; Mars, Messaoud; Le Bourvellec, Carine

    2017-05-01

    The flesh and peel of 19 pear cultivars (8 Tunisian dessert cultivars, 8 European dessert cultivars and 3 French perry pear cultivars) were studied for their phenolic composition. Phenolic compounds were identified by HPLC/ESI-MS(2) and individually quantified by HPLC-DAD. Five classes of polyphenols were present: flavan-3-ols, phenolic acids, flavonols, anthocyanins and simple phenolics (hydroquinones). The total phenolic content ranged between 0.1g/kg Fresh Weight (FW) ('Conference' cultivar) and 8.6g/kg FW ('Plant De Blanc' cultivar) in the flesh and between 1.6g/kg FW ('William vert' cultivar) and 40.4g/kg FW ('Arbi Chiheb' cultivar) in the peel. Procyanidins, analyzed after thioacidolysis, were the main phenolic compounds in all pear cultivars either in the pulp or the peel, their constitutive units being essentially (-)-epicatechin. Tunisian dessert pears and French perry pears are richer in procyanidins with very high degree of polymerization (>100) for Tunisian pears. Peel procyanidins were less polymerized (from 4 to 20). Pear peel phenolic profile was more complex especially for Tunisian cultivars, with flavonols and in some cultivars anthocyanins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of inter- and intra-cultivar variations in olive using SSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ipek

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Olive (Olea europaea L. production in the world has been made by using many cultivars, and the genetic uniformity of commercial cultivars is important for standard olive oil and table olive production. The genetic variation among and within commonly cultivated olive cultivars in Turkey was analyzed using SSR markers. A total of 135 leaf samples were collected from 11 commonly cultivated olive cultivars from 11 provinces in four geographical regions of Turkey. Seven SSR primer pairs generated 46 SSR markers, and the number of SSR markers per primer pair ranged from 4 (UDO-14 to 9 (GAPU-89 with an average of 6.57. This high level of SSR polymorphism suggests that olive production in Turkey has been made using genetically diverse olive cultivars and this high level of genetic variation is probably due to the location of Turkey in the center of the origin of olive. The UPGMA dendrogram, developed to visualize the estimated genetic relationships among the 135 samples, demonstrated that the clustering of olive cultivars was not based on geographical regions of cultivation. Presence of genetic variation was detected within a nationwide grown Turkish olive cultivar, called 'Gemlik'. Olive growers successfully discriminated olive cultivars with distinct morphological and pomological characters. However, there was some confusion about the identification of cultivars with similar phenotypic traits. To prevent misidentification of olive cultivars and to minimize intra-cultivar variation, certified propagation materials which were characterized using DNA based molecular markers should be used during the establishment of new olive orchards.

  18. Comparative of Qualitative and Quantitative Characteristics of Four Commercial Mandarin Cultivars on 'Flying Dragon' Rootstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Abedi Gheshlaghi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available 'Flying dragon' is one of the citrus rootstocks that are considered to be a promised dwarfing rootstock in the world. This experiment was conducted in the Astara research station for study of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of 4 mandarin cultivars (Unshiu, Clementine, Page, and Yunesi budded on 'Flying dragon'. This experiment was carried out with four cultivars in randomized complete bloke design (RCBD with three replications. Qualitative and quantitative characteristics of fruits, as well as vegetative traits were recorded and analyzed for 3, 6 and 1 years, respectively. The highest yield was observed on Yunesi cultivar in the final year of experiments and the lowest yield was on Unshiu cultivar in the fifth year. TSS/TA and means of fruit weight were affected by interaction of year and cultivar. The highest means of fruit weight was on Yunesi in the years of 85 and the highest TSS/TA was in years of 88 on Clementine cultivar. The highest alternate bearing index obtained in years of 88 on the Unshiu cultivar and the lowest that was on the Page cultivar. The highest yield efficiency, cumulative yield and plant height were observed on Yunesi cultivar, and the highest width and canopy of tree were on Unshiu cultivar. The lowest yield and tree size were on Page cultivar.

  19. Countrywide digital elevation models for the Islamic Republic of Mauritania—SRTM and ASTER (phase V, deliverable 65): Chapter F in Second projet de renforcement institutionnel du secteur minier de la République Islamique de Mauritanie (PRISM-II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gregory K.

    2015-01-01

    A digital elevation model (DEM) of the entire country of the Islamic Republic of Mauritania was produced using Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data as required for deliverable 65 of the contract. In addition, because of significant recent advancements of availability, seamlessness, and validity of Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) global elevation data, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) extended its efforts to include a higher resolution countrywide ASTER DEM as value added to the required Deliverable 63, which was limited to five areas within the country. Both SRTM and ASTER countrywide DEMs have been provided in ERDAS Imagine (.img) format that is also directly compatible with ESRI ArcMap, ArcGIS Explorer, and other GIS applications.

  20. Caracterização morfológica, produtividade e rendimento comercial de cultivares de alho Morphological characterization, commercial yield and productivity of garlic cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Tadeu V de Resende

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil tem condições de elevar a produção de alho a ponto de suprir a demanda interna. Para alcançar tal êxito, é necessário avaliar o maior número possível de cultivares visando estabelecer as melhores para cada região. Sendo assim, esse trabalho objetivou avaliar o rendimento econômico e a qualidade de bulbos de 20 cultivares de alho na região Centro-Sul do Paraná. O experimento foi conduzido entre os meses de março e setembro de 2009, no município de Guarapuava-PR. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Os tratamentos constituíram-se em doze cultivares de alho seminobre e oito cultivares de alho nobre. Foram realizadas as avaliações de produtividade total (PT, produção comercial (PC e classificação comercial dos bulbos; superbrotamento; e seis caracteres relacionados à morfologia da planta: diâmetro do pseudocaule, comprimento e largura da folha, comprimento, largura e número de bulbilhos. As cultivares do grupo nobre apresentaram PT superior às cultivares do grupo seminobre, porém, não houve diferença com relação à PC. Entre as cultivares do grupo nobre, a São Valentim apresentou a maior PC de bulbos, com 8,9 t ha-1. As cultivares do grupo nobre apresentaram maior porcentagem de bulbos nas classes 6 e 7, com destaque para as cultivares Chonan, com 40,3% dos bulbos na classe 7 e a cultivar Ito, com 75% dos bulbos nas classes 6 e 7. O oposto foi observado no grupo seminobre, pois a maioria dos bulbos encontra-se nas classes 3, 4 e 5. Dentre as cultivares avaliadas, a cultivar São Valentim se adaptou melhor às condições edafoclimáticas da região, apresentando elevado potencial produtivo.Brazil could increase garlic production up to the point of supplying the internal demand. To achieve this success, it is necessary to evaluate the maximum number of cultivars to establish the best ones for each region. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate economic yield and quality of

  1. Auto-classification of Landform in Karst Region Based on ASTER GDEM%基于ASTER GDEM数据喀斯特区域地貌类型划分与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马士彬; 安裕伦

    2012-01-01

    Geomorphology is one of the most important parts which constitute the elements of physical geography.Based on the GDEM of 1∶100000 ASTER,the optimum analysis window was verified and topographic factors were extracted in the unit of drainage area.With GIS spatial analysis and unsupervised classification,the general geomorphologic types in Karst Region were auto-classified.The study results indicate:(1) DEM at the scale of 1∶100000 can fill the requirements to express the configuration of earth surface on meso-scale.(2) It confirms the basic regulation to select the analysis window and extract topographic factors taking the drainage area as a unit.Topographic factors extracted can reflect the actual configuration of earth surface more impersonally.(3) Multi-spectral image is combined with topographic factors.With the method of ISODATA unsupervised classification,it can implement the quantification of the general geomorphologic types and automatic classification effectively on meso-scale.The precision of the data extracted can meet the demands of computer automatic classification.These experimental results improve the application of ISODATA unsupervised classification in the automatic classification of geomorphology.%以30m分辨率ASTERGDEM数据为基础,通过GIS空间分析和非监督分类的方法进行地貌基本类型的自动划分。研究结果表明:①ASTERGDEM数据能够满足1:10万比例尺下喀斯特区域的地表形态表达;②以流域为单位提取地形因子符合地貌发育的基本规律,提取的地形因子能客观的反应地表真实形态;③采用非监督分类法能够有效的实现1:10万比例尺下地貌基本形态的定量化、自动化分类。

  2. Avaliação de cultivares de berinjela em armazenamento refrigerado Post-harvest quality of eggplant cultivars in cold storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alfredo Kluge

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Frutos de diferentes cultivares de berinjela foram armazenados a 11 + 0,5ºC e 90 + 5% UR, por períodos de 7, 14 e 21 dias (+ 2 dias a 24-25ºC e 70-75% UR, com o objetivo de verificar o comportamento pós-colheita destes frutos. As cultivares estudadas foram Diamante Negro, Kiko, Piracicaba F-100, Flórida Market, Super F-100, F-2000, Suzuki, Nápoli e Ciça. Verificaram-se diferenças nas respostas das diferentes cultivares em relação à perda de peso, pressão de turgescência e qualidade global durante o armazenamento refrigerado. A frigoconservação dos frutos foi viável até 7 dias para todos as cultivares. O armazenamento por período superior a 7 dias dependeu da cultivar. A cultivar Super F-100 foi a que apresentou a maior capacidade de armazenamento (21 dias.Our objective was to evaluate the post-harvest behavior of nine eggplant cultivars. Fruits were stored at 11 + 0,5ºC e 90 + 5% RH, for periods of 7, 14 and 21 days (including 2 days of simulated commercialization at 24-25ºC and 70-75% RH. The cultivars studies were Diamante Negro, Kiko, Piracicaba F-100, Flórida Market, Super F-100, F-2000, Suzuki, Nápoli and Ciça. We measured changes in weight loss, turgor pressure and visual quality during the cold storage period. Low temperature storage of the fruits was acceptable up to 7 days for all cultivars. Storage above 7 days was dependent of the cultivar. The cultivar Super F-100 presented the largest storage capacity.

  3. Determination of Genetic Polymorphism Among Soybean (Glycine max. L. Merrill Cultivars Developed in Recent Years through RAPD Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine PAKYÜREK

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Genotype or cultivar identification is the first step to ensure plant breeder’s rights. If registered cultivars or germplasms were not distinguished by any mechanism, then seed production or novel varieties could not be controlled. The RAPD markers are chosen to distinguish seven soybean ( Glycine max. L. Merrill cultivars from each other  and to assign the polymorphisms among of them in this study. Eight primers were used and DNA fingerprinting of all cultivars were determined with that primers. According to that fingerprinting all cultivars were distingusihed from each other in DNA banding pattern. Using these markers results, similarity index in between soybean cultivars were calculated. Dwight and Maverick were the most similar cultivars ( These two cultivars were similar at 0,70 point to each other. In addition that Maverick and Defiance cultivars have shown the highest polymorphism rate ( These two cultivars were similar at 0,39 point each other. .

  4. Intergenic spacer length variants in Old Portuguese bread wheat cultivars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ana Carvalho; Henrique Guedes-Pinto; José Lima-Brito

    2011-08-01

    The intergenic spacer of the ribosomal DNA is highly variable, but is location specific in the nucleolar organizer region of the chromosomes. This study provides an event of high level of polymorphism / size variation and occurrence of 14 unique phenotypes in 48 landraces of Portuguese bread wheat cultivars for IGS-amplified products obtained by PCR-RFLP technique performed with TaqI. The attendant IGS polymorphism has been used to deduce affinities between landraces. Some of the high molecular weight IGS allelic variants were also probed for their chromosomal localization by sequential silver nitrate staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization. However, only the intergenic spacer allelic variant of 3.1 kb could be successfully hybridized, and was observed to be physically located on the chromosome pair 1B in the NOR loci of the cultivar ‘Magueija’.

  5. Free hydroxycinnamic acids, lycopene, and color parameters in tomato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Marcos; Rodríguez, Elena; Díaz, Carlos

    2007-10-17

    Concentrations of antioxidant compounds (total phenolic compounds, free hydroxycinnamic acids, and lycopene) and color parameters ( a*, b*, and L*) were determined in 167 tomato samples belonging to five cultivars (Dorothy, Boludo, Dunkan, Dominique, and Thomas) produced on the island of Tenerife. Chlorogenic, caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids were identified and quantified in the tomato samples. Chlorogenic acid had the highest mean concentration, whereas the p-coumaric was not detected in almost half of the tomato samples. The cultivar, cultivation method, and production region had little influence on the concentration of analyzed parameters. Considerable seasonal variations in the levels of these parameters were observed. Many correlations were observed between the antioxidant compounds and color parameters. The tomato samples tended to be differentiated according to the sampling period when discriminant analysis was applied.

  6. Landsat maps (phase V, deliverable 60), ASTER maps (phase V, deliverable 62), ASTER_DEM maps (phase V, deliverable 63), and spectral remote sensing in support of PRISM-II mineral resource assessment project, Islamic Republic of Mauritania (phase V, deliverables 61 and 64): Chapter E in Second projet de renforcement institutionnel du secteur minier de la République Islamique de Mauritanie (PRISM-II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.; Knepper, Daniel H.; Horton, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Multispectral satellite data acquired by the Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM), Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensors were processed and interpreted in support of the PRISM-II project (Second Projet de Renforcement Institutionnel du Secteur Minier de la Republique Islamique de Mauritanie). This report and accompanying maps constitute project deliverables 60–64. All digital data for use in Geographic Information System (GIS) and image processing software will be included in the GIS deliverable 92. Image maps in PDF format of the processed Landsat and ASTER scenes are referenced in the appendixes.

  7. Sensory quality of scab-resistant apple cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Twenty-two scab-resistant apple cultivars were harvested in autumn 1999 and evaluated for sensory quality the following October, November and December. Multivariate analysis was effective in describing the comblex relationships and variabillity among the numerous attributes used to characterise apple quality. Crispness, mealiness, skin toughness, apple flavour, sweetness, unripe flavour and overripe flavour were informative attributes describing the variation in the sensory quality. Texture a...

  8. Nodule senescence and biomass components in common bean cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Fabián Fernández Luqueño; David Espinosa Victoria; Antonio Munive; Langen Corlay Chee; Luis M. Serrano Covarrubias

    2008-01-01

    Most legumes establish mutualistic symbiotic relationships with atmospheric nitrogen-fixing bacteria (rhizobia), giving origin to nodules. Nodules exhibit natural or induced aging which coincides with the drop in nitrogenase activity at the flowering period or at the pod filling stage. In this research, the onset of nodule senescence (NS) was evaluated under greenhouse conditions in five common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars of two growth habits, determined (Type I) and indeterminate ...

  9. BRS 331 – Early cycle double-haploid wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luiz Scheeren

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The wheat cultivar ‘BRS 331’ was developed by Embrapa. It results from an interspecific cross between wheat and maize by double-hapolid method. ‘BRS 331’ shows solid stem in the base of the plant, short leaves and super-early cycle to maturity. It is classified as bread wheat in all of the regions that is recommended in the States of Rio Grande do Sul, Paraná and Santa Catarina, Brazil.

  10. A new red -fleshed kiwifruit cultivar ‘Chuhong’

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangZhongyan; ZhongCaihong; BuFanwen

    2004-01-01

    ‘Chuhong’ is a red-fleshed kiwifruit cultivar selected from Actinidia chinensis var. rufopulpa grown in the wild.The fruit has beautiful red flesh color around the central core. It also has high soluble solids content and good taste. The plantsgrow well in both high and low altitude conditions, and are precocious and productive. The fruit matures in early September, and has reasonably good storage quality. There is a very positive response from customers according to preliminary marketing tests.

  11. The Impact of Switchgrass Cultivar Diversity on Nitrogen Use Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, A. C.; Jastrow, J. D.; SIX, J. W. U. A.; Morris, G.; De Graaff, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    The search for new sources of sustainable energy has cast attention on switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) as a potential biofuel crop. However, growing switchgrass in a high-input, low-diversity cropping system can have negative environmental consequences, such as enhanced nitrate (NO3) leaching and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Increasing plant diversity has been shown to promote plant production by increasing nitrogen (N) use efficiency (NUE), which may lower fertilizer requirements in cropping systems. With this study we asked how increasing cultivar diversity of switchgrass impacts NUE. The study took place at Fermilab National Environmental Research Park in Batavia, IL. In 2013, we applied a 15N tracer label to switchgrass planted in monocultures and mixtures of 2-types, 4-types, and 6-types of cultivars. We harvested the aboveground biomass and collected soil cores after one growing season. Preliminary data showed that cultivars differed significantly in yield and in the total 15N content in aboveground biomass, but there are no differences in tissue 15N concentration. In addition, there appears to be no effect of diversity level on 15N contents or concentrations. We intend to use this aboveground and soil 15N data to calculate NUE. These results could suggest that choosing the cultivar that most efficiently takes up N and produces the most yield may be more important than increasing diversity to promote the efficacy of biofuel feedstock production. However, increasing diversity can have other positive ecological consequences and does not appear to have negative impacts on yield or the N cycle.

  12. Evaluation of Tunisian olive oils from different cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Slim, Souihli; Rodrigues, Nuno; Dias, Luís G.; Veloso, Ana C. A.; Pereira, José A.; Oueslati, Souheib; António M. Peres

    2016-01-01

    [Excerpt] Olive oil is a highly appreciated food product due to sensory and healthy attributes, being quite prone to frauds. So, physicochemical evaluation of olive oils is legally required. In this study, 43 olive oil samples produced in Tunisia from different olive cultivars (groups: Sahli cv – 11 samples; Chetoui cv- 26 samples; and, Other cvs – 4 samples including Leguim cv and Arbequina cv) were physicochemically evaluated taking into account: (i) free acidity (FA), K232 and K270 extinct...

  13. Soil covering in organic cultivation of onion cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Barreto Tavella; Regina Lúcia Felix Ferreira; Sebastião Elviro de Araújo Neto; Antônio Jussie da Silva Solino; Eliana Mara Napoli Corrêa de Paula da Silva; Maísa Pinto Bravin

    2015-01-01

    The soil preparation in horticulture, including organic, is characterized by intense soil tillage, which increases energy costs and unbalanced the environment. The organic system in onion cultivation has shown satisfactory results, however the soil covering use tends to improve the cultivation environment and may result in higher yields. The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of onion cultivars in organic cultivation under different soil coverages. The experiment was co...

  14. CALLUS INDUCTION FROM 15 CARNATION (DIANTHUS CARYOPHYLLUS L.) CULTIVARS

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A.

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth regulators (PGRs) were used to induce callus in 15 carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.; Caryophyllaceae) cultivars: Orange Sherbert, Avalanche, Magenta, La France, Stripe Red, Marie, Concerto PVP, Snap, Lucky Pierot, Cinnamon Tea, White Love, Siberia, Magesta, Spark Bruno, and Honono no Estejo. Seeds were initially sown on autoclaved moistened filter paper and internodes of surface-sterilized seedlings were used as explants. Most callus was induced in the presence of 0.5 mg/L α-n...

  15. Vegetation mapping in the Parque Nacional, Brasilia (Brazil) area using advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER) data and spectral identification method (SIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abílio de Carvalho Júnior, Osmar; Guimarães, Renato Fontes; Ferreira de Carvalho, Ana Paula; Correia da Silva, Nilton; de Souza Martins, Eder; Trancoso Gomes, Roberto Arnaldo

    2005-10-01

    The spectral classifiers allow a good estimate for the mapping of the materials from the similarity between the reference curve and the image. Initially the spectral classifiers had been developed for hyperspectral images analysis. However, some works demonstrate good results for the application of these techniques in multispectral images. The present work aims to evaluate the spectral classifier Spectral Identification Method (SIM) in ASTER image. The Spectral Identification Method (SIM) is proposed to establish a new similarity index and three estimates according to the significance of regression (5%, 10% and 15%) of the materials. This method is based on two statistical procedures: ANOVA and Spectral Correlation Mapper (SCM) coefficient. This information can be used to evaluate the degree of correlation among the materials in analysis. The advantage of this method is to validate according to significance of regression most probable areas of the sought material. The method was applied to ASTER image at the Parque Nacional (DF - Brazil). The images were acquired with atmosphere correction. The pixels size from the SWIR image was duplicated in order to join the VNIR and SWIR images. Endmembers were detected in three steps: a) spectral reduction by the Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF), b) spatial reduction by the Pixel Purity Index (PPI) and c) manual identification of the endmembers using the N-dimensional visualizer. The classification was made from the endmembers of nonphotosynthetic vegetation (NPV), photosynthetic vegetation (PV) and soil. These procedures allowed identifying the main scenarios in the study area.

  16. Development of a Model for Estimation of Acacia Senegal Tree Biomass Using Allometry and Aster Satellite Imagery at Ennuhud, West Kordofan State, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elamin, Hatim; Elnour Adam, Hassan; Csaplovics, Elmar

    The current paper deals with the development of a biomass model for Acacia senegal trees by applying allometric equations for ground data combined with ASTER satellite data sets. The current study is conducted around Ennuhud area which is located in Ennuhud locality in West Kordofan State, Sudan. Primary data are obtained by application of random sampling around Ennuhud town where Acacia senegal tree species is abundant. Ten sample units are taken. Each unit contains five sample plots (15x15 m), one in the centre and the others in the four directions 100 m away from the centre forming a total of 50 sample plots. The tree coordinates, diameter/diameters (diameter at breast height ≥ 5 cm), height and crown diameters will be recorded. Sensor data were acquired from ASTER remote sensing satellite (29.03.2007 & 26.01.2011) and integrated with the in-situ data. The expected findings allow for the calculation of the mean diameter of trees. The tree above ground biomass (TAGB), tree below ground biomass (TBGB) and the tree total biomass (TTB) of Acacia senegal are computed consequently. Remotely sensed data are integrated with the ground data for creating the data base for calculating the correlation of the relationship between the two methods of data collection. The application of allometric equations is useful as a non-destructive method for biomass estimation by the application of remote sensing is recommended for biomass modelling over large areas. Keywords: Biomass model, Acacia senegal tree, remote sensing, Ennuhud, North Kordofan

  17. Identification and mapping of soil erosion areas in the Blue Nile-Eastern Sudan using multispectral ASTER and MODIS satellite data and the SRTM elevation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. El Haj Tahir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is part of a set of studies to evaluate the spatial and temporal variability of soil water in terms of natural as well as land-use changes as fundamental factors for vegetation regeneration in arid ecosystems in the Blue Nile-Sudan. The specific aim is to indicate the spatial distribution of soil erosion caused by the rains of 2006. The current study is conducted to determine whether automatic classification of multispectral Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER imagery could accurately discriminate erosion gullies. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM is used to orthoproject ASTER data. A maximum likelihood classifier is trained with four classes, Gullies, Flat_Land, Mountains and Water and applied to images from March and December 2006. Validation is done with field data from December and January 2006/2007, and using drainage network analysis of SRTM digital elevation model. The results allow the identification of erosion gullies and subsequent estimation of eroded area. Consequently the results were up-scaled using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS images of the same dates. Because the selected study site is representative of the wider Blue Nile province, it is expected that the approach presented could be applied to larger areas.

  18. Preliminary development plan of the ALR, the laser rangefinder for the ASTER deep space mission to the 2001 SN263 asteroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gil Vicente de Brum

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian deep space mission ASTER, as temporarily named, plans to send a small spacecraft to encounter and investigate the triple asteroid 2001-SN263. The launch is scheduled (initially to occur in 2015, arriving in 2018. The main motivation of the mission is the development of technology and expertise to leverage the national space sector. Within the scientific goals, the investigation of the still unknown asteroid 2001-SN263. The main project guideline is to aggregate the widest possible Brazilian involvement in the platform, the development and operation of subsystems, integration, payload, as well as in the tracking, navigation, guidance and control of the probe. To meet this guideline, among others, the decision for the development of a laser altimeter in Brazil to fly in the mission was taken. This effort is currently coordinated by a group of researchers from the aerospace engineering personnel of UFABC. This article presents the preliminary development plan for the design of this instrument, which was called ALR (ASTER Laser Rangefinder.

  19. Identification and mapping of soil erosion areas in the Blue Nile-Eastern Sudan using multispectral ASTER and MODIS satellite data and the SRTM elevation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haj Tahir, M.; Kääb, A.; Xu, C.-Y.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is part of a set of studies to evaluate the spatial and temporal variability of soil water in terms of natural as well as land-use changes as fundamental factors for vegetation regeneration in arid ecosystems in the Blue Nile-Sudan. The specific aim is to indicate the spatial distribution of soil erosion caused by the rains of 2006. The current study is conducted to determine whether automatic classification of multispectral Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) imagery could accurately discriminate erosion gullies. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) is used to orthoproject ASTER data. A maximum likelihood classifier is trained with four classes, Gullies, Flat_Land, Mountains and Water and applied to images from March and December 2006. Validation is done with field data from December and January 2006/2007, and using drainage network analysis of SRTM digital elevation model. The results allow the identification of erosion gullies and subsequent estimation of eroded area. Consequently the results were up-scaled using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images of the same dates. Because the selected study site is representative of the wider Blue Nile province, it is expected that the approach presented could be applied to larger areas.

  20. CULTIVARES DE MILHO E DE GRAMÍNEAS FORRAGEIRAS SOB MONOCULTIVO E CONSORCIAÇÃO MAIZE AND FORAGE GRASS CULTIVARS UNDER MONOCROPPING AND INTERCROPPING SYSTEMS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lindomar Pereira Simões; Emerson Alexandrino; Thales Augusto Duarte Daniel; Adriano Jakelaitis; Kennedy Vidal Souza; Josia Ludtke

    2010-01-01

    ...) e o segundo por quatro cultivares forrageiras (Marandu e Xaraés, de B. brizantha , e Tanzânia e Mombaça, de P. maximum ). Os sete tratamentos adicionais corresponderam aos respectivos monocultivos das cultivares testadas...

  1. Eficiência hospedeira de oito cultivares de bananeira a fitonematóides Host reaction of eight banana cultivars to plant parasitic nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Lucí Dinardo-Miranda

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Os cultivares de bananeira (Musa spp. Grande Naine, Nanicão Jangada, Nanicão (Grupo AAA, Enxerto, Prata, Prata Zulu, Maçã e Mysore (Grupo AAB foram plantados em campo e avaliados quanto à eficiência hospedeira a nematóides. Todos eles apresentaram elevadas populações de Meloidogyne arenaria raça 1, sendo considerados, portanto, hospedeiros favoráveis dessa espécie. Os cultivares do grupo AAA e Mysore foram também hospedeiros favoráveis de Radopholus similis, enquanto os demais do grupo AAB se comportaram como hospedeiros pouco favoráveis. Helicotylenchus dihystera foi detectado em baixas populações, em raízes e no solo da rizosfera de todos os cultivares.The host reaction of eight banana cultivars (Musa spp. to nematodes was assessed in a field experiment. Three cultivars evaluated were members of AAA Group (Grande Naine, Nanicão and Nanicão Jangada and five belonged to AAB Group (Prata, Enxerto, Prata Zulu, Maçã and Mysore. All cultivars were infested by Meloidogyne arenaria race 1, rated as efficient hosts. The AAA Group cultivars and Mysore were also efficient hosts to Radopholus similis, whereas Prata, Enxerto and Maçã were not. Helicotylenchus dihystera was detected at low density populations in soil and root samples of all cultivars.

  2. Descriptive analysis of flavor characteristics for black walnut cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ashley E; Chambers, Delores H

    2013-06-01

    Seven black walnut cultivars, Brown Nugget, Davidson, Emma K, Football, Sparks 127, Sparrow, and Tomboy, were evaluated by descriptive sensory analysis. Seven trained panelists developed a lexicon for the black walnuts and scored the intensities of the samples for 22 flavor attributes. Results showed that the 7 samples differed significantly (P ≤ 0.05) on 13 of the attributes. For the majority of the attributes, only Emma K differed from the rest of the cultivars by being characterized with lower scores for black walnut ID, overall nutty, nutty-grain-like, nutty-buttery, floral/fruity, oily, and overall sweet. That sample also was higher in acrid, burnt, fruity-dark, musty/earthy, rancid, and bitter attributes. The remaining 6 cultivars showed few differences in individual attribute ratings, but did show some differences when mapped using multivariate techniques. Future studies should include descriptive analysis of other black walnut varieties, both wild and commercial, that could be grown and harvested for production. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Near-infrared spectroscopy is feasible to discriminate hazelnut cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Stella

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study demonstrated the feasibility of the near infrared (NIR spectroscopy use for hazelnut-cultivar sorting. Hazelnut spectra were acquired from 600 fruit for each cultivar sample, two diffuse reflectance spectra were acquired from opposite sides of the same hazelnut. Spectral data were transformed into absorbance before the computations. A different variety of spectral pretreatments were applied to extract characteristics for the classification. An iterative Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA algorithm was used to select a relatively small set of variables to correctly classify samples. The optimal group of features selected for each test was analyzed using Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA. The spectral region most frequently chosen was the 1980-2060 nm range, which corresponds to best differentiation performance for a total minimum error rate lower than 1.00%. This wavelength range is generally associated with stretching and bending of the N-H functional group of amino acids and proteins. The feasibility of using NIR Spectroscopy to distinguish different hazelnut cultivars was demonstrated.

  4. De novo transcriptome assembly of two contrasting pumpkin cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliki Xanthopoulou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbita pepo (squash, pumpkin, gourd, a worldwide-cultivated vegetable of American origin, is extremely variable in fruit characteristics. However, the information associated with genes and genetic markers for pumpkin is very limited. In order to identify new genes and to develop genetic markers, we performed a transcriptome analysis (RNA-Seq of two contrasting pumpkin cultivars. Leaves and female flowers of cultivars, ‘Big Moose’ with large round fruits and ‘Munchkin’ with small round fruits, were harvested for total RNA extraction. We obtained a total of 6 GB (Big Moose; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Traces/sra/?run=SRR3056882 and 5 GB (Munchkin; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Traces/sra/?run=SRR3056883 sequence data (NCBI SRA database SRX1502732 and SRX1502735, respectively, which correspond to 18,055,786 and 14,824,292 150-base reads. After quality assessment, the clean sequences where 17,995,932 and 14,774,486 respectively. The numbers of total transcripts for ‘Big Moose’ and ‘Munchkin’ were 84,727 and 68,051, respectively. TransDecoder identified possible coding regions in assembled transcripts. This study provides transcriptome data for two contrasting pumpkin cultivars, which might be useful for genetic marker development and comparative transcriptome analyses.

  5. De novo transcriptome assembly of two contrasting pumpkin cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthopoulou, Aliki; Psomopoulos, Fotis; Ganopoulos, Ioannis; Manioudaki, Maria; Tsaftaris, Athanasios; Nianiou-Obeidat, Irini; Madesis, Panagiotis

    2016-03-01

    Cucurbita pepo (squash, pumpkin, gourd), a worldwide-cultivated vegetable of American origin, is extremely variable in fruit characteristics. However, the information associated with genes and genetic markers for pumpkin is very limited. In order to identify new genes and to develop genetic markers, we performed a transcriptome analysis (RNA-Seq) of two contrasting pumpkin cultivars. Leaves and female flowers of cultivars, 'Big Moose' with large round fruits and 'Munchkin' with small round fruits, were harvested for total RNA extraction. We obtained a total of 6 GB (Big Moose; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Traces/sra/?run=SRR3056882) and 5 GB (Munchkin; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Traces/sra/?run=SRR3056883) sequence data (NCBI SRA database SRX1502732 and SRX1502735, respectively), which correspond to 18,055,786 and 14,824,292 150-base reads. After quality assessment, the clean sequences where 17,995,932 and 14,774,486 respectively. The numbers of total transcripts for 'Big Moose' and 'Munchkin' were 84,727 and 68,051, respectively. TransDecoder identified possible coding regions in assembled transcripts. This study provides transcriptome data for two contrasting pumpkin cultivars, which might be useful for genetic marker development and comparative transcriptome analyses.

  6. In vitro starch digestion in sorghum flour from Algerian cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souilah, Rachid; Djabali, Djaffar; Belhadi, Badreddine; Mokrane, Hind; Boudries, Nadia; Nadjemi, Boubekeur

    2014-05-01

    This work aims to evaluate starch digestion in whole sorghum grains. Nine sorghum cultivars were sampled from the Sahara of Algeria. The structural characteristics of sorghum grains were measured. Total starch (TS) varied between 67.67% and 74.82%, digestible starch (DS) between 64.34% and 69.70%, and resistant starch (RS) ranged from 2.55% to 7.98%. The kinetic of starch digestion displayed first-order model. For all sorghum cultivars, starch were digested with different extents, DS at infinite time (D ∞) ranged from 52.58 to 102.13 g/100 g dry starch, while the hydrolysis index (HI) ranged from 41.55% to 76.93% and high average glycemic index (GIavg) ranged from 65.97 to 94.14. The results showed that there are differences in grain quality of Algerian sorghum cultivars. The starch fractions have acceptable nutritional value with good in vitro digestibility characteristics suitable for human health and nutrition.

  7. Emergy assessment method for wheat cultivar efficiency and environmental sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Jankowiak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The method based on emergy was applied to quantify the fluxes of the energy, matter and monetary investment use (water, seeds, work, fertilizer and plant protecting agents, fuel, goods and services, productivity, environmental services and sustainability in typical wheat cultivar conducted in Wielkopolska. In order to convert all the flows mentioned into common base (seJ a conversion factors (solar transformities were used. In this way it was possible to consider also such flows that are free and generally neglected in the traditional balances. Generally only 52% emergy inflow is delivered by financial investment, while the remaining part, delivered in the form of the environmental services, is free. The Emergy Yield Ratio EYR = 1.14 indicate a low level of output per emergy investment unit. The values of Environmental Loading Ratio ELR = 11 and Emergy Sustainability Index ESI = 0.1 indicate an environmental stress and low level of cultivar sustainability, respectively. The final cultivar product (wheat has the emergy density 4.35 E12 seJ/kg and transformity 26.3 E4 seJ/J.

  8. Characterization of volatile aroma compounds in different brewing barley cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Liang; Hou, Yingmin; Li, Feng; Piao, Yongzhe; Zhang, Xiao; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Li, Cheng; Zhao, Changxin

    2015-03-30

    Beer is a popular alcoholic malt beverage resulting from fermentation of the aqueous extract of malted barley with hops. The aroma of brewing barley impacts the flavor of beer indirectly, because some flavor compounds or their precursors in beer come from the barley. The objectives of this research were to study volatile profiles and to characterize odor-active compounds of brewing barley in order to determine the variability of the aroma composition among different brewing barley cultivars. Forty-one volatiles comprising aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, organic acids, aromatic compounds and furans were identified using solid phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, among which aldehydes, alcohols and ketones were quantitatively in greatest abundance. Quantitative measurements performed by means of solvent extraction and calculation of odor activity values revealed that acetaldehyde, 2-methylpropanal, 3-methylbutanal, 2-methylbutanal, hexanal, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, 3-methyl-1-butanol, cyclopentanol, 2,3-butanedione, 2,3-pentanedione, 2-heptanone, acetic acid, ethyl acetate, 2-pentylfuran and benzeneacetaldehyde, whose concentrations exceeded their odor thresholds, could be considered as odor-active compounds of brewing barley. Principal component analysis was employed to evaluate the differences among cultivars. The results demonstrated that the volatile profile based on the concentrations of aroma compounds enabled good differentiation of most barley cultivars. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Response of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) cultivars to different postharvest preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adugna, Biniam; Belew, Derbew; Kassa, Negussie

    2013-10-01

    Experiments were conducted to assess the effect of selected pulsing solutions on the days to flower bud shrinkage, leaf wilting and petal edge drying occurrence of carnation cultivars (Green-Go and Galy). The pulsing solutions used for this investigation were Silver Thiosulfate (STS) (0.2, 0.6, 1 mM) and also ethanol (6, 8, 10%), both received equal amount of sucrose (10%). Besides, to simulate the actual practice of the farm (0.4 mM Silver Thiosulfate (STS) plus 0.3 mM T.O.G) was used as a standard control. Senescence symptoms such as flower bud shrinkage, petal edge drying and leaf wilting were monitored. The results obtained showed that 1 mM STS plus 25 g sucrose achieved rapid petal edge drying for Green-Go cultivar. On the other hand, positive effects were also observed in days to flower bud shrinkage extended by 6 mM Silver Thiosulfate (STS) plus 25 g sucrose and being in par with 8% ethanol plus 25 g sucrose for Green-Go cultivar. Subsequently, the standard control, 0.6 mM Silver Thiosulfate (STS) plus 25 g sucrose and 8% ethanol plus 25 g sucrose attended comparable increment on the days to leaf wilting occurrences.

  10. Chemical characterization and genetic relationships among Ocimum basilicum L. cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liber, Zlatko; Carović-Stanko, Klaudija; Politeo, Olivera; Strikić, Frane; Kolak, Ivan; Milos, Mladen; Satovic, Zlatko

    2011-11-01

    Twenty-seven Ocimum basilicum cultivars were subjected to a chemical characterization of essential oil components by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and a genetic characterization using the amplified fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP) technique. Since the same 27 accessions had previously been classified into six morphotypes, these analyses allowed us to make detailed comparisons of chemistry, genetics, and morphology. The chemical composition and morphology of the studied cultivars appeared to have a strong genetic component. The AFLP analysis revealed a distinction between the green and purple morphotypes. The green morphotypes predominantly utilized the terpene biosynthetic pathway, while most purple morphotypes primarily utilized the phenylpropene biosynthetic pathway. The GC/MS analysis led to identification of 87 volatiles. Among the 27 cultivars, five chemotypes were identified. A detailed characterization of the essential oil constituents indicated the existence of both specific combinations of compounds and 'private' compounds with the potential to be used in many aspects of human life. The established relationship between a genetic profile, chemical composition, and morphology represents an important step in future breeding programs and in the cultivation of this species.

  11. Polyphenol and glycoalkaloid contents in potato cultivars grown in Luxembourg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deusser, Hannah; Guignard, Cédric; Hoffmann, Lucien; Evers, Danièle

    2012-12-15

    The polyphenol (phenolic acids, flavanols and flavonols) and glycoalkaloid (α-chaconine and α-solanine) contents of potato tubers grown in Luxembourg were analyzed by UPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS/MS separately in peel (approx. 2mm), outer (approx. 1cm) and inner flesh. Polyphenol contents decreased from the peel via the outer to the inner flesh and differed among the cultivars. The cultivars Vitelotte and Luminella had the highest polyphenol contents (5202 and 572 μg/g dry weight (DW) in the outer flesh), whereas Charlotte and Bintje had the lowest contents (19.5 and 48.0 μg/g DW). Chlorogenic acid and its isomers (neo- and cryptochlorogenic acid) were the major polyphenols. Glycoalkaloid contents were highest in the peel and lowest in the inner flesh, values in the flesh were below guideline limits in all cultivars. In conclusion, potatoes contribute to the daily intake of polyphenols and their consumption, thereby, may have positive effects on health.

  12. Screening of Amaranth Cultivars (Amaranthus mangostanus L.) for Cadmium Hyperaccumulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hong-li; ZHOU Wei

    2009-01-01

    The potential harm of soil cadmium pollution to ecological environment and human health has been increasingly widely concerned. Phytoremediation, as a kind of new and effective technology, has become an important method for cleaning up cadmium in contaminated sites. The amaranth (Amaranthus mangostanus L.) is widely distributed and has abundant varieties in China, its rapid growth and large biomass can be served as candidate for cadmium hyperaccumulators for phytoremediation. To obtain cadmium hyper-accumulator, Cd uptake in 23 amaranth euitivars from different ecological region was investigated under hydroponic culture condition. Meanwhile, pot experiment was established to probe phytoremediation potentiality of Cd contaminated soil by amaranth. Three treatment (Cd 5, 10, and 25 mg kg-1) were imposed to red soil, yellow brown soil, and vegetable soil. The results showed that under hydroponic culture with Cd 3 mg L-1, the cadmium concentration in the shoots of the cultivar Tianxingmi reached 260 mg kg-1, and its total cadmium uptake was the highest among various cultivars. In the treatment Cd 25 mg kg-1, the cadmium concentration in the shoots of the cultivar Tianxingmi reached 212 mg kg-1, while bioaccumulation factor and shoot purification rate reached 8.50 and 3.8%, respectively. Further, the total biomass and shoot biomass were not decreased significantly under Cd exposure.These results suggested that eultivar Tianxingmi is a typical Cd hyperaccumulator, and can be expected to be used in phytoremediation of Cd contaminated soil.

  13. Phosphorus Uptake from Rhizosphere Soilby Two Wheat Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAJIAN; T.S.GAHOONIA; 等

    1998-01-01

    Inorganic soil phosphorus extractable with sodium bicarbonate(NaHCO3-Pi),soil pH and root hairs length and density in the rhizosphere of two winter wheat cultivars (Tritium aestivum L.cv.Shichum,Sleipner)grown on a high pH Chinese silt loam(52.7 mg NaHCO3-Pikg-1) and a Danish sandy loam(43.4mg NaHCO3-Pi kg-1)wer studied to assess how these wheat cultivars differed in phosphorus uptake.The rhizosphere soil pH of two wheat cultivars grown on the two soils were fairly unchanged with increasing distrance from the roo surface.However the root hairs of Shichun were 2.1 times longer than those of Sleipner,Root surface area(RSA) of Shichun increased by 192% due to root hairs whereas root hairs of Sleipner increased RSA by 68% only.Hence the root system of Shichun was in contact with more soil than that of Sleipner,even though Sleipner had a longer root,Grown at the lower pH and level of NaHCO3-Pi in the Danish soil Shichun absorbed more inorganic phosphorus than Sleipner whereas at the higher pH and level of NaHCO3-Pi in the Chinese soil there was no phosphorus uptake difference between the two wheat culivars.

  14. Susceptibility of different parsley cultivars to infestation by pathogenic fungi

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    Jacek Nawrocki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiments were carried out in the years 2002 and 2003 on parsley seeds of 6 cultivars: Alba, Berlińska, Cukrowa, Kinga, Lenka, and Vistula. Mycological analysis of parsley seeds showed that the most common inhabitans were fungi from genus Alternaria (mainly A. alternata and A. radicina and Fusarium, especially F. avenaceum and F. oxysporum. During the glasshouse investigations fungi Alternaria radicina, A. alternata and Fusarium avenaceum were the main reason for parsley damping-off. The highest number of infected seedlings was observed for Berlińska and Kinga, because in both years of experiments these cultivars had the lowest number of healthy seedlings. The highest number of healthy seedlings had cultivars Alba and Lenka, especially in the second year of experiments. In the field experiments not only fungi from genus Alternaria and Fusarium were the most often isolated from diseased parsley seedlings. Fusarium oxysporum was more often isolated from diseased field seedlings than from glasshouse parsley seedlings. Other fungies isolated often from parsley seedlings cultivated in the field were: Pythium spp., Rhizoctonia solani, Cylindrocarpon destructans and Stemphylium botryosum.

  15. Genetic diversity among different physiological traits of Sorghum bicolor cultivars of subtropical origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bafeel, S O

    2015-08-21

    The genetic diversity of Saudi locally growing sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) cultivars has not been thoroughly characterized. To understand the genomic patterns of diversification in Saudi sorghum cultivars (N = 7), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used as a rapid, inexpensive method for providing information regarding genomic variability below the species level. Six commercially available primers were initially used to select a single primer based on availability, universality, and its use with standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) conditions. PCR-amplified molecular markers were reproducibly detected in Saudi cultivars. The single primer 2 produced clear bands and revealed variability among the cultivars. Seven tested cultivars were categorized into 2 major groups, indicating 2 genomogroups for the Saudi-cultivars. Five cultivars (S2, S3, S4, S5, and S6) showed identical banding patterns and were grouped in the same clade, although their panicles varied in size, shape, and color. Two cultivars (S1 and S7) showed different banding patterns. In this study, a single primer (P2) was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of genotype detection among sorghum cultivars. This is the first report describing genetic variation among S. bicolor cultivars in Saudi Arabia. The commercial primer (P2) and PCR reaction mixture used in this study are readily available and can be used in sorghum improvement programs.

  16. Influence of Cultivar on the Postharvest Hardening of Trifoliate Yam (Dioscorea dumetorum Tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Siadjeu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of cultivar on the postharvest hardening of Dioscorea dumetorum tubers was assessed. 32 cultivars of D. dumetorum tubers were planted in April 2014, harvested at physiological maturity, and stored under prevailing tropical ambient conditions (19–28°C, 60–85% RH for 0, 5, 14, 21, and 28 days. Samples were evaluated for cooked hardness. Results showed that one cultivar, Ibo sweet 3, was not affected by the hardening phenomenon. The remaining 31 were all subject to the hardening phenomenon at different degree. Cooked hardness increased more rapidly in cultivars with many roots on the tuber surface compared to cultivars with few roots on the tuber surface. When both the characteristics flesh colour and number of roots on tuber surface were associated, cooked hardness in cultivars with yellow flesh and many roots increased more rapidly than in cultivars with white flesh and many roots, whereas cooked hardness in cultivars with yellow flesh and few roots increased more slowly than in cultivars with white flesh and few roots. Accessions collected in high altitude increased more rapidly compared to accessions collected in low altitude. The cultivar Ibo sweet 3 identified in this study could provide important information for breeding program of D. dumetorum against postharvest hardening phenomenon.

  17. Ribonuclease activity of buckwheat plant (Fagopyrum esculentum cultivars with different sensitivities to buckwheat burn virus

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    Y. R. Sindarovska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ribonucleases (RNases are present in base-level amounts in intact plants, but this level is able to increase greatly under stress conditions. The possible cause for such an increase is protection against plant RNA-virus attack. Buckwheat burn virus (BBV is a highly virulent pathogen that belongs to Rhabdoviridae family. In our study, we have analyzed the correlation between RNase activity and resistance of different buckwheat cultivars to BBV infection. Two cultivars, Kara-Dag and Roksolana, with different sensitivities to BBV have been used. Kara-Dag is a cultivar with medium sensitivity to virus and Roksolana is a tolerant cultivar. It has been shown that the base level of RNase activity in Roksolana cultivar was in most cases higher than the corresponding parameter in Kara-Dag cultivar. Both infected and uninfected plants of Roksolana cultivar demonstrated high RNase activity during two weeks. Whereas infected plants of Kara-Dag cultivar demonstrated unstable levels of RNase activity. Significant decline in RNase activity was detected on the 7th day post infection with subsequent gradual increase in RNase activity. Decline of the RNase activity during the first week could promote the virus replication and therefore more successful infection of upper leaves of plants. Unstable levels of RNase activity in infected buckwheat plants may be explained by insufficiency of virus-resistant mechanisms that determines the medium sensitivity of the cultivar to BBV. Thus, plants of buckwheat cultivar having less sensitivity to virus, displayed in general higher RNase activity.

  18. Ribonuclease activity of buckwheat plant (Fagopyrum esculentum) cultivars with different sensitivities to buckwheat burn virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindarovska, Y R; Guzyk, O I; Yuzvenko, L V; Demchenko, O A; Didenko, L F; Grynevych, O I; Spivak, M Ya

    2014-01-01

    Ribonucleases (RNases) are present in base-level amounts in intact plants, but this level is able to increase greatly under stress conditions. The possible cause for such an increase is protection against plant RNA-virus attack. Buckwheat burn virus (BBV) is a highly virulent pathogen that belongs to Rhabdoviridae family. In our study, we have analyzed the correlation between RNase activity and resistance of different buckwheat cultivars to BBV infection. Two cultivars, Kara-Dag and Roksolana, with different sensitivities to BBV have been used. Kara-Dag is a cultivar with medium sensitivity to virus and Roksolana is a tolerant cultivar. It has been shown that the base level of RNase activity in Roksolana cultivar was in most cases higher than the corresponding parameter in Kara-Dag cultivar. Both infected and uninfected plants of Roksolana cultivar demonstrated high RNase activity during two weeks. Whereas infected plants of Kara-Dag cultivar demonstrated unstable levels of RNase activity. Significant decline in RNase activity was detected on the 7th day post infection with subsequent gradual increase in RNase activity. Decline of the RNase activity during the first week could promote the virus replication and therefore more successful infection of upper leaves of plants. Unstable levels of RNase activity in infected buckwheat plants may be explained by insufficiency of virus-resistant mechanisms that determines the medium sensitivity of the cultivar to BBV. Thus, plants of buckwheat cultivar having less sensitivity to virus, displayed in general higher RNase activity.

  19. In vitro Digestibility and Gas Production Characteristics of Four Napier (Pennisetum purpureum Cultivars as Fresh Fodder

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    Zailan, M.Z.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Napier grass was first introduced to Malaysia in the 1920?s and there were many cultivars introduced in Malaysia since 1950?s. However, there is a need to have comparative evaluation of these Napier cultivars so that definite recommendations can be made in the choice and management of the respective cultivars. The experiment was conducted to evaluate the in vitro digestibility and gas production characteristic of four Napier (Pennisetum purpureum cultivars, namely Common, Silver, Red and Dwarf Napier. Common, Silver and Red Napier are classified as tall cultivars while Dwarf Napier is a short cultivar. Gas production was determined at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 32, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h of incubation period and its kinetics was described using the equation p = a + b (1 ? e?ct. Dwarf Napier had the highest (P 0.05 in the rate of gas production (C of Napier cultivars which ranged from 0.024 to 0.035 h-1. The metabolisable energy (ME was significantly higher in Dwarf and Red Napier cultivars (8.7 MJ/kg DM compared to Silver and Common Napier cultivars. The cumulative gas production within 32 h was highest (P0.05 ranged from 52 to 73 mM, 88 to 70%, 6.2 to 6.8%, respectively.. Dwarf Napier cultivar had superior nutritional quality. Dwarf and Red Napier cultivars could be classified as high quality grasses due to their high digestibility, gas production and degradation rates compared to the other cultivars. The low quality of Common and Silver Napier cultivars is mainly reflected by the extensive lignification of their cell wall structure.

  20. Agronomic performance of watermelon cultivars in the Cerrado region of Boa Vista, Roraima = Desempenho agronômico de cultivares de melancia no cerrado de Boa Vista, Roraima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignácio Lund Gabriel da Silva Carmo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Production of the watermelon is important in all regions of Brazil. However, productive and qualitative information for fruit of different cultivars grown in the same environment is still scarce, especially in the State of Roraima, a fact that makes it necessary to carry out studies in order to meet this need. As a result, this study aimed to evaluate the agronomic performance of watermelon cultivars produced in the Cerrado at Boa Vista, Roraima. The experiment was conducted at the Agua Boa Experimental Farm of Embrapa Roraima, from December 2013 to February 2014. The experimental design was of randomised blocks (DBC, with six replications. The treatments comprised six watermelon cultivars: Verena, Explore, Elisa, Juliane, Crimson Sweet and Crimson Sweet Super, for which the productive, physical, chemical and physicochemical characteristics of the fruit were evaluated. There was no difference between cultivars in yield, number of fruit ha-1 or the number of fruit with a weight of between 6 and 9 kg. The cultivars differed as to physical characteristics (weight, size and number of seeds per fruit. There were differences between cultivars for all the chemical and physicochemical characteristics of the fruit. The cultivar Elisa displayed the highest levels for total soluble solids (12.58 °Brix. Fruits of the cultivars Explore and Crimson Sweet Super showed the greatest ratio between total soluble solids and titratable acidity. The fruits of the cultivars Explore and Elisa had the highest pH. The conditions of soil and climate in the Cerrado at Boa Vista favour the productive and qualitative characteristics of the cultivars being analysed. = A produção de melancia é consolidada em todas as regiões do Brasil. Porém, as informações sobre produtividade e qualidade dos frutos, de diferentes cultivares no mesmo ambiente, ainda são tímidas, sobretudo em Roraima, tornando necessária a realização de estudos para suprir essa carência. Objetivou

  1. Comportamento de cultivares de cafeeiro em diferentes densidades de plantio The behavior of coffee cultivars under different plant densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Martins Paulo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se em Adamantina, na Região da Alta Paulista, em São Paulo, entre maio de 1995 e junho de 2000, o crescimento e quatro produções de cafeeiros das cultivares de porte baixo Catuaí Amarelo IAC 47 e Obatã IAC 1669-20 de Coffea arabica L., submetidas às densidades de plantio de 2.500, 5.000, 7.519 e 10.000 plantas ha-1, com uma planta por cova. Estudou-se também a população de 2.500 plantas.ha-1 em covas com duas plantas com 2,0 m de distância na linha de plantio. Adotou-se o delineamento estatístico de blocos ao acaso com três repetições, com parcelas subdivididas, onde as parcelas foram as populações e as subparcelas, as cultivares. Os resultados permitiram inferir que, no período estudado, o aumento da densidade influenciou positivamente a altura e negativamente o diâmetro do caule e da base da copa dos cafeeiros, mas não a altura da inserção do primeiro ramo plagiotrópico a partir do nível do solo. O aumento da população de cafeeiros acarretou menor produção de café beneficiado por planta, mas concorreu para o aumento da produtividade no período de 1997 a 2000. O plantio de duas mudas de café por cova acarretou também diminuição do diâmetro do caule e da produção individual dos cafeeiros. Observou-se na cultivar Catuaí Amarelo IAC 47 maior diâmetro da base da copa e maior crescimento em altura, enquanto a cv. Obatã IAC 1669-20 evidenciou seu maior diâmetro do caule. As cultivares Catuaí Amarelo IAC 47 e Obatã IAC 1669-20 não diferiram entre si quanto à produção individual e à produtividade de café beneficiado no quadriênio (1997-2000.This experiment was developed at Adamantina, west region of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, during May of 1995 to June of 2000. The plant growth and productivity of two coffee cultivars Catuaí Amarelo IAC 47 and Obatã IAC 1669-20, were evaluated considering to plant densities of 2.500, 5.000, 7.519 and 10.000 plants ha-1. The density of 2500 also was

  2. Caracterização botânica de cultivares de morangueiro Botanical characterization of strawberry cultivars

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    Rachel Benetti Queiroz Voltan

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo de caracterização botânica em seis cultivares de morangueiro (Fragaria X ananassa Duch. quatro desenvolvidos no Brasil - 'Campinas (IAC-2712', 'Guarani (IAC-5074', 'AGF 080' e 'IAC Princesa Isabel' - e dois introduzidos - 'Reiko', do Japão, e 'Sequóia', dos Estados Unidos - visando sua distinção taxonômica. Os experimentos foram desenvolvidos na Estação Experimental de Monte Alegre do Sul (SP durante os anos agrícolas de 1992/93. Os caracteres morfológicos que se mostraram úteis na diferenciação dos seis cultivares foram os seguintes: tipo de planta; número de folíolos; coloração da folha; razão entre o comprimento e a largura dos folíolos medianos; ângulo da base do limbo do folíolo mediano; comprimento das estipulas; posição das flores primárias em relação à folhagem; número de pétalas das flores primárias; razão entre o comprimento e a largura das pétalas; receptáculo do ovário; forma das infrutescências e da base da infrutescência; posição do cálice e calículo; espaços vazios no interior da infrutescência e comprimento e largura da infrutescência. Para a identificação dos cultivares, foi elaborada uma chave analítica. Os cultivares AGF 080 e Campinas não foram distinguidos com base nos caracteres analisados.Six strawberry cultivars (Fragaria X ananassa Duch., four developed in Brazil (AGF 080, Campinas, Guarani and IAC Princesa Isabel and two introduced (Reiko from Japan and Sequoia from USA were botanically evaluated in order to screening morphological vegetativa and reproductive characters to get the taxonomical distinction of them. Two experiments were carried out in 1992 and 1993 at the Experimental Station of Monte Alegre do Sul, Instituto Agronômico (IAC, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The following morphological characters were screened to distinguish the cultivars studied: growing habit; leaflet number; leaf colour; middle leaflet length and width ratio; middle

  3. Cultivares de soja sob plantio direto em Latossolo Vermelho compactado = Soybean cultivars under no-till on a compacted oxisol

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    Neyde Fabíola Balarezo Giarola

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O processo de compactação pode modificar os atributos físicos do solo a ponto de limitar o potencial genético de desenvolvimento de culturas agrícolas ou de cultivares mais sensíveis. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, em Latossolo Vermelho Eutroférrico típico, a resposta de parâmetros de produção de cultivares de soja (Glycine max L. Merrill e atributos físicos do solo ao sistema plantio direto em condições de lavoura e com compactação adicional. O estudo foi conduzido na C-Vale Cooperativa Agroindustrial, em Palotina, Estado do Paraná. Foram avaliados dois tratamentos de solo: sistema plantio direto sem compactação adicional (SPD-C0 e sistema plantio direto com compactação adicional (PD-C1, e cinco cultivares de soja: (1 Coodetec 204, (2 Coodetec 215, (3 Monsoy 5942,(4 Embrapa 48 e (5 Spring. Adotou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 5 X 2. Os atributos de solo avaliados foram: densidade do solo, porosidade total, macro e microporosidade. Nas plantas, foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: fitomassa seca, altura de plantas, altura de inserção da primeira vagem, massa demil grãos e produtividade. Os resultados demonstraram que as variáveis de produção das cultivares de soja não foram influenciados pelos diferentes níveis de compactação do solo, e as diferenças observadas se deveram às características das próprias cultivares.The compaction process can promote changes in the physical attributes of soil, to the point of limiting the genetic potential for the development of more sensitive agricultural crops or cultivars. Thegoal of this study was to evaluate, on a clayed Red Latosol (Oxisol, the response of production parameters of different varieties of soybean (Glycine max and physical attributes of soil under tillage farming, and with additional compression. The study was conducted at C-Valley Agroindustrial Cooperative, in Palotina (Paraná State. Two treatments

  4. 'PiraRoxa': cultivar de alface crespa de cor vermelha intensa 'PiraRoxa': triple red lettuce cultivar

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    Fernando César Sala

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available 'PiraRoxa' é uma cultivar de alface (Lactuca sativa L. crespa de cor vermelha intensa, resistente à Bremia lactucae, Thielaviopsis basicola e LMV, patótipo II. Foi selecionada por meio do método genealógico a partir do cruzamento entre o tipo Lolla Rossa 'RS 521998' e a cv. Gizela. Apresenta plantas grandes e vigorosas, folhas crespas, coloração vermelha intensa e brilhante. Em ensaios conduzidos no verão (2003/2004 o pendoamento da 'PiraRoxa' foi de 10 e 20 dias mais lento quando comparado às cvs. Banchu New Red Fire e Loretta, respectivamente. Trata-se da primeira cultivar tropicalizada para o segmento de alface vermelha com resistência a doenças no Brasil.'PiraRoxa' is a triple red leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cultivar resistant to Bremia lactucae, Thielaviopsis basicola and LMV, pathotype II. This cv. was obtained through pedigree selection from the cross between a Lolla Rossa 'RS 521998' and cv. Gizela. This shiny and intense red lettuce presents vigorous plants with loose leaves. In summer trials (2003/2004 'PiraRoxa' presented slow bolting performance (10 to 20 days later in comparison to cvs. Banchu New Red Fire and Loretta. This is the first tropicalized red leaf lettuce with multiple disease resistance developed in Brazil.

  5. Caracterização e diversidade genética de cultivares de morangueiro Characterization and genetic diversity of strawberry cultivars

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    Elizete Beatriz Radmann

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a diversidade genético-molecular, por marcadores RAPD, das dez principais cultivares de morangueiro utilizadas no País: Aromas, Bürkley, Camarosa, Campinas, Dover, Milsei-Tudla, Oso Grande, Santa Clara, Sweet Charlie e Vila Nova. O DNA foi extraído de folhas maduras, as análises RAPD foram realizadas com 26 primers e os produtos de amplificação separados por eletroforese. O coeficiente de Dice foi utilizado para estimar a similaridade genética entre as cultivares e o método UPGMA para gerar o fenograma por meio do NTSYS. Houve amplificação de fragmentos consistentes com 19 primers, tendo sido encontrado polimorfismo em 14. Dos 116 fragmentos gerados, 84 foram polimórficos. As cultivares foram classificadas em dois grupos principais quanto à similaridade genética: cultivares destinadas à industrialização (Bürkley, Santa Clara e Vila Nova e cultivares destinadas ao mercado in natura (demais cultivares. A similaridade foi menor no grupo das cultivares para consumo in natura (44-74%, o que ocorreu em função dos parentais serem diferentes. A maior similaridade genética ocorreu entre as cultivares de indústria Santa Clara e Vila Nova (98%, ambas obtidas pelo programa de melhoramento da Embrapa Clima Temperado, e provenientes dos mesmos parentais ('Konvoy-Cascata' e 'Lassen'. Padrões RAPD foram estabelecidos para a caracterização genética das dez cultivares de morangueiro estudadas.In this work we characterized the genetic-molecular diversity by RAPD markers of the main ten strawberry cultivars cultivated in Brazil: Aromas, Bürkley, Camarosa, Campinas, Dover, Milsei-Tudla, Oso Grande, Santa Clara, Sweet Charlie and Vila Nova. The DNA was extracted from mature leaves, the RAPD analysis were carried out with 26 primers and the amplification products were separated by electrophoreses. The coefficient of Dice was used to estimate the genetic similarity among the cultivars and the UPGMA

  6. Variations in Disease Resistance of Chestnut Cultivars against Chestnut Blight Fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEE Sanghyun; KIM Kyunghee; PIAO Chungen; MOON Byungju

    2006-01-01

    Chestnut blight caused by Cryphonectria parasitica is one of the major chestnut diseases occurred on stems and branches. Oriental chestnut has more resistance than American one. Twenty-five cultivars of chestnut tree including various cultivars such as Tsukuba, Okkwang, Rihei, Ginyose, Eunsan, etc. Were tested with a rapid, simple and reliable method. The cultivar Banseki is one of the most resistant cultivars tested and has the necrotic area of 0.40 cm2. However, the necrotic areas of the cultivars of American chestnut, Eunsan, Kwangjujoyul and Eaton, ranges from 3.35 to 2.61 cm2 and these cultivars are relatively susceptible to this pathogen. Many pycnidia of this pathogen were observed on the inner and outer bark tissues after incubating for 3 weeks.

  7. Using protein markers of embryo and seed storage proteins in identification of four pistachio cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Ehsanpour

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Identification of protein marker for Pistachio cultivars, as a valuable source of food is important. In this study, the protein patterns of embryo from four pistachio cultivars including Akbari, Ahmad Aghaei, Fandoghi and Kaleghouchi were analyzed using SDS-PAGE. The presence of protein bands about 90 and 45 killo dalton (kd in protein pattern of embryonic axes in cultivars Kaleghouchi and Akbari respectively and the absence of protein bands with approximate molecular weight 30 and 20 kd in protein pattern of cotyledons in cultivars Kaleghouchi and Akbari respectively can be used as protein markers for these pistachio cultivars. On the other hand, the maximum expression level of bands 45 kd in protein pattern of cotyledons could be indicative of a protein marker for cultivar Ahmad Aghaei.

  8. Ozone phytotoxicity in relation to stress ethylene evolution and stomatal resistance in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adepipe, N.O.; Tingey, D.T.

    1979-01-01

    In greenhouse experiments, the ozone sensitivities of three cowpea cultivars differing in growth habits and some physiological traits were determined and related to stress ethylene production and leaf diffusive resistance. The cultivars were more sensitive at the 3-leaf than at the 2-leaf stages of growth. There was no consistent leaf injury at less than 0.50 ..mu..l/l of ozone for 2 hr. At an ozone concentration of 1.0 ..mu..l/l for 2 hr. the cultivar Adzuki exhibited marked leaf injury, amounting to over 80% symptom coverage of the leaf surface while New Era and Ife Brown sustained leaf injury maxima of 58 and 35% respectively. Stress ethylene production did not differ among the cultivars. While ozone increased stomatal diffusive resistance in all cultivars, there were not significant differences among the cultivars.

  9. Determination of Apomictic Fruit Set Ratio in Several Romanian Walnut (Juglans regia L. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Niculina COSMULESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available carried out to determine the ability of apomictic fruit setting in twelve Romanian walnut cultivars. ‘Sibisel 44’, ‘Geoagiu 65’, ‘Germisara’, ‘Muscelean’, ‘Sarmis’, ‘Valcor’, ‘Valmit’, ‘Valrex’, ‘Jupanesti’, ‘Velnita’, ‘Orastie’ and ‘Argesean’ cultivars were used in the experiment. Female flowers were isolated with pergament paper bags and the apomictic fruit set was determined 8 weeks after anthesis. The apomixis degree was determined as the number of fruit calculated in relation to the number of isolated flowers. The percentage of apomictic fruit set without pollination in cultivars analyzed is low, ranging from 7.86% (‘Orastie’ cultivar up to 12.46% (‘Jupanesti’ cultivar. The results indicated that apomictic fruit set is insufficient for economical seed and crop production in these Romanian walnut cultivars.

  10. Variation among Rice Cultivars in Root Acidification and Its Relation to Cadmium Uptake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-guo; XU Hai; CAI Guo-liang; QIAN Min; WANG De-ke; ZHU Qing-sen

    2006-01-01

    To understand the mechanisms of Cd uptake and accumulation in rice, soil acidification by root activities was investigated in six rice cultivars differing in Cd accumulation. The results showed a significant difference among the cultivars in pH of pot water and root exudate. Soil acidification abilities varied with rice cultivars. Both pH of pot water and root exudate were lower in indica cultivars than in japonica ones. The difference in root acidification was larger in Cd treated cultivars than the control. Under Cd stress, the pH of pot water and root exudate correlated negatively and significantly with Cd concentrations in rice plants. It was suggested that the soil acidification by root exudates, especially in Cd contaminated soils, may be one of the mechanisms responsible for Cd uptake in rice cultivars.

  11. Discrimination of sugarcane according to cultivar by 1H NMR and chemometric analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves Filho, Elenilson G.; Silva, Lorena M.A.; Choze, Rafael; Liao, Luciano M. [Laboratorio de Ressonancia Magnetica Nuclear, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil); Honda, Neli K.; Alcantara, Glaucia B. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Several technologies for the development of new sugarcane cultivars have mainly focused on the increase in productivity and greater disease resistance. Sugarcane cultivars are usually identified by the organography of the leaves and stems, the analysis of peroxidase and esterase isoenzyme activities and the total soluble protein as well as soluble solid content. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) associated with chemometric analysis has proven to be a valuable tool for cultivar assessment. Thus, this article describes the potential of chemometric analysis applied to 1H high resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) and NMR in solution for the investigation of sugarcane cultivars. For this purpose, leaves from eight different cultivars of sugarcane were investigated by {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy in combination with chemometric analysis. The approach shows to be a useful tool for the distinction and classification of different sugarcane cultivars as well as to access the differences on its chemical composition. (author)

  12. Understanding cultivar-specificity and soil determinants of the cannabis microbiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max E Winston

    Full Text Available Understanding microbial partnerships with the medicinally and economically important crop Cannabis has the potential to affect agricultural practice by improving plant fitness and production yield. Furthermore, Cannabis presents an interesting model to explore plant-microbiome interactions as it produces numerous secondary metabolic compounds. Here we present the first description of the endorhiza-, rhizosphere-, and bulk soil-associated microbiome of five distinct Cannabis cultivars. Bacterial communities of the endorhiza showed significant cultivar-specificity. When controlling cultivar and soil type the microbial community structure was significantly different between plant cultivars, soil types, and between the endorhiza, rhizosphere and soil. The influence of soil type, plant cultivar and sample type differentiation on the microbial community structure provides support for a previously published two-tier selection model, whereby community composition across sample types is determined mainly by soil type, while community structure within endorhiza samples is determined mainly by host cultivar.

  13. Estabelecimento in vitro de explantes de três cultivares de bananeira Explants establishment in vitro of three banana cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Nietsche

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar dois protocolos de desinfestação na micropropagação em três cultivares de bananeira. Utilizaram-se mudas das cultivares de bananeira Prata Anã, FHIA 18 e SH3640. Os protocolos 1 e 2 de desinfestação (Des. 1 e Des. 2 foram realizados utilizando-se os seguintes produtos: solução fungicida de Derosol, álcool comercial, solução de hipoclorito de sódio e de hipoclorito de cálcio e tween 20, apresentando variações na concentração dos produtos em cada um dos protocolos. As avaliações para a porcentagem de contaminação foram realizadas diariamente por meio do número total de tubos contaminados e não contaminados. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, em um sistema fatorial. As contaminações que ocorreram foram causadas exclusivamente por bactérias. Independentemente do tratamento utilizado, os índices de contaminação foram superiores a 29% para as três cultivares testadas. Estes resultados indicam a necessidade de adequar novas metodologias de assepsias de explantes de bananeira.The purpose of this work was to evaluate two protocols of disinfestations in the micropropagation on young plants of three banana cultivars: Prata-Anã, FHIA 18 and SH3640. Protocols 1 and 2 of disinfestations (Dis. 1 and Dis. 2 were carried out using the products: fungicidal solution of Derosol, commercial alcohol, solution of sodium hypo chlorite and calcium hypo chlorite and tween 20, presenting variations in their concentration in every one of the protocols. The evaluations for contamination rate were taken daily by means of the total number of contaminated and non-contaminated tubes. A random block design in a factorial scheme with four repetitions was used. Exclusively bacteria had caused all contamination. Independently of the used treatment the contamination levels had been up to 29% for all the three cultivars tested. These results indicate the necessity of

  14. Development and Validation of National Cotton Cultivar Registration lndex Model in Yangtze River Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naiyin XU; Jian Ll

    2014-01-01

    Based on the cotton variety high yielding potential, fiber quality traits, disease resistance, and early maturity characters, a cultivar registration index model was developed to simplify the tedious calculation process in national cotton registration procedure, and thus to enhance the practical application of cultivar regis-tration index in cotton breeding and cotton recommending. [Method] By means of correlation analysis, partial correlation analysis and path analysis methods, the cor-relation of cotton main properties and their effects on cultivar registration index were explored using the dataset of national cotton regional trials in Yangtze River Val ey during 1996-2013. The cultivar registration index model was constructed with step-wise regression statistical technique to ascertain the quantitative relationship of main characters with cultivar registration index, and the regional cotton trial dataset in 2013 was used to validate the model. [Result] Several characters with larger deter-minants to cultivar registration index were screened out, i.e. lint yield increase ratio, pro-frost yield ratio, verticil ium wilt index, fiber strength, fusarium wilt index and mi-cronaire value. The cultivar registration index model defined the functional relation-ship of cultivar registration index with the selected main characters, among which lint yield increase ratio, fiber strength and micronaire value contributed most to culti-var registration index. The model validation with regional cotton trials in 2013 indi-cated the root mean square error, RMSE was only 2.77, and the variation coeffi-cient was 6.77%, which confirmed the model prediction effect was quite perfect. [Conclusion] The developed cultivar registration index model was reliable enough to simulate the complicated scoring system in cultivar registration procedure, also sim-plified cotton registration process, and enhanced the practicability of the cultivar reg-istration index.

  15. Control of Pratylenchus brachyurus with Selected Nonfumigant Nematicides on a Tolerant and a Sensitive Soybean Cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenning, S R; Schmitt, D P

    1987-10-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate soybean cultivar sensitivity to Pratylenchus brachyurus and selected nonfumigant nematicides for control of this nematode. 'Essex', a tolerant cultivar, yielded more than 'Forrest' , a sensitive cultivar, in an infested field. Plots treated with aldicarb, carbofuran, and fenamiphos had fewer nematodes 40 days after planting than nontreated plots. Plots planted with Forrest and treated with carbofuran had a greater yield than the untreated controls.

  16. Potencial de multiplicação in vitro de cultivares de morangueiro In vitro multiplication potential of strawberry cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ucker Brahm

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o potencial de multiplicação in vitro de dez cultivares de morangueiro: Aromas, Bürkley, Camarosa, Campinas, Dover, Milsei-Tudla, Oso Grande, Santa Clara, Sweet Charlie e Vila Nova. Utilizou-se protocolo similar ao dos laboratórios comerciais. A desinfestação dos estolões foi realizada em soluções à base de álcool e hipoclorito de sódio; a cultura dos meristemas em meio semi-sólido MS com 1 mg L-1 BAP, 0,01 mg L-1 ANA e 0,1 mg L-1 AG3; e a multiplicação em meio MS com 1 mg L-1 BAP, à 25 ± 4ºC, 20 µE m-2 s-1 e fotoperíodo de 16 horas. Partiu-se de 10 meristemas de cada cultivar, avaliando-se a taxa de multiplicação e os níveis de contaminação, vitrificação e oxidação durante as fases de estabelecimento (30 dias e de multiplicação (quatro subcultivos. O número estimado de plântulas obtidas por meristema foi: 559 de 'Aromas'; 569 de 'Bürkley'; 516 de 'Camarosa'; 517 de 'Campinas'; 3.907 de 'Dover'; 1.841 de 'Milsei-Tudla'; 943 de 'Oso Grande'; 350 de 'Santa Clara'; 298 de 'Sweet Charlie', e 1.132 de 'Vila Nova'. A quantificação dessa variabilidade genética é importante para o planejamento da produção de matrizes de cada cultivar nos laboratórios de micropropagação.The objective of this research work was to evaluate the in vitro multiplication potential of ten strawberry cultivars : 'Aromas', 'Bürkley', 'Camarosa', 'Campinas', 'Dover', 'Milsei-Tudla', 'Oso Grande', 'Santa Clara', 'Sweet Charlie', and 'Vila Nova'. The procedures used for this purpose were similar to those found in the protocol observed by commercial micropropagation laboratories. The disinfestation of the scions was made by dipping them in an alcohol and sodium hypochlorite solution, the meristem culturing in a semisolid medium containing 1 mg of BAP, 0.01 mg of NAA, and 0.1 mg of G3A per liter and the scions multiplication in an MS medium containing 1 mg of BAP at 25° ± 4° C, 20 µ

  17. Weed suppression and weed tolerance of wheat cultivars - relevant traits for Integrated Pest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verschwele, Arnd

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An assortment of 10 winter wheat cultivars was tested for specific effects on weed suppression. Furthermore cultivar specific effects of weed infestation and weed control measures on the crop yield were investigated. Two trial series conducted from 2005 to 2010 demonstrated a wide cultivar specific range of shading capacity and weed suppression. Light penetration and the dry matter of the model weed Sinapis alba were highly correlated (r = 0.87 in trial series A (2005-2007. Consequently, the weed dry matter in the less competitive cultivar Dekan was 5 times higher compared to the weak competitor Cubus. Mechanical weed control by harrowing reduced ears density of all cultivars tested in trial series A. These reductions were significantly higher in the cultivars Bussard and Pegassos compared to the other cultivars. Since the weed infestation was low and negative crop effects by harrowing could be compensated by a higher number of kernels/ear, the yield effects were the same for all cultivars. Contrary to the hypothesis, a cultivar specific yield response by harrowing could not be assessed. Higher competition effects by sowing the model weed Sinapis alba could be realised in trial series B (2008-20120. Consequently, the control measures (a harrowing (b 50% herbicide (c 100% herbicide resulted in significantly higher crop yields ranging from 1.23 t*ha-1 (harrowing to 2.08 t*ha-1 (100% herbicide. The yield reduction caused by the model weed was not the same for all cultivars and was lower for the cultivars Cubus and Limes (6% and 7% compared to Boomer (15%. Thus, weed tolerance could be identified as a cultivar specific trait. There were significant interactions between cultivar and weed control measures: The yield increase (relative to model weed was 5% for Bussard, which was much lower compared to the treatment effects on the cultivar Impression (11%. The hypothesis that yield effects by mechanical and chemical weed control may be affected by the

  18. Genetic Diversity of European and Chinese Oilseed Brassica rapa Cultivars from Different Breeding Periods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yong-guo; Ofori Atta1; LU Chang-ming

    2009-01-01

    The Brassica oilseed crops went through two major breeding bottlenecks during the introgression of genes for zero erucic acid and low glucosinolate content, respectively, which may lead to reduced genetic biodiversity of the crop. This study investigates the impact of these bottlenecks on the genetic diversity within and across European and Chinese winter B. Rapa cultivars. We compared eight cultivars from Europe and China, representing three different seed qualities from three different breeding periods: (1) high erucic acid, high glucosinolates (++); (2) zero erucic acid, high glucosinolates (0+); (3) zero erueic acid, low glueosonolates (00, canola quality). Diversity was estimated on 32 plants per cultivar, with 16 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers covering each of the B. Rapa linkage groups. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that genetic variations within cultivars, across cultivars and across regions (Europe and China) were significant, with about 60% of the total variation within cultivars. There was a slight, but non-significant loss in genetic diversity within cultivars when comparing the three breeding periods as indicated by effective number of alleles (2.39,2.23, and 1.99 for breeding periods 1, 2, and 3, respectively), Shannon information index (0.93, 0.90, 0.75), and expected heterozygosity (0.51, 0.49, 0.42). By cluster analysis (UPGMA dendrogram) and principal coordinate analysis, Chinese and European cultivars were clearly divided into two distinct groups. In conclusion, quality improvement did not significantly reduce the genetic diversity of European and Chinese B. Rapa cultivars.

  19. Quantification of major flavonoids in carnation tissues (Dianthus caryophyllus) as a tool for cultivar discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeotti, Francesco; Barile, Elisa; Lanzotti, Virginia; Dolci, Marcello; Curir, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    One flavone-C-glycoside and two flavonol-O-glycosides were recognized and isolated as the main flavonoidal components in nine different carnation cultivars, and their chemical structures have been determined by spectroscopic methods, including UV detection, MS and NMR. The distribution of these three compounds in flowers, leaves, stems, young sprouts, and roots of each cultivar was evaluated by a simple HPLC-UV method: the graphic representation of their content in the different tissues allows to identify and characterize unambiguously each considered carnation cultivar. The presented method could be an easy, inexpensive and reliable tool for carnation cultivar discrimination.

  20. Cultivars of tulip affected by tulip necrotic disease caused by tobacco necrosis virus in commercial field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahata, K.; Kusaba, T.; Mukobata, H.

    1983-08-01

    This paper represents the name of cultivars in which typical symptoms of tulip necrotic disease have been shown in commercial fields. Within 1976-1983 growing seasons, the authors observed fifty cultivars having the symptoms on their ground parts of tulips and it seemed that cultivars which belong to classes of Truimph, Darwin, Darwin Hybrid and Double Late were highly susceptible to tulip necrotic disease. It was also recognized that, most of affected cultivars flowered in mid or late April, and a few in early April.