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Sample records for astatotilapia burtoni teleostei

  1. Tol2-mediated generation of a transgenic haplochromine cichlid, Astatotilapia burtoni.

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    Scott A Juntti

    Full Text Available Cichlid fishes represent one of the most species-rich and rapid radiations of a vertebrate family. These ~2200 species, predominantly found in the East African Great Lakes, exhibit dramatic differences in anatomy, physiology, and behavior. However, the genetic bases for this radiation, and for the control of their divergent traits, are unknown. A flood of genomic and transcriptomic data promises to suggest mechanisms underlying the diversity, but transgenic technology will be needed to rigorously test the hypotheses generated. Here we demonstrate the successful use of the Tol2 transposon system to generate transgenic Astatotilapia burtoni, a haplochromine cichlid from Lake Tanganyika, carrying the GFP transgene under the control of the ubiquitous EF1α promoter. The transgene integrates into the genome, is successfully passed through the germline, and the widespread GFP expression pattern is stable across siblings and multiple generations. The stable inheritance and expression patterns indicate that the Tol2 system can be applied to generate A. burtoni transgenic lines. Transgenesis has proven to be a powerful technology for manipulating genes and cells in other model organisms and we anticipate that transgenic A. burtoni and other cichlids will be used to test the mechanisms underlying behavior and speciation.

  2. Eggspot number and sexual selection in the cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni.

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    Henning, Frederico; Meyer, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Sexual selection on male coloration is one of the main mechanisms proposed to explain the explosive speciation rates in East African cichlid fish. True eggspots are color patterns characteristic of the most species-rich lineage of cichlids, the Haplochromini, and have been suggested to be causally related to the speciation processes. Eggspots are thought to have originated by sensory exploitation and subsequently gained several roles in sexual advertisement. However, for most of these functions the evidence is equivocal. In addition, the genetic architecture of this trait still is largely unknown. We conducted bidirectional selective breeding experiments for eggspot numbers in the model cichlid, Astatotilapia burtoni. After two generations, low lines responded significantly, whereas the high lines did not. Body size was both phenotypically and genotypically correlated with eggspot number and showed correlated response to selection. Males with higher numbers of eggspots were found to sire larger offspring. Despite the potential to act as honest indicators of fitness, the behavioral experiments showed no evidence of a role in either intra- or inter-sexual selection. Visual-based female preference was instead explained by courtship intensity. The evolution of this trait has been interpreted in light of adaptive theories of sexual selection, however the present and published results suggest the influence of non-adaptive factors such as sensory exploitation, environmental constraints and sexual antagonism.

  3. Eggspot number and sexual selection in the cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni.

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    Frederico Henning

    Full Text Available Sexual selection on male coloration is one of the main mechanisms proposed to explain the explosive speciation rates in East African cichlid fish. True eggspots are color patterns characteristic of the most species-rich lineage of cichlids, the Haplochromini, and have been suggested to be causally related to the speciation processes. Eggspots are thought to have originated by sensory exploitation and subsequently gained several roles in sexual advertisement. However, for most of these functions the evidence is equivocal. In addition, the genetic architecture of this trait still is largely unknown. We conducted bidirectional selective breeding experiments for eggspot numbers in the model cichlid, Astatotilapia burtoni. After two generations, low lines responded significantly, whereas the high lines did not. Body size was both phenotypically and genotypically correlated with eggspot number and showed correlated response to selection. Males with higher numbers of eggspots were found to sire larger offspring. Despite the potential to act as honest indicators of fitness, the behavioral experiments showed no evidence of a role in either intra- or inter-sexual selection. Visual-based female preference was instead explained by courtship intensity. The evolution of this trait has been interpreted in light of adaptive theories of sexual selection, however the present and published results suggest the influence of non-adaptive factors such as sensory exploitation, environmental constraints and sexual antagonism.

  4. Eggspot Number and Sexual Selection in the Cichlid Fish Astatotilapia burtoni

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    Henning, Frederico; Meyer, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Sexual selection on male coloration is one of the main mechanisms proposed to explain the explosive speciation rates in East African cichlid fish. True eggspots are color patterns characteristic of the most species-rich lineage of cichlids, the Haplochromini, and have been suggested to be causally related to the speciation processes. Eggspots are thought to have originated by sensory exploitation and subsequently gained several roles in sexual advertisement. However, for most of these functions the evidence is equivocal. In addition, the genetic architecture of this trait still is largely unknown. We conducted bidirectional selective breeding experiments for eggspot numbers in the model cichlid, Astatotilapia burtoni. After two generations, low lines responded significantly, whereas the high lines did not. Body size was both phenotypically and genotypically correlated with eggspot number and showed correlated response to selection. Males with higher numbers of eggspots were found to sire larger offspring. Despite the potential to act as honest indicators of fitness, the behavioral experiments showed no evidence of a role in either intra- or inter-sexual selection. Visual-based female preference was instead explained by courtship intensity. The evolution of this trait has been interpreted in light of adaptive theories of sexual selection, however the present and published results suggest the influence of non-adaptive factors such as sensory exploitation, environmental constraints and sexual antagonism. PMID:22937082

  5. The function of anal fin egg-spots in the cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni.

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    Anya Theis

    Full Text Available Color and pigmentation patterns of animals are often targets of sexual selection because of their role in communication. Although conspicuous male traits are typically implicated with intersexual selection, there are examples where sex-specific displays play a role in an intrasexual context, e.g. when they serve as signals for aggression level and/or status. Here, we focus on the function of a conspicuous male ornament in the most species-rich tribe of cichlid fishes, the haplochromines. A characteristic feature of these ca. 1500 species are so-called egg-spots in form of ovoid markings on the anal fins of males, which are made up of carotenoid based pigment cells. It has long been assumed that these yellow, orange or reddish egg-spots play an important role in the courtship and spawning behavior of these maternal mouth-brooding fishes by mimicking the eggs of a conspecific female. The exact function of egg-spots remains unknown, however, and there are several hypotheses about their mode of action. To uncover the function of this cichlid-specific male ornament, we used female mate choice experiments and a male aggression test in the haplochromine species Astatotilapia burtoni. We manipulated the number and arrangement of egg-spots on the anal fins of males, or removed them entirely, and tested (1 female preference with visual contact only using egg-traps, (2 female preference with free contact using paternity testing with microsatellites and (3 male aggression. We found that females did not prefer males with many egg-spots over males with fewer egg-spots and that females tended to prefer males without egg-spots over males with egg-spots. Importantly, males without egg-spots sired clutches with the same fertilization rate as males with egg-spots. In male aggression trials, however, males with fewer egg-spots received significantly more attacks, suggesting that egg-spots are an important signal in intrasexual communication.

  6. Annotation of expressed sequence tags for the East African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni and evolutionary analyses of cichlid ORFs

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    Braasch Ingo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cichlid fishes in general, and the exceptionally diverse East African haplochromine cichlids in particular, are famous examples of adaptive radiation and explosive speciation. Here we report the collection and annotation of more than 12,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs generated from three different cDNA libraries obtained from the East African haplochromine cichlid species Astatotilapia burtoni and Metriaclima zebra. Results We first annotated more than 12,000 newly generated cichlid ESTs using the Gene Ontology classification system. For evolutionary analyses, we combined these ESTs with all available sequence data for haplochromine cichlids, which resulted in a total of more than 45,000 ESTs. The ESTs represent a broad range of molecular functions and biological processes. We compared the haplochromine ESTs to sequence data from those available for other fish model systems such as pufferfish (Takifugu rubripes and Tetraodon nigroviridis, trout, and zebrafish. We characterized genes that show a faster or slower rate of base substitutions in haplochromine cichlids compared to other fish species, as this is indicative of a relaxed or reinforced selection regime. Four of these genes showed the signature of positive selection as revealed by calculating Ka/Ks ratios. Conclusion About 22% of the surveyed ESTs were found to have cichlid specific rate differences suggesting that these genes might play a role in lineage specific characteristics of cichlids. We also conclude that the four genes with a Ka/Ks ratio greater than one appear as good candidate genes for further work on the genetic basis of evolutionary success of haplochromine cichlid fishes.

  7. The African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni uses acoustic communication for reproduction: sound production, hearing, and behavioral significance.

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    Maruska, Karen P; Ung, Uyhun S; Fernald, Russell D

    2012-01-01

    Sexual reproduction in all animals depends on effective communication between signalers and receivers. Many fish species, especially the African cichlids, are well known for their bright coloration and the importance of visual signaling during courtship and mate choice, but little is known about what role acoustic communication plays during mating and how it contributes to sexual selection in this phenotypically diverse group of vertebrates. Here we examined acoustic communication during reproduction in the social cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni. We characterized the sounds and associated behaviors produced by dominant males during courtship, tested for differences in hearing ability associated with female reproductive state and male social status, and then tested the hypothesis that female mate preference is influenced by male sound production. We show that dominant males produce intentional courtship sounds in close proximity to females, and that sounds are spectrally similar to their hearing abilities. Females were 2-5-fold more sensitive to low frequency sounds in the spectral range of male courtship sounds when they were sexually-receptive compared to during the mouthbrooding parental phase. Hearing thresholds were also negatively correlated with circulating sex-steroid levels in females but positively correlated in males, suggesting a potential role for steroids in reproductive-state auditory plasticity. Behavioral experiments showed that receptive females preferred to affiliate with males that were associated with playback of courtship sounds compared to noise controls, indicating that acoustic information is likely important for female mate choice. These data show for the first time in a Tanganyikan cichlid that acoustic communication is important during reproduction as part of a multimodal signaling repertoire, and that perception of auditory information changes depending on the animal's internal physiological state. Our results highlight the

  8. Endogenous Gibbon Ape Leukemia Virus Identified in a Rodent (Melomys burtoni subsp.) from Wallacea (Indonesia)

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    Alfano, Niccolò; Michaux, Johan; Morand, Serge; Aplin, Ken; Tsangaras, Kyriakos; Löber, Ulrike; Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Fitriana, Yuli; Semiadi, Gono; Ishida, Yasuko; Helgen, Kristofer M.; Roca, Alfred L.; Eiden, Maribeth V.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV) and koala retrovirus (KoRV) most likely originated from a cross-species transmission of an ancestral retrovirus into koalas and gibbons via one or more intermediate as-yet-unknown hosts. A virus highly similar to GALV has been identified in an Australian native rodent (Melomys burtoni) after extensive screening of Australian wildlife. GALV-like viruses have also been discovered in several Southeast Asian species, although screening has not been extensive and viruses discovered to date are only distantly related to GALV. We therefore screened 26 Southeast Asian rodent species for KoRV- and GALV-like sequences, using hybridization capture and high-throughput sequencing, in the attempt to identify potential GALV and KoRV hosts. Only the individuals belonging to a newly discovered subspecies of Melomys burtoni from Indonesia were positive, yielding an endogenous provirus very closely related to a strain of GALV. The sequence of the critical receptor domain for GALV infection in the Indonesian M. burtoni subsp. was consistent with the susceptibility of the species to GALV infection. The second record of a GALV in M. burtoni provides further evidence that M. burtoni, and potentially other lineages within the widespread subfamily Murinae, may play a role in the spread of GALV-like viruses. The discovery of a GALV in the most western part of the Australo-Papuan distribution of M. burtoni, specifically in a transitional zone between Asia and Australia (Wallacea), may be relevant to the cross-species transmission to gibbons in Southeast Asia and broadens the known distribution of GALVs in wild rodents. IMPORTANCE Gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV) and the koala retrovirus (KoRV) are very closely related, yet their hosts neither are closely related nor overlap geographically. Direct cross-species infection between koalas and gibbons is unlikely. Therefore, GALV and KoRV may have arisen via a cross-species transfer from an intermediate

  9. Origin and evolution of B chromosomes in the cichlid fish Astatotilapia latifasciata based on integrated genomic analyses.

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    Valente, Guilherme T; Conte, Matthew A; Fantinatti, Bruno E A; Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo C; Carvalho, Robson F; Vicari, Marcelo R; Kocher, Thomas D; Martins, Cesar

    2014-08-01

    Approximately 15% of eukaryotes contain supernumerary B chromosomes. When present, B chromosomes frequently represent as much as 5% of the genome. Despite thousands of reports describing the distribution of supernumeraries in various taxa, a comprehensive theory for the origin, maintenance, and evolution of B chromosomes has not emerged. Here, we sequence the complete genomes of individual cichlid fish (Astatotilapia latifasciata) with and without B chromosomes, as well as microdissected B chromosomes, to identify DNA sequences on the B. B sequences were further analyzed through quantitative polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization. We find that the B chromosome contains thousands of sequences duplicated from essentially every chromosome in the ancestral karyotype. Although most genes on the B chromosome are fragmented, a few are largely intact, and we detect evidence that at least three of them are transcriptionally active. We propose a model in which the B chromosome originated early in the evolutionary history of Lake Victoria cichlids from a small fragment of one autosome. DNA sequences originating from several autosomes, including protein-coding genes and transposable elements, subsequently inserted into this proto-B. We propose that intact B chromosome genes involved with microtubule organization, kinetochore structure, recombination and progression through the cell cycle may play a role in driving the transmission of the B chromosome. Furthermore, our work suggests that karyotyping is an essential step prior to genome sequencing to avoid problems in genome assembly and analytical biases created by the presence of high copy number sequences on the B chromosome.

  10. A new species of the Genus Microbrotula (Teleostei: Bythitidae) from Cenderawasih Bay, New Guinea, Indonesia

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    Schwarzhans, Werner; Nielsen, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Following the recent revision of Microbrotula (Schwarzhans Nielsen, 2011), an additional nine specimens of the viviparous genus Microbrotula (Teleostei: Bythitidae), all caught in the Cenderawasih Bay, Irian Jaya, New Guinea, Indonesia, were made available to us. These specimens represent a new...

  11. Characterization of eight microsatellite markers in the white sea bream, Diplodus sargus (Teleostei, Sparidae).

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    Pérez, L; Infante, C; Ponce, M; Crespo, A; Zuasti, E; Funes, V; Catanese, G; Manchado, M

    2008-11-01

    The white sea bream, Diplodus sargus (Teleostei, Sparidae), is a species with a high commercial importance in Mediterranean aquaculture. There is currently little information available about the genetic characteristics of cultured populations. In this survey, we have developed eight polymorphic microsatellites for the white sea bream using an enriched genome library protocol. All of them were polymorphic in the 67 individuals tested, 32 of which were wild specimens, and 35 were individuals from a captive F(1) broodstock. These markers can potentially be useful tools for use in population genetic studies.

  12. [New metacercariae of the genus Tylodelphys (Trematoda, Diplostomatidae) in lacustrine populations of Galaxias maculatus (Teleostei, Galaxiidae)].

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    Quaggiotto, E A; Valverde, F

    1992-01-01

    Metacercariae of three new species of Tylodelphys (Trematoda, Diplostomatidae) were found in the brain of Galaxias maculatus (Teleostei, Galaxiidae), at the Meliquina Lake, Neuquen Province, Argentina. These metacercariae are morphologically described as Tylodelphys argentinus n. sp., Tylodelphys barilochensis n. sp. and Tylodelphys crubensis n. sp. This is the first time that a stage of genus Tylodelphys is mentioned parasitizing Galaxias maculatus. Metacercariae of T. barilochen sis n. sp. were also found in G. maculatus brain at the Perito Moreno Lake, Rio Negro Province, Argentina.

  13. Four new species of Cichlidogyrus (Monogenea, Ancyrocephalidae) from Sarotherodon mvogoi and Tylochromis sudanensis (Teleostei, Cichlidae) in Cameroon

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    Pariselle, Antoine; Bitja Nyom, A. R.; Bilong Bilong, C.F.

    2014-01-01

    The four Cichlidogyrus species (Monogenea, Ancyrocephalidae) found on the gills of Sarotherodon mvogoi and Tylochromis sudanensis (Teleostei, Cichlidae) in Cameroon are considered new and are described herein. Cichlidogyrus mvogoi n. sp. from Sarotherodon mvogoi, characterised by a long (> 100 mu m), thin and spirally coiled penis and a short marginal hook pair I. Cichlidogyrus sigmocirrus n. sp. from Tylochromis sudanensis, characterised by a short marginal hook pair I, a slightly spirally c...

  14. OLDEST STEM TELEOSTEI FROM THE LATE LADINIAN (MIDDLE TRIASSIC OF SOUTHERN CHINA

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    ANDREA TINTORI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The origin of the largest modern vertebrate group, the Teleostei, saw major refinements in the last decades, thanks to newly discovered and stratigraphically closely spaced Triassic Lagerstätten. Here we report the oldest Pholidophoriformes (stem teleosts that were collected during a large scale yet detailed excavation of Upper Ladinian (Middle Triassic marine deposits in Xingyi City, Guizhou Province, China. Taxonomic comparisons support the erection of a new pholidophorid genus, Malingichthys gen. nov., with two species. The new genus shows a partially fused skull roof, a preopercular bone with a hockey-stick shape and, for the first time in Pholidophoridae, supraneural elements. Most Triassic marine vertebrate clades (fishes and reptiles, Malingichthys included first emerged in the South China Block, with Late Ladinian most showing an important faunal transformation that was strengthened by our last findings. The material here described is about 2 million years older than the previous records for pholidophorids. 

  15. Anatomical stomach description of dog fish, Hydrolycus armatus (Jardine & Schomburgk, 1841, (Teleostei: Cynodontidae

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    Gerlane de Medeiros Costa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolycus armatus (dog fish is a Teleostei of Cynodontidae Family that forms a distinct group of Neotropical Characiformes. This species is a predator, pelagic, freshwater and carnivorous and ichthyophagic feeding habits. Biological studies on fish are important in fishery, already that they are used as parameters to keep the exploitation to sustainable levels. This study aimed to describe the stomach anatomy of H. armatus, in order to generate basic information of this body of this vertebrate. We used ten (10 specimens of H. armatus, from the Teles Pires, city of Carlinda-MT, being this dissected and analyzed. The stomach of saccular format presented the regions cardial, pyloric and fundic, last being this last larger than the others. The anatomical features presented by the liver and stomach of H. armatus confirmed the relationship between the anatomy of these organs and their feeding habits being these, therefore, characteristics of predatory species, carnivorous and preferably ichthyophagics.

  16. A new species of Speleogobius (Teleostei: Gobiidae) from the Western Mediterraenean Sea.

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    Kovačić, Marcelo; Ordines, Francesc; Schliewen, Ulrich K

    2016-01-15

    A new goby species, Speleogobius llorisi sp. nov. (Teleostei: Gobiidae) is described from the circalittoral sea bed at 46-69 m depth off the Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean. Six specimens, four females and two males, of the new species were collected from beam trawl samples carried out on the red algae beds off the south west coast of Mallorca Island. Among others, the main traits that differentiate the new species from the only congeneric species, S. trigloides, are the presence of preopercular head canal with pores γ, δ, ε vs. preopercular head canal absent; a longer snout, equal or longer than eye vs. shorter than eye; lower lip ending anteriorly slightly in front of upper lip vs. upper lip slightly protruding lower lip; scales in lateral series 28 or 29 vs. 26; scales in transverse series 6 vs.7-8. It also differs from S. trigloides in some non-overlapping morphometrics and in coloration. All individuals of the new species were collected from Peyssonnelia beds, beds of red algae dominated by species of the family Peyssonneliaceae. The generic diagnosis of Speleogobius is revised.

  17. Hyphessobrycon ocasoensis sp. n. (Teleostei, Characidae una nueva especie para el Alto Cauca, Colombia

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    García-Alzate, C. A.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Hyphessobrycon ocasoensis n. sp. (Teleostei, Characidae a new species from the Alto Cauca, Colombia Hyphessobrycon ocasoensis n. sp. (Characiformes, Characidae from heterorhabdus group (Gery, 1977 is described from the upper Cauca River in Colombia. The new species is distinguished from all other known species by the following combination of characters: three unbranched and eight branched fins in the dorsal fin; short maxillary bone with one or no teeth; four small foramens in the maxillary bone, and five in the premaxillary; 5-17 scales with pores in the lateral line, six between the lateral line and anal-fin origin, six between the lateral line and pelvic-fin origin, and nine predorsals; depth of the caudal peduncle has a mean of 16.7% in standard length; interorbital width 50.6% in head; a dark spot on caudal peduncle and a dark lateral band that extends vertically from the dorsal–fin origin to the tips of the middle caudal fin rays. Physical and chemical data of their habitat are included.

  18. Molecular systematics of the enigmatic Middle American genus Vieja (Teleostei: Cichlidae).

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    McMahan, Caleb D; Geheber, Aaron D; Piller, Kyle R

    2010-12-01

    The genus Vieja represents a group of heroine cichlids (Teleostei: Cichlidae) distributed on the Atlantic and Pacific slopes of North and Central America from southern Mexico to Panama. Sixteen species of Vieja are presently recognized; however, based on long-standing taxonomic problems, the genus itself appears to be weakly defined. A number of different generic designations have been proposed for members of Vieja, and recent systematic studies of heroine cichlids have not specifically addressed the validity of the grouping and have not included all species in the genus. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the monophyly of the genus Vieja by including all nominal species in the genus using the mitochondrial encoded cytochrome b gene and nuclear S7-1 intron. Results of Maximum Parsimony, Bayesian inference, and topology tests (constraint tree searches and post-burn-in Bayesian filtering) indicate that the genus is not monophyletic as it is currently recognized. The genus Herichthys was recovered as sister to a clade consisting of a number of Vieja species (V. fenestrata, V. guttulata, V. zonata, V. hartwegi, V. bifasciata, V. breidohri, V. argentea, V. regani, V. melanura, V. synspila, and V. maculicauda, as well as Paraneetroplusbulleri). A clade consisting of V. intermedia, V. godmanni, and V. microphthalma was recovered sister to Theraps. Additionally, V. heterospila and V. tuyrensis were recovered outside of Vieja and Herichthys clades. Based on the results of this comprehensive study, we suggest a revised classification of Vieja species.

  19. Phylogenetic Relationships of Pseudorasbora, Pseudopungtungia, and Pungtungia (Teleostei; Cypriniformes; Gobioninae Inferred from Multiple Nuclear Gene Sequences

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    Keun-Yong Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gobionine species belonging to the genera Pseudorasbora, Pseudopungtungia, and Pungtungia (Teleostei; Cypriniformes; Cyprinidae have been heavily studied because of problems on taxonomy, threats of extinction, invasion, and human health. Nucleotide sequences of three nuclear genes, that is, recombination activating protein gene 1 (rag1, recombination activating gene 2 (rag2, and early growth response 1 gene (egr1, from Pseudorasbora, Pseudopungtungia, and Pungtungia species residing in China, Japan, and Korea, were analyzed to elucidate their intergeneric and interspecific phylogenetic relationships. In the phylogenetic tree inferred from their multiple gene sequences, Pseudorasbora, Pseudopungtungia and Pungtungia species ramified into three phylogenetically distinct clades; the “tenuicorpa” clade composed of Pseudopungtungia tenuicorpa, the “parva” clade composed of all Pseudorasbora species/subspecies, and the “herzi” clade composed of Pseudopungtungia nigra, and Pungtungia herzi. The genus Pseudorasbora was recovered as monophyletic, while the genus Pseudopungtungia was recovered as polyphyletic. Our phylogenetic result implies the unstable taxonomic status of the genus Pseudopungtungia.

  20. Diversification of substrate specificities in teleostei Fads2: characterization of Δ4 and Δ6Δ5 desaturases of Chirostoma estor[S

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    Fonseca-Madrigal, Jorge; Navarro, Juan C.; Hontoria, Francisco; Tocher, Douglas R.; Martínez-Palacios, Carlos A.; Monroig, Óscar

    2014-01-01

    Currently existing data show that the capability for long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis in teleost fish is more diverse than in other vertebrates. Such diversity has been primarily linked to the subfunctionalization that teleostei fatty acyl desaturase (Fads)2 desaturases have undergone during evolution. We previously showed that Chirostoma estor, one of the few representatives of freshwater atherinopsids, had the ability for LC-PUFA biosynthesis from C18 PUFA precursors, in agreement wit...

  1. Variación morfológica de las especies de Astyanax, subgénero Zygogaster (Teleostei, Characidae

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    Ruiz-C., R. I.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphological variation of Astyanax species, subgenus Zygogaster (Teleostei, Characidae The diverse Neotropical fish genus Astyanax inhabits a variety of aquatic environments. As with other species in this genus, the taxonomic status and phylogenetic relationships of species of this subgenus remain largely undetermined. Based on 354 individuals, we analyzed the morphological variation of four species of the subgenus Zygogaster (A. atratoensis, A. caucanus, A. filiferus, and A. magdalenae using procrustes analysis and compared findings with two species of the sister group: subgenus Poecilurichthys (A. orthodus and A. superbus. The PCA (Principal Component Analysis and CVA (Canonical Variates Analysis showed morphological affinity between the subgenera and indicated variance in body depth, anterior trend of dorsal fin origin and humeral spot, depression on the dorsal surface of the skull, and ventral displacement of the orbit and snout. The variation in these structures may provide evidence supporting adaptive speciation as an alternative to speciation driven by geographical isolation.

  2. Cytogenetic characterization of the strongly electric Amazonian eel, Electrophorus electricus (Teleostei, Gymnotiformes, from the Brazilian rivers Amazon and Araguaia

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    Soraia B.A. Fonteles

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A karyotype analysis of the electric eel, Electrophorus electricus (Teleostei, Gymnotiformes, a strongly electric fish from northern South America, is presented. Two female specimens were analyzed, one from the Amazon River and one from the Araguaia River. The specimens had a chromosomal number of 2n = 52 (42M-SM + 10A. C-bands were present in a centromeric and pericentromeric position on part of the chromosomes; some interstitial C-bands were also present. Heteromorphic nucleolus organizer regions (NORs were detected in two chromosome pairs of the specimen from the Amazon River. The chromosome number and karyotype characteristics are similar to those of other Gymnotidae species. The genera Electrophorus and Gymnotus are positioned as the basal lineages in the Gymnotiformes phylogeny.

  3. Un nouveau genre d'Aipichthyoidea (Teleostei, Acanthomorpha) du Cénomanien inférieur marin de Hgula (Liban): description et relations phylogénétiques

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    Otero, Olga

    1997-09-01

    Freigichthys elleipsis nov. gen., nov. sp., from the Lower Cenomanian of Hgula (Lebanon) is described. Its phylogenetic relationships within the Aipichthyoidea (Teleostei, Ctenosquamata) are established. It is the plesiomorphic member of this superfamily that includes the genera Aipichthys Steindachner, 1860, ParaipichthysGaudant, 1978and Aipichthyoides Gayet 1980.

  4. The importance of gobies (Gobiidae, Teleostei) as hosts and transmitters of parasites in the SW Baltic

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    Zander, C. D.; Strohbach, U.; Groenewold, S.

    1993-02-01

    The parasite fauna of five goby species (Gobiidae, Teleostei) was investigated in the Baltic Sea during the period 1987 to 1990. 13 parasite species were found in samples from the Lübeck Bight: Bothriocephalus scorpii, Schistocephalus sp. (Cestoda); Cryptocotyle concavum, Cryptocotyle lingua, Podocotyle atomon, Derogenes varicus (Digenea); Hysterothylacium sp. (cf. auctum), Contracaecum sp., Anisakis simplex (Nematoda); Corynosoma sp., Echinorhynchus gadi, Neoechinorhynchus rutili, Pomphorhynchus laevis (Acanthocephala). The number of parasite species were: 10 in the sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus, 8 in the black goby Gobius niger, 7 in the two-spotted goby Gobiusculus flavescens, 6 in the common goby Pomatoschistus microps, and 5 in the painted goby Pomatoschistus pictus. Neoechinorhynchus rutili occurred only in P. minutus, and Corynosoma sp. only in G. niger. The extent to which the gobies were parasitized clearly depended on the respective ways of life and, moreover, on the kind of prey ingested by the hosts. Additionally, the age of the hosts might be important. The highest rate of parasitism, more than 60%, was reached by Hysterothylacium sp. in G. niger and by Cryptocotyle concavum in P. microps. Infestation incidence lay mostly below 40% which means a satellite species status (Holmes, 1991). The number of parasite species was highest in summer; the highest intensities of single parasites occurred in spring ( Podocotyle atomon) or autumn ( Crytocotyle concavum). Bothriocephalus scorpii, Hysterothylacium sp. and Podocotyle infested their juvenile hosts very early, but only Hysterothylacium was accumulated by G. niger during its whole life span, whereas Bothriocephalus persisted also in older gobies in low intensities. The cercariae of Cryptocotyle spp. penetrate actively into their hosts; all the other parasites named were transmitted in larval form by prey organisms which consisted mainly of planktonic and benthic crustaceans. The gobies were final hosts

  5. Gonadal maturation and histological observations of the grey triggerfish Balistes capriscus Gmelin, 1789 (Teleostei: Balistidae in the Gulf of Gabès, Tunisia

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    Hichem Kacem

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the spawning activity using gonadosomatic index (GSI and gonad histology the Balistes capriscus (Teleostei: Balistidae of the Gulf of Gabès (Southern Tunisia, Central Mediterranean Sea. Methods: The reproductive biology of the species, based on 756 (480 females and 276 males, collected from commercial catches at several fishing ports including Chebba, Kerkennah and Zarzis at respective GPS coordinates (34°14' N, 11°06' E, (34°45' N, 11°17' E, (33°41' N, 11°48' E was studied over 28 months (January 2008-April 2010 using GSI and gonad histology. Sizes used in this study ranged from 11.30 to 45.60 cm in fork length. Results: Both GSI and gonad histology suggest that spawning activity occurred mainly between July and mid-September with a peak in July, coinciding with summer time. The first maturation occurred at 20.26 cm fork length for females and 21.30 cm fork length for males. The monthly values of hepatosomatic index and condition factor (K indicated that the liver is the main organ responsible for the mobilization process of the energizing reserves during the sexual cycle. Conclusions: It is the first inventory of gonadal maturation and histological observations of the grey triggerfish Balistes capriscus Gmelin, 1789 (Teleostei: Balistidae in the Gulf of Gabès, (Southern Tunisia, Central Mediterranean Sea.

  6. New Extinct Carp Fish Species (Teleostei, Cyprinidae from the Late Neogene of Southeastern Europe

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    Kovalchuk М.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Новые вымершие виды карповых рыб (Teleostei, Cyprinidae из позднего неогена юга Восточ- ной Европы. Ковальчук А. Н. - Описаны новые виды вымерших карповых рыб из отложений верхнего неогена юга Восточной Европы. Rutilus robustus Kovalchuk, sp. n. из раннего плиоцена Приозерного (Республика Молдова отличается от других известных видов рода Rutilus массивной высокой ceratobranchiale, длинным передним неозубленным отростком, а также широкими пере- городками между септами кавернозной поверхности. Scardinius ponticus Kovalchuk, sp. n. из позд- него миоцена Лектостратотипа понта (Украина характеризуется большими глоточными зубами и увеличенным количеством зубцов на их внешнем жевательном крае.

  7. From sneaker to parental male: change of reproductive traits in the black goby, Gobius niger (Teleostei, Gobiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immler, Simone; Mazzoldi, Carlotta; Rasotto, Maria Berica

    2004-02-01

    This study focuses on the consequences of the switch of tactic from parasitic to parental male in the black goby, Gobius niger (Teleostei: Gobiidae), a species showing two alternative male mating tactics. Older and larger males defend nests, court, and perform parental care on eggs, while younger and smaller ones behave as parasites, sneaking into nests while spawning occurs. Males adopting different tactics are known to present differences in primary and secondary sex traits. The social context of sneaker males was manipulated to induce a tactic switch. Sneakers were kept under two different experimental treatments with or without a female, and under exclusion of male-male competition. Males changed tactics, courting females, spawning, and performing parental care. All males showed substantial changes in primary sexual traits, such as a reduction in gonadal development and an increase in the investment in accessory structures. The experimental groups differed in the functionality of gonads and accessory organs and in the development of the secondary sex traits. These results demonstrate that the moment of switching is not genetically fixed in the black goby. Sneaker males are able to quickly reallocate energy in primary and secondary sex traits, in accordance with the adopted tactic. Several aspects of this flexible reproductive pattern resemble the socially controlled sex change found in sequential hermaphrodites.

  8. Escape from the Ponto-Caspian: evolution and biogeography of an endemic goby species flock (Benthophilinae: Gobiidae: Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, Matthew E; Stepien, Carol A

    2009-07-01

    Endemic Ponto-Caspian gobies include a flock of 24 "neogobiin" species (containing the nominal genera and subgenera Apollonia, Babka, Neogobius, Mesogobius, Ponticola, and Proterorhinus; Teleostei: Gobiidae), of which a large proportion (5 species; 21%) recently escaped to invade other freshwater Eurasian systems and the North American Great Lakes. We provide its first comprehensive phylogenetic and biogeographic analysis based on 4709 bp sequences from two mitochondrial and two nuclear genes with maximum parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian approaches. We additionally compare its relationships with the tadpole gobies (Benthophilus and Caspiosoma), which comprise a related endemic Ponto-Caspian gobiid group; along with a variety of postulated relatives and outgroups. Results of all phylogenetic approaches are highly congruent and provide very strong support for recognizing the subfamily Benthophilinae; which encompasses both the "neogobiins" and tadpole gobies, and genetically diverges from other Gobiidae subfamilies-including (non-monophyletic) Gobiinae and Gobinellinae. Benthophilinae contains three tribes: Neogobiini (Neogobius, which is synonymized here with Apollonia; containing the type species N. fluviatilis, along with N. melanostomus and N. caspius), Ponticolini (containing the genera Mesogobius, Proterorhinus, Babka, and Ponticola-elevating the latter two from subgenera and removing them from the formerly paraphyletic Neogobius), and Benthophilini (tadpole gobies). Within Ponticolini, Proterorhinus and Mesogobius comprise the sister clade of the Ponticola and Babka clade. Further work is needed to clarify the interrelationships of the tadpole gobies. Invasiveness is widespread in freshwater and euryhaline taxa of Neogobius, Proterorhinus, Babka, and Ponticola; but not in marine species, Mesogobius, or tadpole gobies.

  9. Population genetic patterns revealed by microsatellite data challenge the mitochondrial DNA based taxonomy of Astyanax in Mexico (Characidae, Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausdorf, Bernhard; Wilkens, Horst; Strecker, Ulrike

    2011-07-01

    Astyanax has become an important model system for evolutionary studies of cave animals. We investigated correlations of population genetic patterns revealed by microsatellite data and phylogeographic patterns shown by mitochondrial DNA sequences in Mexican cave and surface fish of the genus Astyanax (Characidae, Teleostei) to improve the understanding of the colonization history of this neotropical fish in Central and North America and to assess a recent taxonomic classification. The distribution of nuclear genotypes is not congruent with that of the mitochondrial clades. Admixture analyses suggest there has been nuclear gene flow between populations defined by different mitochondrial clades. The microsatellite data indicate that there was mitochondrial capture of a cave population from adjacent populations. Furthermore, gene flow also occurred between populations belonging to different nuclear genotypic clusters. This indicates that neither the nuclear genotypic clusters nor the mitochondrial clades represent independent evolutionary units, although the mitochondrial divergences are high and in a range usually characteristic for different fish species. This conclusion is supported by the presence of morphologically intermediate forms. Our analyses show that the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt limited gene flow, but has been crossed by Astyanax several times. In Yucatán, where obvious geographic barriers are missing, the incongruence between the distribution of nuclear and mitochondrial markers reflects random colonization events caused by inundations or marine transgressions resulting in random phylogeographic breaks. Thus, conclusions about the phylogeographic history and even more about the delimitation of species should not be based on single genetic markers.

  10. Evolution of microhabitat association and morphology in a diverse group of cryptobenthic coral reef fishes (Teleostei: Gobiidae: Eviota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornabene, Luke; Ahmadia, Gabby N; Berumen, Michael L; Smith, Dave J; Jompa, Jamaluddin; Pezold, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Gobies (Teleostei: Gobiidae) are an extremely diverse and widely distributed group and are the second most species rich family of vertebrates. Ecological drivers are key to the evolutionary success of the Gobiidae. However, ecological and phylogenetic data are lacking for many diverse genera of gobies. Our study investigated the evolution of microhabitat association across the phylogeny of 18 species of dwarfgobies (genus Eviota), an abundant and diverse group of coral reef fishes. In addition, we also explore the evolution of pectoral fin-ray branching and sensory head pores to determine the relationship between morphological evolution and microhabitat shifts. Our results demonstrate that Eviota species switched multiple times from a facultative hard-coral association to inhabiting rubble or mixed sand/rubble habitat. We found no obvious relationship between microhabitat shifts and changes in pectoral fin-ray branching or reduction in sensory pores, with the latter character being highly homoplasious throughout the genus. The relative flexibility in coral-association in Eviota combined with the ability to move into non-coral habitats suggests a genetic capacity for ecological release in contrast to the strict obligate coral-dwelling relationship commonly observed in closely related coral gobies, thus promoting co-existence through fine scale niche partitioning. The variation in microhabitat association may facilitate opportunistic ecological speciation, and species persistence in the face of environmental change. This increased speciation opportunity, in concert with a high resilience to extinction, may explain the exceptionally high diversity seen in Eviota compared to related genera in the family.

  11. Cytomorphological alterations of the thymus, spleen, head-kidney, and liver in cardinal fish (Apogonidae, Teleostei) as bioindicators of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishelson, Lev

    2006-01-01

    Morphological and cytological alterations at the light microscope (LM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) levels were observed in the thymus, spleen, head-kidney, and liver of cardinal fishes (Apogonidae, Teleostei) from the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea, sampled from a strongly polluted site at the northern end of the gulf, and compared to similar samples from a clean, reference site. At the polluted site, the most prominent change was the formation of numerous deposits of cells rich in phagosomes with lipofucin, melanin granules, and phagocytosed debris, including a high increase in number and dimensions of Hassall's corpuscles and melano-macrophage centers. The number of Hassall's corpuscles was 20 (+/-8.0)/mm(2) and of melano-macrophage centers 18 (+/-4.0)/mm(2) at the polluted site, and 7.0 (+/-4.0)/m(2) vs. 5.0 (+/-2.0)/mm(2) respectively at the reference site. In numerous instances the head kidney's melano-macrophage centers in fishes from the polluted site were encapsulated by reticulocytes, a phenomenon recognized as a marker of neoplasmosis and possible malignancy. In the spleens of fishes from the polluted site, numerous deposits of cell debris, peroxisomes, and enlarged lysosomes were also observed. The livers (hepatopancreas) of fishes from polluted waters demonstrated very strong hyperlipogeny. Many of their hepatocytes were laden with lipid vesicles, fragmented endoplasmic reticulula, and aberrant mitochondria. Although the observed alterations in the glands and liver do not indicate any immediate threat to the life of the fish, they can become crucial with respect to energy turnover and fecundity trajectories. This study strongly suggests the use of cytological alterations in vital organs, such as were observed, as pathological biomarkers to environmental stress.

  12. Evolution of microhabitat association and morphology in a diverse group of cryptobenthic coral reef fishes (Teleostei: Gobiidae: Eviota)

    KAUST Repository

    Tornabene, Luke

    2013-01-01

    Gobies (Teleostei: Gobiidae) are an extremely diverse and widely distributed group and are the second most species rich family of vertebrates. Ecological drivers are key to the evolutionary success of the Gobiidae. However, ecological and phylogenetic data are lacking for many diverse genera of gobies. Our study investigated the evolution of microhabitat association across the phylogeny of 18 species of dwarfgobies (genus Eviota), an abundant and diverse group of coral reef fishes. In addition, we also explore the evolution of pectoral fin-ray branching and sensory head pores to determine the relationship between morphological evolution and microhabitat shifts. Our results demonstrate that Eviota species switched multiple times from a facultative hard-coral association to inhabiting rubble or mixed sand/rubble habitat. We found no obvious relationship between microhabitat shifts and changes in pectoral fin-ray branching or reduction in sensory pores, with the latter character being highly homoplasious throughout the genus. The relative flexibility in coral-association in Eviota combined with the ability to move into non-coral habitats suggests a genetic capacity for ecological release in contrast to the strict obligate coral-dwelling relationship commonly observed in closely related coral gobies, thus promoting co-existence through fine scale niche partitioning. The variation in microhabitat association may facilitate opportunistic ecological speciation, and species persistence in the face of environmental change. This increased speciation opportunity, in concert with a high resilience to extinction, may explain the exceptionally high diversity seen in Eviota compared to related genera in the family. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

  13. Lecithostaphylus tylosuri sp. nov. (Digenea, Zoogonidae) from the digestive tract of the needlefish Tylosurus acus imperialis (Teleostei, Belonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manel, Châari; Hela, Derbel; Lassâd, Neifar

    2013-03-01

    Lecithostaphylus tylosuri sp. nov. (Digenea, Zoogonidae) specimen were collected from the digestive tract of Tylosurus acus imperialis (Teleostei, Belonidae) caught off the eastern coast of Tunisia. L. tylosuri is very similar to its closest relatives, L. retroflexus and L. nitens. It can be easily distinguished from L. retroflexus (Molin, 1859) in having a more extensive vitellarium, with follicles reaching from the posterior margin of the acetabulum and extending beyond the posterior margin of the testes and a coiled seminal vesicle. L. tylosuri differs from L. nitens as illustrated by Linton 1898, in having a longer cirrus pouch (0.7 mm vs 0.36 mm, respectively) overlapping the anterior edge of the ventral sucker and a submarginal genital pore (submedian in L. nitens). It's also different from L. nitens as described by Manter 1947 in the vitelline disposition and in having the greater sucker ratio (1: 1.3-2.1 vs 1: 1.3-1.6, respectively). L. tylosuri differs from L. nitens as reported by Machida and Kuramochi 2000 by the absence of variations in the vitellarium disposition in all specimens. L. tylosuri is more similar to L. nitens from group A (considered synonym of L. ahaaha Yamaguti, 1970 = L. nitens by Bray 1987) by having vitelline follicles extending beyond the testes. L. tylosuri can be distinguished from L. ahaaha by its pedunculate rather than prominent acetabulum and its larger body size (4.10-7.85 mm long and 0.75-1.2 mm large vs 2.1-6 mm long and 0.45-1.1 mm large, respectively). The prevalence of L. tylosuri sp. nov. was negatively correlated with host length (decreasing with host size increasing). Host sex does not seem to affect infection parameters.

  14. Length-weight and length-length relationships of seven loach species (Teleostei: Cypriniformes from five localities in northern Western Ghats, India

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    Ashwini Keskar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Length-weight (LWR and length-length (LLR relationships of seven loach species (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Botia striata, Lepidocephalichthys thermalis, Paracanthocobitis mooreh, Indoreonectes evezardi, Nemacheilus anguilla, Nemachilichthys rueppelli and Schistura denisoni were studied from five localities within the Krishna River system of the Indian Western Ghats: Lonawala (Indrayani River, Paud (Mula River, Warje (Mutha River, Bhor (Nira River and Patan (Koyna River.  With the exception of L. thermalis all species are endemic to peninsular India, and to our knowledge this is the first presentation of LWR and LLR data for them.  New maximum lengths are also reported for I. evezardi, N. anguilla, N. rueppelli and S. denisoni. 

  15. Description de deux nouvelles espèces de Lamellodiscus Johnston & Tiegs, 1922 (Monogenea: Diplectanidae) du groupe morphologique 'ignoratus', parasites de Diplodus sargus et D. vulgaris (Teleostei: Sparidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, F; Euzet, L; Kechemir-Issad, N

    2006-05-01

    The study of the diplectanid gill parasites of Diplodus Rafinesque (Teleostei: Sparidae) from off the Algerian coast revealed the presence of several species of Lamellodiscus Johnston & Tiegs, 1922 on D. sargus (Linnaeus) and D. vulgaris (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire). Some of these species differ from the others by having a copulatory organ "en lyre" and lamellodiscs of the morphological group 'ignoratus' of Oliver (1987). In Lamellodiscus, the subgroup 'ignoratus', proposed by Amine & Euzet (2005), characterised by a simple lateral dorsal bar, includes L. ignoratus Palombi, 1943 and L. fraternus Bychowsky, 1957. Two new species, L. falcus n. sp. and L. neifari n. sp. form part of the 'ignoratus' subgroup. These species are distinguished by the morphology and the size of the sclerotised parts of the haptor and copulatory organ.

  16. Two new species of Hypostomus Lacépède (Teleostei: Loricariidae from the upper rio Paraná basin, Central Brazil

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    Cláudio H. Zawadzki

    Full Text Available Two new species of Hypostomus Lacépède (Teleostei: Loricariidae from the rio Paranaíba and rio Grande basins, both in the upper rio Paraná basin, central Brazil, are described herein. One of them is distinguished from all congeners, except H. albopunctatus, by having the pectoral-fin spine length equal to or smaller than the pelvic-fin spine. From H. albopunctatus, it is distinguished by having round dark spots (vs. pale on body and fins. The second species is distinguished from all congeners, except H. multidens and H. ternetzi, by having more than 115 teeth (vs. less than 109 per ramus on dentary and premaxilla. It is distinguished most readily from H. ternetzi by having teeth with two symmetrical (vs. asymmetrical cusps. It is distinguished from H. multidens by having round dark spots (vs. pale over body and fins.

  17. Anatomia Funcional e Morfometria do Intestino no Teleostei (Pisces de Água Doce Surubim (Pseudoplatystoma coruscans - Agassiz, 1829

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    Seixas Filho José Teixeira de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos do presente trabalho foram estudar a anatomia funcional e a morfometria comparativas nos intestinos médio e no reto, do peixe Teleostei, surubim, Pseudoplatystoma coruscans (Agassiz, 1829 (Siluriformes, Siluroidei, Pimelodidae, de hábito alimentar carnívoro, em duas classes de tamanho, visando fornecer referência à nutrição para o ajuste de diferentes sistemas de alimentação artificial para essa espécie nativa. Por meio destes estudos concluiu-se que o intestino do surubim, sob o ponto de vista morfológico, deve ser denominado, de intestino médio e reto, devido a presença da valva ileorretal e da invaginação valvar intestinal entre esses segmentos. Em relação ao padrão de enrolamento do intestino, apesar do plano geral do intestino médio e do reto ter sido mantido, as alças do intestino médio apresentaram arranjo indefinido, não tendo sido determinado um arranjo-padrão para a espécie. O arranjo intestinal é compatível ao da maioria de peixes carnívoros, ou predominantemente carnívoro, uma vez que seu intestino é quase retilíneo; contudo, as circunvoluções das alças finais do intestino médio talvez possam ser vistas como adaptações a um possível regime onívoro, preferencialmente carnívoro. As pregas intestinais encontram-se mais complexas e desenvolvidas no intestino dos exemplares da segunda classe de tamanho. Procurando estabelecer relações entre o arranjo das pregas das mucosas e a velocidade de transporte do alimento no intestino médio da espécie estudada, sugere-se que o padrão longitudinal, com numerosas anastomoses retardam o avanço do alimento em sentido aboral, o que possibilita maior período digestivo e, conseqüentemente, maior aproveitamento dos nutrientes, pela exposição do material alimentar à mucosa intestinal por período maior, além de contribuir para a preparação do bolo fecal. As pregas da mucosa próxima ao ânus têm direção longitudinal, sugerindo auxílio na

  18. Diversification of substrate specificities in teleostei Fads2: characterization of Δ4 and Δ6Δ5 desaturases of Chirostoma estor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Madrigal, Jorge; Navarro, Juan C; Hontoria, Francisco; Tocher, Douglas R; Martínez-Palacios, Carlos A; Monroig, Óscar

    2014-07-01

    Currently existing data show that the capability for long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis in teleost fish is more diverse than in other vertebrates. Such diversity has been primarily linked to the subfunctionalization that teleostei fatty acyl desaturase (Fads)2 desaturases have undergone during evolution. We previously showed that Chirostoma estor, one of the few representatives of freshwater atherinopsids, had the ability for LC-PUFA biosynthesis from C18 PUFA precursors, in agreement with this species having unusually high contents of DHA. The particular ancestry and pattern of LC-PUFA biosynthesis activity of C. estor make this species an excellent model for study to gain further insight into LC-PUFA biosynthetic abilities among teleosts. The present study aimed to characterize cDNA sequences encoding fatty acyl elongases and desaturases, key genes involved in the LC-PUFA biosynthesis. Results show that C. estor expresses an elongase of very long-chain FA (Elovl)5 elongase and two Fads2 desaturases displaying Δ4 and Δ6/Δ5 specificities, thus allowing us to conclude that these three genes cover all the enzymatic abilities required for LC-PUFA biosynthesis from C18 PUFA. In addition, the specificities of the C. estor Fads2 enabled us to propose potential evolutionary patterns and mechanisms for subfunctionalization of Fads2 among fish lineages.

  19. Diversification of substrate specificities in teleostei Fads2: characterization of Δ4 and Δ6Δ5 desaturases of Chirostoma estor[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Madrigal, Jorge; Navarro, Juan C.; Hontoria, Francisco; Tocher, Douglas R.; Martínez-Palacios, Carlos A.; Monroig, Óscar

    2014-01-01

    Currently existing data show that the capability for long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis in teleost fish is more diverse than in other vertebrates. Such diversity has been primarily linked to the subfunctionalization that teleostei fatty acyl desaturase (Fads)2 desaturases have undergone during evolution. We previously showed that Chirostoma estor, one of the few representatives of freshwater atherinopsids, had the ability for LC-PUFA biosynthesis from C18 PUFA precursors, in agreement with this species having unusually high contents of DHA. The particular ancestry and pattern of LC-PUFA biosynthesis activity of C. estor make this species an excellent model for study to gain further insight into LC-PUFA biosynthetic abilities among teleosts. The present study aimed to characterize cDNA sequences encoding fatty acyl elongases and desaturases, key genes involved in the LC-PUFA biosynthesis. Results show that C. estor expresses an elongase of very long-chain FA (Elovl)5 elongase and two Fads2 desaturases displaying Δ4 and Δ6/Δ5 specificities, thus allowing us to conclude that these three genes cover all the enzymatic abilities required for LC-PUFA biosynthesis from C18 PUFA. In addition, the specificities of the C. estor Fads2 enabled us to propose potential evolutionary patterns and mechanisms for subfunctionalization of Fads2 among fish lineages. PMID:24792929

  20. Parasitic inventory of Balistes capriscus (Teleostei:Balistidae) from the Gulf of Gabès (Southern Tunisia, Central Mediterranean Sea)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hichem Kacem; Lassad Neifar

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the parasitic inventory of Balistes capriscus (Teleostei:Balistidae) (B. capriscus) from the Gulf of Gabès (Southern Tunisia, Central Mediterranean Sea). Methods:A parasitological survey of the grey triggerfish B. capriscus (Gmelin, 1788) from the Gulf of Gabès (Southern Tunisia, Central Mediterranean Sea) was conducted monthly from May 2007 to April 2009. A total of 480 fishes were collected from commercial catches by pelagic trawl net at different fishing ports at Chebba (34°14' N, 11°06' E), Kerkennah (34°45' N, 11°17' E) and Zarzis (33°41' N, 11°48' E). The weight, the size, the sex, the date and the area of capture of each specimen were recorded. B. capriscus were then examined to search for ectoparasites and endoparasites. For each parasite species, parasitological indices were calculated. Results:Five species of parasites were identified, among which a new species of Digenea Hypocreadium caputvadum was discovered and two species of parasites were reported for the first time in the Mediterranean. Conclusions:It is the first inventory of the ecto and endoparasites of grey triggerfish collected from the Gulf of Gabès Mediterranean Sea.

  1. Feeding of holoshesthes Heterodon eigenmann (Teleostei, Cheirodontinae of the cajuru reservoir (Minas Gerais, Brazil, in relation to the vegetal biomass on its depletion zone

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    Márcio Camilo Carvalho Alvim

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Stomach contents of Holoshesthes heterodon Eigenmann, 1915 (Teleostei, Cheirodontinae, collected in the depletion zone of Cajuru reservoir when it was at its maximum water level in two stations with different vegetal densities, were studied in order to investigate the influence of the flooded vegetal biomass on the food quantity and quality ingested by fish. Eighteen individuals from each station were examined. The standard length was l.53±0.05 cm and l.52±0.05 cm, respectively at the lower biomass (8.19 kg diy weight/ha and higher biomass (38.10 kg diy weight/ha sampling stations. The stomach repletion Index (SRI was applied for the quantitative analysis. The alimentary index (IAi was used for the quali-quantitative analysis, with the volume of the items obtained through the points method. SRI did not show values significatively different between the two stations, p>0.05, by applying the Mann-Whitney test. In both situations, Cladocera was the most important item. There were no correlation between the flooded vegetal biomass in the depletion zone and the intake of food by H. heterodon. However, as there were no empty stomachs, possibly even the lower vegetal biomass was enough to provide abundant feeding resources.

  2. Integrative taxonomy identifies a new species of Phyllodistomum (Digenea: Gorgoderidae) from the twospot livebearer, Heterandria bimaculata (Teleostei: Poeciliidae), in Central Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razo-Mendivil, Ulises; Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo; Rubio-Godoy, Miguel

    2013-12-01

    Phyllodistomum inecoli n. sp. is described from the twospot livebearer, Heterandria bimaculata (Teleostei: Poeciliidae), collected in the Río La Antigua basin, Veracruz, Mexico. The new species is described and characterised by using a combination of morphology, scanning electron microscopy, and sequences of nuclear and mitochondrial genes. Diagnostic characters of the new species of Phyllodistomum include a genital pore opening at the level of the caecal bifurcation; oval vitellarium, situated just posterior to the ventral sucker and not extended laterally and anterior extracaecal uterine loops variable in extension (reaching the anterior, median or posterior margin of the ventral sucker). P. inecoli n. sp. most closely resembles P. brevicecum, a species described as a parasite of the central mudminnow, Umbra limi, in other parts of North America; however, the genital pore in P. brevicecum is situated between the caecal bifurcation and the ventral sucker, the ovary is larger, the vitellarium is lobed and extended laterally and the anterior portion of the uterus extends to the posterior margin of the ventral sucker. Comparison of about 1,500–2,200 nucleotides of cox1 and 28S rDNA and ITS1 strongly supports the status of P. inecoli as a new species. Bayesian inference analysis of combined datasets of 28S rDNA and cox1 sequences showed that P. inecoli n. sp. and the other species found in freshwater fishes of Mexico, including the species complex of P. lacustri, are not sister species. Phylogenetic analysis based on 28S rDNA sequences of several gorgoderid taxa revealed the close relationship of P. inecoli n. sp. with several species of Phyllodistomum, Gorgodera and Gorgoderina with cystocercous cercariae developing in sphaeriid bivalves. Dot-plot analysis of ITS1 sequences of P. inecoli n. sp. revealed the presence of eight repetitive elements with different length, which together represent almost half the length of ITS1.

  3. Ultrastructure and development of Nosema podocotyloidis n. sp. (Microsporidia, a hyperparasite of Podocotyloides magnatestis (Trematoda, a parasite of Parapristipoma octolineatum (Teleostei

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    Toguebaye Bhen Sikina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nosema podocotyloidis n. sp. (Microsporidia, Nosematidae is described from Podocotyloides magnatestis (Trematoda: Opecoelidae, a parasite of the fish Parapristipoma octolineatum (Teleostei in the Atlantic Ocean. Electron microscopy reveals that all the stages of the cycle (merogony and sporogony are diplokaryotic and in direct contact with the cytoplasm of host cells. There is no sporophorous vesicle (pansporoblast. The earliest stages observed are meronts, which have a simple plasmic membrane. Their cytoplasm is granular, rich in ribosomes and contains some sacculi of endoplasmic reticulum. They divide by binary fission into diplokaryotic sporonts. The sporonts have a thick electron-dense wall. Their diplokaryon is slightly less electron-dense than the cytoplasm. The cytoplasm of more advanced sporonts has numerous electron-lucent vesicles. Sporonts with two diplokarya divide by binary fission into diplokaryotic sporoblasts. The older sporoblasts are irregular or elongate and the polar filament is in formation. Their cytoplasm is denser, with ribosomes and lamellae of granular endoplasmic reticulum. The sporoblasts evolve into spores. The mature spores are broadly oval and measure 3.6 (3.1–4.0 × 2.58 (1.8–3.3 μm. Their wall is 100–300 nm thick. The polar tube is isofilar with 11–16 coils, 130–155 nm in diameter and arranged in many layers in the centre of the spore. The polaroplast is divided into two regions: an outer electron-dense cup with granular content and lacking lamellae and an internal region, less electron-dense, composed of irregularly arranged sacs. The posterior vacuole, with an amorphous electron-dense content, is present. The new species is compared with other species of Nosema from trematodes.

  4. Catálogo dos Peixes Marinhos do Laboratório de Ictiologia da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Parte I: Chondrichthyes (Rajiformes. Teleostei (Elopiformes a Dactylopteriformes

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    Paulo Roberto Duarte Lopes

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is the first part of the catalogue of marine fishes belonging to the collection of the Laboratory of Ichthyology (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro-RJ to be published. Here are included Chondrichthyes (Rajiformes and part of Osteichthyes, Teleostei (Elopiformes to Dactylopteriformes in a total amount of 30 families, 52 genera and 62 species. The most part of the material have been collected at the littoral of the State of Rio de Janeiro. For each species considered is given the vulgar name (when known in Southeastern Brazil, the known distribution (in Western Atlantic Ocean and some data as collecting locality, total number of collected specimens and the register number in the collection. Scorpaena isthmensis Meek & Hildebrand, 1928 (Scorpaenidae is for the first time mentioned for the Southern littoral of Brazil.

  5. Gyrodactylus salinae n. sp. (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea infecting the south European toothcarp Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes (Teleostei, Cyprinodontidae from a hypersaline environment in Italy

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    Huyse Tine

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Historically, non-native species of Gambusia (Poeciliidae have been used to control larval stages of the Asian tiger mosquito, Stegomyia albopicta Reinert, Harbach et Kitching, 2004 throughout Italy. The potential utility of indigenous populations of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae as an appropriate alternative biological control is currently being explored. A sub-sample of ten fish collected from Cervia Saline, Italy (salinity 65 ppt; 30°C to assess their reproductive capability in captivity, harboured a moderate infection of Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832 (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea. A subsequent morphological and molecular study identified this as being a new species. Results Gyrodactylus salinae n. sp. is described from the skin, fins and gills of A. fasciatus. Light and scanning electron microscopical (SEM examination of the opisthaptoral armature and their comparison with all other recorded species suggested morphological similarities to Gyrodactylus rugiensoides Huyse et Volckaert, 2002 from Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas. Features of the ventral bar, however, permit its discrimination from G. rugiensoides. Sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 and the 5.8S rRNA gene and a comparison with all species listed in GenBank confirmed they are unique and represent a new species (most similar to Gyrodactylus anguillae Ergens, 1960, 8.3% pair-wise distance based on 5.8S+ITS2. This represents the first species of Gyrodactylus to be described from Aphanius and, to date, has the longest ITS1 (774 bp sequenced from any Gyrodactylus. Additional sampling of Cervia Saline throughout the year, found G. salinae n. sp. to persist in conditions ranging from 35 ppt and 5°C in December to 65 ppt and 30°C in July, while in captivity a low level of infection was present, even in freshwater conditions (0 ppt. Conclusions The ability of G. salinae n. sp. to tolerate a wide

  6. The supratemporal system and the pattern of ramification of cephalic sensory canals in Denticeps clupeoides (Denticipitoidei, Teleostei: additional evidence for monophyly of Clupeiformes and Clupeoidei

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    Fabio Di Dario

    2006-01-01

    bones in Denticeps and other lower teleosts. In general, data from the cephalic latero-sensory system corroborate Denticeps as the sister group to all other Recent clupeomorphs, and provide additional support for the monophyly of Clupeoidei and Clupeiformes.As porções cefálicas do sistema de canais látero-sensoriais em Denticeps clupeoides são descritas e analisadas. A espécie, uma pequena sardinha com distribuição restrita a poucos riachos relictuais na África Ocidental, é o mais primitivo Clupeomorpha vivente, e único representante Recente da subordem Denticipitoidei. Como grupo irmão das mais de 360 espécies incluídas em Clupeoidei, Denticeps é um táxon-chave no entendimento das relações filogenéticas em Clupeomorpha e outros Teleostei inferiores. Observações com base em espécimes recentemente coletados de Denticeps clupeoides revelaram detalhes inéditos e comparativamente importantes dos canais látero-sensoriais cefálicos, relevantes para o entendimento de relações em diferentes níveis da filogenia de Clupeomorpha. Os canais infraorbital, supraorbital, preopercular, extrascapular e pós-temporal de Denticeps possuem túbulos simples nos tecidos moles, como na situação considerada plesiomórfica para teleósteos inferiores. Em contraste, a presença de uma rede complexa formada por ramificações múltiplas dos canais cefálicos é considerada uma sinapomorfia de Clupeoidei. Denticeps e Clupeoidei compartilham um ramo sensorial exclusivo que se origina na junção entre o osso extrascapular e o recessus lateralis, aqui proposto como uma sinapomorfia adicional de Clupeiformes. O sistema supratemporal é registrado pela primeira vez em Denticeps, e o caráter é consequentemente proposto como sinapomorfia de Clupeiformes, e não de Clupeoidei como se acreditava previamente. A hipótese de que o sistema supratemporal seria homólogo à caverna supraorbital é refutada, e a última é considerada autapomórfica para Denticeps. Uma outra

  7. COMPARAÇÃO ENTRE OS MÉTODOS DE EXTRAÇÃO DE METACERCÁRIAS DE ASCOCOTYLE SP (TREMATODA: DIGENEA DOS TECIDOS DE MUGIL LIZA VALENCIENNES, 1836 (TELEOSTEI: MUGILIDAE

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    Renato Ribeiro Nogueira Ferraz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand and consumption of fish and their derivatives has increased considerably in recent years. However, fish are ideal hosts of numerous parasites, highlighting the need to develop new research methodologies for its detection. The aim of present study was to compare the efficacy of Ascocotyle metacercariae (Trematoda: Digenea extraction from visceral tissues of Mugil liza Valenciennes, 1836 (Teleostei: Mugilidae by two methods: homogenization by blender or mixer. Twentysix samples of M. liza were collected, being 16 liver samples and 10 samples of muscle tissue. Approximately 5g of each sample were processed by blender and mixer techniques homogenization for metacercariae extraction. In liver samples, up to 46 metacercariae were found in samples homogenized in blender. The lowest amount found was 2 metacercariae for blender and mixer techniques. In samples of muscle tissue, 4 metacercariae were observed in the mixer extraction. The lowest amount was found to be 2 parasites to blender and mixer. The mean metacercariae found and extracted from muscle tissue were 0.2 (+0.357 and 1.2 (+0.963 for blender and mixer, respectively. The averages of metacercariae found and extracted from fish liver, in blender and mixer, were 24 (+15.145 and 18 (+8.246, respectively. The homogenization techniques for blender and mixer were effective for the extraction of metacercariae of mullet fish tissues, suggesting that they may be directly applicable in the field of study, especially due to the ease of testing.

  8. A specimen of Paralycoptera Chang & Chou 1977 (Teleostei: Osteoglossoidei) from Hong Kong (China) with a potential Late Jurassic age that extends the temporal and geographical range of the genus.

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    Tse, Tze-Kei; Pittman, Michael; Chang, Mee-Mann

    2015-01-01

    We describe a Mesozoic fish Paralycoptera sp. (Teleostei: Osteoglossoidei), on the basis of a postcranial skeleton collected from the volcaniclastic mudstones of the Lai Chi Chong Formation of Hong Kong, China. The new finding-representing the city's first Mesozoic fish-extends the geographical distribution of Paralycoptera from eastern mainland China into Hong Kong, demonstrating a wider distribution than previously appreciated for this genus. A radiometric age for the Lai Chi Chong Formation of 146.6 ± 0.2 Ma implies a temporal range expansion for Paralycoptera of approximately 40 million years back from the Early Cretaceous (∼110 Ma). However, spores found in the Formation suggest an Early Cretaceous age that is consistent with the existing age assignment to Paralycoptera. We argue that the proposed temporal range extension is genuine because it is based on recent high precision radiometric age data, but given the discrepancies with the biostratigraphic ages further investigation is needed to confirm this. This study provides an important step towards revealing Hong Kong's Mesozoic vertebrate fauna and understanding its relationship to well-studied mainland Chinese ones.

  9. Social status, breeding state, and GnRH soma size in convict cichlids (Cryptoheros nigrofasciatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, San-San Amy; Espinoza, Walter A S; Iwaniuk, Andrew N; Pakan, Janelle M P; Gutiérrez-Ibáñez, Cristian; Wylie, Douglas R; Hurd, Peter L

    2013-01-15

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) expressing neurons in the preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus plays a key role in regulating reproductive function through the control of gonadotropin release. Several studies have illustrated the importance of the social environment in modulating the size of GnRH expressing neurons. In the African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni, the size of the soma of GnRH expressing neurons in the POA varies with social status in males, and with breeding state in females. Territorial males have larger GnRH+ cells than non-territorial males, while brooder females have smaller GnRH+ cells than control females. The lek-like breeding system of A. burtoni is, however, only one type of social system within the diverse assemblage of cichlids. To gain a better understanding of GnRH neuronal plasticity in response to the changes in the social environment, we tested whether similar effects occur in the monogamous New World cichlid, the convict cichlid (Cryptoheros nigrofasciatus), a model species for the study of social behaviour. Our results indicate that, indeed GnRH expressing neuron soma size, and not cell number, varies with both male territorial status, and manipulations of female breeding state in this monogamous, biparental, New World cichlid.

  10. Determinação do sistema endócrino difuso nos intestinos de três Teleostei (Pisces de água doce com hábitos alimentares diferentes

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    Seixas Filho José Teixeira de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi o de verificar a presença de células endócrinas nos intestinos médio e posterior, ou reto, e nos cecos pilóricos de três espécies tropicais de peixes Teleostei de água doce com hábitos alimentares diferentes: piracanjuba, (Brycon orbignyanus e piau (Leporinus friderici, onívoro; e surubim (Pseudoplatystoma coruscans, carnívoro. Para tanto, foram utilizados sete exemplares da piracanjuba, com médias de peso e comprimento-padrão de 410,16 ± 66,33 g e 27,42 ± 1,17 cm, respectivamente, 13 exemplares de piau com médias de 77,71 ± 24,31 g e 14,84 ± 1,56 cm de peso e comprimento-padrão, respectivamente; e cinco exemplares do surubim com médias de peso e comprimento-padrão de 309,91 ± 94,23 g e 32,70 ± 1,79 cm, respectivamente. Pode-se constatar a presença de células endócrinas do "tipo aberto" nos segmentos referentes aos intestinos médio e posterior das espécies onívoras e do "tipo fechado" no intestino médio e no reto da espécie carnívora. As células argirófilas foram observadas entre as células absortivas do epitélio intestinal. Os resultados permitem concluir que a presença de células endócrinas nas espécies estudadas pode indicar que estas atuam no mecanismo de controle da absorção dos nutrientes do alimento.

  11. Ligophorus spp. (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) parasitizing mullets (Teleostei: Mugiliformes: Mugilidae) occurring in the fresh and brackish waters of the Shatt Al-Arab River and Estuary in southern Iraq, with the description of Ligophorus sagmarius sp. n. from the greenback mullet Chelon subviridis (Valenciennes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsky, Delane C; Khamees, Najim R; Ali, Atheer H

    2013-12-01

    The gills of three of five species of mullets (Teleostei: Mugiliformes: Mugilidae) collected from the brackish and fresh waters of southern Iraq were infected with species of Ligophorus (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) as follows: greenback mullet Chelon subviridis (Valenciennes) infected with Ligophorus lebedevi Dmitrieva, Gerasev, Gibson, Pronkina and Galli, 2012, Ligophorus bantingensis Soo and Lim, 2012, Ligophorus sagmarius n. sp., and Ligophorus fluviatilis (Bychowsky, 1949) Dmitrieva, Gerasev, Gibson, Pronkina, and Galli, 2012; Klunzinger’s mullet Liza klunzingeri (Day) with L. bantingensis, L. fluviatilis, and an apparently undescribed species of Ligophorus; and abu mullet Liza abu (Heckel) with L. bantingensis and L. fluviatilis. The keeled mullet Liza carinata (Valenciennes) and Speigler’s mullet Valamugil speigleri (Bleeker) were uninfected. L. sagmarius n. sp. is described, and L. lebedevi and L. bantingensis are redescribed. Available specimens of L. fluviatilis and the undescribed species of Ligophorus from Klunzinger’s mullet were insufficient for description.

  12. Cobalt Chloride Treatment Used to Ablate the Lateral Line System Also Impairs the Olfactory System in Three Freshwater Fishes.

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    Julie M Butler

    Full Text Available Fishes use multimodal signals during both inter- and intra-sexual displays to convey information about their sex, reproductive state, and social status. These complex behavioral displays can include visual, auditory, olfactory, tactile, and hydrodynamic signals, and the relative role of each sensory channel in these complex multi-sensory interactions is a common focus of neuroethology. The mechanosensory lateral line system of fishes detects near-body water movements and is implicated in a variety of behaviors including schooling, rheotaxis, social communication, and prey detection. Cobalt chloride is commonly used to chemically ablate lateral line neuromasts, thereby eliminating water-movement cues to test for mechanosensory-mediated behavioral functions. However, cobalt acts as a nonspecific calcium channel antagonist and could potentially disrupt function of all superficially located sensory receptor cells, including those for chemosensing. Here, we examined whether CoCl2 treatment used to ablate the lateral line system also impairs olfaction in three freshwater fishes, the African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni, goldfish Carassius auratus, and the Mexican blind cavefish Astyanax mexicanus. To examine the impact of CoCl2 on the activity of peripheral receptors, we quantified DASPEI fluorescence intensity of the olfactory epithelium from fish exposed to control and CoCl2 solutions. In addition, we examined brain activation in olfactory processing regions of A. burtoni immersed in either control or cobalt solutions. All three species exposed to CoCl2 had decreased DASPEI staining of the olfactory epithelium, and in A. burtoni, cobalt treatment caused reduced neural activation in olfactory processing regions of the brain. To our knowledge this is the first empirical evidence demonstrating that the same CoCl2 treatment used to ablate the lateral line system also impairs olfactory function. These data have important implications for the use of

  13. Phylogeny of the snailfishes (Teleostei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Steen Wilhelm; Møller, P. R.; Gravlund, P.

    2007-01-01

    Liparidae (snailfishes) is one of the most diverse and abundant fish families in polar and deep-sea habitats. However, the evolution of this family is poorly known because of the rarity of many species and difficulties in scoring morphological characters. We perform phylogenetic analyses of Lipar...

  14. [Population genetic structure of the char species of the Northern Kuril Islands and the rank of the Dolly Varden Char in the system of the genus Salvelinus (Salmonidae: Teleostei)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubina, E A; Ponomareva, E V; Gritsenko, O F

    2006-01-01

    Analysis of the taxonomic position of most species and forms of the char (genus Salvelinus, Salmonidae: Teleostei) was made based on RAPD-PCR. The material was represented by samples from 29 populations from the Kuril Islands, coast of the Sea of Okhotsk, Kamchatka, Chukotka, Taymyr, Transbaikalia, the Kola Peninsula, Svalbard, Finland, and North America. It was shown that the genus Salvelinus splits into three well-justified clusters: (1) all the forms assigned to the Salvelinus alpinus--S. malma complex; (2) two samples of the White-Spotted Char from the Southern Kuril Islands and from Kamchatka; (3) two North American species, S. fontinalis and S. namaycush (samples of the North American species S. confluentis were absent from the collection). Analysis of the absolute values of genetic disctances of the S. alpinus--S. malma forms relative to S. leucomaenis, S. fontinalis, and S. namaycush revealed distances approaching the species rank between the following isolates: Frolikh Char, Mountain Char, Black Lake Char, Goggle-Eyed Char, and Neyva Char. Samples of Dolly Varden currently considered as "S. malma", do not constitute a separate cluster, falling within the group of the Arctic char S. alpinus. This conclusion is supported by the analysis of the results of three series of experiments by R. Phillips on ITS1 ribosome genes (Pleute et al., 1992; Phillips et al., 1995; Phillips et al., 1999). This indicates the infraspecific rank of malma within S. alpinus. Isolated populations of "Salvethymus svetovidovi" from the lake Elgygytgyn (Chukotka Peninsula) and of the char from the lake Chyornoye (Onekotan Island), recently described as S. gritzenkoi (Vasil'eva, Stygar, 2000), fell withing the S. alpinus--S. malma complex, the Onekotan char grouped together with another isolate from the same island. Comparison of genetic distances between the samples showed that the differences between the two isolated of Onekotan and migratory forms of the Kuril Islands are

  15. 8Preliminary Study on Morphologies of Head Spines and Scale Circulis of Collichthys lucidus (Teleostei: Sciaenidae) in China%中国海域棘头梅童鱼头棘和鳞片轮纹形态的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江艳娥; 林昭进; 邱永松; 方展强

    2012-01-01

    The exterior morphologies of 36 heads of Collichthys lucidus (Teleostei:Sciaenidae),which were collected from Shanghai and Guangzhou of China,were studied.To find out the relationship of head spines and scale circulis with other characters,seventeen morphometric measurements and eight numeric characters were analyzed by linear regression.The results showed that there was a linear relationship between head spines and other two characters,predorsal length and interorbital width.There was a linear relationship between scale circulis and other two characters,lower gill rakes and interorbital width.%对采自上海和广州的36尾棘头梅童鱼的外部形态学进行了分析,探讨了其头部头棘和鳞片鳞嵴这两个外部形态特征与该种类其他特征之间的关系.采用线形回归法分析了17个可量性状和8个可数性状.结果表明:头部头棘的特征与背鳍前长、眼间距两个特征之间存在更紧密的联系,而鳞片鳞嵴与下鳃耙数量、眼间距两个特征之间存在更紧密的联系.

  16. Two types of dominant male cichlid fish: behavioral and hormonal characteristics

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    Rosa M. Alcazar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Male African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, have been classified as dominant or subordinate, each with unique behavioral and endocrine profiles. Here we characterize two distinct subclasses of dominant males based on types of aggressive behavior: (1 males that display escalating levels of aggression and court females while they establish a territory, and (2 males that display a stable level of aggression and delay courting females until they have established a territory. To profile differences in their approach to a challenge, we used an intruder assay. In every case, there was a male-male confrontation between the resident dominant male and the intruder, with the intruder quickly taking a subordinate role. However, we found that dominant males with escalating aggression spent measurably more time attacking subordinates than did dominant males with stable aggression that instead increased their attention toward the females in their tank. There was no difference in the behavior of intruders exposed to either type of dominant male, suggesting that escalating aggression is an intrinsic characteristic of some dominant males and is not elicited by the behavior of their challengers. Male behavior during the first 15 min of establishing a territory predicts their aggressive class. These two types of dominant males also showed distinctive physiological characteristics. After the intruder assay, males with escalating aggression had elevated levels of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT, testosterone, estradiol, and cortisol, while those with stable aggression did not. These observations show that the same stimulus can elicit different behavioral and endocrine responses among A. burtoni dominant males that characterize them as either escalating or stable aggressive types. Our ability to identify which individuals within a population have escalating levels of aggressive responses versus those which have stable levels of aggressive responses when exposed to

  17. Mitochondrial genome of Silurus asotus (Teleostei: Siluriformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qing; Wang, Zhijian; Peng, Zuogang

    2011-10-01

    The complete mitogenome sequence of the Amur catfish Silurus asotus was determined using long PCRs. The genome was 16,528 bp in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 1 control region; the gene composition and order of which was similar to most other vertebrates. The overall base composition of the heavy strand is 30.5% A, 25.8% T, 28.0% C, and 15.8% G, with an AT content of 56.3%. The mtDNA sequence of S. asotus shared 93.6% and 90.6% sequence identity with that of Silurus meridionalis and Silurus glanis. This mitogenome sequence data would play an important role in silurid catfish phylogenetics and siluriform catfish systematics in general.

  18. Biologia do jundiá Rhamdia quelen (Teleostei, Pimelodidae Biology of Rhamdia quelen (Teleostei, Pemelodidae

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    Levy de Carvalho Gomes

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available O jundiá, Rhamdia quelen, é encontrado desde o centro da Argentina até o sul do México, e seu cultivo está aumentando no sul do Brasil. Portanto, o objetivo desta revisão é apresentar os dados existentes até o momento sobre a biologia dessa espécie. R. quelen pode atingir 50cm de comprimento e 3kg de peso, possui hábito noturno e habita locais calmos e profundos dos rios. Os alevinos suportam água do mar a 10%o, até 9,0g/l de sal comum e pH na faixa de 4,0 a 8,5, com melhor crescimento das larvas na faixa de pH de 8,0 a 8,5. É uma espécie euritérmica. Esse peixe é omnívoro, com tendência piscívora. A maturidade sexual é atingida no primeiro ano de vida. É uma espécie ovulípara e, na natureza, os cardumes desovam em locais com água limpa, calma e de fundo pedregoso. Não apresenta cuidado parental. Possui dois picos reprodutivos por ano (um no verão e outro na primavera e desova múltipla. A indução da desova apresentou bons resultados com gonadotrofina coriônica humana (HCG ou extrato hipofisário. O desenvolvimento embrionário de R. quelen é rápido e se dá entre 3 a 5 dias. O melhor alimento artificial para larvas de R. quelen é baseado em lecitina de soja, fígado bovino e levedura. Várias bactérias patogênicas e trematódeos digenéticos já foram identificados em R. quelen. Para um melhor aproveitamento dessa espécie na piscicultura, são necessários mais estudos relacionados ao efeito de parâmetros físicoquímicos da água, alimentação artificial e crescimento em cativeiro.The jundiá, Rhamdia quelen, occurs from Southern Mexico to Central Argentina, and the husbandry of this species is spreading in Southern Brazil. Consequently, the aim of this review is to present the available data of the biology of this species. R. quelen can reach 50cm of length and 3kg of weight, presents a nocturnal habit and lives in placid and deep waters of the rivers. Fingerlings support 10‰ seawater, up to 9g/l table salt and 4.0 - 8.5 pH range, with best growth at 8.0 - 8.5 pH range. It is an eurytermal species. This fish is omnivorous, but prefers fish. The sexual maturity is reached in the first year of life, and it is ovuliparous and in the natural environment the schools spawn in clean and calm waters with rocky bottom. There is no parental care. This species shows two reproductive peaks/year (spring and summer and multiple spawning. The induced spawning had good results with human chorionic gonadotrofin (HCG or pituitary extract. The embriological development of R. quelen is fast, and the larval development occurs in three to five days. The best feeding ration to the larvae of R. quelen is based on soybean lecithin, cattle liver and yeast. Several pathogenic bacteria and digenetic trematoda were identified in R. quelen. To improve the use of this species in fish culture, additional studies about physico-chemical parameters of the water, feeding rations and growth in captivity are essential.

  19. Rapid behavioral and genomic responses to social opportunity.

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    Sabrina S Burmeister

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available From primates to bees, social status regulates reproduction. In the cichlid fish Astatotilapia (Haplochromis burtoni, subordinate males have reduced fertility and must become dominant to reproduce. This increase in sexual capacity is orchestrated by neurons in the preoptic area, which enlarge in response to dominance and increase expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GnRH1, a peptide critical for reproduction. Using a novel behavioral paradigm, we show for the first time that subordinate males can become dominant within minutes of an opportunity to do so, displaying dramatic changes in body coloration and behavior. We also found that social opportunity induced expression of the immediate-early gene egr-1 in the anterior preoptic area, peaking in regions with high densities of GnRH1 neurons, and not in brain regions that express the related peptides GnRH2 and GnRH3. This genomic response did not occur in stable subordinate or stable dominant males even though stable dominants, like ascending males, displayed dominance behaviors. Moreover, egr-1 in the optic tectum and the cerebellum was similarly induced in all experimental groups, showing that egr-1 induction in the anterior preoptic area of ascending males was specific to this brain region. Because egr-1 codes for a transcription factor important in neural plasticity, induction of egr-1 in the anterior preoptic area by social opportunity could be an early trigger in the molecular cascade that culminates in enhanced fertility and other long-term physiological changes associated with dominance.

  20. Social regulation of male reproductive plasticity in an African cichlid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruska, Karen P; Fernald, Russell D

    2013-12-01

    Social interactions with the outcome of a position in a dominance hierarchy can have profound effects on reproductive behavior and physiology, requiring animals to integrate environmental information with their internal physiological state; but how is salient information from the animal's dynamic social environment transformed into adaptive behavioral, physiological, and molecular-level changes? The African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, is ideally suited to understand socially controlled reproductive plasticity because activity of the male reproductive (brain-pituitary-gonad) axis is tightly linked to social status. Males form hierarchies in which a small percentage of brightly colored dominant individuals have an active reproductive axis, defend territories, and spawn with females, while the remaining males are subordinate, drably colored, do not hold a territory, and have a suppressed reproductive system with minimal opportunities for spawning. These social phenotypes are plastic and quickly reversible, meaning that individual males may switch between dominant and subordinate status multiple times within a lifetime. Here, we review the rapid and remarkable plasticity that occurs along the entire reproductive axis when males rise in social rank, a transition that has important implications for the operational sex ratio of the population. When males rise in rank, transformations occur in the brain, pituitary, circulation, and testes over short time-scales (minutes to days). Changes are evident in overt behavior, as well as modifications at the physiological, cellular, and molecular levels that regulate reproductive capacity. Widespread changes triggered by a switch in rank highlight the significance of external social information in shaping internal physiology and reproductive competence.

  1. Mahseers genera Tor and Neolissochilus (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from southern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoàng, Huy Đức; Phạm, Hùng Mạnh; Durand, Jean-Dominique; Trần, Ngân Trọng; Phan, Phúc Đình

    2015-08-25

    Two new species and two new basin records of mahseers in the genera Tor and Neolissochilus are described from the upper Krong No and middle Đồng Nai drainages of the Langbiang Plateau in southern Vietnam. These new species and new records are known from streams and rivers in montane mixed pine and evergreen forests between 140 and 1112 m. Their populations are isolated in the Sre Pok River of the Mekong basin, the middle of the Đồng Nai basin, and the An Lão River. Both new species are differentiated from their congeners by a combination of the following characters: 23-24 lateral scales, 9-10 predorsal scales, 2/7 or 1/8 pelvic-fin rays, mouth position, median lobe of lower lip, rostral hood, colour in life and by divergent mitochondrial DNA. Tor mekongensis sp. nov. is differentiated from Tor dongnaiensis sp. nov. by the number of transverse scale rows (3/1/2 vs. 4/1/2), number of pelvic-fin rays (2/7 vs. 1/8), a blunt rostral hood vs. pointed, caudal-fin lobes that are equal vs. unequal, and by mitochondrial DNA (0.7% sequence divergence). Molecular evidence identifies both species as members of the genus Tor and distinct from all congeners sampled (uncorrected sequence divergences >1.9% for all Tor species for which homologous COI sequences are available). Tor sinensis is recorded in the Krong No and the Sre Pok rivers, further south of its known distribution. Polymorphism is described in Neolissochilus stracheyi with a Tor-like morph and a Neolissochilus-like morph.

  2. Karyotype description of five species of Trichomycterus (Teleostei: Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae

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    Sato Luciana Ramos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichomycteridae is a family of small catfish which are widely distributed throughout Southern Central America and South America. The present study showed that the cis-Andean species Trichomycterus florensis, Trichomycterus sp. aff. Trichomycterus itatiyae, Trichomycterus reinhardti, Trichomycterus davisi and Trichomycterus auroguttatus had 2n = 54 chromosomes (42 metacentric, 10 submetacentric and 2 subtelocentric, with T. reinhardti, T. auroguttatus and T. sp. aff. T. itatiyae exhibiting only one chromosome pair with silver-stained nucleolus organizer regions (NORs. The cytogenetic data suggest the existence of at least two groups of species in the cis-Andean representatives of the genus Trichomycterus. In the first group the first metacentric pair is considerably larger than the second metacentric pair and the NORs occur in the pericentromeric position of the short arm of a large submetacentric pair while in the second group the first and second metacentric pairs are about the same size and larger than the other metacentric pairs and the NORs are located in the pericentromeric position of the long arm of a large metacentric pair. The relative conservatism of the karyotype of the cis-Andean Trichomycterus species contrasts with the wide diversification observed in the trans-Andean species, reinforcing the hypothesis that the genus is not monophyletic.

  3. Interspecific chromosomal divergences in the genus Characidium (Teleostei: Characiformes: Crenuchidae

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    José Carlos Pansonato Alves

    Full Text Available Karyotypes of seven fish species of the genus Characidium, three of them studied for the first time, were characterized using conventional cytogenetic techniques (Giemsa staining, Ag-NOR, and C-banding. All species presented a diploid number of 2n=50, with only metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes, as observed in all Characidium species studied. In two species cells with one to three B chromosomes were observed. All species analyzed have a single NOR-bearing chromosome pair with morphological differences among them. Characidium cf. zebra shows heterochromatic blocks restricted to the pericentromeric regions of all chromosomes denoting the absence of a sex chromosome system. On the other hand, the species Characidium lanei, C. pterostictum, C. lauroi, C. oiticicai, C. schubarti, and Characidium sp., besides presenting pericentromeric heterochromatic blocks, exhibited large interstitial and/or terminal heterochromatic blocks, and a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system. The constitutive heterochromatin seems to play a relevant role in the chromosome differentiation process of the studied species, mainly in relation to the sex chromosomes. The geographical isolation of the rivers in which the species were sampled, associated with their way of life restricted to headwaters environments, may have favored the process of fixation of different karyotypes found in each of the analyzed species.

  4. Eviota piperata, a new gobiid species from Palau (Teleostei: Gobiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, David W; Winterbottom, Richard

    2014-01-22

    A new species of dwarfgoby, Eviota piperata is described from Palau. It belongs to the cephalic sensory-pore system Group II (lacking only the IT pore); has a dorsal/anal-fin formula of 8/8; has some pectoral-fin rays branched; no dark spot over the ural centrum; the male genital papilla is not fimbriate; and the cheek and body are heavily peppered with chromatophores.

  5. Food preference of the giant mudskipper Periophthalmodon schlosseri (Teleostei : Gobiidae

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    Zulkifli S.Z.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The giant mudskipper (Periophthalmodon schlosseri is one of the commonly found mudskipper species living and it makes a significant biomass value in the mangrove ecosystem. Samples of this mudskipper species were collected and analysed for stomach content and stable isotope ratios (δ13C and δ15N to determine their food preference. The stomach content analysis showed four groups of food items: fiddler crabs (Uca sp., medaka fish (Oryzias sp., juveniles of indeterminate fish species and indeterminate remains of prey items. P. schlosseri females prefer to prey on Oryzias sp. (57.8%, Uca sp. (26.7% and juveniles of indeterminate fish species (6.7%, while the males prefer to prey on Uca sp. (84.6% and Oryzias sp. (7.7%. The indeterminate remaining prey items were 8.9% and 7.7% for respective sexes. The stable isotope analysis showed Uca sp. and Oryzias sp. being the main food items for P. schlosseri. The values of δ13C and δ15N ratios also showed differences in food preference among sexes, where females of all life stages prefer to prey more on Oryzias sp. and little Uca sp. In contrast, the male P. schlosseri prefer to prey only on Uca sp. throughout their life, with the exception of juvenile male P. schlosseri, which suggested they also consume a small amount of Oryzias sp. Behavioural differences among the sexes and life stages were suggested to cause differences in food selection. The size of the food items also influences food preference.

  6. Molecular phylogenetics of the Neotropical fish family Prochilodontidae (Teleostei: Characiformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Bruno F; Sidlauskas, Brian L; Hoekzema, Kendra; Frable, Benjamin W; Vari, Richard P; Oliveira, Claudio

    2016-09-01

    Migratory detritivores of the characiform family Prochilodontidae occur throughout the freshwaters of much of South America. Prochilodontids often form massive populations and many species achieve substantial body sizes; a combination that makes them one of the most commercially important fish groups on the continent. Their economic significance notwithstanding, prochilodontids have never been the subject of a comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis. Using three mitochondrial and three nuclear loci spanning all prochilodontid species, we generated a novel phylogenetic hypothesis for the family. Our results strongly support monophyly of the family and the three included genera. A novel, highly supported placement of Ichthyoelephas sister to the clade containing Prochilodus and Semaprochilodus diverges from a previous morphological hypothesis. Most previously hypothesized interspecific relationships are corroborated and some longstanding polytomies within Prochilodus and Semaprochilodus are resolved. The morphologically similar P. brevis, P. lacustris, P. nigricans and P. rubrotaeniatus are embedded within what is herein designated as the P. nigricans group. Species limits and distributions of these species are problematic and the group clearly merits taxonomic revision.

  7. Taxonomic review and phylogenetic analysis of Enchodontoidei (Teleostei: Aulopiformes

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    Hilda M. A Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Enchodontoidei are extinct marine teleost fishes with a long temporal range and a wide geographic distribution. As there has been no comprehensive phylogenetic study of this taxon, we performed a parsimony analysis using a data matrix with 87 characters, 31 terminal taxa for ingroup, and three taxa for outgroup. The analysis produced 93 equally parsimonious trees (L = 437 steps; CI = 0. 24; RI = 0. 49. The topology of the majority rule consensus tree was: (Sardinioides + Hemisaurida + (Nardorex + (Atolvorator + (Protostomias + Yabrudichthys + (Apateopholis + (Serrilepis + (Halec + Phylactocephalus + (Cimolichthys + (Prionolepis + ( (Eurypholis + Saurorhamphus + (Enchodus + (Paleolycus + Parenchodus + ( (Ichthyotringa + Apateodus + (Rharbichthys + (Trachinocephalus + ( (Apuliadercetis + Brazilodercetis + (Benthesikyme + (Cyranichthys + Robertichthys + (Dercetis + Ophidercetis + (Caudadercetis + (Pelargorhynchus + (Nardodercetis + (Rhynchodercetis + (Dercetoides + Hastichthys . The group Enchodontoidei is not monophyletic. Dercetidae form a clade supported by the presence of very reduced neural spines and possess a new composition. Enchodontidae are monophyletic by the presence of middorsal scutes, and Rharbichthys was excluded. Halecidae possess a new composition, with the exclusion of Hemisaurida. This taxon and Nardorex are Aulopiformes incertae sedis.Os Enchodontoidei são peixes teleósteos marinhos extintos, com uma longa amplitude temporal e uma ampla distribuição geográfica. Tendo em vista que não há nenhuma proposta ampla para a filogenia deste táxon, foi realizada uma aná lise de parcimônia com base numa matriz de dados de 87 caracteres, 31 táxons terminais no grupo interno, e três táxons no grupo externo. Como resultado da análise, foram obtidas 93 árvores igualmente parcimoniosas (L = 437 passos; CI = 0,24; RI = 0,49. O consenso de maioria é representado pela seguinte topologia: (Sardinioides + Hemisaurida + (Nardorex + (Atolvorator + (Protostomias + Yabrudichthys + (Apateopholis + (Serrilepis + (Halec + Phylactocephalus + (Cimolichthys + (Prionolepis + ( (Eurypholis + Saurorhamphus + (Enchodus + (Paleolycus + Parenchodus + ( (Ichthyotringa + Apateodus + (Rharbichthys + (Trachinocephalus + ( (Apuliadercetis + Brazilodercetis + (Benthesikyme + (Cyranichthys + Robertichthys + (Dercetis + Ophidercetis + (Caudadercetis + (Pelargorhynchus + (Nardodercetis + (Rhynchodercetis + (Dercetoides + Hastichthys . O grupo Enchodontoidei não é monofilético. Os Dercetidae formam um clado suportado pela presença de espinhos neurais muito reduzidos e possuem uma nova composição. Os Enchodontidae são um grupo monofilético, devido à presença de escudos no dorso, e Rharbichthys foi excluído do clado. Os Halecidae possuem uma nova composição, com a exclusão de Hemisaurida. Este táxon e Nardorex são Aulopiformes incertae sedis.

  8. Evolutionary history of anglerfishes (Teleostei: Lophiiformes: a mitogenomic perspective

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    Shimazaki Mitsuomi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The teleost order Lophiiformes, commonly known as the anglerfishes, contains a diverse array of marine fishes, ranging from benthic shallow-water dwellers to highly modified deep-sea midwater species. They comprise 321 living species placed in 68 genera, 18 families and 5 suborders, but approximately half of the species diversity is occupied by deep-sea ceratioids distributed among 11 families. The evolutionary origins of such remarkable habitat and species diversity, however, remain elusive because of the lack of fresh material for a majority of the deep-sea ceratioids and incompleteness of the fossil record across all of the Lophiiformes. To obtain a comprehensive picture of the phylogeny and evolutionary history of the anglerfishes, we assembled whole mitochondrial genome (mitogenome sequences from 39 lophiiforms (33 newly determined during this study representing all five suborders and 17 of the 18 families. Sequences of 77 higher teleosts including the 39 lophiiform sequences were unambiguously aligned and subjected to phylogenetic analysis and divergence time estimation. Results Partitioned maximum likelihood analysis confidently recovered monophyly for all of the higher taxa (including the order itself with the exception of the Thaumatichthyidae (Lasiognathus was deeply nested within the Oneirodidae. The mitogenomic trees strongly support the most basal and an apical position of the Lophioidei and a clade comprising Chaunacoidei + Ceratioidei, respectively, although alternative phylogenetic positions of the remaining two suborders (Antennarioidei and Ogcocephaloidei with respect to the above two lineages are statistically indistinguishable. While morphology-based intra-subordinal relationships for relatively shallow, benthic dwellers (Lophioidei, Antennarioidei, Ogcocephaloidei, Chaunacoidei are either congruent with or statistically indistinguishable from the present mitogenomic tree, those of the principally deep-sea midwater dwellers (Ceratioidei cannot be reconciled with the molecular phylogeny. A relaxed molecular-clock Bayesian analysis of the divergence times suggests that all of the subordinal diversifications have occurred during a relatively short time period between 100 and 130 Myr ago (early to mid Cretaceous. Conclusions The mitogenomic analyses revealed previously unappreciated phylogenetic relationships among the lophiiform suborders and ceratioid familes. Although the latter relationships cannot be reconciled with the earlier hypotheses based on morphology, we found that simple exclusion of the reductive or simplified characters can alleviate some of the conflict. The acquisition of novel features, such as male dwarfism, bioluminescent lures, and unique reproductive modes allowed the deep-sea ceratioids to diversify rapidly in a largely unexploited, food-poor bathypelagic zone (200-2000 m depth relative to the other lophiiforms occurring in shallow coastal areas.

  9. A new species of Poecilia from Honduras (Teleostei: Poeciliidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.N. Poeser

    2011-01-01

    A new species of Poecilia from the Atlantic slopes of Honduras is described and assigned to the subgenus Mollienesia. Poecilia hondurensis, new species, differs from all congeners in the combination of having tricuspid teeth on the inner of both jaws and lacking a prominent spine or hook on the gono

  10. Careproctus kidoi, a new Arctic species of snailfish (Teleostei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Steen Wilhelm; Møller, Peter Rask

    2008-01-01

    and 1,487 m. It differs from Arctic and North Atlantic congeners in the combination of the characters: pectoral fin rays 21-26, dorsal fin rays 54-60, anal fin rays 50-54, vertebrae 61-64; sucking disc oval, 4.2-6.6% SL; teeth simple; pyloric coeca 3-12; head pore formula (2-6-7-1); color light to dark...

  11. First sighting of Zebrasoma flavescens (Teleostei: Acanthuridae and Balistoides conspicillum (Teleostei: Balistidae in the Mediterranean Sea: Two likely aquarium releases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. WEITZMANN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we provide the first documented occurrence of the yellow tang Zebrasoma flavescens and of the clown triggerfish Balistoides conspicillum in the Mediterranean Sea. These tropical fishes were photographed in October 2008 off Sitges (Costa Daurada, Spain: 41°13'27.09" N; 1°47'22.35" E and in July 2012 in front of Palamós (Costa Brava, Spain: 41°50'56.19" N; 3°8'26.29" E, respectively. Their possible release from private aquaria is discussed.

  12. Nuclear DNA content in Galaxias maculatus (Teleostei: Osmeriformes: Galaxiidae Contenido de ADN nuclear en Galaxias maculatus (Teleostei: Osmeriformes: Galaxiidae

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    Pedro Jara-Seguel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear DNA content (2C value was determined in the commercial fish Galaxias maculatus (Galaxiidae was determined by microdensitometry of erythrocyte nuclei after Feulgen staining; rainbow trout erythrocytes with a known 2C value were used as a standard. The 2C value of G. maculatus was 2.21 ± 0.12 pg and its C value was equivalent to 1.105 pg (1,082.9 Mbp. This C value is within the range recorded for other osmeriform species (0.62-3.2 pg. The average sperm head diameter of G. maculatus is lower than the average sperm head diameter of rainbow trout (used as a standard, which coincides with the differences observed in the nuclear DNA content of both species. This information increases the genome data available for G. maculatus and might be useful in future programs dealing with its genetic manipulation.El contenido de ADN nuclear (valor 2C fue determinado en el pez comercial Galaxias maculatus (Galaxiidae usando microdensitometría de núcleos de eritrocitos sometidos a tinción de Feulgen, utilizando como estándar eritrocitos de trucha arco iris con un valor 2C conocido. El valor 2C de G. maculatus fue 2,21 ± 0,12 pg y su valor C es equivalente a 1,105 pg (1.082,9 pMb. Este valor C está dentro del rango registrado para otras especies de osmeriformes (0,62-3,2 pg. El diámetro promedio de la cabeza del espermatozoide de G. maculatus es menor al promedio descrito para la trucha arco iris utilizado como estándar, lo que coincide con las diferencias observadas en el contenido de ADN nuclear entre ambas especies. Estos datos contribuyen a ampliar los antecedentes genómicos disponibles para G. maculatus y podrían ser útiles en futuros programas tendientes a su manipulación genética.

  13. Anatomia e histologia gastrintestinal da garoupa-verdadeira Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834 (Teleostei, Serranidae = Dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834 (Teleostei, Serranidae gastrintestinal anatomy and histology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Machado Cunha da Silva

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A garoupa-verdadeira (Epinephelus marginatus é uma espécie de serranídeo com grande importância ecológica e boas perspectivas para o cultivo. A investigação da morfologia do trato digestório, associada à atividade alimentar, é fundamental para a compreensão da biologia dessa espécie e premissa básica para pesquisas sobrerequerimentos nutricionais, desenvolvimento de rações e práticas adequadas de manejo alimentar. O presente trabalho descreve a anatomia e, por meio da microscopia de luz, as variações histológicas ao longo do tubo digestório de juvenis de Epinephelus marginatus, correlacionando a histologia de cada seguimento com as respectivas funções e o hábito alimentar. Verificou-se que essa espécie possui elevado número de tipos celulares ao longo do tubo digestório que estão intimamente relacionados com a resposta imunológica inata e adaptativa, permitindo o hábito alimentar detritívoro.

  14. Revisión taxonómica y geográfica de Bryconamericus peruanus (Teleostei, Characidae Taxonomic and geographic revision of Bryconamericus peruanus (Teleostei, Characidae

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    César Román-Valencia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se efectúa un análisis taxonómico y geográfico de Bryconamericus peruanus y se compara con las especies de este género presentes en las vertientes del Pacífico sur en Colombia, Ecuador y Perú. Bryconamericus peruanus restringe su distribución al sistema hidrográfico del Pacífico en Perú y se plantea que algunas formas del Pacífico y Amazonas de Ecuador son especies por describir. Los caracteres asociados al dimorfismo sexual, como ganchos en todas las aletas con radios excepto la aleta caudal, son útiles en la diferenciación de B. peruanus y Bryconamericus sp.1 con respecto a B. brevirostris, B. dahli, B. guaytarae, B. miraensis, Bryconamericus sp. 2 y Bryconamericus sp. 3. De acuerdo con la forma (de la mandíbula superior, longitud aleta dorsal-hipurales y longitud pedúnculo caudal, el análisis de componentes principales distingue 2 grupos de especies: I B. peruanus, B. brevirostris, B. guaytarae, B. miraensis y Bryconamericus sp. 3 y II B. dahli, Bryconamericus sp. 1 y Bryconamericus sp. 2.Axonomic and geographic status of Bryconamericus peruanus were analyzed and compared with species belonging to the genus Bryconamericus that occurs in the Pacific basin from Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. Distribution range of B. peruanus is restricted to Peruvian drainages and the populations from the Pacific basin and those located at the Amazons in Ecuador are regarded new species. The presence of hooks on all the fins, except on the caudal fin, was the most reliable character to separate populations of B. peruanus and Bryconamericus sp.1 from B. brevirostris, B. dahli, B. guaytarae, B. miraensis, Bryconamericus sp. 2 and Bryconamericus sp. 3. According to the form upper jaw, dorsal fin-hypurals distance and caudal peduncle length from the principal component analysis, 2 groups are distinguished: I B. peruanus, B. brevirostris, B.guaytarae, B. miraensis y Bryconamericus sp. 3, and II B. dahli, Bryconamericus sp. 1 and Bryconamericus sp. 2.

  15. Molecular evolution of connective tissue growth factor in Cyprinidae (Teleostei: Cypriniformes)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianghui Kong; Xuzhen Wang; Xiaoni Gan; Junbing Li; Shunping He

    2008-01-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) plays an important role in regulation ofcell growth, differentiation, apoptosis and individual development in animals. The study of sequences variation and molecular evolution of CTGF gene across various species of the cyprinid could be helpful for understanding of speciation and gene divergence in this kind of fish. In this study, 19 novel sequences of CTGF gene were obtained from the representative species of the family Cyprinidae using PCR amplification, cloning and sequencing. Phylogenetic relationships of Cyprinidae were reconstructed by neighbor-joining (N J), maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian method. Oryzias latipes from the family Cyprinodontidae was assigned to be the outgroup taxon. Leuciscini and Barbini were clustered into the monophyletic lineages, respectively, with the high nodal supports. The estimation of the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitution (dN/dS) for the various branches indicated that there stood the different evolution rates between the Leuciscini and the Barbini. With the ratio of dN/dS of the Leuciscini being lower than that of the Barbini, species within the Barbini were demonstrated to be subjected to the relatively less selection pressure and under the relaxable evolution background. A 6 bp indel (insertion/deletion) was found at the 5' end of CTGF gene of Cyprinidae, and this 6 bp deletion only appeared in the Leuciscini, which is a typical characteristic of the Leuciscini and provides evidence for the monophylogeny of the Leuciscini. For the amino acid sequences of CTGF protein, the most variations and indels were distributed in the signal region and IGFBP region of this protein, implying that these variations were correlated with the regulation of the CTGF gene expression and protein activity.

  16. Channa aurantipectoralis, a new species of snakehead from Mizoram, north-eastern India (Teleostei: Channidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalhlimpuia, Denis Van; Lalronunga, Samuel; Lalramliana, Lalramliana

    2016-08-04

    Channa aurantipectoralis, a new species of snakehead of the C. gachua species group, is described from Karnaphuli drainage of Mizoram, India. The species is immediately distinguished from all other snakehead species by its unique coloration in life, specifically its brightly-coloured orange pectoral fins, which lack any spots or stripes; and by the presence of a dark V-shaped blotch on the dorsal surface of the head. It can be further distinguished from all other species of the genus by the combination of the following characters: presence of pelvic fins, a large scale on the ventral surface of the lower jaw, 51-64 lateral-line scales, 34-37 dorsal-fin rays, 23-25 anal-fin rays, 13-14 pectoral-fin rays, 5½-6½ /1/ 7½-8½ transverse scale rows, and the absence of scales on the gular region.

  17. Channa andrao, a new species of dwarf snakehead from West Bengal, India (Teleostei: Channidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britz, Ralf

    2013-10-30

    Channa andrao, new species, from Lefraguri swamp, West Bengal, India, differs from all its congeners except, C. asiatica, C. bleheri and C. burmanica and the recently described C. hoaluensis and C. ninhbinhensis by the absence of pelvic fins. It can be distinguished from all other pelvic fin-less species of snakeheads by its colour pattern, and differs further in its number of vertebrae, dorsal- and anal-fin rays, and lateral-line scales from individual snakehead species in this complex. Channa andrao raises the number of snakehead species endemic to the Eastern Himalaya biodiversity hotspot to ten, representing almost one third of the known species in the genus.

  18. Aspidoras mephisto, new species: The first troglobitic Callichthyidae (Teleostei: Siluriformes) from South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichuette, Maria Elina

    2017-01-01

    Aspidoras mephisto n. sp. is described from the Anésio-Russão cave system, upper Tocantins River basin, Goiás, Brazil. The species can be readily distinguished from its congeners by troglomorphic features and also by presenting the following combination of features: infraorbital 1 generally with well-developed ventral laminar; or moderately developed; poorly-developed serrations on posterior margin of pectoral spine; nuchal plate not externally visible; dorsal fin, even in conspicuously colored specimens, with only dark brown or black chromatophores concentrated on rays, forming spots in some specimens; membranes hyaline; or sparse dark brown or black chromatophores on membranes, not forming any conspicuous pattern; and inner laminar expansion of infraorbital 1 moderately developed. Information about its habitat, ecology, behaviour and conservation status are provided and also a brief description of the juvenile stage. PMID:28248959

  19. A new species of barb Puntius nigripinnis (Teleostei: Cyprinidae from southern Western Ghats, India

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    J.D Marcus Knight

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Puntius ticto, a widely distributed barb, was long believed to have many variants. Recent research has shown that what was earlier known as P. ticto in different regions of India comprised of many similar looking species such as P. manipurensis, P. muvattupuzhaensis, P. pookodensis, among others. As yet another addition to this complex, we describe Puntius nigripinnis sp. nov. from the Nilgiris and Wyanad area of the southern Western Ghats. Puntius nigripinnis, sp. nov., is distinguished from all other congeners by lacking barbels and having the last unbranched dorsal ray serrated; 20-21 lateral line scales; lateral line incomplete, piercing 3-5 scales; dorsal, anal, pelvic and pectoral fins black in adult males; body pattern consisting of a humeral mark on the 3rd or 4th lateral-line scale and a second larger, band-like spot on the 18th and 19th scale, forming a ring around the caudal peduncle, and only two scales between the second spot and the root of the caudal fin.

  20. Feeding ecology of Lutjanus analis (Teleostei: Lutjanidae from Abrolhos Bank, Eastern Brazil

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    Matheus Oliveira Freitas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Diet and feeding ecology of the mutton snapper Lutjanus analis were investigated in the Abrolhos Bank, Eastern Brazil, the largest and richest coral reefs in the South Atlantic, where about 270 species of reef and shore fishes occur. To evaluate seasonal and ontogenetic shifts in the diet, specimens of L. analis were obtained through a fish monitoring program in four cities in southern Bahia State, from June 2005 to March 2007. Stomachs from 85 mutton snappers that ranged in size from 18.1 to 74.0 cm TL were examined. Prey were identified to the lowest possible taxon and assessed by the frequency of occurrence and volumetric methods. Variations in volume prey consumption were evaluated using non-metric multi-dimensional scaling ordination, analysis of similarity, and similarity percentage methods. Significant differences in diet composition among size classes were registered, whereas non significant differences between seasons were observed. Considering size-classes, food items consumption showed important variations: juveniles (50.1 cm TL consumed basically fish, mostly Anguiliformes. Lutjanus analis is an important generalist reef predator, with a broad array of food resources and ontogenetic changes in the diet. This snapper species plays an important role on the trophic ecology of the Abrolhos Bank coral reefs.Foram avaliadas a dieta e a ecologia alimentar da cioba Lutjanus analis no Banco dos Abrolhos, Leste do Brasil. O Banco dos Abrolhos abrange os maiores e mais diversos recifes de corais do Atlântico Sul, onde cerca de 270 espécies de peixes recifais e costeiros ocorrem. Para a avaliação das variações sazonais e ontogênicas na dieta, exemplares de L. analis foram obtidos através de um programa de monitoramento em quatro cidades do extremo sul da Bahia, entre junho de 2005 e março de 2007. Estômagos de 85 exemplares com comprimento total variando entre 18,1 e 74,0 cm foram examinados. Os itens alimentares foram identificados até o menor nível taxonômico possível e avaliados através dos métodos de frequência de ocorrência e volumétrico. Variações no consumo das presas foram avaliadas através do método de escalonamento multidimensional não-métrico e métodos de análise de similaridade e percentagem de similaridade. Diferenças significativas na dieta foram observadas entre as classes de tamanho, porém estas não foram detectadas entre as estações do ano. Considerando as classes de tamanho, os itens consumidos apresentaram importantes variações: os juvenis (50,1 cm CT consumiram basicamente peixes, principalmente Anguiliformes. Lutjanus analis é um importante predador recifal generalista, que consome um amplo espectro de presas, apresentando mudanças ontogênicas na dieta. Esse lutjanídeo desempenha um importante papel na ecologia trófica dos recifes de corais do Banco dos Abrolhos.

  1. Steroid sex hormone dynamics during estradiol-17β induced gonadal differentiation in Paralichthys olivaceus (Teleostei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; You, Feng; Liu, Mengxia; Wu, Zhihao; Wen, Aiyun; Li, Jun; Xu, Yongli; Zhang, Peijun

    2010-03-01

    Steroid sex hormones, such as estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T), are important regulators of sex change in fish. In this study, we examined the effects of E2 treatment on the dynamics of E2 and T during gonadal differentiation in the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus using histology and radioimmunoassay (RIA). Flounder larvae were divided into five groups (G0-G4), and fed with 0 (control), 0.2, 2, 20 and 100 mg E2/kg feed from 35 to 110 day post hatching (dph). Fish growth in the G1 and G2 groups was not significantly different from that of the control group ( P>0.05), while fish in the G3 and G4 groups were less active and showed growth depression and high mortality. The gonads of fish in the G3 and G4 groups were smaller and surrounded by hyperplastic connective tissue. The frequency of females in the G0-G4 groups was 54.5%, 75.0%, 100%, 100% and 93.3%, respectively. The RIA analyses of E2 and T showed that T levels decreased during gonadal differentiation, and increased slightly at the onset of ovarian differentiation, while E2 levels increased gradually and peaked at the onset of ovarian differentiation in the control group. In the E2-treated groups, T levels decreased before the onset of ovarian differentiation. E2 levels were high on the 48 dph, but declined to a lower level on the 54 dph, and then increased gradually during gonadal differentiation. And a sharp increase of E2 levels were observed in all E2-treated groups at the onset of ovarian differentiation. The data suggest that T and E2 play important roles during gonadal differentiation, and an E2 dose of 2 mg/kg feed could induce sex reversal in P. olivaceus.

  2. Steroid sex hormone dynamics during estradiol-17β induced gonadal differentiation in Paralichthys olivaceus(Teleostei)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙鹏; 尤锋; 刘梦侠; 吴志昊; 文爱韵; 李军; 徐永立; 张培军

    2010-01-01

    Steroid sex hormones,such as estradiol-17β(E2)and testosterone(T),are important regulators of sex change in fish.In this study,we examined the effects of E2 treatment on the dynamics of E2 and T during gonadal differentiation in the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus using histology and radioimmunoassay(RIA).Flounder larvae were divided into five groups(G0–G4),and fed with 0 (control),0.2,2,20 and 100 mg E2/kg feed from 35 to 110 day post hatching(dph).Fish growth in the G1 and G2 groups was not signific...

  3. Moments of induced spawning and embryonic development of Brycon amazonicus (Teleostei, Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaghi, Laura Satiko Okada; Neumann, Erika; Faustino, Francine; Mendes, José Mário Ribeiro; de Braga, Francisco Manoel

    2014-11-01

    Based on the economic and ecological relevance of Brycon amazonicus, the goal of this work was to describe the diameter of oocytes and eggs of this species, as well as the chronological embryonic development. The material was provided by Buriti fish farm, Nova Mutum - MT, Brazil. Samples of both oocytes and eggs were obtained from extrusion to hatching. The material was fixed and measured under stereomicroscope, and the samples were divided for light microscopy or scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. At extrusion, the oocytes were bluish green. The frequency distribution of oocytes revealed that 87.7% of them ranged from 1.11-1.30 mm in diameter. During incubation, the total diameter of the eggs increased from 1.22 ± 0.04 mm to 3.06 ± 0.46 mm in the first 60 min post fertilization (PF), and growth ceased at 180 min PF. Between 10-30 s PF, most eggs were fertilized and fertilization cones were observed from 10 s onwards after gamete activation. The main fertilization events took place asynchronically and spermatozoa were visualized in the micropyle vestibule up to 90 s PF. The first cell was formed in the centre of the blastodisc 20 min PF. The morula stage was identified 2 h PF and, 3 h later, 70% of the yolk was covered by the blastoderm; the blastopore was almost entirely closed at 6 h PF. The cephalic and caudal regions of the embryo could be defined 8 h PF and hatching occurred after 13 h of embryonic development. The larvae hatched with undifferentiated organic systems and with a large yolk sac, free from swimming abilities or visual acuity.

  4. Phylogenetic relationships of the algae scraping cyprinid genus Capoeta (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Boris A; Freyhof, Jörg; Lajbner, Zdeněk; Perea, Silvia; Abdoli, Asghar; Gaffaroğlu, Muhammet; Ozuluğ, Müfit; Rubenyan, Haikaz R; Salnikov, Vladimir B; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    We reconstructed the matrilineal phylogeny of Asian algae-eating fishes of the genus Capoeta based on complete mitochondrial gene for cytochrome b sequences obtained from 20 species sampled from the majority of the range and 44 species of closely related barbs of the genera Barbus s. str. and Luciobarbus. The results of this study show that Capoeta forms a strongly supported monophyletic subclade nested within the Luciobarbus clade, suggesting that specialized scraping morphology appeared once in the evolutionary history of the genus. We detected three main groups of Capoeta: the Mesopotamian group, which includes three species from the Tigris-Euphrates system and adjacent water bodies, the Anatolian-Iranian group, which has the most diversified structure and encompasses many species distributed throughout Anatolian and Iranian inland waters, and the Aralo-Caspian group, which consists of species distributed in basins of the Caspian and Aral Seas, including many dead-end rivers in Central Asia and Northern Iran. The most probable origination pathway of the genus Capoeta is hypothesized to occur as a result of allopolyploidization. The origin of Capoeta was found around the Langhian-Serravallian boundary according to our molecular clock. The diversification within the genus occurred along Middle Miocene-Late Pliocene periods.

  5. Description of a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system in Thoracocharax cf. stellatus (Teleostei, Characiformes, Gasteropelecidae

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    Carvalho Margarida Lima

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The family Gasteropelecidae is composed of three genera and eight species. This study shows that Thoracocharax cf. stellatus has 2n = 52 chromosomes for both sexes. The five males studied showed 8 metacentric, 16 submetacentric, 4 subtelocentric, and 24 acrocentric chromosomes; the seven females showed only one submetacentric chromosome, belonging to pair 11, and one extra acrocentric chromosome, smaller than all the other chromosomes, characterizing the presence of a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system in this species. Nucleolus organizing regions (NORs were detected on the short arms of the subtelocentric chromosome pair 13. Constitutive heterochromatin was identified at pericentromeric and terminal positions in almost all chromosomes. The W chromosome was almost entirely heterochromatic, except for a small terminal euchromatic segment. The analyses of the amount of nuclear DNA found 2.18 ± 0.09 pg of DNA per diploid nucleus, without significant differences between sexes. A discussion about the evolution of the sex chromosomes in this group is presented.

  6. Ejaculate of sneaker males is pheromonally inconspicuous in the black goby, Gobius niger (Teleostei, Gobiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatello, L; Mazzoldi, C; Rasotto, M B

    2002-11-01

    The black goby, Gobius niger, shows alternative male mating tactics, i.e., parental and sneaker males. Males release a sexual pheromone that attracts females and stimulates aggressive displays in males. This pheromone is produced by the mesorchial gland, a structure well developed in parental males but markedly undeveloped in sneakers. We measured the behavioral response of parental males to the ejaculates of males performing different reproductive tactics. Parental males reacted to the ejaculate of other parental males, with stereotypic aggressive behaviors, but not to the ejaculate of sneakers; consequently sneaker male ejaculate appears to be pheromonally inconspicuous.

  7. Preliminary observations on the feeding habits of the Mediterranean needlefish Tylosurus acus imperialis (Teleostei: Belonidae

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    Manel Châari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present the first information on the feeding habits of the Mediterranean needlefish Tylosurus acus imperialis (T. a. imperialis of Tunisia and to examine the diet variation in relation to the fish size, maturity and sex. Methods: Gut contents of 92 specimens of T. a. imperialis, collected mainly from May 2004 to July 2006 off the Gulf of Gabès, Southeastern Tunisian coast, were analyzed. Results: The results showed that 55.4% of them had empty guts and 44.6% contained food in their guts. The emptiness index did not vary significantly according to size classes or sexes of T. a. imperialis. Basic food consisted of teleosts (Mugilidae, Gobidae and Belonidae (62.6% followed by crustaceans (37.3%, mostly decapods Sycionia carinata (5.4%. A decrease in the feeding rate at the peak of the spawning season was observed for both sexes. A diet variation among juvenile and adult specimens of T. a. imperialis was found. Conclusions: This study enhances our knowledge on the biology of the Mediterranean needlefish T. a. imperialis. This fish is an active predator and an opportunistic feeder but the feeding rate declines at the peak of the spawning season.

  8. Parasitic infections in the Mediterranean needlefish Tylosurus acus imperialis (Teleostei: Belonidae off Tunisian coast

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    Manel Châari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To provide a current survey of parasitic infections in the Mediterranean needlefish Tylosurus acus imperialis (T. acus imperialis. The impact of host’s size and sex on some characteristics of the infection was also examined. Methods: Between 2004 and 2009, 126 specimens of T. acus imperialis were necropsied to study their parasites. Results: Fifteen species of metazoan parasites were collected including 3 monogeneans (Aspinatrium gallieni, Nudaciraxine imperium and Axinoides sp., 4 digeneans (Lecithostaphylus tylosuri, Tetrochetus coryphaenae, Oesophagotrema mediterranea and Sclerodistomoides pacificus, 1 cestode (Ptychobothrium sp., 3 copepods (Lernanthropus tylosuri, Caligodes laciniatus and Caligus sp., 1 isopod (Irona nana, 1 acanthocephalan (Rhadinorhynchus sp., 1 nematode (anisakid larvae and 1 annelid (piscicolid. Cestoda Ptychobothrium sp. was the most frequent species (72%. Prevalence and abundance of infection with Ptychobothrium sp. and Rhadinorhynchus sp. were positively correlated with the total length of the host. Host’s sex did not seem to affect the infection parameters of parasites in T. acus imperialis. Conclusions: This study provides first information on parasitic infections in the Mediterranean needlefish T. acus imperialis off Tunisia. Parasites can be used to understand phylogeny, biology and ecology of fish host and also as bioindicators of water quality

  9. Parasitic infections in the Mediterranean needlefish Tylosurus acus imperialis (Teleostei: Belonidae) off Tunisian coast

    OpenAIRE

    Manel Châari; Lassâd Neifar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To provide a current survey of parasitic infections in the Mediterranean needlefish Tylosurus acus imperialis (T. acus imperialis). The impact of host’s size and sex on some characteristics of the infection was also examined. Methods: Between 2004 and 2009, 126 specimens of T. acus imperialis were necropsied to study their parasites. Results: Fifteen species of metazoan parasites were collected including 3 monogeneans (Aspinatrium gallieni, Nudaciraxine imperi...

  10. Stages in the early and larval development of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Teleostei, Clariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaniyi, Wasiu Adekunle; Omitogun, Ofelia Galman

    2014-08-01

    The African catfish Clarias gariepinus Burchell 1822 is a favourite aquaculture fish in many parts of Africa and Asia because of its hardiness and fast growth rate. In this study, early, post-embryonic and larval developmental stages of C. gariepinus were examined chronologically and described. Photomicrographs of unfertilized matured oocytes from 0 min of fertilization through all cell stages to alevin, to complete yolk absorption, to free swimming larval stages are shown and documented live from lateral and top views, with the aid of a light microscope. Extruded oocytes had a mean diameter of 1 ± 0.1 mm, and possessed a thin perivitelline membrane whose space was filled with a protoplasmic layer. Heartbeat was in the range of 115-160/min prior to hatching. Hatchability rate was 85% and hatching occurred at 17 h at a controlled temperature of 28.5 ± 0.5°C, while ontogeny of the eyes and other organs were discernible. At day 4, larvae mean length was 9.3 ± 0.5 mm, exogenous feeding had commenced fully and melanophores spread cephalocaudally but were concentrated significantly on the head parts. This paper, for the first time, presents the significant chronological developmental stages of C. gariepinus embryology that will have significant implications for genetic manipulation and catfish seed production for aquaculture.

  11. Autonomic control of post-air-breathing tachycardia in Clarias gariepinus (Teleostei: Clariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Mariana Teodoro; Armelin, Vinicius Araújo; Abe, Augusto Shinya; Rantin, Francisco Tadeu; Florindo, Luiz Henrique

    2015-08-01

    The African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) is a teleost with bimodal respiration that utilizes a paired suprabranchial chamber located in the gill cavity as an air-breathing organ. Like all air-breathing fishes studied to date, the African catfish exhibits pronounced changes in heart rate (f H) that are associated with air-breathing events. We acquired f H, gill-breathing frequency (f G) and air-breathing frequency (f AB) in situations that require or do not require air breathing (during normoxia and hypoxia), and we assessed the autonomic control of post-air-breathing tachycardia using an infusion of the β-adrenergic antagonist propranolol and the muscarinic cholinergic antagonist atropine. During normoxia, C. gariepinus presented low f AB (1.85 ± 0.73 AB h(-1)) and a constant f G (43.16 ± 1.74 breaths min(-1)). During non-critical hypoxia (PO2 = 60 mmHg), f AB in the African catfish increased to 5.42 ± 1.19 AB h(-1) and f G decreased to 39.12 ± 1.58 breaths min(-1). During critical hypoxia (PO2 = 20 mmHg), f AB increased to 7.4 ± 1.39 AB h(-1) and f G decreased to 34.97 ± 1.78 breaths min(-1). These results were expected for a facultative air breather. Each air breath (AB) was followed by a brief but significant tachycardia, which in the critical hypoxia trials, reached a maximum of 143 % of the pre-AB f H values of untreated animals. Pharmacological blockade allowed the calculation of cardiac autonomic tones, which showed that post-AB tachycardia is predominantly regulated by the parasympathetic subdivision of the autonomic nervous system.

  12. The biology of Solea bleekeri (Teleostei) in Lake St Lucia on the southeast coast of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyrus, D. P.

    Several aspects of the biology of Solea bleekeri in Lake St Lucia were investigated, these included occurrence, distribution, reproduction and recruitment, food and feeding, size frequency distribution and the role of estuaries in the species' life cycle. Solea bleekeri was found to occur throughout the system in muddy turbid areas and was largely absent from the eastern shores of the lake where clear water sandy substrata occur. The preferred diet of the species was bivalve siphon tips of the species Solon cylindraceus, when these were in abundant supply. However, when numbers of large (length > 20 mm) specimens were not available then S. bleekeri fed on whatever prey was available in or near the substratum. Analysis of stomach contents under the latter conditions showed that food consumption reflected the composition of the benthos. Large numbers of S. bleekeri spend their entire post-larval and juvenile phases as well as the greater part of their adult life within estuaries. Evidence is presented to support the idea that S. bleekeri breeds in certain areas of the lake and that spawning takes place between September and November. The current data suggest that there may be two populations in St Lucia: one migrates from the system to spawn at sea during winter along with the other marine fish species which utilize estuaries as nursery areas, while the other population breeds within the system. Alternatively there may simply be a single population which normally breeds at sea, but which may breed within the system when conditions are suitable. Recruitment of S. bleekeri into the St Lucia estuarine system takes place from the muddy offshore marine banks and possibly from within the system as well. Solea bleekeri appears not to be totally dependent on estuaries for the completion of its life cycle. The advantages of utilizing these systems for their development relate to the shallow, calm, turbid food-rich areas which estuaries offer. The fact that breeding takes place within St Lucia means that adults and juveniles are present in varying numbers throughout the year.

  13. Muscular system in the pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis (Teleostei: Scombridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakae, Masanori; Sasaki, Kunio; Shinohara, Gento; Okada, Tokihiko; Matsuura, Keiichi

    2014-02-01

    The muscular system in the Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis is studied in detail. For the first time, a complete description of the muscular anatomy of a thunnid is provided here. Eighty-two elements including subdivisions of components of the muscular system are identified. This is less than found in a basal perciform and two other investigated scombrid species, owing mainly to the absence or fusion of pectoral, pelvic and caudal fin muscles. The absence of elements of the basal perciform pattern was most prominent in the caudal fin, which includes only the flexor dorsalis, flexor ventralis, hypochordal longitudinalis, and interradialis. In the caudal fin, the medial fan-shaped ray was identified as the first dorsal ray, judging from myological and neuroanatomical characters. The highly developed gill filament muscles in Thunnus orientalis and sheet-like rectus communis control gill ventilation. Long body muscle tendons reduce the metabolic energy needed during rapid and continuous swimming. These characters are interpreted as adaptations in the context of the oceanic life style of the species.

  14. Diet of Astyanax species (Teleostei, Characidae in an Atlantic Forest River in Southern Brazil

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    Fábio Silveira Vilella

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Feeding habits of six species of Astyanax from river Maquiné are described. Fishes were sampled bi-monthly from November/95 to September/96 in two zones of the river. Items were identified, counted and had their abundance estimated according to a semi-quantitative scale. Frequency of occurrence, alimentary importance index (IFI values and a similarity analysis of diets for each species-river zone sample were examined. All the species were considered typically omnivorous, with insects and vegetal matter being the most important items in their diet. These species could act as seed dispersers, particularly for macrophytes. Intra-specific spatial differences were not observed in comparisons of samples from two diferent regions of the river, except for A. fasciatus. The presence of Podostemaceae macrophytes in the mid-course of the river seemed to be important both as an autochthonous food resource and as habitat for several organisms preyed by the Astyanax species.Seis espécies do gênero Astyanax, presentes no rio Maquiné, RS, foram estudadas quanto aos seus hábitos alimentares. Os exemplares foram amostrados bimensalmente de novembro de 1995 a setembro de 1996 nas zonas ritral e potamal do rio. Os itens alimentares foram identificados e quantificados de acordo com uma escala semi-quantitativa de abundância, utilizando-se para análise a frequência de ocorrência e um índice de importância alimentar para cada espécie e zona do rio. Análises multivariadas de agrupamento e ordenação foram utilizadas para comparar as dietas intra e interespecíficas. Todas as espécies foram consideradas onivoras, sendo que os itens mais importantes foram os insetos e restos de vegetais superiores. Sugere-se que as espécies estudadas possam atuar como dispersoras de sementes, particularmente para macrófitas. Diferenças espaciais intraespecíficas não foram encontradas, exceto para A. fasciatus. A presença de Podostemaceae no curso médio do rio parece ser uma fonte importante de alimento para as espécies, além de servir de refúgio para diversos organismos que são predados por Astyanax sp.

  15. Chriolepis prolata, a new species of Atlantic goby (Teleostei: Gobiidae) from the North American continental shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Philip A; Findley, Lloyd T

    2015-01-08

    A new species of seven-spined goby of the genus Chriolepis is described from five specimens collected from the continental shelf of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean off South Carolina in depths of ca 54 to 110 m. The "Platform Goby", Chriolepis prolata, is distinguishable from all other western Atlantic species currently assigned to the genus Chriolepis and the morphologically similar genus Varicus in having pelvic-fin rays one through four branched, the fifth (innermost) pelvic-fin ray unbranched and relatively long (longer than the second ray to longer than all other pelvic-fin rays); most lateral body scales ctenoid, extending anteriorly in a wedge to a level anterior to the first dorsal-fin insertion or nearly to the pectoral-fin axil, with two or more rows of small cycloid scales extending anteriorly to near the pectoral-fin axil, cycloid scales along the bases of the dorsal and anal fins, and no scales on the belly; and the first two anal-fin pterygiophores inserted anterior to the first haemal spine. It closely resembles C. bilix but differs from that species which has a scaled belly, a shorter fifth pelvic-fin ray, prolonged dorsal-fin spines and smaller teeth in the lower jaw. An earlier report of C. bilix from Florida waters apparently refers to C. prolata. 

  16. Do invasive bighead goby Neogobius kessleri and round goby N. melanostomus (Teleostei, Gobiidae compete for food?

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    Števove B.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Bighead goby (Neogobius kessleri and round goby (Neogobius melanostomus have been invading new non-native areas about two decades successfully. In this study, diet spectrum, seasonal variation, feeding strategy and diet overlap between these two invasive species were assessed. Materials were collected from the Danube at Bratislava by fishing rods and/or electrofishing. The diet spectrum of both species was diverse: a total of 46 food types in bighead goby and 51food types in round goby were observed. Dikerogammarus sp., chironomid larvae and Corophium sp. were the most predominant food types in bighead goby, whereas in round goby, chironomid larvae, Corophium sp., bryozoans and Cladocera predominated. The diet varied over seasons. In the Slovak part of the Danube, bighead goby and round goby have adapted to local food resources, consuming diverse food from small to large items, both with soft and/or hard body. This enhances the capability of these invasive species to spread successfully. It appears that even if both exploit similar food resources, their proportional content differs. Further differences between these gobies were also found in their food behaviour and feeding strategy. Both species tend to be specialists where possible, but round goby demonstrates higher flexibility towards general feeding strategy.

  17. Descriptions of three new species of Glossogobius (Teleostei: Gobiidae) from New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoese, Douglass F; Allen, Gerald R

    2015-07-16

    Three new species of Glossogobius are described from New Guinea. Glossogobius multipapillus, n. sp. from northeastern New Guinea has a lobed mental fraenum and a distinctive papilla pattern unlike any other species in the genus. Glossogobius sentaniensis, n. sp. is described from Lake Sentani. The species is similar to Glossogobius aureus and G. koragensis differing in head pores and large dark spots on the body. Glossogobius macrocephalus n. sp. from Lake Tebera and surrounding rivers has a lobed mental fraenum and differs from other species in the Glossogobius celebius group in the combination of having a large head, head pore, fin-ray and predorsal scale counts.

  18. Lebetus scorpioides and Buenia jeffreysii (Teleostei: Gobiidae found north of the Arctic Circle

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    Ingvar Byrkjedal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Two gobiid species, Lebetus scorpioides and Buenia jeffreysii, were recorded in northern Norway, for the first time north of the Arctic Circle. While both species were found on the continental shelf west of the Lofoten islands, one of them, L. scorpioides, was found north of 70°N off western Finnmark. The records represent a considerable northward extension of the distribution of these species. Being well within the size of reproductive individuals, the specimens appear to belong to resident populations most probably missed by earlier samplings.

  19. Two new dwarfgobies of the genus Eviota from the Ryukyu Islands, Japan (Teleostei: Gobiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, David W; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Shibukawa, Koichi

    2014-03-10

    Two species of dwarfgoby are described from the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Eviota flebilis n. sp. belongs to cephalic sensory-pore system pattern 2 (lacking only IT pore), has a dorsal/anal fin-ray formula of 8/7, unbranched pectoral-fin rays, the 5th pelvic-fin ray 12.9% of the 4th, a distinctive narrow, red-orange line under the eye, and a dark vertical line at the caudal-fin base. Eviota specca n. sp. has a cephalic sensory-pore system pattern 1 (complete), has a dorsal/anal-fin formula of 8/8, the body heavily sprinkled with chromatophores, and a single dark spot on the upper pectoral-fin base.

  20. A new marine gobiid species of the genus Clariger Jordan & Snyder (Gobiidae, Teleostei from Taiwan

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    Nian-Hong Jang-Liaw

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Clariger Jordan & Snyder, 1901 was collected from northern Taiwan. The genus was previously known only from Japanese waters. This discovery is the first formal and southernmost record of these marine gobies from the waters of subtropical Taiwan. The new species, Clariger taiwanensis sp. n., is distinguished from its congeners by a unique combination of features: (1 fin rays: dorsal-fin rays III, I/8; anal-fin rays modally I/8; and pectoral-fin rays modally 19 (2+16+1; (2 longitudinal dermal ridge on head with 6 barbels; and (3 specific coloration pattern: head and trunk dark brown with scattered pale spots and blotches; cheek, ventral portion of head sometimes pale with deep brown spots; pectoral-fin base with a dark brown band; and caudal fin mostly dark brown proximally and with alternating and irregular dark brown and pale bands distally. A diagnostic key to all nominal species from Japan and Taiwan is provided.

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Java fat-nose goby Pseudogobius javanicus (Teleostei, Gobiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Pin; Shen, Chia-Ning; Chen, I-Shiung

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of the fat-nose goby Pseudogobius javanicus has been amplified. P. javanicus is widely contributed species in Southeast to East Asia. The complete mitochondrial genome is 16,493 base pairs (bp) in total length, had the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, 1 control region (CR) and 1 light-strand replication origin (OL). The overall base composition of P. javanicus is 27.1% for A, 27.3% for T, 28.6% for C, 17.0% for G, with higher AT content of 54.4%. This study will contribute for understanding the phylogenetic approach in genus Pseudogobius.

  2. Two new dwarfgobies (Teleostei: Gobiidae) from the Ryukyu Islands, Japan: Eviota flavipinnata and Eviota rubrimaculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Greenfield, David W; Motomura, Hiroyuki

    2015-08-28

    Two new species of Eviota from Yoron Island, the Ryukyu Islands, Japan, are described. Both species belong to the cephalic sensory-canal pore system pattern 2 (lacking only the H [IT] pore); have some pectoral-fin rays branched; have a dorsal/anal-fin formula of 9/8; no dark spot over the ural centrum; no prominent distinct dark spots on the pectoral-fin base; no postocular spots; and no strong dark spots on the caudal fin. The species share the most characters with E. afelei, E. bimaculata and E. punctulata, but differ from Eviota afelei and E. punctulata by having two versus three dark marks over the anal-fin base, and from Eviota bimaculata by lacking the two dark, prominent occipital spots present in that species. Both species differ from all other described species of Eviota in fresh coloration. Eviota flavipinnata has bright golden-yellow dorsal fins and an orange anal fin, and a fifth pelvic-fin ray that is 12% the length of the fourth ray. Eviota rubrimaculata has clear dorsal fins with red spots, large red spots on the body, and lacks the fifth pelvic-fin ray.

  3. Prey selection of the shallow water fish Pomatoschistus minutus (Gobiidae, Teleostei) in the SW Baltic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, C. Dieter

    1990-06-01

    The aim of this investigation is to demonstrate the reasons of an opportunist feeder to select some components of the available food supply and to avoid others. Object of this test is the eurytopic and euryhaline sand goby, Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas), from the Luebeck Bight. It inhabits both sand habitats as well as bottoms mixed with pebbles or continuous hard substrates. Therefore, it is often in close contact with Mytilus-belts which present a very rich food supply of small crustaceans. The selectivity behaviour of sand gobies from a sand/clay ecotone was compared with that of populations from a stony pier and a sand bottom during the reproduction period. Regarding the numbers of prey organisms, crustaceans of the periphyton were generally preferred at the pier but avoided in the ecotone. The same is valid for prey organisms of the psammal which were preferred by gobies of the sand bottom but mostly avoided by populations of mixed bottoms. Analyses of size selections revealed that the preferred gammarids or Jaera isopods were between 2 and 5 mm length. A balanced relation of goby biomass and utilizable food supply (predatory impact index) seems to effect positive selectivity of gammarids in the Mytilus-belts or of harpacticoids in the sand bottom.

  4. Diet of Ctenogobius shufeldti (Jordan and Eigenmann, 1887 (Teleostei, Gobiidae in Guaratuba Bay, subtropical west Atlantic

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    Diego Zanlorenzi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The diet composition of the American freshwater goby, Ctenogobius shufeldti, was investigated in an estuarine area and two of its tributaries. 397 individuals, total length from 21 to 70mm, were sampled over a period of 12 months and their stomach contents were analysed by the Frequency of Occurrence and Number of Points methods. According to the Alimentary Index, diet was constituted mainly by Ostracoda (IA=50.51 and Tanaidacea (IA=40.85, and secondarily by Gastropoda (IA=1.21, Amphipoda (IA=0.10, Isopoda (IA=0.01, Cirripedia (IA=0.01, Decapoda larvae (IA=0.01, Insecta (IA=0.01, Chlorophyta (IA=2.15 and Rodophyta (IA=0.15 filamentous algae, and plants (IA=4.99. Diversity of diet was higher in rivers than in the Bay. Except for Decapoda larvae, items found in the two rivers were the same. In the Bay, Amphipoda and Cirripedia were not found. Previous to this research, the filamentous algae Chlorophyta and Rodophyta had not been noted in the diet of this species in estuaries close to Guaratuba. In view of this, and regarding the possible roles played by cryptobenthic fish species in aquatic communities (Depczynski and Bellwood, 2003, it is concluded that C. shufeldti takes part in trophic dynamics feeding on benthic organisms as well as on algae, a behaviour that can result from both marine and continental influences existing in the region.

  5. Eviota santanai, a new Dwarfgoby from Timor-Leste (Teleostei: Gobiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, David W; Erdmann, Mark V

    2013-11-29

    Eviota santanai is described based on four specimens from Timor-Leste, taken in 5-8 m depth. In general coloration pattern, the species is most similar to E. latifasciata, but differs in the cephalic sensory-pore system pattern, the absence of an occipital spot, and live color including pinkish-mauve bars. Eviota santanai has a dorsal/anal fin-ray formula of 8/8, 5th pelvic-fin ray absent, some lower pectoral-fin rays branched, and IT and PITO pores absent.

  6. Complete mitochondrial genome of the amphidromous, red-tailed goby Sicyopterus lagocephalus (Pallas) (Teleostei, Gobiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Tzen-Yuh; Chen, I-Shiung; Lin, Hung-Du; Hsiao, Sheng-Tai; Ju, Yu-Min

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the complete mitogenome of the amphidromous, red-tailed goby, Sicyopterus lagocephalus has been amplified and sequenced by long polymerase chain reaction. This mitochondrial genome consists of 16,500 bp, with 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and a non-coding control region (CR), and its gene arrangement is identical to those of most vertebrates. The CR (841 bp) is located between tRNA(Pro) and tRNA(Phe). The overall base composition of the heavy strand is A, 28.9%; G, 16.4%; C, 28.3%; and T, 26.4%, with a slight AT bias of 55.3%. The complete mitogenomic data may provide more informative for phylogenetic approach for gobioid phylogeny especially for Sicydiine gobies.

  7. A new species of Didogobius (Teleostei: Gobiidae) from the Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tassell, James L; Kramer, Annemarie

    2014-05-01

    Didogobius helenae is described from the Canary Islands. It has a sensory papillae pattern that is consistent with the current diagnosis for Didogobius, but lacks all head canals and pores that are present in other members of the genus. Pores, in general, are replaced by large papillae.  The species is defined by first dorsal fin VI; second dorsal fin I,10; anal fin I,9; pectoral fin 16-17; pelvic fin I,5 and disk shaped; lateral scales 28-30, cycloid at anterior, becoming ctenoid posteriorly; cycloid scales present on belly and posterior breast; predorsal region, cheek, operculum and base of pectoral fin without scales; lower most scale on the caudal fin-base with elongate, thickened ctenii along the upper and lower posterior edges. Color in life consists of four mottled, wide brown-orange bars separated by narrower white bars on the trunk, the cheek whitish with 5 more or less circular blotches of orange, outlined in dark brown and a black spot on ventral operculum. A key to the species is provided. 

  8. The complete mitochondrial genome of Hoeven's mullet-goby Hemigobius hoevenii (Bleeker) (Teleostei, Gobiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Pin; Shen, Chia-Ning; Chen, I-Shiung

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of Hoeven's mullet-goby Hemigobius hoevenii (Bleeker, 1851) collected from Malay Peninsula has been amplified and sequenced. The complete mitochondrial genome is 16,469 base pairs (bp) in total length, had the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, 1 control region (CR) and 1 light-strand replication origin (OL). The overall base composition of H. hoevenii is 27.1% for A, 26.6% for T, 29.0% for C, 17.3% for G, with higher AT content 53.7%. This study will contribute for understanding the phylogenetic approach of Hemigobius species as well as the related genera of gobiid fishes.

  9. Seasonal changes of spermatogenesis in the male sand goby Oxyeleotris marmoratus Bleeker, 1852 (Teleostei, Gobiidae

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    Piyakorn Boonyoung

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The annual reproductive cycle of the total 84 mature male sand gobies Oxyeleotris marmoratus, was investigated during March 2002 to March 2003. The specimens were obtained from the natural freshwater marsh in Pattani Province, southern Thailand. The seasonal changes in the testes were determined based on the histological characteristics during testicular development. The cranial, medial and caudal regions of testis are synchronously arranged with various stages of germ cells such as spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa. The germ cells are found from the periphery to the center of each seminiferous tubule. The testicular cycle of adult male O. marmoratus can be divided into five stages: resting, developing, mature, spawning, and spent stages. In the present study, O. marmoratus shows a seasonal cycle of spermatogenesis with a defined spermiation period. The highest spawning peak occurred in November 2002, and the second highest peak in May with respectively 100% and 66% of male spawning. Spawning did not take place during January to March. However, sperm production occurred throughout the year and presented three peaks ofmature stage in April, June, and September. The present work describes the ultrastructure of spermatogenesis with an emphasis on the spermiogenesis. The mature sperm consists of a head without an acrosome, a short midpiece and a long flagellar tail with lateral fins. The flagellum contains an axoneme of classical form with 9 peripheral double microtubules. The nucleus is symmetrical with a deep basal invagination and the centriolar complex is located outside the nuclear fossa. Sperm morphology and spermatogenesis between sand goby and those of the related families are compared.

  10. First record of redneck goby Schismatogobius deraniyagalai (Teleostei: Gobiidae from Seethanathi river, Karnataka, Southern India.

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    Muthukumarasamy Arunachalam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Schismatogobius deraniyagalai is recorded from the Seethanathi River of Karnataka state in the southern part of India. Previous records of these species were from the streams in Kerala of India and from freshwater habitats of Sri Lanka. Herein we report the occurrence of this species in Seethanathi River showing its distribution extended further north along the west coast of Peninsular India.

  11. Silhouettea chaimi Goren, 1978, a junior synonym of Papillogobius melanobranchus (Fowler, 1934) (Teleostei: Gobiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovačić, Marcelo; Bogorodsky, Sergey

    2013-02-12

    The high resemblance of Silhouettea chaimi Goren, 1978 to two Papillogobius species, P. melanobranchus and P. reichei was noticed from their published descriptions. The comparison of types of S. chaimi with comparative material of P. melanobranchus and P. reichei confirmed the lack of morphological differences between two nominal species, S. chaimi and P. melanobranchus. Therefore, S. chaimi is placed as a junior synonym of P. melanobranchus.

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Abe's mangrove goby Mugilogobius abei (Teleostei, Gobiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Pin; Shen, Chia-Ning; Chen, I-Shiung

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of the Abe's mangrove goby Mugilogobius abei has been amplified. Mugilogobius abei is widely contributed species in Northeast to East Asia. The complete mitogenome is 16,483 base pairs (bp) in total length, had the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, and 1 control region (CR). The overall base composition of M. abei is 27.7% for A, 27.0% for T, 28.6% for C, 16.7% for G, with higher AT content of 54.7%. This study will contribute for understanding the phylogenetic approach in genus Mugilogobius and related gobiid genera.

  13. Two new dwarfgobies from the Indian and Western Pacific Oceans (Teleostei: Gobiidae: Eviota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, David W; Jewett, Susan L

    2016-06-13

    Two new species of dwarfgobies are described, Eviota asymbasia from the Sulu Sea, Philippine Islands, south to Java and west to Damar, and E. bipunctata occurring from the Indian Ocean eastward into the western Pacific Ocean. Eviota asymbasia lacks the IT pore of the cephalic sensory-pore system and usually also the POP, has a dorsal/anal-fin formula of 8/8, has some pectoral-fin rays branched and usually 15 rays, two spots on the pectoral-fin base, no dark spot over the preural centrum, first dorsal fin may be filamentous, six ventral postanal spots, and the male genital papilla is not fimbriate. Eviota bipunctata belongs to the group with cephalic sensory-pore system pattern 2 (lacking only the IT pore), some pectoral-fin rays branched, pectoral-fin base with 1 or 2 prominent dark spots, dorsal/anal-fin formula usually 8/8, and no occipital spots.

  14. Genetic population structure of sympatric and allopatric populations of Baltic ciscoes (Coregonus albula complex, Teleostei, Coregonidae

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    Nitz Barbara

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Teleost fishes of the Coregonidae are good model systems for studying postglacial evolution, adaptive radiation and ecological speciation. Of particular interest is whether the repeated occurrence of sympatric species pairs results from in-situ divergence from a single lineage or from multiple invasions of one or more different lineages. Here, we analysed the genetic structure of Baltic ciscoes (Coregonus albula complex, examining 271 individuals from 8 lakes in northern Germany using 1244 polymorphic AFLP loci. Six lakes had only one population of C. albula while the remaining two lakes had C. albula as well as a sympatric species (C. lucinensis or C. fontanae. Results AFLP demonstrated a significant population structure (Bayesian θB = 0.22. Lower differentiation between allopatric (θB = 0.028 than sympatric (0.063-0.083 populations contradicts the hypothesis of a sympatric origin of taxa, and there was little evidence for stocking or ongoing hybridization. Genome scans found only three loci that appeared to be under selection in both sympatric population pairs, suggesting a low probability of similar mechanisms of ecological segregation. However, removal of all non-neutral loci decreased the genetic distance between sympatric pairs, suggesting recent adaptive divergence at a few loci. Sympatric pairs in the two lakes were genetically distinct from the six other C. albula populations, suggesting introgression from another lineage may have influenced these two lakes. This was supported by an analysis of isolation-by-distance, where the drift-gene flow equilibrium observed among allopatric populations was disrupted when the sympatric pairs were included. Conclusions While the population genetic data alone can not unambiguously uncover the mode of speciation, our data indicate that multiple lineages may be responsible for the complex patterns typically observed in Coregonus. Relative differences within and among lakes raises the possibility that multiple lineages may be present in northern Germany, thus understanding the postglacial evolution and speciation in the C. albula complex requires a large-scale phylogenetic analysis of several potential founder lineages.

  15. Bagrichthys vaillantii (Popta, 1906), a valid species of bagrid catfish from eastern Borneo (Teleostei: Siluriformes)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ng, H.H.

    2000-01-01

    Bagrichthys vaillantii (Popta, 1906), a species of bagrid catfish previously considered a junior synonym of B. macracanthus Bleeker, 1854, is found to be a valid species distinct from the latter. It can be differentiated from B. macracanthus in having a shorter dorsal spine, smaller eye and steeper

  16. Spontaneous behavior of basal Copionodontinae cave catfishes from Brazil (Teleostei, Siluriformes, Trichomycteridae

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    Bianca Rantin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cave animals are particularly interesting due to their behavioral specializations, resultant from evolution in isolation. We present data from a spontaneous behavior study (spatial distribution and preference for microhabitats of two troglobitic catfish from Brazil: Glaphyropoma spinosum and a new species of Copionodon. We compared the data with those obtained of a sympatric epigean species, Copionodon pecten. These Trichomycteridae species belong to a basal and apparently monophyletic subfamily – Copionodontinae, endemic to Chapada Diamantina, central Bahia state, eastern Brazil. We observed the fishes in natural and laboratory conditions through ad libitum and focal animal methods. Each spatial behavioral category (hidden, bottom, midwater, surface and wall swimming and stationary in the bottom was timed individually, with a sample of 12 specimens per species. Unlike most troglobitic fishes, cave copionodontines tested herein did not extend exploratory behavior to midwater, with benthonic and thigmotactic-related exploratory behavior. This behavior is possibly related to its feeding behavior specializations, strong territorialism and photophobic behavior. The epigean Copionodon species is also benthonic. The spatial behavior of the cave Copionodontinae could be interpreted as a retained and plesiomorphic character-state in relation to other trichomycterid catfishes.

  17. Nuclear DNA content in 20 species of Siluriformes (Teleostei: Ostariophysi from the Neotropical region

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    Paulo César Fenerich

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, 20 species of Siluriformes fish were analyzed in order to determine their nuclear DNA content and compare these data with their diploid number. In addition, the extension and importance of the changes that occurred during the process of diversification in the group of Neotropical freshwater catfish were investigated. The only species studied of the family Doradidae, Rhinodoras d'orbignyi (2n = 58, presented 3.46 ± 0.13 pg of DNA. Among the species of the family Heptapteridae, the values of nuclear DNA content and the diploid numbers ranged from 1.13 ± 0.09 pg of DNA in Pimelodella sp. (2n = 46 to 2.38 ± 0.07 pg of DNA in Imparfinis mirini (2n = 58. The family Loricariidae showed the widest variation in diploid number and nuclear DNA content values, ranging from 2n = 52 and 3.96 ± 0.22 pg of DNA in Liposarcus anisitsi to 2n = 76 and 4.90 ± 0.12 pg of DNA in Hypostomus sp. 4. In this group, two local samples of Pimelodus maculatus (Pimelodidae were analyzed, and both exhibited 2n = 56, but different nuclear DNA content values (2.68 ± 0.22 pg and 2.82 ± 0.20 pg, respectively. Among the Pseudopimelodidae species analyzed, Pseudopimelodus mangurus (2n = 54 showed 2.23 ± 0.15 pg and Microglanis cottoides (2n = 54 exhibited 2.50 ± 0.18 pg of DNA. Two species of Trichomycterus (Trichomycteridae also presented the same diploid number, 2n = 54 chromosomes, but, while the species from the Quinta stream presented a DNA content of 2.62 ± 0.19 pg, in the sample from the Capivara river this value was 2.30 ± 0.23 pg. In the analyzed species, the results showed that the changes in DNA content were frequently not followed by changes in the diploid number. This fact permits to suggest that, in addition to structural chromosome rearrangements, other mechanisms, including deletions, duplications and polyploidy, could be involved in the process of species differentiation in the representatives of the fish order Siluriformes.

  18. Un caso de xantismo parcial en Aplodactylus punctatus (Teleostei: Aplodactylidae del sur de Perú

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    Philippe Béarez

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta por primera vez en Ilo, sur del Perú, una jerguilla amarilla (Aplodactylus punctatus. Esa condición de tener una piel de color amarillo se denomina xantismo. Este registro, único, corresponde probablemente a una extensión hacia el norte del rango de distribución de la «jerguilla reina», conocida de la costa central de Chile.

  19. The diversity of chromosome structure of males in Cobitis (Teleostei, Cobitidae populations

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    Alicja Boron

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The populations of Cobitis distributed in Poland are usually composed of the spined loach C. taenia Linnaeus, 1758 (2n=48 or the danubian loach C. elongatoides Bacescu & Maier, 1969 (2n=50, triploid hybrid females (3n=73, 3n=74, 3n=75 and tetraploid (4n=98, 4n=99 hybrids of both sexes. The results of our experimental studies reveal that c. 60% of eggs of allotriploid females dominating in these populations may be fertilized by C. taenia males whereas the tetraploid Cobitis males are sterile. The aim of this study was to show the chromosome structure of diploid and polyploid Cobitis males distributed in diploid and diploid-polyploid populations in Polish water bodies. Chromosomes of C. taenia and C. elongatoides males (each of 10 individuals and of tetraploid Cobitis males (12 individuals were examined using double-colour fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH with 28S and 5S rDNA probes. In the karyotype of C. taenia and C. elongatoides respectively the modal number of nine and six, and seven and two, respectively of 28S rDNA and 5S rDNA sites were detected. C. taenia and C. elongatoides characterized respectively by four and two chromosomes containing hybridization sites of both rDNA probes (co-localizations. The chromosome sets of 4n males were composed of the C. taenia, C. elongatoides and C. tanaitica genomes. The pattern of rDNA sites distribution indicated that apart others the karyotypes of 4n males were composed of one or two haploid chromosome set of C. elongatoides. The presented data give an important insight into the structure of chromosomes of two Cobitis species and into the genome structure of allotetraploid Cobitis males. The obtained result is discussed with previously published studies.

  20. Stable isotope evidence for trophic overlap of sympatric Mexican Lake Chapala silversides (Teleostei: Atherinopsidae: Chirostoma spp.

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    Norman Mercado-Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We explore the trophic role that a diverse sympatric group of fishes in the genus Chirostoma play in a large, shallow lake in central Mexico, Lake Chapala. We use δ13C and δ15N stable isotope - based food web analyses to explore how they relate to other components of the Lake Chapala ecosystem. We find five Chirostoma species in top trophic levels of the Chapala food web compared to other fishes, relying on a combination of zooplankton, fish and benthic resources as energy sources. Food web metric analyses showed generally overlapping trophic niches for members of Chirostoma, especially in terms of δ13C. However, C. jordani had lower mean δ15N isotopic values than C. promelas. As a group, "pescados blancos" (C. sphyraena and C. promelas also had higher δ15N signatures than "charales" (C. consocium, C. jordani and C. labarcae reflecting greater piscivory, but these differences were not strong for all food web metrics used. Trophic overlap among species of Chirostoma in Lake Chapala raises questions about the forces that might have led to a morphologically diverse but functionally similar and monophyletic group of species.

  1. Uncovering the Ancestry of B Chromosomes in Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Teleostei, Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsunomia, Ricardo; Silva, Duílio Mazzoni Zerbinato de Andrade; Ruiz-Ruano, Francisco J; Araya-Jaime, Cristian; Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; Scacchetti, Priscilla Cardim; Hashimoto, Diogo Teruo; Oliveira, Claudio; Trifonov, Vladmir A; Porto-Foresti, Fábio; Camacho, Juan Pedro M; Foresti, Fausto

    2016-01-01

    B chromosomes constitute a heterogeneous mixture of genomic parasites that are sometimes derived intraspecifically from the standard genome of the host species, but result from interspecific hybridization in other cases. The mode of origin determines the DNA content, with the B chromosomes showing high similarity with the A genome in the first case, but presenting higher similarity with a different species in the second. The characid fish Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae harbours highly invasive B chromosomes, which are present in all populations analyzed to date in the Parana and Tietê rivers. To investigate the origin of these B chromosomes, we analyzed two natural populations: one carrying B chromosomes and the other lacking them, using a combination of molecular cytogenetic techniques, nucleotide sequence analysis and high-throughput sequencing (Illumina HiSeq2000). Our results showed that i) B chromosomes have not yet reached the Paranapanema River basin; ii) B chromosomes are mitotically unstable; iii) there are two types of B chromosomes, the most frequent of which is lightly C-banded (similar to euchromatin in A chromosomes) (B1), while the other is darkly C-banded (heterochromatin-like) (B2); iv) the two B types contain the same tandem repeat DNA sequences (18S ribosomal DNA, H3 histone genes, MS3 and MS7 satellite DNA), with a higher content of 18S rDNA in the heterochromatic variant; v) all of these repetitive DNAs are present together only in the paracentromeric region of autosome pair no. 6, suggesting that the B chromosomes are derived from this A chromosome; vi) the two B chromosome variants show MS3 sequences that are highly divergent from each other and from the 0B genome, although the B2-derived sequences exhibit higher similarity with the 0B genome (this suggests an independent origin of the two B variants, with the less frequent, B2 type presumably being younger); and vii) the dN/dS ratio for the H3.2 histone gene is almost 4-6 times higher for B chromosomes than for A chromosome sequences, suggesting that purifying selection is relaxed for the DNA sequences located on the B chromosomes, presumably because they are mostly inactive.

  2. Repetitive DNA Sequences and Evolution of ZZ/ZW Sex Chromosomes in Characidium (Teleostei: Characiformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scacchetti, Priscilla Cardim; Utsunomia, Ricardo; Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; da Costa Silva, Guilherme José; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2015-01-01

    Characidium constitutes an interesting model for cytogenetic studies, since a large degree of karyotype variation has been detected in this group, like the presence/absence of sex and supernumerary chromosomes and variable distribution of repetitive sequences in different species/populations. In this study, we performed a comparative cytogenetic analysis in 13 Characidium species collected at different South American river basins in order to investigate the karyotype diversification in this group. Chromosome analyses involved the karyotype characterization, cytogenetic mapping of repetitive DNA sequences and cross-species chromosome painting using a W-specific probe obtained in a previous study from Characidium gomesi. Our results evidenced a conserved diploid chromosome number of 2n = 50, and almost all the species exhibited homeologous ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes in different stages of differentiation, except C. cf. zebra, C. tenue, C. xavante and C. stigmosum. Notably, some ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes showed 5S and/or 18S rDNA clusters, while no U2 snDNA sites could be detected in the sex chromosomes, being restricted to a single chromosome pair in almost all the analyzed species. In addition, the species Characidium sp. aff. C. vidali showed B chromosomes with an inter-individual variation of 1 to 4 supernumerary chromosomes per cell. Notably, these B chromosomes share sequences with the W-specific probe, providing insights about their origin. Results presented here further confirm the extensive karyotype diversity within Characidium in contrast with a conserved diploid chromosome number. Such chromosome differences seem to constitute a significant reproductive barrier, since several sympatric Characidium species had been described during the last few years and no interespecific hybrids were found.

  3. A revision of the species of Saturnius Manter, 1969 (Digenea: Hemiuridae), parasites of mullets (Teleostei: Mugilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Montero, Francisco E; Gibson, David I; Balbuena, Juan Antonio; Raga, Juan Antonio; Shvetsova, Ludmila S; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2008-09-01

    The genus Saturnius Manter, 1969 is defined, its species re-examined and a key to the species presented. S. overstreeti n. sp. is described from Mugil soiuy Basilewsky and M. cephalus L. from the Russian coast of the Sea of Japan and distinguished from the morphologically related S. papernai Overstreet, 1977 and S. maurepasi Overstreet, 1977. S. segmentatus Manter, 1969 is redescribed on the basis of the type- and newly collected material from M. cephalus on the Russian coast of the Sea of Japan. The morphometric variation of S. papernai is studied based on newly collected material from Liza aurata (Risso) in the Ebro Delta and off Santa Pola, Spain. The comparisons reveal lower ranges of most metrical features than previously known. A principal component analysis, carried out after adding the new data to those of Blasco-Costa et al. (2006), confirms the species identification. Other valid species recognised are S. mugilis (Yamaguti, 1970), S. maurepasi, S. belizensis Fischthal, 1977, S. dimitrovi Blasco-Costa et al., 2006 and S. minutus Blasco-Costa et al., 2006. Forms considered species inquirendae are S. valamugilis Rekharani & Madhavi, 1984, Bunocotyle constrictus Domnich & Sarabeev, 1999 [=S. papernai of Domnich & Sarabeev (2000a, b, c, d)], B. mugilis Yamaguti, 1970 of Solonchenko (1976) and S. mugilis of Dmitrieva & Gaevskaya (2001). Host and locality information is given in detail for all species. Lisa ramado (Risso) and Chelon labrosus (Cuvier) are new host records for S. papernai (sensu stricto) and S. dimitrovi. L. aurata is a new host record for S. dimitrovi and S. minutus, and L. saliens (Risso) is a new host record for S. minutus.

  4. Helminth species richness of introduced and native grey mullets (Teleostei: Mugilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabeev, Volodimir

    2015-08-01

    Quantitative complex analyses of parasite communities of invaders across different native and introduced populations are largely lacking. The present study provides a comparative analysis of species richness of helminth parasites in native and invasive populations of grey mullets. The local species richness differed between regions and host species, but did not differ when compared with invasive and native hosts. The size of parasite assemblages of endohelminths was higher in the Mediterranean and Azov-Black Seas, while monogeneans were the most diverse in the Sea of Japan. The helminth diversity was apparently higher in the introduced population of Liza haematocheilus than that in their native habitat, but this trend could not be confirmed when the size of geographic range and sampling efforts were controlled for. The parasite species richness at the infracommunity level of the invasive host population is significantly lower compared with that of the native host populations that lends support to the enemy release hypothesis. A distribution pattern of the infracommunity richness of acquired parasites by the invasive host can be characterized as aggregated and it is random in native host populations. Heterogeneity in the host susceptibility and vulnerability to acquired helminth species was assumed to be a reason of the aggregation of species numbers in the population of the invasive host.

  5. Microsatellite variation and genetic structuring in Mugil liza (Teleostei: Mugilidae) populations from Argentina and Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Ana C. G.; Miño, Carolina I.; Marins, Luis F. F.; Monteiro-Neto, Cassiano; Miranda, Laura; Schwingel, Paulo R.; Lemos, Valéria M.; Gonzalez-Castro, Mariano; Castello, Jorge P.; Vieira, João P.

    2014-08-01

    The mullet Mugil liza is distributed along the Atlantic coast of South America, from Argentina to Venezuela, and it is heavily exploited in Brazil. We assessed patterns of distribution of neutral nuclear genetic variation in 250 samples from the Brazilian states of Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul (latitudinal range of 23-31°S) and from Buenos Aires Province in Argentina (36°S). Nine microsatellite loci revealed 131 total alleles, 3-23 alleles per locus, He: 0.69 and Ho: 0.67. Significant genetic differentiation was observed between Rio de Janeiro samples (23°S) and those from all other locations, as indicated by FST, hierarchical analyses of genetic structure, Bayesian cluster analyses and assignment tests. The presence of two different demographic clusters better explains the allelic diversity observed in mullets from the southernmost portion of the Atlantic coast of Brazil and from Argentina. This may be taken into account when designing fisheries management plans involving Brazilian, Uruguayan and Argentinean M. liza populations.

  6. Reproductive cycles of Mugil cephalus, Liza ramada and Liza aurata (Teleostei: Mugilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartulović, V; Dulčić, J; Matić-Skoko, S; Glamuzina, B

    2011-06-01

    The reproductive cycles of three mullet species from the Eastern Adriatic coast were described using several biological parameters (gonado-somatic index, oocyte diameter and sex ratio) to improve knowledge about their reproduction.

  7. Genus-level taxonomic changes implied by the mitochondrial phylogeny of grey mullets (Teleostei: Mugilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Jean-Dominique; Chen, Wei-Jen; Shen, Kang-Ning; Fu, Cuizhang; Borsa, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive mitochondrial phylogeny of the family Mugilidae (Durand et al., Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 64 (2012) 73-92) demonstrated the polyphyly or paraphyly of a proportion of the 20 genera in the family. Based on these results, here we propose a revised classification with 25 genera, including 15 genera currently recognized as valid (Agonostomus, Aldrichetta, Cestraeus, Chaenomugil, Chelon, Crenimugil, Ellochelon, Joturus, Mugil, Myxus, Neomyxus, Oedalechilus, Rhinomugil, Sicamugil and Trachystoma), 7 resurrected genera [Dajaus (for Agonostomus monticola), Gracilimugil (for Liza argentea), Minimugil (for Sicamugil cascasia), Osteomugil (for several species currently under Moolgarda and Valamugil, including M. cunnesius, M. engeli, M. perusii, and V. robustus), Planiliza (for Indo-Pacific Chelon spp., Indo-Pacific Liza spp., and Paramugil parmatus), Plicomugil (for Oedalechilus labiosus), and Squalomugil (for Rhinomugil nasutus)] and 3 new genera: Neochelon gen. nov. (for Liza falcipinnis), Parachelon gen. nov. (for L. grandisquamis) and Pseudomyxus gen. nov. (for Myxus capensis). Genus Chelon was shown to include exclusively Chelon spp. and Liza spp. from the Atlantic and the Mediterranean, and Liza spp. species endemic to eastern southern Africa. Genus Crenimugil should now include C. crenilabis, Moolgarda seheli and V. buchanani. Genus names Liza, Moolgarda, Paramugil, Valamugil and Xenomugil should be abandoned because they are no longer valid. Further genetic evidence is required to confirm or infirm the validity of the genus Paracrenimugil Senou 1988. The mitochondrial phylogeny of the 25 genera from the present revision is the following: [(Sicamugil, (Minimugil, Rhinomugil)); Trachystoma; ((Myxus, Neomyxus), (Cestraeus, Chaenomugil, (Agonostomus, Dajaus, Joturus), Mugil)); (Aldrichetta, Gracilimugil); Neochelon gen. nov.; (Pseudomyxus gen. nov., (Chelon, Oedalechilus, Planiliza, Parachelon gen. nov.)); ((Squalomugil, (Ellochelon, Plicomugil)), (Crenimugil, Osteomugil))]. Agonostomus monticola and several species with large distribution ranges (including Moolgarda seheli, Mugil cephalus and M. curema) consist of separate lineages whose geographic distribution suggests they are cryptic species, thus warranting further taxonomic work in the Mugilidae at the infra-generic level.

  8. Meso and microhabitat analysis and feeding habits of small nektonic characins (Teleostei: Characiformes in Neotropical streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Ceneviva-Bastos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The habitat use and feeding habits of a set of nektonic fish species often found in small low-gradient streams in Brazil were investigated. The core species in the present study was Knodus moenkhausii (Eigenmann & Kennedy, 1903, the most abundant of five species in the nektonic guild. Records of the species in 22 streams indicate that K. moenkhausii is associated, on a mesohabitat scale, with runs, and on a microhabitat scale, with sandy bottoms, intermediate depth, and open sites without coverage or submerged vegetation. During snorkeling observations, two additional nektonic registered species showed spatial segregation from K. moenkhausii with respect to foraging microhabitats. Feeding habits of the observed nektonic species were significantly correlated with riparian vegetation. The six species studied appear to use different resources, as suggested by a non-metric ordination of diet, and sites with characteristic riparian vegetation. The studied species may be considered generalists with a tendency to insectivory, with K. moenkhausii feeding on the widest variety of resources. Such opportunism explains its ability to successfully occupy instream habitats with low complexity.

  9. The types of Osteoglossum formosum Müller & Schlegel, 1840 (Teleostei, Osteoglossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oijen, Martien J P; Van Der Meij, Sancia E T

    2013-01-01

    The designation of a neotype for Scleropages formosus (Müller & Schlegel, 1840) by Pouyaud et al. (2003) triggered a search for the type specimens of the species, which were found in the collections of the Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden (RMNH) and the Natural History Museum, London (BM(NH)). The publication date of the species is corrected. Moreover, detailed data on the day of capture and the type locality were uncovered. An English translation of the major part of the original Dutch description is provided, and a number of neglected colour descriptions and figures of S.formosus are discussed. Lastly, a lectotype is designated.

  10. Biological performance of Asian catfish (Clarias batrachus (Teleostei, Clariidae cultured in recirculating aquaculture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Fadhil

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to assess the biological performance of Asian catfish in RAS by using4 tanks (3 culture tanks and 1 sedimentation tank measuring 2 m x 1 m x 0.60 m with a volume of 900liters and bio-filter as water purification unit. The numbers of catfish cultured in each tank were as manyas 300 fish i each tank, with a size of 5-8 cm (Tank 1, 8-12 cm (Tank 2 and 12-15 cm (Tank 3,respectively. This study was conducted for 30 days (August-September 2010 by considering the waterquality during experiment, indicates that the RAS are able to provide proper conditions for growth andsurvival of catfish with a survival rate more than 92% on all tank experiments with specific growth ratefrom 0.64 to 0.89% per day and feed conversion rate of about 0.18-0.27. The existence of the impuritiesfrom the fish waste directly influences water quality, but the decline of water quality still at a decent levelfor the culture of catfish. The ANOVA test to the biological performance and water quality showed thatthe difference in the size of fish in each tank has no significant influence between each other.

  11. Etheostoma erythrozonum, a new species of darter (teleostei: Percidae) from the Meramec River drainage, missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, J.F.; Wood, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    A new species of darter, Etheostoma erythrozonum, is described from the Meramec River drainage of Missouri, USA. Etheostoma erythrozonum is the first known fish species endemic to the Meramec River drainage. It differs morphologically and genetically from populations of its sister species, Etheostoma tetrazonum, from the Gasconade River, Osage River, and Moreau River drainages. Copyright ?? 2009 ?? Magnolia Press.

  12. The c-myc coding DNA sequences of cyprinids (Teleostei: Cypriniformes): Implications for phylogeny

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG XiangHui; WANG XuZhen; GAN XiaoNi; HE ShunPing

    2007-01-01

    The family Cyprinidae is one of the largest fish families in the world, which is widely distributed in East Asian, with obvious difference in characteristic size among species. The phylogenetic analysis of cyprinid taxa based on the functionally important genes can help to understand the speciation and functional divergence of the Cyprinidae. The c-myc gene is an important gene regulating individual growth.In the present study, the sequence variations of the cyprinid c-myc gene and their phylogenetic significance were analyzed. The 41 complete sequences of the c-myc gene were obtained from cyprinids and outgroups through PCR amplification and clone. The coding DNA sequences of the c-myc gene were used to infer molecular phylogenetic relationships within the Cyprinidae. Myxocyprinus asiaticus (Catostomidae), Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (Cobitidae) and Hemimyzon sinensis (Homalopteridae)were assigned to the outgroup taxa. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML), and Bayesian retrieved similar topology. Within the Cyprinidae, Leuciscini and Barbini formed the monophyletic lineage respectively with high nodal supports. Leuciscini comprises Xenocyprinae, Cultrinae, East Asian species of Leuciscinae and Danioninae, Gobioninae and Acheilognathinae, and Barbini contains Schizothoracinae, Barbinae, Cyprininae and Labeoninae. Danio rerio, D.myersi and Rasbora trilineata were supposed to separate from Leuciscinae and Barbini and to form another lineage. The positions of some Danioninae species were still unresolved. Analyses of both amino acid variation with parsimony information and two high variation regions indicated that there is no correlation between variations of single amino acid or high variation regions and characteristic size of cyprinids. In addition, the species with smaller size were usually found to be basal within clades in the tree, which might be the results of the adaptation to the primitive ecology and survival pressure.

  13. Complete mitogenomes of Cocos lemonpeel angelfish (Centropyge flavissima) and Eibl's angelfish (Centropyge eibli) (Teleostei: Pomacanthidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Kang-Ning; Chang, Chih-Wei; Lin, Zi-Han; Chan, Yen-Fan; Tsai, Shiou-Yi; Chen, Ching-Hung; Hsiao, Chung-Der

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we used the next-generation sequencing method to deduce two complete mitogenomes of Cocos lemonpeel angelfish (Centropyge flavissima) and Eibl's angelfish (Centropyge eibli) for the first time. The assembled mitogenome, consisting of 17 010 bp and 17 101 bp, showing 98.3% identity each other. Both mitogenomes follow the typical vertebrate arrangement, including 13 protein coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, two ribosomal RNA genes, and a non-coding control region of D-loop. D-loop contains 1302 bp in C. flavissima and 1392 bp in C. eibli and locates between tRNA-Pro and tRNA-Phe. The overall GC content is 45.2% for C. flavissima and 44.9% for C. eibli. Complete mitogenomes of C. flavissima and C. eibli provide essential and important DNA molecular data for phylogenetic and evolutionary analysis for marine angelfishes.

  14. Osteology of some catfishes of the genus Glyptothorax (Teleostei: Siluriformes of northeastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Vishwanath

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the premaxilla, dentary, Weberian lamina, infraorbital series, vomer and frontal bones were observed in eight species of Glyptothorax of northeastern India. In G. botius, G. granulus, G. manipurensis, G. ngapang, G. striatus and G. ventrolineatus, the premaxilla consists only of proximal and distal tooth plates, the anterior portion of the dentary is slender and its dorsal surface bears villiform teeth, the lateral extension of posterior portion of Weberian lamina terminates at the level of the lateral margin of its anterior portion, and the frontal has a shallow orbital notch. In G. cavia and G. chindwinica, the premaxilla consists of proximal, distal and posterior elements on the roof of the oral cavity; the anterior portion of the dentary bears posterior extension of dentary tooth-plate; the lateral extension of the posterior portion of Weberian lamina extends almost to the distal tip of the fifth parapophysis; there are nine or ten infraorbital bones with a longer and broader body of the lacrimal; greatly enlarged vomerine head; and frontal bears a deep orbital notch. The jaw structure of G. burmanicus is discussed.

  15. Phylogeny of the family Characidae (Teleostei: Characiformes: from characters to taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Marcos Mirande

    Full Text Available The family Characidae is the most diverse among Neotropical fishes. Systematics of this family are mainly based on pre-cladistic papers, and only recently a phylogenetic hypothesis for Characidae was proposed by the author. That phylogeny was based on 360 morphological characters studied for 160 species, including representatives of families related to Characidae. This paper is based on that phylogenetic analysis, with the analyzed characters described herein and documented, accompanied by comparisons of their definition and coding in previous papers. Synapomorphies of each node of the proposed phylogeny are listed, comparisons with previous classifications provided, and autapomorphies of the analyzed species listed. Taxonomic implications of the proposed classification and the position of the incertae sedis genera within Characidae are discussed. A discussion of the phylogenetic information of the characters used in the classical systematics of the Characidae is provided.

  16. Osteology of Priocharax and remarkable developmental truncation in a miniature Amazonian fish (Teleostei: Characiformes: Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattox, George M T; Britz, Ralf; Toledo-Piza, Mônica

    2016-01-01

    Establishing phylogenetic relationships of miniature fishes is challenging in taxa with developmental truncation. Within the Characiformes, developmental truncation appears to be relatively rare, with the Neotropical genus Priocharax being an example. Priocharax includes three miniature species among the smallest of the order and has been hypothesized to belong to the Heterocharacinae. The pronounced reduction in its skeleton, however, prevented a clearer evaluation of its relationships. The present detailed osteological study was designed to address this question and revealed that 21 bones are absent and nine other skeletal structures are simplified in Priocharax when compared to other characids. Comparison of the skeleton of adult Priocharax with early developmental stages of other characids demonstrated that most of the absences and simplifications can be interpreted as developmental truncations. The most striking developmental truncations are in the pectoral girdle, in which the endoskeleton remains entirely cartilaginous. Other interesting truncations are in the ethmoid region of the skull, infraorbital series, and Weberian apparatus, in which the claustrum is absent. Our study also revealed some unusual sexual dimorphisms in the pelvic girdle. Two cladistic analyses were performed to assess the relationships of Priocharax within the Heterocharacinae. The first consisted of a traditional analysis in which all absences and reductions of Priocharax were coded in the same way as in the remaining taxa. This resulted in three equally most parsimonious topologies, all of which have Priocharax as the most basal taxon of the Heterocharacinae. The second analysis incorporated ontogenetic information, and most absences and reductions of Priocharax were reinterpreted as apomorphic conditions and thus, coded differently from similar conditions in outgroups. This resulted in a single phylogenetic hypothesis with Priocharax and Gnathocharax as sister groups based on seven synapomorphies. Our approach demonstrates the importance of developmental studies to better understand morphological evolution of miniaturized, truncated taxa, and to generate hypotheses of their relationships.

  17. Osteology of Paedocypris, a miniature and highly developmentally truncated fish (Teleostei: Ostariophysi: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britz, R; Conway, K W

    2009-04-01

    Species of the cyprinid genus Paedocypris are among the smallest and most developmentally truncated fishes and vertebrates. Our analysis of their skeletal structure reveals a puzzling combination of extreme developmental truncation and an increased morphological complexity in sexually dimorphic characters. The skeleton of Paedocypris is characterized by reduction and loss and resembles in many aspects that of a larval/early juvenile stage of its close relatives. We found 61 characters that have been affected by developmental truncation. A comparison with the skeletal development of a close relative, the zebrafish Danio rerio, demonstrates that the majority of the absent bones or skeletal structures in Paedocypris are those that appear late in the ossification trajectory of the zebrafish. Thus, their absence in Paedocypris seems to be due to the simple developmental truncation of terminal stages in the ossification sequence. Our study of the sexually dimorphic structures in Paedocypris demonstrates that predominantly the male exhibits the more complex state. In relation to the female, male Paedocypris uniquely possess a cleithrum with a pointed posterior process that covers the scapula laterally, and a more medially situated posterior flange that contacts the dorsal area of the coracoid; a massive and heavily ossified uppermost pectoral radial tightly bound to the scapula; thickened and enlarged three uppermost pectoral-fin rays; a large triangular, dorsolaterally directed process on the outer arm of the massive os suspensorium; and a enlarged and shovel-like anterodorsally directed basipterygium; and a hypertrophied first pelvic-fin ray with additional anterior flanges that support keratinized pads of skin. Female Paedocypris show only one structure that is better developed than in males: the first proximal-middle radial and the anteriormost fin ray of the dorsal fin are more massive and more heavily ossified. Although the function and biological role of these dimorphisms is still unknown, we hypothesize that they are related to a special reproductive behavior. Paedocypris is a prime example for the recent claim that miniaturization among cyprinids is associated with evolutionary novelty only in developmentally truncated miniatures and not in proportioned dwarfs. Paedocypris offers a strong challenge to Schindleria as the most extreme example of developmental truncation known among fishes. We highlight the difficulties that developmentally truncated taxa frequently pose to the resolution of their phylogenetic position and propose an approach to overcome this problem. Our phylogenetic comparison to determine the systematic position of Paedocypris among cyprinids reveals that it shares not only a number of unique absences, but also highly unusual progressive characters with Sundadanio and Danionella, two other Asian miniature cyprinids. We hypothesize that the three genera form a monophyletic group. We further found that Paedocypris and Danionella share a number of uniquely derived characters pointing to a sister group relationship of the two.

  18. Pseudolimia n. gen., a new monotypic genus for Limia heterandria Regan, 1913 (Teleostei: Poeciliidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poeser, Fred N.

    2002-01-01

    A new genus, Pseudolimia n. gen. is established for the South American Limia heterandria Regan, 1913. It is compared in an anatomical analysis with several nominal taxa of the tribe Poeciliini. Based on number and shape of the gonapophyses, Pseudolimia n. gen. is assigned to the tribe Poeciliini.

  19. LENTIPES KAAEA, A NEW SPECIES OF FRESHWATER GOBY (TELEOSTEI: GOBIOIDEI: SICYDIINAE FROM NEW CALEDONIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WATSON R. E.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Lentipes kaaea, new species, is described on the basis of 28 specimens collected from high gradient streams occurring in eastern slope region of North Province on New Caledonia and streams in the island nation of Vanuatu. Lentipes kaaea, new species, is distinguished from all other congeners by the following combination of characteristics: males and females with a single pair of fleshy lobes associated with and attached basally with urogenital papilla, lobes always apparent in males and only apparent in gravid females; usually 17 (17-18 pectoral rays; usually 10 (9-10 segmented rays in second dorsal fin; caudal peduncle with cycloid scales, few ctenoid scales may be present along midline in females, between belly and first dorsal fin ctenoid scales with 3 to 5 large spike like ctenii present on males and absent in females; cephalic sensory pore system with pores A, B, C, D, F, H, K, L, N and O, pore D singular with all other pores paired, oculoscapular canal divided into posterior and anterior canals between pores H and K; males bright red to purplish on head and on posterior half of body, second dorsal fin with a black spot between spine and ray 1, individuals may have more than one spot present, first dorsal fin bluish to purplish and usually without spots, anal fin reddish to purplish basally and bluish distally; females usually whitish with variable tan to brownish markings that may include a distinct lateral band and a spot at medial base of caudal fin, above midline dusky bars and bands may be present, dusky saddles may be present dorsally, fin rays and spines with basal half slightly brownish and distally without pigment, membrane in all fins generally clear.

  20. Whole chromosome painting of B chromosomes of the red-eye tetra Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Teleostei, Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudeler, Patricia Elda Sobrinho; Diniz, Débora; Wasko, Adriane Pinto; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2015-01-01

    B chromosomes are dispensable genomic elements found in different groups of animals and plants. In the present study, a whole chromosome probe was generated from a specific heterochromatic B chromosome occurring in cells of the characidae fish Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Steindachner, 1907). The chromosome painting probes were used in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments for the assessment of metaphase chromosomes obtained from individuals from three populations of Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae. The results revealed that DNA sequences were shared between a specific B chromosome and many chromosomes of the A complement in all populations analyzed, suggesting a possible intra-specific origin of these B chromosomes. However, no hybridization signals were observed in other B chromosomes found in the same individuals, implying a possible independent origin of B chromosome variants in this species. FISH experiments using 18S rDNA probes revealed the presence of non-active ribosomal genes in some B chromosomes and in some chromosomes of the A complement, suggesting that at least two types of B chromosomes had an independent origin. The role of heterochromatic segments and ribosomal sequences in the origin of B chromosomes were discussed.

  1. Reproductive biology of the Neotropical electric fish Brachyhypopomus draco (Teleostei: Hypopomidae from southern Brazil

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    Andrea B. Schaan

    Full Text Available The reproductive biology of a population of the weakly electric fish Brachyhypopomus draco from southern Brazil is described. Information is provided on the establishment of the reproductive period in this species and its relations with environmental and feeding factors, as well as on the absolute and relative fecundities, spawning type, sex ratio and sexual dimorphism. The species exhibits a relatively long reproductive period, a relative fecundity of 0.173 oocytes per mg of female total weight, and fractional spawning. The sex ratio did not differ from 1:1 during all sampled months. Sexual dimorphism related to hypertrophy of the male's distal portion of caudal filament was observed and males grew to greater lengths than females. Male gonadosomatic index (GSI was significantly related to water depth, oxygen saturation and temperature. Female GSI was significantly related to water depth and hepatosomatic index.

  2. Sperm ultrastructure in three different families of weakly electric fishes (Teleostei: Gymnotiformes

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    Júlia Giora

    Full Text Available This study presents details of sperm ultrastructure for Gymnotus aff. carapo (Gymnotidae, Eigenmannia trilineata (Sternopygidae, and three Brachyhypopomus species (B. draco, B. bombilla, and B. gauderio - Hypopomidae from southern Brazil. Differences were found among the representatives of the different families. For example, nuclear rotation was present in E. trilineata and in the Brachyhypopomus species, but absent in Gymnotus aff. carapo, and the presence of flagellar fins was only observed in E. trilineata. Some intraspecific variations could also be noticed among the Brachyhypopomus species analyzed. Most of the characters found in the spermatozoa of the species studied herein are shared with species of Gymnotiformes previously analyzed.

  3. Description of a new species of Apistogramma from the Rio Madeira System in Brazil (Teleostei, Cichlidae)

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    Apistogramma resticulosa sp.n. is described on the basis of six specimens, 12.8-26.5 mm standard length, from near Humaitá, Brazil. It belongs to the A. regani species-group and is distinguished by the vertical dash-marking of the abdominal sides.

  4. Petroscirtes pylei, a new saber-toothed blenny from the Fiji Islands (Teleostei: Blenniidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Vaniz, W.F.

    2005-01-01

    Petroscirtes pylei is described from three specimens, 20.3-40.9 mm SL, obtained from a deep-water reef off Suva, Viti Levu, Fiji Islands. It is distinguished from all other congeners by its color pattern, including the presence of two dark body stripes, the lower one broadly extending onto the anal fin, and the dorsal fin with a broad, dark basal stripe, superimposed by a conspicuous white spot centered on the 4th spine. Among Petroscirtes, only the new species and P. springeri typically have 12 dorsal-fin spines but they are not closely related. The holotype was collected in 104-110 m, the second deepest depth record for a species of Petroscirtes. Discovery of this new species, and an apparently second new deep-water Petroscrites (uncollected), at a different Fijian reef indicates that our knowledge of the biodiversity of this habitat and of the saber-toothed blennies is very incomplete. Copyright ?? 2005 Magnolia Press.

  5. Juvenile Thalassoma amblycephalum Bleeker (Labridae, Teleostei) dwelling among the tentacles of sea anemones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvedlund, Michael; Iwao, Kenji; Brolund, Thea Marie

    2006-01-01

    each) of the juvenile wrasse Thalassoma amblycephalum dwelling among the tentacles of the two sea anemones Entacmaea quadricolor (clonal type), and Heteractis magnifica at a coral reef in southern Japan during 16 months in daylight hours. There are only two past records of this facultative association......, one from east Africa and one from Indonesia. The wrasse remained close to and was occasionally in physical contact with the host when foraging amongst the tentacles. When frightened, they took shelter among corals, away from the host anemone. The wrasse co-existed with the anemonefishes Amphiprion...

  6. Population genetic of Petroleuciscus esfahani (Teleostei: Cyprinidae in Zayandeh Rood River, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Shojaee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Population genetics of Petroleuciscus esfahani in Zayandeh Rood River, Iran were analysed using 120 samples of adult fish from four stations of the river Cheshmeh Dimeh (CHD, Khersoonak (KH, Chamgordan (CH and Safaeye Bridge (SB and 5 pairs of microsatellite primers. All loci showed polymorphism. A total number of 54 alleles were recorded across loci ranging from 6 at CnaB-030 to 17 at Ca3. The mean number of alleles per populations ranged from 9.6 in CHD to 8.6 in others. Mean observed heterozygosity at the five loci detected ranged from 0.92 to 1.00 which showed high level of genetic diversity in each population. Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was obvious in most combinations (locus × population, mainly due to heterozygosity excess. The lowest and highest genetic distances were calculated between CHD-KH and CHD-CH populations, respectively. The results showed low but significant FST values between each pair of the populations. This investigation represented at least four separate populations of P. esfahani in the river which showed the effects of river landscape fragmentation on population genetic structure of P. esfahani.

  7. Multilocus resolution of Mugilidae phylogeny (Teleostei: Mugiliformes): Implications for the family's taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Rong; Durand, Jean-Dominique; Fu, Cuizhang

    2016-03-01

    The interrelationships among mugilids (Mugiliformes: Mugilidae) remain highly debated. Using a mitochondrial gene-based phylogeny as criterion, a revised classification with 25 genera in the Mugilidae has recently been proposed. However, phylogenetic relationships of major mitochondrial lineages remain unresolved and to gain a general acceptance the classification requires confirmation based on multilocus evidence and diagnostic morphological characters. Here, we construct a species-tree using twelve nuclear and three mitochondrial loci and infer the evolution of 71 morphological characters. Our multilocus phylogeny does not agree with previous morphology-based hypotheses for the relationships within Mugilidae, confirms the revised classification with 25 genera and further resolves their phylogenetic relationships. Using the well-resolved multilocus phylogeny as the criterion, we reclassify Mugilidae genera into three new subfamilies (Myxinae, Rhinomugilinae, and Cheloninae) and one new, recombined, subfamily (Mugilinae). The Rhinomugilinae subfamily is further divided into four tribes. The revised classification of Mugilidae is supported by morpho-anatomical synapomorphies or a combination of characters. These characters are used to erect a key to the subfamilies and genera.

  8. Two new species of shovel-jaw carp Onychostoma (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from southern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Huy Duc; Pham, Hung Manh; Tran, Ngan Trong

    2015-05-22

    Two new species of large shovel-jaw carps in the genus Onychostoma are described from the upper Krong No and middle Dong Nai drainages of the Langbiang Plateau in southern Vietnam. These new species are known from streams in montane mixed pine and evergreen forests between 140 and 1112 m. Their populations are isolated in the headwaters of the upper Sre Pok River of the Mekong basin and in the middle of the Dong Nai basin. Both species are differentiated from their congeners by a combination of the following characters: transverse mouth opening width greater than head width, 14-17 predorsal scales, caudal-peduncle length 3.9-4.2 times in SL, no barbels in adults and juveniles, a strong serrated last simple ray of the dorsal fin, and small eye diameter (20.3-21.5% HL). Onychostoma krongnoensis sp. nov. is differentiated from Onychostoma dongnaiensis sp. nov. by body depth (4.0 vs. 3.2 times in SL), predorsal scale number (14-17 vs. 14-15), dorsal-fin length (4.5 vs. 4.2 times in SL), caudal-peduncle length (3.9 vs. 4.2 times in SL), colour in life (dark vs. bright), and by mitochondrial DNA (0.2% sequence divergence). Molecular evidence indicates that both species are members of Onychostoma and are distinct from all congeners sampled (uncorrected sequence divergences at the 16S rRNA gene of >2.0% for all Onychostoma for which homologous 16S rRNA sequences are available).

  9. Phylogeny and biogeography of Triportheidae (Teleostei: Characiformes) based on molecular data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariguela, T C; Roxo, F F; Foresti, F; Oliveira, C

    2016-03-01

    Triportheidae represents a relatively small family of characiform fishes with highly modified morphology. The relationship among characiform families is still unclear, and a phylogenetic analysis for the family including a representative number of Triportheus species has never been performed. Here, we inferred a phylogeny for 19 of the 22 species recognized for this family and two possible new Triportheus species using two mitochondrial and three nuclear genes. Our results show that (1) Triportheidae is monophyletic and a sister group of the clade consisting of the families Bryconidae and Gasteropelecidae; (2) Triportheus is monophyletic, but some species need to be reviewed and described; (3) all genera in Triportheidae, except for Agoniates originated in the period between Early Oligocene and Early Miocene; and (4) speciation in Triportheidae coincides with important geological events in South America, reinforcing the importance of time-calibrated trees to study fish evolution.

  10. Molecular phylogeny and evolution of Scomber (Teleostei: Scombridae) based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Jiao; GAO Tianxiang; MIAO Zhenqing; YANAGIMOTO Takashi

    2011-01-01

    A molecular phylogenetic analysis of the genus Scomber was conducted based on mitochondrial (COI, Cyt b and control region) and nuclear (5S rDNA) DNA sequence data in multigene perspective. A variety of phylogenetic analytic methods were used to clarify the current taxonomic classification and to assess phylogenetic relationships and the evolutionary history of this genus. The present study produced a well-resolved phylogeny that strongly supported the monophyly of Scomber. We confirmed that S. japonicus and S. colias were genetically distinct. Although morphologically and ecologically similar to S. colias, the molecular data showed that S. japonicus has a greater molecular affinity with S. australasicus, which conflicts with the traditional taxonomy. This phyiogenetic pattern was corroborated by the mtDNA data, but incompletely by the nuclear DNA data. Phylogenetic concordance between the mitochondrial and nuclear DNA regions for the basal nodes supports an Atlantic origin for Scomber. The present-day geographic ranges of the species were compared with the resultant molecular phylogeny derived from partition Bayesian analyses of the combined data sets to evaluate possible dispersal routes of the genus. The present-day geographic distribution of Scomber species might be best ascribed to multiple dispersal events. In addition, our results suggest that phylogenies derived from multiple genes and long sequences exhibited improved phylogenetic resolution, from which we conclude that the phylogenetic reconstruction is a reliable representation of the evolutionary history of Scomber.

  11. Identification and chromosome mapping of repetitive elements in the Astyanax scabripinnis (Teleostei: Characidae) species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Patrícia; de Oliveira, Luiz Antonio; Pucci, Marcela Baer; Santos, Mateus Henrique; Moreira-Filho, Orlando; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo; Nogaroto, Viviane; de Almeida, Mara Cristina; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira

    2015-02-01

    Most part of the eukaryotic genome is composed of repeated sequences or multiple copies of DNA, which were considered as "junk DNA", and may be associated to the heterochromatin. In this study, three populations of Astyanax aff. scabripinnis from Brazilian rivers of Guaratinguetá and Pindamonhangaba (São Paulo) and a population from Maringá (Paraná) were analyzed concerning the localization of the nucleolar organizer regions (Ag-NORs), the As51 satellite DNA, the 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA), and the 5S rDNA. Repeated sequences were also isolated and identified by the Cot - 1 method, which indicated similarity (90%) with the LINE UnaL2 retrotransposon. The fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed the retrotransposon dispersed and more concentrated markers in centromeric and telomeric chromosomal regions. These sequences were co-localized and interspaced with 18S and 5S rDNA and As51, confirmed by fiber-FISH essay. The B chromosome found in these populations pointed to a conspicuous hybridization with LINE probe, which is also co-located in As51 sequences. The NORs were active at unique sites of a homologous pair in the three populations. There were no evidences that transposable elements and repetitive DNA had influence in the transcriptional regulation of ribosomal genes in our analyses.

  12. Population characteristics, space use and habitat associations of the seahorse Hippocampus reidi (Teleostei: Syngnathidae

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    Ierecê Lucena Rosa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a case study of a threatened seahorse species, Hippocampus reidi, highlighting the importance of using ecological information to assist conservation and management initiatives. Underwater visual sighting data (50 x 2m transect gathered along the NE, SE and S portions of the Brazilian coast revealed an unequal distribution across localities, perhaps related to harvesting pressure, and a mean density of 0.026 ind.m-2. Our findings suggest some restricted spatial use by H. reidi, which was consistent with its estimated home range, and with re-sighting of specimens. Reproduction was recorded year-round, however productive peaks may exist. Components of habitat structure mostly used as anchoring points were mangrove plants, macroalgae, cnidarians, seagrass, sponges, and bryozoans. Conservation recommendations include: further characterization and mapping of habitats; assessment of availability and condition of microhabitats in selected areas, and studies on dispersal routes during initial life stages.Neste artigo apresenta-se um estudo de caso de uma espécie ameaçada de cavalo-marinho, Hippocampus reidi, enfatizando a importância de utilizar informações ecológicas nas ações de conservação e manejo. Dados de censo visual (transectos de 50 x 2m obtidos nas porções NE, SE e S da costa brasileira revelaram uma distribuição heterogênea entre as localidades, talvez relacionada à pressão de coleta, e uma densidade média de 0.026 ind.m-2. Os resultados sugerem limitação no uso do espaço por H. reidi (consistente com a área vital estimada e com a re-avistagem de exemplares e que a reprodução ocorre o ano inteiro, embora com possíveis picos. Os componentes da estrutura do habitat mais freqüentemente utilizados como pontos de ancoragem pelos cavalos-marinhos foram vegetação de mangue, macroalgas, cnidários, capim marinho e briozoários. Recomendações conservacionistas incluem caracterização adicional e mapeamento de habitats; avaliação da disponibilidade e condição dos microhabitats em áreas selecionadas, e estudos sobre rotas de dispersão durante as fases iniciais de vida.

  13. Revisão taxonômica do gênero Homodiaetus (Teleostei, Siluriformes, Trichomycteridae

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    Koch Walter Rudolf

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Homodiaetus Eigenmann & Ward, 1907 is revised and four species are recognized. Its distribution is restricted to southeastern South America, from Uruguay to Paraguay river at west to the coastal drainages of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Homodiaetus is currently distinguished from other genus of Stegophilinae by the combination of the following characters: origin of ventral-fin at midlength between the snout tip and the caudal-fin origin; opercle with three or more odontodes; and gill membranes confluent with the istmus. Homodiaetus anisitsi Eigenmann & Ward, 1907, is diagnosed by the caudal-fin with black middle rays, margin of upper and lower procurrent caudal-fin rays with dark stripes extending to the caudal-fin, and 3-6 opercular odontodes; H. passarellii (Ribeiro, 1944 with 6-7 opercular odontodes, 21-24 lower procurrent caudal-fin rays and 23-26 upper procurrent caudal-fin rays; H. banguela sp. nov. with 9 opercular odontodes, 17-19 lower procurrent caudal-fin rays, 17-22 upper procurrent caudal-fin rays, reduction of fourth pharyngobranchial with only three teeth and untoothed fifth ceratobranchial; and H. graciosa sp. nov. with 5-6 dentary rows, 7-9 opercular odontodes and 16-23 upper procurrent caudal-fin rays.

  14. Reproductive biology of a population of Gymnotus aff.carapo (Teleostei: Gymnotidae from southern Brazil

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    Diego de Paula Cognato

    Full Text Available The reproductive period and its relation with somatic and abiotic factors, the relative and absolute fecundity, spawning type, length of first maturation and sex ratio is describe for Gymnotus aff.carapo from a small lake at Itapuã State Park, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Gymnotus aff. carapo presents a relatively long reproductive cycle extending from November/2003 to March/2004. Decreases in water conductivity and increases in dissolved oxygen are correlated with increased gonadal development in males. In females, seasonal increases in temperature and photoperiod and decreases in dissolved oxygen are correlated with increased gonadal development. The mean absolute fecundity was 915.3 oocytes, and mean relative fecundity 0.20 oocytes/mg body weight. Egg size distributions indicate multiple spawning. The size of first maturation was 141 mm in females and 146 mm in males. The sex ratio was 1:1, with a male bias only in smaller size classes.

  15. Spawning migrations of the endemic Labeobarbus (Cyprinidae, Teleostei) species of Lake Tana, Ethiopia: status and threats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anteneh, W.; Getahun, A.; Dejen, E.; Sibbing, F.A.; Nagelkerke, L.A.J.; Graaf, de M.; Wudneh, T.; Vijverberg, J.; Palstra, A.P.

    2012-01-01

    The reproductive biology of the only known intact species flock of large cyprinids, the 16 Labeobarbus species of Lake Tana (Ethiopia), has been extensively studied for the past two decades. Seven species of Labeobarbus are known to migrate >50 km upstream into tributary rivers for spawning durin

  16. Reproductive biology of Haemulon plumieri (Teleostei: Haemulidae) in Ceará state, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinozaki-Mendes, R A; Santander-Neto, J; Silva, J R F; Hazin, F H V

    2013-05-01

    The Haemulon plumieri is a typical reef-associated and tropical species found in warm and temperate waters of the Western Atlantic. Due to the large fishing effort directed to H. plumieri, the knowledge about its reproductive biology is essential for correct stock management and conservation. The aim of this study was to characterise reproductive biology with a focus on its seasonal variation of gonadal maturation stages, first maturation size and fecundity. Specimens were monthly collected and a total of 119 females and 136 males were analysed. The reproductive cycle of Haemulon plumieri is seasonal, with higher activity between March and May. Size at first maturity (L50) was estimated at 16.86 and 18.55 cm for females and males, respectively. The total fecundity ranged between 17,816 and 120,333 mature oocytes per female and relative fecundity was 235 ± 63 oocyte.g-1 whereas batch fecundity varied between 20 and 25% from total fecundity. Since the species is widely caught, we suggest a closed season from March to May and to establish a minimum catch size of 18.5 cm for both sexes, since there is no evident sexual dimorphism.

  17. Nematode larvae infecting Priacanthus arenatus Cuvier, 1829 (Pisces: Teleostei in Brazil

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    BIANCA P. KURAIEM

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available From July to December, 2013, thirty Priacanthus arenatus specimens commercialized in the cities of Niterói and Rio de Janeiro, State of Rio de Janeiro, were acquired. The fish were necropsied and filleted to investigate the presence of nematode larvae. Twenty fish (66.7% out of the total were parasitized by nematode larvae. A total of 2024 larvae were collected; among them, 30 third-instar larvae of Anisakis sp. showed prevalence (P = 20%, mean abundance (MA = 1, and the mean intensity (MI = 5, and infection sites (IS = caecum, stomach, liver, and mesentery; and 1,994 third-instar larvae (1,757 encysted and 237 free of Hysterothylacium deardorffoverstreetorum with P = 66.7%, MA = 66.5, and MI = 99.7, and IS = spleen, caecum, stomach, liver, mesentery, and abdominal muscle. This is the first study to report H. deardorffoverstreetorum and Anisakis sp. larvae parasitizing P. arenatus.

  18. Hemiodus iratapuru, a new species of Hemiodontidae from the Rio Jari, Amazon Basin, Brazil (Teleostei, Characiformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeani, F; Moreira, C R

    2013-04-01

    Hemiodus iratapuru, a new species of the Hemiodontidae from the Rio Iratapuru, a left bank tributary of the Rio Jari, Amazon Basin, Brazil, is described. The new species is diagnosed from other species of Hemiodus by modifications in the ectopterygoid, tooth form, scale counts, dorsal-fin form and colour pattern. The new species is proposed to be related to the Hemiodus quadrimaculatus species group.

  19. Mitochondrial DNA variability to explore the relationship complexity of Schizothoracine (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Syed Mudasir; Bhat, Farooz Ahmad; Balkhi, Masood-Ul Hassan; Bhat, Bilal Ahmad

    2014-12-01

    Despite numerous studies on the taxonomy of a highly complex group of schizothoracine (snow trouts), with over five recognized species from Kashmir, India (Schizothorax niger, Schizothorax esocinus, Schizothorax plagiostomus, Schizothorax curvifrons and Schizothorax labiatus) based on traditional morphological data, the relationships between these species is poorly understood and the taxonomic validity is still under debate. To resolve the evolutionary relationships among these species, we sequenced mitochondrial fragments, including 16Sr RNA, Cytb and the D-loop. Separate analyses of 16S and Cytb showed intermixing of the species and 16S was found more conserved than Cytb. The D-loop was found highly variable and showed length variation between and within species. Length variation was observed in di-nucleotide (TA)n microsatellite repeats with a variable number of repeat units (n = 7-14) that did not show heteroplasmy. Central conserved sequence blocks (CSBs) in D-loop sequences were found comparable to other vertebrate species. All phylogenetic reconstructions recovered the focal taxa as a monophyletic clade within the schizothoracines. Analyses with combined mitochondrial data sets showed close genetic relationships of all the five species. In addition to a close relationship between S. niger and S. curvifrons, two distinct groupings of S. ecoscinus and S. plagiostomus were supported by all the analyses. This study gives an insight into molecular phylogeny of the species and improves our understanding of historical and taxonomic relationships derived from morphological and ecological studies.

  20. Molecular cytogenetic study of the European bitterling Rhodeus amarus (Teleostei: Cyprinidae: Acheilognathinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirtiklis, Lech; Ocalewicz, Konrad; Wiechowska, Marzena; Boroń, Alicja; Hliwa, Piotr

    2014-04-01

    The European bitterlings (Rhodeus amarus) from the Eastern locations were cytogenetically examined by conventional and molecular techniques. All analyzed individuals presented invariably the same chromosomal constitution of 2n = 48, with 8 metacentrics + 20 submetacentrics + 20 subtelo-acrocentrics and C-banding positive heterochromatin at the pericentromeric regions in most of the chromosomes. Moreover, some of the chromosomes had short arms entirely built with heterochromatin. GC-rich Ag-NORs (nucleolus organizer regions) were located at the short arms of two submetacentric chromosomes, and the length polymorphism of these regions was found. Multiple location of 28S rDNA sequences with fluorescence in situ hybridization signals was observed on the long and/or short arms of three submetacentric chromosomes including NOR regions and short arms of three to five acrocentric chromosomes in the studied fish. 5S rDNA sites were found on the short arms of two subtelocentric chromosomes, and telomeric repeats were localized at the ends of all chromosomes. Provided results have expanded our knowledge concerning genetic characteristics of the European bitterlings that may be profitable in the conservation programs of this endangered species.

  1. Extensive spreading of interstitial telomeric sites on the chromosomes of Characidium (Teleostei, Characiformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scacchetti, Priscilla Cardim; Utsunomia, Ricardo; Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; da Costa-Silva, Guilherme José; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2015-06-01

    Characidium comprises several species of small freshwater fish that display conserved diploid chromosome numbers and karyotypic formulae. In this study, a comparative cytogenetic analysis using telomeric DNA probes was carried out in nine species of Characidium; a molecular phylogenetic analysis with mitochondrial DNA was also performed in order to investigate the direction of the evolutionary chromosome changes observed here. Our results showed the existence of species with several and variable interstitial telomeric sites (ITSs), with other species showing only terminal signals in their chromosomes. Molecular phylogenetic data suggested that these ITSs emerged once in the evolutionary history of Characidium and were later differentially spread in distinct species/populations of this clade. Additionally, the origin of an exclusive acrocentric pair found in C. pterostictum, C. serrano and C. timbuiense was also investigated, revealing that this pair possibly had a common origin to these species. These results evidence the occurrence of intense and continuous genomic changes among species of Characidium.

  2. Age and growth estimation of bigeye tuna, Thunnus obesus (Teleostei: Scombridae in the southwestern Atlantic

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    Paulo Duarte-Neto

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to supply the first information on age and growth for Thunnus obesus caught in the equatorial south-western Atlantic using dorsal spines, an approach that has been successfully employed for ageing tuna species. The study was conducted using a multi-model inference based on information theory for back-calculated and observed length-at-age data. Uncertainty associated with the parameter estimation was verified and results were compared to other accounts on the species, considering both the statistical and methodological contexts. Samples were collected in Natal city (Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil from February 1999 to January 2000, of tuna vessels and from surveys, aimed at providing information on the Brazilian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ in the area around São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago. Validation using marginal increment indicated that one ring is deposited per year. Mean length-at-age ranged of 54.3 to 177.5 cm (fork length for ages 1 to 9 years. Von Bertalanffy, Richards, and Gompertz models were considered suitable for the bigeye tuna. Hence, the model-averaged asymptotic length ¯L∞ was estimated. The averaged model generated in the present study by back-calculation was considered appropriate for describing the growth of T. obesus.

  3. A new jellynose, Ateleopus edentatus, from the western Pacific Ocean (Teleostei: Ateleopodiformes: Ateleopodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaga, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Ateleopus edentatus sp. nov. is described based on 12 specimens collected from the Kyushu-Palau Ridge in the western Pacific Ocean. It is distinguished from its three known congeners in completely lacking upper-jaw teeth. It is also distinguished from Ateleopus indicus by having 94-130 anal+caudal-fin rays vs. 76-82 in A. indicus, 11-13 gill rakers vs. 7-8, and 26-28+81-107=109-135 vertebrae vs. 22-24+75-80=97-103.

  4. Phylogenetic relationships and natural hybridization in rabbitfishes (Teleostei: Siganidae) inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriiwa, Kaoru; Hanzawa, Naoto; Yoshino, Tetsuo; Kimura, Seishi; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2007-10-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of rabbitfishes (the family Siganidae), ecologically important components as primary consumers in coral reef communities, were studied using mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and nuclear ITS1 (internal transcribed spacer 1) sequence analyses. The analyses of 19 out of 22 species known in the Western Pacific region revealed that siganids are genetically clustered into three major clades, which are characterized by some morphological and ecological traits. Between closely related species, such as Siganus guttatus-S. lineatus and S. virgatus-S. doliatus, and also between two morphs recognized in S. corallinus, small but discernible genetic differentiation was found, implying that the components of each pair are incipient species. On the other hand, between some species, such as S. fuscescens-S. canaliculatus and S. unimaculatus-S.vulpinus, individuals of the components of each pair were found to construct a genetic mosaic, suggesting that the components are genetic color morphs within a single biological species, respectively. Moreover, evidence from morphological characters, mtDNA, and nuclear DNA gave an inconsistent picture of identity and relationships for several individuals. They were regarded as hybrids or individuals with hybrid origin. Such instances were observed not only between closely related species, such as S. guttatus-S. lineatus, S. virgatus-S. doliatus, and two morphs (incipient species) in S. corallinus, respectively, but also between distantly related ones, such as S. corallinus-S. puellus. In fact, more than half of the species examined (11/20, when treating the two morphs in S. corallinus as independent species) were involved in hybridization. These suggest that hybridization is much more prevalent in marine fishes than previously assumed, and may have some relevance to their diversification.

  5. Spermatozoon ultrastructure of Gyliauchen sp. (Digenea: Gyliauchenidae), an intestinal parasite of Siganus fuscescens (Pisces: Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilichini, Y; Foata, J; Justine, J-L; Bray, R A; Marchand, B

    2011-10-01

    The ultrastructure of the mature spermatozoon of Gyliauchen sp., a parasite of the dusky rabbitfish Siganus fuscescens, was studied by transmission electron microscopy. The spermatozoon possesses two axonemes of the 9+"1" pattern of Trepaxonemata, four attachment zones, one mitochondrion, a nucleus, cortical microtubules, external ornamentation of the plasma membrane, and spine-like bodies. The main characteristics of this spermatozoon are the presence of one mitochondrion, spine-like bodies not associated with the external ornamentation, and a posterior extremity of type 3 that is characterized by the following sequence: posterior extremity of the nucleus then posterior extremity of the second axoneme. Numerous other ultrastructural features are also discussed and compared to the digenean spermatology literature. This is the first study of a member of the Gyliauchenidae and the fourth within the Lepocreadioidea. The results show that many ultrastructural characters are variable within this superfamily and could be useful for phylogeny.

  6. Phylogeny of moray eels (Anguilliformes: Muraenidae), with a revised classification of true eels (Teleostei: Elopomorpha: Anguilliformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kevin L; Fielitz, Christopher

    2013-02-01

    The family Muraenidae is one of the largest and most recognizable eel groups. Moray eels are key components of marine ecosystems but their relationships remain poorly understood. The phylogenetic relationships of the morays are examined herein using mitochondrial 12S and 16S sequence data, totaling 1673 bp for 139 taxa. The results of our analyses found support for a monophyletic family Muraenidae that is part of a monophyletic suborder Muraenoidei, which is revised to include the anguilliform families Heterenchelyidae and Myrocongridae, and to exclude the family Chlopsidae. The muraenids form two monophyletic subfamilies, Muraeninae and Uropterygiinae. Of the genera that had multiple species included for analysis, only the type genus of the family, Muraena, is found to be monophyletic. In the subfamily Uropterygiinae, Uropterygius is not recovered as a monophyletic genus. In the subfamily Muraeninae, the species-rich piscivorous genera, Enchelycore and Gymnothorax, and the durophagous genus, Echidna, are demonstrably not monophyletic. The monotypic Gymnomuraena is the sister group to all other muraenine species. The relationships within Muraenidae require much additional study and its genera remain in urgent need of revision. The order Anguilliformes is revised herein to include four suborders: Anguilloidei, Congroidei, Muraenoidei, and Synaphobranchoidei. All four families of the order Saccopharyngiformes are nested within Anguilliformes, recovered as part of a clade that includes Anguillidae; the saccopharyngiform families are referred to the suborder Anguilloidei sensu novum.

  7. Cytogenetic analysis of five species of the subfamily Corydoradinae (Teleostei: Siluriformes: Callichthyidae

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    Cristiane Kioko Shimabukuro-Dias

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, five callichthyid species belonging to the subfamily Corydoradinae were karyotyped: three species of Aspidoras and two of Corydoras. The three species of Aspidoras had the same diploid number, 2n = 46 chromosomes, similar karyotypic formulae, with most chromosomes metacentric or submetacentric, single interstitial Ag-NORs and C-band positive segments mainly found in the centromeric position. The comparative analysis of cytogenetic data available for the genus Aspidoras and other species of Corydoradinae suggest that several events of centric fusion occurred in the origin of the species of Aspidoras. The two analyzed species of Corydoras showed high diploid numbers, 2n = 74 in C. sodalis and 2n = 90 in C. britskii. While C. sodalis exhibited single Ag-NORs and terminal, interstitial and centromeric C-band positive segments in almost all chromosomes, C. britskii showed multiple Ag-NORs and a small number of C-band positive segments found in the terminal position in one acrocentric (A pair and in the interstitial position in one subtelocentric (ST pair. The occurrence of high diploid numbers and many ST and A chromosomes are uncommon among the Corydoradinae, suggesting the occurrence of a high number of chromosome rearrangements, mainly centric fissions, in the origin of the Corydoras species studied.

  8. Repetitive DNA Sequences and Evolution of ZZ/ZW Sex Chromosomes in Characidium (Teleostei: Characiformes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Cardim Scacchetti

    Full Text Available Characidium constitutes an interesting model for cytogenetic studies, since a large degree of karyotype variation has been detected in this group, like the presence/absence of sex and supernumerary chromosomes and variable distribution of repetitive sequences in different species/populations. In this study, we performed a comparative cytogenetic analysis in 13 Characidium species collected at different South American river basins in order to investigate the karyotype diversification in this group. Chromosome analyses involved the karyotype characterization, cytogenetic mapping of repetitive DNA sequences and cross-species chromosome painting using a W-specific probe obtained in a previous study from Characidium gomesi. Our results evidenced a conserved diploid chromosome number of 2n = 50, and almost all the species exhibited homeologous ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes in different stages of differentiation, except C. cf. zebra, C. tenue, C. xavante and C. stigmosum. Notably, some ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes showed 5S and/or 18S rDNA clusters, while no U2 snDNA sites could be detected in the sex chromosomes, being restricted to a single chromosome pair in almost all the analyzed species. In addition, the species Characidium sp. aff. C. vidali showed B chromosomes with an inter-individual variation of 1 to 4 supernumerary chromosomes per cell. Notably, these B chromosomes share sequences with the W-specific probe, providing insights about their origin. Results presented here further confirm the extensive karyotype diversity within Characidium in contrast with a conserved diploid chromosome number. Such chromosome differences seem to constitute a significant reproductive barrier, since several sympatric Characidium species had been described during the last few years and no interespecific hybrids were found.

  9. Uncovering the Ancestry of B Chromosomes in Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Teleostei, Characidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsunomia, Ricardo; Silva, Duílio Mazzoni Zerbinato de Andrade; Ruiz-Ruano, Francisco J.; Araya-Jaime, Cristian; Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; Scacchetti, Priscilla Cardim; Hashimoto, Diogo Teruo; Oliveira, Claudio; Trifonov, Vladmir A.; Porto-Foresti, Fábio; Camacho, Juan Pedro M.; Foresti, Fausto

    2016-01-01

    B chromosomes constitute a heterogeneous mixture of genomic parasites that are sometimes derived intraspecifically from the standard genome of the host species, but result from interspecific hybridization in other cases. The mode of origin determines the DNA content, with the B chromosomes showing high similarity with the A genome in the first case, but presenting higher similarity with a different species in the second. The characid fish Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae harbours highly invasive B chromosomes, which are present in all populations analyzed to date in the Parana and Tietê rivers. To investigate the origin of these B chromosomes, we analyzed two natural populations: one carrying B chromosomes and the other lacking them, using a combination of molecular cytogenetic techniques, nucleotide sequence analysis and high-throughput sequencing (Illumina HiSeq2000). Our results showed that i) B chromosomes have not yet reached the Paranapanema River basin; ii) B chromosomes are mitotically unstable; iii) there are two types of B chromosomes, the most frequent of which is lightly C-banded (similar to euchromatin in A chromosomes) (B1), while the other is darkly C-banded (heterochromatin-like) (B2); iv) the two B types contain the same tandem repeat DNA sequences (18S ribosomal DNA, H3 histone genes, MS3 and MS7 satellite DNA), with a higher content of 18S rDNA in the heterochromatic variant; v) all of these repetitive DNAs are present together only in the paracentromeric region of autosome pair no. 6, suggesting that the B chromosomes are derived from this A chromosome; vi) the two B chromosome variants show MS3 sequences that are highly divergent from each other and from the 0B genome, although the B2-derived sequences exhibit higher similarity with the 0B genome (this suggests an independent origin of the two B variants, with the less frequent, B2 type presumably being younger); and vii) the dN/dS ratio for the H3.2 histone gene is almost 4–6 times higher for B chromosomes than for A chromosome sequences, suggesting that purifying selection is relaxed for the DNA sequences located on the B chromosomes, presumably because they are mostly inactive. PMID:26934481

  10. Shape based assignment tests suggest transgressive phenotypes in natural sculpin hybrids (Teleostei, Scorpaeniformes, Cottidae

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    Sheets H David

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hybridization receives attention because of the potential role that it may play in generating evolutionary novelty. An explanation for the emergence of novel phenotypes is given by transgressive segregation, which, if frequent, would imply an important evolutionary role for hybridization. This process is still rarely studied in natural populations as samples of recent hybrids and their parental populations are needed. Further, the detection of transgressive segregation requires phenotypes that can be easily quantified and analysed. We analyse variability in body shape of divergent populations of European sculpins (Cottus gobio complex as well as natural hybrids among them. Results A distance-based method is developed to assign unknown specimens to known groups based on morphometric data. Apparently, body shape represents a highly informative set of characters that parallels the discriminatory power of microsatellite markers in our study system. Populations of sculpins are distinct and "unknown" specimens can be correctly assigned to their source population based on body shape. Recent hybrids are intermediate along the axes separating their parental groups but display additional differentiation that is unique and coupled with the hybrid genetic background. Conclusion There is a specific hybrid shape component in natural sculpin hybrids that can be best explained by transgressive segregation. This inference of how hybrids differ from their ancestors provides basic information for future evolutionary studies. Furthermore, our approach may serve to assign candidate specimens to their source populations based on morphometric data and help in the interpretation of population differentiation.

  11. Histomorphology of the liver of bicuda Boulengerella cuvieri (agassiz, 1829 (Teleostei, Ctenoluciidae

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    Gerlane de Medeiros Costa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the morphology of the liver of Boulengerella cuvieri. Six specimens from the Rio Teles Pires, municipality of Carlinda - MT were used . For morphological analysis of the liver was performed with aperture of the peritoneal cavity with ventral incision, to expose the organs that were photographed in situ and separately. In the technique of light microscopy, specimens were processed in a series of increasing alcohol, leaf clearing in xylene and embedding in paraplast. The fragments were cut with a thickness of 5μm and stained with hematoxylin-eosin. The liver of this species appeared as a compact body, reddish brown in color, located in the cranial region of the peritoneal cavity, caudal to esophagus, cranial to the pyloric caeca and skull ventrally to the stomach. This organ consisted of a single hepatic lobe, which had three separate asymmetrical parts: a right side, a left side, and a central cranial portion of pyramidal shape. The right side portion of rectangular jagged edges presented flow, the upper longer than the lower, left side more elongated than the right, and center, lower than the others. Histologically, the parenchyma showed disorganized and composed of hepatocytes that formed cords and converging to blood vessels. It is possible also observe pancreatic tissue forming the hepatopancreas. Isolated cells were also present in the liver tissue, such as lymphocytes and free melanomacrophages. In B. cuvieri were not observed the portal triads.

  12. Reproductive biology of weakly electric fish Eigenmannia trilineata López and Castello, 1966 (Teleostei, Sternopygidae

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    Júlia Giora

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study described the reproductive biology of a population of the weakly electric fish Eigenmannia trilineata from southern Brazil, providing the information on the estimation of reproductive period, fecundity, spawning type, first maturation size, and analysis of gonadal morphology and histology of the species, relating these data to alimentary and abiotic characters. The species showed a relatively long reproductive period, a relative fecundity of 0.27 oocytes per mg of total weight and a parcelled spawning type. First maturation size estimated for the females was 80.5 mm and for the males 63.5 mm of total length. Sex ratio did not differ from 1:1 under a X²test (α= 0.01 during all the sampled months. Sexual dimorphism was related to total length, and males had larger total length than females. The abiotic factors photoperiod and water conductivity presented significant correlations with female GSI, while male GSI presented a significant correlation only with photoperiod.Este trabalho descreve a biologia reprodutiva de uma população do peixe elétrico Eigenmannia trilineata do Sul do Brasil. São apresentadas informações a respeito do período reprodutivo, fecundidade, tipo de desova, tamanho de primeira maturação, morfologia e histologia das gônadas da espécie, relacionando estes dados a caracteres alimentares e abióticos. A espécie apresentou período reprodutivo relativamente longo, com fecundidade relativa de 0,27 ovócito por miligrama do peso da fêmea e desova do tipo parcelada. O tamanho de primeira maturação gonadal estimado para fêmeas foi 80,5 mm e para machos, 63,5 mm de comprimento total. A proporção sexual, testada pelo teste X² (Α= 0.01, foi de 1:1 durante todos os meses amostrados; dimorfismo sexual relacionado ao comprimento total foi detectado, possuindo os machos um maior comprimento total. Dos fatores abióticos testados, fotoperíodo e condutividade da água mostraram correlação significativa com o IGS das fêmeas, enquanto somente fotoperíodo apresentou-se relacionado ao IGS dos machos.

  13. Cytogenetic analysis of two locariid species (Teleostei, Siluriformes from Iguatemi River (Parana River drainage in Brazil

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    Carlos Alexandre Fernandes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fishes of the Loricariidae family, known as “cascudos”, constitute an endemic group in Neotropical freshwaters. In this study, were cytogenetically examined two species of Loricariidae (Pterygoplichthys anisitsi Eigenmann & Kennedy, 1903 and Farlowella amazonum (Günther, 1864 belonging to Hypostominae and Loricariinae subfamilies respectively from Iguatemi River. Our study provide the first description regarding C-band and fluorochromic analysis in F. amazonum. In Farlowella amazonum, diploid number was 58 chromosomes, with single Ag-NOR and heterochromatic blocks in centromeric regions of some chromosomes and large subtelomeric blocks were evidenced on the long arm of the pair 27, being this region CMA3+/DAPI-. The Pterygoplichthys anisitsi showed diploid number equal 52 chromosomes, with single Ag-NOR and heterochromatic blocks in centromeric and telomeric regions of some chromosomes and conspicuous large telomeric blocks on the long arm of the pair 10, being this region CMA3+/DAPI-. The results show that karyotype formula is nonconservative in P. anisitsi and F. amazonum.

  14. Stone loaches of Choman River system, Kurdistan, Iran (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Nemacheilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamangar, Barzan Bahrami; Prokofiev, Artem M; Ghaderi, Edris; Nalbant, Theodore T

    2014-01-20

    For the first time, we present data on species composition and distributions of nemacheilid loaches in the Choman River basin of Kurdistan province, Iran. Two genera and four species are recorded from the area, of which three species are new for science: Oxynoemacheilus kurdistanicus, O. zagrosensis, O. chomanicus spp. nov., and Turcinoemacheilus kosswigi Băn. et Nalb. Detailed and illustrated morphological descriptions and univariate and multivariate analysis of morphometric and meristic features are for each of these species. Forty morphometric and eleven meristic characters were used in multivariate analysis to select characters that could discriminate between the four loach species. Discriminant Function Analysis revealed that sixteen morphometric measures and five meristic characters have the most variability between the loach species. The dendrograms based on cluster analysis of Mahalanobis distances of morphometrics and a combination of both characters confirmed two distinct groups: Oxynoemacheilus spp. and T. kosswigi. Within Oxynoemacheilus, O. zagrosensis and O. chomanicus are more similar to one other rather to either is to O. kurdistanicus.

  15. Eidinemacheilus proudlovei, a new subterranean loach from Iraqi Kurdistan (Teleostei; Nemacheilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyhof, Jörg; Abdullah, Younis Sabir; Ararat, Korsh; Ibrahim, Hamad; Geiger, Matthias F

    2016-10-04

    Eidinemacheilus proudlovei, new species, is described from subterranean waters in the Little Zab River drainage in Iraqi Kurdistan. After the discovery of E. smithi in 1976, E. proudlovei is the second troglomorphic nemacheilid loach found in the Middle East and the second species placed in Eidinemacheilus. Eidinemacheilus proudlovei is distinguished from E. smithi by having 8+8 or 8+7 branched caudal-fin rays, no adipose keel on the caudal peduncle, enlarged jaws and a fully developed head canal system. It furthers differs substantially in its DNA barcode (>8% K2P distance) from all other nemacheilid loaches in the Middle East, Europe and Western India.

  16. Two new species of Oxynoemacheilus from the Tigris drainage in Iraqi Kurdistan (Teleostei: Nemacheilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyhof, Jörg; Abdullah, Younis Sabir

    2017-03-02

    Two new species of Oxynoemacheilus are described from the Sirvan River drainage in Iraqi Kurdistan. Oxynoemacheilus gyndes, new species, is distinguished by having a very short lateral line, reaching behind the pectoral-fin base, no scales except on the posteriormost part of the caudal peduncle, a slightly emarginate caudal fin and no suborbital groove in males. Oxynoemacheilus hanae, new species, is distinguished by having a midlateral row of elongated blotches, isolated patches of dark-brown spots or blotches on lower flank, a deeply emarginate caudal fin and a suborbital groove in males.

  17. The infrabranchial musculature and its bearing on the phylogeny of percomorph fishes (Osteichthyes: Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datovo, Aléssio; de Pinna, Mário C C; Johnson, G David

    2014-01-01

    The muscles serving the ventral portion of the gill arches ( = infrabranchial musculature) are poorly known in bony fishes. A comparative analysis of the infrabranchial muscles in the major percomorph lineages reveals a large amount of phylogenetically-relevant information. Characters derived from this anatomical system are identified and discussed in light of current hypotheses of phylogenetic relationships among percomorphs. New evidence supports a sister-group relationship between the Batrachoidiformes and Lophiiformes and between the Callionymoidei and Gobiesocoidei. Investigated data also corroborate the existence of two monophyletic groups, one including the Pristolepididae, Badidae, and Nandidae, and a second clade consisting of all non-amarsipid stromateiforms. New synapomorphies are proposed for the Atherinomorphae, Blenniiformes, Lophiiformes, Scombroidei (including Sphyraenidae), and Gobiiformes. Within the latter order, the Rhyacichthyidae and Odontobutidae are supported as the successive sister families of all remaining gobiiforms. The present analysis further confirms the validity of infrabranchial musculature characters previously proposed to support the grouping of the Mugiliformes with the Atherinomorphae and the monophyly of the Labriformes with the possible inclusion of the Pholidichthyiformes. Interestingly, most hypotheses of relationships supported by the infrabranchial musculature have been advanced by preceding anatomists on the basis of distinct data sources, but were never recovered in recent molecular phylogenies. These conflicts clearly indicate the current unsatisfactory resolution of the higher-level phylogeny of percomorphs.

  18. Mitochondrial molecular clocks and the origin of the major Otocephalan clades (Pisces: Teleostei)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Zuogang; He, Shunping; Wang, Jun

    2006-01-01

    The Otocephala, a clade including ostariophysan and clupeomorph teleosts, represents about a quarter of total fish species diversity, with about 1000 genera and more than 7000 species. A series of recent papers have defended that the origin of this clade and of its major groups may be significantly...... otophysans could have originated before the splitting of the Pangean supercontinent is of extreme importance, since otophysan fishes are among the most useful animal groups for the determination of historical continental relationships. In the present work we examined divergence times for each major...... otocephalan group by an analysis of complete mtDNA sequences, in order to investigate if these divergence times support the hypotheses advanced in recent studies. The complete mtDNA sequences of nine representative non-otocephalan fish species and of twenty-one representative otocephalan species was compared...

  19. Molecular Phylogeny and Zoogeography of the Capoeta damascina Species Complex (Pisces: Teleostei: Cyprinidae.

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    Nisreen Alwan

    Full Text Available Capoeta damascina was earlier considered by many authors as one of the most common freshwater fish species found throughout the Levant, Mesopotamia, Turkey, and Iran. However, owing to a high variation in morphological characters among and within its various populations, 17 nominal species were described, several of which were regarded as valid by subsequent revising authors. Capoeta damascina proved to be a complex of closely related species, which had been poorly studied. The current study aims at defining C. damascina and the C. damascina species complex. It investigates phylogenetic relationships among the various members of the C. damascina complex, based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. Phylogenetic relationships were projected against paleogeographical events to interpret the geographic distribution of the taxa under consideration in relation to the area's geological history. Samples were obtained from throughout the geographic range and were subjected to genetic analyses, using two molecular markers targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (n = 103 and the two adjacent divergence regions (D1-D2 of the nuclear 28S rRNA genes (n = 65. Six closely related species were recognized within the C. damascina complex, constituting two main lineages: A western lineage represented by C. caelestis, C. damascina, and C. umbla and an eastern lineage represented by C. buhsei, C. coadi, and C. saadii. The results indicate that speciation of these taxa is rather a recent event. Dispersal occurred during the Pleistocene, resulting in present-day distribution patterns. A coherent picture of the phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the C. damascina species complex is drawn, explaining the current patterns of distribution as a result of paleogeographic events and ecological adaptations.

  20. Phylogeny and polyploidy: resolving the classification of cyprinine fishes (Teleostei: Cypriniformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Sado, Tetsuya; Vincent Hirt, M; Pasco-Viel, Emmanuel; Arunachalam, M; Li, Junbing; Wang, Xuzhen; Freyhof, Jörg; Saitoh, Kenji; Simons, Andrew M; Miya, Masaki; He, Shunping; Mayden, Richard L

    2015-04-01

    Cyprininae is the largest subfamily (>1300 species) of the family Cyprinidae and contains more polyploid species (∼400) than any other group of fishes. We examined the phylogenetic relationships of the Cyprininae based on extensive taxon, geographical, and genomic sampling of the taxa, using both mitochondrial and nuclear genes to address the phylogenetic challenges posed by polyploidy. Four datasets were analyzed in this study: two mitochondrial gene datasets (465 and 791 taxa, 5604bp), a mitogenome dataset (85 taxa, 14,771bp), and a cloned nuclear RAG1 dataset (97 taxa, 1497bp). Based on resulting trees, the subfamily Cyprininae was subdivided into 11 tribes: Probarbini (new; Probarbus+Catlocarpio), Labeonini Bleeker, 1859 (Labeo & allies), Torini Karaman, 1971 (Tor, Labeobarbus & allies), Smiliogastrini Bleeker, 1863 (Puntius, Enteromius & allies), Poropuntiini (Poropuntius & allies), Cyprinini Rafinesque, 1815 (Cyprinus & allies), Acrossocheilini (new; Acrossocheilus & allies), Spinibarbini (new; Spinibarbus), Schizothoracini McClelland, 1842 (Schizothorax & allies), Schizopygopsini Mirza, 1991 (Schizopygopsis & allies), and Barbini Bleeker, 1859 (Barbus & allies). Phylogenetic relationships within each tribe were discussed. Two or three distinct RAG1 lineages were identified for each of the following tribes Torini, Cyprinini, Spinibarbini, and Barbini, indicating their hybrid origin. The hexaploid African Labeobarbus & allies and Western Asian Capoeta are likely derived from two independent hybridization events between their respective maternal tetraploid ancestors and Cyprinion.

  1. Phylogeny of the sand goby group (Gobionellidae, Teleostei based on mitochondrial gene sequences and morphological data

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    Christos Gkenas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The sand gobies are a monophyletic group of small, nearshore marine to freshwater fishes, including 43 species in four genera that inhabit Europe and the Mediterranean Sea. Herein, we evaluate the phylogenetic relationships of the sand goby group based on molecular and morphological data. We sequenced fragments of mitochondrial gene, cytochrome c oxidase I, from 87 specimens from 20 localities collected from Greece and the Venice lagoon. We examine morphometric and meristic variation on 269 sand goby specimens from 17 localities using multivariate analysis. Principal component analysis demonstrated that variables accounting for most of the interspecific differentiation were first dorsal fin length, anal fin length and size of the head among species. Discriminant analysis revealed that about 91% of the examined fish could be correctly classified into the seven species considered. The most important morphometric variables for species differentiation were the shape of the head, the distance between the two dorsal fins and the width of the caudal peduncle. Phylogenetic analysis supported the systematic classification of genus Economidichthys through the clustering of E. pygmaeus and E. trichonis. The split-up of K. caucasica populations from the Ionian Sea including K. milleri with the K. caucasica populations from the Aegean Sea demonstrated a paraphyletic problem. Within these groupings there is limited genetic differentiation between Ionian populations. In terms of taxonomic implications, our data suggest that K. caucasica from the Ionian Sea and K. milleri should be regarded as synonyms. Finally, the genus Pomatoschistus is divided into three clades corresponding to the species P. minutus, P. marmoratus and P canestrinii. The differentiation between the samples of the Aegean and Ionian Sea is likely a result of the hydrogeologic characteristics and climatic conditions that existed during the Pleistocene.

  2. Molecular phylogeny of the Neotropical fish genus Tetragonopterus (Teleostei: Characiformes: Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Bruno F; Benine, Ricardo C; Silva, Gabriel S C; Avelino, Gleisy S; Oliveira, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Tetragonopterinae encompasses characid species of the genus Tetragonopterus, which are widely distributed throughout east of the Andes in South America. While taxonomy has recently clarified the species diversity and molecular evidence strongly supports the monophyly of Tetragonopterus, no interspecific relationship studies are currently available. Here we used a large molecular dataset composed of two mitochondrial and three nuclear loci containing an extensive taxon sampling within the family Characidae and included eleven species of Tetragonopterus to generate the first time-calibrated phylogeny for Tetragonopterinae. Our results support monophyly of the subfamily represented solely by Tetragonopterus and corroborate previous molecular hypothesis of close relationship with Exodon plus Roeboexodon and the subfamily Characinae. Internally, we found Moenkhausia georgiae as sister species to all remaining species followed by T. rarus, being both species endemic to the Guiana Shield drainages. Species-level relationships are first hypothesized and putative morphological apomorphies are discussed as support to monophyletic clades. Our time-calibrated phylogeny suggested an origin of the genus during the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene. We hypothesized that the Andean geological activity followed by transformations in the Amazonian hydrographic scenario during the Miocene may have promoted most of the lineage diversification within the Tetragonopterus.

  3. Molecular Phylogeny and Biogeography of the Amphidromous Fish Genus Dormitator Gill 1861 (Teleostei: Eleotridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván-Quesada, Sesángari; Doadrio, Ignacio; Alda, Fernando; Perdices, Anabel; Reina, Ruth Gisela; García Varela, Martín; Hernández, Natividad; Campos Mendoza, Antonio; Bermingham, Eldredge; Domínguez-Domínguez, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Species of the genus Dormitator, also known as sleepers, are representatives of the amphidromous freshwater fish fauna that inhabit the tropical and subtropical coastal environments of the Americas and Western Africa. Because of the distribution of this genus, it could be hypothesized that the evolutionary patterns in this genus, including a pair of geminate species across the Central American Isthmus, could be explained by vicariance following the break-up of Gondwana. However, the evolutionary history of this group has not been evaluated. We constructed a time-scaled molecular phylogeny of Dormitator using mitochondrial (Cytochrome b) and nuclear (Rhodopsin and β-actin) DNA sequence data to infer and date the cladogenetic events that drove the diversification of the genus and to relate them to the biogeographical history of Central America. Two divergent lineages of Dormitator were recovered: one that included all of the Pacific samples and another that included all of the eastern and western Atlantic samples. In contrast to the Pacific lineage, which showed no phylogeographic structure, the Atlantic lineage was geographically structured into four clades: Cameroon, Gulf of Mexico, West Cuba and Caribbean, showing evidence of potential cryptic species. The separation of the Pacific and Atlantic lineages was estimated to have occurred ~1 million years ago (Mya), whereas the four Atlantic clades showed mean times of divergence between 0.2 and 0.4 Mya. The splitting times of Dormitator between ocean basins are similar to those estimated for other geminate species pairs with shoreline estuarine preferences, which may indicate that the common evolutionary histories of the different clades are the result of isolation events associated with the closure of the Central American Isthmus and the subsequent climatic and oceanographic changes.

  4. Higher and lower-level relationships of the deep-sea fish order alepocephaliformes (Teleostei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jan Y.; Møller, Peter R.; Lavoué, Sébastien

    2009-01-01

    Fishes of the order Alepocephaliformes, slickheads and tubeshoulders, constitute a group of deep-sea fishes poorly known in respect to most areas of their biology and systematics. Morphological studies have found alepocephaliform fishes to display a mosaic of synapomorphic and symplesiomorphic...... are alepocephaliforms and unambiguously aligned sequences were subjected to partitioned maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses. Results from the present study support Alepocephaliformes as a genetically distinct otocephalan order as sister clade to Ostariophysi (mostly freshwater fishes comprising Gonorynchiformes...

  5. Revision of Hastatobythites and Saccogaster (Teleostei, Bythitidae) with three new species and a new genus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen; Schwarzhans, Werner; Cohen, Daniel M.

    2012-01-01

    Material of three similar and probably related genera of the viviparous ophidiiform family, Bythitidae, has been studied. The monotypic Hastatobythites is only known from the original two specimens; re-examination of the paratype and information of the holotype clearly demonstrates the validity o...... rakers, size of gill opening, thickness of skin, head pores, otolith morphology, color marks on head, neuromasts on head and head morphometrics, fin ray counts....

  6. Population characteristics, space use and habitat associations of the seahorse Hippocampus reidi (Teleostei: Syngnathidae

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    Ierecê Lucena Rosa

    Full Text Available This paper provides a case study of a threatened seahorse species, Hippocampus reidi, highlighting the importance of using ecological information to assist conservation and management initiatives. Underwater visual sighting data (50 x 2m transect gathered along the NE, SE and S portions of the Brazilian coast revealed an unequal distribution across localities, perhaps related to harvesting pressure, and a mean density of 0.026 ind.m-2. Our findings suggest some restricted spatial use by H. reidi, which was consistent with its estimated home range, and with re-sighting of specimens. Reproduction was recorded year-round, however productive peaks may exist. Components of habitat structure mostly used as anchoring points were mangrove plants, macroalgae, cnidarians, seagrass, sponges, and bryozoans. Conservation recommendations include: further characterization and mapping of habitats; assessment of availability and condition of microhabitats in selected areas, and studies on dispersal routes during initial life stages.

  7. Taxonomic revision and stratigraphic provenance of 'Histiophorus rotundu' Woodward 1901 (Teleostei, Perciformes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsch, K.A.; Fierstine, H.L.; Weems, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    Until recently, Histiophorus rotundus Woodward 1901, was known from a single, poorly preserved rostrum from the Tertiary phosphate beds near Charleston, South Carolina, an area from which many fossils have been described. The specimen is relatively featureless externally; its internal anatomy is unknown and the documentation of its geological provenance was poor. In an earlier revision the species was transferred to the fossil billfish genus Xiphiorhynchus Van Beneden, 1871. Here we confirm this designation, supported by new morphological studies of the holotype, recently found specimens of Xiphiorhynchus rotundus (Woodward, 1901), and the stratigraphic record of Xiphiorhynchus. The systematic paleontology we present is a contribution to the taxonomic revision of billfishes world-wide. Because the holotype is heavily phosphatized and the type locality was vaguely described, we discuss the geology of the phosphate mining districts of the Charleston region. Based on our studies, we can narrow the possible age of the holotype to late Oligocene or early Miocene. We suggest X. rotundus was extinct by the Burdigalian. 

  8. Body mass-related modifications involved in starvation at pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Teleostei, Centrarchidae

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    Cătălina F. Radu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors analyze the modifications observed on a population of pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus (Linnaeus, 1758 after a 60 days period of exposure to starvation and attempt to correlate the obtained results to other body-related characteristics, either linearly-measured (such as length, volume and density or weight-related, in order to achieve an estimation of a weight-loss allowance for the species of interest, that may be interpreted, if of a low daily value, as an advantage in the invasion process.

  9. The most important Romanian researches on species Pseudorasbora parva(Temminck & Schlegel, 1846 (Teleostei, Cyprinidae

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    Ionel-Claudiu Gavriloaie

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors present shortly some data regarding the origin and occurrence of species Pseudorasbora parva, then they realise an analysis of the most important papers written by Romanian authors, both in our country and abroad, concerning this species.

  10. Devario deruptotalea, a new species of cyprinid fish from Manipur, India (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramananda, Yumnam; Vishwanath, Waikhom

    2014-07-02

    Devario deruptotalea, a new cyprinid fish, is described from Dutah Stream, a tributary of the Yu River (Chindwin drainage) in Manipur, India. It is distinguished from all its congeners by a unique colour pattern consisting of the following combination of pigmented elements: 4‒6 dark brown irregularly shaped and arranged bars that are partly confluent with adjacent bars at different levels on the anterior one-third of the side of the body, followed by three distinct dark brown stripes posteriorly, a P stripe that is darker and about twice as broad as other stripes and extending to the tip of the median caudal-fin rays.

  11. A new species of Psilorhynchus (Teleostei: Psilorhynchidae) from the Chindwin basin of Manipur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangningam, Bungdon; Vishwanath, Waikhom

    2013-01-01

    Psilorhynchus chakpiensis, new species, is described from the Chakpi River, Chindwin basin in Manipur, India. It is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of characters: a dome-shaped rostral cap with horizontally arranged pointed tubercles, 1-2 rows of prominent globular papillae behind the upper lip, three unbranched and nine branched dorsal-fin rays, 30-31 lateral-line scales, head width 74-83% HL, and characteristic colour bands on the dorsal and caudal fins. It is distinguished from all congeners in having a caudal-fin pattern consisting of two black bars, one incomplete bar near the base of the upper lobe, and a complete bar across the centre of the fin, traversing from the upper to the lower margin of the fin.

  12. Parambassis waikhomi, a new species of glassfish (Teleostei: Ambassidae from Loktak Lake, northeastern India

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    K. Geetakumari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Parambassis waikhomi, a new species of glassfish from Loktak Lake, Chindwin basin in Manipur, northeastern India is distinguished from its congeners by the presence of 58-60 lateral line scales; two predorsal bones; a vertically elongated humeral spot; 24 vertebrae; maxilla reaching to ⅓ of the orbit; 8.2- 10.9 interorbital width; four preorbital ridge, 11 preorbital edge, six supraorbital ridge, 18 serrae at lower edge of preoperculum, 24 serrae at hind margin of preoperculum. The species differs from its nearest congener P. ranga by the presence of 9-10 (vs. 12-13 pectoral fin rays and 19-20 (vs. 22-28 gill rakers.

  13. Migration and reproductive biology of Mugil liza (Teleostei: Mugilidae) in south Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, V M; Varela, A S; Schwingel, P R; Muelbert, J H; Vieira, J P

    2014-09-01

    The mullet Mugil liza occurs along the Atlantic coast of South America from Venezuela to Argentina, but 95% of the commercial catch is collected from south Brazil between São Paulo and Argentina. Mugil liza is a single spawner with oocyte development occurring synchronously in two groups. Spawning happens in marine areas and occurs after migration. The reproductive migration occurs from Argentina (38° S) to the southern Brazilian states (24-26° S) from April to July, with peak spawning in June between northern Santa Catarina and Paraná. The presence of hyaline oocytes was associated with high salinity and sea surface temperatures of 19-21° C, and followed the seasonal northward displacement of these oceanographic conditions. The average size at first maturity (Lm ) for both sexes was 408·3 mm total length, LT . Males (Lm  = 400·1) matured earlier than females (Lm  = 421·9 mm). Fecundity ranged from 818,992 to 2,869,767 oocytes (mean = 1,624,551) in fish that were between 426 and 660 mm LT .

  14. Reproductive characteristics of characid fish species (Teleostei, Characiformes) and their relationship with body size and phylogeny

    OpenAIRE

    Azevedo,Marco A.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, I investigated the reproductive biology of fish species from the family Characidae of the order Characiformes. I also investigated the relationship between reproductive biology and body weight and interpreted this relationship in a phylogenetic context. The results of the present study contribute to the understanding of the evolution of the reproductive strategies present in the species of this family. Most larger characid species and other characiforms exhibit a reproductive p...

  15. Spawning migrations of the endemic Labeobarbus (Cyprinidae, Teleostei) species of Lake Tana, Ethiopia, status and threats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anteneh, W.; Getahun, A.; Dejen, E.; Sibbing, F.A.; Nagelkerke, L.A.J.; de Graaf, M.; Wudneh, T.; Vijverberg, J.; Palstra, A.P.

    2012-01-01

    The reproductive biology of the only known intact species flock of large cyprinids, the 16 Labeobarbus species of Lake Tana (Ethiopia), has been extensively studied for the past two decades. Seven species of Labeobarbus are known to migrate >50 km upstream into tributary rivers for spawning during t

  16. Peroxisomes in intestinal and gallbladder epithelial cells of the stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus L. (Teleostei)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, A.J.H. de; Veenhuis, M.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.

    1988-01-01

    The occurrence of microbodies in the epithelial cells of the intestine and gallbladder of the stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus L., is described. In the intestine the organelles are predominantly located in the apical and perinuclear zone of the cells and may contain small crystalline cores. In ga

  17. Microsatellite Development for an Endangered Bream Megalobrama pellegrini (Teleostei, Cyprinidae Using 454 Sequencing

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    Zuogang Peng

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Megalobrama pellegrini is an endemic fish species found in the upper Yangtze River basin in China. This species has become endangered due to the construction of the Three Gorges Dam and overfishing. However, the available genetic data for this species is limited. Here, we developed 26 polymorphic microsatellite markers from the M. pellegrini genome using next-generation sequencing techniques. A total of 257,497 raw reads were obtained from a quarter-plate run on 454 GS-FLX titanium platforms and 49,811 unique sequences were generated with an average length of 404 bp; 24,522 (49.2% sequences contained microsatellite repeats. Of the 53 loci screened, 33 were amplified successfully and 26 were polymorphic. The genetic diversity in M. pellegrini was moderate, with an average of 3.08 alleles per locus, and the mean observed and expected heterozygosity were 0.47 and 0.51, respectively. In addition, we tested cross-species amplification for all 33 loci in four additional breams: M. amblycephala, M. skolkovii, M. terminalis, and Sinibrama wui. The cross-species amplification showed a significant high level of transferability (79%–97%, which might be due to their dramatically close genetic relationships. The polymorphic microsatellites developed in the current study will not only contribute to further conservation genetic studies and parentage analyses of this endangered species, but also facilitate future work on the other closely related species.

  18. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Moltrecht's minnow, Aphyocypris moltrechti (Teleostei, Cyprinidae), in comparison with A. kikuchii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang-Liaw, Nian-Hong; Tsai, Chi-Li; Chang, Chia-Hao; Watanabe, Katsutoshi

    2013-04-01

    We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the Moltrecht's minnow, Aphyocypris moltrechti, which is known as an endemic species to Taiwan. The complete mitochondrial genome is 16,617 bp in size, consisting of 37 genes coding for 13 proteins, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, and 1 control region. Its gene arrangement pattern was identical with most vertebrates. We compared the mitochondrial genome of A. moltrechti with that of the Kikuchi's minnow, Aphyocypris kikuchii, which had been considered closely related to A. moltrechti within a same genus. Nucleotide sequence divergence (K2P distance) between the two whole mitochondrial genomes was 11.62%. The detailed comparison between the mitochondrial genomes of two species was done.

  19. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Kikuchi's minnow Aphyocypris kikuchii (Teleostei, Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang-Liaw, Nian-Hong; Tsai, Chi-Li; Watanabe, Katsutoshi

    2013-02-01

    We have sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the Kikuchi's minnow, Aphyocypris kikuchii (Oshima 1919), which is an endemic species to Taiwan. The complete mitochondrial genome is 16,601 bp in size, containing 37 genes coding for 13 proteins, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, and 1 control region. It has the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement. The sequence information could play an important role in resolving the conflict on its current taxonomic position and preservation of genetic resources for helping conservation of the endangered species.

  20. Immunohistochemical and histochemical characteristics of the olfactory system of the guppy, Poecilia reticulata (Teleostei, Poecilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettini, Simone; Lazzari, Maurizio; Ciani, Franco; Franceschini, Valeria

    2009-10-01

    Olfaction in fish has been studied using preferentially macrosmatic species as models. In the present research, the labelling patterns of different neuronal markers and lectins were analyzed in the olfactory neurons and in their bulbar axonal endings in the guppy Poecilia reticulata, belonging to the group of microsmatic fish. We observed that calretinin immunostaining was confined to a population of olfactory receptor cells localized in the upper layers of the sensory mucosa, probably microvillous neurons innervating the lateral glomerular layer. Immunoreactivity for S100 proteins was mainly evident in crypt cells, but also in other olfactory cells belonging to subtypes projecting in distinct regions of the bulbs. Protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) was not detected in the olfactory system of the guppy. Lectin binding revealed the presence of N-acetylglucosamine and alpha-N-acetylgalactosamine residues in the glycoconjugates of numerous olfactory neurons ubiquitously distributed in the mucosa. The low number of sugar types detected suggested a reduced glycosidic variability that could be an index of restricted odorant discrimination, in concordance with guppy visual-based behaviors. Finally, we counted few crypt cells which were immunoreactive for S100 and calretinin. Crypt cells were more abundant in guppy females. This difference is in accordance with guppy gender-specific responses to pheromones. Cells immunoreactive to calretinin showed no evidence of ventral projections in the bulbs. We assumed the hypothesis that their odorant sensitivity is not strictly limited to pheromones or sexual signals in general.

  1. Multiple invasions into freshwater by pufferfishes (teleostei: tetraodontidae: a mitogenomic perspective.

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    Yusuke Yamanoue

    Full Text Available Pufferfishes of the Family Tetraodontidae are the most speciose group in the Order Tetraodontiformes and mainly inhabit coastal waters along continents. Although no members of other tetraodontiform families have fully discarded their marine lives, approximately 30 tetraodontid species spend their entire lives in freshwaters in disjunct tropical regions of South America, Central Africa, and Southeast Asia. To investigate the interrelationships of tetraodontid pufferfishes and thereby elucidate the evolutionary origins of their freshwater habitats, we performed phylogenetic analysis based on whole mitochondrial genome sequences from 50 tetraodontid species and closely related species (including 31 newly determined sequences. The resulting phylogenies reveal that the family is composed of four major lineages and that freshwater species from the different continents are independently nested in two of the four lineages. A monophyletic origin of the use of freshwater habitats was statistically rejected, and ancestral habitat reconstruction on the resulting tree demonstrates that tetraodontids independently entered freshwater habitats in different continents at least three times. Relaxed molecular-clock Bayesian divergence time estimation suggests that the timing of these invasions differs between continents, occurring at 0-10 million years ago (MA in South America, 17-38 MA in Central Africa, and 48-78 MA in Southeast Asia. These timings are congruent with geological events that could facilitate adaptation to freshwater habitats in each continent.

  2. Parasitofauna study of the brown trout, Salmo trutta (Pisces, Teleostei from Corsica (Mediterranean island rivers

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    Quilichini Y.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Corsica is a mediterranean island characterised by a great number of rivers. Salmonides are the main fishes which populate these rivers. Very appreciated by fishermen, Salmonides are represented by three species in the insular hydrographical network, among which an autochthonous species, the brown trout (Salmo trutta. In the present work, we have analysed the parasitofauna of this species. According to our knowledge, this research has never been carried out in Corsica. In a first step, we drew up an inventory of the parasites found in this freshwater fish. In a second step, we studied the differences which appeared in the composition of parasite communities of this species.

  3. Evolution of ontogenetic dietary shifts and associated gut features in prickleback fishes (Teleostei: Stichaeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, D P; Gawlicka, A K; Horn, M H

    2014-02-01

    We tested the hypothesis that an ontogenetic dietary shift from carnivory to herbivory or omnivory, and concomitant changes in the gut facilitating digestion of algae, are synapomorphies of the tribes Xiphisterini and Esselenichthyini in the family Stichaeidae (pricklebacks). Previous investigations have revealed that two xiphisterine pricklebacks-Xiphister mucosus and Xiphister atropurpureus-become herbivorous or omnivorous, respectively, as their bodies grow larger, and that their guts show related changes in length and function. In this study we found that, with increase in size, the basal member of the Xiphisterini, Phytichthys chirus, showed an increased proportion of algae in its diet, increased activity of α-amylase and decreased activity of aminopeptidase, all of which support the synapomorphy hypothesis. Cebidichthys violaceus, a herbivore in the Esselenichthyini, shows similar ontogenetic changes in diet and digestive tract length and physiology, but these features were not observed in two derived carnivores, Dictyosoma burgeri and Dictyosoma rubrimaculatum, within the clade. These results suggest that herbivory is isolated to C. violaceus within the Esselenichthyini. Allometric relationships of gut length as a function of body size generally follow diet within the Xiphisterini and Esselenichthyini, with herbivores having the longest guts, which become disproportionately longer than body size as the fishes grow, omnivores intermediate gut lengths, and carnivores the shortest. A carnivore from an adjacent clade, Anoplarchus purpurescens, had the shortest gut, which did not change in length relative to body length as the fish grew. Overall, our results clarify the patterns of dietary evolution within the Stichaeidae and lay the foundation for more detailed studies of dietary and digestive specialization in fishes in the family.

  4. Discovering Hidden Diversity of Characins (Teleostei: Characiformes) in Ecuador’s Yasuní National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Camacho, Daniel; Barriga, Ramiro; Ron, Santiago R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Management and conservation of biodiversity requires adequate species inventories. The Yasuní National Park is one of the most diverse regions on Earth and recent studies of terrestrial vertebrates, based on genetic evidence, have shown high levels of cryptic and undescribed diversity. Few genetic studies have been carried out in freshwater fishes from western Amazonia. Thus, in contrast with terrestrial vertebrates, their content of cryptic diversity remains unknown. In this study, we carried out genetic and morphological analyses on characin fishes at Yasuní National Park, in eastern Ecuador. Our goal was to identify cryptic diversity among one of the most speciose fish families in the Amazon region. This is the first time that genetic evidence has been used to assess the species content of the Napo Basin, one of the richest regions in vertebrate diversity. Results Phylogenetic analyses of partial mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene (∼600 pb) DNA sequences from 232 specimens of the family Characidae and its closest groups revealed eight candidate new species among 33 species sampled, representing a 24% increase in species number. Analyses of external morphology allowed us to confirm the species status of six of the candidate species. Conclusions Our results show high levels of cryptic diversity in Amazonian characins. If this group is representative of other Amazonian fish, our results would imply that the species richness of the Amazonian ichthyofauna is highly underestimated. Molecular methods are a necessary tool to obtain more realistic inventories of Neotropical freshwater fishes. PMID:26275041

  5. New insights on early evolution of spiny-rayed fishes (Teleostei: Acanthomorpha

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    Wei-Jen eChen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Acanthomorpha is the largest group of teleost fishes with about one third of extant vertebrate species. In the course of its evolution this lineage experienced several episodes of radiation, leading to a large number of descendant lineages differing profoundly in morphology, ecology, distribution and behavior. Although Acanthomorpha was recognized decades ago, we are only now beginning to decipher its large-scale, time-calibrated phylogeny, a prerequisite to test various evolutionary hypotheses explaining the tremendous diversity of this group. In this study, we provide new insights into the early evolution of the acanthomorphs and the euteleost allies based on the phylogenetic analysis of a newly developed dataset combining nine nuclear and mitochondrial gene markers. Our inferred tree is time-calibrated using 15 fossils, some of which have not been used before. While our phylogeny strongly supports a monophyletic Neoteleostei, Ctenosquamata (i.e., Acanthomorpha plus Myctophiformes, and Acanthopterygii, we find weak support (bootstrap value < 48% for the traditionally defined Acanthomorpha, as well as evidence of non-monophyly for the traditional Paracanthopterygii, Beryciformes, and Percomorpha. We corroborate the new Paracanthopterygii sensu Miya et al. (2005 including Polymixiiformes, Zeiformes, Gadiformes, Percopsiformes, and likely the enigmatic Stylephorus chordatus. Our timetree largely agrees with other recent studies based on nuclear loci in inferring an Early Cretaceous origin for the acanthomorphs followed by a Late Cretaceous/Early Paleogene radiation of major lineages. This is in contrast to mitogenomic studies mostly inferring Jurassic or even Triassic ages for the origin of the acanthomorphs. We compare our results to those of previous studies, and attempt to address some of the issues that may have led to incongruence between the fossil record and the molecular clock studies, as well as between the different molecular timetrees.

  6. Reproductive biology of the mullet Mugil liza (Teleostei: Mugilidae in a tropical Brazilian bay

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    Rafael J. Albieri

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive biology of Mugil liza Valenciennes, 1836 is described as a contribution to an elaborate management programm. A total of 243 specimens (89 males and 154 females were collected in the Sepetiba Bay in south-eastern Brazil from July/2006 to June/2007. The gonadosomatic index (I G and the sequential development of the ovaries observed through histological studies suggested that the spawning season ranged from May to August. The population reached total sexual maturity (L T100 at 550 and 570 mm total length (L T for males and females, respectively. Females attained a larger size than males, and the sex ratio was female-biased for fish larger than 500 mm L T. The hepatosomatic index (I H was significantly related to the I G, indicating that vitellogenesis mobilizes hepatic energy during reproduction. Mean fecundity was 3,080,000 oocytes. The presence of only two phases of oocyte development in ripe ovaries - a reserve stock and a clutch of post-vitellogenic oocytes - indicated that ovarian development is group synchronic and this species is characterized as a total spawner. The results suggest that establishing a closed fishing season from May to August and establishing a minimum size for capture of 350 mm L T would enhance stock conservation and production for future harvest seasons.

  7. Eviota brahmi n. sp. from Papua New Guinea, with a redescription of Eviota nigriventris (Teleostei: Gobiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, David W; Tornabene, Luke

    2014-04-28

    Greenfield & Randall (2011) described the gobiid fishes Eviota dorsogilva from Fiji and E. dorsopurpurea from Papua New Guinea as new species in what they termed the Eviota nigriventris complex. They also extended the range of E. nigriventris, type locality Banda Sea, to Milne Bay, Papua New Guinea. In the present paper, we describe their misidentified E. nigriventris from Papua New Guinea as a new species, E. brahmi, and redescribe E. nigriventris based on new material from near the type locality. The four species of this complex differ mainly in coloration, but are also shown to be distinct using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA.

  8. Libavaida sugrusida uherles ja vurles kehus* / Maria Ulfsak-Šeripova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ulfsak-Šeripova, Maria, 1981-

    2010-01-01

    Tim Burtoni filmist "Alice Imedemaal" (USA 2010), stsenarist Linda Woolverton, peaosades Mia Wasikowska, Johnny Depp. Lisaks kaks arvamust "3D poolt", autor Mann Jõgeda ja "3D vastu", autor Margit Tõnson

  9. Tim Burton lavastab Batmani muusikali. Placido Domingo palkas "Star Warsi" võluri. MTV muusikaauhindade show'l narriti Michael Jacksonit. Hendrixi põlenud kitarr läheb müüki

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Jim Steinman kirjutab muusikat Tim Burtoni 2005. aastal lavale tulevale Batmani muusikalile. Los Angelese ooperimaja juht Domingo palkas George Lucase Wagneri ooperi "Nibelungide sõrmus" eriefektide ettevalmistamiseks. Britney Spears nimetas Michael Jacksonit Millenniumi artistiks.

  10. Gonadal structure and gametogenesis of Loricaria lentiginosa Isbrücker (Pisces, Teleostei, Siluriformes Estrutura gonadal e gametogênese de Loricaria lentiginosa Isbrücker (Pisces, Teleostei, Siluriformes

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    Rodrigo J. Guimarães-Cruz

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The gonadal structure and gametogenesis of Loricaria lentiginosa Isbrücker, 1979 were studied through anatomical and histological techniques. Forty two males and ten females in maturation/mature stage were captured in the reservoir of Porto Colombia, Paraná river basin, Minas Gerais, using gill nets, from November 2001 to October 2002 (tri-monthly captures. Examination of the testes revealed that they were paired, elongated and not fringed organs. Histologically, the testes presented three distinct regions: cranial espermatogenic; transistion espermatogenic and secretory; and caudal exclusively secretory. Standard histochemical techniques detected neutral glycoproteins from the secretion of the tubules of the caudal region. Espermatogenesis occurred in cysts throughout the whole extension of the wall of the seminiferous tubules, which anastomosis themselves and liberated the spermatozoa into the lumen of the espermatic ducts. The ovaries were paired, saculiformes and, histologically, they presented ovigerous lamellae that contained the cells of ovogenic ancestry. The oocytes were classified into four stages, based on their cytological characteristics and the cell layers that surrounded them. Post-ovulatory follicles and vitelogenic oocytes in the follicular atresia process also were observed.A estrutura gonadal e a gametogênese de Loricaria lentiginosa Isbrücker, 1979 foram estudadas através de técnicas anatômicas e histológicas. Capturaram-se, trimestralmente, no reservatório de Porto Colômbia, bacia do rio Paraná, Minas Gerais, quarenta e dois machos e dez fêmeas nos estádios em maturação/maduro, utilizando-se redes de emalhar, no período de novembro de 2001 a outubro de 2002. Os testículos são órgãos pares, alongados e não franjados. Histologicamente, os testículos apresentam três regiões distintas: cranial espermatogênica, transição espermatogênica e secretora e caudal exclusivamente secretora. Na secreção dos túbulos da região caudal detectaram-se glicoproteínas neutras. A espermatogênese ocorre em cistos em toda a extensão da parede dos túbulos seminíferos, os quais anastomosam-se e liberam os espermatozóides no lume dos ductos espermáticos. Os ovários são órgãos pares, saculiformes e, histologicamente, apresentam lamelas ovulígeras que contém as células da linhagem ovogênica. Os ovócitos foram classificados em quatro estádios, baseando-se em suas características citológicas e nas camadas que os circundam. Folículos pós-ovulatórios e ovócitos vitelogênicos em processo de atresia folicular foram também observados.

  11. Desenvolvimento gonadal do jundiá, Rhamdia quelen (Teleostei, Siluriformes, em viveiros de terra, na região sul do Brasil = Gonadal development of jundiá, Rhamdia quelen (Teleostei, Siluriformes, in earthen ponds in southern Brazil

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    Luciana Ghiraldelli

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo caracterizou o desenvolvimento gonadal de jundiá até a maturação sexual, quando cultivados em viveiros de terra, visando subsidiar o desenvolvimento de tecnologia de cultivo para esta espécie na região sul do Brasil. Alevinos de jundiá (peso médio 8 ± 3,73 g foram estocados em três viveiros, na densidade de 0,6indivíduos m-2. Catorze indivíduos foram amostrados mensalmente, de setembro de 2001 a outubro de 2002. Os estádios de maturação gonadal foram caracterizados macroscopicamente, e fragmentos de ovários e testículos de alguns exemplares foram fixados em formalina 4% para análise histológica. Foram analisados 118 exemplares: 60 machos e 58 fêmeas. Os machos apresentaram atividade reprodutiva precoce, quandocomparados às fêmeas. Testículos e ovários apresentaram morfologia similar a de outras espécies de Siluriformes. De acordo com a análise microscópica, as gônadas foram classificadas em quatro estádios de desenvolvimento: imaturo, em maturação inicial, em maturação final e maduro. A relação gonadossomática variou de 0,29 a 9,16 para os machose de 0,11 a 13,03 para as fêmeas. Indivíduos maduros foram observados nos meses de verão (dezembro/2001 e janeiro/2002, outono (abril e maio/2002 e primavera (setembro e outubro/2002, acompanhando o aumento de temperatura.The study characterized the gonadal development of jundiá from approximately 8 g until gonadal maturation, to provide further knowledge for farming jundiá in Southern Brazil. Jundiá fingerlings(average weight 8.00 ± 3.73 g were stocked in three ponds at 0.6 fish m-2. Fourteen fish were sampled each month from September 2001 to October 2002. Gonadal maturation stages were characterized macroscopically, and samples of ovaries and testicles were fixedin 4-%-buffered formalin for histological examination. One hundred and eighteen fish were analyzed: 60 males e 58 females. Jundiá males matured earlier than females. Testicles and ovaries presented similar morphology to other Siluriformes species. Gonads were classified in four development phases of the ovarian follicle, according to histology: immature, initial maturation, final maturation and mature. The gonadosomatic index varied from 0.29 to 9.16 for males and from 0.11 to 13.03 for females. Mature individuals were observed during summer (December/2001 and January/2002, fall (April and May/2002 and spring (September and October/2002, following the increase in water temperature.

  12. Morfologia e crescimento do músculo estriado esquelético no pirarucu Arapaima gigas Cuvier, 1817 (Teleostei, Arapaimidae = Morphology and skeletal muscle growth in pirarucu Arapaima gigas Cuvier, 1817 (Teleostei, Arapaimidae

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    Fernanda Regina Carani

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as características morfológicas e de crescimento do músculo estriado esquelético no pirarucu (Arapaima gigas. Foram utilizados animais em duas fases de crescimento: alevinos, com 50 dias de idade, e juvenis, com umano de idade. Após eutanásia dos animais, fragmentos musculares das regiões dorsal, lateral cranial e lateral caudal foram coletados e congelados em nitrogênio líquido. Cortes histológicos (10 mm foram submetidos às colorações HE e Tricrômico de Gomori, para a análise morfológica, e NADH-TR, para a análise do metabolismo oxidativo das fibras musculares. Foi calculado o menor diâmetro das fibras musculares brancas nas regiões dorsal e lateral cranial. A musculatura dorsal branca mostrou-se mais desenvolvida e, namusculatura lateral, observaram-se compartimentos distintos: superficial vermelho e profundo branco. Nos alevinos, o crescimento muscular ocorreu predominantemente por hiperplasia das fibras e, nos juvenis, predominou o crescimento muscular por hipertrofia.The aim of this work was to evaluate the morphological and growth characteristics of skeletal muscle tissue in pirarucu (Arapaimagigas using alevins (50 days old and juveniles (1 year old. Muscle samples were collected from dorsal, lateral cranial and lateral caudal regions, and then frozen in liquid nitrogen. Histological frozen sections (10μm were stained with HE and Gomori Trichrome formorphological analysis, and NADH-TR to evaluate muscle fiber oxidative metabolism. Morphometric analysis samples were obtained from dorsal and lateral cranial regions, and the smallest-diameter white fibers were measured. White dorsal muscle was thicker, andtwo muscle fiber compartments were identified in the lateral cranial region: red (superficial and white (deep muscle. Hyperplasia muscle growth predominated in alevins and hypertrophy in juveniles.

  13. Relação peso-comprimento de Orthopristis ruber (Cuvier (Teleostei, Haemulidae na Baia de Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Length-weight relationship of Orthopristis ruber (Cuvier (Teleostei, Haemulidae in the Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    André L. B. dos Santos

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A relação peso-comprimento de Orthopristis ruber (Cuvier, 1830 na Baia de Sepetiba (22º54'-23º04'S; 43º34'-44º10'W, Rio de Janeiro foi determinada. Este trabalho objetiva contribuir com o conhecimento sobre a morfometria desta espécie na baía e fornecer bases para comparações com outros ambientes. Os peixes foram coletados em programas de amostragens de arrasto de praia (juvenis e arrasto de fundo (adultos entre outubro de 1998 e setembro de 1999. A equação encontrada foi W = 0,000006 L3,1368 para machos e W = 0,000006 L3,14º3 para fêmeas. Alometria positiva foi encontrada para machos e fêmeas e a proporção sexual foi de 1:1. Os altos valores para o coeficiente alométrico indicam alto investimento no crescimento, que pode ser devido ao pequeno tamanho relativo dos espécimes da população analisada, ou ser um mecanismo para suportar as condições de estresse nesta área.The lenght-weight relationship of Orthopristis rubber (Cuvier, 1830 in the Sepetiba Bay (22º54'-23º04'S; 43º34'-44º10'W, Rio de Janeiro was determined. It aims to contribute to morphometrics knowledge of this species in a semi-closed coastal area and to supply basis for comparisons with others environment. Fishes were collected by beach seine (juveniles and otter trawl (adults from October 1998 to September 1999. The equation found was W = 0,000006 L3,1368 for males and W = 0,000006 L3,14º3 for females. Positive allometry was found for both sexes and sex rate was 1:1. The comparatively high values for allometric coefficient indicate high investment in growth, which can be due to relatively small size of the examined fish populations, or a mechanism to overcome stress conditions in the area.

  14. Estrutura populacional de Pomadasys corvinaeformis (Steindachner (Teleostei, Haemulidae na Baía de Guaratuba, Paraná, Brasil Populacional structure of Pomadasys corvinaeformis (Steindachner (Teleostei, Haemulidae at Guaratuba Bay, Paraná, Brazil

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    Paulo de Tarso da Cunha Chaves

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive and biometrical analyses were pertormed on 1629 individuals of P. corvinaeformis collected monthly from October 1993 to September 1996, at Guaratuba Bay, Southern Brazilian coast. The results indicate that the species is more abundant in the mangrove area during winter, when the largest individuais were collected, and spring, when the water temperature is lower and the salinity higher than summer or autumn. The relationship of body weight to body length, for grouped sexes, is "lnTW= -12,0456 + 3,1831 lnTL". The monthly Condition Factor is highest during summer and lowest during winter. It is suggested that P. corvinaeformis is present in the mangrove area during a specific etape of its life cycle and does not use this area to maturation and spawn.

  15. Aspectos biológicos del pleco invasor Pterygoplichthys pardalis (Teleostei: Loricariidae en el río Palizada, Campeche, México Biological aspects of the invasor plecos Pterygoplichthys pardalis (Teleostei: Loricariidae from Palizada River, Campeche, Mexico

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    Armando T. Wakida-Kusunoki

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó el comportamiento de la abundancia, la relación peso-longitud y el índice gonadosomático de Pterygoplichthys pardalis en el río Palizada en Campeche, México. Se realizaron muestreos mensuales de junio de 2008 a mayo de 2009 con redes agalleras. Se colectaron 118 plecos cuyas tallas estuvieron entre 222 y 422.5 mm de longitud total (LT y un peso de 72.8 a 385.4 g. El periodo de mayor abundancia se presentó de junio a agosto, no hubo diferencias significativas de la abundancia en diferentes periodos del día (p≤ 0.05. Se observó que el índice de abundancia está correlacionado con el nivel del río y el índice gonadosomático. El índice gonadosomático muestra que la época de reproducción se presenta de mayo a agosto; sin embargo, se encontraron hembras con gónadas bien desarrolladas durante todo el año de muestreo. Los parámetros de la relación peso-longitud para ambos sexos son: b= 2.78 y a= 0.0003. La comparación de esta relación entre ambos sexos no resultó significativa (p≤ 0.05. Es necesario realizar esfuerzos para la erradicación de este pez por medio de incentivos a pescadores durante el periodo de mayor vulnerabilidad y de mayor actividad reproductiva.Abundance, length-weight relationship and gonad somatic index of Pterygoplichthys pardalis in Palizada River, Mexico were analyzed. Monthly samplings were carried out from June 2008 to May 2009 with gill nets. A total of 118 plecos were catched; theirs sizes were between 222 and 422.5 mm of total longitude (TL and weight between 72.8 to 385.4 g. The highest abundance period was found from June to August, with not statistical differences between their values in the different periods of the day (p≤ 0.05. The abundance index was correlationed with river level and gonad somatic index. The gonad somatic index showed that the spawning season occurs from May to August; however, females with well developed gonads were observed during all sampling period. The parameters of the length-weight relationship for both sexes are: b= 2.78 and a= 0.0003. The comparison of this relationship between both sexes is not significant (p≤ 0.05. It is necessary that efforts be made to eradicate this species through incentives to fishermen during bigger vulnerability and of more reproductive activity period.

  16. Toxicidade aguda do nitrito em larvas do peixe-rei marinho Odontesthes argentinensis (Teleostei, Atherinopsidae Acute toxicity of nitrite on larvae of the marine pejerrey Odontesthes argentinensis (Teleostei, Atherinopsidae

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    Luís André Sampaio

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visou a determinar o efeito tóxico do nitrito sobre larvas do peixe-rei marinho Odontesthes argentinensis através de testes agudos com 96h de duração. As larvas utilizadas neste experimento foram cultivadas no Laboratório de Maricultura da FURG (Rio Grande - RS. Foi utilizada água do mar filtrada na salinidade 35‰, na temperatura de 23°C, com fotoperíodo de 14 horas de luz e aeração constante. Diariamente, as larvas mortas foram retiradas e, em seguida, 100% do meio experimental foi renovado. Não foi fornecido alimento durante a exposição ao nitrito. As larvas foram expostas a cinco concentrações de nitrito: 50, 150, 250, 350 e 450mg L-1 N-NO2-, mais um controle onde o nitrito não foi adicionado. A CL50-96h (concentração letal para 50% dos organismos após 96 horas e seu intervalo de confiança (95% foram de 199,3 (142,0-279,6mg L-1 N-NO2-. Os resultados deste trabalho sugerem que, assim como outras espécies de peixes marinhos, o O. argentinensis é uma espécie tolerante a altas concentrações de nitrito e é pouco provável que este último seja um problema para o cultivo intensivo desta espécie.This work evaluated the toxicity of nitrite on larvae of the marine pejerrey Odontesthes argentinensis through acute exposure during 96h. Larvae used in this experiment were cultivated in the Laboratory of Mariculture of the University of Rio Grande. During the tests temperature was 23°C, salinity 35‰, and 14 hours of light were provided. Every day dead larvae were removed and the experimental media were completely renewed. Larvae were deprived of food during the test. Concentrations for the acute tests were 50, 150, 250, 350 and 450mg L-1 N-NO2-, plus a control with no nitrite added. Lethal concentration for 50% of the organisms (LC50-96h, and its confidence interval, was 199.3 (142.0-279.6mg L-1 N-NO2-. The results of the acute tests suggest that, as other species of marine fish larvae, O. argentinensis is tolerant to high concentrations of nitrite, and it is unlikely that it would be a problem for the intensive culture of this species.

  17. Atividade reprodutiva de peixes (Teleostei e o defeso da pesca de arrasto no litoral norte de Santa Catarina, Brasil Reproductive activity of fish (Teleostei and closed season to shrimp trawling off ther northern coast of Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Leda M. de Souza

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Desembarques de arrasto visando à pesca do camarão sete-barbas, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri, foram acompanhados de 2005 a 2007 no município de São Francisco do Sul, Santa Catarina. Setenta e seis espécies de teleósteos foram registradas como captura incidental e seus indivíduos foram avaliados quanto ao estádio de maturação e Índice de Atividade Reprodutiva. Constatou-se que indivíduos de metade das espécies são capturados com gônadas maduras, em estações que variaram conforme a espécie. Em Isopisthus parvipinnis a atividade enquadrou-se na categoria "muito intensa" na primavera de 2005 e no verão de 2007; em Menticirrhus americanus, Stellifer sp., Pomadasys corvinaeformis, Stellifer brasiliensis, Syacium papillosum, Larimus breviceps, Diapterus rhombeus, Symphurus tessellatus, Chirocentrodon bleekerianus, Pellona harroweri, Anchoa tricolor e Selene setapinnis apenas em uma estação, dependendo da espécie. O verão de 2007, seguido da primavera de 2005, foram as estações em que o arrasto incidiu sobre maior número de espécies em atividade reprodutiva "intensa" ou "muito intensa". No verão de 2007 o arrasto camaroeiro incidiu sobre um conjunto de espécies em atividade reprodutiva maior que na mesma estação em 2006. Atribui-se esse fato à proibição legal do arrasto de camarão no trimestre de outubro-dezembro de 2006, favorecendo a atividade reprodutiva das espécies na estação subseqüente. Recomenda-se que a gestão da pesca camaroeira na região mantenha o defeso de arrasto na primavera, assim beneficiando não apenas as espécies de peixes que desovam nesta estação, mas também aquelas que se preparam para a desova no verão.Shrimp trawling was monitored in southern Brazil in order to study the reproductive status of teleosts occurring as by-catch. From 2005 to 2007 seventy-six fish species were found in this kind of fisheries. Gonad stages were evaluated and the Reproductive Activity Index was calculated. Mature individuals were 50% of the total caught as by-catch. Breeding activity in Isopisthus parvipinnis was "very high" in spring 2005 and summer 2007, and in a particular season (depending on the species in Menticirrhus americanus, Stellifer sp., Pomadasys corvinaeformis, Stellifer brasiliensis, Syacium papillosum, Larimus breviceps, Diapterus rhombeus, Symphurus tessellatus, Chirocentrodon bleekerianus, Pellona harroweri, Anchoa tricolor, and Selene setapinnis. In the summer of 2007, followed by the spring of 2005, trawling caught more species in "high" or "very high" breeding activity. In the summer of 2007 a larger number of species was in reproductive activity than the same season of 2006, due to a closed season in October-December 2006. Aiming to improve the fish breeding activity in this region, it is recommended to close this area for shrimp trawling during the spring. This measure could be positive for both species that spawn in spring and those preparing to spawn in the summer.

  18. Tolerância de juvenis do pampo Trachinotus marginatus (Teleostei, Carangidae ao choque agudo de salinidade em laboratório Acute salinity tolerance of juvenile pompano Trachinotus marginatus (Teleostei, Carangidae under laboratory conditions

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    Luís André Sampaio

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O pampo Trachinotus marginatus é uma espécie com potencial para piscicultura, mas a sua utilização pode ser limitada pelas variações de salinidade comuns em estuários ou em ambientes super-salinos. Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de determinar a tolerância à salinidade de juvenis de T. marginatus em laboratório. Foram testadas 12 salinidades em duplicata (0, 6, 8, 10, 15, 25, 45, 55, 58, 61, 65 e 75‰ e um tratamento controle (35‰. Dez peixes (comprimento total: 20,7±2,3mm e peso úmido: 427±113mg foram colocados em tanques plásticos de 3L. A temperatura da água foi mantida em 24ºC com um banho termostatisado, aeração constante e, a cada 24 horas, os meios experimentais foram completamente renovados. Após 96 horas de exposição, as salinidades letais médias inferior e superior, com os respectivos intervalos de confiança (IC 95%, foram estimadas em 6,99‰ (IC 95% = 6,86-7,13‰ e 58,50‰ (IC 95% = 56,81-60,24‰, respectivamente. Estes resultados permitem caracterizar esta espécie como eurialina. O estudo da influência da salinidade sobre T. marginatus deve ser aprofundado, buscando avaliar principalmente os efeitos sobre o crescimento, de modo que seja possível determinar o potencial do seu cultivo em ambientes com diferentes salinidades.The pompano Trachinotus marginatus shows good potential for aquaculture, but the success of its culture might be limited by the salinity fluctuations common in estuaries or in hyper-saline environments. The objective of this work was to establish the salinity tolerance of juvenile T. marginatus under laboratory conditions. Twelve salinities (0, 6, 8, 10, 15, 25, 45, 55, 58, 61, 65, and 75‰ plus a control (35‰ were tested in duplicate. Groups of ten fish (total length: 20.7±2,3mm and wet weight: 427±113mg were placed in plastic tanks with 3L of water. A water bath was set to control the temperature at 24ºC, water was continuously aerated, and completely exchanged every 24h. After 96 hours, lower and upper medium lethal salinities and their respective confidence intervals (CI 95% were estimated as 6.99‰ (CI 95% = 6.86-7.13‰, and 58.50‰ (CI 95% = 56.81-60.24‰, respectively. These results allow the characterization of this species as euryhaline. The influence of salinity on T. marginatus should be studied with more detail, with special attention to its effects on growth, in order to determine the potential for T. marginatus culture in different salinities.

  19. Light microscopy and ultrastructure ight of the liver of Astyanax altiparanae Garutti and Britski, 2000 (Teleostei, Characidae = Histologia e ultraestrutura do fígado de Astyanax altiparanae Garutti e Britski, 2000 (Teleostei, Characidae

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    Bruno Bertolucci

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Livers of thirty specimens of Astyanax altiparanae obtained from a commercial fish farm were subjected to light and transmission electron microscopy, in order to describe the hepatic parenchyma and the intrahepatic exocrine pancreatic tissue. Anatomically, theliver showed only three hepatic lobes. Histological analysis demonstrated that the hepatocytes were spread out as anastomotic cords, arranged in two cellular layers and surrounded by sinusoids. The intrahepatic exocrine pancreatic tissue exhibited an acinararrangement and was diffused in the hepatic parenchyma. Ultrastructural analysis showed that the hepatocytes had a rounded nucleus and a rough endoplasmatic reticulum, with a parallel disposition to the nuclear membrane. The exocrine pancreatic cells showed secretion granules at the apical portion, and the rough endosplasmatic reticulum was concentrically distributed.Fígados de 30 exemplares de Astyanax altiparanae, obtidos de pesqueiros, foram submetidos à microscopia de luz e à microscopia eletrônica de transmissão para descrição do parênquima hepático e do tecido pancreático exócrino intrahepático. Anatomicamente, o fígado apresenta somente três lobos hepáticos. A análise histológica demonstra que os hepatócitos se encontram arranjados na forma de cordões anastomosados, dispostos em duas camadas celulares, sendo que estes estão cercados por sinusóides. O tecido pancreático exócrino intra-hepático apresenta arranjo acinar difuso pelo parênquima hepático. A análise ultraestrutural demonstra que os hepatócitos possuem um núcleo arredondado e retículo endoplasmático rugoso, com disposição paralela à membrana nuclear. As células pancreáticas exócrinas apresentam grânulos de secreção na porção apical e retículo endoplasmático rugoso com distribuição concêntrica.

  20. Reprodução de Stellifer rastrifer (Jordan (Teleostei, Sciaenidae na Baía de Guaratuba, Paraná, Brasil Reproduction of Stellifer rastrifer (Jordan (Teleostei, Sciaenidae at the Guaratuba Bay, Paraná, Brazil

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    Paulo de Tarso da Cunha Chaves

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1312 individuais of S. rastrifer were sampled from March 1994 to September 1996 at the Guaratuba Bay, Southern Brazilian coast. This species is a permanently inhabitant of the mangrove area throughout the year. The weight/length relationship of the species in the region is "In TW =-12,35 + 3,22 In TL", and the individuais may reach 172mm of total length. The analyses of gonadal morphology and gonadossomatic index indicate that S. rastrifer is a multiple spawner species, that reproduces at the mangrove area during a long period of the year. The reproductive activity is more intense during the winter and mainly the spring, when the value of Condition Factor declines and empty folheies are found in the ovaries.

  1. Inoculação de suspensão bacteriana de Plesiomonas shigelloides em Jundiá, Rhamdia quelen (Teleostei: Pimelodidae Inoculation of bacterial suspension of Plesiomonas shigelloides in jundiá, Rhamdia quelen (Teleostei: Pimelodidae

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    Cheila de Lima Boijink

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o crescimento da aqüicultura mundial e intensificação da criação de peixes, os animais ficam sujeitos às enfermidades bacterianas e outras. Com o objetivo de avaliar a patogenicidade da Plesiomonas shigelloides para jundiás (Rhamdia quelen, diferentes concentrações bacterianas (3 x 10(8 e 9 x 10(8 UFC - Unidade Formadora de Colônia/ml foram inoculadas por via intraperitoneal. Foram utilizados 84 jundiás juvenis com peso e comprimento médios de 24,37 ± 4,28g e 14,42 ± 1,62cm, respectivamente. Os animais inoculados foram mantidos durante 21 dias, em caixas d'agua de amianto, em condições semelhantes de temperatura, pH, alcalinidade e dureza. Os jundiás foram sacrificados a cada dois dias para contagem de UFC/ml de tecido renal. Por observações diárias, constatou-se que a inoculação intraperitoneal de Plesiomonas shigelloides não ocasionou nenhuma alteração nos jundiás, independente da concentração inoculada. As contagens das bactérias nos rins dos jundiás mantiveram-se entre 10(5 e 10(6UFC/ml até o 21º dia, quando o experimento foi finalizado.As worldwide aquaculture has grown, and intensification in fish raising, the animals are subject to bacterial diseases and others. With the aim of evaluating pathogenicity of Plesiomonas shigelloides for "jundiá" (Rhamdia quelen, different bacterial concentrations (3 x 10(8 e 9 x 10(8 CFU - Colony Former Unit/ml were inoculated via peritoneum. Eigthy four juvenile "jundiá" averaging 24.37 ± 4,28g of weight and 14.42 ± 1,62cm of length were utilized. The inoculated animals were maintained for 21 days, in asbestos water tanks, at similar temperature, pH, alkalinity and hardness conditions. The "jundiás" were slaughtered every other day for counting UFC/ml renal tissue. For daily inspections, it was observed that intraperitoneal inoculation of Plesiomonas shigelloides did not cause any change in the catfishes, regardless inoculated concentration. Bacteria counting in "jundiás" kidneys was maintained between 10(5 and 10(6 UFC/ml until the 21st day, when the experiment was ended.

  2. lagoonal sand smelts ( , teleostei, atherinidae) inhabit marine shallow waters of the coasts of djerba island (Tunisia)

    OpenAIRE

    Bouriga, N.; S. Selmi; Aurelle, D.; Barthelemy, R.; Quignard, J-P.; Trabelsi, M.

    2009-01-01

    Atherina boyeri de la Méditerranée est un complexe hautement polymorphe ayant un génotype capable d’une réponse phénotypique flexible. Elle peut rapidement adapter les traits de sa morphologie à des environnements allant des eaux douces aux eaux saumâtres côtières polyhalines et aux eaux océaniques. Les travaux de recherche réalisés, en Méditerranée, sur ce complexe ont permis de le scinder en trois espèces. Deux espèces marines (Atherina boyeri et Atherina punctata) et une espèce qui peuple...

  3. Lagoonal sand smelts (atherina lagunaea, teleostei, atherinidae) inhabit marine shallow waters of the coasts of djerba island (tunisia)

    OpenAIRE

    Bouriga, N.; S. Selmi; Aurelle, D.; Barthelemy, R.; Quignard, J-P.; Trabelsi, M.

    2009-01-01

    Atherina boyeri de la Méditerranée est un complexe hautement polymorphe ayant un génotype capable d’une réponse phénotypique flexible. Elle peut rapidement adapter les traits de sa morphologie à des environnements allant des eaux douces aux eaux saumâtres côtières polyhalines et aux eaux océaniques. Les travaux de recherche réalisés, en Méditerranée, sur ce complexe ont permis de le scinder en trois espèces. Deux espèces marines (Atherina boyeri et Atherina punctata) et une espèce qui peuple...

  4. Cytogenetic and morphometric analysis in the species Astyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britski, 2000 (Teleostei, Characidae) from the Iguatemi River Basin, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Carlos Alexandre; Da Rocha, Rafael Henrique; Bailly, Dayani; Guterres, Zaira Da Rosa; Alves, Diandra Soares; Martins-Santos, Isabel Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The genus Astyanax is relatively common and encompasses various similar taxa forming a highly complex group that is difficult to precisely delimit. The present study aims to analyze cytogenetically and morphologically specimens of A. altiparanae belonging to distinct populations of the Iguatemi River Basin, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, for a better understanding of the evolutionary processes in this fish group. This study analysed 32 specimens of Astyanax altiparanae from Iguatemi River basin, MS, Brazil: 24 from the Agua Boa stream and 8 from the Santa Maria stream. All specimens showed a diploid number equal to 50 chromosomes with differences in the karyotypic formula and types of chromosomes bearing the NOR between the two localities. The constitutive heterochromatin showed interstitial markings evident in the region of some chromosomes in both populations. In the morphometric analysis, the first three axes were retained for interpretation which together explained 81% of variance, showing morphometric distinction between populations. Chromosomal and morphometric data obtained may be useful for taxonomic and phylogenetic studies in this group of fish.

  5. Integrative taxonomy of Anisakidae and Raphidascarididae (Nematoda) in Paralichthys patagonicus and Xystreurys rasile (Pisces: Teleostei) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Michelle Cristie Gonçalves da; Knoff, Marcelo; Felizardo, Nilza Nunes; Di Azevedo, Maria Isabel N; Torres, Eduardo José Lopes; Gomes, Delir Corrêa; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo; São Clemente, Sérgio Carmona de

    2016-10-17

    Thirty-six Paralichthys patagonicus and 30 Xystreurys rasile were collected in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil to investigate the presence of anisakid and raphidascaridid nematodes. Anisakis typica, Terranova sp., Contracaecum sp., Hysterothylacium deardorffoverstreetorum, and Raphidascaris sp. were identified using integrative taxonomy of morphological and genetic data. Morphological and morphometric analysis was conducted using bright field microscopy with scanning electron microscopy for topographic characterization of the cuticular surface. Phylogenetic analysis, using ITS and cox2 molecular targets, clearly demonstrated the species identification of A. typica and H. deardorffoverstreetorum and the high diversity of H. deardorffoverstreetorum. This is the first report of A. typica, H. deardorffoverstreetorum, and Raphidascaris sp. parasitizing P. patagonicus and X. rasile.

  6. Molecular Identification and Traceability of Illegal Trading in Lignobrycon myersi (Teleostei: Characiformes), a Threatened Brazilian Fish Species, Using DNA Barcode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Alexandre dos Santos; Brandão, José Henrique Souza Galdino; Bitencourt, Jamille de Araújo; Jucá-Chagas, Ricardo; Sampaio, Iracilda; Schneider, Horácio

    2016-01-01

    Lignobrycon myersi is a threatened freshwater fish species and endemic of a few coastal rivers in northeastern Brazil. Even though the Brazilian laws prohibit the fisheries of threatened species, L. myersi is occasionally found in street markets, being highly appreciated by local population. In order to provide a reliable DNA barcode dataset for L. myersi, we compared mitochondrial sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) from fresh, frozen, and salt-preserved specimens. Phylogenetically related species (Triportheus spp.) and other fish species (Astyanax fasciatus) commonly mixed with L. myersi in street markets were also included to test the efficiency of molecular identification. In spite of the differences in conservation processes and advanced deterioration of some commercial samples, high-quality COI sequences were obtained and effective in discriminating L. myersi specimens. In addition, while populations from Contas and Almada River basins seem to comprise a single evolutionary lineage, the specimens from Cachoeira River were genetically differentiated, indicating population structuring. Therefore, DNA barcoding has proved to be useful to trace the illegal trading of L. myersi and to manage threatened populations, which should focus on conservation of distinct genetic stocks and mitigation on human impacts along their range. PMID:27668281

  7. A systematic review of diapoma (teleostei: characiformes: characidae: stevardiinae: diapomini with descriptions of two new species from southern Brazil

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    Naércio A. Menezes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diapoma is reviewed and four species are recognized: (1 Diapoma thauma, new species, from streams of the rio Jacuí basin, state of Rio Grande do Sul; (2 D. pyrrhopteryx, new species collected from the rio Canoas and streams flowing into this basin in the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina, Brazil; (3 Diapoma terofali, from streams flowing into rio Uruguay in Uruguay and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil and streams flowing into rio de la Plata, Argentina; and (4 Diapoma speculiferum, from lowland coastal streams in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil and Uruguay. Diapoma pyrrhopteryx possess the posteroventral opercular elongation typical of D. speculiferum, type species of the genus, but which is absent in D. thauma and D. terofali. Nonetheless, all the diapomin species have the caudal pouch organ about equally developed in both sexes and the dorsal portion of the pouch opening bordered by a series of 3 to 8 elongated scales, the two derived features that characterize the group. The two previously described species, D. speculiferum and D. terofali, are redescribed. Previous hypotheses of relationships among the diapomin genera Planaltina, Diapoma and Acrobrycon are discussed on the basis of preliminary morphological information. It is proposed that the Diapomini is a monophyletic group. An identification key, information on sexual dimorphism, gonad anatomy, reproductive mode and distribution of the species of Diapoma are provided.

  8. Sardinella brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1879 (Teleostei: Clupeidae, nome válido aplicado à sardinha-verdadeira no sudeste do Brasil

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    José Lima de Figueiredo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A história nomenclatural de Sardinella brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1879 e de seu nome de substituição, Sardinella janeiro (Eigenmann, 1894 é apresentada, sendo confirmada a validade do primeiro por meio da aplicação dos dispositivos do Código Internacional de Nomenclatura Zoológica.The nomenclatural history of Sardinella brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1879 and its replacement name Sardinella janeiro (Eigenmann, 1894 is presented, and the validity of the first confirmed through the application of the provisions of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature.

  9. Local ecological and taxonomic knowledge of snapper fish (Teleostei: Actinopterygii held by fishermen in Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil

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    Camilla Fahning Ferreira Caló

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Local Ecological and Taxonomic Knowledge (LEK of fish held by fishermen in the municipality of Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil, known as the snapper ("vermelho" was examined from August 2005 to November 2006. Semi-structured interviews and tests were made with fishermen selected under the criteria of "specialists". The data analysis followed the union model of the different individual competences. Grouping analysis was performed on data referring to the localities of the occurrence of these fish, depth, coloration, and morphological characteristics of the species using the Pearson correlation coefficient (UPGMA. A total of 19 species were named within the snapper group, although three of them could not be scientifically identified. The Lutjanidae family presented the greatest numbers of species (n = 9. Other families mentioned were: the Serranidae (n = 3, Holocentridae (n = 2, Priacanthidae (n = 1, Mullidae (n = 1. The 1:1 correspondence between fishermen's local names and scientific species observed in this study indicates the richness of local fishermen knowledge. Analysis of the LEK related to the feeding habits of these fish and indicated that most were considered as being carnivorous, which agrees with the specialized literature consulted. In terms of their spatial distribution, two categories were detected: locality of occurrence (rivers/sea, coast, and offshore and depth (surface, mid-depth, mid-depth/deep, deep. The fish were considered locally to be "winter fish", based on harvested yields. Most of the interviewees knew little about the reproductive aspects of these fish. The main criteria used to identify, name, and classify the species were based on color and morphological aspects. Much of the information gathered in this study agreed with the published literature, which strengthens the importance of including LEK in planning and decision-making processes.

  10. Mapping the potential distribution of the invasive Red Shiner, Cyprinella lutrensis (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) across waterways of the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Helen M.; Chernoff, Barry; Fuller, Pam L.; Butman, David

    2012-01-01

    Predicting the future spread of non-native aquatic species continues to be a high priority for natural resource managers striving to maintain biodiversity and ecosystem function. Modeling the potential distributions of alien aquatic species through spatially explicit mapping is an increasingly important tool for risk assessment and prediction. Habitat modeling also facilitates the identification of key environmental variables influencing species distributions. We modeled the potential distribution of an aggressive invasive minnow, the red shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis), in waterways of the conterminous United States using maximum entropy (Maxent). We used inventory records from the USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, native records for C. lutrensis from museum collections, and a geographic information system of 20 raster climatic and environmental variables to produce a map of potential red shiner habitat. Summer climatic variables were the most important environmental predictors of C. lutrensis distribution, which was consistent with the high temperature tolerance of this species. Results from this study provide insights into the locations and environmental conditions in the US that are susceptible to red shiner invasion.

  11. Melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) is involved in the regulation of growth hormone in Cichlasoma dimerus (Cichlidae, Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Sirkin, D I; Cánepa, M M; Fossati, M; Fernandino, J I; Delgadin, T; Canosa, L F; Somoza, G M; Vissio, P G

    2012-03-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is the main pituitary hormone involved in somatic growth. In fish, the neuroendocrine control of GH is multifactorial due to the interaction of multiple inhibitors and stimulators. Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a cyclic peptide involved in skin color regulation of fish. In addition, MCH has been related to the regulation of food intake in both mammals and fish. There is only one report presenting evidences on the GH release stimulation by MCH in mammals in experiments in vitro, but there are no data on non-mammals. In the present work, we report for the first time the sequence of MCH and GH cDNA in Cichlasoma dimerus, a freshwater South American cichlid fish. We detected contacts between MCH fibers and GH cells in the proximal pars distalis region of the pituitary gland by double label confocal immunofluorescence indicating a possible functional relationship. Besides, we found that MCH increased GH transcript levels and stimulated GH release in pituitary cultures. Additionally, C. dimerus exposed to a white background had a greater number of MCH neurons with a larger nuclear area and higher levels of MCH transcript than those fish exposed to a black background. Furthermore, fish reared for 3 months in a white background showed a greater body weight and total length compared to those from black background suggesting that MCH might be related to somatic growth in C. dimerus. Our results report for the first time, that MCH is involved in the regulation of the synthesis and release of GH in vitro in C. dimerus, and probably in the fish growth rate.

  12. Fishes of the family Ipnopidae (Teleostei: Aulopiformes) collected on the Brazilian continental slope between 11 degrees and 23 degrees S.

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    Franco, M A L; Braga, A C; Nunan, G W A; Costa, P A S

    2009-09-01

    A collection of fishes from the Brazilian continental slope between 11 degrees and 23 degrees S obtained through trawling revealed nine species of Ipnopidae. Bathypterois bigelowi and Bathytyphlops marionae represent first records from the south-western Atlantic Ocean and Bathypterois grallator is reported off Brazil for the first time. Four species have their distribution extended in Brazilian waters: Bathypterois phenax, Bathypterois quadrifilis, Bathypterois viridensis and Ipnops murrayi. An identification key of Ipnopidae species from the south-western Atlantic Ocean is included.

  13. Introduction and spread of non-native parasites with Silurus glanis L. (Teleostei: Siluridae) in UK fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading, A J; Britton, J R; Davies, G D; Shinn, A P; Williams, C F

    2012-12-01

    Despite growing concern of the ecological risks posed by the European catfish Siluris glanis L. in freshwater fisheries, little information exists on the parasite fauna of this silurid catfish in Britain. Parasitological examinations of released S. glanis from four still-water fisheries in England revealed the presence of Thaparocleidus vistulensis (Siwak, 1932) and Ergasilus sieboldi (Nordmann, 1832), both non-native parasites, the latter known to be an important fish pathogen. This represents the first record of T. vistulensis from British freshwater fish. The human-assisted movement of S. glanis between UK recreational still-water fisheries provides a clear avenue for the introduction and spread of non-native parasites.

  14. Electron microscopic demonstration of lectin binding sites in the taste buds of the European catfish Silurus glanis (Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, M; Reutter, K

    1990-01-01

    Taste buds in the European catfish Silurus glanis were examined with electron microscopic lectin histochemistry. For detection of carbohydrate residues in sensory cells and adjacent epithelial cells, gold-, ferritin- and biotin-labeled lectins were used. A post-embedding procedure carried out on tissue sections embedded in LR-White was applied to differentiate between the sensory cells: The lectins from Helix pomatia (HPA) and Triticum vulgare (WGA) bound to N-acetyl-galactosamine and to N-acetylglucosamine residues occurring especially in vesicles of dark sensory cells. This indicates a secretory function of these cells. Most light sensory cells--with some exceptions, probably immature cells--, are HPA-negative. The mucus of the receptor field and at the top of the adjacent epithelial cells was strongly HPA-positive. Pre-embedding studies were performed in order to obtain information about the reaction of the mucus with lectins under supravital conditions. The mucus of the taste bud receptor field exhibited intensive binding to WGA, but not to the other lectins tested. Most lectins bound predominantly to the surface mucus of the nonsensory epithelium and to the marginal cells close to the receptor field. The strong lectin binding to mucins and the relatively weak lectin binding to cell surface membranes in pre-embedding studies suggest that the mucus possibly serves as a barrier which is passed selectively only by a small amount of lectins or lectin-carbohydrate complexes. Lectin-carbohydrate interactions may play a role in recognition phenomena on the plasmalemmata of the taste bud sensory cells. Recognition processes directed to bacteria or viruses should be considered as well.

  15. Karyological characterization of four Neotropical fish species of the genus Hisonotus (Teleostei, Loricariidae, Hypoptopomatinae from distinct Brazilian river basins

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    Artur Antonio Andreata

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The karyotypes of four Hisonotus species (two provisionally-named species A and D, H. nigricauda, and H. leucofrenatus were found to have the same diploid number of 2n = 54 and interstitial silver-staining nucleolus organizer regions (Ag-NORs located on the long arm of the largest metacentric pair. The C-banding pattern appeared to be species-specific, with one group (H. nigricauda and the unnamed species A and D being characterized by small amounts of positive C-banded segments and containing a sub-group (species A and D identified by a large positive C-banded segment on a small metacentric chromosome pair. The second group contained different samples of H. leucofrenatus, characterized by a larger amount of C-band positive segments spread over several chromosome arms. Heterochromatin appears to play an important evolutionary role in chromosome differentiation in Hisonotus species, especially in H. leucofrenatus. The geographic isolation of several H. leucofrenatus populations seems to have favored chromosome evolution of each sample analyzed.

  16. A Ploidy Difference Represents an Impassable Barrier for Hybridisation in Animals. Is There an Exception among Botiid Loaches (Teleostei: Botiidae?

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    Jörg Bohlen

    Full Text Available One of the most efficient mechanisms to keep animal lineages separate is a difference in ploidy level (number of whole genome copies, since hybrid offspring from parents with different ploidy level are functionally sterile. In the freshwater fish family Botiidae, ploidy difference has been held responsible for the separation of its two subfamilies, the evolutionary tetraploid Botiinae and the diploid Leptobotiinae. Diploid and tetraploid species coexist in the upper Yangtze, the Pearl River and the Red River basins in China. Interestingly, the species 'Botia' zebra from the Pearl River basin combines a number of morphological characters that otherwise are found in the diploid genus Leptobotia with morphological characters of the tetraploid genus Sinibotia, therefore the aim of the present study is to test weather 'B.' zebra is the result of a hybridisation event between species from different subfamilies with different ploidy level. A closer morphological examination indeed demonstrates a high similarity of 'B.' zebra to two co-occurring species, the diploid Leptobotia guilinensis and the tetraploid Sinibotia pulchra. These two species thus could have been the potential parental species in case of a hybrid origin of 'B.' zebra. The morphologic analysis further reveals that 'B.' zebra bears even the diagnostic characters of the genera Leptobotia (Leptobotiinae and Sinibotia (Botiinae. In contrast, a comparison of six allozyme loci between 'B.' zebra, L. guilinensis and S. pulchra showed only similarities between 'B.' zebra and S. pulchra, not between 'B.' zebra and L. guilinensis. Six specimens of 'B.' zebra that were cytogenetically analysed were tetraploid with 4n = 100. The composition of the karyotype (18% metacentric, 18% submetacentric, 36% subtelocentric and 28% acrocentric chromosomes differs from those of L. guilinensis (12%, 24%, 20% and 44% and S. pulchra (20%, 26%, 28% and 26%, and cannot be obtained by any combination of genomes from L. guilinensis and S. pulchra. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on sequence data of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and the nuclear RAG-1 gene invariably places 'Botia' zebra as sister species to S. pulchra, while L. guilinensis is only distantly related. The presented combination of genetic data demonstrates that 'B.' zebra is not the result of a hybridisation, but a species of tetraploid genus Sinibotia with a striking morphological evolution towards an enormous similarity with a co-occurring, but not directly related species. The complete lack of knowledge of the ecology of these species, their main predators or their ecological interactions hampers any conclusion regarding the evolutionary advantage of such adaptation.

  17. Cytogenetic divergence between two sympatric species of Characidium (Teleostei, Characiformes, Crenuchidae from the Machado River, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Alexandre Rodrigues da Silva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic studies were performed on two sympatric species of Characidium, C. gomesi and C. cf. zebra, from the Grande River basin, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Although both species had a chromosome number of 50 with a karyotype exclusively consisting of meta- and submetacentric chromosomes, interspecific diversity was detected concerning the size of the two first chromosome pairs of the karyotypes. Active nucleolus organizer regions (NORs were located at the terminal position on the long arm of the 17th pair of C. gomesi and at subterminal position on the long arm of the 23rd pair of C. cf. zebra. For both species the fluorochrome CMA3 stained only the NOR-bearing pair of chromosomes. The heterochromatin pattern also showed some differentiation between these species restricted to the centromeric or pericentromeric region of C. cf. zebra and practically absent in C. gomesi. These data are discussed concerning chromosome diversification in this fish group.

  18. A new record of the non-native fish species Butis koilomatodon (Bleeker 1849 (Teleostei: Eleotridae for southeastern Brazil

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    Riguel Feltrin Contente

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the second record of the Indo-Pacific invasive mud sleeper, Butis koilomatodon, for coastal São Paulo in southeastern Brazil, and represents the southernmost record for this species in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. The risks of a potential invasion mediated by anthropogenic impacts on the area of occurrence are also discussed.

  19. A southern species of the tropical catfish genus Phractocephalus (Teleostei: Siluriformes) in the Miocene of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azpelicueta, María de las Mercedes; Cione, Alberto Luis

    2016-04-01

    Catfish bones from Tortonian (Miocene) freshwater beds of central Argentina are here identified as pertaining to a new species of the tropical pimelodid genus Phractocephalus. The new species differs from the other recent and fossil species of the genus in skull, pectoral girdle and spine characters. The material was found in different localities near the city of Paraná, Entre Ríos Province. The bearing horizon is the so-called "Conglomerado osífero" which constitutes the lowermost beds of the fluvial Ituzaingó Formation. The aquatic vertebrate fauna occurring in the bearing bed shows a similar generic composition to several northern South American Miocene units where Phractocephalus remains were found. This report extends the range of Phractocephalus more than 2000 km to the South. The record is in agreement with higher global temperatures and putative ample hydrographic connections of the river basins in the Paraná area with the Amazon basin until at least the early late Miocene.

  20. Nudaciraxine imperium sp. n. (Monogenea: Axinidae) from the gills of Mediterranean needlefish Tylosurus acus imperialis (Teleostei: Belonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Châari, Manel; Derbel, Hela; Neifar, Lassâd

    2010-03-01

    Nudaciraxine imperium sp. n. (Monogenea: Axinidae) is described from the gills of the needlefish Tylosurus acus imperialis (Rafinesque) caught in the Gulf of Gabès, Tunisia. This new species mainly differs from both previously described species, Nudaciraxine gracilis (Linton, 1940) Price, 1962 from Strongylura marina (Walbaum) and Nudaciraxine cabosanlucensis Payne, 1990 from Ablennes sp., by having more testes (42 vs. 20-22 and 32, respectively). Nudaciraxine imperium also differs from N. gracilis by having a median vaginal pore (submedian in N. gracilis), narrower clamps (52-70 microm vs. 75-100 microm) and differently shaped haptoral lateral hamuli. From N. cabosanlucensis it can be distinguished by a J-shaped rather than U-shaped ovary, a longer cirrus pouch (125-190 microm vs. 64-70 microm), an oesophageal bifurcation slightly anterior to genital complex (immediately after pharynx in N. cabosanlucensis) and a wider guard on the lateral hamuli. In agreement with Payne (1990), the diagnosis of the genus Nudaciraxine Price, 1962 is amended as follows: vaginal pore dorsal, median to submedian, armed or not with horn-like spines. This is the first report of the genus Nudaciraxine in the Mediterranean Sea. The potential use of axinid monogeneans as biological tags for subspecies of belonid fishes is discussed.

  1. Comparative cytogenetics of two endangered leuciscine fish, Squalius aradensis and S. torgalensis (Teleostei, Cyprinidae, from the Iberian Peninsula

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    Catarina Nabais

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the description of the karyotypes of the endangered chubs Squalius aradensis (Coelho, Bogutskaya, Rodrigues and Collares-Pereira, 1998 and Squalius torgalensis (Coelho, Bogutskaya, Rodrigues and Collares-Pereira, 1998 is presented by means of conventional (Giemsa-staining, Chromomycin A3 (CMA3-fluorescence, Silver-impregnation (Ag-NORs and molecular (fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH with 18S rDNA probe protocols. These endemic sister-species have an allopatric but adjacent distribution in the most southwestern part of the Iberian Peninsula. Diploid chromosome number was invariably 2n = 50 and karyotypes of both species were grossly similar, composed of metacentric and submetacentric elements with a reduced number of acrocentric pairs. Sequential staining using FISH with an 18S rDNA probe, CMA3 and Ag-NORs treatments revealed consistent positive signals located at the end of the short arms of a submetacentric chromosome pair, likely homologous in both species. While providing useful cytogenetic comparative data against other members of the genus Squalius Bonaparte, 1837, the work aimed to draw attention towards the conservation of two narrow-range and highly confined fish species.

  2. UNE NOUVELLE ESPÈCE DE TOMETES (TELEOSTEI : CHARACIDAE : SERRASALMINAE DU BOUCLIER GUYANAIS, TOMETES LEBAILI N. SP.

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    JÉGU M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Tometes lebaili n. sp. diffère de Tometes trilobatus Valenciennes, 1850, par la position de la bouche, oblique et dirigée vers le haut. T. lebaili présente 7 à 8 dents à la série labiale du dentaire contre 5 chez T. trilobatus. T. trilobatus, citée des rapides de l’Araguari (Amapá, Brésil à l’Oyapock (Guyane française, est remplacée plus à l’ouest par T. lebaili n. sp., décrite de la Mana (Guyane fr. au Commewine (Surinam et peut-être présente dans le Sinnamary. La taille maximale observée pour T. lebaili est de 512 mm LS.

  3. [Lamellodiscus sanfilippoi n. sp. (Monogenea, Diplectanidae) parasite from the gills of Diplodus sargus (Teleostei, Sparidae) in Mediterranean Sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, F; Neifar, L; Euzet, L

    2006-03-01

    Lamellodiscus sanfilippoi n. sp. takes place, among the other species of Lamellodiscus, in the "ergensi" sub-group (Amine et Euzet, 2005) characterized by the morphology of the dorsal lateral bars of the haptor. This sub-group comprises, in the Mediterranean, L. ergensi Euzet and Oliver, 1966, L. kechemirae Amine and Euzet, 2005, L. tomentosus Amine and Euzet, 2005, all parasite of Diplodus sargus, and L. baeri Oliver, 1974 parasite of Pagrus pagrus. L. sanfilippoi can be distinguished from the previous species by the morphology and size of the dorsal lateral bars. The new species is close to Lamellodiscus furcillatus Kritsky, Jiménez-Ruiz and Sey, 2000, a parasite of Diplodus noct in the Persian Gulf, but differs by the size of the haptoral sclerotised pieces and the morphology of the male copulatory apparatus. Lamellodiscus gussevi Sanfilippo (1978) et Lamellodiscus abbreviatus Sanfilippo (1978) are considered as nomina nuda.

  4. A young clade repeating an old pattern: diversity in Nothonotus darters (Teleostei: Percidae) endemic to the Cumberland River.

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    Keck, Benjamin P; Near, Thomas J

    2010-11-01

    Hypotheses of diversification in eastern North American freshwater fishes have focused primarily on allopatric distributions of species between disjunct highland areas and major river systems. However, these hypotheses do not fully explain the rich diversity of species within highland regions and river systems. Relatively old diversification events at small geographic scales have been observed in the Barcheek Darter subclade that occurs in the Cumberland River drainage (CRD) in Kentucky and Tennessee, United States of America, but it is unknown if this pattern is consistent in other darter subclades. We explored phylogeographic diversity in two species of Nothonotus darters, N. microlepidus and N. sanguifluus, endemic to the CRD to compare phylogenetic patterns between Barcheek Darters and species of Nothonotus. We collected sequence data for a mitochondrial gene (cytb) and three nuclear genes (MLL, S7 and RAG1) from 19 N. microlepidus and 35 N. sanguifluus specimens. Gene trees were estimated using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, and a 'species tree' was inferred using a Bayesian method. These trees indicate that species diversity in Nothonotus is underestimated. Five distinct lineages were evident, despite retained ancestral polymorphism and unsampled extirpated populations. Comparison of chronograms for Barcheek Darters and Nothonotus revealed that microendemism resulting from species diversification at small geographic scales in the CRD is a consistent pattern in both old and young darter subclades. Our analyses reveal that geographic isolating mechanisms that result in similar phylogeographic patterns in the CRD are persistent through long expanses of evolutionary time.

  5. A new myxozoan parasite from the Amazonian fish Metynnis argenteus (Teleostei, Characidae): light and electron microscope observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal, Graça; Matos, Edilson; Azevedo, Carlos

    2006-08-01

    Myxobolus metynnis n. sp. (Phylum Myxozoa) is described in the connective subcutaneous tissues of the orbicular region of the fish, Metynnis argenteus (Characidae), collected in the lower Amazon River, near the city of Peixe Boi, Pará State, Brazil. Polysporic, histozoic plasmodia were delimited by a double membrane with numerous microvilli on the peripheral cytoplasm. Several life-cycle stages, including mature spores, were observed. An envelope formed by numerous fine and anastomosed microfibrils was observed at the spore surface. The spore body presented an ellipsoidal shape and was about 13.1 microm long, 7.8 microm wide, and 3.9 microm thick. Elongated-pyriform polar capsules were of equal size, measuring 5.2 microm in length, 3.2 microm in width, and possessing a polar filament with 8-9 turns around the longitudinal axis. The binucleated sporoplasm contained a vacuole and numerous sporoplasmosomes. These were circular in cross-section, showing an adherent eccentric, dense structure, with a half-crescent section. Based on the morphological differences and host specificity, we propose that the parasite is a new species named Myxobolus metynnis n. sp.

  6. Merluccius hubbsi (Teleostei: Merlucciidae: stock identification based on reproductive biology in the south-southeast brazilian region

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    André Martins Vaz-dos-Santos

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Argentine hake, Merluccius hubbsi, a demersal-pelagic species found from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil to the Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, has become an important target of the Brazilian bottom-trawler fleet since 2001. Earlier studies focusing on the species have suggested that more than one stock might occur off the Brazilian coast, in accordance with environmental features. In order to evaluate this hypothesis, fish were collected from four different areas in the Brazilian waters in which the hake is distributed, during the summers and winters of 1996-2001 and 2004, the females being used to analyze and compare spatial-temporal variations in ovarian maturation. Gonad indexes were also applied for the same purpose. Results indicate a north-south spawning gradient occurring as from summer at around 21°S to winter near 34°S, leading to the identification of two distinct stocks: one located between 21°S and 29°S (Southeastern stock and the other between 29°S and 34°S (Southern stock, this latter shared with Uruguay and Argentina. Brazilian stocks present clear signs of overexploitation, the situation calling for an urgent solution.A merluza Merluccius hubbsi, espécie demerso-pelágica distribuída desde o Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, até a Terra do Fogo, Argentina, tornou-se alvo das frotas de arrasto de fundo da região Sudeste-Sul do Brasil desde 2001. Estudos anteriores sobre a biologia da espécie sugeriram a existência de mais de um estoque em águas brasileiras, relacionados a características ambientais. Para verificar esta hipótese, exemplares oriundos de quatro áreas em águas brasileiras foram coletados durante o verão e o inverno nos períodos 1996-2001 e 2004, sendo as fêmeas utilizadas para analisar variações espaço-temporais na maturação gonadal. Para corroborar estas análises também foram aplicados índices gonadais. Os resultados mostraram a ocorrência de um gradiente norte-sul para a desova, que é mais intenso no verão em 21°S e no inverno em 34°S. Foram identificados dois estoques: um denominado Sudeste, que se distribui entre 21°S-29°S, e outro Sul, entre 29°S-34°S, este último compartilhado com o Uruguai e a Argentina. Os estoques brasileiros apresentam sinais de sobrepesca, situação que merece atenção e medidas apropriadas de gestão.

  7. A review of the glyptosternine catfish genus Exostoma Blyth 1860 from Thailand, with descriptions of two new species (Teleostei: Siluriformes).

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    Ng, Heok Hee; Vidthayanon, Chavalit

    2014-10-02

    We review members of the sisorid catfish genus Exostoma known from Thailand. Three species are recognized, of which two from the headwaters of the Chao Phraya River drainage in northwestern Thailand, are described here as new: E. effrenum and E. peregrinator. In addition to the two new species, E. berdmorei (which is here redescribed) is also known from the Salween River drainage in western Thailand. The three species can be distinguished from each other and other congeners by the morphologies of the adipose and caudal fins, as well as morphometric data for the eye diameter, head width, dorsal-to-adipose distance, body depth at anus, caudal-peduncle length, caudal-peduncle depth, and numbers of branched pectoral-fin rays and preanal vertebrae. 

  8. Pollution biomonitoring in the Bizerte lagoon (Tunisia), using combined chemical and biomarker analyses in grass goby, Zosterisessor ophiocephalus (Teleostei, Gobiidae).

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    Barhoumi, Badreddine; Clérandeau, Christelle; Gourves, Pierre-Yves; Le Menach, Karyn; El Megdiche, Yassine; Peluhet, Laurent; Budzinski, Hélène; Baudrimont, Magalie; Driss, Mohamed Ridha; Cachot, Jérôme

    2014-10-01

    In this study, biological responses and contaminant levels in biological tissues were investigated in grass goby fish specimens (Zosterisessor ophiocephalus) collected from five stations in a moderately polluted ecosystem, namely the Bizerte lagoon on the north coast of Tunisia. The following biomarkers were measured: muscular acetylcholinesterase (AChE), hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), lipoperoxidation (TBARS), condition factor (CF), and hepatosomatic index (HSI). These measurements were taken in parallel with the content of Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and trace metals (As, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, V, Zn, Ag, Cd, Co and Ni) in muscle tissue. Total PAH concentrations ranged from 20.09 ± 0.68 to 105.77 ± 42.58 ng g(-1) dw, PCB from 33.19 ± 6.25 to 126.28 ± 7.37 ng g(-1) dw, OCP from 11.26 ± 1.62 to 19.17 ± 2.06 ng g(-1) dw, and metals from 107.83 ± 1.83 to 187.21 ± 2.00 mg/kg dw. The highest levels of pollutants and biomarkers were observed at station S1, located in the Bizerte channel. Elevated EROD, GST and CAT activities, as well as TBARS levels in liver were positively correlated with tissue contaminant levels at station S1. Significant negative correlations were also found between hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs) body burden with AChE activity in muscle at station S2. The integration of biological responses and contaminant tissue content indicated that certain areas of the Bizerte lagoon, notably station S1, are significantly impacted by various human activities, which likely represent a threat for aquatic wildlife. On the basis of these results, and due to its ecological characteristics, the grass goby appears a suitable indicator species for pollution biomonitoring in coastal marine areas along the Mediterranean Sea.

  9. Callogobius liolepis Bleeker, a senior synonym of Gobiopsis aporia Lachner and McKinney (Teleostei: Gobiidae: Gobiopsis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delventhal, Naomi R; Mooi, Randall D

    2013-02-13

    Callogobius liolepis Bleeker in Koumans was briefly described from two specimens from Ambon. A later, more detailed description by Koumans was apparently based on Bleeker's unpublished description and specimens of C. okinawae (Snyder), considerably complicating the taxonomy of several species. Re-examination of the syntypes identifies C. liolepis as a species of the genus Gobiopsis Steindachner due to the absence of raised vertical ridges of papillae that characterise Callogobius and the presence of barbels in a pattern unique among gobiids to a subset of Gobiopsis. Gobiopsis liolepis (Bleeker) is determined as the senior synonym of G. aporia Lachner and McKinney based on the absence of head pores combined with the presence of a series of tightly spaced papillae over the eye, lateral scale counts of 36-42, pectoral-fin ray counts of 20-21, dorsal-fin ray counts VI+I,10 and anal-fin ray counts of I,9. The larger syntype is designated the lectotype and the smaller the paralectotype. Specimens identified as C. liolepis in museums or the literature are likely referable to C. okinawae (Snyder) or C. bifasciatus (Smith).

  10. Chriolepis bilix, a new species of goby (Teleostei: Gobiidae) from deep waters of the western Atlantic.

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    Hastings, Philip A; Findley, Lloyd T

    2013-12-09

    A new species of seven-spined goby of the genus Chriolepis is described from four specimens from four widely separate western Atlantic localities (Little Bahama Bank; off southwestern Florida; Tobago Island; and northeastern Colombia) from depths ranging from 62 to 138 m. The species is distinct from all other western Atlantic species currently assigned to the genus Chriolepis in having a fully scaled body, the first two dorsal-fin spines greatly elongated in both sexes, especially so in females, and two anal-fin pterygiophores inserted anterior to the first haemal spine. It differs from members of the similar genus Varicus in having branched pelvic-fins rays, a longer fifth pelvic-fin ray and more numerous meristic elements. It closely resembles Chriolepis atrimelum, known from a similar depth at Isla del Coco in the eastern Pacific Ocean. 

  11. First evidence for interspecific hybridization between invasive goby species Neogobius fluviatilis and Neogobius melanostomus (Teleostei: Gobiidae: Benthophilinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, K; Cerwenka, A F; Brandner, J; Gertzen, S; Borcherding, J; Geist, J; Schliewen, U K

    2013-06-01

    Two hybrids between the monkey goby Neogobius fluviatilis and the round goby Neogobius melanostomus from the Rhine River were identified by genotyping and morphological comparison. These are the first records of goby-hybrids outside the parent species' native ranges worldwide.

  12. Varicus lacerta, a new species of goby (Teleostei, Gobiidae, Gobiosomatini, Nes subgroup) from a mesophotic reef in the southern Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornabene, Luke; Robertson, D Ross; Baldwin, Carole C

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of goby, Varicus lacerta sp. n., which was collected from a mesophotic reef at Curacao, southern Caribbean. The new species is the tenth species of Varicus, all of which occur below traditional SCUBA depths in the wider Caribbean area. Its placement in the genus Varicus is supported by a molecular phylogenetic analysis of three nuclear genes and the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b. In addition, the new species has one anal-fin pterygiophore inserted anterior to the first haemal spine, which distinguishes Varicus species from most species in the closely related and morphologically similar genus Psilotris. Varicus lacerta sp. n. is distinguished from all other named species of Varicus by the absence of scales, having highly branched, feather-like pelvic-fin rays, and in its live coloration. We provide the cytochrome c oxidase I DNA barcode of the holotype and compare color patterns of all species of Varicus and Psilotris for which color photographs or illustrations are available. This study is one of several recent studies demonstrating the utility of manned submersibles in exploring the diversity of poorly studied but species-rich deep-reef habitats.

  13. Some aspects of the biology and ecology of Knipowitschia caucasica (Teleostei: Gobiidae) in the Evros Delta (North Aegean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevrekidis, T.; Kokkinakis, A. K.; Koukouras, A.

    1990-06-01

    Some aspects of the biology and ecology of the goby Knipowitschia caucasica were studied over a period of 13 months in a poly-to euhaline area in the Evros Delta (North Aegean Sea). This fish grows rapidly in the summer and autumn after hatching, matures after its first winter, breeds from the end of April to the end of July, and grows rapidly again in July September. The older males perish after their second February, whereas some females have a second breeding season at the end of April/beginning of May, shortly before their death. The fish grows to about 40 mm in total length. There is a positive correlation between the total length (TL) and the standard length (SL) or the cleaned body weight (CW). SL increases slower than TL, whereas CW increases slower than TL in immature individuals and faster in males and females. There is no difference between immature individuals, males and females, in the growth rate of SL, TL and CW, TL. The mean monthly values of the condition factor varies from 0.289 to 0.576 in females and from 0.313 to 0.548 in males. The overall sex ratio of females to males is 1: 1.46. Fecundity ranges from 60 to 217 eggs with a mean value of 109.8 and depends upon size, whereas relative fecundity varies between 968 and 2170 with a mean of 1558. The fish feeds predominantly on benthic amphipods and polychaetes.

  14. Sexual development and reproductive pattern of the Mutton hamlet, Alphestes afer (Teleostei: Epinephelidae: a dyandric, hermaphroditic reef fish

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    Simone Marques

    Full Text Available There is little knowledge on the reproduction of the genus Alphestes. The reproduction of the Mutton hamlet, Alphestes afer, sampled in Pernambuco reefs (Brazil was studied based on macroscopic analysis during reproductive period and histological analysis of gonad material from March 2008 to October 2009. This study showed that A. afer is a diandric, protogynous hermaphrodite. Sex change followed protogynous mode in two pathways: primary males formed from immature female individuals or secondary males formed from resting, ripe or spent female individuals. The numerical distribution of gonad classes by size indicated that females from 11-18 cm L T were immature while females from 16-25 cm L T and males from 12-22 cm L T were in various stages of gonadal development. Individuals identified as immature bisexual and transitional (presenting both ovarian and sperm tissue were sized from 16-24 cm L T. Size of first reproduction for females was 18 cm L T and for males was 12 cm L T. Alphestes afer showed multiple spawning, with spawning season period from August to December 2008 and from August to October 2009. The sex-ratio (females: males in 2008 and 2009 was 0.94:1 during the months of spawning season. Males were smaller than females, reaching maximum size of 22 cm compared to 25 cm observed for females. Males showed a high sperm competition rank (3.8, suggesting intense sperm competition. This latter is a possible indication of a shift in the mating group structure from paired to group spawning. The presence of small males added to high sperm competition index, suggest that this species, while retaining the protogynous pattern, has a reproductive strategy similar to gonochorist epinephelids.

  15. Brycon gouldingi (Teleostei, Characidae): aspects of the embryonic development in a new fish species with aquaculture potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faustino, Francine; Nakaghi, Laura Satiko Okada; Neumann, Erika

    2011-11-01

    Brycon gouldingi is an endemic species from Tocantins-Araguaia basin, used as a food source by riverine communities and relevant to aquaculture. Information about the initial morphology of B. gouldingi, a recently described species, is absent. In the present study, we analysed the fertilization and the embryonic development of this species based on light and scanning electron microscopy. After collection of adult specimens in Mortes River - Mato Grosso, Brazil, adaptation to captivity and induced spawning at Buriti Fishculture, Nova Mutum - Mato Grosso, Brazil, in December 2007 and January 2008, samples were collected at pre-defined periods from egg extrusion up to larval hatching, which occurred at 13.9 ± 0.06 h post-fertilization (hpf) in average. At the moment of extrusion, the eggs were slightly ovoid bearing a single micropyle per oocyte with a funnel-shaped micropyle canal and vestibule covered with longitudinal folds, typical of the genus Brycon. The embryonic development of B. gouldingi was characterized by six stages with distinct features: zygote (from fertilization up to formation of egg-cell); cleavage (cell divisions resulting in blastomeres, including the morula phase); blastula (several embryonic cells in a cup shape, without distinction of cell boundaries); gastrula (cell movement); histogenesis/organogenesis (formation of tissues and organs); and hatching (larval chorion rupture). Right after hatching, the larvae presented neither swimming abilities nor visual accuracy, and the digestive trait was undifferentiated. The present study is the first report on biological features of embryogenesis in B. gouldingi, providing relevant information to several approaches, mainly related to taxonomy, ecology, conservation and captive rearing of this new Brycon species.

  16. Dynamics of ovarian maturation during the reproductive cycle of Metynnis maculatus, a reservoir invasive fish species (Teleostei: Characiformes

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    Thiago Scremin Boscolo Pereira

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the dynamics of ovarian maturation and the spawning processes during the reproductive cycle of Metynnis maculatus. Adult females (n = 36 were collected bimonthly between April 2010 and March 2011. The mean gonadosomatic index (GSI was determined, ovarian and blood samples were submitted for morphometric evaluation and the steroid plasma concentration was determined by ELISA. This species demonstrated asynchronous ovarian development with multiple spawns. This study revealed that, although defined as a multiple spawning species, the ovaries of M. maculatus have a pattern of development with a predominance of vitellogenesis between April and August and have an intensification in spawning in September; in October, a drop in the mean GSI values occurred, and the highest frequencies of post-ovulatory follicles (POFs were observed. We observed a positive correlation between the POF and the levels of 17α-hydroxyprogesterone. Metynnis maculatus has the potential to be used as a source of pituitary tissue for the preparation of crude extracts for hormonal induction; the theoretical period for use is from September to December, but specific studies to determine the feasibility of this approach must be conducted.

  17. Kudoa unicapsula n. sp. (Myxosporea: Kudoidae) a parasite of the Mediterranean mullets Liza ramada and L. aurata (Teleostei: Mugilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurakhno, V M; Ovcharenko, M O; Holzer, A S; Sarabeev, V L; Balbuena, J A

    2007-11-01

    A new multivalvulid myxozoan parasite, Kudoa unicapsula n. sp., is described from the intestinal mesentery, intestine and pyloric caeca of the thin-lipped grey mullet Liza ramada (Risso 1826) and the golden grey mullet L. aurata (Risso, 1810) from the Mediterranean coastal waters of Spain. It is characterized by the presence of elongated, rice corn-like white cysts of 0.47-0.56 x 0.18-0.38 mm, filled with tetracapsulate, slightly asymmetric spores, rectangular in apical view and tear-shaped in lateral view with four polar capsules of considerably different size and slightly unequal spore valves with rounded edges, overlapping each other on the apex of the spore. One large polar capsule includes a polar filament coiled in two to three turns, and the other three polar capsules, which are very small, posses only a rudimental filament. Both light and electron microscopy data showed that this species differs from all previously described Kudoa spp. with unequal polar capsules. The molecular analysis based on 18S and 28S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid DNA sequence data of K. unicapsula n. sp. indicates a close relationship and thus phylogenetic clustering together with K. trifolia, a myxozoan from the same host and the same geographical location.

  18. Molecular phylogeny of grey mullets (Teleostei: Mugilidae) in Greece: evidence from sequence analysis of mtDNA segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papasotiropoulos, Vasilis; Klossa-Kilia, Elena; Alahiotis, Stamatis N; Kilias, George

    2007-08-01

    Mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis has been used to explore genetic differentiation and phylogenetic relationships among five species of the Mugilidae family, Mugil cephalus, Chelon labrosus, Liza aurata, Liza ramada, and Liza saliens. DNA was isolated from samples originating from the Messolongi Lagoon in Greece. Three mtDNA segments (12s rRNA, 16s rRNA, and CO I) were PCR amplified and sequenced. Sequencing analysis revealed that the greatest genetic differentiation was observed between M. cephalus and all the other species studied, while C. labrosus and L. aurata were the closest taxa. Dendrograms obtained by the neighbor-joining method and Bayesian inference analysis exhibited the same topology. According to this topology, M. cephalus is the most distinct species and the remaining taxa are clustered together, with C. labrosus and L. aurata forming a single group. The latter result brings into question the monophyletic origin of the genus Liza.

  19. Redescription of Liza bandialensis (Teleostei: Mugilidae) with an identification key to mullet species of Eastern Central Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trape, Sébastien; Harrison, Ian J; Diouf, Papa Samba; Durand, Jean-Dominique

    2012-02-01

    Liza bandialensis Diouf 1991 is redescribed because previous descriptions have not been in well-distributed publications and have lacked sufficient detail or reference to voucher specimens. The description provided here is based on specimens from the Sine Saloum estuary, Senegal (West Africa), from where the species was originally described. The distinctness of the species is confirmed both by meristic and molecular criteria. L. bandialensis presents a unique combination of characters with a low number of scales in the longitudinal series (32-33), 10.5-12 transverse scale rows, and distinctly yellowish dorsal, anal, and caudal fins. The currently known distribution of L. bandialensis includes coastal waters of Senegal, Gambia and Guinea Bissau. Finally, we provide a morphological identification key for the sixteen species of Mugilidae species occurring along the eastern central Atlantic coast of Africa.

  20. Oogenesis: From Oogonia to Ovulation in the Flagfish, Jordanella floridae Goode and Bean, 1879 (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, Mari Carmen; Grier, Harry J; García-Alarcón, Adriana; Parenti, Lynne R

    2016-10-01

    We provide histological details of the development of oocytes in the cyprinodontid flagfish, Jordanella floridae. There are six stages of oogenesis: Oogonial proliferation, chromatin nucleolus, primary growth (previtellogenesis [PG]), secondary growth (vitellogenesis), oocyte maturation and ovulation. The ovarian lamellae are lined by a germinal epithelium composed of epithelial cells and scattered oogonia. During primary growth, the development of cortical alveoli and oil droplets, are initiated simultaneously. During secondary growth, yolk globules coalesce into a fluid mass. The full-grown oocyte contains a large globule of fluid yolk. The germinal vesicle is at the animal pole, and the cortical alveoli and oil droplets are located at the periphery. The disposition of oil droplets at the vegetal pole of the germinal vesicle during late secondary growth stage is a unique characteristic. The follicular cell layer is composed initially of a single layer of squamous cells during early PG which become columnar during early vitellogenesis. During primary and secondary growth stages, filaments develop among the follicular cells and also around the micropyle. The filaments are seen extending from the zona pellucida after ovulation. During ovulation, a space is evident between the oocyte and the zona pellucida. Asynchronous spawning activity is confirmed by the observation that, after ovulation, the ovarian lamellae contain follicles in both primary and secondary growth stages; in contrast, when the seasonal activity of oogenesis and spawning ends, after ovulation, the ovarian lamellae contain only follicles in the primary growth stage. J. Morphol. 277:1339-1354, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A complex of species related to Paradiscogaster glebulae (Digenea: Faustulidae) in chaetodontid fishes (Teleostei: Perciformes) of the Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Pablo E; Bray, Rodney A; Cutmore, Scott C; Ward, Selina; Cribb, Thomas H

    2015-10-01

    A total of 1523 individuals of 34 species of chaetodontids from the Great Barrier Reef were examined for faustulid trematodes. Specimens resembling Paradiscogaster glebulae Bray, Cribb & Barker, 1994 were found in nine chaetodontid species at three localities. These specimens are shown, on the basis of combined morphological and molecular analyses, to comprise a complex of morphologically similar and partly cryptic species. The complex may comprise as many as six distinct species of which three are resolved here. The true P. glebulae is identified in Chaetodon ornatissimus Cuvier, 1831, Chaetodon aureofasciatus Macleay, 1878, Chaetodon plebeius Cuvier, 1831, Chaetodon rainfordi McCulloch, 1923 and Chaetodon speculum Cuvier, 1831. Two new species are described, Paradiscogaster munozae n. sp. from Heniochus varius (Cuvier, 1829), Heniochus chrysostomus Cuvier, 1831 and Chaetodon citrinellus Cuvier, 1831 and Paradiscogaster melendezi n. sp. from Chaetodon kleinii Bloch, 1790. In terms of morphology the three species differ most clearly in the development of the appendages on the ventral sucker. The three species differ at 3-6consistent bp of ITS2 rDNA. The host-specificity of the three species differs strikingly. P. melendezi n. sp. infects just one fish species, P. glebulae infects species of only one clade of Chaetodon, and P. munozae n. sp. infects quite unrelated species. The basis of this unusual pattern of host-specificity requires further exploration. Two of the species recognised here, P. glebulae and P. munozae n. sp., showed apparent intra-individual variation in the ITS2 rDNA sequences as demonstrated by clear, replicated double peaks in the electropherograms.

  2. Biological performance of Asian catfish (Clarias batrachus) (Teleostei, Clariidae) cultured in recirculating aquaculture system

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmat Fadhil; Johari Endan; Farah S. Taip; Muhammad S. b. Hj. Ja’afar

    2011-01-01

    The study was conducted to assess the biological performance of Asian catfish in RAS by using4 tanks (3 culture tanks and 1 sedimentation tank) measuring 2 m x 1 m x 0.60 m with a volume of 900liters and bio-filter as water purification unit. The numbers of catfish cultured in each tank were as manyas 300 fish i each tank, with a size of 5-8 cm (Tank 1), 8-12 cm (Tank 2) and 12-15 cm (Tank 3),respectively. This study was conducted for 30 days (August-September 2010) by considering the waterqu...

  3. Goblet Cells and Mucus Types in the Digestive Intestine and Respiratory Intestine in Bronze Corydoras (Callichthyidae: Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leknes, I L

    2015-10-01

    The structure and histochemical properties of the intestine in bronze corydoras (Corydoras aeneus), a stomach-containing teleost, are described, with emphasis on goblet cells and mucin types. The proximal intestine displayed a normal structure for teleosts, whereas the distal intestine was wide, translucent, thin-walled, richly vascularized and constantly filled with air, suggesting an important respiratory role. Goblet cells were common throughout the entire intestine and displayed a variable, but mainly faint metachromatic colour after toluidine blue. They were moderately coloured by alcian blue at both pH 2.5 and 0.2 and displayed no colour after periodic acid followed by Schiff's solution (PAS), but a distinct purple-brown colour after high iron diamine followed by alcian blue (pH 2.5). Together, these results suggest that the mucin in the intestine goblet cells consists mainly of sulphated proteoglycans. Further, the results from the present lectin and neuraminidase tests suggest that these mucins contain much N-acetylglucoseamines and some N-acetylgalactosamines and sialic acid, but seem to lack glucose and mannose. They also contain some galactose-N-acetylgalactosamines sequences, normally hidden by sialic acid. The distinct brush border and mucus layer on the epithelial cells in the respiratory intestine may indicate some digestive roles, such as absorption of water, ions and simple carbohydrates. As sulphated proteoglycans are tough and attract much water, this mucus may play important roles in the protection against mechanical and chemical damages and in the defence against micro-organisms throughout the entire intestine, but in the respiratory intestine it may impede significantly the oxygen uptake. However, as this part of the intestine usually contains no digesta, but is completely filled with air, frequently renewed by dry air from the atmosphere, and the main function of the mucus may be to protect the respiratory epithelium against a destroying and dangerous desiccation.

  4. Four new species of coral gobies (Teleostei: Gobiidae: Gobiodon), with comments on their relationships within the genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogorodsky, Sergey V.; Suzuki, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    Four new species of the coral-associated gobiid genus Gobiodon were discovered in the Red Sea. Although several of these species are common not only in the Red Sea but also in the Indian and western Pacific Ocean, they have not been described before. Detailed descriptions of the four species are based on morphological and molecular genetic (mitochondrial 12s and 16s rRNA) investigations. The new species, like most species of the genus, lack scales and have species-specific life colouration. Gobiodon bilineatus sp. nov. is the closest relative to G. quinquestrigatus (Valenciennes) and of G. sp. D (Munday et al.), and has five distinct, blue lines on the head as juveniles and subadults, which disappear in adults, and which are often uniformly orange-red with two distinct, vertical blue lines through each eye. Gobiodon irregularis sp. nov. has been confused with the former new species in the past, and is closely related to G. oculolineatus Wu, but is unmistakable in live colouration. Juveniles are characterised by a transparent body, red bars on the head with bluish to greyish interspaces, and irregular red lines and dots on the nape and dorsally on the body. Adults are usually uniformly brown or green-brown, with only remnants of the bars through the eye and below the orbit. Gobiodon ater sp. nov. is a small, entirely black species and can be easily confused with other black species, although it is genetically clearly distinct from G. ceramensis Bleeker and its black relatives. Gobiodon fuscoruber sp. nov. is likely to be the closest relative of G. ater sp. nov., but is uniformly reddish-brown or brown, has bright median fin margins (at least in the Red Sea), and grows considerably larger than G. ater. It has been genetically determined that G. fuscoruber sp. nov. is identical with an Indian Ocean/western Pacific species that has been called G. unicolor Castelnau by several authors. However, examination of the holotype of G. unicolor, including the original description, revealed that the type species and original description are clearly different from the species frequently called G. unicolor. The holotype resembles G. histrio (Valenciennes) and the name G. unicolor must therefore be considered a junior synonym of G. histrio. As a consequence, a new name for this species is provided. PMID:24511221

  5. Crystallaria cincotta, a new species of darter (Teleostei: Percidae) from the Elk River of the Ohio River drainage, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, S.A.; Wood, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    A new species of percid, Crystallaria cincotta, is described from the Cumberland, Elk, Green, and Muskingum river drainages of the Ohio River basin, USA. It differs from populations of Crystallaria asprella of the Gulf Coast, lower Mississippi River, middle Mississippi River, upper Mississippi River, and Wabash River drainages by having a reduced number of cheek scale rows restricted to the post-orbital region, a falcate margin on the pelvic fins, a preorbital blotch distinctly separate from the anterior orbital rim, and a wide mouth gape. The Elk River population is also divergent genetically from populations of the Gulf Coast, lower Mississippi River, and upper Mississippi River drainages. Crystallaria cincotta, discovered in the Elk River of the Ohio River drainage in 1980, is a rare species with the only extant population represented by 12 individuals collected from 1980-2005 from the lower 36 km section of the Elk River, West Virginia. Copyright ?? 2008 Magnolia Press.

  6. A new species of Neobathyclupea from the northern Indian Ocean with comments on N. malayana (Teleostei, Perciformes, Bathyclupeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokofiev, Artem M; Gon, Ofer; Psomadakis, Peter N

    2016-12-19

    A new species of Neobathyclupea is described from two specimens collected off Myanmar and off Socotra Island. The new species is most similar to N. malayana, but differs from it and other congeners in having jet-black coloured fins, larger pseudobranch, dorsal-pterygiophore pattern and some body proportions. Neobathyclupea malayana is re-diagnosed. Individual variations in armament of the preopercle and in the dorsal-pterygiophore patterns within Bathyclupeidae are discussed.

  7. Phylogenetic studies of Chinese labeonine fishes (Teleostei:Cyprinidae) based on the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Junbing; WANG Xuzhen; HE Shunping; CHEN Yiyu

    2005-01-01

    The mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene is sequenced from 24 ingroups taxa, including 18 species from Labeoninae grouped in 13 genera. Phylogenetic analyses are subjected to neighbor joining, maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Labeoninae is basically a monophyletic assemblage and can be divided into 2 major clades: one comprising the genera Cirrhinus, Crossocheilus and Garra; and the other consisting of the genera Labeo, Sinilabeo, Osteochilus, Pseudoorossocheilus, Parasinilabeo, Ptychidio, Semilabeo, Pseudogyricheilus, Rectori and Discogobio. According to our present analysis,the features such as the presence of the adhesive disc on the chin and the pharyngeal teeth in 2 rows used in the traditional taxonomy of Labeoninae provide scarce information for phylogeny of labeonine fishes.

  8. †Kenyaichthyidae fam. nov. and †Kenyaichthys gen. nov. - First Record of a Fossil Aplocheiloid Killifish (Teleostei, Cyprinodontiformes.

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    Melanie Altner

    Full Text Available The extant Cyprinodontiformes (killifishes with their two suborders Cyprinodontoidei and Aplocheiloidei represent a diverse and well-studied group of fishes. However, their fossil record is comparatively sparse and has so far yielded members of the Cyprinodontoidei only. Here we report on cyprinodontiform fossils from the upper Miocene Lukeino Formation in the Tugen Hills of the Central Rift Valley of Kenya, which represent the first fossil record of an aplocheiloid killifish. A total of 169 specimens - mostly extraordinarily well preserved - and a sample of ten extant cyprinodontiform species were studied on the basis of morphometrics, meristics and osteology. A phylogenetic analysis using PAUP was also conducted for the fossils. Both the osteological data and the phylogenetic analysis provide strong evidence for the assignment of the fossils to the Aplocheiloidei, and justify the definition of the new family †Kenyaichthyidae, the new genus †Kenyaichthys and the new species †K. kipkechi sp. nov. The phylogenetic analysis unexpectedly places †Kenyaichthys gen. nov. in a sister relationship to the Rivulidae (a purely Neotropical group, a probable explanation might be lack of available synapomorphies for the Rivulidae, Nothobranchiidae and Aplocheilidae. The specimens of †K. kipkechi sp. nov. show several polymorphic characters and large overlap in meristic traits, which justifies their interpretation as a species flock in statu nascendi. Patterns of variation in neural and haemal spine dimensions in the caudal vertebrae of †Kenyaichthys gen. nov. and the extant species studied indicate that some previously suggested synapomorphies of the Cyprinodontoidei and Aplocheiloidei need to be revised.

  9. Phylogenetic relationships of the enigmatic Carlastyanax aurocaudatus (Eigenmann with remarks on the phylogeny of the Stevardiinae (Teleostei: Characidae

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    Juan Marcos Mirande

    Full Text Available The monotypic genus Carlastyanax Géry was defined to include Astyanax aurocaudatus, a morphologically odd species having, among other features, four teeth in the posterior premaxillary row and eight branched dorsal-fin rays. Later on, the characters used to define Carlastyanax were considered as invalid and this genus was synonymized with Astyanax. In this paper, we include Astyanax aurocaudatus in a phylogeny of the Characidae and obtain a sister-group relationship between this species and Creagrutus, within the Stevardiinae. The resurrection of Carlastyanax as a valid genus is therefore proposed. The analysis presented is the largest phylogeny of the Stevardiinae so far published. Relationships of this subfamily are also discussed.

  10. Enzymatic Activity in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Pimelodus maculatus (Teleostei, Siluriformes) in Two Neotropical Reservoirs with Different Trophic Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Silvana Duarte; Marcelo Bemquerer; Francisco Gerson de Araújo

    2015-01-01

    Enzymatic activities for digestion of proteins and carbohydrates were compared among three organs of the digestive system of Pimelodus maculatus in two reservoirs with different trophic conditions during the winter of 2006. The aim was to test the hypothesis that enzymatic activity for the digestion of proteins and carbohydrates differed among organs and that such activities differ between the trophic state of the environment. Enzymatic activities were determined through the assays of specifi...

  11. Taste preferences and taste thresholds to classical taste substances in the carnivorous fish, kutum Rutilus frisii kutum (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goli, Sheyda; Jafari, Valiollah; Ghorbani, Rassol; Kasumyan, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the taste preferences in the closely related sympatric fish species with different feeding patterns. For this purpose, palatability for four classical taste substances was evaluated for carnivorous kutum Rutilus frisii kutum and the results were compared with the taste preferences of the omnivorous roach Rutilus rutilus which had been studied earlier. In addition, the threshold concentration and the dose-response relationship of the most palatable tastants were evaluated and the ability of kutum to differentiate food with tastants in different concentrations was estimated. It was found that citric acid significantly increases the agar gel pellet consumption within the range of concentrations from 0.01M to 0.52M; the pellets with a concentration of 0.026M were the most palatable. The pellet consumption is significantly different if the concentration of citric acid in the pellets differs more than two times. The absolute threshold concentration is 0.01M, or 2.74μg of citric acid per pellet. Sucrose and NaCl have deterrent taste at the highest concentrations tested (0.29 and 1.73M, respectively). Both substances are palatable at 10 times lower concentrations and become indifferent after further gradual decrease in their concentration. CaCl2 decreases the pellets consumption at 0.9M but is an indifferent tastant at lower concentrations (0.45, 0.09 and 0.045M). The number of rejections and repeated grasps of a food pellet is fewness and is not related to the pellet's palatability, while the retention time of pellet in the oral cavity positively and highly correlates with the pellet's palatability. Kutum have opposite taste preferences for most substances tested in comparison with the roach. It indicates that the taste preferences mediated by the oral taste receptors are different in closely related sympatric fish displayed diet divergences.

  12. Growth parameters estimates of Maurolicus stehmanni Parin & Kobyliansky 1996 (Teleostei, Sternoptichydae from south and southeastern Brazilian waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Bellucco

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper on the otolith microstructure analysis of Maurolicus stehmanni presents estimates of the species growth parameters and longevity. The species inhabits the outer shelf and slope of the southern and southeastern Brazilian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ. Growth parameters are important for the knowledge of the species' life history and rational management. M. stehmanni constitutes an important link between the initial and final components of the alimentary chain of the open sea ecosystem, being one of the main food items for squids and large pelagic fish. Among the various applied methods those which presented the most coherent values for growth parameters and were best adapted to the von Bertallanfy's equation were: Li= 55mm K= 0.0088/day and to= 5.5 days Maurolicus stehmanni's longevity is of less than one year (around 220 days and the sagita daily otolith rings are useful for the determination of its age.Este estudo, baseado na análise da microestrutura dos otólitos de Maurolicus stehmanni, apresenta estimativas dos parâmetros de crescimento e longevidade para esta espécie que habita a plataforma externa e o talude da ZEE sul-sudeste do Brasil. Estes parâmetros são importantes para o conhecimento da estratégia de vida da espécie e para o manejo deste recurso, que constitui um importante elo entre os componentes iniciais e finais da teia alimentar no ecossistema de mar aberto, sendo um dos principais itens na dieta das lulas e grandes peixes pelágicos. Dentre os vários métodos aplicados, os valores dos parâmetros de crescimento mais coerentes com a estratégia da espécie e que melhor se ajustaram à equação de von Bertallanfy foram: Li= 55mm K= 0.0088/dia e to= 5.5 dias. A espécie vive cerca de 220 dias e as marcas diárias nos otólitos sagita são apropriadas para a determinação da idade.

  13. Characterization of the ovary fatty acids composition of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard (Teleostei: Siluriformes, throughout their reproductive cycle

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    Rodrigo Vargas Anido

    Full Text Available Knowledge about gonad fatty acid composition is important for broodstock diet formulation. This study characterized ovary fatty acid composition of wild female jundiá catfish (Rhamdia quelen in their different gonadal maturation stages. Female jundiá (n = 36, average weight= 383.8 + 208.8 g were captured in the rio Uruguay, comprising all seasons. Ovaries were extracted and classified according to their gonadal maturation stage. Gonad-somatic ratio varied significantly among seasons, being higher in spring (3.7, followed by summer (2.2, winter (0.9 and autumn (0.6. Main fatty acids groups detected were: saturated (SFA= 35.5%, monounsaturated (MUFA= 28.1% and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA= 33.5%. Over the four seasons, palmitic acid was recorded in large quantities, followed by docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and arachidonic acid (ARA. ARA was present in higher concentrations in immature or maturing ovaries, and its content decreased along the maturation process. Conversely, DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA contents increased during maturation. Such variation resulted in an increase in EPA/ARA and DHA/ARA ratios in mature gonads, which can be important for successful breeding. Such findings suggest that jundiá broodstock diets should contain lipids that provide long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids from both the n-3 and n-6 series to ensure gonadal maturation completion.

  14. Apistogramma ortegai (Teleostei: Cichlidae), a new species of cichlid fish from the Ampyiacu River in the Peruvian Amazon basin

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Apistogramma ortegai, new species, is described from small streams tributaries of the Ampiyacu River near Pebas, in eastern Peru. It belongs to the Apistogramma regani species group and is distinguished from all other species of Apistogramma by the combination of contiguous caudal spot to bar 7, presence of abdominal stripes, short dorsal-fin lappets in both sexes, absence of vertical stripes on the caudal fin, and reduced number of predorsal and prepelvic scales.

  15. Two new species of Apistogramma Regan (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from the rio Trombetas, Pará State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Apistogramma angayuara is described from the rio Trombetas close to the cachoeira Vira Mundo where it is found in association with rapids. It is assigned to the A. pertensis species group, distinguished by the following characters in combination: three prominent stripes composed of dark spots along the sides of the abdomen, 2 vs. 3 postlachrymal infraorbital pores, 5 vs. 4 dentary pores, low dorsal fin in adult males, and presence of a caudal spot. It is the smallest species of Apistogramma r...

  16. Two new species of Apistogramma Regan (Teleostei: Cichlidae from the rio Trombetas, Pará State, Brazil

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    Sven O Kullander

    Full Text Available Apistogramma angayuara is described from the rio Trombetas close to the cachoeira Vira Mundo where it is found in association with rapids. It is assigned to the A. pertensis species group, distinguished by the following characters in combination: three prominent stripes composed of dark spots along the sides of the abdomen, 2 vs. 3 postlachrymal infraorbital pores, 5 vs. 4 dentary pores, low dorsal fin in adult males, and presence of a caudal spot. It is the smallest species of Apistogramma reported so far, with the largest male 24.7 mm SL and the largest female 22.7 mm SL, and the first cichlid species found with a significant proportion of rhizopods in the stomach content. Apistogramma salpinction is described from lentic habitats at the margin of road BR-163, circa 70 km from Cachoeira Porteira village, in a swamp most probably connected to the igarapé Caxipacoré. It is compared to members of the Apistogramma cacatuoides group with which it shares prolonged anterior dorsal fin lappets and marginal caudal fin streamers in adult males. It is distinguished from all other species of Apistogramma by the color pattern which includes a lateral band and abdominal stripes that become darker and have much lighter interspaces on the caudal peduncle, and a caudal spot that is divided into elongated blotches continuing the lateral band and upper two abdominal stripes, respectively.

  17. Apistogramma cinilabra sp. n. : description of a potentially endangered endemic cichlid species (Teleostei : Perciformes : Cichlidae) from the Departamenio Loreto, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    A new species of Apistogramma is described from Peru, based on a total of 35 specimens collected in a small forest lake in the wider catchment of the Rio Itaya about 80 kilometres south of Iquitos, Departamento Loreto (approximately 73 degrees 35' W / 04 degrees 24' S). Apistogramma cinilabra sp. n. is separated from all other Apistogramma species by the combination of (in adult males) strikingly red base of pectoral, red spots on chest, (in aggression and display) light ash-grey lips, except...

  18. Apistogramma ortegai (Teleostei: Cichlidae), a new species of cichlid fish from the Ampyiacu River in the Peruvian Amazon basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britzke, Ricardo; Oliveira, Claudio; Kullander, Sven O

    2014-10-02

    Apistogramma ortegai, new species, is described from small streams tributaries of the Ampiyacu River near Pebas, in eastern Peru. It belongs to the Apistogramma regani species group and is distinguished from all other species of Apistogramma by the combination of contiguous caudal spot to bar 7, presence of abdominal stripes, short dorsal-fin lappets in both sexes, absence of vertical stripes on the caudal fin, and reduced number of predorsal and prepelvic scales.

  19. Reproductive Strategy of Labeobarbus batesii (Boulenger, 1903 (Teleostei: Cyprinidae in the Mbô Floodplain Rivers of Cameroon

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    Claudine Tekounegning Tiogué

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of the reproductive strategy of African carp, Labeobarbus batesii, were investigated from May 2008 to October 2009 in the Mbô Floodplain of Cameroon. Samples were collected monthly from artisanal fishermen. The total length and total body mass of each specimen were measured to the nearest mm and 0.01 g, respectively. Sex was determined by macroscopic examination of the gonads after dissection. The sex ratio was female skewed (overall sex ratio: 1 : 1.42. Females reach sexual maturity at a larger size (213 mm than the males (203 mm. The mean gonadosomatic index ranges from 0.32±0.17% to 1.91±1.15%, whereas the mean K factor ranges from 0.90±1.09 to 1.10±0.13. These two parameters are negatively correlated. The reproduction cycle begins in mid-September and ends in July of the next year, and they are reproductively quiescent for the rest of the year. Labeobarbus batesii is a group-synchronous spawner with pulses of synchronised reproduction spread over a long period. The mean absolute, potential, and relative fecundities are 2898±2837 oocytes, 1016±963 oocytes, and 9071±7184 oocytes/kg, respectively. The fecundity is higher and positively correlated with the gonad mass than with body size. Its reproductive biology suggests that L. batesii is suitable for pond culture.

  20. Lipolytic response of adipose tissue and metabolic adaptations to long periods of fasting in red tilapia (Oreochromis sp., Teleostei: Cichlidae

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    WALTER DIAS JUNIOR

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Adaptive changes of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism induced by 7, 15, 30, 60, 90, 150 and 200 days of fasting were investigated in red tilapia (Oreochromis sp.. Plasma glucose, lactate and free fatty acids (FFA levels, liver and muscle glycogen and total lipid contents and rates of FFA release from mesenteric adipose tissue (MAT were measured. Plasma glucose levels showed significant differences only after 90 days of fasting, when glycemia was 34% lower (50±5mg.dL-1 than fed fish values (74±1mg.dL-1, remaining relatively constant until 200 days of fasting. The content of liver glycogen ("15% in fed tilapia fell 40% in 7 days of food deprivation. In 60, 90 and 150 days of fasting, plasma FFA levels increased 49%, 64% and 90%, respectively, compared to fed fish values. In agreement with the increase in plasma FFA, fasting induced a clear increase in lipolytic activity of MAT incubated in vitro. Addition of isobutylmethylxanthine (cAMP-phosphodiesterase inhibitor and isoproterenol (non selective beta adrenergic agonist to the incubation medium induced a reduction of lipolysis in fasted fish, differently to what was observed in mammal adipose tissue. This study allowed a physiological assessment of red tilapia response to starvation.

  1. Crenicichla gillmorlisi, a new species of cichlid fish (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from the Paraná river drainage in Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullander, Sven O; De Lucena, Carlos A Santos

    2013-01-01

    Crenicichla gillmorlisi, new species, is described from the río Acaray, a right bank tributary to the río Paraná. It is most similar to C. mandelburgeri in proportional measurements and meristics, but differs in colour pattern, adults having the body covered with small spots.

  2. Karyotypic conservatism in samples of Characidium cf. zebra (Teleostei, Characiformes, Crenuchidae): Physical mapping of ribosomal genes and natural triploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2011-04-01

    Basic and molecular cytogenetic analyses were performed in specimens of Characidium cf. zebra from five collection sites located throughout the Tietê, Paranapanema and Paraguay river basins. The diploid number in specimens from all samples was 2n = 50 with a karyotype composed of 32 metacentric and 18 submetacentric chromosomes in both males and females. Constitutive heterochromatin was present at the centromeric regions of all chromosomes and pair 23, had additional interstitial heterochromatic blocks on its long arms. The nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) were located on the long arms of pair 23, while the 5S rDNA sites were detected in different chromosomes among the studied samples. One specimen from the Alambari river was a natural triploid and had two extra chromosomes, resulting in 2n = 77. The remarkable karyotypic similarity among the specimens of C. cf. zebra suggests a close evolutionary relationship. On the other hand, the distinct patterns of 5S rDNA distribution may be the result of gene flow constraints during their evolutionary history.

  3. Karyotypic conservatism in samples of Characidium cf. zebra (Teleostei, Characiformes, Crenuchidae: physical mapping of ribosomal genes and natural triploidy

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    José Carlos Pansonato-Alves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic and molecular cytogenetic analyses were performed in specimens of Characidium cf. zebra from five collection sites located throughout the Tietê, Paranapanema and Paraguay river basins. The diploid number in specimens from all samples was 2n = 50 with a karyotype composed of 32 metacentric and 18 submetacentric chromosomes in both males and females. Constitutive heterochromatin was present at the centromeric regions of all chromosomes and pair 23, had additional interstitial heterochromatic blocks on its long arms. The nucleolar organizer regions (NORs were located on the long arms of pair 23, while the 5S rDNA sites were detected in different chromosomes among the studied samples. One specimen from the Alambari river was a natural triploid and had two extra chromosomes, resulting in 2n = 77. The remarkable karyotypic similarity among the specimens of C. cf. zebra suggests a close evolutionary relationship. On the other hand, the distinct patterns of 5S rDNA distribution may be the result of gene flow constraints during their evolutionary history.

  4. Induction of spawning in Capoeta aculeata, (Valenciennes in Cuv. & Val., 1844 (Teleostei, Cyprinidae, using carp pituitary extract

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    Reza Kamali-Far

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Capoeta aculeata is a benthopelagic fresh-water fish that lives in subtropical climates and has awidely distribution in Iranian river basins. Hatchery production of fish for stocking is an important means oftemporarily supplementing insufficient natural reproduction, thus help to maintain or restore eroded fishpopulation. This study was done in May and June 2007 on captured brood fish from Zayandeh-Rood River,Iran in order to reach a suitable technique of artificial reproduction of C. aculeata. Caught brood fish wereinjected with carp pituitary extract at doses of 0.75 and 1.5 milligram per kilogram body weight of fish.Brood fish were tested for ovulation each 12 hours from final injection for 3 days, but no sing of readinessfor spawning was observed. To gain confidence of experiment, the study was repeated after one monthfrom the first try with new fish. The result, however, was the same and didn’t attain to any success.Inadequate information about reproduction biology of this species is one of the most important reasons ofthe negative result. Furthermore, unsuitable hormone and dosages as well as inappropriate injection timescan be probable causes of this failure that should be evaluated in later studies.

  5. Genetic variability in Astyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britski, 2000 (Teleostei, Characidae from the Upper Paraná River basin, Brazil

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    Maria Dolores Peres

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Allozyme data was used to assess the genetic diversity Astyanax altiparanae populations from the floodplain of the Upper Paraná River (PR. Specimens were collected in the southern Brazilian state of Paraná from PR in Porto Rico municipality and Ribeirão Ficha (RF in Ubiratã municipality. The authors used 15% (w/v corn starch gel electrophoresis to identify 21 putative loci for 13 enzymatic systems: Aspartate aminotransferase, 2.6.1.1 (AAT, Acid phosphatase, 3.1.3.2 (ACP, Esterase, 3.1.1.1 (EST, Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, 1.1.1.8 (G3PDH, Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 1.1.1.49 (G6PDH, Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, 5.3.1.9 (GPI, Iditol dehydrogenase, 1.1.1.14 (IDDH, Isocitrate dehydrogenase - NADP+, 1.1.1.42 (IDH, L-Lactate dehydrogenase, 1.1.1.27 (LDH, Malate dehydrogenase, 1.1.1.37 (MDH, Malate dehydrogenase - NADP+, 1.1.1.40 (MDHP, Phosphoglucomutase, 5.4.2.2 (PGM, and Superoxide dismutase, 1.15.1.1 (SOD. The proportion of polymorphic loci were estimated as 52.38% in the PR population and 38.10% in the RF population. Expected estimated heterozygosities were 0.1518 ± 0.0493 for the PR population and 0.0905 ± 0.0464 for the RF population. The A. altiparanae heterozygosity data were similar to previous estimates for other PR basin characid species. Allele frequencies were significantly different between the PR and RF populations in respect to some loci (Acp-1, G3pdh-1, Gpi-A, Iddh-1, Mdhp-1 and Mdhp-2. Wright’s statistics for all loci were estimated as Fis = 0.3919, Fit = 0.4804 and Fst = 0.1455. Our results show that the A. altiparanae populations studied are genetically different and have a high degree of genetic variability.

  6. Host and environmental risk factors associated with Cryptosporidium scophthalmi (Apicomplexa) infection in cultured turbot, Psetta maxima (L.) (Pisces, Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Pellitero, Pilar; Perez, Andrés; Quiroga, M Isabel; Redondo, M José; Vázquez, Sonia; Riaza, Ana; Palenzuela, Oswaldo; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Nieto, José M

    2009-11-12

    An epidemiological cohort study of Cryptosporidium scophthalmi in cultured turbot Psetta maxima L. of Northwestern Spain was conducted along a four-year period. Four different ongrowing cohorts were monitored monthly from introduction into the ongrowing tanks (10-50 g) until reaching market size (400-1400 g). The association of host and environmental factors with five categories of parasite abundance was assessed using a multivariable regression framework. Epidemiological factors assessed here were water temperature, weight, length, month of collection, season, age, origin, condition factor, water filtration, and status to the myxozoan Enteromyxum scophthalmi infection. E. scophthalmi was included into the analysis because it targets the same organ than C. scophthalmi and it was prevalent in the studied population. The multivariable analysis demonstrated the statistically significant association between several factors and parasite abundance. C. scophthalmi abundance was associated (P<0.05) with age, condition factor, season, and status to E. scophthalmi infection. Young animals, with poor condition factor, during spring or summer, and not infected with the myxozoan were most likely to be highly infected by C. scophthalmi. Inclusion of these four variables significantly (P<0.05) improved the model, compared to the model that did not include any of these epidemiological factors. Increasing levels of C. scophthalmi abundance were associated (P<0.01) with higher severity of C. scophthalmi-compatible lesions. The frequency of distribution of C. scophthalmi abundance was clearly right-skewed and fitted a negative binomial distribution, whereas the intensity of infection fitted a Poisson distribution. The quantification of the variance-to-mean ratio stratified by age demonstrated overdispersion for 8-16 months old fish, although this bivariate association is likely affected by several other factors, as suggested by the results of the multivariable analysis. The negative relation between C. scophthalmi abundance and status to E. scophthalmi infection suggests differences in the transmission, onset, and course of both infections. The coarse filtration used in some cohorts did not significantly affect the levels of infection. C. scophthalmi was probably introduced into the ongrowing tanks mainly with carrier fish, though the involvement of infective oocysts from the water supply cannot be disregarded. Infection prevalence and mean intensity decreased with fish age and a seasonal distribution was found. Results presented here will help to understand the epidemiology of C. scophthalmi in turbot, to estimate the expected levels of infection associated with presence or absence of epidemiological factors, and to quantify the impact that the disease may have on susceptible turbot populations. The multivariable model used here is more powerful than the visual inspection of graphics for exploring associations in cooperative processes and can be easily extended to the assessment of epidemiological associations in other population and parasitic diseases.

  7. Phylogeny and biogeography of 91 species of heroine cichlids (Teleostei: Cichlidae) based on sequences of the cytochrome b gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Gustavo A Concheiro; Rícan, Oldrich; Ortí, Guillermo; Bermingham, Eldredge; Doadrio, Ignacio; Zardoya, Rafael

    2007-04-01

    Heroini constitute the second largest tribe of Neotropical cichlids and show their greatest diversity in Mesoamerica. Although heroine species are morphologically and ecologically very diverse, they were all historically assigned to one single genus, Cichlasoma that was never formally revised from a phylogenetic point of view. Here, we present the most comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the tribe Heroini to date, based on the complete DNA sequence of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b, and the analysis of 204 individuals representing 91 species. Phylogenetic analyses did not support the monophyly of heroines because the genus Pterophyllum was placed as the sister group of all remaining heroines plus cichlasomatines. However, the recovered relative position of Pterophyllum was without strong statistical support. Within the remaining heroines, Hyspelecara and Hoplarchus are recovered with low support in a basal position with respect to a clade that includes Heros, Uaru, Mesonauta, and Symphysodon, and the circumamazonian (CAM) heroines. The first clade is restricted to South America. The largest clade of heroines, the CAM heroines, include more than 85% of the species within the tribe. This clade is mostly Mesoamerican, but also contains four species found in the Greater Antilles (Nandopsis), and three genera found in South America (the 'Heros' festae group, Australoheros, and Caquetaia). Up to eight major lineages can be recovered within the CAM heroines, but the phylogenetic relationships among them remain unresolved. Two large suprageneric groups can be distinguished, the amphilophines and the herichthyines. The amphilophines include Amphilophus, Archocentrus, Hypsophrys, Neetroplus, Parachromis, Petenia, and five additional unnamed genera (the 'Heros' istlanus group, the 'Amphilophus' calobrensis group, the 'Heros' urophthalmus group, the 'Heros' wesseli group, and the 'Heros' sieboldii group). The herichthyines include the crown-group herichthyines (Herichthys, Theraps, Vieja, and Paratheraps) and the genera Tomocichla, Herotilapia, and Thorichthys, together with three unnamed genera (the 'Heros' umbriferus group, the 'Heros' grammodes group, and the 'Heros' salvini group). Amphilophines are prevalent in southern Mesomerica south of the Motagua fault. Herichthyines have basal linages in Central America, whereas crown-group herichthyines and three related genera are found north from the Motagua fault. At least two independent origins are required to explain current Mesoamerican heroine distribution. Dispersal of heroines from South America into Mesoamerica was dated between 24 and 16 million years ago (MYA) based on geological calibrations and on standard fish mitochondrial cytochrome b rates, respectively. These datings cannot be reconciled with currently known geological evidence, and the existence of a connection between Central America and South America in the Miocene needs to be postulated in order to explain the origins of Mesoamerican heroine lineages. However, our datings agree with those estimated for the dispersal of other secondary freshwater fishes (Rivulidae, Synbranchus) into Mesoamerica, and predate the invasion of primary freshwater fishes by at least 10 myr.

  8. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of the highly specialized grade schizothoracine fishes (Teleostei:Cyprinidae) inferred from cytochrome b sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE DeKui; CHEN YiFeng

    2007-01-01

    We recovered the phylogenetic relationships among 23 species and subspecies of the highly specialized grade schizothoracine fishes distributing at 36 geographical sites in the Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding regions by analyzing sequences of cytochrome b genes. Furthermore, we estimated the possible divergent times among lineages based on a historical geological isolation event in the Tibetan Plateau. The molecular data revealed that the highly specialized grade schizothoracine fishes were not a monophyletic group, but were the same as genera Gymnocypris and Schizogypsis. Our results indicated that the molecular phylogenetic relationships apparently reflected their geographical and historical associations with drainages, namely species from the same and adjacent drainages clustered together and had close relationships. The divergence times of different lineages were well consistent with the rapid uplift phases of the Tibetan Plateau in the late Cenozoic, suggesting that the origin and evolution of schizothoracine fishes were strongly influenced by environment changes resulting from the upheaval of the Tibetan Plateau.

  9. Molecular and cytogenetic analysis of the telomeric (TTAGGG)n repetitive sequences in the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Teleostei: Cichlidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Joyce S K; Oliveira, Claudio; Wright, Jonathan M; Dobson, Melanie J

    2002-03-01

    The majority of chromosomes in Oreochromis niloticus, as with most fish karyotyped to date, cannot be individually identified owing to their small size. As a first step in establishing a physical map for this important aquaculture species of tilapia we have analyzed the location of the vertebrate telomeric repeat sequence, (TTAGGG)n, in O. niloticus. Southern blot hybridization analysis and a Bal31 sensitivity assay confirm that the vertebrate telomeric repeat is indeed present at O. niloticus chromosomal ends with repeat tracts extending for 4-10 kb on chromosomal ends in erythrocytes. Fluorescent in situ hybridization revealed that (TTAGGG)n is found not only at telomeres, but also at two interstitial loci on chromosome 1. These data support the hypothesis that chromosome 1, which is significantly larger than all the other chromosomes in the karyotype, was produced by the fusion of three chromosomes and explain the overall reduction of chromosomal number from the ancestral teleost karyotype of 2n=48 to 2n=44 observed in tilapia.

  10. Three sympatric karyomorphs in the fish Astyanax fasciatus (Teleostei, Characidae do not seem to hybridize in natural populations

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    Maressa Ferreira-Neto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ninety individuals of the characid fish Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier, 1819 were collected at Água da Madalena stream (Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil and analyzed for diploid chromosome number 2n and karyotype composition as well as for the chromosomal location of the 5S and 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA. Whereas no chromosome differences were associated with sex, three different karyomorphs with diploid chromosome numbers 2n=46, 2n=48 and 2n=50 were found. No intermediate 2n numbers were discovered. The 2n=50 karyomorph showed some differences in 18S rDNA location compared to the two other karyomorphs. Finally, all specimens with the 2n=46 karyomorph showed the presence of a partly heterochromatic macro supernumerary chromosome, which was absent in all individuals with the two other karyomorphs. All these results suggest that indviduals of the three different karyomorphs are not likely to hybridize in the examined populations. Our findings strongly suggest the presence of three separate species (sensu biological species concept easily diagnosed on the basis of differences in the diploid chromosome numbers and other chromosomal markers.

  11. Phylogeny of the Labeoninae (Teleostei, Cypriniformes) based on nuclear DNA sequences and implications on character evolution and biogeography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lanping ZHENG; Junxing YANG; Xiaoyong CHEN

    2012-01-01

    The Labeoninae is a subfamily of the family Cyprinidae,Order Cypriniformes.Oromandibular morphology within the Labeoninae is the greatest among cyprinid fishes.Although several phylogenetic studies about labeonines have been undertaken the results have been inconsistent and a comprehensive phylogeny is needed.Further,an incongruence between morphological and molecular phylogeny requires a systematic exploration of the significance of morphological characters on the basis of the molecular phylogeny.In this study,a total of 292 nucleotide sequences from 73 individuals (representing 24 genera and 73 species) of Labeoninae were analyzed.The results of the phylogenetic analysis indicate that there are four major clades within Labeoninae and three monophyletic lineages within the fourth clade.Results of the character evolution show that all oromandibular morphological characters are homoplastically distributed on the molecular phylogenetic tree and suggests that these characters evolved several times during the history of labeonines.In particular,the labeonine,a specific disc on the lower lip,has been acquired three times and reversed twice.These morphological characters do not have systematic significance but can be useful for taxonomy.The results of biogeography suggest that the Labeoninae originated from Southeast Asia and separately dispersed to Africa,East Asia and South Asia.

  12. A redescription of grey pomfret Pampus cinereus (Bloch,1795) with the designation of a neotype (Teleostei:Stromateidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jing; LI Chunsheng; NING Ping

    2013-01-01

    Pampus cinereus (Bloch,1795) (Stromateidae),a species believed to be widely distributed throughout the Indo-Western Pacific region,was redescribed and a neotype was designated.The designation of a neotype was necessary because of ambiguous data in Bloch's original description and the loss of the original type specimen.Morphological data indicated that 10 recently-collected specimens from the coasts of southern China agreed well with Bloch's original description and figure ofP.cinereus.A neotype for this species was selected from among the 10 specimens,and a detailed description is presented in this paper.

  13. Evidence of birth-and-death evolution of 5S rRNA gene in Channa species (Teleostei, Perciformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Anindya Sundar; Singh, Mamta; Singh, Rajeev Kumar; Lal, Kuldeep Kumar

    2016-12-01

    In higher eukaryotes, minor rDNA family codes for 5S rRNA that is arranged in tandem arrays and comprises of a highly conserved 120 bp long coding sequence with a variable non-transcribed spacer (NTS). Initially the 5S rDNA repeats are considered to be evolved by the process of concerted evolution. But some recent reports, including teleost fishes suggested that evolution of 5S rDNA repeat does not fit into the concerted evolution model and evolution of 5S rDNA family may be explained by a birth-and-death evolution model. In order to study the mode of evolution of 5S rDNA repeats in Perciformes fish species, nucleotide sequence and molecular organization of five species of genus Channa were analyzed in the present study. Molecular analyses revealed several variants of 5S rDNA repeats (four types of NTS) and networks created by a neighbor net algorithm for each type of sequences (I, II, III and IV) did not show a clear clustering in species specific manner. The stable secondary structure is predicted and upstream and downstream conserved regulatory elements were characterized. Sequence analyses also shown the presence of two putative pseudogenes in Channa marulius. Present study supported that 5S rDNA repeats in genus Channa were evolved under the process of birth-and-death.

  14. Ultrastructural study of the spermatozoon of Pronoprymna ventricosa (Digenea, Baccigerinae), parasite of the twaite shad Alosa fallax Lacepede (Pisces, Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilichini, Yann; Foata, Josephine; Marchand, Bernard

    2007-09-01

    In this paper, we describe the ultrastructural organisation of the spermatozoon of a Digenea Baccigerinae Pronoprymna ventricosa. This spermatozoon possesses the elements found in the others digeneans: two axonemes with 9 + "1" pattern, a mitochondrion, a nucleus, cortical microtubules and external ornamentations. However, this spermatozoon presents two particularities. The first is the presence of a single field of cortical microtubules disposed in the ventral side (mitochondrion side) of the spermatozoon. In the other digeneans, two fields of cortical microtubules are observed between the two axonemes. The second is the presence of external ornamentations not associated with cortical microtubules. These two points have, to our knowledge, never been described in another digenean. Moreover, a separation in two groups of the digenean spermatozoa is proposed in relation to the localisation of the external ornamentations. We propose to distinguish a first group exhibiting these elements in the proximal part of the spermatozoon and a second one with external ornamentations in a second part of the gamete.

  15. Two new deep-reef basslets (Teleostei, Grammatidae, Lipogramma, with comments on the eco-evolutionary relationships of the genus

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    Carole C. Baldwin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The banded basslet, Lipogramma evides Robins & Colin, 1979, is shown to comprise two species: L. evides, which inhabits depths of 133–302 m, and a new species described here as Lipogramma levinsoni, which inhabits depths of 108–154 m and previously was considered to represent the juvenile of L. evides. A second new species of banded basslet, described here as Lipogramma haberi, inhabits depths of 152–233 m and was previously not reported in the literature. Morphologically, the three species differ in color patterns and modal numbers of gill rakers, whereas various other morphological features distinguish L. levinsoni from L. evides and L. haberi. DNA barcode data and multilocus, coalescent-based, species-delimitation analysis support the recognition of the three species. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear genetic data supports a sister-group relationship between the two deepest-living of the three species, L. evides and L. haberi, and suggests that the shallower L. levinsoni is more closely related to L. anabantoides Böhlke, 1960, which inhabits depths < 120 m. Evolutionary relationships within Lipogramma thus appear to be correlated with species depth ranges, an eco-evolutionary pattern that has been observed in other Caribbean marine teleosts and that warrants further investigation. The new species represent the eleventh and twelfth new fish species described in recent years from exploratory submersible diving in the Caribbean in the globally poorly studied depth zone of 50–300 m. This study suggests that there are at least two additional cryptic species of Lipogramma, which are being analyzed in ongoing investigations of Caribbean deep-reef ecosystems.

  16. Lamellodiscus sanfilippoi n. sp. (Monogenea, Diplectanidae parasite branchial de Diplodus sargus (Teleostei, Sparidae en Méditerranée

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    Amine F.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Lamellodiscus sanfilippoi n. sp. entre, parmi les Lamellodiscus, dans le sous-groupe “ergensi” (Amine et Euzet, 2005, caractérisé par la morphologie des barres latérales dorsales du hapteur. Ce sous-groupe comprend, en Méditerranée, L. ergensi Euzet et Oliver, 1966, L. kechemirae Amine et Euzet, 2005 et L. tomentosus Amine et Euzet, 2005 parasites de Diplodus sargus, ainsi que L. baeri Oliver, 1974 parasite de Pagrus pagrus. L. sanfilippoi se distingue de ces espèces par la morphologie et la taille des barres latérales dorsales du hapteur. L’espèce se rapproche de Lamellodiscus furcillatus Kritsky, Jiménez-Ruíz et Sey, 2000, parasite de Diplodus noct du golfe Persique, mais s’en distingue par l’épaisseur des pièces du hapteur et la morphologie de l’appareil copulateur mâle. Lamellodiscus gussevi Sanfilippo (1978 et Lamellodiscus abbreviatus Sanfilippo (1978 sont considérés comme des nomina nuda.

  17. On Gonorynchus, Gonorhynchus, Gonorinchus, Gonorhinchus and Gonorrhynchus, and some other names of labeonine fishes (Teleostei: Gonorynchidae and Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottelat, Maurice

    2016-10-25

    The supposed cyprinid genus 'Gonorhynchus McClelland, 1838' does not exist; the name refers to Gonorhynchus Cuvier, 1816, which is a junior objective synonym of Gonorynchus Scopoli, 1777. The correct family-group name, authorship and date are: Gonorynchidae Fowler, 1941 (1848). Tariqilabeo Mirza & Saboohi, 1990 is the valid genus name for the South Asian species earlier placed in Crossocheilus or 'Gonorhynchus'. The family-group names Garrae Bleeker, 1863 and Labeonini Bleeker, 1859 are declared nomina protecta and Platycarinae Macleay, 1841 is declared nomen oblitum.

  18. A new Pseudophoxinus (Teleostei, Cyprinidae species from Southwestern Anatolia, with remarks on the distribution of the genus in western Anatolia

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    Fahrettin Küçük

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Pseudophoxinus burduricus sp. n. is described from drainages of Salda and Burdur lakes, southwestern Turkey. It is distinguished from other Anatolian Pseudophoxinus by a combination of characters: lateral line incomplete, with 21–39 (commonly 26–37 perforated scales and 47–57+1-2 scales in lateral series; 10½–12½ scale rows between lateral line and dorsal fin origin, 3–4(5 scale rows between lateral line and the pelvic fin origin; dorsal fin commonly with 7½ branched rays; anal fin commonly with 6½ branched rays; 7–8(9 gill rakers on the first branchial arch; a faint and diffuse epidermal black stripe from eye to caudal fin base in alive and preserved individuals; mouth slightly subterminal, tip of mouth cleft on about level of lower margin of eye; snout rounded, its length greater than eye diameter. Comparison is given with all Pseudophoxinus species from western Anatolia.

  19. Population structure of two Astyanax Baird & Girard, 1854 (Teleostei, Characidae species from upper Paraguaçu river

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    Alexandre Clistenes de Alcântara Santos

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The fishes of the family Characidae are among the main species of fresh water fishes in South America. In this work, some aspects of the population structure of two Astyanax species were assessed. The fishes were caught in Santo Antônio and São José rivers, in the Paraguaçu basin, by standardized monthly samplings adapted to the microhabitats. Astyanax sp. b (São José river presented larger size than Astyanax sp. a (Santo Antônio river. The length-weight relationship showed positive allometric growth for Astyanax sp. a, and negative for Astyanax sp. b. Both the species showed a long reproductive period, with higher activities in dry period.Os peixes da família Characidae estão entre os principais representantes de peixes de água doce da região Neotropical. Este trabalho apresenta alguns aspectos da estrutura populacional de duas espécies de Astyanax coletadas a partir de amostragens mensais padronizadas e adaptadas a diferentes microhabitats, em trechos dos rios Santo Antônio e São José, tributários do alto curso do rio Paraguaçu. Astyanax sp. b, coletada no rio São José apresentou maior tamanho que Astyanax sp. a, coletada no rio Santo Antônio. A relação peso-comprimento indicou um crescimento alométrico positivo para Astyanax sp. a e negativo para Astyanax sp. b. Ambas as espécies apresentaram um longo período reprodutivo, com maior atividade reprodutiva no período seco.

  20. Otolith morphology and hearing abilities in cave- and surface-dwelling ecotypes of the Atlantic molly, Poecilia mexicana (Teleostei: Poeciliidae).

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    Schulz-Mirbach, Tanja; Ladich, Friedrich; Riesch, Rüdiger; Plath, Martin

    2010-08-01

    Cave fish have rarely been investigated with regard to their inner ear morphology, hearing abilities, and acoustic communication. Based on a previous study that revealed morphological differences in the saccular otolith between a cave and two surface populations of Poecilia mexicana, we checked for additional differences in utricular and lagenar otoliths and tested whether different populations have similar hearing sensitivities. We found pronounced differences in the shape of all three otoliths. Otoliths of the saccule and lagena from cave fish differed from those of surface fish in the features of the face oriented towards the sensory epithelium. In addition, otoliths of the utricle and lagena were significantly heavier in cave fish. Auditory sensitivities were measured between 100 and 1500Hz, utilizing the auditory evoked potential recording technique. We found similar hearing abilities in cave and surface fish, with greatest sensitivity between 200 and 300Hz. An acoustic survey revealed that neither ecotype produced species-specific sounds. Our data indicate that cave dwelling altered the otolith morphology in Atlantic mollies, probably due to metabolic differences. Different otolith morphology, however, did not affect general auditory sensitivity or acoustic behavior.

  1. Sperm ultrastructure of the digenean Aphallus tubarium (Rudolphi, 1819) Poche, 1926 (Platyhelminthes, Cryptogonimidae) intestinal parasite of Dentex dentex (Pisces, Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foata, J; Quilichini, Y; Greani, S; Marchand, B

    2012-02-01

    The ultrastructural organization of the spermatozoon of a cryptogonimid digenean, Aphallus tubarium, a parasite of Dentex dentex, is described. The spermatozoon possesses the elements found in other digeneans: two axonemes with 9+"1" pattern, a mitochondrion, a nucleus, cortical microtubules, external ornamentation and spine-like bodies. However, the mitochondrion appears as a cord with a bulge; this characteristic has never been described in other studied cryptogonimid and in other digeneans except in one lepocreadiid, Holorchis micracanthum. Likewise, the presence of a thin cytoplasm termination in the anterior part of the spermatozoon has never been pointed out in the cryptogonimids.

  2. Comparative phylogeography of sympatric sister species, Clevelandia ios and Eucyclogobius newberryi (Teleostei, Gobiidae), across the California Transition Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, M N; Louie, K D; Barlow, M; Jacobs, D K; Swift, C C

    2002-06-01

    It is paradigmatic in marine species that greater dispersal ability often, but not always, results in greater gene flow and less population structure. Some of the exceptions may be attributable to studies confounded by comparison of species with dissimilar evolutionary histories, i.e. co-occurring species that are not closely related or species that are closely related but allopatric. Investigation of sympatric sister species, in contrast, should allow differences in phylogeographic structure to be attributed reliably to recently derived differences in dispersal ability. Here, using mitochondrial DNA control region sequence, we first confirm that Clevelandia ios and Eucyclogobius newberryi are sympatric sister taxa, then demonstrate considerably shallower phylogeographic structure in C. ios than in E. newberryi. This shallower phylogeographic structure is consistent with the higher dispersal ability of C. ios, which most likely results from the interaction of habitat and life-history differences between the species. We suggest that the paradigm will be investigated most rigorously by similar studies of other sympatric sister species, appended by thorough ecological studies, and by extending this sister-taxon approach to comparative phylogeographic studies of monophyletic clades of sympatric species.

  3. A new record of a flathead fish (Teleostei: Platycephalidae) from China based on morphological characters and DNA barcoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yan; Song, Na; Zou, Jianwei; Zhang, Zhaohui; Cheng, Guangping; Gao, Tianxiang; Zhang, Xiumei

    2013-05-01

    A new record of Platycephalus sp.1 (sensu Nakabo, 2002) was documented based on morphological characters and DNA barcoding. We collected 174 specimens of the genus Platycephalus from Chinese coastal waters of Dongying, Qingdao, Zhoushan, and Beihai. Samples were identified as Platycephalus sp.1 morphologically. The coloration, meristic traits, and morphometric measurements are consistent with previously published records. In brief, it is an orange-brown flathead fish with dark brown spots scattered on head and body, lateral line scales 83 to 99 with one or two spine-bearing anteriormost pored scale, no yellow blotch on the caudal fin. Cytochrome oxidase I subunit (COI) gene fragments were sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. The mean evolutionary distance within the species Platycephalus sp.1 was 0.1%. Net evolutionary distances between Platycephalus sp.1 and other species of Platycephalus ranged from 10.8% to 19.7%, which is much greater than the threshold for species delimitation. The COI sequence analysis strongly supports the validity of Platyceohalus sp.1 at genetic level.

  4. A new record of a flathead fish (Teleostei: Platycephalidae)from China based on morphological characters and DNA barcoding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Yan; SONG Na; ZOU Jianwei; ZHANG Zhaohui; CHENG Guangping; GAO Tianxiang; ZHANG Xiumei

    2013-01-01

    A new record of Platycephalus sp.1 (sensu Nakabo,2002) was documented based on morphological characters and DNA barcoding.We collected 174 specimens of the genus Platycephalus from Chinese coastal waters of Dongying,Qingdao,Zhoushan,and Beihai.Samples were identified as Platycephalus sp.1 morphologically.The coloration,meristic traits,and morphometric measurements are consistent with previously published records.In brief,it is an orange-brown flathead fish with dark brown spots scattered on head and body,lateral line scales 83 to 99 with one or two spine-bearing anteriormost pored scale,no yellow blotch on the caudal fin.Cytochrome oxidase I subunit (COI) gene fragments were sequenced for phylogenetic analysis.The mean evolutionary distance within the species Platycephalus sp.1 was 0.1%.Net evolutionary distances between Platycephalus sp.1 and other species of Platycephalus ranged from 10.8% to 19.7%,which is much greater than the threshold for species delimitation.The COI sequence analysis strongly supports the validity ofPlatyceohalus sp.1 at genetic level.

  5. Cytotaxonomic diagnosis of Trichomycterus diabolus (Teleostei: Trichomycteridae with comments about its evolutionary relationships with co-generic species

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    Rodrigo A. Torres

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The karyotype and the Ag-NOR location of a sample of Trichomycterus diabolus collected in the córrego Hortelã (Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil are described. The species exhibited 2n=56 chromosomes (42 metacentrics, 12 submetacentrics and 2 subtelocentrics and the nucleolus organizing region located near to the centromere on the long arm of the largest metacentric pair. The presence of 2n=56 chromosomes in T. diabolus is an interesting characteristic since until now all cis-Andean species karyotyped presented 2n=54 chromosomes while almost all trans-Andean species presented different diploid numbers. The possible origin of this unexpected karyotypic form is discussed.São descritos o cariótipo e a localização das regiões organizadoras de nucléolo (Ag-NOR de uma amostra de Trichomycterus diabolus, coletada no córrego Hortelã (Botucatu, São Paulo, Brasil. A espécie apresentou 2n=56 cromossomos (42 metacêntricos, 12 submetacêntricos e 2 subtelocêntricos e as regiões organizadoras de nucléolo localizadas próximas ao centrômero, no braço longo do maior par metacêntrico. A ocorrência de 2n=56 cromossomos em Trichomycterus diabolus é uma característica interessante, uma vez que, até o momento, todas as espécies cis-Andinas cariotipadas apresentaram 2n=54 cromossomos, enquanto que quase todas as espécies trans-Andinas apresentaram números diplóides diferentes. É discutida a possível origem desta inesperada estrutura cariotípica.

  6. Additional record of Batasio merianiensis (Chaudhuri 1913, a catfish (Teleostei: Bagridae in upper Brahmaputra River drainage in Arunachal Pradesh, India

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    L. Tamang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper communicates the extension of the distribution range of Batasio merianiensis in Sille River in the upper Brahmaputra drainage, East Siang District, Arunachal Pradesh. Detailed examinations of the specimens revealed existence of few morphological variations against those reported by Heok Hee Ng in 2009 on the following characteristics: by having a longer preanal (70.4-73.4 vs. 66.3-68.2% SL; a longer prepectoral (25.1-29.3 vs. 21.4-25.7% SL; a longer adipose-fin base (22.0-27.6 vs. 16.9-22.2% SL; a shorter post-adipose distance (11.6-13.4 vs.13.4-15.5% SL; a deeper body at anus (depth 18.3-20.8 vs.15.2-18.4% SL and broader head (width 17.6-20.0 vs.13.5-16.2 % HL. Few additional characters of the fish are included along with brief information on its habitat. The LIPUM, the semi-traditional method of fishing in the river is identified as a major threat to this species.

  7. On a record of two alien fish species (Teleostei: Osphronemidae from the natural waters of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

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    J.D. Marcus Knight

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aquarium trade has been the source of many alien species being introduced into the natural waters of Chennai.  Trichopsis vittata and Macropodus opercularis are being reported for the first from Chennai. However,  contrary to the propagule pressure theory both these species are not common in the aquarium trade, raising speculations of inter-basin water transfer playing a role in introducing non-native species into an ecosystem.  

  8. 5S rDNA characterization in twelve Sciaenidae fish species (Teleostei, Perciformes: depicting gene diversity and molecular markers

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    Fernanda A. Alves-Costa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to extend the genetic data on the Sciaenidae fish family, the present study had the purpose to characterize PCR-generated 5S rDNA repeats of twelve species of this group through PAGE (Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis analysis. The results showed the occurrence of at least two different 5S rDNA size classes in all the species. Moreover, 5S rDNA repeats of one of the studied species - Isopisthus parvipinnis - were cloned and subjected to nucleotide sequencing and Southern blot membrane hybridization analyses, which permitted to confirm the existence of two major 5S rDNA classes. Phylogenetic analysis based on the nucleotide sequences of different 5S rDNA repeats of I. parvipinnis lead to their separation into two major clusters. These results may reflect the high dynamism that rules the evolution rate of 5S rDNA repeats. The obtained data suggest that 5S rDNA can be useful in genetic analyses to identify species-specific markers and determine relationships among species of the Sciaenidae group.

  9. Complete mitochondrial genome of Ptychobarbus kaznakovi (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae), and repetitive sequences in the D-loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingzhan; Wu, Bo; Li, Jiuxuan; Song, Zhaobin

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial DNA genome of Ptychobarbus kaznakovi was sequenced and characterized. The genome is 16,842 bp in length. Similar with most teleosts, it has two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and one displacement loop (D-loop) region. Conserved sequence blocks, including ETAS, CSB-B, D, E, F, and CSB1-3, were identified in the D-loop, which is similar to other species in Cypriniformes. Nevertheless, a 55 bp tandem repeat array was also identified at 3' end of the D-loop, which is the first finding in Schizothoracinae. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the species of Ptychobarbus (P. dipogon and P. kaznakovi) formed a monophyletic group and represented close relationship to the species without scales in Schizothoracinae.

  10. General characteristics of the diet of Trachinotus paitensis (Teleostei: Carangidae) from San Ignacio Lagoon, Baja California Sur, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Escalona, V H; Abitia Cárdenas, L A

    2004-03-01

    The food habits of Trachinotus paitensis, in San Ignacio Lagoon B.C.S., Mexico, were investigated. We observed that T. paitensis is carnivorous, feeding mainly on benthic invertebrates (the gastropods Anachis spp., Bittium spp., and the crustacean larvae). We concluded that T. paitensis is an opportunist predator that impacts mainly on epibenthic invertebrates.

  11. Phylogenetic relationships within the speciose family Characidae (Teleostei: Ostariophysi: Characiformes based on multilocus analysis and extensive ingroup sampling

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    Vari Richard P

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With nearly 1,100 species, the fish family Characidae represents more than half of the species of Characiformes, and is a key component of Neotropical freshwater ecosystems. The composition, phylogeny, and classification of Characidae is currently uncertain, despite significant efforts based on analysis of morphological and molecular data. No consensus about the monophyly of this group or its position within the order Characiformes has been reached, challenged by the fact that many key studies to date have non-overlapping taxonomic representation and focus only on subsets of this diversity. Results In the present study we propose a new definition of the family Characidae and a hypothesis of relationships for the Characiformes based on phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences of two mitochondrial and three nuclear genes (4,680 base pairs. The sequences were obtained from 211 samples representing 166 genera distributed among all 18 recognized families in the order Characiformes, all 14 recognized subfamilies in the Characidae, plus 56 of the genera so far considered incertae sedis in the Characidae. The phylogeny obtained is robust, with most lineages significantly supported by posterior probabilities in Bayesian analysis, and high bootstrap values from maximum likelihood and parsimony analyses. Conclusion A monophyletic assemblage strongly supported in all our phylogenetic analysis is herein defined as the Characidae and includes the characiform species lacking a supraorbital bone and with a derived position of the emergence of the hyoid artery from the anterior ceratohyal. To recognize this and several other monophyletic groups within characiforms we propose changes in the limits of several families to facilitate future studies in the Characiformes and particularly the Characidae. This work presents a new phylogenetic framework for a speciose and morphologically diverse group of freshwater fishes of significant ecological and evolutionary importance across the Neotropics and portions of Africa.

  12. Molecular phylogeny of grunts (Teleostei, Haemulidae, with an emphasis on the ecology, evolution, and speciation history of New World species

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    Tavera José

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fish family Haemulidae is divided in two subfamilies, Haemulinae and Plectorhynchinae (sweetlips, including approximately 17 genera and 145 species. The family has a broad geographic distribution that encompasses contrasting ecological habitats resulting in a unique potential for evolutionary hypotheses testing. In the present work we have examined the phylogenetic relationships of the family using selected representatives of additional Percomorpha based on Bayesian and Maximum likelihood methods by means of three mitochondrial genes. We also developed a phylogenetic hypothesis of the New World species based on five molecular markers (three mitochondrial and two nuclear as a framework to evaluate the evolutionary history, the ecological diversification and speciation patterns of this group. Results Mitochondrial genes and different reconstruction methods consistently recovered a monophyletic Haemulidae with the Sillaginidae as its sister clade (although with low support values. Previous studies proposed different relationships that were not recovered in this analysis. We also present a robust molecular phylogeny of Haemulinae based on the combined data of two nuclear and three mitochondrial genes. All topologies support the monophyly of both sub-families (Haemulinae, Plectorhinchinae. The genus Pomadasys was shown to be polyphyletic and Haemulon, Anisotremus, and Plectorhinchus were found to be paraphyletic. Four of seven presumed geminate pairs were indeed found to be sister species, however our data did not support a contemporaneous divergence. Analyses also revealed that differential use of habitat might have played an important role in the speciation dynamics of this group of fishes, in particular among New World species where extensive sample coverage was available. Conclusions This study provides a new hypothesis for the sister clade of Hamulidae and a robust phylogeny of the latter. The presence of para- and polyphyletic genera underscores the need for a taxonomic reassessment within the family. A scarce sampling of the Old World Pomadasys species prevents us to definitively point to a New World origin of the sub-familiy Hamulinae, however our data suggest that this is likely to be the case. This study also illustrates how life history habitat influences speciation and evolutionary trajectories.

  13. Phylogenetic relationships and biogeographical patterns in Circum-Mediterranean subfamily Leuciscinae (Teleostei, Cyprinidae inferred from both mitochondrial and nuclear data

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    Perea Silvia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leuciscinae is a subfamily belonging to the Cyprinidae fish family that is widely distributed in Circum-Mediterranean region. Many efforts have been carried out to deciphering the evolutionary history of this group. Thus, different biogeographical scenarios have tried to explain the colonization of Europe and Mediterranean area by cyprinids, such as the "north dispersal" or the "Lago Mare dispersal" models. Most recently, Pleistocene glaciations influenced the distribution of leuciscins, especially in North and Central Europe. Weighing up these biogeographical scenarios, this paper constitutes not only the first attempt at deciphering the mitochondrial and nuclear relationships of Mediterranean leuciscins but also a test of biogeographical hypotheses that could have determined the current distribution of Circum-Mediterranean leuciscins. Results A total of 4439 characters (mitochondrial + nuclear from 321 individuals of 176 leuciscine species rendered a well-supported phylogeny, showing fourteen main lineages. Analyses of independent mitochondrial and nuclear markers supported the same main lineages, but basal relationships were not concordant. Moreover, some incongruence was found among independent mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies. The monophyly of some poorly known genera such as Pseudophoxinus and Petroleuciscus was rejected. Representatives of both genera belong to different evolutionary lineages. Timing of cladogenetic events among the main leuciscine lineages was gained using mitochondrial and all genes data set. Conclusions Adaptations to a predatory lifestyle or miniaturization have superimposed the morphology of some species. These species have been separated into different genera, which are not supported by a phylogenetic framework. Such is the case of the genera Pseudophoxinus and Petroleuciscus, which real taxonomy is not well known. The diversification of leuciscine lineages has been determined by intense vicariant events following the paleoclimatological and hydrogeological history of Mediterranean region. We propose different colonization models of Mediterranean region during the early Oligocene. Later vicariance events promoted Leuciscinae diversification during Oligocene and Miocene periods. Our data corroborate the presence of leuciscins in North Africa before the Messinian salinity crisis. Indeed, Messinian period appears as a stage of gradually Leuciscinae diversification. The rise of humidity at the beginning of the Pliocene promoted the colonization and posterior isolation of newly established freshwater populations. Finally, Pleistocene glaciations determined the current European distribution of some leuciscine species.

  14. Phylogenetic analysis of the order Pleuronectiformes (Teleostei based on sequences of 12S and 16S mitochondrial genes

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    Marisa F.C. Azevedo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The fish order Pleuronectiformes, composed of 14 families, has two suborders: Psettodoidei (with one family and Pleuronectoidei (with thirteen families. The relationships among families of Pleuronectoidei and among the genera of their families have extensively been debated and a consensus has not yet been reached. In the present study, partial sequences of the 12S and 16S mitochondrial rRNA genes were obtained from 19 species belonging to the families Achiridae, Bothidae, Cynoglossidae, Paralichthyidae, Pleuronectidae, Scophthalmidae, and Soleidae. Additional sequences of 42 pleuronectiform species were obtained from GenBank. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted by the methods of maximum-parsimony, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian inference. Our results corroborate the monophyletic status of all families, excluding Paralichthyidae. In the family Achiridae, the genus Catathyridium (freshwater was the sister group of Trinectes (saltwater, and Hypoclinemus (freshwater was the sister group of Achirus (saltwater. Assuming that the putative ancestor of achirids lived in saltwater, it is suggested that the freshwater habitats in South America were colonized independently by different achirid lineages.

  15. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Rediscovery of the threatened Western Ghats endemic sisorid catfish Glyptothorax poonaensis (Teleostei: Siluriformes: Sisoridae

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    N. Dahanukar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Glyptothorax poonaensis Hora is an endemic sisorid catfish of the Western Ghats of India known only from its type locality in Mula-Mutha River, a tributary of Bhima River, at Pune. This fish has not been recorded from its type locality for more than 70 years and it was thought to be extinct. Here we report a recently discovered population of G. poonaensis from Indrayani River, a tributary of Bhima River. Based on 11 specimens, we have redescribed this species along with some comments on its taxonomy, length-weight relationship, feeding and breeding habits. We also performed molecular phylogeny of the fish by sequencing three mitochondrial genes encoding 16S ribosomal DNA, cytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase subunit I. Molecular analysis suggests that G. poonaensis is nested within a lineage of Glyptothorax species from northern and northeastern India and China. Further, our analysis reveals that southern Indian species of Glyptothorax do not form a monophyletic group. Molecular dating of divergence times indicates that G. poonaensis diverged from other northern Indian species 1.9 to 2.5 million years ago. Current knowledge suggests that the species could be found in two river basins with total extent of around 6100km2; however, the species is already suspected to be locally extinct from half of its known extent of occurrence. Furthermore, the habitat of the species may be threatened by increasing pollution, deforestation leading to siltation, halting of flow by damming, sandmining and introduced fish species. In the light of biodiversity conservation, especially in an important biodiversity hotspot like Western Ghats, such rare and endemic species needs prioritization.

  16. Dynamics of Rex3 in the genomes of endangered Iberian Leuciscinae (Teleostei, Cyprinidae and their natural hybrids

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    Carla Sofia A. Pereira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Iberian Leuciscinae are greatly diverse comprising taxa of hybrid origin. With highly conservative karyotypes, Iberian Chondrostoma s.l. have recently demonstrated sub-chromosomal differentiation and rapid genome restructuring in natural hybrids, which was confirmed by ribosomal DNA (rDNA transposition and/or multiplication. To understand the role of repetitive DNAs in the differentiation of their genomes, a genetic and molecular cytogenetic survey was conducted in Achondrostoma oligolepis, Anaecypris hispanica, Iberochondrostoma lemmingii, I. lusitanicum, Pseudochondrostoma duriense, P. polylepis, Squalius pyrenaicus and hybrids between A. oligolepis x (P. duriense/P. polylepis, which represent 'alburnine', chondrostomine and Squalius lineages. The chromosomal distribution of Rex3 retroelement was found highly compartmentalized at centromeres and moderately at telomeres, co-localizing with 5S rDNA loci, and grossly correlating with heterochromatin and blocks of C0t-1 DNA. This accumulation was evident in at least 10 chromosome pairs, a pattern that seemed to be shared among the different species, likely predating their divergence. Nevertheless, species-specific clusters were detected in I. lusitanicum, P. duriense, P. polylepis and S. pyrenaicus demonstrating rapid and independent differentiation. Natural hybrids followed the same accumulation pattern and association with repetitive sequences but with increased number of Rex3 clusters and correlating with translocated 45S rDNA clusters. Rex3 sequence phylogeny didn't agree with its hosts' phylogeny but the observed distribution pattern is congruent with an evolutionary tendency to protect its activity, a robust regulatory system and/or events of horizontal transfer. This is the first report of retroelement physical mapping in Cyprinidae. It helped outlining conceivable ancestral homologies and recognizing retrotransposon activation in hybrids, being possibly associated with genome diversification in the subfamily. The extensive diversity of Iberian Leuciscinae makes them excellent candidates to explore the processes and mechanisms behind the great multiplicity distinguishing vertebrate genomes.

  17. Fishery of the Goliath grouper, Epinephelus itajara (Teleostei: Epinephelidae) based on local ecological knowledge and fishery records in Yucatan, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar-Perera, Alfonso; González-Salas, Carlos; Tuz-Sulub, Armin; Villegas-Hernández, Harold

    2008-01-01

    The Goliath grouper, Epinephelus itajara, a large-bodied (~ 2.5 m TL, > 400 kg) and critically endangered fish (Epinephelidae), is highly vulnerable to overfishing. Although protected from fishing in many countries, its exploitation in Mexico is unregulated; a situation that puts its populations at risk. Fishery records of E. itajara are scarce, which prevents determination of its fishery status. This work aimed to elucidate the E. itajara fishery in the northern Yucatan Peninsula by 1) ana...

  18. Fishery of the Goliath grouper, Epinephelus itajara (Teleostei: Epinephelidae) based on local ecological knowledge and fishery records in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Perera, Alfonso; González-Salas, Carlos; Tuz-Sulub, Armin; Villegas-Hernández, Harold

    2009-09-01

    The Goliath grouper, Epinephelus itajara, a large-bodied (approximately 2.5 m TL, > 400 kg) and critically endangered fish (Epinephelidae), is highly vulnerable to overfishing. Although protected from fishing in many countries, its exploitation in Mexico is unregulated; a situation that puts its populations at risk. Fishery records of E. itajara are scarce, which prevents determination of its fishery status. This work aimed to elucidate the E. itajara fishery in the northern Yucatan Peninsula by 1) analyzing available catch records and 2) interviewing veteran fishermen (local ecological knowledge) from two traditional landing sites: Dzilam de Bravo and Puerto Progreso. Historic fishery records from two fishing cooperatives were analyzed in order to elucidate the current situation and offer viable alternatives for conservation and management. Catches have decreased severely. Local knowledge obtained from fishermen represented a very important source of information for reconstructing the fisheries history of this species. Conservation measures that incorporate regional and international regulations on critically endangered fish species are suggested.

  19. Allozyme relationships in hypostomines (Teleostei: Loricariidae) from the Itaipu Reservoir, Upper Rio Paraná basin, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, Cláudio Henrique; Renesto, Erasmo; dos Reis, Roberto Esser; Moura, Maurício Osvaldo; Mateus, Rogério Pincela

    2005-03-01

    In an allozyme electrophoresis survey of 15 hypostomine species from the Itaipu Hydroelectric Reservoir, 25 loci from 14 enzyme systems were scored. Allozyme data allowed recording diagnostic genetic markers for all species analyzed and for some species groups within Hypostomus, a taxon which is taxonomically still unresolved in the Upper Rio Paraná basin. The mean expected heterozygosity of the species was considerably variable and hypotheses to tentatively explain this variation are discussed. A cladogram based upon the allelic frequencies of the species analyzed was produced by the continuous maximum likelihood method: Rhinelepis aspera and M. parananus were separated from the species of Hypostominae by a long branch length. Pterygoplichthys anisitsi was the sister of all the representatives of the genus Hypostomus. Within Hypostomus, two main clades were produced: in the first, H. cochliodon was the sister of the species comprising the H. plecostomus group, and in the second, the tree showed the following relationships: (H. albopunctatus (H. regani + Hypostomus sp. 3) + (H. margaritifer (H. microstomus (Hypostomus sp. 1 (H. ternetzi + Hypostomus sp. 2)). Hypostomus ternetzi and Hypostomus sp. 2 are referred to here as representatives of the H. ternetzi group.

  20. Evidence for panmixia despite barriers to gene flow in the southern African endemic, Caffrogobius caffer (Teleostei: Gobiidae

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    von der Heyden Sophie

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oceanography and life-history characteristics are known to influence the genetic structure of marine species, however the relative role that these factors play in shaping phylogeographic patterns remains unresolved. The population genetic structure of the endemic, rocky shore dwelling Caffrogobius caffer was investigated across a known major oceanographic barrier, Cape Agulhas, which has previously been shown to strongly influence genetic structuring of South African rocky shore and intertidal marine organisms. Given the variable and dynamic oceanographical features of the region, we further sought to test how the pattern of gene flow between C. caffer populations is affected by the dominant Agulhas and Benguela current systems of the southern oceans. Results The variable 5' region of the mtDNA control region was amplified for 242 individuals from ten localities spanning the distributional range of C. caffer. Fifty-five haplotypes were recovered and in stark contrast to previous phylogeographic studies of South African marine species, C. caffer showed no significant population genetic structuring along 1300 km of coastline. The parsimony haplotype network, AMOVA and SAMOVA analyses revealed panmixia. Coalescent analyses reveal that gene flow in C. caffer is strongly asymmetrical and predominantly affected by the Agulhas Current. Notably, there was no gene flow between the east coast and all other populations, although all other analyses detect no significant population structure, suggesting a recent divergence. The mismatch distribution suggests that C. caffer underwent a population expansion at least 14 500 years ago. Conclusion We propose several possible life-history adaptations that could have enabled C. caffer to maintain gene flow across its distributional range, including a long pelagic larval stage. We have shown that life-history characteristics can be an important contributing factor to the phylogeography of marine species and that the effects of oceanography do not necessarily suppress its influence on effective dispersal.

  1. Cytogenetical and morphological features reveal significant differences among Venezuelan and Brazilian samples of Mugil curema (Teleostei: Mugilidae

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    Mauro Nirchio

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Karyotype of M. curema from the Gulf of Mexico and Brazil have been reported as possessing chromosome complement with 2n=28 and FN=48, whereas specimens from Venezuela has been reported as possessing a diploid number 2n=24 and a conserved FN (48. Although at first sight this variation suggests the presence of a chromosomal intraspecific (interpopulational variability, the possibility that we are dealing with two different species was examined. This work revisit the karyotypes of M. curema from Venezuela and Brazil, including new data on C-banding, and NOR localization, and compares morphologic characteristics of samples from both localities. Thus, besides diploid number, the constitutive heterochromatin distribution and NORs location, mark other differences between M. curema Cytotype 1 (2n=28; FN=48 and Cytotype 2 (2n=24; NF=48. Moreover, morphologic comparison revealed differences in the scale counts and pectoral fin rays: 35 scales in the middle body line and 15 pectoral fin rays in specimens possessing the karyotype 2n=28, compared with 37-39 scales in the middle body line and 17 pectoral fin rays in specimens with the karyotype 2n=24. These differences lead us to suggest that both cytotypes are not related merely to geographic polytipic variations but could correspond to different species.Os cariótipos de M. curema do Golfo do México e do Brasil possuem 2n=28 cromossomos e NF=48. Espécimes da Venezuela, entretanto, apresentam um número diplóide de 28 cromossomos e um NF conservado (48. Apesar desta variação sugerir, a princípio, uma variabilidade intraespecífica (interpopulacional, a possibilidade de estarmos perante diferentes espécies foi investigada. O presente trabalho re-analisa os cariótipos de M. curema da Venezuela e do Brasil, incluindo novos dados sobre bandamento C e localização das NORs e compara caracteres merísticos e morfométricos de amostras de ambas as localidades. Assim, junto com o número cromossômico, a heterocromatina constitutiva e a distribuição das NORs trazem outras diferenças entre M. curema Citótipo 1 (2n=48, FN=48 e Citótipo 2 (2n=48, FN=48. Além disso, as comparações dos caracteres morfológicos revelam diferenças nas contagens, com 35 escamas na linha média do corpo e 15 raios nas nadadeiras peitorais nos espécimes com cariótipo 2n=28, já o cariótipo 2n=24 apresenta 37-39 escamas e 17 raios nas peitorais. Essas diferenças sugerem que ambos citótipos não estão relacionados meramente a variações geográficas politípicas mas que podem corresponder a diferentes espécies.

  2. Reproductive biology of Ilisha elongata (Teleostei: Pristigasteridae) in Ariake Sound, Japan: Implications for estuarine fish conservation in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Takita, Toru; Zhang, Chunguang

    2009-01-01

    Elongate ilisha ( Ilisha enlongata) is a commercially important species that contributes to clupeoid fisheries in Asian countries. In the present study, the reproductive biology of I. elongata in Ariake Sound, Japan is determined for the first time. Six maturity stages were described using ovarian and testicular histology throughout the annual cycle. The spawning season in Ariake Sound lasts from May to July, with peak spawning activity in May and June. Age at first maturity was estimated to be 2 years, with a few exceptions of 1 year in well-developed males. Ovaries that contained both tertiary yolk oocytes and postovulatory follicles occurred from late May to late July, indicating that I. elongata is a multiple spawner. The size-frequency distribution of oocytes provided evidence for its multiple spawning and accuracy of the fecundity estimates. The batch fecundity of this species was estimated at between 22,200 and 270,900 eggs per individual, increasing with age between two and six years. The present findings on the reproductive strategy of I. elongata in Ariake Sound are generally consistent with those in temperate or subtropical populations, but quite different from those of tropical population where first maturation occurs around 200 days and life spans are shorter, with a maximum age less than 3 years. The conservation implications of this reproductive strategy in a harsh, variable environment in Asian countries are also discussed.

  3. Occurrence and ultrastructural characterization of "nuage" during oogenesis and early spermatogenesis of Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg, 1887 (Teleostei

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    F. C. Abdalla

    Full Text Available We investigated the occurrence and ultrastructurally characterized electrondense nuclear material (nuage released from the nucleus during oogenesis and early spermatogenesis of Piaractus mesopotamicus, a fish from Pantanal Matogrossense (Brazil having a seasonal reproductive cycle. The female germ cells presented two instances of nuclear material extrusion: in the oogonia and in the oocyte in the perinucleolar phase. In males, material with similar morphology and behavior occurred in the spematogonia. In all cases, this material was associated to mitochondria. The possible function of this material is discussed.

  4. A quantitative description of the reproductive biology of the Mediterranean blenny Aidablennius sphynx (Teleostei, Blenniidae) in its natural habitat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraak, SBM

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the reproductive behaviour of Aidablennius sphynx, which was studied in the field during four breeding seasons. Artificial nest sites were used for the determination of nest contents. The breeding season started at the end of April, when water temperature had just reached 14-15

  5. Embryonic and larval development of Jundiá (Rhamdia quelen, Quoy & Gaimard, 1824, Pisces, Teleostei, a South American Catfish

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    C. R. Pereira

    Full Text Available The jundiá (Rhamdia quelen, Quoy & Gaimard is an endemic South American fish species. Because this species supports cold winters and grows faster during warm months, it has begun to be viewed as an ideal species for fish production in southern South America. In the present study, jundiá oocytes used were obtained by extrusion from females after hormone injection. Soon after hydration, the eggs were transferred to 50 L conic glass incubators, with constant and controlled water influx. Samples of fertilized eggs were transferred to Petri dishes and, examined under a stereoscopic microscope, were spherical, demersal, and non-adhesive with defined perivitelline space and resistant chorion. Cleavage stages occurred during the first 3.5 h. After hatching, larvae were transferred to 200 L glass fiber incubators. First signs of embryo movement were observed 21 h after fertilization; larval eclosion occurred 30.5 h after fertilization. Present findings may provide a basis for studies aimed at determining the complete ontogeny of jundiá and may be useful in eco-toxicological studies.

  6. Peripatric differentiation among adjacent marine lake and lagoon populations of a coastal fish, Sphaeramia orbicularis (Apogonidae, Perciformes, Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Ryo O; Sekimoto, Hidekatsu; Chiba, Satoru N; Hanzawa, Naoto

    2009-08-01

    The effect of geographical isolation on speciation, particularly within short geographical ranges, is poorly understood among marine organisms. Focusing on marine lakes of the Palau Islands, we investigated the effect of geographical isolation on Sphaeramia orbicularis, a coastal fish inhabiting marine lakes and lagoons. We collected a total of 157 individuals from three meromictic marine lakes and three lagoon sites, and analyzed the genetic diversity and differentiation of the populations based on complete sequences of the mitochondrial control region (824 bp). The analyses show that the genetic diversity of marine lake populations is much lower than that of lagoon populations. Moreover, a mismatch distribution analysis suggests that marine lake populations have experienced a decrease followed by a rapid expansion of their population size. These results reveal that marine lake populations have experienced severe founder and/or bottleneck events during the last thousand to tens of thousand years. Pairwise Phi(ST )values ranged from 0.531 to 0.848 between marine lake and lagoon populations and from 0.429 to 0.870 among marine lake populations, indicating a high degree of genetic differentiation. We speculate that such peripatric differentiation between marine lake and lagoon populations was caused by a small number of individuals colonizing the lakes from the lagoon (founder event) followed by repetitive bottleneck events, such as those generated by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). So far, such high genetic divergences in extremely short geographical ranges (approximately 150-250 m) have scarcely been reported for marine organisms. We suggest that the marine lake is one of the good model of geographical isolation in marine organisms and each marine lake population is in the early stages of speciation.

  7. Glyptothorax mibangi, a new species of catfish (Teleostei: Sisoridae) from the Tisa River, Arunachal Pradesh, northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darshan, Achom; Dutta, Rashmi; Kachari, Akash; Gogoi, Budhin; Das, Debangshu Narayan

    2015-05-22

    Glyptothorax mibangi, a new sisorid catfish, is described from the Tisa River of Arunachal Pradesh, India. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners in the Ganga-Brahmaputra and Barak-Surma-Meghna basins by the following combination of characters: an obtuse leaf-shaped thoracic adhesive apparatus with a spindle-shaped median depression, skin ridges present over the entire apparatus including the depressed region; ventral surface of pectoral spine and first pelvic-fin ray non-plaited; slender body with depth of 10.4-13.5% SL; caudal peduncle shallow with depth 6.8-8.3% SL; snout long with length 52.9-58.6% HL; and 2+7 gill rakers on the first branchial arch.

  8. A popular and potentially sustainable fishery resource under pressure–extinction risk and conservation of Brazilian Sciaenidae (Teleostei: Perciformes

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    Ning Labbish Chao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Croakers (Sciaenidae are major fishery resource in Brazil; constituting 22% of marine and 9% of freshwater fishery landings. Croakers are subject to heavy fishing pressure throughout Brazil, but habitat alteration is also an important threat to regional populations. In this regional Sciaenidae assessment, each species was analyzed for relative risk of extinction, including the identification and quantification of the impact of major threats and existing conservation measures, based on application of the Categories and Criteria of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Of the 52 species of Sciaenid fishes (34 marine and 18 freshwater present in Brazilian waters, the majority are at low risk of extinction, with 10 species classified as Data Deficient (DD and 36 as Least Concern (LC. However the Southern black drum (Pogonias cromis, listed as Endangered (EN is the most threatened species in the region, while three other species are classified as Near Threatened (NT. A large portion of Brazilian croakers is landed by small-scale artisanal fisheries, which are scattered along coastal and riverine communities. However, our assessments reveal that available fishery landing statistics may have greatly underestimated the artisanal fishery production and by-catch of Sciaenids. We recommend establishing, with adequate enforcement, coastal and riverine protected areas as well as strategic fishing seasons to improve and maintain the conservation status of Sciaenids and sustainable Sciaenid fisheries.

  9. ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system in the endangered fish Lignobrycon myersi Miranda-Ribeiro, 1956 (Teleostei, Characiformes, Triportheidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Alexandre dos Santos; Medrado, Aline Souza; Diniz, Débora; Oliveira, Claudio; Affonso, Paulo Roberto Antunes de Mello

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Lignobrycon myersi is an endemic fish species from a few coastal rivers in northeastern Brazil. Based on molecular evidence, Lignobrycon myersi and genera Triportheus Cope, 1872, Agoniates Müller & Troschel, 1845, Clupeacharax Pearson, 1924 and Engraulisoma Castro, 1981 were placed in the family Triportheidae. In the present work, we report the first cytogenetic data for Lignobrycon myersi to test the hypothesis that Lignobrycon and Triportheus are closely related. Studied specimens presented 2n=52 with 28 metacentric (m), 18 submetacentric (sm) and six subtelocentric (st) chromosomes for males and 27 m, 19 sm and 6 st for females, characterizing a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system. The Z chromosome corresponds to the largest chromosome in karyotype while the W is about 50% smaller than the Z and largely heterochromatic. Terminal nucleolus organizer regions, GC-rich sites and 18S rDNA signals were detected on pair 14. However, additional 18S rDNA sites were observed in the W chromosome. The 5S rDNA was mainly detected on long arms of pair 7. The apparent synapomorphic chromosomal traits of Triportheus and Lignobrycon myersi reinforce their close phylogenetic relationship, suggesting that the ZZ/ZW chromosome system in both genera has arisen before cladogenic events. PMID:27551346

  10. Records of Copiatestes filiferus (Leukart, in Sars, 1885 Gibson and Bray, 1977 (Digenea and Gorgorhynchus sp. (Acanthocepahala of marine fish from peruvian coast

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    Manuel Tantaleán V

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Copiatestes filiferus (Leukart, in Sars, 1885 Gibson and Bray, 1977 (Digenea and Gorgorhynchus sp. (Acanthocephala parasites of Hemilutjanus macrophthalmos (Teleostei, both parasites are new records from Peru and the fish is a new host.

  11. Pliocene cyprinids (Cypriniformes,Teleostei) from Kunlun Pass Basin,northeastern Tibetan Plateau and their bearings on development of water system and uplift of the area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG; Mee-mann

    2010-01-01

    Here described are the cyprinid fossils from the Pliocene Lower Member of Qiangtang Formation of the Kunlun Pass Basin,northeastern Tibetan Plateau,collected at a locality 4769 m above the sea level(asl).The materials consist of numerous disarticulated and incomplete bones as well as thousands of pharyngeal teeth,fin rays,and vertebrae.The fossils were referred to the genus Gymnocypris,lineage Schizothoracini,family Cyprinidae;the lineage Schizothoracini;and the family Cyprinidae respectively.The Schizothoracini is a freshwater fish group endemic to the Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding area.Previous workers on living schizothoracins regarded that Gymnocypris belongs to the highly specialized grade of the group,colonizing higher altitudes than other members of the group.Two species are so far unequivocally assigned to the genus,i.e.,G.przewalskii and G.eckloni,and they are inhabiting Qinghai Lake and the waters on both north(the Golmud River) and south(upper reach of the Yellow River) sides of the East Kunlun Mountain,respectively.The abundant fossil schizothoracins occur in the Kunlun Pass Basin on the southern slope of the East Kunlun Mountain(at 4769 m asl),close to the present Golmud River,indicating comparatively rich waters in the area and possible connections between the water systems on north and south sides of the East Kunlun Mountain during the Pliocene.This also suggests a more humid climate in the area during the Pliocene than it is today.The presence of the highly specialized schizothoracin Gymnocypris may also imply less amplitude of uplift(approximately 1000 m) in the area since the Pliocene than previously proposed.

  12. Infrapopulations of Sclerocollum saudii Al-Jahdali, 2010 (Acanthocephala: Cavisomidae) in the rabbitfish Siganus rivulatus (Teleostei, Siganidae) from the Saudi coast of the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jahdali, M O; Hassanine, R M El-Said

    2012-03-01

    In infrapopulations of helminth parasites, density-dependent effects, through some form of intra- and interspecific competition, play an important role in shaping and regulating the infrapopulations. The mechanisms responsible for these processes have often been observed in laboratory studies and rarely studied under natural conditions. Here, 24 natural infrapopulations (77-447 individuals) of the acanthocephalan Sclerocollum saudii Al-Jahdali, 2010 from the fish Siganus rivulatus consisted of cystacanths, newly excysted juveniles, immature and mature worms, distributed in a well-defined fundamental niche (anterior 60% of the intestine). Each of these stages exhibited a significantly different longitudinal distribution within this niche. In small infrapopulations, cystacanths and newly excysted juveniles were found in the sixth 10% of the intestine, immature worms in the fifth 10% and mature worms in the anterior 40% of the intestine. However, their proportions followed a clear ascending order in each infrapopulation, and the female-male ratios of both immature and mature worms were distinctly female-biased. In large infrapopulations, mature worms existed partially in the site of immature ones, where a differential mortality among immature females was constantly observed. However, the proportions of immature worms increased significantly and those of mature worms decreased significantly, the mean lengths of immature and mature females decreased dramatically and the female-male ratios were distinctly male-biased. The mean sizes of immature and mature males seemed stable through all infrapopulations. The distribution of mature males and females suggests intense male-male competition for access to females, and reveals that larger females are copulated prior to the smaller ones. The results are statistically significant and suggest that infrapopulation self-regulation is through density-dependent mechanisms, in which immature females may play a key role.

  13. Localization of 18S ribosomal genes in suckermouth armoured catfishes Loricariidae (Teleostei, Siluriformes with discussion on the Ag-NOR evolution

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    Anderson Alves

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The family Loricariidae with about 690 species divided into six subfamilies, is one of the world’s largest fish families. Cytogenetic studies conducted in the family showed that among 90 species analyzed the diploid number ranges from 2n=38 in Ancistrus sp. to 2n=96 in Hemipsilichthys gobio Luetken, 1874. In the present study, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH was employed to determine the chromosomal localization of the 18S rDNA gene in four suckermouth armoured catfishes: Kronichthys lacerta (Nichols, 1919, Pareiorhaphis splendens (Bizerril, 1995, Liposarcus multiradiatus (Hancock, 1828 and Hypostomus prope plecostomus (Linnaeus, 1758. All species analyzed showed one chromosome pair with 18S rDNA sequences, as observed in the previous Ag-NORs analyses. The presence of size and numerical polymorphism was observed and discussed, with proposing a hypothesis of the Ag-NOR evolution in Loricariidae.

  14. Chromosomal differentiation between populations of Oligosarcus hepsetus (Teleostei, Characidae from small tributaries at opposite margins of the Paraíba do Sul river (Brazil

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    Liano Centofante

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic analyses were carried out in two populations of Oligosarcus hepsetus from tributaries at opposite margins of the Paraíba do Sul river. The same diploid number was observed in both populations (2n=50, but they showed remarkable differences related to karyotype formula and distribution of rDNA sites as revealed by silver nitrate staining and in situ hybridization with 18S probes. The results suggested that the main channel of the Paraíba do Sul river acted as barrier to gene flow between populations.Análises citogenéticas foram realizadas em duas populações de Oligosarcus hepsetus provenientes de riachos de margens opostas do rio Paraíba do Sul. O número diplóide foi o mesmo para ambas as populações (2n=50, porém diferenças significativas foram observadas com relação à fórmula cariotípica e distribuição dos sítios de DNAr detectados pela impregnação por prata e pela hibridação "in situ" com sonda 18S. Estes resultados sugerem que a calha principal do rio Paraíba do Sul estaria atuando como uma barreira para o fluxo gênico entre essas populações.

  15. Molecular phylogeny of the specialized schizothoracine fishes (Teleostei:Cyprinidae),with their implications for the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Dekui; CHEN Yifeng; CHEN Yiyu; CHEN Ziming

    2004-01-01

    Molecular phylogeny of three genera containing nine species and subspecies of the specialized schizothoracine fishes are investigated based on the complete nucleotide sequence of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Meantime relationships between the main cladogenetic events of the specialized schizothoracine fishes and the stepwise uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau are also conducted using the molecular clock, which is calibrated by geological isolated events between the upper reaches of the Yellow River and the Qinghai Lake. Results indicated that the specialized schizothoracine fishes are not a monophyly. Five species and subspecies of Ptychobarbus form a monophyly. But three species of Gymnodiptychus do not form a monophyly. Gd. integrigymnatus is a sister taxon of the highly specialized schizothoracine fishes while Gd. pachycheilus has a close relation with Gd. dybowskii, and both of them are as a sister group of Diptychus maculatus. The specialized schizothoracines fishes might have originated during the Miocene (about 10 MaBP), and then the divergence of three genera happened during late Miocene (about 8 MaBP). Their main specialization occurred during the late Pliocene and Pleistocene (3.54-0.42 MaBP). The main cladogenetic events of the specialized schizothoracine fishes are mostly correlated with the geological tectonic events and intensive climate shift happened at 8, 3.6, 2.5 and 1.7 MaBP of the late Cenozoic. Molecular clock data do not support the hypothesis that the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau uplifted to near present or even higher elevations during the Oligocene or Miocene, and neither in agreement with the view that the plateau uplifting reached only to an altitude of 2000 m during the late Pliocene (about 2.6 MaBP).

  16. Heliconema longissimum (Ortlepp, 1923) (Nematoda: Physalopteridae) from Pisodonophis boro (Teleostei: Ophichthidae) in Thailand, with remarks on the taxonomy of the Proleptinae Schulz, 1927.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, Frantisek; Taraschewski, Horst; Anantaphruti, Malinee Thairungroj; Maipanich, Wanna; Laoprasert, Thitiporn

    2007-01-01

    Physalopterid nematodes identified as Heliconema longissimum (Ortlepp, 1923) were collected from the stomach of rice-paddy eels Pisodonophis boro (Hamilton) (Anguilliformes: Ophichthidae) from two brackish-water localities (mangroves) in Thailand: one in Phan-Nga Province, southwestern Thailand, northeast of Phuket Island, and one in Ranong Province, near the border with Myanmar. Study of the morphology of this hitherto insufficiently known nematode species, including its first SEM examination, enabled a detailed redescription of H. longissimum. Present taxonomic problems in the subfamily Proleptinae Schulz, 1927 are discussed, where a new delimitation of Proleptus Dujardin, 1845, Heliconema Travassos, 1919 and Paraleptus Wu, 1927 is proposed based on the cephalic dentation. H. minnanensis [sic] Damin & Heqing, 2001 is transferred to Paraleptus Wu, 1927 as P. minnanensis (Damin & Heqing, 2001) n. comb. and Paraleptus chiloscyllii Yin & Zhang, 1983 transferred by Damin & Heqing (2001) to Heliconema, is retained in Paraleptus. H. ahiri Karve, 1941 is considered a junior synonym of H. longissimum (Ortlepp, 1923). The present finding of H. longissimum in Pisodonophis boro represents the first host record and the first record of this nematode from Thailand.

  17. Hepatocyte nuclear structure and subcellular distribution of copper in zebrafish Brachydanio rerio and roach Rutilus rutilus (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) exposed to copper sulphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paris-Palacios, Severine [Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne (URCA), UFR Sciences Exactes et Naturelles, Laboratoire d' Eco-Toxicologie, Institut International de Recherche sur les Ions Metalliques, B.P. 1039-51687 Reims cedex 2 (France)]. E-mail: severine.paris@univ-reims.fr; Biagianti-Risbourg, Sylvie [Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne (URCA), UFR Sciences Exactes et Naturelles, Laboratoire d' Eco-Toxicologie, Institut International de Recherche sur les Ions Metalliques, B.P. 1039-51687 Reims cedex 2 (France)]. E-mail: sylvie.biagianti@univ-reims.fr

    2006-05-10

    Copper is a trace element essential to life, but also a heavy metal with toxic effect clearly demonstrated. Cu induced perturbations in fish liver are well documented but the variability of the reported results is large. In this study two cyprinids, zebrafish and roach, were exposed to copper. Reported histocytological changes are either adaptative or degenerative depending on fish species, concentration of metal, and duration of exposure. Hepatic subcellular distribution of copper was determined by X-ray microanalysis in control and Cu-exposed roach and zebrafish. Sublethal copper sulphate contamination induced the development of a particular nucleolar alteration forming a network or honeycomb like structure in liver. This perturbation is observable in almost all the hepatocytes of zebrafish and roach exposed to copper for a minimum of 4 days of exposure. It seemed to concern more precisely the pars fibrosa. X-ray microanalysis showed that the appearance of network nucleolus was in relation to a Cu accumulation. Cu deposit was well located in the network as pars granulosa and nucloplasm showed very lower metal concentrations. The origin and consequence of network structure in nucleolus was discussed.

  18. Dynamics and cytochemistry of oogenesis in Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier (Teleostei, Characiformes, Characidae from Rio Sapucaí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    José Antônio Dias Garcia

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Oogenesis involves a set of transformations which are undergone by female germ cells These cells change into oogonias and then into mature oocytes. Sexually mature female fish were collected monthly, during one year, from the Sapucaí River, a tributary of the Rio Grande, which is part of the Furnas Reservoir in the state of Minas Gerais. During the several stages of maturation, we observed small round oogonias with a large nucleus, a single nucleolus, and weakly stained cytoplasm with eosinophilic granules. The primary oocytes showed a large basophilic nucleus, with a developed peripheral nucleolus and a reduced cytoplasm. The previtellogenic oocytes presented voluminous cytoplasm and nucleus with several small peripheral nucleoli. The oocytes underwent vitellogenesis with the development of the zona radiata and the follicle cells. Their cytochemical reactions indicated that the two layers of the zona radiata of A. fasciatus contained proteins and polysaccharides. The initially squamous follicle cells, became cuboidal. In mature oocytes, the nucleus moved toward the periphery, next to the micropyle, and the yolk granules formed by proteins, fulfilled the cytoplasm. The clear unstained vesicles are likely to be the cortical alveoli in the perivitelline region.

  19. Karyotypic diversity in four species of the genus Gymnotus Linnaeus, 1758 (Teleostei, Gymnotiformes, Gymnotidae: physical mapping of ribosomal genes and telomeric sequences

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    Priscilla Scacchetti

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Conventional (Giemsa, C-Banding, Ag-NORs, CMA3 and molecular (5S rDNA, 18S rDNA, telomeric sequences cytogenetic studies were carried out in specimens of ten distinct fish populations of the genus Gymnotus (G. sylvius Albert and Fernandes-Matioli, 1999, G. inaequilabiatus Valenciennes, 1839, G. pantherinus Steindachner, 1908, and G. cf. carapo Linnaeus, 1758 from different Brazilian hydrographic basins. G. sylvius presented a diploid number of 40 chromosomes (22m+12sm+6st, G. pantherinus presented 52 chromosomes (32m+18sm+2st, while G. inaequilabiatus (42m+10sm+2a and G. cf. carapo (38m+12sm+4st presented 54 chromosomes. The C-banding technique revealed centromeric marks in all chromosomes of all species. Besides that, conspicuous blocks of heterochromatin were found interstitially on the chromosomes of G. inaequilabiatus, G. cf. carapo, and G. pantherinus. All four species showed single nucleolus organizing regions confirmed by results obtained through Ag-NORs and FISH experiments using 18S rDNA probes, which showed the NORs localized on the first chromosome pair in G. inaequilabiatus, G. cf. carapo, and G. pantherinus, and on pair 2 in G. sylvius. CMA3 staining revealed additional unrelated NORs marks in G. sylvius and G. pantherinus. The 5S rDNA probes revealed signals on one pair in G. sylvius and two pairs in G. pantherinus; G. inaequilabiatus had about seventeen pairs marked, and G. cf. carapo had about fifteen pairs marked. It is considered that the high amount of heterochromatin identified in the chromosomes of G. inaequilabiatus and G. cf. carapo could have facilitated the dispersion of 5S rDNA in these species. Interstitial signals were detected on the first metacentric pair of G. sylvius by telomeric probes (TTAGGGn indicating the possible occurrence of chromosomal fusions in this species. The present study reveals valuable cytotaxonomic markers for this group and allows a more precise evaluation of the processes involved in the karyotype differentiation and the interrelationships among different species of the genus Gymnotus.

  20. Variation in thermal tolerance and routine metabolism among spring- and stream-dwelling freshwater sculpins (Teleostei: Cottidae) of the southeastern United States

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    Walsh, S.J.; Haney, D.C.; Timmerman, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that some aquatic organisms may adapt by directional selection to limiting physical environmental conditions, yet empirical data are conflicting. We sought to test the assumption that sculpins (family Cottidae) inhabiting thermally stable springs of the southeastern United States differ in temperature tolerance and metabolism from populations inhabiting more thermally labile stream habitats. Spring populations of pygmy sculpins (Coitus pygmaeus) and Ozark sculpins (C. hypselurus) differed interspecifically in thermal tolerance from populations of stream-dwelling mottled (C. bairdi) and Tallapoosa sculpins (C. tallapoosae), and both stream and spring populations of banded sculpins (C. carolinae). No intra- or interspecific differences in thermal tolerance were found among populations of C. bairdi, C. tallapoosae, or C. carolinae. Coitus pygmaeus acclimated to 15??C differed intraspecifically in routine metabolism from fish acclimated to 20?? and 25??C. Cottus pygmaeus and stream-dwelling C. bairdi and C. carolinae acclimated to temperatures of 20?? and 25??C showed no interspecific differences in routine metabolism. Our results suggest that some spring-adapted populations or species may be more stenothermal than stream-dwelling congeners, but a greater understanding of the interactions of other physical and biological factors is required to better explain micro- and macrohabitat distributions of eastern North American sculpins.

  1. Morphological aspects of Henneguya aequidens n. sp. (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae) in Aequidens plagiozonatus Kullander, 1984 (Teleostei: Cichlidae) in the Amazon region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videira, Marcela; Velasco, Michele; Azevedo, Rodney; Silva, Reinaldo; Gonçalves, Evonnildo; Matos, Patrícia; Matos, Edilson

    2015-03-01

    A new species of Myxosporea, Henneguya aequidens sp. n. (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae), was described based on its ultrastructural features. This is a parasite of the freshwater fish Aequidens plagiozonatus, in the Peixe-boi River, Pará, Brazil. This parasite was found in the gills, in the form of whitish ellipsoid cysts with mature spores inside them. The average spore body was 15 ± 0.9 μm in length (n = 30) and 6 ± 0.8 μm in width (n = 30), and the tail measured 27 ± 0.5 μm in length (n = 15). The spores showed typical features of the genus Henneguya with two valves of equal size and two symmetrical polar capsules of 3 ± 0.3 μm in length and 2 ± 0.3 μm in width. Each polar capsule had a polar filament forming a helix from the apical region to the polar caps, with four to six turns. Based on the ultrastructural differences in morphology of these spores, the location of the parasite, and its host specificity, this parasite was described as a new species.

  2. Infestation pattern and parasitic castration of the crustacean Riggia paranensis (Crustacea: Cymothoidea on the fresh water fish Cyphocharax gilbert (Teleostei: Curimatidae

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    Juliana de Souza Azevedo

    Full Text Available Cyphocharax gilbert infested by Riggia paranensis shows parasitic castration. The prevalence of parasitism in C. gilbert varied among different environments, being higher in the middle rio Itabapoana. Fish were collected monthly using two cast nets (thrown 30 times during the day and gillnets kept in the river during 12 hour, from sunset to sunrise, between September 1997 and August 2000. Infestation pattern was investigated on 1358 specimens. Most of them were infested (57.9%, with one or two parasites; the majority (62.9% was collected during the rainy season (spring-summer. The parasite did not show preference for sex or size of hosts. A total of 91.5% of the 511 examined parasites had a body size that represented 10.1% to 20% of host standard length. The reproductive condition of 311 specimens of R. paranensis was analyzed checking the presence of oocytes in the ovarian and eggs or embryos in the marsupium. Nearly 73% of them were at reproductive phase, and had a body size that represented 5.1% to 20% of host standard length. The size of the immature parasites varied from 0.1% to 5% of the host size. The results suggest that R. paranensis may adopt a fast growth rate strategy and increase the investment in reproduction when they occupy most of the host's pericardial space.

  3. Status of Gobiosoma (Teleostei: Gobiidae) from Brazil: description of a new species, redescription of G. hemigymnum, molecular phylogeny of the genus, and key to Atlantic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tassell, James L; Joyeux, Jean-Christophe; Macieira, Raphael Mariano; Tornabene, Luke

    2015-08-31

    It is unclear how many species of Gobiosoma occur in Brazil and what their geographic distributions are. Here we combine data from a comprehensive morphological survey and a molecular analysis to clarify this uncertain taxonomy and place Brazilian Gobiosoma within a phylogenetic framework. Recent collections in Brazil, from the states of Ceará to Santa Catarina, and in Uruguay yielded two allopatric species of Gobiosoma that are distinct in genetics, meristics, morphometrics, scale pattern and coloration. Comparisons were made with types and specimens of Gobiosoma hemigymnum, Garmannia mediocricula, Gobiosoma spilotum and Gobiosoma parri and all other known species of Gobiosoma. We place G. parri in synonomy with G. hemigymnum with a distribution of Rio de Janeiro to Uruguay and Argentina. The northern species, that extends from the states of Espírito Santo to Ceará, is described as a new species, Gobiosoma alfiei. A key to the Atlantic species of Gobiosoma is provided.

  4. Demographic structure and life history traits of the common goby Pomatoschistus microps (Teleostei, Gobiidae) in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon (Rhône River delta, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampoulie, Christophe

    2001-12-01

    Demographic structure and life history traits of the common goby Pomatoschistus microps were investigated in a brackish water lagoon of the Rhône River delta (Mediterranean Sea, southern France). The size frequency distribution and gonadosomatic index indicated that three different age groups occurred and reproduced successively in the lagoon, resulting in a long spawning period from March to September and a high investment in reproduction. This high investment in reproduction, which contrasts with that found in other mostly northern European populations, probably relates to the unpredictability of the goby's environmental conditions.

  5. Evaluation of genotoxicity using the micronucleus assay and nuclear abnormalities in the tropical sea fish Bathygobius soporator (Valenciennes, 1837 (Teleostei, Gobiidae

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    Toni P. Galindo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities assays have been used increasingly to evaluate genotoxicity of many compounds in polluted aquatic ecossystems. The aim of this study is to verify the efficiency of the micronucleus assay and nuclear abnormality assay in field and laboratory work, when using erythrocytes of the tropical marine fish Bathygobius soporator as genotoxicity biomarkers. Gill peripheral blood samples were obtained from specimens of Bathygobius soporator. In order to investigate the frequencies of micronuclei and to assess the sensitivity of species, the results were compared with samples taken at the reference site and maintained in the laboratory, and fish treated with cyclophosphamide. The micronucleus assay was efficient in demonstrating field pollution and reproducing results in the labotatory. There were significant higher frequencies of micronuclei in two sites subject to discharge of urban and industrial effluents. The nuclear abnormality assay did not appear to be an efficient tool for genotoxicity evaluation when compared with field samples taken at a reference site in laboratory, with a positive control.

  6. A new, mesophotic Coryphopterus goby (Teleostei, Gobiidae) from the southern Caribbean, with comments on relationships and depth distributions within the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Carole C; Robertson, D Ross

    2015-01-01

    A new species of western Atlantic Coryphopterus is described from mesophotic depths off Curaçao, southern Caribbean. Coryphopteruscurasub sp. n., is similar to Coryphopterusdicrus in, among other features, having two prominent pigment spots of roughly equal intensity on the pectoral-fin base, the pelvic fins fused to form a disk, and no pelvic frenum. The two species can be differentiated by body depth (shallower in Coryphopteruscurasub at origin of dorsal fin and caudal peduncle); differences in the pigmentation on the head, trunk, and basicaudal region; and usually by total number of rays (spinous plus soft) in the second dorsal fin (10-11, usually 11, in Coryphopteruscurasub, 10 in Coryphopterusdicrus). Coryphopteruscurasub differs from other Coryphopterus species that have a prominent pigment spot on the lower portion of the pectoral-fin base (Coryphopteruspunctipectophorus and Coryphopterusvenezuelae) in, among other features, lacking a pelvic frenum. Coryphopteruscurasub was collected between 70 and 80 m, the deepest depth range known for the genus. Collections of Coryphopterusvenezuelae at depths of 65-69 m extend the depth range of that species by approximately 50 m. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) data corroborate the recognition of Coryphopteruscurasub as a distinct species but do not rigorously resolve its relationships within the genus. A revised key to the western Atlantic species of Coryphopterus is presented.

  7. A new, mesophotic Coryphopterus goby (Teleostei, Gobiidae from the southern Caribbean, with comments on relationships and depth distributions within the genus

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    Carole C. Baldwin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A new species of western Atlantic Coryphopterus is described from mesophotic depths off Curaçao, southern Caribbean. Coryphopterus curasub sp. n., is similar to C. dicrus in, among other features, having two prominent pigment spots of roughly equal intensity on the pectoral-fin base, the pelvic fins fused to form a disk, and no pelvic frenum. The two species can be differentiated by body depth (shallower in C. curasub at origin of dorsal fin and caudal peduncle; differences in the pigmentation on the head, trunk, and basicaudal region; and usually by total number of rays (spinous plus soft in the second dorsal fin (10–11, usually 11, in C. curasub, 10 in C. dicrus. Coryphopterus curasub differs from other Coryphopterus species that have a prominent pigment spot on the lower portion of the pectoral-fin base (C. punctipectophorus and C. venezuelae in, among other features, lacking a pelvic frenum. Coryphopterus curasub was collected between 70 and 80 m, the deepest depth range known for the genus. Collections of C. venezuelae at depths of 65–69 m extend the depth range of that species by approximately 50 m. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI data corroborate the recognition of C. curasub as a distinct species but do not rigorously resolve its relationships within the genus. A revised key to the western Atlantic species of Coryphopterus is presented.

  8. Fine structure of the Plasmodia and Myxospore of Ellipsomyxa gobioides n. sp. (Myxozoa) found in the gallbladder of Gobioides broussonnetii (Teleostei: Gobiidae) from the lower Amazon river.

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    Azevedo, Carlos; Videira, Marcela; Casal, Graça; Matos, Patrícia; Oliveira, Elsa; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Matos, Edilson

    2013-01-01

    A fish infecting myxosporean Ellipsomyxa gobioides n. sp. is described in the gallbladder of the Amazonian dragon fish Gobioides broussonnetii. Irregular disporous plasmodia (up to ~30 μm in diameter) with long branched and anastomosed pseudopodia were found attached to the gallbladder wall. Mature ellipsoid myxospores occurring floating in the bile measured 6.8 (6.5-7.0) μm (n = 30) long, 7.2 (6.9-7.5) μm (n = 15) wide, and 13.1 (12.8-13.5) (n = 25) thick. They had smooth thin valves elongated in the direction perpendicular to the plane of the straight central transverse sutural line. The two ellipsoidal polar capsules (PC) opened some distance from the sutural line on opposite sides, each measuring 4.6 (4.3-4.8) μm (n = 15) long and 2.5 (2.1-2.7) μm (n = 20) wide. Distance between PC 3.5 (3.1-3.8) μm (n = 15) in apical view. The polar filament was isofilar and consisted of a single coil with five or six turns. The objective of this study was to characterize this new species based on its morphological differences from the three previously described species. This is the first reported species of genus Ellipsomyxa from among the South American fauna.

  9. Multi-locus sequence data reveal a new species of coral reef goby (Teleostei: Gobiidae: Eviota), and evidence of Pliocene vicariance across the Coral Triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornabene, L; Valdez, S; Erdmann, M V; Pezold, F L

    2016-05-01

    Here, multi-locus sequence data are coupled with observations of live colouration to recognize a new species, Eviota punyit from the Coral Triangle, Indian Ocean and Red Sea. Relaxed molecular clock divergence time estimation indicates a Pliocene origin for the new species, and the current distribution of the new species and its sister species Eviota sebreei supports a scenario of vicariance across the Indo-Pacific Barrier, followed by subsequent range expansion and overlap in the Coral Triangle. These results are consistent with the 'centre of overlap' hypothesis, which states that the increased diversity in the Coral Triangle is due in part to the overlapping ranges of Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean faunas. These findings are discussed in the context of other geminate pairs of coral reef fishes separated by the Indo-Pacific Barrier.

  10. A new species of freshwater eel-tailed catfish of the genus Tandanus (Teleostei: Plotosidae) from the Wet Tropics Region of Eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Stuart; Jerry, Dean R.; Burrows, Damien

    2014-01-01

    Tandanus tropicanus, new species, is described based on specimens from streams in the wet tropics region of northeast Queensland. Previously, two species were recognized in the genus Tandanus: T. tandanus of eastern Australia and T. bostocki of Western Australia. A combination of meristic and morphometric characters distinguishes the new species from all congeners. Further, taxonomic distinctness based on morphologic differences between the new species and all congeners is corroborated by genetic analyses.

  11. Life-history traits of temperate and thermophilic barracudas (Teleostei: Sphyraenidae) in the context of sea warming in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas-Hernández, H; Muñoz, M; Lloret, J

    2014-06-01

    This study indicated that the life-history traits of European barracuda Sphyraena sphyraena are apparently better suited to their environmental conditions compared to the more physically restricted life-history traits of the yellow-mouth barracuda Sphyraena viridensis, which co-habit the north-western Mediterranean Sea. The latter thermophilic species has a considerably higher reproductive potential as it invests its energy reserves in larger numbers of hydrated eggs per spawning batch. This would favour its population growth rates within the study area, especially if sea warming continues, in which case it is likely that the spawning phenology of this species would give it an advantage.

  12. Repeatability of clades as a criterion of reliability: a case study for molecular phylogeny of Acanthomorpha (Teleostei) with larger number of taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Jen; Bonillo, Céline; Lecointre, Guillaume

    2003-02-01

    Although much progress has been made recently in teleostean phylogeny, relationships among the main lineages of the higher teleosts (Acanthomorpha), containing more than 60% of all fish species, remain poorly defined. This study represents the most extensive taxonomic sampling effort to date to collect new molecular characters for phylogenetic analysis of acanthomorph fishes. We compiled and analyzed three independent data sets, including: (i) mitochondrial ribosomal fragments from 12S and 16s (814bp for 97 taxa); (ii) nuclear ribosomal 28S sequences (847bp for 74 taxa); and (iii) a nuclear protein-coding gene, rhodopsin (759bp for 86 taxa). Detailed analyses were conducted on each data set separately and the principle of taxonomic congruence without consensus trees was used to assess confidence in the results as follows. Repeatability of clades from separate analyses was considered the primary criterion to establish reliability, rather than bootstrap proportions from a single combined (total evidence) data matrix. The new and reliable clades emerging from this study of the acanthomorph radiation were: Gadiformes (cods) with Zeioids (dories); Beloniformes (needlefishes) with Atheriniformes (silversides); blenioids (blennies) with Gobiesocoidei (clingfishes); Channoidei (snakeheads) with Anabantoidei (climbing gouramies); Mastacembeloidei (spiny eels) with Synbranchioidei (swamp-eels); the last two pairs of taxa grouping together, Syngnathoidei (aulostomids, macroramphosids) with Dactylopteridae (flying gurnards); Scombroidei (mackerels) plus Stromatoidei plus Chiasmodontidae; Ammodytidae (sand lances) with Cheimarrhichthyidae (torrentfish); Zoarcoidei (eelpouts) with Cottoidei; Percidae (perches) with Notothenioidei (Antarctic fishes); and a clade grouping Carangidae (jacks), Echeneidae (remoras), Sphyraenidae (barracudas), Menidae (moonfish), Polynemidae (threadfins), Centropomidae (snooks), and Pleuronectiformes (flatfishes).

  13. Comparison of the bioaccumulation from seawater and depuration of heavy metals and radionuclides in the spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula (Chondrichthys) and the turbot Psetta maxima (Actinopterygii: Teleostei)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffree, Ross A.; Warnau, Michel; Teyssie, Jean-Louis [IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory, 4 Quai Antoine 1er, MC 98000 (Monaco); Markich, Scott J. [Aquatic Solutions International, Level 1, 467 Miller St, Cammeray, NSW 2062 (Australia)

    2006-09-15

    The bioaccumulation of selected heavy metals and radionuclides ({sup 241}Am, {sup 109}Cd, {sup 57}Co, {sup 51}Cr, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 54}Mn and {sup 65}Zn) from seawater was experimentally compared in the Chondrichthyan Scyliorhinus canicula (spotted dogfish) and the Actinopterygian Teleost Psetta maxima (turbot), of comparable size, age and benthic feeding habits. The speciation of these elements in seawater (salinity 38%%, pH 8.1, temperature 16.5 {sup o}C) was also calculated to determine their potential bioavailability. The uptake rates, measured over 14 days, varied greatly among isotopes and between species. Concentration factors (CFs) in P. maxima varied 5-fold between ca. 0.2 for {sup 51}Cr and 2.5 for {sup 65}Zn and {sup 134}Cs, whereas in S. canicula they varied by a much greater factor of 350, with CFs for {sup 51}Cr and {sup 241}Am ranging from ca. 0.4 to 140, respectively. With the exception of {sup 134}Cs, all radiotracers were accumulated at a faster rate in S. canicula than in P. maxima, particularly for {sup 241}Am and {sup 65}Zn where the CFs attained during the uptake phase were, two and one order of magnitude greater in S. canicula, respectively. In contrast, {sup 134}Cs reached a CF of about 2.5 in P. maxima, which was 5-fold greater than in S. canicula. Patterns of loss from the experimental depuration phase over 29 days showed greater similarities between species, compared to the uptake phase that highlighted the greater differences between elements. The distributions of these seven radioisotopes among six body components indicated that between the two species the skin of the dogfish displayed a greater bioaccumulation potential, particularly for {sup 241}Am, {sup 57}Co and {sup 65}Zn. However {sup 65}Zn was also distinctive from {sup 241}Am and {sup 57}Co in its pattern of bioaccumulation in dogfish, with its other body components attaining concentrations of {sup 65}Zn that were comparable to the levels found in its skin. The heightened uptake of {sup 134}Cs in turbot was characterised by a more even percentage distribution among its tissues compared to {sup 241}Am and {sup 57}Co, but every tissue of turbot had a higher concentration of {sup 134}Cs, compared to dogfish, particularly the muscle and liver. The elevated uptake rates and higher CFs for most radioisotopes indicate that S. canicula is more susceptible than P. maxima to exposure and contamination by these metals and radionuclides in seawater. These experimentally-determined differences between dogfish and turbot in their bioaccumulation characteristics were assessed against a set of criteria erected to evaluate the working hypothesis that they were taxonomically based. The outcomes of this initial assessment were supportive of this hypothesis that warrants further investigation. (author)

  14. Genetic divergence and phylogenetic relationships in grey mullets (Teleostei: Mugilidae) based on PCR-RFLP analysis of mtDNA segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papasotiropoulos, V; Klossa-Kilia, E; Kilias, G; Alahiotis, S

    2002-04-01

    The genetic differentiation and phylogenetic relationships among five species of the Mugilidae family (Mugil cephalus, Chelon labrosus, Liza aurata, Liza ramada, and Liza saliens) were investigated at the mtDNA level, on samples taken from Messolongi lagoon-Greece. RFLP analysis of three PCR-amplified mtDNA gene segments (12s rRNA, 16s rRNA, and CO I) was used. Ten, eight, and nine restriction enzymes were found to have at least one recognition site at 12s rRNA, 16s rRNA, and CO I genes, respectively. Several fragment patterns were revealed to be species-specific, and thus they could be useful in species taxonomy as diagnostic markers, as well as for further evolutionary studies. Seven different haplotypes were detected. The greatest amount of genetic differentiation was observed at the interspecific level, while little variation was revealed at the intraspecific level. The highest values of nucleotide sequence divergence were observed between M. cephalus and all the other species, while the lowest was found between C. labrosus and L. saliens. Dendrograms obtained by the three different methods (UPGMA, Neighbor-Joining, and Dollo parsimony), were found to exhibit in all cases the same topology. According to this, the most distinct species is M. cephalus, while the other species are clustered in two separate groups, thefirst one containing L. aurata and L. ramada, the other L. saliens and C. labrosus. This last clustering makes the monophyletic origin of the genus Liza questionable.

  15. Schistura megalodon species nova, a new river loach from the Irra-waddy basin in Dehong, Yunnan, China (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Nemacheilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endruweit, Marco

    2014-09-01

    A new species of river loach, Schistura megalodon sp. nov., is described from the Irrawaddy basin in Yingjiang County, Dehong Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China. The following combination of diagnostic characters serve to distinguish it from all other congeners in the given zoogeographical region: a large processus dentiformes in the upper jaw, a short pre-anus length of 65.4%-66.3% of SL, long paired fins (pectoral: 20.8%-24.2% of SL; pelvic: 17.9%-20.6% of SL), a wide body of 9.7%-11.3% of SL at anal fin origin, an incomplete lateral line, the absence of an orbital lobe, and a oad and distinct basicaudal bar with forward extensions.

  16. Os Sciaenidae (Teleostei: Perciformes da Baía de Santos (SP, Brasil Scianed fishes (Teleostel: Perciformes from Baía de Santos (SP, Brazil

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    Roberto Giannini

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available A fim de se determinar os padrões de distribuição e de repartição temporal e espacial das espécies de peixes da família Sciaenidae na Baía de Santos, foram efetuadas amostras mensais diurnas com arrastos de praia e de fundo, de março de 1985 a maio de 1986. O estudo foi baseado na comparação das variações espaciais e temporais da ocorrência e abundância e na análise da influência de parâmetros ambientais. Vinte espécies de cienídeos foram coletadas na região, todas ocorrendo nos arrastos de fundo e nove nos arrastos de praia. Dentre essas, Stelliferrastrifer, Isopisthus parvipinnis, Paralonchurus brasiliensis, Micropogonias fumieri, Stellifer brasiliensis, Menticirrhus americanus e Menticirrhus littoralis, estiveram presentes durante todo o período, contribuindo com mais de 90 % do total capturado na Baía de Santos e região de praias adjacentes. A coexistência dessas espécies foi possível devido à alternância das ocorrências e dos picos de abundância em função das épocas do ano, da área de amostragem e da variação da temperatura e salinidade da água. S. rastrifer ocorreu preferencialmente nos arrastos de fundo, no inverno, em águas frias e de profundidade e salinidade medianas e em todos os setores de amostragem. I. parvipinnis, P brasiliensis e S. brasiliensis ocorreram preferencialmente nos arrastos de fundo, no inverno, primavera e outono, respectivamente, em águas frias, profundas e mais salinas e nos setores mais externos. M. furnieri e M. americanus ocorreram nos arrastos de fundo e de praia e, preferencialmente, no verão, em águas quentes, rasas e menos salinas e nos setores mais internos. M. littoralis ocorreu preferencialmente nos arrastos de praia, no inverno, em águas frias e em todas as estações de amostragem.The purpose of this study was to describe the occurrence and the spatial partitioning of the most abundant juvenile sciaenid fishes in the Bay of Santos, based upon the variability in the occurrence and abundance and influence of environmental factors. Monthly diurnal beach seine haul and bottom trawl samples were made between March 1985 and May 1986. Twenty species of sciaenid fishes were collected in the region, all occurrying in bottom trawls and nine of them in beach seine hauls. Among them, Stellifer rastrifer, Isopisthus parvipinnis, Paralonchurus brasiliensis, Micropogonias furnieri, Stellifer brasiliensis, Menticirrhus americanus and Menticirrhus littoralis were found year-round and constituted more than 90 % of total catches from the Bay of Santos and adjacent beach region; their coexistence was possible due to seasonal and spatial differences in relative abundance and due to water temperature and salinity influence. S. rastrifer occurred mainly in bottom trawls, during winter, in colder waters with medium depth and salinity and in all strata. /. parvipinnis, P. brasiliensis and S. brasiliensis occurred mainly in bottom trawls, during winter, spring and fall, respectively, in colder, deeper and saltier waters and in outer strata. M. furnieri and M. americanus occurred in bottom trawls and beach seine hauls and, mainly, during summer, in warmer, shallower and with less salinity waters and in inner strata. A/, littoralis occurred mainly in beach seine hauls, during winter, in colder waters and in all sample stations.

  17. Asexual Reproduction Does Not Apparently Increase the Rate of Chromosomal Evolution: Karyotype Stability in Diploid and Triploid Clonal Hybrid Fish (Cobitis, Cypriniformes, Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majtánová, Zuzana; Choleva, Lukáš; Symonová, Radka; Ráb, Petr; Kotusz, Jan; Pekárik, Ladislav; Janko, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization and transitions from sexuality to asexuality considerably affect organismal genomes. Especially the last mentioned process has been assumed to play a significant role in the initiation of chromosomal rearrangements, causing increased rates of karyotype evolution. We used cytogenetic analysis and molecular dating of cladogenetic events to compare the rate of changes of chromosome morphology and karyotype in asexually and sexually reproducing counterparts in European spined loach fish (Cobitis). We studied metaphases of three sexually reproducing species and their diploid and polyploid hybrid clones of different age of origin. The material includes artificial F1 hybrid strains, representatives of lineage originated in Holocene epoch, and also individuals of an oldest known age to date (roughly 0.37 MYA). Thereafter we applied GISH technique as a marker to differentiate parental chromosomal sets in hybrids. Although the sexual species accumulated remarkable chromosomal rearrangements after their speciation, we observed no differences in chromosome numbers and/or morphology among karyotypes of asexual hybrids. These hybrids possess chromosome sets originating from respective parental species with no cytogenetically detectable recombinations, suggesting their integrity even in a long term. The switch to asexual reproduction thus did not provoke any significant acceleration of the rate of chromosomal evolution in Cobitis. Asexual animals described in other case studies reproduce ameiotically, while Cobitis hybrids described here produce eggs likely through modified meiosis. Therefore, our findings indicate that the effect of asexuality on the rate of chromosomal change may be context-dependent rather than universal and related to particular type of asexual reproduction.

  18. The phylogenetic intrarelationships of spiny-rayed fishes (Acanthomorpha, Teleostei, Actinopterygii: fossil taxa increase the congruence of morphology with molecular data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Davesne

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Acanthomorpha (spiny-rayed fishes is a clade of teleosts that includes more than 15 000 extant species. Their deep phylogenetic intrarelationships, first reconstructed using morphological characters, have been extensively revised with molecular data. Moreover, the deep branches of the acanthomorph tree are still largely unresolved, with strong disagreement between studies. Here, we review the historical propositions for acanthomorph deep intrarelationships and attempt to resolve their earliest branching patterns using a new morphological data matrix compiling and revising characters from previous studies. The taxon sampling we use constitutes a first attempt to test all previous hypotheses (molecular and morphological alike with morphological data only. Our sampling also includes Late Cretaceous fossil taxa, which yield new character state combinations that are absent in extant taxa. Analysis of the complete morphological data matrix yields a new topology that shows remarkable congruence with the well-supported molecular results. Lampridiformes (oarfishes and allies are the sister to all other acanthomorphs. Gadiformes (cods and allies and Zeiformes (dories form a clade with Percopsiformes (trout-perches and the enigmatic Polymixia (beardfish and Stylephorus (tube-eye. Ophidiiformes (cusk-eels and allies and Batrachoidiformes (toadfishes are nested within Percomorpha, the clade that includes most of modern acanthomorph diversity. These results provide morphological synapomorphies and independent corroboration of clades previously only recovered from molecular data, thereby suggesting the emergence of a congruent picture of acanthomorph deep intrarelationships. Fossil taxa play a critical role in achieving this congruence, since a very different topology is found when they are excluded from the analysis.

  19. Anticipation of Artemia sp. supply in the larviculture of the barber goby Elacatinus figaro (Gobiidae: Teleostei influenced growth, metamorphosis and alkaline protease activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda da Silva-Souza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The barber goby Elacatinus figaro is considered endangered due to overexploitation by the ornamental industry. Farming marine ornamental fishes, especially the threatened ones, can be one of the measures to minimize the pressure on the natural stocks. Among the priority issues for their production is the determination of the most appropriate feeding management. The feeding protocol commonly used in the larviculture of barber goby, when the start of Artemia sp. offer occurred at the 18th DAH (days after hatching (treatment T18, was modified, by anticipating brine shrimp supply in 6 days (treatment T12. Alkaline proteases activity, growth and metamorphosis of larvae were evaluated in both protocols. Juveniles at T12 showed higher weight (0.04 ± 0.001 g and lower activity of total alkaline proteases (1.3 ± 0.2 mU mg-1 protein compared to T18 (0.02 ± 0.001 g; 2.8 ± 0.4 mU mg-1 protein, respectively. With anticipation of brine shrimp, the commencing and end of larval transformation was observed earlier (at 24 and 34 DAH, respectively in comparison to those with the supply of Artemia sp. at 18 DAH (27 and 41 DAH, respectively. Thus, the Artemia sp. anticipation was beneficial during the larviculture of the barber goby, considering that larvae reached metamorphosis earlier.

  20. Phylogenetic relationships of Cyprinidae (Teleostei: Cypriniformes) inferred from the partial S6K1 gene sequences and implication of indel sites in intron 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The family Cyprinidae is widely distributed in East Asia, and has the important phylogenetic signifi- cance in the fish evolution. In this study, the 5′ end partial sequences (containing exon 1, exon 2 and indel 1) of S6K1 gene were obtained from 30 representative species in Cyprinidae and outgroup using PCR amplification and sequencing. The phylogenetic relationships of Cyprinidae were reconstructed with neighbor joining (NJ), maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML), and Bayesian meth- ods. Myxocyprinus asiaticus (Catostomidae) was assigned to the outgroup taxon. Similar phylogenetic relationships within the family Cyprinidae were achieved with the four analyses. Leuciscini and Barbini were monophyletic lineages respectively with the high nodal supports. Leuciscini comprises Hypophthalmichthyinae, Xenocyprinae, Cultrinae, Gobioninae, Acheilognathinae and East Asian species of Leuciscinae and Danioninae. Monophyly of East Asian clade was supported with high nodal support. Barbini comprises Schizothoracinae, Barbinae, Cyprininae and Labeoninae. The monophyletic lineage consisting of Danio rerio, D. myersi, and Rasbora trilineata was basal in the tree. In addition, the large fragment indels in intron 1 were analyzed to improve the understanding of Cyprinidae relationships. The results showed that the large fragment indels were correlated with the relations among species. Some conserved regions in intron 1 were thought to be involved in the functional regulation. However, no correlation was found between sequence variations and species characteristic size.

  1. Delimiting species by reproductive isolation: the genetic structure of epigean and hypogean Trichomycterus spp. (Teleostei, Siluriformes) in the restricted area of Torotoro (Upper Amazon, Bolivia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renno, Jean-François; Gazel, Claude; Miranda, Guido; Pouilly, Marc; Berrebi, Patrick

    2007-11-01

    Genetic variability of Trichomycterus from the region of Torotoro (Bolivia, Upper Amazon), distributed in the same watershed where the habitat is structured by waterfalls, canyons and a cave, was studied by allozyme (twelve putative loci) and RFLP-mtDNA (DLoop and cytochrome b) analyses. Alloenzymatic variation studied by Correspondence Analysis and Maximum Likelihood Analysis revealed a four-group structure, which was largely congruent with the distribution of the 14 mtDNA haplotypes. Two of these four clusters (I and II) were differentiated by two diagnostic loci (IDH and G3PDH), two semi-diagnostic loci (PGM and 6PGDH) and consequently a very high F(st )value (estimator theta = 0.77). Therefore, clusters I and II are reproductively isolated. The distribution limit of these two (sibling) species does not correspond to those of the morphological species of Trichomycterus identified in this region: the epigean T. cf. barbouri and the hypogean T. chaberti. However, hypogean fish exhibited two mtDNA haplotypes, a private one and another shared with the epigean Trichomycterus from upstream reaches.

  2. Phylogenetic position and osteology of Pethia setnai (Chhapgar and Sane, 1992, an endemic barb (Teleostei: Cyprinidae of the Western Ghats, India, with notes on its distribution and threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Katwate

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pethia setnai is an endemic and threatened freshwater fish of the Western Ghats of India. It has a restricted distribution in the west flowing rivers in the states of Maharashtra, Goa and Karnataka. We clarify the phylogenetic position of Pethia setnai, provide osteological details of topotypic material, and morphometric data of specimens from Maharashtra, Goa and Karnataka. We also provide details on micro-level distribution, habitat and threats to the species in its native range.

  3. Pethia lutea, a new species of barb (Teleostei: Cyprinidae and new records of P. punctata from northern Western Ghats of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Katwate

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of barb Pethia lutea is described from the Kundalika River in the northern part of the Western Ghats. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners in India based on a combination of characters including a distinct humped nape, absence of barbels, complete lateral line, lips thick, lateral fold on snout, 19-22 lateral line scales, 8 predorsal scales, 9-10 prepelvic scales, 14-15 preanal scales, 4-4.5 transverse scale rows between lateral line and dorsal fin origin, 2.5-3 transverse scale rows between lateral line and pelvic fin base, 6-9 pair of serrae on the distal half of the dorsal fin spine, 13-15 branched pectoral fin rays, 7 branched pelvic fin rays, 4+26 total vertebrae, 4+13 abdominal and 13 caudal vertebrae, body with one vertical humeral and one caudal blotch and dorsal fin without any bands or blotches. Additionally, we provide new records of Pethia punctata from the rivers of Maharashtra State along with a description of its osteology.

  4. 中鲤亚属的分支系统学分析%Cladistic Analysis of the Cyprinid Subgenus Cyprinus (Mesocyprinus) Fang (Teleostei: Cyprinidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小勇; 杨君兴

    2002-01-01

    Phylogeny of the cyprinid subgenus Cyprinus (Mesocyprinus) is elucidated based on both external and osteological features. All five species of Cyprinus (Mesocyprinus) are including in the ingroup in addition to two Cyprinus (Cyprinus) species. Procypris merus was treated as outgroup in comparison. A total of 48 characters were identified as variable among ingroup and outgroup. Phylogenetic analysis was accomplished using Parsimony and Bootstrap methods with Branch-and-Bound search of PAUP*. There are 28 characters remaining useful after excluding unpolarized characters and autapomorphies of terminal taxa. Analysis of the characters resulted in one tree with a length of 69 steps, Consistency Index (CI) of 0.7246, CI excluding uninformative characters of 0.6122, and Retention Index (RI) of 0.6346. It is apparent that the Mesocyprinus group consisting of five species is a polyphyletic group. This result suggests that subgenus Cyprinus (Mesocyprinus) should be suspended.%基于外部形态特征和内部骨骼特征对鲤科鲤属中鲤亚属进行了分支系统学分析.内群包括中鲤亚属的全部5种和鲤亚属的2种鱼类,外群采用乌原鲤.在鲤属鱼类和外群间共有48个性状存在变化.系统发育分析采用PAUP*软件的Parsimony和Bootstrap两种方式的Branch-and-Bound算法.排除不能极化的特征和特有离征之后,还有28个特征可用,由这28个特征可得到唯一的系统树,树长69,一致性系数0.7246,排除无用特征的一致性系数0.6122,保留系数0.6346.由5种中鲤组成的中鲤亚属明显不构成一个单系群.结果表明:中鲤亚属是一个复系群,该类元应该被撤销.

  5. Aspects of the biology of the Atlantic Midshipman, Porichthys porosissimus (Teleostei, Batrachoididae: an important by-catch species of shrimp trawling off southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Vianna

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Trawl fishing for pink shrimp (Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis and F. paulensis catches large quantities of by-catch fish, discarded due to their having no commercial vaue. As these species have rarely been studied, the impact of fisheries on these populations is not known. This contribution studies the biology of a species of no commercial value, the Atlantic midshipman Porichthys porosissimus. The last haul /Tom a commercial trawler, operating on the northern coast of São Paulo State and the southern coast of Rio de Janeiro State, was preserved (/Tom being discarded and identified at the species leveI. It was observed that this fishery affects the juvenile population which is intluenced by the seasonal variation of the water masses. Growth parameters were estimated: L∞ = 37.0 cm, K = 0.285 year-1. Instantaneous mortality coefficients were estimated: 2=2.14, M=0.63, F= 1.51, S= 11.8 and E=0.71. Considering the intensive activity of the shrimp trawl tleet operating in this area, the deleterious action of trawling is considered as of high impact. The stock management measures applied for pink shrimp are without effect regarding P. porosissimus. which has its spawning period before the closed season and its recruitment peak after it. The results show overfishing and the need to apply measures to reduce trawling action, such as adequate policies, introduction of selectivity devices and the creation of exclusion zones for trawl fishing.A pesca de arrasto para a captura do camarão-rosa (Fm:fantepenaeus brasi/iensis e F. paulensis captura grande quantidade de peixes considerados fauna acompanhante que são descartados por não possuírem valor comercial. Assim, pouco aparecem em trabalhos de biologia pesqueira com dados de desembarque, sendo a ação pesqueira sobre estas populações pouco conhecida. Neste estudo, um arrasto mensal de um barco de pesca foi desembarcado sem que nada do material capturado fosse descartado. Analisou-se Porichthys porosissimus do qual foram avaliados aspectos biológicos e pesqueiros. Estimou-se, para a espécie: L∞ = 37,0 cm, K = 0,285 ano.l, Rn=180 (x 10-3, 2=2,14, M=0,63, F=1,51, S=11,8 e E=0.71. Embora não intencional, a pesca age principalmente em jovens e ocorre durante o ano todo, sendo intluenciada pela sazonal idade das massas d'água. Considerando a frota operante na área, o efeito do arrasto é considerável, já que a taxa de aproveitamento é nula. As medidas de proteção de estoque aplicadas ao camarão-rosa não são efetivas para P. porosissimus, que apresenta o período de desova anterior à época do defeso e o pico de recrutamento pesqueiro posterior. Os resultados indicam sobrepesca da população estudada sendo necessário medidas de modo a diminuir a ação deletéria do arrasto, como a adequação da legislação, uso de dispositivos de seletividade e a criação de zonas de exclusão de arrasto.

  6. Anatomia funcional e morfometria dos intestinos e dos cecos pilóricos do teleostei (pisces de água doce Brycon orbignyanus (Valenciennes, 1849

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seixas Filho José Teixeira de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar a anatomia funcional e a morfometria comparativas nos intestinos médio e posterior e nos cecos pilóricos da piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus Valenciennes, 1849 (Characiformes, Characidae, Bryconinae. Foram conduzidos estudos anatomofuncionais e morfométricos nos intestinos médio e posterior e nos cecos pilóricos dessa espécie com hábito alimentar onívoro. Constatou-se, por meio destes estudos, que o padrão de enrolamento das alças intestinais em arranjo em N apresentou, na segunda classe de tamanho, freqüentes variações no intestino médio, mas foi compatível com os de outras espécies de hábitos alimentares similares. Os estudos da morfometria mostraram que o comprimento total do intestino e das alças intestinais e seus calibres, provavelmente, exercem função específica na absorção dos nutrientes. As relações entre o arranjo das pregas da mucosa e a velocidade de transporte do alimento no intestino médio sugerem que os padrões transversal e oblíquo retardam o avanço do alimento em sentido aboral, possibilitando maior período digestivo e melhor aproveitamento dos nutrientes, contribuindo para a preparação do bolo fecal. O comprimento e o calibre dos cecos pilóricos aumentam com o desenvolvimento do peixe, e o seu padrão de mucosa possui características anatômicas semelhantes às do intestino.

  7. Delimiting the origin of a B chromosome by FISH mapping, chromosome painting and DNA sequence analysis in Astyanax paranae (Teleostei, Characiformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Duílio M Z de A; Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; Utsunomia, Ricardo; Araya-Jaime, Cristian; Ruiz-Ruano, Francisco J; Daniel, Sandro Natal; Hashimoto, Diogo Teruo; Oliveira, Cláudio; Camacho, Juan Pedro M; Porto-Foresti, Fábio; Foresti, Fausto

    2014-01-01

    Supernumerary (B) chromosomes have been shown to contain a wide variety of repetitive sequences. For this reason, fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) is a useful tool for ascertaining the origin of these genomic elements, especially when combined with painting from microdissected B chromosomes. In order to investigate the origin of B chromosomes in the fish species Astyanax paranae, these two approaches were used along with PCR amplification of specific DNA sequences obtained from the B chromosomes and its comparison with those residing in the A chromosomes. Remarkably, chromosome painting with the one-arm metacentric B chromosome probe showed hybridization signals on entire B chromosome, while FISH mapping revealed the presence of H1 histone and 18S rDNA genes symmetrically placed in both arms of the B chromosome. These results support the hypothesis that the B chromosome of A. paranae is an isochromosome. Additionally, the chromosome pairs Nos. 2 or 23 are considered the possible B chromosome ancestors since both contain syntenic H1 and 18S rRNA sequences. The analysis of DNA sequence fragments of the histone and rRNA genes obtained from the microdissected B chromosomes showed high similarity with those obtained from 0B individuals, which supports the intraspecific origin of B chromosomes in A. paranae. Finally, the population hereby analysed showed a female-biased B chromosome presence suggesting that B chromosomes in this species could influence sex determinism.

  8. Efeitos do RoundupTM e do Thiodan® em adultos de Astyanax bimaculatus (Characidae: Teleostei): Valores de CL50 e morfologia testicular.

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Filho, Paulo Burlamaqui da

    2010-01-01

    O uso indiscriminado de agroquímicos na agricultura moderna está desencadeando prejuízos graves para o meio ambiente e que representam séria ameaça para a sobrevivência de ecossistemas importantes. Neste sentido, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a CL50-96h e avaliar a influência do herbicida Roundup™ (Monsanto) e do inseticida Thiodan® (Bayer) sobre a morfologia testicular do lambari Astyanax bimaculatus. Para isso, foram selecionados lotes homogêneos de lambaris machos, a...

  9. Gonadal morphogenesis and sex differentiation in intraovarian embryos of the viviparous fish Zoarces viviparus (Teleostei, Perciformes, Zoarcidae): a histological and ultrastructural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Tina H; Jespersen, Ase; Korsgaard, Bodil

    2006-09-01

    It is essential to know the timing and process of normal gonadal differentiation and development in the specific species being investigated in order to evaluate the effect of exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals on these processes. In the present study gonadal sex differentiation and development were investigated in embryos of a viviparous species of marine fish, the eelpout, Zoarces viviparus, during their intraovarian development (early September to January) using light and electron microscopy. In both sexes of the embryos at the time of hatching (September 20) the initially undifferentiated paired bilobed gonad contains primordial germ cells. In the female embryos, ovarian differentiation, initiated 14 days posthatch (dph), is characterized by the initial formation of the endoovarian cavity of the single ovary as well as by the presence of some early meiotic oocytes in a chromatin-nucleolus stage. By 30 dph, the endoovarian cavity has formed. By 44 dph and onward, the ovary and the oocytes grow in size and at 134 dph, just prior to birth, the majority of the oocytes are at the perinucleolar stage of primary growth and definitive follicles have formed. In the presumptive bilobed testis of the male embryos, the germ cells (spermatogonia), in contrast to the germ cells of the ovary, remain quiescent and do not enter meiosis during intraovarian development. However, other structural (somatic) changes, such as the initial formation of the sperm duct (30 dph), the presence of blood vessels in the stromal areas of the testis (30 dph), and the appearance of developing testicular lobules (102 dph), indicate testicular differentiation. Ultrastructually, the features of the primordial germ cells, oogonia, and spermatogonia are similar, including nuage, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi complexes.

  10. Biodiversity of the Betta smaragdina (Teleostei: Perciformes in the northeast region of Thailand as determined by mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS1 gene sequences

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    Chanon Kowasupat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Thailand, there are currently five recognized species members of the bubble-nesting Betta genus, namely Betta splendens, B. smaragdina, B. imbellis, B. mahachaiensis and B. siamorientalis. In 2010, we indicated the possibility, based on COI barcoding evidence, that there might be two additional species, albeit cryptic, related to the type-locality B. smaragdina in some provinces in the northeast of Thailand. In the present study, after a more extensive survey of the northeast, and phylogenetic analyses based on COI and ITS1 sequences, the B. smaragdina group may be composed of at least 3 cryptic species members. The phylogenetic positions of these B. smaragdina group members in the bubble-nesting bettas' tree together with those of their congeners have been consolidated by better DNA sequence quality and phylogenetic analyses. With a better supported tree, the species statuses of B. siamorientalis and the Cambodian B. smaragdina-like fish, B. stiktos, are also confirmed.

  11. Southeast Asian mouth-brooding Betta fighting fish (Teleostei: Perciformes species and their phylogenetic relationships based on mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS1 DNA sequences and analyses

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    Bhinyo Panijpan

    2014-12-01

    In addition, several other established type-locality fishes could harbor cryptic species as judged by genetic differences. Assignments of fish species to groups reported earlier may have to be altered somewhat by the present genetic findings. We propose here a new Betta fish phylogenetic tree which, albeit being similar to the previous ones, is clearly different from them. Our gene-based evidence also leads to assignments of some fishes to new species groups and alters the positions of some species on the new phylogenetic tree, thus implying different ancestral relationships.

  12. Southeast Asian mouth-brooding Betta fighting fish (Teleostei: Perciformes) species and their phylogenetic relationships based on mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS1 DNA sequences and analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panijpan, Bhinyo; Kowasupat, Chanon; Laosinchai, Parames; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Phongdara, Amornrat; Senapin, Saengchan; Wanna, Warapond; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Kühne, Jens; Fasquel, Frédéric

    2014-12-01

    Fighting fish species in the genus Betta are found in several Southeast Asian countries. Depending on the mode of paternal care for fertilized eggs and hatchlings, various species of the betta fish are classified as mouth brooders or nest builders whose members in turn have been grouped according to their similarities mainly in morphology. The mouth brooders as well as some nest builders involved in the present study include fishes discovered and identified subsequent to previous reports on species groupings and their positions on phylogenetic trees based on DNA sequences that differ from those used by us in this study. From the mitochondrial COI gene and nuclear ITS1 gene sequences and more accurate analyses we conclude that the following members of the mouth-brooding pairs, named differently previously, are virtually identical, viz the Betta prima-Betta pallida pair and Betta ferox-Betta apollon pair. The Betta simplex, hitherto believed to be one species, could possibly be genetically split into 2 distinct species. In addition, several other established type-locality fishes could harbor cryptic species as judged by genetic differences. Assignments of fish species to groups reported earlier may have to be altered somewhat by the present genetic findings. We propose here a new Betta fish phylogenetic tree which, albeit being similar to the previous ones, is clearly different from them. Our gene-based evidence also leads to assignments of some fishes to new species groups and alters the positions of some species on the new phylogenetic tree, thus implying different ancestral relationships.

  13. Re-description of Apistogramma payaminonis KULLANDER, 1986, with descriptions of two new cichlid species of the genus Apistogramma (Teleostei, Perciformes, Geophaginae) from northern Peru

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Apistogramma payaminonis KULLANDER, 1986 is redescribed based on the only two type specimens available, and two new, closely-related Apistogramma species are described from Peru. Data from the original description of A. payaminonis are supplemented with information on phenotypic appearance, which is important for differentiating the taxon from several other species discovered in the last few years. Apistogramma feconat sp. n. is described from four specimens from the catchment of the Rio Tigr...

  14. Description of Apistogramma allpahuayo sp. n., a new dwarf cichlid species (Teleostei : Perciformes : Geophaginae) from in and around the Reserva Nacional Allpahuayo Mishana, Loreto, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    A new species of Apistogramma is described from Peru, based on a total of 51 specimens collected in small forest brooks in and around the Reserva Nacional Allpahuayo Mishana in the drainage of the Nanay river basin about 30 kilometres southwest of Iquitos, Departamento Loreto (approximately 73 degrees 25' W/03 degrees 59' S). Apistogramma allpahuayo sp. n. is distinguished from all other Apistogramma species by the combination of black w-shape marking on lower jaw, (in adult males) lyrate cau...

  15. Description of Apistogramma paulmuelleri sp n., a new geophagine cichlid species (Teleostei : Perciformes) from the Amazon river basin in Loreto, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    A new species of Apistogramma is described from Peru, based on a total of 28 specimens collected in a small forest stream in the catchment of a nameless tributary of the Rio Amazonas about 80 kilometres south of Iquitos, Departamento Loreto (approximately 73 degrees 34' W / 04 degrees 24' S). At first sight Apistogramma paulmuelleri sp. n. resembles A. regani, but is differentiated from the latter and all other Apistogramma species by the combination of a large band-like spot on the caudal-fi...

  16. Population Structure, Genetic Diversity, Effective Population Size, Demographic History and Regional Connectivity Patterns of the Endangered Dusky Grouper, Epinephelus marginatus (Teleostei: Serranidae), within Malta's Fisheries Management Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz-Sørensen, Molly; Vella, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the genetic population structure and demographic history of the endangered marine fish, Epinephelus marginatus, within Malta's Fisheries Management Zone for the purpose of localised conservation planning. Epinephelus marginatus is a long-lived, sedentary, reef-associated protogynous hermaphrodite with high commercial and recreational value that is at risk of extinction throughout its global distribution. Based on global trends, population substructuring and gaps in local knowledge this has led to an increased interest in evaluation of local stock. Assessment of Maltese demography was based on historical and contemporary catch landings data whilst genetic population structure and regional connectivity patterns were evaluated by examining 175 individuals collected within the central Mediterranean region between 2002 and 2009 using 14 nuclear microsatellite loci. Demographic stock assessment of Maltese E. marginatus' revealed a 99% decline in catch landings between 1947 and 2009 within the Fisheries Management Zone. A contemporary modest mean size was observed, 3 ± 3 kg, where approximately 17% of the population was juvenile, 68% female/sex-changing and 15% were male with a male-to-female sex ratio of 1:5. Genetic analysis describes the overall population of E. marginatus' within the Fisheries Management Zone as decreasing in size (ƟH = 2.2), which has gone through a significant size reduction in the past (M = 0.41) and consequently shows signs of moderate inbreeding (FIS = 0.10, p < 0.001) with an estimated effective population size of 130 individuals. Results of spatially explicit Bayesian genetic cluster analysis detected two geographically distinct subpopulations within Malta's Fisheries Management Zone and that they are connected to a larger network of E. marginatus' within the Sicily Channel. Results suggest conservation management should be designed to reflect E. marginatus' within Malta's Fisheries Management Zone as two management units.

  17. Population Structure, Genetic Diversity, Effective Population Size, Demographic History and Regional Connectivity Patterns of the Endangered Dusky Grouper, Epinephelus marginatus (Teleostei: Serranidae, within Malta's Fisheries Management Zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Buchholz-Sørensen

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to describe the genetic population structure and demographic history of the endangered marine fish, Epinephelus marginatus, within Malta's Fisheries Management Zone for the purpose of localised conservation planning. Epinephelus marginatus is a long-lived, sedentary, reef-associated protogynous hermaphrodite with high commercial and recreational value that is at risk of extinction throughout its global distribution. Based on global trends, population substructuring and gaps in local knowledge this has led to an increased interest in evaluation of local stock. Assessment of Maltese demography was based on historical and contemporary catch landings data whilst genetic population structure and regional connectivity patterns were evaluated by examining 175 individuals collected within the central Mediterranean region between 2002 and 2009 using 14 nuclear microsatellite loci. Demographic stock assessment of Maltese E. marginatus' revealed a 99% decline in catch landings between 1947 and 2009 within the Fisheries Management Zone. A contemporary modest mean size was observed, 3 ± 3 kg, where approximately 17% of the population was juvenile, 68% female/sex-changing and 15% were male with a male-to-female sex ratio of 1:5. Genetic analysis describes the overall population of E. marginatus' within the Fisheries Management Zone as decreasing in size (ƟH = 2.2, which has gone through a significant size reduction in the past (M = 0.41 and consequently shows signs of moderate inbreeding (FIS = 0.10, p < 0.001 with an estimated effective population size of 130 individuals. Results of spatially explicit Bayesian genetic cluster analysis detected two geographically distinct subpopulations within Malta's Fisheries Management Zone and that they are connected to a larger network of E. marginatus' within the Sicily Channel. Results suggest conservation management should be designed to reflect E. marginatus' within Malta's Fisheries Management Zone as two management units.

  18. Redescription of Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) golvani Salgado-Maldonado, 1978 (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) and description of a new species from freshwater cichlids (Teleostei: Cichlidae) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo

    2013-05-01

    A redescription of Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) golvani Salgado-Maldonado (An Inst Biol Univ Nal Autón Méx, Ser Zool 49:35-47, 1978) is presented, based on adult specimens collected from the type host Paraneetroplus fenestratus from the type location, the Lago de Catemaco lake, Veracruz state, Mexico, and its presence is recorded in other cichlids. Detailed studies of N. (N.) golvani using light microscopy revealed some taxonomically important, previously unreported features, such as the size and shape of fully developed adult males and females, and the structure of the eggs. Morphological variability in N. (N.) golvani is described. Based on these data, the geographic distribution of this species is documented. Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) panucensis n. sp. is described from Herichthys labridens (Pellegrin), Amatitlania nigrofasciata (Günther), and Herichthys cyanoguttatus Baird and Girard (all of them Cichlidae), collected in the Río Atlapexco, a tributary to the upper Río Panuco basin, Hidalgo State, Mexico. This new species stand up alone because of its minute proboscis (♂ 50 × 60, ♀ 42-55 (48.5) × 48-63 (57.7)) and anterior hooks (♂ 27-30 (28.8) × 3-5 (4), ♀ 28-32 (30) × 5 (5)). A key to the species of Neoechinorhynchus recorded from freshwater fishes in Central and South America is included.

  19. Infrapopulations of Gyliauchen volubilis Nagaty, 1956 (Trematoda: Gyliauchenidae in the rabbitfish Siganus rivulatus (Teleostei: Siganidae from the Saudi coast of the Red Sea

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    Al-Jahdali M.O.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In hermaphroditic helminth parasites, infrapopulation size or mating group size mostly affects some processes acting within the infrapopulation. Here, 30 natural infrapopulations (12-154 individuals of the intestinal trematode Gyliauchen volubilis Nagaty, 1956 from the fish Siganus rivulatus consisting of newly excysted juveniles, immature and mature worms were found distributed in a well-defined fundamental niche (anterior 40 % of the intestine. In small infrapopulations, all stages of the parasite were alive. In larger infrapopulations, differential mortality was only and consistently observed among newly excysted juveniles, and gradually increased to include most or all juveniles in the largest infrapopulations. Among mature worms, the mean worm length seemed unaffected by the infrapopulation size. However, the ratio mean testis size-mean ovary size, a reliable indicator of resource allocation to the male function and of opportunities for crossfertilization, significantly increased with mating group size. In small infrapopulations, all stages of the parasite were scattered along the niche, and never seen in mating pairs (possibly reproduced by selffertilization. In larger infrapopulations, newly excysted juveniles and immature worms were scattered along the anterior two thirds of the niche, while mature worms were constantly found aggregated in its posterior third (narrow microhabitat, where some were arranged in mating pairs. The probability of mating reciprocally or unilaterally was dependent on body size. The mean number of uterine eggs per worm significantly decreased and their mean sizes significantly increased with mating group size. The results are statistically significant and suggest that infrapopulation self-regulation is greatly associated with its size.

  20. Genetic heterogeneity reveals on-going speciation and cryptic taxonomic diversity of stream-dwelling gudgeons (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) in the middle Danubian hydrosystem (Hungary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, Péter; Bihari, Péter; Erős, Tibor; Specziár, András; Szivák, Ildikó; Bíró, Péter; Csoma, Eszter

    2014-01-01

    Although stream-dwelling gudgeons (Cyprinidae, genus: Gobio) are widespread in Central Europe, the taxonomy of this group and the distribution of its species are still unexplored in detail. The aims of our study are to ascertain taxonomic composition and distribution of the former Gobio gobio superspecies in the inner area of the Carpathian Basin. Since the presence of cryptic species is suspected in this area, we examined the taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships of Central European Gobio taxa by sequencing the mitochondrial DNA control region (mtCR). Additionally, we characterized the genetic structure of 27 stream-dwelling gudgeon populations of this area by Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP). Results of mtCR analysis proved the presence of three species already known as G. obtusirostris (dominant in NW-Hungary), G. gobio (sporadic) and G. carpathicus (sporadic). Additionally, the analysis revealed the existence of one doubtful taxon, G. sp1 (dominant in NE-Hungary), and a new isolated haplogroup (dominant in SW-Hungary). Although Network analysis showed significant detachment among haplogroups, their genetic distances were quite small. Therefore Bayesian phylogenetic analysis showed weak nodal support for the branching pattern both for newly described haplotypes, and for the already accepted species. AFLP data showed distinct population structure and a clear pattern of isolation was revealed by distance of stocks. At the same time, level of separation was not affected by the altitudinal position of sites. Moreover we found three major clusters of populations which were separated according to hydrographic regions, and corresponded to the findings of mtCR analysis. Our results suggest the on-going speciation of gudgeons in the Carpathian Basin, however the separation of haplogroups seems to only be an intermediate phase. The discovered natural pattern seems to be only slightly influenced by anthropogenic impacts. Additionally our results put into question the suitability of the recently accepted within Gobio genus taxonomy.

  1. Diet of two serrasalmin species, Pygocentrus piraya and Serrasalmus brandtii (Teleostei: Characidae, along a stretch of the rio de Contas, Bahia, Brazil

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    Márcia Emília de Jesus Trindade

    Full Text Available Serrasalmus brandtii and Pygocentrus piraya are two common piranha species in the Barragem da Pedra Reservoir, rio de Contas. In order to identify the diet composition of the two species, monthly collections were performed at three sites between May 2001 and April 2003, using two gill nets of different mesh sizes cast at the beginning of the day and visited after 6, 12 and 24 h. The qualitative composition of the diet was analyzed by determining the frequency of occurrence. Comparison of the two species showed a higher relative abundance of S. brandtii (151 compared to P. piraya (55. The food items most frequently found in the stomachs of the two species were fins, fish and shrimp. Serrasalmus brandtii showed a greater feeding plasticity than P. piraya.

  2. Influence of spawning procedure on gametes fertilization success in Salminus hilarii Valenciennes, 1850 (Teleostei: Characidae: Implications for the conservation of this species

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    Renato M. Honji

    Full Text Available Artificial reproduction and gamete fertilization were evaluated in Salminus hilarii wild and domesticated broodstocks. Wild and domesticated broodstocks were artificially induced to reproduction using a carp pituitary treatment. Four groups were considered: Group 1 (G1, fish caught in the wild maintained for three years in the same conditions as the domesticated broodstocks and spawned naturally; Group 2 (G2, broodstock born and raised in captivity and spawned naturally; Group 3 (G3, wild broodstocks, which were manually stripped for gamete collection and dry fertilization; and Group 4 (G4, domesticated males and females, also manually stripped. Oocytes, eggs, and larvae were sampled at different time intervals throughout embryonic development. Yolk sac absorption occurred approximately 24-29 h after hatching. Twenty-six h after hatching, the larvae mouths opened. Cannibalism was identified just 28-30 h after hatching. There was no morphological difference in embryonic development among all groups. The number of released eggs per gram of female was: G1: 83.3 ± 24.5 and G2: 103.8 ± 37.4; however, the fertilization success was lower in G2 (42.0 ± 6.37 % compared with G1 (54.7 ± 3.02% (P = 0.011. Hand-stripping of oocytes was not successful and the fertilization rate was zero. The reproduction of this species in captivity is viable, but it is necessary to improve broodstock management to enhance fertilization rates and obtain better fingerling production for restocking programs.

  3. Gonadal Morphogenesis and Sex Differentiation in Intraovarian Embryos of the Viviparous Fish Zoarces viviparus (Teleostei, Perciformes, Zoarcidae): A Histological and Ultrastructural Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Tina H.; Jespersen, Åse; Korsgaard, Bodil

    2006-01-01

    of the male embryos, the germ cells (spermatogonia), in contrast to the germ cells of the ovary, remain quiescent and do not enter meiosis during intraovarian development. However, other structural (somatic) changes, such as the initial formation of the sperm duct (30 dph), the presence of blood vessels...

  4. Crenicichla chicha, a new species of pike cichlid (Teleostei: Cichlidae from the rio Papagaio, upper rio Tapajós basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Henrique R. Varella

    Full Text Available Crenicichla chicha, new species, occurs in clear, fast-running waters with rocky substrates in the rio Papagaio and tributaries. It is distinguished from all other Crenicichla species by the combination of two character states: infraorbitals 3 and 4 co-ossified (vs. separated and 66-75 scales in the row immediately above to that containing the lower lateral line (E1 row scales. Crenicichla chicha shares a smooth preopercular margin, co-ossification of infraorbitals 3 and 4, and some color features with C. hemera from the adjacent rio Aripuanã drainage, rio Madeira basin. It differs from Crenicichla hemera in more E1 scales (66-75 vs. 58-65 and presence of a conspicuous black narrow stripe running from infraorbital 3 obliquely caudoventrad toward the preopercular margin vs. a rounded and faint suborbital marking present on infraorbitals 3-4. Examination of the type series and additional material from the rio Aripuanã confirms that Crenicichla guentheri Ploeg, 1991 is a junior subjective synonym of C. hemera Kullander, 1990.

  5. Response of mucous cells of the gills of traíra (Hoplias malabaricus and jeju (Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus (Teleostei: Erythrinidae to hypo- and hyper-osmotic ion stress

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    Sandro Estevan Moron

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The mucous cells (MC of traíra, Hoplias malabaricus, and jeju, Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus, two ecologically distinct erythrinid species, were analyzed in fish exposed to deionized (DW and high ion concentration (NaCl and Ca2+ water (HIW during 15 days to evaluate the MC responses to ion challenge. MCs are localized in the leading and trailing edge and, interlamellar region of the gill filament epithelium but, in H. unitaeniatus, they are also found in the breathing or lamellar epithelium. MC density is lower in H. malabaricus, the exclusively water-breathing fish, than in H. unitaeniatus, a facultative air-breathing fish. The transference to DW or HIW did not change the MC density and surface area, excepting in H. malabaricus, in the first day of exposure to DW. A single MC containing three types of glycoproteins (neutral, acidic and sulphated was identified in the gill epithelium of both, H. malabaricus and H. unitaeniatus. The amount (based on the intensity of histochemistry reaction of these glycoproteins differed between the species and were altered after exposure to DW and HIW showing little adjustments in the amount of mucosubstances in the MC of H. malabaricus and reduction of acidic and sulphated glycoproteins in H. unitaeniatus. The decreasing of these glycoproteins in H. unitaeniatus reduced the mucus protection against desiccation of gill tissue when change the ion concentration in water.As células mucosas (CM em traíra, Hoplias malabaricus, e jeju, Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus, dois eritrinídeos ecologicamente distintos, foram analisadas em espécimes expostos a água deionizada (DW e água com alta concentração de íons (NaCl + Ca2+, HIW durante 15 dias para avaliar as respostas das CMs. As CMs estão localizadas no lado aferente e eferente e região interlamelar no epitélio do filamento branquial, mas em H. unitaeniatus, CMs estão presentes no epitélio respiratório ou lamelar. A densidade de CMs é menor em H. malabaricus, espécie com respiração exclusivamente aquática, do que em H. unitaeniatus, espécie com respiração aérea facultativa. A transferência para AD e HIW não alterou a densidade de CMs e a sua superfície, exceto em H. malabaricus, no primeiro dia de exposição à AD. Um único tipo de CM contendo três tipos de glicoproteínas (neutra, ácida e ácida sulfatada foi identificado no epitélio branquial de H. malabaricus e H. unitaeniatus. A quantidade das glicoproteínas (avaliada pela intensidade da reação histoquímica diferiu nas duas espécies e foi alterada após a transferência para AD e HIW mostrando pequeno ajuste na quantidade de cada mucosubstância secretada pelas CMs em H. malabaricus e redução de glicoproteínas ácidas e sulfatadas em H. unitaeniatus. A diminuição dessas glicoproteínas em H. unitaeniatus reduz a proteção do muco sobre o tecido branquial quando é alterada a concentração de íons na da água.

  6. A new Haptoclinus blenny (Teleostei, Labrisomidae from deep reefs off Curaçao, southern Caribbean, with comments on relationships of the genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole Baldwin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A second species of the blenniiform genus Haptoclinus is described from deep reefs off Curaçao, southern Caribbean. Haptoclinus dropi sp. n. differs from the northwestern Caribbean H. apectolophus Böhlke and Robins, 1974, in29 total dorsal-fin elements—III-I-XIII, 12 (vs. 31—III-I-XIV, 13 or III-I-XIII, 14; 19 anal-fin soft rays (vs. 20-21; 12 pectoral-fin rays (vs. 13; 12 precaudal vertebrae (vs. 13; and the first dorsal-fin spine longer than the second (vs. the second longer than the first. It further differs from H. apectolophus in lacking scales (vs. three-quarters of body densely scaled, ina distinctive pattern of spotting on the trunk and fins in preservative (vs. no spotting, and in lacking a fleshy flap on the anterior rim of the posterior nostril (vs. flap present. Color in life is unknown for H. apectolophus, and the color description presented for the new species constitutes the first color information for the genus. Familial placement of Haptoclinus remains questionable, but the limited relevant information obtained from morphological examination of the new species provides additional support for a close relationship with the Chaenopsidae. Haptoclinus dropi represents one of numerous new teleost species emerging from sampling to 300 m off Curaçao as part of the Smithsonian Institution’s Deep Reef Observation Project (DROP.

  7. Phylogenetic analyses of the subgenus Mollienesia (Poecilia, Poeciliidae, Teleostei) reveal taxonomic inconsistencies, cryptic biodiversity, and spatio-temporal aspects of diversification in Middle America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Maura; Voelker, Gary; Arias Rodriguez, Lenin; Mateos, Mariana; Tobler, Michael

    2016-10-01

    The subgenus Mollienesia is a diverse group of freshwater fishes, including species that have served as important models across multiple biological disciplines. Nonetheless, the taxonomic history of this group has been conflictive and convoluted, in part because the evolutionary relationships have not been rigorously resolved. We conducted a comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis of the subgenus Mollienesia to identify taxonomic discrepancies and potentially identify undescribed species, estimate ancestral areas of origin and estimate dates of divergence, as well as explore biogeographical patterns. Our findings confirm the presence of three main clades composed of the P. latipinna, P. sphenops, and P. mexicana species complexes. Unlike previously hypothesized morphology-based analyses, species found on the Caribbean Islands are not part of Mollienesia, but are more closely related to species of the subgenus Limia. Our study also revealed several taxonomic inconsistencies and distinct lineages in the P. mexicana species complex that may represent undescribed species. The diversity in the subgenus Mollienesia is a result of dynamic geologic activity leading to vicariant events, dispersal across geologic blocks, and ecological speciation.

  8. Two new species of Hyphessobrycon (Teleostei: Characidae from upper rio Tapajós basin on Chapada dos Parecis, central Brazil

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    Tiago Pinto Carvalho

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Hyphessobrycon are described from the upper rio Tapajós basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Hyphessobrycon melanostichos is distinguished from its congeners by the combination of a conspicuous longitudinal broad black band beginning on the posterior margin of orbit and reaching the tip of middle caudal fin rays, a distinct vertically elongate humeral spot, and 16 to 18 branched anal-fin rays. Hyphessobrycon notidanos is distinguished from its congeners by the combination of an elongate dorsal fin in mature males, a vertically elongate humeral spot, 2-4 maxillary teeth, iii,8 dorsal-fin rays, and 16 to 21 branched anal-fin rays.Duas novas espécies do gênero Hyphessobrycon são descritas para a bacia do alto rio Tapajós, Mato Grosso, Brasil. Hyphessobrycon melanostichos distingue-se de seus congêneres pela combinação da presença de uma banda preta longitudinal larga entre a margem posterior da órbita até a ponta dos raios medianos da nadadeira caudal, de uma mancha umeral verticalmente alongada, e de 16 a 18 raios ramificados na nadadeira anal. Hyphessobrycon notidanos distingue-se de seus congêneres pela combinação da presença da nadadeira dorsal alongada nos machos maduros, de uma mancha umeral verticalmente alongada, 2-4 dentes no maxilar, iii,8 raios na nadadeira dorsal e 16 a 21 raios ramificados na nadadeira anal.

  9. Three new species of Protogyrodactylus Johnston & Tiegs, 1922 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) from the gills of the longtail silverbiddy Gerres longirostris (Teleostei: Gerreidae) in the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Paolo; Kritsky, Delane C

    2008-03-01

    Twenty-one specimens of the longtailed silverbiddy Gerres longirostris (Gerreidae) were examined for dactylogyrid parasites from the Nabq Managed Resource Protected Area, Ras Mohammed National Park (Red Sea) near Sharm El-Sheikh, South Sinai, Egypt. The diagnosis of Protogyrodactylus Johnston & Tiegs, 1922 was amended, and three new species, P. federicae n. sp., P. zullinii n. sp. and P. alatus n. sp., were recovered and described; the prevalence of each species was 100%. P. federicae most closely resembled P. alienus Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1974, but differed from it by possessing two anteromedial projections on the ventral bar, a claw-like ventral anchor sclerite and spatulate dorsal bars. P. zullini was most similar to P. quadratus Johnston & Tiegs, 1922, from which it differed by having a distal hook on the superficial root of the dorsal anchor, an evenly curved ventral anchor shaft and point, and a flange on the bulbous base of the male copulatory organ. P. alatus was closest to P. youngi Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1974, from which it differed by having delicate anchors and two prominent anteromedial processes on the ventral bar.

  10. Phylogenetic and phylogeographic analysis of the genus Orestias (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae) in the southern Chilean Altiplano: the relevance of ancient and recent divergence processes in speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, I; Morales, P; Scott, S; Poulin, E; Véliz, D; Harrod, C; Méndez, M A

    2013-03-01

    This study presents phylogenetic molecular data of the Chilean species of Orestias to propose an allopatric divergence hypothesis and phylogeographic evidence that suggests the relevance of abiotic factors in promoting population divergence in this complex. The results reveal that diversification is still ongoing, e.g. in the Ascotán salt pan, where populations of Orestias ascotanensis restricted to individual freshwater springs exhibit strong genetic differentiation, reflecting putative independent evolutionary units. Diversification of Orestias in the southern Altiplano may be linked to historical vicariant events and contemporary variation in water level; these processes may have affected the populations from the Plio-Pleistocene until the present.

  11. Karyotypic diversity and evolutionary trends in the Neotropical catfish genus Hypostomus Lacépède, 1803 (Teleostei, Siluriformes, Loricariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Alves

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The family Loricariidae with 813 nominal species is one of the largest fish families of the world. Hypostominae, its more complex subfamily, was recently divided into five tribes. The tribe Hypostomini is composed of a single genus, Hypostomus Lacépède, 1803, which exhibits the largest karyotypic diversity in the family Loricariidae. With the main objective of contributing to a better understanding of the relationship and the patterns of evolution among the karyotypes of Hypostomus species, cytogenetic studies were conducted in six species of the genus from Brazil and Venezuela. The results show a great chromosome variety with diploid numbers ranging from 2n=68 to 2n=76, with a clear predominance of acrocentric chromosomes. The Ag-NORs are located in terminal position in all species analyzed. Three species have single Ag-NORs (Hypostomus albopunctatus (Regan, 1908, H. prope plecostomus (Linnaeus, 1758, and H. prope paulinus (Ihering, 1905 and three have multiple Ag-NORs (H. ancistroides (Ihering, 1911, H. prope iheringi (Regan, 1908, and H. strigaticeps (Regan, 1908. In the process of karyotype evolution of the group, the main type of chromosome rearrangements was possibly centric fissions, which may have been facilitated by the putative tetraploid origin of Hypostomus species. The relationship between the karyotype changes and the evolution in the genus is discussed.

  12. Asexual Reproduction Does Not Apparently Increase the Rate of Chromosomal Evolution: Karyotype Stability in Diploid and Triploid Clonal Hybrid Fish (Cobitis, Cypriniformes, Teleostei.

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    Zuzana Majtánová

    Full Text Available Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization and transitions from sexuality to asexuality considerably affect organismal genomes. Especially the last mentioned process has been assumed to play a significant role in the initiation of chromosomal rearrangements, causing increased rates of karyotype evolution. We used cytogenetic analysis and molecular dating of cladogenetic events to compare the rate of changes of chromosome morphology and karyotype in asexually and sexually reproducing counterparts in European spined loach fish (Cobitis. We studied metaphases of three sexually reproducing species and their diploid and polyploid hybrid clones of different age of origin. The material includes artificial F1 hybrid strains, representatives of lineage originated in Holocene epoch, and also individuals of an oldest known age to date (roughly 0.37 MYA. Thereafter we applied GISH technique as a marker to differentiate parental chromosomal sets in hybrids. Although the sexual species accumulated remarkable chromosomal rearrangements after their speciation, we observed no differences in chromosome numbers and/or morphology among karyotypes of asexual hybrids. These hybrids possess chromosome sets originating from respective parental species with no cytogenetically detectable recombinations, suggesting their integrity even in a long term. The switch to asexual reproduction thus did not provoke any significant acceleration of the rate of chromosomal evolution in Cobitis. Asexual animals described in other case studies reproduce ameiotically, while Cobitis hybrids described here produce eggs likely through modified meiosis. Therefore, our findings indicate that the effect of asexuality on the rate of chromosomal change may be context-dependent rather than universal and related to particular type of asexual reproduction.

  13. Genome-wide SNPs resolve a key conflict between sequence and allozyme data to confirm another threatened candidate species of river blackfishes (Teleostei: Percichthyidae: Gadopsis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unmack, Peter J; Sandoval-Castillo, Jonathan; Hammer, Michael P; Adams, Mark; Raadik, Tarmo A; Beheregaray, Luciano B

    2017-02-22

    Conflicting results from different molecular datasets have long confounded our ability to characterise species boundaries. Here we use genome-wide SNP data and an expanded allozyme dataset to resolve conflicting systematic hypotheses on an enigmatic group of fishes (Gadopsis, river blackfishes, Percichthyidae) restricted to southeastern Australia. Previous work based on three sets of molecular markers: mtDNA, nuclear intron DNA and 51 allozyme loci was unable to clearly resolve the status of a putative fifth candidate species (SWV) within Gadopsis marmoratus. Resolving the taxonomic status of candidate species SWV is particularly critical as based on IUCN criteria this taxon would be considered Critically Endangered. After all filtering steps we retained a subset of 10,862 putatively unlinked SNP loci for population genetic and phylogenomic analyses. Analyses of SNP loci based on maximum likelihood, fastSTRUCTURE and DAPC were all consistent with the previous and updated allozyme results supporting the validity of the candidate Gadopsis species SWV. Immediate conservation actions should focus on preventing take by anglers, protection of water resources to sustain perennial reaches and drought refuge pools, and aquatic and riparian habitat protection and improvement. In addition, a formal morphological taxonomic review of the genus Gadopsis is urgently required.

  14. Biodiversity of the Betta smaragdina (Teleostei: Perciformes) in the northeast region of Thailand as determined by mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS1 gene sequences☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowasupat, Chanon; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Laosinchai, Parames; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Phongdara, Amornrat; Wanna, Warapond; Senapin, Saengchan; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee

    2014-01-01

    In Thailand, there are currently five recognized species members of the bubble-nesting Betta genus, namely Betta splendens, B. smaragdina, B. imbellis, B. mahachaiensis and B. siamorientalis. In 2010, we indicated the possibility, based on COI barcoding evidence, that there might be two additional species, albeit cryptic, related to the type-locality B. smaragdina in some provinces in the northeast of Thailand. In the present study, after a more extensive survey of the northeast, and phylogenetic analyses based on COI and ITS1 sequences, the B. smaragdina group may be composed of at least 3 cryptic species members. The phylogenetic positions of these B. smaragdina group members in the bubble-nesting bettas' tree together with those of their congeners have been consolidated by better DNA sequence quality and phylogenetic analyses. With a better supported tree, the species statuses of B. siamorientalis and the Cambodian B. smaragdina-like fish, B. stiktos, are also confirmed. PMID:25606392

  15. Biodiversity of the Betta smaragdina (Teleostei: Perciformes) in the northeast region of Thailand as determined by mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS1 gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowasupat, Chanon; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Laosinchai, Parames; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Phongdara, Amornrat; Wanna, Warapond; Senapin, Saengchan; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee

    2014-12-01

    In Thailand, there are currently five recognized species members of the bubble-nesting Betta genus, namely Betta splendens, B. smaragdina, B. imbellis, B. mahachaiensis and B. siamorientalis. In 2010, we indicated the possibility, based on COI barcoding evidence, that there might be two additional species, albeit cryptic, related to the type-locality B. smaragdina in some provinces in the northeast of Thailand. In the present study, after a more extensive survey of the northeast, and phylogenetic analyses based on COI and ITS1 sequences, the B. smaragdina group may be composed of at least 3 cryptic species members. The phylogenetic positions of these B. smaragdina group members in the bubble-nesting bettas' tree together with those of their congeners have been consolidated by better DNA sequence quality and phylogenetic analyses. With a better supported tree, the species statuses of B. siamorientalis and the Cambodian B. smaragdina-like fish, B. stiktos, are also confirmed.

  16. Dynamics and cytochemistry of oogenesis in Leporinus striatus Kner (Teleostei, Characiformes, Anostomidae from the Rio Sapucaí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    Helena A.S. Chini

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Oogenesis involves a sequense of transformations which are undergone by female germ cells. These cells change into oogonias and then into mature oocytes. Sexually mature females were collected monthly, during one year, from the Rio Sapucaí, tributary of the Rio Grande, which is part of the Furnas Reservoir system in the state of Minas Gerais. The observed material showed that oogonias were small spherical cells, had a big spherical nucleus, with a single nucleolus, and weakly stained cytoplasm with eosinophilic granules (FG stained, which indicate their protein content. The primary oocytes showed a big basophilic nucleus, with a large peripheral nucleolus, and several smaller nucleoli. They show a reduced cytoplasmic content. The previtellogenic oocytes presented voluminous cytoplasm and nucleus with several small peripheral nucleoli. The oocytes underwent vitellogenesis with the development of the zona radiata and the follicle cells. The zona radiata had two layers, the outer and the inner, which showed its protein content when stained with CM and FG techniques. TB pH 2.5 and pH 4.0 staining showed that oocytes undergoing vitellogenesis presented weakly stained cytoplasm and peripheral cytoplasmic vesicles. The follicle cells that were squamous became cuboidal. In mature oocytes, the yolk granules that filled the cytoplasm became green and blue when stained with FG and CM techniques, indicating their protein content. The perivitclline region showed rosy stained vesicles (TB pH 2.5 and pH 4.0 spread among the weakly stained peripheral vesicles, which seemed to be the cortical alveoli. The zona radiata cells, CM and FG stained, still showed two layers like the oocytes from the previous stage, but thicker.

  17. Resurrection of Pareiorhaphis Miranda Ribeiro, 1918 (Teleostei: Siluriformes: Loricariidae, and description of a new species from the rio Iguaçu basin, Brazil

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    Edson H. Lopes Pereira

    Full Text Available A new species of the loricariid subfamily Neoplecostominae is described on the basis of specimens obtained from the headwaters of the rio Iguaçu basin in the State of Paraná, southern Brazil. Pareiorhaphis parmula is the first representative of the genus discovered from the rio Paraná basin and expands the geographic distribution of the genus. It is diagnosed from other Pareiorhaphis species by having one small plate on each side of the pectoral girdle, just posterior to the gill opening and the club-shaped pectoral-fin spine, broadening from base to tip in adult males. All species formerly included in Hemipsilichthys except H. gobio, H. papillatus, and H. nimius are transferred to the genus Pareiorhaphis, which is resurrected from the synonymy of Hemipsilichthys.

  18. Some aspects of branchial parasitism in Leuciscus cephalus(Teleostei, Cyprinidae: first record of Lamproglena compacta(Cyclopoida, Lernaeidae in Romania

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    Mala-Maria Stavrescu-Bedivan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper records for the first time the presence of the crustacean copepod Lamproglena compacta in the branchial microhabitat of the cyprinid species Leuciscus cephalus that elongs to a lotic Romanian ecosystem. Also, we discuss the affinity for fixing site on gill filaments, the observations being sustained by the t Student statistic test.

  19. Distinguishing between incomplete lineage sorting and genomic introgressions: complete fixation of allospecific mitochondrial DNA in a sexually reproducing fish (Cobitis; Teleostei, despite clonal reproduction of hybrids.

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    Lukas Choleva

    Full Text Available Distinguishing between hybrid introgression and incomplete lineage sorting causing incongruence among gene trees in that they exhibit topological differences requires application of statistical approaches that are based on biologically relevant models. Such study is especially challenging in hybrid systems, where usual vectors mediating interspecific gene transfers--hybrids with Mendelian heredity--are absent or unknown. Here we study a complex of hybridizing species, which are known to produce clonal hybrids, to discover how one of the species, Cobitis tanaitica, has achieved a pattern of mito-nuclear mosaic genome over the whole geographic range. We appplied three distinct methods, including the method using solely the information on gene tree topologies, and found that the contrasting mito-nuclear signal might not have resulted from the retention of ancestral polymorphism. Instead, we found two signs of hybridization events related to C. tanaitica; one concerning nuclear gene flow and the other suggested mitochondrial capture. Interestingly, clonal inheritance (gynogenesis of contemporary hybrids prevents genomic introgressions and non-clonal hybrids are either absent or too rare to be detected among European Cobitis. Our analyses therefore suggest that introgressive hybridizations are rather old episodes, mediated by previously existing hybrids whose inheritance was not entirely clonal. Cobitis complex thus supports the view that the type of resulting hybrids depends on a level of genomic divergence between sexual species.

  20. Higher and lower-level relationships of the deep-sea fish order Alepocephaliformes (Teleostei: Otocephala) inferred from whole mitogenome sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jan Yde; Møller, Peter Rask; Lavoué, Sébastien

    2009-01-01

    Fishes of the order Alepocephaliformes, slickheads and tubeshoulders, constitute a group of deep-sea fishes poorly known in respect to most areas of their biology and systematics. Morphological studies have found alepocephaliform fishes to display a mosaic of synapomorphic and symplesiomorphic...... are alepocephaliforms and unambiguously aligned sequences were subjected to partitioned maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses. Results from the present study support Alepocephaliformes as a genetically distinct otocephalan order as sister clade to Ostariophysi (mostly freshwater fishes comprising Gonorynchiformes...

  1. Ancyrocephalidae (Monogenea) of Lake Tanganyika: does the Cichlidogyrus parasite fauna of Interochromis loocki (Teleostei, Cichlidae) reflect its host’s phylogenetic affinities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pariselle, A.; Van Steenberge, M.; Snoeks, J.; Volckaert, F.A.M.; Huyse, T.; Vanhove, M.P.M.

    2015-01-01

    The faunal diversity of Lake Tanganyika, with its fish species flocks and its importance as a cradle and reservoir of ancient fish lineages seeding other radiations, has generated a considerable scientific interest in the fields of evolution and biodiversity. The Tropheini, an endemic Tanganyikan ci

  2. [Hyphessobrycon taphorni and H. eschwartzae (Teleostei: Characidae) two new species of fish in the basin of Madre de Dios river, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Alzate, Carlos A; Romin-Valencia, César; Ortega, Hernán

    2013-06-01

    Hyphessobrycon with 129 valid species, is a genus of fish that has a great diversity of species in the Neotropical ichthyofauna, reaches its greatest diversity in the Amazon basin with about 70% of these species, is highly desired by hobbyists because of their beauty and color, and are still meeting new species. We analyzed specimens from the Departamento de Ictiología, Museo de Historia Natural de la Universidad Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú (MUSM); and measurements of the specimens were taken point to point with digital calipers. Observations of bone and cartilage structures were made on cleared and stained (C&S) samples. The morphometric relationships between species using 21 variables were explored using a principal component analysis (PCA). Here we describe two new species, Hyphessobrycon taphorni and H. eschwartzae from the Madre de Dios River drainage, Peru. Hyphessobrycon taphorni sp. n. can be distinguished by the number of dorsal-fin rays (iii, 8), by the number of: pored lateral-line scales (4-5), teeth in the outer premaxillary row (1-2), teeth in the inner premaxillary row (7-8), by: the caudal-peduncle length (11.4-16.4% SL), number of lateral scales (28-29, except from H. loretoensis which has 29-30) and absence of a humeral spot (vs. present), it differs from H. loretoensis by the number of: scales between the lateral line and the anal fin origin (4 vs. 3) and maxillary teeth (2 vs. 3-4), and it differs from H. agulha by the number of branched pectoral-fin rays (11-12 vs. 9-10). Hyphessobrycon eschwartzae sp. n. is distinguished by the number of: simple anal-fin rays (iv), teeth on the dentary (13-15), teeth in the inner premaxillary row (6), teeth in the outer premaxillary row (3, except from H. heterorhabdus and H. loretoensis which have 3-4); it differs from H. loretoensis by the number of: pored lateral-line scales (7 vs. 9-10), scales between the lateral line and the dorsal-fin origin (5 vs. 3-4); it differs from H. agulha in the number of lateral scales (30-31 vs. 33-34), by the number of: predorsal scales (9 vs. 10), maxillary teeth (4 vs. 0-1); in having in life a red lateral stripe above the dark lateral stripe that extends from the posterior part of the opercle to the caudal peduncle (vs. absent) and by the presence of bony hooks in mature males only on the anal fin (vs. hooks on all fins, including the caudal).

  3. Combining geometric morphometrics with molecular genetics to investigate a putative hybrid complex: a case study with barbels Barbus spp. (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, M F; Schreiner, C; Delmastro, G B; Herder, F

    2016-03-01

    This integrative study examined the morphological and genetic affinities of three endemic barbel species from Italy (brook barbel Barbus caninus, Italian barbel Barbus plebejus and horse barbel Barbus tyberinus) and of putative hybrid specimens to their species of origin. Two of the species frequently occur together with the non-native barbel Barbus barbus. DNA barcoding indicates that mitochondrial (mt) haplotypes often do not match the species expected from morphology. Linear distance measurements and meristics are not informative for discrimination of the species and putative hybrids, but a discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC) of geometric landmark data produces reassignments largely in congruence with mt and nuclear genetic data. Cyto-nuclear conflicts confirm the presence of hybridization in B. plebejus and B. tyberinus and identify additional introgressed specimens. A comparison between mixed genotypes and their morphology-based assignment reveals no predictable pattern. The finding that most individuals of the morphologically similar B. plebejus and B. tyberinus have very high assignment probabilities to their respective species suggests that the presented approach may serve as a valuable tool to distinguish morphologically very similar taxa.

  4. First insights into the diversity of gill monogeneans of ‘Gnathochromis’ and Limnochromis (Teleostei, Cichlidae in Burundi: do the parasites mirror host ecology and phylogenetic history?

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    Nikol Kmentová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Monogenea is one of the most species-rich groups of parasitic flatworms worldwide, with many species described only recently, which is particularly true for African monogeneans. For example, Cichlidogyrus, a genus mostly occurring on African cichlids, comprises more than 100 nominal species. Twenty-two of these have been described from Lake Tanganyika, a famous biodiversity hotspot in which many vertebrate and invertebrate taxa, including monogeneans, underwent unique and spectacular radiations. Given their often high degrees of host specificity, parasitic monogeneans were also used as a potential tool to uncover host species relationships. This study presents the first investigation of the monogenean fauna occurring on the gills of endemic ‘Gnathochromis’ species along the Burundese coastline of Lake Tanganyika. We test whether their monogenean fauna reflects the different phylogenetic position and ecological niche of ‘Gnathochromis’ pfefferi and Gnathochromis permaxillaris. Worms collected from specimens of Limnochromis auritus, a cichlid belonging to the same cichlid tribe as G. permaxillaris, were used for comparison. Morphological as well as genetic characterisation was used for parasite identification. In total, all 73 Cichlidogyrus individuals collected from ‘G.’ pfefferi were identified as C. irenae. This is the only representative of Cichlidogyrus previously described from ‘G.’ pfefferi, its type host. Gnathochromis permaxillaris is infected by a species of Cichlidogyrus morphologically very similar to C. gillardinae. The monogenean species collected from L. auritus is considered as new for science, but sample size was insufficient for a formal description. Our results confirm previous suggestions that ‘G.’ pfefferi as a good disperser is infected by a single monogenean species across the entire Lake Tanganyika. Although G. permaxillaris and L. auritus are placed in the same tribe, Cichlidogyrus sp. occurring on G. permaxillaris is morphologically more similar to C. irenae from ‘G.’ pfefferi, than to the Cichlidogyrus species found on L. auritus. Various evolutionary processes, such as host-switching or duplication events, might underlie the pattern observed in this particular parasite-host system. Additional samples for the Cichlidogyrus species occuring on G. permaxillaris and L. auritus are needed to unravel their evolutionary history by means of (co-phylogenetic analyses.

  5. Use of dynamic occupancy models to assess the response of Darters (Teleostei: Percidae) to varying hydrothermal conditions in a southeastern United States tailwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, C.P.; Bettoli, Phillip William; Potoka, K. M.; Saylor, C. F.; Shute, P. W.

    2015-01-01

    During the past 100 years, most large rivers in North America have been altered for flood control, hydropower, navigation or water supply development. Although these activities clearly provide important human services, their associated environmental disturbances can profoundly affect stream-dwelling organisms. We used dynamic multi-species occupancy models combined with a trait-based approach to estimate the influence of site-level and species-level characteristics on patch dynamic rates for 15 darter species native to the Elk River, a large, flow-regulated Tennessee River tributary in Tennessee and Alabama. Dynamic occupancy modelling results indicated that for every 2.5 °C increase in stream temperature, darters were 3.94 times more likely to colonize previously unoccupied stream reaches. Additionally, large-bodied darter species were 3.72 times more likely to colonize stream reaches compared with small-bodied species, but crevice-spawning darter species were 5.24 times less likely to colonize previously unoccupied stream reaches. In contrast, darters were 2.21 times less likely to become locally extinct for every 2.5 °C increase in stream temperature, but high stream discharge conditions elevated the risk of local extinction. Lastly, the presence of populations in neighbouring upstream study reaches contributed to a lower risk of extinction, whereas the presence of populations in neighbouring downstream study reaches contributed to higher rates of colonization. Our study demonstrates the application of a trait-based approach combined with a metapopulation framework to assess the patch dynamics of darters in a regulated river. Results from our study will provide a baseline for evaluating the ecological consequences of alternative dam operations.

  6. Variation of growth-related values within age  categories and sexes in a pumpkinseed ?Lepomis gibbosus (Linnaeus 1758, (Teleostei, Centrarchidae - population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina F. Radu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors propose an evaluation of a species invasion efficacy by means of comparing different methods of evaluating growth (increase in weight and length or body condition (Fulton body condition indices, the value of relative weight ? Le Cren, several combinations of relations between body weight and length or any other liniar values, as height, volume and mathematically determined body density. The values obtained from data collecting and observations were organised into three age groups and divided by sexes, highlighting the cases where a semnificant correlation between these values and the age and/or sex parameters was observed. It is supposed that a growth model which invests in rapidly achieveing sexual maturity, by an intensive body development, will be more efficient than a slow, lengthy one.

  7. Population structure and reproduction of Deuterodon langei travassos, 1957 (Teleostei, Characidae in a neotropical stream basin from the Atlantic Forest, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Ricardo Simões Vitule

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of the biology of D. langei were studied at different sites along a longitudinal gradient formed by the Ribeirão stream basin, a Neotropical stream of the Atlantic Forest, southern Brazil. Differences were observed in population structure and reproduction along the longitudinal gradient and during the study period. Juvenile fishes occurred in high abundance, mainly in the downstream site after the rainy months. Adults occurred mainly in the intermediate and upstream sites. During their life cycle, adults optimise their reproductive strategy by concentrating the reproductive period with total spawn in a short time interval before summer rains dragged the juvenile, larval forms and/or eggs downstream. The downstream site was characterized by a wide range of microhabitats (ex. submerged grass and shallow flooded area. Thus, the species used different portions of the basin in distinct stages of its life, being ecologically adapted to variation patterns in its temporal and physical environments.Aspectos da biologia de D. langei foram estudados em diferentes locais da bacia do rio Ribeirão, um riacho litorâneo da Floresta Atlântica do sudeste do Brasil. Foram observadas diferenças na estrutura da população e na reprodução, ao longo do gradiente longitudinal da bacia e do período de estudo. Os peixes juvenis ocorreram em grande abundância, principalmente no trecho a jusante da bacia, após os meses mais chuvosos. Adultos ocorreram principalmente nos trechos intermediários e a montante. Não houve diferença significativa na relação sexual entre os locais amostrados, estações do ano, meses e classes de comprimento. O comprimento médio de primeira maturação (L50 foi o mesmo para machos e fêmeas, entre 6,1 e 7,0 cm de comprimento total (Lt. O período reprodutivo foi curto (entre o final da primavera e início do verão, antes dos meses mais chuvosos, com desova total. O Índice de Atividade Reprodutiva (IAR indicou que D. langei reproduz em toda a bacia, porém a atividade reprodutiva é mais intensa nos trechos mais a montante da bacia. O período chuvoso e as chuvas torrenciais se mostraram fatores abióticos muito importantes para a dinâmica da população. Durante seu ciclo de vida os adultos maximizam sua estratégia reprodutiva concentrando o período reprodutivo, com desova total em um curto espaço de tempo antes das chuvas de verão que carregam juvenis, formas larvais e/ou ovos para as regiões a jusante onde existe uma ampla quantidade de micro-ambientes (gramíneas submersas e áreas rasas e calmas. Desta forma a espécie estudada utilizou diferentes porções da bacia em distintos estágios de seu ciclo de vida, demonstrando estar ecologicamente adaptada às variações temporais e físicas do ambiente.

  8. The Afro-Asian labeonine genus Garra Hamilton, 1822 (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) in the Pliocene of Central Armenia: Palaeoecological and palaeobiogeographical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyan, Davit; Carnevale, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Fossil skeletal remains of the Afro-Asian labeonine genus Garra are described on the basis of more than 300 specimens from the Pliocene diatomites of Jradzor, Central Armenia. Extant species of the genus Garra exhibit a wide distribution ranging from China, South Asia, and Borneo, through Middle East, the Arabian Peninsula, and Africa, where these fishes inhabit a variety of freshwater biotopes. The Pliocene fossils from the Jradzor site provide the first evidence of Garra in the fossil record. The inadequate preservation of the available material did not allow a detailed taxonomic attribution at the species level. Remains of Garra sp. were found associated to a moderately diverse assemblage, which includes also remains of additional freshwater fishes (Capoeta sp., Leuciscus cf. souffia, Leuciscus sp.), amphibians (Pelophylax cf. ridibundus), and large mammals (Rhinocerotidae indet.), as well as of monocotyledon plants. According to the diatom flora, the diatomites of Jradzor can be assigned to the Pliocene and were deposited in a freshwater lacustrine setting that was characterized by high productivity, eutrophic conditions, and standing macrophyte vegetation along the littoral zone. The presence of abundant resorptive pharyngeal teeth suggests that the Pliocene palaeolake of Jradzor was characterized by resident populations of Garra. Extant species of this genus are currently absent in the freshwaters of Armenia. The record of the genus Garra from Jradzor suggests that the Araks-Kura River drainage was connected, at least in part, with the Euphrates and Tigris River drainage during the Pliocene. The extinction of Garra (and other thermophilous taxa) from Araks and Kura River drainage was probably due to Plio-Pleistocene tectonic uplift of the Armenian Highland and consequent progressive climate cooling.

  9. Monogènes parasites de Clariidae (Teleostei, Siluriformes au Cameroun : I. Description de deux nouvelles espèces du genre Gyrodactylus dans le bassin du Nyong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nack J.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available L’étude des parasites branchiaux et cutanés de trois espèces de Poissons du genre Clarias : C. camerunensis, C. jaensis et C. pachynema pêchés dans le bassin du Nyong (Cameroun a révélé la présence de deux espèces nouvelles de Monogènes du genre Gyrodactylus Nordmann : G. camerunensis n. sp. et G. nyongensis n. sp parasites de Clarias camerunensis, C. jaensis et C. pachynema. Gyrodactylus camerunensis n. sp. se sépare aisément de G. nyongensis n. sp. par la taille plus faible des pièces sclérifiées du hapteur. Ces deux nouvelles espèces se distinguent aussi des Gyrodactylus africains les plus proches, G. rysavyi, G. clarii et G. alberti par la morphologie et la taille des sclérites du hapteur. L’étude de leur spécificité montre qu’elle est du type stenoxène (mesosténoxène.

  10. Rapid rates of sperm DNA damage after activation in tench (Tinca tinca: Teleostei, Cyprinidae) measured using a sperm chromatin dispersion test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Fernández, Carmen; Gage, Matthew J G; Arroyo, Francisca; Gosálbez, Altea; Larrán, Ana M; Fernández, José L; Gosálvez, Jaime

    2009-08-01

    Spermatozoal haplotypic DNA is prone to damage, leading to male fertility problems. So far, the assessment of sperm DNA breakage has been challenging because protamines render the nuclear chromatin highly compacted. Here, we report the application of a new test to quantify DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa of an externally fertilizing teleost fish. The sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) test uses a species-specific lysing solution to generate controlled protein depletion that, followed by DNA-specific fluorescent labelling, allows an easy morphological discrimination between nuclei affected by DNA damage. Using tench (Tinca tinca) as our model, we first trialled the test against established, but more technically demanding, assays employing in situ nick translation (ISNT) and the comet assay. The SCD test showed high concordance with ISNT, comet assay measures and a chromatin-swelling test, confirming the application of this straightforward SCD technique to various aspects of reproductive biology. Second, we examined between-male variation in DNA damage, and measured changes through time following spermatozoal activation. Between-male variation in the basal levels of average DNA damage ranged from 0 to 20% of sperm showing damage, and all showed increases in DNA fragmentation through time (0-60 min). The rates of DNA damage increase are the fastest so far recorded in sperm for a living organism, and may relate to the external fertilization mode. Our findings have relevance for broodstock selection and optimizing IVF protocols routinely used in modern aquaculture.

  11. Infrapopulations of Procamallanus elatensis Fusco & Overstreet, 1979 (Nematoda: Camallanidae) in the rabbitfish Siganus rivulatus (Teleostei, Siganidae) from the Saudi coast of the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jahdali, Mohammed O

    2012-09-01

    Factors regulating gastrointestinal nematode infrapopulations are to a great extent density-dependent. Here, 23 natural infrapopulations (41-281 individuals) of the viviparous nematode Procamallanus elatensis (Camallanidae) from the fish Siganus rivulatus were found distributed in a well-defined fundamental niche (posterior 55% of the intestine). Immature worms were mostly found in the anterior third of this niche, while mature worms were found in aggregations posterior to them and followed by gravid females in the posterior 20% of the intestine. This distribution strongly suggests that worms migrate towards the posterior intestine while they mature, copulate and reproduce. In small infrapopulations, the sex ratios were distinctly female-biased and the number of gravid females was low. In large infrapopulations, the sex ratios were distinctly male-biased and the number of gravid females was high. However, the mean lengths of both immature males and females and mature females decreased dramatically as the infrapopulation size increased, while those of mature males increased significantly. These results strongly suggest intraspecific competition and density-dependent regulation of mean worm length, and the increase in the mean length of mature males strongly suggests intense sexual selection and competition between mature males. Production of larvae by female worms decreased significantly as the infrapopulation size increased, suggesting a density-dependent reduction in female worm fertility. The results are statistically significant and strongly suggest that infrapopulation self-regulation is through density-dependent mechanisms, in which development of immature worms, infrapopulation size, sex ratio, sexual selection and carrying capacity of the fundamental niche play essential roles in shaping and regulating the infrapopulations.

  12. Infrapopulations of Gyliauchen volubilis Nagaty, 1956 (Trematoda: Gyliauchenidae) in the rabbitfish Siganus rivulatus (Teleostei: Siganidae) from the Saudi coast of the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jahdali, M O

    2012-08-01

    In hermaphroditic helminth parasites, infrapopulation size or mating group size mostly affects some processes acting within the infrapopulation. Here, 30 natural infrapopulations (12-154 individuals) of the intestinal trematode Gyliauchen volubilis Nagaty, 1956 from the fish Siganus rivulatus consisting of newly excysted juveniles, immature and mature worms were found distributed in a well-defined fundamental niche (anterior 40% of the intestine). In small infrapopulations, all stages of the parasite were alive. In larger infrapopulations, differential mortality was only and consistently observed among newly excysted juveniles, and gradually increased to include most or all juveniles in the largest infrapopulations. Among mature worms, the mean worm length seemed unaffected by the infrapopulation size. However, the ratio mean testis size-mean ovary size, a reliable indicator of resource allocation to the male function and of opportunities for cross fertilization, significantly increased with mating group size. In small infrapopulations, all stages of the parasite were scattered along the niche, and never seen in mating pairs (possibly reproduced by self-fertilization). In larger infrapopulations, newly excysted juveniles and immature worms were scattered along the anterior two thirds of the niche, while mature worms were constantly found aggregated in its posterior third (narrow microhabitat), where some were arranged in mating pairs. The probability of mating reciprocally or unilaterally was dependent on body size. The mean number of uterine eggs per worm significantly decreased and their mean sizes significantly increased with mating group size. The results are statistically significant and suggest that infrapopulation self-regulation is greatly associated with its size.

  13. Quantitative analysis of crypt cell population during postnatal development of the olfactory organ of the guppy, Poecilia reticulata (Teleostei, Poecilidae), from birth to sexual maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettini, Simone; Lazzari, Maurizio; Franceschini, Valeria

    2012-08-01

    Crypt cells are one of three types of olfactory sensory neuron, differing from ciliated and microvillar cells in shape, localization and number, and found only in fish. Although crypt cells are morphologically well characterized, their function remains unclear. They were hypothesized to be involved in reproductive behaviours by detecting sex pheromones, but electrophysiological investigations revealed sensitivity to only amino acids. However, the number of crypt cells in adult guppies is not the same in the two sexes. In this study, we compared the size of the crypt cell population in juvenile guppies during the first 90 days after birth. The purpose of our study was to clarify whether a correlation exists between sex and the number of these olfactory neurons. The data show that guppies reach adult crypt cell density when they become sexually mature. Despite a constant increment in volume during development of the olfactory organ, the minimum density of crypt neurons occurs at ~45 days. Moreover, in the early weeks, the density of crypt neurons is greater in males than in females because in females the total number of cells decreases significantly after just 7 days. In adults, however, crypt neurons are found in higher density in females than in males. These findings suggest that the number of crypt cells is sex specific, with independent developmental dynamics between males and females. A role in pheromone detection could explain such a difference, but the early appearance of crypt cells in the first days of life is suggestive of other, not sexually related, functions.

  14. Female choice by electric pulse duration: attractiveness of the males' communication signal assessed by female bulldog fish, Marcusenius pongolensis (Mormyridae, Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machnik, Peter; Kramer, Bernd

    2008-06-01

    In adult males of the South African weakly electric bulldog fish, Marcusenius pongolensis, the duration of the electric organ discharge (EOD) increases with body size over lifetime. Although there is experimental support for intrasexual selection (male-male competition) having shaped the males' EOD pulse duration in evolution, nothing is known about intersexual selection, such as female choice. Playback of 25 natural male EODs of pulse duration varying from 320 micros (close to the average female value) to 716 micros, to eight female experimental subjects elicited approach, head butts and circling behaviour. The rate of head butts on the dipole electrode model increased significantly with stimulus pulse duration in seven out of eight experimental subjects. In ten experimental female subjects we contrasted the shortest playback pulse with simultaneous playback of one of four longer ones (424, 524, 628 and 716 micros). Pooled responses for all experimental subjects were stronger for the dipole playing back the longer pulse in a pulse pair. The difference in the number of head butts (Deltahead butts) that were dealt the two dipoles per 60 s test session increased significantly with the difference in pulse duration (Deltapulse duration). The increase followed a significant linear trend (P<0.0001). Similar results were obtained for Deltaassociation time, Deltacircles with head butts, and Deltacircles without head butts. These results suggest that a male's reproductive success is enhanced by longer, i.e. more attractive EODs, and that both intra- and intersexual selection must have played a significant role in shaping the EOD of male M. pongolensis.

  15. A new genus and species of blind sleeper (Teleostei: Eleotridae) from Oaxaca, Mexico: First obligate cave gobiiform in the Western Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Stephen J.; Chakrabarty, Prosanta

    2016-01-01

    Caecieleotris morrisi, new genus and species of sleeper (family Eleotridae), is described from a submerged freshwater cave in a karst region of the northern portion of the State of Oaxaca, Mexico, Río Papaloapan drainage, Gulf of Mexico basin. The new species represents the first cave-adapted sleeper known from the Western Hemisphere and is one of only 13 stygobitic gobiiforms known worldwide, with all others limited in distribution to the Indo-Pacific region. The new taxon represents a third independent evolution of a hypogean lifestyle in sleepers, the others being two species ofOxyeleotris (O. caeca and O. colasi) from New Guinea and a single species, Bostrychus microphthalmus, from Sulawesi. Caecieleotris morrisi, new species, is distinguished from epigean eleotrids of the Western Atlantic in lacking functional eyes and body pigmentation, as well as having other troglomorphic features. It shares convergent aspects of morphology with cave-dwelling species of Oxyeleotris and B. microphthalmus but differs from those taxa in lacking cephalic pores and head squamation, among other characters. Description of C. morrisi, new species, brings the total number of eleotrid species known from Mexico to 12. Seven of these, including the new species, occur on the Atlantic Slope.

  16. Willy Wonka pole pedofiil / Alar Niineväli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niineväli, Alar

    2005-01-01

    Tim Burtoni mängufilm "Charlie ja šokolaadivabrik" Roald Dahli samanimelise raamatu järgi : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2005. Võrreldud sama raamatu 1971.a. ekraniseeringuga "Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory" : režissöör Mel Stuart

  17. Morfologia e hábitos alimentares de duas espécies de Engraulidae (Teleostei, Clupeiformes na Baía de Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro Morphology and feeding habits of two engraulid fish (Teleostei, Clupeiformes in the Baía de Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro

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    Sandra Sergipensel

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados as hábitos alimentares dos peixes engraulídeos Anchoa januaria e Cetengraulis edentulus na Baía de Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro, de julho de 1983 a julho de 1985. Os itens alimentares e as estruturas morfológicas relacionadas à alimentação indicaram que a área superficial dos rastros branquiais de A. januaria e C. edentulus é mais eficiente para a filtração dos alimentos, do que as distâncias entre os mesmos. Estas estruturas morfológicas possibilitam uma seletividade no tamanho dos itens alimentares, resultando em formas distintata de obtenção do alimento, entre as duas espécies. A. januaria seleciona o zooplâncton, por captura dos itens alimentares, enquanto C. edentuluss é um fitoplanctófago filtrador. Anchoa januaria tem hábitos alimentares diurnos e explgra diferentes estratos da coluna d'água durante os períodos frio e quente.Feeding habits of the engraulidid flsh - Anchoa januaria and Cetengraulis edentullus were studied in the Baía de Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro, from July 1983 to July 1985. Dietary items and morphological structures "blted to feeding indicate that the surface structures of branchial rays of A. januaria and C. edentulus are more useful for food filtration than the distance between them. Those morphological structures provide a separation of the size of dietary items, thw resoltins in different forms of feeding behaviors between two species. A. januaria is a selective zooplanktivore, picking up food items, whereas C. edentulus is a filtering phytaplanktivore. Anchoa januaria is a diurnal feeder and exploits different layers in the water column during the warm and cold seasons.

  18. Anatomia e histologia gastrintestinal da garoupa-verdadeira Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834 (Teleostei, Serranidae - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i4.4462 Dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834 (Teleostei, Serranidae gastrintestinal anatomy and histology - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i4.4462

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    José Roberto Machado Cunha da Silva

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A garoupa-verdadeira (Epinephelus marginatus é uma espécie de serranídeo com grande importância ecológica e boas perspectivas para o cultivo. A investigação da morfologia do trato digestório, associada à atividade alimentar, é fundamental para a compreensão da biologia dessa espécie e premissa básica para pesquisas sobre requerimentos nutricionais, desenvolvimento de rações e práticas adequadas de manejo alimentar. O presente trabalho descreve a anatomia e, por meio da microscopia de luz, as variações histológicas ao longo do tubo digestório de juvenis de Epinephelus marginatus, correlacionando a histologia de cada seguimento com as respectivas funções e o hábito alimentar. Verificou-se que essa espécie possui elevado número de tipos celulares ao longo do tubo digestório que estão intimamente relacionados com a resposta imunológica inata e adaptativa, permitindo o hábito alimentar detritívoro.The dusky grouper (Epinephelus marginatus is a serranida species with great ecological importance and good perspectives for rearing. The investigation of the digestive tract morphology associated to the feeding activity is essential for the understanding of the biology of this species and a basic premise for research on feed requirements, feed development and appropriate feeding methods. The present study describes the anatomy and histological variations along the digestive tract of Epinephelus marginatus juveniles associating the histology with function and feeding habit. It was verified that this species possesses a high number of different cellular types along the digestive tube intimately related with the innate and adaptative immunological responses.

  19. Oportunismo alimentar de Knodus moenkhausii (Teleostei, Characidae: uma espécie abundante em riachos do noroeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Feeding opportunism of Knodus moenkhausii (Teleostei, Characidae: an abundant species in streams of the northwestern in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Mônica Ceneviva-Bastos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a biologia alimentar de Knodus moenkhausii (Eigenmann & Kennedy, 1903 em riachos do Alto rio Paraná no Estado de São Paulo. Em oito riachos (R1-R8, K. moenkhausii se alimentou de 18 itens, dos quais algas, ninfas de efemerópteros e larvas de dípteros foram os itens autóctones mais freqüentes e dominantes; fragmentos de insetos terrestres, himenópteros e aranhas foram os itens alóctones mais freqüentes e dominantes. No riacho R2, K. moenkhausii apresentou dieta distinta dos demais riachos, principalmente em função da profundidade, tipo de substrato e da presença de vegetação ripária. No riacho R9, amostrado mensalmente durante um ano, foram identificados 15 itens, dos quais insetos terrestres predominaram ao longo do ano; larvas de dípteros e algas foram pouco expressivas nos períodos de dezembro-janeiro (período mais quente e chuvoso e junho-julho (período mais frio e seco. No riacho R9 foram realizadas observações subaquáticas durante mergulho livre, onde observamos a cata de itens na coluna d'água junto do substrato, da vegetação submersa e na superfície da água. A elevada variedade de itens consumidos - condicionada às variações do hábitat e sazonais - e a prática de diversas táticas nos permitem considerar K. moenkhausii uma espécie oportunista quanto ao uso dos recursos alimentares. Este oportunismo aparentemente se reflete na abundância da espécie, demonstrando boa capacidade em alocar parte significativa de sua energia à reprodução, mesmo em ambientes fisicamente impactados por ação antrópica.In the present investigation we studied the feeding biology of Knodus moenkhausii (Eigenmann & Kennedy, 1903 in streams of the Upper Paraná river system in the state of São Paulo. In eight streams (R1-R8, K. moenkhausii consumed 18 items, of which algae, ephemeropteran nymphs, and dipteran larvae were the most frequent and dominant autochthonous items, as were terrestrial insects, hymenopterans, and spiders regarding allochthonous items. In the R2 stream, K. moenkhausii showed distinct diet, mostly due to depth, substrate type, and presence of riparian vegetation. In the R9 stream (monthly sampled for one year, 15 items were consumed, of which terrestrial insects predominated all year round; dipteran larvae and algae were least relevant during December-January (hot and wet period and June-July (cold and dry period, respectively. During snorkeling observations in this stream, we recorded individuals performing drift feeding, picking at relatively small preys close to the substrate and submerged vegetation, and surface picking. The large diversity of consumed items - conditioned to habitat and seasonal variations - and the diversity of feeding tactics allow us to consider K. moenkhausii a rather opportunistic fish species. Such opportunism apparently reflects on the species abundance, showing its ability to allocate a significant part of its energy to reproduction, even in physically impacted habitats by human actions.

  20. The genus Basilichthys (Teleostei: Atherinopsidae revisited along its Chilean distribution range (21° to 40° S using variation in morphologyand mtDNA El género Basilichthys (Teleostei: Atherinopsidae analizado a lo largo de su distribución en Chile (21° a 40° S, utilizando rasgos morfológicos y variabilidad del ADN mitocondrial

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    DAVID VÉLIZ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available There is still doubt as to the number of species of the freshwater Chilean ichthyofauna, 64 % of which have conservation problems. One of the groups is that of the silversides of the genus Basilichthys. Three morphological species of this genus have been described in Chile with disjoint distributions: Basilichthys semotilus, B. microlepidotus and B. australis; the latter two overlap in distribution only in the Aconcagua River and are not easily distinguishable by morphological and meristic characters. In order to evaluate the efficacy of identification of these species by molecular techniques, we analyzed the sequence of 9 % of the mitochondrial DNA (Control Region and COI of individuals from the Loa River (21°41' S to the Valdivia River (39°50' S, adding meristic features for B. microlepidotus and B. australis in order to study population variation to clarify the taxonomy of the native species of the genus. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the individuals of Basilichthys semotilus form an haplogroup separated from the other species of the genus; however, B. australis and B. microlepidotus form a monophyletic group that shares the most common haplotypes. An analysis of meristic information showed no statistically significant differences in the number of lateral line scales or number of rays in the fins between B. microlepidotus and B. australis. These results do not support the current classification for the latter two species; there appears to be one group in the extreme north of the country (Basilichthys semotilus and a second group in central Chile which should be called B. microlepidotus. This information will be useful to review the conservation status of the Chilean fauna.Si bien aún existen dudas sobre el número de especies descritas en el país, se reconoce que el 64 % de la ictiofauna dulceacuícola chilena se encuentra en alguna categoría de peligro de conservación. Uno de los grupos categorizados como vulnerable y en peligro de extinción es el de los pejerreyes del género Basilichthys. A lo largo Chile, este género posee tres especies morfológicas con distribución disjunta: Basilichthys semotilus, B. microlepidotus y B. australis. Las dos últimas sobreponen su distribución en el río Aconcagua y no son fácilmente diferenciables morfológicamente. Para evaluar la eficacia en la identificación de estas especies al utilizar marcadores moleculares, se analizó el 9 % del ADN mitocondrial (Región Control y COI de organismos obtenidos desde el río Loa (21°41' S al río Valdivia (39°50' S y adicionando un análisis merístico en organismos pertenecientes a las especies B. microlepidotus y B. australis. El análisis filogenético muestra que los individuos de B. semotilus forman un haplogrupo separado de las otras especies del género, sin embargo, B. australis y B. microlepidotus serían parte de un mismo grupo monofilético. Un segundo análisis, el cual incluye información merística, no muestra diferencias estadísticas significativas en la cantidad de escamas de la línea lateral, y número de rayos en las aletas entre B. microlepidotus y B. australis. Estos resultados no sustentan la clasificación actual, separando claramente un grupo presente en el extremo norte del país (B. semotilus y un segundo grupo en Chile central el cual debería ser llamado B. microlepidotus. Esta información será importante para revisar el estado de conservación de la ictiofauna chilena.

  1. Development of fingerlings of Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyannus, Vallencienes (1849 (Teleostei: characidae in tanks fertilized with organic manures/ Desenvolvimento de juvenis de Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyannus, Vallencienes (1849 (Teleostei: characidae em tanques experimentais fertilizados com adubação orgânica

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    Carmino Hayashi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to study the development of Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus in tanks under differents organic fertilizers. The experiment, entirely randomized, was accomplished in 16 tanks of 1000 liters, fertilized with manures of bovine (BOV, pigs (SUI, chickens (FRG and others without fertilizer (SAO, using 15 fish/m3 with an initial average weight and length of 10,87+0,31 g e 9,78+0,07 cm. After 30 days, the experiment showed a uniform development of the fish and high survival rate in thestudied density. The treatments presented significant statistical differences (PO objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o desenvolvimento de juvenis de Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus, em tanques com adubações orgânicas. O experimento, inteiramente casualizado, foi realizado em 16 tanques de 1000 litros, adubados com estercos de bovinos (BOV, suínos (SUI, frangos de corte (FRG e outros sem adubação (SAO, utilizando 15 peixes/m3 com peso e comprimento médios iniciais de 10,87+0,31 g e 9,78+0,07 cm. Após 30 dias, o experimento mostrou um desenvolvimento uniforme dos peixes e alta taxa de sobrevivência na densidade estudada. Os tratamentos apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significativas (p < 0,05 para ganho de peso e crescimento diário, com exceção dos tratamentos BOV e SUI quando comparados entre si. A temperatura e o oxigênio dissolvido foram os fatores abióticos que exerceram maior influência sobre a biota aquática, afetando o desenvolvimento dos peixes. Entre o fitoplâncton houve maior abundância de organismos nanoplanctônicos favorecendo o desenvolvimento do zooplâncton, destacando-se as clorófitas, com o gênero Scenedesmus, e as cianofíceas, com o gênero Microcystis, e entre o zooplâncton, a maior abundância foi de rotíferos dos gêneros Brachionus e Keratella, seguido por copépodas. O tratamento adubado com esterco de frangos possibilitou um maior desenvolvimento da comunidade planctônica, e melhores resultados quanto ao desenvolvimento dos peixes, demonstrando a importância do alimento natural na sua dieta.

  2. Morfologia e crescimento do músculo estriado esquelético no pirarucu Arapaima gigas Cuvier, 1817 (Teleostei, Arapaimidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i2.3640 Morphology and skeletal muscle growth in pirarucu Arapaima gigas Cuvier, 1817 (Teleostei, Arapaimidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.3640

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    Maeli Dal Pai Silva

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as características morfológicas e de crescimento do músculo estriado esquelético no pirarucu (Arapaima gigas. Foram utilizados animais em duas fases de crescimento: alevinos, com 50 dias de idade, e juvenis, com um ano de idade. Após eutanásia dos animais, fragmentos musculares das regiões dorsal, lateral cranial e lateral caudal foram coletados e congelados em nitrogênio líquido. Cortes histológicos (10 µm foram submetidos às colorações HE e Tricrômico de Gomori, para a análise morfológica, e NADH-TR, para a análise do metabolismo oxidativo das fibras musculares. Foi calculado o menor diâmetro das fibras musculares brancas nas regiões dorsal e lateral cranial. A musculatura dorsal branca mostrou-se mais desenvolvida e, na musculatura lateral, observaram-se compartimentos distintos: superficial vermelho e profundo branco. Nos alevinos, o crescimento muscular ocorreu predominantemente por hiperplasia das fibras e, nos juvenis, predominou o crescimento muscular por hipertrofia.The aim of this work was to evaluate the morphological and growth characteristics of skeletal muscle tissue in pirarucu (Arapaima gigas using alevins (50 days old and juveniles (1 year old. Muscle samples were collected from dorsal, lateral cranial, and lateral caudal regions, and then frozen in liquid nitrogen. Histological frozen sections (10 µm were stained with HE and Gomori Trichrome for morphological analysis, and NADH-TR to evaluate muscle fiber oxidative metabolism. Morphometric analysis samples were obtained from dorsal and lateral cranial regions, and smallest diameter white fibers were measured. White dorsal muscle was thicker and two muscle fiber compartments were identified in the lateral cranial region: red (superficial and white (deep muscle. Hyperplasia muscle growth predominated in alevins and hypertrophy in juveniles.

  3. Biologia reprodutiva de Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest, 1823 (Teleostei, Sciaenidae: 1. fator de condição como indicador do período de desova The reproductive biology of Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest, 1823 (Teleostei, Sciaenidae: 1. condition factor as an indicator of spawning period

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    Victoria Judith Isaac-Nahum

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available A analise temporal da freqüência de estádios de maturação de 102 fêmeas adultas coletadas entre fevereiro de 1979 e janeiro de 1980 na região de Ubatuba, litoral norte do Estado de São Paulo, mostra que M. funieri, nessa área, apresenta três desovas durante o ano: uma no outono (abril-junho, outra no inverno (agosto-setembro e uma terceira na primavera-verão (novembro-fevereiro. Essa sugestão e reforçada pelas flutuações de K (fator de condição considerando-se o peso das gonadas e K' (sem considerar o peso das gonadas, durante um ciclo reprodutivo. Os valores máximos de K e K' coincidem com os picos de ocorrencia de indivíduos com gonadas maturas (C e, os mínimos, com os de indivíduos com gonadas esvaziadas (D, A diferença entre K e K' (AR estima a "condição da gonada" apresentando seus máximos nos períodos de mais intensa atividade dos ovários, contituindo-se, assim, o valor de AK em um índice indireto de maturidade e dos períodos de desova de M. funieri.The monthly analysis of maturity stage frequency of adult females caught monthly at the Ubatvíba region, SP, from February 1979 to January 1980, suggests that M. funieri spaws three times ayear: Autumn (April-June , Winter (August-Sept ember and Spring-Summer (November-February. Condition factor fluctuations estimated with andwithout gonads K and K' during a reproductive cycle reinforces hypothesis0 K and K' maximum values relate precisely with higher frequency periods of a females at advanced stages of maturity (C. On the other hand, K and K' minimum values are concomitant with higher frequency periods of spent females (D. Although K and K' have a similar evolution, there are some periods in which ΔK (K-K' appears higher: May, August-September and November. These periods are also related to the maximum frequency of females in stage C. As AX estimes the "gonad condition", establishing the periods when the gonad attains the maximum weight in relation to body weight, and so the more advances of maturity stages, it can be used as a maturity and breeding season index.

  4. Ocorrência e distribuição de Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier (Teleostei, Engraulidae na Laguna de Itaipu, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Ocurrence and distribution of Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier (Teleostei, Engraulidae in the Itaipu lagoon, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Doti Gay

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier, 1828 was collected in Laguna de Itaipu, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, between february 1990 and january 1992. The analisys of spacial-seasonal occurence and biomass of C. edentulus (n=2843 showed the predominance of these species in cold time (april to sepetember in muddy sediment, with little depth and turbid water. This species was frequent in Laguna de Itaipu during the two years study, being more abundant in cold time. The biomass of C. edentulus was high in cold time too.

  5. Desarrollo de la sagitta en juveniles y adultos de Odontesthes argentinensis (Valenciennes, 1835 y O. bonariensis (Valenciennes, 1835 de la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina (Teleostei: Atheriniformes Development of the sagitta in young and adults of Odontesthes argentinensis (Valenciennes, 1835 and Odontesthes bonariensis (Valenciennes, 1835 from Buenos Aires province, Argentina (Teleostei: Atheriniformes

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    ANDREA D TOMBARI

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describió el desarrollo del otolito Sagitta de juveniles y adultos de Odontesthes argentinensis procedentes de Punta Rasa (36°22' S y Miramar (38°16' S y de Odontesthes bonariensis de la Laguna de Chascomús (35° 36' S. Se estudió, la morfología de las sagittae de ambas especies, analizando cuatro grupos morfológicos para O. argentinensis (I: 75-120 mm, II: 130-220 mm, III: 230-270 y IV: 280-320 mm y tres grupos morfológicos para O. bonariensis (I: 80-120 mm, II: 130-220 y III: 230-320 mm. Las características morfológicas comunes a la sagitta, de ambas especies, en los grupos estudiados son: presencia de sulcus, depresión areal dorsal en la cara medial, cara lateral con estrías y la presencia de un punto culminante en el borde dorsal. En la sagitta de O. argentinensis, la depresión areal dorsal se inicia ligada a la cauda, característica que permitió distinguir claramente entre otolitos de juveniles de ambas especies. A partir del estado adulto, la depresión areal dorsal se halla separada de la cauda en las dos especies y el análisis estadístico evidenció un crecimiento discontinuo. Se hallaron diferencias morfológicas entre pares de sagitta de un mismo individuo en cuanto a la forma del ostium, presencia de cisura, rostro y punto culminante, aunque no se halló significancia morfométricaThe development of the otolith sagitta was described in young and adults of two silverside species. Odontesthes argentinensis was collected from Punta Rasa (36°22' S and Miramar (38°16' S and, Odontesthes bonariensis collected from Laguna de Chascomús (35°36' S. Sagitta morphology was studied in both species, analyzing four morphological groups of O. argentinensis (I: 75-120 mm, II: 130-220 mm, III: 230-270 mm and IV: 280-320 mm and three morphological groups of O. bonariensis (I: 80-120 mm, II: 130-220 mm and III: 230-320 mm. The morphological features of the sagitta shared by both species are: sulcus present, dorsal areal depression on the medial face, lateral face with striations and the presence of the culminant point on the dorsal margin. The dorsal areal depression of O. argentinensis begins in contact with the cauda. This feature easily identifies the sagittae of young in both species. The dorsal areal depression is separated from the cauda in adults of both species, and the statistical analysis showed a discontinuous growth. Morphological differences were found between pairs of sagittae of the same specimen relating to the shape of the ostium, presence of an anterior excisure, rostrum and the culminant point, but no significant morphometric difference was found

  6. Võimsate isiksuste paraad New Yorgis / Tanel Veenre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veenre, Tanel, 1977-

    2010-01-01

    Marina Abramobići (Serbia) näitus "The Artist is Present" ja William Kentridge'i (Lõuna-Aafrika) söejoonistuste ja animatsioonide näitus "Five themes" MoMa-s (Museum of Modern Art). Tim Burtoni (USA) fotolavastuste, joonistuste ja installatsioonide näitus ning Agnolo Bronzino (1503-1572, Itaalia) joonistuste väljapanek Metropolitan Museumis

  7. Does foraging mode affect metabolic responses to feeding? A study of pygopodid lizards

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    Michael WALL, Michael B. THOMPSON, Richard SHINE

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Foraging mode (ambush vs. active profoundly affects many aspects of organismal biology, including metabolic rates and their relationship with food intake. Previous studies on snakes suggest that ambushers tend to have lower standard metabolic rates (SMR and higher energetic costs of digestion and assimilation of prey (specific dynamic action, or SDA than do active foragers. However, phylogenetic considerations may be at least partly responsible for such patterns, as foraging mode is strongly conserved evolutionarily and most SDA studies have focused on species from only two lineages of ambush foragers (pythonid and viperid snakes and one lineage of active foragers (colubrid snakes. We sought to deconfound the effects of phylogeny and foraging mode, investigating SMR and SDA in two closely related pygopodid lizards, the common scaly-foot Pygopus lepidopodus (active forager and Burton’s legless lizard Lialis burtonis (ambush forager. Consistent with the pattern seen in snakes, L. burtonis exhibits a significantly lower SMR and a higher SDA than does P. lepidopodus. The magnitude of SDA in L. burtonis is comparable to that of some pythons and vipers, providing yet more evidence for the remarkable convergence between this species and ambush-foraging snakes [Current Zoology 59 (5: 618–625, 2013]. 

  8. A new distributional record of alligator pipefish, Syngnathoides biaculeatus (Bloch, 1785) along Goa, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sanaye, S.V.; Rivonker, C.U.; Ansari, Z.A.; Sreepada, R.A.

    by Morton B., (Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press) (1998), pp. 307–319. 38 Teixeira R L & Musick J A., Reproduction and food habits of the lined seahorse, Hippocampus erectus (Teleostei: Syngnathidae) of Chesapeake Bay, Virginia. Rev Braz Biol., 61...

  9. QTL for body weight, morphometric traits and stress response in European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massault, C.; Hellemans, J.; Louro, B.; Batargias, C.; Houdt, van I.S.; Canario, A.; Volckaert, F.A.M.; Bovenhuis, H.; Haley, C.S.; Koning, de D.J.

    2010-01-01

    Natural mating and mass spawning in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L., Moronidae, Teleostei) complicate genetic studies and the implementation of selective breeding schemes. We utilized a two-step experimental design for detecting QTL in mass-spawning species: 2122 offspring from natura

  10. Fish remains from Miocene beds of Višnja vas near Vojnik, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Šoster

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses fossil teeth of sharks (Elasmobranchii, Neoselachii and porgies (Teleostei, Sparidae fromthe Miocene glauconite sandstones of Vi{nja vas near Vojnik. The remains of fish teeth, mostly tooth crowns, belongto cartilaginous fishes of the genera Notorynchus, Carcharias, Carcharoides, Isurus and Cosmopolitodus and to abony fish genus Pagrus.

  11. The barbs of Lake Tana, Ethiopia: morphological diversity and its implications for taxonomy, trophic resource partitioning, and fisheries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelkerke, L.A.J.

    1997-01-01

    The rediscovery of a unique species flock of cyprinid fish, its taxonomy and its feeding-biology are described. Fourteen species of barbs (Barbus spp, Cyprinidae, Teleostei) were found in highland (1800 m) Lake Tana, in northwestern Ethiopia. Lake Tana is an isolated fresh-water system, because its

  12. Ocorrência e caracterização ultra-estrutural de nuage durante a ovogênese e o início da espermatogênese de Piractus mesopotamicus Holmberg, 1887 (Teleostei)

    OpenAIRE

    Abdalla,F. C.; Cruz-Landim, C.

    2004-01-01

    Foi investigada a ocorrência e caracterizada ultra-estruturalmente a eliminação de material nuclear eletrondenso (nuage) para o citoplasma durante a ovogênese e durante os estágios iniciais da espermatogênese de Piaractus mesopotamicus, um peixe do Pantanal Matogrossense de ciclo reprodutivo sazonal. Constataram-se nas células germinativas femininas dois momentos de eliminação desse material, na ovogônia e no ovócito em fase perinucleolar. Nas células masculinas, material com morfologia e com...

  13. Ligophorus species (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae) from Mugil cephalus (Teleostei: Mugilidae) off Morocco with the description of a new species and remarks about the use of Ligophorus spp. as biological markers of host populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hafidi, Fouzia; Rkhami, Ouafae Berrada; de Buron, Isaure; Durand, Jean-Dominique; Pariselle, Antoine

    2013-11-01

    Gill monogenean species of Ligophorus Euzet et Suriano, 1977 were studied from the teleost Mugil cephalus Linneaus (Mugilidae) from the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts of Morocco. We report the presence of L. mediterraneus from both the Mediterranean and Atlantic coast and L. cephali and L. maroccanus sp. n. from the Atlantic coast only. The latter species, which is described herein as new, resembles L. guanduensis but differs from this species mainly in having a shorter penis compared to the accessory piece, a proportionally longer extremity of the accessory piece and a less developed heel. The utility of Ligophorus spp. as markers of cryptic species of the complex M. cephalus is discussed in the context of species diversity and geographical distribution of these monogeneans on this host around the world. Presence of different species of Ligophorus on M. cephalus sensu stricto from the Atlantic and Mediterranean coast of Morocco demonstrates the usefulness of these species as fine resolution markers of genetic populations of their host, which are known to inhabit those coasts.

  14. A New Rhinogobius Species from Zhejiang Province, China(Teleostei: Gobiidae)%中国浙江省吻虾虎鱼属一新种(鲈形目:虾虎鱼科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李帆; 钟俊生

    2007-01-01

    描述分布于浙江省武义县武义江的吻虾虎鱼1新种,定名为武义吻虾虎鱼(Rhinogobius wuyiensis).该虾虎鱼在头部斑纹上与雀斑吻虾虎鱼(R.lentiginis)相近,但有如下特征可区别于相近种:具眼肩胛骨管及前鳃盖管(vs.无任何感觉管孔);椎骨数10+16=26(vs.27);臀鳍分支鳍条7-9(vs.6-7);头部斑点大小不等且不规则,常呈线状交织(vs.具规则的小圆斑);鳃盖条部内侧无斑点(vs.密布小点).

  15. 福建吻虾虎鱼属一新种(鲈形目,虾虎鱼科)%A NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS RHINOGOBIUS FROM FUJIAN PROVINCE, CHINA (TELEOSTEI, GOBIIDAE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李帆; 钟俊生; 伍汉霖

    2007-01-01

    描述分布于福建省福州市北峰溪流中的一吻虾虎鱼新种,定名为网纹吻虾虎鱼Rhinogobius reticulates sp.nov..该虾虎鱼与R.mekongianus和R.nammaensis在头部斑纹上相似,但具有区别于此两种吻虾虎鱼的特征:纵列鳞27~29(平均27.7);椎骨数26~27(平均26.5);成体眼肩胛骨管通常于眼窝后具有两个感觉管孔ω和ω1;鳃盖条部具8~13条红色网状条纹;眼下缘具1红棕色条纹;全身密布黑褐色细点;体侧无斑块.

  16. Description of Poecilia (Acanthophacelus) wingei n. sp. from the Paría Peninsula, Venezuela, including notes on Acanthophacelus Eigenmann, 1907 and other subgenera of Poecilia Bloch and Schneider, 1801 (Teleostei, Cyprinodontiformes, Poeciliidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poeser, F.N.; Kempkes, M.; Isbrücker, I.J.H.

    2005-01-01

    The taxonomy of the common guppy, Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859, is reviewed and the closely related Campoma guppy, P. wingei n. sp., is described. Formerly, the common guppy was not judged to be closely related to any other species of Poecilia, but the new species is the second species to be all

  17. Allozyme analysis of the four species of Hypostomus (Teleostei: Loricariidae from the Ivaí river, upper Paraná river basin, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i4.16355

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    Suzana de Paiva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Allozyme electrophoresis analysis were performed in four species of Hypostomus (Loricariidae, H. albopunctatus, H. hermanni, H. regani, e Hypostomus sp. 1/NUP 5612 from the Ivaí river, a tributary of the upper Paraná river. The study of 14 loci revealed diagnostic characters and exclusive alleles in a low frequency. The heterozygosity ranged from 0.000 in H. albopunctatus to 0.199 in H. hermanni, which was higher than the heterozygosity in other samples of Hypostomus in literature, as well as in other fish groups. Hypostomus albopunctatus and H. regani revealed higher similarity (I = 0.804, while H. hermanni and Hypostomus sp. 1/NUP 5612 showed the least genetic identity (I = 0.569. All samples were genetically distinguished, despite there were several shared alleles. The FST value was 0.671, showing a high genetic differentiation among the samples. Hypostomus sp. 1/NUP 5612 was genetically distinguished from the three congeners by the loci Adh-A and G3pdh-B and by present rare exclusive alleles in other six enzymatic systems.

  18. The gynogenetic reproduction of diploid and triploid hybrid spined loaches (Cobitis: Teleostei), and their ability to establish successful clonal lineages--on the evolution of polyploidy in asexual vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janko, Karel; Bohlen, Jörg; Lamatsch, Dunja; Flajshans, Martin; Epplen, Jörg T; Ráb, Petr; Kotlík, Petr; Slechtová, Vera

    2007-10-01

    Polyploidisation is assumed to have played a significant role in the evolution of hybrid asexual lineages. The virtual absence of natural asexual systems in which more than a single ploidy level successfully establishes successful independent clonal lineages is generally explained by the strong effects of polyploidisation on fitness. Experimental crosses were made between diploid and triploid asexual Cobitis elongatoides x C. taenia hybrids (female) and both parental spined loach species (male). Genotyping of the progeny using allozymes and multilocus DNA fingerprinting, along with flow cytometric measurement of ploidy level, demonstrated the occurrence of gynogenetic reproduction in both female biotypes. The incorporation of the sperm genome occurred in some progeny, giving rise to a higher ploidy level, but the rate of polyploidisation differed significantly between the diploid and triploid females. These outcomes are consistent with the existence of developmental constraints on tetraploidy, which determine the rarity of tetraploids in natural populations. No cases of ploidy level reduction were observed. Since diploid and triploid hybrid populations occur where the lack of potential progenitor excludes the possibility of de novo origin, it is probable that both diploid and triploid females can establish successful clonal lineages. Spined loaches represent a unique example, among asexual vertebrates, where more than one ploidy level can establish persistent clonal lineages, which are reproductively independent of one another.

  19. OFER GON, YUN-CHIH LIAO & SHAO KWANG-TSAO (2015)  A new species of the cardinalfish genus Jaydia (Teleostei: Apogonidae) from the Philippines. Zootaxa, 3980 (2): 286-292.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gon, Ofer; Liao, Yun-Chih; Kwang-Tsao, Shao

    2015-08-31

    Table 1, catalogue number of holotype: replace ASIZP 68202 with PNM 15192. Table 1, catalogue number of 34.9 mm paratype: replace CAS 236506 with USNM 435707. Table 1, catalogue number of 46.5 mm paratype: replace CAS 236506 with SAIAB 200712

  20. Two new species of Ergasilus Nordmann, 1832 (Copepoda: Ergasilidae) and a redescription of Ergasilus salmini Thatcher & Brazil-Sato, 2008 from Salminus brasiliensis Cuvier and S. franciscanus Lima & Britsky (Teleostei: Characidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Taísa Mendes; Boeger, Walter A; de Carvalho Brasil-Sato, Marília

    2015-01-01

    Three species of Ergasilus Nordmann, 1832 are reported from the gills of Salminus spp. in Brazil. Ergasilus salmini Thatcher & Brazil-Sato, 2008 from Salminus brasiliensis Cuvier is redescribed, based on examination of paratypes. The study revealed morphological differences from the original description, especially in the morphology of the cephalothorax and the ornamentation of antenna, antennule and legs. Ergasilus lacusauratus n. sp. described from S. brasiliensis in lake Lagoa Dourada (Paraná) differs from the only known species from this host group, E. salmini, in the shape and size of the cephalothorax and the general morphology of the egg-sacs. Ergasilus sinefalcatus n. sp. from S. franciscanus Lima & Britsky in River São Francisco (Minas Gerais) closely resembles E. pitalicus, E. coatiarus and E. leporinidis in the lack of a pectinate seta on the first exopodal segment, a feature common in species of Ergasilus in the Neotropics. Ergasilus sinefalcatus n. sp. differs from these species in the presence of a spiniform process on the coxae of legs 2, 3 and 4, an ornament never reported from freshwater species of Ergasilus in South America.

  1. Genetic variability in Oligosarcus paranensis (Teleostei: Characiformes from the São Francisco river, Ivaí river basin – Paraná State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i3.14179

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Rocha dos Santos

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The genetic variability of Oligosarcus paranensis was estimated from a population collected in São Francisco river, Prudentópolis county in Paraná State (Brazil using the electrophoresis in starch gel technique. Eleven enzymatic systems were analyzed: Aspartate aminotransaminase (AAT; E. C. 2.6.1, Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; E. C. 1.1.1.1, Esterase (EST; E. C. 3.1.1.1, Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI; E. C. 5.3.1.9, Glycerol-3-Phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH; E. C. 1.1.1, Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH; E. C. 1.1.1.42, L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; E. C. 1.1.1.27, Malate dehydrogenase (MDH; E. C. 1.1.1.37 , Malate dehydrogenase NADP (ME; E. C. 1.1.1.40, Phosphoglucomutase (PGM; E. C. 5.4.2.2 and Sorbitol dehydrogenase (SORB; E.C. 1.1.1.14. Twenty loci were identified through 15% corn starch gel electrophoresis of which nine (45% were polymorphic. The average expected heterozygosity was estimated as 0.1229 ± 0.1728, and the observed was 0.0586 ± 0.1069, indicating high genetic variability. The average value of FIS = 0.5145 indicates homozygote excess.  

  2. Population Structure, Genetic Diversity, Effective Population Size, Demographic History and Regional Connectivity Patterns of the Endangered Dusky Grouper, Epinephelus marginatus (Teleostei: Serranidae), within Malta’s Fisheries Management Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the genetic population structure and demographic history of the endangered marine fish, Epinephelus marginatus, within Malta’s Fisheries Management Zone for the purpose of localised conservation planning. Epinephelus marginatus is a long-lived, sedentary, reef-associated protogynous hermaphrodite with high commercial and recreational value that is at risk of extinction throughout its global distribution. Based on global trends, population substructuring and gaps in local knowledge this has led to an increased interest in evaluation of local stock. Assessment of Maltese demography was based on historical and contemporary catch landings data whilst genetic population structure and regional connectivity patterns were evaluated by examining 175 individuals collected within the central Mediterranean region between 2002 and 2009 using 14 nuclear microsatellite loci. Demographic stock assessment of Maltese E. marginatus’ revealed a 99% decline in catch landings between 1947 and 2009 within the Fisheries Management Zone. A contemporary modest mean size was observed, 3 ± 3 kg, where approximately 17% of the population was juvenile, 68% female/sex-changing and 15% were male with a male-to-female sex ratio of 1:5. Genetic analysis describes the overall population of E. marginatus’ within the Fisheries Management Zone as decreasing in size (ƟH = 2.2), which has gone through a significant size reduction in the past (M = 0.41) and consequently shows signs of moderate inbreeding (FIS = 0.10, p < 0.001) with an estimated effective population size of 130 individuals. Results of spatially explicit Bayesian genetic cluster analysis detected two geographically distinct subpopulations within Malta’s Fisheries Management Zone and that they are connected to a larger network of E. marginatus’ within the Sicily Channel. Results suggest conservation management should be designed to reflect E. marginatus’ within Malta’s Fisheries Management Zone as two management units. PMID:27463811

  3. Extraction of genomic DNA from solid tissues of teleostei fish/ Extração de DNA genômico em tecidos sólidos de peixes teleósteos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Gasparino

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The object of this work was to extract the genomic DNA of solid tissue from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus, piau (Leporinus sp. and curimba (Prochilodus lineatus, using the methods Proteinase K (PK and Cetyltrimethylammiun Bromide (CTAB. The DNA extractedfrom samples of liver, kidney, tail fin, heart, muscle and gills were quantified in spectrophotometer to determine the concentration and purity through the ratio A260nm/A280nm. The data were statistically analyzed and there were no significant effect of interaction between species and tissues about the purityand concentration of the DNA obtained with CTAB, but for the PK there were interaction about the concentration. Using the CTAB method was verified that the mean quantity of DNA in the curimbakidney was significantly (pO objetivo desse trabalho foi extrair o DNA genômico de tecidos sólidos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus, piau (Leporinus sp. e curimba (Prochilodus lineatus, utilizando os métodos Proteinase K (PK e Brometo de Cetiltrimetilamônio (CTAB. O DNA extraído das amostras de fígado, rim, nadadeira caudal, coração, músculo e brânquias foi quantificado em espectrofotômetro para determinação da concentração e da pureza por meio da razão A260nm/A280nm. Os dados foram estatisticamente analisados e não se observou efeito significativo para a interação entre espécies e tecidos em relação à pureza e concentração do DNA obtido a partir do CTAB, porém para PK houve interação em relação à concentração. Utilizando o método CTAB verificou-se que a concentração média de DNA no rim de curimba foi significativamente (p < 0,05 inferior (106,98 ?g/mL à observada em pacu (1727,90 ?g/mL, porém não diferiram das encontradas em piau (497,20 ?g/mL e tilápia (234,50 ?g/ mL. Para o método PK, a concentração média de DNA utilizando o músculo de tilápia do Nilo apresentou o menor valor (117,35 ?g/mL em relação aos demais tecidos e espécies analisadas (p < 0,05. A razão A260nm/A280nm variou de 1,7 a 2,0 e 1,6 a 2,1 para os métodos PK e CTAB, respectivamente. Conclui-se que a pureza do DNA foi alcançada nos diferentes tecidos estudados, demonstrando que o método PK pode ser utilizado para essas quatro espécies de peixes.

  4. Genetic and morphological characterisation of a new species of the genus Hysterothylacium (Nematoda from Paralichthys isosceles Jordan, 1890 (Pisces: Teleostei of the Neotropical Region, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Knoff

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the difficulties of taxonomic identification of larval anisakid nematodes based on morphological characters, genetic analyses were performed, together with those usually applied, in order to identify anisakid larvae found in the flounder Paralichthys isosceles from the littoral of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The analysis of 1,820 larvae revealed a new species, similar to Hysterothylacium MD, Hysterothylacium 2, Hysterothylacium KB and Hysterothylacium sp regarding the absence of the larval tooth, an excretory pore situated below the nerve ring level, and slender lateral alae. Moreover, the new species differs from Hysterothylacium fortalezae and Hysterothylacium reliquens with regard to the number and size of spines present on the tail end and from Hysterothylacium patagonicus by the absence of interlabia. The maximum parsimony and neighbour joining tree topologies based on the 18S ribosomal DNA gene, complete internal transcribed spacer region and cytochrome oxidase 2 (COII gene demonstrated that the Brazilian larvae belong to Raphidascarididae and represent a unique genetic entity, confirmed as a new Hysterothylacium species. Furthermore, the new species presents COII genetic signatures and shares polymorphisms with Raphidascarididae members. This is the first description of a new anisakid species from Brazil through the integration of morphological and molecular taxonomy data.

  5. Short notes and reviews Poecilia kykesis nom. nov., a new name for Mollienesia petenensis Günther, 1866, and redescription, revalidation and the designation of a lectotype for Poecilia petenensis Günther, 1866 (Teleostei: Poeciliidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poeser, Fred. N.

    2002-01-01

    Poecilia petenensis Günther, 1866 (= Mollienesia gracilis Regan, 1913) is redescribed and is revalidated from synonymy of P. sphenops Valenciennes, 1846 and a lectotype is designated. Mollienesia petenensis Günther, 1866 is renamed as P. kykesis to avoid homonymy with Poecilia petenensis.

  6. A taxonomic review of the species of CharaxScopoli, 1777 (Teleostei: Characidae: Characinae with description of a new species from the rio Negro bearing superficial neuromasts on body scales, Amazon basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naércio A. Menezes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The species of Charaxwere reviewed by Lucena (1987 who a little later (1989 added three new species to the genus. Examination of recently collected specimens from museum collections documented the more extensive geographic distribution for most species and revealed the existence of a new species in which superficial neuromasts were discovered and are herein described. These skin structures were also detected in C. metae Eigenmann, 1922. Anal- and pelvic-fin hooks previously observed only on the anal-fin of one species of the genus are described herein in some other species. Charax unimaculatus Lucena is considered a junior synonym of C. michaeli Lucena. All the species are redescribed and the new species described.

  7. Dactylogyrids (Monogenoidea) parasitizing the gills of spinefoots (Teleostei: Siganidae): proposal of Glyphidohaptor n. gen., with two new species from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, and G. plectocirra n. comb. from Ras Mohammed National Park, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsky, Delane C; Galli, Paolo; Yang, Tingbao

    2007-02-01

    Nine species of Siganus (Perciformes: Siganidae) were examined for dactylogyrids (Monogenoidea) from the Red Sea, Egypt; the Great Barrier Reef, Australia; and the South China Sea, China. Species of Tetrancistrum were found on siganids from all 3 localities; Pseudohaliotrema spp. were restricted to siganids from the Great Barrier Reef; and species representing Glyphidohaptor n. gen. were found on siganids from the Red Sea and Great Barrier Reef. Siganus argenteus from the Red Sea and Siganus vulpinus from the Great Barrier Reef were negative for dactylogyrid parasites. Glyphidohaptor n. gen. is proposed for 3 species (2 species new to science) and the new species are described: Glyphidohaptor phractophallus n. sp. from Siganus fuscescens from the Great Barrier Reef; Glyphidohaptor sigani n. sp. from Siganus doliatus (type host), Siganus punctatus, Siganus corallinus, and Siganus lineatus from the Great Barrier Reef; and Glyphidohaptor plectocirra (Paperna, 1972) n. comb. (= Pseudohaliotrema plectocirra Paperna, 1972) from Siganus luridus and Siganus rivulatus from the Red Sea.

  8. Comparative sequence analysis of the complete set of 40S ribosomal proteins in the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup and Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L. (Teleostei: Pleuronectiformes: phylogeny and tissue- and development-specific expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cañavate Jose

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ribosomal proteins (RPs are key components of ribosomes, the cellular organelle responsible for protein biosynthesis in cells. Their levels can vary as a function of organism growth and development; however, some RPs have been associated with other cellular processes or extraribosomal functions. Their high representation in cDNA libraries has resulted in the increase of RP sequences available from different organisms and their proposal as appropriate molecular markers for phylogenetic analysis. Results The development of large-scale genomics of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis and Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus, two commercially important flatfish species, has made possible the identification and systematic analysis of the complete set of RP sequences for the small (40S ribosome subunit. Amino acid sequence comparisons showed a high similarity both between these two flatfish species and with respect to other fish and human. EST analysis revealed the existence of two and four RPS27 genes in Senegalese sole and Atlantic halibut, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis clustered RPS27 in two separate clades with their fish and mammalian counterparts. Steady-state transcript levels for eight RPs (RPS2, RPS3a, RPS15, RPS27-1, RPS27-2, RPS27a, RPS28, and RPS29 in sole were quantitated during larval development and in tissues, using a real-time PCR approach. All eight RPs exhibited different expression patterns in tissues with the lowest levels in brain. On the contrary, RP transcripts increased co-ordinately after first larval feeding reducing progressively during the metamorphic process. Conclusion The genomic resources and knowledge developed in this survey will provide new insights into the evolution of Pleuronectiformes. Expression data will contribute to a better understanding of RP functions in fish, especially the mechanisms that govern growth and development in larvae, with implications in aquaculture.

  9. Atividade alimentar diária da cabrinha Prionotus punctatus (Teleostei: Triglidae do litoral de Ubatuba, Brasil Diel feeding of searobin Prionotus punctatus (Telestei: Triglidae from coastal system off Ubatuba, Brazil

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    Lucy Satiko Hashimoto Soares

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se identificar a cronologia alimentar e comparar a composição dos conteúdos estomacais ao longo do dia foram obtidas amostras de Prionotus punctatus na plataforma interna ao largo de Ubatuba (SP, Brasil, durante o ciclo diário em janeiro/87, julho/88 e dezembro/88. As amostras foram obtidas com rede de arrasto de fundo, a intervalos de aproximadamente 3 horas. Através do acompanhamento da freqüência relativa dos graus de repleção, dos indicadores de repleção, do número médio de presas frescas evidenciou-se nitidamente que Prionotus punctatus possui hábito alimentar diurno com tendência vespertina, podendo-se levantar a hipótese de ritmo circadiano na atividade alimentar. A composição dos conteúdos consistiu, principalmente de jovens de siris Portunus spinicarpus no verão (janeiro/87 e dezembro/88, e de jovens de Portunidae e camarões Penaeidea (Sicyonidae e Pleoticus mullen no inverno (julho/88. A composição foi altamente similar durante a fase de atividade alimentar no inverno, enquanto que apresentou variação tanto no verão/87 quanto no verão/88.The feeding habits and the diel feeding periodicity of the searobin Prionotus punctatus were investigated at Ubatuba region (22º30'S in the western South Atlantic. The samples were collected during consecutive 3 h periods over 24 h in January, 1987 and July and December, 1988. The diel feeding activity analysis indicated that Prionotus punctatus was a daytime feeder with afternoon tendency, permitting to bring up the hypothesis of the Orcadian rythm. The main food items were Portunidae crabs in Summer, and Portunidae and Penaeidae shrimps in Winter. The diet composition was very similar during the feeding activity time in Winter (July 1988, whereas it showed some variation in Summer (January 1987 and December 1988.

  10. Remarkable phylogenetic resolution of the most complex clade of Cyprinidae (Teleostei: Cypriniformes): a proof of concept of homology assessment and partitioning sequence data integrated with mixed model Bayesian analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wenjing; Mayden, Richard L; He, Shunping

    2013-03-01

    Despite many efforts to resolve evolutionary relationships among major clades of Cyprinidae, some nodes have been especially problematic and remain unresolved. In this study, we employ four nuclear gene fragments (3.3kb) to infer interrelationships of the Cyprinidae. A reconstruction of the phylogenetic relationships within the family using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian analyses is presented. Among the taxa within the monophyletic Cyprinidae, Rasborinae is the basal-most lineage; Cyprinine is sister to Leuciscine. The monophyly for the subfamilies Gobioninae, Leuciscinae and Acheilognathinae were resolved with high nodal support. Although our results do not completely resolve relationships within Cyprinidae, this study presents novel and significant findings having major implications for a highly diverse and enigmatic clade of East-Asian cyprinids. Within this monophyletic group five closely-related subgroups are identified. Tinca tinca, one of the most phylogenetically enigmatic genera in the family, is strongly supported as having evolutionary affinities with this East-Asian clade; an established yet remarkable association because of the natural variation in phenotypes and generalized ecological niches occupied by these taxa. Our results clearly argue that the choice of partitioning strategies has significant impacts on the phylogenetic reconstructions, especially when multiple genes are being considered. The most highly partitioned model (partitioned by codon positions within genes) extracts the strongest phylogenetic signals and performs better than any other partitioning schemes supported by the strongest 2Δln Bayes factor. Future studies should include higher levels of taxon sampling and partitioned, model-based analyses.

  11. Estudos cariotípicos de peixes da família Sciaenidae (Teleostei Perciformes da região de Cananéia, SP, Brasil: 1. sobre o cariótipo de Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest , 1823 Karyotypical study on fish of family Sciaenidade (Teleostei, Perciformes from the region of Cananéia, SP, Brazil: 1. on the karyotype of Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest, 1823

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    Vicente Gomes

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o cariótipo de Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest, 1823, peixe teleósteo da família Sciaenidae, coletado, na região estuarino-lagunar de Cananéia, SP, Brasil. Foram realizadas preparações de cromossomos mitóticos e meióticos e ensaios de bandamento C e G. O número diplóide encontrado para a espécie foi de 2n = 48 cromossomos tipo t (acrocêntricos, cujos tamanhos variaram entre 3,38 µm e 1,49 µm. O 1º par de homólogos apresenta uma constricção secundária na região proximal ao centrômero. 0 número haplóide encontrado foi de n = 24. 0 conteúdo diploide de DNA foi de 1,24 ± 0,01 picogramas/célula. Não se obteve padrão de bandas G, mas a aplicação da técnica facilitou a identificação de pares adjacentes e a visualização da constricçao secundária. Bandas C localizam-se, principalmente, na região pericentromérica.The chromosomes of Micropogonias furnieri was studied. The diploid number is 48 acrocentric chromosomes and the haploid number is 24. The diploid DNA content of blood cell nucleus was measured. C and G banding techniques were tried.

  12. FEEDING INTERACTION OF THE NON-NATIVE AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus BURCHELL, 1822 IN ITANHÉM RIVER ESTUARY, BAHIA, BRAZIL

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    Leandro Bonesi Rabelo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 214 stomachs of Clarias gariepinus, Centropomus undecimalis and C. parallelus from the Itanhém and Caravelas Rivers, northeastern Brazil, were analyzed to investigate the impact of the non-native species Clarias gariepinus on the Itanhém River food web as compared to that of the adjacent Caravelas River, where this species has not been registered. In Itanhém River, shrimp was the most important food for C. gariepinus, and Teleostei for C. parallelus. In the Caravelas River, Brachyura was the main food item for C. parallelus, and Teleostei for C. undecimalis. There was no food overlap between the species within or between rivers. There is no evidence, in the results of this study, of changes in the diet of the Centropomus parallelus due to the presence of the non-native species.

  13. Contribuição ao conhecimento da ictiofauna do Manguezal de Cacha Pregos, Ilha de Itaparica, Baía de Todos os Santos, Bahia Contribution to knowledge of ichthyofauna of Mangrove Cacha Pregos, Itaparica island, Todos os Santos bay, Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Duarte Lopes

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A check-list of fishes collected in a mangrove in Cacha Pregos, south of ltaparic Island, State of Bahia, Brazil (about 13o07'S,38o48'W from 1988-1989 and 1991-1992 is presented. Fifteen orders, 46 families and 85 species (Teleostei except one Chondrichthyes were identified, represented specimens whose adults live in different marine ecossystems.

  14. Pathological Studies on the Small Intestine of Wild Rabbit Fish (Siganus Rivulatus) Infected by Helminthes Parasite (Procamallanus Sp) in Red Sea Coast Area, Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Salah Eldeen Y.M.H; Omer F. Idris; Murwan K. Sabahelkhier

    2012-01-01

    Wild rabbit fish (Siganus rivulatus) Forsskål (Teleostei, Siganidae) herbivores fish were collected from two sites (Dongnab and Swakin) on Sudanese Red Sea Coast during February 2010 - January 2011 and then examine for helminthes parasites. Microscopic anatomy of intestine with worms and without worms compared to each other. Helminth parasites belong to Procamallanus sp. The abundance of lymphocytes cell, eosinphils, red blood cells and goblet cells in parasitized intestine was significantly ...

  15. Housekeeping genes for quantitative expression studies in the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus

    OpenAIRE

    Becker Sven; Scharsack Joern P; Hibbeler Sascha

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background During the last years the quantification of immune response under immunological challenges, e.g. parasitation, has been a major focus of research. In this context, the expression of immune response genes in teleost fish has been surveyed for scientific and commercial purposes. Despite the fact that it was shown in teleostei and other taxa that the gene for beta-actin is not the most stably expressed housekeeping gene (HKG), depending on the tissue and experimental treatmen...

  16. Preliminary observation on breeding three spotted seahorse, Hippocampus trimaculatus (Leach, 1814), solely fed with wild caught amphipods under ex-situ condition

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murugan, A.; Dhanya, S.; Pawar, H.; Sreepada, R.A.; Rajagopal, S.; Balasubramanian, T.

    the brood pouch which happened in the early morning and late evening period. The young ones are released by repeated process of contraction and relaxation similar to that of mammalian pregnancy. In the present study during each contraction 5 to 20 young ones... (Teleostei: Syngnathidae) of Chesapeake Bay, Virginia. Review Brazilian Biology 61: 79–90. Vincent A C J. 1994. Seahorse exhibit conventional sex roles in mating competition, despite male pregnancy. Behaviour 128: 135–51. ...

  17. Pseudobagrus emarginatus (Regan, 1913), a valid Chinese bagrid species from the upper Yangtze River drainage (Teleostei:Bagridae)%凹尾拟鲿(Pseudobagrus emarginatus)--长江上游中国鲇类一有效种(硬骨鱼纲:鲿科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程建丽; 张鹗; 张建强; 杨德国

    2016-01-01

    对中国鲿科鱼类系统分类学研究中发现,凹尾拟鲿为一不同于细体拟鲿(P. pratti)的有效种,仅分布于长江上游。凹尾拟鲿胸刺前缘光滑无锯齿,颌须较短,后伸不超过胸鳍起点,本属中同时具有这两个特征的还包括18个有效种。在这18个物种中,乌苏里拟鲿(P. ussuriensis)、长脂拟鲿(P. adiposalis)、短尾拟鲿(P. brevicaudatus)和越南拟鲿(P. kyphus)与凹尾拟鲿一样,具有中等分叉的尾鳍。凹尾拟鲿与乌苏里拟鲿和长脂拟鲿的区别在于游离脊椎骨数目和背刺长短等性状上,与短尾拟鲿和越南拟鲿在背刺后缘程度、枕骨棘与项背骨间的间距上存在差异。凹尾拟鲿与细体拟鲿在形态上最为相似,但在体高、背鳍前长、脂鳍高及尾柄高等性状上存在差别。同时,在颅骨、犁骨、项背骨及腰带等骨骼特征上也存在较大差异。%Pseudobagrus emarginatus is here regarded as a species distinct from P. pratti, and known only from the upper Yangtze River basin. It can be assigned to the species group comprising 18 species of Pseudobagrus characterized by having a smooth anterior margin of the pectoral-fin spine and short maxillary barbels not extending to the pectoral-fin insertion. It, along with P. ussuriensis, P. adiposalis, P. brevicaudatus, P. kyphus and P. pratti, differs from all congeners of the group in having a moderately forked caudal fin. Pseudobagrus emarginatus differs from P. ussuriensis and P. adiposalis in the number of vertebrae, dorsal-fin spine length, and P. brevicaudatus and P. kyphus in the structure of dorsal spine, and the presence or absence of the interspace between the supraoccipital process and the nuchal plate. It differs from P. pratti, in body depth, predorsal length, adipose-fin depth and caudal-peduncle depth. Both differ in many osteological characters related to the cranium, vomer, nuchal plate and pelvic girdle.

  18. Análise da estrutura populacional da abrótea-de-profundidade, Urophycis mystacea Ribeiro, 1903 (Teleostei: Phycidade) da região sudeste-sul do Brasil. Morfologia e relação entre isótopos estáveis dos otólitos sagittae

    OpenAIRE

    Cesar Santificetur Romero

    2013-01-01

    Estudos sobre a análise populacional da abrótea-de-profundidade, Urophycis mystacea, uma ferramenta importante para a gestão de estoques, nunca haviam sido realizados. Na presente dissertação, através da análise da distribuição em comprimentos de exemplares coletados ao longo da região sudeste-sul do Brasil, da análise quali-quantitativa das características morfológicas e morfométricas dos otólitos sagittae e da análise das razões de isótopos estáveis dos mesmos, foi avaliada a homogeneidade ...

  19. Construcción de una librería genómica parcial del pez Xiphophorus maculatus (Teleostei: Poeciliidae para la búsqueda de microsatélites (AC/GTn por medio de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR

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    Acosta DF.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo general de la presente investigación fue probar una metodología económica quepermitiera encontrar, y eventualmente identificar y aislar microsatélites (AC/GTn en el genomadel pez Xiphophorus maculatus . Los objetivos específicos de la misma fueron revisar el estadoactual del modelo genómico de Xiphophorus maculatuspara el estudio de melanoma, elaboraruna librería genómica parcial de este organismo para buscar microsatélites (AC/GTn, utilizardirectamente los fragmentos de restricción clonados como material de partida para la reacciónen cadena de la polimerasa (PCR, explorar la utilidad de la PCR para la búsqueda de insertosportadores de loci microsatélites utilizando iniciadores específicos, y por ultimo, evaluar lautilidad de la metodología propuesta en los protocolos de Cooper et al. (1997 y Grist et al.(1993 para el aislamiento de microsatélites.

  20. Feeding of guitarfish Rhinobatos percellens (Walbaum, 1972 (Elasmobranchii, Rhinobatidae, the target of artisanal fishery in Southern Brazil

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    Hugo Bornatowski

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Rhinobatos percellens is one of three species of Rhinobatidae found on Brazilian shores and is one of the most abundant species on the shallow continental shelf of Paraná and Santa Catarina States. Specimens caught by artisanal fishery between July/2001 and March/2003 by fishing communities located on the frontier between two southern Brazilian States (Paraná and Santa Catarina had their stomach contents analyzed. According to the Alimentary Index (IAi, Decapoda (69% and Teleostei (22% were the main items consumed. Polychaeta, a common prey consumed by several benthonic fishes, was poorly represented in the feeding of R. percellens. This fact may be related to the availability of prey in the environment, or to the size of the guitarfish analyzed (ontogeny. Seasonal variance of main preys (with higher IAi was observed: Dendrobranchiata and Pleocyemata displayed higher percentages in spring and autumn, Teleostei in the winter and Brachyura during the summer.Rhinobatos percellens é uma das três espécies de Rhinobatidae encontrada na costa brasileira e uma das espécies de elasmobrânquio mais abundante na plataforma continental dos estados do Paraná e Santa Catarina. Indivíduos capturados pela pesca artesanal entre Julho/2001 e Março/2003 nas comunidades pesqueiras localizadas entre o Paraná e Santa Catarina tiveram seus conteúdos estomacais analisados. O Índice de Importância Alimentar (IAi mostrou que as principais presas consumidas foram Decapoda (69% e Teleostei (22%. Polychaeta, principal presa ingerida por várias espécies de peixes bentônicos foi pouco expressiva na alimentação de R. percellens. Essa diferença pode estar relacionada com a disponibilidade de presas no ambiente ou com o tamanho das raias analisadas (ontogenia. De acordo com análises sazonais, observou-se que os camarões Dendrobranchiata e Pleocyemata foram as principais presas consumidas durante a primavera e outono, Teleostei durante o inverno e Brachyura

  1. LAMPADENA IONICA: A NEW TELEOST FROM THE MEDITERRANEAN PLEISTOCENE

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    ANGELA GIRONE

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The new species Lampadena ionica (Myctophidae, Teleostei is described from lower and middle Pleistocene deposits of Southern Italy. In particular, L. ionica is known from the "large Gephyrocapsa" up to the Pseudoemiliania lacunosa biozone. Apparently the species became extinct before the end of the Pleistocene. Although the genus Lampadena lives only outside the Mediterranean today, it is known from the Mediterranean realm since the early Miocene. L. ionica seems to be the only species of the genus Lampadena existing in Pleistocene deposits of the Mediterranean area.   

  2. Mixed-Up Sex Chromosomes: Identification of Sex Chromosomes in the X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y System of the Legless Lizards of the Genus Lialis (Squamata: Gekkota: Pygopodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovatsos, Michail; Johnson Pokorná, Martina; Altmanová, Marie; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2016-01-01

    Geckos in general show extensive variability in sex determining systems, but only male heterogamety has been demonstrated in the members of their legless family Pygopodidae. In the pioneering study published more than 45 years ago, multiple sex chromosomes of the type X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y were described in Burton's legless lizard (Lialisburtonis) based on conventional cytogenetic techniques. We conducted cytogenetic analyses including comparative genomic hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with selected cytogenetic markers in this species and the previously cytogenetically unstudied Papua snake lizard (Lialis jicari) to better understand the nature of these sex chromosomes and their differentiation. Both species possess male heterogamety with an X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y sex chromosome system; however, the Y and one of the X chromosomes are not small chromosomes as previously reported in L. burtonis, but the largest macrochromosomal pair in the karyotype. The Y chromosomes in both species have large heterochromatic blocks with extensive accumulations of GATA and AC microsatellite motifs. FISH with telomeric probe revealed an exclusively terminal position of telomeric sequences in L. jicari (2n = 42 chromosomes in females), but extensive interstitial signals, potentially remnants of chromosomal fusions, in L.burtonis (2n = 34 in females). Our study shows that even largely differentiated and heteromorphic sex chromosomes might be misidentified by conventional cytogenetic analyses and that the application of more sensitive cytogenetic techniques for the identification of sex chromosomes is beneficial even in the classical examples of multiple sex chromosomes.

  3. Atlas of marine bony fish otoliths (Sagittae of Southeastern - Southern Brazil Part I: Gadiformes (Macrouridae, Moridae, Bregmacerotidae, Phycidae and Merlucciidae; Part II: Perciformes (Carangidae, Sciaenidae, Scombridae and Serranidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lucia Del Bianco Rossi-Wongtschowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The drawings, detailed pictures, precise descriptions and measurements that characterize otoliths must be made available for studies in various areas, including taxonomy, phylogeny, ecology, fisheries, paleontology, diversity, predator-prey relationships and modeling. The Collection of Teleostei Fish Otoliths of Southeastern-Southern Brazil (COSS-Brasil of IOUSP contains 45,000 pairs of otoliths from 210 species. This publication is the first in a series that will constitute an atlas of Teleostei otoliths for southeastern-southern Brazil and presents the results of the morphologic and morphometric analyses of 11 Gadiformes and 36 Perciformes species by means of the most commonly used features, measurements and indices. Three otoliths of each species were illustrated and photographed whenever possible. The frequency of occurrence was calculated for each characteristic by total length classes (TL, and the ontogenetic differences were analyzed (multiple χ2 test; significance 0.05. Morphometric analyses were conducted for each characteristic per total length (TL class and for the whole sample, and the ontogenetic differences were analyzed.

  4. Gonadal maturation and histological observations of the grey triggerfish Balistes capriscus Gmelin, 1789 (Teleostei:Balistidae) in the Gulf of Gabès, Tunisia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hichem Kacem; Lobna boudaya; Lassad Neifar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the spawning activity using gonadosomatic index (GSI) and gonad histology the Balistes capriscus (Teleostei: Balistidae) of the Gulf of Gabès (Southern Tunisia, Central Mediterranean Sea). Methods: The reproductive biology of the species, based on 756 (480 females and 276 males), collected from commercial catches at several fishing ports including Chebba, Kerkennah and Zarzis at respective GPS coordinates (34°14' N, 11°06' E), (34°45' N, 11°17' E), (33°41' N, 11°48' E) was studied over 28 months (January 2008-April 2010) using GSI and gonad histology. Sizes used in this study ranged from 11.30 to 45.60 cm in fork length. Results: Both GSI and gonad histology suggest that spawning activity occurred mainly between July and mid-September with a peak in July, coinciding with summer time. The first maturation occurred at 20.26 cm fork length for females and 21.30 cm fork length for males. The monthly values of hepatosomatic index and condition factor (K) indicated that the liver is the main organ responsible for the mobilization process of the energizing reserves during the sexual cycle. Conclusions: It is the first inventory of gonadal maturation and histological observations of the grey triggerfish Balistes capriscus Gmelin, 1789 (Teleostei: Balistidae) in the Gulf of Gabès, (Southern Tunisia, Central Mediterranean Sea).

  5. How does diet influence the reproductive seasonality of tropical freshwater fish?: A case study of a characin in a tropical mountain river

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    Tania M. Ballesteros

    Full Text Available Seasonal breeding of tropical freshwater fish may be synchronized with periods of high food consumption. We explored this hypothesis by studying the relationship between diet and reproductive activity of Creagrutus guanes (Teleostei, Characidae. Our results showed that C. guanes had a generalist and omnivorous diet dominated by aquatic insects (mainly Diptera larvae and seeds. Creagrutus guanes did not show intersexual or ontogenetic variation in diet. Peaks of feeding activity during rainy months were not synchronized with breeding in dry months. Our results do not support the hypothesis that the reproductive season has to be synchronized with high food consumption. We discussed the hypothesis fat reserves may be an important factor for the desynchronization of peaks of feeding and reproduction as explanation of seasonal breeding of this species.

  6. Diet and food partitioning between juveniles of mutton Lutjanus analis, dog Lutjanus jocu and lane Lutjanus synagris snappers (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) in a mangrove-fringed estuarine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, C R; Joyeux, J-C

    2010-06-01

    Diet of juvenile mutton Lutjanus analis, dog Lutjanus jocu and lane Lutjanus synagris snappers were studied in the tropical Brazilian estuarine system of the Piraquê-açú and Piraquê-mirim Rivers to determine how these species share the resources in this restricted space. The three species prey principally upon Peracarida (L. synagris: relative importance index I(RIc) = 29%), Natantia (L. analis and L. synagris: I(RIc) = 39 and 38%, respectively), Reptantia (L. analis and L. jocu: I(RIc) = 28 and 43%, respectively) and Teleostei (L. jocu: I(RIc) = 24%). The three species use estuaries as nursery habitats but food overlap was not biologically significant due to a combination of interspecific differences in size, spatial distribution, microhabitat preferences and seasonal patterns of abundance and prey choice. Large marine protected areas incorporating essential habitats for all life stages are suggested to be the best tool for the management of these economically important species.

  7. Does habitat complexity influence fish recruitment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. CHEMINÉE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Human activities facilitate coastal habitat transformation and homogenization. The spread of marine invasive species is one example. This in turn may influence fish recruitment and the subsequent replenishment of adult assemblages. We tested habitat complexity effect on fish (Teleostei recruitment by experimentally manipulating meadows of the habitat-forming invasive macroalga Caulerpa taxifolia (Chlorophyta. Among the fourteen fish species recorded during the experiment, only two labrids (Coris julis and Symphodus ocellatus settled in abundance among these meadows. Patterns in the abundance of these juveniles suggested that reduced tri-dimensional meadow complexity may reduce habitat quality and result in altered habitat choices and / or differential mortality of juveniles, therefore reducing fish recruitment and likely the abundance of adults.

  8. The cavefish genome reveals candidate genes for eye loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaugh, Suzanne E.; Gross, Joshua B.; Aken, Bronwen; Blin, Maryline; Borowsky, Richard; Chalopin, Domitille; Hinaux, Hélène; Jeffery, William R.; Keene, Alex; Ma, Li; Minx, Patrick; Murphy, Daniel; O’Quin, Kelly E.; Rétaux, Sylvie; Rohner, Nicolas; Searle, Steve M. J.; Stahl, Bethany A.; Tabin, Cliff; Volff, Jean-Nicolas; Yoshizawa, Masato; Warren, Wesley C.

    2014-01-01

    Natural populations subjected to strong environmental selection pressures offer a window into the genetic underpinnings of evolutionary change. Cavefish populations, Astyanax mexicanus (Teleostei: Characiphysi), exhibit repeated, independent evolution for a variety of traits including eye degeneration, pigment loss, increased size and number of taste buds and mechanosensory organs, and shifts in many behavioural traits. Surface and cave forms are interfertile making this system amenable to genetic interrogation; however, lack of a reference genome has hampered efforts to identify genes responsible for changes in cave forms of A. mexicanus. Here we present the first de novo genome assembly for Astyanax mexicanus cavefish, contrast repeat elements to other teleost genomes, identify candidate genes underlying quantitative trait loci (QTL), and assay these candidate genes for potential functional and expression differences. We expect the cavefish genome to advance understanding of the evolutionary process, as well as, analogous human disease including retinal dysfunction. PMID:25329095

  9. New occurrences of microvertebrate fossil accumulations in Bauru Group, Late Cretaceous of western São Paulo state, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alveş, Y. M.; Bergqvist, L. P.; Brito, P. M.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we present the results of several palaeontological expeditions to four Upper Cretaceous fossil microsites of the Adamantina and Presidente Prudente formations in western São Paulo State, Brazil. Despite the fragmentary condition of the fossils recovered, they represent an important record of vertebrate microremains. The material, recovered through screen washing, comprises teeth and scales of Lepisosteidae; two morphotypes of Halecostomi teeth with similarities to Characiformes and Amiiformes; a Teleostei tooth of molariform shape; fin spines of Siluriformes; teeth of possible Baurusuchidae, Notosuchia (probably Adamantinasuchus or Mariliasuchus), Neosuchia (probably Itasuchus or Goniopholis), and other Mesoeucrocodylia indet.; probable teeth of Abelisauroidea, other Theropoda indet., and a phalanx of Aves. The comparative microvertebrate fossil accumulation from western São Paulo State provides evidence that: 1) floodplain channels accumulate large concentrations of microremains; 2) coarse sandstone privileges enamel tissues like teeth and scales; 3) new vertebrate fossil records have been discovered in Florida Paulista, Alfredo Marcondes, and Alvares Machado outcrops.

  10. A genomic view of the NOD-like receptor family in teleost fish: Identification of a novel NLR subfamily in zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, K.J.; Purcell, M.K.; Winton, J.R.; Hansen, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Background. A large multigene family of NOD-like receptor (NLR) molecules have been described in mammals and implicated in immunity and apoptosis. Little information, however, exists concerning this gene family in non-mammalian taxa. This current study, therefore, provides an in-depth investigation of this gene family in lower vertebrates including extensive phylogenetic comparison of zebrafish NLRs with orthologs in tetrapods, and analysis of their tissue-specific expression. Results. Three distinct NLR subfamilies were identified by mining genome databases of various non-mammalian vertebrates; the first subfamily (NLR-A) resembles mammalian NODs, the second (NLR-B) resembles mammalian NALPs, while the third (NLR-C) appears to be unique to teleost fish. In zebrafish, NLR-A and NLR-B subfamilies contain five and six genes respectively. The third subfamily is large, containing several hundred NLR-C genes, many of which are predicted to encode a C-terminal B30.2 domain. This subfamily most likely evolved from a NOD3-like molecule. Gene predictions for zebrafish NLRs were verified using sequence derived from ESTs or direct sequencing of cDNA. Reverse-transcriptase (RT)-PCR analysis confirmed expression of representative genes from each subfamily in selected tissues. Conclusion. Our findings confirm the presence of multiple NLR gene orthologs, which form a large multigene family in teleostei. Although the functional significance of the three major NLR subfamilies is unclear, we speculate that conservation and abundance of NLR molecules in all teleostei genomes, reflects an essential role in cellular control, apoptosis or immunity throughout bony fish. ?? 2008 Laing et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  11. Influence of season, size and sex on the dynamic of gill metazoan parasite infesting the Balistes capriscus (Teleostei:Balistidae) of the Gulf of Gabès (Tunisia)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hichem Kacem; Lobna boudaya; Lassad Neifar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of season, size and sex on the dynamic of gill metazoan parasite infesting the Balistes capriscus (Gmelin, 1788) (Teleostei: Balistidae) (B. capriscus) of the Gulf of Gabès (Southern Tunisia, Central Mediterranean Sea). Methods: A parasitological survey of the grey triggerfish B. capriscus from the Gulf of Gabès (Southern Tunisia, Central Mediterranean Sea) was conducted monthly from June 2011 to June 2012. A total of 1080 fish were collected from commercial catches by pelagic trawl net at different fishing ports at Chebba (34°14' N, 11°06' E), Kerkennah (34°45' N, 11°17' E) and Zarzis (33°41' N, 11°48' E). The weight, size, sex, date and area of capture of each specimen were recorded. Then, B. capriscus was examined to search for ectoparasites. For each parasite species, parasitological indices were calculated. Results: The parasite species are indentified as two copepods: Naobranchia variabilis, Taneacanthus ballistae and a monogenean: Ancyrocephalus balisticus. The parasitological indices depend significantly on seasonality; the highest prevalence of Naobranchia variabilis, Taneacanthus ballistae and Ancyrocephalus balisticus (28.89%, 35.93% and 55.56%respectively) was recorded during summer season (June–August), while the lowest prevalence of each (6.3%, 4.44%, 8.15%) recorded during winter season (December–February). Furthermore the parasitological indices depend significantly on the host size but not on host sex. Conclusions: Our data suggest that the dynamic of gill metazoan parasite infesting B. capriscus is a result of a complex of biotic and abiotic factors. It is the first study on the effects of season, size and sex on the dynamic of gill metazoan parasite infesting B. capriscus (Teleostei: Balistidae) of the Gulf of Gabès (Southern Tunisia, Central Mediterranean Sea).

  12. A genomic view of the NOD-like receptor family in teleost fish: identification of a novel NLR subfamily in zebrafish

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    Winton James R

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large multigene family of NOD-like receptor (NLR molecules have been described in mammals and implicated in immunity and apoptosis. Little information, however, exists concerning this gene family in non-mammalian taxa. This current study, therefore, provides an in-depth investigation of this gene family in lower vertebrates including extensive phylogenetic comparison of zebrafish NLRs with orthologs in tetrapods, and analysis of their tissue-specific expression. Results Three distinct NLR subfamilies were identified by mining genome databases of various non-mammalian vertebrates; the first subfamily (NLR-A resembles mammalian NODs, the second (NLR-B resembles mammalian NALPs, while the third (NLR-C appears to be unique to teleost fish. In zebrafish, NLR-A and NLR-B subfamilies contain five and six genes respectively. The third subfamily is large, containing several hundred NLR-C genes, many of which are predicted to encode a C-terminal B30.2 domain. This subfamily most likely evolved from a NOD3-like molecule. Gene predictions for zebrafish NLRs were verified using sequence derived from ESTs or direct sequencing of cDNA. Reverse-transcriptase (RT-PCR analysis confirmed expression of representative genes from each subfamily in selected tissues. Conclusion Our findings confirm the presence of multiple NLR gene orthologs, which form a large multigene family in teleostei. Although the functional significance of the three major NLR subfamilies is unclear, we speculate that conservation and abundance of NLR molecules in all teleostei genomes, reflects an essential role in cellular control, apoptosis or immunity throughout bony fish.

  13. Transspecies Transmission of Gammaretroviruses and the Origin of the Gibbon Ape Leukaemia Virus (GaLV and the Koala Retrovirus (KoRV

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    Joachim Denner

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Transspecies transmission of retroviruses is a frequent event, and the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 is a well-known example. The gibbon ape leukaemia virus (GaLV and koala retrovirus (KoRV, two gammaretroviruses, are also the result of a transspecies transmission, however from a still unknown host. Related retroviruses have been found in Southeast Asian mice although the sequence similarity was limited. Viruses with a higher sequence homology were isolated from Melomys burtoni, the Australian and Indonesian grassland melomys. However, only the habitats of the koalas and the grassland melomys in Australia are overlapping, indicating that the melomys virus may not be the precursor of the GaLV. Viruses closely related to GaLV/KoRV were also detected in bats. Therefore, given the fact that the habitats of the gibbons in Thailand and the koalas in Australia are far away, and that bats are able to fly over long distances, the hypothesis that retroviruses of bats are the origin of GaLV and KoRV deserves consideration. Analysis of previous transspecies transmissions of retroviruses may help to evaluate the potential of transmission of related retroviruses in the future, e.g., that of porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs during xenotransplantation using pig cells, tissues or organs.

  14. New or little known demosponges (Porifera from Espírito Santo coast and seamounts (Brazil

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    Eduardo Hajdu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Phorbas capixaba sp. nov. is described from 54 m depth off Guarapari, diagnosed by its two clear-cut categories of isochelae from Phorbas spp. known from the Western Tropical Atlantic. Four nomina nova are proposed for homonyms in Phorbas spp.: P. bergmontae nom. nov. for P. areolatus Bergquist & Fromont, 1988, preoccupied by P. areolatus (Thiele, 1905; P. burtoni nom. nov. for P. arborescens sensu (Burton, 1956, preoccupied by P. arborescens (Ridley, 1884; P. hechteli nom. nov. for P. ramosus (Hechtel, 1983, preoccupied by P. ramosus (Lendenfeld, 1888; in part - composite species; P. tanitai nom. nov. for P. purpureus (Tanita, 1961, preoccupied by P. purpureus (Carter, 1886. Three little known species are redescribed: Aplysina alcicornis Pinheiro et al., 2007; Mycale (Aegogropila escarlatei Hajdu et al., 1995 and Yucatania sphaeroidocladus (Hartman & Hubbard, 1999. All three are new records for Espírito Santo. The first and the last of these are range extensions, while the other fills a distribution gap. A list of sponges hitherto recorded from off Espírito Santo state, with indication of the bibliographic source of the record is given in appendix. In total, 118 species were compiled from 23 publications.

  15. Social isolation and aggressiveness in the Amazonian juvenile fish Astronotus ocellatus

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    E. Gonçalves-de-Freitas

    Full Text Available We tested the effect of social isolation on the aggressiveness of an Amazonian fish: Astronotus ocellatus. Ten juvenile fishes were transferred from a group aquarium (60 x 60 x 40 cm containing 15 individuals (without distinguishing sex to an isolation aquarium (50 x 40 x 40 cm. Aggressiveness was tested by means of attacks on and displays toward the mirror image. The behavior was video-recorded for 10 min at a time on 4 occasions: at 30 min, 1 day, 5 days and 15 days after isolation. The aggressive drive was analyzed in three ways: latency to display agonistic behavior, frequency of attacks and specific attacks toward the mirror image. The latency to attack decreased during isolation, but the frequency of mouth fighting (a high aggressive attack tended to increase, indicating an augmented aggressive drive. Our findings are congruent with the behavior of the juvenile cichlid, Haplochromis burtoni but differ from the behavior observed in another cichlid, Pterophylum scalare. Increased aggressiveness in A. ocellatus may be mediated by means of the primer effect, the effect of prior residence or processes involving recognition of a conspecific.

  16. Primera ictiofauna marina del Cretácico Superior (Formación Jaguel, Maastrichtiano de la provincia de Río Negro, Argentina First marine ichthyofauna from the Upper Cretaceous (Jaguel Formation; Maastrichtian from Río Negro province, Argentina

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    Sergio Bogan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un conjunto de dientes fósiles que proceden de sedimentos marinos de la Formación Jagüel (Maastrichtiano, de la localidad de Bajo Trapalcó, provincia de Río Negro, Patagonia, Argentina. La ictiofauna aquí descripta es la primera para la Formación y se compone de unos seis taxones diferentes de Chondrichthyes (Serratolamna serrata, Squalicorax pristodontus, Cretalamna appendiculata, Carcharias sp., Odontaspis sp. y cf. Pseudohypolophus mcnultyi y dos Teleostei del género Enchodus (aff. E. ferox y aff. E. gladiolus. Serratolamna serrata es el taxón mejor representado del conjunto, y constituye la cita más austral conocida en la distribución de esta especie y el primer registro fósil para Argentina. Los registros de Enchodus, Squalicorax pristodontus y cf. Pseudohypolophus mcnultyi, representan las primeras descripciones de estos taxones para Argentina. Todos los taxones descriptos constituyen un ensamblaje de especies que caracterizan las paleoictiofaunas de los mares del Cretácico Superior de distintas partes del globo, aportando novedosa información para la comprensión de las ictiofaunas Mesozoicas del cono sur sudamericano.This paper describes several fossil teeth coming from marine sediments from the Bajo Trapalcó locality, Río Negro province, Patagonia, Argentina. The ichthyofauna described here is composed by six different chondrichtyan taxa (Serratolamna serrata, Squalicorax pristodontus, Cretalamna appendiculata, Carcharias sp., Odontaspis sp. and cf. Pseudohypolophus mcnultyi and two Teleostei of the genus Enchodus (aff. E. ferox and aff. E. gladiolus. Serratolamna serrata is the most abundant species, and it represents the southernmost record for the species and the first record for Argentina. The records of Enchodus, Squalicorax pristodontus and cf. Pseudohypolophus mcnultyi, constitute the first mention for these taxa in Argentina. The taxa described here characterize the paleoichthyofaunas of the Upper

  17. The uplift of Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau and the vicariance speciation of glyptosternoid fishes (Siluriformes:Sisoridae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE; Shunping; (

    2001-01-01

    [1]Hora, S. L., Silas, E. G., Evolution and distribution of glyptosternoid fishes of the family Sisoridae (Order: Siluroidea), Proc. Nati. Inst. Sci. India, 1952, 18: 309-322.[2]He, S., The phylogeny of the glyptosternoid fishes (Teleostei: Siluriformes, Sisoridae), Cybium, 1996, 20(2): 115-159.[3]Nelson, G., Platnick, N., Systematics and Biogeography, Cladistics and Vicariance, New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1981.[4]Rosen, D. E., A vicariance model of Caribbean biogeography, Syst. Zool., 1976, 24: 431-464.[5]Brooks, D. R., Hennig's parasitological method: A proposed solution, Syst. Zool., 1981, 30: 229-249 .[6]Ren, X., Cui, J., Yu, Q., The karyatype and NOR haploid in Glyptosternum maculatum, Genetics, 1992, 14(6): 10-11.[7]Chu, X., Systematics and evolutionary pedigree of the glyptosternoid fishes (Family Sisoridae), Act. Zootaxon. Sinica, 1997, 4(1): 72-82.[8]Datta, A. K., Zoological results of the Indian Cho-Oyu Expedition, Rec. Indian Mus., 1962, 41(4): 437-450.[9]Zhang, Q., Li, B. et al., On the Pliocene palaeogeography and the uplift of the Qinghai-Xizang plateau, in Studies on the Period, Amplitude and Type of the Uplift of the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau, Beijing: Science Press,1981, 26-39.[10]Swofford, D. L., PAUP: Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony, version 4.0, 1998.[11]Chung, C. L., Lee, T., Zhang, Y. et al., Diachronous uplift of the Tibetan plateau starting 40 Myr ago, Nature, 1998, 394: 769-773.[12]Ji, H., Huang, W., Chen, W. et al., The discovery of the Hipparion fauna in Xizang and its significance on the problem of the uplift of the plateau, in Studies on the Period, Amplitude and Type of the Uplift of the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau, Beijing: Science Press, 1981, 19-25.[13]Hora, S. L., The game fishes of Indian, Part VI. The Goonch, Bagarius bagarius (Hamilton), J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 1939, 583-593.[14]Chang, C., Pan, Y., A brief discussion on the tectonic evolution of Qinghai-Xizang plateau

  18. HASIL TANGKAP SAMPINGAN (HTS KAPAL RAWAI TUNA DI SAMUDERA HINDIA YANG BERBASIS DI BENOA

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    Bram Setyadji

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hasil tangkap sampingan (HTS hampir terdapat pada semua jenis perikanan tangkap di Indonesia, termasuk pada perikanan rawai tuna di Samudera Hindia. Kebanyakan jenis HTS merupakan spesies yang tidak diinginkan atau jenis ikan target tapi ukurannya di bawah standar yang diinginkan (yuwana atau ikan muda dan pada kasus tertentu merupakan jenis ikan yang terancam keberadaannya (Endangered species. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memberikan informasi tentang komposisi hasil tangkap sampingan, laju pancing dan hubungan antara tuna dengan ikan yang berasosiasi dengannya pada area penangkapan yang sama. Pengamatan dilakukan pada bulan Maret – Juli 2010 dengan mengikuti kegiatan operasi penangkapan 2 kapal rawai tuna komersial yang berbasis di Pelabuhan Benoa. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan terdapat 18 jenis hasil tangkap sampingan yang  didominasi dari family Alepisauridae; ikan naga (Alepisaurus sp.; Gempylidae; ikan gindara (oilfish, dan Dasyatidae; pari lumpur (Dasyatis spp.. Jenis ikan lain adalah ikan paruh panjang (billfish, berbagai jenis cucut dan pari, ikan teleostei, serta penyu lekang. Kebanyakan dari hasil tangkap sampingan merupakan by-product yang mempunyai nilai ekonomis tinggi kecuali jenis ikan naga dan pari lumpur yang merupakan discard/buangan.   By-catch products are mostly available in every kind of capture fisheries in Indonesia including tuna longline fisheries in Indian Ocean. Most of these are unwanted species or juvenile target fish, sometimes endangered species. The research intended to reveal the by-catch from tuna fisheries and its relationship between tuna and its associate in the same fishing ground. Surveillance was conducted on March – July, 2010 by following two commercial tuna longliners vessel based in Port of Benoa. The result showed that there were 18 by-catch species that managed to be retrieved and indentified, family Alepisauridae; lancetfish (Alepisaurus sp.; Gempylidae; oilfish (Ruvettus pretiosus, and

  19. A new cichlid fish in the Sahara: The Ounianga Serir lakes (Chad), a biodiversity hotspot in the desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trape, Sébastien

    In the rare perennial bodies of water of the Sahara desert, only a few fish species have survived to increasing aridification since the end of the last humid period at the Holocene, approximately 5000 years BP. Here, I report the occurrence of an undescribed haplochomine cichlid fish in Lake Boukou, one of the seven Ounianga Serir lakes (Chad). These lakes are located in one of the most arid areas of the Sahara desert, but they persist by virtue of subsurface inflow of fresh groundwater from a large fossil aquifer. Astatotilapia tchadensis sp. nov. is characterized by a black bar between eye and corner of mouth, rounded orange spots on anal fin, scales ctenoid, lower limb of first gill arch with 7-8 gill rackers, dorsal fin with 13-14 spines and 9-11 soft rays, anal fin with 3 spines and 8-9 soft rays, 29 or 30 lateral line scales, and lower pharyngeal dentition with enlarged molariform teeth. The new species is easily distinguished from A. desfontainii and A. flaviijosephii, the northernmost haplochromine species currently isolated from its other group members, and appears close to an unnamed species of Lake Chad basin. Ounianga Serir lakes and especially Lake Boukou present a remarkable diversity of fish, the highest known in the Sahara desert with a total of at least six fish species belonging to six genera and three families. They also constitute an exceptional natural landscape inscribed on the UNESCO world heritage list in 2012 and a biodiversity hotspot for desert vertebrate species.

  20. Life history and propagation of the endangered dromedary pearlymussel (Dromus dromas) (Bivalvia:Unionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J.W.; Neves, R.J.; Ahlstedt, S.A.; Mair, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    The reproduction, demography, and propagation of the endangered dromedary pearlymussel (Dromus dromas) (Lea, 1834) were studied in the Clinch and Powell rivers, Tennessee. Viable populations of the dromedary pearlymussel now occur only in the Clinch and Powell rivers; the species has been extirpated from the remaining portions of its range in the Cumberland and Tennessee river drainages. Females are long-term winter brooders, and they are gravid from October to June. Glochidia are contained in conglutinates that are red to white and resemble freshwater leeches or flatworms. Conglutinates are 20 to 40 mm long and are released through the excurrent aperture. Estimates of fecundity based on 7 gravid females collected from the Clinch River were 55,110 to 253,050 glochidia/mussel. The ages of 66 valves of D. dromas were determined by thin-sectioning and ranged from 3 to 25 y. Annual growth averaged 5 mm/y until age 10 and decreased to ???1.2 mm/ y thereafter. Nineteen fish species were tested for suitability as hosts for glochidia. Ten were confirmed as hosts through induced infestations of glochidia: black sculpin (Cottus baileyi), greenside darter (Etheostoma blennioides), fantail darter (Etheostoma flabellare), snubnose darter (Etheostoma simoterum), tangerine darter (Percina aurantiaca), blotchside logperch (Percina burtoni), logperch (Percina caprodes), channel darter (Percina copelandi), gilt darter (Percina evides), and Roanoke darter (Percina roanoka). Juveniles produced from these hosts were cultured in dishes held in nonrecirculating aquaculture systems containing fine sediment (<105 ??m) and were fed the green alga Nannochloropsis oculata every 2 d. Survival of 2810 newly metamorphosed juveniles was 836 (29.7%) after 1 to 2 wk.

  1. Isolation, cDNA cloning, and growth promoting activity of rabbitfish (Siganus guttatus) growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayson, F G; de Jesus, E G; Amemiya, Y; Moriyama, S; Hirano, T; Kawauchi, H

    2000-02-01

    We report the isolation, cDNA cloning, and growth promoting activity of rabbitfish (Siganus guttatus; Teleostei; Perciformes; Siganidae) growth hormone (GH). Rabbitfish GH was extracted from pituitary glands under alkaline conditions, fractionated by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-100, and purified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The fractions containing GH were identified by immunoblotting with bonito GH antiserum. Under nonreducing conditions, the molecular weight of rabbitfish GH is about 19 kDa as estimated by SDS-PAGE. The purified hormone was potent in promoting growth in rabbitfish fry. Weekly intraperitoneal injections of the hormone significantly accelerated growth. This was evident 3 weeks after the start of the treatment, and its effect was still significant 2 weeks after the treatment was terminated. Rabbitfish GH cDNA was cloned to determine its nucleotide sequence. Excluding the poly (A) tail, rabbitfish GH cDNA is 860 base pairs (bp) long. It contained untranslated regions of 94 and 175 bp in the 5' and 3' ends, respectively. It has an open reading frame of 588 bp coding for a signal peptide of 18 amino acids and a mature protein of 178 amino acid residues. Rabbitfish GH has 4 cysteine residues. On the amino acid level, rabbitfish GH shows high identity (71-74%) with GHs of other perciforms, such as tuna, sea bass, yellow tail, bonito, and tilapia, and less (47-49%) identity with salmonid and carp GHs.

  2. Co-invasion of a Red Sea fish and its ectoparasitic monogenean, Polylabris cf. mamaevi into the Mediterranean: observations on oncomiracidium behavior and infection levels in both seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternak, Zohar; Diamant, Ariel; Abelson, Avigdor

    2007-03-01

    This study investigated aspects of the biology of the monogenean gill ectoparasite Polylabris cf. mamaevi (Polyopisthocotylea: Microcotyleae) infecting rabbitfish, Siganus rivulatus (Forskal) (Teleostei: Siganidae). Both host and parasite are Lessepsian immigrants that have co-invaded the Mediterranean Sea via the Suez Canal. The infection prevalence and mean intensity of the polyopisthocotylean was examined in both native and immigrant host populations and found to be three times greater in the new biogeographical region. In vitro observations on parasite eggs from both areas indicated that hatching occurred almost exclusively in the dark. The reaction of the larval oncomiracidia to water flow and secreted host chemicals indicated that neither Red Sea nor Mediterranean oncomiracidia exposed to waterborne host metabolites displayed any significant response or change in behavior; however, upon encountering flow, they ceased to swim and drifted passively downstream. Host specificity of P. cf. mamaevi may have co-evolved with temporal synchronization of the parasite with the host's diurnal activity. Hatching of P. cf. mamaevi eggs was rhythmical and the timing coincided with the known nocturnal resting behavior of the hosts, when their schools lie immobile on the sea bottom. After hatching, abrupt cessation of active swimming by the oncomiracidia upon sensing host inhalant gill-ventilating currents is likely to facilitate rapid, passive entry into the gill chamber of a suitable host. The greater abundance of P. cf. mamaevi in the invading (Mediterranean) populations is probably due to the changed, new environment, possibly impacting host resistance to the parasite and encouraging heavier infections.

  3. Chromosome doubling in early spermatogonia produces diploid spermatozoa in a natural clonal fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki; Morishima, Kagayaki; Fujimoto, Takafumi; Saito, Taiju; Kobayashi, Tohru; Yamaha, Etsuro; Arai, Katsutoshi

    2009-05-01

    The natural clonal loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (Teleostei: Cobitidae) is diploid (2n = 50) and produces genetically identical unreduced eggs, which develop into diploid individuals without any genetic contribution from sperm. Artificially sex-reversed clones created by the administration of 17alpha-methyltestosterone produce clonal diploid sperm. In metaphase spreads from testicular cells of the sex-reversed clones, spermatocytes had twice the normal number of chromosomes (50 bivalents) compared with those of normal diploids (25 bivalents). Thus, the production of unreduced diploid spermatozoa is initiated by premeiotic endomitosis (or endoreduplication), chromosome doubling before meiosis, and is followed by two quasinormal divisions. Larger nuclei in the germ cells were observed in all stages of type B spermatogonia in the testes of the sex-reversed clones. In contrast, besides having larger type A spermatogonia, the sex-reversed clones also had the type A spermatogonia that were the same size as those of normal diploids. It follows that chromosome duplication causing unreduced spermatogenesis occurred in the type A spermatogonia. The presence of tetraploid type A and early type B spermatogonia, identified by labeling with antispermatogonia-specific antigen 1, was verified using DNA content flow cytometry. These results support the conclusion that chromosome doubling occurs at the type A spermatogonial stage in diploid spermatogenesis in the clonal fish.

  4. Composição e estrutura da comunidade de peixes de uma praia arenosa da Ilha do Frade, Vitória, Espírito Santo

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    Ciro C. V. de Araujo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A ictiofauna de uma praia arenosa da Ilha do Frade, Vitória, ES, foi amostrada mensalmente entre maio/2004 e abril/2005. Foram coletados 2.689 indivíduos de 26 famílias e 45 espécies de Teleostei, a maioria em estágio juvenil. A família Sciaenidae apresentou o maior número de espécies. As capturas mensais evidenciaram que as espécies numericamente mais importantes foram: Lutjanus synagris (Linnaeus, 1758, Archosargus rhomboidalis (Linnaeus, 1758, Eucinostomus lefroyi (Goode, 1874 e Paralonchurus brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1875; com relação ao peso, Cyclichthys spinosus (Linnaeus, 1758, A. rhomboidalis, E. lefroyi e L. synagris dominaram. O número de indivíduos e a biomassa variaram significativamente (p<0,01 entre os meses. O índice de Shannon-Wiener (H' apresentou pequenas variações mensais, não evidenciando uma tendência sazonal.

  5. Relationship between species co-occurrence and rate of morphological change in Percina darters (Percidae: Etheostomatinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Rose L; Wainwright, Peter C; Near, Thomas J

    2009-03-01

    When the morphological diversity of a clade of species is quantified as the among-species variance in morphology, that diversity is a joint consequence of the phylogenetic structure of the clade (i.e., temporal pattern of speciation events) and the rates of change in the morphological traits of interest. Extrinsic factors have previously been linked to variation in the rate of morphological change among clades. Here, we ask whether species co-occurrence is positively correlated with the rate of change in several ecologically relevant morphological characters using the North American freshwater fish clade Percina (Teleostei: Etheostomatinae). We constructed a time-calibrated phylogenetic tree of Percina from mtDNA sequence data, gathered data on eight morphological characters from 37 species, used a principal components analysis to identify the primary axes of morphological variation, and analyzed 16,094 collection records to estimate species co-occurrence. We then calculated standardized independent contrasts (SIC) of the morphological traits (rate of change) at each node, estimated ancestral species co-occurrence, and quantified the correlation between species co-occurrence and rate of morphological change. We find that morphology changes more quickly when co-occurrence is greater in Percina. Our results provide strong evidence that co-occurrence among close relatives is linked to the morphological diversification of this clade.

  6. Signature of selection on the rhodopsin gene in the marine radiation of American seven-spined gobies (Gobiidae, Gobiosomatini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larmuseau, M H D; Vanhove, M P M; Huyse, T; Volckaert, F A M; Decorte, R

    2011-07-01

    In comparison with terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems, information about speciation modes and the role of selection in marine environments is scarce. Recent studies have indicated that spectral adaptation could play an important role in the diversification of marine species flocks. Natural selection influences specific amino acids (AAs) that are involved in the spectral tuning mechanism of visual pigment genes. To study the wider occurrence and the characteristics of spectral adaptation in marine radiations, a reinterpretation of the rhodopsin (RH1) data of American seven-spined gobies (genus Elacatinus; Gobiidae; Teleostei) was carried out. Reanalysis revealed that some AAs, which are well known in the literature as spectral tuning sites, are variable in Elacatinus. Those crucial AA substitutions originated polyphyletically, indicating convergent evolution within the genus Elacatinus. Moreover, statistical tests based on the d(N)/d(S) ratio detected selection in several phylogenetic lineages and at specific AAs. Many of these AAs were previously shown to be under selection in other marine radiations. Therefore, the current phylogenetic approach provided an extended list of AAs that are probably involved in spectral tuning, and which should be validated by mutagenic experiments.

  7. Spatial distribution and diet of Cephalopholis fulva (Ephinephelidae at Trindade Island, Brazil

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    Flavio do Nascimento Coelho

    Full Text Available In this study we analyze the population structure and diet of the coney Cephalopholis fulva at Trindade Island, Brazil, through direct observation with SCUBA diving in 11 reef sites around the Island, up to 50 m deep. Diet was based on 77 individuals collected with speargun. Mean population density and biomass were estimated at 29 individuals/100 m² and 13 kg/100 m², respectively. This species is regularly distributed along the costal environments of the Trindade Island, with no significant differences in densities and biomass detected among the different collection habitats (reef crest, reef slope, and reef plateau. However, significantly higher densities were observed micro-habitats with greater structural complexity, which may offer more shelter and food to C. fulva. Four food item groups were identified from the gut contents of C. fulva: Annelida, Crustacea, Teleostei, and Testudinata. It is the first record of predation of the green turtle Chelonia mydas hatchlings by the coney. Trindade Island seems to present the densest concentration of C. fulva in all Brazilian and Caribbean ecosystems inhabited by this species. Scarcity of competitors, predators, and fishing pressure may explain the high densities observed in the Island.

  8. Effects of acute and chronic exposition on larvae of pejerrey Odontesthes Argentinensis to water soluble fraction (WSF) of crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gusmao, Emeline P.; Rodrigues, Ricardo V.; Moreira, Caue B.; Seyffert, Bianca; Ignacio, Gabriela; Fillmann, Gilberto; Sampaio, Luis A.; Miranda-Filho, Kleber C. [Fundacao Universidade do Rio Grande (FURG), RS (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Petroleum is considered one of the greatest marine water pollutants, but there have been few studies on the impact of oil on biota. The water-soluble fraction (WSF) of a crude oil contains a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenols and heterocyclic compounds. Marine 'pejerrey' Odontesthes argentinensis (Teleostei: Atherinopsidae) is a important commercial species in Brazilian southern region and has great potential for mariculture. The aim of this study was to investigate the lethal and sub-lethal effects of the WSF crude oil exposition on the early life stages of O. argentinensis using acute (96 hours) and chronic (21 days) toxicity tests. Water-soluble fraction of heavy crude oil was prepared using a ratio of one part crude oil to nine parts filtered seawater and mixing for 24 h. Newly hatched larvae and 17 days old larvae were used for the tests, respectively. According to the results, median lethal concentration (LC50) was estimated in 55.0% of the WSF and safe level was estimated in 5.5% of WSF. These data can be used as a tool in environmental conservation studies. Heavy crude oil WSF presented total PAHs of 197.83 ng/mL and total BTEX of 106.1 {mu}g/L. (author)

  9. [Ontogenetic and phylogenetic analysis of myosin light chain proteins from skeletal muscles of loach Misgurnus fossilis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miuge, N S; Tikhonov, A V; Ozerniuk, N D

    2005-01-01

    mRNAs of all three types of myosin light chain proteins are expressed in skeletal muscles of both larval and adult stages of loach Misgurnus fossilis (Cobitidae) and these proteins are encoded by different genes (mlc1, mlc2, and mlc3). No difference was revealed between transcripts from larval stage and adult fish for all three mlc proteins. Our approach (RT-PCR with fish-specific mlc1, mlc2, and mlc3 primers) failed to reveal the larval form of myosin light chain protein found previously by protein electrophoresis of loach fry muscle extract. Comparative analysis of the protein structure shows high homology of MLC1 and MLC3 proteins sharing a large EF-hand calcium-binding domain. Phylogenetic analysis of MLC1 from skeletal muscles of fish and other vertebrate species is concordant with the traditional phylogeny of the group. Within the Teleostei, loach MLC1 had the highest homology with other Cyprinidae, and least with Salmonidae fishes.

  10. Cross-species amplification of 41 microsatellites in European cyprinids: A tool for evolutionary, population genetics and hybridization studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles André

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyprinids display the most abundant and widespread species among the European freshwater Teleostei and are known to hybridize quite commonly. Nevertheless, a limited number of markers for conducting comparative differentiation, evolutionary and hybridization dynamics studies are available to date. Findings Five multiplex PCR sets were optimized in order to assay 41 cyprinid-specific polymorphic microsatellite loci (including 10 novel loci isolated from Chondrostoma nasus nasus, Chondrostoma toxostoma toxostoma and Leuciscus leuciscus for 503 individuals (440 purebred specimens and 63 hybrids from 15 European cyprinid species. The level of genetic diversity was assessed in Alburnus alburnus, Alburnoides bipunctatus, C. genei, C. n. nasus, C. soetta, C. t. toxostoma, L. idus, L. leuciscus, Pachychilon pictum, Rutilus rutilus, Squalius cephalus and Telestes souffia. The applicability of the markers was also tested on Abramis brama, Blicca bjoerkna and Scardinius erythrophtalmus specimens. Overall, between 24 and 37 of these markers revealed polymorphic for the investigated species and 23 markers amplified for all the 15 European cyprinid species. Conclusions The developed set of markers demonstrated its performance in discriminating European cyprinid species. Furthermore, it allowed detecting and characterizing hybrid individuals. These microsatellites will therefore be useful to perform comparative evolutionary and population genetics studies dealing with European cyprinids, what is of particular interest in conservation issues and constitutes a tool of choice to conduct hybridization studies.

  11. Ultrastructural characters of the spermatozoon of the digenean Hypocreadium caputvadum Kacem et al., 2011 (Lepocreadioidea: Lepocreadiidae), an intestinal parasite of Balistes capriscus in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacem, Hichem; Bakhoum, Abdoulaye J S; Eira, Catarina; Neifar, Lassad; Miquel, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    The ultrastructural organization of the spermatozoon of the digenean Hypocreadium caputvadum (Lepocreadioidea: Lepocreadiidae) is described. Live digeneans were collected from Balistes capriscus (Teleostei: Balistidae) from the Gulf of Gabès, Tunisia (Eastern Mediterranean Sea). The mature spermatozoon of H. caputvadum shows several ultrastructural characters such as two axonemes of different lengths exhibiting the classical 9+"1" trepaxonematan pattern, a nucleus, two mitochondria, granules of glycogen, external ornamentation of the plasma membrane and two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules. Moreover, in the anterior extremity, the second axoneme is partly surrounded by a discontinuous and submembranous layer of electron-dense material. Our study provides new data on the spermatozoon of H. caputvadum in order to improve the understanding of phylogenetic relationships in the Digenea, particularly in the superfamily Lepocreadioidea. In this context, the electron-dense material surrounding one of the axonemes in the anterior spermatozoon extremity constitutes the unique distinguishing ultrastructural character of lepocreadioideans, and it is present in spermatozoa of lepocreadiids, aephnidiogenids and gyliauchenids.

  12. Cloning and sequence analysis of Sox genes in a tetraploid cyprinid fish, Tor douronensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO BaoCheng; LI JunBing; TONG ChaoBo; HE ShunPing

    2008-01-01

    A PCR survey for Sox genes in a young tetraploid fish Tor douronensis (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) was per-formed to access the evolutionary fates of important functional genes after genome duplication caused by polyploidization event. Totally 13 Sox genes were obtained in Tor douronensis, which represent SoxB, SoxC and SoxE groups. Phylogenetic analysis of Sox genes in Tor douronensis provided evidence for fish-specific genome duplication, and suggested that Sox19 might be a teleost specific Sox gene member. Sequence analysis revealed most of the nucleotide substitutions between duplicated copies of Sox genes caused by tetraploidization event or their orthologues in other species are silent substitutions. It would appear that the sequences are under purifying selective pressure, strongly suggesting that they repre- sent functional genes and supporting selection against all null allele at either of two duplicated loci of Sox4a, Sox9a and Sox9b. Surprising variations of the intron length and similarities of two duplicated copies of Sox9a and Sox9b, suggest that Tor douronensis might be an allotetraploidy.

  13. Tooth development in Ambystoma mexicanum: phosphatase activities, calcium accumulation and cell proliferation in the tooth-forming tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)<